33410Исмаилов А.Б. [Ismailov A.B.] (2021): Новые виды лишайников для Дагестана [New species of lichens for Dagestan]. - Ботанический журнал [Botanicheskii Zhurnal], 106(1): 77–80. .
[in Russian with English summary: ] Five new species (Hypocenomyce scalaris, Nephromopsis laureri, Peltigera extenuata, Pertusaria pertusa, Platismatia glauca) and three genera (Hypocenomyce, Nephromopsis, Platismatia) are reported for the lichen flora of Dagestan. The species Nephromopsis laureri and Peltigera extenuata, as well as the genus Nephromopsis, were not previously known within the East Caucasus. The actual information on distribution in the Caucasus and data of the localities with some comments are given for each species. Keywords: lichens, new records, Nephromopsis laureri, Hypocenomyce scalaris, Peltigera extenuata, Pertusaria pertusa, Platismatia glauca, Dagestan, East Caucasus.
33409Яцына А.П. [Yatsyna A.P.] (2021): Лишайники и родственные им грибы заказника «Свислочско-Березинский» (Беларусь) [Lichens and related fungi of the reserve “Svislochsko-Berezinsky” (Belarus)]. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 55(1): 215–227. .
[in Russian with English abstract: ] Based on studies of the Svislochsko-Berezinsky Reserve (Belarus) carried out mainly in 2016–2020 in 27 locations, an annotated list of the lichen flora is provided. Altogether 203 species are recorded for the nature reserve, including 193 species of lichens and 10 non-lichenized saprobic fungi. Fellhanera viridisorediata and Micarea tomentosa are published for the first time for Belarus, and 43 other species are new for the Mogilev Region. Moreover, 34 indicator species of biologically valuable forests are known from the study area. Calicium adspersum, Cetrelia cetrarioides, C. olivetorum, Chaenotheca chlorella, Peltigera horizontalis, Hypotrachyna revolut, Lobaria pulmonaria, and Menegazzia terebrata are included in the Red Data Book of Belarus. Keywords: Fellhanera viridisorediata, Micarea tomentosa, new finds, protected species.
33408Урбанавичене И.Н. & Урбанавичюс Г.П. [Urbanavichene I.N. & Urbanavichus G.P.] (2021): Дополнения к лихенофлоре Керженского заповедника и Нижегородской области [Additions to the lichen flora of the Kerzhensky Nature Reserve and Nizhny Novgorod Region]. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 55(1): 195–213. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2021.55.1.195.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] The results of field studies of the lichen flora of the Kerzhensky Reserve (Nizhny Novgorod Region), carried out mainly in the Kerzhenets River valley in May 2019, are presented. An annotated list of taxa previously unknown for the reserve includes 121 species from 70 genera. Of these, 97 species and 31 genera are new to the Nizhny Novgorod Region. The species Micarea soralifera and Rinodina excrescens are published for the first time for European Russia. We have found some very rare species in European Russia previously known from single records (Agonimia repleta, Bacidina indigens, Gyalideopsis alnicola, Sclerophora amabilis, Stigmidium mycobilimbiae, Telogalla olivieri, and Verrucaria ochrostoma). Keywords: Micarea soralifera, Rinodina excrescens, lichens, new records, Russia.
33407Kuznetsova E.S., Stepanchikova I.S., Skirina I.F., Chesnokov S.V. & Himelbrant D.E. (2021): A revision of the lichen genus Platismatia (Parmeliaceae) in Russia, with a key to the species. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 55(1): 179–194. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2021.55.1.179.
The paper presents the results of the study on Platismatia species in Russia. The genus Platismatia counts 11 species, distributed mainly in the Pacific region, with some endemics of western North America and northeastern Asia. Six species were known from Russia by the beginning of our studies, but a revision of the herbarium collections showed that three species (P. erosa, P.herrei, and P. lacunosa) were reported erroneously. Based on morphological and chemotaxonomical (HPTLC) examination of the herbarium collections and our own material, as well as the study of relevant litera ture, four species of Platismatia are here accepted for Russia: P. glauca, P. interrupta, P.lacunosa, and P. norvegica. Platismatia lacunosa is reported here as a new for Russia from the Commander Islands. The distribution of P. glauca and P. interrupta is clarified. A key to all species of the genus reported from Russia and brief descriptions of the Russian species are presented. Keywords: Platismatia lacunosa, foliose lichens, herbarium, Commander Islands Nature and Biosphere Reserve, Russian Far East.
33406Konoreva L.A., Chesnokov S.V. & Tagirdzhanova G.M. (2021): Remarkable records of Micarea (Pilocarpaceae) from the Russian Far East. II. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 55(1): 163–177. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2021.55.1.163.
We report several new findings of Micarea species in the Russian Far East: M. fennica new to Russia and Asia; M. botryoides new to the Far East; M. misella and M. tomentosa new to the southern Russian Far East. Six species from the genus Micarea, including rather rare M. adnata and M. contexta, were found in the Khabarovsk Territory. Keywords: lichens, biogeography, distribution, new records, Asia, Far East, Russia.
33405Himelbrant D.E., Stepanchikova I.S., Ahti T. & Neshataeva V.Yu. (2021): New exploration in Koryakia— the lichens of the Cape Goven, Bering Sea coast (Northern Kamchatka, Russia). - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 55(1): 121–162. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2021.55.1.121.
The lichen diversity of the Cape Goven within the Koryak State Reserve counts 394‘ species: 373 lichens, 18 lichenicolous fungi and 3 non-lichenized saprobic fungi related to lichens. Altogether 4 species are new to Russia (Miriquidica pulvinatula, Myriolecis andrewii, Ochrolechia alaskana, Rhizocarpon sublavatum), 1‘— to Asiatic Russia (Collemopsidium foveolatum), 29‘other species are new to the Russian Far East, 4‘— to the northern part of the Far East. Additionally, 51 other species are new to Kamchatka Territory, and 92 more are new to Koryakia. Among the new species to Russia or Russian Far East, 11 are also reported for the first time for Beringia. A total of 500 species of lichens and allied fungi are known from Koryakia now. The richest habitats in Cape Goven are rocky outcrops and tundras; unlike in the earlier explored Parapolsky Dale, shrublands, floodplain stands and bogs play relatively insignificant role in the lichen diversity. The lichens of seashore communities enrich the lichen flora of Cape Goven compared to inland areas. The lichen diversity of Cape Goven is significantly higher than in Parapolsky Dale due to its mountainous landscape and coastal position. Keywords: lichen flora, new records, Far East, Beringia, Koryak State Reserve.
33404Galanina I.A., Yakovchenko L.S., Zheludeva E.V. & Ohmura Y. (2021): The genus Rinodina (Physciaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) in the Magadan Region (Far East of Russia). - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 55(1): 97–119. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2021.55.1.97.
The lichen genus Rinodina in the Magadan Region is revised on the basis of extensive collections by the authors in 2011–2015. Fifteen species have been recorded, of which Rinodina cinereovirens, R. endospora, R. laevigata, R. metaboliza, R. olivaceobrunnea, R. parasitica, and R. subparieta are new for the study area. Rinodina endospora and R. sicula are rare in Russia and have only recently been found in Northeastern Asia. The presence of R. archaea and R. exigua in the Far East of Russia has not yet been confirmed. Keywords: biodiversity, biogeography, lichens, new records, North-East Asia.
33403Czernyadjeva I.V., Davydov E.A., Efimova A.A., Gogorev R.M., Himelbrant D.E., Kotkova V.M., Kuzmina E.Yu., Leostrin A.V., Moroz E.L., Neshataeva V.Yu., Notov A.A., Novozhilov Yu.K., Paukov A.G., Popova N.N., Potemkin A.D., Stepanchikova I.S., Storozhenko Yu.V., Yakovchenko L.S., Yurchak M.I., Volosnova L.F., Zhurbenko M.P. & Zyatnina M.V. (2021): New cryptogamic records. 7. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 55(1): 249–277. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2021.55.1.249.
First records of trebouxiophycean alga and fungi for the Lenin grad Region, myxomycetes for the Republic of Belarus, lichens, saprobic and lichenicolous fungi for European Russia, the Nenets Autonomous Area, the Kostroma and Tver regions, the republics of Altai and Tuva, Altai and Primorye territories, bryophytes for the Orel and Ryazan regions, the arctic part of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), the North Koryakia are presented. The data on their localities, habitats, distribution, and specimens are provided. Keywords: Anomodon viticulosus, Arthonia didyma, Athelia arachnoidea, Biatora chrysantha, Calicium lenticulare, Carbonicola myrmecina, Cephalozia affinis, Cephaloziella hampeana, Cercidospora parva, Chaenotheca gracilenta, Chiloscyphus pallescens, Clypeococcum hypocenomycis, Collema subflaccidum, Comatricha alta, Cribraria languescens, Endogemma caespiticia, Fontinalis antipyretica, Frullania bolanderi, Fuligo leviderma, Fuscopannaria cheiroloba, Grimmia donniana, Gyalecta foveolaris, Isopaches bicrenatus, Lentinus arcularius, Lepra multipuncta, Lepraria finkii, Lichenopeltella ramalinae, Lophozia guttulata, Metzgeria furcata, Micarea laeta, Micractinium quadrisetum, Paraleucobryum longifolium, Parmeliella triptophylla, Pellia neesiana, Phaeocalicium praecedens, Phaeopyxis punctum, Polysporina urceolata, Psilopilum laevigatum, Pyrenidium actinellum, Seligeria pusilla, Taeniolella delicata, Tulasnella pallida, Basidiomycota, bryophytes, green algae, lichen parasites, lichens, lichenicolous fungi, myxomycetes, saprobic fungi, Trebouxiophyceae, Altai Territory, European Russia, Kostroma Region, Leningrad Region, National Park “Narochansky”, Nenets Autonomous Area, Northern Koryakia, Oksky State Reserve, Orel Region, Primorye Territory, Republic of Altai, Republic of Belarus, Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Republic of Tuva, Russia, Ryazan Region, Tver Region.
33402Sulistyo B.P., Larsson K.-H., Haelewaters D. & Ryberg H. (2021): Multigene phylogeny and taxonomic revision of Atheliales s.l.: Reinstatement of three families and one new family, Lobuliciaceae fam. nov.. - Fungal Biology, 125: 239–255. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.funbio.2020.11.007.
Atheliales (Agaricomycetes, Basidiomycota) is an order mostly composed of corticioid fungi, containing roughly 100 described species in 20 genera. Members exhibit remarkable ecological diversity, including saprotrophs, ectomycorrhizal symbionts, facultative parasites of plants or lichens, and symbionts of termites. Ectomycorrhizal members are well known because they often form a major part of boreal and temperate fungal communities. However, Atheliales is generally understudied, and molecular data are scarce. Furthermore, the order is riddled with many taxonomic problems; some genera are nonmonophyletic and several species have been shown to be more closely related to other orders. We investigated the phylogenetic position of genera that are currently listed in Atheliales sensu lato by employing an Agaricomycetes-wide dataset with emphasis on Atheliales including the type species of genera therein. A phylogenetic analysis based on 5.8S, LSU, rpb2, and tef1 (excluding third codon) retrieved Atheliales in subclass Agaricomycetidae, as sister to Lepidostromatales. In addition, a number of Atheliales genera were retrieved in other orders with strong support: Byssoporia in Russulales, Digitatispora in Agaricales, Hypochnella in Polyporales, Lyoathelia in Hymenochaetales, and Pteridomyces in Trechisporales. Based on this result, we assembled another dataset focusing on the clade with Atheliales sensu stricto and representatives from Lepidostromatales and Boletales as outgroups, based on ITS (ITS1 e5.8SeITS2), LSU, rpb2, and tef1. The reconstructed phylogeny of Atheliales returned five distinct lineages, which we propose here as families. Lobulicium, a monotypic genus with a distinct morphology of sevenlobed basidiospores, was placed as sister to the rest of Atheliales. A new family is proposed to accommodate this genus, Lobuliciaceae fam. nov. The remaining four lineages can be named following the family-level classification by Jülich (1982), and thus we opted to use the names Atheliaceae, Byssocorticiaceae, Pilodermataceae, and Tylosporaceae, albeit with amended circumscriptions. Keywords: Agaricomycetes; Basidiomycota; Corticioid fungi; Multi-locus phylogeny; Family-level taxonomy.
33401Harikrishnan A., Veena V., Lakshmi B., Shanmugavalli R., Theres S., Prashantha C.N., Shah T., Oshin K., Togam R. & Nandi S. (2021): Atranorin, an antimicrobial metabolite from lichen Parmotrema rampoddense exhibited in vitro antibreast cancer activity through interaction with Akt activity. - Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics, 39(4): 1248–1258. https://doi.org/10.1080/07391102.2020.1734482.
Atranorin (ATR), lichenized secondary metabolite and depside molecule with several biological potentials such as antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, wound healing and photoprotective activities. Cytotoxic reports of ATR are documented in several cancer cells and in vivo models but its molecular interaction studies are poorly understood. Therefore, in this present investigation, we have used the in silico studies with biological validation of the molecular targets for the anti-breast cancer mechanism of ATR. The molecular docking studies with the breast cancer oncoproteins such as Bcl-2, Bax, Akt, Bcl-w and Bcl-xL revealed the highest interaction was observed with the Akt followed by Bax, Bcl-xL and Bcl-2 & least with the Bcl-w proteins. The cytotoxicity studies showed ATR selectively inhibited MDA MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells in differential and dosedependent manner with the IC50 concentration of 5.36 ± 0.85 lM and 7.55 ± 1.2 lM respectively. Further mechanistic investigations revealed that ATR significantly inhibited ROS production and significantly down-regulated the anti apoptotic Akt than Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Bcl-w proteins with a significant increase in the Bax level and caspases-3 activity in the breast cancer cells when comparison with Akt inhibitor, ipatasertib. In vitro biological activities well correlated with the molecular interaction data suggesting that atranorin had higher interaction with Akt than Bax and Bcl-2 but weak interaction with Bcl-w and Bcl-xL. In this present study, the first time we report the interactions of atranorin with molecular targets for anti-breast cancer potential. Hence, ATR represents the nature-inspired molecule for pharmacophore moiety for design in targeted therapy. Keywords: Breast cancer; interaction; cytotoxicity; atranorin; biological validation.
33400Sujetovienė G. & Česynaitė J. (2021): Assessment of air pollution at the indoor environment of a shooting range using lichens as biomonitors. - Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A, 84(7): 273–278. https://doi.org/10.1080/15287394.2020.1862006.
The aim of the study was to examine the changes in ecophysiological parameters and accumulation of heavy metals in lichens transplanted to a shooting-range environment. Thalli of the epiphytic lichen were transplanted from an unpolluted site to a shooting range. Chlorophyll a fluorescence, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and damage to cell membranes in the lichen Evernia prunastri and Ramalina farinacea thalli were determined after 3 months exposure period indoors in a shooting range. The concentrations of some heavy metals including cadmium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead, antimony, and zinc were measured in lichens as indicators of the levels of air pollution in the studied environment. Thalli of the lichens transplanted to the shootingrange environment showed stress symptoms where the presence of metal pollutants produced a loss of integrity of lichen cell membranes and induced oxidative stress as evidenced by increased levels of TBARS. The response of lichens transplanted to indoors of shooting range demonstrated a significant accumulation of Pb indicating potential increased metal exposure and consequent adverse health effects. Keywords: Shooting range; trace metals; lichens; indoor pollution; Pb.
33399Plymale A.E., Wells J.R., Pearce C.I., Brislawn C.J., Graham E.B., Cheeke T.E., Allen J.L., Fansler S.J., Arey B.W., Bowden M.E., Saunders D.L., Danna V.G., Tyrrell K.J., Weaver J.L., Sjöblom R., Paul R., McCloy J.S., Hjärthner-Holdar E., Englund M., Ogenhall E., Peeler D.K. & Kruger A.A. (2021): Niche partitioning of microbial communities at an ancient vitrified hillfort: implications for vitrified radioactive waste disposal. - Geomicrobiology Journal, 38(1): 36–56. https://doi.org/10.1080/01490451.2020.1807658.
Because microbes cannot be eliminated from radioactive waste disposal facilities, the consequences of bio-colonization must be understood. At a pre-Viking era vitrified hillfort, Broborg, Sweden, anthropogenic glass has been subjected to bio-colonization for over 1,500 years. Broborg is used as a habitat analogue for disposed radioactive waste glass to inform how microbial processes might influence long-term glass durability. Electron microscopy and DNA sequencing of surficial material from the Broborg vitrified wall, adjacent soil, and general topsoil show that the ancient glass supports a niche microbial community of bacteria, fungi, and protists potentially involved in glass alteration. Communities associated with the vitrified wall are distinct and less diverse than soil communities. The vitrified niche of the wall and adjacent soil are dominated by lichens, lichen-associated microbes, and other epilithic, endolithic, and epigeic organisms. These organisms exhibit potential bio-corrosive properties, including silicate dissolution, extraction of essential elements, and secretion of geochemically reactive organic acids, that could be detrimental to glass durability. However, long-term biofilms can also possess a homeostatic function that could limit glass alteration. This study documents potential impacts that microbial colonization and niche partitioning can have on glass alteration, and subsequent release of radionuclides from a disposal facility for vitrified radioactive waste. Keywords: Community structure; habitat analogue; microbes and surfaces; molecular ecology; near surface radioactive waste disposal.
33398Ellis C.J. & Eaton S. (2021): Microclimates hold the key to spatial forest planning under climate change: Cyanolichens in temperate rainforest. - Global Change Biology, 27:1915–1926. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.15514.
There is deepening interest in how microclimatic refugia can reduce species threat, if suitable climatic conditions are maintained locally, despite global climate change. Microclimates are a particularly important consideration in topographically heterogeneous landscapes, while in some habitats, such as forests and woodlands, microclimates are also extremely labile and affected by management practices that could consequently be used to offset climate change impact. This study explored a conservation priority guild—cyanolichen epiphytes in temperate rainforest—quantifying the niche response to macroclimate, and landscape or woodland stand structures that determine the microclimate. Based on epiphyte survey in a core region of European temperate rainforest (western Scotland), a ‘random forest’ machine-learning model confirmed a strong cyanolichen response to summer dryness, as well as the effects of distance to running water, topographic heatload and tree species identity, which modify the local moisture regime and/or lichen growth rates. By quantifying this response to macroclimate, landscape and stand structures, it was possible to estimate an extent to which woodland may be expanded in the future, to offset a negative effect of increasing summer dryness projected through to the 2080s. Using current policy as a yardstick, sufficient woodland expansion could be delivered relatively quickly for median impacted sites, but with times to woodland delivery extending over 10, 20 and 25 years for sites at the 75th, 90th and 95th percentiles of cyanolichen decline. Furthermore, the extent of new woodland required, and delivery times, increase almost threefold on average, as new woodland becomes distributed over wider riparian zones. These contrasting implications emphasize an urgent need for afforestation that achieves targeted spatial planning responsive to microclimates as refugia. Keywords: climate change adaptation, epiphytes, microclimate, moisture index, reforestation, riparian woodland, summer drought.
33397Suno H., Machida M., Dohi T. & Ohmura Y. (2021): Quantum chemical calculation studies toward microscopic understanding of retention mechanism of Cs radioisotopes and other alkali metals in lichens. - Scientific Reports, 11: 8228 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-87617-w.
We evaluate stability of cesium (Cs) and other alkali-metal cation complexes of lichen metabolites in both gas and aqueous phases to discuss why lichens can retain radioactive Cs in the thalli over several years. We focus on oxalic acid, (+)-usnic acid, atranorin, lecanoric acid, and protocetraric acid, which are common metabolite substances in various lichens including, e.g., Flavoparmelia caperata and Parmotrema tinctorum retaining Cs in Fukushima, Japan. By performing quantum chemical calculations, their gas-phase complexation energies and aqueous-solution complexation free energies with alkali-metal cations are computed for their neutral and deprotonated cases. Consequently, all the molecules are found to energetically favor cation complexations and the preference order is Li+ >Na+ >K+ >Rb+ >Cs+ for all conditions, indicating no specific Cs selectivity but strong binding with all alkali cations. Comparing complexation stabilities among these metabolites, lecanoric and protocetraric acids seen in medullary layer are found to keep higher affinity in their neutral case, while (+)-usnic acid and atranorin in upper cortex exhibit rather strong affinity only in deprotonated cases through forming stable six atoms’ ring containing alkali cation chelated by two oxygens. These results suggest that the medullary layer can catch all alkali cations in a wide pH range around the physiological one, while the upper cortex can effectively block penetration of metal ions when the metal stress grows. Such insights highlight a physiological role of metabolites like blocking of metalcation migrations into intracellular tissues, and explain long-term retention of alkali cations including Cs in lichens containing enough such metabolites to bind them.
33396Sforzi A., Baini M., Bastianini M., Bianchi E., Bonari G., Cantini D., Castagnini P., Chelazzi L., Colombini I., Dragonetti M., Fačkovcová Z., Fanciulli P.P., Fastelli P., Forbicioni L., Giovacchini P., Lenzini L., Letardi A., Maccherini S., Martelli C., Nappini S., Paoli L., Pezzi G., Porciani M., Rizzo Pinna V., Vannini A. & Vitillo C. (2019): BioBlitz 2017 Monte Labro. - Atti del Museo di Storia Naturale della Maremma, 24: 113–137. .
[in Italian with English abstract: ] The threat to the survival of many species, caused by emerging ecological crises, has favored the development of a new environmental awareness. In recent decades, especially in the most industrialized nations, an increasing participation of citizens in the collection of scientific data has also been recorded. The active involvement of society in different aspects of science has been defined by the sociologist Alan Irwin as “Citizen Science”. Although environmental Citizen Science brings together the largest number of projects, the fields of application of this new way of doing science are innumerable. BioBlitz is one of the best-known examples of citizen science activities, aimed at monitoring the biodiversity of an area. The Maremma Natural History Museum, as part of its activities, regularly organizes BioBlitz on an annual basis, starting from 2013. During BioBlitz 2017 in the SPZ and SCZ “Monte Labbro and Alta Valle dellAlbegna” data were collected attesting the presence of 403 different taxonomic entities, of which 367 identified at the species level and 5 at the subspecies level. Six alien and 2 endemic species were identified. In terms of environmental legislation, 38 protected species and 7 endangered species were detected in the area. The most relevant aspect that emerges from the collected data is the consistent number of protected species. This confirms the environmental value of the area and the need for management and conservation plans for the entire site.
33395Sforzi A., Bastianini M., Canovai R., Cantini D., Castagnini P., Chelazzi L., Dragonetti M., Fačkovcová Z., Fanciulli P.P., Fastelli P., Ferretti F., Forbicioni L., Gabellini A., Lenzini L., Letardi A., Marcelli M., Martelli C., Montioni F., Nappini S., Paoli L., Perini C., Pezzi G., Pezzo F., Renzi M., Rizzo Pinna V., Spilinga C., Vannini A. & Vitillo C. (2019): BioBlitz 2018 Parco Regionale della Maremma. - Atti del Museo di Storia Naturale della Maremma, 24: 139–165. .
[in Italian with English abstract: ] In recent decades, many natural history museums in Europe have integrated their traditional functions with new ways of interacting with visitors and local communities. In particular, the need to adapt their mission according to the changes in modern society has led them to develop initiatives aiming at an active involvement of the public in scientific research. This is one of the inspiring principles of Citizen Science. BioBlitz are among the most popular activities dedicated to biodiversity in this field. In line with the inspiring principles of this cultural revolution, since 2012 the Maremma Natural History Museum organized public participation initiatives for the collection of biodiversity data. We hereby report the main results of the BioBlitz 2018 organized by the Maremma Natural History Museum in the Talamone area, located in the southern portion of the Uccellina Hills. Four hundred and ninety eight taxa were sampled and identified, 447 of which at the level of species and 10 at the level of subspecies; the remaining refer to higher taxonomic levels. 31 protected species and 10 endangered species were found in the area; moreover, 6 alien species and one endemic species were detected. The main feature that distinguished BioBlitz 2018 to others conducted in previous years was the large number of participants. The data collected increased the scientific knowledge of the southern portion of the Maremma Regional Park, less known than other areas of the same protected area.
33394Benitez G.N., Aguilar G.D. & Blanchon D. (2021): Spatial distribution of lichens in Metrosideros excelsa in northern New Zealand urban forests. - Diversity, 13(4): 170 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/d13040170.
The spatial distribution of corticolous lichens on the iconic New Zealand pōhutukawa (Metrosideros excelsa) tree was investigated from a survey of urban parks and forests across the city of Auckland in the North Island of New Zealand. Lichens were identified from ten randomly selected trees at 20 sampling sites, with 10 sites classified as coastal and another 10 as inland sites. Lichen data were correlated with distance from sea, distance from major roads, distance from native forests, mean tree DBH (diameter at breast height) and the seven-year average of measured NO2 over the area. A total of 33 lichen species were found with coastal sites harboring significantly higher average lichen species per tree as well as higher site species richness. We found mild hotspots in two sites for average lichen species per tree and another two separate sites for species richness, with all hotspots at the coast. A positive correlation between lichen species richness and DBH was found. Sites in coastal locations were more similar to each other in terms of lichen community composition than they were to adjacent inland sites and some species were only found at coastal sites. The average number of lichen species per tree was negatively correlated with distance from the coast, suggesting that the characteristic lichen flora found on pōhutukawa may be reliant on coastal microclimates. There were no correlations with distance from major roads, and a slight positive correlation between NO2 levels and average lichen species per tree. Keywords: Metrosideros excelsa; lichens; New Zealand; hotspots; indicators; Auckland.
33393Łubek A., Kukwa M., Jaroszewicz B. & Czortek P. (2021): Composition and specialization of the lichen functional traits in a primeval forest—does ecosystem organization level matter?. - Forests, 12(4): 485 [23 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/f12040485 .
Current trends emphasize the importance of the examination of the functional composition of lichens, which may provide information on the species realized niche diversity and community assembly processes, thus enabling one to understand the specific adaptations of lichens and their interaction with the environment. We analyzed the distribution and specialization of diverse morphological, anatomical and chemical (lichen secondary metabolites) traits in lichen communities in a close-to-natural forest of lowland Europe. We considered these traits in relation to three levels of forest ecosystem organization: forest communities, phorophyte species and substrates, in order to recognize the specialization of functional traits to different levels of the forest complexity. Traits related to the sexual reproduction of mycobionts (i.e., ascomata types: lecanoroid apothecia, lecideoid apothecia, arthonioid apothecia, lirellate apothecia, stalked apothecia and perithecia) and asexual reproduction of mycobionts (pycnidia, hyphophores and sporodochia) demonstrated the highest specialization to type of substrate, tree species and forest community. Thallus type (foliose, fruticose, crustose and leprose thalli), ascospore dark pigmentation and asexual reproduction by lichenized diaspores (soredia and isidia) revealed the lowest specialization to tree species and substrate, as well as to forest community. Results indicate that lichen functional trait assemblage distribution should not only be considered at the level of differences in the internal structure of the analyzed forest communities (e.g., higher number of diverse substrates or tree species) but also studied in relation to specific habitat conditions (insolation, moisture, temperature, eutrophication) that are characteristic of a particular forest community. Our work contributes to the understanding of the role of the forest structure in shaping lichen functional trait composition, as well as enhancing our knowledge on community assembly rules of lichen species. Keywords: functional traits composition; substrates; phorophytes; forest communities; Białowieża Forest.
33392Frye H.A., Muscavitch Z. & Goffinet B. (2021): Discovery of epiphytic lichens in Connecticut suggests novel introduction and reintroduction via horticultural practices. - Bryologist, 124(2): 191–197. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-124.2.191.
The discovery of Teloschistes chrysophthalmus in Connecticut more than one hundred years since its last known occurrence is argued to result from human introduction. The species only occurred on the horticultural tree, Gleditsia triacanthos var. inermis, planted on the University of Connecticut campus. Gleditsia triacanthos is not indigenous to northeastern North America but is widespread in the central United States. Other epiphytic macrolichens also recorded on this phorophyte include Punctelia bolliana and Parmotrema austrosinense, both widespread in the central United States, and new to Connecticut and New England, respectively. This is likely the first reported case of combined introductions of lichenized fungi in North America through the import of ornamental trees. Keywords: Lichen distributions, human-mediated lichen dispersal, New England, Teloschistes chrysophthalmus, Punctelia bolliana, Parmotrema austrosinense, Parmotrema perforatum, Parmotrema hypotropum.
33391Boch S., Martins A., Sim-Sim M. & Bergamini A. (2021): Effects of elevation and disturbances on the associations between the diversities of bryophyte and macrolichen functional-taxonomic groups on Madeira Island. - Bryologist, 124(2): 178–190. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-124.2.178.
Biodiversity varies with elevation and is affected by disturbances. However, little is known about how the associations between the diversities of different bryophyte and macrolichen functionaltaxonomic groups are altered along elevational gradients and by disturbances. Knowledge on the associations between these functional-taxonomic groups might be of importance in practical conservation biology, as identifying indicator taxa which are easy to monitor could be useful in estimating a wider biodiversity. We sampled the species richness of bryophytes and macrolichens in 92 plots distributed in disturbed and undisturbed stands along elevational gradients in the laurel forest of Madeira. We then calculated a matrix of correlations for all pairwise combinations of 18 different functional-taxonomic bryophyte and macrolichen groups and tested for average differences in correlations with elevation and disturbance history and whether particular functional-taxonomic groups can be used to estimate the richness of other taxa. Associations between the diversities of functionaltaxonomic groups within the bryophyte group and within the macrolichen group were always positive and mainly strong. Although changes in elevation and disturbance history changed the associations between the different bryophyte and macrolichen functional-taxonomic groups, we found the species richness of mosses or liverworts to be suitable for predicting overall bryophyte species richness and the species richness of green-algae macrolichens to be reliable for estimating overall macrolichen species richness. Associations between diversities of bryophyte and macrolichen groups were generally weak, suggesting that the two groups have different ecological requirements and do not share the same environmental drivers. The fact that no single bryophyte taxon can be used to predict the richness of any macrolichen group, and vice versa, points to the need to study both bryophytes and lichens. However, we found indicator taxa that are relatively easy to monitor and therefore could be used to estimate the wider biodiversity. Keywords: Biodiversity indicators, bryophyte life strategy, elevation, endemic species, disturbance, functional-taxonomic group, lichen growth form, liverwort, moss, photobiont.
33390Brodo I M. & Bennett J.P. (2021): Remembering Clifford Major Wetmore (1934 – 2020). - Bryologist, 124(2): 172–177. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-124.2.172.
Biography
33389Barták M., Hájek J., Orekhova A., Villagra J., Marín C., Palfner G. & Casanova-Katny A. (2021): Inhibition of primary photosynthesis in desiccating Antarctic lichens differing in their photobionts, thallus morphology, and spectral properties. - Microorganisms, 9(4): 818 [21 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9040818.
Five macrolichens of different thallus morphology from Antarctica (King George Island) were used for this ecophysiological study. The effect of thallus desiccation on primary photosynthetic processes was examined. We investigated the lichens’ responses to the relative water content (RWC) in their thalli during the transition from a wet (RWC of 100%) to a dry state (RWC of 0%). The slow Kautsky kinetics of chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) that was recorded during controlled dehydration (RWC decreased from 100 to 0%) and supplemented with a quenching analysis revealed a polyphasic species-specific response of variable fluorescence. The changes in ChlF at a steady state (Fs), potential and effective quantum yields of photosystem II (FV/FM, ΦPSII), and nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) reflected a desiccation-induced inhibition of the photosynthetic processes. The dehydration-dependent fall in FV/FM and ΦPSII was species-specific, starting at an RWC range of 22–32%. The critical RWC for ΦPSII was below 5%. The changes indicated the involvement of protective mechanisms in the chloroplastic apparatus of lichen photobionts at RWCs of below 20%. In both the wet and dry states, the spectral reflectance curves (SRC) (wavelength 400–800 nm) and indices (NDVI, PRI) of the studied lichen species were measured. Black Himantormia lugubris showed no difference in the SRCs between wet and dry state. Other lichens showed a higher reflectance in the dry state compared to the wet state. The lichen morphology and anatomy data, together with the ChlF and spectral reflectance data, are discussed in relation to its potential for ecophysiological studies in Antarctic lichens. Keywords: maritime antarctica; King George Island; lichen dehydration; chlorophyll fluorescence; stress tolerance.
33388Vannini A., Canali G., Favero-Longo S.E. & Loppi S. (2021): Accumulation and phytotoxicity of two commercial biocides in the lichen Evernia prunastri and the moss Brachythecium sp.. - Stresses, 1(2): 69–77. https://doi.org/10.3390/stresses1020006.
This study investigated the accumulation and phytotoxicity of two commercial biocides widely used for the removal of biological colonization from monuments, namely Biotin T® (3%) and Preventol RI80® (2%), on lichen and moss model species, specifically, Evernia prunastri and Brachythecium sp. The active compounds, benzalkonium chloride (BAC) for Preventol RI80 and isothiazolinone (OIT) for Biotin T, were accumulated in similar amounts in both species without significant changes for up to 21 days. Both compounds caused a severe impairment of the photosynthetic apparatus of these species, without any recovery over time, although Biotin T showed a faster and stronger action, and the moss was more sensitive than the lichen. By shedding light on the accumulation of BAC and OIT in lichens and mosses and quantifying their effectiveness to photosynthetically devitalize these organisms, the obtained results are a useful comparison for the implementation of green alternative products for the control of biodeteriogens. Keywords: benzalkonium chloride; biocidal compounds; n-octyl-isothiazolinone; photosynthesis; uptake.
33387Hamida R.S., Ali M.A., Abdelmeguid N.E., Al-Zaban M.I., Baz L. & Bin-Meferij M.M. (2021): Lichens—a potential source for nanoparticles fabrication: A review on nanoparticles biosynthesis and their prospective applications. - Journal of Fungi, 7(4): 291 [44 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7040291.
Green synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) is a safe, eco-friendly, and relatively inexpensive alternative to conventional routes of NPs production. These methods require natural resources such as cyanobacteria, algae, plants, fungi, lichens, and naturally extracted biomolecules such as pigments, vitamins, polysaccharides, proteins, and enzymes to reduce bulk materials (the target metal salts) into a nanoscale product. Synthesis of nanomaterials (NMs) using lichen extracts is a promising eco-friendly, simple, low-cost biological synthesis process. Lichens are groups of organisms including multiple types of fungi and algae that live in symbiosis. Until now, the fabrication of NPs using lichens has remained largely unexplored, although the role of lichens as natural factories for synthesizing NPs has been reported. Lichens have a potential reducible activity to fabricate different types of NMs, including metal and metal oxide NPs and bimetallic alloys and nanocomposites. These NPs exhibit promising catalytic and antidiabetic, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities. To the best of our knowledge, this review provides, for the first time, an overview of the main published studies concerning the use of lichen for nanofabrication and the applications of these NMs in different sectors. Moreover, the possible mechanisms of biosynthesis are discussed, together with the various optimization factors influencing the biological synthesis and toxicity of NPs.
33386Lendemer J.C. & Coyle J.R. (2021): Dissimilar biodiversity data sets yield congruent patterns and inference in lichens. - Botany, 99: 55–67. https://doi.org/10.1139/cjb-2020-0086.
Large-scale efforts to aggregate and promote the re-use of biodiversity data are leading to novel insights into biogeography and macroecology. However, secondary analyses must account for the tradeoffs and limitations of the original studies. Studies of speciose and taxonomically complex groups often utilize morphospecies or functional subsets as proxies, potentially complicating data re-use. We evaluated whether lichen biodiversity patterns are robust to differences in sampling methodology, utilizing parallel analyses to compare species richness, regional species pool variation, species probabilities of occurrence, and correlation of those three with environmental variables in data sets that cover the same geographic region. Our analyses revealed that, although individual species distributions sometimes differed in idiosyncratic ways, inference based on the aggregated response of multiple species was generally robust across the two datasets, despite differences in observer expertise and functional and taxonomic scope. This suggests that biodiversity data assembled from disparate sources could be used to evaluate biogeographical and macroecological hypotheses in understudied groups such as lichens, particularly at larger spatial scales. Key words: biodiversity data, biodiversity proxies, diversity–environment relationships, lichens, macrolichens, Pennsylvania, temperate forest.
33385Widhelm T.J., Grewe F., Huang J.‐P., Ramanauskas K., Mason‐Gamer R. & Lumbsch H.T. (2021): Using RADseq to understand the circum‐Antarctic distribution of a lichenized fungus, Pseudocyphellaria glabra. - Journal of Biogeography, 48(1): 78–90. https://doi.org/10.1111/jbi.13983.
The Southern Ocean landmasses have intrigued biologists for centuries because they share many taxonomic groups. Such disjunct taxa can provide insight into evolutionary processes that connect populations or drive divergence. The lichenized fungus Pseudocyphellaria glabra, for example, has a disjunct distribution—separated by the Tasman Sea and the Pacific Ocean—yet whether these locations should be genetically distinct is unclear. The large distances between continents may be expected to prohibit gene flow, but strong and sustained winds in the Southern Hemisphere and the small size of P. glabra propagules may facilitate migration. We compared support for these two hypotheses. Keywords: biogeography; dispersal; evolution; lichen; lichenized fungi; population genetics; subantarctic; systematics.
33384Tansem K. & Storemyr P. (2021): Red‐coated rocks on the seashore: The esthetics and geology of prehistoric rock art in Alta, Arctic Norway. - Geoarchaeology, 36: 314–334. https://doi.org/10.1002/gea.21832.
Research suggests that the World Heritage rock engravings in Alta, Northern Norway, were made along the seashore over a period of 5000 years. The postglacial rebound and consequent land uplift have caused a continuous displacement of the shoreline, now situating the earliest rock art panels up to 26m above sea level. By examining the rock surfaces at Hjemmeluft and other sites, using field observations and geological analyses, we found that the pronounced red bedrock surfaces in the current seashore zone are composed of inorganic iron films related to a high content of magnetite in the native sandstone. Coupled with an interpretation of regional environmental history, we also found that it is highly likely that the rock art was originally carved on rocks with red iron films, rocks that are now generally gray. Due to the land uplift and subsequent covering of the rock art with lichen, moss, and turf, the red color has waned at the rock art sites. This knowledge may renew interpretation and understanding of the location of rock art in Alta and may have implications for conservation and management. Keywords: colors, esthetics, iron films, rock art, rock coatings.
33383Saiz H., Dainese M., Chiarucci A. & Nascimbene J. (2021): Networks of epiphytic lichens and host trees along elevation gradients: Climate change implications in mountain ranges. - Journal of Ecology, 109(3): 1122–1132. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2745.13538.
Several studies have evaluated lichen responses in terms of shifts in species climate suitability, species richness and community composition. In contrast, patterns of co‐occurrence among species that could be related to complex species interactions have received less consideration. Biotic interactions play a major role in shaping species niches, fitness and adaptation to new environments. Therefore, considering the specific relationships among co‐occurring species is essential to further deepen our knowledge of biodiversity response to climate change. In this perspective, the analysis of lichen ecological networks across elevational gradients may provide a powerful tool to understand how communities are structured and how biotic interactions are modulated by changing climatic conditions. We evaluated the contribution of environmental and species biological attributes to the structure of epiphytic lichen–host tree networks. Specifically, we studied lichen communities considering two different network levels: the whole lichen community, and groups of lichen species that presented similar biological traits. In this framework, we (a) characterized the structure of the epiphytic lichen–host tree networks; (b) assessed how network structure varied with climate, forest attributes and community trait diversity and (c) evaluated the role that biological traits played in the connections established between co‐occurring lichens. On the one hand, results indicate that epiphytic lichen communities are dominated by local segregation, suggesting habitat specialization among lichens within their host tree, and that climatic conditions and, to a lesser extent, lichen diversity are the main drivers of community assemblage. On the other hand, the role of lichen species in the networks depends on their particular biological traits, supporting the hypothesis that biological traits contribute to shape network structure by influencing the ability of the species to interact between each other. These findings warn about the potential impact of climate change on epiphytic lichen communities. Synthesis. This study builds towards a better understanding of lichen community assembly and on biodiversity response to climate change in forest alpine ecosystems. In particular, our results highlight the value of lichen–tree networks to inform about assemblage processes acting at different organizational levels and indicate that lichens might become one of the most threatened groups under global change scenarios. Keywords: alpine ecosystems; biological traits; climate change; determinants of community structure and diversity; elevation gradients; epiphyte networks.
33382Kujala V. (1936): Waldvegetationsstudien im östlichen Mitteleuropa. - Metsätieteellisen tutkimuslaitoksen julkaisuja / Communicationes Instituti forestalis Fenniae, 22/6: 1–115. .
[in German with Finnish summary]; Estonia, Lithuania, Czech Republic, Germany, Poland; forest vegetation sociological study; boreal forests, old-growth forests, primeval forests, Bialowieza [Białowieża], Kubany [Boubín], Schöninger [Kleť], p. 52-53: list of lichens collected by the author in Bialowieza primeval forest (det. V. Räsänen); Marienbad [Mariánské lázně]; Karlsbad [Karlovy vary]; Blöckenstein [Pleckenstein, Plechý]; relic larch forest in Polish lowland, forests in surroundings of Berlin.
33381Kujala V. (1936): Tutkimuksia Keski-ja Pohjois-Suomen välisestä kasvillisuusrajasta [Über die vegetationsgrenze von Mittel- und Nordfinnland]. - Metsätieteellisen tutkimuslaitoksen julkaisuja / Communicationes Instituti forestalis Fenniae, 22/4: 1–95. .
[in Finnish with German summary] Finland; forest vegetation sociological study; numerous terricolous lichens included.
33380Miquel S.E. & Bungartz F. (2017): Snails found among herbarium specimens of Galapagos lichens and bryophytes, with the description of Scolodonta rinae (Gastropoda: Scolodontidae), a new species of carnivorous micro-mollusk. - Archiv für Molluskenkunde, 146(1): 173–186. https://doi.org/10.1127/arch.moll/146/173-186.
For the first time we document several species of micro-mollusks in the Galapagos inhabiting lichens and bryophytes, possibly using them as part of their diet. Eight species of micro-mollusks were found as a by-catch among 10% of 400 herbarium specimens collected throughout the archipelago. Nine species of lichens and 6 of bryophytes were inhabited. The endemic Pupisoma galapagorum was the most common micro-mollusk, particularly frequent among Heterodermia, occasionally found on Cyphellostereum, Squamidium nigricans, and among hepatics (Frullania, Bryopteris). Other micromollusks were Tornatellides chathamensis, Pupisoma dioscoricola, Helicina sp., and Succinea sp. Examination of the digestive tract of P. galapagorum detected green algae, hyphae, spores, and fragments of bryophyte leaves (possibly S. nigricans). This endemic micro-mollusk apparently uses lichens and bryophytes not only for shelter but also as food. Another snail found repeatedly is a predator, described here as Scolodonta rinae n. sp. It is a member of Scolodontidae, a Neotropical family considered endemic to continental South America, and here for the first time documented from the Galapagos. Pupisoma galapagorum, previously known from Floreana, Isabela, San Cristóbal, and Santa Cruz, is reported also from Pinta and Santiago. Ambrosiella floreanae, previously considered endemic to Floreana, is reported from Santa Cruz. Key words: Ecological interactions, land snail, microhabitats, food-chain.
33379González-Montelongo C. & Pérez-Vargas I. (2019): Looking for a home: Exploring the potential of epiphytic lichens to colonize tree plantations in a Macaronesian laurel forest. - Forest Ecology and Management, 453: 117541 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2019.117541.
Mankind has been altering native forests in Macaronesia for at least five centuries. Forestry practices are known to reduce biodiversity due to habitat loss, fragmentation and alteration. To assess the potential of plantations to provide habitat for epiphytic lichens in comparison with native forests, we examined three types of forest in the Canary Islands: laurel forest (native forest) and two monospecific plantations of Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus globulus. Epiphytic lichen diversity was evaluated using a methodology of species richness and lichen diversity values (LDV). Our results demonstrate that the conversion of laurel forests to monoculture plantations of exotic tree species decreases lichen diversity and alters lichen community composition. Our findings hightlight how native epiphytic lichens from the cloud forest cannot survive under the same climatic conditions if the host plant community is changed. Keywords: Canary Islands; Exotic plantations; Laurel forest; Lichen diversity; Macaronesia.
