32443Thompson K.M. & Colbert J.T. (2020): Lichens of Iowa’s White Pine Hollow State Preserve. - Evansia, 37(2): 31–49. .
A lichen diversity survey of White Pine Hollow State Preserve in Dubuque County, Iowa, revealed the presence of 117 different lichens including 13 previously unrecorded for the state of Iowa, 72 previously unrecorded for Dubuque County, and one recorded in Iowa on only one prior occasion. This increases the number of lichens reported for the state of Iowa to a total of 478 and the number recorded for White Pine Hollow to 123. Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm., an old-growth specialist that is facing declines around the globe, was not amongst the lichens observed although one of the last known collections (1901) of this lichen in Iowa occurred at White Pine Hollow. Efforts to propagate L. pulmonaria in a greenhouse setting as a means of providing insight to whether a reintroduction might be feasible were unsuccessful. Key words: Iowa lichens, White Pine Hollow State Preserve, Lobaria pulmonaria, lichen reintroduction, lichen conservation.
32442Padgett T., Arsenault A. & McMullin R.T. (2020): Chaenotheca brachypoda and Sclerophora peronella, two calicioid lichens new to Newfoundland and Labrador from Terra Nova National Park. - Evansia, 37(2): 61–70. .
During lichen surveys conducted in Terra Nova National Park, Newfoundland and Labrador, two new calicioid lichen species for the province were discovered, increasing the number of known calicioid species in the province to 35. One of the species, Chaenotheca brachypoda, was previously known in the Maritimes provinces, Ontario, and British Columbia within Canada. The other species, Sclerophora peronella, was known from Nova Scotia, Quebec, and British Columbia within Canada and is listed under Schedule 1 of the Canadian Species At Risk Act as Special Concern. A key to the calicioids of Newfoundland and Labrador is provided. Additional survey efforts should be made in the rest of the province to better understand each species’ distribution. Key words. Atlantic Canada; biogeography; Caliciales; key; species-at-risk.
32441Burningham H. & Knight J. (2020): Biological zonation and bedrock strength on a high energy granite shore platform. - Journal of Coastal Research, 95: 23–28. .
Many studies have shown that downwearing of rock shore platforms results from interactions between biological and geomorphological processes, but the relative roles of biological, lithological and external (wave hydraulic action) in shaping rock shore platforms have not been examined in detail. This is important, however, because surface organisms can both increase and decrease rates of platform downwearing by biological weathering and bioprotection, respectively. This study presents biological and geomorphological results from a high energy shoreline in northwest Ireland. Here, the 50-100 m wide granite shore platform has a slope of ~1:6 and extends from 7-9 m above the level of mean high water springs to ~2 m below mean low water. Organisms attached to the bedrock surface were surveyed by the quadrat method along two shore-normal topographic transects. At each quadrat site, bedrock hardness was measured using an Equotip instrument. Results show clear ecological zonation that can be directly related to the tidal frame. There is very little evidence for cross-shore changes in bedrock hardness. Elevation is the most significant driving factor for the presence of different species, but bedrock hardness is only associated with the abundance of specific species such as barnacles, demonstrating complexity in biogeomorphological relationships at local scales. Key words: Algae, bedrock hardness, Ireland, lichen, rock coast, shore platform.
32440Rassabina A.E., Gurjanov O.P., Beckett R.P. & Minibayeva F.V. (2020): Melanins from the lichens Cetraria islandica and Pseudevernia furfuracea: structural features and physicochemical properties. - Biochemistry (Moscow), 85(5): 623–628. https://doi.org/10.1134/S0006297920050119.
[Translation of Russian Text published in Biokhimiya, 2020, Vol. 85, No. 5, pp. 729–735] Lichens are symbiotic photosynthesizing organisms with thalli formed by fungi and algae/cyanobacteria that pos sess high stress tolerance. One of the factors that contributes to the ability of a lichen to tolerate harsh environmental con ditions is the presence of unique metabolites, including highmolecularweight dark pigments termed melanins. The chem ical composition and structure of lichen melanins remain poorly studied. We analyzed the elemental composition, the main functional groups, and the physicochemical properties of melanin extracted from Cetraria islandica and Pseudevernia fur furacea lichens. Based on the C/N ratio, this pigment is allomelanin. We also identified functional groups that provide pho toprotective and antioxidant properties of melanin. Melanin synthesis might be an essential defense mechanism contribut ing to the survival of lichens under exposure to UV radiation. Keywords: melanin, lichen, IR spectroscopy, photoprotection, antioxidant activity.
32439Zeybek U. & Yıldız A. (2000): Untersuchungen über die nordost-anatolischen Flechten Lobaria scrobiculata und L. pulmonaria [Studies on the Northeast Anatolian lichens Lobaria scrobiculata and L. pulmonaria]. - Scientia Pharmaceutica, 68(3): 317–321. https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.aut-00-29.
The secondary metabolites in Lobaria pulmonaria and L. scrobiculata collected in northeast Anatolia are studied using HPLC. Constictic, nortictic and stictic acids are the major components in L. pulmonaria; in addition connorstictic, cryptostictic, and menegazziaic acids are present as minor constituents. In L. scrobiculata constictic, stictic, and usnic acids and m- scrobiculin are the major compounds; while cryptostictic and norstictic acids, and p- scrobiculin are present as minors. Keywords: Lichens; Lobaria; lichen substances; HPLC.
32438El-Garawani I., Emam M., Elkhateeb W., El-Seedi H., Khalifa S., Oshiba S., Abou-Ghanima S. & Daba G. (2020): In vitro antigenotoxic, antihelminthic and antioxidant potentials based on the extracted metabolites from lichen, Candelariella vitellina. - Pharmaceutics, 12: 477 [22 p.] doi:10.3390/pharmaceutics12050477. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12050477.
Lichens have recently received great attention due to their pharmacological potentials. The antigenotoxic potential of C. vitellina extract (25 and 50 g/mL) was assessed in normal human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBL) against Mitomycin C (MMC) co-treatments. Flow cytometric analyses of cell cycle distribution, as well as apoptosis (Annexin V/PI), revealed that the extract had significantly (p  0.05) ameliorated the MMC toxicity by reducing the apoptotic cells and normalized the cell cycle phases. C. vitellina exhibited antigenotoxicity by ameliorating the diminished mitotic index and DNA single-strand breaks caused by MMC. Herein, the hydromethanolic extract (80%) of Candelariella vitellina (Japan) lichen, exhibited very low cytotoxicity towards normal human peripheral lymphocytes (HPBL) with IC50 >1000 g/mL. In order to explore the antihelminthic e ect, Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces were used in vitro. Eosin staining revealed significant (p  0.05) dose and time-dependent scolicidal e ects of the extract confirmed by degenerative alterations as observed by electron scan microscopy. Furthermore, primary and secondary metabolites were investigated using GC-MS and qualitative HPLC, revealing the presence of sugars, alcohols, di erent phenolic acids and light flavonoids. Significant antioxidant capacities were also demonstrated by DPPH radical-scavenging assay. In conclusion, the promising antigenotoxic, antihelminthic and antioxidant potentials of C. vitellina extract encourage further studies to evaluate its possible therapeutic potency. Keywords: antihelminthic; antioxidant; apoptosis; Candelariella vitellina metabolites; DNA damage; HPLC; GC-MS.
32437Paquette H.A. & McMullin R.T. (2020): Macrolichens of Forillon National Park, Quebec, Canada. - Northeastern Naturalist, 27(Monograph 16): 1–35. .
In Canada, detailed knowledge of the macrolichen biota in national parks is surprisingly sparse. Forillon National Park (Forillon) in Quebec, Canada, is an example, with no previously published accounts of lichens. To fill this knowledge gap, we conducted a survey of the macrolichens in the park and reviewed past collections to establish a baseline list of species. We report 140 taxa from Forillon (139 species and 2 subspecies, in 39 genera). Notable species include: Melanohalea exasperata, a first record for Canada; Scytinium teretiusculum, a first record for Quebec; Parmelia fertilis, a northern range extension; Hypogymnia subobscura, a species with an Arctic affinity; and Bryoria salazinica, Cladonia labradorica, and Leptogium acadiense, which are endemic to northeastern North America and infrequently collected. We provide an annotated list of species and an identification key to the macrolichen species of Forillon.
32436Lavoie C., Renaudin M., McMullin R.T., Gagnon J., Roy C., Beaulieu M.-E., Bellenger J.P. & Villarreal J.C. (2020): Extremely low genetic diversity of Stigonema associated with Stereocaulon in eastern Canada. - Bryologist, 123(2): 188–203. .
Stigomena is a genus of cyanobacteria that is often the photobiont associated with the lichen genus Stereocaulon. To elucidate the evolutionary relationships between Stereocaulon and Stigonema and assess whether there is specificity or selectivity at the ecosystem or species levels, we performed phylogenetic analyses on specimens collected throughout Eastern Canada. We generated ITS sequences from the fungal component of the symbiosis and sequences from the operon rbcL-rbcX and the trnL intron from the cyanobacteria of seventy specimens of Stereocaulon. Our ITS results revealed that at least forty Stereocaulon specimens are in 16 distinct species clades (OTUs) and morphologically defined species tend to be paraphyletic. In addition, two genera of cyanobacteria, Stigonema and Nostoc, were detected among the samples and the former is the most common symbiont associated with Stereocaulon. We discovered that nearly invariable Stigonema sequences (rbcL-rbcX) occur across 2,000 km of sampling from temperate to arctic biomes. The lack of geographic structure or species-level specificity for Stigonema suggest a high co-dispersal capability of the cyanobacteria with the ascomycete and selectivity towards a small number of very similar Stigonema haplotypes across eastern Canada. Keywords: Coevolution, nitrogen fixation, Nordic ecosystems, symbiosis, phylogenetic diversity, specificity.
32435Antony A.C., George S., Chandran S. & Sebastian A. (2020): Lichens as a source and indicator of agrochemicals. - In: Prasad M.N.V. (ed.), Agrochemicals Detection, Treatment and Remediation, p. 241–261, Butterworth-Heinemann. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-103017-2.00010-6.
India; Chapter in Book
32434Shukla I., Azmi L., Rao C.V., Jawaid T., Kamal M., Awaad A.S., Alqasoumi S.I., Alkhamees O.A. & Alsanad S.M. (2020): Hepatoprotective activity of depsidone enriched Cladonia rangiferina extract against alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity targeting cytochrome P450 2E1 induced oxidative damage. - Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, 28: 519–527. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsps.2020.03.003.
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a broad-spectrum disorder, covering fatty liver, cirrhosis, alcoholic hepatitis and in extreme untreated condition hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) may also develop. Cladonia rangiferina (CR) is a class of lichen having a broad spectrum of pharmacological activity. It is used like traditional natural sources in ancient times in India, China, Sri Lanka, etc. Folkloric record about CR has reported their use as an antimicrobial, antitumor, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory activities, etc. Hence, the present study was requested to ascertain the effect of the ethanolic extract of Cladonia rangiferina (CRE) on alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity. The animals were evaluated for the estimation of the liver in vivo biochemical antioxidant parameters. The liver tissues were further evaluated histopathologically and western blotting examination for localization of apoptotic gene expression that plays a pivotal role in hepatotoxicity. The results of this study reveal that CRE proves to be helpful in the treatment of alcoholinduced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress. Results of different markers have shown that among all, CRE has demonstrated the best hepatoprotective activity. These observations say about the importance of the components of the extract. The ameliorative action of CRE in alcoholic liver damage may exist due to antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic activities. Keywords: Hepatotoxicity; Cladonia rangiferina; Inflammation; Apoptosis.
32433Olleck M., Reger B. & Ewald J. (2020): Plant indicators for Folic Histosols in mountain forests of the Calcareous Alps. - Applied Vegetation Science, 23: 285–296. https://doi.org/10.1111/avsc.12470.
Questions: Although thick forest floors overlying unweathered bedrock are important resources for mountain forests' functioning, their actual distribution is poorly known and difficult to delimit in the field. We therefore asked: (a) What is the specific composition of vegetation growing on Folic Histosols; (b) can indicator plants be used to detect Folic Histosols in mountain forests; (c) what do functional traits of plant indicators tell about the ecological properties of Folic Histosols? Location: Northern Calcareous Alps, south Germany. Methods: Based on representative stratified sampling of joint vegetation plots and soil profile descriptions, we estimated the frequency and thickness of Folic Histosols, determined the proportion of compositional variation specifically attributable to forest floor thickness using ordination, applied Indicator Species Analysis and searched for typical traits and ecological requirements of indicator species. Results: The co-existence of acidophilic and calciphytic plants is typical for the tessellated occurrence and the successional origin of Folic Histosols. In the study region, the detection of Folic Histosols on pure limestone or dolomite by ground vegetation works very well. Particularly acidophilic plants are suitable indicators for thick forest floors. The indicator value of bryophytes and Ericaceae for Folic Histosols is likely related to the colonization of rotten wood. Folic Histosol indicator species are widely spread in the allocation to sociology group, which ranges from open landscapes to dark forests and reflects successional origin. Conclusions: In mountain forests on carbonate bedrock, thick humus layers often occur next to bare rock. This tessellated structure can also be detected in the ground vegetation, where acidophilic and calciphytic plants occur side by side. Thick Folic Histosols in late successional forests are dominated by acidophilic plants colonizing rotten wood. Thus, the detection of Folic Histosols by understorey species is an easy and cost-effective possibility and one key to protect these vulnerable forest sites. Keywords: Bavarian Alps, forest floor, indicator species analysis, partial ordination, Tangel humus, variance partitioning. [p. 289: ] "Out of the 15 observed lichen taxa only one, Cladonia furcata agg., was typical for FHs, and the majority was allocated to the “others” group."
32432Benvenutto-Vargas V.P. & Ochoa-Hueso R. (2020): Effects of nitrogen deposition on the spatial pattern of biocrusts and soil microbial activity in a semi-arid Mediterranean shrubland. - Functional Ecology, 34: 923–937. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2435.13512.
Human activities have doubled, or even tripled, the amount of nitrogen (N) fixed globally, which alters the functioning and reduces the biodiversity of terrestrial ecosystems. 2. In this study, we used a 10-year N addition experiment in a semi-arid Mediterranean shrubland in central Spain to evaluate the effects of increased N deposition on biocrust cover, soil microbial enzymatic activity and their spatial patterns. We collected highly replicated, spatially explicit data to carry out Moran's I correlograms at the plot level and used linear mixed models to evaluate the effects of N addition on cover, microbial activity and Moran's I values for each distance class of correlograms. 3. High N deposition (50 kg N ha−1 year−1) reduced the cover of the foliose lichen Cladonia foliacea, an important component of biocrusts, and generated significant alterations and losses of the spatial pattern of biocrusts and soil microbial enzymatic activity. Furthermore, we found indication that N addition altered the relationship between biocrust cover and microbial enzymatic activity, suggesting that the presence of well-developed biocrust communities modulates the effects of high N deposition on soil microbial activity. 4. Synthesis. Overall, our study suggests that an increase in N deposition may have important consequences for the structure and functioning of Mediterranean ecosystems and that some of these consequences may be due to alterations in the way in which different soil communities (e.g. moss-lichen biocrusts and soil microorganisms) interact with one another. Keywords: biocrusts, extracellular enzymatic activities, Mediterranean ecosystems, nitrogen deposition, spatial patterns.
32431Sabater A.M., Ward H.C., Hill T.C., Gornall J.L., Wade T.J., Evans J.G., Prieto-Blanco A., Disney M., Phoenix G.K., Williams M., Huntley B., Baxter R., Mencuccini M. & Poyatos R. (2020): Transpiration from subarctic deciduous woodlands: Environmental controls and contribution to ekosystém evapotranspiration. - Ecohydrology, 13: e2190 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1002/eco.2190.
Potential land–climate feedbacks in subarctic regions, where rapid warming is driving forest expansion into the tundra, may be mediated by differences in transpiration of different plant functional types. Here, we assess the environmental controls of overstorey transpiration and its relevance for ecosystem evapotranspiration in subarctic deciduous woodlands. We measured overstorey transpiration of mountain birch canopies and ecosystem evapotranspiration in two locations in northern Fennoscandia, having dense (Abisko) and sparse (Kevo) overstories. For Kevo, we also upscale chamber-measured understorey evapotranspiration from shrubs and lichen using a detailed land cover map. Subdaily evaporative fluxes were not affected by soil moisture and showed similar controls by vapour pressure deficit and radiation across sites. At the daily timescale, increases in evaporative demand led to proportionally higher contributions of overstorey transpiration to ecosystem evapotranspiration. For the entire growing season, the overstorey transpired 33% of ecosystem evapotranspiration in Abisko and only 16% in Kevo. At this latter site, the understorey had a higher leaf area index and contributed more to ecosystem evapotranspiration compared with the overstorey birch canopy. In Abisko, growing season evapotranspiration was 27% higher than precipitation, consistent with a gradual soil moisture depletion over the summer. Our results show that overstorey canopy transpiration in subarctic deciduous woodlands is not the dominant evaporative flux. However, given the observed environmental sensitivity of evapotranspiration components, the role of deciduous trees in driving ecosystem evapotranspiration may increase with the predicted increases in tree cover and evaporative demand across subarctic regions. Keywords: arctic, branch cuvettes, eddy covariance, evapotranspiration partitioning, mountain birch, tundra, understorey.
32430Juottonen H., Männistö M., Tiirola M. & Kytöviita M.-M. (2020): Cryptogams signify key transitions of bacteria and fungi in Arctic sand dune succession. - New Phytologist, 226: 1836–1849. .
 Primary succession models focus on aboveground vascular plants. However, the prevalence of mosses and lichens, that is cryptogams, suggests they play a role in soil successions. Here, we explore whether effects of cryptogams on belowground microbes can facilitate progressive shifts in sand dune succession.  We linked aboveground vegetation, belowground bacterial and fungal communities, and soil chemical properties in six successional stages in Arctic inland sand dunes: bare sand, grass, moss, lichen, ericoid heath and mountain birch forest.  Compared with the bare sand and grass stages, microbial biomass and the proportion of fungi increased in the moss stage, and later stage microbial groups appeared despite the absence of their host plants. Microbial communities of the lichen stage resembled the communities in the vascular plant stages. Bacterial communities correlated better with soil chemical variables than with vegetation and vice versa for fungal communities. The correlation of fungi with vegetation increased with vascular vegetation.  Distinct bacterial and fungal patterns of biomass, richness and plant–microbe interactions showed that the aboveground vegetation change structured the bacterial and fungal community differently. The asynchrony of aboveground vs belowground changes suggests that cryptogams can drive succession towards vascular plant dominance through microbially mediated facilitation in eroded Arctic soil. Key words: Arctic soil, bacterial community, cryptogam, erosion, fungal community, Polytrichum, primary succession, sand dune.
32429Woo J.-J., Lücking R., Oh S.-Y., Jeun Y.-C. & Hur J.-C. (2020): Two new foliicolous species of Strigula (Strigulaceae, Strigulales) in Korea offer insight in phorophyte-dependent variation of thallus morphology. - Phytotaxa, 443(1): 1–12. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.443.1.1.
Foliicolous lichens grow on the surface of living leaves in tropical and subtropical forests. Compared to a large number of species of foliicolous lichens reported from other regions in tropical and subtropical Asia, only six species of the otherwise abundant genus Strigula have been registered from South Korea so far. Three of these, morphologically identified as S. concreta, S. macrocarpa, and S. smaragdula, had previously been shown to share near-identical ITS sequences, casting doubt about the usefulness of this marker for species delimitation in the genus Strigula. To shed light on this conundrum, we surveyed the diversity of the genus Strigula in the Gotjawal forest area on Jeju Island south of mainland Korea, where the climate and vegetation are suitable for foliicolous lichens. As the result of a combined analysis of phenotype and molecular data of the ITS fungal barcoding marker, we found that material morphologically similar to known species formed two strongly supported clades, representing two species new to science, S. depressa Woo, Lücking & Hur sp. nov. and S. multiformis Woo, Lücking & Hur sp. nov., which are described herein. Strigula multiformis included the four previously sequenced specimens identified as S. concreta, S. macrocarpa, and S. smaragdula. A detailed analysis of morphological and anatomical characters revealed that all specimens of S. multiformis were anatomically uniform but varied in thallus morphology, mostly resembling S. smaragdula but with some forms similar to S. concreta and S. macrocarpa, explaining the previous misidentifications. This variation was found to be driven by leaf characters of the phorophyte species, as these apparently influence the morphology of the subcuticular thalli. Keywords: Evergreen broad-leaved forest, Foliicolous lichens, Gotjawal forest, Jeju Island, Strigula.
32428Haridas S., Albert R., Binder M., Bloem J., LaButti K., Salamov A., Andreopoulos B., Baker S.E., Barry K., Bills G., Bluhm B.H., Cannon C., Castanera R., Culley D.E., Daum C., Ezra D., González J.B., Henrissat B., Kuo A., Liang C., Lipzen A., Lutzoni F., Magnuson J., Mondo S.J., Nolan M., Ohm R.A., Pangilinan J., Park H.J., Ramírez L., Alfaro M., Sun H., Tritt A., Yoshinaga Y., Zwiers L.H., Turgeon B.G., Goodwin S.B., Spatafora J.W., Crous P.W. & Grigoriev I.V. (2020): 101 Dothideomycetes genomes: A test case for predicting lifestyles and emergence of pathogens. - Studies in Mycology, 96: 141–153. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.simyco.2020.01.003.
Dothideomycetes is the largest class of kingdom Fungi and comprises an incredible diversity of lifestyles, many of which have evolved multiple times. Plant pathogens represent a major ecological niche of the class Dothideomycetes and they are known to infect most major food crops and feedstocks for biomass and biofuel production. Studying the ecology and evolution of Dothideomycetes has significant implications for our fundamental understanding of fungal evolution, their adaptation to stress and host specificity, and practical implications with regard to the effects of climate change and on the food, feed, and livestock elements of the agro-economy. In this study, we present the first large-scale, whole-genome comparison of 101 Dothideomycetes introducing 55 newly sequenced species. The availability of wholegenome data produced a high-confidence phylogeny leading to reclassification of 25 organisms, provided a clearer picture of the relationships among the various families, and indicated that pathogenicity evolved multiple times within this class. We also identified gene family expansions and contractions across the Dothideomycetes phylogeny linked to ecological niches providing insights into genome evolution and adaptation across this group. Using machine-learning methods we classified fungi into lifestyle classes with >95 % accuracy and identified a small number of gene families that positively correlated with these distinctions. This can become a valuable tool for genome-based prediction of species lifestyle, especially for rarely seen and poorly studied species. Key words: Fungal evolution, Genome-based prediction, Machine-learning, New taxa.
32427Expósito J.R., Coello A.J., Barreno E., Casano L.M. & Catalá M. (2020): Endogenous NO is involved in dissimilar responses to rehydration and Pb(NO3)2 in Ramalina farinacea thalli and its isolated phycobionts. - Microbial Ecology, 79: 604–616. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00248-019-01427-2.
Lichens undergo desiccation/rehydration cycles and are permeable to heavy metals, which induce free radicals. Nitrogen monoxide (NO) regulates important cellular functions, but the research on lichen NO is still very scarce. In Ramalina farinacea thalli, NO seems to be involved in the peroxidative damage caused by air pollution, antioxidant defence and regulation of lipid peroxidation and photosynthesis. Our hypothesis is that NO also has a critical role during the rehydration and in the responses to lead of its isolated phycobionts (Trebouxia sp. TR9 and Trebouxia jamesii). Therefore, we studied the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, lipid peroxidation and chlorophyll autofluorescence during rehydration of thalli and isolated microalgae in the presence of a NO scavenger and Pb(NO3)2. During rehydration, NO scavenging modulates free radical release and chlorophyll autofluorescence but not lipid peroxidation in both thalli and phycobionts. Pb(NO3)2 reduced free radical release (hormetic effect) both in the whole thallus and in microalgae. However, only in TR9, the ROS production, chlorophyll autofluorescence and lipid peroxidation were dependent on NO. In conclusion, Pb hormetic effect seems to depend on NO solely in TR9, while is doubtful for T. jamesii and the whole thalli. Keywords: Heavy metals . Lichen . Microalgae . Nitric oxide . Rehydration . Free radicals.
32426Fortuna L., Incerti G., Da Re D., Mazzilis D. & Tretiach M. (2020): Validation of particulate dispersion models by native lichens as point receptors: a case study from NE Italy. - Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 27: 13384–13395. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-07859-5.
Atmospheric dispersion model (ADM) simulations are increasingly used as management tools in air pollution monitoring programs, even in the absence of proper validation. Biomonitors can provide important information for ADM validation, but an open question is their temporal frame of application, particularly when native organisms are used. In this study, we tested two alternative ADMsimulating the total suspended particulate (TSP) released by a coal power station, against the element content of two native lichens collected at 40 sites, integrated by soil samples. The ADM simulations differed by the time references: the 6- month period preceding lichen sampling, approximately corresponding to the estimated age of the samples (Mod. A), and the whole year 2005, representative of the local average conditions and used in the plant authorization processes (Mod. B). A generalized regression model analysis clearly showed that the Cr, Pb and V content of lichen samples was spatially associated to the outcomes of Mod. A, but not with Mod. B. Interestingly, the Cr content of lichen samples consistently correlated to TSP concentration predicted by Mod. A along two transects placed downwind from the coal power station. This result was corroborated by an air particulate matter sampling which pointed out that air Cr concentrations increased during the operative period of the source. Overall, our results suggest that lichen bioaccumulation data can proficiently be used to validate ADM simulations if the exposure time of the biological samples is consistent with the temporal domain of the ADM simulations. Keywords: Air pollution . Dispersion models . Bioaccumulation . Enrichment factor . Exposure time . Lichen growth.
32425Liira J., Suija A. & Jüriado I. (2020): Habitat and host specificity of epiphytic lichens in a rural landscape: cultural heritage habitats as refugia. - Biodiversity and Conservation, 29: 2141–2160. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-020-01955-1.
We hypothesize that many epiphytic lichens colonize trees in planted cultural heritage sites and persist as large-scale species meta-pools in historic rural landscape, while epiphytic biodiversity is threatened by the timber oriented forest management. We performed a stratified survey of epiphytic lichen species pools on ten common tree species in three contrasting habitat types across 19 Estonian landscapes. The meta-pools were examined at local and regional scales. The response differences between two ecological subsets—common forest-dwellers and conservation indicators—were assessed. Tree species in parks and corridors hosted more lichen species than they did in production forests. For common forestdwelling lichens the local species pool size was similar in all habitat types, while their regional pool was larger in forests and parks. On the contrary, for conservation indicator lichens the local pool size was the largest in corridors and regional pool size was the same in all habitats. Habitat type and tree species equally shaped the composition of the regional pool. Lichens were the most host-tree-specific in forests and had the widest host-tree niche in corridors. Broad-leaved tree species supported the largest regional species pools only in forest, while Betula and Pinus with Larix did in corridors. Lichen pools on Populus tremula were consistently the smallest. As the habitat quality of contemporary forests is too low for epiphytic lichens, cultural heritage sites should be considered as refugia in biodiversity conservation networks. Forestry and rural greening should emphasise stand diversification, ensuring the continuity of micro-habitats. Indicator lichen classifications require forest-oriented refinements. Keywords: Ecological indicators · Forest biodiversity · Habitat loss · National historic heritage · Novel habitats · Sustainable rural development.
32424Hanke F., Mooij B.J.A., Ariese F. & Böttger U. (2019): The evaluation of time‐resolved Raman spectroscopy for the suppression of background fluorescence from space‐relevant samples. - Ecosphere, 50(7): 969–982. https://doi.org/10.1002/jrs.5586.
One of the primary goals in space research is the search for signs of extant or extinct extraterrestrial life, and Raman spectroscopy can play a role in this field. Raman spectrometers are planned for future missions to Mars and possibly the Moon to identify the mineralogical surface composition and potentially existing organic compounds (especially on Mars). However, a major challenge in Raman spectroscopy, especially in the visible range, is the strong fluorescence background. Time‐resolved Raman spectroscopy (TRRS) can provide selective detection of Raman signals over the generally longer living fluorescence. This study investigates the potential of a TRRS system, using 3‐ps, 440‐nm laser pulses and time‐gated detection with an intensified chargecoupled device (CCD) camera. Test samples were the lichen Xanthoria elegans as an extraterrestrial life analogue, and a lunar regolith analogue material (LRS) as a planetary surface analogue. The TRRS technique is evaluated by comparing gated to nongated Raman spectroscopy using different detectors but with otherwise the same instrument and identical measurement conditions. The gated spectra of X. elegans showed significant signal‐to‐noise ratio (SNR) improvements compared to the nongated spectra. The visible Raman lines could be assigned to the photoprotective pigment parietin. For the LRS sample, measurement spots with a good SNR in the nongated spectrum were not significantly improved by measuring in gated mode. However, spots dominated by fluorescence showed significant improvement in gated mode because of fluorescence suppression. Minerals such as plagioclase, diopside, olivine, apatite, and a carbonate mineral were detected. In most cases, TRRS provided better results compared to nongated measurements, demonstrating the suitability for future space‐exploration missions. Keywords: fluorescence rejection, lunar regolith analogue material, space exploration, time‐resolved Raman spectroscopy, Xanthoria elegans.
32423Kooijman A., Morriën E., Jagers op Akkerhuis G., Missong A., Bol R., Klumpp E., van Hall R., van Til M., Kalbitz K. & Bloem J. (2020): Resilience in coastal dune grasslands: pH and soil organic matter effects on P nutrition, plant strategies, and soil communities. - Ecosphere, 11(5):e03112 [43 p.]. doi:10.1002/ecs2.3112. .
Soil organic matter (SOM) and pH are key ecosystem drivers, influencing resilience to environmental change. We tested the separate effects of pH and SOM on nutrient availability, plant strategies, and soil community composition in calcareous and acidic Grey dunes (H2130) with low, intermediate, and/or high SOM, which differ in sensitivity to high atmospheric N deposition. Soil organic matter was mainly important for biomass parameters of plants, microbes, and soil animals, and for microarthropod diversity and network complexity. However, differences in pH led to fundamental differences in P availability and plant strategies, which overruled the normal soil community patterns, and influenced resilience to N deposition. In calcareous dunes with low grass-encroachment, P availability was low despite high amounts of inorganic P, due to low solubility of calcium phosphates and strong P sorption to Fe oxides at high pH. Calcareous dunes were dominated by low-competitive arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) plants, which profit from mycorrhiza especially at low P. In acidic dunes with high grass-encroachment, P availability increased as calcium phosphates dissolved and P sorption weakened with the shift from Fe oxides to Fe-OM complexes. Weakly sorbed and colloidal P increased, and at least part of the sorbed P was organic. Acidic dunes were dominated by nonmycorrhizal (NM) plants, which increase P uptake through exudation of carboxylates and phosphatase enzymes, which release weakly sorbed P, and disintegrate labile organic P. The shifts in P availability and plant strategies also changed the soil community. Contrary to expectations, the bacterial pathway was more important in acidic than in calcareous dunes, possibly due to exudation of carboxylates and phosphatases by NM plants, which serve as bacterial food resource. Also, the fungal AM pathway was enhanced in calcareous dunes, and fungal feeders more abundant, due to the presence of AM fungi. The changes in soil communities in turn reduced expected differences in N cycling between calcareous and acidic dunes. Our results show that SOM and pH are important, but separate ecosystem drivers in Grey dunes. Differences in resilience to N deposition are mainly due to pH effects on P availability and plant strategies, which in turn overruled soil community patterns. Key words: arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) plants; atmospheric N deposition; bacteria; fungi; Grey dunes H2130; iron; nonmycorrhizal (NM) plants; soil community network. Three Cladonia species listed in Table 2. [p. 36: ] "In areas with low N deposition along the Baltic Sea, Carex arenaria showed N:P ratios of 7–8 g/g, which points to high P supply, but N-limited growth conditions (Remke et al. 2009a, b). In such areas, C. arenaria was present in small amounts, and the vegetation dominated by lichens."
32422Stavrova N.I., Gorshkov V.V., Katjutin P.N. & Bakkal I.Ju. (2020): The structure of northern Siberian spruce–Scots pine forests at different stages of post-fire succession. - Forests, 11: 588 [23 p.] doi:10.3390/f11050558. .
The process of post-fire recovery in mixed Siberian spruce–Scots pine forests (Picea obovata Ledeb.-Pinus sylvestris L.), typical for the European North-West, was studied in the Kola peninsula (Russia). We used the spatial–temporal approach to reveal the size structure (diameter at breast height (DBH) distribution) and vital state of Siberian spruce and Scots pine stands, tree regeneration and species structure of the dwarf shrub–herb and lichen–moss layers at different stages of post-fire succession (8–380 years after the fire). It was found that in both forest-forming species, the process of stand stratification results in the allocation of two size groups of trees. In Siberian spruce, these groups persist throughout the succession. In Scots pine, DBH distributions become more homogeneous at the middle of succession (150–200 years after the fire) due to the extinction of small-size individuals. Siberian spruce stands are dominated by moderately and strongly weakened trees at all succession stages. The vitality status of Scots pine stands is higher compared to Siberian spruce up to 150 years after a fire. The dynamics of regeneration activity is similar in both species, with a minimum at the middle of the restoration period. The results indicate that in Siberian spruce–Scots pine forests, the stand structure and regeneration activity differs substantially in the first half of succession (up to 200 years after the fire) and become similar in the late-succession community. The study of lower layers revealed that the cover of moss–lichen and dwarf shrub–herb layers stabilize 150 years after a fire. Changes in species structure in both layers are observed until the late stage of succession. The originality of the structure and dynamics of mixed Siberian spruce–Scots pine forests is revealed based on a comparison with pure Siberian spruce forests in the same region. Keywords: northern taiga; Kola peninsula; Siberian spruce–Scots pine forest; post-fire recovery; tree layer; tree regeneration; dwarf shrub and herb layer; moss–lichen layer; size structure; vitality structure; species structure. [pp. 16-17:] "From 80 to 200 years after a fire, the total cover of lichens was significantly lower than in the previous period, averaging 4% (Figure 8a). Three hundred and eighty years after a fire, their cover increased to 17%. From 80 to 200 years, the cover of lichens of the genus Cladonia was 2.5–3%; in the late succession community, it increased to 16%, mainly due to the expansion of Cladonia rangiferina and C. stellaris (Table 6). The lichen Nephroma arcticum was represented in communities with a post-fire age of 150–380 years and had a cover of 0.5% to 2%. The average number of epigeous lichens and mosses on an area of 1 m2 at the initial stage of recovery (at the age post-fire of eight years) is 6.4 species, and reaches a maximum of 10.5 species at the post-fire age of 15 years (Figure 8b). At 80–200 years after a fire, the number of species in the moss–lichen layer is reduced to 4.7 and increases in the late-succession forest to 7.5. The distribution of species’ covers at the post-fire age of 15 years has the highest Pielou’s index (E = 0.75), which means a high uniformity of species cover proportions. The moss–lichen cover in forests burned 80–200 years ago is characterized by low Pielou’s index values (E = 0.3–0.4) and the monodominance of green moss Pleurozium schreberi. The index value at the late stage of succession (E = 0.55) indicates a decrease in the Pleurozium schreberi dominance and an increase in the evenness of species coverages." [p. 19: ] "A maximal number of species and structure of species coverings with a higher evenness in Siberian spruce–Scots pine forests were registered in two periods (15–20 years and ca 300 years after a fire). This was associated with a high diversity of microhabitats, with a disturbed cover that could be populated by mosses and lichens in open post-fire areas and in the late succession community after a transition to gap dynamics."
32421Spribille T., Tagirdzhanova G., Goyette S., Tuovinen V., Case R. & Zandberg W.F. (2020): 3D biofilms: in search of the polysaccharides holding together lichen symbioses. - FEMS Microbiology Letters, 367(5): fnaa023 [17 p.] doi: 10.1093/femsle/fnaa023. .
Stable, long-term interactions between fungi and algae or cyanobacteria, collectively known as lichens, have repeatedly evolved complex architectures with little resemblance to their component parts. Lacking any central scaffold, the shapes they assume are casts of secreted polymers that cement cells into place, determine the angle of phototropic exposure and regulate water relations. A growing body of evidence suggests that many lichen extracellular polymer matrices harbor unicellular, non-photosynthesizing organisms (UNPOs) not traditionally recognized as lichen symbionts. Understanding organismal input and uptake in this layer is key to interpreting the role UNPOs play in lichen biology. Here, we review both polysaccharide composition determined from whole, pulverized lichens and UNPOs reported from lichens to date. Most reported polysaccharides are thought to be structural cell wall components. The composition of the extracellular matrix is not definitively known. Several lines of evidence suggest some acidic polysaccharides have evaded detection in routine analysis of neutral sugars and may be involved in the extracellular matrix. UNPOs reported from lichens include diverse bacteria and yeasts for which secreted polysaccharides play important biological roles. We conclude by proposing testable hypotheses on the role that symbiont give-and-take in this layer could play in determining or modifying lichen symbiotic outcomes. Keywords: alga; bacteria; EPS; exopolysaccharide; fungus; glucan; mannan; Rhizobiales; yeast; uronic acid.
32420Armstrong R.A. (2020): Growth curve of the crustose lichen Ochrolechia parella obtained from marginal growth rings. - Annales Botanici Fennici, 57: 115–123. https://doi.org/10.5735/085.057.0116.
Thalli of the crustose lichen Ochrolechia parella have marginal ‘growth rings’ enabling rapid estimation of radial growth rates (RaGR) over successive years. I obtained a growth curve, viz. changes in RaGR with thallus size, from rings of two populations of O. parella and in one population, and compared the growth curves obtained from rings and by measuring growth directly. Both methods revealed that RaGR in O. parella increased with thallus size in smaller thalli becoming more constant in larger thalli, a growth curve similar to that of foliose and placodioid species rather than crustose lichens such as Rhizocarpon geographicum in which growth declines in larger thalli. In O. parella the marginal zone comprises a layer of confluent areolae which may be better able to support and maintain a more constant growth rate compared with R. geographicum in which the marginal areolae are often isolated and scattered.
32419Malíček J. & Koukol O. (2020): Epifytické organismy – otrlí bojovníci s hlubokým citem pro životní prostředí. - Živa, 2/2020: XXXIV-XXXVI. https://ziva.avcr.cz/files/ziva/pdf/epifyticke-organismy-otrli-bojovnici-s-hlubokym-ci.pdf.
32418Cross A. & Sanderson N. (2012): A fallen beech in ancient pasture woodland in the New Forest, Hampshire. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 111: 54–60. .