33378Ravera S., Puglisi M., Vizzini A.. Aleffi M., Benesperi R., Decarli G.B., Berta G., Bianchi E., Boccardo F., Briozzo I., Clericuzio M., Cogoni A., Croce A., Dagnino D., De Agostini A., De Giuseppe A.B., Di Nuzzo L., Dovana F., Fačkovcová Z., Gheza G., Loppi S., Malíček J., Mariotti M., Nascimbene J., Nimis P.L., Paoli L., Passalacqua N.G., Plášek V., Poponessi S., Prosser F., Puntillo D., Puntillo M., Rovito S., Sguazzin F., Sicoli G., Tiburtini M., Tomaselli V., Turcato C. & Vallese C. (2021): Notulae to the Italian flora of algae, bryophytes, fungi and lichens: 11. - Italian Botanist, 11: 45–61. https://doi.org/10.3897/italianbotanist.11.64557.
In this contribution, new data concerning bryophytes, fungi, and lichens of the Italian flora are presented. It includes new records and confirmations for the bryophyte genera Aneura, Aulacomnium, Dumortiera, Fossombronia, Hennediella, Hygrohypnella, Pohlia, Porella, Riccardia, Tortella, and Tortula, the fungal genera Cortinarius, Mycena, Naucoria, Trichoglossum, and Tubaria and the lichen genera Agonimia, Blastenia, Chaenotheca, Cladonia, Endocarpon, Gyalecta, Lecanographa, Parmeliella, Porpidia, Stenhammarella, and Thelidium. Keywords: Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Bryidae, Jungermanniopsida, Marchantiidae.
33377Zhurbenko M.P. (2021): Lichenicolous fungi from the Holarctic. Part IV: New reports and a key to species on Dermatocarpon. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 20: 44–53. http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/op/biblio_list.php?BucVolume_tab=20.
Endococcus peltigericola is reported for the first time from North America and Epigloea urosperma for the second time. The detection of interascal filaments in Endococcus peltigericola indicates that it may belong to the genus Polycoccum. Adelococcus immersus and Trematosphaeriopsis parmeliana are newly reported for Russia, the former is also first documented from the Arctic. The description of A. immersus, previously known only from a type specimen, is emended. Halecania alpivaga is reported new to the north-central Siberia growing on an unusual host genus (Dermatocarpon). A key to the species of lichenicolous fungi growing on Dermatocarpon is provided. Keywords. – Arctic, biodiversity discovery, biogeography, lichen-dwelling fungi, Russia, Sweden, United States of America.
33376Peterson E. (2021): Stenocybe procrastinata (Mycocaliciaceae), a new calicioid fungus on Cercocarpus in western North America. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 20: 37–43. http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/op/biblio_list.php?BucVolume_tab=20.
Stenocybe procrastinata (Mycocaliciaceae, Mycocaliciales) is described as new to science. The species occurs with remarkable reliability on Cercocarpus ledifolius in western North America. Keywords. – Biodiversity, Caliciales, endemism, Mycocaliciales, Phaeocalicium, substrate specificity, taxonomy.
33375Mitchell R.J., Hewison R.L., Beaton J. & Douglass J.R. (2021): Identifying substitute host tree species for epiphytes: The relative importance of tree size and species, bark and site characteristics. - Applied Vegetation Science, 24: e12569 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1111/avsc.12569.
Questions: Can bark characteristics be used to determine the suitability of trees to host epiphytic bryophytes and lichens or are other tree and site characteristics more important? Identification of substitute hosts is required in the face of epidemic tree deaths due to diseases that are a threat to affiliated epiphytic communities. We assess the suitability of seven phorophytes to host the epiphytes associated with the UK native oak species, Quercus petraea and Quercus robur, which are currently threatened by a range of pests and pathogens. Location: Six botanic gardens and arboreta across the UK. Method: We recorded the site, habitat, tree (height, diameter at breast height [1.3 m; DBH], percentage canopy cover) and bark characteristics (pH, conductivity, density, water‐holding capacity, hardness, topography) and epiphytic community composition on Acer pseudoplatanus, Castanea sativa, Fagus sylvatica, Fraxinus excelsior, Quercus cerris, Quercus petraea, Quercus robur, Quercus rubra and Tilia × europaea. In total 230 trees were surveyed across the six sites. Results: Comparisons between all trees showed significant correlations between similarities in community composition and bark characteristics. However, “tree characteristics” (species, height, DBH and canopy over) explained more of the variation in epiphytic community composition than bark and site characteristics. Phorophytes with similar epiphytic community richness or composition to native oaks did not necessarily have similar bark characteristics. Non‐native oaks and the non‐native hybrid Tilia × europaea supported similar epiphyte communities to the native oaks and are suggested as substitute phorophytes. Conclusion: Using bark traits is not a reliable method to assess the suitability of substitute phorophytes to conserve epiphytic communities. Instead, the epiphytes hosted by a wider range of phorophytes should be recorded to allow an assessment of their suitability as substitute hosts and hence aid management decisions on replacement phorophytes following tree loss. Key words: acute oak decline, bark pH, bryophytes, lichens, pathogens, pests, phorophytes, Quercus, substitute tree, tree disease, woodland resilience.
33374Ekman S., Tønsberg T. & van den Boom P.P.G. (2021): Three overlooked species of Bacidia from insular Laurimacaronesia. - Nordic Journal of Botany, 39(3): e03055 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1111/njb.03055.
We discuss the taxonomy of three species of Bacidia occurring in insular Laurimacaronesia. Two of them, B. amylothelia (Vain.) Vain. and B. endoleucoides (Nyl.) Zahlbr., which were previously described from Angola and Madeira, respectively, are found here to belong in Bacidia s. str. (Ramalinaceae). Modern descriptions and illustrations are provided for the first time. Bacidia amylothelia is similar to B. areolata Gerasimova & A. Beck, B. campalea (Tuck.) S. Ekman & Kalb, B. fusconigrescens (Nyl.) Zahlbr., B. heteroloma (Vain.) Zahlbr., B. millegrana (Taylor) Zahlbr. and B. suffusa (Fr.) A. Schneid. and is reported here from the Canary Islands. Bacidia endoleucoides is most likely to be confused with B. absistens (Nyl.) Arnold, B. friesiana (Hepp) Körb., B. salazarensis B. de Lesd. and B. caesiovirens S. Ekman & Holien and was found to be widely distributed in the Canary Islands and Azores in addition to Madeira. The third species, Bacidia deludens S. Ekman, Tønsberg & van den Boom, is described here as new to science. Bacidia deludens is characterised by a greyish, crustose thallus with whitish soralia, pale apothecia with crystals in the hymenium and proper exciple, acicular ascospores with 3–19 septa, and the production of fumarprotocetraric acid as the consistently present major substance. It is described here from the Canary Islands and Madeira. Although conservatively treated here in Bacidia, we argue that it is likely to belong in the Malmideaceae. An identification key to all known species of Bacidia s. str. in insular Macaronesia is provided. Keywords: Bacidia, determination key, Malmideaceae, new species, Ramalinaceae.
33373Grimm M., Grube M., Schiefelbein U., Zühlke D., Bernhardt J. & Riedel K. (2021): The lichens’ microbiota, still a mystery?. - Frontiers in Microbiology, 12: 623839 [25 p.]. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2021.623839.
Lichens represent self-supporting symbioses, which occur in a wide range of terrestrial habitats and which contribute significantly to mineral cycling and energy flow at a global scale. Lichens usually grow much slower than higher plants. Nevertheless, lichens can contribute substantially to biomass production. This review focuses on the lichen symbiosis in general and especially on the model species Lobaria pulmonaria L. Hoffm., which is a large foliose lichen that occurs worldwide on tree trunks in undisturbed forests with long ecological continuity. In comparison to many other lichens, L. pulmonaria is less tolerant to desiccation and highly sensitive to air pollution. The namegiving mycobiont (belonging to the Ascomycota), provides a protective layer covering a layer of the green-algal photobiont (Dictyochloropsis reticulata) and interspersed cyanobacterial cell clusters (Nostoc spec.). Recently performed metaproteome analyses confirm the partition of functions in lichen partnerships. The ample functional diversity of the mycobiont contrasts the predominant function of the photobiont in production (and secretion) of energy-rich carbohydrates, and the cyanobiont’s contribution by nitrogen fixation. In addition, high throughput and state-of-the-art metagenomics and community fingerprinting, metatranscriptomics, and MS-based metaproteomics identify the bacterial community present on L. pulmonaria as a surprisingly abundant and structurally integrated element of the lichen symbiosis. Comparative metaproteome analyses of lichens from different sampling sites suggest the presence of a relatively stable core microbiome and a sampling site-specific portion of the microbiome. Moreover, these studies indicate how the microbiota may contribute to the symbiotic system, to improve its health, growth and fitness. Keywords: lichens, symbiosis, microbiome, lichen-associated bacteria, Lobaria pulmonaria, omics.
33372Ellis C.J., Asplund J., Benesperi R., Branquinho C., Di Nuzzo L., Hurtado P., Martínez I., Matos P., Nascimbene J., Pinho P., Prieto M., Rocha R., Rodríguez-Arribas C., Thüs H. & Giordani P. (2021): Functional traits in lichen ecology: A review of challenge and opportunity. - Microorganisms, 9(4): 766 [27 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9040766.
Community ecology has experienced a major transition, from a focus on patterns in taxonomic composition, to revealing the processes underlying community assembly through the analysis of species functional traits. The power of the functional trait approach is its generality, predictive capacity such as with respect to environmental change, and, through linkage of response and effect traits, the synthesis of community assembly with ecosystem function and services. Lichens are a potentially rich source of information about how traits govern community structure and function, thereby creating opportunity to better integrate lichens into ‘mainstream’ ecological studies, while lichen ecology and conservation can also benefit from using the trait approach as an investigative tool. This paper brings together a range of author perspectives to review the use of traits in lichenology, particularly with respect to European ecosystems from the Mediterranean to the Arctic-Alpine. It emphasizes the types of traits that lichenologists have used in their studies, both response and effect, the bundling of traits towards the evolution of life-history strategies, and the critical importance of scale (both spatial and temporal) in functional trait ecology. Keywords: ecosystem services; effect traits; functional ecology; lichenised-fungi; life-history strategy; response traits; scale; spatial; temporal.
33371Pérez F.L. (2021): Cryptogams build up a living microcosm: Geoecological effects of biocrusts on volcanic tephra (Haleakalā, Maui, Hawai’i). - Catena, 203: 105320 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2021.105320.
This study analyzes data of moss/lichen biocrusts on volcanic tephra at 2335 m in Haleakalā Crater (Maui, Hawai’i). Samples were compared among three adjacent positions: rolling crusts, pinnacled crusts, and bare tephra; two profiles contrasted substrate variation in crust and tephra areas. Field experiments assessed soil shear- and compressive-strength, infiltration rates, and diurnal soil temperatures; a lab experiment measured evaporation from crust specimens for 9 days. Biocrusts significantly affected physical, chemical, and structural soil properties. Fine particles, organic matter, and water storage were appreciably greater in biocrusts. Micro-sampling indicated upper-pinnacle sections accumulated more fine grains due to capture of volcanic ash, and also contained greater organic matter, than lower-pinnacle portions. Crust areas experienced infiltration rates ~2.8 times faster than tephra; mean diurnal temperatures were 12.1 ◦C (26.9 vs 39.0 ◦C) cooler in crusts than in tephra. Saturated crust specimens stored ~2.7 times more moisture than tephra soils; slower evaporation in biocrusts significantly lengthened the period over which poikilohydric cryptogams are able to maintain meta-bolic activity. Soil shear- and compressive-strength were higher on crusts than on tephra. Biocrust soils showed greater fertility, as available Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, P, NH4+-N, and cation-exchange capacity were higher than in tephra. NH4+-N was more concentrated under rolling crusts than in pinnacled ones; this is mainly ascribed to sampling methodology. Buried profile horizons suggest the site experienced additional tephra deposition during episodic volcanic eruptions. A developmental model assesses interactions among soil and environmental pro-cesses, and provides an integrated geoecological view of linkages that influenced biocrust genesis. Keywords: Biocrusts; Grimmia torquata; Peltigera rufescens; Soil properties; Volcanic tephra.
33370Lovegrove A.T., Newton A.C., Evans P.M., Diaz A., Newton A.C., Davy L. & Newbould P.J. (2020): Changes in vegetation structure and composition of a lowland mire over a sixty-five-year interval. - Ecology and Evolution, 10: 13913–13925. DOI: 10.1002/ece3.6984.
1. Mires are characterized by plant communities of high conservation and societal value, which have experienced a major decline in area in many parts of the world, particularly Europe. Evidence suggests that they may be particularly vulnerable to changes in climate and nutrient addition. Although they have been the focus of extensive paleoecological research, few attempts have been made to examine the dynamics of mire vegetation during the current era of anthropogenic environmental change. 2. To assess long-term change in the spatial structure and composition of a lowland mire community, in 2016 we resurveyed plots first surveyed in 1951. Measures of species richness and composition were compared between the two surveys, and changes in community composition were related to plant traits. 3. Overall, mean species richness declined by 26%. The area of occupancy declined in 37% of species, which were primarily oligotrophic species typical of nutrientpoor bog communities. Conversely, occupancy increased in 21% of species, especially those that were more tolerant of higher nutrient availability. These changes were associated with variation in plant functional traits, as indicated by an increase mean Ellenberg trait values for nitrogen and mean temperature, and a decline in values for precipitation. These results suggest that eutrophication and climate change have been key drivers of floristic change on this site. 4. Synthesis. This investigation provides a rare assessment of the dynamics of a mire community over a multi-decadal interval. Results indicate that substantial change has occurred in the composition of the community, and the distribution of species within it. The investigation provides evidence of the impact of environmental change on the composition and structure of a lowland mire community, and highlights challenges for its future conservation. Keywords: biodiversity, bog, conservation, determinants of plant community diversity and structure, environmental change, peatland, plant distribution. [p. 13921: ] "Conversely, the decline of Calluna vulgaris and a number of lichen species recorded within the vegetation plots suggests that some areas of relatively dry heath have become inundated over time." Four Cladonia species and Hypogymnia physodes listed within the species list in Table 2.
33369Huynh B.L.C., Bui V.M., Nguyen T.H.T. & Nguyen K.P.P. (2021): A new phenolic compound from the lichen Parmotrema praesorediosum (Nyl.) Hale. - Vietnam Journal of Chemistry, 59(1): 47–51. https://doi.org/10.1002/vjch.202060096.
Chemical investigation of the lichen Parmotrema praesorediosum (Nyl.) Hale led to isolate six phenolic compounds including praesorediosic (1), orcinol (2), orselinic acid (3), lecanorin (4), isolecanoric acid (5) and virensic acid (6). Among them, compound 1 appeared to be found for the first time in the nature. The structure of these compounds was elucidated by spectroscopic analyses of HRESIMS and NMR as well as the comparison of their NMR data with those in the literature. These compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicity using sulforhodamine‐B assay against HeLa (human epithelial carcinoma), NCI‐H460 (human lung cancer), HepG2 (liver hepatocellular carcinoma) and MCF‐7 (human breast cancer) cell lines. Keywords. Lichen, Parmotrema praesorediosum, phenolic, praesorediosic, cytotoxic activity.
33368Hill R., Leitch I.J. & Gaya E. (2021): Targeting Ascomycota genomes: what and how big?. - Fungal Biology Reviews, 36: 52–59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fbr.2021.03.003.
Gap analysis of the available genomic data (i.e. identifying taxonomic groups with no representative genome assemblies) is a fundamental first step to design effective sampling strategies for whole genome sequencing (WGS) initiatives. We identified the significant holes that remain in genomic resources of the Ascomycota e the largest fungal phylum including many species of medicinal, ecological and/or economic significance e in order to prioritise WGS efforts towards reconstructing the Ascomycota tree of life. In doing so, we additionally looked at the existing genome size data for ascomycetes, given the importance of knowing the size of the genome to ensure sufficient sequencing coverage and assess the completeness and quality of genome assemblies. We found that 50 % of the ascomycete orders have no representative genome assembly and over 75 % have no reliably measured genome size data. We propose that integrating routine cytometric genome size measurements into WGS and genome assembly pipelines will provide both a valuable assembly quality metric and contribute data for addressing fundamental evolutionary questions. Keywords: Ascomycota; Gap analysis; Genome size; Whole genome sequencing.
33367Darmostuk V. (2021): Pronectria gromakovae, a new lichenicolous fungus on Lecanora populicola and notes on other records from Kharkiv region (Ukraine). - Lindbergia, 44: linbg.01141 [7 p.]. https://doi.org/10.25227/linbg.01141.
Recent records of lichenicolous fungi from the Kharkiv region are provided. Twenty species were reported as new to the region. Pronectria gromakovae is described as a new species on Lecanora populicola. Didymocyrtis cladoniicola, D. epiphyscia, Epicladonia sandstedei, Katherinomyces cetrariae and Lichenoconium lichenicola are new to the forest-steppe zone of Ukraine. Physcia stellaris is reported as a new host species for Cladosporium licheniphilum. Notes on the currently known distribution of selected species in other Ukrainian regions are provided.
33366Ertz D., Driscoll K.E. & Clayden S.R. (2021): Two new lichenicolous species of Opegrapha (Arthoniales) from Canada. - Bryologist, 124(1): 39–51. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-124.1.039.
Two new species of lichenicolous Opegrapha are described from New Brunswick, Canada. Opegrapha inconspicua was found once on a rock bluff above a river on the thallus of Verrucaria aethiobola. It is characterized by punctiform, rounded, black ascomata 75–170 lm diam., an excipulum dark brown to black only in the upper part and (1–)2(–3)-septate ascospores of (12.5–)15.5–25 3 4–5 (–5.5) lm. Opegrapha parmeliiperda was found in four localities on epiphytic Parmelia squarrosa and P. sulcata. It is characterized by short lirelliform ascomata 70–220(–250)370–120 lm, in 6 loose groups of 5–15(–20) lirellae forming on black necrotic areas on the host thallus, 4-spored asci of 32–40 3 11–15 lm, and persistently hyaline and 3-septate ascospores of (11–)13–15.5(–17) 3 (3.5–)4–5(–5.5) lm. Opegrapha lamyi is reported for the first time in Canada, and O. anomea and O. sphaerophoricola for the first time in New Brunswick. One of only two previous reports of O. lamyi for the U.S.A. is based on a specimen from Colorado, revised here to Sclerococcum suburceolatum, the latter record representing a significant range extension for that species. Three of the five lichenicolous Opegrapha species reported here for New Brunswick are so far known in the province only in old mixedwood swamp-forests, highlighting the conservation significance of this forest community type. An identification key to the lichenicolous Opegrapha s.l. species known from Canada is provided. The worldwide diversity and host specificity of lichenicolous Opegrapha s.l. are discussed. Keywords: Diversity, New Brunswick, North America, Opegraphaceae, host specificity, taxonomy.
33365Lendemer J.C. (2021): Recent literature on lichens—260. - Bryologist, 124(1): 139–147. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-124.1.139.
Bibliography
33364Bowler D.E., Hof C., Haase P., Kröncke I., Schweiger O., Adrian R., Baert L., Bauer H.-G., Blick T., Brooker R.W., Dekoninck W., Domisch S., Eckmann R., Hendrickx F., Hickler T., Klotz S., Kraberg A., Kühn I., Matesanz S., Meschede A., Neumann H., O’Hara R.B., Russell D.J., Sell A.F., Sonnewald M., Stoll S., Sundermann A., Tackenberg O., Turkay M., Valladares F., van Herk K., van Klink R., Vermeulen R., Voigtlander K., Wagner R., Welk E., Wiemers M., Wiltshire K.H. & Böhning-Gaese K. (2017): Cross-realm assessment of climate change impacts on species’ abundance trends. - Nature Ecology and Evolution, 1: 0067 [7 p.]. DOI: 10.1038/s41559-016-0067.
Climate change, land-use change, pollution and exploitation are among the main drivers of species’ population trends; however, their relative importance is much debated. We used a unique collection of over 1,000 local population time series in 22 communities across terrestrial, freshwater and marine realms within central Europe to compare the impacts of long-term temperature change and other environmental drivers from 1980 onwards. To disentangle different drivers, we related species’ population trends to species- and driver-specific attributes, such as temperature and habitat preference or pollution tolerance. We found a consistent impact of temperature change on the local abundances of terrestrial species. Populations of warm-dwelling species increased more than those of cold-dwelling species. In contrast, impacts of temperature change on aquatic species’ abundances were variable. Effects of temperature preference were more consistent in terrestrial communities than effects of habitat preference, suggesting that the impacts of temperature change have become widespread for recent changes in abundance within many terrestrial communities of central Europe.
33363Rosa L.H., da Silva T.H., Ogaki M.B., Pinto O.H.B., Stech M., Convey P., Carvalho‑Silva M., Rosa C.A. & Câmara P.E.A.S. (2020): DNA metabarcoding uncovers fungal diversity in soils of protected and non‑protected areas on Deception Island, Antarctica. - Scientific Reports, 10: 21986 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-78934-7.
We assessed soil fungal diversity at two sites on Deception Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica using DNA metabarcoding analysis. The first site was a relatively undisturbed area, and the second was much more heavily impacted by research and tourism. We detected 346 fungal amplicon sequence variants dominated by the phyla Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Mortierellomycota and Chytridiomycota. We also detected taxa belonging to the rare phyla Mucoromycota and Rozellomycota, which have been difficult to detect in Antarctica by traditional isolation methods. Cladosporium sp., Pseudogymnoascus roseus, Leotiomycetes sp. 2, Penicillium sp., Mortierella sp. 1, Mortierella sp. 2, Pseudogymnoascus appendiculatus and Pseudogymnoascus sp. were the most dominant fungi. In addition, 440,153 of the total of 1,214,875 reads detected could be classified only at the level of Fungi. In both sampling areas the DNA of opportunistic, phytopathogenic and symbiotic fungi were detected, which might have been introduced by human activities, transported by birds or wind, and/or represent resident fungi not previously reported from Antarctica. Further long-term studies are required to elucidate how biological colonization in the island may be affected by climatic changes and/or other anthropogenic influences. [p. 4: ] "We also detected the presence of DNA of 11 lichenized fungi, of which five (Lecidea cancriformis, Psoroma tenue, Trimmatothelopsis smaragdula, Verrucaria alpicola and V. margacea) occurred in both sites."
33362Werth S., Meidl P. & Scheidegger C. (2021): Deep divergence between island populations in lichenized fungi. - Scientific Reports, 11: 7428 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-86448-z.
Macaronesia is characterized by a high degree of endemism and represents a noteworthy system to study the evolutionary history of populations and species. Here, we compare the population-genetic structure in three lichen-forming fungi, the widespread Lobaria pulmonaria and two Macaronesian endemics, L. immixta and L. macaronesica, based on microsatellites. We utilize population genetic approaches to explore population subdivision and evolutionary history of these taxa on the Canary Islands, Madeira, Azores, and the western Iberian Peninsula. A common feature in all species was the deep divergence between populations on the Azores, a pattern expected by the large geographic distance among islands. For both endemic species, there was a major split between archipelagos. In contrast, in the widespread L. pulmonaria, divergent individuals were distributed across multiple archipelagos, suggesting a complex evolutionary history involving repeated migration between islands and mainland.
33361Studzińska-Sroka E., Majchrzak-Celińska A., Zalewski P., Szwajgier D., Baranowska-Wójcik E., Zarowski M., Plech T. & Cielecka-Piontek J. (2021): Permeability of Hypogymnia physodes extract component—physodic acid through the blood–brain barrier as an important argument for its anticancer and neuroprotective activity within the central nervous system. - Cancers, 13: 1717 [18 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13071717.
Central nervous system (CNS) diseases, including tumors such as glioblastomas and neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, are some of the greatest challenges of modern medicine. Therefore, our study aimed to evaluate the anticancer and neuroprotective activity of the extract from a common European lichen Hypogymnia physodes and of its compound-physodic acid. The examined substances were cytotoxic against the glioblastoma cell lines A-172, T98G, and U-138 MG. Both substances strongly inhibited hyaluronidase, and diminished cyclooxygenase-2 activity (H. physodes extract), enzymes expressed in patients with malignant glioma. Furthermore, H. physodes extract inhibited tyrosinase activity, the enzyme linked to neurodegenerative diseases. The tested substances exhibited antioxidant activity, however, acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity were not high. We proved that physodic acid can cross the blood–brain barrier. We conclude that physodic acid and H. physodes extract should be regarded as promising agents with anticancer, chemopreventive, and neuroprotective activities, especially concerning CNS. : Lichen secondary metabolites are characterized by huge pharmacological potential. Our research focused on assessing the anticancer and neuroprotective activity of Hypogymnia physodes acetone extract (HP extract) and physodic acid, its major component. The antitumor properties were evaluated by cytotoxicity analysis using A-172, T98G, and U-138 MG glioblastoma cell lines and by hyaluronidase and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibition. The neuroprotective potential was examined using COX-2, tyrosinase, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity tests. Moreover, the antioxidant potential of the tested substances was examined, and the chemical composition of the extract was analyzed. For physodic acid, the permeability through the blood–brain barrier using Parallel Artificial Membrane Permeability Assay for the Blood–Brain Barrier assay (PAMPA-BBB) was assessed. Our study shows that the tested substances strongly inhibited glioblastoma cell proliferation and hyaluronidase activity. Besides, HP extract diminished COX-2 and tyrosinase activity. However, the AChE and BChE inhibitory activity of HP extract and physodic acid were mild. The examined substances exhibited strong antioxidant activity. Importantly, we proved that physodic acid crosses the blood–brain barrier. We conclude that physodic acid and H. physodes should be regarded as promising agents with anticancer, chemopreventive, and neuroprotective activities, especially regarding the central nervous system diseases. Keywords: Hypogymnia physodes; anticancer; chemopreventive and neuroprotective activity; blood–brain barrier permeability.
33360Zhang H.-B., Liu Y.-J., Guo S.-Y. & Han L.-F. (2021): Two new lichen species of the genus Ramalina (Ramalinaceae) from China. - Bryologist, 124(2): 162–171. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-124.1.162.
Two corticolous species of Ramalina are described as new to science from China. Ramalina ailaoshanensis is described from Mt. Ailaoshan in southwest China. It is characterized by dichotomous narrow branches with sparse raised or tuberculate pseudocyphellae, without warts, absence of chrondroid tissue in the cortex, the tips of branchlets becoming thin, terete and curled backwards, and lacking soredia and isidia. Ramalina qinlingensis is described from Mt. Qinling in northwest China. It is characterized by broad branches with distinct pseudocyphellae, many warts and branchlets, the discontinuous chrondroid tissue in the cortex, and lacking soredia and isidia. Both species were recovered as monophyletic and well-supported in a maximum-likelihood phylogeny inferred from ITS sequence data. Kezwords: Asia, ITS, Lecanorales, molecular phylogeny, taxonomy.
33359Etayo J. & Pino-Bodas R. (2021): Notes on lichenicolous Pleosporales, with two new species, Didymocyrtis azorica and Pseudopyrenidium epipertusariae (Phaeosphaeriaceae). - Phytotaxa, 494(1): 75–88. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.494.1.4.
The identity and phylogenetic placement of some lichenicolous Pleosporales were studied using morphological and molecular data. Two new species are described, Didymocyrtis azorica on Hypotrachyna rockii, from the Azores, and Pseudopyrenidium epipertusariae on Pertusaria pertusa, from Spain in oceanic montane woods, with a Phoma-like asexual state. This is the second species of Pseudopyrenidium, and the morphological similarities with P. tartaricola are discussed. In addition, Evernia prunastri is a new host for Didymocyrtis ramalinae, and Heterodea muelleri is a new host for D. cladoniicola, which is newly reported for Australia. Keywords: Ascomycota, fungi, new species, taxonomy.
33358Lagarde A., Mambu L., Mai P.-Y., Champavier Y., Stigliani J.-L., Beniddir M.A. & Millot M. (2021): Chlorinated bianthrones from the cyanolichen Nephroma laevigatum. - Fitoterapia, 149: 104811 [8 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2020.104811.
While depsidones, depsides or dibenzofuran-like compounds dominate the chemical composition of lichens, the cyanolichen Nephroma laevigatum affords a diversity of quinoid pigments represented by chlorinated anthraquinones derived from emodin and new bianthrones resulting from the homo- or heterodimerization of monomers. Bianthrones were pointed out from the dichloromethane extract by MS/MS-based molecular networking, then isolated and characterized on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyzes and GIAO NMR shift calculation followed by CP3 analyzes. Keywords: Bianthrones; Dereplication; NMR calculations; Lichens; Nephroma.
33357Ежкин А.К. & Давыдов Е.А. [Ezhkin A.K. & Davydov E.A.] (2021): Новые данные о лишайниках рода Umbilicaria Hoffm. с островов Парамушир и Сахалин [New records of lichens of the genus Umbilicaria Hoffm. from Paramushir and Sakhalin islands]. - Вестник Северо-Восточного научного центра ДВО РАН [Bulletin of the North-East scientific center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Far East Branch], 2021/1: 75–80. DOI: 10.34078/1814-0998-2021-1-75-80.
[in Russian with English summary: ] The paper presents the new data on lichen of the genus umbilicaria Hoffm. from Paramushir and Sakhalin islands. Six species from Paramushir Island are presented; four (Umbilicaria cylindrica, U. deusta, U. hyperborea, and U. torrefacta) are recorded in Paramushir for the first time. One more species, U. muhlenbergii, collected from ancient inselbergs on the Tonin-Aniva Peninsula, Sakhalin, was registered in the island for the first time. Three of the species discussed (umbilicaria deusta, U. muhlenbergii, andU. hyperborea) are new for Sakhalin Oblast. Brief descriptions, localities and photos are presented for the reported species.Keywords: Northern Kurils, Russia’s Far East, volcanic activity, rock vegetation.
33356Knudsen K., Kocourková J., Cannon P., Coppins B., Fletcher A. & Simkin J. (2021): Acarosporales: Acarosporaceae, including the genera Acarospora, Caeruleum, Myriospora, Pleopsidium, Sarcogyne and Trimmatothelopsis. - Revisions of British and Irish Lichens, 12: 1–25. https://www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/files/Acarosporaceae.pdf.
33355Kõljalg U., Nilsson H.R., Schigel D., Tedersoo L., Larsson K.-H., May T.W., Taylor A.F.S., Jeppesen T.S., Frøslev T.G., Lindahl B.D., Põldmaa K., Saar I., Suija A., Savchenko A., Yatsiuk I., Adojaan K., Ivanov F., Piirmann T., Pöhönen R., Zirk A. & Abarenkov K. (2020): The taxon hypothesis paradigm—on the unambiguous detection and communication of taxa. - Microorganisms, 8: 1910 [25 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8121910.
Here, we describe the taxon hypothesis (TH) paradigm, which covers the construction, identification, and communication of taxa as datasets. Defining taxa as datasets of individuals and their traits will make taxon identification and most importantly communication of taxa precise and reproducible. This will allow datasets with standardized and atomized traits to be used digitally in identification pipelines and communicated through persistent identifiers. Such datasets are particularly useful in the context of formally undescribed or even physically undiscovered species if data such as sequences from samples of environmental DNA (eDNA) are available. Implementing the TH paradigm will to some extent remove the impediment to hastily discover and formally describe all extant species in that the TH paradigm allows discovery and communication of new species and other taxa also in the absence of formal descriptions. The TH datasets can be connected to a taxonomic backbone providing access to the vast information associated with the tree of life. In parallel to the description of the TH paradigm, we demonstrate how it is implemented in the UNITE digital taxon communication system. UNITE TH datasets include rich data on individuals and their rDNA ITS sequences. These datasets are equipped with digital object identifiers (DOI) that serve to fix their identity in our communication. All datasets are also connected to a GBIF taxonomic backbone. Researchers processing their eDNA samples using UNITE datasets will, thus, be able to publish their findings as taxon occurrences in the GBIF data portal. UNITE species hypothesis (species level THs) datasets are increasingly utilized in taxon identification pipelines and even formally undescribed species can be identified and communicated by using UNITE. The TH paradigm seeks to achieve unambiguous, unique, and traceable communication of taxa and their properties at any level of the tree of life. It offers a rapid way to discover and communicate undescribed species in identification pipelines and data portals before they are lost to the sixth mass extinction. View Full-Text Keywords: microbial species; taxonomy; DNA taxonomy; biodiversity informatics; discovery of species; taxon hypotheses; species hypotheses; metabarcoding.
33354Liu R., Kim W., Paguirigan J.A., Jeong M.-H. & Hur J.-S. (2021): Establishment of Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of Cladonia macilenta, a model lichen-forming fungus. - Journal of Fungi, 7(4): 252 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7040252.
Despite the fascinating biology of lichens, such as the symbiotic association of lichenforming fungi (mycobiont) with their photosynthetic partners and their ability to grow in harsh habitats, lack of genetic tools manipulating mycobiont has hindered studies on genetic mechanisms underpinning lichen biology. Thus, we established an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) system for genetic transformation of a mycobiont isolated from Cladonia macilenta. A set of combinations of ATMT conditions, such as input biomass of mycobiont, co-cultivation period with Agrobacterium cells, and incubation temperature, were tested to identify an optimized ATMT condition for the C. macilenta mycobiont. As a result, more than 10 days of co-cultivation period and at least 2 mg of input biomass of the mycobiont were recommended for an efficient ATMT, owing to extremely slow growth rate of mycobionts in general. Moreover, we examined T-DNA copy number variation in a total of 180 transformants and found that 88% of the transformants had a single copy T-DNA insertion. To identify precise T-DNA insertion sites that interrupt gene function in C. macilenta, we performed TAIL-PCR analyses for selected transformants. A hypothetical gene encoding ankyrin repeats at its C-terminus was interrupted by T-DNA insertion in a transformant producing dark-brown colored pigment. Although the identification of the pigment awaits further investigation, this proof-of-concept study demonstrated the feasibility of use of ATMT in construction of a random T-DNA insertion mutant library in mycobionts for studying genetic mechanisms behind the lichen symbiosis, stress tolerance, and secondary metabolite biosynthesis. Keywords: Cladonia; lichen-forming fungi; Agrobacterium; ATMT; genetic transformation.
33353Gheza G., Di Nuzzo L., Vallese C., Benesperi R., Bianchi E., Di Cecco V., Di Martino L., Giordani P., Hafellner J., Mayrhofer H., Nimis P.L., Tretiach M. & Nascimbene J. (2021): The lichens of the Majella National Park (Central Italy): an annotated checklist. - MycoKeys, 78: 119–168. https://doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.78.62362.
The botanical exploration of the Majella National Park has a long tradition dating back to the eighteenth century. However, the lichen biota of this area is still poorly investigated. To provide a baseline for future investigations, in this annotated checklist, we summarised all available information on the occurrence of lichens in the Majella National Park, retrieved from previous literature, herbarium material and original data produced by recent research. The checklist includes 342 infrageneric taxa. However, seven taxa are considered as dubious, thus setting the number of accepted taxa at 335, i.e. 45.8% of those currently known to occur in the Abruzzo Region. This checklist provides a baseline of the lichens known to occur in the Majella National Park, highlighting the potential of this area as a hotspot of lichen biodiversity, especially from a biogeographical point of view as indicated by the occurrence of several arctic-alpine species that form disjunct populations in the summit area of the massif. Keywords: Abruzzo, arctic-alpine species, biodiversity hotspot, climate change, lichen biota, Mediterranean mountains, steppic species.
33352Grube M. (2021): Lichens – growing greenhouses en miniature. - Microbial Cell, 8(3): 65–66. doi: 10.15698/mic2021.03.743.
Keywords: fungi, microbiome, symbiosis, complexity, poikilohydry.
33351Cannon P., Ekman S., Kistenich S., LaGreca S., Printzen C., Timdal E., Aptroot A., Coppins B., Fletcher A., Sanderson N. & Simkin J. (2021): Lecanorales: Ramalinaceae, including the genera Bacidia, Bacidina, Bellicidia, Biatora, Bibbya, Bilimbia, Cliostomum, Kiliasia, Lecania, Megalaria, Mycobilimbia, Phyllopsora, Ramalina, Scutula, Thalloidima, Toninia, Toniniopsis and Tylothallia. - Revisions of British and Irish Lichens, 11: 1–82. https://www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/files/Ramalinaceae.pdf.
33350Chambers S., Cannon P., Coppins B. & Simkin J. (2021): Vezdaeales: Vezdaeaceae, including the genus Vezdaea. - Revisions of British and Irish Lichens, 10: 1–5. https://www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/files/Vezdaeaceae.pdf.
33349Cannon P., Aptroot A., Coppins B., Sanderson N. & Simkin J. (2021): Peltigerales: Pannariaceae, including the genera Fuscopannaria, Leptogidium, Nevesia, Pannaria, Parmeliella, Pectenia, Protopannaria and Psoroma. - Revisions of British and Irish Lichens, 9: 1–16. https://www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/files/Pannariaceae.pdf.
33348Orange A. & Cannon P. (2021): Ostropales: Thelenellaceae, including the genus Thelenella. - Revisions of British and Irish Lichens, 8: 1–4. https://www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/files/Thelenellaceae.pdf.
33347Cannon P. & Orange A. (2021): Ostropales: Protothelenellaceae, including the genus Protothelenella. - Revisions of British and Irish Lichens, 7: 1–4. https://www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/files/Protothelenellaceae.pdf.
33346Cannon P., Chambers S., Coppins B., Sanderson N. & Simkin J. (2021): Pertusariales: Pertusariaceae, including the genus Pertusaria. - Revisions of British and Irish Lichens, 6: 1–13. https://www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/files/Pertusariaceae.pdf.
33345Cannon P., Kukwa M., Coppins B., Fletcher A., Sanderson N. & Simkin J. (2021): Pertusariales: Ochrolechiaceae, including the genera Lepra, Ochrolechia and Varicellaria. - Revisions of British and Irish Lichens, 5: 1–17. https://www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/files/Ochrolechiaceae.pdf.
33344Orange A., Cannon P., Malíček J., Sanderson N., Coppins B. & Simkin J. (2021): Ostropales: Porinaceae, including the genus Porina. - Revisions of British and Irish Lichens, 4: 1–12. https://www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/files/Porinaceae_0.pdf.
33343Cannon P., Malíček J., Sanderson N., Benfield B., Coppins B. & Simkin J. (2021): Ostropales: Coenogoniaceae, including the genus Coenogonium. - Revisions of British and Irish Lichens, 3: 1–4. https://www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/files/Coenogoniaceae_0.pdf.
33342Davydov E.A., Yakovchenko L.S., Galanina I.A., Paukov A.G., Frolov I.V. & Ahti T. (2021): New records of lichens from the Russian Far East. III. Lichens of coastal habitats. - Turczaninowia, 24(1): 25–36. DOI: 10.14258/turczaninowia.24.1.4. http://turczaninowia.asu.ru/article/download/9378/7698/.
Aspicilia subepiglypta, Buellia subdisciformis, Calogaya arnoldii, Flavoplaca flavocitrina, Lecanora swartzii, and Lecidella scabra are reported as new records for the Russian Far East. Rinodina gennarii and Lecidella asema are newly recorded for the mainland of the Russian Far East. Rare lichens Cladonia subconistea and Leptotrema litophila are newly found in coastal habitats; Caloplaca atroflava is new for Sakhalin Island, and Umbilicaria vellea is new for Kuril Islands. Keywords: biogeography, East Asia, Kuril Islands, Primorye Territory, Sakhalin Island.
33341Powell M. (2018): Notes for authors regarding terminology. Glossary v1.1. - British Lichen Society, 17 p. https://www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/files/Glossary%20June%202018.pdf.
More comprehensive and revised Glossary of terms for the British Lichen Flora and upcoming revisions.
33340Kukwa M., Szymczyk R., Zalewska A., Ossowska E., Hajek B., Jaskólska J., Kossowska M., Kubiak D., Rutkowski K., Czarnota P., Tanona M. & Smoczyk M. (2021): Materiały do rozmieszczenia porostów i grzybów naporostowych Polski, 1 [Materials for the Distribution of Lichens and Lichenicolous Fungi in Poland, 1]. - Wiadomości Botaniczne, 64[2020]: 645 [28 p.]. DOI: 10.5586/wb.645.
[in Polish with English abstract: ] The paper presents new localities of 44 lichen species and four lichenicolous fungi, which are considered to be rare or threatened in Poland. In addition to the list of localities, brief comments on their characteristic features and general distribution in Poland are provided. Keywords: lichenized fungi; lichenicolous fungi; species diversity; rare species; distribution in Poland.
33339Spielmann A.A., Scur M.C., Lorenz A.P. & Honda N.K. (2021): The rediscovery of Xanthoria (Teloschistaceae) in Brazil. - Archive for Lichenology, 24: 1–7. http://fschumm.de/Archive/Vol%2024_Spielmann_Xanthoria.pdf.
After the first collection by Malme in 1892, a specimen of the genus Xanthoria was rediscovered growing on the public library wall in a coastal city from southern Brazil. The specimen is morphologically, chemically, and genetically similar to X. parietina.
33338Aptroot A., Spielmann A.A. & Gumboski E.L. (2021): New lichen species and records from Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil . - Archive for Lichenology, 23: 1–18. http://fschumm.de/Archive/Vol%2023_Aptroot_%20Santa%20Catarina.pdf.
Six species of lichens are described as new from Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil): Astrothelium aureoirregulare Aptroot & Gumboski, Bogoriella xantholateralis Aptroot, Lecanora umbilicatimmersa Aptroot & Spielmann, Lepra lichexanthonorstictica Aptroot, Megalaria flavosorediata Aptroot and Vainionora sorediata Aptroot. Moreover, 28 further species are reported which are first records for Brazil; and a further 166 are first records for Santa Catarina and 104 for Rio Grande do Sul.
33337Kalb K. & Schumm F. (2021): New or otherwise interesting lichens. IX. Four new species in the family Graphidaceae, one new combination, new records and remarks. - Archive for Lichenology, 22: 1–22. http://fschumm.de/Archive/Vol%2022_Kalb_New%20lichens%20IX.pdf.
Ten species of the lichen family Graphidaceae are treated in the ninth contribution to this series. Four species are new to science: Allographa cameroonensis Kalb & Schumm from Cameroon differs from A. grandis in having larger ascospores and in the lack of secondary lichen products. Allographa kuetchangiana Kalb & Schumm from Thailand differs from A. mexicana in having a permanent thalline cover of the ascomata and in having a whitish pruina on their top. Cruentotrema siamense Lücking & Kalb from Thailand differs from C. amazonum in having smaller ascomata and smaller ascospores. Ocellularia striata Kalb & Schumm from Thailand differs from O. jutaratiae in having smaller ascospores and in lacking the purplish, K+ greenish pigment which covers the remnants of the split proper exciple. Rhabdodiscus exutus (Hale) Kalb & Schumm is a new combination (Bas.: Ocellularia exuta Hale). Photographs of Allographa mexicana (Hale) Lücking & Kalb (including an isotype) show the variation of the ascomata and the differences to A. kuetchangiana. Allographa isidiata (Hale) Lücking & Kalb is reported from Ecuador, which is a new addition to the lichenobiota of this country and the second finding of this species after its description. Allographa plagiocarpa (Fée) Lücking & Kalb, before misidentified as A. mexicana, from Cartago Province is the second report of this species from Costa Rica. The chemistry of Ocellularia kohphanganensis Papong, Mangold & Lücking and the exact spelling of the specific epithet are corrected. Ocellularia macrocrocea Kalb is a new addition to the lichenobiota of Thailand where it is sometimes growing together with O. striata. The intraspecific variation of Ocellularia thelotremoides (Leight.) Hale ist discussed and the name is put on the correct place of the amended key to Thai Ocellularia species. Cochromatography of some Ocellularia species with a deep orange-yellow pigment together with a pure sample of skyrin in solvents A, B' and C showed identical Rf-values in all three solvent systems.
33336Aptroot A. & Spielmann A.A. (2020): Four new Astrothelium species and a Mazaediothecium from Várzea areas in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. - Archive for Lichenology, 21: 1–17. http://fschumm.de/Archive/Vol%2021_Aptroot_Varzea.pdf.
Five species of lichens are described as new from Várzea areas in Mato Grosso do Sul (Brazil): Astrothelium fernandae, A. pseudodermatodes, A. septoconicum, A. xanthopseudocyphellatum, and Mazaediothecium serendipiticum, the latter being deviating from all other species in its order by the at least morphologically chlorococcoid photobiont. Further, we found 226 identifiable species in the Várzea reserve near Jateí and 47 on a farm near Naviraí. Of these, 15 are new records for Brazil and a further 88 are first reports from the state.
33335Aptroot A., de Souza Silva M.F. & Spielmann A.A. (2020): New lichen species from the Pantanal in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. - Archive for Lichenology, 20: 1–7. http://www.fschumm.de/Archive/Vol%2020_Aptroot_Pantanal.pdf.
Four species of lichens are described as new from the Pantanal area in Mato Grosso do Sul (Brazil): Physcia microphylla, Physciella neotropica, Strigula pyrenuloides and Thelopsis spinulosa.
33334John V., Güvenç Ş. & Türk A. (2020): Additions to the checklist and bibliography of the lichens and lichenicolous fungi of Turkey. - Archive for Lichenology, 19: 1–32. http://www.fschumm.de/Archive/Vol%2019_John_Checklist%20Turkey.pdf.
Since 2015, 90 taxa of lichens and 18 lichenicolous fungi have been recorded from Turkey for the first time. Further 707 taxa are new to one or more provinces. In this paper 2 species are new to Turkey. A list of 82 published papers is also provided as a supplement to the bibliography of the 2017 Checklist (JOHN & TÜRK (2017) of Turkish Lichens.
33333Kalb K. (2020): New or otherwise interesting lichens. VIII. Eight new species, mainly from the family Graphidaceae, and two new records. - Archive for Lichenology, 18: 1–14. http://www.fschumm.de/Archive/Vol18_Kalb_New%20lichens%20VIII.pdf.
Eight new lichen species are described from South America, Malaysia and Thailand, viz. Chapsa canaimae from Venezuela, which differs from C. alborosella in having distictly smaller ascospores with less septa, Dirinaria hypoleuca from Thailand, which differs from the isidiate D. papillulifera in having a whitish lower surface, Myriotrema robertianum from Brazil, which differs from M. viride in having an inspersed hymenium, Myriotrema subzollingeri from Brazil, which differs from M. glauculum in having brown ascospores, Ocellularia jutaratiae from Brazil, which differs from O. crocea in having ascomata with a fissured margin, Ocellularia subnatashae from Brazil, which differs from O. natashae in lacking hirtifructic and conhirtifructic acids and in having smaller and less sepatate ascospores, Redingeria uniseptata from Brazil, which differs from R. vulcani in having smaller and 1-septate ascospores, Thalloloma intermedium from Brazil, which differs from T. anguiniforme in having smaller ascospores. Chapsa pulchella from Malaysia is a new record for Borneo and the first finding after its description, and Redonographa parvispora from Brasil is a new addition to the lichen biota of this country. All species mentioned are described and illustrated with close-up photographs.
33332Aptroot A. & Spielmann A. (2020): New lichen species and records from the Serra da Bodoquena, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, the westernmost Atlantic rain forest. - Archive for Lichenology, 17: 1–26. http://www.fschumm.de/Archive/Vol%2017_Aptroot_&_Spielmann_new_spec_Brazil.pdf.
Eleven species of lichens are described as new from the Serra do Bodoquena in Mato Grosso do Sul (Brazil): Alyxoria cyanea, Astrothelium ochraceum, Chiodecton xanthonosorediatum, Gyalecta perithecioidea, Gyalecta uniseptata, Pyrenula rubroacutispora, Ramonia xylophila, Synarthonia xanthosarcographoides, Trypethelium aureornatum, Trypethelium endoflavum, and Trypethelium xanthostiolornatum. Around 400 further species are reported, of which 27 are first records for Brazil and 265 are first records for the state.
33331Kalb K. (2020): New or otherwise interesting lichens. VII, including a world key to the lichen genus Heiomasia. - Archive for Lichenology, 15: 1–18. http://www.fschumm.de/Archive/Vol15_Kalb_New_lichens_VII.pdf.
Eight species new to science are described, Allographa grandis from Cameroon which is distinguished by its very large ascomata, richly muriform, large ascospores and an inspersed hymenium (type B); Bapalmuia microspora from Malaysia which differs from B. consanguinea in having shorter and broader ascospores and a granular thallus; Diorygma cameroonense from Cameroon which differs from D. sticticum in having larger ascospores with more septa; Glyphis frischiana which is similar to G. atrofusca but differs in producing secondary lichen compounds, the first species in Glyphis in doing so. Two new species are added to the genus Heiomasia, viz. H. annamariae from Malaysia, which differs from H. sipmanii in producing the stictic acid aggr. and H. siamensis from Thailand, distinguished from H. sipmanii in containing hypoprotocetraric acid as a major metabolite. The published chemistry of several species of Heiomasia is revised and a new substance, heiomaseic acid, with relative Rf-values 5/19/8, is demonstrated for H. seaveyorum, H. siamensis and H. sipmanii. A world-wide key to the known species of Heiomasia is presented. Myriotrema squamiferum, a fertile species from Malaysia, is distinguished from M. frondosolucens by lacking lichexanthone. As there are conflicting literature data concerning Ocellularia crocea, the type specimen was investigated and the results are reported. Ocellularia macrocrocea, a related species from Malaysia, differs from O. rubropolydiscus in lacking the red pigment covering the disc of the ascomata and in having a broad stump-shaped columella. A revised chemistry for Ocellularia tanii, a new record for Sarawak, is also given. A table of Rfvalues and scans of relevant TLC runs facilitate the interpretation of the spots occurring on TLC plates of Graphidaceae.
33330Aptroot A. & Feuerstein S. (2020): New Graphidaceae from South and Central Brazil. - Archive for Lichenology, 16: 1–10. http://www.fschumm.de/Archive/Vol%2016_Aptroot_&_Feuerstein_Graphidaceae_S_Brazil_corr.pdf.
Nine species of Graphidaceae are described as new to science from South and Central Brazil, in 7 different genera: Acanthothecis normuralis, A. psoromica, Acanthotrema minus, Aggregatorygma submuriforme, Allographa medioinspersa, Diorygma isidiolichexanthonicum, Fissurina excavatisorediosa, Graphis norsorediata, and Graphis tricolor.
33329Kitaura M.J., Scur M.C., Theodoro J.V.C., Piovezan-Borges A.C. & Lorenz A.P. (2020): Hondaria, a new genus of Collemataceae (Ascomycota lichenized) from South America. - Acta Botanica Brasilica, 34(4): 615–622. doi: 10.1590/0102-33062020abb0093.
Collema leptosporum was originally included in Collemataceae as part of the Collema fasciculare group, an informal group that also included C. fasciculare, C. papuanorum, and C. uviforme. However, molecular data from C. fasciculare showed that this species belongs to Arctomiaceae, and all species in this informal group were relocated to Arctomia, although no molecular data were generated and analyzed for C. leptosporum, C. papuanorum and C. uviforme. To investigate the phylogenetic relationships of Collema leptosporum, currently Arctomia leptospora, we analyzed three DNA loci and examined morphological and anatomical features of specimens collected near the type locality. Genetic data suggest that this species is not included in Arctomiaceae and should be treated as a new genus in Collemataceae. Hondaria gen. nov. is characterized by having the longest transversely-septate ascospores in the family ((100–)120–175(–200) × 2–4(–5) μm). This study also suggests that the structures characterizing the C. fasciculare group are a result of convergent evolution, since this group includes species from different distantly related species. Keywords: Arctomia leptospora, Collema leptosporum, C. fasciculare group, jelly lichens, South America biodiversity.
33328Lücking R., Högnabba F. & Sipman H.J.M. (2021): Lasioloma antillarum (Ascomycota: Pilocarpaceae), a new lichenized fungus from the Antilles, and the importance of posterior annotations of sequence data in public repositories. - Willdenowia, 51: 83–89. https://doi.org/10.3372/wi.51.51107.
We describe the new lichenized fungus Lasioloma antillarum Lücking, Högnabba & Sipman from the Netherlands Antilles. The new species is characterized by a corticolous growth habit, apothecia with shortly tomentose margins, and rather small (35 – 50 × 12 – 16 μm), muriform ascospores in numbers of 2(– 4) per ascus. The material had originally been identified as Calopadia phyllogena (Müll. Arg.) Vězda, with associated sequence data, but in phylogenetic analyses consistently fell outside the latter genus. Its revised identification as a species of Lasioloma is consistent with its phylogenetic position and underlines the necessity of posterior annotations in public sequence repositories, in order to correct previous identifications. Key words: Antilles, Ascomycota, inaccuracies in GenBank, integrative taxonomy, Lasioloma, Pilocarpaceae, sequence labelling.
33327Ghennam K., Attou F. & Abdoun F. (2021): Impact of atmospheric pollution on asthma and bronchitis based on lichen biomonitoring using IAP, IHI and GIS in Algiers Bay (Algeria). - Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 193: 198 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-021-08965-8.
We investigated the association between air pollution and asthma and bronchitis hospital admissions in Algiers city (Algeria). In addition, we used geographic information systems (GIS) and statistical methods to evaluate their correlation with the atmospheric pollution estimated by the lichen biomonitoring method of the index of atmospheric purity (IAP), the index of human impact (IHI) and environmental parameters. Thus, we georeferenced 976 local patients (including 771 patients with asthma and 205 patients with bronchitis). Then, we compared the patients to the spatial distribution of IAP in thirty-five areas (communities). The results revealed a significant difference in the mean spatial variation in the diseases among those areas. In fact, maps and generalized linear models (GLMs) revealed a significant negative correlation between IAP and diseases. Therefore, redundancy analysis (RDA) and Monte Carlo tests described a significant effect of IAP, urbanization and the number of roads on the distribution of diseases. We hope our findings contribute to enriching the literature on health research with a low-cost method of monitoring outdoor air pollution. Keywords Index atmospheric purity (IAP) · Lichens · Asthma · Pollution.
33326Wieder R.K., Vile M.A., Scott K.D., Albright C.M., Quinn J.C. & Vitt D.H. (2021): Bog plant/lichen tissue nitrogen and sulfur concentrations as indicators of emissions from oil sands development in Alberta, Canada. - Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 193: 208 [18 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-021-08929-y.
Increasing gaseous emissions of nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) associated with oil sands development in northern Alberta (Canada) has led to changing regional wet and dry N and S deposition regimes. We assessed the potential for using bog plant/lichen tissue chemistry (N and S concentrations, C:N and C:S ratios, in 10 plant/lichen species) to monitor changing atmospheric N and S deposition through sampling at five bog sites, 3–6 times per growing season from 2009 to 2016. During this 8-year period, oil sands N emissions steadily increased, while S emissions steadily decreased. We examined the following: (1) whether each species showed changes in tissue chemistry with increasing distance from the Syncrude and Suncor upgrader stacks (the two largest point sources of N and S emissions); (2) whether tissue chemistry changed over the 8 year period in ways that were consistent with increasing N and decreasing S emissions from oil sands facilities; and (3) whether tissue chemistry was correlated with growing season wet deposition of NH4 +-N, NO3 −-N, or SO4 2−-S. Based on these criteria, the best biomonitors of a changing N deposition regime were Evernia mesomorpha, Sphagnum fuscum, and Vaccinium oxycoccos. The best biomonitors of a changing S deposition regime were Evernia mesomorpha, Cladonia mitis, Sphagnum fuscum, Sphagnum capillifolium, Vaccinium oxycoccos, and Picea mariana. Changing N and S deposition regimes in the oil sands region appear to be influencing N and S cycling in what once were pristine ombrotrophic bogs, to the extent that these bogs may effectively monitor future spatial and temporal patterns of deposition. Keywords: Bryophyte · Monitoring · Peatland · Sphagnum.
33325Rangel-Osornio V., Fernández-Salegui A.B., Gómez-Reyes V.M., Cuevas-Villanueva R.A. & Lopez-Toledo L. (2021): Effects of air pollution on chlorophyll content and morphology of lichens transplanted around a paper industry (Morelia, Mexico). - Bryologist, 48: 676–689. DOI: 10.1639/0007-2745-124.1.052.
We evaluated and compared the physiological and morphological response to pollution of two epiphytic lichen species, the foliose lichen Flavopunctelia praesignis and the fruticose lichen Usnea ceratina. Lichen samples were collected at remote areas and transplanted at different distances and directions from a paper industry in Morelia (Michoaca´n, Mexico). Lichen transplants were exposed for 4 months (1) around the industrial area and (2) in their native habitats (control sites). Changes of total chlorophyll content between samples before and after exposure, and morphological damage in the lichen thalli were investigated. Lichens showed species-specific responses. Flavopunctelia praesignis increased in total chlorophyll content after exposure around the industrial area and in control site. This suggests that total chlorophyll changes by a seasonal effect than pollution effect. On the other hand, chlorophyll content of U. ceratina did not change significantly after exposure. Bleaching, changes in color, deformations, and necrosis of lichen thalli were better visible in U. ceratina near the paper industry. We conclude that U. ceratina is a more pollution-sensitive species than F. praesignis. Morphological damage in the lichen thalli would be a suitable indicator for monitoring early biological effects of air pollution caused by the paper industry. Keywords: Air pollution, biomonitoring, photobiont, pollution damage, tropical region.
33324Lendemer J.C. (2021): Proposed best practices for taxonomic innovations in lichen and allied Fungi: A framework derived from analysis of more than 1,000 new taxa and new combinations. - Bryologist, 48: 676–689. DOI: 10.1639/0007-2745-124.1.090.
Analyses of data associated with 1376 taxonomic innovations (703 new taxa, 673 new combinations and replacement names) published from 2018–2020 are presented. Taxonomic contributions represented 14.2% of the published literature for the period. Most registration numbers for new names were obtained from MycoBank, suggesting the community has coalesced behind this resource. The overwhelming majority of new taxa (85.1%) and combinations (94.1%) involved crustose lichens and lichenicolous fungi. But lichenicolous fungi, regarded as a major source of undetected biodiversity, represented less than a fifth of innovations. More than half of new taxa were described from Asia and South America. Fewer than half (39%) of new taxa were published with molecular data, mostly from the ITS region but often in combination with data from additional loci. The majority of new taxa were based on small numbers of specimens (34.1% from one specimen, 69.2% from five or fewer) from few locations (44.4% from one location, 80.7% from five or fewer). Although a large number of identification keys were published, many new taxa were described with limited ecological data, distribution data or range maps, or discussion of similar species or phenotypic variation. Many innovations based on previously published names did not cite the nomenclatural type (67.7%) and less than a tenth of all such names were newly typified. Based on these results a best practices framework is presented. Keywords: Biodiversity hotspot, biogeography, conservation, data gaps, natural history collections, taxonomy, systematics.
33323Morse C.A. & Ladd D. (2021): A new species of Reichlingia (Arthoniaceae) from the grasslands of central North America. - Bryologist, 48: 676–689. DOI: 10.1639/0007-2745-124.1.033.
Reichlingia americana, a new saxicolous species, is described from Oklahoma, U.S.A., representing the first records of the genus in North America. The species is distinguished from other members of the genus by a combination of its epilithic, rimose thallus; submuriform ascospores; presence of 2'-O-methylperlatolic acid; and unique habitat on sheltered sandstone faces. Distinctions from related species are discussed and a key to members of the genus is provided. Keywords: Arthonia, Arthothelium, biogeography, Crosstimbers, Great Plains, lichen taxonomy, Oklahoma, 2'-O-methylperlatolic acid, sandstone.
33322Moncada B., Mercado-Díaz J.A., Magain N., Hodkinson B.P., Smith C.W., Bungartz F., Pérez-Pérez R.E., Gumboski E., Sérusiaux E., Lumbsch H.T. & Lücking R. (2021): Phylogenetic diversity of two geographically overlapping lichens: isolation by distance, environment, or fragmentation?. - Journal of Biogeography, 48: 676–689. https://doi.org/10.1111/jbi.14033.
Aim: Phylogenetic diversification is a precursor to speciation, but the underlying patterns and processes are not well-studied in lichens. Here we investigate what factors drive diversification in two tropical, morphologically similar macrolichens that occupy a similar range but differ in altitudinal and habitat preferences, testing for isolation by distance (IBD), environment (IBE), and fragmentation (IBF). Location: Neotropics, Hawaii, Macaronesia. Taxon: Sticta andina, S. scabrosa (Peltigeraceae). Methods: We analysed 395 specimens from 135 localities, using the fungal ITS barcoding marker to assess phylogenetic diversification, through maximum likelihood tree reconstruction, TCS haplotype networks, and Tajima's D. Mantel tests were employed to detect structure in genetic vs. geographic, environmental, and fragmentation distances. Habitat preferences were quantitatively assessed by statistical analysis of locality-based BIOclim variables. Results: Sticta andina exhibited high phenotypic variation and reticulate phylogenetic diversity across its range, whereas the phenotypically uniform S. scabrosa contained two main haplotypes, one unique to Hawaii. Sticta andina is restricted to well-preserved andine forests and paramos, naturally fragmented habitats due to disruptive topology, whereas S. scabrosa thrives in lowland to lower montane zones in exposed or disturbed microsites, representing a continuous habitat. Sticta scabrosa showed IBD only across its full range (separating the Hawaiian population) but not within continental Central and South America, there exhibiting a negative Tajima's D. Sticta andina did not exhibit IBD but IBE at continental level and IBF in the northern Andes. Main conclusions: Autecology, particularly preference for either low or high altitudes, indirectly drives phylogenetic diversification. Low diversification in the low altitude species, S. scabrosa, can be attributed to rapid expansion and effective gene flow across a more or less continuous niche due to disturbance tolerance. In contract, high diversification in the high altitude species, S. andina, can be explained by niche differentiation (IBE) and fragmentation (IBF) caused by the Andean uplift. Keywords: Brazil, drift, Galapagos, Mexico, Puerto Rico.
33321Ohmura Y. (2021): Lichenes Minus Cogniti Exsiccati, Fasc. XXVII (Nos. 651–675). - National Museum of Nature and Science, Tokyo, 4 p. https://www.kahaku.go.jp/research/db/botany/cryptogamie_exsiccatae/lichens/pdf/List2021.pdf.
exsiccat; Japan, Russian Far East; discussion on the status of Cladonia kurokawae and its delimitation from C. subconistea
33320Ohmura Y. (2020): Lichenes Minus Cogniti Exsiccati, Fasc. XXVI (Nos. 626–650). - National Museum of Nature and Science, Tokyo, 4 p. https://www.kahaku.go.jp/research/db/botany/cryptogamie_exsiccatae/lichens/pdf/List2020.pdf.
exsiccat; Japan, Russian Far East
33319Ohmura Y. (2019): Lichenes Minus Cogniti Exsiccati, Fasc. XXV (Nos. 601–625). - National Museum of Nature and Science, Tokyo, 4 p. https://www.kahaku.go.jp/research/db/botany/cryptogamie_exsiccatae/lichens/pdf/List2019.pdf.
exsiccat; Japan, Russian Far East
33318Ohmura Y. (2018): Lichenes Minus Cogniti Exsiccati, Fasc. XXIV (Nos. 576–600). - National Museum of Nature and Science, Tokyo, 4 p. https://www.kahaku.go.jp/research/db/botany/cryptogamie_exsiccatae/lichens/pdf/List2018.pdf.
exsiccat; Japan, Russian Far East, Antarctica
33317Ohmura Y. (2017): Lichenes Minus Cogniti Exsiccati, Fasc. XXIII (Nos. 551–575). - National Museum of Nature and Science, Tokyo, 4 p. https://www.kahaku.go.jp/research/db/botany/cryptogamie_exsiccatae/lichens/pdf/List2017.pdf.
exsiccat; Japan, China
33316Ohmura Y. (2016): Lichenes Minus Cogniti Exsiccati, Fasc. XXII (Nos. 526–550). - National Museum of Nature and Science, Tokyo, 4 p. https://www.kahaku.go.jp/research/db/botany/cryptogamie_exsiccatae/lichens/pdf/List2016.pdf.
exsiccat; Japan, Taiwan, Norway, Spitzbergen/Svalbard, Antarctica, Peru
33315Ohmura Y. (2015): Lichenes Minus Cogniti Exsiccati, Fasc. XXI (Nos. 501–525). - National Museum of Nature and Science, Tokyo, 4 p. https://www.kahaku.go.jp/research/db/botany/cryptogamie_exsiccatae/lichens/pdf/List2015.pdf.
exsiccat; Japan, Peru, Taiwan
33314Ohmura Y. (2014): Lichenes Minus Cogniti Exsiccati, Fasc. XX (Nos. 476–500). - National Museum of Nature and Science, Tokyo, 4 p. https://www.kahaku.go.jp/research/db/botany/cryptogamie_exsiccatae/lichens/pdf/List2014.pdf.
exsiccat; Japan, Taiwan, China, Chile, Namibia
33313Ohmura Y. (2013): Lichenes Minus Cogniti Exsiccati, Fasc. XIX (Nos. 451–475). - National Museum of Nature and Science, Tokyo, 4 p. https://www.kahaku.go.jp/research/db/botany/cryptogamie_exsiccatae/lichens/pdf/List2013.pdf.
exsiccat; Japan, Russian Far East, Taiwan, Korea
33312Ohmura Y. (2012): Lichenes Minus Cogniti Exsiccati, Fasc. XVIII (Nos. 426–450). - National Museum of Nature and Science, Tokyo, 4 p. https://www.kahaku.go.jp/research/db/botany/cryptogamie_exsiccatae/lichens/pdf/List2012.pdf.
exsiccat; Japan, Taiwan, Russian Far East (Sakhalin/Saghalin)
33311Ohmura Y. (2011): Lichenes Minus Cogniti Exsiccati, Fasc. XVII (Nos. 401–425). - National Museum of Nature and Science, Tokyo, 4 p. https://www.kahaku.go.jp/research/db/botany/cryptogamie_exsiccatae/lichens/pdf/List2011.pdf.
exsiccat; Japan, Canada, Taiwan, China
33310Ohmura Y. (2010): Lichenes Minus Cogniti Exsiccati, Fasc. XVI (Nos. 376–400). - National Museum of Nature and Science, Tokyo, 4 p. https://www.kahaku.go.jp/research/db/botany/cryptogamie_exsiccatae/lichens/pdf/List2010.pdf.
exsiccat; Japan, Taiwan
33309Smith R., Jovan S. & Will-Wolf S. (2021): Lack of congruence between terrestrial and epiphytic lichen strata in boreal forests. - Lichenologist, 53(1): 149-158. doi:10.1017/S0024282920000407.
Lichens occupy diverse substrates across tremendous ranges of environmental variation. In boreal forests, lichen communities co-occur in ‘strata’ defined by terrestrial or arboreal substrates, but these strata may or may not be interchangeable as bioindicators. Do co-occurring lichen strata have similar community structures and environmental responses? Could one stratum serve as a proxy for the other? We assessed variation in species richness and community compositions between ground-layer versus epiphyte-layer lichen strata in boreal forests and peatlands of interior Alaska. Species richness was lower and more spatially structured in the ground layer than the epiphyte layer. Richness of strata was not correlated. The most compositionally unique ground-layer communities were species-poor but contained regionally rare species not common in other plots. Variation in community compositions (ordination scores) were not congruent between strata (Procrustes congruence < 0.16 on 0–1 scale); the largest departures from congruence occurred where ground layers were species-poor. The best predictors of ground-layer community compositions were hydrological and topographic, whereas epiphytes were most associated with macroclimate and tree abundances. We conclude that lichens on different substrates ‘move in different circles’: compositional gradients did not agree and the environmental gradients most important to each lichen stratum were not the same. The conditions which strongly influence one vegetation stratum may have little bearing upon another. As global changes modify habitats, an incremental change in environment may lead community trajectories to diverge among lichen strata
33308Ellis C. & Eaton S. (2021): Climate change refugia: Landscape, stand and tree-scale microclimates in epiphyte community composition. - Lichenologist, 53(1): 135-148. doi:10.1017/S0024282920000523.
There is growing evidence that species and communities are responding to, and will continue to be affected by, climate change. For species at risk, vulnerability can be reduced by ensuring that their habitat is extensive, connected and provides opportunities for dispersal and/or gene flow, facilitating a biological response through migration or adaptation. For woodland epiphytes, vulnerability might also be reduced by ensuring sufficient habitat heterogeneity, so that microhabitats provide suitable local microclimates, even as the larger scale climate continues to change (i.e. microrefugia). This study used fuzzy set ordination to compare bryophyte and lichen epiphyte community composition to a large-scale gradient from an oceanic to a relatively more continental macroclimate. The residuals from this relationship identified microhabitats in which species composition reflected a climate that was more oceanic or more continental than would be expected given the prevailing macroclimate. Comparing these residuals to features that operate at different scales to create the microclimate (landscape, stand and tree-scale), it was possible to identify how one might engineer microrefugia into existing or new woodland, in order to reduce epiphyte vulnerability to climate change. Multimodel inference was used to identify the most important features for consideration, which included local effects such as height on the bole, angle of bole lean and bark water holding capacity, as well as tree species and tree age, and within the landscape, topographic wetness and physical exposure
33307Moncada B., Smith C. & Lücking R. (2021): A taxonomic reassessment of the genus Sticta (lichenized Ascomycota: Peltigeraceae) in the Hawaiian archipelago. - Lichenologist, 53(1): 117-133. doi:10.1017/S0024282920000353.
The taxonomy of the genus Sticta in Hawaii is reassessed, based on a separately published molecular phylogeny using the fungal barcoding marker ITS. Based on Magnusson and Zahlbruckner's treatment from 1943 and Magnusson's catalogue from 1955, seven species of Sticta and three infraspecific taxa had been reported from the archipelago, all widespread except the putative endemic S. plumbicolor. Here we provide a taxonomic treatment of 13 taxa, 12 species and one subspecies, distinguished in a previous phylogenetic analysis: S. acyphellata, S. andina, S. antoniana, S. emmanueliana, S. flynnii, S. fuliginosa, S. hawaiiensis, S. limbata, S. plumbicolor, S. scabrosa subsp. hawaiiensis, S. smithii, S. tomentosa and S. waikamoi. All taxa are described, discussed and illustrated and a dichotomous key is presented. The implications of revised species taxonomies for studies in other fields such as ecology, ecophysiology, biogeography, biochemistry, and applications such as environmental monitoring are discussed. We also propose a protocol to use Sticta lichens to monitor the environmental health of Hawaiian ecosystems
33306Millanes A., Diederich P., Westberg M. & Wedin M. (2021): Crittendenia gen. nov., a new lichenicolous lineage in the Agaricostilbomycetes (Pucciniomycotina), and a review of the biology, phylogeny and classification of lichenicolous heterobasidiomycetes. - Lichenologist, 53(1): 103-116. doi:10.1017/S002428292000033X.
The lichenicolous ‘heterobasidiomycetes’ belong in the Tremellomycetes (Agaricomycotina) and in the Pucciniomycotina. In this paper, we provide an introduction and review of these lichenicolous taxa, focusing on recent studies and novelties of their classification, phylogeny and evolution. Lichen-inhabiting fungi in the Pucciniomycotina are represented by only a small number of species included in the genera Chionosphaera, Cyphobasidium and Lichenozyma. The phylogenetic position of the lichenicolous representatives of Chionosphaera has, however, never been investigated by molecular methods. Phylogenetic analyses using the nuclear SSU, ITS, and LSU ribosomal DNA markers reveal that the lichenicolous members of Chionosphaera form a monophyletic group in the Pucciniomycotina, distinct from Chionosphaera and outside the Chionosphaeraceae. The new genus Crittendenia is described to accommodate these lichen-inhabiting species. Crittendenia is characterized by minute synnemata-like basidiomata, the presence of clamp connections and aseptate tubular basidia from which 4–7 spores discharge passively, often in groups. Crittendenia, Cyphobasidium and Lichenozyma are the only lichenicolous lineages known so far in the Pucciniomycotina, whereas Chionosphaera does not include any lichenicolous taxa
33305Kantvilas G. (2021): Lecanactis (Roccellaceae) in Tasmania, with the description of a new saxicolous species and a revised key for the genus in Australia. - Lichenologist, 53(1): 95-101. doi:10.1017/S0024282920000456.
The lichen genus Lecanactis Körb. in Tasmania comprises six species: L. abietina (Ach.) Körb., which is widespread and pan-temperate; L. latispora Egea & Torrente and L. neozelandica Egea & Torrente, both shared with New Zealand and with the former recorded here from the Auckland Islands for the first time; L. mollis (Stirt.) Frisch & Ertz, shared with Victoria and New Zealand; L. aff. dilleniana (Ach.) Körb., a European species recorded provisionally for Tasmania on the basis of several sterile collections; L. scopulicola Kantvilas, which is described here as new to science and apparently a Tasmanian endemic. This new taxon occurs in rocky underhangs and is characterized by a thick, leprose thallus containing schizopeltic acid, and 3-septate ascospores, 19–30 × 4.5–6 μm. Short descriptions and a discussion of distribution and ecology are given for all species. A key for all 11 Australian species of the genus is provided, including L. subfarinosa (C. Knight) Hellb. and L. tibelliana Egea & Torrente, which are recorded for Australia for the first time, and L. platygraphoides (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., a first record for New South Wales. Lecanactis spermatospora Egea & Torrente and L. sulphurea Egea & Torrente are also included
33304Kantelinen A., Hyvärinen M., Kirika P. & Myllys L. (2021): Four new Micarea species from the montane cloud forests of Taita Hills, Kenya. - Lichenologist, 53(1): 81-94. doi:10.1017/S0024282920000511.
The genus Micarea was studied for the first time in the Taita Hills, Kenya. Based on new collections and existing data, we reconstructed a phylogeny using ITS, mtSSU and Mcm7 regions, and generated a total of 27 new sequences. Data were analyzed using maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony methods. Based mainly on new collections, we discovered four undescribed well-supported lineages, characterized by molecular and phenotypic features. These lineages are described here as Micarea pumila, M. stellaris, M. taitensis and M. versicolor. Micarea pumila is characterized by a minutely granular thallus, small cream-white or pale brownish apothecia, small ascospores and the production of prasinic acid. Micarea stellaris has a warted-areolate thallus, cream-white apothecia usually darker at the centre, a hymenium of light grey or brownish pigment that dissolves in K, and intense crystalline granules that appear as a belt-like continuum across the lower hymenium when studied in polarized light. Micarea taitensis is characterized by a warted-areolate thallus and cream-white or yellowish apothecia that sometimes produce the Sedifolia-grey pigment. Micarea versicolor is characterized by a warted-areolate, sometimes partly granular thallus and apothecia varying from cream-white to light grey to blackish in colour. This considerable variation in the coloration of its apothecia is caused by an occasional mixture of the Sedifolia-grey pigment in the epihymenium and another purplish brown pigment in the hymenium. Micarea stellaris, M. taitensis and M. versicolor produce methoxymicareic acid. The main distinguishing characters are presented in a species synopsis. Three of the new species are nested in the M. prasina group, and the fourth one (M. taitensis) resolves as a basal taxon to the M. prasina group. The new species inhabit montane cloud forests, which have fragmented dramatically throughout the Eastern Arc Mountains in recent decades
33303Ivanovich C., Dolnik C., Otte V., Palice Z., Sohrabi M. & Printzen C. (2021): A preliminary phylogeny of the Lecanora saligna-group, with notes on species delimitation. - Lichenologist, 53(1): 63-79. doi:10.1017/S0024282921000074.
Lecanora s. lat. is a genus of crustose, rarely placodioid lichens comprising c. 1000 recognized species and subdivided into several morphology-based groups. Some of these groups have been supported in phylogenetic analyses and segregated as new genera. One of the remaining groups that has not been previously studied by molecular methods in much detail, the L. saligna-group, includes corticolous and lignicolous crustose lichens, usually containing isousnic or usnic acid (or both) as major secondary metabolites. As part of our ongoing project ‘Lecanomics’, a phylogenetic analysis based on two loci was conducted and found the L. saligna-group to be divided into two main clades and several well-supported minor clades. The L. varia clade, chosen as one of the outgroups, emerged within the L. saligna-group. The majority of the clades are characterized by phenotypic differences. However, several well-supported clades share similarities with their sister groups, suggesting that species circumscriptions based solely on phenotypic characters may be too conservative to characterize the true species diversity present within the group. Also, there is evidence for some geographical separation of lineages; for example, most North American individuals, previously known as Lecanora saligna and L. albellula, form two clades separate from their European namesakes and are here preliminarily called ‘Lecanora sp. B’, ‘Lecanora sp. C’ and ‘Lecanora sp. D’. However, L. saligna and L. albellula also appear to occur in North America, and some specimens from the Caucasus and Iran cluster within the North American clades. Lecanora anopta and L. subravida are reported for the first time from Iran
33302Ertz D., Sanderson N. & Lebouvier M. (2021): Thelopsis challenges the generic circumscription in the Gyalectaceae and brings new insights to the taxonomy of Ramonia. - Lichenologist, 53(1): 45-61. doi:10.1017/S002428292000050X.
The genus Thelopsis was classified in the family Stictidaceae but its systematic position has never been investigated by molecular methods. In order to determine its family placement and to test its monophyly, fungal DNA of recent collections of Thelopsis specimens was sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses using nuLSU, RPB2 and mtSSU sequences reveal that members of Thelopsis form a monophyletic group within the genus Gyalecta as currently accepted. The placement of Thelopsis, including the generic type T. rubella, within the genus Gyalecta challenges the generic circumscription of this group because Thelopsis is well recognized by the combination of morphological characters: perithecioid ascomata, well-developed periphysoids, polysporous asci and small, few-septate ellipsoid-oblong ascospores. The sterile sorediate Opegrapha corticola is also placed in the Gyalectaceae as sister species to Thelopsis byssoidea + T. rubella. Ascomata of O. corticola are illustrated for the first time and support its placement in the genus Thelopsis. The hypothesis that O. corticola might represent the sorediate fertile morph of T. rubella is not confirmed because the species is phylogenetically and morphologically distinct. Thelopsis is recovered as polyphyletic, with T. melathelia being placed as sister species to Ramonia. The new combinations Thelopsis corticola (Coppins & P. James) Sanderson & Ertz comb. nov. and Ramonia melathelia (Nyl.) Ertz comb. nov. are introduced and a new species of Gyalecta, G. amsterdamensis Ertz, is described from Amsterdam and Saint-Paul Islands, characterized by a sterile thallus with discrete soralia. Petractis luetkemuelleri and P. nodispora are accommodated in the new genus Neopetractis, differing from the generic type (P. clausa) by having a different phylogenetic position and a different photobiont. Francisrosea bicolor Ertz & Sanderson gen. & sp. nov. is described for a sterile sorediate lichen somewhat similar to Opegrapha corticola but having an isolated phylogenetic position as sister to a clade including Gyalidea praetermissa and the genera Neopetractis and Ramonia. Gyalecta farlowii, G. nidarosiensis and G. carneola are placed in a molecular phylogeny for the first time. The taxonomic significance of morphological characters in Gyalectaceae is discussed
33301Coppins B., Kashiwadani H., Moon K., Spribille T. & Thor G. (2021): The genera Brianaria (Psoraceae) and Micarea (Pilocarpaceae) in Japan, with reports on other interesting species in Asia. - Lichenologist, 53(1): 35-44. doi:10.1017/S0024282920000468.
An examination of collections from Japan has increased the number of Brianaria and Micarea species known from that country from eight to 19, including one new species, M. rubioides Coppins (also from Malaysia and the Philippines). Eleven species are reported as new to Japan (M. botryoides (Nyl.) Coppins, M. denigrata (Fr.) Hedl., M. erratica (Körb.) Hertel et al., M. hedlundii Coppins, M. lithinella (Nyl.) Hedl., M. micrococca (Körb.) Gams ex Coppins and M. misella (Nyl.) Hedl.) or new to Asia: M. byssacea (Th. Fr.) Czarnota et al., M. deminuta Coppins and M. xanthonica Coppins & Tønsberg (new to Asia; Japan); M. nitschkeana (J. Lahm ex Rabenh.) Harm. (new to Asia; South Korea). The presence of Micarea prasina s. str. from Japan needs to be confirmed; no collection was found in this study. Additional collections from South Korea and Sri Lanka are also reported, including the new species M. ceylanica Coppins from Sri Lanka. The identity of M. synotheoides (Nyl.) Coppins, originally described from Japan, has been resolved, resulting in the renaming of Western European material, previously under that name, as M. longispora Coppins. Micarea coreana Lőkös et al. is reported here as a synonym of M. erratica. The type of Lecidea inopinula Nyl. requires the new combination Micarea inopinula (Nyl.) Coppins & T. Sprib. to replace Micarea prasinella (Jatta) I. M. Lamb
33300Beckett R., Minibayeva F., Solhaug K. & Roach T. (2021): Photoprotection in lichens: Adaptations of photobionts to high light. - Lichenologist, 53(1): 21-33. doi:10.1017/S0024282920000535.
Lichens often grow in microhabitats where they are exposed to severe abiotic stresses such as desiccation and temperature extremes. They are also often exposed to levels of light that are greater than lichen photobionts can use in carbon fixation. Unless regulated, excess energy absorbed by the photobionts can convert ground state oxygen to reactive oxygen species (ROS). These ROS can attack the photosynthetic apparatus, causing photoinhibition and photo-oxidative stress, reducing the ability of the photobionts to fix carbon. Here, we outline our current understanding of the effects of high light on lichens and the mechanisms they use to mitigate or tolerate this stress in hydrated and desiccated states. Tolerance to high light can be achieved first by lowering ROS formation, via synthesizing light screening pigments or by thermally dissipating the excess light energy absorbed; second, by scavenging ROS once formed; or third, by repairing ROS-induced damage. While the primary focus of this review is tolerance to high light in lichen photobionts, our knowledge is rather fragmentary, and therefore we also include recent findings in free-living relatives to stimulate new lines of research in the study of high light tolerance in lichens
33299Lücking R. (2021): Peter D. Crittenden: Meta-analysis of an exceptional two-decade tenure as senior editor of The Lichenologist, the flagship journal of lichenology. - Lichenologist, 53(1): 3-19. doi:10.1017/S0024282920000560.
Peter D. Crittenden served as senior editor of The Lichenologist, the flagship journal in the field of lichenological research, for a period of two decades, between 2000 and 2019. A review of the development of the journal and the publication output during this period is provided. The number of papers published during this period (1197) matches that of all papers published under the three previous senior editors, Peter W. James, David L. Hawksworth and Dennis H. Brown, during a much longer period of 42 years from 1958 to 1999. Peter oversaw important editorial changes to the layout and content of the journal: an increased size with a modern cover design, leaving behind the classic mint-coloured cover of more than 40 years; the addition of ‘thematic issues’ and encouragement of large monographs; implementation of substantial changes to the Code, such as effective electronic publication and obligate registration of new fungal names; and more recently a new policy to reject so-called ‘single naked species descriptions’. Shortly before Peter took over as senior editor, The Lichenologist had received its first impact factor, and Peter managed to continuously increase this measure from around 0.9 to lately up to over 1.5, higher than most other competing journals. The 1197 papers between 2000 and 2019 were published by a total of 1138 different authors, more than half of whom appeared just once as author, whereas a small number participated in numerous (up to 93) papers. There was a continuous increase in the mean number of authors per paper per year, from below 2.5 to around 3.5, the highest numbers ranging between 11 and 30; still, c. 75% of all papers between 2000 and 2019 were single- authored or had up to three authors. Based on affiliations at the time of publication, two thirds of author contributions came from Europe (66%), 13% from North America, 9% from Asia and 7% from Latin America. Likewise, almost half of the study areas were located in Europe and around 10% each in North America, South America and Asia. The countries with the highest number of studies included, in descending order, the United States, Spain, the United Kingdom, Norway and Sweden. North America and Europe were over-represented in terms of author contribu- tions, whereas Africa, Latin America, Australia and Oceania were over-represented in terms of study areas. The 1197 papers analyzed encom- passed a broad diversity of topics, classified into 32 categories. Taxonomy of lichenized fungi was the most frequent component, representing the focal point in almost half of all studies, followed by phylogeny and evolution, ecology, and the taxonomy of lichenicolous fungi. Around two thirds of the currently accepted genera of lichenized fungi were treated, with a significant correlation between known species richness and the number of papers in which a genus was treated, underlining the taxonomic representativity of papers published in the journal during the past two decades. Examples of genera that were treated more frequently than expected included commonly studied model organisms, such as Lobaria, and those frequently featured in ecological or other non-taxonomic studies, such as Xanthoria. Species-rich tropical genera, particularly in the Graphidaceae, were generally under-represented. Mean number of authors per paper per volume and total number of country origins of authors per volume were the best predictors of impact factor, followed by diversity of study countries per volume, mean number of study countries per paper per volume, mean number of topics per paper per volume, and proportion of studies with phylogenetic components per volume. Individual papers that contributed to high impact factors included broad-scale revisionary treatments and worldwide keys to spe- cies-rich taxa, substantial phylogenetic reclassifications of known taxonomic groups, papers dealing with novel methodological approaches of broad interest, and broad-scale studies related to environmental change and lichen biomonitoring. Graphidaceae, Hypogymnia physodes, lichen microbiome, Lobaria pulmonaria, multi-authored papers, Trypetheliaceae, Xanthoria parietina
33298Kantvilas G., Coppins B., Ellis C. & Hyvärinen M. (2021): Peter Crittenden - A liber amicorum. - Lichenologist, 53(1): 1-1. doi:10.1017/S0024282921000049.
This first issue of The Lichenologist Volume 53 (2021) is dedicated to Peter Crittenden, in recognition of his long years of service to the journal, the British Lichen Society and lichenology worldwide. With Volume 52 (2020), Peter handed the responsibilities of Senior Editor to his successors, Leena Myllys and Christopher Ellis. On completing this transition there was universal assent among the associate editors who had served with Peter, and close friends, that the depth of gratitude felt for Peter’s work should be expressed in a Special Issue, bringing together a series of papers on a wide breadth of subjects.
33297Villarreal A.J., Renaudin M., Beaulieu-Laliberté A. & Bellenger J. (2021): Stigonema associated with boreal Stereocaulon possesses the alternative vanadium nitrogenase. - Lichenologist, 53(2): 215-220. .
Reindeer lichens from the genus Cladonia and snow lichens from the genus Stereocaulon are components of spruce lichen wood- land, which is one of the most extensive ecosystems in Eastern Canada (Payette & Delwaide 2018). Unlike reindeer lichens, Stereocaulon species have a mutualistic association with cyanobac- teria, mainly from the genus Stigonema, which are located in cephalodia (Huss-Danell 1977, 1979; Kershaw 1978; Kytöviita & Crittenden 2002; Lavoie et al. 2020). In Canada, acetylene reduc- tion assays on Stereocaulon cyanobacteria have demonstrated their critical contribution to the nitrogen (N) budget (Crittenden & Kershaw 1978; Kershaw 1978). Cyanobacteria use the nitrogenase enzymatic complex to reduce atmospheric N2 into bioavailable ammonium. Thus, understanding the biology and efficacy of the nitrogenase, which reduces atmospheric N2 into bioavailable ammonium, is crucial to obtaining a clearer pic- ture of nutrient flow in boreal forests
33296Weldon J. & Grandin U. (2021): Weak recovery of epiphytic lichen communities in Sweden over 20 years of rapid air pollution decline. - Lichenologist, 53(2): 203-213. .
Epiphytic lichens are sensitive to deteriorating air quality, but levels of nitrogen and especially sulphur deposition have been in decline over most of Europe in recent decades. We assessed the response of epiphytic lichens to this decline, using data from long-term monitoring sites in Sweden. We analyzed 20 years of data to investigate temporal trends in lichen communities’ sensitivity to sulphur, nitrogen preference, species richness and alpha and beta diversity. We found only limited and partial evidence of recovery in the area that previously had high levels of deposition, and a decline in mean sulphur sensitivity at a northern site with low deposition levels throughout the monitoring period. The slow recolonization of sensitive species, even where environmental conditions are now suitable, is probably a result of impoverished regional species pools and the inherent limited dispersal capacity of many lichen species. We suggest due consideration of these factors in the use of epiphytic lichens as environmental indicators in a period of improving air quality
33295Van den Boom P. & Alvarado P. (2021): Catillaria flexuosa (Catillariaceae), a new lichen species described from the Netherlands. - Lichenologist, 53(2): 193-202. .
A new lichen species is described from specimens growing on Fraxinus trees north of Eindhoven (the Netherlands). Morphological and genetic studies suggest that the new species belongs in the genus Catillaria, and the name Catillaria flexuosa is proposed because of its flexuose apothecia. The new species is characterized by the relatively large apothecia (up to 0.9 mm diam.) and relatively thick, knobby to ±subsquamulose, greenish, thallus. Due to their similar morphological features, C. flexuosa can be easily confused with Catillaria chalybeia, C. fungoides or C. nigroclavata, so it is therefore compared with these species. In addition, Arthonia epiphyscia is reported being a very rare species in the Netherlands
33294Stone D., McCune B., Pardo-De la Hoz C., Magain N. & Miadlikowska J. (2021): Sinuicella denisonii, a new genus and species in the Peltigeraceae from western North America. - Lichenologist, 53(2): 185-192. .