England; 68 lichens and lichenicolous fungi recorded from a fallen Fagus sylvatica.
32417Bialosuknia M.W. (1909): Sur un nouveau genre de Pleurococcacées. - Bulletin de la Société de Genève, Sér. II, 1: 101–104. https://img.algaebase.org/pdf/AC11010B118201BBF4ixW36B2CCF/50348.pdf.
A green alga Diplosphaera chodatii isolated from the lichen Ochrolechia tartarea is described as a new genus and species.
32416Lan Y. & Huang F. (2020): The complete mitochondrial Genome of the lichenized fungi Usnea jiangxiensis (Ascomycota: Parmeliaceae). - Mitochondrial DNA Part B, 5(2): 1477–1478. https://doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2020.1742224.
Usnea is a genus of lichenized Ascomycete that grows in moist mountain areas. It is a food for wild animals and can also be used as medicine. We describe the complete mitochondrial genome of the lichenized fungi Usnea jiangxiensis. It is a circular molecule of 62,531 bp in size, and all genes show the typical gene arrangement conforming to the mold consensus. The mitochondrial genome sequence of U. jiangxiensis and other eight species were used for phylogenetic analysis by the maximum likelihood method. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that U. jiangxiensis most closely related to U. ceratina. The complete chloroplast genomes of U. jiangxiensis would be useful for future investigation of genetics, evolution and clinical identification of Usnea species. Keywords: Usnea jiangxiensis; mitochondrial genome; Ascomycota.
32415Vondrák J., Frolov I., Košnar J., Arup U., Veselská T., Halıcı G., Malíček J. & Søchting U. (2020): Substrate switches, phenotypic innovations and allopatric speciation formed taxonomic diversity within the lichen genus Blastenia. - Journal of Systematics and Evolution, 135(3): 295–330. .
Blastenia is a widely distributed lichen genus in Teloschistaceae. We reconstructed its phylogeny in order to test species delimitation and to find evolutionary drivers forming recent Blastenia diversity. The origin of Blastenia is dated to the early Tertiary period, but later diversification events are distinctly younger.We recognized 24 species (plus 2 subspecies) within 6 infrageneric groups. Each species strongly prefers a single type of substrate (17 species occur on organic substrates, 7 on siliceous rock), and most infrageneric groups also show a clear substrate preference. All infrageneric groups tend to have the Mediterranean and Macaronesian distribution, but some epiphytic species have much larger geographic ranges and some evolved after a long‐distance dispersal outside the region. Chlorinated and nonchlorinated anthraquinone chemosyndromes co‐occur in apothecia of most species, but the chemotype has been secondarily reduced in some lineages. One infrageneric group has a marked reduction in apothecial size, associated with a substrate shift to twigs. Only seven species have vegetative diaspores; they also produce apothecia but have smaller ascospores. Genome sizes (22‒35 Mb in Blastenia) are significantly higher in epilithic species. Within‐species genetic variation is low in widely distributed species but high in some epilithic species with small geographical ranges. New taxa are: B. afroalpina, B. anatolica, B. caucasica, B. gennargentuae, B. herbidella subsp. acidophila, B. lauri, B. monticola, B. palmae, B. psychrophila, B. purpurea, B. relicta, B. remota, B. xerothermica, and B. xerothermica subsp. macaronesica. New combinations are: B. festivella and B. subathallina; both names and B. catalinae are lectotypified. Key words: anthraquinones, genome size, long‐distance dispersal, Mediterranean–Macaronesian diversity hot‐spot, Teloschistaceae, vegetative diaspores.
32414Zheng X.-J. & Ren Q. (2020): Three Rinodina species new to China. - Mycotaxon, 135: 195–201. .
Rinodina ascociscana, R. subminuta, and R. trevisanii are reported as new to China. A detailed description of each species is provided, and comparisons with related species are made. Key words—Ascomycota, lichenized fungi, Physciaceae.
32413Spribille T., Fryday A.M., Pérez-Ortega S., Svensson M., Tønsberg T., Ekman S., Holien H., Resl P., Schneider K., Stabentheiner E., Thüs H., Vondrák J. & Sharman L. (2020): Lichens and associated fungi from Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska. - Lichenologist, 52: 61–181. doi:10.1017/S0024282920000079. https://www.cambridge.org/core/services/aop-cambridge-core/content/view/F0E2D8740215588534FCA3477CBF05B5/S0024282920000079a.pdf/lichens_and_associated_fungi_from_glacier_bay_national_park_alaska.pdf.
Lichens are widely acknowledged to be a key component of high latitude ecosystems. However, the time investment needed for full inventories and the lack of taxonomic identification resources for crustose lichen and lichenicolous fungal diversity have hampered efforts to fully gauge the depth of species richness in these ecosystems. Using a combination of classical field inventory and extensive deployment of chemical and molecular analysis, we assessed the diversity of lichens and associated fungi in Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska (USA), a mixed landscape of coastal boreal rainforest and early successional low elevation habitats deglaciated after the Little Ice Age. We collected nearly 5000 specimens and found a total of 947 taxa, including 831 taxa of lichen-forming and 96 taxa of lichenicolous fungi together with 20 taxa of saprotrophic fungi typically included in lichen studies. A total of 98 species (10.3% of those detected) could not be assigned to known species and of those, two genera and 27 species are described here as new to science: Atrophysma cyanomelanos gen. et sp. nov., Bacidina circumpulla, Biatora marmorea, Carneothele sphagnicola gen. et sp. nov., Cirrenalia lichenicola, Corticifraga nephromatis, Fuscidea muskeg, Fuscopannaria dillmaniae, Halecania athallina, Hydropunctaria alaskana, Lambiella aliphatica, Lecania hydrophobica, Lecanora viridipruinosa, Lecidea griseomarginata, L. streveleri, Miriquidica gyrizans, Niesslia peltigerae, Ochrolechia cooperi, Placynthium glaciale, Porpidia seakensis, Rhizocarpon haidense, Sagiolechia phaeospora, Sclerococcum fissurinae, Spilonema maritimum, Thelocarpon immersum, Toensbergia blastidiata and Xenonectriella nephromatis. An additional 71 ‘known unknown’ species are cursorily described. Four new combinations are made: Lepra subvelata (G. K. Merr.) T. Sprib., Ochrolechia minuta (Degel.) T. Sprib., Steineropsis laceratula (Hue) T. Sprib. & Ekman and Toensbergia geminipara (Th. Fr.) T. Sprib. & Resl. Thirty-eight taxa are new to North America and 93 additional taxa new to Alaska. We use four to eight DNA loci to validate the placement of ten of the new species in the orders Baeomycetales, Ostropales, Lecanorales, Peltigerales, Pertusariales and the broader class Lecanoromycetes with maximum likelihood analyses. We present a total of 280 new fungal DNA sequences. The lichen inventory from Glacier Bay National Park represents the second largest number of lichens and associated fungi documented from an area of comparable size and the largest to date in North America. Coming from almost 60°N, these results again underline the potential for high lichen diversity in high latitude ecosystems. Key words: biodiversity, evolution, floristics, key, latitudinal diversity gradient, molecular, new species, phylogenetics, symbiosis, taxonomy, temperate rainforest.
32412Davydov E.A., Ahti T. & Sennikov A.N. (2020): The nomenclatural history of Umbilicaria spodochroa and nomenclatural corrections in Umbilicariaceae . - Mycotaxon, 135: 131–141. .
The name Umbilicaria spodochroa is currently applied to a species with an oceanic distribution in Europe and East Asia. The upper surface of its thallus is grey to dark brown, apothecia are omphalodiscs with prominent central umbilicus-like buttons. Its designated type and other original material are referred to U. hirsuta. Conservation is required to retain this name in current use. The nomenclatural history of U. spodochroa is presented to serve as the background for its conservation. The subgeneric nomenclature of Umbilicaria is revised and one new name (U. subg. Papillophora) is proposed to replace the illegitimate U. subg. Gyrophora. The status of many new names published by G.F. Hoffmann in his “Deutschlands Flora” (1796) is discussed and their nomenclatural validity is supported. Key words—conservation, Ehrhart, historical collections, Hoffmann, typification Introduction.
32411Diederich P., Zhurbenko M.P., Kuznetsov A.N. & van den Boom P. (2020): Trimmatostroma commonii, a new lichenicolous hyphomycete inhabiting Graphidaceae hosts. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 57: 33–36. .
The new lichenicolous hyphomycete Trimmatostroma commonii is described from Réunion, the USA (Florida) and Vietnam. It strongly resembles the generic type T. salicis, from which it is distinguished by much looser conidiomatal tufts, less septate conidia and the lichenicolous habitat, growing over species of Graphidaceae in the tropics.
32410Czarnota P. & Tanona M. (2020): Species of lichenized Ascomycota new to Polish Western Carpathians and rare in whole Carpathians. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 57: 21–32. https://doi.org/10.12697/fce.2020.57.04.
Five species of lichen-forming fungi not reported yet or rare in the Carpathians have been found during lichenological researches by authors in the Tatra Mts and the Gorce Mts. Of these, Tetramelas chloroleucus has not been recorded in Poland since 19th century and, similarly to Gyalecta russula, has been found for the first time in the Polish part of the Carpathians. Absconditella celata has been discovered in the Polish Western Carpathians. Fellhanera gyrophorica has never been listed before in the Western Carpathians and Epigloea bactrospora in whole Carpathians. Notes on the taxonomy, habitat and worldwide distribution of these species (including maps of their ranges in Europe) are accompanied by photo plates illustrating their morphology and anatomy. Keywords: biodiversity, Carpathians, lichens, rare species, new records, lichen checklist.
32409Zhurbenko M., Enkhtuya O. & Javkhlan S. (2020): Additions to the checklist of lichenicolous fungi of Mongolia. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 57: 9–20. https://doi.org/10.12697/fce.2020.57.03.
Seventy-four species of lichenicolous fungi, including two species of lichenicolous lichens, are reported from Mongolia. Arthonia xanthoparmeliarum, Katherinomyces cetrariae s. lat. and Lichenochora arctica are newly reported for Asia. Arthonia epiphyscia, A. excentrica, A. molendoi, Carbonea vitellinaria, Cercidospora xanthoriae, Didymocyrtis rhizoplacae, Endococcus propinquus, Intralichen christiansenii, Lichenochora caloplacae, L. rinodinae, Lichenodiplis lecanorae, Lichenostigma dimelaenae, L. triseptatum, Niesslia peltigericola, Polycoccum trypethelioides, Rhymbocarpus neglectus, Sphaerellothecium phaeorrhizae, S. propinquellum, Stigmidium xanthoparmeliarum, Taeniolella pertusariicola and Tetramelas phaeophysciae are reported new to Mongolia. The occurrence of Stigmidium psorae in Mongolia is confirmed. Flavocetraria and Rhizoplaca are reported as new host genera for Katherinomyces cetrariae s. lat. Keywords: lichen parasites, biodiversity, biogeography, Central Asia.
32408Urbanavichus G. & Urbanavichene I. (2020): Four lichen species new for Russia. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 57: 5–8. https://doi.org/10.12697/fce.2020.57.02.
Four lichen species, Biatora chrysanthoides collected from Kostroma Region, Gyalidea minuta from Nizhnii Novgorod Region and Polyblastia borealis and Thelocarpon saxicola from Murmansk Region, are reported for the first time for Russia. Comments on their habitats, substrates, key anatomical features and world distribution are provided for each species. Keywords: lichens, new records, Russia.
32407Khodosovtsev A.Ye. & Darmostuk V.V. (2020): Lichens and lichenicolous fungi of Khortytsia Island (Ukraine). - Чорноморський ботанічний журнал [Chornomorski Botanical Journal], 16(1): 74–80. .
80 species of lichens and 12 species of lichenicolous fungi were found on Khortytsia Island. The lichen Verrucaria fusconigrescens is for the first time reported for the continental part of Ukraine. Lichens Acarospora insolata, Bacidia fuscoviridis, Caloplaca chlorina, C. soralifera, C. xerica, Dermatocarpon miniatum, Lecanora argopholis, L. orosthea, L. swartzii, Lobothallia alphoplaca, Monerolechia badia, Rhizocarpon lecanorinum, Xanthocarpia crenulatella, Xanthoparmelia loxodes and lichenicolous fungi Abrothallus caerulescens, Lichenostigma elongatum, Marchandiomyces corallinus, Polycoccum pulvinatum, Stigmidium xanthoparmeliarum, Zwackhiomyces lithoiceae are reported for first time for Zaporizhzhia Region. Melanelixia fuliginosa, Protoparmelia badia and Evernia mesomorpha were erroneously reported for Khortytsia Island and therefore should be excluded from the list of species. Of the recorded lichens, two species, Lassalia pustulata and Xanthoparmelia camtschadalis, are included into the Red Data Book of Ukraine. Verrucaria fusconigrescens is a new host for Zwackhiomyces lithoiceae. Key words: Ukrainian crystalline shield, granite, Zaporizhzhia, Dnipro river.
32406Fernández-Brime S., Muggia L., Maier S., Grube M. & Wedin M. (2019): Bacterial communities in an optional lichen symbiosis are determined by substrate, not algal photobionts. - FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 95: fiz012 [11 p.] doi: 10.1093/femsec/fiz012. .
Borderline lichens are simple mutualistic symbioses between fungi and algae, where the fungi form loose mycelia interweaving algal cells, instead of forming a lichen thallus. Schizoxylon albescens shows two nutritional modes: it can either live as a borderline lichen on Populus tremula bark or as a saprotroph on Populus wood. This enables us to investigate the microbiota diversity in simple fungal–algal associations and to study the impact of lichenization on the structure of bacterial communities. We sampled three areas in Sweden covering the distribution of Schizoxylon, and using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and fluorescence in situ hybridization we characterized the associated microbiota. Bacterial communities in lichenized and saprotrophic Schizoxylon were clearly distinct, but when comparing the microbiota with the respective substrates, only the fruiting bodies show clear differences in composition and abundance from the communities in the substrates. The colonization by either lichenized or saprotrophic mycelia of Schizoxylon did not significantly influence the microbiota in the substrate. This suggests that in a morphologically simple form of lichenization, as represented by the Schizoxylon–Coccomyxa system, algal–fungal interactions do not significantly influence bacterial communities, but a more complex structure of the lichen thallus is likely required for hosting specific microbiota. Keywords: Coccomyxa; FISH; fungal life style; metabarcoding; microbiota; Schizoxylon.
32405Oh S.-Y., Yang J.H., Woo J.-J., Oh S.-O. & Hur J.-S. (2020): Diversity and distribution patterns of endolichenic fungi in Jeju Island, South Korea. - Sustainability, 12: 3769 [19 p.]. doi:10.3390/su12093769. .
Lichens are symbiotic organisms containing diverse microorganisms. Endolichenic fungi (ELF) are one of the inhabitants living in lichen thalli, and have potential ecological and industrial applications due to their various secondary metabolites. As the function of endophytic fungi on the plant ecology and ecosystem sustainability, ELF may have an influence on the lichen diversity and the ecosystem, functioning similarly to the influence of endophytic fungi on plant ecology and ecosystem sustainability, which suggests the importance of understanding the diversity and community pattern of ELF. In this study, we investigated the diversity and the factors influencing the community structure of ELF in Jeju Island, South Korea by analyzing 619 fungal isolates from 79 lichen samples in Jeju Island. A total of 112 ELF species was identified and the most common species belonged to Xylariales in Sordariomycetes. The richness and community structure of ELF were significantly influenced by the host taxonomy, together with the photobiont types and environmental factors. Our results suggest that various lichen species in more diverse environments need to be analyzed to expand our knowledge of the diversity and ecology of ELF. Keywords: algae; cyanobacteria; Daldinia; host specificity; lichen; Oreum; photobiont; Sordariomycetes; Xylariales.
32404Szwed M., Kozłowski R. & Żukowski W. (2020): Assessment of air quality in the south-western part of the Świętokrzyskie Mountains based on selected indicators. - Forests, 11: 499 [16 p.]. doi:10.3390/f11050499. .
This article presents the results of research on the air quality which was under the anthropogenic impact of the cement and lime industry in the Świętokrzyskie Mountains for many years. Research using geo- and bio-indicators was carried out at fixed measuring points in the years 2016–2018. Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. and two-year old Scots pine needles Pinus sylvestris L. were used for bioindication research. Physico-chemical properties of precipitation were developed on the basis of research conducted at the Jan Kochanowski University’s field research station located on the Malik Mt. Increased pH and specific electrolytic conductivity (EC) of precipitation, as well as variable concentrations of heavy metals throughout a year were found. Analysis of the chemical properties of transplanted lichens and pine needles confirmed the presence of elements from the cement and lime industry sector located in the Białe Zagłębie. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the needles’ surface revealed morphologic changes resulting from pollution of stoma opening and closing by small solid particles of anthropogenic origins, disturbing gas exchange. Keywords: air pollution; biomonitoring; trace elements; Scots pine needles; lichen Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl.
32403Ellis C. & Myllys L. (2020): Editorial. - Lichenologist, 52(1): 1. doi:10.1017/S0024282919000495. https://www.cambridge.org/core/services/aop-cambridge-core/content/view/FAB1B578968FD6BF3B78266D0CF6D114/S0024282919000495a.pdf/editorial.pdf.
Editorial by the new editors of the Lichenologist
32402Nimis P.L. (2016): The Lichens of Italy. A second annotated catalogue. - EUT, Trieste, 740 p. .
32401Pröschold & Darienko T. (2020): The green puzzle Stichococcus (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta): New generic and species concept among this widely distributed genus. - Phytotaxa, 441(2): 113–142. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.441.2.2.
Phylogenetic analyses have revealed that the traditional order Prasiolales, which contains filamentous and pseudoparenchymatous genera Prasiola and Rosenvingiella with complex life cycle, also contains taxa of more simple morphology such as coccoids like Pseudochlorella and Edaphochlorella or rod-like organisms like Stichococcus and Pseudostichococcus (called Prasiola clade of the Trebouxiophyceae). Recent studies have shown a high biodiversity among these organisms and questioned the traditional generic and species concept. We studied 34 strains assigned as Stichococcus, Pseudostichococcus, Diplosphaera and Desmocococcus. Phylogenetic analyses using a multigene approach revealed that these strains belong to eight independent lineages within the Prasiola clade of the Trebouxiophyceae. For testing if these lineages represent genera, we studied the secondary structures of SSU and ITS rDNA sequences to find genetic synapomorphies. The secondary structure of the V9 region of SSU is diagnostic to support the proposal for separation of eight genera. The complex taxonomic history was summarized and revised. The ITS-2/CBC approach was used for species delimitation. Considering all these results, we revised the genera Stichococcus, Pseudostichococcus, Diplosphaera and Desmococcus and proposed four new genera and four new species for the science community. The usage of the V9 region and the ITS-2 barcodes discovered potential new species among the Stichococcus-like organisms in culture-independent studies. Keywords: Stichococcus; Diplosphaera; Pseudostichococcus; Desmococcus; molecular phylogeny; integrative approach; systematics; terrestrial algae; lichen photobionts; generic and species concept.
32400Gockman O.T., Thayer J.W. & Henderson B. (2020): Contributions to the lichen flora of Minnesota: New records for lichens and lichenicolous fungi. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 19: 14–35. .
Twenty-three species in 18 genera are reported as new for the state of Minnesota: Abrothallus pezizicola, Arthrorhaphis grisea, Bryoria kockiana, Cetraria laevigata, Dactylospora amygdalariae, D. pertusariicola, Enchylium expansum, Homostegia piggotii, Inoderma byssaceum, Lepraria cryophila, L. disjuncta, L. membranacea, L. vouauxii, Parmotrema perlatum, Plectocarpon peltigerae, Raesaenenia huuskonenii, Rhizocarpon lecanorinum, Sporodophoron americanum, Tremella cladoniae, Umbilicaria hirsuta, Usnea dasaea, U. entoviolata, and Xenonectriella leptaleae. Distribution maps and characteristics useful for identification are provided for most species. Keywords. – Appalachian-Great Lakes, arctic-alpine, rare species, North America, biogeography, Midwestern United States, range extensions.
32399Bailey F.M. (1900): Contributions to the flora of Queensland. Lichens [Order Lichenes]. - Queensland Agricultural Journal, 5[1899]: 37–42 & 484–488. .
Australia; more than hundred of lichens treated by James Stirton and many of them are described as new: Lecanora rutilescens Stirt., Lecanora alligata Stirt., Lecidea (Buellia) subrepleta Stirt., Lecidea (Buellia) subconnexa Stirt., Lecidea (Buellia) restituta Stirt., Pyxine obscurior Stirt., Arthonia subcondita Stirt., Verrucaria coarctata Stirt., Arthonia conspersula Stirt., Trypethelium exiguellum Stirt., Parmelia ablata Stirt., Physcia excelsior Stirt., Lecidea subcaerulea Stirt., Collema hypolasium Stirt., Collema gwytheri Stirt., Parmelia hypoxantha Stirt., Pannaria elatior Stirt., Pannaria terrestris Stirt., Placodium clavigerum Stirt., Lecanora subpurpurea Stirt., Lecanora phaeoplaca Stirt., Lecidea vinicolor Stirt., Lecidea glomerella Stirt., Lecidea placomorpha Stirt., Lecidea sanguineolenta Stirt., Lecidea nodulosa Stirt., Graphis subvelata Stirt., Arthonia albofarinosa Stirt., Verrucaria fibrata Stirt.
32398Lawrey J.D., Sikaroodi M., Gillevet P.M. & Diederich P. (2020): A new species of bulbil-forming lichenicolous fungi represents an isolated clade in the Cantharellales. - Bryologist, 123(2): 155–162. .
Lichenicolous species are widely distributed in the Basidiomycota, and many are known to produce sclerotia or bulbils with few additional structures to permit taxonomic placement. The Cantharellales include many of these species and we here describe a new genus and species discovered in Austria that grows over Physcia aipolia and P. stellaris and forms minute dark reddish brown bulbils reminiscent of Ceratobasidium bulbillifaciens but much smaller in size. We obtained sequences of ITS and nuLSU rDNA representing the herbarium specimen of the species, and initial searches in GenBank indicated it was a member of the Cantharellales, with closest relatives in the genus Minimedusa. We inferred its phylogenetic placement in the order using an existing dataset that included all known lichenicolous species, augmented by sequences obtained by BLAST searches in GenBank. Our results indicate that the unknown is not closely related to any described lichenicolous species or to any other described bulbilliferous species in the order. Based on these results, we are now establishing a new genus and species, Bergerella atrofusca, in the Cantharellales family Hydnaceae. Key words: Basidiomycota, Clavulinaceae, fungi, mycoparasitism, phylogenetics, nomenclature, taxonomy.
32397Cáceres M.E.S., Lücking R., Schumm F. & Aptroot A. (2020): A lichenized family yields another renegade lineage: Papilionovela albothallina is the first non-lichenized, saprobic member of Graphidaceae subfam. Graphidoideae. - Bryologist, 123(2): 144–154. .
The non-lichenized, monospecific genus Papilionovela Aptroot, originally described from rain forest in Papua New Guinea, is reported here from several locations in Caatinga vegetation in Sergipe, Brazil. Phylogenetic analysis of the nuLSU marker within a three-locus phylogeny, as well as separate analysis of the fungal ITS barcoding marker, place Papilionovela in the Graphidaceae, subfamily Graphidoideae, with strong support. Within that subfamily, the genus clusters within tribe Wirthiotremateae, close to the Acanthothecis peplophora group and Carbacanthographis, albeit without support. We also reanalyzed the phylogenetic placement of two other, non-lichenized fungi previously associated with Graphidaceae, namely Furcaspora eucalypti and Rubikia evansii, and found them to form a separate, early diverging lineage in the family, here formally described as a new subfamily, Rubikioideae. Papilionovela is thus the first non-lichenized, saprobic lineage within the core Graphidaceae (subfamily Graphidoideae), providing a further independent, unequivocal case of delichenization within the order Ostropales. Key words. Brazil, corticolous, delichenization, saprobic, Papua New Guinea, Ascomycota.
32396Lendemer J.C. (2016): Herteliana schuyleriana (Squamarinaceae), a new crustose lichen widespread in the Appalachian Mountains of eastern North America. - Bartonia, 69: 62–76. .
Herteliana schuyleriana is described as new to science based on collections from throughout the Appalachian Mountains of eastern North America. Taxonomic placement is inferred from molecular phylogenic analysis of mtSSU sequence data that recovered the taxon as sister to the type species of Herteliana, H. gagei, and strongly supported these taxa as embedded within the Squamarinaceae. The new species is characterized by its occurrence on non-calcareous shaded rocks in inland forested habitats (vs. exposed maritime oceanic habitats), its greenish-blue crustose thallus, presence of abundant blastidia on the thallus surface, frequent sterility, and by the production of roccellic/angardianic acid together with occasional trace amounts of psoromic acid as accessories to atranorin.
32395Chagnon C. & Boudreau S. (2019): Shrub canopy induces a decline in lichen abundance and diversity in Nunavik (Québec, Canada). - Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, 51(1): 521–532. https://doi.org/10.1080/15230430.2019.1688751.
Lichens are an important component of biodiversity in northern ecosystems and are involved in diverse ecological processes. They contribute to nutrient availability through nitrogen fixation, are a substantial part of caribou winter diet, and influence global climate by increasing land surface albedo. Over the last decades, increased primary productivity in northern ecosystems, mainly associated with the expansion of shrub species, has led to a decline of lichen-dominated areas. We evaluated the impacts of shrubs on lichens by comparing lichen communities in the open environment and underneath dwarf birch (Betula glandulosa) canopy in Nunavik, Canada. Our results showed a decrease in abundance, richness and evenness and a shift in community composition between open areas and understory. These changes were mainly induced by the presence of a shrub canopy rather than by its characteristics, because shrub height and canopy closure had little effect. Richness and evenness dropped from shrub edge to shrub center, suggesting that the intensity of the decline was positively correlated to the time spent under the shrub canopy. Important changes in lichen communities are therefore expected to occur with further shrub expansion and may have substantial unfavorable implications for global climate and ecosystem functioning. Keywords: Climate change; lichens; northern ecosystems; shrub expansion.
32394Rettig J. (2018): Bemerkenswerte Funde von Flechten und Kleinpilzen in Ostthüringen – II [Remarkable lichens and allied fungi records for East Thuringia (Germany) – II]. - Mauritiana (Altenburg), 35: 10–33. .
Records of some lichenized, lichenicolous and saprophytic fungi are presented, which are rare in Thuringia or whose distribution is insufficiently known. Intralichen christiansenii, Lecania suavis and Verrucaria murina are reported in Thuringia for the first time. Erythricium aurantiacum is new for Saxony. Micarea globulosella lost in Germany, it was rediscovered. Keywords: lichen floristic, lichenicolous fungi, new discovery, red list, Thuringia.
32393Hafellner J., Lange O.L. & Wirth V. (2010): Roman Türk – Notizen zu Leben und Werk anlässlich seines 65. Geburtstages. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica , 104: 9–36. .
Roman Türk – remarks on his life and literary work on occasion of his 65th birthday. – The biography of Roman Türk is shortly outlined. A bibliography up to 2009/10 is compiled. Key words: Air pollution, Alps, Antarctica, biography, bibliography, biodiversity, lichens, ecophysiology.
32392Nguyen T.T.L., Danova A., Truong T.L., Chavasiri W., Nguyen K.P.P. & Huynh B.L.C. (2020): Chemical constituents of chloroform extract from the lichen Ramalina peruviana Arch [sic!] (Ramalinaceae) . - Vietnam Journal of Chemistry, 58(2): 231–236. DOI: 10.1002/vjch.201900172.
From the chloroform extract of the lichen Ramalina peruviana Ach. (Ramalinaceae), collected at Cau Dat farm, Lam Dong province, Vietnam, eight organic compounds had been isolated: nonadecan-1-ol (1); nonadecenoic acid (2); (+)-(12R)-usnic acid (3); three monophenolic compounds- rhizonic acid (4), divarinolmonomethylether (5) and divaricatinic acid (6); and two depsides- decarboxy-2'-O-methyldivaricatic acid (7) and sekikaic acid (8). The chemical structure of these compounds was elucidated by spectroscopic analysis as well as high resolution ESI–MS analysis and comparison with those reported in the literature. Among these compounds, (1), (2), (4), (5) and (7) were the first time known in the Ramalina genus. Although compound (7) was detected in the lichen Neofuscelia depsidella by chromatographic comparisons with authentic material that was synthesized by condensation of the benzoic acid and 3-methoxyl-5-propylphenol but it is isolated in the nature for the first time. The results of determining the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of four isolated compounds show that the α-glucosidase inhibitory effect of (8) was the best with IC50 values in 136.62 μg/mL (compared with the control acarbose IC50 93.63 μg/mL). Keywords. Ramalina peruviana Ach., Parmeliaceae, lichen, α-glucosidase.
32391Vannini A., Canali G., Pica M., Nali C. & Loppi S. (2020): The water content drives the susceptibility of the lichen Evernia prunastri and the moss Brachythecium sp. to high ozone concentrations. - Biology, 9: 90 [10 p.]. doi:10.3390/biology9050090. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology9050090.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the tolerance of lichens (Evernia prunastri) and mosses (Brachythecium sp.) to short-term (1 h), acute (1 ppm) O3 fumigation under different hydration states (dry, <10% water content, metabolism almost inactive; wet, >200% water content, metabolism fully active). We hypothesized that stronger damage would occur following exposure under wet conditions. In addition, we checked for the effect of recovery (1 week) after the exposure. Ozone fumigation negatively affected the content of chlorophyll only in wet samples, but in the moss, such a difference was no longer evident after one week of recovery. Photosynthetic efficiency was always impaired by O3 exposure, irrespective of the dry or wet state, and also after one week of recovery, but the effect was much stronger in wet samples. The antioxidant power was increased in wet moss and in dry lichen, while a decrease was found for wet lichens after 1 week. Our results confirm that the tolerance to O3 of lichens and mosses may be determined by their low water content, which is the case during the peaks of O3 occurring during the Mediterranean summer. The role of antioxidant power as a mechanism of resistance to high O3 concentrations needs to be further investigated. Keywords: antioxidants; chlorophyll; cryptogams; hydration state; photosynthesis.
32390Holloway P. & Field R. (2020): Can rock-rubble groynes support similar intertidal ecological communities to natural rocky shores?. - Land, 9: 131 [17 p.]. doi:10.3390/land9050131. https://doi.org/10.3390/land9050131.
Despite the global implementation of rock-rubble groyne structures, there is limited research investigating their ecology, much less than for other artificial coastal structures. Here we compare the intertidal ecology of urban (or semi-urban) rock-rubble groynes and more rural natural rocky shores for three areas of the UK coastline. We collected richness and abundance data for 771 quadrats across three counties, finding a total of 81 species, with 48 species on the groynes and 71 species on the natural rocky shores. We performed three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) on both richness and abundance data, running parallel analysis for rock and rock-pool habitats. We also performed detrended correspondence analysis on all species to identify patterns in community structure. On rock surfaces, we found similar richness and abundance across structures for algae, higher diversity and abundance for lichen and mobile animals on natural shores, and higher numbers of sessile animals on groynes. Rock-pool habitats were depauperate on groynes for all species groups except for sessile animals, relative to natural shores. Only a slight di erentiation between groyne and natural shore communities was observed, while groynes supported higher abundances of some ‘at risk’ species than natural shores. Furthermore, groynes did not di er substantially from natural shores in terms of their presence and abundance of species not native to the area. We conclude that groynes host similar ecological communities to those found on natural shores, but di erences do exist, particularly with respect to rock-pool habitats. Keywords: biodiversity; non-native species; protected species; range expansion; species distributions.
32389Ignatenko R.V., Tarasova V.N. & Markovskaya E.F. (2020): Ontogenesis of the lichen Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm. in plant communities of the boreal zone. - Russian Journal of Developmental Biology, 51(2): 115–124. DOI: 10.1134/S1062360420020046.
[translation of the original Russian Text published in Ontogenez, 2020, Vol. 51, No. 2, pp. 132–142] The paper describes the ontogenesis of the epiphytic lichen Lobaria pulmonaria. The studies were carried out in the Karelian forest communities with the period since the last disturbance ranging from 80 to 450 years. Based on the concept of a discrete description of plants and lichens, four periods and 14 age-related states have been distinguished in L. pulmonaria’s ontogenesis. Each ontogenetic state of L. pulmonaria is characterized by a certain thallus size as well as by the presence and the level of development of vegetative diaspores and apothecia on the thallus surface. The possible variants of the species ontogenesis are described. Keywords: ontogenesis, lichens, Lobaria pulmonaria.
32388Zhang Y.-Y., Wang X.-Y., Li L.-J., Printzen C., Timdal E., Niu D.-L., Yin A.-C., Wang S.-Q. & Wang L.-S. (2020): Squamarina (lichenised fungi) species described from China belong to at least three unrelated genera. - MycoKeys, 66: 135–157. https://doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.66.39057.
New collections of six Squamarina species from type localities in China were studied. The comparison of morphological characteristics and secondary metabolites with those of the type specimens and phylogenetic analyses suggest that S. callichroa and S. pachyphylla belong to Rhizoplaca, S. semisterilis belongs to Lobothallia and S. chondroderma should be retained in Lecanora temporarily. Only two species, S. kansuensis and S. oleosa, remain in Squamarina. The new combinations Lobothallia semisterilis (H. Magn.) Y. Y. Zhang, Rhizoplaca callichroa (Zahlbr.) Y. Y. Zhang and R. pachyphylla (H. Magn.) Y. Y. Zhang are proposed. Detailed descriptions to aid the identification of these species, distributions and phylogenetic trees, based on multiple collections, are presented. The generic concept of Squamarina is recircumscribed in this study. Keywords: Squamarinaceae, Petroplaca, Rhizoplaca, Lobothallia, Lecanora, type study.
32387Ohmura Y. (2020): New localities of Ropalospora phaeoplaca in Japan and Far East of Russia with ITS nrDNA sequences. - Bulletin of the National Science Museum. Series B, Botany [Tokyo], 46(1): 1–7. .
Six localities from Honshu in Japan and one from Primorye Territory in Far East of Russia are newly added for the distribution of Ropalospora phaeoplaca. Although this species is known from main land of China, Taiwan, Korea and Far East of Russia, only the type locality was known in Japan before the present report. The ITS nrDNA region was sequenced from the fresh materials using in this study, and the maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree is also presented. The tree shows that the samples of R. phaeoplaca formed a monophyletic clade that is a sister to the clade of R. viridis, and they are sister to R. lugubris clade. Although R. chlorantha is considered to be closely related to R. phaeoplaca, the ITS nrDNA sequence could not be obtained in this study. Key words: Ascomycota, distribution, eastern Asia, lichenized fungi, phylogeny, Ropalosporaceae.
32386Khare R., Upreti D.K., Haq M.U. & Behera B.C. (2020): Diversity of lichens in Jammu and Kashmir State. - In: Dar G.H. & Khuroo A.A. (eds), Biodiversity of the Himalaya: Jammu and Kashmir State, Topics in Biodiversity and Conservation 18, p. 343–377, Springer Nature Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-32-9174-4_15.
Lichen survey in Jammu and Kashmir State was initiated during the early 1930s, but detailed explorations started in 1949. The present chapter reports occurrence of 424 species of lichens in the State, belonging to 126 genera in 38 families; these represent ˃ 18% of total lichen species reported so far from India. Parmeliaceae is the largest family with 73 species, followed by Lecanoraceae with 53 species, Physciaceae with 48 species and Teloschistaceae with 36 species. Buellia, Caloplaca, Cladonia, Lecanora, Parmotrema, Phaeophyscia, Physcia, Peltigera and Ramalina are the most common genera in the State, while more than 30 genera show restricted occurrence. Equally, there is diversity in growth forms: 178 species being crustose, 159 foliose, 28 fruticose, 23 dimorphic, 32 squamulose and 4 leprose. Most of the species (240) are corticolous (bark inhabiting), followed by 163 saxicolous (rock inhabiting), 46 terricolous (soil inhabiting), 21 muscicolous (moss inhabiting) and a single foliicolous (on leaves) species. Out of 22 districts of the state, Anantnag reveals the maximum (128) lichen species, followed by Doda (with 112 species), Baramulla and Srinagar (with 70 species each), Leh (with 66 species) and Kishtwar (with 36 species), while other districts show lower/poor lichen diversity. Extensive exploration for lichens in little- and unexplored districts will add to the number of lichen taxa reported herein. Keywords: Lichens · Diversity · Jammu and Kashmir · Western Himalaya · Parmeliaceae.
32385Czernyadjeva I.V., Afonina O.M., Davydov E.A., Doroshina G.Ya., Dugarova O.D., Etylina A.S., Filippov I.V., Freydin G.L., Galanina O.V., Himelbrant D.E., Ignatov M.S., Ignatova E.A., Kotkova V.M., Kukurichkin G.M., Kuragina N.S., Kuzmina E.Yu., Lapshina E.D., Lavrentiev M.V., Makuha Ju.A., Moroz E.L., Notov A.A., Novozhilov Yu.K., Popov S.Yu., Popova N.N., Potemkin A.D., Stepanchikova I.S., Storozhenko Yu.V., Tubanova D.Ya., Vlasenko V.A., Yakovchenko L.S. & Zyatnina M.V. (2020): New cryptogamic records. 5. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 54(1): 261–286. https://www.binran.ru/files/journals/NSNR/2020_54/NSNR_2020_54(1)_Czernyadjeva_et_al.pdf.