The new genus Sinuicella, an early successional lichen, was found on bare soil in Oregon, USA. The thallus is minute fruticose, grey to nearly black, branching isotomic dichotomous, branches round, 20–90 μm wide in water mount. The cortex is composed of interlocking cells shaped like jigsaw puzzle pieces. Spores are hyaline, 1-septate, 25–40(–50) × 6.5–9(–11) μm. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses on multilocus data sets, first spanning the entire order Peltigerales and then restricted to Peltigeraceae with extended sampling from Solorina and Peltigera, revealed the placement of Sinuicella outside of currently recognized genera, sister to Peltigera, with high support. Based on the phylogenetic, morphological and ecological distinctness of Sinuicella, we formally introduce a new genus represented by the single species S. denisonii. The cyanobiont of S. denisonii is Nostoc from phylogroup XL, Clade 2, Subclade 3 based on the rbcLX marker
33293Gerasimova J., Urbanavichene I., Urbanavichus G. & Beck A. (2021): Morphological and phylogenetic analyses of Toniniopsis subincompta s. lat. (Ramalinaceae, Lecanorales) in Eurasia. - Lichenologist, 53(2): 171-183. .
In recent years, several species that have long been considered to belong in Bacidia s. lat. have been transferred to other genera such as Bellicidia, Bibbya, Scutula, and also to Toniniopsis, accommodating species previously placed in Bacidia and Toninia. One of its widespread species, Toniniopsis subincompta, can be recognized by its thinly granular thallus, dark brown to black apothecia, green epithecium, red-brown hypothecium, and bacilliform ascospores. However, it shows considerable variation in thallus structure, and coloration of apothecia, hypothecium and exciple. We sequenced 20 specimens of T. subincompta to investigate whether there is phylogenetic support for the delimitation of species in accordance with the variability of the observed characters. For phylogenetic analyses, we used newly generated sequence data from the nuclear internal transcribed spacer (nrITS), mitochondrial small subunit (mtSSU) and DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit (RPB2). Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses, as well as three species delimitation programs, provided consistent evidence that T. subincompta forms two separate lineages, to be recognized at the species level. The complex nomenclature of T. subincompta (basionym Lecidea subincompta) shows it to be a synonym of Bellicidia incompta. For the most common taxon previously called Bacidia (Toniniopsis) subincompta, the new combination T. separabilis is made, rather than proposing a conserved type for Lecidea subincompta. Toniniopsis dissimilis is newly described to accommodate the less common taxon. Toniniopsis dissimilis is characterized by a predominantly wrinkled to warted to subsquamulose thallus; generally grey-brown to dark brown apothecia, often with a lighter margin; a dark brown hypothecium, frequently gradually merging into the coloration of the exciple below and the lateral part of the exciple attached to the hymenium; a mostly colourless rim and lateral part of the exciple. The closely related T. separabilis is characterized by a thallus of mostly single or contiguous ±loose granules, often forming short, coralloid, isidium-like bulges; darker apothecia, with a margin mostly of the same colour or darker than the disc; a comparatively thinner hypothecium easily separated from the exciple below. The rim and lateral part of the exciple often contain either a blue, brown or mixed blue-brown colour in the upper part or along the whole margin. Lectotypes of Bacidia vegeta, Lecidea bacillifera f. melanotica and Secoliga atrosanguinea var. affinis (the synonyms of T. separabilis) are selected. Cyanotrophy and the occurrence of albino morphs in T. separabilis are discussed.
33292Coppins B., Kondratyuk S., Etayo J. & Cannon P. (2021): Notes on lichenicolous species of Opegrapha s. lat. (Arthoniales) on Arthoniaceae and Verrucariaceae, with a key to British and Irish lichenicolous Opegraphaceae. - Lichenologist, 53(2): 159-169. .
Three species of lichenicolous Opegrapha s. lat. are newly described, all apparently host-specific at genus level. Opegrapha arthoniicola Coppins & S. Y. Kondr. is described from western Britain and Ireland, where it grows on the thallus of Arthonia radiata on Corylus bark; it has small clustered ascomata, asci that are usually 6-spored and rather small ascospores (10.5–)12.5–14.5 μm in length. Opegrapha sawyeriana Coppins occurs on the thallus of Coniocarpon cinnabarinum, also on Corylus bark, from oceanic western parts of Scotland, Ireland and southern England; in comparison to O. arthoniicola it has smaller, often scattered ascomata with a pigmented basal layer, 8-spored asci and slightly larger ascospores 13–14.5(–16) μm in length. Opegrapha hochstetteri Coppins has been found on thalli of Verrucaria hochstetteri and V. muralis on calcareous rocks and stonework in southern England and Luxembourg; collections were formerly identified as Opegrapha rupestris Pers. but it differs from this species by narrower ascomata with a persistent narrow slit, normally 6- rather than 8-spored asci and ascospores with pigmentation in the spore wall rather than the perispore. Lifted from synonymy is Opegrapha opaca Nyl., which inhabits the thallus of Verrucaria nigrescens and V. viridula on calcareous rocks and stonework, and is so far recorded from southern England, Luxembourg, France, northern Spain and Israel. The hosts of the European species of lichenicolous Opegrapha on Verrucaria s. lat. on calcareous rocks (O. hochstetteri, O. opaca and O. rupestris) belong to different phylogenetic lineages within the Verrucariaceae. A key is also provided to the lichenicolous species of Opegraphaceae currently known from Great Britain and Ireland.
33291Урбанавичюс Г.П. & Урбанавичене И.Н. [Urbanavichus G.P. & Urbanavichene I.N.] (2020): Виды лишайников, предлагаемые к внесению в Красную книгу Республики Ингушетия [Lichen species, proposed for the Red data book of the Republic of Ingushetia]. - Ботанический вестник Северного Кавказа [Botanical Herald of the North Caucasus], 2020/2: 57–64. .
[in Russian with English abstract: ] Thirteen lichen species proposed for the Red Data Book of Republic of Ingushetia on based of the results of author's field works and analysis of literature information. Among them, three species are included in the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation (Leptogium burnetiae, Lobaria pulmonaria, Usnea florida). Ten lichen species are rare and vulnerable due to the state of populations in the Republic of Ingushetia at the current time (Hyperphyscia granulata, Melanelixia albertana, Neocatapyrenium rhizinosum, Parmotrema stuppeum, Peltula bolanderi, Phaeophyscia cernohorskyi, Phaeophyscia insignis, Punctelia borreri, Thalloidima toninianum, Usnea cavernosa). Information on distribution in the republic, ecology and proposed categories of the threatened are given. Most of the species (10) were proposed to be included with «Near Threatened» category, 1 species (Leptogium burnetiae) with «Critically Endargered», 1 species (Lobaria pulmonaria) with «Data Deficient » and 1 species (Usnea florida) with «Least Concern». Keywords: lichens, rare species, vulnerable species, protection.
33290Ohmura Y. & Clerc P. (2021): Usnea esperantiana (Parmeliaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) new to Asia. - Bulletin of the National Museum of Nature and Science, Series B [Tokyo], 47(1): 13–20. .
Usnea esperantiana is reported as new to Asia. It was collected from Taiwan where it grew on coniferous and broad-leaf trees at elevations between 1716 and 2580 m. The ITS rDNA sequences of Taiwanese and European materials of U. esperantiana form a monophyletic clade within the already reported clade consisting of U. cornuta and the related taxa. Although two distinct clades were formed in the U. esperantiana clade, no morphological and chemical differences were found between them. All Taiwanese specimens contain usnic, salazinic and bourgeanic acids. The description is given based on the Taiwanese specimens. Keywords: chemistry, distribution, ITS rDNA, lichenized fungi, morphology, phylogeny, soralia, Taiwan, taxonomy.
33289Tadome K. & Ohmura Y. (2021): Two lichenicolous fungi, Illosporium carneum and Ovicuculispora parmeliae (Bionectriaceae, Ascomycota), new to Japan. - Bulletin of the National Museum of Nature and Science, Series B [Tokyo], 47(1): 21–25. .
Two lichenicolous fungi, Illosporium carneum and Ovicuculispora parmeliae, are reported as new to Japan. Illosporium carneum was found on Peltigera didactyla growing on rock in Nagano Prefecture, central Honshu, at an elevation of 2,300 m. Ovicuculispora parmeliae was found on Heterodermia japonica growing on rock in Saitama Prefecture, central Honshu, at an elevation of 1330 m. Key words : anamorph, Asia, distribution, Heterodermia japonica, lichen, mycota, parasite, Peltigera didactyla, Pronectria robergei, taxonomy.
33288Clayden S.R. (2010): Lichens and allied fungi of the Atlantic Maritime Ecozone. - In: McAlpine D.F.and Smith I.M. (eds), Assessment of Species Diversity in the Atlantic Maritime Ecozone, p. 153–178, NRC Research Press, Ottawa, Canada. .
chapter in book; About 890 species of lichen-forming fungi and more than 30 species of calicioid fungi in the Mycocaliciales are known in the Atlantic Maritime Ecozone of eastern Canada. Based on comparisons with better-studied European lichen biotas, it is estimated that about 25% of the species occurring in the ecozone have yet to be documented. Lichenicolous fungi other than calicioid species remain poorly known, and there has been little focus on the algal and cyanobacterial components of lichen diversity. The historical and global contexts of the biota are reviewed, and patterns of disjunction noted. Climatic variation and associated vegetation gradients across the ecozone are described, and a preliminary categorization is provided of patterns of lichen distribution within this context. It is concluded that the ranges of lichens in the Atlantic Maritime Ecozone are more nearly in a state of equilibrium with prevailing climatic conditions than are those of vascular plants. The rarity of adventive species is inferred to be mainly a consequence of the efficient past and present dispersal of most lichens. While considerable scope remains for increasing knowledge of diversity and distributions, there is also a need for research on the community structure and composition, habitat and substrate ecology, life histories, and most urgently, the conservation of the lichen biota. The Atlantic Maritime Ecozone is an important refuge for many lichens that have undergone sharp declines in neighbouring regions, owing to habitat loss, air pollution, and other human impacts.
33287Clayden S.R., Ahti T., Pino-Bodas R., Pitcher M., Løfall B.P., McCarthy J.W. & McMullin R.T. (2021): First documented occurrences of Cladonia krogiana and C. rangiformis in North America. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 20: 25–36. http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/op/biblio_list.php?BucVolume_tab=20.
Cladonia krogiana, previously known only from Norway and the Czech Republic, is reported here for North America from two localities near the Bay of Fundy, New Brunswick, Canada. It occurs there on open, rocky banks of clear, free-flowing rivers, habitats similar to those in which it has been found in Norway. We also document the occurrence of C. rangiformis in North America, based on collections from two localities on the southwest coast of Conception Bay, on the Avalon Peninsula of the island of Newfoundland, Canada. It is possibly an accidental, but naturalized, introduction in this area, where European settlement began in the early 1600s. A molecular phylogenetic analysis confirmed the identity of one of the Newfoundland specimens. The IGS rDNA haplotype to which it belongs is the same as the most widely distributed haplotype of C. rangiformis in Europe and Macaronesia. Previous reports of C. rangiformis for continental North America are based on misidentifications. A 19th century collection reportedly made on the island of Bermuda, while correctly identified, is of uncertain provenance. Keywords. – Atlantic Canada, biogeography, Challenger Expedition, Cladoniaceae, hemiboreal zone, introduced species.
33286Asplund J., van Zuijlen K., Roos R.E., Birkemoe T., Klanderud K., Lang S.I., Wardle D.A. & Nybakken L. (2021): Contrasting responses of plant and lichen carbon‐based secondary compounds across an elevational gradient. - Functional Ecology, 35: 330–341. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2435.13712.
Vascular plants and lichens often produce a diversity of carbon‐based secondary compounds (CBSCs) to protect them against biotic and abiotic stresses. These compounds play important but often compound‐specific roles in community and ecosystem processes by affecting herbivore and decomposer activity. However, our understanding of what drives community‐level CBSCs among ecosystems or across environmental gradients is limited. We measured concentrations and compositions of CBSCs for all dominant vascular plant and lichen species present across a 500‐m alpine elevational gradient. These measurements were combined with data on species composition and abundance to obtain whole‐community measures of plant and lichen CBSCs across the gradient. At the whole community level, plant CBSCs had the lowest concentrations while lichen CBSCs had the highest concentrations at the highest elevations. Further, plant CBCSs shifted from those associated with herbivore defence towards those protecting against light and oxidative stress as elevation increased, while lichen CBSCs showed the opposite pattern. Synthesis. Our findings that individual compounds show contrasting responses to the same environmental gradient highlight the importance of studying qualitative as well as quantitative changes in CBSCs. Further, the divergent responses between vascular plants and lichens reveal that in systems where both groups are abundant, they need to be considered simultaneously to better understand how future environmental changes may impact on ecosystem‐level processes.
33285Concostrina-Zubiri L., Valencia E., Ochoa V., Gozalo B., Mendoza B.J. & Maestre F.T. (2021): Species-specific effects of biocrust-forming lichens on soil properties under simulated climate change are driven by functional traits. - New Phytologist, 230: 101–115. https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.17143.
 Biocrusts are key drivers of ecosystem functioning in drylands, yet our understanding of how climate change will affect the chemistry of biocrust-forming species and their impacts on carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling is still very limited.  Using a manipulative experiment conducted with common biocrust-forming lichens with distinct morphology and chemistry (Buellia zoharyi, Diploschistes diacapsis, Psora decipiens and Squamarina lentigera), we evaluated changes in lichen total and isotopic C and N and several soil C and N variables after 50 months of simulated warming and rainfall reduction.  Climate change treatments reduced δ13C and the C : N ratio in B. zoharyi, and increased δ15N in S. lentigera. Lichens had species-specific effects on soil dissolved organic N (DON), NHþ 4 , β-glucosidase and acid phosphatase activity regardless of climate change treatments, while these treatments changed how lichens affected several soil properties regardless of biocrust species. Changes in thallus δ13C, N and C : N drove species-specific effects on dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), NHþ 4 , β-glucosidase and acid phosphatase activity.  Our findings indicate that warmer and drier conditions will alter the chemistry of biocrustforming lichens, affecting soil nutrient cycling, and emphasize their key role as modulators of climate change impacts in dryland soils. Key words: biological soil crusts, climate change, drylands, lichens, morphology, functional traits, soil fertility.
33284Mendili M., Bannour M., Araújo M.E.M., Seaward M.R.D. & Khadhri A. (2021): Lichenochemical screening and antioxidant capacity of four Tunisian lichen species. - Chemistry and Biodiversity, 18: e2000735 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1002/cbdv.202000735.
The phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of four Tunisian lichen species, Cladonia rangiformis,Flavoparmelia caperata, Squamarina cartilaginea and Xanthoria parietina, were determined in order to provide abetter understanding of their lichenochemical composition. Powdered material of F. caperata was the richest intotal phenolic content (956.68 g GAE g 1DW) and S. cartilaginea in proanthocyanidin content (77.31 g CE g 1DW), while the acetone extract of X. parietina showed the highest flavonoid content (9.56 g CE g 1DW). Theantioxidant capacity of all lichen extracts and crude material was evaluated by DPPH*scavenging, iron-chelating,and iron-reducing powers. Results showed that methanol extracts of S. cartilaginea had the highest DPPH*antioxidant capacity (IC50=0.9 gmL 1) and the highest iron-reducing power was attributed to the acetoneextract of this species. All extracts of all species were further screened by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy(FT-IR) and nuclear resonance spectroscopy (NMR); results showed an abundance of phenols, aromaticcompounds, and fatty acids. Overall, our results showed that the investigated species are a rich source ofpotentially bioactive compounds with valuable properties.Keywords: DPPH*, FT-IR, NMR, QUENCHER, lichenized fungi.
33283Expósito Piñero J.R., Mejuto I. & Catalá M. (2021): Detection of active cell death markers in rehydrated lichen thalli and the involvement of nitrogen monoxide (NO). - Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 165, Suppl. 1: 57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2020.12.428.
Abstract; Lichen desiccation/rehydration cycles lead to an increased oxidative stress modulated by the multifaceted mediator nitrogen monoxide (NO). Active cell death, frequently triggered by oxidative damage with NO participation, has been confirmed even in unicellular organisms. This adaptive mechanism has not been studied in lichens and no specific experimental protocols exist. Hoechst 33342 enters viable cells and DNA binding increases its fluorescence, particularly intense in condensed apoptotic chromatin. YO-PRO-1 can only permeate the altered membrane of apoptotic P2X7-positive cells. Proteolytic caspases are activated upon different types of active cell death. Our objectives are to determine if these markers indicate active cell death in Ramalina farinacea after desiccation/rehydration and to study the effect of NO scavenging. YO-PRO-1, Hoechst 33342 and Caspase 3/7 Green DNA binding were assessed in thalli rehydrated with deionized water and with a cocktail of apoptosis inducers. A 24 h kinetics and a microscopical analysis were performed. YO-PRO-1 fluorescence was not detected, Hoechst 33342 staining abruptly decreases during the first hours, while caspase-like activity associated to phycobionts steadily increases. Whereas the apoptosis inducers cocktail 1x significantly increased caspase-like activity affecting both symbionts, Hoechst staining was only affected at 10x. NO scavenging diminishes caspase-like activation and seems to accelerate Hoechst abrupt decrease during thallus rehydration. In conclusion, the demonstration of caspase-like activity in R. farinacea and its Trebouxia phycobionts point to the presence of active cell death but other methods assessing cell effective death or DNA irreversible fragmentation (i.e. TUNEL assay) are necessary to confirm this feature. Keywords: Apoptosis, Caspases, Hoechst 33342, Oxidative stress, Programmed cell death and YO-PRO-1.
33282Cannone N., Guglielmin M., Malfasi F., Hubberten H.W. & Wagner D. (2021): Rapid soil and vegetation changes at regional scale in continental Antarctica. - Geoderma, 394: 115017 [16 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2021.115017.
Highlights: • In Antarctica soil and vegetation development are considered very slow for the extreme conditions. • A monitoring network of terrestrial ecosystems is ongoing in continental Antarctica since 2002. • In only 10 years (2002–2013) soil chemistry changed indicating rapid pedogenetic processes. • Vegetation developed, active layer thickened and air temperature increased. • Antarctic ecosystems are highly dynamic in characteristics, composition and processes.
33281Li X., Hui R., Zhang P. & Song N. (2021): Divergent responses of moss- and lichen-dominated biocrusts to warming and increased drought in arid desert regions. - Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 303: 108387 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2021.108387.
Global warming coupled with increased drought is predicted to have a significant negative impact on desert ecosystems. In arid desert regions, a large proportion of the ground surface is covered by specialized organisms such as mosses and lichens that form biocrusts, which play a vital role in ecosystems. However, the long-term effects of warming and drought on these key biotic components of desert ecosystems remain poorly understood. Using a manipulative experiment conducted for 12 years in the Tengger Desert, northwestern China, we evaluated how both mosses and lichens in biocrust communities responded to 0.5°C and 1.5°C increases in temperature coupled with 5% and 8% reductions in total annual precipitation, respectively, using two groups of open-top chambers to approximate climate change conditions that are predicted to occur in this study region. Furthermore, surface soil carbon uptake by the biocrusts was also evaluated. Twelve years of warming coupled with increased drought resulted in a significant decrease in the cover and biomass of mosses but did not change the cover or biomass of lichens. These changes in the mosses were positively correlated with the duration and intensity of the treatments. Warming coupled with reduced precipitation significantly reduced the carbon uptake of the moss-dominated biocrusts by reducing the availability of moisture content. However, lichen carbon uptake was insensitive to the warming and reduced precipitation treatments. The reduction in cover and biomass of moss-dominated biocrusts might be attributed to large amounts of carbon loss, which further alters biocrust multifunctionality in desert ecosystems. In addition, our findings suggest that coupled warming and drought conditions could increase the dominance of lichens in biocrust communities to partly maintain the multifunctionality of biocrusts in this desert ecosystem. Keywords: Climate change; Biocrust;cNet photosynthesis; Carbon fixation; Desert ecosystem.
33280Xu L., Zhu B., Li C., Zhou Z., Yao M., Zhou X., Wang J., Zhang B. & Li X. (2021): Increasing relative abundance of non-cyanobacterial photosynthetic organisms drives ecosystem multifunctionality during the succession of biological soil crusts. - Geoderma, 395: 115052 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2021.115052.
Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are essential for ecosystem functioning, especially in drylands. However, we lack the knowledge of how ecosystem multifunctionality (EMF) responds to the development of biocrusts and the key factors mediating EMF during biocrust succession. In this study, we tested a series of essential ecosystem functions of the biocrust system and calculated a weighted EMF index, a processes-based EMFprocesses index, and a resource storage and availability based EMFpools index. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and ITS gene was used to test differences in the community compositions of 16S rRNA gene-based organisms and ITS gene-based fungi in different biocrust stages. Results showed that the changing patterns and driving factors of all the three multifunctionality indices were similar. Later developed biocrust stages exhibited higher values of all three EMF indices. The 16S rRNA gene-based diversity reduced with biocrust succession. Biodiversity-EMF relationships varied when considering different biocrust stages and organisms. Across all biocrust stages, significantly negative relationships existed between the EMF indices and 16S rRNA based α-diversity, whereas positive relationships occurred between the EMF indices and both 16S rRNA and ITS gene-based β-diversity. Further analyses indicated that the increasing relative abundance of non-cyanobacterial photosynthetic organisms (represented by chloroplast sequences and lichenized fungi) was the key predictor of all three EMF indices during biocrust succession. Specifically, these organisms were Streptophyta, Chlorophyta and Bacillariophyta and lichenized fungi, e.g., Verrucaria, Caloplaca and Aspicilia. This study provided a mechanistic understanding of how biological compositions and diversity drive EMF with biocrust development. Keywords: Ecosystem multifunctionality; Biocrusts; Development stages; Lichenized fungi; Photosynthetic organisms.
33279Massimi L., Castellani F., Protano C., Conti M.E., Antonucci A., Frezzini M.A., Galletti M., Mele G., Pileri A., Ristorini M., Vitali M. & Canepari S. (2021): Lichen transplants for high spatial resolution biomonitoring of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in a multi-source polluted area of Central Italy. - Ecological Indicators, 120: 106921 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2020.106921.
The ability of lichen transplant Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach. to reflect air concentration and spatial distribution of 7 polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), 10 polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and 23 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was evaluated through the construction of a wide and dense biomonitoring network. For this purpose, 23 lichen transplants were placed in a highly polluted area in Central Italy, characterized by the presence of different local emission sources such as a power plant, a steel plant, vehicular traffic, and domestic heating. The high spatial resolution data obtained from lichens were used to map the spatial distribution of the studied compounds, useful to identify the location and strength of target compounds sources over the territory. The maps showed that the highest concentrations of the pollutants were detected, as expected, in the sites close to the power plant and to the steel plant, confirming their important role as persistent pollutants emission sources. The statistical analysis performed on the spatially resolved data allowed us to identify the steel plant as the main source of PCDD/Fs, while PCBs were emitted by both the steel plant and the power plant. Finally, the efficiency of lichen transplants to reflect PCDD/Fs and PCBs atmospheric concentrations was assessed by comparing lichen data with POPs deposition measured by bulk deposition samplers at sites impacted by intensive emission sources; good results were achieved from the comparison (R2 > 0.79). Lichen transplants have demonstrated to be suitable biomonitors of POPs, allowing to obtain a high spatial monitoring network. The low-cost biomonitoring and experimental approach described in this study can be applied to other monitoring campaigns for identifying localizing emission sources of POPs in areas contaminated by several disaggregated sources. Keywords: Biomonitor ; Evernia prunastri ; Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins ; Polychlorinated dibenzofurans ; Polychlorinated biphenyl.
33278Cazarin C.A., Dalmagro A.P., Gonçalves A.E., Boeing T., da Silva L.M., Corrêa R., Klein-Júnior L.C., Pinto B.C., Lorenzett T.S., Sobrinho T.U.C., de Fátima Â., Lage T.C.A., Fernandes S.A. & de Souza M.M. (2021): Usnic acid enantiomers restore cognitive deficits and neurochemical alterations induced by Aβ1–42 in mice. - Behavioural Brain Research, 397: 112945 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2020.112945.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent form of dementia with a complex pathophysiology not fully elucidated but with limited pharmacological treatment. The Usnic acid (UA) is a lichen secondary metabolite found in two enantiomeric forms: (R)-(+)-UA or (S)-(-)-UA, with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential. Thus, given the role of neuroinflammation and oxidative injury in the AD, this study aimed to investigate experimentally the cognitive enhancing and anti-neuroinflammatory effects of UA enantiomers. First, the interactions of UA on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was assessed by molecular docking and its inhibitory capability on AChE was assessed in vitro. In vivo trials investigated the effects of UA enantiomers in mice exposed to Aβ1−42 peptide (400 pmol/mice) intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.). For this, mice were treated orally during 24 days with (R)-(+)-UA or (S)-(-)-UA at 25, 50, or 100 mg/kg, vehicle, or donepezil (2 mg/kg). Animals were submitted to the novel object recognized, Morris water maze, and inhibitory-avoidance task to assess the cognitive deficits. Additionally, UA antioxidant capacity and neuroinflammatory biomarkers were measured at the cortex and hippocampus from mice. Our results indicated that UA enantiomers evoked complex-receptor interaction with AChE like galantamine in silico. Also, UA enantiomers improved the learning and memory of the animals and in parallel decreased the myeloperoxidase activity and the lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH) on the cortex and hippocampus and reduced the IL-1β levels on the hippocampus. In summary, UA restored the cognitive deficits, as well as the signs of LOOH and neuroinflammation induced by Aβ1−42 administration in mice.
33277Heim R.J., Bucharova A., Brodt L., Kamp J., Rieker D., Soromotin A.V., Yurtaev A. & Hölzel N. (2021): Post-fire vegetation succession in the Siberian subarctic tundra over 45 years. - Science of The Total Environment , 760: 143425 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.143425.
Highlights: • We used a space-for-time approach to study fire legacy over more than four decades. • Soil temperature and active layer depth recovered after >44 years. • Vegetation did not completely recover to a pre-fire state. • Burnt areas had lower lichen and higher bryophyte and shrub cover. • Betula nana showed increased vitality, indicating a strong fire legacy effect. Wildfires are relatively rare in subarctic tundra ecosystems, but they can strongly change ecosystem properties. Short-term fire effects on subarctic tundra vegetation are well documented, but long-term vegetation recovery has been studied less. The frequency of tundra fires will increase with climate warming. Understanding the long-term effects of fire is necessary to predict future ecosystem changes. We used a space-for-time approach to assess vegetation recovery after fire over more than four decades. We studied soil and vegetation patterns on three large fire scars (>44, 28 and 12 years old) in dry, lichen-dominated forest tundra in Western Siberia. On 60 plots, we determined soil temperature and permafrost thaw depth, sampled vegetation and measured plant functional traits. We assessed trends in Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) to support the field-based results on vegetation recovery. Soil temperature, permafrost thaw depth and total vegetation cover had recovered to pre-fire levels after >44 years, as well as total vegetation cover. In contrast, after >44 years, functional groups had not recovered to the pre-fire state. Burnt areas had lower lichen and higher bryophyte and shrub cover. The dominating shrub species, Betula nana, exhibited a higher vitality (higher specific leaf area and plant height) on burnt compared with control plots, suggesting a fire legacy effect in shrub growth. Our results confirm patterns of shrub encroachment after fire that were detected before in other parts of the Arctic and Subarctic. In the so far poorly studied Western Siberian forest tundra we demonstrate for the first time, long-term fire-legacies on the functional composition of relatively dry shrub- and lichen-dominated vegetation.
33276González-Montelongo C. & Pérez-Vargas I. (2021): Is an invasive alien tree able to sustain a similar lichen diversity as the native forest? The case of the sweet chestnut Castanea sativa Mill.) and the laurel forest in Macaronesia. - Forest Ecology and Management, 488: 119009 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2021.119009.
Invasive alien species are considered as one of the major threats to global biodiversity. Many widely used forestry trees are potentially invasive, spreading from planting sites into adjoining areas modifying community composition, and altering the native forest. In the Canary Islands, Castanea sativa was established half a millennium ago, in the distributional area of the laurel forest, an endemic forest of the Macaronesia. The impact of invasive species on ecosystem services and more specifically their impact on epiphytic lichens is totally unknown in these archipelagos. The main aim of this work has been to find out if the chestnut tree can host an analogous species composition, richness, and diversity of epiphytic lichens such as those present in the native forest from the Canary Islands. Whilst species richness in both habitats is high, the composition is significantly different. The characteristic species were also different. The chestnut tree hosted rare species linked to ancient and well-preserved forest environments. For this reason, we propose not to completely eradicate the chestnut tree in the Archipelago, but we consider the management and control of its expansion to be essential. Preserving ancient specimens can serve as a lichen biodiversity reservoir. Keywords: Canary Islands; Chestnut tree; Exotic invasion; Lichen; Monteverde.
33275Czerepko J., Gawryś R., Szymczyk R., Pisarek W., Janek M., Haidt A., Kowalewska A., Piegdoń A., Stebel A., Kukwa M. & Cacciatori C. (2021): How sensitive are epiphytic and epixylic cryptogams as indicators of forest naturalness? Testing bryophyte and lichen predictive power in stands under different management regimes in the Białowieża forest. - Ecological Indicators, 125: 107532 [19 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2021.107532.
The aim of this study was to test the sensitivity of epiphytic and epixylic bryophytes and lichens as indicators of forest naturalness, by comparing their diversity patterns with forest structural, compositional and historical features associated with different management/protection regimes and protection time spans. The study was carried out in the Białowieża Forest (Poland). Out of 1370 pre-existing inventory plots established all across the Polish part of the Białowieża Forest, we randomly selected 10 plots for each of the 18 plot aggregation groups resulting from the combination of 3 management/protection regimes and 6 habitat types, for an overall number of 180 plots. At each of them, we carried out bryophyte and lichen sampling on four substrates (coarse woody debris – CWD, standing dead trees, stumps, living trees). The management/protection regimes exemplifying the gradient of forest naturalness were: the 100 years-old Białowieża National Park (BNP), a set of more recently established nature reserves and managed forests. We tested differences in mean species richness values among management/protection regimes, protection time spans, habitat types and stand age classes by analysis of variance and calculated coefficients of correlation with 45 selected structural and compositional features of forest stands. Differences in species composition of epiphytic and epixilic bryophytes and lichens among management/protection regimes were tested by ordination methods. Lastly, we compared frequency of red-listed species and primeval forest relics among management/protection regimes. Species richness of lichens was significantly correlated with the degree of forest naturalness assessed by structural and historical features along the naturalness gradient, with the highest number of species recorded in BNP and the lower in managed stands, while bryophyte number did not exhibit a clear dependence on the management regimes. Relic species of primeval forests and red-listed species occurred with significantly higher frequency in protected areas than in managed forests for both lichens and bryophytes, with the highest frequency observed in BNP for lichens and in nature reserves for bryophytes. Volume of deadwood, particularly of CWD in advanced decays stage, species richness of undergrowth vascular plants, tree layer diversity, shrub cover and herb layer cover exhibited the strongest correlation with cryptogam species richness and cover on the various substrates. Response to light availability strongly differenciated bryophyte and lichens optimal niches. The results of this study clearly show that cryptogams, and lichens in particular, are indeed reliable ecological indicators of forest status, since they sensibly intercepted the environmental changes observable along the tested naturalness gradient. Keywords: Ecological indicators; Forest naturalness gradient; Forest management regimes; Primeval forest relics; Red-listed species; Species richness.
33274Gómez R.Q., Chaparro M.A.E., Chaparro M.A.E., Castañeda-Miranda A.G., Marié S.C., Gargiulo J.D. & Böhnel H.N. (2021): Magnetic biomonitoring using native lichens: Spatial distribution of traffic-derived particles. - Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 232: 124 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-021-05047-w.
Air pollution has become a subject of extensive study of several disciplines and it is identified as one of the most damaging factors for the ecosystem and human health. In urban areas, particle emission can be found in suspension and therefore a portion of them is inhalable for humans, or deposited on streets and several surfaces, including lichen’s thallus. We studied particulate matter (PM) (by traffic emission) accumulated in native lichens Parmotrema pilosum in order to carry out a magnetic biomonitoring over 2016 and 2017. For this purpose, the environmental magnetism method was complemented with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, and geostatistical methods. The accumulated iron oxides on lichen’s thallus include potential toxic elements, such as Ba, Cr, Ni, and V. Fe-rich particles related to vehicle emissions correspond to (ultra)fine magnetite of inhalable sizes (PM2.5). Our results indicate a relation between concentration of magnetic particles and areas with high traffic, as well as the influence of rainfall on magnetic PM records. Magnetic biomonitoring is validated as a low-cost and complementary methodology to determine levels of air magnetic PM pollution in cities. Keywords Biomonitor .Geostatistics.Magneticproxy . Particle pollution . Traffic emission.
33273Akpinar A., Cansev A. & Isleyen M. (2021): Effects of the lichen Peltigera canina on Cucurbita pepo spp. pepo grown in soil contaminated by DDTs. - Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 28: 14576–14585. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-11665-4.
Lichens consisting of a symbiotic association of green algae or cyanobacteria and fungi are found in a variety of environmental conditions worldwide. Terricolous lichens, located in soils, affect the living and lifeless environment of the soil due to their effective secondary metabolite and enzymatic content. Terricolous lichens can increase the biological, chemical, and physical usefulness of soil. However, their effects in ensuring the bioavailability of contaminated soil are not known, especially on soil pollution caused by DDTs (p,p′-DDE, p,p′-DDD, p,p′-DDT). This research focuses on the effect of terricolous lichens on zucchini (Cucurbita pepo spp. pepo) grown in soil contaminated by DDTs, utilizing their secondary metabolite and enzymatic contents. Firstly, Peltigera canina, a terricolous lichen species, was added to soil contaminated by DDTs as powdered and intact thallus. After lichen addition to soil, zucchini was planted in. The oxidative stress and antioxidative enzyme activities of zucchini were measured. According to the results, P. canina treatments have a positive effect on the growth and development of zucchini, although oxidative stress was observed. Also, it was determined that powdered application had more effective results than intact thallus application. Keywords: Lichens . Peltigera canina . DDTs . Soil bioavailability . Oxidative stress . Antioxidative defense system.
33272da Silva A.V., de Oliveira A.J., Tanabe I.S.B., Silva J.V., da Silva Barros T.W., da Silva M.K., França P.H.B., Leite J., Putzke J., Montone R., de Oliveira V.M., Rosa L.H. & Duarte A.W.F. (2021): Antarctic lichens as a source of phosphate‑solubilizing bacteria. - Extremophiles, 25: 181–191. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00792-021-01220-5.
In association with lichens, bacteria can play key roles in solubilizing sources of inorganic phosphates that are available in the environment. In this study, the potential of bacteria isolated from 15 Antarctic lichen samples for phosphate solubilization was investigated. From 124 bacteria tested, 66 (53%) were positive for phosphate solubilization in solid NBRIP medium, with a higher prevalence of Pseudomonas, followed by Caballeronia and Chryseobacterium. Most of the phosphate-solubilizing bacteria were isolated from Usnea auratiacoatra, followed by Caloplaca regalis and Xanthoria candelaria. Two isolates showed outstanding performance, Pseudomonas sp. 11.LB15 and Pseudomonas sp. 1.LB34, since they presented solubilization in the temperature range from 15.0 to 30.0 °C, and maximum quantifcation of soluble phosphate at 25.0 °C was 511.21 and 532.07 mg/L for Pseudomonas sp. 11.LB15 and Pseudomonas sp. 1.LB34, respectively. At 30.0 °C soluble phosphate yield was 639.43 and 518.95 mg/L with pH of 3.74 and 3.87 for Pseudomonas sp. 11.LB15 and Pseudomonas sp. 1.LB34, respectively. Fumaric and tartaric acids were released during the solubilization process. Finally, bacteria isolated from Antarctic lichens were shown to have the potential for phosphate solubilization, opening perspectives for future application in the agricultural sector and contributing to reduce the use of chemical fertilizers. Keywords: Extremophile · Fumaric acid · Lichensphere · Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms · Pseudomonas.
33271Cecconi E., Fortuna L., Peplis M. & Tretiach M. (2021): Element accumulation performance of living and dead lichens in a large-scale transplant application. - Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 28: 16214–16226. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-11797-7.
In bioaccumulation studies, sample devitalization through acid washing or oven drying is commonly applied to enhance the element accumulation efficiency of moss sample. Such aspect, however, has never been considered in biomonitoring surveys using lichens. In this study, the trace element accumulation performance of living (L) and dead (D) samples of the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea was compared by a side-by-side transplanting at 40 sites in a large, mixed land use area of NE Italy for 8 weeks. Devitalization was achieved without any physico-chemical treatments, by storing lichen samples in a dark cool room for 18 months. Health status of lichens was assessed before and after the sample exposure by chlorophyll fluorescence emission. Although elemental analysis of the two exposed sample sets revealed a similar trace element pollution scenario, the content of 13 out of the 24 selected elements was higher in D samples. By expressing results as exposed-to-unexposed (EU) ratio, D samples show a higher bioaccumulation signal in 80% of transplant sites for Al, Ca, Fe, Hg, Pb and Ti. Overall, the health status of lichen samples might lead to interpretational discrepancies when EU ratio is classified according to the recently proposed bioaccumulation scale.
33270Kärnefelt I., Kondratyuk S. & Thell A. (2021): Hansen, E.S. 2020. Bornholms laver [The lichens of Bornholm]. Edited by R. L. Vilsholm, published by NaturBornholm and printed by H. Holm Grafisk ApS, Rønne, ISBN 978-87-91122-30-9, 96 pages. - Graphis Scripta, 33(2): 29–30. http://nhm2.uio.no/botanisk/lav/Graphis/33_2/GS_33_29.pdf.
book review
33269Kantelinen A., Westberg M., Owe-Larsson B. & Svensson M. (2021): New Micarea records from Norway and Sweden and an identification key to the M. prasina group in Europe. - Graphis Scripta, 33(2): 17–28. http://nhm2.uio.no/botanisk/lav/Graphis/33_2/GS_33_17.pdf.
Micarea czarnotae and M. pseudomicrococca are reported as new to Sweden, and M. fallax is reported as new to Norway. Micarea laeta and M. melanobola are reported from Sweden for the first time since 1927 and 1892, respectively. Micarea fallax is reported from three new localities in Sweden. An updated identification key for the M. prasina group in Central and Northern Europe is provided.
33268Noh H.-J., Park Y., Hong S.G. & Lee Y.M. (2021): Diversity and physiological characteristics of Antarctic lichens-associated bacteria. - Microorganisms, 9: 607 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9030607.
The diversity of lichen-associated bacteria from lichen taxa Cetraria, Cladonia, Megaspora, Pseudephebe, Psoroma, and Sphaerophorus was investigated by sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Physiological characteristics of the cultured bacterial isolates were investigated to understand possible roles in the lichen ecosystem. Proteobacteria (with a relative abundance of 69.7–96.7%) were mostly represented by the order Rhodospirillales. The 117 retrieved isolates were grouped into 35 phylotypes of the phyla Actinobacteria (27), Bacteroidetes (6), Deinococcus-Thermus (1), and Proteobacteria (Alphaproteobacteria (53), Betaproteobacteria (18), and Gammaproteobacteria (12)). Hydrolysis of macromolecules such as skim milk, polymer, and (hypo)xanthine, solubilization of inorganic phosphate, production of phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid, and fixation of atmospheric nitrogen were observed in different taxa. The potential phototrophy of the strains of the genus Polymorphobacter which were cultivated from a lichen for the first time was revealed by the presence of genes involved in photosynthesis. Altogether, the physiological characteristics of diverse bacterial taxa from Antarctic lichens are considered to imply significant roles of lichen-associated bacteria to allow lichens to be tolerant or competitive in the harsh Antarctic environment. Keywords: Antarctic lichens; lichen-associated bacteria; macromolecule hydrolysis; indole-3-acetic acid; phosphate solubilization; nitrogen fixation.
33267Lohtander K. (1994): The genus Lepraria in Finland. - Annales Botanici Fennici, 31: 223–231. .
Eleven species of the lichen genus Lepraria are reported from Finland. These are Lepraria borealis Lohtander & Tønsberg (sp. nova; type from Norway), L caesioalba (de Lesd.) J.R.Laundon, L. ebumea J.R.Laundon, L. elobata Tønsberg, L frigida J.R.Laundon, L incana (L.) Ach., L. jackii Tønsberg, L. lesdainii (Hue) R.C.Harris, L lobificans Nyl., L. neglecta (Nyl.) Erichsen and L. rigidula (de Lesd.) Tønsberg. Only L incana, L. lobificans and L. neglecta have been reported from Finland before. Finnish distribution of all the species is mapped. L borealis, L caesioalba, L elobata, L frigida and L rigidula are also reported for the first time from Russia. Key words: chemistry, Finland, Lepraria, lichens, Russia, taxonomy.
33266Feige B., Gimmler H., Jeschke W.D. & Simonis W. (1969): Eine Methode zur Dünnschichtchromatographischen Auftrennung von 14C- und 32P-markierten Stoffwechselprodukten [A method for the thin-layer chromatoragraphic separation of 14C and 32P labelled metabolic products]. - Journal of Chromatography, 41: 80–90. https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9673(64)80099-6.
In order to measure 14C and 32P labelled metabolic compounds obtained from incorporation experiments with various plant species a handy method was developed, which permits the separation of labelled intermediates of plant metabolism by thin-layer chromatography on cellulose layers. This method is especially suitable for experiments with large numbers of samples. A preceeding purification of the plant extracts from interfering compounds is not necessary.
33265Knudsen K., Kocourková J., Hodková E. & Wang Y. (2021): Lichenological Notes 8: Acarospora fusca. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 20: 19–24. http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/op/biblio_list.php?BucVolume_tab=20.
The monographer A.H. Magnusson considered Acarospora fusca to be a member of the morphologically defined A. smaragdula group, most of whose members are now recognized in the phylogenetically circumscribed genus Myriospora. Recently A. fusca has been considered a synonym of M. rufescens. This study presents newly generated ITS, mtSSU and LSU sequences from the neotype of A. fusca that show the species does not match M. rufescens or Myriospora. Instead, the data support that A. fusca belongs to Acarospora and Magnusson’s interpretation that A. fusca is distinct from M. rufescens. The newly generated sequences of A. fusca were identical to those generated from two specimens identified as A. anomala and collected on a wood fence in Sweden. Keywords. – Acarosporaceae, Acarospora sinopica, lignicolous lichens.
33264Aptroot A., Stapper N. J., Košuthová A. & van Herk K. (C.M.) (2021): Lichens as an indicator of climate and global change. - In: Letcher T. M. (ed.), Climate Change. Observed Impacts on Planet Earth. Third Edition, p. 483–497, Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-821575-3.00023-2.
chapter in book; Lichens are unequivocally responding to global change. Direct effects are so far apparent during the past three decades (since c. 1990) and in the temperate regions only. Interestingly, contrasting responses of lichens and other cryptogams to recent changes have been reported. Lichens have indirectly suffered from global change effects in arctic regions. In this chapter, predicted, observed, and uncertain effects related to lichen and climate change are discussed together with the habitats of vulnerable lichens, with special attention to mountain tops in the tropics—the most likely place for possible extinction of lichens as a result of global warming. The most severe effects of climate change, leading to probable extinctions, is expected (but has not been observed as yet) on high mountains in tropical regions.
33263Lavoie A. (2020): Arthrosporum, un genre de lichen nouveau pour le Québec. - Le Naturaliste Canadien, 138(2): 43–45. .
A specimen of crustose lichen collected on Mont Saint-Hilaire (regional county municipality of La Vallée-du-Richelieu, Québec) in 1996 and initially identified as Bacidia schweinitzii, was recently reidentified as being the poplar dot lichen (Arthrosporum populorum). This represents a new species and genus for the province. The population was rediscovered during fieldwork conducted in 2013. Keywords: Arthrosporum populorum, Mont Saint-Hilaire, poplar dot lichen, Populus tremuloides, Tilia americana
33262McMullin R.T., Dorval H.R., Gillespie L.J., Knight T.L., Lendemer J.C., Maloles J.R. & Sokoloff P.S. (2021): New and interesting Canadian lichens and allied fungi III: Reports from Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, Nunavut, Prince Edward Island, Ontario, and Quebec. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 20: 7–18. http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/op/biblio_list.php?BucVolume_tab=20.