First records of Myxomycetes for the Republic of Belarus, Basidiomycetes for the Novosibirsk and Volgograd regions, the Republic of Altai, lichens and lichenicolous fungi for the Tver Region, the republics of Altai and Tyva, bryophytes for Novaya Zemlya, the Pskov, Tula and Saratov regions, the Republic of Ingushetia, the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area — Yugra, the Republic of Buryatia, the New Siberian Islands Archipelago, the Peninsula and excluded lichens for the Republic of Altai are presented. Data on localities, habitats, substrates and herbarium specimens of all species are provided. Keywords: Arthopyrenia analepta, Athelia arachnoidea, Bactrospora dryina, Brachytecium campestre, Brachythecium irinae, Bryum rubens, Buglossoporus quercinus, Carbonea supersparsa, Clastoderma debaryanum, Colloderma oculatum, Cryptocolea imbricata, Echinostelium brooksii, Echinostelium colliculosum, Flexitrichum gracile, Hyphoderma obtusiforme, Licea kleistobolus, Macbrideola cornea, Meesia uliginosa, Miriquidica lulensis, Miriquidica plumbeoatra, Niphotrichum canescens, Oncophorus elongatus, Oxyporus latemarginatus, Palustriella commutata, Paradiacheopsis solitaria, Philonotis americana, Physarum decipiens, Physarum diderma, Physarum gyrosum, Prasanthus suecicus, Protoparmelia cupreobadia, Ptilidium pulcherrimum, Ptychostomum rubens, Pylaisia curviramea, Rhizomnium andrewsianum, Schizoxylon albescens, Scoliciosporum intrusum, Seligeria calcarea, Sistotrema brinkmannii, Sphagnum mirum, Stereum gausapatum, Syntricha caninervis var. astrakhanica, Syntrichia submontana, Thelephora anthocephala, Thelephora caryophyllea, Thelephora penicillata, Thuidium assimile, Timmia sibirica, Tremella cladoniae, Warnstorfia tundrae, Xylodon sambuci, basidiomycetes, lichenicolous fungi, lichens, mosses, mycobiota, myxomycetes, Arkhangelsk Region, Chukotka Peninsula, Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area — Yugra, National Park “Narochansky”, New Siberian Islands Archipelago, Novaya Zemlya, Novosibirsk Region, Pskov Region, Republic of Altai, Republic of Belarus, Republic of Burya tia, Republic of Ingushetia, Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Republic of Tyva, Russia, Saratov Region, Tula Region, Tver Region, Volgo-Akhtubinsk Nature Park, Volgograd Region.
32384Харпухаева Т.М. & Лиштва А.В. [Kharpukhaeva T.M. & Lishtva A.V.] (2020): Материалы к лихенофлоре Баунтовского района Республики Бурятия [Materials to the lichen flora of the Bauntovsky District, Republic of Buryatia]. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 54(1): 149–164. https://www.binran.ru/files/journals/NSNR/2020_54/NSNR_2020_54(1)_Kharpukhaeva_Lishtva.pdf.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] The paper presents data on 248 lichen species from the Bauntovsky District of the Republic of Buryatia, of them 233 are new to the district. Alectoria sarmentosa subsp. vexillifera new to East Siberia, and 6 species new to the Republic of Buryatia — Arthonia didyma, Aspicilia aquatica, Immersaria athroocarpa, Ionaspis lacustris, Ramboldia elabens, and Parmelia asiatica. Very interesting species is an aquatic lichen Collema ramenskii recorded in mountain lakes. Keywords: new records, lichen flora.
32383Frolov I.V. & Gagarina L.V. (2020): Revision of crustose Teloschistaceae (lichenized Ascomycota) from the Russian Far East based on herbarium materials of the Komarov Botanical Institute. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 54(1): 139–148. https://www.binran.ru/publications/novosti-sistematiki-nizshyh-rastenij/2224/9755/.
A revision of 47 specimens of crustose Teloschistaceae (so-called “Caloplaca s. lat.”) from the Russian Far East in the herbarium LE belonging to 21 species is resulted in re-identification of 18 specimens and new records. Blastenia furfuracea from the Kamchatka Peninsula is new to the Russian Far East. Caloplaca fraudans is new to the Kamchatka Peninsula. Records of Blastenia ferruginea, B. hungarica, Caloplaca haematites and Solitaria chrysophthalma are doubtful for the Far East. Placodium haematites var. ussuriense Tomin [≡ Caloplaca haematites var. ussuriensis (Tomin) Zahlbr.] is lectotypified and synonymized under Caloplaca stillicidiorum s. lat. Keywords: Blastenia furfuracea, Caloplaca fraudans, Caloplaca haematites var. ussuriensis, Chukotka, Kamchatka, Primorye Territory.
32382Урбанавичене И.Н. & Урбанавичюс Г.П. [Urbanavichene I.N. & Urbanavichus G.P.] (2020): Дополнения к лихенофлоре заповедника «Кологривский лес» (Костромская область) [Contributions to the lichen flora of the Kologriv Forest Nature Reserve (Kostroma Region)]. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 54(1): 127–138. https://www.binran.ru/files/journals/NSNR/2020_54/NSNR_2020_54(1)_Urbanavichene_Urbanavichus.pdf.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] New data on the lichen flora of the Kologriv Forest Nature Reserve from the cluster Kologrivskiy are provided. The specimens of lichens, lichenicolous fungi and non-lichenized saprophytic fungi were collected from 9 localities mainly in the Sekha River valley in cluster Kologrivskiy in September 2018. Altogether 110 lichen species, 9 non-lichenized saprobic fungi and 2 lichenicolous fungi are recorded for the first time for the nature reserve, including 69 species and 21 genera new for the Kostroma Region. The genus Leptosillia with species L. wienkampii and lichenicolous fungus Opegrapha phaeophysciae are published for the first time for European Russia. Altogether over 20 indicator species and habitat specialists of biologically valuable forests are known from the study area. Moreover 4 species (Leptogium burnetiae, Lobaria pulmonaria, Menegazzia terebrata, Nephromopsis laureri) are included in the Red Data Book of Russia. Keywords: Leptosillia wienkampii, lichens, new records, red listed species, Kostroma Region, Nature Reserve, Russia.
32381Жданов И.С. [Zhdanov I.S.] (2020): К лихенофлоре архипелага Новая Земля (Архангельская область, российская Арктика) [Contributions to the lichen flora of the Novaya Zemlya Archipelago (Arkhangelsk Region, Russian Arctic)]. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 54(1): 117–126. https://www.binran.ru/files/journals/NSNR/2020_54/NSNR_2020_54(1)_Zhdanov.pdf.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] The annotated list of 20 lichen species, based on the author’s collection, is presented. Atla wheldonii is new for Russia, and 16 species are new for Novaya Zemlya Archipelago. Morphology and ecological preferences of the lichen species new for the archipelago are discussed. The history of lichenological investigations in Novaya Zemlya is described. Keywords: lichens, biodiversity, Russia.
32380Gagarina L.V., Chesnokov S.V., Konoreva L.A., Stepanchikova I.S., Yatsyna A.P., Kataeva O.A., Notov A.A. & Zhurbenko M.P. (2020): Lichens of the former manors in the Smolensk Region of Russia. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 54(1): 93–116. https://www.binran.ru/files/journals/NSNR/2020_54/NSNR_2020_54(1)_Gagarina_et_al.pdf.
The lichen checklist of the former manors in the Smolensk Region of Russia is presented. It comprises 139 species, including 1 lichenicolous lichen and 4 non-lichenized calicioid fungi. Arthonia didyma, Arthrosporum populorum, Athallia pyracea, Bacidina arnoldiana, Calicium glaucellum, Calogaya decipiens, Candelaria pacifica, Candelariella lutella, Chaenotheca furfuracea, Coenogonium pineti, Eopyrenula leucoplaca, Lecania erysibe, Lecanora compallens, L. expallens, L. umbrina, Melanohalea septentrionalis, Myriolecis hagenii, M. perpruinosa, Parmelina tiliacea, Placynthiella dasaea, P. icmalea, Ramalina europaea, Rinodina sophodes, R. subparieta, Scutula dedicata, Strangospora pinicola, and Trapeliopsis flexuosa are new to the Smolensk Region. Keywords: lichen flora, new records, biodiversity, ecology, list of species.
32379Алвердиева С.М. [Alverdiyeva S.M.] (2020): Первые сведения о лишайниках Хызинского района Азербайджана [The first records of lichens of the Khizi Region (Republic of Azerbaijan)]. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 54(1): 87–92. https://www.binran.ru/files/journals/NSNR/2020_54/NSNR_2020_54(1)_Alverdiyeva.pdf.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] The article provides a list of lichens, based on the identification of samples collected by the author in Khizi Region of Azerbaijan. Altogether 37 species were identified for the first time for the region, including 2 species ― Lepraria finkii and Physcia phaea ― new for the lichen flora of Azerbaijan. Information about substrates, habitats and localities is given for each species. Keywords: new records, distribution, Altyaghach National Park.
32378Darienko T. & Pröschold T. (2017): Toward a monograph of non-marine Ulvophyceae using an integrative approach (Molecular phylogeny and systematics of terrestrial Ulvophyceae II.). - Phytotaxa, 324: 1–41. .
Phylogenetic analyses of SSU rDNA sequences have shown that coccoid and filamentous green algae are distributed among all classes of the Chlorophyta. One of these classes, the Ulvophyceae, mostly contains marine seaweeds and microalgae. However, new studies have shown that there are filamentous and sarcinoid freshwater and terrestrial species (including symbionts in lichens) among the Ulvophyceae, but very little is known about these species. Ultrastructural studies of some of them have confirmed that the flagellar apparatus of zoospores (counterclockwise basal body orientation) is typical for the Ulvophyceae. In addition to ultrastructural features, the presence of a “Codiolum”-stage is characteristic of some members of this algal class. We studied more than 50 strains of freshwater and terrestrial ulvophycean microalgae obtained from the different public culture collection and our own isolates using an integrative approach. Three independent lineages of the Ulvophyceae containing terrestrial species were revealed by these methods. Unexpectedly each of these lineages contained several isolates that morphologically developed a high degree of phenotypic plasticity, and included hidden phylogenetic diversity that let us to the description of several new genera and species. Keywords: CBC concept, ITS-2 Barcode, molecular phylogeny, species delimitation, Ulvophyceae.
32377von Brackel W. (2020): Flechte des Jahres 2020: Die Finger-Scharlachflechte (Cladonia digitata). - Natur und Land, 106: 15. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/nat-land_2020_1_0015.pdf.
Cladonia digitata as the lichen of the year 2020. Photo by W. von Brackel.
32376Pino-Bodas R., Ahti T. & Stenroos S. (2020): Taxonomic notes on Pycnothelia Dufour and Gymnoderma Nyl. (Cladoniaceae) in Madagascan region. - Cryptogamie, Mycologie, 41(5): 109–118. .
This study was focused on two species of lichen-forming fungi from Madagascan Region whose taxonomy has been controversial over the years, Cladonia mascarena Nyl. and Heterodea madagascarea Nyl. While some authors considered C. mascarena to belong to Cladonia, others place it in Pycnothelia Dufour. In this study three loci (ITS rDNA, rpb2 and ef1α) were used to determine the phylogenetic placement of C. mascarena. Our results show that it belongs to Pycnothelia and the combination Pycnothelia mascarena (Nyl.) Nyl. is substantiated. In addition, a key to the genus Pycnothelia is provided. The morphological study of new specimens of Gymnoderma coccocarpum Nyl. and H. madagascarea concluded that these taxa belong to a same species, confirming the extension of Gymnoderma Nyl. to Africa. The overlooked genus Baeoderma Vain. is regarded as a synonym of Gymnoderma, and its type species Baeoderma madagascareum (Nyl.) Vain. is referred to G. coccocarpum. Key words: Cladoniaceae, lichen-forming fungi, genus concepts, phylogeny, Réunion.
32375Li W.-J., McKenzie E.H.C., Liu J.-K., Bhat D.J., Dai D.-Q., Camporesi E., Tian Q., Maharachchikumbura S.S.N., Luo Z.-L., Shang Q.-J., Zhang J.-F., Tangthirasunun N., Karunarathna S.C., Xu J.-C. & Hyde K.D. (2020): Taxonomy and phylogeny of hyaline‑spored coelomycetes. - Fungal Diversity, 100: 279–801. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13225-020-00440-y.
Coelomycete is a general term used for asexual fungi which produce conidia in fruiting bodies: pycnidial, acervular, cupulate, pycnothyria or stromatic conidiomata. The group contains numerous plant pathogenic, saprobic and endophytic species associated with a wide range of hosts. Traditionally, morphological characters and host associations have been used as criteria to identify and classify coelomycetes, and this has resulted in a poor understanding of their generic and species boundaries. DNA based taxonomic studies have provided a better outlook of the phylogenetic and evolutionary trends in coelomycetes. However, the present outcomes represent only a preliminary step towards the understanding of coelomycetes. Many genera have not been revisited since they were first described. The present study revises the classification of the hyaline-spored coelomycetes and provides a modern taxonomic framework based on both morphology and phylogeny. In total, 248 genera were investigated, of which less than 100 are known to have sequence data. Multi-locus sequence data analyses of 28S nrDNA, 18S nrDNA, ITS, RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (rpb2), and part of the translation elongation factor 1-alpha gene (tef1) and β-tubulin (tub2) gene regions were analysed. As a result, three new genera and 23 new species are introduced. In addition, three new links between sexual and asexual genera are provided. There are 138 genera that lack sequence data, and these are treated as Ascomycota, genera incertae sedis. Line drawings and descriptions are provided based on the examination of types and fresh collections and on the literature. Keywords: 26 new taxa · Ascomycota · Asexual morphs · Basidiomycota. Discosiella and Strigula are considered as taxonomic congeneric.
32374Tsurykau A. & Braginets L. (2020): Didymocyrtis epiphyscia (Phaeosphaeriaceae) is new to Kazakhstan and Central Asia. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 57: 1–3. https://doi.org/10.12697/fce.2020.57.01.
Didymocyrtis epiphyscia s. lat. is reported for the first time for Kazakhstan and Central Asia. Anatomical characteristics of studied material are provided. Taxonomic difficulties of the D. epiphyscia complex are discussed. A possibly new lichenicolous Didymocyrtis species (on Parmelia sulcata) with non-guttulate conidia is described, illustrated and discussed. Keywords: biodiversity, distribution, lichenicolous fungi, lichens, new records.
32373Roux C., Bertrand M. & Nordin A. (2016): Aspicilia serenensis Cl. Roux et M. Bertrand sp. nov., espèce nouvelle de lichen (groupe d’A. calcarea, Megasporaceae). - Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, 67: 165–182. .
Aspicilia serenensis Cl. Roux et M. Bertrand sp. nov. is described and compared with A. calcarea (closely related), A. farinosa and A. subfarinosa. A. serenensis differs from these by a distinctly thicker thallus (with a thick medulla), by larger apothecia, without or with thin pruina (except for in the morphotype pruinosa, which is fairly rare) and with the pigment subdepressa–brown in the cortex of the thalline margin, by the slightly longer conidia and by the more orophilous habit. A. grossheimii, also closely related to A. serenensis, differs by its much thicker thallus, the distinctly larger apothecia, the much larger cells of the pigmented thalline margin, the more slender paraphysoids and the smaller spores. A. calcarea var. reagens (Zahlbr.) Szatala is more closely related to A. serenensis than to A. calcarea. A. subfarinosa was wrongly indicated in France (Alpes–de–Haute–Provence) by Şenkardeşler & Sohrabi (2011). Five new combinations, Aspicilia hoffmanniana (R. Sant.) Cl. Roux et Bertrand, Circinaria hoffmanniana (R. Sant) A. Nordin, Circinaria reagens (Zahlbr.) A. Nordin, Circinaria serenensis (Cl. Roux et M. Bertrand) A. Nordin, are introduced.
32372Salgado F., Caballero J., Vargas R., Cornejo A. & Areche C. (2020): Continental and Antarctic Lichens: isolation, identification and molecular modeling of the depside tenuiorin from the Antarctic lichen Umbilicaria antarctica as tau protein inhibitor. - Natural Product Research, 34(5): 646–650. https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2018.1492576.
Alzheimer´s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia involving Aβ and tau protein. So far, AD cure remains elusive, but considering that AD progresses throughout tau pathology, which turns tau protein an appropriate target, besides tau is also included in other neurodegenerative disorders named as tauopathies. Here, we have isolated seventeen compounds belonging to six lichens species. Due to scarce of spectroscopic data of the compound 5,7-dihydroxy-6-methylphthalide, we explained their structural elucidation based on NMR data. In this study, we show that only tenuiorin from Umbilicaria antarctica inhibited 50% of tau 4R at 100 µM. Then, we shown that molecular interactions of tenuiorin with the steric zipper model of the hexapeptide 306VQIVYK311 were studied by docking calculations and the results suggested that tenuiorin forms both hydrogen bonds with lysine and glutamine side chains and forms several hydrophobic interactions with valine and lysine from 306VQIVYK311 motif. Keywords: Alzheimer´s disease; Lichens; Tau protein.
32371Øvstedal D.O., Fryday A.M. & Lewis Smith R.I. (2020): Lecanora muscigena (Lichenized Ascomycota, Lecanorales), a new lichen species in the Lecanora fuscescens group from South Georgia. - New Zealand Journal of Botany, 58(2): 145–152. https://doi.org/10.1080/0028825X.2019.1682625.
Compared to continental Antarctica, the lichen biota of the various subantarctic islands and island groups is poorly documented. Here we describe the new species Lecanora muscigena Øvstedal & Fryday from the subantarctic island of South Georgia from a collection made in 1980 that was previously included as Trapeliopsis sp. A. by Øvstedal & Lewis Smith in their comprehensive account of the Lichens of Antarctica and South Georgia. It is similar to Lecidea globulispora Nyl., which occurs on the nearby Falkland Islands, in having globose ascospores but is clearly distinguished from that species by having a well-developed, creamy-white thallus composed of ±dispersed areoles with effigurate margins containing fumarprotocetraric acid, larger ascospores (c. 7–8 µm diam.) and by its habitat of overgrowing terricolous bryophytes. The new species belongs in the Lecanora fuscescens group, the species of which were usually described in the genus Lecidea due to their poorly developed thalline margin. This group is not congeneric with the type species of Lecanora (L. subfusca (L.) Ach.) but we refrain from erecting a new genus for the group pending a full molecular investigation of its delimitation and systematic position. Keywords: Biatora-type ascus, fumarprotocetraric acid, globose ascospores, subantarctic, taxonomy, identification key.
32370Kościelniak R., Bury D. & Betleja L. (2019): Rzadkie gatunki porostów w otulinie Bieszczadzkiego Parku Narodowego – Nadleśnictwo Stuposiany [Rare lichen species in the buffer zone of the Bieszczady National Park – Stuposiany Forest District]. - Roczniki Bieszczadzkie, 27: 233–243. https://www.bdpn.pl/dokumenty/roczniki/rb27/art09.pdf.
The paper presents localities of 10 very rare lichen species in Poland which are connected with forests of a high level of naturalness. All the presented species are included in the highest categories of the red list of lichens endangered in Poland. They are all protected by law, and four of them are also included in a special protection zone. Key words: lichenized fungi, Polish Eastern Carpathians, forest naturalness indicators, threatened lichens.
32369Kościelniak R. & Betleja L. (2018): Zagrożone zniszczeniem stanowisko Ochrolechia pallescens w Nadleśnictwie Stuposiany [A locality of Ochrolechia pallescens in the Stuposiany Forest District threatened with extinction]. - Roczniki Bieszczadzkie, 26: 267–273. https://www.bdpn.pl/dokumenty/roczniki/rb26/art15.pdf.
The paper presents a new locality of Ochrolechia pallescens situated within the area of the Suposiany forest district in the Bieszczady Mts. In its vicinity there are localities of the most valuable sylvan lichen species in Poland such as Chrysothrix candelaris, Lobaria pulmonaria, Menegazzia terebrata, Parmotrema arnoldii, P. stuppeum, which are threatened with extinction in this place. Therefore, it is highly desirable to incorporate this area to the Bieszczady National Park. Key words: lichenized fungi, Polish Eastern Carpathians, forest naturalness indicators, threatened lichens.
32368Verhoogt K. & van der Kolk H.-J. (2019): Een overzicht van enkele goed herkenbare Nederlandse korstmosparasieten [An overview of some easily identifiable Dutch lichenicolous fungi]. - Buxbaumiella, 115: 47–57. .
[in Dutch with English summary: ] Lichenicolous fungi grow on a wide variety of lichens, but individual species are often strictly host specific. Lichenicolous fungi can be found everywhere, but they are often ignored as they are challenging to identify. However, several species can be identified with high certainty in the field. This article describes 27 lichenicolous fungi that have distinct field characteristics and most of them are common in the Netherlands. This article may contribute to the awareness of lichenicolous fungi and can increase our knowledge on their distribution. We stress that lichenicolous fungi are still poorly studied and therefore microscopic examination of specimens is recommended in most cases.
32367Miranda-González R., Lücking R., Barcenas-Peña A. & Herrera-Campos M.Á. (2020): The new genus Jocatoa (Lecanoromycetes: Graphidaceae) and new insights into subfamily Redonographoideae. - Bryologist, 123(2): 127–143. .
One new genus and two new species of Graphidaceae are described from tropical dry forests of Mexico, based on morphological and molecular data of the mtSSU, nuLSU and ITS markers. The new genus Jocatoa in subfamily Graphidoideae is described to accommodate the species Graphis agminalis (syn.: Medusulina texana), previously known from Colombia and North America. The new genus resembles Diorygma but differs by having simple paraphyses tips that do not form an epithecium. Jocatoa agminalis is similar to Diorygma monophorum but differs by having larger ascospores, hypostictic and stictic acids and by the type of paraphysis tips. In subfamily Redonographoideae, the two new species Gymnographopsis corticicola and Redonographa parvispora are described, representing the first corticolous species in the subfamily. Gymnographopsis corticicola is characterized by the smallest spores in the genus, the presence of norstictic acid, and a rectangular perispore that appears to be a newly recognized character state in fungi. Redonographa parvispora is characterized by warty periphysoids, small ascospores with 3 transverse septa, and norstictic acid. It also frequently develops a rectangular perispore. We present a phylogenetic analysis, based on the markers mtSSU, nuLSU and RPB2, that includes all the genera in the family Graphidaceae, with available sequences, to accommodate the new genus and to validate for the first time the position of Gymnographopsis. Diagnostic anatomical and ecological characters are discussed for Redonographoideae. Gymnographopsis is newly reported to the Northern Hemisphere. Keywords: Chamela Biological Station, lichen systematics, Mexico, North America, rectangular perispore, tropical dry forest.
32366Kanz B., Büdel B., Jung P., Karsten U. & Printzen C. (2020): Biologische Bodenkrusten in der Antarktis. Leben zwischen Eis und Felsen. - Biologie in unserer Zeit, 2/2020 (50): 122–133. DOI:10.1002/ biuz.202010702.
Biological soil crusts in Antarctica: Life between ice and rocks. Despite its adverse environmental conditions and geographical isolation, Antarctica is home to a rich vegetation of lichens, mosses, algae, fungi and bacteria. In the milder areas of the maritime and continental Antarctic, these pioneer species form widely visible biological soil crusts. In drier areas, they occur mainly within the outer rock and upper soil layers. Among the ecological adaptations that enable these species to survive Antarctic conditions, a good dehydration tolerance stands out. Almost nothing is known about the genetic diversity of most species. While some species probably originated in Antarctica, others are relatively late settlers.
32365Mikhailova I.N. (2020): Dynamics of epiphytic lichen communities in the initial period after reduction of emissions from a copper smelter. - Russian Journal of Ecology, 51(1): 38–45. DOI: 10.1134/S1067413620010075.
[Original Russian Text published in Ekologiya, 2020, No. 1, pp. 43–50] Changes in the composition and structure of epiphytic lichen communities have been analyzed over 5 years (2014–2018) after significant reduction of emissions from the Middle Ural Copper Smelter on the basis of annual observations in 22 permanent sampling plots established in spruce–fir forests of the Middle Urals. Despite the almost complete cessation of toxicant input from the atmosphere, increased Cu concentrations in the fir bark and higher bark acidity persist in the vicinity of the smelter. The number of lichen species in the heavily polluted zone rapidly increases (by 1–2 species per year) primarily on account of species with a high colonization potential that are abundant in adjacent biotopes or on other substrates in heavily polluted areas. The level of their toxitolerance is not the critical factor: both tolerant and moderately and highly sensitive species colonize tree trunks. The current community structure in the polluted zone is basically different from that in the background area: explerent species Hypocenomyce caradocensis dominates, while species typical for background spruce–fir forests are rare or absent. Keywords: dynamics, recolonization, recovery, sustainability, elasticity, heavy metals, copper, sulfur dioxide, industrial pollution, community structure, Middle Urals, bark pH.
32364Gustafsson L., Hannerz M., Koivula M., Shorohova E., Vanha-Majamaa I. & Weslien J. (2020): Research on retention forestry in Northern Europe. - Ecological Processes, 9: 3 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13717-019-0208-2.
[A review paper] Retention approaches in forest management are today common in several North European countries, integrated into the clearcutting practice as a way to promote biodiversity and maintain ecosystem functions. Individual green trees and retention patches (tree groups) are retained at final harvest, and deadwood is left at site or created. Here, we review research on retention in Sweden, Finland, Norway, the Baltic States, and NW Russia, with special focus on biodiversity. Following the first publication in 1994, about 180 peer-reviewed articles have been published. We present results from a systematic search of the retention literature, separated into the following topics: buffer zones, retention patches, high stumps, other types of deadwood, European aspen Populus tremula, and cost-efficiency. Russian literature is synthesized separately since studies from this region have so far almost exclusively been published in the Russian language. Furthermore, we describe six ongoing large-scale, replicated experiments with varying retention levels, five in Finland and one in Sweden, and summarize their main results. Among main conclusions for practice from the literature and experiments are that retention patches as large as 0.5 ha and 10-mwide buffers to watercourses are not enough to maintain pre-harvest species composition but survival of forest species is still larger than on conventional clearcuts. Deadwood on clearcuts may present important habitats to saproxylic species, including rare and red-listed ones and a prioritization of tree species per stand is recommended. We identify several important future research directions including switch of focus towards the landscape as well as the species population level. Surveys in parts of European Russia where retention has been unintentionally implemented already for a century would indicate possible future trajectories of biodiversity and their drivers in other regions of Northern Europe. A stronger link to ecological theory would help in study designs and in the formulation of predicted outcomes. Keywords: Biodiversity, Buffer strips, Conservation, Deadwood, Experiments, Forestry, High stumps, Retention patches, Variable retention. [p. 2:] "Beetles were the most common study organisms (39% of studies), followed by lichens and bryophytes (both 16%)."
32363Halbwachs H. (2020): Pilze in Bernsteinwäldern Nordeuropas. - Zeitschrift für Mykologie, 86(1): 121–130. .
[in German with English abstract: ] During the Eocene, ca. 24-47 million years ago, vast forests existed in the Baltic and Bitterfeld areas, which were a cradle of huge amber deposits. So-called amber trees produced copious amounts of resin, which often entombed a great diversity of organisms, predominantly insects. Under rare circumstances, also fungi or fungal material got preserved in the hardening material, which is often washed up along the Baltic coasts or is harvested industrially in Kaliningrad. Most amberised fungi are small ascomycetes, only a few macrofungi have so far been recovered. Interestingly, lichens proliferated during the Paleogene. The causes are probably multifarious, including favourable climates and diversely structured habitats. It remains to be seen whether more fungi will turn up in amber to close obvious gaps in fossil records. Keywords: Fossils, Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Lichens, Baltic, Bitterfeld, Paleogene.
32362Magnin A. (1877): Liste des cryptogames récoltés par MM. Therry et Veuillot pendant l'excursion botanique dans le Bugey. - Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France, 23[1876]: CXLII–CXLVII. .
32361Payot V. (1877): Florule de l'excursionniste aux gorges de la Diozaz. - Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France, 23[1876]: 394–397. .
France; 12 taxa of lichens listed at p. 397
32360Weddell H.A. (1877): Notice monographique sur les Amphiloma de la flora française. - Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France, 23[1876]: 82–99. .
France; monograph; Teloschistaceae
32359Magnin A. (1877): Sur les mousses et les lichens de la partie supérieure de la vallée de l'Ubaye (Basses Alpes). - Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France, 23[1876]: 49–50. .
32358Cornu M. [, Weddell M.-H. & Van Tieghem P.] (1875): Observations [sur le parasitisme, ... des Lichens]. - Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France, 21[1874]: 347–351. .
Not a standard paper but a discussion on parasites/parasymbionts among lichens.
32357Weddell H.-A. (1875): Florule lichénique des laves d'Agde. - Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France, 21[1874]: 330–347. .
France; several new taxa described: Acarospora sordida, Acarospora collemacea, Lecidea (Buellia) cladonema, Verucaria verrucicola, Verrucaria xanthoriae.
32356Roumeguère C. (1875): Quel est le physiologiste qui le premier, au milieu du XVIIIe siècle, a fait connaitre le mode de nutrition des lichens? Documents intéressant l'Histoire de ces végétaux. - Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France, 21[1874]: 195–201. .
Extract from a lecture
32355Roumeguère C. (1875): Correspondance inédite échangée entre Alexandre de Humboldt et Auguste Broussonet, au sujet de l'Histoire Naturelle des Iles Canaries. - Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France, 21[1874]: 154–158. .
Correspondence; notes on lichens included
32354Lefranc E. (1875): Les Roccella et le Rhytiphloea tinctoria de la Méditerranée, par-devant la pourpre de Tyr. - Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France, 21[1874]: 85–95. .
Roccella; lichen dyes
32353Bouteille (1875): [Lettre de M. Bouteille a M. de Schoenefeld]. - Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France, 21[1874]: 59–60. .
A letter; it includes among else a remark on occurence of lichens on glass
32352Fée A. (1875): Matériaux pour une flore lichénologique du Brésil, II. – Les Graphidées. - Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France, 21[1874]: 20–26. .
Brazil; Graphidaceae
32351Rosentreter R., Kaminsky L. & DeBolt A. (2020): If a tree falls in the forest, will its lichens flourish or die?. - Evansia, 37(1): 20–26. .
In 2016, a storm blew over an old growth sand post oak tree (Quercus margarettae) at O’Leno State Park in northern Florida. This event provided access to the entire tree without climbing it. Because the tree was suspended by its branches so it was parallel with the ground, we could easily observe and collect lichens at all former canopy heights. We surveyed the wind-blown tree’s lichens before the species’ composition changes had occurred. Several uncommon lichens were found on this oak. We rated relative abundance of each lichen species on the tree for three consecutive years. To our surprise, many of the lichens were still alive after one or more years, despite being in a lower canopy position and on a different aspect. However, most lichens changed in relative abundance or were reduced in abundance; one species, Parmeliella triptophylla, increased in relative abundance. Five species did not change, while 26 species decreased in abundance. Lichen response was dynamic in both abundance and thallus size. We found many old growth lichen indicators for Florida and this gave us an opportunity to study rarely encountered lichen species. Key words. Biodiversity, forest ecology, oaks, survivorship, Parmeliella triptophylla.
32350McCune B. & Stone D. (2020): Gregorella, a cyanobacterial pioneer on soil, new to North America. - Evansia, 37(1): 15–19. .
Gregorella humida was found in western Oregon, U.S.A. This is a new genus and species for North America, with both fertile and sterile collections. An ITS sequence demonstrated its affinity with European material. This minute, granular to branchedgranular cyanobacterial lichen is a pioneer on recently disturbed soil. The species was previously known from Fennoscandia, the U.K., continental Europe, and Turkey. Key words. Cyanolichens, ITS, Moelleropsis, Oregon, pioneer species.
32349Leavitt S.D. & Smith B. (2020): Baseline population density estimates of ‘Wyoming range lichens’ (Xanthoparmelia wyomingica) relative to mountain goats in the La Sal Mountains, Utah, USA. - Evansia, 37(1): 1–6. .
The La Sal Mountains in eastern Utah, USA, contain the only alpine habitat on the Colorado Plateau in Utah. These unique sky island alpine communities are vulnerable to a wide range of disturbances, including factors associated with the recent introduction of mountain goats (O. americanus). In order to monitor the potential impact of O. americanus, and other disturbances on alpine communities in the La Sals, we provide baseline estimate population densities for ‘Wyoming range lichens’ (Xanthoparmelia wyomingica) at two sites near Mount Laurel. Using the point-centered quarter and the quartered-neighbor methods, we estimate ca. 20 individuals/m2 at both sites. These estimates provide an important baseline for long-term monitoring of vulnerable alpine sites on the Colorado Plateau. Key words. Alpine habitats, Biomonitoring, climate change, Colorado Plateau, distance methods, disturbance.
32348吴园园, 高静, 赵润康, 陈庆芝, 柳燕云, 张佳林, 刘晓迪, 康志娟, 刘爱琴, 刘华杰 [Wu Y.-Y., Gao J., Zhao R.-K., Chen Q.-Z., Liu Y.-Y., Zhang J.-L., Liu X.-D., Kang Z.-J., Liu A.-Q. & Liu H.-J.] (2020): 黑龙江呼中自然保护区高山珊瑚枝假果柄不同部位的元素组成 [Element compositions in different parts of pseudopodetia of Stereocaulon alpinum from Huzhong Natural Reserve, Heilongjiang, China]. - 生命科学研究灾 [Life Science Research], 24(1): 39–46. .
[in Chinese with English abstract: ] Lichen element compositions are a reliable and effective tool for biomonitoring atmospheric element deposition. The lichen age effect is one of the important factors influencing lichen element concentrations. However, this effect is not fully understood for terricolous fruticose lichens. Herein, samples of a fruticose lichen Stereocaulon alpinum from a remote site of Huzhong Natural Reserve, Greater Khingan Mountains of Heilongjiang Province were collected. Fifty-five elements (Ag, Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Dy, Er, Eu, Fe, Gd, Ge, Hg, Ho, K, La, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nb, Nd, Ni, P, Pb, Pr, Rb, S, Sb, Sc, Se, Si, Sm, Sn, Sr, Tb, Th, Ti, Tl, Tm, U, V, Y, Yb, and Zn) were measured and their differences among 3 parts (apical, middle, and base parts) of the pseudopodetia were compared in order to examine the effect of different parts of lichen and elements on lichen element accumulations in the uncontaminated ecological environment. The results showed that concentrations of all elements were in the range of the reported background/baseline values, suggesting a low degree of atmospheric element deposition in the study site. Concentrations of most elements with limited metabolic significance were generally the highest at base part, suggesting a continuous bioaccumulation and a low degree of translocation in the lichen thalli. Concentrations of some nutrients showed little differences among the different parts, or were higher in the apical part than in the middle part. These results suggest a nutrient translocation from the older parts to the younger parts of pseudopodetia. Therefore, in lichen biomonitoring studies, specific parts of lichen should be taken into account based on the interested elements, and to ensure the comparability of data among different surveys, the same parts of the thallus should be selected. Key words: Stereocaulon; element concentration; biomonitoring; atmospheric deposition; fruticose lichens.
32347Ekanayaka A.H., Hyde K.D., Jones E.B.G., Zhao Q. & Bulgakov T.S. (2019): New and known discolichens from Asia and eastern Europe. - Asian Journal of Mycology, 2(1): 48–86. Doi 10.5943/ajom/2/1/2.
In the present study, lichenized discomycete taxa collected from northern Thailand, southern China, the UK, Ukraine and Russia are documented. Taxonomic studies of these taxa were carried out using both morphology and molecular data. Their phylogenetic relationships were inferred using LSU rDNA and ITS rDNA sequence data or combined analysis of these gene regions. Twelve lichenized discomycete taxa are reported in this paper including three new species (viz. Bacidia subareolata, Buellia sublauri-cassiae and Letrouitia magenta) and one reference species (Letrouitia transgressa). Key words – 3 new species – apothecia – Lecanoromycetes – phylogeny – taxonomy – thallus.
32346Cataldo D. & Minissale P. (2013): I licheni terricoli degli ambienti semiaridi costieri di Vendicari area protetta della Sicilia sud-orientale. - Notiziario della Società Lichenologica Italiana, 26: 63–77. .
32345Cataldo D. & Minissale P. (2015): The lichens in a relic wood of Juniperus turbinata Guss. (Pinales Cupressaceae) with a new record for Sicily. - Biodiversity Journal, 6(4): 795–802. .
This paper regards a research conducted on terrestrial and epiphytic lichen flora growing in an extensive juniper bush, Juniperus turbinata Guss. (Pinales Cupressaceae), in southeast Sicily. The flora recorded, although small in number, 29 species in all, includes several species quite rare in Italy or Sicily. One in particular, Heppia adglutinata (Kremp.) A. Massal. is new for Sicily and it is however rather rare in the Mediterranean area. Some considerations about the distribution and ecology of the found species are done. Key words: Epiphytic lichens; terrestrial lichens; Heppia adglutinata; juniper woodland; Mediterranean.
32344Widhelm T.J. (2019): Phylogenomic Systematics of Lichenized Fungi at Multiple Taxonomic Levels. - Thesis, Submitted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Biological Sciences in the Graduate College of the University of Illinois at Chicago, 245 p. .
Our study provides an important case study highlighting the importance of considering independent lines of evidence and analytical approaches for effectively delimiting species in taxonomically challenging groups. An integrative approach incorporating phenotypic characters (secondary metabolite variation, differences in reproductive strategies, and conidial size), analyses of molecular sequence data using Bayesian clustering, ML and BI phylogenetic inference and a coalescent­based species­tree method, and empirical species delimitation analysis in BP&P, provides unprecedented insight into species boundaries and evolutionary relationships in the P. perforatum group. We approached the delimitation of species in two ways. The first employed the Bayesian clustering algorithm STRUCTURE to infer putative populations. This approach was congruent with the concatenated phylogeny, inferring three populations that corresponded with the three major clades A, B, and C (Figure 16). Individuals were then assigned to their population for inferring a *BEAST species tree. This tree was used as a starting topology in BP&P for species delimitation. The three­species scenario was highly supported by all analysis methods (Figure 16). The second approach used a six­species scenario assigning individuals to their traditional circumscribed species to infer a *BEAST species tree (Figure 18). This topology was used as a starting tree in the BP&P species delimitation. This approach supported the distinctiveness of the traditionally recognized taxa P. perforatum, P. hypotropum, P. subrigidum and P. louisianae, while P. preperforatum and P. hypoleucinum were found to be conspecific. Although our results highlight the fact that secondary metabolite variation and differences in reproductive mode can serve as taxonomically relevant characters in Parmotrema, traditional species pair concepts and chemotaxonomy are not reflected in evolutionary relationships. Before secondary chemistry was integrated into the taxonomic treatment of the P. perforatum group, only two species, Parmelia perforata (apotheciate­fertile) and P. hypotropa (sorediate­sterile) were recognized as distinct, based solely on reproductive strategy. However, inclusion of secondary chemical data revealed six diagnosable populations. Culberson (1973) discussed what he considered to be the best taxonomic treatment of species in the P. perforatum group and claimed that all the chemical races of the apotheciate morph were sister species, each with a sorediate counterpart considered a secondary species. Based on this interpretation, he described a number of new species (Culberson 1973)⁠. By incorporating multilocus sequence data, we have added another valuable resource for species delimitation
32343Střelbová M. (2017): Makrolišejníky modřínových porostů na Rokycansku. - Bakalářská práce, Západočeská univerzita v Plzni, Fakulta pedagogická, Centrum biologie, geověd a envigogiky , 60 p + 11 fig.. .