New provincial and territorial records for Canadian lichens and allied fungi are presented, many of which represent major range extensions. Crespoa crozalsiana is reported for the first time from Canada. New reports are made for the first time from five provinces and one territory: Newfoundland and Labrador (Geltingia associata on Ochrolechia), Nova Scotia (Abrothallus santessonii on Platismatia glauca, Mycocalicium albonigrum, Pertusaria superiana, Physcia thomsoniana, Ramboldia elabens), Nunavut (Hypogymnia apinnata, Tuckermanopsis subalpina), Ontario (Cladonia asahinae, C. kanewskii, Crespoa crozalsiana), Prince Edward Island (Lepraria caesiella, P. superiana), and Quebec (Chaenothecopsis exilis). Geltingia associata is also reported for the first time from the Canadian Low Arctic and Lecidella scabra is reported for the first time from mainland Nova Scotia. Keywords. – Arctic, Arviat, Beverly Swamp, Canadian Museum of Nature Natural Heritage Campus, Biogeography, calicioids, Kejimkujik National Park and National Historic Site, limestone barrens, Ouimet Canyon Provincial Park, Silver Creek Conservation Area.
33261Petrova K., Kello M., Kuruc T., Backorova M., Petrovova E., Vilkova M., Goga M., Rucova D., Backor M. & Mojzis J. (2021): Potential effect of Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf extract and metabolite physodic acid on tumour microenvironment modulation in MCF-10A cells. - Biomolecules, 11: 420 [21 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11030420.
Lichens comprise a number of unique secondary metabolites with remarkable biological activities and have become an interesting research topic for cancer therapy. However, only a few of these metabolites have been assessed for their effectiveness against various in vitro models. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the effect of extract Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf (PSE) and its metabolite physodic acid (Phy) on tumour microenvironment (TME) modulation, focusing on epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) transformation and angiogenesis. Here, we demonstrate, by using flow cytometry,Western blot and immunofluorescence microscopy, that tested compounds inhibited the EMT process in MCF-10A breast cells through decreasing the level of different mesenchymal markers in a time- and dose-dependent manner. By the same mechanisms, PSE and Phy suppressed the function of Transforming growth factor beta (TGF- )-stimulated fibroblasts. Moreover, PSE and Phy resulted in a decreasing level of the TGF- canonical pathway Smad2/3, which is essential for tumour growth. Furthermore, PSE and Phy inhibited angiogenesis ex ovo in a quail embryo chorioallantoic model, which indicates their potential anti-angiogenic activity. These results also provided the first evidence of the modulation of TME by these substances. Keywords: tumour microenvironment; EMT; MCF-10A; fibroblasts; HUVECs; angiogenesis; lichens; secondary metabolites.
33260Gorczak M., Siedlecki I., Błocka Z., Cullen M., Daniele I., Fox H., Harder C., Kinnunen J., Kochanowski M., Krisai-Greilhuber I., Majchrowska M., Meiere D., Oberhofer M., Schigel D., Senn-Irlet B., Wiktorowicz D., Wrzosek M. & Pawłowska J. (2020): 18th Congress of European Mycologists Bioblitz 2019 – Naturalists Contribute to the Knowledge of Mycobiota and Lichenobiota of Białowieża Primeval Forest. - Acta Mycologica, 55(2): 55211 [26 p.]. https://doi.org/10.5586/am.55211 .
A total of 561 records of 233 species of fungi are reported from the Polish part of Białowieża Forest as a result of a short-term inventory that was conducted during the 18th Congress of European Mycologists (September 18–29, 2019). Four species new to Poland (Bryocentria brongniartii, Tremella coppinsii, T. hypocenomycis, and Zevadia peroccidentalis), and eight species new to Białowieża Primeval Forest (Hypomyces chrysostomus, Hypomyces rosellus, Lachnellula resinaria, Peniophora lycii, Phellinus viticola, Phlebia subochracea, Pronectria anisospora, and Typhula quisquiliaris) were recorded. Keywords: fungal diversity; lichen diversity; new species; endangered species; short-term inventory; rapid inventory; Białowieża Forest.
33259Thüs H., Killmann D., Leh B. & Fischer E. (2018): Verrucaria hunsrueckensis (Verrucariaceae, lichenized Ascomycota), a new rare species with exceptionally slender ascospores from Germany. - Phytotaxa, 345(1): 26–34. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.345.1.3.
The lichenized fungus Verrucaria hunsrueckensis (Verrucariaceae, Ascomycota) is described and distinguished from similar lichens by ascospores with an exceptionally large length to width ratio, brown and small exciple, distinct involucrellum, goniocyst- like thallus structure, growth on acidic siliceous rocks and characteristic motives in sequences of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region. The new species is known from only one site in the Hunsrück-Hochwald National Park (Rhineland Palatinate, Germany), where it grows on quartzitic rocks in half shaded situations at the margin of rock screes in an old growth forest. Its discovery supports the view that within the Verrucariaceae some well recognizable species may be naturally rare and their sites worthy of protection. Keywords: Hunsrück-Hochwald National Park, cryptic speciation, conservation, ascospore shape.
33258Orange A. (2020): The Verrucaria aethiobola group (lichenised Ascomycota, Verrucariaceae) in North-west Europe. - Phytotaxa, 459(1): 1–15. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.459.1.1.
Material which has been ascribed to the freshwater species Verrucaria aethiobola or V. latebrosa is shown to comprise three cryptic species, based on ITS and mtSSU sequences. The names V. aethiobola and V. latebrosa are applied to two of these, and epitypes are selected to fix the application of the names. The third cryptic species is described as V. tephromela. In addition, V. anziana is confirmed as a separate species, of which most specimens can be identified by the thick thallus and poorly developed involucrellum. A related non-aquatic species found on calcareous stones is described as V. pallidomurina.
33257Stapper N.J. (2021): Flechten. - In: Schmitz U., Stapper N.J., Stevens M., Wirooks L., Diestelhorst O. & Busch J., Klimafolgenmonitoring Landeshauptstadt Düsseldorf 2020 - Untersuchungen der Auswirkungen des Klimawandels auf ausgewählte Gruppen der Tier- und Pflanzenwelt, p. 17–53, Umweltamt der Stadt Düsseldorf. http://www.ulfschmitz.de/Klimafolgenmonitoring_Duesseldorf_2020_Gesamtgutachten.pdf.
[in German]; technical report on monitoring of changing climate in city of Düsseldorf including voluminous treatment on a changing lichen biota
33256John V. & Stapper N. (2020): Epiphytische Flechten und Moose an Schwarznuss (Juglans nigra) in 3 Auwäldern am Rhein bei Hördt in der Pfalz. - In: Jotz S., Konold W., Segatz E., Mazomeit J., John V. & Stapper N., Untersuchungen über die Integration der Schwarznuss (Juglans nigra L.) in die Waldökosysteme der Pfälzer Rheinebene, p. 59–144, Zentralstelle der Forstverwaltung. Forschungsanstalt für Waldökologie und Forstwirtschaft. https://repository.publisso.de/resource/frl:6424717/data.
[in German]; chapter in book; Epiphytic lichens and bryophytes on Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) in three alluvial forests in the Rhine river basin near Hördt (Palatinate)
33255Shaw A.J. (1992): The evolutionary capacity of bryophytes and lichens. - In: Bates J.W. & Farmer A.M. (eds), Bryophytes and lichens in a changing environment, p. 362–380, Clarendon Press, Oxford. .
chapter in book; summary and conclusions: The question of what constitutes an individual is the most pressing issue in the evolutionary biology of lichens. Specifically, we need to understand better the genetic and evolutionary relationships between phycobionts and mycobionts of lichen species. In addition, we need more information about genetic diversity within the mycobiont and phycobiont components of individual thalli. What are the phylogenetic relationships between phycobionts of different lichens? Do one, few, or many mycobiont genotypes contribute to the structure of lichen thalli? Is there as much genetic heterogeneity within the fungal symbionts of individual thalli as appears on the basis of the limited data now available? Lichen thalli might be better viewed as populations than as organisms. Does selection operate within lichen thalli? Is selection among thalli more comparable to classical group selection than to individual selection? In apparent contradiction to the remarkable levels of variation that appear to characterize populations oflichen thalli, there is little evidence of ecotypic differentiation between populations with regard to important environmental characteristics. Instead, physiological acclimatization appears to be of great importance for survival of lichens in varying environments. This impression may well be attributable to a paucity of researchers and incomplete information. On the other hand, thorough studies of several species where genetic differentiation was expected have failed to yield such evidence. In spite of predictions that populations of haploid bryophytes might contain low levels of genetic variability, they, too, have been shown in general to contain moderate or even high levels of electrophoretically detectable protein variation. Variation in quantitative traits also appears to be common within species and sometimes within populations. This level of variation suggests either that sexual reproduction occurs more frequently in bryophytes than has been thought, or that frequent sex is not necessary for the generation and maintenance of variability. The presence of ample variation makes it all the more remarkable that genetically specialized ecotypes appear not to be the most common response to environmental heterogeneity in this group of organisms. To the contrary, broad tolerances and the ability to acclimatize to environmental change characterize those species of bryophytes that have been studied in detail. In this important regard, bryophytes and lichens appear to bear significant similarity.
33254Glime J.M. (1992): Effects of pollutants on aquatic species. - In: Bates J.W. & Farmer A.M. (eds), Bryophytes and lichens in a changing environment, p. 333–361, Clarendon Press, Oxford. .
chapter in book; summary: If the pH is high, bryophytes can successfully compete only in areas of high aeration (e.g. Fissidens grandifrons) or low nutrients or in shaded areas where light is insufficient for higher plants (Bain and Proctor 1980). Acidification can favour bryophytes by providing more C02 and reducing absorption of metals. Ability to sequester heavy metals and radionuclides in the cell wall, as electron-dense particles, and in vacuoles permits survival of bryophytes under conditions in which many vascular plants cannot survive. Increased temperatures, on the other hand, are likely to decimate both bryophytes and lichens in areas where cool temperatures once favoured their growth. Turbidity may favour bryophytes in shallow water by reducing the light intensity, but associated abrasives can damage buds and decrease reproduction.
33253Farmer A.M., Bates J.W. & Bell J.N.B. (1992): Ecophysiological effects of acid rain on bryophytes and lichens. - In: Bates J.W. & Farmer A.M. (eds), Bryophytes and lichens in a changing environment, p. 284–313, Clarendon Press, Oxford. .
chapter in book; concluding remarks: Bark and soil acidification is caused by the total H+ ion input to the system. For epiphytes, extreme events are evened out by the buffering capacity of bark, so that the best predictions of epiphyte response are probably made on annual averages of pollutant loading. For terricolous cryptogams a similar situation may hold, depending on the intimacy of contact with the substrate. This is in contrast to SO2 effects, where episodic pollutant peaks may be of overriding importance. As each tree (individual or species) has finite buffering capacity, it may be possible to estimate the additional loading of H+ ions that will lead to acidification, the so-called critical load for the system. Many terricolous species occur on soils whose critical load for H+ is exceeded and acidification is occurring. Although some species seem to be resistant to field experimental application of acid rain, the decline of others has been described and urgent action to reduce emissions is necessary for their conservation. The problem of defining critical loads for N has not been resolved. This is determined by the biological response of the system (whereas for H+ it is the measurable chemical property of buffering capacity), which is very difficult to quantify. Nevertheless, N inputs are causing changes to cryptogam populations and work is, therefore, necessary to discover the mechanism of change. Future studies of acid rain may need to encompass the effects of predicted climatic change and CO2 rise. For instance, global climate change may lead to an increase in rainfall for parts of north-west Europe. This may lead to an increase in the total deposition of pollutants onto cryptogam communities, although pollutant concentrations may fall. It is important, therefore, that emission reduction policies take account of possible further climatic scenarios and their relationship with air pollution.
33252Lucadamo L., Gallo L., Vespasiano G. & Corapi A. (2021): The contributions of an airport and related road network to Pseudevernia furfuracea bioaccumulation of trace elements and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. - Ecological Indicators, 125: 107474 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2021.107474.
The use of a high-density lichen transplant network together with quantitative wind relationships (WQRs) made it possible to evaluate the influence of an airport and surrounding road network on the spatial variation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and trace elements at both the local and whole study area scale. WQRs clearly showed that the parking/idling/taxiing area (PIT), but not the landing/take-off zones (LTZs), as well as the north/north-east part of the road network were contributors at the whole study area scale to the spatial variation of elements like Ni, Mo and V, i.e. those associated with ultrafine particles due to their involvement in anti-wear materials, and of total PAHs. In the case of an airport, such a result can have strong management implications. Traffic also affected the concentration of the prevailing volatile organic compounds. In contrast, LTZs and high traffic density values were correlated with peaks of Zn, Mo, Cu, Co, Mn, Ni, V, Al and Sb when associated with coarse particulate matter generated by deterioration of the landing gear, fuselage, wings, runway asphalt and brakes. The remarkable percentage of high-speed winds strongly affected both the spatial distribution of anthropogenic emissions and their atmospheric dilution, resulting in a rather low level of contamination. Our results suggest that biomonitoring can be much improved when matched with WQRs and that, in the event of high wind speeds, PAHs associated with the gas phase and fine/ultrafine particles are effective contamination tracers mainly at the whole study area scale whereas trace elements reveal contamination patterns at both scales. Keywords: Airport; Road traffic; Trace elements; PAHs; Wind quantitative relationships; Particle diameter.
33251Caboň M., Galvánek D., Detheridge A.P., Griffith G.W., Maráková S. & Adamčík S. (2021): Mulching has negative impact on fungal and plant diversity in Slovak oligotrophic grasslands. - Basic and Applied Ecology, 52: 24–37. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.baae.2021.02.007.
Mulching (cutting of vegetation without removal of clippings) is used as a low-cost method for maintaining remote or abandoned grasslands in Slovakia. The likely consequence of mulching is seasonal nutrient enrichment resulting from decomposition of plant litter by saprotrophic organisms. The potential changes in biodiversity of the ecosystem caused by long-term application of mulching are to date only very poorly understood. In order to examine the impact of mulching on soil mycobiota, we compared six different grassland management regimes applied over nine years on a sub-montane oligotrophic Nardus pasture in the Central Slovakia. The diversity of soil fungi was assessed using DNA metabarcoding of the ITS2 regions of the nrRNA locus performed by Illumina MiSeq. We focused on a particular group of macrofungi which is characteristic of traditionally managed and undisturbed European grasslands, and which are often the dominant soil fungi in these habitats. These are collectively known as CHEGD fungi (the acronym of the constituent taxa: Clavariaceae, Hygrophoraceae, Entolomataceae, Geoglossaceae and Dermoloma). We compared the relative abundance and diversity of CHEGD fungi with the total fungal and plant diversity. CHEGD fungi were dominant across all management treatments. Although there were no statistical effects of treatments on total fungal richness and diversity, CHEGD fungi and vascular plants diversity and richness were lower on plots where mulching or no management were imposed, suggesting that such management regimes would have a negative impact on grassland fungi. However, no single treatment covered the total CHEGD diversity of the study, indicating that the localized use of mulching in addition to traditional managements can enhance overall diversity of grasslands in the area. Our results also suggest that the impact of mulching depends on the season when the grassland is mulched and it might be reduced by combination with other management treatments. The high relative abundance and sensitivity of CHEDG fungi in oligotrophic grasslands to management treatments makes them excellent indicators of grassland natural quality and is consistent with the ecological importance of this fungal group.
33250Carr E.C., Harris S.D., Herr J.R. & Riekhof W.R. (2021): Lichens and biofilms: Common collective growth imparts similar developmental strategies. - Algal Research, 54: 102217 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.algal.2021.102217.
Lichens are traditionally defined as a symbiotic relationship between fungi and algae and/or cyanobacteria. This union forms a unique structure called the thallus, which attaches to surfaces such as rocks and tree bark. Recent reports challenge the view that lichens are comprised of one fungus and one photobiont, and instead suggest that they are a consortium of microbes. Much of lichen biology remains unknown as most of our knowledge of lichens is limited to morphological characteristics with little to no functional analysis of lichen genes. However, lichens and biofilms share many similar physiological traits which when compared may assist in our understanding of lichens. Similarities between the two are rooted in their lifestyle, where these microbes and their extracellular products attach themselves to a surface and grow in a community structure. Biofilms and lichens alike have distinct features that allow for their lifestyle and identification, such as specific developmental patterns, formation of an extracellular matrix, and their ability to resist abiotic stressors. We argue here that one can gain insight into the cellular processes and evolutionary origins of lichens, which are currently undetermined, by applying knowledge gleaned from studies on microbial biofilms, with a particular focus on fungal biofilms. Keywords: Lichen; Biofilm; Extracellular matrix (ECM); Fungi; Fungal biofilm; Microbial development.
33249Käffer M.I., Port R.K., Brito J.B.G. & Schmitt J.L. (2021): Lichen functional traits and light influx in the analysis of environmental quality of subtropical riparian ecosystems. - Ecological Indicators, 125: 107510 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2021.107510.
Riparian forests are among the most threatened ecosystems and their conservation are essential for the preservation of biological communities. The main objective of this study was to analyze the environmental quality of riparian forest sites inserted in three environmental matrices (rural, urban, industrial) by using structural parameters and functional traits of the lichen community. Lichens were sampled in the seven forest areas, along the Hydrographic Basin of Sinos River (HBSR), using the acetate method. Structural parameters and functional traits were analyzed in all sites as well as secondary metabolites of lichen species and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and latitude. 164 species were recorded. The richness per phorophyte, coverage and diversity were higher in the sites of the rural matrix in relation to the urban/industrial matrix, as well as the richness and functional diversity. Species with Trentepohlia photobiont, crustose growth form and apothecia reproductive strategy obtained the greatest richness in the rural sites. The greatest richness of species with secondary metabolites was registered in the forest sites of the urban/industrial matrix. Functional characteristics such as luminosity and altitude significantly impacted the distribution of species in riparian forest sites. The structural parameters and functional traits alterations in the lichen community demonstrated the depreciation of the environmental quality of the forest sites of the spring towards the mouth of the main river that constitutes the Hydrographic Basin in the subtropical region. Keywords: Epiphyte communities; Functional groups; Hydrographic basin; Lichens; Riparian land use; Photosynthetically active radiation; secondary metabolites.
33248Corvalán Videla M.E., Aranibar J.N. & Greco S. (2021): Biological soil crusts from the Monte desert affect soil moisture and nutrients, and improve Leptochloa crinita grass development. - Acta Oecologica, 110: 103712 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actao.2021.103712.
Biological soil crusts (BSC) are widespread in the Monte desert. BSC, by fixing atmospheric N and retaining soil moisture, may enhance grass emergence, growth, and nutritional value. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of different functional types of BSC from the Monte desert on soil moisture and nutrients, N fixation, respiration, grass emergence, growth, and C/N. We sowed Leptochloa crinita seeds in pots with different BSC types (dominated by cyanobacteria, squamulose phycolichens, squamulose cyanolichens, gelatinous cyanolichens, and mosses) under two irrigation treatments: well watered and drought. We determined soil, BSC and grass properties related to nitrogen, phosphorus, and water cycles. In soils under BSC, we determined moisture, nitrate, and phosphate at two depths. In BSC, we determined total N, organic matter, ammonium, respiration, and δ15N. Finally, in grasses growing under BSC, we determined seedling emergence, grass biomass, C/N, and δ15N. All BSC types except cyanobacteria increased soil total N, ammonium, and respiration rates compared to bare soils under drought conditions. Cyanobacteria BSC increased soil moisture under drought conditions, while squamulose phycolichens and mosses increased it under well watered conditions. All BSC types increased underlying soil nitrate under well watered conditions, and decreased phosphate in at least one experimental condition. All BSC types improved at least one grass variable: cyanobacteria decreased C/N; squamulose cyanolichens increased emergence and decreased C/N; squamulose phycolichens increased emergence and biomass; gelatinous cyanolichens decreased C/N; and mosses increased emergence, biomass, and decreased C/N. The differential effects of each BSC type on soil and grass variables, under drought and well watered conditions, suggest the importance of BSC functional diversity on ecosystem functions of water regulation and nutrient cycling. Keywords: Lichens ; Mosses; Seedling emergence; Moisture; Nitrogen; Phosphorus.
33247Skuterud L. & Thørring H. (2021): Caesium-137 in mountain flora with emphasis on reindeer’s diet – Spatial and temporal trends. - Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 231: 106551 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2021.106551.
The present study summarizes three decades of studies on 137Cs transfer to various species of lichens, graminoids, herbs and woody plants across a ~3000 km2 area used as mountain pasture for reindeer and other ruminants. The investigation comprised of field studies covering the period 2011–2016, and a compilation of studies and data for the preceding period (1986–2010). Altogether, more than 700 individual vegetation samples were considered. For lichens, relatively fast decrease in contamination levels was observed during the first decade after the Chernobyl fallout (ecological half-time of about 3 years). For later years there seems to be a continuous re-contamination which results in a “steady state” where time-trends are mainly governed by physical decay of 137Cs. For green plants, decline in transfer factors (TF) (i.e. the ratio between activity concentration in vegetation and activity density in soil) during the period 1986–2012 was not as pronounced as for lichens: Some species showed significant decrease with time, while others did not. 25–30 years after the Chernobyl accident, 137Cs levels in lichens and green plants were significantly dependent on the levels in soil (R2 between 0.53 and 0.57), but there were also some significant differences in transfer between sampling sites. Moreover, marked variability in TFs was found between different plant species growing at the same site, whereas such differences were not found for reindeer lichens. Keywords: Chernobyl contamination; Lichens; Green plants; Transfer factors; Time series; Site variability.
33246Rawat M., Jägerbrand A.K., Molau U., Bai Y. & Alatalo J.M. (2021): Visitors off the trail: Impacts on the dominant plant, bryophyte and lichen species in alpine heath vegetation in sub-arctic Sweden. - Environmental Challenges, 3: 100050 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envc.2021.100050.
Alpine ecosystems are under increasing pressure due to tourism and recreational activities. When leaving desig- nated trails as is frequently observed, visitors can cause unintentional damage to vegetation. This study investi- gated the effect of human trampling on the dominant species of vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens along an infrequently used hiking trail in an alpine ecosystem in sub-arctic Sweden. The hypothesis tested was that prox- imity to the trail (as an effect of more people leaving the trail for a short distance compared to a longer distance) causes a decrease in species with low resistance to trampling. With a greater decrease in taller forbs and shrubs than in graminoids and prostrate plants, a greater decrease in lichen than in bryophyte species, and a change in vegetation composition. The results showed that proximity to the trail did not cause a decrease in the majority of dominant species, with none of the eight most dominant vascular plants showing any significant effects of prox- imity to the trail. One bryophyte species ( Dicranum elongatum ) among the six most commonly found decreased with proximity to the trail. Three lichen species ( Cladonia arbuscula, Cladonia uncinalis, Ochrolechia frigida ) among the eight most common species decreased with proximity to the trail. There was no evidence that taller species decreased with proximity to the trail, although the deciduous shrub Betula nana showed a tendency for a decrease. Proximity to the trail caused a greater decrease in lichen species than in bryophyte species. Multivariate analyses showed that distance from trail and transect direction had significant effects on overall vegetation composition. The level of low-intensity trampling recorded indicates that current numbers of hikers at the site can be sustained for longer periods with minimum impact on vascular plant species, but to get a more general understanding of the impact of low-intensity trampling data from additional sites are needed. Keywords: Tundra disturbance; Hiking; Mountains; Tourism; Trampling.
33245Emmer A., Le Roy M., Sattar A., Veettil B.K., Alcalá-Reygosa J., Campos N., Malecki J. & Cochachin A. (2021): Glacier retreat and associated processes since the Last Glacial Maximum in the Lejiamayu valley, Peruvian Andes. - Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 109: 103254 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsames.2021.103254.
In this study, we examine glacier retreat and associated processes in the Lejiamayu valley, central Cordillera Blanca, Peru (9.27◦S; 77.48◦W) since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Based on detailed mapping of well- preserved moraines, we reconstruct glacier extent during the LGM, the Antarctic Cold Reversal (ACR) and the Little Ice Age (LIA), being 21.34 km2 (LGM), 13.68 km2 (ACR) and 6.84 km2 (LIA). We document that glacier extent decreased to 2,86 km2 since the end of the LIA in this catchment (ice loss 58%). In addition, we explore the colonization and growth of lichens and Schmidt-hammer rock test R-values over the deglaciated surfaces, sug-gesting a relationship to possible evironmental controls rather than to the timing of the exposure. Further, we use empirical glacier velocity-based equation to estimate maximum potential future volume of the new glacial lake forming in the upper part of the valley (4725 m a.s.l.; 2.2 Mm3). We conclude that previous estimates of future lake volume might have been underestimated and that the sufficiency of the glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) mitigation measures implemented at downstream located Lake Lejiacocha (4628 m a.s.l.) should be revised in future. Keywords: Glacier retreat Glacier extent reconstruction Moraine mapping Glacial lakes Cordillera blanca ABSTRACT In this study, we examine glacier retreat and associated processes in the Lejiamayu valley, central Cordillera Blanca, Peru (9.27◦S; 77.48◦W) since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Based on detailed mapping of well- preserved moraines, we reconstruct glacier extent during the LGM, the Antarctic Cold Reversal (ACR) and the Little Ice Age (LIA), being 21.34 km2 (LGM), 13.68 km2 (ACR) and 6.84 km2 (LIA). We document that glacier extent decreased to 2,86 km2 since the end of the LIA in this catchment (ice loss 58%). In addition, we explore the colonization and growth of lichens and Schmidt-hammer rock test R-values over the deglaciated surfaces, sug-gesting a relationship to possible evironmental controls rather than to the timing of the exposure. Further, we use empirical glacier velocity-based equation to estimate maximum potential future volume of the new glacial lake forming in the upper part of the valley (4725 m a.s.l.; 2.2 Mm3). We conclude that previous estimates of future lake volume might have been underestimated and that the sufficiency of the glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) mitigation measures implemented at downstream located Lake Lejiacocha (4628 m a.s.l.) should be revised in future. Keywords: Glacier retreat, Glacier extent, reconstruction, Moraine mapping, Glacial lakes, Cordillera blanca.
33244Emsen B., Sadi G., Bostanci A., Gursoy N., Emsen A. & Aslan A. (2021): Evaluation of the biological activities of olivetoric acid, a lichen‑derived molecule, in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. - Rendiconti Lincei. Scienze Fisiche e Naturali, 32: 135–148. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12210-021-00976-4.
Many lichen secondary metabolites contributed to the feld of pharmacology as an active ingredient of diferent drugs for years. In the present study, we aimed to test the anticancer activity of olivetoric acid (OA), which we isolated from Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2). In addition, we used non-tumoral human liver cells (THLE2) to test the level of side efects of OA in vitro. For this purpose, cytotoxic (apoptotic and necrotic), oxidant, genotoxic activities and expression levels of apoptotic genes caused by diferent concentrations (12.5–400 mg/L) of OA were tested on both cells. Flow cytometric and cytotoxicity tests (MTT and LDH) revealed that OA (100–400 mg/L) had a higher rate of apoptotic efects on HepG2 cells compared to THLE2. Total oxidative stress and oxidative DNA damage levels caused by all concentrations of OA on HepG2 cells was signifcantly (p<0.05) higher compared to negative control. Trials with concentrations of 100–400 mg/L signifcantly (p<0.05) increased total antioxidant capacity on THLE2 cells compared to the control group. As a result, based on human hepatocellular carcinoma, it is hoped that OA may contribute to the combined or alternative treatment process. Keywords: 8-OH-dG · Active ingredient · Apoptosis · Lactate dehydrogenase · Necrosis · qRT-PCR.
33243Thüs H., Wolseley P., Carpenter D., Eggleton P., Reynolds G., Vairappan C.S., Weerakoon G. & Mrowicki R.J. (2021): Key roles of Dipterocarpaceae, bark type diversity and tree size in lowland rainforests of northeast Borneo—Using functional traits of lichens to distinguish plots of old growth and regenerating logged forests. - Microorganisms, 9: 541 [21 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9030541.
Many lowland rainforests in Southeast Asia are severely altered by selective logging and there is a need for rapid assessment methods to identify characteristic communities of old growth forests and to monitor restoration success in regenerating forests. We have studied the effect of logging on the diversity and composition of lichen communities on trunks of trees in lowland rainforests of northeast Borneo dominated by Dipterocarpaceae. Using data from field observations and vouchers collected from plots in disturbed and undisturbed forests, we compared a taxonomy-based and a taxon-free method. Vouchers were identified to genus or genus group and assigned to functional groups based on sets of functional traits. Both datasets allowed the detection of significant differences in lichen communities between disturbed and undisturbed forest plots. Bark type diversity and the proportion of large trees, particularly those belonging to the family Dipterocarpaceae, were the main drivers of lichen community structure. Our results confirm the usefulness of a functional groups approach for the rapid assessment of tropical lowland rainforests in Southeast Asia. A high proportion of Dipterocarpaceae trees is revealed as an essential element for the restoration of near natural lichen communities in lowland rainforests of Southeast Asia. Keywords: lichenised fungi; forest assessment; forest degradation; Sabah; SAFE; Danum; Maliau.
33242Noh J.-I., Mun S.-K., Lim E.H., Kim H., Chang D.-J., Hur J.-S. & Yee S.-T. (2021): Induction of apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells treated with the methanol extract of lichen Physconia hokkaidensis. - Journal of Fungi, 7: 188 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7030188.
Physconia hokkaidensis methanol extract (PHE) was studied to identify anticancer effects and reveal its mechanism of action by an analysis of cytotoxicity, cell cycles, and apoptosis biomarkers. PHE showed strong cytotoxicity in various cancer cells, including HL-60, HeLa, A549, Hep G2, AGS, MDA-MB-231, and MCF-7. Of these cell lines, the growth of MDA-MB-231 was concentration-dependently suppressed by PHE, but MCF-7 was not affected. MDA-MB-231 cells, triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells, do not express estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2), whereas MCF-7 cells are ER-positive, PR-positive, and HER-2-negative breast cancer cells. The number of cells in sub-G1 phase was increased after 24 h of treatment, and annexin V/PI staining showed that the population size of apoptotic cells was increased by prolonged exposure to PHE. Moreover, PHE treatment downregulated the transcriptional levels of Bcl-2, AMPK, and p-Akt, whereas it significantly upregulated the levels of cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9, and cleaved-PARP. In conclusion, it was confirmed that the PHE exhibited selective cytotoxicity toward MDA-MB-231, not toward MCF-7, and its cytotoxic activity is based on induction of apoptosis. Keywords: triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC); MDA-MB-231; MCF-7; apoptosis; anticancer; lichen; Physconia hokkaidensis.
33241Scervino J.M., Messuti M.I., Solans M. & Vobis G. (2014): Actinomicetes cultivables asociados a microecosistemas liquénicos de la selva templada valdiviana, Argentina [Cultivable actinomycetes associated to lichenized microecosystems from the temperate Valdivian rainforests, Argentina]. - Boletín de la Sociedad Argentina de Botánica, 49(4): 441–445. .
[in Spanish with English summary:] Twenty-three (23) cultivable strains of actinomycetes were isolated from the corticolous lichen species Pseudocyphellaria berberina present in the Valdivian temperate rainforest, Argentina, being twenty-one (21) endolichenic and two (2) ectolichenic. Seventeen (17) strains were identified as belonging to genera Actinoplanes (2), Dactylosporangium (1), aff. Pseudonocardia (1), Micromonospora (6), aff. Micromonospora (1) and Streptomyces (5), Streptosporangoium (1). This is the first record of actinomycetes isolated from lichenized fungi for Argentina. Key words: Actinomycetes; Argentina; Lichenized fungi; Pseudocyphellaria; Valdivian temperate rainforest.
33240García R., Laborda L., Rosato V. & Magnin L. (2015): Hongos liquenizados hallados sobre restos arqueológicos: Nuevos registros para la provincia de Santa Cruz y un nuevo registro para Argentina [Lichenized fungi found on archaeological remains. New records for the province of Santa Cruz and a new record for Argentina]. - Boletín de la Sociedad Argentina de Botánica, 50(1): 3–9. .
[in Spanish with English summary:] As part of an anthropological study, the lichenized fungi on the surface of archaeological remains from La Primavera locality in Santa Cruz province, Argentina, were identified. To achieve this, external morphological characters were observed and handmade cuts of apothecia were observed under light microscope; also the spot tests with K (potassium hydroxide), C (sodium hypochlorite) and reaction under UV light were performed. As a result, 16 species of which 2 previously cited for the province, 13 are new records for the province and Carbonea vorticosa is a new record for the country. Identifying species that grow on this type of anthropogenic substrate is relevant both for future floristic, ecological and biogeographical studies as well as for archaeological studies. Key words: Carbonea vorticosa; Archeological remains; Santa Cruz; Lichenized fungi.
33239Passo A., Vidal-Russell R., Scervino J.M. & Messuti M.I. (2018): Two new records of the family Lobariaceae (lichenized Ascomycota: Peltigerales) from Argentina. - Boletín de la Sociedad Argentina de Botánica, 53(1): 5–8. .
As part of long term studies focused in the lichenized mycobiota diversity from southern Argentina, two species of the family Lobariaceae (Peltigerales), Pseudocyphellaria pluvialis and Sticta longipes, are registered for the first time in Argentina. These species were previously reported as endemic from southern Chile. Brief descriptions, illustrations and information about the distribution and ecology of the species are provided. Key words: Distribution, diversity, Pseudocyphellaria, Sticta, South America.
33238Passo A., Díaz Dominguez R.E. & Rodríguez J.M. (2020): El género Pannaria (Pannariaceae) en la Argentina: nuevos registros y actualización del conocimiento. - Boletín de la Sociedad Argentina de Botánica , 55(3): 1–10. https://doi.org/10.31055/1851.2372.v55. n3.25727.
[in Spanish with English abstract: ] Background and aims: As part of long-term studies focused on the diversity of lichenized fungi in Argentina, a review of the genus Pannaria in the country is presented. This genus have never been studied in detail in our territory. M&M: The morphology, anatomy and chemistry of the species were studied through the review of fresh specimens collected in the field and the study of different herbarium collections, following standardized protocols. Results: Fifteen species of Pannaria are registered for Argentina, 3 of them for the first time: P. conoplea, P. malmei, and P. tavaresii. A new synonym is proposed (P. euphylla = P. calophylla). Descriptions, photographs, and actualized information on their distribution and ecology, and a key for their identification are presented. Conclusions: Most of the mentioned species were found in the Andean-Patagonian forests, with the exception of P. conoplea, P. malmei and P. tavaresii, which were found in central Argentina, in high altitude forests of Polylepis. Key words: New records, Pannariaceae, Patagonia, South America, taxonomy.
33237Alcalá-Reygosa J., Vázquez-Selem L. & Zamorano J.J. (2020): Fechamiento de flujos de lava del Holoceno tardío en el volcán Citlaltépetl (Pico de Orizaba) mediante el isótopo cosmogénico 36Cl y liquenometría e implicaciones para la cronología eruptiva [Dating the late Holocene lava flows of the Citlaltépetl volcano (Orizaba Peak) by means of the 36Cl cosmogenic isotope and lichenometry, and implications on eruptive chronology]. - Boletín de la Sociedad Geológica Mexicana, 72(1): A260919 [18 p.]. http://dx.doi.org/10.18268/BSGM2020v72n1a260919.
[in Spanish with English abstract: ] In this study we tested whether young (Holocene) lava flows can be confidently dated based on the preservation of the primary geomorphological features, the stratigraphic position and historical records. To verify this hypothesis, we combined in situ-produced cosmogenic 36Cl exposure dating and lichenometry on two lava flows from the last eruptive cycle of Citlaltépetl (Pico de Orizaba), called Lava flow “A” and “B”, previously attributed to 16th and 17th century eruptions, respectively. On lava flow “A”, the measured in situ-produced 36Cl concentrations lead to a mean age of 3.03 ± 0.70 ka, while lichenometry yields a minimum age of ~1,130 years. Regarding lava flow “B”, the measured in situ-produced 36Cl concentrations lead to a mean age of 1.45 ± 0.35 ka, whereas lichenometry gives a minimum age of ~1,000 years. The exposure ages derived from these methods indicate that both lava flows are significantly older than previously thought and therefore the combination of the preservation of the primary geomorphological features, the stratigraphic position and the historical records is not enough to determine their ages. Overall, the combination of in situ-produced 36Cl cosmic ray exposure dating and lichenometry, used for the first time in Mexico and supported by geomorphological, stratigraphic and historical record criteria, has a considerable potential for dating purposes and it could be useful to refine the eruptive history of other Mexican volcanoes. Keywords: Lava flows; in situ-produced cosmogenic 36Cl; lichenometry; lichen Rhizocarpon geographicum; Late Holocene.
33236Filippini E., Rodríguez J.M., Quiroga G. & Estrabou C. (2020): Differential response of epiphytic lichen taxa to agricultural land use in a fragmented forest in Central Argentina. - CERNE, 26(2): 272–278. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/01047760202026022733.
The seasonally dry subtropical forest, especially the Espinal forest in central Argentina (one of the most fragmented ecoregions), is affected by intensive agricultural activity. These activities are the main anthropogenic sources of atmospheric nitrogen compounds and their effects on lichens have been extensively studied, making them excellent ecological indicators. However, in the Espinal forest, the agricultural emissions are not monitored therefore analysis of the response of lichen diversity to these activities has a fundamental role in providing baseline data for monitoring. We analyzed changes in the frequency of families and genera of epiphytic lichen communities in 39 circular buffer areas at different scales comprising crop production, stock farming (feedlots), grazing and forest. Significant correlations at different taxonomic levels were detected in relation to land use. Frequency of Physciaceae increased with an increasing area of cropland to a distance of 600 m. Likewise a positive correlation was observed between the frequency of Collemataceae and the forest area. At genus level, Physcia presented a different response to livestock according to the intensity of production, since the frequency of these species increased in forest patches surrounded by grazing but decreased in areas with livestock farming where the stocking density is higher. This result could indicate an eutrophication process in the Espinal ecosystem, even for Physcia species. Our results can be used to start a list of indicator species to impact of agricultural in forest ecosystems. Keywords: Agricultural emissions; Lichen communities; Livestock farming; Nitrophytic.
33235Villagra J., Alors D. & Casanova-Katny A. (2020): Contribución al conocimiento de la biota liquénica de la Reserva Nacional Katalalixar, Patagonia, Chile [Contribution to the knowledge of the lichen biota of Katalalixar National Reserve, Patagonia, Chile]. - Gayana. Botánica, 77(1): 38–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0717-66432020000100038 .
[in Spanish with English abstract: ] Lichens are recognized as bioindicators of ecosystem processes associated with environmental disturbances. However, its evaluation in the time requires systematic records of biodiversity which are non-existent in the Katalalixar National Reserve. The aim of this study was to catalog the richness and distribution of lichen biota of Katalalixar National Reserve, not only by identifying the species but interpreting them in their ecological and biogeographic context. By random sampling in Nothofagus nitida, Pilgerodendron uviferum forests and peat bogs 70 species were identified, belonging to 32 families and 65 genera. A high number of endemism was found, with 34% of the species endemic to Southern South American and the Chilean endemic Pseudocyphellaria guzmanii constitutes a new record for the Aisen Region. Keywords: endemism; Katalalixar; lichens.
33234Ramírez Á. & Valencia N. (2020): Liquenobiota saxícola del nevado Pastoruri (Áncash, Perú) [Saxicolous Lichen biota of the Nevado Pastoruri (Áncash, Peru)] . - Revista Peruana de Biología, 27(2): 543–552. http://dx.doi.org/10.15381/rpb.v27i4.19205.
[in Spanish with English abstract: ] The saxicolous lichens from Nevado Pastoruri (Cordillera Blanca, Department of Áncash) was evaluated at September month of years 2011 and 2012. We found 28 species, grouped into 19 genera and 14 families. The Families Lecanoraceae, Parmeliaceae and Teloschistaceae presented the greatest number of genera, while the genera Buellia, Lecanora and Umbilicaria recorded higher species richness. Crustacean lichens were dominant (61% of the total), followed by foliose (32%) and fruticose (7%). Keywords: Áncash; Andes; diversity; lichens; new records.
33233Barbosa-Silva A.M., Santos L.A., Cáceres M.E.S. & Vasconcellos A. (2020): Constrictotermes cyphergaster (Blattaria, Termitidae) termite nests as substrates for lichen fixation in the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil. - Brazilian Journal of Biology, 8(3): 685–687. https://doi.org/10.1590/1519-6984.222440.
33232Ribeiro M.N.G. & dos Santos A. (1975): Observações microclimáticas no ecossistema Campina Amazônica. - Acta Amazonica, 5(2): 183–189. https://www.scielo.br/pdf/aa/v5n2/1809-4392-aa-5-2-0183.pdf.
[in Portuguese with English summary: ] Studies were carried out from March 1973 to September 1974 to ascertain the microclimate in the Amazon Campina ecosystem. This ecosystem was in biological equilibrium with its natural vegetation growing on sandy soil. The data gathered included temperature readings of soil taken from three ecologically different sites in the Campina, air temperature readings and relative humidity readings in the Campina and Campinarana. The following mean temperature variations were observed for the soil: exposed soil (sand) 16.7°C, partially exposed soil (sand under lichens) 8.8°C, unexposed soil (under vegetation) 6.1°C. The mean temperature variation of the air m the Campina was 20. 3°C, and in the Campinarana 14.QoC . The relative humidity varied between 81-90% in the Campina, and 91-97% in the Campinarana. These microclimatic variations are a partial result of the vegetation cover which limits the penetration of solar energy in these two related systems within the ecosystem.
33231Brown D.H. (1992): Impact of agriculture on bryophytes and lichens. - In: Bates J.W. & Farmer A.M. (eds), Bryophytes and lichens in a changing environment, p. 259–283, Clarendon Press, Oxford. .
chapter in book; Concluding remarks: The effects of agricultural chemicals on lichens and bryophytes deserve further study because these organisms may prove to be sensitive, selective, and convenient biomonitors of such environmental pollutants. Pesticide and fertilizer residues can be recovered from both lichens and bryophytes, which may, however, show rapid dynamic changes. Although changes in the floristic composition of treated habitats have been observed, more carefully planned studies are needed to separate the effects of direct from indirect damage. The loosely applied expression 'fertilizer effects' needs careful definition in terms of both floristic and chemical parameters, including the distinction between pH and specific chemical effects.
33230Gradstein S.R. (1992): The vanishing tropical rain forest as an environment for bryophytes and lichens. - In: Bates J.W. & Farmer A.M. (eds), Bryophytes and lichens in a changing environment, p. 234–258, Clarendon Press, Oxford. .
chapter in book; knowledge, decline, protection of bryophytes and lichens in the tropics
33229Rose F. (1992): Temperate forest management: its effects on bryophyte and lichen floras and habitats. - In: Bates J.W. & Farmer A.M. (eds), Bryophytes and lichens in a changing environment, p. 211–233, Clarendon Press, Oxford. .
chapter in book; conclusions: "Over the last 20 years it has become clear that the epiphytic communities of the older British woodlands are of great conservation importance. This is true above all of the old pasture-woodlands of varied types, which are so scarce in a European perspective that the better British examples–above all the New Forest woodlands and the best of the few remaining deer parks–are now a unique conservation resource on an international scale. However these woodlands require careful management. Wherever possible, grazing of some kind–if deer are impracticable, then cattle, pomes, or in special cases, sheep–should be reintroduced. There are numerous plans already in this direction. Without pasturing, the unique character of these woodlands will be lost for ever. The creation of new pollards is very desirable, including not only oak, beech, ash, and hornbeam pollards, but also, in appropriate cases, holly pollards, a feature hardly known outside the British Isles. New plantings of trees, or aided natural regeneration, is necessary in many cases where the tree stocking is down to rather small numbers of ancient trees without younger successors. Fortunately, the severe storms of recent years have done remarkably little damage to the ancient oaks of most of the British pasture woodlands, but more younger trees are needed in some areas to bridge the 'generation gaps' before it is too late."
33228Gilbert O.L. (1992): Lichen reinvasion with declining air pollution. - In: Bates J.W. & Farmer A.M. (eds), Bryophytes and lichens in a changing environment, p. 159–177, Clarendon Press, Oxford. .
chapter in book; [p. 177:] "So far only the initial stages of reinvasion have been observed, and these predominantly on trees in the more polluted areas. Early indications are that a narrow range of mobile, competitive species with a high reproductive capacity and a wide ecological amplitude are the first invaders of the shrinking lichen deserts. Infiltration is not uniform, high pH and eutrophicated habitats being favoured. It seems that since the rise of air pollution in the middle of the last century a general eutrophication of much of lowland Europe has taken place. Now that the masking effect of SO2 is being removed it is becoming apparent that one form of pollution has been replaced by another, with the consequence that the original pre-industrial revolution lichen flora is likely to return only locally. Reinvasion of lichen deserts is not their expansion in reverse. A hard lesson for lichenologists to grasp is that due to differential time lag phenomena their organisms can only indicate pollution abatement, not monitor it."