The aim of this study was to explore the diversity of macrolichens in the larch plantations at selected localities in the Rokycany region. By field research, I have detected 48 taxa of macrolichens, which confirms fact, that larch is a exceptional substrate among our woody plants. In addition to common species, a number of endangered species (23) and rare species such as Bryoria capillaris, Flavoparmelia soredians, Nephromopsis laureri, Parmelia barrenoae, Usnea glabrata, U. wasmuthii and two species not yet published from the Czech Republic have been found – Hypotrachyna afrorevoluta and Punctelia borreri. A comparison of recorded species with literature data from our territory and neighboring countries is also included in the study. This work is the first study focused on the lichen recolonisation on larch in the Czech Republic
32342Reding J. (2019): Rock Climbing or Lichen Climbing? How Rock Climbing Impacts Bryophyte and Lichen Communities Within the Red River Gorge. - Thesis Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Science in the Graduate School of The Ohio State University, 99 p. .
Outdoor recreation has consistently been one of America’s greatest pastimes. Recently, the development of rock climbing areas has increased, becoming a $3.8 million industry in the Red River Gorge, Kentucky. This development has been shown to have differing levels of effects on the biota on cliff faces, with difficulty isolating natural effects to anthropogenic ones. The goals of this study are: 1) to determine the best practices of different abundance acquisition methods, determine if they can sense a disturbance gradient, and compare them to in-situ visual estimation, and 2) determine how rock climbing impacts cryptogamic abundance, species richness, and community composition while controlling for environmental factors. Accurately estimating vegetative abundance is a cornerstone of many ecological studies and a variety of methods to collect such data have been developed. In certain situations, for instance determining cryptogam abundance on rock surfaces, study sites can be difficult to access. Determining the best method to use when estimating abundance is an important part of collecting accurate data, gaining data in an efficient way, and limiting exposure to hazardous terrain. Because of this, it is important to understand the different types of methods available and how they compare to one another. Due to the increase in the popularity of rock climbing, understanding the impact of rock climbing is increasingly important, which requires abundance, species richness, and community composition data of cryptogamic communities on rock surfaces. Abundance was estimated using four different approaches: 1) visual cover estimation (total life-form and species-specific cover); 2) visual estimation of total cover from quadrat photographs; 3) unsupervised classification of quadrat photographs using the Interface Definition Language program Environment for Visualizing Images (ENVI); and 4) chlorophyll florescence using a Hansatech pocket PEA. The climbing use intensity, heat load index, and microtopographic variation were estimated for each quadrat. When comparing cover estimation methods, the ENVI method was the most strongly predictive of field visual estimation (R2 = 0.67), closely followed by visual photographic methods (R2 = 0.60). Chlorophyll florescence was not predictive of field visual methods (R2 = 0.09) but provided important insight to the presence of photosynthetic material not visible to the human eye. In-situ visual abundance, photographic visual abundance, and ENVI methods all detected significant differences in abundance across the climbing disturbance gradient. Community composition was significantly impacted (P < 0.01) by rock-climbing, the vertical resource gradient, climbing use intensity, microtopographic variation and heat load. Climbing impact interacted with the vertical resource gradient and the largest impacts on cryptogam abundance were seen at higher elevations on the routes. To minimize the impact of rock climbing, route establishers should avoid bolting to the top of the cliff face, climbers should avoid “topping out”, and climbers should climb as close the line of bolts (or guidebook depicted center of route) as possible
32341Sieteiglesias V., Gonzalez-Burgos E., Bermejo-Bescoś P., Divakar P.K.& Goḿez-Serranillos M.P. (2019): Lichens of Parmelioid Clade as Promising Multitarget Neuroprotective Agents. - Chem. Res. Toxicol., 32: 1165−1177. DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemrestox.9b00010.
Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease are multifactorial disorders which are increasing in incidence and prevalence over the world without existing effective therapies. The search for new multitarget compounds is the latter therapeutic strategy to address these pathological conditions. Lichens have an important and unknown therapeutic value attributed to their unique secondary metabolites. The aim of this study is to evaluate for the first time the in vitro neuroprotective activities and molecular mechanisms underlying methanol extracts of lichens of the parmelioid clade and to characterize major bioactive secondary metabolites responsible for their pharmacological actions. Of the 15 parmelioid lichen species, our results showed that Parmotrema perlatum and Hypotrachyna formosana methanol extracts exhibited high antioxidant activity as evidenced in ORAC, DPPH, and FRAP assays. Then, SH-SY5Y cells were pretreated with methanol extracts (24 h) followed by Fenton reagent exposure (2 h). Pretreatments with these two more antioxidant methanol lichen extracts increased cell viability, reduced intracellular ROS, prevented oxidative stress biomarkers accumulation, and upregulated antioxidant enzyme (CAT, SOD, GR, and GPx) activity compared to Fenton reagent cells. The neuroprotective activity was much higher for H. formosana than for P. perlatum, even equal to or higher than Trolox (reference compound). Moreover, H. formosana extracts inhibited both AChE and BuChE activities in a concentration dependent manner, and P. perlatum only showed concentration dependent activity against AChE. Finally, chemical composition analysis using TLC and HPLC methods revealed that physodic acid, lividic acid, and lichexanthone are major secondary metabolites in H. formosana and stictic acid and constictic acid are in P. perlatum. These results demonstrated that P. perlatum and, specially, H. formosana are promising multitargeted neuroprotective agents due to their antioxidant and AChE and BuChE inhibition activities
32340Backhaus T., Meeßen J., Demets R., Vera J.P. de & Ott S. (2019): Characterization of Viability of the Lichen Buellia frigida After 1.5 Years in Space on the International Space Station. - Astrobiology, 19(2): 233–241. DOI: 10.1089/ast.2018.1894.
The lichen Buellia frigida was exposed to space and simulated Mars analog conditions in the BIOlogy and Mars EXperiment (BIOMEX) project operated outside the International Space Station (ISS) for 1.5 years. To de- termine the effects of the low Earth orbit (LEO) conditions on the lichen symbionts, a LIVE/DEAD staining analysis test was performed. After return from the ISS, the lichen symbionts demonstrated mortality rates of up to 100% for the algal symbiont and up to 97.8% for the fungal symbiont. In contrast, the lichen symbiont controls exhibited mortality rates of 10.3% up to 31.9% for the algal symbiont and 14.5% for the fungal symbiont. The results performed in the BIOMEX Mars simulation experiment on the ISS indicate that the potential for survival and the resistance of the lichen B. frigida to LEO conditions are very low. It is unlikely that Mars could be inhabited by this lichen, even for a limited amount of time, or even not habitable planet for the tested lichen symbionts. Key Words: Astrobiology—BIOMEX—Lichen—Space conditions—Mars analog conditions. Astrobiology 19, 233–241.The lichen Buellia frigida was exposed to space and simulated Mars analog conditions in the BIOlogy and Mars EXperiment (BIOMEX) project operated outside the International Space Station (ISS) for 1.5 years. To de- termine the effects of the low Earth orbit (LEO) conditions on the lichen symbionts, a LIVE/DEAD staining analysis test was performed. After return from the ISS, the lichen symbionts demonstrated mortality rates of up to 100% for the algal symbiont and up to 97.8% for the fungal symbiont. In contrast, the lichen symbiont controls exhibited mortality rates of 10.3% up to 31.9% for the algal symbiont and 14.5% for the fungal symbiont. The results performed in the BIOMEX Mars simulation experiment on the ISS indicate that the potential for survival and the resistance of the lichen B. frigida to LEO conditions are very low. It is unlikely that Mars could be inhabited by this lichen, even for a limited amount of time, or even not habitable planet for the tested lichen symbionts. Key Words: Astrobiology, BIOMEX, Lichen, Space conditions, Mars analog conditions
32339Abas A., Sulaiman N., Adnan N.R., Aziz S.A. & Nawang W.N.S.W. (2019): Using Lichen (Dirinaria sp.) as Bio-Indicator for Airborne Heavy Metal at Selected Industrial Areas in Malaysia. - Environment Asia, 12(3): 85–90. DOI 10.14456/ea.2019.48.
In Malaysia, air pollution still measured using instrumental approach. Hence, this study used lichen as biological indicator to assess air pollution. Study has been conducted in four different locations which are Rumah Tumbuhan, UKM (Control station), Section 51 Industrial Area, Petaling Jaya, Spring Crest Industrial Area, Batu Caves and Nilai Industrial Area, Negeri Sembilan. This study used lichen Dirinaria sp.; an endemic species of tropical country; as the biological indicator. Heavy metal concentrations in lichen samples been analyzed using ICP-OES and number of motor vehicles were recorded for every sampling location. One way ANOVA and Pearson’s correlation used to test the relationship between heavy metals and sampling locations also relationship between heavy metals and motor vehicles. Result shows that heavy metals such as Cr, Fe, Cu, Ni, Zn and Pb have been recorded. One way ANOVA test shows there is significant relationship between heavy metals and sampling locations where F is 2.7728 and P value is 0.0001 (99% significant level). Pearson’s correlation also shows the relationships between all recorded heavy metals with number of motor vehicles where all the P value is < 0.05. This study found that lichen can be used as the alternative approach in determining the heavy metals content in the environment and it also cheaper and time saving rather than using instrumental approach. Heavy metals; Lichen; Air pollution; Environment; Urban ecosystem
32338Abas A., Awang A. & Aiyub K. (2019): Analysis of heavy metal concentration using transplanted lichen Usnea misaminensis at Kota Kinabalu, Sabah (Malaysia). - Applied Ecology and Environmental Research, 18(1): 1175–1182. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15666/aeer/1801_11751182.
Heavy metals were emitted from motor vehicles and industries as part of the effects of rapid urbanization. This study aims to measure the heavy metal concentrations (Cu, Fe, Zn, Pb, Mn, Cr) at Kota Kinabalu, Sabah using transplanted lichen. Samples of Usnea misaminensis were transplanted to the environment of the urban area. The lichen was collected from Mt. Kinabalu Park which is a remote area. Fifteen sampling stations were selected and transplanted lichens were exposed to heavy metals in those stations for about 4-6 weeks. Exposed lichens were analyzed using the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to determine the concentration of heavy metals in each sample. One-way ANOVA also has been used to test whether there is significant variation between heavy metals concentration at Kota Kinabalu, Sabah. The result showed that iron (Fe) has the highest concentration with 84.43 μg/g and chromium (Cr) has the lowest concentration with 0.66 μg/g. A statistical One-way ANOVA test showed that there is a significant variation between heavy metal frequency with P-value is 0.0000 < 0.05. A Tukey test also revealed that Fe has significantly higher concentration compare to the others. These findings prove that the increasing number of motor vehicles will also elevate the concentration of heavy metals in the atmosphere. Transplanted lichen can be the alternative approach in assessing air pollution in Malaysia’s urban area. lichen, air pollution, urban ecosystem, applied ecology, environmental management, Malaysia
32337Abas A., Khalid R.M., Rosandy A.R. & Sulaiman N. (2019): Lichens of Pulau Pangkor, Perak, Malaysia. - The Malaysian Forester, 82 (1): 59–66. .
A total of 12 species of lichens was recorded from the coastal areas of Teluk Nipah, Pulau Pangkor, Perak. The species are Buellia curatellae Malme, Dirinaria confluens (Fr.) D.D. Awasthi, Dirinaria picta (Sw.) Schaer. ex Clem., Chrysothrix xanthina (Vain.) Kalb, Cryptothecia striata G. Thor., Ocellularia perforata (Leight.) Müll. Arg., Parmotrema praesorediosum (Nyl.) Hale, Phaeographis intricans (Nyl.) Staiger, Pyxine berteriana (Fée) Imshaug, Pyrenula pyrenuloides (Mont.) R. C. Harris and Sarcographa labyrinthica (Ach.) Müll. Arg. Lichen, Pangkor Island, symbiotic organism, island ecosystem, environment
32336Rimondi V., Benesperi R., Beutel M.W., Chiarantini L., Costagliola P., Lattanzi P., Medas D. & Morelli G. (2020): Monitoring of airborne mercury: Comparison of different techniques in the Monte Amiata district, southern Tuscany, Italy. - International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(7): 2353 [10 p.] doi:10.3390/ijerph17072353. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072353.
In the present study, mercury (Hg) concentrations were investigated in lichens (Flavoparmelia caperata (L.) Hale, Parmelia saxatilis (L.) Ach., and Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th.Fr.) collected in the surrounding of the dismissed Abbadia San Salvatore Hg mine (Monte Amiata district, Italy). Results were integrated with Hg concentrations in tree barks and literature data of gaseous Hg levels determined by passive air samplers (PASs) in the same area. The ultimate goal was to compare results obtained by the three monitoring techniques to evaluate potential mismatches. Lichens displayed 180–3600 ng/g Hg, and Hg concentrations decreased exponentially with distance from the mine. Mercury concentration was lower than in Pinus nigra barks at the same site. There was a moderate correlation between Hg in lichen and Hg in bark, suggesting similar mechanisms of Hg uptake and residence times. However, correlation with published gaseous Hg concentrations (PASs) was moderate at best (Kendall Tau = 0.4–0.5, p > 0.05). The differences occurred because a) PASs collected gaseous Hg, whereas lichens and barks also picked up particulate Hg, and b) lichens and bark had a dynamic exchange with the atmosphere. Lichen, bark, and PAS outline different and complementary aspects of airborne Hg content and efficient monitoring programs in contaminated areas would benefit from the integration of data from different techniques. Keywords: biomonitoring; airborne pollutants; particulate Hg; lichens; tree barks; passive air samplers; mining area.
32335Dengler J., Matthews T.J., Steinbauer M.J., Wolfrum S., Boch S., Chiarucci A., Conradi T., Dembicz I., Marcenò C., García‐Mijangos I., Nowak A., Storch D., Ulrich W., Campos J.A., Cancellieri L., Carboni M., Ciaschetti G., De Frenne P., Dolezal J., Dolnik C., Essl F., Fantinato E., Filibeck G., Grytnes J., Guarino R., Güler B., Janišová M., Klichowska E., Kozub Ł., Kuzemko A., Manthey M., Mimet A., Naqinezhad A., Pedersen C., Peet R.K., Pellissier V., Pielech R., Potenza G., Rosati L., Terzi M., Valkó O., Vynokurov D., White H., Winkler M. & Biurrun I. (2020): Species–area relationships in continuous vegetation: Evidence from Palaearctic grasslands. - Journal of Biogeography, 47: 72–86. https://doi.org/10.1111/jbi.13697.
Aim: Species–area relationships (SARs) are fundamental scaling laws in ecology although their shape is still disputed. At larger areas, power laws best represent SARs. Yet, it remains unclear whether SARs follow other shapes at finer spatial grains in continuous vegetation. We asked which function describes SARs best at small grains and explored how sampling methodology or the environment influence SAR shape. Location: Palaearctic grasslands and other non‐forested habitats. Taxa: Vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens. Methods: We used the GrassPlot database, containing standardized vegetation‐plot data from vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens spanning a wide range of grassland types throughout the Palaearctic and including 2,057 nested‐plot series with at least seven grain sizes ranging from 1 cm2 to 1,024 m2. Using nonlinear regression, we assessed the appropriateness of different SAR functions (power, power quadratic, power breakpoint, logarithmic, Michaelis–Menten). Based on AICc, we tested whether the ranking of functions differed among taxonomic groups, methodological settings, biomes or vegetation types. Results: The power function was the most suitable function across the studied taxonomic groups. The superiority of this function increased from lichens to bryophytes to vascular plants to all three taxonomic groups together. The sampling method was highly influential as rooted presence sampling decreased the performance of the power function. By contrast, biome and vegetation type had practically no influence on the superiority of the power law. Main conclusions: We conclude that SARs of sessile organisms at smaller spatial grains are best approximated by a power function. This coincides with several other comprehensive studies of SARs at different grain sizes and for different taxa, thus supporting the general appropriateness of the power function for modelling species diversity over a wide range of grain sizes. The poor performance of the Michaelis– Menten function demonstrates that richness within plant communities generally does not approach any saturation, thus calling into question the concept of minimal area. Key words: logarithmic function, Michaelis–Menten function, minimal area, nested‐plot sampling, nonlinear regression, Palaearctic grassland, plant biodiversity, power law, scaling law, species– area relationship (SAR).
32334Materna J. (2000): Oribatid communities (Acari: Oribatida) inhabiting saxicolous mosses and lichens in the Krkonoše Mts. (Czech Republic). - Pedobiologia, 44: 40–62. .
Key words: Saxicolous mosses and lichens, altitudinal gradient, Oribatida, mountain fauna, community structure.
32333Wagner B. (2018): Lišejníky NPP Jánský vrch u Mostu (SZ Čechy) [Lichens of Jánský vrch Natural Monument near Most (NW Bohemia)]. - Severočeskou přírodou, 50: 91–94. .
A lichenological survey was performed in period 2011-2013. Key words: České středohoří, lichen flora, basaltic tuff, Dimelaena oreina, diversity.
32332Wagner B. (2018): Epifytické lišejníky Dlouhého vrchu u Litoměřic (severní Čechy) [Epiphytic lichens of the hill Dlouhý vrch near Litoměřice (Northem Bohemia)]. - Severočeskou přírodou, 50: 95–102. .
This paper shows recolonization of epiphytic lichens in economic forest and neighbouring pasture. Dlouhý vrch near Litoměřice lies in height 350 to 677 m above sea Jeve! and has seven main hilltops. Spruces trees, oak trees, pine vegetation, beech trees and mixed forest takes turn into rngged terrain. On the forest edges were found the most interesting species of epiphytic lichens. Probably these species are new for the territory České středohoří (Flavoparmelia caperata, Lecanora populicola, Parmelina tinctina, Punctelia jeckeri, Ramalina farinacea). Inside the forest the most interesting lichens were growing on larches (Usnea subfloridana, U. scabrata, U. dasypoga and other). In total, 50 species of epihytic and lignicolous lichens were recorded on the area about 10km2. Key words: České středohoří, Dlouhý vrch, epiphytic lichens, Flavoparmelia caperata, Usnea scabrata.
32331Wagner B. & Ondráček Č. (2018): Nové lokality lišejníku Evernia divaricata v severozápadních Čechách. - Severočeskou přírodou, 50: 72. .
32330Špryňar P., Palice Z. & Soldán Z. (2014): Za mechorosty, lišejníky a cévnatými rostlinami z Karlštejna do Srbska [Botanical excursion from Karlštejn to Srbsko (bryophytes, lichens and vascular plants)]. - Český kras, 40: 33–40. .
Report on excursion; [in Czech with English abstract: ] Two spring botanical excursions in 2013 (on April 6th and May 25th) were aimed to explore a less-known area between the villages of Karlštejn and Srbsko on the right bank of the Berounka River (Central Bohemia). At the beginning we examined ruderal grasslands and man-made habitats near the Karlštejn railway station with many synanthropic plant species. Among others, we recorded common occurrence of an endangered species Saxifraga tridactylites. Then we moved to the Silurian diabase outcrops east of Krupná. In the steppe grasslands, some endangered species were found: lichens Cladonia cariosa, C. peziziformis, C. symphycarpa, moss Tortella squarrosa (syn. Pleurochate squarrosa), flowering plants Bothriochloa ischaemum, Cerastium brachypetalum subsp. brachypetalum, C. pumilum, Lactuca perennis, Medicago minima, Pulsatilla pratensis subsp. bohemica etc. The next locality was situated on Devonian limestone rocks along the railway toward the Srbsko village. Forty-five years ago, this area was proposed (but not established yet) as a nature protected area called „Na Vanovicích“, distinguished by rich vegetation and flora. North-facing rocky slopes are covered with Sesleria caerulea-dominated grasslands, with occurrence of Saxifraga paniculata and Dianthus gratianopolitanus. On the other hand, the dry and warm south- and west-facing slopes are the stands of steppe grasslands Festucion valesiacae with Stipa pennata, Carex humilis, Erysimum crepidifolium, Potentilla incana (syn. P. arenaria) etc. We confirmed also the occurrence of critically endangered Pontic Dragonhead (Dracocephalum austriacum) and strongly endangered species Thesium bavarum, Silene nemoralis and Helianthemum canum. Our find of the endangered lichen species Xanthoria sorediata became the first record for the Bohemian Karst. Then we climbed down to the Myší rokle ravine. This damp and shady habitat is an important stand of lichens (e.g., Gyalecta subclausa, Acrocordia conoidea, Porina linearis, new and noteworthy records for the Bohemian Karst) as well as mosses (e.g., vulnerable moss Seligeria pusilla). After that, we visited the abandoned limestone quarry „Tomáškův lom“, which is an excellent example of natural restoration via ecological succession. One of our last botanical records was the strongly endangered species Saxifraga rosacea subsp. sponhemica growing on the railway embankment in the Srbsko village. In the whole, we recorded 60 taxa of lichens, 58 taxa of bryophytes and 278 taxa of vascular plants.
32329Ondráček Č. & Wagner B. (2017): Stereocaulon alpinum – druhá lokalita v Krušných horách. - Severočeskou přírodou, 49: 130. .
32328Yavuz M. & Çobanoğlu G. (2019): A biomonitoring study on Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th.Fr. in Isparta, Turkey. - Oltenia. Studii şi comunicări. Ştiinţele Naturii, 35(1): 71–80. .
This study aims at determining air quality and potential pollutant sources in Isparta, as well as Gölcük Nature Park, through lichen biomonitoring. The specimens of cosmopolite epiphytic foliose lichen Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th.Fr were sampled from 8 localities in the study area and analysed in an ICP – MS device with reference material, in order to detect Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn elements. The distribution of these airborne elements in the study area was mapped spatially. The results indicate that the elemental sequence of average concentrations measured is Ni > V > Cr > Fe > As > Cu > Al > Zn > Mn > Cd > Pb. Cluster analysis results of the elemental data indicate a strong correlation of the major 3 contaminants in the urban area, which are Ni, V, and Cr. The lichen specimens accumulated maximal concentrations of Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni, Zn within the Nature Park, the rest of the elements in northern and the eastern localities surrounding the city. The elemental pollution in Isparta is higher than expected due to extensive use of coal as fossil fuel in the city, and it seems to be associated with topographic and climatic characteristics of the city. Keywords: airborne elements, lichen, biomonitoring, Isparta.
32327Vicol I. (2019): A review of the distribution of the Mycomicrothelia Keissl. 1936 genus in Romania. - Oltenia. Studii şi comunicări. Ştiinţele Naturii, 35(1): 81–85. .
Recent data on the Mycomicrothelia genus chorology have not been reported for Romania. The information found in literature revealed a low distribution of the Mycomicrothelia genus on Romanian territory. Atmospheric pollution could be a cause of the lack of species belonging to the Mycomicrothelia genus within forests from Romania. In this paper, the worldwide and national chorological data, substrate, taxonomy and cenotaxonomy of Mycomicrothelia genus are presented. As the main conclusion, the Mycomicrothelia genus has not been identified on an extended area from Romania. Keywords: Mycomicrothelia genus, chorology, Romania.
32326Zárate-Arias N., Moreno-Palacios M. & Torres-Benítez A. (2019): Diversidad, especificidad de forófito y preferencias microambientales de líquenes cortícolas de un bosque subandino en la región Centro de Colombia. Diversity, phorophyte specificity and microenvironmental preferences of corticolous lichens in a sub-Andean forest in the Centro region of Colombia. - Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales, 43(169): 737–745. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.18257/raccefyn.886.
Our study aimed at contributing to the knowledge of the composition and diversity, phorophyte specificity, and microenvironmental preferences of corticolous lichens from a forest in the sub-Andean Centro region of Colombia (Ibague-Tolima). We selected 25 individuals from five tree species. We estimated the coverage percentage of each species of lichen and identified the microsite parameters (bark pH and diameter at breast height, DBH), as well as the microclimatic variables (temperature, humidity, and radiation). We estimated the richness and the alpha diversity and we applied multivariate analysis to establish the phorophyte-lichen and lichen-environmental condition relationships. We recorded 21 species grouped in eight families and 14 genera. Arthoniaceae was the family with the greatest coverage and Physciaceae the one with the greatest richness. The most abundant species was Bacidia spp. Trichilia pallida phorophyte had the highest richness and diversity, while Cecropia angustifolia was the most dominant species of lichen. Except Leptogium hanum, which was found in two phorophytes, the other species preferred one single phorophyte. The pH, light intensity, temperature, and DAP were positively correlated to the establishment of lichens. We registered a significant diversity that opens the way to new research useful for preserving these strategic ecosystems of the Andean region in Colombia. Keywords: Lichens; phorophytes; microclimatic; microsite; diversity.
32325Shivarov V.V. (2017): First records of lichenicolous species from the Bulgarian freshwater habitats. - Phytologia Balcanica, 23(3): 349–353. http://www.bio.bas.bg/~phytolbalcan/PDF/23_3/PhytolBalcan_23-3_04_Shivarov.pdf.
Placopyrenium cinereoatratum and Stigmidium rivulorum, lichenicolous lichen and fungus, respectively, are reported for the first time from Bulgaria. Both species are rare or otherwise overlooked worldwide. Descriptions, comments, and illustrations based on Bulgarian specimens are provided. Key words: Bulgaria, freshwater fungi, Mycosphaerellaceae, Pirin Mts, Verrucariaceae.
32324Tzonev R., Valachovič M., Ganeva A., Berešová A., Popgeorgiev G., Gussev C. & Fačkovcová Z. (2019): Low-altitudinal siliceous and base-rich screes: new habitats to Bulgaria from the Habitats Directive. - Phytologia Balcanica, 25(3): 287–294. http://www.bio.bas.bg/~phytolbalcan/PDF/25_3/PhytolBalcan_25-3_07_Tzonev_&_al.pdf.
The study presents recent data on the distribution of two new chasmophytic habitats to Bulgaria. They are low-altitudinal siliceous screes distributed mostly in South Bulgaria, and calcareous screes found mostly in the northern part of the country. Their main characteristics, as well as many typical vascular plants, mosses and lichens are given in the paper. The habitats are included in the Habitats Directive under the names 8150 Medio-European upland siliceous screes and 8160* Medio-European calcareous screes at hill and montane levels. This was the reason to make an attempt at calculating their representativeness in the existing NATURA 2000 sites in Bulgaria by means of field researches, GIS models from the Forestry Database and mapping. Key words: acidic and calcareous geological background, chasmophytic vegetation, NATURA 2000.
32323Potkay A., ten Veldhuis M.‐C., Fan Y., Mattos C.R.C., Ananyev G. & Dismukes G.C. (2020): Water and vapor transport in algal‐fungal lichen: Modeling constrained by laboratory experiments, an application for Flavoparmelia caperata. - Plant, Cell & Environment, 43(4): 945–964. https://doi.org/10.1111/pce.13690.
Algal‐fungal symbionts share water, nutrients, and gases via an architecture unique to lichens. Because lichen activity is controlled by moisture dynamics, understanding water transport is prerequisite to understand their fundamental biology. We propose a model of water distributions within foliose lichens governed by laws of fluid motion. Our model differentiates between water stored in symbionts, on extracellular surfaces, and in distinct morphological layers. We parameterize our model with hydraulic properties inverted from laboratory measurements of Flavoparmelia caperata and validate for wetting and drying. We ask: (1) Where is the bottleneck to water transport? (2) How do hydration and dehydration dynamics differ? and (3) What causes these differences? Resistance to vapor flow is concentrated at thallus surfaces and acts as the bottleneck for equilibrium, while internal resistances are small. The model captures hysteresis in hydration and desiccation, which are shown to be controlled by nonlinearities in hydraulic capacitance. Muting existing nonlinearities slowed drying and accelerated wetting, while exaggerating nonlinearities accelerated drying and slowed wetting. The hydraulic nonlinearity of F. caperata is considerable, which may reflect its preference for humid and stable environments. The model establishes the physical foundation for future investigations of transport of water, gas, and sugar between symbionts. Keywords: Flavoparmelia caperata; Symbiosis; hydraulic limitations; lichen; modeling; water relations.
32322Li A.-H., Yuan F.-X., Groenewald M., Bensch K., Yurkov A.M., Li K., Han P.-J., Guo L.-D., Aime M.C., Sampaio J.P., Jindamorakot S., Turchetti B., Inacio J., Fungsin B., Wang Q.-M. & Bai F.-Y. (2020): Diversity and phylogeny of basidiomycetous yeasts from plant leaves and soil: Proposal of two new orders, three new families, eight new genera and one hundred and seven new species. - Studies in Mycology, 96: 17–140. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.simyco.2020.01.002.
Nearly 500 basidiomycetous yeast species were accepted in the latest edition of The Yeasts: A Taxonomic Study published in 2011. However, this number presents only the tip of the iceberg of yeast species diversity in nature. Possibly more than 99 % of yeast species, as is true for many groups of fungi, are yet unknown and await discovery. Over the past two decades nearly 200 unidentified isolates were obtained during a series of environmental surveys of yeasts in phyllosphere and soils, mainly from China. Among these isolates, 107 new species were identified based on the phylogenetic analyses of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) [D1/D2 domains of the large subunit (LSU), the small subunit (SSU), and the internal transcribed spacer region including the 5.8S rDNA (ITS)] and protein-coding genes [both subunits of DNA polymerase II (RPB1 and RPB2), the translation elongation factor 1-α (TEF1) and the mitochondrial gene cytochrome b (CYTB)], and physiological comparisons. Forty-six of these belong to 16 genera in the Tremellomycetes ( Agaricomycotina ). The other 61 are distributed in 26 genera in the Pucciniomycotina . Here we circumscribe eight new genera, three new families and two new orders based on the multi-locus phylogenetic analyses combined with the clustering optimisation analysis and the predicted similarity thresholds for yeasts and filamentous fungal delimitation at genus and higher ranks. Additionally, as a result of these analyses, three new combinations are proposed and 66 taxa are validated. Key words: Basidiomycetous yeasts, Molecular phylogeny, Species diversity, Taxonomy.
32321Chiarantini L., Rimondi V., Benvenuti M., Beutel M.W., Costagliola P., Gonnelli C., Lattanzi P. & Paolieri M. (2016): Black pine (Pinus nigra) barks as biomonitors of airborne mercury pollution. - Science of the Total Environment, 569–570: 105–113. .
Tree barks are relevant interfaces between plants and the external environment, and can effectively retain airborne particles and elements at their surface. In this paper we have studied the distribution of mercury (Hg) in soils and in black pine (Pinus nigra) barks from the Mt. Amiata Hg district in southern Tuscany (Italy), where past Hg mining and present-day geothermal power plants affect local atmospheric Hg concentration, posing serious environmental concerns. Barks collected in heavily Hg-polluted areas of the district display the highest Hg concentration ever reported in literature (8.6 mg/kg). In comparison, barks of the same species collected in local reference areas and near geothermal power plants showmuch lower (range 19–803 μg/kg) concentrations; even lower concentrations are observed at a “blank” site near the city of Florence (5–98 μg/kg). Results showa general decrease of Hg concentration from bark surface inwards, in accordance with a deposition of airborne Hg, with minor contribution from systemic uptake from soils. Preliminary results indicate that bark Hg concentrations are comparable with values reported for lichens in the same areas, suggesting that tree barks may represent an additional useful tool for biomonitoring of airborne Hg.
32320Vanaja S., Suhashini G., Lakshmi Priya B., Ronaldo Anuf A., Ganesh Moorthy I., Sivakumar N., Al Dhabi N.A., Ponmurugan K. & Shyam Kumar R. (2017): Biology of lichen polysaccharides and its applications – a review. - In: Sivakumar N. & Kannan N.D. (eds), Proceedings of the National Conference on Innovations in Biotechnology [NCIB 2017], School of Biotechnology, MKU, p. 64–75, Nagamalaipudukottai Madurai, Sri Meenakshi Publications. .
[Conference paper] Lichens are symbiotic organisms. The two different organisms involved in the symbiosis is referred as mycobiont which is a fungus and photobiont, which may be an alga or cyanobacteria. Lichens are well known for the production of unique lichen substances, some are potentially useful and biologically active compounds. Traditional and modern techniques were used for isolation and separation of secondary metabolites and polysaccharides from lichens. Freezing and thawing of material in aqueous extract was the traditional methods have been practised for isolation which was followed by dialysis and ethanol precipitation for further purification. Polysaccharides isolated from lichens consist of linear or scarcely substituted α- or β-glucans, galactomannans and few complex heteroglycans. Functions of these polysaccharides mainly depend on the presence of monosaccharides, water solubility, molecular weight, degree of branching, structure and configuration. Monosaccharides of the lichen polysaccharides can be determined using gas chromatography, methylation analysis, 1H and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Lichen polysaccharides exhibits various properties such as anti-tumour, anti-viral, anti-oxidant, immunomodulatory and some biological effects. Lichens have been traditionally used for medicinal purposes throughout the ages, and its benefits have been correlated with their polysaccharide content. In this review, classification of lichens, lichen polysaccharides, extraction and analysis of polysaccharides and its applications were discussed. Keywords: Lichens; Polysaccharides, Galactomannans; Chromatography, NMR spectroscopy; Immunomodulators.
32319Ford M., Blanchon D.J. & de Lange P.J. (2020): Hidden in Plain sight—a new species of lichen Strigula oleistrata (Strigulaceae) from New Zealand. - Trilepidea, 196: 1 & 3–4. .
32318Sierra M.A., Danko D.C., Sandoval T.A., Pishchany G., Moncada B., Kolter R., Mason C.E. & Zambrano M.M. (2020): The microbiomes of seven lichen genera reveal host specificity, a reduced core community and potential as source of antimicrobials . - Frontiers in Microbiology, 11: 398 [12 p.] doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2020.00398. .
The High Andean Paramo ecosystem is a unique neotropical mountain biome considered a diversity and evolutionary hotspot. Lichens, which are complex symbiotic structures that contain diverse commensal microbial communities, are prevalent in Paramos. There they play vital roles in soil formation and mineral fixation. In this study we analyzed the microbiomes of seven lichen genera in Colombian Paramos using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and provide the first description of the bacterial communities associated with Cora and Hypotrachyna lichens. Paramo lichen microbiomes varied in diversity indexes and number of OTUs, but were composed predominantly by the phyla Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia. In the case of Cora and Cladonia, the microbiomes were distinguished based on the identity of the lichen host. While the majority of the lichen-associated microorganisms were not present in all lichens sampled, sixteen taxa shared among this diverse group of lichens suggest a core lichen microbiome that broadens our concept of these symbiotic structures. Additionally, we identified strains producing compounds active against clinically relevant microbial strains. These results indicate that lichen microbiomes from the Paramo ecosystem are diverse and host-specific but share a taxonomic core and can be a source of new bacterial taxa and antimicrobials. Keywords: lichen, microbiome, Paramo ecosystem, antimicrobials, core.
32317Травкин В.П., Корчиков Е.С. & Цуриков А.Г. [Travkin V.P., Korchikov E.S. & Tsurykau A.G.] (2020): Новые находки лишайников и лихенофильных грибов на территории Самарской области [New findings of lichens and lichenicolous fungi on the territory of Samara region]. - Вестник Оренбургского государственного педагогического университета [Vestnik of Orenburg State University], 33(1): 38–47. .
[in Russian with English summary: ] The article provides information on new records of the Samara region red-listed lichen Flavopunctelia soredica in the Trans-Volga territory, as well as on the first records of lichen Strangospora pinicola and lichenicolous fungus Marchandiomyces corallinus within the study area. In Samara region, Flavopunctelia soredica can be found in the Trans-Volga territory in Borskoye, Kinel, Krasnoyarsk, Stavropol districts, and in the city of Samara (Krasnoglinsky city district). Strangospora pinicola was reported in the Trans-Volga territory in the Kinel and Krasnoyarsk districts. Marchandiomyces corallinus was registered in the Trans-Volga territory in Bogatoye, Borskoye, Kinel-Cherkassy and Krasnoyarsk districts. The abundance of Flavopunctelia soredica in the registered localities is constant. The species occurs sporadically and often forms an average projective cover of up to 50% which makes it possible to reassess its conservation status if additional records are found. Genera Strangospora and Marchandiomyces are new for lichen biota of the Samara region. Considering the new records, the lichen biota of Samara region includes 350 species of lichens and 26 species of lichenicolous fungi. Key words: lichens, lichenicolous fungi, Samara region, red-listed species, conservation status.
32316Węgrzyn M.H., Kołodziejczyk J., Fałowska P., Wężyk P., Zięba-Kulawik K., Szostak M., Turowska A., Grzesiak B. & Wietrzyk-Pełka P. (2020): Influence of the environmental factors on the species composition of lichen Scots pine forests as a guide to maintain the community (Bory Tucholskie National Park, Poland). - Global Ecology and Conservation , 22: e01017 [17 p.] https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gecco.2020.e01017. .
Central European lichen Scots pine forests occur in extremely dry and poor sandy areas. This forest type, in terms of phytosociological classification, corresponds to the Cladonio- Pinetum association. This community is protected by European Union’s legislation (Natura 2000 habitat, code 91T0) and needs active protection to be maintained. The presented study was planned based on the conservation activities performed in 2017, which included thinning of the tree stand in selected areas of the lichen Scots pine forest community in the Bory Tucholskie National Park. Thinning effect was documented by the LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data collected in 2017 before thinning and 2018 after thinning. Next we characterized two different forms of Cladonio-Pinetum association (lichen-rich and bryophyte-rich forms) and their relation to local environmental factors. To demonstrate that thinning is beneficial to the lichens we also compared the microclimatic conditions (temperature, humidity and light intensity) in thinned and unthinned areas. Vegetation and organic matter sampling was conducted in 2018 in the 24 sampling plots, each of 100 m2. Microclimatic measurements was done in 2018e2019 in one sampling plots of the thinned area and one additional control plot in the unthinned area. Sampling plots representing lichen-rich community had significantly lower canopy cover, higher number of lichen species, higher lichen cover and lower bryophyte cover in comparison to bryophyte-rich plots. The results showed that the lower canopy cover creates more favorable conditions for the occurrence of lichens, because of increasing the daily amplitudes of temperature, humidity and light intensity. Reduction of the canopy cover may be the easiest method to maintain the lichen pine forests community with high abundance of lichens in the field layer. This is particularly important in relation to the observed disappearance phenomenon of lichen pine forest in Europe. Due to this tendency, it is particularly important to actively protect these plant communities.
32315Santos V.M., Cáceres M.E.S. & Lücking R. (2020): Diversity of foliicolous lichens in isolated montane rainforests (Brejos) of northeastern Brazil and their biogeography in a neotropical context. - Ecological Research, 35: 182–197. .
Foliicolous lichenized fungi (FLF) are widely distributed in tropical forests. The Brazilian Atlantic rainforest, one of the most diverse rainforest biomes, has multiple phyto-physiognomies. Montane forest fragments or forest refuges, so-called “Brejos,” are located within the semiarid Caatinga in Northeast Brazil. Our objective was to determine the FLF diversity within five Brejos and to analyze their biogeographic affinities within the Neotropics. The FLF biota of the Brejos was compared with that of 21 sites belonging to seven other rainforest biomes, ranging from the Atlantic rainforest in Argentina, to montane rainforests in Ecuador, to the Amazonia basin, and rainforests in Central America. One hundred and fifty-six species were identified in the Brejos. This biota is most similar to that of the Atlantic rainforest and eastern Amazonia, while that of western Amazonia is more similar to that of the Andes and rainforests in Central America (Chocó). Multiple species identified in the Brejos have a wide distribution in tropical America, and only 11 are potentially endemic. Few other species have also a restricted distribution. The FLF biota of the Chocó and western Amazon is substantially richer than that of eastern Amazon, the Atlantic rainforest and the Brejos. This suggests that the biota of the latter areas is largely a depauperate subset of the Chocó and the western Amazon region. We argue that the major differences between the two large regions are related to the Pleistocene and Pliocene, when paleoclimatic and geological changes caused the isolation of the Brejos and the temporary fragmentation particularly of eastern Amazonia. Keywords: Fragmentation, Fungi, Lichens, Neotropical rainforests, Palaeo-climate changes.
32314Rastetter V. (1964): Beitrag zur Flechtenflora des Ober-Elsasses. - Mitteilungen des Badischen Landesvereins für Naturkunde und Naturschutz, Freiburg im Breisgau, 8: 621–624. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Mitt-Bad-Landesver-Natkde-Natschutz-Freiburg_NF_8_0621-0624.pdf.
32313Almquist E. (1892): Zur Vegetation Japans mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Lichenen. - Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie, 14: 221–229. .
32312Möllmann G. (1911): Beitrag zur Flechtenflora des Regierungsbezirks Osnabrück . - Jahresbericht des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins Osnabrück, 17: 185–196. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Jber-Natwiss-Ver-Osnabrueck_17_0185-0196.pdf.
32311Boldt C. & Schier T. (1998): Bemerkenswerte Funde epiphytischer Flechten in Hamburg-Altenwerder. - Berichte des Botanischen Vereins zu Hamburg, 18: 109–114. .
32310Oblinger H. (1996): Bartflechten (Usneaceae) im Augsburger Raum . - Berichte des naturwiss. Vereins für Schwaben, Augsburg, 100(3): 55–61. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Ber-Naturwiss-Ver-fuer-Schwaben_100_3_0055-0061.pdf.
32309Oblinger H. (1999): Flechten in und bei Augsburg - vor 100 Jahren (1898) und jetzt (1998) . - Berichte des naturwiss. Vereins für Schwaben, Augsburg, 103: 48–59. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Ber-Naturwiss-Ver-fuer-Schwaben_103_0048-0059.pdf.
32308Bergner W., Hartmann E., Oblinger H. & Seitz W. (1998): Flechtenverbreitung im Augsburger Raum. - Berichte des naturwiss. Vereins für Schwaben, Augsburg, 102: 2–24. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Ber-Naturwiss-Ver-fuer-Schwaben_102_0002-0024.pdf.
32307Döbbeler P. (1980): Phycorella scytonematis (Dothideales), ein neuer Symbiont der Blaualge Scytonema. - Sydowia, 33: 33–38. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Sydowia_33_0033-0038.pdf.
Phycorella scytonematis nov. gen. et sp. (Dothideales) with minute colourless ascomata is described and illustrated. The fungus infects single colls of Scytonema (Cyanophyceae) by haustoria. The symbiosis is interpreted as biotrophic parasitism rather than lichenization, though Scytonema is known as phycobiont in many lichens and lichen-like associations.
32306Notov A.A. (2014): Fruticose lichens: structural diversity, taxonomic characteristics and evolution. - Wulfenia, 21: 21–31. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Wulfenia_21_0021-0031.pdf.
A morphological and taxonomical analysis of fruticose lichens has revealed the main characteristics of their structural diversity. The occurrence rate of the fruticose and similar growth forms in various taxa of the current lichen system has been identified. Various ways of origin have been investigated as well as the main directions of the fruticose growth form evolution. Keywords: lichens, fruticose lichens, growth forms, evolution, biomorphology, morphogenesis, structural diversity.
32305Perez Catán S., Bubach D., Arribére M., Ansaldo M., Kitaura M.J., Scur M.C. & Lirio J.M. (2020): Trace elements baseline levels in Usnea antarctica from Clearwater Mesa, James Ross Island, Antarctica. - Environmental Monitoring and Assessment , 192: 246 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-020-8212-7.
Clearwater Mesa is a pristine area located SE of Croft Bay in James Ross Island, at the northeast of the Antarctic Peninsula. The closest anthropic construction is the summer Mendel station located 25 km to the NE. Clearwater is a remote basalt volcanic mesa, (64° 01′ S, 57° 42′ W) located at ~ 250 m a.s.l., with around 50 small shallow lakes, a well-developed lichens flora and scarce fauna. The mesa offers a good opportunity to use lichens, like Usnea antarctica, as a biomonitor species. The aim of this study was to determine the baseline levels of trace elements in Usnea antarctica and their relationships with geographical parameters and climatological aspects, to use them as reference levels in futures studies. Usnea antarctica was collected in 23 sites in two transects: perpendicular and parallel to the shore. We found high contents of the elements associated with long-distance transport like Sm, La, Sc, Fe, Co, Hg, and Ca. The elements linked to the marine biogenic cycle as Sr, Rb, Cs, K, Na, Sb, As, Se, and Br were less significant. The distance to the sea was the factor that related the element contents. Hg, Se, As, and Br content in Usnea antarctica increased from the inland towards the sea coast. Keywords: Lichen . Biomonitor . Antarctica . Trace elements.
32304Meysurova A.F. & Notov A.A. (2020): Estimated indicator ability of several lichens for ecological monitoring of metals using atomic emission spectral analysis. - Journal of Applied Spectroscopy , 87(1): 83–91. DOI 10.1007/s10812-020-00967-7.
[English translation from the Russian original published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Spektroskopii, Vol. 87, No. 1, pp. 97–107] Distributions of heavy metals and metalloids (HMs) in forest reserves of Tver city districts were studied by ecological monitoring using inductively coupled plasma atomic-emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analysis. A total of 14 HMs were detected in two lichen species (Hypogymnia physodes, Xanthoria parietina); 13, in soil samples. TM spectra were similar in both species at all studied model territories. The TM contents in lichens and soil were different and due to specifi c absorption of ecotoxins by living objects. The nature of HM accumulation and indicator abilities of the lichens depended on the anthropogenic impacts on the territory, ecological factors, and specifi cs of the lichen chemical compositions. Hypogymnia physodes had greater indicator value on anthropogenically impacted territories; X. parietina, in undisturbed phytocenoses. Each of these species could reliably detect Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd, V, and Pb. Sn and Cr were absorbed more by X. parietina; Ni and Co, H. physodes, which should be considered in monitoring studies. Keywords: inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analysis, biomonitoring, heavy metal, metalloid, Hypogymnia physodes, Xanthoria parietina, epiphytic lichen, indicator species, accumulation level.
32303Goppel C. (1984): Emittentenbezogene Flechtenkartierung im Stadtgebiet von Laufen. - Berichte der Bayerischen Akademie für Naturschutz und Landschaftspflege, 8: 4–21. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Ber-Bayer-Akad-f-Natursch-u-Landschaftspfl_8_1984_0004-0021.pdf.
32302Wilmanns O. & Wirth V. (1968): Die Flechtenvegetation der Wutachschlucht. - Mitteilungen des Badischen Landesvereins für Naturkunde und Naturschutz, N.F., Freiburg im Breisgau, 9(4): 725–733. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Mitt-Bad-Landesver-Natkde-Natschutz-Freiburg_NF_9_0725-0733.pdf.
32301Hachenberg W. (1974): Beitrag zur Dortmunder Flechtenflora. - Dortmunder Beiträge zur Landeskunde, 7: 47–52. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Dortmunder-Beitr-Landeskde_7_0047-0052.pdf.
32300Oller Cruz O.J. (2016): Empleo de bioindicadores para determinar la calidad del aire en la ciudad de Tarija en puntos de muestreo de red MoniCA. Use of bioindicators to determine air quality in Tarija city in sampling points of MoniCA network. - Acta Nova, 8(3): 307–321. .
[in Spanish with English abstract: ] The possibility of using active bio monitoring with Vicia faba, Raphanus sativus and passive bio monitoring through mapping lichen in the city of Tarija has not been considered to this date. This type of monitoring is carried out in other cities of Bolivia; but with different climatic and geographical conditions, so its feasibility in Tarija’s territory is unknown. These type of studies are considered an economic alternative with an easy application compared to traditional monitoring process, which could be established as a preliminary study for air quality in smaller cities within the department. Being a subjective study and to be subject to external variables, it has been decided to carry out a comparison with recorded data by the Air Quality Monitoring Network (MoniCA Network). Keywords: Bioindicator, Air Quality, Tarija.
32299Gonzales Vargas N., Luján Pérez M., Navarro Sánchez G. & Flores Mercado R. (2016): Aplicabilidad de líquenes bioindicadores como herramienta de monitoreo de la calidad del aire en la ciudad de Cochabamba. Applicability of bioindicators lichens as monitoring tool for air quality in Cochabamba. - Acta Nova, 7(4): 455–482. .
[in Spanish with English abstract: ] This study was performed in the metropolitan area of Cercado in Cochabamba - Bolivia, using epiphytic lichens as bioindicators of air pollution, through the Index of Atmospheric Purity (IAP) method. The research was carried out in 9 monitoring points, taking Fraxinus americana as the only phorophyte, where 12 species of lichens were found in total. Data of climate parameters, pollutants, coverage and frequency of lichen communities were obtained in each monitoring point, in order to establish a statistical analysis using spearman correlations, cluster and path analysis. It was found that the epiphytic lichens are affected directly by atmospheric pollution (mainly NO2 and PM10) and indirectly by climate parameters and/or geomorphological data. In the case of Cochabamba‟s Valley, the temperature inversion is influenced directly by the minimum temperature of the coldest month and height, increasing pollution in lower areas and thus decreasing lichen communities. The development of IAP was able to identify isocontamination zones by the ArcGis program, where areas with poor air quality were identified in the south and areas with better quality in the north. We identified as more tolerant species to global pollution, C. concolor, P. pachyphylla and P. nubila, while the most sensitive were H. syncolla and T. chrysophthalmus. Key words: Bioindicators, air pollution, lichens, climatic parameters, statistical analysis.
32298Żarnowiec J., Stebel A. & Chmura D. (2020): The alien moss Orthodontium lineare Schwägr. in Poland (East-Central Europe): a summary of nearly 40 years of invasion . - Biological Invasions, 22: 1249–1263. .
Orthodontium lineare, a neophyte of southern origin, was accidentally introduced by human activity to England in 1910. Subsequently it spread to mainland Europe and it continues to move eastward. In Poland, it was discovered in 1980–1981. The present paper shows dot distribution maps at 10-year intervals and discusses the dynamics of its invasion and ecological preferences using statistical methods. In Poland in 2018 it was known in 235 stands. 86.4% of them were located below 300 m a.s.l. and only 10.2% of the sites reached the lower mountain forest belt (maximum altitude 915 m). On every substrate and in all types of habitat, it commonly produced sporophytes (88.6% of the specimens investigated). Most commonly it occurred on rotting wood (38.5% of all records) and the base of tree trunks (33.9%). Rarely it grew on soil (podzolic and acid podzolic brown soils and humus on rocks; in total 19.0%). Most frequently it was found on the dead wood of Pinus sylvestris (31.3% of all records on rotting wood) and Picea abies (23.2%) and on the bases ofP. sylvestris trunks (77.0%).Up to 2018 itwas listed in 13 habitat types, including eight EU habitats (two priority), the most often invaded being seminatural forest (25.8% of all records), boggy woodland (23.4%), mature managed forest developed from old plantations (17.7%), wooded dunes of the Atlantic region (9.7%) and Luzulo-Fagetum beech forest (6.9%). 33 accompanying taxa were found comprising 6 liverworts, 23 mosses and 4 lichens. Of these only 7 species were present in more than 5% of the samples. Keywords: Cryptogamic plant invasion; Adventive moss; Invasive moss; Invasion curve; Distribution map; Ecological preferences.
32297Dai D.-Q., Tang L.-Z., Liu C., Wang H.-B. & Hyde K.D. (2018): Studies on Parmulariaceae I. A phylogeny based on available sequence data; introducing Parmulariales ord. nov., and Hemigraphaceae, Melaspileellaceae and Stictographaceae fam. nov.. - Phytotaxa, 369(2): 63–79. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.369.2.1.
The family Parmulariaceae comprises three polyphyletic genera, but with very little data in GenBank and is presently placed in the order Asterinales. In this study, we re-analyze the available sequence data for taxa of the family and re-examine the type species of Hemigrapha, Inocyclus and Parmularia. The phylogenetic tree generated from maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses of combined LSU-SSU sequence data demonstrate the relationships among Hemigrapha, Inocyclus and Parmularia species, and the relations of Buelliella, Karschia, Labrocarpon, Lembosia, Melaspileella, Melaspileopsis and Stictographa. We introduce Parmulariales ord. nov. to accommodate Parmulariaceae and the order Asterinales accommodates Asterinaceae, Asterotexaceae, Hemigraphaceae fam. nov., Melaspileellaceae fam. nov. and Stictographaceae fam. nov. Notes for each new order and families are provided. We confirm that Asterinaceae sensu lato is distant from Asterinaceae sensu stricto in the phylogenic analysis. The classification presented here is provisional, as more species are needed to recollected and sequenced. We expect further support for our ordinal and familial lineages, as well as further novel lineages. Keywords: 4 new taxa, taxonomy, phylogeny, biotrophs, lichenicolous fungi.
32296Farkas E. & Flakus A. (2016): Trichonectria calopadiicola sp. nov. (Hypocreales, Ascomycota): the second species of the family Bionectriaceae parasitic on foliicolous lichens discovered in Tanzania. - Phytotaxa, 278(3): 281–286. http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.278.3.8.
Trichonectria calopadiicola, a new lichenicolous fungus from tropical Africa is described. The species is the second member of nectrioid fungi known as parasitic on foliicolous lichens. It is characterized by often aggregated, dark reddish brown, subglobose, richly setose perithecia, covered by obtuse, septate, thick-walled setae, and by hyaline, narrowly fusiform, 1-septate ascospores. The mycoparasite causes evident damages in the ascomata of its host. Keywords: Africa, biodiversity, lichenicolous fungi, new species, mycoparasites, phyllosphere, Usambara Mountains.
32295Suija A. & Motiejūnaitė J. (2017): Calycina alstrupii sp. nov. (Pezizellaceae, Helotiales), a new lichenicolous fungus from Norway. - Phytotaxa, 307(2): 113–122. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.307.2.2.
A new species of Calycina, C. alstrupii Suija & Motiejūnaitė, is described based on both morphological and molecular characteristics. The new fungus inhabits thalli of Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm. and is the first proven lichenicolous species of the genus. The new species is compared with closely related taxa of Hyaloscyphaceae s. lato. Key words: Peltigerales, phylogeny, taxonomy.
32294Puy-Alquiza M.J., Gómez-Peralta M., Reyes-Zamudio V., Gregorio-Cipriano M.R., Miranda-Avilés R., Rios-Ureña D.N. & Cortés-Hernández V. (2018): Diversidad de macrolíquenes saxícolas en México: caso de estudio del distrito minero de Guanajuato. Diversity of saxicolous macrolichens in Mexico: case study of the mining district of Guanajuato. - Acta Botánica Mexicana, 123: 37–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.21829/abm123.2018.1246.
[in Spanish with English abstract: ] Background and Aims: The diversity of saxicolous macrolichens in the state of Guanajuato is little known. The available information is limited to isolated notes of collections and species in specialized electronic pages. The objective of this work was to contribute through the development of a floristic list to the knowledge of the diversity of the saxicolous macrolichens in four localities (mountain “La Bufa”, ecological park “El Orito”, panoramic highway “El Pípila” and Sierra de Santa Rosa de Lima). Methods: The specimens were collected and subsequently determined using specialized keys, considering their morphological, anatomical and chemical characteristics. This was based on stereoscopic and composite microscope observations, response to chemical reagents and, in some cases, thin layer chromatography. Finally, descriptions of the species were reviewed and the specimens were compared with those existing in the herbarium EBUM of the Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo. Key results: A list of 42 species is presented for the mining district of Guanajuato, which constitute new records for the studied localities; 23 are new records for Guanajuato and one is new for Mexico. Conclusions: Of the 42 species presented in this study, the family Parmeliaceae is the most representative of the study area, especially the genus Xanthoparmelia with nine species, of which three are new records for the state of Guanajuato and one of them is new for Mexico. The zone of La Bufa with semiwarm climate and the ignimbrita like dominant rock reunites the majority of the registered species. The species of the families Cladoniaceae, Usneaceae, Ramalinaceae and Stereocaulaceae are representative of the zone of Santa Rosa de Lima dominated by a humid climate and the rhyolite tuff-like main rock. Key words: lichen flora, Mexican plateau, new record.
32293Barrera Zubiaga E. & Godínez Álvarez H. (2018): Infiltración en biocostras en una región semiárida del centro de México. Infiltration through biocrusts in a semiarid region of central México. - Terra Latinoamericana, 36(4): 337–343. DOI: https://doi.org/10.28940/terra.v36i4.335.
[in Spanish with English abstract: ] Infiltration alters the ecological processes of arid and semiarid regions because it can cause water accumulation on the surface or water storage in the soil. Thus, it is necessary to study the physical and biological factors that can modify it. One of these factors is biocrusts, communities of cyanobacteria, lichens, and mosses growing on soil surface, which can have positive, negative, or neutral effects. Biocrust impact on infiltration has been poorly studied in our country; there is only one study conducted in grasslands of Durango. In our study we evaluated infiltration through biocrusts in a semiarid region of central Mexico, where we selected two fluvial terraces with different soil textures (i.e., fine-soil and coarse-soil terraces) to measure soil physical and chemical properties, crust cover and species composition, and infiltration in soil with and without crust, in areas without vegetation. Soil from both terraces had high silt percentage, although soil had higher bulk density and lower porosity in the fine-soil terrace. Biocrusts were composed of five genera of cyanobacteria and three genera of lichens. Cyanobacteria cover was similar between terraces, although lichen cover was lower in the fine-soil terrace. The highest infiltration occurred in soil without crust in the fine-soil terrace and in soil with crust in the coarse-soil terrace. These results suggest that the impact of biocrusts on infiltration depends on silt content, soil bulk density, and porosity. It is necessary to evaluate infiltration in other sites such as areas beneath perennial plants and hillslopes to understand biocrust impact on infiltration in this semiarid region. Key words: cyanobacteria; lichens; mesquite shrubland; mosses; Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Valley.
32292Rodríguez E.F., Ramírez A.M., Alvítez E., Pollack L., Leiva S. & Aguirre R. (2017): Catálogo de la liquenobiota de la región La Libertad, Perú. - Arnaldoa, 24(2): 497–522. http://www.scielo.org.pe/pdf/arnal/v24n2/a05v24n2.pdf.
We provide a catalogue of 192 species of lichens, arranged in 28 families and 60 genera existing in La Libertad Region, Peru. The study was based on a review of material preferably deposited in the Herbarium Truxillense of the National University of Trujillo (HUT), the determination of specialists, and the contrast with species documented in official studies of lichenobiota of this region. The material examined for each species includes the geographical distribution according to provinces and altitudes, and a representative specimen marked by the name and number of the main collector, followed by the acronym of the herbarium where it is deposited, as well as the common name if it exists. The information presented will serve to continue with taxonomic, ecological and environmental studies in these organisms. Keywords: lichens, distribution, provinces, La Libertad Region.
32291Rydgren K., Auestad I., Halvorsen R., Hamre L.N., Jongejans E., Töpper J.P. & Sulavik J. (2020): Assessing restoration success by predicting time to recovery— But by which metric? . - Journal of Applied Ecology, 57: 390–401. https://besjournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1365-2664.13526.
Restoration of degraded ecosystems may take decades or even centuries. Accordingly, information about the current direction and speed of recovery provided by methods for predicting time to recovery may give important feedback to restoration schemes. While predictions of time to recovery have so far been based mostly upon change in species richness and other univariate predictors, the novel ordination‐regression based approach (ORBA) affords a multivariate approach based upon species compositional change. We used species composition data from four alpine spoil heaps in western Norway, recorded at three time points, to predict time to recovery using ORBA. This approach uses distances between restored plots and reference plots along a successional gradient, represented by a vector in ordination space, to model linear or asymptotic relationships of compositional change as a function of time. Results from ORBA were compared with results from models of more generic univariate attributes, that is total cover, species richness and properties of the physical environment as functions of time. ORBA predictions of time to species compositional recovery varied from less than 60 years with linear models to 115–212 years with asymptotic models. The long estimated time to recovery suggests that the restoration schemes adopted for these spoil heaps are likely to be suboptimal. Much shorter time to recovery was predicted from some of the more generic univariate attributes, that is species richness and total cover, than from species composition. Given the current rates of recovery, most spoil heaps will reach reference levels for total cover and species richness within 50 years, whereas predictions indicate that 67–111 years are needed to restore levels of soil organic matter and pH. Synthesis and applications. Species composition and soil conditions provide information of generally higher relevance for evaluation of ecosystem recovery processes than the most commonly used metric to assess restoration success, species richness. Species richness is decoupled from species compositional recovery, and likely to be a generally poor measure of restoration success. We therefore encourage further improvement of methods like the ordination‐regression based approach that use species compositional data to predict time to recovery.
32290Pankratov T.A., Grouzdev D.S., Patutina E.O., Kolganova T.V., Suzina N.E. & Berestovskaya J.J. (2020): Lichenibacterium ramalinae gen. nov, sp. nov., Lichenibacterium minor sp. nov., the first endophytic, betacarotene producing bacterial representatives from lichen thalli and the proposal of the new family Lichenibacteriaceae within the order Rhizobiales. - Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, 113: 477–489. .
This study of lichens in the subarctic zone of the northern hemisphere has resulted in the detection of new representatives of the order Rhizobiales. The16S rRNA gene sequence phylogeny placed the strains as a separate branch inside the Rhizobiales clade. Strain RmlP001T exhibits 91.85% similarity to Roseiarcus fermentans strain Pf56T and 91.76% to Beijerinckia doebereinerae strain LMG 2819T, whilst strain RmlP026T is closely related to B. doebereinerae strain LMG 2819T (91.85%) and Microvirga pakistanensis strain NCCP-1258T (91.39%). A whole-genome phylogeny of the strains confirmed their taxonomic positions. The cells of both strains were observed to be Gram-negative, motile rods that multiplied by binary fission. The cells were found to contain poly-β-hydroxybutyrate and polyphosphate, to grow at pH 3.5–8.0 and 10–30 °C, and could not fix atmospheric nitrogen. Their major cellular fatty acid identified was C18:1ω7c (68–71%) and their DNA G + C contents determined to be 70.5–70.8%. Beta-carotene was identified as their major carotenoid pigment; Q-10 was the only ubiquinone detected. Strains RmlP001T and RmlP026T are distinguishable from related species by the presence of β-carotene, the absence of C1 metabolism and the ability to grow in the presence of 3.5% NaCl. Based on their phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic features, we propose a novel genus Lichenibacterium and two novel species, Lichenibacterium ramalinae (the type species of the genus) and Lichenibacterium minor, to accommodate these bacteria within the family Lichenibacteriaceae fam. nov. of the order Rhizobiales. The L. ramalinae type strain is RmlP001T (= KCTC 72076T = VKM B-3263T) and the L. minor type strain is RmlP026T (= KCTC 72077T = VKM B-3277T). Keywords: Lichenibacterium; LAR1; Lichen endophytes; Rhizobiales; Beta-carotene; Phylogenetic analysis; Symbiotic bacteria.
32289Santiago R., Silva N.H., Silva F.P., Martins M.C.B., de Vasconcelos T.L., Yano-Melo A.M. & Pereira E.C. (2018): Interactions of the lichen Cladonia salzmannii Nyl. with soil, microbiota, mycorrhizae and Genipa Americana. - Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 18(3): 833–850. https://scielo.conicyt.cl/pdf/jsspn/v18n3/0718-9516-jsspn-02402.pdf.
The lichen Cladonia salzmannii can influence the arbuscular mycorrhizal formation (AMF) of sandy soils in the Brazilian Northeast, thereby contributing to improved vascular plant growth. The objective of this work was to evaluate how C. salzmannii changes the biological processes of soil in a tropical savannah ecosystem where soils have low nutrient availability, so any lichen-induced effects would be important. The microbial activity, AMF, growth of Genipa americana and chemical-physical characteristics of the soil were analyzed. Soil samples were collected under pillows of lichen thalli or in open spaces without them. Chemical and biological soil attributes were evaluated by analysis of soluble and exchangeable cations, microbial activity and AMF colonization. The presence of barbatic acid (BAR), a major compound of C. salzmannii, was detected in the soil, which positively influenced soil properties. AMF colonization was higher in lichen-covered soil. G. americana seedlings were grown under greenhouse conditions, the experiment was done in a randomized design of 4 inoculation treatments. The inoculated plants with lichens+AMF presented greater growth parameters. The results could indicate that BAR is capable of stimulating the association between plants and AMF, linking the root and the soil system. This arrangement improves a positive feedback loop established between lichen-AMF-vascular plant. Keywords: lichen substance; barbatic acid; cerrado biome; Glomeromycotina growth; Rubiaceae.
32288Lewis L., Gottschalk-Druschke C., Saldías C., Mackenzie R., Malebrán J., Goffinet B. & Rozzi R. (2018): Cultivando un jardín de nombres en los bosques en miniatura del Cabo de Hornos: extensión de la conservación biocultural y la ética a seres vivos poco percibidos [Cultivating a garden of names in the cape horn miniature forests: Extending biocultural conservation and ethics to little perceived living beings]. - Magallania, 46(1): 103–123. https://scielo.conicyt.cl/pdf/magallania/v46n1/0718-2244-magallania-46-01-00103.pdf.
[in Spanish with English abstract: ] Bryophytes (mosses, liverworts, and hornworts) and lichens have been undervalued in conservation and environmental education programs, and by modern culture in general. So much so, that most bryophytes and lichens lack a common name. We present a new methodology and activity to foster an ecological understanding of biodiversity, as well as of biocultural conservation and ethics, which includes little, under-perceived, living-beings - such as bryophytes. If something has no name, it does not exist in the cultural realm. If something is named, then it exists in the cultural sphere; additionally, its existence is decisively influenced by its name. At the southern end of the Americas, the UNESCO Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve in Chile protects a world’s biodiversity hotspot for bryophytes. Here, the research team at the Omora Ethnobotanical Park has developed an innovative educational and ecotourism activity to appreciate bryophytes: Cultivating a garden of names. This activity has been developed with the methodological approach of Field Environmental Philosophy. It encourages students and park’s visitors to engage physically as well as culturally (including the symbolic-linguistic dimension) with bryophytes and lichens, their life-habits and habitats. Park’s visitors are invited to observe, draw, and create names for bryophytes and lichens by using: (i) a magnifying glass or hand-lens to amplify the biophysical features of small plants, and (ii) the conceptual lenses of the biocultural ethics to broaden their understanding about how to interpret and respect the natural world. Through this activity, visitors connect to living beings that were previously under-perceived, and they come to see, value and care for a biophysical reality that is diverse, beautiful, and performs ecological functions that are essential to ecosystem integrity and human well-being. Cultivating a garden of names fosters a change of scientific and ethical perspectives to include little-perceived groups of organisms into the goals of conservation and environmental education. Key words: Bryophytes, biocultural ethics, education, field environmental philosophy, lichens.
32287Wirth V., Sipman H.J.M. & Curtis-Scott O. (2018): A sketch of the lichen biota in a Renosterveld vegetation habitat. - Carolinea, 76: 35–55. .
A sketch of the lichen vegetation of the Haarwegskloof Renosterveld Reserve near Bredasdorp (Western Cape, South Africa) is presented. This reserve is a representative example of renosterveld vegetation, which replaces the better known fynbos in relatively dry regions on more fertile, clay- and shale-based soils. Our sketch is a first attempt to characterize the lichen biota of a renosterveld area. The rather low number of 76 encountered species reflects the absence of aged trees and large rock formations and occasional bushfires. However, the significance of the species is great because most have very restricted distributions in southern Africa. Among the epiphytic lichens Physciaceae and Xanthoria-relatives prevail, while on soil and on rock the genus Xanthoparmelia is by far the most important, with 22 species, among them several endemics.
32286Wirth V. (2018): Nur eine Weidbuche? – Weidbuchen als Biodiversitätsgaranten im Schwarzwald. - Carolinea, 76: 21–34. .
Only a pasture beech? Freestanding beech trees as biodiversity sources in the Black Forest On an old beech tree on an extensive pasture in southern Black Forest a broken part of the crown allowed the investigation of epiphytes also on branches and little twigs of usually inaccessible parts of the tree. 127 epiphytic organisms were found, among them 91 lichen species, six lichenicolous fungi and 16 species of mosses and hepatics. The number of lichen species is remarkable and the highest which was registered on a tree in Europe. The high number proves the importance of the old beech trees (so called Weidbuchen) on extensive pastures of the southern Black Forest as habitats of high diversity with many endangered species, an additional argument for the protection of these trees which they should merit as historico-cultural witnesses anyway.
32285Wirth V. (2019): Contributions à la végétation lichénique des Vosges et de la vallée du Rhin alsacienne 1. Lichens observés dans la vallée du Rhin. - Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, 70: 77–90. .
The results of lichenological excursions in the Alsatian Rhine valley are presented. 40 localities were visited. The following species are noteworthy for the corresponding natural area : Agonimia opuntiella, Caloplaca demissa, Diploschistes actinostomus, Gonohymenia octosporella, Lecidea sarcogynoides, Parmelina carporrhizans, Pertusaria leucosora, Thyrea confusa, Xanthoparmelia tinctina. Acarospora moenium was found on natural stone substrate within dry grasslands. The population of Bactrospora dryina in Alsace is probably the most important in France.
32284Wirth V. (2019): Zur Kenntnis der Flechtenbiota im Nordschwarzwald. - Mitteilungen des Badischen Landesvereins für Naturkunde und Naturschutz, Freiburg im Breisgau, 22(4): 685–712. .
Contribution to the lichen flora of the Northern Black Forest. Records of lichen species from the National Park Black Forest are listed and some typical associations mentioned. Particularly characteristic are communities which prefer old stems of Abies and Picea, on rather rain-protected faces with Lecanactis abietina, on wet faces with Thelotrema lepadinum and rarely with Sphaerophorus globosus, towards their basis with Micarea species as M. adnata and M. cinerea. On dead stems communities with Calicium glaucellum, Chaenotheca and Chaenothecopsis species are widespread. On sandstone boulders Lecidea lithophila and L. plana are most frequent; on steep faces protected from rapid drying the Fuscideetum kochianae is typical. On raw humus covers of Trapeliopsis granulosa, Placynthiella uliginosa and P. oligotropha form mosaics with communities rich in Cladonia species. The area is dominated by conifer woods and excludes human settlements, therefore man-made substrates and subneutral bark habitats are of minor importance concerning their frequency; nevertheless, they increase the species diversity considerably. Ramboldia cinnabarina is new to Germany. Key words: lichens, Northern Black Forest, National Park, forests, boulder slopes.
32283Wirth V. (2019): Basi- und subneutrophytische Flechten im Grundgebirge des Schwarzwaldes. - Mitteilungen des Badischen Landesvereins für Naturkunde und Naturschutz, Freiburg im Breisgau, 22(3): 443–467. .
Basi- and subneutrophytic lichens in the bedrock area of the Black Forest. For more than 100 years, botanists have devoted particular attention to the occurrence of calcicolous or basi- and subneutrophytic bryophytes and vascular plants in the area of bedrock in the Black Forest, which is characterized by acidophilous vegetation. This phenomenon was not specifically dealt with in respect to lichens. In habitats with calcite-containing or SiO2-poor siliceous rock as basic silicates, many lichen species occur that avoid more acidic substrates. Lichens are excellent indicators of basic or subneutral substrate conditions and special mineralogical characteristics. The petrographic conditions vary widely, yet rocks with plagioklase or hornblende, such as amphibolites, occur frequently. Different from most bryophytes which prefer moister and more shadowy habitats, most lichen species are specialised in xeric microhabitats. The slightly basiphytic and subneutro-phytic lichen species are listed. Key words: lichens, basic rock, calcite, basiphytes, subneutrophytes, Black Forest.
32282Wirth V. (2017): Die Flechte Fuscidea arboricola Coppins & Tønsberg in Deutschland. - Mitteilungen des Badischen Landesvereins für Naturkunde und Naturschutz, Freiburg im Breisgau, 22(2): 329–332. .
The lichen Fuscidea arboricola Coppins & Tønsberg in Germany. The crustose lichen species Fuscidea arboricola is recorded as new for Germany. It was found in the southern Black Forest. Key words: epiphytic lichens, forest species, old-growth forests.
32281Wirth V. (2019): Flechtenfunde in Südwestdeutschland und angrenzenden Gebieten. - Mitteilungen des Badischen Landesvereins für Naturkunde und Naturschutz, Freiburg im Breisgau, 22(3): 549–560. .
Lichen records from Southwest-Germany and adjacent regions. Noteworthy records of lichens are reported from Southwest-Germany, Switzerland and the Vosges, among them endangered species of old growth forests. The first record of Fellhanera gyrophorica in Germany is documented. Key words: rare and endangered lichens, new records, old growth forests.
32280Türk R. (2014): Die Flechten in Wäldern des Biosphärenparks Wienerwald. - Wissenschaftliche Mitteilungen Niederösterreichisches Landesmuseum, 25: 191–208. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/WM_25_0191-0208.pdf.
Lichens in forests of the Biosphere Reserve Wienerwald The biodiversity of lichens in the Biosphere Reserve Wienerwald was investigated on all substrates in 54 monitoring plots of the core areas (KZO) and in 24 managed forests (WW). In the core areas occurred 109 species, including adjacent areas 154 lichen species were identified. Due to the favourable climatic conditions for lichen growth in some areas the following rare epiphytic lichens were found: Anaptychia ciliaris, Arthonia atra, Bacidia subincompta, Evernia divaricata, Hyperphyscia adglutinata, Lecanora expallens, Lecanora intumescens, Lecanora subrugosa, Mycobilimbia carneoalbida, Naetrocymbe punctiformis, Pseudosagedia aenea and Ramalina obtusata and the saxicolous lichen Bacidina arnoldiana. In many core areas and managed forest areas no or only a few epiphytic lichen species could be found and mostly with low abundance. Also the degree of epiphytic coverage was very low (< 0,1 - 2 %) and exceeded only in few sites 3 % of the recording areas which ranges from the root collar to the stem height of 2 m. In most monitoring sites the bark of the trees is covered by aerial algae (Prasiola spec., Desmococcus spec. and Trentepohlia spec.). These algae indicate a high input of mainly nitrogen compounds (nitrogen oxides, ammonium and ammonium nitrate) and aerosols, which cause heavy damage of macrolichens. The source of these compounds is most likely the conurbation of Vienna, the petrochemical industry, local agricultural sources and the long range transport of pollutants. Key words: lichens, woodland, species diversity, air pollution.
32279Stolley J. (2016): Der ehemalige Schwerzer Berg nordöstlich von Halle (Saale) – ein Nachruf aus floristischer Sicht. - Mitteilungen zur floristischen Kartierung in Sachsen-Anhalt [Halle], 21: 53–62. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Mitt-flor-Kartierung-Sachsen-Anhalt_21_0053-0062.pdf.
The former hill Schwerzer Berg northeast of Halle (Saale) – an obituary from the floristic point of view. The former porphyric outcrop hill Schwerzer Berg, situated 15 km northeast of Halle (Saale), has been devastated completely until 2013 by the extension of a stone quarry. A review is given here about the site which was formerly rich in plant species. Today it is a further example for local or regional extinctions of several rare and endangered plant species in the surrounding of Halle (Saale). List of 15 lichen species included (p. 59; det. R.Stordeur).
32278John V. (2012): Flechten und flechtenbewohnende Pilze im Industriegelände des Weltkulturerbes „Völklinger Hütte“. - Abhandlungen der Delattinia, 38: 95–104. https://delattinia.de/sites/default/files/pdf/abhandlungen/Delattinia_Abh_38_2012_095-104_John.pdf.
Lichens and lichenicolous fungi in the industrial area of the World Heritage Site „Völklinger Hütte“. During a half day study in the industrial area of the World Heritage Site „Völklinger Hütte“ 101 lichens and 8 lichenicolous fungi have been recorded, eleven of them for the first time in Saarland. Represented by 32 species the percentage of the lichens growing on iron-constructions is extremely high. Some species are growing over an asbest-rubber-tube, leather and a cord. The epiphytic species indicate an improved air quality, influence of immissions by nitrogene and warming as a result of climate change. Keywords: Lichens, lichenicolous fungi, Saarland, unusual substrates, air pollution, Saarland.
32277John V. & Oesau A. (2017): Myriolecis percrenata, eine für Deutschland neue Flechte in Rheinhessen, Rheinland-Pfalz. - Mitteilungen der Pollichia, 98: 79–82. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Mitt-Pollichia_98_0079-0082.pdf.
Myriolecis percrenata , a new lichen for Germany in Rheinhessen, Rheinland - Pfalz. The crustose lichen Myriolecis percrenata is reported from three sites on loess as new to Germany.
32276Zimmermann D.G. (2014): Die Winzige Korallenflechte, Leprocaulon microscopicum (Vill.) Gams ex D. Hawksw., neu für das Süderbergland und Westfalen. - Jahrbuch des Bochumer Botanischen Vereins, 5: 67–68. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Jahrb-Bochumer-Bot-Ver_5_0067-0068.pdf.
The Mealy Lichen, Leprocaulon microscopicum (VILL.) GAMS ex D. HAWKSW., new to Süder Uplands and Westphalia, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany Leprocaulon microscopicum, the Mealy Lichen, has been found recently on cliffs in the valley of river Volme in the Sauerland and in the valley of river Sieg in the Bergisches Land. These represent the first record of the species for Westphalia and the Süder Uplands (Süderbergland), North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
32275Loos G.H. & Zimmermann D.G. (2015): Rhizocarpon geographicum – Große Landkartenflechte (Rhizocarpaceae), Flechte des Jahres 2014. - Jahrbuch des Bochumer Botanischen Vereins, 6: 240–246. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Jahrb-Bochumer-Bot-Ver_6_0240-0246.pdf.