33227Zhurbenko M.P. (2021): Arthonia buelliae sp. nov. (Arthoniaceae, Arthoniales, Ascomycota) and other noteworthy lichenicolous fungi from the Primorye Territory of Russia. - Phytotaxa, 483(2): 183–189. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.483.2.11.
Arthonia buelliae, a gall-inducing lichenicolous ascomycete from Russia growing on Buellia stellulata, is described as new to science. The species is characterized by immersed ascomata, I+ blue then reddish-brown and K/I+ blue hymenia, 8- spored, I−, K/I− asci and (1–)2–3-trans-septate or rarely submuriform, brown, granulate ascospores. Polycoccum stellulatae is newly documented for Asia and Russia, and Sclerococcum sphaerale for Russia. To date, 41 species of lichenicolous fungi are known from the Primorye Territory of Russia, which amounts to no more than 20% of their true diversity in this region according to estimates of the spatial Lichenicolous Index. Keywords: biogeography, North-East Asia, taxonomy.
33226Marcano V. (2021): The genus Siphula Fr. (Icmadophilaceae, Lichenized Fungi) in Venezuela. - Phytotaxa, 489(1): 10–26. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.489.1.2.
Seven species of Siphula Nylander have been found in Venezuela (including Páramos and Guayana Highlands). Three species from the Guayana Highlands viz. S. chimantensis V. Marcano, S. subsimplex V. Marcano and S. subpteruloides V. Marcano are described as new to science. A key to the species is presented together with data on morphology, chemistry, variation, taxonomy, habitat and distribution. The data indicate that of the taxa reported from Venezuela, four are known only from the Guayana Highlands, one is known only from the neotropics, and two are pantropical. The high concentration of Siphula species seen in the Guayana Highlands suggests that this region constitutes an important centre for speciation and endemism for the genus. Keywords: lichens, new species, endemic species, Chimantá massif, Venezuelan Andes.
33225Santiago K.A.A., Edrada-Ebel R., dela Cruz T.E.E., Cheow Y.L. & Ting A.S.Y. (2021): Biodiscovery of potential antibacterial diagnostic metabolites from the endolichenic fungus Xylaria venustula using LC–MS-based metabolomics. - Biology, 10(3): 191 [18 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10030191.
Three species of the lichen Usnea (U. baileyi (Stirt.) Zahlbr., U. bismolliuscula Zahlbr. and U. pectinata Stirt.) and nine associated endolichenic fungi (ELF) were evaluated using a metabolomics approach. All investigated lichen crude extracts afforded antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC): 0.0625 mg/mL), but none was observed against Escherichia coli, while the ELF extract Xylaria venustula was found to be the most active against S. aureus (MIC: 2.5 mg/mL) and E. coli (MIC: 5 mg/mL). X. venustula was fractionated and tested for to determine its antibacterial activity. Fractions XvFr1 to 5 displayed bioactivities against both test bacteria. Selected crude extracts and fractions were subjected to metabolomics analyses using high-resolution LC–MS. Multivariate analyses showed the presence of five secondary metabolites unique to bioactive fractions XvFr1 to 3, which were identified as responsible for the antibacterial activity of X. venustula. The p-values of these metabolites were at the margin of significance level, with methyl xylariate C (P_60) being the most significant. However, their high variable importance of projection (VIP) scores (>5) suggest these metabolites are potential diagnostic metabolites for X. venustula for “dual” bioactivity against S. aureus and E. coli. The statistical models also showed the distinctiveness of metabolites produced by lichens and ELF, thus supporting our hypotheses of ELF functionality similar to plant endophytes. Keywords: dereplication; endolichenic; LC–MS; metabolomics; OPLS-DA; PCA; PLS-DA; Xylaria.
33224Longton R.E. (1992): The role of bryophytes and lichens in terrestrial ecosystems. - In: Bates J.W. & Farmer A.M. (eds), Bryophytes and lichens in a changing environment, p. 32–76, Clarendon Press, Oxford. .
chapter in book; the role of bryophytes and lichens in succession, energy flow, nutrient cycling, and other fundamental ecosystem processes
33223During H.J. (1992): Ecological classifications of bryophytes and lichens. - In: Bates J.W. & Farmer A.M. (eds), Bryophytes and lichens in a changing environment, p. 1–31, Clarendon Press, Oxford. .
chapter in book; life strategies of bryophytes and lichens
33222Durán J., Rodríguez A., Fangueiro D. & De los Ríos A. (2021): In-situ soil greenhouse gas fluxes under different cryptogamic covers in maritime Antarctica. - Science of the Total Environment, 770: 144557 [7 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.144557.
Soils can influence climate by sequestering or emitting greenhouse gases (GHG) such as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O). We are far from understanding the direct influence of cryptogamic covers on soil GHG fluxes, particularly in areas free of potential anthropogenic confounding factors. We assessed the role of well-developed cryptogamic covers in soil attributes, aswell as in the in-situ exchange of GHG between Antarctic soils and the atmosphere during the austral summer. We found lower values of soil organic matter, total organic carbon, and total nitrogen in bare areas than in soils covered by mosses and, particularly, lichens. These differences, together with concomitant decreases and increases in soil temperature and moisture, respectively, resulted in increases in in-situ CO2 emission (i.e. ecosystem respiration) and decreases in CH4 uptake but no significant changes inN2O fluxes. We found consistent linear positive and negative relationships between soil attributes (i.e. soil organic matter, total organic carbon and total nitrogen) and CO2 emissions and CH4 uptake, respectively, and polynomial relationships between these soil attributes and net N2O fluxes. Our results indicate that any increase in the area occupied by cryptogams in terrestrial Antarctic ecosystems (due to increased growing season and increasingly warming conditions) will likely result in parallel increases in soil fertility aswell as in an enhanced capacity to emit CO2 and a decreased capacity to uptake CH4. Suchchanges,unless offset by parallel C uptake processes, would represent a paradigmatic example of a positive climate change feedback. Further, we show that the fate of these terrestrial ecosystems under future climate scenarios, as well as their capacity to exchange GHG with the atmosphere might depend on the relative ability of different aboveground cryptogams to thrive under the new conditions. Keywords: Nitrous oxide; Methane; Carbon dioxide; Cryptogams; Trace gases; Polar areas.
33221Zaniewski P.T., Kozub Ł. & Wierzbicka M. (2020): Intermediate disturbance by off-road vehicles promotes endangered pioneer cryptogam species of acid inland dunes. - Tuexenia, 40: 479–497. doi: 10.14471/2020.40.020.
Psammophilous grassland communities of inland dunes often occurring together with common juniper scrub are among the most threatened habitat types in Central Europe. Once they were related to disturbance caused by traditional agriculture and forest management (sheep grazing, burning, litter raking and overexploitation of forests). Currently, after the above-mentioned drivers have disappeared, those communities are subjected to secondary succession leading to loss of their typical biodiversity, an important component of which are cryptogams (bryophytes and lichens). In the presented study we ask whether the recently increasing off-road activity, concentrated in dune areas, can maintain such habitats and their biodiversity or instead leads to an even faster deterioration. To answer this question, we studied the cryptogam diversity in an off-road disturbed inland dune environment of a seldom used military training area located in Central Poland. A set of vegetation samples was collected, together with a range of measured or estimated variables including soil parameters, off-road disturbance intensity and factors related to ecological succession, like common juniper scrub cover. The obtained results suggest that highest off-road intensity led to a transformation of the habitat into its very initial stage with active dune processes, while within undisturbed patches the succession led to the development of initial pine forest. The highest number of lichen and bryophyte species occurred within not or only slightly disturbed habitats. However, lichens preferred less shrub cover than bryophytes. Nevertheless, pioneer, typical psammophilous grassland species, which also include some threatened lichen species, benefited from small to medium disturbance intensity. Diverse and spatially complex off-road activity increases the number of microhabitats and can thus be a positive factor promoting the coexistence of all ecological groups of cryptogams connected with the acid inland dune environment. In our opinion, off-road activity may to some extent be used as an inexpensive nature conservation tool in order to maintain open, cryptogam-rich dune habitats. Keywords: bryophytes, disturbance, Juniperus communis, lichens, military training site, psammophilous grassland, Stereocaulon.
33220Wittig B., Müller J., Quast R. & Miehlich H. (2020): Arnica montana in Calluna-Heiden auf dem Schießplatz Unterlüß (Niedersachsen) [Arnica montana in Calluna vulgaris-heathlands on the firing range Unterlüß (Lower Saxony)]. - Tuexenia, 40: 131–146. doi: 10.14471/2020.40.008.
Keywords: Genisto-Callunetum, fire management, heathland management, military training areas, threatened plant. Dozens of terricolous lichens listed from relevés, especially Cladonia species.
33219Piscová V., Ševčík M., Hreško J. & Petrovič F. (2021): Effects of A Short-Term Trampling Experiment on Alpine Vegetation in the Tatras, Slovakia. - Sustainability, 13(5): 2750 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13052750.
Over the past decades, outdoor recreation in mountains has become progressively more important and as a result human induced potential damage has increased. Alpine communities are particularly susceptible to human recreational activities, such as tourist trampling. Although there are a number of studies that explicitly assess the effects of trampling on alpine communities, they do not reflect on terrains with a rich topography and the presence of more communities in very small areas. In this study, effects of short-term trampling on some alpine communities in the Tatras, the highest mountains of the Carpathians, were studied experimentally. Vulnerability to disturbance was compared among plant communities in terms of resistance and resilience, which are based on cover measurements. With proximity to trampling intensity, we found a significant decrease in plant cover and abundance of deciduous shrubs, lichens, and mosses. These results demonstrate that human trampling in alpine communities has major negative impacts on lichen and moss abundance and species richness. A short-term trampling experiment required several years of community regeneration. Therefore, management plans should discourage hiking activity off paths and restrict recreational activities. Keywords: tourist trampling; alpine vegetation; Tatras; resistance of vegetation.
33218Swamy C.T., Gayathri D., Devaraja T.N., Bandekar M., D’Souza S.E., Meena R.M. & Ramaiah N. (2016): Plant growth promoting potential and phylogenetic characteristics of a lichenized nitrogen fixing bacterium, Enterobacter cloacae. - Journal of Basic Microbiology, 56: 1369–1379. DOI 10.1002/jobm.201600197.
Lichens are complex symbiotic association of mycobionts, photobionts, and bacteriobionts, including chemolithotropic bacteria. In the present study, 46 lichenized bacteria were isolated by conventional and enrichment culture methods on nitrogen-free bromothymol blue (NFb) medium. Only 11 of the 46 isolates fixed nitrogen on NFb and had reduced acetylene. All these 11 isolates had also produced siderophore and 10 of them the IAA. Further, ammonia production was recorded from nine of these nitrogen fixers (NF). On molecular characterization, 16 S rRNA sequencing recorded that, nine NF belonged to Proteobacteria, within Gammaproteobacteria, and were closely related to Enterobacter sp. with a maximum similarity to Enterobacter cloacae. Each one of our NF isolates was aligned closely to Enterobacter pulveris strain E443, Cronobacter sakazakii strain PNP8 and Providencia rettgeri strain ALK058. Notably, a few strains we examined found to possess plant growth promoting properties. This is the first report of Enterobacter sp. from lichens which may be inhabit lichen thalli extrinsically or intrinsically. Keywords: Lichenized bacteria / ARA / Gammaproteobacteria / Enterobacter sp. / 16S rRNA.
33217Berger F. (2021): Flechten und lichenicole Pilze im Waldhochmoor „Bayerische Au“ im Böhmerwald (Oberösterreich, Österreich). - Stapfia, 112: 207–215. .
The lichen flora of the Pinus × rotundata wooded peat bog „Bayerische Au“ in the Austrian part of the Bohemian Forest was examined. 125 species of lichenized ascomycetes and 21 lichenicolous fungi demonstrate that this small area is a hotspot of the Austrian lichen flora, especially due to the presence of exclusively acidic substrats (peat, rich abundance of dead needlewood with rich communities of pin-stalked lichens and other deadwood or peat dwellers). Burgoa angulosa and Chaenotheca sphaerocephala are new to the Austrian species list. Biatora vacciniicola and Chaenotheca laevigata are first records for Upper Austria. Further remarkable species are Cladonia norvegica, C. crispata, C. stygia, Lecanora mughosphagneti, Thelocarpon intermediellum and Trapeliopsis percrenata. Key words: lichenized ascomycetes, Caliciales, lichenicolous fungi, peat bog, Totoholz.
33216Berger F., Malíček J., Palice Z. & Türk R. (2021): Neue und bemerkenswerte Flechtennachweise in Oberösterreich – 3. update. - Stapfia, 112: 263–273. .
Since the last additions to the „Atlas der Flechtenflora Oberösterreichs“ (Berger et al. 2010) listed by Berger & PriemeTzhofer (2014) and Berger (2017, 2019) we were able to detect a couple of lichen taxa new to Upper Austria. Wadeana minuta was detected the first time in Central Europe. Agonimia borysthenica, Lecanora stanislai and Micarea byssacea are new records for Austria. Biatora mendax, B. vernalis, Caloplaca asserigena, Chaenotheca laevigata, Cliostomum haematommatis, Lecanora jamesii, Lecidea erythrophaea, Mycoblastus caesius, Porina pseudohibernica, Puttea margaritella, Rhizocarpon postumum, Rostania occultata var. populina, Scoliciosporum curvatum, and Vezdaea stipitata are recorded for the first time in Upper Austria. Pannaria rubiginosa was detected the first time in Austria in this millenium, in the some area also Mycoporum fuscocinereum, known in Upper Austria only from the 19th century was present. In a short appendix a list of previous additions is given, including their references. Key words: lichenized ascomycetes, new records, Pannaria rubiginosa.
33215Dołęgowska S., Gałuszka A. & Migaszewski Z.M. (2021): Significance of the long-term biomonitoring studies for understanding the impact of pollutants on the environment based on a synthesis of 25-year biomonitoring in the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland. - Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 28: 10413–10435. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-11817-6.
This review presents compiled results of complex biomonitoring studies that have been conducted in the Holy Cross Mountains, southcentral part of Poland, since the 1990s. The significance of these studies results from several aspects: (i) a number and a variety of plant organisms used, e.g., mosses, lichens, coniferous and deciduous trees, and their tissues (wood, bark, needles, leaves, the aboveground parts of several vascular plants); (ii) applications of a broad scope of instrumental methods aiming at determining major and trace elements (including rare earth elements), organic compounds (PAHs, PCBs, phenols), and stable sulfur isotopes (δ34S); and (iii) different methodological and environmental issues addressed. The comparison and interpretation of results derived from seventeen sampling campaigns carried out between 1994 and 2017 are a valuable source of information on the following: (i) bioaccumulative properties of organisms used in air quality monitoring, (ii) identification and variations of local and regional pollution sources and geochemical landscape patterns and processes over years, and (iii) establishing environmental factors that variously affected chemical composition of plants growing under physiological stress, including roadside vegetation and plants from acid mine drainage areas. Keywords: Biomonitoring . Plants . Holy Cross Mountains . Major and trace elements . Organic compounds . Stable sulfur isotopes.
33214Li Y. & Hu C. (2020): Biogeographical patterns and mechanisms of microbial community assembly that underlie successional biocrusts across northern China. - npj Biofilms and Microbiomes, 7: 15 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41522-021-00188-6.
Biocrusts play critical eco-functions in many drylands, however it is challenging to explore their community assembly, particularly within patched successional types and across climate zones. Here, different successional biocrusts (alga, lichen, and mossdominated biocrusts) were collected across the northern China, and assembly of biocrust microbial communities was investigated by high-throughput sequencing combined with measurements of soil properties and microclimate environments. Bacterial and eukaryotic communities showed that the maximum and minimum community variation occurred across longitude and latitude, respectively. In the regions where all three stages of biocrusts were involved, the highest community difference existed between successional stages, and decreased with distance. The community assembly was generally driven by dispersal limitation, although neutral processes have controlled the eukaryotic community assembly in hyperarid areas. Along the succession, bacterial community had no obvious patterns, but eukaryotic community showed increasing homogeneity, with increased species sorting and decreased dispersal limitation for community assembly. Compared to early successional biocrusts, there were higher microbial mutual exclusions and more complex networks at later stages, with distinct topological features. Correlation analysis further indicated that the balance between deterministic and stochastic processes might be mediated by aridity, salinity, and total phosphorus, although the mediations were opposite for bacteria and eukaryotes.
33213Priya A., Kumar C.B.M., Valliammai A., Selvaraj A. & Pandian S.K. (2021): Usnic acid deteriorates acidogenicity, acidurance and glucose metabolism of Streptococcus mutans through downregulation of two‑component signal transduction systems. - Scientific Reports, 11: 1374 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-80338-6.
The principal etiological agent of human dental caries, Streptococcus mutans is a multi-virulent pathogen that can transform commensal oral microbial community to plaque biofilms. Major virulence factors that are associated with the cariogenicity of S. mutans include adhesion, acidogenicity and acidurity. All these pathogenic traits coordinate and alter the dental plaque ecology which provide room for interaction with other similar acidogenic and aciduric bacteria. This cariogenic flora increases the possibility of enamel demineralization which headway to caries development. The present study was aimed at evaluating the antimicrobial and antiinfective potential of a lichen secondary metabolite usnic acid (UA) against S. mutans. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and growth kinetics were evaluated to determine the antimicrobial potential of UA against S. mutans. UA at 5 μg mL−1 and 10 μg mL−1 concentration were considered as MIC and MBC respectively. Effect on biofilm formation was microscopically assessed and found to be reduced in a concentration dependent manner. Gene expression of gtfB, gtfC, gtfD, vicR, ComDE and smu0630 was found to be downregulated upon treatment with sub-MIC of UA. Acidogenicity, acidurity, eDNA synthesis and response to oxidative stress were found to be attenuated by the influence of UA. It was also demonstrated to act on preformed mature biofilm of S. mutans. Moreover, UA was shown to possess very low frequency to acquire spontaneous resistance development in S. mutans. Besides, no morphological aberrations or toxic effect was instigated by UA in the human buccal epithelial cells as well as to the oral commensals. Altogether, these results demonstrate the therapeutic potential of usnic acid in the treatment of S. mutans infection.
33212Loppi S., Roblin B., Paoli L. & Aherne J. (2021): Accumulation of airborne microplastics in lichens from a landfill dumping site (Italy). - Scientific Reports, 11: 4564 [5 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-84251-4.
The aim of this study was to assess if lichens (Flavoparmelia caperata) surrounding a landfill dumping site in Italy accumulated higher amounts of microplastics compared with lichens at more distant sites. Lichen samples were collected at three sites along a transect from the landfill: close (directly facing the landfill), intermediate (200 m), and remote (1500 m). Anthropogenic microparticles (fibres and fragments) were determined visually after wet peroxide digestion of the samples, and microplastics were identified based on a hot needle test; the type of plastic was identified by micro-Raman analysis. The results showed that lichens collected in the vicinity of the landfill accumulated the highest number of anthropogenic microfibres and fragments (147 mp/g dw), and consequently microplastics (79 mp/g dw), suggesting that the impact of landfill emissions is spatially limited. The proportion of fibres and fragments identified as microplastics was 40% across all sites and the most abundant polymer type was polyester or polyethylene terephthalate (68%). These results clearly indicated that lichens can effectively be used to monitor the deposition of microplastics.
33211Di Nuzzo L., Vallese C., Benesperi R., Giordani P., Chiarucci A., Di Cecco V., Di Martino L., Di Musciano M., Gheza G., Lelli C., Spitale D. & Nascimbene J. (2021): Contrasting multitaxon responses to climate change in Mediterranean mountains. - Scientific Reports, 11: 4438 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-83866-x.
We explored the infuence of climatic factors on diversity patterns of multiple taxa (lichens, bryophytes, and vascular plants) along a steep elevational gradient to predict communities’ dynamics under future climate change scenarios in Mediterranean regions. We analysed (1) species richness patterns in terms of heat-adapted, intermediate, and cold-adapted species; (2) pairwise beta-diversity patterns, also accounting for its two diferent components, species replacement and richness diference; (3) the infuence of climatic variables on species functional traits. Species richness is infuenced by diferent factors between three taxonomic groups, while beta diversity difers mainly between plants and cryptogams. Functional traits are infuenced by diferent factors in each taxonomic group. On the basis of our observations, poikilohydric cryptogams could be more impacted by climate change than vascular plants. However, contrasting species-climate and traits-climate relationships were also found between lichens and bryophytes suggesting that each group may be sensitive to diferent components of climate change. Our study supports the usefulness of a multitaxon approach coupled with a species traits analysis to better unravel the response of terrestrial communities to climate change. This would be especially relevant for lichens and bryophytes, whose response to climate change is still poorly explored.
33210Etayo J. & López de Silanes M.E. (2020): Hongos liquenícolas del norte de Portugal, especialmente del Parque Natural Montesinho [Lichenicolous fungi from Northern Portugal, specially from Montesinho Natural Park]. - Nova Acta Científica Compostelana (Bioloxía), 27: 35–50. .
A total of 48 lichenicolous fungi is recorded from Montesinho Natural Park, northern Portugal. Chalara ramalinae growing on Ramalina is newly described. Trichonectria australis growing on Usnea is recorded for the first time from Europe. Opegrapha rotunda is a first record for the Iberian Peninsula. Cryptocoryneum condensatum is for the first time recorded as lichenicolous. Furthermore, we record here 59 lichen species, many of them with interesting lichenicolous fungi, and some of chorological interest to Portugal. Keywords: biodiversity, lichens, biogeography, Iberian Peninsula, taxonomy.
33209Moncada B., Mercado-Díaz J. A., Smith C. W., Bungartz F., Sérusiaux E., Lumbsch H.T. & Lücking R. (2021): Two new common, previously unrecognized species in the Sticta weigelii morphodeme (Ascomycota: Peltigeraceae). - Willdenowia, 51: 35–45. https://doi.org/10.3372/wi.51.51103.
Sticta is a subcosmopolitan genus most diverse in the tropics. Traditionally, many taxa were considered to be widespread and morphologically variable, following broadly circumscribed morphodemes. Among these is the S. weigelii morphodeme, characterized by a cyanobacterial photobiont and rather narrow, flabellate to truncate or tapering lobes producing predominantly marginal isidia. Molecular phylogenetic analyses focusing on the ITS fungal barcoding marker revealed that this morphodeme represents several species, some of which are only distantly related to each other. Here we describe two species and one subspecies of this morphodeme as new to science, based on analysis of 400 specimens, for 344 of which we generated ITS barcoding data. The two new species, S. andina and S. scabrosa, are broadly distributed in the Neotropics and also found in Hawaii, where the latter is represented by the new subspecies, S. scabrosa subsp. hawaiiensis; in the case of S. andina, the species is also found in the Azores. Sticta andina exhibits high phenotypic variation and reticulate genetic diversification, whereas the phenotypically rather uniform S. scabrosa contains two main haplotypes, one restricted to Hawaii. Sticta andina occurs in wellpreserved montane to andine forests and paramos, whereas the two subspecies of S. scabrosa are found in tropical lowland to lower montane forests, tolerating disturbance and extending into anthropogenic habitats. Key words: Ascomycota, Azores, Hawaii, Neotropics, Peltigeraceae, Sticta, Sticta weigelii.
33208Dobslaw D., Woiski C., Kiel M., Kuch B. & Breuer J. (2021): Plant uptake, translocation and metabolism of PBDEs in plants of food and feed industry: A review. - Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology, 20: 75–142. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11157-020-09557-7.
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have widely been used for decades as flame retardants in a variety of products like plastics for building insulation, upholstered furniture, electrical appliances, vehicles, aircrafts, polyurethane foams, textiles, cable insulation, appliance plugs and various technical plastics in concentrations of 5–30%. However, PBDEs also act as endocrine disrupters, neurotoxins, and negatively affect fertility. In 2001, worldwide consumption of technically relevant penta-BDEs was still estimated at 7500 tons, octa-BDEs at 3790 tons, and deca-BDE at 56,100 tons, but 50–60% of this total volume are discharged into the environment via sewage sludge and its agricultural use alone. In addition, soils are ubiquitously contaminated by the gaseous or particle-bound transport of PBDEs, which today has its main source in highly contaminated electronic waste recycling sites. The emitted PBDEs enter the food chain via uptake by the plants’ roots and shoots. However, uptake and intrinsic transport behaviour strongly depend on crop specifics and various soil parameters. The relevant exposure and transformation pathways, transport-relevant soil and plant characteristics and both root concentration factors (RCF) and transfer factors (TF) as derivable parameters are addressed and quantified in this review. Finally, a simple predictive model for quantification of RCF and TF based on log KOW values and the organic content of the soil/lipid content of the plants is also presented. Keywords: Plant uptake; Translocation; Root concentration factor;  PBDE; Shoot concentration factor; Food industry.
33207Galanina I.A., Ezhkin A.K. & Ohmura Y. (2021): The genus Rinodina (Physciaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) of the Sakhalin Island. - Ботанический журнал [Botanicheskii Zhurnal], 106(2): 147–165. DOI: 10.31857/S0006813621020034.
The presented work is based on the study of extensive material collected by A.K. Ezhkin in 2011–2018 from Sakhalin Island and herbarium specimens (VLA). As a result of the study, the new list of species of the genus Rinodina for Sakhalin Island consists 24 taxa. One species, Rinodina albertana Sheard, is new to Northeast Asia and Russia, 8 taxa are new to Sakhalin Island. The species are discussed with respect to their distribution in Northeast Asia and North America. Brief descriptions of rare species (R. albertana, R. buckii Sheard, and R. endospora Sheard) found on Sakhalin Island are made. The record of R. exigua (Ach.) Gray for Sakhalin Island (Galanina, 2013) belongs to R. freyi. Keywords: lichens, Physciaceae, biodiversity, endemism, distribution, Northeast Asia, North America
33206Markham J. & Fernández Otárola M. (2021): Bryophyte and lichen biomass and nitrogen fixation in a high elevation cloud forest in Cerro de La Muerte, Costa Rica. - Oecologia, 195: 489–497. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-020-04840-4.
Cloud forests have been found to lose more nitrogen in stream discharge than they gain from atmospheric deposition. They also support a large diversity and biomass of tree epiphytes, predominately composed of cryptogams. Since cryptogam epiphytes harbor nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria, they may help make up for the nitrogen loss from ecosystems. We assessed cryptogam biomass on the ground, boles and branches in Quercus costaricensis dominated stands near the tree line in the Cordillera de Talamanca, Costa Rica. Nitrogen fixation was assayed using 15N2 uptake. Total cryptogam biomass was 2 977 kg ha−1, with 67% being found on the lower branches. Bryophytes and chlorolichens made up 53% and 44%, respectively, of the biomass. Half of the bryophyte mass was composed of the liverwort Plagiochila heterophylla, and 66% of the chlorolichen of Lobariella pallida. There were no significant differences in nitrogen fixation rates between the cryptogam species, with a mean rate of 5.04 µg N g−1 day−1 during the predominantly wet condition in the forest. The overall nitrogen input from fixation was 6.1 kg N ha−1 year−1, of which 78% came from bryophytes, 18% from chlorolichens, and 4% from cyanolichens. Only 2.0% of the fixation occurred in cryptogams on the ground, whereas 67%, 24%, and 7% occurred on the lower branches, boles, and upper branches, respectively. These results show that tree epiphytes constitute a significant source of nitrogen for these forests, due to the trees’ large surface area, and can make up for the nitrogen lost from these ecosystems. Keywords Liverworts · Associative nitrogen fixation · Chlorolichens · Montane forest · Oak forest epiphytes · Quercus costaricensis.
33205Kukwa M. & Oset M. (2021): (2795) Proposal to conserve the name Ochrolechia szatalaensis against Pertusaria poriniza (lichenized Ascomycota: Pertusariales, Ochrolechiaceae). - Taxon, 70(1): 204–205. https://doi.org/10.1002/tax.12432.
Nomenclature
33204Fryday A.M., Spribille T. & Tønsberg T. (2021): (2794) Proposal to conserve the name Coccotrema against Lepolichen (Ascomycota, Lecanoromycetes, Coccotremataceae). - Taxon, 70(1): 203–204. https://doi.org/10.1002/tax.12431.
Nomenclature
33203Boch S., Saiz H., Allan E., Schall P., Prati D., Schulze E.-D., Hessenmöller D., Sparrius L. & Fischer M. (2021): Direct and indirect effects of management intensity and environmental factors on the functional diversity of lichens in Central European forests. - Microorganisms, 9: 463 [18 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9020463.
Using 642 forest plots from three regions in Germany, we analyzed the direct and indirect effects of forest management intensity and of environmental variables on lichen functional diversity (FDis). Environmental stand variables were affected by management intensity and acted as an environmental filter: summing direct and indirect effects resulted in a negative total effect of conifer cover on FDis, and a positive total effect of deadwood cover and standing tree biomass. Management intensity had a direct positive effect on FDis, which was compensated by an indirect negative effect via reduced standing tree biomass and lichen species richness, resulting in a negative total effect on FDis and the FDis of adaptation-related traits (FDisAd). This indicates environmental filtering of management and stronger niche partitioning at a lower intensity. In contrast, management intensity had a positive total effect on the FDis of reproduction-, dispersal- and establishment-related traits (FDisRe), mainly because of the direct negative effect of species richness, indicating functional over-redundancy, i.e., most species cluster into a few over-represented functional entities. Our findings have important implications for forest management: high lichen functional diversity can be conserved by promoting old, site-typical deciduous forests with a high richness of woody species and large deadwood quantity. Keywords: beech forest; conifer forest; environmental filtering; forest management intensity; functional trait; habitat heterogeneity; lichen functional diversity; over-redundancy; structural equation modeling; temperate forest.
33202Gheza G., Di Nuzzo L., Vallese C., Barcella M., Benesperi R., Giordani P., Nascimbene J. & Assini S. (2021): Morphological and chemical traits of Cladonia respond to multiple environmental factors in acidic dry grasslands. - Microorganisms, 9: 453 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9020453.
Terricolous lichen communities in lowlands occur especially in open dry habitats. Such communities are often dominated by species of the genus Cladonia, which are very variable in morphology, reproduction strategies, and secondary metabolites. In this work, we investigated traits-environment relationships considering vegetation dynamics, substrate pH, disturbance, and climate. A total of 122 plots were surveyed in 41 acidic dry grasslands in the western Po Plain (Northern Italy). Relationships between Cladonia traits and environmental variables were investigated by means of a model-based Fourth Corner Analysis. Thallus morphology and metabolites responded to vegetation dynamics, substrate pH, disturbance, and climate, whereas reproduction strategies responded only to vegetation dynamics. Traits’ correlations with vegetation dynamics elucidate their colonization patterns in open dry habitats or suggest biotic interactions with bryophytes and vascular plants. In addition, correlations between metabolites and environmental factors support interpretations of their ecological roles. Our results also stress the importance of studying traits’ relationships with climatic factors as an alert towards lichen reactions to climate change. Keywords: lichens; open dry habitats; reproduction strategy; secondary metabolites; species traits; thallus growth forms; vegetation dynamics.
33201Fischer P. (1998): Sandtrockenrasen von Binnendünen in der Unteren Mittelelbe-Niederung zwischen Dömitz und Boizenburg. - Tuexenia, 18: 119–151. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Tuexenia_NS_18_0119-0151.pdf.
Dry sand grasslands on inland dunes in the Lower-Middle Elbe Valley between Dömitz and Boizenburg. This paper deals with the flora and vegetation of dry sand grasslands of three large inland dunes east of the river in the Elbe basin between Dömitz and Boizenburg. The Spergulo-Corynephoretum occurs everywhere on open sandy sites out of the reach of ground- water and of the high-water level of the river. The soils show low contents of humus and low pH values. The dune slopes near Gothmann and especially those near Klein Schmölen show a distinct zonation pattern from open Corynephorus canescens communities on the top to dense grassland communities on the lower slopes, which are influenced by groundwater or by the high-water level of the river. The following sequence could be distinguished: 1) The Koeleria glauca-Carex arenaria community (Corynephorion canescentis) on relatively dry top and upper slope; 2) a Cladonia rangiformis-Rumex acetosella community (Koelerio-Corynephoretea) next downslope; 3) a Sedum reflexum-Hypnum cupressiforme community further downslope, and finally 4) an Allium angulosum-Sedum sexangulare community and the Diantho deltoides-Armerietum elongatae (Armerion elongatae) at the foot of the slope. This vegetation zonation coincides with increasing pH values, C contents and moisture of the soil. Small-scale differences in vegetation pattern and vegetational transitions are described in terms of variants and lower units. Transect analyses illustrate in detail the vegetation sequence in relation to soil conditions. Keywords: Dry sand grassland, dunes, Elbe basin, Koelerio-Corynephoretea, lichen synusiae, soil gradient, transect analysis.
33200Candoussau F., Boqueras M., Gómez-Bolea A., Læssøe T., Lowen R., Rogers J.D., Rossman A.Y. & Samuels G.J. (2007): Observations on Neobarya, including new species and new combinations. - Sydowia, 59: 179–215. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Sydowia_59_0179-0215.pdf.
New combinations and new species are proposed in Neobarya: N. aurantiaca comb. nov., N. byssicola comb. nov., N. lichenicola comb. nov., N. lutea sp. nov., N. peltigerae sp. nov., N. xylariicola sp. nov. Neobarya agaricicola, and N. parasitica are redescribed. Anamorphs associated with N. agaricicola (Calcarisporium), N. aurantiaca (paecilomyces-like), N. byssicola (Diploospora), N. danica (lecanicillium-like), N. parasitica (lecanicillium-like), N. peltigerae (acremonium-like), and N. xylariicola (Calcarisporium) are described. Barya montana and B. salacensis are excluded from Neobarya. A key to species is provided.
33199Lumbsch H.T. & Mietzsch H. (1990): Interessante Funde von Flechten und Flechtenparasiten in Hessen. - Jahrbücher des Nassauischen Vereins für Naturkunde, 112: 67–84. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Jahrbuch-Nassauischen-Verein-Naturkunde_112_0067-0084.pdf.
Distribution records for 26 lichenicolous and lichen-forming fungi are given. Among the mentioned species two are lichenicolous unlichenzed fungi and 24 are lichens. Arthrorhaphis grisea and Lecanora soralifera are new records for the Taunus Mts. and L. swartzii is new to the Rhön. Caloplaca subpallida, Carbonea vitellinaria, Cladonia cryptochlorophaea, Lepraria crassissima, Micarea leprosula, M. lutulata, Peltigera ponojensis and Placynthiella icmalea are reported from Hessen. Lichenostigma rugosum is reported for the first time from the Federal Republic of Germany.
33198Haupt W. (1987): Die aktuelle Vegetation der östlichen Lechtaler Alpen: III. Rasen-, Weide- und Hochstaudengesellschaften. - Veröffentlichungen des Tiroler Landesmuseums Ferdinandeum, 67: 11–55. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/VeroeffFerd_67_0011-0055.pdf.
The associations of lawns and meadows are described with regard to their floristic composition.The publication is an attempt to show the connections between the several associations and the effect of anthropologic influence upon them. Referring to the association of the Elynetum a new nomenclature of subassociations is tried. Farther there is given a new classification of variants of the Dryadeto-Firmetum and the nomination of the Ligusticum-meadow as a new association of meadows. Several terricolous macrolichens of (sub)alpine meadows listed in the relevés
33197Thimm I. (1953): Die Vegetation des Sonnwendgebirges (Rofan) in Tirol (subalpine und alpine Stufe). - Berichte des naturwissenschaftlichen-medizinischen Verein Innsbruck, 50: 5–166. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/BERI_50_0005-0166.pdf.
Alps; alpine vegetation study; nunatakks; several notes on remarkable lichens included
33196Rakete R. (1911): Bryologische und lichenologische Beobachtungen im Süden der Görlitzer Heide. - Abhandlungen der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft zu Görlitz, 27: 413–487. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Abh-naturforsch-Ges-Goerlitz_27_0413-0487.pdf.
33195Langerfeldt J. (1940): Alpine Flechtenheiden im Gebiet des Patscherkofels. - Jahrbuch des Vereins zum Schutze der Alpenpflanzen und -Tiere, 12: 22–30. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Jb-Verein-Schutz-Alpenpfl-Tiere_12_1940_0022-0030.pdf.
alpine lichen vegetation; Alps
33194Simonis (1864): Cetraria islandica L.. - Archiv der Freunde des Vereins Naturgeschichte in Mecklenburg, 18: 190–191. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Archiv-Freunde-Ver-Naturgesch-Mecklenburg_18_1864_0190-0191.pdf.
33193Ritschel G. (1974): Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Verbreitung xero- und basiphiler Erdflechten in Mainfranken. - Abhandlungen des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins Würzburg, 15: 7–32. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Abh-Natwiss-Ver-Wuerzburg_15_0007-0032.pdf.
Die beiden in Mainfranken recht verbreiteten epigäischen Flechtengemeinschaften Fulgensietum fulgentis Gams 1938 und Cladonietum convolutae Müller 1951 werden mit ihren Kontaktgesellschaften beschrieben. Die Mehrzahl der Vorkommen befindet sich im Muschelkalkgebiet, auf Keupergips sind nur wenige Fundorte bekannt. Das Fulgensietum fulgentis umfaßt, ähnlich wie in anderen Gebieten, eine typische und eine strauchflechtenreiche Variante, wobei letztere zum Cladonietum convolutae überleitet. Eine Gipsausbildung des Fulgensietum fulgentis konnte, da Gipsstandorte selten und flächenmäßig unbedeutend sind, nicht ausgeschieden werden; nur an einem Standort wurde die gipsspezifische Art Fulgensia bracteata nachgewiesen. Arealkarten der Assoziations- und Verbandscharakterarten veranschaulichen die Verbreitung der Gemeinschaften in Mainfranken.
33192Biermann R., Breder C., Daniels F.J.A., Kiffe K. & Paus S. (1994): Heideflächen im Raum Munster, Lüneburger Heide: eine floristisch-pflanzensoziologische Erfassung als Grundlage für Pflege- und Optimierungsmaßnahmen. - Berichte der Naturhistorischen Gesellschaft Hannover, 135: 103–159. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Ber-Nathist-Ges-Hannover_136_0103-0159.pdf.
Heathland near the town of Munster: a floristical and phytosociological study as a basis for management and amelioration. - This paper deals with flora and vegetation of four heathland areas in the immediate vicinity of the town of Munster (Soltau-Fallingbostel), Lower Saxony. The study also formulates a management plan for preservation and amelioration of the heathlands. The field work was carried out in 1991. The vegetation research followed the concepts of the Braun-Blanquet approach. The plant communities are described, with main emphasis on Nardo-Callunetea communities. Vegetation tables are included. Genisto-Callunetum cladonietosum is very common. Koelerio-Corynephoretea and Scheuchzerio-Caricetea communities, which are typical for heathlands, are also dealt with. Locally ruderal Plantaginetea majoris communities occur, mainly on sites disturbed by trampling. Moreover, a survey is presented of the synusiae of lichens and bryophytes. The lichen synusiae are rich in Cladonia species and are well developed. Species lists of vascular plants, lichens and bryophytes are given for each heathland area, with comments on their status. For some community types data are included on pH, conductivity and C/N ratio. Heathland management is surveyed and discussed. Réintroduction of sheep-grazing, combined with sod-cutting and mowing, is recommended as the most appropriate management measure. However, this form of management does not seem realistic for the area. Thus for each heathland area a detailed management plan has been worked out, which includes maps indicating sites where management measures should be implemented. Small-scale sodcutting and mowing are recommended and results should be evaluated annually. Cutting of adjacent Scots pines is recommended in order to enlarge the heathland areas.
33191Heinken T. & Zippel E. (1999): Die Sand-Kiefernwälder (Dicrano-Pinion) im norddeutschen Tiefland: syntaxonomische, standörtliche und geographische Gliederung. - Tuexenia, 19: 55–106. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Tuexenia_NS_19_0055-0106.pdf.
The pine forests on sandy soils (Dicrano-Pinion) in the northern German lowlands: Syntaxonomic, edaphic and geographic differentiation. The phytosociology of Scots pine forests on sandy soils in the lowlands of northern Germany is reevaluated on the basis of 1.096 relevés. It is shown that not only pine forests in north-eastern Germany, but also the pine forests of poor sandy soils in north-western Germany, belong to the Dicrano-Pinion Matuszk. 1962 em. hoc loco (Piceetalia abietis, Vaccinio-Piceetea). Thus, the range of this alliance extends westwards from that of the natural pine forests, i.e. those existing before the destruction of forests by man. Scots pine dominance always results in rather uniform environmental conditions. Thus, over the entire range, all Scots pine forests are rather similar. Natural old-growth pine forests, spontaneous pioneer pine woods in formerly open landscapes, and afforestations on decidious forest stands, cannot be distinguished floristically. Within the Dicrano-Pinion alliance four associations (Cladonio-Pinetum, Leucobryo-Pinetum, Empetro nigri-Pinetum, Peucedano-Pinetum) and one community (Deschampsia flexuosa-Pinus sylve- stns-community) are distinguished. The widespread Cladonio-Pinetum, Leucobryo-Pinetum and Deschampsia-Pinus community are differentiated along an ecological gradient of increasing nutrient supply. All three communities are subdivided multidimensionally according to climatic and edaphic factors. Empetro-nigri-Pinetum and Peucedano-Pinetum, which are represented only by few relevés, are characteristic of base-rich habitats with sandy soils. Consequently they are rare in the northern German pleistocenic regions. Pine forests on peaty soil, classified by many authors into the Dicrano-Pinion, are excluded from this alliance. Keywords: Cladonio-Pinetum, Dicrano-Pinion, Empetro nigri-Pinetum, Leucobryo-Pinetum, northern Germany, Peucedano-Pinetum, phytosociology, Scots pine forest, synchorology.
33190Mühl M. (1993): Zur Synsystematik der Krähenbeerheiden auf den Ostfriesischen Inseln. - Drosera, 1993: 11–32. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Drosera_1993_0011-0032.pdf.
In 1992 and 1993, the heathland vegetation on the East Frisian Islands (North- West-Germany), that is dominated by Empetrum nigrum L. was analyzed according to the Braun-Blanquet approach. All of the examined heaths belong to the Carici arenariae- Empetretum Tx. et Kawamura 1975 (Empetrion boreale, Nardo-Callune- tea). On the basis of 517 vegetation relevés the association is divided into four subassociations, namely the C.-E. festucetosum *arenariae Dierssen ex Mühl 1993, the C.-E. typicum de Smidt 1977, the C.-E. caricetosum nigrae Mühl 1993, and the C.-E. ericetosum de Smidt 1977. Within the subassociations several variants and subvariants are distinguished. The floristic and ecological characteristics of each syntaxon are given.
33189Preising E. (1953): Süddeutsche Borstgras- und Zwergstrauch-Heiden (Nardo-Callunetea). - Mitteilungen der Floristisch-Soziologischen Arbeitsgemeinschaft, N.F., 4: 112–123. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Mitt-flori-soz-Arb_NF_4_0112-0123.pdf.
heatland vegetation study; number of cryptogams listed from relevés
33188Daniels F.J.A., Biermann R. & Breder C. (1993): Über Kryptogamen-Synusien in Vegetationskomplexen binnenländischer Heidelandschaften. - Berichte der Reinhold-Tüxen-Gesellschaft, 5: 199–219. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Ber-Reinh-Tuexen-Ges_5_0199-0219.pdf.
Terricolous lichen- and moss-synusiae were studied in dry heathlands in the western European Lowlands. Four types are dealt with. The pioneer Placynthiella uliginosa synusium occurs on open, humic soil. It is succeeded by the Placynthiella-Cladonia glauca synusium. In older, dry heath the Cladinaportentosa synusium occurs. In moist and old heath the Hypnum-Pleurozium schreheri synusium is found. The species-rich Cladina portentosa synusium is common in the Lüneburger Heide. The occurrence of the synusia could be related to the age of the heathland. The dominance of Campylopus introflexus is discussed, just as synusial succession. Finally changes in the lichen- and mossflora of dry heathlands during this century are briefly discussed.
33187Heiselmayer P. (1985): Zur Vegetation stark beweideter Gebiete in den Radstädter Tauern (Hinterstes Kleinarltal, Salzburg). - Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien, 123: 247–262. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/VZBG_123_0247-0262.pdf.
The Tappenkar in the Radstädter Tauern (Salzburg) is a traditional pasture. In the subalpine and alpine region the Nardetum is distributed on a large area. The Aveno-Nardetum is the important association of all pasture plant communities. The typical subassociation on poor nutrient soils, the subassociation with Gentiana punctata and this with Trifolium pratense are described. The use of species-groups will be discussed. Number of cryptogams (e.g. Cladonia spp. div.) listed from phytosociological relevés.