32274Feuerer T. & Schultz M. (2014): Standardliste der Flechten der Freien und Hansestadt Hamburg. - Berichte des Botanischen Vereins zu Hamburg, 29: 3–56. https://www.botanischerverein.de/wp-content/uploads/Ber_Bot_Verein_29.pdf.
Checklist of the lichens of the City of Hamburg. An updated checklist of the lichens, lichenicolous fungi and lichen parasites of the City of Hamburg is presented, altogether 351 taxa being listed. Voucher specimens, distributional records and additional notes are provided for rare and otherwise interesting species.
32273John V. & Stapper N.J. (2018): Tag der Artenvielfalt 2017 in Börfink – Die Flechten. - Mitteilungen der Pollichia, 99: 35–43. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Mitt-Pollichia_99_0035-0043.pdf.
On the occasion of the Biodiversity Day in 2017, in an area around Börfink (Hunsrück, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany), 106 lichen species and three lichen-inhabiting or related fungi were recorded during a random spot survey. The ecology of the species, their vulnerability and significance as bioindicators are briefly discussed.
32272李 潤 & 木下 光 [Lee Y. & Kinoshita H.] (2016): 瓦屋根における生育実験を踏まえた地衣類の自生実態に関する研究-明日香村稲渕・栢森集落及び小布施町小布施堂界隈を事例として [A study on the characteristics of the grown lichen ased on the growth experiments in tiled roof-A case study of Inabuchi·Kayanomori villages and Obuse neighborhood area]. - 日本建築学会計画系論文集 [Journal of Architecture and Planning], 81(719): 125–132. https://doi.org/10.3130/aija.81.125.
[in Japanese with English abstract:] This study aims to clarify the relationship between the grown lichen and the difference of roof tile. The characteristics of the grown lichen were analyzed on following two methods. (1) The growth experiments of lichen on Mock-ups have been carried out for 6 months in Inabuchi village by using six kinds of roof tiles through the difference of production area and method. (2) The distribution of tiled roofs with lichen was surveyed in Inabuchi·Kayanomori villages and Obuse neighborhood area. The condition of the grown lichen was classified by the difference of roof tiles and the substrate of roof.
32271棚橋孝雄 [Tanahashi T.] (2017): 薬用植物及び単離培養地衣菌の二次代謝物の多様性 [Diversity of secondary metabolites from some medicinal plants and cultivated lichen mycobionts]. - 蕚 纛 箋 議 [Yakugaku Zasshi], 137(12): 1443–1482. https://doi.org/10.1248/yakushi.17-00147 .
[in Japanese with English abstract: ] Studies on the structural determination, biosynthesis, and biological activities of secondary metabolites from natural sources are significant in the field of natural products chemistry. This review focuses on diverse secondary metabolites isolated from medicinal plants and cultivated mycobionts of lichens in our laboratory. Monoterpene-tetrahydroisoquinoline glycosides and alkaloids isolated from Cephaelis acuminata and Alangium lamarckii gave important information on the biosynthesis of ipecac alkaloids. A variety of glycosides linked with a secologanin unit and indole alkaloids were obtained from medicinal plants belonging to the families of Rubiaceae, Apocynaceae, and Loganiaceae. Plant species of the four genera Fraxinus, Syringa, Jasminum, and Ligustrum of the family Oleaceae were chemically investigated to provide several types of secoiridoid and iridoid glucosides. The biosynthetic pathway leading from protopine to benzophenanthridine alkaloids in suspension cell cultures of Eschscholtzia californica was elucidated. The structures and biological activities of the bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids of Stephania cepharantha and Nelumbo nucifera were also investigated. In addition, the mycobionts of lichens were cultivated to afford various types of metabolites that differ from the lichen substances of intact lichens but are structurally similar to fungal metabolites. The biosynthetic origins of some metabolites were also studied. These findings suggest that cultures of lichen mycobionts could be sources of new bioactive compounds and good systems for investigating secondary metabolism in lichens. Key words: secondary metabolite, medicinal plant, cultivated lichen mycobiont, structure determination, biosynthesis, biological acitivity.
32270山本 好和 , 高萩 敏和 , 坂東 誠 & 川上寛子 [Yamamoto Y., Takahagi T., Bando M. & Kakakami H.] (2017): 大阪府地衣類資料 Ⅰ. 長居公園(大阪市)の地衣類相および日本新産種を含む興味深い [Lichen data of Osaka Prefecture I. Lichens of the Nagai Park (Osaka City) and four noteworthy species including two as new for Japan]. - 大阪市立自然史博物館研究報告 [Bulletin of the Osaka Museum of Natural History], 71: 11–16. .
[in Japanese with English abstract: ] Lichen flora of the Nagai Park (Osaka City) was investigated. As a result, 16 species of 13 genera of 8 families in Dothideomycetes and Lecanoromycetes were recognized. Lepraria ecorticata (J.R.Laundon) Kukwa and L. leuckertiana (Zedda) L.Saag were new to Japan, and Amandinea punctata (Hoffm.) Coppins & Scheid. and Punctelia borreri (Sm.) Krog were the first record in Osaka Prefecture. Key Words: urban biodiversity; cryptogamic flora; Amandinea; Lepraria; Punctelia.
32269池田 A. 雅志 , 中村 英人 & 沢田 健 [Ikeda M.A., Nakamura H. & Sawada K.] (2018): 地衣類ハナゴケ属およびオオロウソクゴケ属から検出された 脂肪族炭化水素:化学分類・環境指標の可能性 [Aliphatic hydrocarbons identified in lichen genus Cladonia and Xanthoria : Potential for their chemotaxonomic and environmental indicators]. - Researches in Organic Geochemistry, 34(2): 15–28. https://doi.org/10.20612/rog.34.2_15.
[in Japanese with English abstract: ] Aliphatic hydrocarbons were analyzed in 3 species (Cladonia vulcani, Cladonia scabriuscula, and Xanthoria sp.) of lichens collected from Hokkaido and Hyogo Prefectures, Japan. Molecular composition of n-alkanes is likely influenced by precipitation, as the long chain n-alkanes are produced under arid environments. Alkenes such as heptadecene are also detected as major components in these samples. Molecular composition of these alkanes is different between the genus Xanthoria and Cladonia, suggesting that the composition is influenced by taxonomic diversity. Molecular composition of the aliphatic hydrocarbons other than n-alkanes and alkenes detected are far different between the genera Xanthoria and Cladonia, but are almost similar in these 2 species of the genus Cladonia, potentially depending on taxonomy at the genus level. From these results, we predict that the alkenes, as well as other aliphatic hydrocarbons, can be useful as a chemotaxonomic marker, while the composition of n-alkanes can be an environmental indicator.
32268山本 好和 , 高萩 敏和 , 河合 正人 & 川上寛子 [Yamamoto Y., Takahagi T., Kawai M. & Kakakami H.] (2018): 大阪府地衣類資料 Ⅱ. 枚岡公園(東大阪市)の地衣類相および興味深い5種について [Lichen data of Osaka Prefecture II. Lichens of the Hiraoka Park (Higashiosaka City) and five noteworthy species]. - 大阪市立自然史博物館研究報告 [Bulletin of the Osaka Museum of Natural History], 72: 53–60. .
[in Japanese with English abstract: ] Lichen flora of the Hiraoka Park (Higashiosaka City) was investigated. As a result, 25 species of 19 genera of 11 families in Arthoniomycetes, Eurotiomycetes and Lecanoromycetes were recognized. Agonimiella pacifica H.Harada and Verrucaria muralis Ach. were new to Kinki District, and Enterographa divergens (Müll. Arg.) Redinger, Hypotrachyna pseudosinuosa (Asah.) Hale and Pyxine subcinerea Stirt. were the first record in Osaka Prefecture. Key words: suburban biodiversity, cryptogamic flora, Agonimia, Enterographa, Hypotrachyna, Pyxine, Verrucaria.
32267Zachariah S.H., Nayaka S., Gupta P. & Varghese S.K. (2019): The lichen genus Pyxine (Caliciaceae) in Kerala state with P. dactyloschmidtii as new to India. - Hattoria, 10: 109–117. https://doi.org/10.18968/hattoria.10.0_109.
A total of 12 species of Pyxine is reported from Kerala state of which P. retirugella Nyl. is new to the region while P. dactyloschmidtii Kalb & Mongkolsuk is new to India. Pyxine dactyloschmidtii is characterized in having polysidiangia and earlier known from Thailand. Brief descriptions for the novel taxa and a key to all Pyxine species occurring in India are provided.
32266Kulkarni A.N., Bhalkar B.N., Khandare R.V., Kurade M.B., Jeon B.-H. & Govindwar S.P. (2019): Densitometric quantification for the validation of decolorization of Disperse Orange ERL by lichen Parmelia sp.. - Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 127(3): 388–393. .
Densitometric high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) quantification method was developed to validate the decolorization/biotransformation of Disperse Orange ERL and dye mixture by lichen Parmelia sp. which release several colored compounds during decolorization process, hence unable to use colorimetric estimation. Percent decolorization of Disperse Orange ERL and dye mixture by lichen Parmelia sp. was observed when estimated using developed HPTLC method. Limit of detection and limit of quantification for both dyes in mixture were obtained as 0.3 and 1 μg/μl, respectively. Area of peak of control Disperse Orange ERL was reduced by 43% after 12 h, 71% after 48 h and upto 82% after 72 h of incubation. Precision and repeatability of data elucidated the % relative standard deviation less than 3 for all the values thus indicating statistically acceptable. Biodegradation of dye and mixture was confirmed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis, i.e., altered fingerprinting spectral pattern.
32265山本 好和 , 高萩 敏和 , 坂東 誠 & 河合 正人 [Yamamoto Y., Takahagi T., Bando M. & Kawai M.] (2019): 大阪府地衣類資料 Ⅲ. 箕面公園(箕面市)の地衣類相および興味深い2種について[Lichen data of Osaka Prefecture III. Lichens of the Minoh Park (Minoh City) and two noteworthy species]. - 大阪市立自然史博物館研究報告 [Bulletin of the Osaka Museum of Natural History], 73: 107–114. .
[in Japanese with English abstract: ] Lichen flora of the Minoh Park (Minoh City) was investigated. As a result, 54 species of 38 genera of 18 families in Arthoniomycetes, Coniocybomycetes, Eurotiomycetes and Lecanoromycetes were recognized. Botryolepraria lesdainii (Hue) Canals et al. and Haematomma collatum (Stirton) Dodge were new to Kinki District. Key words: suburban biodiversity; cryptogamic flora; Botryolepraria; Haematomma.
32264Inoue T., Uchida M., Inoue M., Kaneko R., Kudoh S., Minami Y. & Kanda H. (2019): Vegetation data of high Arctic lichens on Austre Brøggerbreen glacier foreland, Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, in 1994. - Polar Data Journal, 3: 1–11. http://doi.org/10.20575/00000005.
We made a detailed investigation of the occurrence and cover of lichen species near Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, high Arctic Norway, in 1994. We identified 82 lichen species, and our data clearly show their forms, location, and microtopography and composition of lichens. This information will be useful for understanding future vegetation changes.
32263Fryday A.M. (2020): Lecidea cerviniicola and L. promiscua new to the North American lichen biota. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 19: 9–13. http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/op/biblio_details.php?irn=482984.
Lecidea cerviniicola and L. promiscua are reported for the first time from North America from collections made by Henry Imshaug in the 1950’s and housed in the herbarium of Michigan State University (MSC). A key to the species of the L. auriculata group reported from North America is also provided. Key words: C+ red exciple, Lecidea auriculata group, Lecideaceae, thalline chemistry, western USA.
32262Monge-Nájera J. (2019): Relative humidity, temperature, substrate type, and height of terrestrial lichens in a tropical paramo. - Revista de Biología Tropical, 67(1): 206–212. .
Lichens are traditionally divided into types such as “crustose”, “foliose” and “fruticose”, with different shapes and heights. Substrate, temperature and water are thought to affect lichen height, but there are few studies regarding tropical paramo lichens. Along 2015 I measured those variables in the terricolous lichens of the Cerro Buena Vista, paramo (Costa Rica, 9°33’ N & 83°45’ W). The measurements were taken inside the lichens and in the substrate under them, in 61 randomly located quadrats (50 x 50 cm). Lichens grew taller on (1) warmer ground, (2) wetter ground, (3) the moister Caribbean slope, and (4) the season with heavier rainfall, as expected. Apparently, atmospheric factors are more important than substrate in the determination of temperature, relative humidity and growth of lichens. Physiologically available water seems to be the main determinant of lichen vertical growth in the Buena Vista paramo. Key words: physical variables; growth factors; climate; highland lichens; paramo; thallus growth.
32261Sarlej M.I. (2019): El género Pyxine (Lecanorales, Physciaceae) en la Reserva de la Biosfera Yaboty (Misiones Argentina). - Boletín de la Sociedad Argentina de Botánica, 54: 161–168. http://www.scielo.org.ar/pdf/bsab/v54n2/v54n2a01.pdf.
Background and aims: Pyxine (Lecanorales, Physciaceae) is an interesting genus, which is little known in the Argentinian territory, for this reason a study of the species presents in the Yaboty Biosphere Reserve (Misiones, Argentina) is proposed. M&M: The identification of the species was carried out following the methodology conventionally used for the study of lichens, which includes a morphological and chemical analysis. The macroscopic characters were studied with a stereoscopic microscope. In order to determine the type of plectenchyma and study the morphology of ascospores, freehand sections were made, which were subsequently mounted in 5% potassium hydroxide and observed under an optical microscope. The identification of the lichen substances present was carried out by means of specific color reactions with 10% potassium hydroxide, ultraviolet light chamber test and thin layer chromatography with solvent A. Results & Conclusions: In this contribution Pyxine daedalea, Pyxine katendei, Pyxine maculata and Pyxine sorediata are cited for the first time for Argentina. It is presented a dichotomous key, a brief description of the species in the area, geographical distribution, observations and illustrations of each of them. It is considered that this work is a great contribution for further taxonomic and ecological investigations. Key words: Conservation area, lichens, Pyxine, taxonomy
32260González Y., Aragón G. & Prieto M. (2019): Nuevos registros de líquenes terrícolas en los páramos ecuatorianos [New records of terricolous lichens in ecuadorian páramos]. - Caldasia, 41(2): 445–449. Doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.15446/caldasia.v41n2.72040. http://www.scielo.org.co/pdf/cal/v41n2/0366-5232-cal-41-02-445.pdf.
We present 49 new lichen records from El Cajas and El Ángel páramos, in the provinces of Azuay and Carchi, respectively. We found the following new records to Ecuador: Cladonia scabriuscula, Cora accipiter, C. caucensis, C. dalehana, C. hafecesweorthensis, C. inversa, Dictyonema caespitosum, and Diploschistes hypoleucus; Cladonia corymbosula as new record to mainland Ecuador, and the new chemotype Cladonia squamosa QIII, with stictic and barbatic acids. 39 new records for Azuay and Carchi provinces are reported. Keywords: Cladonia, Cora, Dictyonema, Diploschistes, diversity, lichenized fungi.
32259Ohmura Y. & Clerc P. (2019): Lectotypification of Usnea confusa (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota). - Bulletin of the National Museum of Nature and Science, Series B [Tokyo], 45(2): 63–70. .
The original material of Usnea confusa Asahina consists of several thalli glued on a cardboard. In order to avoid any future taxonomic confusion especially presence or absence of “isidiate soredia”, a single specimen with numerous isidiofibrils developing on the soralia was chosen as lectotype. The lectotype of U. confusa contains usnic, salazinic, constictic acids and trace amount of protocetraric acid as the secondary substances. ITS rDNA sequences of Japanese and Taiwanese specimens that have the same morphology and chemistry with the lectotype form two distinct clades nested within the strongly supported clade representing the core group of Usnea cornuta (containing U. cornuta Körber s.str.). Our molecular phylogenetic result based only on ITS rDNA sequences doesn’t allow to confirm or contradict the conspecificity of U. confusa with U. cornuta. Key words : isidiofibrils, ITS rDNA, lectotype, lichenized fungi, phylogeny, soralia, taxonomy.
32258Pyakurel D., Smith-Hall C., Bhattarai-Sharma I. & Ghimire S.K. (2020): Trade and conservation of Nepalese medicinal plants, fungi, and lichen. - Economic Botany, 73(4): 505–521. .
Trade in Nepalese medicinal plants, fungi, and lichens is huge, yet there is no overview of traded species, impeding the development of targeted and appropriate conservation interventions. This study intends to identifyalltradedspeciesfromNepal,analyzetheirdistributionpatterns,andassesstheirvulnerability,none of which has been done before. Contemporary data on traded species were obtained from 113 sub-local traders, 105 local traders, and 75 central wholesalers for case year 2014–2015, and historical data from a review of trade-related publications. We recorded 300 species in trade, double that of previous estimates, distributed across 97 families and 197 genera. Most species are concentrated in subtropical and lower temperate regions indicating an economic potential for increased cultivation and domestication at middle altitudes. About 39% of commercial species are formally protected, including through bans on collection and trade of certain species. But this approach does not appear to protect species from commercial harvesting,drivenbyincreasingdemandandhigherprices.Thehigh-altitudespeciesNardostachysjatamansi, Rheum australe, andPicrorhiza scrophulariiflora are the most vulnerable traded species, warranting the development of alternative protection mechanisms, e.g., transferring management rights to local communities. Key Words: Altitudinal distribution, Commercialization, Illegal trade, Himalayas, South Asia, Vulnerability.
32257Kupreev V.E., Semenishchenkov Yu.A., Teleganova V.V. & Muchnik E.E. (2020): Ecological and floristic features of pioneer grass vegetation on automorphic sandy soils as a pine-forest recovery phase in the southern part of the Nonchernozem zone of Russia. - Contemporary Problems of Ecology, 13(1): 20–35. .
[Translation of original Russian text published in Sibirskii Ekologicheskii Zhurnal, 2020, No. 1, pp. 26–45] This article addresses the phytocoenotic diversity of psammophytic grass communities in the southern part of the nonchernozem zone of Russia, where the restoration of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is either ongoing or potentially possible. Community structure and composition formation trends developing under the influence of key environmental and coenotic factors have been identified. The studies were carried out in Bryansk, Kaluga, and Smolensk oblasts in 2010–2018; over 150 geobotanical releves of psammophytic grass communities have been produced. This vegetation belongs to the class Koelerio-Corynephoretea Klika 1931, which combines dry grasslands on sandy soils and rocky outcrops in the temperate and boreal zones of Europe, on islands of the North Atlantic, and in Greenland. Differences between environmental regimes of various habitats occupied by psammophytic communities have been identified. In most cases, the environmental amplitudes of syntaxonomic units vary significantly by the three key edaphic factors (moisture, soil reaction, and soil richness in mineral nitrogen) and form pretty compact environmental spaces: within each syntaxon, numerical values of the above factors, expressed in score points, normally vary within a narrow range. Regression analysis has established that the species richness of psammophytic communities depends statistically significantly only on the mineral nitrogen supply and soil moisture. Based on the statistical analysis results, the number of Pinus sylvestris plants of any age does not depend on the species richness in the community, total projective cover of the grass stand (excluding the Scots pine), separately calculated moss and lichen projective covers, and average numerical values of environmental factors identified by H. Ellenberg in the community. It is established that numbers of pine trees on study sites depend on only one factor: distance from the diaspora source determining the invasion possibility. The data on the phytocoenotic and floristic diversity of the psammophytic grass vegetation are to be incorporated into the unified database on the southern part of the nonchernozem zone of Russia to identify environmental and botanical–geographical features of this plant community type in the region. Keywords: psammophytic vegetation, floristic classification, pine restoration, southern part of the nonchernozem zone of Russia.
32256ten Veldhuis M.-C., Ananyev G. & Dismukes G.C. (2020): Symbiosis extended: exchange of photosynthetic O2 and fungal‑respired CO2 mutually power metabolism of lichen symbionts . - Photosynthesis Research, 143: 287–299. .
Lichens are a symbiosis between a fungus and one or more photosynthetic microorganisms that enables the symbionts to thrive in places and conditions they could not compete independently. Exchanges of water and sugars between the symbionts are the established mechanisms that support lichen symbiosis. Herein, we present a new linkage between algal photosynthesis and fungal respiration in lichen Flavoparmelia caperata that extends the physiological nature of symbiotic co-dependent metabolisms, mutually boosting energy conversion rates in both symbionts. Measurements of electron transport by oximetry show that photosynthetic O2 is consumed internally by fungal respiration. At low light intensity, very low levels of O2 are released, while photosynthetic electron transport from water oxidation is normal as shown by intrinsic chlorophyll variable fluorescence yield (period-4 oscillations in flash-induced Fv/Fm). The rate of algal O2 production increases following consecutive series of illumination periods, at low and with limited saturation at high light intensities, in contrast to light saturation in free-living algae. We attribute this effect to arise from the availability of more CO2 produced by fungal respiration of photosynthetically generated sugars. We conclude that the lichen symbionts are metabolically coupled by energy conversion through exchange of terminal electron donors and acceptors used in both photosynthesis and fungal respiration. Algal sugars and O2 are consumed by the fungal symbiont, while fungal delivered CO2 is consumed by the alga. Keywords Algae · Fungi · Lichens · Metabolism · Oxygenic photosynthesis · Respiration · Symbiosis.
32255Timoshok E.E., Timoshok E.N., Gureyeva I.I. & Skorokhodov S.N. (2020): Primary successions of vegetation on the young moraines in the Severo-Chuiskiy center of glaciation (Central Altai). - Contemporary Problems of Ecology, 13(1): 36–47. .
[Translation of original Russian text published in Sibirskii Ekologicheskii Zhurnal, 2020, No. 1, pp. 46–61] The primary successions of vegetation have been investigated in the continental conditions of the Severo-Chuiskiy center of present-day glaciation (Central Altai) from the colonization of deglaciated terrains by the first plants to the formation of simple plant groups to the primary plant communities. The observations were carried out for 15 years on the young moraines of the valley glaciers of Malyi Aktru (2200–2250 m a.s.l.) and Bolshoi–Levyi Aktru (2370–2500 m a.s.l.) in chrono-sequences from the ends of glaciers to the moraines of the mid-19th century. Three stages and four sub-stages of the primary succession of vegetation are identified. The species composition of vascular plants, mosses, and ground lichens is identified; the dominant species and the peculiarities of primary vegetation are characterized. Ideas about the course of successions and their peculiarities at different altitudes in the upper part of the forest and subchalet altitudinal zones are obtained. It has been found that, in the 150 year period, a young forest community has been formed on new moraines in the upper part of the forest altitudinal zone, and a combination of microcenoses similar to tundra communities have been formed in the alpine altitudinal zone. The primary succession of vegetation on both glacier forelands has some similarities, especially in early stages of ecosystem development (pioneer species composition and three-stage structure of successions). Strong differences appear during the late stages of succession. The primary succession of vegetation on the foreland of the Malyi Aktru glacier involves 146 species of vascular plants, 44 species of mosses, and 6 species of lichens. On the foreland of Bolshoi Levyi Aktru, 128 species of vascular plants, 26 species of mosses, and 8 ground lichens have been recorded. Keywords: young moraines, vascular plants, mosses, lichens, primary successions, dynamics, Severo-Chuiskiy center of glaciation, Central Altai.
32254Tang Y. & Lian B. (2012): Diversity of endolithic fungal communities in dolomite and limestone rocks from Nanjiang Canyon in Guizhou karst area, China. - Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 58: 685–693. .
The endolithic environment, the tiny pores and cracks in rocks, buffer microbial communities from a number of physical stresses, such as desiccation, rapid temperature variations, and UV radiation. Considerable knowledge has been acquired about the diversity of microorganisms in these ecosystems, but few culture-independent studies have been carried out on the diversity of fungi to date. Scanning electron microscopy of carbonate rock fragments has revealed that the rock samples contain certain kinds of filamentous fungi. We evaluated endolithic fungal communities from bare dolomite and limestone rocks collected from Nanjiang Canyon (a typical karst canyon in China) using culture-independent methods. Results showed that Ascomycota was absolutely dominant both in the dolomite and limestone fungal clone libraries. Basidiomycota and other eukaryotic groups (Bryophyta and Chlorophyta) were only detected occasionally or at low frequencies. The most common genus in the investigated carbonate rocks was Verrucaria. Some other lichen-forming fungi (e.g., Caloplaca, Exophiala, and Botryolepraria), Aspergillus, and Penicillium were also identified from the rock samples. The results provide a cross-section of the endolithic fungal communities in carbonate rocks and help us understand more about the role of microbes (fungi and other rock-inhabiting microorganisms) in rock weathering and pedogenesis. Key words: fungal community, diversity, endolithic, karst, weathering.
32253Wang Y., Yuan X., Chen L., Wang X. & Li C. (2018): Draft genome sequence of the lichen-forming fungus Ramalina intermedia strain YAF0013. - Genome Announcements, 6(23):e00478-18 [2 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1128/genomeA.00478-18.
Here, we report a draft genome sequence of Ramalina intermedia strain YAF0013. The functional annotation of R. intermedia provides important information related to its ability to produce secondary metabolites. The genome sequence reported here builds the basis for further genome mining.
32252Jia Z.-F., Li J. & Yang M.-Z. (2017): Carbacanthographis (Graphidaceae), a lichen genus new to Guangxi. - Guihaia, 37(2): 231–233. http://www.guihaia-journal.com/ch/reader/create_pdf.aspx?file_no=170214&flag=1&journal_id=gxzw&year_id=2017.
Based on the specimens collected from Yunnan Province, the lichen genus Schizotrema Mangold & Lumbsch is reported as new to China, with the species S. guadeloupense (Hale) Mangold & Lumbsch. Among Graphidaceae, the genus is characterized by its ascomata with concentrically layered margins composed of carbonized excipular remnants of older hymenia; the proper exciple is fused to indistinctly free, periphysoids are usually present, and the ascospores are transversely septate to muriform. The species also is new to Asia. Notes of other five species in the genus are given, also with ecology and distribution. World-wide key to species of Schizotrema be presence in the present paper. This study provides the basic data for the taxonomy of the family Graphidaceae. Key words: Cryptogamae, taxonomy, lichenized fungi, Ostropales, new record.
32251Jia Z.-F. & Lücking R. (2019): A genus Schizotrema (Graphidaceae) new to China, with a world-wide key. - ChinaXiv合作期刊, 201902.00011 [6 p.]. http://chinaxiv.org/abs/201902.00011.
Based on the specimens collected from Yunnan Province, the lichen genus Schizotrema Mangold & Lumbsch is reported as new to China, with the species S. guadeloupense (Hale) Mangold & Lumbsch. Among Graphidaceae, the genus is characterized by its ascomata with concentrically layered margins composed of carbonized excipular remnants of older hymenia; the proper exciple is fused to indistinctly free, periphysoids are usually present, and the ascospores are transversely septate to muriform. The species also is new to Asia. Notes of other five species in the genus are given, also with ecology and distribution. World-wide key to species of Schizotrema be presence in the present paper. This study provides the basic data for the taxonomy of the family Graphidaceae. Key words: Cryptogamae, taxonomy, lichenized fungi, Ostropales, new record.
32250Mitrović T., Stamenković S., Cvetković V., Radulović N., Mladenović M., Stanković M., Topuzović M., Radojević I., Stefanović O., Vasić S. & Čomić L. (2014): Platismatia glauca and Pseudevernia furfuracea lichens as sources of antioxidant, antimicrobial and antibiofilm agents. - EXCLI Journal, 13: 938–953. .
The antioxidative, antimicrobial and antibiofilm potentials of acetone, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of lichen species Platismatia glauca and Pseudevernia furfuracea were evaluated. The phytochemical analysis by GC, GC/MS and NMR revealed caperatic acid, atraric acid, atranorin and chloroatranorin as the predominant compounds in Platismatia glauca. Atraric acid, olivetoric acid, atranorin and chloroatranorin were the major constituents in Pseudevernia furfuracea. The strong antioxidant capacities of the Platismatia glauca and Pseudevernia furfuracea extracts were assessed by their total phenolic and flavonoid contents and DPPH scavenging activities. The methanol extracts of both species exhibited the strongest antioxidant activities with the highest IC50 value for Pseudevernia furfuracea (95.33 μg/mL). The lichen extracts demonstrated important antibacterial activities against 11 bacterial strains with detectable MIC values from 0.08 mg/mL to 2.5 mg/mL for Platismatia glauca and from 0.005 mg/mL to 2.5 mg/mL for Pseudevernia furfuracea. While the antibacterial activities of Pseudevernia furfuracea were solvent–independent, the acetone and ethyl acetate extracts of Platismatia glauca showed higher antibacterial activities compared to its methanol extract. The methanol extracts of both species demonstrated significant antifungal activities against 9 fungal strains with detectable MIC values from 0.04 mg/mL to 2.5 mg/mL. The best antifungal activities were determined against Candida species in Pseudevernia furfuracea extracts with remarkable MIC values which were lower than the MIC values of the positive contol fluconazole. The acetone and ethyl acetate extracts of Platismatia glauca showed better antibiofilm activities on Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus mirabilis with BIC value at 0.63 mg/mL then its methanol extract. On the other hand, the methanol extract of Pseudevernia furfuracea was more potent with BIC value at 1.25 mg/mL on Staphylococcus aureus and 0.63 mg/mL on Proteus mirabilis compared to other types of extracts. Our study indicates a possible use of lichens Platismatia glauca and Pseudevernia furfuracea as natural antioxidants and preservatives in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry. Keywords: Platismatia glauca, Pseudevernia furfuracea, chemical profile, antioxidant activity, antimicrobial activity, antibiofilm activity.
32249Stojanović I.Ž., Radulović N.S., Mitrović T.L., Stamenković S.M. & Stojanović G.S. (2011): Volatile constituents of selected Parmeliaceae lichens. - Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society, 76(7): 987–994. http://umv.doiserbia.nb.rs/img/doi/0352-5139/2011/0352-51391100087S.pdf.
The acetone soluble fraction of the methanol extracts of Parmeliaceae lichens: Hypogymnia physodes, Evernia prunastri and Parmelia sulcata, growing on the same host tree (Prunus domestica) and at the same locality was analyzed for the first time by GC and GC–MS. The major identified components were olivetol (33.5 % of the H. physodes extract), atraric acid (30.1 and 30.3 % of the E. prunastri and P. sulcata extracts, respectively), orcinol (25.0 % of the E. prunastri extract), vitamin E (24.7 % of the P. sulcata extract) and olivetonide (15.7 % of the H. physodes extract). Even though all the identified compounds are known, a number of them were found for the first time in the examined lichens, i.e., orcinol monomethyl ether (H. physodes), orcinol, atranol, lichesterol, ergosterol (H. physodes and P. sulcata), methyl haematommate, atraric acid, olivetol, vitamin E (H. physodes and P. sulcata) and β -sitosterol (P. sulcata). Keywords: Hypogymnia physodes; Evernia prunastri; Parmelia sulcata; volatile constituents.
32248Winkler A., Contardo T., Vannini A., Sorbo S., Basile A. & Loppi S. (2020): Magnetic emissions from brake wear are the major source of airborne particulate matter bioaccumulated by lichens exposed in Milan (Italy). - Applied Sciences, 10(6): 2073 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10062073.
The concentration of selected trace elements and the magnetic properties of samples of the lichen Evernia prunastri exposed for 3 months in Milan (Italy) were investigated to test if magnetic properties can be used as a proxy for the bioaccumulation of chemical elements in airborne particulate matter. Magnetic analysis showed intense properties driven by magnetite-like minerals, leading to significant correlations between magnetic susceptibility and the concentration of Fe, Cr, Cu, and Sb. Selected magnetic particles were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope and Energy Dispersion System microanalyses, and their composition, morphology and grain size supported their anthropogenic, non-exhaust origin. The overall combination of chemical, morphoscopic and magnetic analyses strongly suggested that brake abrasion from vehicles is the main source of the airborne particles accumulated by lichens. It is concluded that magnetic susceptibility is an excellent parameter for a simple, rapid and cost-effective characterization of atmospheric trace metal pollution using lichens. Keywords: magnetic biomonitoring; particulate matter; lichen transplants; brake wear; urban air pollution.
32247Singh P. (2016): Opegrapha trilocularis Müll. Arg. (lichenized Ascomycota), a lichen species new to India. - NeoBio, 6(4)[2015]: 1–3. .
Opegrapha trilocularis Müll. Arg. (Roccellaceae) is reported as a new record for Indian lichen flora from Uttarakhand, Western Himalaya of India. The species is characterized by its black, sessile lirellate ascomata and transversely 2-septate ascospores. A detailed taxonomic description with illustrations is provided to facilitate its easy identification of the species. Keywords: Opegrapha trilocularis, Roccellaceae, New record, Garhwal Himalaya.
32246Tatipamula V.B. & Vedula G.S. (2020): Fibrinolytic, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic potentialities of extracts and chemical constituents of manglicolous lichen, Graphis ajarekarii Patw. & C. R. Kulk. - Natural Products Journal, 10: 87–93. .
Background: Lichens which are betide to mangroves are termed as Manglicolous Lichens (ML). As these ML are habituated under stress conditions, they are screened for unique metabolites and biological activities. Objective: The study aimed to establish the chemical and biological profile of ML, Graphis ajarekarii. Methods: The Ethyl Acetate Extract of G. ajarekarii (EAE) was subjected to chromatographic techniques and the obtained isolates were characterized by spectroscopic analysis. The hydroalcoholic extract of G. ajarekarii (AE), EAE, isolates and Hydroalcoholic Extract of host (HE) were evaluated for fibrinolytic (fibrin clot method), in vitro (protein denaturation method) and in vivo (formalin-induced rat paw oedema assay), anti-inflammatory and cytotoxicity (MTT assay) activities. Results: Chemical investigation of the EAE led to the isolation of two known compounds namely atranorin (1) and ribenone (2), which were confirmed by spectral data. The AE and EAE gradually lysed the fibrin clot with 94.54 and 65.07%, respectively, at 24 h. The AE inhibited protein denaturation of about 88.06%, while the standard (Indomethacin) with 93.62%. Similarly, the in vivo antiinflammatory analysis of AE (200 mg/mL) showed potent reduction of rat paw oedema than the standard, whereas EAE and 1 depicted moderate depletion. In addition, the AE revealed prominence inhibition on MCF-7, DU145 and K-562 with IC50 values of 69.5, 42.5 and 38 μg/mL, respectively, whereas the HE exhibited mild inhibitory profile against fibrin clot, inflammation and cancer. Conclusion: From the results, it can be concluded that the G. ajarekarii has an aptitude to act against coagulation, inflammation and cancer cells. Keywords: Graphis ajarekarii, manglicolous lichen, fibrinolytic activity, protein denaturation method, formalin-induced rat paw oedema assay, MTT assay.
32245Greiser C., Ehrlén J., Meineri E. & Hylander K. (2020): Hiding from the climate: Characterizing microrefugia for boreal forest understory species. - Global Change Biology, 26(2): 471–483. .
Climate warming is likely to shift the range margins of species poleward, but fine‐scale temperature differences near the ground (microclimates) may modify these range shifts. For example, cold‐adapted species may survive in microrefugia when the climate gets warmer. However, it is still largely unknown to what extent cold microclimates govern the local persistence of populations at their warm range margin. We located 99 microrefugia, defined as sites with edge populations of 12 widespread boreal forest understory species (vascular plants, mosses, liverworts and lichens) in an area of ca. 24,000 km2 along the species' southern range margin in central Sweden. Within each population, a logger measured temperature eight times per day during one full year. Using univariate and multivariate analyses, we examined the differences of the populations' microclimates with the mean and range of microclimates in the landscape, and identified the typical climate, vegetation and topographic features of these habitats. Comparison sites were drawn from another logger data set (n = 110), and from high‐resolution microclimate maps. The microrefugia were mainly places characterized by lower summer and autumn maximum temperatures, late snow melt dates and high climate stability. Microrefugia also had higher forest basal area and lower solar radiation in spring and autumn than the landscape average. Although there were common trends across northern species in how microrefugia differed from the landscape average, there were also interspecific differences and some species contributed more than others to the overall results. Our findings provide biologically meaningful criteria to locate and spatially predict potential climate microrefugia in the boreal forest. This opens up the opportunity to protect valuable sites, and adapt forest management, for example, by keeping old‐growth forests at topographically shaded sites. These measures may help to mitigate the loss of genetic and species diversity caused by rear‐edge contractions in a warmer climate. Key words: cold-adapted species, marginal populations, microclimate, range contraction, range edge, range shift, rear edge, thermal niche.
32244Velasco Ayuso S., Oñatibia G.R., Maestre F.T. & Yahdjian L. (2020): Grazing pressure interacts with aridity to determine the development and diversity of biological soil crusts in Patagonian rangelands. - Land Degradation and Development, 31(4): 488–499. .
Grazing is directly related to land degradation and desertification in global drylands. Grazing impacts on vascular plants, reasonably well‐known, depend on its intensity and are modulated by local aridity conditions. However, we do not know how the interplay of grazing intensity and aridity affect biocrusts, topsoil assemblages dominated by cyanobacteria, lichens, and mosses that provide key ecosystem services in drylands. Here, we determined how grazing affects biomass, total cover, and richness of biocrust structural types across a regional aridity gradient in the Patagonian steppe. On average, grazing by sheep reduced biocrust biomass, total cover and richness of structural types by 55, 90, and 59%, respectively. In general, high grazing pressures had a larger impact on biocrusts than moderate or light grazing pressures. For example, biocrust cover was reduced by 85, 89, and 98% by light, moderate, and high grazing pressures, respectively. Although a slightly different response to grazing was observed under low aridity conditions, these more benign climatic conditions did not compensate for the negative effects of trampling by domestic animals on biocrusts. Nonetheless, estimated biocrust recovery rates under medium aridity conditions were faster than previously thought: it took 24, 18, and 58 years to double biocrust biomass, total cover, and richness of structural types. Sheep cannot be just removed in Patagonian rangelands because the production of meat and wool represents the main local economic activity. But landowners must consider our results to protect the ecosystem functions and services provided by biocrusts for future generations to come. Keywords: Patagonian steppe; aridity; biocrusts; grazing intensity; recovery rates.
32243Pandey S., Misra S.K. & Sharma N. (2020): Development of Usnic acid embedded Eudragit microspheres for alleviation of nosocomial infections. - Anti-Infective Agents, 18: 79–87. .
Background: Usnic Acid has been progressively reported in the literature as one of the chiefly significant lichen metabolites exemplified by an ample diversity of applications such as antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral, antiprotozoal agents, etc. Herein, we shed a light on nosocomial infections and formulated topical microspheres loaded with Usnic acid for improved antimicrobial activity. Recent patents and novel researches were referred to pursue the present work. Methods: Usnic acid embedded Eudragit microspheres were designed applying solvent evaporation method, investigated for topography and drug-polymer compatibility studies. Dialysis bag method was utilized for studying drug release kinetics. In vitro antibacterial assay was carried out against the virulent bacterial strain of Staphylococcus aureus using the disc diffusion method. Results: Topography studies revealed the formation of regular, micro-sized, smooth surface microspheres. Well defined and specific structural peaks were obtained from FTIR and TGA studies, revealing drugpolymer compatibility. The dissolution profile suggested Korsmeyer Peppas kinetic and Fickian kind of diffusion from microspheres. The pre-eminent activity of formulated microspheres was visualized from the disc diffusion study against Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusion: The strong biological activity of Usnic acid –loaded Eudragit RS and Eudragit RL microspheres provides a promising application for corresponding material as a bactericidal agent for the alleviation of nosocomial infection. Findings paid attention to the potential of usnic acid microspheres for effective treatment of dermal and nosocomial infections caused by S. aureus. Keywords: Antimicrobial, usnic acid, biocompatible, nosocomial infection, controlled release, microspheres.
32242刘华杰 刘四娃 王磊 刘晓迪 赵良成 吴清凤 [Liu H.-J., Liu S.-W., Wang L., Liu X.-D., Zhao L.-C. & Wu Q.-F.] (2016): 物种和基物偏好对河北太行山区六种地衣的元素含量的影响 [Effects of species and substrate preference on element concentration of six lichens in Taihang Mountains, Hebei, China]. - Mycosystema, 35(10): 1258–1267. .
[in Chinese with English abstract:] To test the effects of species and substrate preference on lichen element concentrations, sixteen chemical elements (Al, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Na, P, S, Sc, Sr, Ti, V and Zn) were analyzed in six lichen species (three saxicolous lichens, Collema cristatum, Xanthoria mandschurica and Xanthoparmelia mexicana, two terricolous lichens, Cladonia pocillum and Endocarpon pusillum, and one corticolous lichen, Phaeophyscia hispidula) from six localities of the Taihang Mountains, Hebei, China. A combination of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Friedman test shows that species and substrate preference have high effects on element composition in lichen thalli, whereas locality has no significant effect. The corticolous lichen accumulates the highest level of atmospheric elements (P, S and Zn), while the terricolous lichens have the highest concentration for the crustal metals (Al, Ba, Fe, Mn, Mo, Na, Sc, Sr, Ti and V) and atmospheric metal Cr. As compared with the terricolous lichens, the saxicolous lichens are similar in levels of P, S and Zn, but are less affected by soil contamination. The three saxicolous lichens are roughly similar in concentration for these elements. These results suggest that atmospheric deposition biomonitoring with the aid of lichens should give consideration to the influence of species and substrate preference. Key words: North China, atmospheric deposition, air pollution, biomonitoring.
32241Wang J.-H. & Wei J.-C. (2016): A new lichenized fungus Sarcogyne parviascifera (Acarosporaceae, Ascomycota). - Mycosystema, 35(11): 1344–1347. .
A new lichenized fungus Sarcogyne parviascifera is described based on the pheno-genotypic analysis. The diagnosis, description with figures of the new species are given. Key words: Sarcogyne parviascifera, diagnosis, description, Acarosporaceae.
32240王娇红 李二伟 魏江春 [Wang J.-H., Li E.-W. & Wei J.-C.] (2017): 小囊网盘衣真菌新色原酮类次级代谢产物初步研究 [A preliminary study of the isoprenylated chromones from lichenized fungus Sarcogyne asciparva]. - Mycosystema, 36(4): 492–502. .
[in Chinese with English abstract:] Lichens are symbiotic ecosystem of mostly ascomycetous fungi (mycobiont) and photosynthetic partners (photobiont) which are either green algae or cyanobacteria. Using cultured separated lichenized fungus Sarcogyne asciparva as material, sarcasciols A–H (1–8), eight new isoprenylated chromone derivatives have been isolated from scale-up culture. The structures of 1–8 were elucidated by mass spectra and nuclear magnetic resonance experiments. The absolute configuration of C-6 in 1 was assigned by application of the modified Mosher’s method. The antibacterial activity of compounds 1–8 was revalued by 96-well plate method. Key words: lichenized fungus, Sarcogyne asciparva, new chromones.
32239王治军 魏鑫丽 陈玉惠 [Wang Z.-J., Wei X.-L. & Chen Y.-H.] (2017): 荒漠地衣对沙坡头人工植被固沙区的生态影响 [Ecological effects of desert lichens on Shapotou artificial vegetation zone, Ningxia, China]. - Mycosystema, 36(9): 1260–1270. .
[in Chinese with English abstract:] The ecological pattern dominated by microbiotic crust in the Shapotou area of the Tengger Desert is one of the unique ecological landscapes in natural vegetation of desert areas. Lichen, an important component of microbiotic crusts, plays a crucial role in influencing ecological changes. In this study, we investigated species composition and coverage of vascular plants and lichens, measured concentration of major nutrients in crust soil. The results show that the dominant lichens in microbiotic crusts are taxa of Collema and Endocarpon. We also observed roughly significant positive correlations between vascular plants and microbiotic crust converges, thickness of crust and concentration in soil nutrients, all which posing an increasing trend with ages of artificial vegetation. The consistent patterns of parameters of vascular plants, microbiotic crusts, lichens and soil nutrients clearly suggest a positive effect of microbiotic crusts on shallow-rooted vegetation and soil restoration, and provide a necessary theoretical basis for the artificial sand control and the full implementation of the desert bio-carpet engineering. Key words: desert, microbiotic crust, lichen, ecological succession.
32238柳润东 蒋淑华 李二伟 魏江春 [Liu R.-D., Jiang S.-H., Li E.-W. & Wei J.-C.] (2018): 石果衣菌藻次级代谢产物的初步研究 [A preliminary study on the secondary metabolites from the mycobiont and phycobiont of lichen Endocarpon pusillum]. - Mycosystema, 37(2): 246–255. .
[in Chinese with English abstract:] In the desert lichen Endocarpon pusillum can not be detected any secondary metabolite. But, its mycobiont genome contains fourteen PKS genes and two NRPS genes. Through the activation of culture in vermiculite medium, three secondary metabolites have been obtained from the mycobiont, including a new isoindolin-1-one compound (endocarpin A), a new naphthoquinone (endocarpin B) and lamellicolic anhydride. Other three demagnesium chlorophyll compounds were isolated from its phycobiont Diplosphaera chodatii. They are phaeophorbide b, 13-epi-phaeophorbide a and phaeophorbide a. Phaeophorbide b owned medium antioxidant activity based on the ability to scavenge DPPH free radicals in vitro. Key words: lichenized fungus, phycobiont, Diplosphaera chodatii, isoindolin-1-one, naphthoquinone.
32237魏江春 [Wei J.-C.] (2018): 中国地衣学现状综述 [A review on the present situation of lichenology in China]. - Mycosystema, 37(7): 812–818. .
[in Chinese with English abstract: ] A short review of the lichenology in China is given by the present paper. A concept about the lichen systematic biology with three systems of storage and retrieval as a bridge between biodiversity in the nature and exploration of lichen resources is emphasized. The significance of lichen species and genes in desert biological carpet engineering is discussed. The secret that lichen doesn′t produce secondary metabolites is uncovered, and a new way to solve it has been found. Key words: lichenology in China, biodiversity, systematic biology, species and genes, resource biology.
32236Miao C.-C., Wang X.-Y., Scheidegger C., Wang L.-S. & Zhao Z.-T. (2018): Three new cyanobacterial species of Lobaria (Lobariaceae, Peltigerales) from the Hengduan Mountains, China. - Mycosystema, 37(7): 838–848. .
Eight hundred and thirty specimens of cyanobacterial Lobaria from Hengduan Mountains were examined morphologically and chemically. Eighteen new nuclear ITS sequences were generated and a phylogeny based on ITS sequences is presented. Three species of Lobaria are described as new to science: L. hengduanensis, L. irrugulosa and L. latilobulata. L. hengduanensis can be recognized by its soredioid isidia; L. imrugulosa is characterized by its indistinct reticulately ridged upper side of the thallus; L. latilobulata differs from other species of the genus in having wide and rounded tips of lobes. These new species formed independent clades on the ITS phylogenetic tree. A key to the cyanobacterial species of Lobaria from China is presented. Key words: lichenized fungi, taxonomy, phylogeny.
32235Liu D., Goffinet B., Wang X.-Y., Hur J.-S., Shi H.-X., Zhang Y.-Y., Yang M.-X., Li L.-J., Yin A.-C. & Wang L.-S. (2018): Another lineage of basidiolichen in China, the genera Dictyonema and Lichenomphalia (Agaricales: Hygrophoraceae). - Mycosystema, 37(7): 849–864. .
Several specimens of basidiolichen belonging to the Hygrophoraceae were collected as part of the China lichen mycota. These belong to four species in two genera, Dictyonema and Lichenomphalia. Dictyonema yunnanum is described as new and Lichenomphalia velutina is newly recorded for Asia based on inferences from morphological, chemical and phylogenetic analysis. Dictyonema yunnanum is characterized by the dark aeruginous blue to black filamentous, ascending to erect, micro-fruticulose thallus. The species of lichenized Hygrophoraceae occurring in China are described and a key to distinguish them is presented. Key words: lichenized fungi, taxonomy, diversity, Hygrophoraceae, China.
32234Jia Z.-F., Lücking R., Li J. & Meng Q.-F. (2018): A preliminary study of the lichen genus Fissurina (Graphidaceae) in China. - Mycosystema, 37(7): 881–895. .
As part of a revision of the lichen family Graphidaceae in China, a treatment of 16 species of the genus Fissurina is presented. Among these, three species, viz. F. consentanea, F. globulifica and F. insidiosa, are new records for China. Four synonyms are suggested: Fissurina isidiata Z.F. Jia [= Platythecium dimorphodes (Nyl.) Staiger], Fissurina marginata Staiger [= Fissurina elaocarpa (A.W. Archer) A.W. Archer], Graphis canlaonensis Vain. (=Fissurina consentanea Nyl.) and Graphis glauca Müll. Arg. (=Fissurina dumastii Müll. Arg.). Descriptions and known distribution are given for each species. A revised key for the identification of Fissurina species so far known from China is presented. Key words: lichenized fungi, Ascomycota, Ostropales, Graphidaceae, taxonomy.
32233Fan L.-L., Guo S.-Y. & Han L.-F. (2018): Diversity of endolichenic fungi associated with some species of Cladonia from the Greater Khingan Mountains of Northeast China. - Mycosystema, 37(7): 896–906. .
Seven species of Cladonia were collected from the Greater Khingan Mountains, Northeast China. The endolichenic fungi associated with them were isolated by using the scraping cortex method and 90 strains were obtained from 710 pieces for 15 samples. The average colonization rate was 12.68% (2.86%-32.76%). There was no obvious corresponding relationship between the Cladonia species and its colonization rate. Based on morphological characteristics of colony, hyphae and conidia, 30 strains were selected as representatives and the ITS sequences of them were obtained and analyzed. According to the cultural colony characteristics and ITS sequences, these strains were identified as 19 taxa belonging to 15 genera, eleven families, eight orders, and five classes in three phyla. Xylariaceae was the dominant family, accounting for 77.78% of all strains. Hypoxylon fuscum was the dominant species, accounting for 62.22%. The Shannon-Wiener and Simpson diversity index values of the fungal community for every Cladonia species and overall demonstrated that there was moderate endolichenic fungal species diversity in Cladonia with obvious host specificity. Key words: diversity index, endolichenic fungi, nrDNA ITS sequence, host specificity, Hypoxylon.
32232帕丽旦·艾海提 阿不都拉·阿巴斯 艾尼瓦尔·吐米尔 [Ahat P., Abbas A. & Tumur A.] (2018): 中国新疆博格达山周边地区大型地衣物种多样性及分布特征 [Species diversity and distribution characteristics of macrolichens around the Bogda Mountains, Xinjiang, China]. - Mycosystema, 37(7): 907–918. .
[in Chinese with English abstract: ] A comprehensive research on lichen taxonomy and ecology of the macrolichens around the Bogda Mountains was conducted. Species diversity and distribution characteristics were analyzed and the environmental variables and ecological factors affecting macrolichens distribution were discussed. Totally 43 species of marcolichens in 15 genera, 11 family and 6 orders were found. Among them, species of the Lecanorales and Teloschistales were dominant, accounted for 81%, 67% and 55% of the sum total of species, genera and families, respectively. Five groups were recognized, they are: Physcia caesia + Xanthoria lobulata, Xanthoria candelaria + Physconia perisidiosa, Physcia tenella + Xanthoparmelia somloensis, Peltigera rufescens + Phaeophyscia sciastra and Phaeophyscia hispidula + Cladonia coniocraea. Elevation has a more significant impact on the species distribution pattern. This study provides scientific evidence for accurately determining the ecological relationship and the distribution pattern of macrolichens in Bogda Mountains. Key words: macrolichen, species diversity, distribution characteristics, Bogda Mountains, Xinjiang.
32231李苏 柳帅 刘文耀 石贤萌 宋亮 武传胜 [Li S., Liu S., Liu W.-Y., Shi X.-M., Song L. & Wu C.-S.] (2018): 亚热带常绿阔叶林附生地衣凋落物的物种多样性和生物量 的边缘效应 [Edge effects on species diversity and biomass of epiphytic macrolichen litterfall in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest]. - Mycosystema, 37(7): 919–930. .
[in Chinese with English abstract: ] Epiphytic lichens are an important component of epiphytes and show extreme sensitivity to environmental changes in subtropical montane forests. To understand the response of epiphytic lichens to forest edge effects, 16 plots at 5m, 25m, 50m, and 100m from the edge in four edge-interior transects were established in a primary montane moist evergreen broad-leaved forest in the Ailao Mountains of Yunnan. Within each plot, epiphytic macrolichen litterfall was collected over one year and the differences in biomass, species diversity and community structure were compared. It was indicated that there was a positive effect of edge environments on the species diversity and biomass accumulation of epiphytic macrolichen litterfall in the plots within 25m from the edge. Epiphytic lichen groups also showed various responses to edge effects. Ordination analysis showed that there was a significant difference in species composition between the 5m plots and the other plots while indicator species analysis revealed significant indicators only occurred in 5m plots. The positive effect of forest edge on the epiphytic lichens in the Ailao Mountains may be due to the high-light damage largely weakened by the high humidity and the small thalli of dominant foliose and fruticose macrolichen species being potentially less prone to mechanical damage destroyed by wind-force. Key words: macrolichen, epiphyte, litterfall, indicator species, community structure, ordination analysis.
32230柳帅 李苏 刘文耀 [Liu S., Li S. & Liu W.-Y.] (2018): 亚热带山地森林附生地衣的移植生长及其对环境变化的响应 [Growth of epiphytic lichens and their responses to environmental changes in a subtropical mountain forest]. - Mycosystema, 37(7): 931–939. .
[in Chinese with English abstract: ] Transplanting experiments of six species of epiphytic macrolichens were carried out in Ailao Mountains for two-year. The differences of health rate and biomass growth rate of the lichens among three habitats, primeval forest interior, forest edge and open land, were compared. The relationship between lichen growth and environmental factors were also detected. It was found that the biomass of Lobaria retigera and Sticta nylanderiana increased most rapidly in the forest edge, while Sulcaria sulcata, Usnea florida, Nephromopsis pallescens and Lobaria isidiophora grew best at the open land with strongest light and lower humidity. The health rates of the lichens were higher in the open land, relatively lower in forest edge, and lowest in the forest interior, except for Lobaria retigera. Non-parametric correlation analysis showed that the growth rate of the six lichen species was positively correlated with light and temperature, and negatively correlated with atmospheric humidity. Temperature and light are the most important factors affecting the growth of epiphytic lichens. Key words: montane forest, macrolichen, epiphyte, transplant growth, biomass accumulation.
32229王立松 梁萌萌 王欣宇 & 杨美霞 [Wang L.-S., Liang M.-M., Wang X.-Y. & Yang M.-X.] (2018): “地衣”词考 [Textual source of the Chinese word “diyi” (lichen)]. - Mycosystema, 37(7): 950–953. .
[in Chinese with English abstract: ] Definitions of the word “diyi” (lichen) in Chinese were investigated, and ancient books appeared from 2100 BC till AD 1912 were consulted; The concept that “diyi” is a symbiont was first proposed in 1858 in the book titled “Zhi Wu Xue” (botany) compiled by Li Shan-Lan et al. Key words: ancient books, “diyi” (lichen), source.
32228阿不都拉·阿巴斯 & 拉扎提·努尔太 [Abbas A. & Nurtai L.] (2018): 中国微孢衣属地衣(微孢衣科)三个新记录种 [Three new records of lichen genus Acarospora (Acarosporaceae) from China]. - Mycosystema, 37(7): 954–961. .
[in Chinese with English abstract: ] Three new records of lichen genus Acarospora (Acarosporaceae) are reported from China, viz. Acarospora obpallens (Nyl. ex Hasse) Zahlbr., A. rosulata (Th. Fr.) H. Magn. and A. aeginaica H. Magn. The specimens were collected from Heilongjiang, Inner Mongolia and Xinjiang. Morphological description, figures, ITS and mtSSU sequences are provided for each species. The materials are deposited in the Herbarium of Lichen Research Center in Arid Zones of Northwestern China of Xinjiang University, Urumqi, Xinjiang, China (XJU-NALH). Key words: Acarosporaceae, Acarospora, new records, taxonomy.
32227Wei J.-C. & Guo W. (2019): A taxonomic revision of some taxa in the Umbilicariaceae (Umbilicariales, Ascomycota). - Mycosystema, 38(10): 1600–1609. .
Based on systematic analysis of symplesiomorphy together with synapomorphy Umbilicaria laceratula (1926) has been combined as Lasallia laceratula comb. nov. and Lasallia rossica (1978) has been treated as a heterotypic synonym of Lasallia laceratula. U. caucasica (1885) has been treated as the heterotypic synonym of Lasallia pensylvanica, and Gyrophora proboscidea var. orizabae (1926) is the synonym of Umbilicaria bigleri (1949). Key words: Symplesiomorphy, synapomorphy, heterotypic synonym.
32226任强 [Ren Q.] (2019): 中国白衣属的分类修订 [Taxonomic revision of the genus Lepra (Pertusariales) in China]. - Mycosystema, 38(11): 1840–1864. .
[in Chinese with English abstract: ] Seventeen species of the genus Pertusaria s. lat. are transferred to the recently resurrected genus Lepra. Lepra albopunctata and L. muricata are reported as new to China. Pertusaria sanguinulenta is synonymized with Lepra submultipuncta. Pertusaria brachyspora is excluded from the lichen checklist of China because of wrong identification. Some of the wrongly identified specimens cited in literature are corrected, and a key to the 37 Lepra species known in China is provided. Key words: lichen-forming fungi, taxonomy, new combinations, secondary metabolites, new records.
32225Pykälä J. & Breuss O. (2011): Notes on some rare Verrucaria species (lichenised Ascomycotina, Verrucariales). - Österreichische Zeitschrift für Pilzkunde, 20: 29–34. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/OestZPilz_20_0029-0034.pdf.
Verrucaria cincta and V. putnae are reported for the first time from Fennoscandia; V. dalslandensis is new to Finland and Austria. Verrucaria scabridula is synonymized with V. subfuscata, and Verrucaria olivacella with V. inaspecta. Verrucaria inaspecta and V. scabridula are lectotypified. The type material of V. gotlandica includes four Verrucaria species. Key words: Pyrenocarpous lichens, Verrucariacae. – Taxonomy, systematics. – Mycoflora of Fennoscandia.
32224Arcadia in L. (2019): (2722) Proposal to conserve the name Bilimbia (Ramalinaceae, lichenised Ascomycota) with a conserved type. - Taxon, 68(6): 1363–1364. .
Nomenclature
32223Trovão J., Portugal A., Soares F., Paiva D.S., Mesquita N., Coelho C., Pinheiro A.C., Catarino L., Gil F. & Tiago I. (2019): Fungal diversity and distribution across distinct biodeterioration phenomena in limestone walls of the old cathedral of Coimbra, UNESCO World Heritage Site. - International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 142: 91–102. .
Fungi are powerful biodeteriogens and when colonizing stone monuments are often responsible for severe physical, chemical and aesthetical modifications. Recently the old cathedral of Coimbra (Portugal) was awarded the UNESCO World Heritage Site distinction as an integrant part of the “University of Coimbra- Alta and Sofia” area. The limestone walls in this cathedral show clear visual signs of biological colonization and biodeterioration. The aim of this work was to obtain an extensive fingerprint of the biodeteriorating fungal agents in this affected ancient limestone through the application of traditional cultivation and modern Next Generation Sequencing techniques. Due to high diversity of distinctive biodeterioration phenomena affecting this site, a rapport between the identified fungal populations and the different biodeterioration types found was also established and their importance for the monument preservation discussed. The results obtained through the application of this approach, not only allowed a robust characterization of the fungal communities colonizing this monument, but also elucidated that distinct fungal communities are dissimilar according to the type of biodeterioration analyzed. In addition, we verified that both cultivation and metagenomics methodologies should be employed synergistically in limestone biodeterioration studies in order to tackle inherent limitations regarding both techniques. Two lichen-forming genera were revealed during this study: Polysporina and Botryolepraria.
32222Mafole T.C., Solhaug K.A., Minibayeva F.V. & Beckett R.P. (2019): Occurrence and possible roles of melanic pigments in lichenized ascomycetes. - Fungal Biology Reviews, 33: 159–165. .
Many species of lichenized ascomycetes are capable of synthesizing darkly colored melanin pigments by polymerizing phenolic compounds. Available data suggest that different clades of lichens produce various kinds of melanins, with N2-fixing Peltigeralean lichens producing N-rich DOPA or “eumelanins” and lichens from other orders producing N-poor “allomelanins.” In general, melanic lichens seem to be more common in environments with high levels of abiotic stress such as polar and montane regions, but they are by no means restricted to these habitats. Here, we review the occurrence of melanins in lichens, their chemical structure, methods of quantification and biological roles. Good evidence exists that melanins in lichens protect the mycobiont from high UV, and the photobiont against high PAR. However, given their many unique properties, it seems likely that melanins help lichens to survive a range of biotic and abiotic stresses. Keywords: Lichens; Melanin; Photoinhibition; Stress tolerance.
32221Sohrabi M., Ghiyasi A., Bordbar F., Safavi S.R., Aliabadi F. & Sipman H. (2019): A checklist of lichenized fungi of Kerman province, SE, Iran. - Mycologia Iranica, 6(1): 21–32. .
The lichenized mycota of the southern part of Iran including Kerman province has been poorly studied compared to the Northern Iranian provinces such as Azerbaijan, Golestan or Mazandaran. Here we present the first lichen checklist for Kerman province, which comprises 57 species in 30 genera and 14 families. For this purpose, we reviewed both old and recent literature, examined herbarium collections and performed fieldwork in the province during 2009, 2010 and 2011. The results include 15 taxa new to the lichenized mycota of Kerman. Acarospora impressula Th. Fr., Anaptychia bryorum Poelt and Sarcogyne similis H. Magn. are new to the lichenized mycota of Iran. The following new combinations are proposed: Circinaria excrescens (J. Steiner) Sohrabi, C. scabridula (H. Magn.) Sohrabi and C. straussii (J. Steiner) Sohrabi. Key words: Circinaria, lichenized fungi, mycota, new combinations, new records.
32220Zolovs M., Jakubāne I., Kirilova J., Kivleniece I., Moisejevs R., Koļesnikova J. & Pilāte D. (2020): The potential antifeedant activity of lichen-forming fungal extracts against the invasive Spanish slug (Arion vulgaris). - Canadian Journal of Zoology, 98: 195–201. .
The protection of horticultural crops from slug feeding can be achieved using slug pellets; however, application of molluscicides is not always safe for the environment. There is a need for alternative methods to reduce the palatability of crop plants. Chemical properties of secondary compounds from lichens influence the feeding behaviour of slugs. Liquid extracts of three lichen species (Cladonia rangiferina (L.) F.H. Wigg., Cladonia stellaris (Opiz) Pouzar & Vězda, and Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf) were applied to three different crops and tested for their antifeedant properties against an important agricultural pest, the Spanish slug (Arion vulgaris Moquin-Tandon, 1855). All three extracts had specific activity, showing a decrease in grazing intensity as well as slug mass loss after feeding on treated food. Slugs significantly gained mass after feeding under control condition; however, they did not gain mass when fed on extract-treated food. The most effective extract was from P. furfuracea. We propose to use properties of lichen extracts to develop new environmentally friendly molluscicides. Key words: lichen, Arion vulgaris, Spanish slug, extraction, antifeedants, secondary metabolites, invasive species.
32219Komendova R. [recte Komendová], Nevrla J. [recte Nevrlá], Kuta J. & Sommer L. (2016): Innovative preconcentration technique on polymer sorbent for simultaneous determination of platinum group metals in the waters and lichen Hypogymnia physodes. - Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 25(12): 5172–5179. .
This study is focused on optimization of preconcentration procedure of trace amounts of platinum group metals (PGMs) by solid phase extraction. Amberlite polystyrene-divinylbezene based sorbent was used for this purpose. Under the optimizing process were optimize number of parameters such as pH value of sorption; type and concentration of complexing agent; concentration and type of cationic surfactant; type, pH, and volume of eluent mixture; acidity of final solution and various interfering influences (presence of various ions, matrix effects). Ammonium-pyrrolidindithiocarbamate, thiourea, 4-(2-pyridylazo) resorcinol and 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid were used as complexing agents for PGMs. Sorbent was conditioned using cationic surfactant solution. Benzyldimethyltetradecyl ammonium chloride, N-(alpha-carbethoxypentadecyl)trimethyl ammonium bromide and benzyldimethyldodecyl ammonium bromide were tested. Mixture of acetonitrile and HCl was proved as eluent. The influences of various concentrations of hydrochloric acid during the complexation, elution and partial evaporation of the eluent prior the determination were tested. Effects of various elements and ions were studied during the sorption and retention on the above mentioned sorbent. Simultaneous determination of PGMs was performed by ICP-MS spectrometer using helium collision cell and internal standard. Detection limits for individual elements at discussed conditions were evaluated. The optimized method of solid phase extraction was applied to spiked real water samples and lichens for testing influences of matrix and efficient of sorption process. It was discovered that recovery ratio of sorption process is diverse for individual studied elements. Acceptable results was achieved for Platinum and Palladium which showed recovery ratio about 100 % and 95 % for Osmium. Keywords: Platinum group metals; preconcentration; separation; cationic surfactant; lichens; ICP-MS.
32218Martínez-Alberola F., Barreno E., Casano L.M., Gasulla F., Molins A., Moya P., González‐Hourcade M. & Campo E.M. (2020): The chloroplast genome of the lichen‐symbiont microalga Trebouxia sp. Tr9 (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta) shows short inverted repeats with a single gene and loss of the rps4 gene, which is encoded by the nukleus. - Journal of Phycology, 56(1): 170–184. .
The Trebouxiophyceae is the class of Chlorophyta algae from which the highest number of chloroplast genome (cpDNA) sequences has been obtained. Several species in this class participate in symbioses with fungi to form lichens. However, no cpDNA has been obtained from any Trebouxia lichen‐symbiont microalgae, which are present in approximately half of all lichens. Here, we report the sequence of the completely assembled cpDNA from Trebouxia sp. TR9 and a comparative study with other Trebouxio‐phyceae. The organization of the chloroplast genome of Trebouxia sp. TR9 has certain features that are unusual in the Trebouxiophyceae and other green algae. The most remarkable characteristics are the presence of long intergenic spacers, a quadripartite structure with short inverted repeated sequences (IRs), and the loss of the rps4 gene. The presence of long intergenic spacers accounts for a larger cpDNA size in comparison to other closely related Trebouxiophyceae. The IRs, which were thought to be lost in the Trebouxiales, are distinct from most of cpDNAs since they lack the rRNA operon and uniquely includes the rbcL gene. The functional transfer of the rps4 gene to the nuclear genome has been confirmed by sequencing and examination of the gene architecture, which includes three spliceosomal introns as well as the verification of the presence of the corresponding transcript. This is the first documented transfer of the rps4 gene from the chloroplast to the nucleus among Viridiplantae. Additionally, a fairly well‐resolved phylogenetic reconstruction, including Trebouxia sp. TR9 along with other Trebouxiophyceae, was obtained based on a set of conserved chloroplast genes. Keywords: Trebouxia; chloroplast; gene transfer; genome; lichen; microalga; rps4; symbiont.
32217Felton A., Petersson L., Nilsson O., Witzell J., Cleary M., Felton A.M., Björkman C., Sang Å.O., Jonsell M., Holmström E., Nilsson U., Rönnberg J., Kalén C. & Lindbladh M. (2020): The tree species matters: Biodiversity and ecosystem service implications of replacing Scots pine production stands with Norway spruce. - Ambio, 49: 1035–1049. .
The choice of tree species used in production forests matters for biodiversity and ecosystem services. In Sweden, damage to young production forests by large browsing herbivores is helping to drive a development where sites traditionally regenerated with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) are instead being regenerated with Norway spruce (Picea abies). We provide a condensed synthesis of the available evidence regarding the likely resultant implications for forest biodiversity and ecosystem services from this change in tree species. Apart from some benefits (e.g. reduced stand-level browsing damage), we identified a range of negative outcomes for biodiversity, production, esthetic and recreational values, as well as increased stand vulnerability to storm, frost, and drought damage, and potentially higher risks of pest and pathogen outbreak. Our results are directly relevant to forest owners and policy-makers seeking information regarding the uncertainties, risks, and trade-offs likely to result from changing the tree species in production forests. Keywords: Biological diversity;  Climate change;  Ecosystem services;  Planted forest;  Sustainability. A review paper discussing also lichens in one-two paragraphs (p. 1038) in relation to the topic of the paper.
32216Ndlovu N.B., Frontasyeva M.V., Newman R.T. & Maleka P.P. (2019): Active biomonitoring of atmospheric pollution in the Western Cape (South Africa) using INAA and ICP‑MS. - Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 322: 1549–1559. .
For the first time, active biomonitoring was used to assess elemental content of atmospheric pollution in selected areas of the Western Cape Province in South Africa. Two moss and lichen species were exposed for a maximum period of 3-months (i.e. 12-weeks) at three sites. Overall, 47 elements were identified and their concentrations were determined using both INAA and ICP-MS. Some of the identified elements could be linked back to the anticipated pollution sources. Relative Accumulation Factor values were calculated for the identified elements. Overall, concentrations of elements were found to be relatively lower in the Western Cape air. Keywords: Biomonitoring · Air quality · Heavy metals · Trace elements · Neutron activation analysis.
32215Koivula M. & Vanha-Majamaa I. (2020): Experimental evidence on biodiversity impacts of variable retention forestry, prescribed burning, and deadwood manipulation in Fennoscandia. - Ecological Processes, 9: 11 [22 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13717-019-0209-1.
Intensive forest management has been applied in most Fennoscandian forests for a period of almost one felling rotation. This paradigm has produced even-aged and even-structured forests of different successional stages that cover about 90% of forest land. At the same time, wildfires have been nearly eliminated in most of the Fennoscandian nature. Consequently, hundreds of species are red-listed because of forest management. To support these species, forest management requires improvements. Variable retention forestry and habitat restoration have been suggested to mitigate negative effects of forest management on biodiversity, and these have been practiced to some extent during the past few decades. Here, we review experimental results on the effects of variable retention and two restoration measures (prescribed burning and artificial addition of coarse woody debris) on different species groups in Fennoscandia. Our key findings are as follows: (i) Many species respond positively to felling within a few years, apparently due to released and often ephemeral resources, such as fresh residue and stumps. Species associated with shady conditions are negatively impacted, but any retention supports many of these, and their species composition remains almost unaffected with 50–70% retention of the initial tree volume. (ii) These effects remain detectable for at least 10–30 years or, according to some studies, nearly 100 years, e.g., in polypore fungi. (iii) Initial effects of prescribed burning on most species groups (apart from pyrophiles) are negative, but within 10–15 years post-fire sites begin to support many rare and threatened deadwood-dependent species. Epiphytic lichens, however, remain negatively affected. (iv) Artificial addition of deadwood (mostly high stumps) supports a wide spectrum of deadwood-dependent species, but the species composition differs from that of naturally died trees. (v) Moisture and micro-habitat variation are crucial for forest species at harvested sites, at least in forests dominated by Norway spruce. We conclude that felling method as such is of little importance for threatened forest species, although retention mitigates many negative effects. These species require microclimatic continuity, and maintenance and active increase of legacies, such as deadwood of different qualities (species, downed/standing, snag/log/stump, decay stage), very old trees, and tree species mixtures. Keywords: Beetle, Forest management, Invertebrate, Polypore, Resilience, Resistance, Restoration, Saproxylic, Soil fauna, Understory vegetation.
32214Coufalík P., Uher A., Zvěřina O. & Komárek J. (2020): Determination of cadmium in lichens by solid sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (SS-GF-AAS). - Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 192: 222 [7 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-020-8186-5.
The determination of trace metal contents directly from a solid sample is a trend in modern atomic spectrometry. The aim of this study was to develop an analytical method for the routine determination of Cd in lichens using solid sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (SS-GF-AAS). For the determination of Cd, the temperature program of the graphite furnace was optimized using a mixed matrix modifier (Pd + Mg (NO3)2 + Triton X-100). The limit of detection and the limit of quantification were 0.9 μg/kg and 3 μg/kg, respectively. The analytical method for Cd determination in the plant matrix was verified by the analysis of certified reference materials of lichens, seaweed, and rye grass. The developed procedure was applied to the study of Cd distribution in thalli of Usnea antarctica lichen from James Ross Island, Antarctica. The SS-GF-AAS analytical method is particularly suited for use in environmental studies and plant physiology (the microanalysis of anatomical structures). Keywords: Cadmium. Lichen . Solid sampling . AAS.
32213de Carvalho C.R., Santiago I.F., da Costa Coelho L., Câmara P.E.A.S., Silva M.C., Stech M., Rosa C.A. & Rosa L.H. (2019): Fungi associated with plants and lichens of Antarctica. - In: Rosa L.H. (ed.), Fungi of Antarctica, p. 165–199, Springer, Cham. .
Chapter in book
32212Luo D., Wang Z., Zhou R. & Cao S. (2020): A polysaccharide from Umbilicaria yunnana: Structural characterization and anti-inflammation effects. - Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 151: 870–877. .
A polysaccharide JUYP was isolated and purified from Umbilicaria yunnana. The detailed structure of JUYP was studied using gas chromatography (GC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), methylation-GC–MS, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A homogeneous polysaccharide JUYP was obtained with the yield of 21.2% and average molecular weight (Mw) of 577 kDa. Monosaccharide composition analysis indicated that JUYP was composed of glucose, galactose and mannose with a molar ratio of 2.3:1:0.7. Structural analyses demonstrated that the dominate components in JUYP were 6-β-D-Glcp, and other sugar residues included 2,4-β-D-Manp and T-β-D-Galf. TEM images further revealed JUYP was a linear branched molecule with entangled chains. Based on the anti-inflammatory assays, 1 μg/mL of JUYP exhibited good inhibitory effects on TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β and COX-2 mRNA expressions in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, while the inhibitory effects (87.8% for mRNA, 55.89% for protein) of JUYP on IL-1β expressions were more significant than that of dexamethasone (DXMS, 61.6% for mRNA, 35.15% for protein) (p<0.01). Keywords: Umbilicaria yunnana; Structural characterization; Anti-inflammation effects.
32211Bhattarai P., Bhatta K.P., Zhang Y.-J. & Vetaas O.R. (2020): Microtopography driven plant species composition in alpine region: a fine-scale study from Southern Norway. - Journal of Mountain Science, 17(3): 542–555. .
This study explores the relationship between the species composition of lichen and vascular plant species with microtopography at fine scale. We conducted our study in Hardengervidda National Park, Norway. Specifically, we aim to test whether the species richness of different plant lifeforms peaks at middle of the microtopography gradient, and then explain the observed patterns with an aid of snow cover gradient along microtopography and snow cover. We sampled 69 species of vascular plants and lichens in 151 plots of 4 m2 along 23 transects during summer on Tronsbu, Sandhaug and Besso. Detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) was performed to explore how microtopographical gradient was related to the variation in the species composition. One-way ANOVA was performed to test the microtopographic variability in species richness. Afterwards, generalized linear model (GLM) was used to reveal species richness patterns along the snow cover gradient. The first axis in DCA represents the complex gradient from snow free ridge to wet snowbed habitats and the second axis represents a gradient from acidic to calcareous sites. Lichen’s species richness is greater in ridge than in snowbeds, while all other life forms follow the opposite trend. Species richness for total plant species, vascular plant species and herbaceous plant species increased with increase in weighted average snow indicator value (WASI), whilst species richness for lichen species declined substantially towards the maximum WASI value. In contrast, species richness for dwarf shrub species showed a unimodal relationship with WASI. This study shows that liquid water availability provides a good potential explanation for species composition and richness in mountains, which is controlled by snow cover and prevalent wind direction. Keywords: Species richness; Water energy dynamics hypothesis; Weighted average snow indicator value; Microtopography; Ordination.
32210Hayova V.P., Tykhonenko Yu.Ya., Sukhomlyn M.M., Martynova K.V. & Vasilenko D.V. (2019): First record of fungal fruit bodies on a leaf from Late Eocene Rovno Amber (Ukraine). - Paleontological Journal, 53(10): 1104–1110. .
The first record of fruit bodies of a microscopic fungus on the leaf of an unidentified dicotyledonous plant in amber is reported. The fungus is represented by numerous superficial fruit bodies (up to 35 in total), presumably of an ascomycetous fungus, at various stages of development. Ascomata are small, single, scattered all over the surface of half a leaf, setose. Setae are numerous, stiff, brown to black, densely covering the entire surface of the ascomata. In external appearance, the fungus reminds representatives of several taxonomic groups of non-lichenized ascomycetes. However, combination of the observed morphological characters does not fit any extant genus of foliicolous ascomycetes. Most probably, this fungus belongs to the group of lichenized fungi. In our opinion, in taxonomic position it may be close to extant representatives of the family Porinaceae (Lecanoromycetes), but possesses a unique combination of morphological characteristics. Keywords: Fossil, Late Eocene, Rovno amber, Ascomycota, setose ascomata, foliicolous lichen.