33186Knapp R. (1944): Trockenrasen und Felsfluren Mitteldeutschlands. Teil 1. Säureliebende Sand- und Felsfluren (Corynephoretalia). - Halle (Saale), 17 p. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Vegetationsaufnahmen-Ruediger-Knapp_5_0001-0017.pdf.
phytocenology; cryptogam rich communities on sandy and rocky xerothermic sites
33185Kanz B., von Brackel W., Cezanne R., Eichler M., Hohmann M.-L., Teuber D. & Printzen C. (2015): Molekulargenetische Untersuchung zum Vorkommen der Rentierflechte Cladonia stygia in Hessen. - Botanik und Naturschutz in Hessen, 28: 5–20. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Botanik-Naturschutz-Hessen_28_0005-0020.pdf.
Molecular genetic analysis on the occurrence of reindeer lichen Cladonia stygia in Hesse [in German with English summary:] A survey conducted in 2009 reported the reindeer lichen Cladonia stygia (Fr.) Ruoss for the first time in Hesse. This species is often difficult to distinguish from the morphologically similar C. rangiferina (L.) F. H. Wigg., and its identification remains uncertain. We therefore used molecular genetic data to identify the Hessian samples of this species. Phylogenetic pedigrees based on six mitochondrial and nuclear gene loci support the distinction of C. stygia from C. rangiferina. Only two out of seven populations reported in Hesse consist of C. stygia. The other populations are formed by C. rangiferina. A targetted search for C. stygia and verification of its identification using molecular genetics are necessary steps for reliably judging the conservational status of this species in Hesse.
33184Schröder B. (1995): Die Cladonia-Arten der Ebbe-Moore/Südwestfalen. - Dortmunder Beiträge zur Landeskunde, 29: 29–32. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Dortmunder-Beitr-Landeskde_29_0029-0032.pdf.
33183Wu Y.-Y., Gao J., Zhang G.‑Z., Zhao R.‑K., Liu A.‑Q., Sun L.‑W., Li X., Tang H.‑L., Zhao L.‑C., Guo X.‑P. & Liu H.-J. (2020): Two lichens differing in element concentrations have similar spatial patterns of element concentrations responding to road traffic and soil input. - Scientific Reports, 10: 19001 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-76099-x.
Two epiphytic lichens (Xanthoria alfredii, XAa; X. ulophyllodes, XAu) and soil were sampled at three sites with varied distances to a road in a semiarid sandland in Inner Mongolia, China and analyzed for concentrations of 42 elements to assess the contribution of soil input and road trafc to lichen element burdens, and to compare element concentration diferences between the two lichens. The study showed that multielement patterns, Fe:Ti and rare earth element ratios were similar between the lichen and soil samples. Enrichment factors (EFs) showed that ten elements (Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, K, P, Pb, S, Sb, and Zn) were enriched in the lichens relative to the local soil. Concentrations of most elements were higher in XAu than in XAa regardless of sites, and increased with proximity to the road regardless of lichen species. These results suggested that lichen element compositions were highly afected by soil input and road trafc. The narrow-lobed sorediate species were more efcient in particulate entrapment than the broad-lobed nonsorediate species. XAa and XAu are good bioaccumulators for road pollution in desert and have similar spatial patterns of element concentrations for most elements as response to road trafc emissions and soil input.
33182Enkhtuya O. & Javkhlan S. (2019): Three species of Heterodermia recorded in Mongolia. - Proceedings of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences, 59(1): 57–64. https://doi.org/10.5564/pmas.v59i1.1138.
Heterodermia hypoleuca (Ach.) Trevis., H. japonica (M. Sato) Swinscow & Krog and H. subascendens (Asahina) Trass. have been recorded for the first time in Mongolia. Data on substrates, habitats, distribution are listed for every species. Taxonomic comments and distinctive characters are provided for these species. The habitats are briefly described and the frequently associated species are listed. It is interesting to note that as a result of processing hundreds of herbarium collections of lichens, numerous new species were found in Mongolia. This means that there is still a substantial gap in the knowledge, especially about the lichen flora of remote corners of the country, which are numerous. Keywords: lichen species; Heterodermia; Mountain Range; mossed granite rocks.
33181Kerboua M., Ahmed M.A., Samba N., Aitfella‐Lahlou R., Silva L., Boyero J.F., Raposo C., Lopez Rodilla J.M. (2021): Phytochemical investigation of new Algerian lichen species: Physcia mediterranea Nimis. - Molecules, 26: 1121 [21 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26041121.
The present study provides new data concerning the chemical characterisation of Physcia mediterranea Nimis, a rare Mediterranean species belonging to the family Physciaceae. The phytochemical screening was carried out using GC‐MS, HPLC‐ESI‐MS‐MS, and NMR techniques. Hot extraction of n‐hexane was carried out, followed by separation of the part insoluble in methanol: wax (WA‐hex), from the part soluble in methanol (ME‐hex). GC‐MS analysis of the ME‐hex part revealed the presence of methylbenzoic acids such as sparassol and atraric acid and a diterpene with a kaurene skeleton which has never been detected before in lichen species. Out of all the compounds identified by HPLC‐ESI‐MS‐MS, sixteen compounds are common between WA‐hex and ME‐hex. Most are aliphatic fatty acids, phenolic compounds and depsides. The wax part is characterised by the presence of atranorin, a depside of high biological value. Proton 1H and carbon 13C NMR have confirmed its identification. Atranol, chloroatranol (depsides compound), Ffukinanolide (sesquiterpene lactones), leprolomin (diphenyl ether), muronic acid (triterpenes), and ursolic acid (triterpenes) have also been identified in ME‐hex. The results suggested that Physcia mediterranea Nimis is a valuable source of bioactive compounds that could be useful for several applications as functional foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. Keywords: Algerian lichen; Physcia mediterranea Nimis; bioactive compounds; n‐hexane extract; wax; GC‐MS; HPLC‐ESI‐MS‐MS; NMR.
33180Lee S., Suh Y.J., Yang S., Hong D.G., Ishigami A., Kim H., Hur J.-S., Chang S.-C. & Lee J. (2021): Neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of evernic acid in an MPTP-induced Parkinson’s disease model. - International Journal of Molecular Science, 22: 2098 [18 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22042098.
Oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and neuroinflammation are strongly associated with the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD), which suggests that anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory compounds might provide an alternative treatment for PD. Here, we evaluated the neuroprotective effects of evernic aid (EA), which was screened from a lichen library provided by the Korean Lichen Research Institute at Sunchon National University. EA is a secondary metabolite generated by lichens, including Ramalina, Evernia, and Hypogymnia, and several studies have described its anticancer, antifungal, and antimicrobial effects. However, the neuroprotective effects of EA have not been studied. We found that EA protected primary cultured neurons against 1- methyl-4-phenylpyridium (MPP+)-induced cell death, mitochondrial dysfunction, and oxidative stress, and effectively reduced MPP+-induced astroglial activation by inhibiting the NF-κB pathway. In vivo, EA ameliorated MPTP-induced motor dysfunction, dopaminergic neuronal loss, and neuroinflammation in the nigrostriatal pathway in C57BL/6 mice. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that EA has neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects in PD models and suggest that EA is a potential therapeutic candidate for PD. Keywords: Parkinson’s disease; evernic acid; 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine; neuroprotection; neuroinflammation; anti-inflammation.
33179Braun U. & Bensch K. (2021): Annotated list of taxonomic novelties published in “Fungi Rhenani Exsiccati” Supplementi Fasc. 6 to 12, issued by K. W. G. L. Fuckel between 1867 and 1874. - Schlechtendalia, 38: 118–159. .
New taxa and new combinations published by K.W.G.L. Fuckel in “Fungi Rhenani Exsiccati” Supplementi Fasc. 6 to 12 between 1867 and 1874 are listed and annotated, supplemented by copies of the labels with the original descriptions or new combinations. References, citations and the synonymy are corrected when necessary. The nomenclature of some taxa is discussed in more detail. Key words: Fungi, nomenclature, exsiccata, protologue. Few lichenicolous and lichen-allied fungi are included as well.
33178Garrido-Benavent I., Pérez-Ortega S., de los Ríos A., Mayrhofer H. & Fernández-Mendoza F. (2021): Neogene speciation and Pleistocene expansion of the genus Pseudephebe (Parmeliaceae, lichenized fungi) involving multiple colonizations of Antarctica. - Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 155: 107020 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2020.107020.
Widespread geographic distributions in lichens have been usually explained by the high dispersal capacity of their tiny diaspores. However, recent phylogenetic surveys have challenged this assumption and provided compelling evidence for cryptic speciation and more restricted distribution ranges in diverse lineages of lichenforming fungi. To evaluate these scenarios, we focus on the fungal genus Pseudephebe (Parmeliaceae) which includes amphitropical species, a distribution pattern whose origin has been a matter of debate since first recognized in the nineteenth century. In our study, a six-locus dataset and a broad specimen sampling covering almost all Earth’s continents is used to investigate species delimitation in Pseudephebe. Population structure, gene flow and dating analyses, as well as genealogical reconstruction methods, are employed to disentangle the most plausible transcontinental migration routes, and estimate the timing of the origin of the amphitropical distribution and the Antarctic populations. Our results demonstrate the existence of three partly admixed phylogenetic species that diverged between the Miocene and Pliocene, and whose Quaternary distribution has been strongly driven by glacial cycles. Pseudephebe minuscula is the only species showing an amphitropical distribution, with populations in Antarctica, whereas the restricted distribution of P. pubescens and an undescribed Alaskan species might reflect the survival of these species in European and North American refugia. Our microevolutionary analyses suggest a Northern Hemisphere origin for P. minuscula, which could have dispersed into the Southern Hemisphere directly and/or through “mountain-hopping” during the Pleistocene. The Antarctic populations of this species are sorted into two genetic clusters: populations of the Antarctic Peninsula were grouped together with South American ones, and the Antarctic Continental populations formed a second cluster with Bolivian and Svalbard populations. Therefore, our data strongly suggest that the current distribution of P. minuscula in Antarctica is the outcome of multiple, recent colonizations. In conclusion, our results stress the need for integrating species delimitation and population analyses to properly approach historical biogeography in lichenforming fungi. Keywords: Ascomycota; Bipolar; Cryptic species; Lichen-forming fungi; Phylogeography; Species delimitation.
33177Osyczka P., Lenart-Boroń A., Boroń P. & Rola K. (2021): Lichen-forming fungi in postindustrial habitats involve alternative photobionts. - Mycologia, 113(1): 43–55. https://doi.org/10.1080/00275514.2020.1813486.
Mycobionts of many lichen genera appear to demonstrate strong selectivity in the choice of algal partner. The biological properties of a photobiont and its availability in an environment significantly determine the habitat requirements of lichens. Flexibility in photobiont choice extends the ecological amplitude of lichens; therefore, it may constitute an important adaptive strategy for colonization of extreme habitats. The photobiont inventory of the three epigeic lichens most resistant to soil pollution, i.e., Cladonia cariosa, C. rei, and the hyperaccumulator Diploschistes muscorum, was examined to verify whether and to what extent algal composition depends on the type of habitat and substrate enrichment with heavy metals. Photobionts Asterochloris and Trebouxia were identified in the studied lichen species; however, the presence of Trebouxia was directly related to anthropogenic sites with technogenic substrates, and the proportion of lichen specimens with these algae clearly depended on the level of heavy-metal soil pollution and the habitat type. The total number of algal haplotypes increased with increasing soil pollution, and the richness was associated more with soil pollution than with a given lichen species. Additionally, a large number of lichen individuals bearing multiple algal genotypes at polluted sites were recorded. Although Cladonia lichens were previously thought to be restricted to Asterochloris, they are able to start the relichenization process with Trebouxia under specific habitat conditions and to establish a stable association with these algae when colonization of disturbed sites takes place. Comparative analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA sequences revealed as many as 13 haplotypes of Trebouxia, and phylogenetic analysis grouped them into two different clades. Such a high level of genetic diversity indicates that Trebouxia is well adapted to metal pollution and could be an alternative photosynthetic partner for certain lichens, especially in polluted sites. Keywords: Algal partner; disturbed habitat; ITS; lichenized fungi; mycobiont selectivity; phylogenetic analysis; symbiotic adaptivity; Trebouxia.
33176Erken M.T., Cansaran-Duman D. & Tanman U. (2021): In silico prediction of type I PKS gene modules in nine lichenized fungi. - Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment, 35(1): 376–383. https://doi.org/10.1080/13102818.2021.1879679.
The novel biologically active molecules could play a significant role in the treatment of human diseases. Natural products have been and continue to be a major source of pharmaceuticals, and lichen secondary metabolites emerge as never-ending potential for bioactive molecules with a variety of pharmacological activities. Polyketides, which are synthesized by enzymes encoded by PKS genes, constitute the major group of these secondary metabolites. To date, there is a lack of information about identification of PKS gene modules. Functional validation studies in lichens are difficult because of the slow growth rates of lichens, the symbiotic partners of lichens cannot be cultured in the laboratory or the fact that most of them cannot be grown in culture. Consequently, the importance of genomic mining approach is increasing as a unique tool for natural product discovery studies. Here, we bioinformatically investigated the type I PKS module candidates in nine publicly available lichen-forming fungi genomes through the use of the in silico screening tools. We also predicted putative secondary metabolites produced in these lichens which indicated the pharmaceutical potential of these nine lichen-forming fungi by bioinformatics tools. Keywords: Fungi; lichen; bioinformatics; PKS; secondary metabolite.
33175Yatsyna A., Stukonis V. & Gliwa B. (2020): Lichens and allied fungi from the Praviršulio Tyrelis State Nature Reserve (Central Lithuania). - Botanica, 26(2): 160–169. .
The paper presents the results of the inventory of lichen-forming, lichenicolous and allied saprobic fungi from the Praviršulio Tyrelis State Nature Reserve. A total of 199 species were recorded, including 183 lichens, eight lichenicolous and eight non-lichenised saprobic fungi. Four lichenised species (Micarea pseudomicrococca, Parmelia serrana, Sclerophora amabilis and Thelocarpon laureri) were reported new to Lithuania. Three protected species, Cetrelia olivetorum, Cladonia parasitica and Hypotrachyna revoluta, were also observed. Keywords: biodiversity, bog, lichens, lichenicolous fungi, protected area.
33174Tedersoo L., Anslan S., Bahram M., Kõljalg U. & Abarenkov K. (2020): Identifying the ‘unidentifed’ fungi: a global‑scale long‑read third‑generation sequencing approach. - Fungal Diversity, 103: 273–293. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13225-020-00456-4.
Molecular identifcation methods, in particular high-throughput sequencing tools, have greatly improved our knowledge about fungal diversity and biogeography, but many of the recovered taxa from natural environments cannot be identifed to species or even higher taxonomic levels. This study addresses the phylogenetic placement of previously unrecognized fungal groups by using two complementary approaches: (i) third-generation amplicon sequencing analysis of DNA from global soil samples, screening out ITS reads of<90% similarity to other available Sanger sequences, and (ii) analysis of common fungal taxa that were previously indicated to be enigmatic in terms of taxonomic placement based on the ITS sequences alone (so-called top50 sequences). For the global soil samples, we chose to amplify the full rRNA gene operon using four partly overlapping amplicons and multiple newly developed primers or primer combinations that cover nearly all fungi and a vast majority of non-fungal eukaryotes. We extracted the rRNA 18S (SSU) and 28S (LSU) genes and performed phylogenetic analyses against carefully selected reference material. Both SSU and LSU analyses placed most soil sequences and top50 sequences to known orders and classes, but tens of monophyletic groups and single sequences remained outside described taxa. Furthermore, the LSU analyses recovered a few small groups of sequences that may potentially represent novel phyla. We conclude that rRNA genes-based phylogenetic analyses are efcient tools for determining phylogenetic relationships of fungal taxa that cannot be placed to any order or class using ITS sequences alone. However, in many instances, longer rRNA gene sequences and availability of both SSU and LSU reads are needed to improve taxonomic resolution. By leveraging third-generation sequencing from global soil samples, we successfully provided phylogenetic placement for many previously unidentifed sequences and broadened our view on the fungal tree of life, with 10–20% new order-level taxa. In addition, the PacBio sequence data greatly extends fungal class-level information in reference databases. Keywords: Soil fungi · Top 50 most wanted fungi · Phylogenetic diversity · PacBio sequencing · 18S rRNA gene (small subunit) · 28S rRNA gene (large subunit).
33173Biedunkiewicz A., Ejdys E., Kubiak D. & Sucharzewska E. (2021): Scientific research conducted at the Department of Mycology, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn. - Acta Mycologica, 55(2) [2020]: 5525 [19 p.]. https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1531-2739.
This paper presents a review of the research conducted by the staff of the Department of Mycology at UWM, Olsztyn since its establishment to the present. This unit was established and has been headed for over 20 years by Prof. Maria Dynowska. Since 2004, the Department has been conducting extensive mycological research, which is reflected in the dynamic growth of specialist staff involved in teaching activities and popularizing scientific research. Owing to the particular care of Prof. Dynowska, and maintenance of the principal interdisciplinary character of the research, the Department has been occupying a significant position in mycology in Poland recently. This paper attempts to provide a summary of the major scientific accomplishments of the team headed by Prof. Dynowska. Keywords: potentially pathogenic fungi; aquatic ecosystem; school environment; urban environment; lichenological studies; plant parasites; bioindication.
33172Farkas E., Biró B.,Varga N., Sinigla M. & Lőkös L. (2021): Analysis of lichen secondary chemistry doubled the number of Cetrelia W.L. Culb. & C.F. Culb. species (Parmeliaceae, lichenised Ascomycota) in Hungary. - Cryptogamie, Mycologie, 42(1): 1–16. https://doi.org/10.5252/cryptogamie-mycologie2021v42a1. http://cryptogamie.com/mycologie/42/1.
The distribution patterns of lichen secondary metabolites are often taxon specific. They represent cryptic chemical diversity additional to morphological-anatomical biodiversity. Cetrelia W.L. Culb. & C.F. Culb. species (c. 200 specimens) were checked and revised by thin-layer chromatography. Soredia, pseudocyphellae, rhizines, features of lower surface are the main morphological characters analysed against the presence of cortical pigment, atranorin and medullary α-alectoronic acid, anziaic acid, α-collatolic acid, β-alectoronic acid, β-collatolic acid, imbricaric acid, 4-O-demethylimbricaric acid, olivetoric acid, perlatolic acid, physodic acid and 4-O-methylphysodic acid. The European occurrence of C. chicitae (W.L. Culb.) W.L. Culb. & C.F. Culb. – described from America – is confirmed on the basis of identical secondary metabolite composition by seven lichen substances. Four species were revealed and mapped in Hungary. Cetrelia chicitae and C. monachorum (Zahlbr.) W.L. Culb. & C.F. Culb. are new for the Hungarian lichen flora. From the originally known two taxa C. cetrarioides (Delise) W.L. Culb. & C.F. Culb. proved to be rare, C. olivetorum (Nyl.) W.L. Culb. & C.F. Culb. is less frequent than regarded earlier. Currently C. monachorum is the most frequent Cetrelia species in Hungary. Cetrelia chicitae and C. cetrarioides may need protection measures. Parmelia cetrarioides f. pseudofallax (Gyeln.) Gyeln. is lectotypified here. Key words: Chemotaxonomy, geographical distribution, high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC), lichen-forming fungus, lichen secondary metabolites (LSMs), lectotypification.
33171Otte V. (2020): Die lichenologische Hinterlassenschaft des Mecklenburger Entomologen Friedrich Wilhelm Konow (1842–1908) im Senckenberg Museum für Naturkunde Görlitz [The lichenological legacy of the Mecklenburg entomologist Friedrich Wilhelm Konow (1842–1908) at the Senckenberg Museum of Natural History of Görlitz]. - Berichte der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft Oberlausitz, 28: 151–158. .
The lichenological legacy of the Mecklenburg entomologist Friedrich Wilhelm Konow (1842–1908) at the Senckenberg Museum of Natural History of Görlitz A party of about 130 lichen specimens from Mecklenburg (Northern Germany) at the Natural History Museum of Görlitz, collected towards the end of the 19th century, can be assigned to pastor F. W. Konow, who is known primarily as an entomologist. The bulk of the material with approx. 100 specimens is represented by collections from the year 1872 from the surroundings of the town of Tessin near Rostock, wherefrom no other historical lichen occurrence data are available. The collection comprises the only Mecklenburg material of Parmelina quercina and Caloplaca lobulata as well as further species scarcely recorded from that land. Some specimens from northern Brandenburg, Thuringia and from the Harz Mountains are also included. Keywords: Historical lichen occurrence data, citizen science, Northern Germany, collections.
33170Ansaldo D., Vergara P.M., Carvajal M.A., Alaniz A.J., Fierro A., Vargas-Castillo R., Quiroz M., Moreira-Arce D. & Pizarro J. (2021): Tree decay modulates the functional response of lichen communities in Patagonian temperate forests. - Science of The Total Environment, 771: 145360 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145360.
Epiphytic and epixylic lichens respond negatively to forest degradation, climate change and pollution, but those effects may depend on functional traits or interact with the stage of tree decay. Disentangling the main drivers of lichen communities remains a challenge in regions where lichens are diverse and poorly known, as the case of Patagonian temperate forests. We used a multi-scale approach to evaluate the relationship between environmental variables, tree decay stage and lichens. We sampled lichens across three increasing scales (tree ≪ site ≪ landscape) by selecting 19 landscape units, where trees in four decay stages (snags, logs, cavity trees and healthy trees) were selected within sampling plots. A total of 35 predictors were measured over different scales, including 25 remote sensing indices of forest conditions, climate and air pollutants. Structural Equation Models were used to test the causal linkages of predictors with lichens, distinguishing functional categories (size, growth and reproductive strategy). A total of 69 lichen species were recorded. Cavity trees and logs supported the largest diversity, while snags and healthy trees had the lowest diversity. Functional lichen groups responded differently to fine-scale variables, including the diameter, height, density and pH of trees. Air pollutants affected species with sexual and mixed strategies. Lichens were sensitive to precipitation, temperature and wind speed, with foliose and sexual species responding positively to the latter. The abundance of all species and macrolichens increased with tree senescence and decreased with canopy continuity. Lichens occupying snags and logs responded negatively to primary productivity and tree senescence, but positively to soil organic matter. Our findings suggest: i) the functional structure of lichen communities varies non-linearly with the wood decay process; ii) the reproductive strategy influences the sensitivity to air pollutants, iii) climate variables influence dispersal and colonization of woody substrates; and iv) forest structure/succession interacts with tree decay. Keywords: Lichen communities; Logs; Cavity trees; Multi-scale approach; Structural equation models.
33169Węgrzyn M.H., Fałowska P., Kołodziejczyk J., Alzayany K., Wężyk P., Zięba-Kulawik K., Hawryło P., Turowska A., Grzesiak B., Lipnicki L. & Wietrzyk-Pełka P. (2021): Tree height as the main factor causing disappearance of the terricolous lichens in the lichen Scots pine forests. - Science of The Total Environment, 771: 144834 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.144834.
The lichen Scots pine forests habitats are undergoing rapid disappearance across Europe. Due to the semi-natural character of this habitat and an increase of the nitrification as a result of air pollution, determination of factors responsible for the decrease in lichen field layer cover requires a comprehensive approach. Our study aimed to investigate environmental factors necessary for the determination of active protection measures in order to maintain this vulnerable habitat. Specifically, we aimed to investigate: 1) the environmental factors influencing lichen cover in the lichen Scots pine forests of Bory Tucholskie National Park; 2) the differences in habitat variables between sites with lichen-rich and bryophyte-rich field layers. In our study, we used vegetation and microhabitat properties data collected over three years of surveys, as well as ALS LiDAR data. Our results indicated that lichen and bryophyte cover, tree height, tree cover, thickness of organic matter layer, soil temperature and soil water content differed between lichen-rich and bryophyte-rich sites. We found a significant negative relationship between lichen cover recorded within the field layer and tree height. The lichen-rich field layer developed better in areas with lower tree height and thinner layer of organic matter, which created a favorable habitat conditions for lichen development. Our research revealed the previously unknown impact of tree height for the development of lichen field layer. These findings can be used to plan the active conservation measures of lichen Scots pine forests.
33168Dresler S., Kováčik J., Wójciak H., Sowa I., Strzemski M. & Wójciak M. (2021): Allantoin content in lichens depends on anthropopressure level. - Ecological Indicators, 124: 107312 [6 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2020.107312.
Allantoin has been detected in several plant families but only few papers reported its presence in lichens. The 18 from 21 lichen species we tested contained detectable amount of allantoin with a range of 0.005–13.4 mg/g DW. Comparison of samples collected from the localities with various intensity of “anthropopressure” (forest versus city) revealed that higher content of heavy metals was significantly correlated with elevated allantoin content mainly for Zn, Cu, and Ni (and in 3 from 5 species also for Cd and Fe). Subsequent laboratory experiments with four species showed that the accumulation of allantoin is rather stimulated by Cd, Pb or Ni in individual species but Hg had strongly negative impact. On the contrary, salinity had no impact in any species while simulated acid rain (pH 3) evoked various responses in four tested species. Data indicate that accumulation of allantoin depends on the eventual pollution of the given locality and metals have considerable impact on its content while the effect of individual stresses is rather specific. Keywords: Environmental pollution; Heavy metals; Metabolites; Metallic contamination.
33167Kędzia S. (2021): Initial colonisation by Rhizocarpon geographicum in the Tatra Mountains. - Journal of Mountain Science, 18(2): 407–415. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11629-020-6130-3.
Previous lichenometric dating of young geomorphological forms in the Tatra Mountains has been hindered by differences in the determination of initial colonisation of fresh rock surfaces by the Rhizocarpon geographicum lichen. In order to determine precisely the time needed for the first thalli to appear on newly exposed rock surfaces, two experimental sites were created in 2013. The results from these sites were compared with the measurements taken on boulders in debris formed by a 2013 debris flow. In 2018, the largest thalli measured within the experimental sites and the debris flow area reached a size of approximately 2 mm. Based on this, the time of initial colonisation of rock surfaces was determined to be 5 ± 1 years, which is about half the period previously described in the literature. Keywords: Lichenometric dating; Rhizocarpon geographicum; Initial colonisation; Geomorphological forms; Tatra Mts.
33166Simmel J., Karlík P. & Poschlod P. (2021): Land-use history affects vascular plant composition of calcareous grasslands – Does it affect cryptogam composition, too?. - Ecological Indicators , 124: 107408 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2021.107408.
Land-use history and habitat age are considered highly important regarding the species composition and conservation value of, e.g., grasslands and forests. Ancient sites, i.e., sites with a continuous habitat history, are thought to be richer in rare, threatened, and more specialised species than recent sites. However, species composition is also affected by abiotic and ecological factors such as soil and climate parameters, and further analyses are needed to determine whether history or other factors are more important. In previous studies carried out at two study areas in the German Jurassic mountains, land-use history was identified as the main factor shaping vascular plant composition of ancient vs. recent grassland sites. Ancient was defined that there was a continuous grazing history since at least 200 years, while recent grasslands have developed from arable fields considerably after this time. Many species such as arable weeds and crop species, being residuals of the former land-use type, were found in the recent grasslands. In the present study, we assessed the terricolous cryptogam vegetation (bryophytes, lichens, macromycetes) of the same ancient and recent sites regarding species composition, occurrence of endangered species, and the applicability of the indicator species concept and Ellenberg indicator values. Although land-use history was the strongest explaining factor regarding vascular plant vegetation in previous studies, cryptogam vegetation did not reflect this signal. Species numbers and Ellenberg indicator values were quite similar in ancient and recent grasslands but we could, nevertheless, identify indicator species for both grassland types, with Rhytidium rugosum, Cladonia furcata ssp. subrangiformis and Hygrocybe persistens as strongest indicators of ancient grasslands, and Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus as strongest indicator of recent grasslands. When we compared the results for vascular plant and cryptogam vegetation we found that land-use history seems to have much less influence on the composition of the cryptogam vegetation in grasslands, given a certain time of recreation and succession. This is very likely due to an enhanced dispersability of cryptogam propagules. We found rare and endangered cryptogam species in ancient and recent sites; therefore, species maintenance measures can be worthwile in both grassland types. Keywords: Bryophytes; Central Europe; Continuity; Ellenberg indicator values; Fungi; Indicator species; Lichens; Macromycetes; woodland.
33165Manojlović N.T., Rančić A.B., Décor R., Vasiljević P. & Tomović J. (2021): Determination of chemical composition and antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of lichens Parmelia conspersa and Parmelia perlata. - Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization , 15: 686–696. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11694-020-00672-1.
The aim of this study is to investigate the chemical composition of extracts of the lichens Parmelia conspersa and Parmelia perlata and their antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities. The phytochemical analysis of the acetone extracts of two Parmelia lichens was determined by (HPLC-UV) method. The predominant phenolic compounds in these extracts were norstictic acid and usnic acids in P. conspersa, while salazinic acid and stictic acid were the major metabolites detected in P. perlata. Besides these compounds, the tested extracts of these lichens contain atranorin and chloroatranorin. The lichen extracts showed comparable and strong antioxidant activity, exhibited higher DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavengings, chelating activity, and inhibitory activity towards lipid peroxidation. The lichen extracts demonstrated important antimicrobial activity against eight strains with MIC values from 19.53 to 312.5 µg/mL. Cytotoxic efects of lichens were tested against Hep2c, RD and L2OB cell lines using MTT method. Cytotoxic efects of P. conspersa and P. perlata extracts toward three cancer cell lines were in the range from 76.33 to 163.39 µg/mL. This is the frst report of the detail chemical composition of the lichens P. conspersa and P. perlata. The present study showed that tested extracts of lichens demonstrated a important antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer efects. That suggests that these lichens can be used as new sources of the natural antimicrobial agents, antioxidants and anticancer compounds. Keywords: Lichen · Chemical composition · Antimicrobial activity · Antioxidant activity · Cytotoxic activity.
33164Akerman T., Spiers G., Beckett P., Anderson J. & Caron F. (2021): Assessment of airborne lead provenance in Northern Ontario, Canada, using isotopic ratios in snow and Cladonia rangiferina lichens. - Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 232:61 [17 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-021-05006-5.
Fresh snow and lichens (Cladonia rangiferina) were collected along two ~300-km transects in a regional survey around two smelter areas in Northern Ontario, i.e., the Sudbury and Timmins areas, in 2009–2010, as a part of a monitoring program. The samples were analyzed for Pb isotope ratios in snow from 47 sites, and in lichens from 28 sites, for background airborne lead and to determine the influence of distance versus local sources of Pb on a regional scale. Moreover, the lichen samples were split into two portions, the top portion, corresponding to recent growth (2–4 years), and the lower portion (up to 10+ years old) to determine the regime of recent versus old deposition. The study also investigated whether the isotopic signature in fresh snow (~1–2 weeks old) could correlate to the lichens’ recent growth. The Pb isotope signatures, reported as Pb isotope ratios 208Pb/206Pb and 207Pb/206Pb, in both snow and lichen recent growth were uniform over the region, except for localized influences near Sudbury and Timmins, suggesting that the background Pb represented remote sources for most of the region. Three-isotope plots 208Pb/206Pb versus 207Pb/206Pb of snow and lichens followed a linear model typical of mixing lines between two sources. As there are no statistical differences of Pb isotope ratios between fresh snow and recent lichen growth at neighboring stations, either type of sample may be used to describe the short-term record of airborne inputs. Finally, we found a strong relationship between the Pb isotope ratios of the recent growth (upper part) and old growth (lower part) of the lichens, with a slope of 0.9 between the lichen parts. This observation suggests either an isotopic segregation or the older parts of the lichens developed under different Pb source inputs in earlier times. Keywords: Pb isotopes. Snow samples. Lichens. Northern Ontario . Airborne lead . Atmospheric contamination.
33163Huynh B.L.C. & Nguyen K.P.P. (2020): A new xanthone from the lichen Parmotrema praesorediosum (Parmeliaceae). - Vietnam Journal of Chemistry, 58(6): 765–769. https://doi.org/10.1002/vjch.202000070.
Two xanthone compounds, praesorexanthone A (1) and praesorexanthone B (2), were isolated from the lichen Parmotrema praesorediosum (Nyl.) Hale (Parmeliaceae). Among them, praesorexanthone B is a new natural compound. Their chemical structures were unambiguously determined by the analysis of 1D and 2D NMR and high resolution ESI mass spectroscopic data, as well as by comparison of their NMR data with the ones in the literature. Keywords. Parmotrema praesorediosum, lichen, lichen substances, tetrahydroxanthone-chromanone dimer, hexahydroxanthone-chromanone dimer.
33162Alonso-García M.,Grewe F., Payette S. & Villarreal J.C. (2021): Population genomics of a reindeer lichen species from North American lichen woodlands. - American Journal of Botany, 108(1): 159–171. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajb2.1601.
Premise: Lichens are one of the main structural components of plant communities in the North American boreal biome. They play a pivotal role in lichen woodlands, a large ecosystem situated north of the closed-crown forest zone, and south of the forest–tundra zone. In Eastern Canada (Quebec), there is a remnant LW found 500 km south of its usual distribution range, in the Parc National des Grands-Jardins, originated mainly because of wildfires. We inferred the origin of the lichen Cladonia stellaris from this LW and assessed its genetic diversity in a postfire succession. Methods: We genotyped 122 individuals collected across a latitudinal gradient in Quebec. Using the software Stacks, we compared four different approaches of locus selection and single-nucleotide polymorphism calling. We identified the best fitting approach to investigate population structure and estimate genetic diversity of C. stellaris. Results: Populations in southern Quebec are not genetically different from those of northern LWs. The species consists of at least four phylogenetic lineages with elevated levels of genetic diversity and low co-ancestry. In Parc National des Grands-Jardins, we reported high values of genetic diversity not related with time since fire disturbance and low genetic differentiation among populations with different fire histories. Conclusions: This first population genomic study of C. stellaris is an important step forward to understand the origin and biogeographic patterns of lichen woodlands in North America. Our findings also contribute to the understanding of the effect of postfire succession on the genetic structure of the species. Key words: Apothecia; Cladonia stellaris; dispersal; fire; population genomics; reproduction; Quebec; SNPs; Stacks.
33161Malíček J., Palice Z. & Vondrák J. (2020): Lišejníky pralesa Hojná voda v Novohradských horách. - Bryonora, 66: 51–61. https://botanospol.cz/sites/default/files/2021-01/BRYONORA_66_05.pdf.
The primeval forest Hojná voda belongs together with Žofínský prales to the oldest protected areas in the Czech Republic. It is predominated by beech; spruce is frequently intermixed. Other trees are rarely present in small scree forest fragments. Even though it covers only a small area of 9.2 ha, the locality is an important refuge for many rare and old-growth forest lichens. A total of 156 lichens and 12 non-lichenized fungi were recorded. Most lichens (110) were recorded on trees, especially on beech (101), but epixylic lichen communities are species-rich (43) as well. Micarea parva and Pertusaria macounii were recorded at their second localities in the country. Alyxoria ochrocheila, Arthopyrenia cinereopruinosa, Biatora helvola, B. ocelliformis, Fuscidea arboricola, Gyalideopsis helvetica, Multiclavula mucida, Opegrapha trochodes, Thelopsis rubella and Verrucaria consociata are other remarkable species. Key words: beech old-growth forest, biodiversity, epiphytic lichens.
33160Szymczyk R., Konatowska M. & Rutkowski P. (2020): Materiały do bioty porostów Nadleśnictwa Doświadczalnego Zielonka w Wielkopolsce [Contribution to the lichen biota of the Zielonka Experimental Forest Division (Wielkopolska Province, Poland)]. - Fragmenta Floristica et Geobotanica Polonica, 27(2): 297–311. .
[in Polish with English abstract: ] This paper presents the results of lichenological studies carried out in the Zielonka Forest near Poznań, which yielded new information about the lichens of that forest. A total of 81 taxa were found in the area, of which 5 are legally protected and 18 are considered endangered in Poland. Agonimia flabelliformis, A. repleta, Bacidina mendax and Parmelia serrana are new for the Pojezierze Wielkopolskie lakeland. The biota includes such valuable species as Arthonia mediella, Chaenotheca chlorella, Chrysothrix candelaris, Microcalicium disseminatum, Punctelia subrudecta and Toniniopsis subincompta. Key words: Ascomycota, lichenized fungi, rare species, threatened and protected species, Zielonka Forest.
33159Anonymus (2021): Recent literature on Australasian lichens. - Australasian Lichenology, 88: 53. .
bibliography
33158Elix J.A. & McCarthy P.M. (2021): A new species of Diploschistes (Graphidaceae) from consolidated soil in Australia. - Australasian Lichenology, 88: 50–52. .
Diploschistes sarcogynoides Elix & P.M.McCarthy sp. nov. (lichenized Ascomycota, Graphidaceae) is described from consolidated, siliceous soil in the Australian Capital Territory.
33157McCarthy P.M. (2021): A new terricolous species of Fellhaneropsis (lichenized Ascomycota, Pilocarpaceae) from Papua New Guinea. - Australasian Lichenology, 88: 45–49. .
Fellhaneropsis humicola P.M.McCarthy is described from consolidated soil in montane rainforest in Morobe Province, Papua New Guinea. The new species has a pale, terricolous, crustose thallus that is corticate and lacks lichen substances, rather large, dark brown to blackish, adnate to sessile apothecia (the margin often a little paler and the excipulum partly K+ crimson-brown in section and leaching a yellowish, non-crystalline solution). The excipulum is predominantly dark brown and it is prosoplectenchymatous in section; the hypothecium is pale brown to pale golden brown, and the hyaline, narrowly ellipsoid to oblongfusiform, 3-septate ascospores are 17–25 × 5–8 μm.
33156Øvstedal D.O., Broady P.A. & Fryday A.M. (2021): A new Sclerococcum (Dactylosporaceae, Ascomycota) on Gloeocapsa from Antarctica. - Australasian Lichenology, 88: 40–44. .
The new species Sclerococcum gloeocapsae, growing on the cyanobacterium Gloeocapsa sp. in Marie Byrd Land, Antarctica, is described and illustrated.
33155Elix J.A. (2021): Two new species of Tetramelas (Caliciaceae, Ascomycota) from Antarctica. - Australasian Lichenology, 88: 34–39. .
Tetramelas drakonensis Elix from Princess Elizabeth Land in eastern Antarctica and T. grevei Elix from Enderby Land in north-eastern Antarctica are described as new to science. An updated key is provided to the 15 Antarctic species of Tetramelas.
33154McCarthy P.M. & Elix J.A. (2021): An outline of some lichen communities on consolidated, siliceous soils in south-eastern Australia. - Australasian Lichenology, 88: 27–33. .
33153Elix J.A. & Mayrhofer H. (2021): Three new species of buellioid lichens (Caliciaceae, Ascomycota) from New Zealand and the first report of Rinodinella dubyanoides (Physciaceae, Ascomycota) from Australia and New Zealand. - Australasian Lichenology, 88: 20–26. .
Amandinea delangei Elix & H.Mayrhofer, Buellia blahaiana Elix & H.Mayrhofer and B. harrisiana Elix & H.Mayrhofer are described as new to science. In addition, Rinodinella dubyanoides (Hepp) H.Mayrhofer & Poelt is reported for the first time from Australia and New Zealand.
33152McCarthy P.M. & Elix J.A. (2021): A new species and further new records of Sarcogyne (Acarosporaceae) from Australia. - Australasian Lichenology, 88: 14–19. .
Sarcogyne regalis P.M.McCarthy & Elix sp. nov. (Acarosporaceae) is described from consolidated, siliceous soil in the Southern Tablelands, New South Wales, Australia. Four other species, S. canberrensis P.M.McCarthy & Elix, S. molongloensis P.M.McCarthy & Elix, S. porphyricola P.M.McCarthy & Elix and S. terrulenta P.M.McCarthy & Elix, are reported for the first time from New South Wales; the last-named species is also recorded from central Queensland.
33151Elix J.A., Mayrhofer H. & Wetschnig W. (2021): New species and new records of buellioid lichens (Caliciaceae, Ascomycota) from southern Africa. - Australasian Lichenology, 88: 3–13. .
Amandinea brussei Elix & H.Mayrhofer, Buellia capensis Elix & H.Mayrhofer, B. namaquaensis Elix, H.Mayrhofer & Wetschnig and Tetramelas franklinbrussei Elix & H.Mayrhofer are described as new to science. In addition, Amandinea polyxanthonica (Elix) Elix, Buellia tesserata Körb. and Tetramelas coquimbensis (C.W.Dodge) Elix are reported from southern Africa for the first time, as is Buellia hyporosea Elix from Madagascar.
33150Cavalloro V., Marrubini G., Stabile R., Rossi D., Linciano P., Gheza G., Assini S., Martino E. & Collina S.. (2021): Microwave-assisted extraction and HPLC-UV-CD determination of (S)-usnic acid in Cladonia foliacea. - Molecules, 26(2): 455 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26020455.
During the years, many usnic acid (UA) conjugates have been synthesized to obtain potent endowed with biological properties. Since (S)-UA is less abundant in nature than (R)-enantiomer, it is difficult to source, thus precluding a deeper investigation. Among the lichens producing UA, Cladonia foliacea is a valuable (S)-UA source. In the present work, we report on a rapid HPLC-UV/PAD-CD protocol suitable for the analysis and the identification of the main secondary metabolites present in C. foliacea extract. Best results were achieved using XBridge Phenyl column and acetonitrile and water, which were both added with formic acid as mobile phase in gradient elution. By combining analytical, spectroscopical, and chiroptical analysis, the most abundant analyte was unambiguously identified as (S)-UA. Accordingly, a versatile microwave-assisted extractive (MAE) protocol, assisted by a design of experiment (DoE), to quantitatively recover (S)-UA was set up. The best result in terms of UA extraction yield was obtained using ethanol and heating at 80 °C under microwave irradiation for 5 min. Starting from 100 g of dried C. foliacea, 420 mg of (S)-UA were achieved. Thus, our extraction method resulted in a suitable protocol to produce (S)-UA from C. foliacea for biological and pharmaceutical investigation or commercial purposes. Keywords: Cladonia foliacea; usnic acid; chiroptical properties; absolute configuration; HPLC-UV/PAD-CD; DoE; MAE; lichens.
33149Váczi P., Barták M., Bednaříková M., Hrbáček F. & Hájek J. (2021): Spectral properties of Antarctic and Alpine vegetation monitored by multispectral camera: Case studies from James Ross Island and Jeseníky Mts.. - Czech Polar Reports, 10(2) [2020]: 297–312. DOI: 10.5817/CPR2020-2-22.
In this study, we investigated the utility of spectral remote sensing data gathered by a multispectral camera for estimating of vegetation cover in Antarctic vegetation oasis and Arcto-Alpine tundra. The surveys exploiting unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and multispectral camera were done in an Antarctic vegetation oasis located at the Northern shore of James Ross Island (Antarctica), and arcto-alpine tundra located in the Jeseníky Mts. (NE Czech Republic, 1 420 m a.s.l.). For the two locations, false colour images of spectral indices (VARI, NGRDI, GLI, RGBVI, ExG, NDVI, PRI) were taken and analysis of vegetation types and components of vegetation cover was done. Additionally, field research was performed by handheld instruments measuring NDVI, PRI and of selected vegetation components: Bryum pseudotriquetrum, Nostoc commune colonies (Antarctica), lichens grown on flat stones and boulders (the Jeseníky Mts.). The results show UAV photo surveys and imaging of spectral reflectance indices can be used to monitor vegetation types forming Antarctic vegetation oases and arcto-alpine tundra. Key words: remote sensing, UAV, vegetation indices, spectral reflectance, plant functional types.
33148Weiss J. & Orekhova A. (2021): Biometrical analysis and thallus morphology characteristics of Placopsis antarctica from King George Island, Antarctica. - Czech Polar Reports, 10(2) [2020]: 161–168. DOI: 10.5817/CPR2020-2-13.
Placopsis antarctica is an ornithocoprophilous lichen that has been for a long time confused with P. contortuplicata I. M. Lamb. In our study, we focused on morphological characteristics of P. antarctica thalli. We report biometrical data on dominant morphological structures of P. antarctica thallus: cephalodia, marginal lobes, sorediate pits and soralia. Thalli of P. antarctica were collected at the King George Island, Antarctica and analyzed in a laboratory using a digital microscopy approach. Central cephalodium was found rather elliptic then round-shaped. Mean length/width was found 2.424/1.720 mm. Marginal lobes were found wider at the apex (1.415 mm) than basal part (0.495 mm). Side cephalodia were smaller, their mean length/width was found 1.034/0.610 mm. Key words: cephalodium, morphometry, Nostoc, algae symbiont, microrelief.
33147Andreev M.P., Andersen D., Kurbatova L., Smirnova S., & Chaplygina O. (2021): Lichens, bryophytes and terrestrial algae of the Lake Untersee Oasis (Wohlthat Massiv, Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica). - Czech Polar Reports, 10(2) [2020]: 203–225. DOI: 10.5817/CPR2020-2-16.
Lake Untersee is the largest ice-covered freshwater lake in the interior of East Antarctica. The mountain oasis is situated around it in the Gruber Mts. of the Wohlthat Massif. For approximately 7,000 years the area has been free of ice and the local climate relatively stable. It is very severe, cold, and windy and dominated by intense evaporation and sublimation but with little melt. Relative humidity averages only 37%. Vegetation is sparse in the oasis and previously only poorly investigated. Two lichen species and no bryophytes were known from the area. In November-December 2018, a survey of terrestrial flora and vegetation was made. The list of lichens was completed for the area, bryophytes were found for the first time, and some terrestrial algae were collected. In total, 23 lichen species, 1 lichenicolous fungus, 1 moss, and 18 terrestrial algae were discovered for the locality. The abundance of each species within their habitats was also evaluated. The lichen flora of the Untersee Oasis is typical for continental oases and similar to other previously investigated internal territories of Dronning Maud Land, except for the very rich lichen flora of the Schirmacher Oasis. Key words: Queen Maud Land, Schirmacher Oasis, biodiversity, vegetation, flora, taxonomy, lichen biota, mosses.
33146Pedišius V. (2021): UV-B absorbing and bioactive secondary compounds in lichens Xanthoria elegans and Xanthoria parietina: A review. - Czech Polar Reports, 10(2) [2020]: 252–262. DOI: 10.5817/CPR2020-2-19.
Secondary metabolites are the bioactive compounds of plants which are synthesized during primary metabolism, have no role in the development process but are needed for defense and other special purposes. These secondary metabolites, such as flavonoids, terpenes, alkaloids, anthraquinones and carotenoids, are found in Xanthoria genus lichens. These lichens are known as lichenized fungi in the family Teloschistaceae, which grows on rock and produce bioactive compounds. A lot of secondary compounds in plants are induced by UV (100-400 nm) spectra. The present review showcases the present identified bioactive compounds in Xanthoria elegans and Xanthoria parietina lichens, which are stimulated by different amounts of UV-B light (280-320 nm), as well as the biochemistry of the UV-B absorbing compounds. Key words: UV-B, Xanthoria parietina, Xanthoria elegans, parietin, phenolic compounds, carotenoids, anthraquinone.
33145Ignatenko R.V. & Tarasova V.N. (2021): Population characteristics of cephalolichen Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm. at the northern limit of its range (Northwest Russia, Republic of Karelia). - Czech Polar Reports, 10(2) [2020]: 236–251. DOI: 10.5817/CPR2020-2-18.
The populations of Lobaria pulmonaria and their characteristics were studied at the northern limit of its range in the Republic of Karelia (Northwest Russia). The study was carried out in northernmost boreal zone on 8 permanent 100 × 100 m sample plots with last disturbance 180–270 years ago. It was found that in the north of the region, the number of substrate units on which lichen grows decreases with an increase of the time since last disturbance from 25 to 11 per ha. In the ontogenetic spectrum (excluding juvenile and immature thalli), virginal thalli prevailed. The proportion of generative thalli in forests in the mid-succession stages (mixed spruce-birch forests) was 2%, and they were absent at later stages (in preclimax spruce forests). In the studied forests, the main substrate of Lobaria pulmonaria was the trunks of living Populus tremula and Salix caprea. With an increase in the diameter and area of the trunk of Populus tremula, the number of thalli increased, and their average area decreased. An important role for Lobaria pulmonaria was played by the individual characteristics of the tree trunk, such as the height above ground, exposure, angle of inclination. The optimal conditions for the growth and development of this species were formed on the aspen trunks. Due to the collecting shape of crown and its wide radius, a large amount of precipitation flowed down the trunk during rain. Moreover, due to the wide and dense crown, the trunks were wet longer than other tree species. Comparison of the obtained data with similar studies done in the subzone of the middle taiga showed that at the limit of the range, the number of substrate units colonized by Lobaria pulmonaria and the number of thalli was smaller than in the south of Karelia. The share of generative thalli in the ontogenetic spectrum of species populations in forest communities of the north taiga subzone was 3 times smaller than in the middle taiga forests. Key words: northern taiga ecosystems, time from last disturbance, population ecology, populations, populations at range limits.
33144Marková I. (2006): Provazovka, aneb "vousáči" se vracejí. - České Švýcarsko, 5[1/2006]: 4. .
Short popular article devoted to a regionally recolonizing lichen - Usnea sp. [in Czech]
33143Voříšková L. (2002): Lišejník sírový. - České Švýcarsko, 1[1/2002]: 10–11. .
Short popular article devoted to a regionally common lichen - Chrysothrix chlorina [in Czech]
33142Marková I. (2011): Vyhynulé a nezvěstné druhy Labských pískovců (Českosaského Švýcarska). Díl 12. Větvičník žlutý (Letharia vulpina). - České Švýcarsko, 10[2/2011]: 7. .
Short popular article devoted to a regionally extinct lichen [in Czech]
33141Boitsova T.A., Brovko O.S., Ivakhnov A.D. & Zhil’tsov D.V. (2020): Optimizing supercritical fluid extraction of usnic acid from the lichen species Usnea subfloridana. - Russian Journal of Physical Chemistry, 14(7): 1135–1141. https://doi.org/10.1134/S1990793120070040.
[Original Russian Text published in Sverkhkriticheskie Flyuidy. Teoriya i Praktika, 2019, Vol. 14, No. 4, pp. 9–18.] Supercritical fluid extraction of usnic acid (UA) from the lichen species Usnea subfloridana is optimized using a rotatable second-order composite design with uniform precision. The effect that the pressure, temperature, and the process duration have on the extract yield is evaluated. The following optimal values for the extraction parameters are established based on the developed model: extraction duration, 80 min; temperature, 85°C; and pressure, 150 atm. Under these conditions, the predicted extract yield (1.19%) agrees closely with the experimental value (1.11%). The prepared extract exhibits antibacterial activity against the bacterium Escherichia coli and microorganisms of the species Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. Keywords: lichen, Usnea subfloridana, usnic acid, supercritical fluid extraction, rotatable composite design with uniform precision.
33140Rao M.R.V. & Hariprasad T.P.N. (2021): In silico analysis of a potential antidiabetic phytochemical erythrin against therapeutic targets of diabetes. - In Silico Pharmacology, 9: 5 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40203-020-00065-8.
Diabetes mellitus is a multifactorial disorder characterized by a chronic elevation in blood glucose levels. Currently, antidiabetic drugs are available to counteract the associated pathologies. Their concomitant efects necessitate the investigation for an efective and safe drug aimed to diminish blood glucose levels with fewer side efects. Several researchers are taking new initiatives to explore plant sources as they are known to contain a wide variety of active agents. Hence, the present study was undertaken to study the role of natural products using in silico interaction studies. Erythrin a compound present in lichens was selected as a potential anti-diabetic agent. Molecular docking studies were carried out with 14 target proteins to evaluate its antidiabetic potential. Molecular docking analysis resulted in favourable binding energy of interaction ranging as low as − 119.676 to − 92.9545 kcal/mol for erythrin, Analogue showed the highest interactions with 3C45 (− 119.676 kcal/mol) followed by 2Q5S (− 118.398 kcal/mol), 1XU7 (− 117.341 kcal/mol), 3K35 (− 114.267 kcal/mol). Erythrin was found to fare better than the three clinically used antidiabetic compounds, metformin, repaglinide and sitagliptin. Further, the molecular interactions between erythrin and the diabetes related target proteins was established by analysing the interactions with associated amino acids. In silico pharmacokinetics and toxicity profle of erythrin using admetSAR software predicted erythrin as non-carcinogenic and non-mutagenic. The drug-likeliness was calculated using molsoft software respecting Lipinski’s rule of fve. The compound was found to comply with Lipinksi rules violating only one flter criterion. The study suggested that erythrin could be a potential anti-diabetic agent. Keywords: admetSAR · Diabetes · Docking · Erythrin · Insilico analysis.
33139Degelius G. (1935): Das ozeanische Element der Strauch- und Laubflechtenflora von Skandinavien. - Acta Phytogeographica Suecica, 7: 1–411. .
Inaugural Dissertation; oceanic lichens; Scandinavia; Fennoscandia; distributional maps; phytogeography.
33138Thiyagaraja V., Lücking R., Ertz D., Karunarathna S.C., Wanasinghe D.N., Lumyong S. & Hyde K.D (2021): The evolution of life modes in Stictidaceae, with three novel taxa. - Journal of Fungi, 7(2): 105 [23 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7020105.
Ostropales sensu lato is a large group comprising both lichenized and non-lichenized fungi, with several lineages expressing optional lichenization where individuals of the same fungal species exhibit either saprotrophic or lichenized lifestyles depending on the substrate (bark or wood). Greatly variable phenotypic characteristics and large-scale phylogenies have led to frequent changes in the taxonomic circumscription of this order. Ostropales sensu lato is currently split into Graphidales, Gyalectales, Odontotrematales, Ostropales sensu stricto, and Thelenellales. Ostropales sensu stricto is now confined to the family Stictidaceae, which includes a large number of species that are poorly known, since they usually have small fruiting bodies that are rarely collected, and thus, their taxonomy remains partly unresolved. Here, we introduce a new genus Ostropomyces to accommodate a novel lineage related to Ostropa, which is composed of two new species, as well as a new species of Sphaeropezia, S. shangrilaensis. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses of mitochondrial small subunit spacers (mtSSU), large subunit nuclear rDNA (LSU), and internal transcribed spacers (ITS) sequence data, together with phenotypic data documented by detailed morphological and anatomical analyses, support the taxonomic affinity of the new taxa in Stictidaceae. Ancestral character state analysis did not resolve the ancestral nutritional status of Stictidaceae with confidence using Bayes traits, but a saprotrophic ancestor was indicated as most likely in a Bayesian binary Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling (MCMC) approach. Frequent switching in nutritional modes between lineages suggests that lifestyle transition played an important role in the evolution of this family. Keywords: 3 new taxa; ancestral character state analysis; asexual morph; Lecanoromycetes; Ostropomyces; sexual morph; Sphaeropezia.
33137Kaasalainen U., Tuovinen V., Kirika P.M., Mollel N.P., Hemp A. & Rikkinen J. (2021): Diversity of Leptogium (Collemataceae, Ascomycota) in East African montane ecosystems. - Microorganisms, 9: 314 [25 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9020314.
Tropical mountains and especially their forests are hot spots of biodiversity threatened by human population pressure and climate change. The diversity of lichens in tropical Africa is especially poorly known. Here we use the mtSSU and nuITS molecular markers together with morphology and ecology to assess Leptogium (Peltigerales, Ascomycota) diversity in the tropical mountains of Taita Hills and Mt. Kasigau in Kenya and Mt. Kilimanjaro in Tanzania. The sampled habitats cover a wide range of ecosystems from savanna to alpine heath vegetation and from relatively natural forests to agricultural environments and plantation forests. We demonstrate that Leptogium diversity in Africa is much higher than previously known and provide preliminary data on over 70 putative species, including nine established species previously known from the area and over 60 phylogenetically, morphologically, and/or ecologically defined Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs). Many traditional species concepts are shown to represent morphotypes comprised of several taxa. Many of the species were only found from specific ecosystems and/or restricted habitats and are thus threatened by ongoing habitat fragmentation and degradation of the natural environment. Our results emphasize the importance of molecular markers in species inventories of highly diverse organism groups and geographical areas. Keywords: biodiversity hotspot; Mount Kilimanjaro; Taita Hills; Mount Kasigau.
33136Bielczyk U., Czarnota P., Hollitzer-Zielińska D. & Śliwa L. (2020): Uzupełnienia i poprawki do listy porostów i grzybów naporostowych polskich Karpat [Additions and corrections to the checklist of Polish Carpathian lichens and lichenicolous fungi]. - Fragmenta Floristica et Geobotanica Polonica, 27(2): 323–357. https://doi.org/10.35535/ffgp-2020-0019.
[in Polish with English abstract: ] The list includes 241 taxa of lichen-forming fungi (lichens), 108 taxa of lichenicolous fungi and two lichenicolous myxomycetes about which records from the Polish Carpathians were reported after 2003, after the publication of checklists of lichens and lichenicolous fungi for the eastern and western part of this mountain range within the borders of Poland. For each species, its distribution in physiographical units is given with reference to the original bibliographic sources. It was shown that 46 species should be excluded from the list of lichens of the Polish Carpathians, due to incorrect identification, nomenclatural changes or recent taxonomic concepts. Key words: Carpathian bibliography, checklist, lichen-forming-fungi, lichenicolous fungi, lichenicolous myxomycetes, Polish Carpathians, species diversity.
33135Krzewicka B., Jędrzejczyk-Korycińska M. & Hollitzer-Zielińska D. (2020): Porosty cynkowo-ołowiowych terenów pogórniczych w Jaworznie [Lichens of zinc-lead post-mining areas in Jaworzno town]. - Fragmenta Floristica et Geobotanica Polonica, 27(2): 313–322. https://doi.org/10.35535/ffgp-2020-0018.
[in Polish with English abstract and summary: ] The paper presents the results of lichenological studies done in 2018 at three study sites in a zinc-lead postmining area in Jaworzno town, aimed at gathering data on the lichen biota of metal-enriched environments. Identified were 69 species (Tab. 1), including 47 taxa in the Ciężkowice area, 32 in Długoszyn and 38 in Sadowa Góra. Six of the species are red-listed in Poland (Cieśliński et al. 2006; Tab. 1): Staurothele hymenogonia, Thelidium decipiens, Verrucaria viridula, Xanthoria ulophyllodes classed as vulnerable (VU), Thelidium minutulum classed as near threatened (NT), and Vezdaea aestivalis (data deficient, DD). A highly diverse terricolous and epilithic lichen biota was found in this degraded and metal-contaminated environment, including species characteristic of zinc- and lead-enriched substrates (Agonimia vouauxii, Diploschistes muscorum, Sarcosagium campestre, Vezdaea aestivalis, V. leprosa). Key words: anthropogenic habitats, lichenized fungi, metal-enriched environments.
33134Cao S., Zhang F., Zheng H., Peng F., Liu C. & Zhou Q. (2018): Coccomyxa greatwallensis sp. nov. (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta), a lichen epiphytic alga from Fildes Peninsula, Antarctica. - PhytoKeys, 110: 39–50. https://doi.org/10.3897/phytokeys.110.26961.
A single-celled green alga Coccomyxa greatwallensis Shunan Cao & Qiming Zhou, sp. nov., isolated from a specimen of Antarctic lichen Psoroma hypnorum (Vahl) Gray, is described and illustrated based on a comprehensive investigation of morphology, ultrastructure, ecology and phylogeny. The cells of C. greatwallensis are ovoid to long ellipsoidal and measured 3–5 µm × 6–12 µm. The new species has distinct ITS rDNA and SSU rDNA sequences and differs from the phylogenetic closely related species C. antarctica, C. arvernensis and C. viridis in cell size, distribution and habitat. Keywords: Lichen epiphyte, Morphology, TEM, Phylogeny.
33133Galanty A., Danel T., Węgrzyn M., Podolak I. & Podolak I. (2021): Deep convolutional neural network for preliminary in-field classification of lichen species. - Biosystems Engineering, 204: 15–25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2021.01.004.
Lichens are unique organisms, valued for their pharmacological activity, but also well known as bioindicators of environmental pollution, key determinants for some natural ecological habitats, or just popular elements of decoration. High morphological similarity between lichen species makes their recognition complicated, especially under in-field conditions. Thus, there is a need for a quick and easy method that can help with the preliminary classification of selected lichen species. This paper presents a tool that can facilitate the recognition of Cladonia lichen species, based on a deep convolutional neural network, a model which has nowadays reached a classification level often comparable to humans. The network was trained and tested on twelve Cladonia species using a total of 1164 images, downloaded from various websites. The trained model achieved 60.94% accuracy, which is satisfactory for this novel, but still preliminary, automated classification of lichen species. Keywords: neural network; species recognition; lichen; Cladonia; in-field classification.
33132Daimari R., Bhuyan P., Hussain S., Nayaka S., Mazumder M.A.J. & Hoque R.R. (2021): Anatomical, physiological, and chemical alterations in lichen (Parmotrema tinctorum (Nyl.) Hale) transplants due to air pollution in two cities of Brahmaputra Valley, India. - Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 193:101 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-021-08897-3.
The lichen species Parmotrema tinctorum (Nyl.) Hale was transplanted in two cities—Tezpur (small) and Guwahati (large)—of the Brahmaputra Valley to assess the impact of air pollution on the anatomy and physiology, and accumulation of pollutants. Significant damage to the anatomy was observed in samples, and the degree of damage was found to be higher in the transplants of the larger city. In the lichen transplants from locations having high traffic density, the total chlorophyll content was found to fall; on the contrary, electrical conductivity was found to be higher. The exposed-to-control ratio showed severe accumulation of Cd in all the transplants. Elements such as Cd, Pb, and Zn were found to be enriched in all the lichen samples from both Guwahati as well as Tezpur city. Besides, Cr, Cu, K, and Ni were also realized to be enhanced to a moderate extent. The correlations of indicator metal species pairs showed that anthropogenic influence was quite clear. Keywords: Biomonitoring . Lichen . Transplant . Parmotrema tinctorum.
33131Roth E., Burgalat J., Rivière E., Zaiter M., Chakir A., Pasquet C. & Gunkel-Grillon P. (2021): Nickel spreading assessment in New Caledonia by lichen biomonitoring coupled to air mass history. - Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 28: 6058–6067. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-10873-2.
Lichen biomonitoring and air mass trajectories were used to study the influence of mining activities in the atmospheric dispersion of metallic elements to assess the exposure of the population to dust emitted by mining activities. A map of forward trajectory densities from open mine surfaces throughout New Caledonia was computed and allowed to identify three preferred wind directions (trade wind, bent trade winds and oceanic winds) that could arise in mining particles dispersion all over New Caledonia. Areas where an air quality monitoring would be advisable to evaluate the exposure of the population to the Nickel dusts have been identified. Lichens collected around the industrial mining site KNS and in North Provence of New Caledonia were analysed for their Ni, Co, Cr, Zn and Ti contents. Backward trajectories were simulated from the lichen sampling point using FLEXTRA fed with ECMWF meteorological data, and densities of trajectories having overflown a mine were calculated. Ratio metal/Ti was then plotted as a function of air mass trajectory densities having overflown open pits. A positive correlation between trajectory densities and titanium-normalized metal in lichen for Ni, Co, Cr was highlighted, indicating that mining is a source of dispersion of these metals. For Zn, which is a tracer of fossil fuel or biomass (wood) combustion activity, no correlation was found. Keywords: Lichen . Biomonitoring . Metals . Atmospheric modelling.
33130Корчиков Е.С., Цуриков А.Г. & Травкин В.П. [Korchikov E.S., Tsurykau A.G. & Travkin V.P.] (2017): Новые находки лишайников на территории национального парка «Бузулукский бор» (Самарская и Оренбургская области) [New lichen findings in the Buzuluk national park “Buzuluksky Bor” (Samara and Orenburg regions)]. - Вестник Оренбургского государственного педагогического университета [Vestnik of Orenburg State University], 22(2): 14–18. http://www.vestospu.ru.
[in Russian with English summary: ] Nine lichen species are listed in the article as new to the National Park “Buzuluksky Bor”. Exact location, substrate characteristics and phytocenosis are indicated for each specimen. So far 174 species of lichen-forming and non-lichenized fungi from 70 genera, 33 families, 11 orders and 5 classes are known in the National Park “Buzuluksky Bor”. Key words: south of European Russia, forest lichens, biodiversity.
33129Fanelli G., Coleine C., Gevi F., Onofri S., Selbmann L. & Timperio A.M. (2021): Metabolomics of dry versus reanimated Antarctic lichen-dominated endolithic communities. - Life, 11(2): 96 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/life11020096.
Cryptoendolithic communities are almost the sole life form in the ice-free areas of the Antarctic desert, encompassing among the most extreme-tolerant organisms known on Earth that still assure ecosystems functioning, regulating nutrient and biogeochemical cycles under conditions accounted as incompatible with active life. If high-throughput sequencing based studies are unravelling prokaryotic and eukaryotic diversity, they are not yet characterized in terms of stress adaptations and responses, despite their paramount ecological importance. In this study, we compared the responses of Antarctic endolithic communities, with special focus on fungi, both under dry conditions (i.e., when dormant), and after reanimation by wetting, light, and optimal temperature (15 °C). We found that several metabolites were differently expressed in reanimated opposite sun exposed communities, suggesting a critical role in their success. In particular, the saccharopine pathway was up-regulated in the north surface, while the spermine/spermidine pathway was significantly down-regulated in the shaded exposed communities. The carnitine-dependent pathway is up-regulated in south-exposed reanimated samples, indicating the preferential involvement of the B-oxidation for the functioning of TCA cycle. The role of these metabolites in the performance of the communities is discussed herein. Keywords: Antarctica; cryptoendolithic communities; untargeted metabolomics; adaptation; extremophiles; sun exposure.
33128Wicaksono W.A., Kusstatscher P., Erschen S., Reisenhofer-Graber T., Grube M., Cernava T. & Berg G. (2021): Antimicrobial-specific response from resistance gene carriers studied in a natural, highly diverse microbiome. - Microbiome, 9:29 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40168-020-00982-y.
Background: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major threat to public health. Microorganisms equipped with AMR genes are suggested to have partially emerged from natural habitats; however, this hypothesis remains inconclusive so far. To understand the consequences of the introduction of exogenic antimicrobials into natural environments, we exposed lichen thalli of Peltigera polydactylon, which represent defined, highly diverse miniature ecosystems, to clinical (colistin, tetracycline), and non-clinical (glyphosate, alkylpyrazine) antimicrobials. We studied microbiome responses by analysing DNA- and RNA-based amplicon libraries and metagenomic datasets. Results: The analyzed samples consisted of the thallus-forming fungus that is associated with cyanobacteria as well as other diverse and abundant bacterial communities (up to 108 16S rRNA gene copies ng-1 DNA) dominated by Alphaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Moreover, the natural resistome of this meta-community encompassed 728 AMR genes spanning 30 antimicrobial classes. Following 10 days of exposure to the selected antimicrobials at four different concentrations (full therapeutic dosage and a gradient of sub-therapeutic dosages), we observed statistically significant, antimicrobial-specific shifts in the structure and function but not in bacterial abundances within the microbiota. We observed a relatively lower response after the exposure to the non-clinical compared to the clinical antimicrobial compounds. Furthermore, we observed specific bacterial responders, e.g., Pseudomonas and Burkholderia to clinical antimicrobials. Interestingly, the main positive responders naturally occur in low proportions in the lichen holobiont. Moreover, metagenomic recovery of the responders’ genomes suggested that they are all naturally equipped with specific genetic repertoires that allow them to thrive and bloom when exposed to antimicrobials. Of the responders, Sphingomonas, Pseudomonas, and Methylobacterium showed the highest potential. Conclusions: Antimicrobial exposure resulted in a microbial dysbiosis due to a bloom of naturally low abundant taxa (positive responders) with specific AMR features. Overall, this study provides mechanistic insights into community-level responses of a native microbiota to antimicrobials and suggests novel strategies for AMR prediction and management. Keywords: Lichen microbiota, Peltigera polydactylon, Antimicrobial resistance, Metagenomic mining, Genome recovery.
33127Lauriault P. & Wiersma Y. (2020): Substratum dynamics over time could influence the rarity of tree-dwelling cyanolichens. - Lichenologist, 52(6): 455–458. doi:10.1017/S0024282920000493.
There are challenges in reconciling tree and lichen lifespans with a snapshot study such as this. The time when the lichen colonized the host tree is unknown. Lichen colonization could occur later in the life of the host tree, regardless of condition. The effect of col- onization timing is not possible to isolate from the present study and it adds significant noise to the data. Also, the known lifespan of boreal felt lichens in the wild is currently not well understood. If they are shorter-lived than we expect, they might die off before the tree is dead, which would also confound the results. We sug- gest that using thallus size as a proxy for time spent on the tree is not an adequate alternative for long-term monitoring of lichens. Our exploratory results may suggest that the substratum qual- ity of balsam fir declines with declining tree health. If we were to use tree health as a proxy for age, and assume that its quality as a substratum remained constant, we could expect that less healthy host trees would be more abundant than healthier host trees. We found a clear pattern that the number of host trees in each health category decreases (Fig. 2B). This might indicate that bal- sam fir in poorer health are also less suitable as a substratum for the boreal felt lichen, even if less healthy trees existed longer for the lichen to colonize. However, with the current sampling design we cannot verify this hypothesis. A more detailed measure of internal tree health and tree age, with proper representation across all health and age classes, as it relates to the ability to host sensi- tive lichens, could lead to more informed conclusions. The detectability of this lichen across tree condition classes is quite similar, and we used a survey method that has been demonstrated to minimize missed detections within the plot boundaries (Lauriault & Wiersma 2019). Knowing the minimum tree age at which lichens can colonize would be useful but would require careful and frequent monitoring of young trees to detect when a lichen appears. However, we did not find the boreal felt lichen on trees less than 5 cm DBH, suggesting that this lichen can- not colonize trees until they reach a certain age. Another study suc- cessfully aged host trees and found that the number of thalli per tree peaked on 80-year-old trees (Tagirdzhanova et al. 2019), which is beyond the maximum average age of balsam fir in our study region. The patterns between boreal felt lichen host tree age, size and con- dition in these wetter areas is not well known. We have included data from Wigle et al. (2020) in the Supplementary Material (avail- able online) from upland balsam fir trees (which were not hosts for the boreal felt lichen) in the same region to illustrate the difficulties of relating tree size, age and health.
33126Ertz D., Huereca A., Salcedo-Martínez S. & Tehler A. (2020): Remarkable cases of parallel evolution of the placodioid thallus growth form in the Lecanographaceae (Arthoniales) with the description of a new species of Alyxoria from Mexico. - Lichenologist, 52(6): 415-424. doi:10.1017/S0024282920000444.
The new species Alyxoria sierramadrensis is described from Mexico where it inhabits limestone rocks. The lichen developing from this fungus is characterized by a placodioid to subfoliose thallus with a white pruinose surface; rounded to shortly elongated ascomata with a black epruinose margin and a widely exposed, white pruinose hymenial disc; hyaline, 3-septate ascospores, 17–25 × 7–9 μm; the presence of anthraquinones rendering the medulla orange. Phylogenetic analyses of nuLSU, mtSSU and RPB2 sequences place this species in the genus Alyxoria (Lecanographaceae). This generic affiliation is surprising because all known Alyxoria species have a crustose thallus. Lecanographaceae mainly includes species without a thallus (lichenicolous taxa) or with a thin crustose thallus, the only exception being Simonyella variegata with a fruticose thallus. The new species belongs to the Alyxoria ochrocheila subgroup, which includes lichens also frequently known to have anthraquinones, white pruinose hymenial discs and 3-septate ascospores. Phylogenetic analyses further determined the systematic position of the monotypic genus Phoebus. This genus, considered as an Arthoniales of uncertain family affiliation, is shown to belong to the Lecanographaceae. With its placodioid thallus, it is another example of a lichenized fungus with a deviating morphology in thallus structure for the family, increasing the number of remarkable cases of parallel evolution of lichen growth forms within the Arthoniales. Phoebus hydrophobius is newly recorded for Mexico. anthraquinone, biodiversity, lichen, North America, phylogeny, taxonomy
33125Tuovila H. & Huhtinen S. (2020): New methods for mycocalicioid fungi. - Lichenologist, 52(6): 403-413. doi:10.1017/S0024282920000481.
The identification of mycocalicioid species continues to be based on morphological and chemical characters, even though molecular data and substratum preferences can provide many important insights into specific problems associated with species delimitation and other taxo- nomic challenges. Our results reinforce the usefulness of many morphological and chemical characteristics and reveal several new features that can be used for both species delimitation and identification. Given the fact that mycocalicioid species can rarely be distinguished by just a single character, combinations of different chemical and morphological characteristics must be used. Additional characteristics must also be sought, including those that have previously been overlooked or still need to be discovered. As a result of this search, we introduce a new term, pseudohemiamyloid, for a reversible, KOH resistant/enhanced reaction in Lugol\’s solution. Chaenothecopsis, methodology, morphology, Mycocaliciales, Mycocalicium, Phaeocalicium, pseudohemiamyloid
33124Orange A. (2020): Lithocalla (Ascomycota, Lecanorales), a new genus of leprose lichens containing usnic acid. - Lichenologist, 52(6): 425-435. doi:10.1017/S0024282920000419.
The identity of Lecanora ecorticata has been uncertain due to conflicting reports of the presence of zeorin and the loss of the holotype. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the species probably belongs in Ramalinaceae, where it is the first leprose species reported. Zeorin was found to be absent in recently collected material of L. ecorticata, including specimens from the type locality, and the report of zeorin in the lost holotype is considered to be due to contamination. A new genus, Lithocalla, is erected to accommodate L. ecorticata and a second closely related species, that occurs in the Falkland Islands, is newly combined as Lithocalla malouina. A lectotype is selected for L. ecorticata. Lithocalla is characterized by a leprose thallus containing usnic acid with fatty acids and terpenoids, but no zeorin; ascomata and conidiomata are unknown. Falkland Islands, Norway, sterile crusts, usnic acid
33123Zhurbenko M. & Ohmura Y. (2020): Contributions to the knowledge of lichenicolous fungi growing on baeomycetoid lichens and Icmadophila, with a key to the species. - Lichenologist, 52(6): 437-453. doi:10.1017/S002428292000047X.
Five species of lichenicolous fungi are described as new to science: Buelliella ohmurae Zhurb. & Diederich (on Icmadophila), with a non- granulose epihymenium, not or only slightly enlarged, pale brown apical cells of paraphysoids and 1-septate, smooth ascospores; Catillaria japonica Zhurb. & Hafellner (on Dibaeis and Pseudobaeomyces), with a medium to dark reddish brown epihymenium, exciple and hypothe- cium, rather frequently branched and anastomosed paraphyses with only slightly enlarged apical cells without a dark cap, and Catillaria- type asci; Cryptodiscus ihlenii Zhurb. (on Dibaeis), with persistently immersed ascomata, non-amyloid asci and hymenium, not or only slightly enlarged apical cells of paraphyses and narrowly obovate, 1-septate ascospores; Llimoniella chilensis Zhurb. (on Dibaeis and a sterile microsquamulose lichen), with a K+ green exciple and epihymenium and aseptate, broadly ellipsoid ascospores; and Stigmidium phyllobaei- dis Zhurb., Etayo & Flakus (on apothecial discs of Phyllobaeis), with a hemiamyloid interascal gel, not previously reported in that genus, well-developed, 1‒2(‒4)-celled periphysoids, elongate asci and hyaline, 1-septate ascospores. An undescribed species of Arthonia (on Pseudobaeomyces) is briefly characterized. Sphaerellothecium coniodes is newly reported for Asia. A key to the 32 species of lichenicolous fungi and lichens known to occur on baeomycetoid lichens and Icmadophila is provided. Buelliella, Catillaria, Cryptodiscus, Llimoniella, new species, Stigmidium
33122Crespo A., Rico V., Garrido E., Lumbsch H. & Divakar P. (2020): A revision of species of the Parmelia saxatilis complex in the Iberian Peninsula with the description of P. rojoi, a new potentially relict species — CORRIGENDUM. - Lichenologist, 52(6): 459-459. doi:10.1017/S0024282920000572.
In the Abstract, a statement referring to the newly described spe- cies P. rojoi A. Crespo, V. J. Rico & Divakar, by Crespo et al. (2020), reads ...and is restricted to higher altitudes of northern and central Spain. This should be corrected to read ‘and is restricted to mild, warm and low altitude localities in the south of the Iberian Peninsula (Spain: Cádiz and Málaga). The complete sentence should therefore read: The new species, which forms a sister-group relationship with P. saxatilis s. str., is rare in the Iberian Peninsula and is restricted to mild, warm and low altitude localities in the south of the Iberian Peninsula (Spain: Cádiz and Málaga)
33121Richter T. (2018): [Selten gezeigte Pilze] Paranectria oropensis (Ces. ex Rabenh.) D. Hawksw. & Piroz.. - Boletus, 39(1): 38. .
lichenicolous fungi; photodocumentation
33120Malíček J. (2020): Lišejníky NPR Kohoutov na Křivoklátsku [Lichens of the Kohoutov National Nature Reserve in the Křivoklát region]. - Bryonora, 66: 25–33. https://botanospol.cz/sites/default/files/2021-01/BRYONORA_66_03.pdf.
The old-growth beech forest with fragments of scree forests in the protected area Kohoutov (28.8 ha) is among to the most valuable woodlands in the central part of Bohemia. The locality is dominated by beech; maple trees, limes, oaks and several other trees are intermixed. According to historical sources, Kohoutov is characterized by a long-lasting absence of forest management. However, the forest’s continuity was strongly influenced by the production of charcoal in the past. Despite relatively dry climate conditions and substrate acidification during the second half of the 20th century, it harbours numerous, mainly crustose epiphytic and epixylic lichens. Local diversity hot-spots are situated in scree and well-lit forests, especially in the upper part of the reserve. A total of 153 lichens and six non-lichenized fungi were recorded. A major part of lichens was recorded on trees (104), especially on maples (62), beeches (53) and oaks (42). Lignicolous lichen communities with 55 recorded species were species-rich as well. Saxicolous species were represented by 38 taxa. The great importance of the locality for nature protection is underlined by the presence of numerous calicioid lichens and fungi. Arthonia ruana, Bacidia circumspecta, B. rosella, B. vermifera, Bacidina phacodes, Calicium adspersum, Catinaria atropurpurea, Fuscidea recensa, Gyalecta flotowii, Multiclavula mucida and Pertusaria flavida represent the most remarkable species. Keywords: Lichens of the Kohoutov National Nature Reserve in the Křivoklát region.
33119Schoebel C.N., Brodbeck S., Buehler D., Cornejo C., Gajurel J., Hartikainen H., Keller D., Leys M., Říčanová Š., Segelbacher G., Werth S. & Csencsics D. (2013): Lessons learned from microsatellite development for nonmodel organisms using 454 pyrosequencing. - Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 26: 600–611. https://doi.org/10.1111/jeb.12077.
Microsatellites, also known as simple sequence repeats (SSRs), are among the most commonly used marker types in evolutionary and ecological studies. Next Generation Sequencing techniques such as 454 pyrosequencing allow the rapid development of microsatellite markers in nonmodel organisms. 454 pyrosequencing is a straightforward approach to develop a high number of microsatellite markers. Therefore, developing microsatellites using 454 pyrosequencing has become the method of choice for marker development. Here, we describe a user friendly way of microsatellite development from 454 pyrosequencing data and analyse data sets of 17 nonmodel species (plants, fungi, invertebrates, birds and a mammal) for microsatellite repeats and flanking regions suitable for primer development. We then compare the numbers of successfully lab-tested microsatellite markers for the various species and furthermore describe diverse challenges that might arise in different study species, for example, large genome size or nonpure extraction of genomic DNA. Successful primer identification was feasible for all species. We found that in species for which large repeat numbers are uncommon, such as fungi, polymorphic markers can nevertheless be developed from 454 pyrosequencing reads containing small repeat numbers (five to six repeats). Furthermore, the development of microsatellite markers for species with large genomes was also with Next Generation Sequencing techniques more cost and time-consuming than for species with smaller genomes. In this study, we showed that depending on the species, a different amount of 454 pyrosequencing data might be required for successful identification of a sufficient number of microsatellite markers for ecological genetic studies. Keywords: comparative studies; conservation genetics; massively parallel sequencing; next generation sequencing technology; population genetics; shotgun sequencing. Among else, 16 microsatellites were tested for mycobiont of Lobaria pulmonaria with total reads of 181 541. 14 microsatellites succesfully amplified, each of them unique.
33118Burgaz A.R., Gutiérrez-Larruga B., Rodríguez-Arribas C. & Pino-Bodas R. (2020): The genus Cladonia from Greece. - Herzogia, 33: 340–376. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.33.2.2020.340.
A study of the Cladoniaceae has been carried out in Greece, based on collections from 223 different localities. Thirty four Cladonia species were found, seven of which are new records to Greece, Cladonia conista, C. corsicana, C. digitata, C. macrophyllodes, C. peziziformis, C. polycarpoides and C. subturgida. As a result of this study the total number of Greek Cladonia species rises to 43. The currently known distribution ranges in Greece as well as information about the chemical variability of most of the species are provided. A key to all the Cladonia taxa known from Greece is included. Key words: lichenized Ascomycota, biodiversity, biogeography, Greek mycota, Mediterranean region, secondary metabolites.
33117Stordeur R., Breuss O., Eckstein J., Grünberg H., Kison H.-U., Schiefelbein U., Schultz M. & Thüs H. (2020): Beiträge zur Flechtenflora Sachsen-Anhalts und Thüringens. - Herzogia, 33: 377–393. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.33.2.2020.377.
First records, rediscoveries and additional localities of 32 rare or remarkable taxa from Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia are presented. Twenty-two taxa are new to Saxony-Anhalt. These include the lichenized fungi Acarospora oligospora, Bacidina adastra, Botryolepraria lesdainii, Cladonia cryptochlorophaea, Cryptodiscus gloeocapsa, Epigloea grummannii, Lathagrium undulatum, Pertusaria albescens var. corallina, Scytinium pulvinatum, Thelidium pluvium, Verrucaria memnonia, and Verrucaria fusca auct. (non Pers.). Further new taxa for Saxony-Anhalt are the lichenicolous species Intralichen lichenicola, Lichenochora obscuroides, Minutoexcipula tephromelae, Phaeospora parasitica, Stigmidium psorae, and S. rivulorum and the saprophytic fungi Leptosillia macrospora and Thelocarpon saxicola. Verrucaria pilosoides is new to Germany; based on ITS-data, it is part of the V. muralis group. Fuscidea mollis was considered possibly extinct in Germany, but a new locality was recorded in the Bode Valley. The new record is simultaneously the first confirmed report from Saxony-Anhalt for this species. The following species have not been recorded in Saxony-Anhalt for 60 to 180 years, but could be confirmed based on recent collections: Arthonia dispersa, Bacidia subincompta, Lempholemma polyanthes, Opegrapha rupestris, Polyblastia albida, Pyrrhospora quernea, and Verrucaria margacea. New records (since 2001) of Eiglera flavida and additional localities for the recently reported Scoliosporum gallurae are listed for the studied areas. Key words: First records, noteworthy lichens, lichen diversity, lichenicolous fungi, saprophytic fungi, chemistry, microcrystal tests, molecular analyses, Harz Mountains, Germany.
33116Knudsen K. & Kocourková J. (2020): Acarosporaceae of Belarus. - Herzogia, 33: 394–406. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.33.2.2020.394.
Fourteen species of Acarosporaceae are reported for Belarus in the genera Acarospora, Caeruleum, Myriospora, and Sarcogyne. The species Acarospora admissa and Acarospora intermedia are revised. Acarospora discreta and A. durietzii are treated as synonyms of A. admissa. Lectotypes are designated for A. admissa and Parmelia squamulosa var. discreta. Acarospora admissa is reported as new from Belarus, Germany, Italy, Lithuania, and Poland. Acarospora intermedia is reported as new from Belarus, Czech Republic, Italy, and the Russian Federation. Acarospora sibirica is reported as new to Europe and not recognized as a synonym of A. impressula. Sarcogyne hypophaeoides is reported new for North America (Ontario, Canada) and for Belarus, France, and Italy.
33115Guttová A., Valachovič M., Tzonev R., Ganeva A., Shivarov V.V. & Fačkovcová Z. (2020): Lichens recorded in chasmophytic communities associated with relict and endemic plant species in Bulgaria. - Herzogia, 33: 407–419. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.33.2.2020.407.
The mid-altitudes of Bulgaria comprise a wide range of sparsely vegetated ecosystems, including rock cliffs and outcrops. They host chasmophytic communities supporting different range-restricted or rare plants. Sampling vegetation relevés, we recorded the present lichen biota. Here we report on the occurrence of 143 lichen species. Out of them, we shortly comment on noteworthy species, specifically those which have not been reported from Bulgaria so far – Acarospora moenium, A. oligospora, Agonimia globulifera, A. opuntiella, Anema tumidulum, Fuscopannaria mediterranea, Lempholemma chalazanum, Leptogium brebissonii agg., Lichinella cribellifera, Psora vallesiaca, Pyrenopsis grumulifera, Scytinium aragonii, S. schraderi, Thelopsis lojkana, and Thalloidima tauricum. Key words: Balkan peninusula, biodiversity, Habitat 8210, Habitat 8220, NATURA 2000.
33114van den Boom P.P.G., Elix J.A. & Giralt M. (2020): Lichen diversity of crustose Caliciaceae and Physciaceae from Alentejo, the Azores and Madeira (Portugal) including the new Amandinea madeirensis. - Herzogia, 33: 420–431. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.33.2.2020.420.
Examination of crustose Caliciaceae and Physciaceae from Portugal (Alentejo, Madeira and the Azores) revealed the new corticolous species, Amandinea madeirensis, characterized by 16-spored asci and small Physconia-type ascospores. The new species is compared with the other known corticolous species of Buellia s. lat. with polyspored asci and a key to these species is provided. Additional information is given for a further 49 species, of which Amandinea polyspora, Rinodina teichophila and the lichenicolous fungus Wernerella maheui are new records for Portugal. The following are new records for the regions studied: Buellia mediterranea and B. caloplacivora are new to the Azores, Buellia uberiuscula and Rinodina guzzinii are new to Madeira, while most records from Alentejo are new for the province. An additional record of the rare species Buellia indissimilis, hitherto known only from two localities (including the type) in northern Portugal, is included. Key words: Buellia, Rinodina, polyspored asci, Wernerella, lichens of Atlantic archipeligos.
33113Oran S. (2020): Additions to the lichen biota of the Kaz Mountains (Çanakkale-Balıkesir, Turkey). - Herzogia, 33: 432–446. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.33.2.2020.432.
In the present paper, 195 lichen taxa and one lichenicolous fungus are reported from the Kaz Mountains. Rhizocarpon jemtlandicum and Rinodina moziana are new to Turkey. Key words: Kazdağı, lichen flora, Mediterranean lichens.
33112Xie C.-M., Ren Z.-J., Wang C.-X. & Zhang L.-L. (2020): Four species of Fuscidea new to China. - Herzogia, 33: 447–454. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.33.2.2020.447.
Fuscidea asbolodes, F. elixii and F. scrupulosa are reported for the first time in Asia and F. recensa var. arcuatula is new to China. Detailed taxonomic descriptions with illustrations as well as a key to all known Chinese Fuscidea species are provided. Key words: Taxonomy, lichen-forming fungi, Fuscideaceae.
33111Yakovchenko L., Davydov E.A., Paukov A., Konoreva L., Chesnokov S. & Ohmura Y. (2020): New records of arctic-alpine lichens from the Russian Far East. - Herzogia, 33: 455–472. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.33.2.2020.455.
New localities are given for 19 lichen species from the Russian Far East. Aspicilia asteria and A. umbrinella are reported for Russia for the first time. Buellia lacteoidea, B. ocellata, Dermatocarpon polyphyllizum, Lecanora reagens, and Miriquidica pycnocarpa are newly reported for the Russian Far East. Buellia lacteoidea is reported for the second time from Eurasia and Russia. Lecanora argentea, Lecidea promiscua, Miriquidica leucophaea, Placopsis cribellans, Rhizocarpon saanaёnse and Rimularia badioatra are recorded for the first time for the southern Far East. Rhizocarpon polycarpum is a new species for Primorye Territory, and Acarospora veronensis and Rimularia limborina are new for Sakhalin. Lecanora gangaleoides, Umbilicaria hyperborea, and U. herrei are confirmed for Sakhalin. Characteristic features of the species, including those that distinguish them from their closest relatives, and species’ distribution and ranges are described. Aspicilia pseudovulcanica S.Y.Kondr. et al. is synonymized with A. asteria Hue, and A. submamillata S.Y.Kondr. et al. is synonymized with A. umbrinella Hue.