32209Vobis G., Solans M., Scervino J.M., Schumann P., Spröer C. & Messuti M.I. (2020): Isolation and characterization of an endolichenic actinobacterium from the lichen thallus of Pseudocyphellaria berberina. - Symbiosis, 80: 43–51. .
Recent research has shown that lichenized fungi, which constitute a symbiotic association between a fungus and an algae and/or cyanobacteria, could be a source of biotechnologically interesting microorganisms, including actinobacteria. Studies conducted on lichenized microecosystems in the Andean region (Patagonia, Argentina) showed the isolation of twenty-three strains of actinobacteria, belonging to different genera, coming from the lichen Pseudocyphellaria berberina (Ascomycota). The aim of this work was to complement these studies by means of a polyphasic approach (morpho-physiological, chemical and molecular characterization) in order to describe a new endolichenic Pseudonocardia (Actinobacteria) strain BCRU MITI 22 (= DSM 46833). The study of cultivable actinobacteria isolated from lichen could contribute to a better interpretation of the physiological functions of these organisms within the “lichen microbiome”. Keywords: Actinobacteria . Lichen thallus . Patagonia . Pseudonocardia . Temperate rainforest.
32208Łubek A., Kukwa M., Czortek P. & Jaroszewicz B. (2020): Impact of Fraxinus excelsior dieback on biota of ash‑associated lichen epiphytes at the landscape and community level. - Biodiversity and Conservation, 29: 431–450. .
The landscape-scale extinction of a tree species may have a negative impact on diversity of associated epiphytic species. We used ordination and hierarchical clustering methods to assess landscape and the community level effects of reduction in the abundance of European ash Fraxinus excelsior, caused by ash dieback, on the associated epiphytic lichen biota in Białowieża Forest (Poland)—the best preserved forest complex in Central Europe. At the landscape level ash decline impact on the biota of ash-associated epiphytic lichens was weak, due to the high diversity of tree species, which may serve as potential alternative hosts. At this level, oak and hornbeam are the most important alternative hosts, assuring the maintenance of ash-associated epiphytic lichens. Lime, alder, and hazel appeared to be less important but still may serve as substitute phorophytes to approximately 2/3 of the ash-associated lichen biota. About 90% of epiphytic biota are likely to survive on the landscape scale. However, at the community level of alder-ash floodplain forest, where ash was dominant, about 50% of ash-associated epiphytic lichen species are threatened by ash dieback. Our results highlight the importance of a spatial scale in conservation biology. Protection of large forest areas with rich diversity of phorophyte trees increases chances of survival of the associated epiphytic organisms. Keywords: European ash · Foundation species · Hot spot tree · Metapopulation · Phorophytes · Primeval forest.
32207Lendemer J.C. (2020): Recent literature on lichens—256. - Bryologist, 123(1): 112–123. .
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32206Andrade D.S., Aptroot A., Lücking R., Barbosa B.M.C, Cavalcante J.G. & Cáceres M.E.S. (2020): Crustose Caliciaceae in Restinga vegetation in Brazil with a new species of Gassicurtia and two identification keys. - Bryologist, 123(1): 75–83. .
During ecological studies on corticolous lichens in Restinga vegetation in northeastern Brazil, many species of crustose Caliciaceae formerly placed in the collective genus Buellia s.l. were collected. A new species was discovered and is described here—Gassicurtia restingiana D.S.Andrade, M.Cáceres & Aptroot differs from G. catasema in the absence of lichexanthone. Two identification keys are provided, one for all species of Gassicurtia known from Brazil, and one for crustose, epiphytic, non-mazaediate species of Caliciaceae found in Restinga areas in northeastern Brazil. Keywords: Lichens, coastal vegetation, corticolous, Amandinea, Baculifera, Buellia, Stigmatochroma.
32205Mežaka A. & Kirillova J. (2019): Epiphytic bryophytes and lichens and their functional trait relationships with host characteristics in the Lūznava Manor Park. - Acta Biologica Universitatis Daugavpiliensis, 19(2): 241–251. .
Manor parks are urban areas that offer favorable environmental conditions for epiphytic bryophyte and lichen conservation. We investigated epiphytic bryophyte and lichen species richness and functional trait associations with tree diameter and documented data about tree bark pH in Lūznava manor park in southeastern Latvia. In total, 76 epiphytic (44 lichen, 32 bryophyte) species, including rare species, were found on 91 host trees. We found that epiphytic bryophytes with a perennial stayer life strategy were significantly positively associated with tree diameter, but negatively with high tree bark pH. Lichen functional traits, however, were not associated with tree diameter. Lichens with leprose growth form, similar to lichens with asexual reproductive strategy, were associated positively with low bark pH trees. The study shows the importance of bryophytes and lichens in ecological studies exploring functional trait and environment relationships. Future studies are needed to involve larger spectrum of bryophyte and lichen functional traits across larger spatial scales. Key words: Epiphytic bryophytes and lichens, conservation, manor park, functional traits.
32204Castillo-Campos G., Pérez-Pérez R.E., Córdova-Chávez O., García-Franco J.G. & Cáceres M.E.S. (2020): Vertical distribution of epiphytic lichens on Quercus laurina Humb. & Bonpl. in a remnant of cloud forest in the state of Veracruz, México. - Nordic Journal of Botany, 37(12) [2019]: e02459 [11 p.]. doi: 10.1111/njb.02459.
In the tropics, corticolous lichen richness and cover tend to increase from the trunk base to the top of the crown of trees. In this study we calculated the total beta diversity of the lichen community along a vertical gradient on Quercus laurina in Mexican cloud forest. By comparing the richness and cover of the lichens by zone, we show that foliose and fruticose lichens are a minor component of the total lichen species richness, but have a higher cover than the crustose lichens. Five zones were identified along each phorophyte (n = 15) with a diameter at breast height >40 cm. A total of 92 species were identified. Of these, 38% were found only in a single zone, 51% were shared between the different zones and 11% occurred across all zones. Species richness and cover increased from the lowest to the highest zones of the phorophytes. Dissimilarity in species composition between the zones could be explained by species replacement. An indicator species analysis revealed that only a few species, e.g. Hypotrachyna vexans, H. cf. sublaevigata and Ramalina cf. sinaloensis prefer a particular zone. The results show that the lichen community associated with Quercus laurina phorophytes is highly diverse and suggest that species richness and cover are related to the zone and the various growth forms. Keywords: beta diversity, corticolous lichens, Neotropical lichens, tropical cloud forest.
32203Waldvogel A.-M., Feldmeyer B., Rolshausen G., Exposito-Alonso M., Rellstab C., Kofler R., Mock T., Schmid K., Schmitt I., Bataillon T., Savolainen O., Bergland A., Flatt T., Guillaume F. & Pfenninger M. (2020): Evolutionary genomics can improve prediction of species’ responses to climate change. - Evolution Letters, 4(1): 4–18. doi:10.1002/evl3.154.
Global climate change (GCC) increasingly threatens biodiversity through the loss of species, and the transformation of entire ecosystems. Many species are challenged by the pace of GCC because they might not be able to respond fast enough to changing biotic and abiotic conditions. Species can respond either by shifting their range, or by persisting in their local habitat. If populations persist, they can tolerate climatic changes through phenotypic plasticity, or genetically adapt to changing conditions depending on their genetic variability and census population size to allow for de novo mutations. Otherwise, populations will experience demographic collapses and species may go extinct. Current approaches to predicting species responses to GCC begin to combine ecological and evolutionary information for species distribution modelling. Including an evolutionary dimension will substantially improve species distribution projections which have not accounted for key processes such as dispersal, adaptive genetic change, demography, or species interactions. However, eco-evolutionary models require new data and methods for the estimation ofa species’ adaptive potential, which have so far only been available for a small number of model species. To represent global biodiversity, we need to devise large-scale data collection strategies to define the ecology and evolutionary potential of a broad range of species, especially of keystone species of ecosystems. We also need standardized and replicable modelling approaches that integrate these new data to account for eco-evolutionary processes when predicting the impact of GCC on species’ survival. Here, we discuss different genomic approaches that can be used to investigate and predict species responses to GCC. This can serve as guidance for researchers looking for the appropriate experimental setup for their particular system. We furthermore highlight future directions for moving forward in the field and allocating available resources more effectively, to implement mitigation measures before species go extinct and ecosystems lose important functions. Key words: Biodiversity loss, eco-evolutionary dynamics, genomic quantitative genetics, models.
32202Storch I., Penner J., Asbeck T., Baile M., Bauhus J., Braunisch V., Dormann C., Frey J., Gärtner S., Hanewinkel M., Koch B., Klein A.M., Kuss T., Pregernig M., Pyttel P., Reif A., Scherer-Lorenzen M., Segelbacher G., Schraml U., Staab M., Winkel G. & Yousefpour R. (2020): Evaluating the effectiveness of retention forestry to enhance biodiversity in production forests of Central Europe using an interdisciplinary, multi-scale approach. - Ecology and Evolution, 10: 1489–1509. doi.org/10.1002/ece3.6003.
Retention forestry, which retains a portion of the original stand at the time of harvesting to maintain continuity of structural and compositional diversity, has been originally developed to mitigate the impacts of clear‐cutting. Retention of habitat trees and deadwood has since become common practice also in continuous‐cover forests of Central Europe. While the use of retention in these forests is plausible, the evidence base for its application is lacking, trade‐offs have not been quantified, it is not clear what support it receives from forest owners and other stakeholders and how it is best integrated into forest management practices. The Research Training Group ConFoBi (Conservation of Forest Biodiversity in Multiple‐use Landscapes of Central Europe) focusses on the effectiveness of retention forestry, combining ecological studies on forest biodiversity with social and economic studies of biodiversity conservation across multiple spatial scales. The aim of ConFoBi is to assess whether and how structural retention measures are appropriate for the conservation of forest biodiversity in uneven‐aged and selectively harvested continuous‐cover forests of temperate Europe. The study design is based on a pool of 135 plots (1 ha) distributed along gradients of forest connectivity and structure. The main objectives are (a) to investigate the effects of structural elements and landscape context on multiple taxa, including different trophic and functional groups, to evaluate the effectiveness of retention practices for biodiversity conservation; (b) to analyze how forest biodiversity conservation is perceived and practiced, and what costs and benefits it creates; and (c) to identify how biodiversity conservation can be effectively integrated in multi‐functional forest management. ConFoBi will quantify retention levels required across the landscape, as well as the socio‐economic prerequisites for their implementation by forest owners and managers. ConFoBi's research results will provide an evidence base for integrating biodiversity conservation into forest management in temperate forests.
32201Freeman H. (2020): "Potholes" in a mod-bit roof membrane – lichen attack. - IIBEC Interface, 20–23. .
This article describes the interaction between a naturally occurring lichen and a modified-bituminous (mod-bit) roof membrane. I have not found this topic discussed by anyone in roofing literature. The growth of this lichen is very slow in relation to the expected life span of a mod-bit roof membrane. As a result, the roof will have reached the end of its useful life and been replaced or been coated or given a cap sheet re-cover before the lichen has advanced to the point of causing a membrane failure. The only routine maintenance that may be required would be patching potholes.
32200Kleinman R. & Blisard K. (2020): The Lichen Rinodina confragosa (Ach.) Körb. New to New Mexico. - The New Mexico Botanist Newsletter, 65: 1–2. .
Rinodina confragosa (Ach.) Körb. is a thin, crustose lichen known from Europe and Africa, and also native to the Rocky Mountains of North America, including Arizona. We searched the Consortium of North American Lichen Herbaria (https://lichenportal.org) and found no specimens listed for New Mexico, although there are known sites close by in Arizona, including Portal (Cochise Co.) and Mt. Graham (Graham Co.), both of which are close to the New Mexico state line and within about 100 miles of the location in southwest New Mexico near Silver City. This new location is in piñon-juniper woodland on private land in 50% shade. Rinodina confragosa has a light gray thallus and is usually found with black apothecia evident. In our specimen, the apothecia were numerous enough to give the lichen a black overall appearance from a distance on the granitic boulder, which is its preferred substrate. The photobiont is a single-celled green alga. The asci each hold 8 brown two-celled elliptic spores, and the reaction in KOH is yellow. The specimen packet consists of scrapings from the boulder and will be located at SNM, the Dale A. Zimmerman Herbarium at Western New Mexico University in Silver City. Many thanks to Larry St. Clair for confirming our identification.
32199Chirva O.V., Nikerova K.M., Androsova V.I. & Ignatenko R.V. (2019): Activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase in Lobaria pulmonaria from forest communities of middle and northernmost boreal zone (NW Russia). - Czech Polar Reports, 9(2): 228–242. .
The present study was carried out to evaluate the activity of antioxidant enzymes and the protein content in Lobaria pulmonaria thalli of various ontogenetic stages (studied groups: juvenile and mature) in forest communities of the middle and northernmost boreal subzones (i.e. two habitat groups). Obtained results showed that the protein content in thalli of different ontogenetic stages and habitats did not differ significantly between the two studied groups and ranged from 3.4 to 3.8 mg g-1. Peroxidase (POD) activity was low and did not exceed 0.01 μmol TG mg-1 of protein. No significant differences between the studied groups (ontogenetic and habitat) in POD was found. On the contrary, the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) showed significant differences. SOD activity ranged from 5.1 to 6.3 U mg-1 of protein. Significant differences were found between the SOD activity in juvenile and mature L. pulmonaria thalli in the communities of the northern boreal subzone (p = 0.043) and in juvenile thalli from different habitats (р = 0.020). In general, CAT activity ranged from 187 to 605 μmol H2O2 mg-1 protein. Significant differences in CAT activity were apparent between the thalli from the middle and northernmost boreal subzone communities (p=0.040). The differences in CAT activity values in juvenile and mature thalli in the northernmost boreal subzone (p = 0.006) were found as well. Juvenile thalli from different habitats (p = 0.008) differed. As a result we suggest that juvenile thalli might be more suitable for the purposes of bioindication of environmental conditions, such as temperature, humidity, since they are more sensitive in comparison to mature thalli. Key words: Lobaria pulmonaria, antioxidant, catalase, superoxide dismutase.
32198Konoreva L., Kozhin M., Chesnokov S. & Hong S.G. (2019): Lichens and vascular plants in Duvefjorden area on Nordaust-landet, Svalbard. - Czech Polar Reports, 9(2): 182–199. .
Floristic check-lists were compiled for the first time for Duvefjorden Bay on Nordaustlandet, Svalbard, based on field work in July 2012 and on data from literature and herbaria. The check-lists include 172 species of lichens and 51 species of vascular plants. Several species rare in Svalbard and in the Arctic were discovered: Candelariella borealis was new to Svalbard. 51 lichen species were newly recorded on Nordaustlandet and 131 lichen species were observed in the Duvefjorden area for the first time. Among lichen species rare in Svalbard and in the Arctic the following can be mentioned: Caloplaca magni-filii, C. nivalis, Lecidea silacea, Phaeophyscia nigricans, Polyblastia gothica, Protothelenella sphinctrinoidella, Rinodina conradii, Stenia geophana, and Tetramelas pulverulentus. Two species of vascular plants, Saxifraga svalbardensis and S. hyperborea, were found new to the Duvefjorden area. The investigated flora is represented mostly by species widespread in Svalbard and in the Arctic. Although Duvefjorden area is situated in the northernmost part of Svalbard, its flora is characterized by relatively high diversity of vascular plants and lichens. Apparently this is due to the influence of the warm North Atlantic Current. Key words: Arctic, vascular plants, lichen biota, new records, rare species.
32197Lojka H. (1886): Adatok Magyarország zuzmóflórájához. III. - Mathematikai és Természettudományi Közlemények, 21: 321–378. .
Romania / Rumania
32196Xu L.-L., Wu Q.-H. & Jia Z.-F. (2016): Chapsa (Graphidaceae, Ostropales), a lichen genus new to China. - 热带亚热带植物学报 [Journal of Tropical and Subtropical Botany], 24: 495–498. .
Based on the specimens collected from Hainan Island and Guangxi Province, the lichen genus Chapsa A. Massal. and two species, C. indica A. Massal. and C. leprocarpa (Nyl.) A. Frisch, are reported as new to China. The genus is characterized by the corticolous crustose thallus, apothecioid or chroodiscoid ascomata with a fused to indistinctly free proper exciple, the presence of lateral paraphyses, and the transversely septate to muriform asco-spores. Key words: Cryptogamae; Lichenized fungi; Taxonomy; New record.
32195Dou M.-Z., Yao Z.-T. & Jia Z.-F. (2019): Reimnitzia, a newly recorded lichen genus to China. - 热带亚热带植物学报 [Journal of Tropical and Subtropical Botany], 27: 726–730. .
The lichenized fungi genus Reimnitzia Kalb(Graphidaceae) is reported as new record to China. It is a monotypic genus, containing the single species R. santensis epiphytic on bark or bryophytes. Reimnitzia santensis is crustose; has no cortex structures; contains large columns of calcium oxalate crystals; has abundant isidia, which are concolorous to thallus, unbranched, first globular, then worm-like, with a length of up to 1.5 mm, and a black pore area or a single pore at the top. The species has chroodiscoid ascomata, brown submuriform ascospores sized 15–25 μm×8–12 μm, and pycnidia that occur on the tips of isidia-like structures and in thallus warts, with bacilliform conidia, and abscence of lichen compounds.
32194Xiong Y.-J., Qin Q.-L. & Ren Q. (2020): Three species of crustose lichens new to China. - 热带亚热带植物学报 [Journal of Tropical and Subtropical Botany], 28: 91–95. .
Porina byssophila, Sarcogyne privigna and Trimmatothelopsis versipellis collected from Mt. Kunyu in Shandong Province, are reported as new record species to China. The detailed description of morphology, anatomy, chemistry and the distribution are also given. Key words: Lichenized fungi; Porinaceae; Acarosporaceae.
32193Qin Q.-L., Xiong Y.-J. & Ren Q. (2020): Three Biatora species new to China. - 热带亚热带植物学报 [Journal of Tropical and Subtropical Botany], 28: 96–100. .
Three species of Biatora, including B. alaskana, B. alborufidula and B. longispora, are reported from China for the first time. The morphological, anatomical, and chemical characteristics were described. The key to the known species of Biatora in China is presented. Key words: Ramalinaceae; Biatora; Lichenized fungi; Lichen.
32192Lewis C.J. (2020): Checklist of the lichens and allied fungi of Frontenac Provincial Park, Ontario. - Rhodora, 121(988) [2019]: 248–296. .
Frontenac Provincial Park is located on the Frontenac Axis, a southern extension of the Canadian Shield, linking Algonquin Park to the Adirondack Mountains. To better understand the lichen biota of this interesting ecosystem, an inventory was conducted during several field visits from 2016–2019. During these surveys, 280 species of lichens and allied fungi in 115 genera were discovered. Presented is the first published record of Lempholemma cladodes (Tuck.) Zahlbr. in Canada, as well as the first published discoveries of Cladonia petrophila R. C. Harris, Coccocarpia palmicola (Spreng.) Arv. & D. J. Galloway, and Leprocaulon adhaerens (K. Knudsen, Elix & Lendemer) Lendemer & B. P. Hodk. in Ontario. Sixteen species are provincially ranked as critically imperilled (S1, S1S2 or S1S3), sixteen species as imperilled (S2 or S2S3), and nineteen species as vulnerable (S3 or S3S4). Unranked species reported for the second time in Canada are Dermatocarpon muhlenbergii (Ach.) Müll. Arg. and Cladonia atlantica A. Evans. An undescribed species of Lempholemma growing on flooded deciduous tree bases in vernal pools was also discovered. A discussion of Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm., a pollution and habitat disturbance sensitive species, is presented. The records of L. pulmonaria discovered in Frontenac quite possibly represent the most southern observations in the province and are of conservation concern. It is recommended that a lichen awareness and education program be created for the park staff and visitors to highlight these rare and sensitive lichens and habitats within the park in the hope that lichens are protected through appropriate management and planning.
32191Yoshino K., Yamamoto K., Masumoto H., Degawa Y., Yoshikawa H., Harada H. & Sakamoto K. (2020): Polyol-assimilation capacities of lichen-inhabiting fungi. - Lichenologist, 52(1): 49–59. doi:10.1017/S0024282919000483.
Fungi are one of the most diverse carbon source-assimilating organisms, living as saprobes, parasites and symbionts; they play an important role in carbon cycling in the ecosystem. A lichen thallus provides habitats for many non-lichenized fungi and usually contains large quantities of polyols. However, research has not been undertaken to identify carbon sources of lichen-inhabiting fungi. In this study, we isolated various lichen-inhabiting fungi from surface-sterilized Ramalina spp., Flavoparmelia caperata and Peltigera degenii, and demon- strated their ability to assimilate carbon sources, namely glucose, ribitol and mannitol. Several isolates efficiently assimilated mannitol and ribitol; however, most isolates could assimilate only mannitol or both ribitol and mannitol at low levels. It is suggested that there are different preferences and niche segregation of carbon sources among lichen-inhabiting fungi, and that this assemblage includes fungi with different lifestyles such as saprobes, endophytes and transient visitors. Dothideomycetes, Lecanoromycetes, mannitol, Pezizomycetes, ribitol, Sordariomycetes
32190Wilk K. (2020): Huriella flakusii (Teloschistaceae, lichenized Ascomycota), a new species from the Colca Canyon region in Peru. - Lichenologist, 52(1): 37–47. doi:10.1017/S0024282919000458.
A new species, Huriella flakusii, is described from the arid region of the Colca Canyon in southern Peru, and is characterized by squamulose, orange thalli and abundant, crowded and aggregated, usually flexuous when compressed, reddish apothecia. The thalline cortex, proper margin and hypothecium are paraplectenchymatous. The ascospores are broadly ellipsoid, 10‒15 × 5.0‒9.5 μm, with rather thin septa, 2‒4 μm. Phylogenetic analyses of the DNA sequences of ITS, nuLSU and mrSSU rDNA markers revealed that the new species is nested within the Amundsenia-Squamulea subclade in the subfamily Xanthorioideae, and has a sister group relationship to Huriella loekoesiana from South Korea. Caloplaca s. lat., ITS, mrSSU, nuLSU, phylogeny, South America, taxonomy
32189Miranda-González R., Aptroot A., Lücking R., Flakus A., Barcenas-Peña A. & Herrera-Campos M. (2020): The identity, ecology and distribution of Polypyrenula (Ascomycota: Dothideomycetes): A new member of Trypetheliaceae revealed by molecular and anatomical data. - Lichenologist, 52(1): 27–35. doi:10.1017/S0024282919000422.
New collections are reported of the monospecific genus Polypyrenula, an apparently extinct and doubtfully lichenized fungus, typically clas- sified in the Pyrenulaceae. Anatomical studies reveal that it is facultatively lichenized. The structure of its hamathecium suggests affinities with Dothideomycetes rather than Eurotiomycetes. Molecular analysis using nuLSU and mtSSU markers demonstrates for the first time its inclusion in Trypetheliaceae, outside the core genera as part of the early diverging lineages in this family. The known distribution of Polypyrenula is extended to Mexico and South America, new information on its phorophyte associations is provided, and the name Polypyrenula sexlocularis is reinstated as the correct name for this species. albissima, Bolivia, lichen, Mexico, seasonally dry tropical forest, sexlocularis
32188Gasulla F., Barrasa J., Casano L. & Del Campo E. (2020): Symbiont composition of the basidiolichen Lichenomphalia meridionalis varies with altitude in the Iberian Peninsula. - Lichenologist, 52(1): 17–26. doi:10.1017/S002428291900046X.
Basidiolichens are generally poorly researched because of the very small number of species and their restriction to special niches. Lichenomphalia basidiolichens grow in considerable quantities in arctic and alpine habitats but they are inadequately studied in these habi- tats in Mediterranean areas. Based on morphological and phylogenetic analyses, we identified the different symbionts of L. meridionalis, collected in localities in Spain at altitudes ranging from 533 to 2200 m above sea level. The present study provides the first molecular data available for L. meridionalis. We found that a microindel of six bp within the nrITS2 could help to discriminate L. meridionalis from other species of the genus. Molecular analyses revealed the existence of two different green algal strains, both belonging to Coccomyxa subellipsoidea, a species shared with other Lichenomphalia lichens. Notably, the two chlorobiont strains associated with L. mer- idionalis were differentially distributed according to altitude, and samples having one of the two strains consistently also included cyanobacteria. arctic-alpine, Coccomyxa, cyanobacteria, lichen, Mediterranean, symbiosis
32187Magain N., Spribille T., DiMeglio J., Nelson P., Miadlikowska J. & Sérusiaux E. (2020): Phylogenetic evidence for an expanded circumscription of Gabura (Arctomiaceae). - Lichenologist, 52(1): 3–15. doi:10.1017/S0024282919000471.
Since the advent of molecular taxonomy, numerous lichen-forming fungi with homoiomerous thalli initially classified in the family Collemataceae Zenker have been transferred to other families, highlighting the extent of morphological convergence within Lecanoromycetes O. E. Erikss. & Winka. While the higher level classification of these fungi might be clarified by such transfers, numerous specific and generic classifications remain to be addressed. We examined the relationships within the broadly circumscribed genus Arctomia Th. Fr., which has been the recipient of several transfers from Collemataceae. We demonstrated that Arctomia insignis (P. M. Jørg. & Tønsberg) Ertz does not belong to Arctomia s. str. but forms a strong monophyletic group with Gabura fascicularis (L.) P. M. Jørg. We also confirmed that Arctomia borbonica Magain & Sérus. and the closely related Arctomia insignis represent two species. We formally trans- ferred A. insignis and A. borbonica to the genus Gabura Adans. and introduced two new combinations: Gabura insignis and Gabura bor- bonica. We reported Gabura insignis from Europe (Scotland and Ireland) for the first time. While material from Europe and North America is genetically almost identical, specimens from Madagascar, South Africa and Reunion Island belong to three distinct phylogenetic lineages, all of which are present in the latter area and may represent distinct species. In its current circumscription, the genus Gabura may contain up to six species, whereas Arctomia s. str. includes only two species (A. delicatula Th. Fr. and A. teretiuscula P. M. Jørg.). The Gabura insignis group is shown to have an unexpectedly large, subcosmopolitan distribution. With the extended sampling from Arctomiaceae Th. Fr., the placement of Steinera sorediata P. James & Henssen in the genus Steinera Zahlbr. is confirmed and the presence of a new Steinera species from Chile is highlighted. biogeography, Ireland, lichenized fungi, Scotland, species delimitation
32186McCarthy J.W., Clayden S.R. & Ahti T. (2020): Tholurna dissimilis (Caliciaceae) confirmed as occurring in eastern North America. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 19: 1–8. http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/op/biblio_list.php?BucVolume_tab=19.
Tholurna dissimilis, a rare corticolous dwarf fruticose lichen known from Scandinavia since the early 19th century and from western North America since the early 1960s, is confirmed as occurring in eastern Labrador, Canada. The taxon was discovered during a lichen survey of the Makkovik region of coastal Labrador during a botany survey initiated by the Newfoundland and Labrador Wildlife Division in the summer of 2010. The discovery of this rare, unusual lichen ends decades of speculation regarding its occurrence in eastern North America. Keywords. – Caliciales, lichen biodiversity, subarctic, alpine, bird-manured.
32185Koyuncu H. & Kul A.R. (2020): Removal of methylene blue dye from aqueous solution by nonliving lichen (Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf.), as a novel biosorbent. - Applied Water Science, 10:72 [14 p.] doi.org/10.1007/s13201-020-1156-9. .
The use of lichens is insufficient in industry. To the best of our knowledge, there is no study on the use of lichens in the removal of dyes from aqueous media. The aim of this study is to draw attention to the biosorption capabilities of lichens which are natural, renewable and inexpensive sources, and to investigate the usability of nonliving lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf. (LPF) in methylene blue (MB) dye removal from aqueous solution. With the green chemistry approach, no chemical treatment was applied to the LPF and it was used as a natural biosorbent for the biosorption. The LPF samples were prepared and characterized and performed batch mode biosorption experiments studying the effect of various parameters on MB biosorption. The experimental data were fitted with four different kinetic models (pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, Elovich model and intra-particle diffusion) which were evaluated for their validity. Identification of the biosorption mechanism of MB onto the LPF was performed by isotherm studies via three isotherm models [Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin–Radushkevich (D–R)], and the parameters of each model were determined. It was concluded that the biosorption rate and yield were high, the type of biosorption of MB onto the LPF was defined as chemical biosorption, and the surface of the LPF was decided energetically heterogeneous. The results indicate that the LPF biomass can be attractive options for MB dye removal from aqueous media. Keywords: Biosorption · Equilibrium · Kinetics · Lichen (Pseudevernia furfuracea) · Methylene blue.
32184Balabanova B., Stafilov T., Šajn R. & Baèeva [recte Bačeva] K. (2012): Characterisation of heavy metals in lichen species Hypogymnia physodes and Evernia prunastri due to biomonitoring of air pollution in the vicinity of copper mine. - International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 6: 779–794. .
Lichen species (Hypogymnia physodes and Evernia prunastri) were used for biomonitoring the possible air pollution with heavy metals in the vicinity of copper mine in the eastern part of the Republic of Macedonia. The contents of 18 elements were analysed by ICP-AES and ETAAS techniques. For data processing basic statistical methods and multivariate exploratory (factor and cluster analysis) techniques were applied. Three geogenic and one anthropogenic group of elements were singled out from factor analysis. Maps of spatial distribution of elements from the anthropogenic group showed an increased content of the anthropogenic elements only in close vicinity to the mine. A maximum value obtained for Cu content was 130 mg/kg and for Pb content was 120 mg/kg. Lichen talus of the collected species showed high retention power for accumulation of the anthropogenic group of elements compared to moss species sampled from the same study area (r=0.86 and r=0.68). Here we show that lichens can be use as biomonitors for atmospheric distribution of anthropogenicintroduced elements. Key words: Atmospheric pollution, Heavy metals, Biomonitoring, Lichens, Copper mine.
32183Rehman S., Andleeb S., Rehman Niazi A. & Ali S. (2018): Estimation of trace elements and in vitro biological activities of lichens extracts. - Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Science, 31(4): 1407–1416. .
Infectious diseases caused by etiological agents are still a major threat to public health. Their impact is particularly large in developing countries due to relative unavailability of medicine and the emergence of widespread drug resistance. In the current research, trace metals were detected in lichens species through inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. The antimicrobial potency of Pseudevernia furfruracea, Physcia species, Dermatocarpon vellerum and Parmellia species (lichens) extracts have been investigated against three local clinical bacterial isolates i.e. Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis through various agar disc and well diffusion methods. The antioxidant potential effect was also evaluated by DPPH and ABTS.+ free radical scavenging methods. Phytochemical constituents were screened through thin layer chromatography (TLC) and qualitative methods. Methanolic extract of P. furfruracea, Physcia spp, and D. vellerum showed a significant inhibition of S. epidermidis (14.3±1.7mm, 12.3±2.0mm, and 11.3±0.9mm) by pouring method of disc diffusion. Moderate zone of inhibition (8.0±1.4 mm) against S. epidermidis was observed by methanolic extract of Parmellia spp, through spreading method. All the results were evaluated by ANOVA and LSD tests at p<0.05. The diethyl ether extracts showed considerable antioxidant potential activity with 80%, 81%, 79% and 66%. Thin layer chromatography profiling gave us the idea about the presence of phytochemical constituents such as tannins, phenols, saponins, and terpenoids. Various Rf values on silica gel plates provided the valuable clues about polarity and the selection of solvents for separation of phytochemicals. Significant inhibition of E. coli was also observed through TLC-Bioautography. The findings revealed the considerable inhibitory and antioxidant effect of lichens may be due to the presence of bioactive compounds. Therefore, lichens could be a potential source of new antimicrobial and antioxidant agents. Keywords: Antibacterial activity, antioxidant assay, phytochemical screening, tlc-bioautography, lichens, antibiogram, estimation of trace metals.
32182Kashiwadani H., Nakanishi M. & Moon K.H. (2014): Two new species of Graphis and Halegrapha (Graphidaceae, Ostropales) from southern Japan. - 植物研究雑誌 [The Journal of Japanese Botany], 89: 12–16. http://www.jjbotany.com/pdf/JJB_089_012_016.pdf.
Two new species of the lichen family Graphidaceae are described from Yakushima Island, southern Japan. Graphis plumbeidisca M. Nakan., Kashiw. & K. H. Moon is distinct from allied species of the genus in having erumpent lirellae without striation, labia with lateral thalline margin, leaden and shiny discs without pruina, completely carbonized exciples, clear hymenia, colorless spores with 3(–4) transverse septa and 17–18 × 5–6 μm in size, and in producing no chemical substance. Halegrapha yakushimensis M. Nakan., Kashiw. & K. H. Moon is easily distinguished from other species of the genus by its muscicolous habitat, erumpent lirellae with slight striations, totally carbonized exciples, clear hymenia, submuriform and brown spores, 14–16 × 7–8 μm in size and in producing no chemical substance. They are so far known only from Yakushima Island in southern Japan. Key words: Graphidaceae, Graphis plumbeidisca, Halegrapha yakushimensis, Japan, Kyushu, lichen, new species, Yakushima Island.
32181Fedrowitz K., Frisch A., Kaasalainen U. & Ohmura Y. (2014): Nephroma squamigerum (Nephromataceae, lichenized Ascomycota) is a distinct species. - 植物研究雑誌 [The Journal of Japanese Botany], 89: 98–102. http://www.jjbotany.com/pdf/JJB_089_346_354.pdf.
We evaluated the taxonomic status of Nephroma squamigerum in Japan, a taxon currently ascribed as a forma to N. bellum. Using an extensive data set of herbarium and freshly collected specimens we confirm that N. squamigerum differs morphologically, chemically and genetically from N. bellum and other Nephroma species, and should be treated as a distinct species. Nephroma squamigerum is morphologically similar to N. bellum and to glabrous morphotypes of N. helveticum and may have been frequently overlooked, especially in other parts of eastern Asia. However, the absence of lichen substances in N. squamigerum always allows a clear identification. Also, N. squamigerum can be clearly distinguished from all other Nephroma species based on the sequences of ITS rDNA and mtSSU rDNA. Neotypification of N. squamigerum is made. A key to the Japanese taxa of Nephroma is provided. Keywords: Asia, ITS rDNA, mtSSU, neotype, Peltigerales, triterpenoids.
32180Moon K.H., Nakanishi M., Futagami Y. & Kashiwadani H. (2015): Studies on Cambodian species of Graphidaceae (Ostropales, Ascomycota) (II). - 植物研究雑誌 [The Journal of Japanese Botany], 90: 98–102. http://www.jjbotany.com/pdf/JJB_090_98_102.pdf.
Five species of five genera in the lichen family Graphidaceae are newly reported from Cambodia and their distribution ranges are presented as follows: Dyplolabia afzelii (Ach.) A. Massal., Glyphis cicatricosa Ach., Leiorreuma melanostrazans (Leight.) A. W. Archer, Phaeographis fragilissima M. Nakan., Kashiw. & K. H. Moon (sp. nov.) and Sarcographa labyrinthica (Ach.) Müll. Arg. P. fragilissima is distinct from allied species of the genus in having fragile lirellae without striation, apically carbonized exciples, clear hymenia, 5–6 transversely septate brown spores 20–25 × 6–7 μm in size and in producing fumarprotocetraric acid. Key words: Cambodia, Graphidaceae, lichen, Phaeographis fragilissima.
32179Kashiwadani H., Aptroot A., Nakanishi M., Moon K.H., Inoue M. & Sasaki O. (2015): New or noteworthy species of lichens found in Akita prefecture, Japan. - 植物研究雑誌 [The Journal of Japanese Botany], 90: 227–234. http://www.jjbotany.com/pdf/JJB_090_227_234.pdf.
Five species of pyrenocarpous lichens and one species of the genus Graphis are reported from Akita Prefecture, northern Japan, and their distribution ranges are presented. Among them, Graphis fulvescens M. Nakan., Kashiw. & K. H. Moon is new to science. It resembles G. kousyuensis M. Nakan., but it differs in having smaller spores and concealed discs. Agonimia opuntiella (Buschardt & Poelt) Vĕzda and Porina dolichophora (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. are new records for Japan. Additional localities are presented for Julella sericea (A. Massal.) Coppins, Pyrenula nitidella (Flörke ex Schaer.) Müll. Arg., and Pyrenula tokyoensis (Müll. Arg.) H. Harada, which have been found only in a few localities in Japan. Key words: Agonimia opuntiella, Akita, Graphis fulvescens, Japan, Julella sericea, new record, new species, Porina dolichophora, Pyrenula nitidella, Pyrenula tokyoensis.
32178Ohmura Y., Mizobuchi A., Handa S. & Lücking R. (2016): Coenogonium moniliforme (Coenogoniaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) new to Japan, with taxonomic notes of the photobiont in culture. - 植物研究雑誌 [The Journal of Japanese Botany], 91: 74–78. http://www.jjbotany.com/pdf/JJB_091_74_78.pdf.
Coenogonium moniliforme Tuck. is new to Japan. Although this species has been recorded as corticolous and foliicolous, it was found on rock for the first time. A key to Japanese taxa of Coenogonium is also provided. Key words: Distribution, lichens, saxicolous, Trentepohlia monile.
32177Ohmura Y., Kindaichi H. & Yoshida K. (2016): Materials for the Distribution of Lichens in Japan (21) Toninia tristis subsp. fujikawae. - 植物研究雑誌 [The Journal of Japanese Botany], 91: 362–364. http://www.jjbotany.com/pdf/JJB_091_362_364.pdf.
A new locality of Toninia tristis (Th. Fr.) Th. Fr. subsp. fujikawae (M. Satô) Timdal, an endangered endemic lichen growing on calcareous rocks in Japan, is reported from Nippara of Okutama in Tokyo Metropolis. Meanwhile, it has been lost from Meshimoriyama on Mt. Buko in Saitama Prefecture due to extensive mining of limestone. Additional specimens collected from known localities and neighboring sites decades after the first collection suggest that many populations appear to be stable except in habitats subject to destructive practices such as limestone mining.
32176Kashiwadani H. & Moon K.H. (2017): Two new species of Ramalina (Ascomycotina: Ramalinaceae) from the Nansei Islands, Japan. - 植物研究雑誌 [The Journal of Japanese Botany], 92: 27–33. http://www.jjbotany.com/pdf/JJB_092_27_33.pdf.
Two new species, Ramalina ryukyuensis Kashiw. & K. H. Moon and R. yokotae Kashiw. & K. H. Moon, from the Nansei Islands, southern Japan, are described. Ramalina ryukyuensis, a corticolous or epiphytic species on the creeping stems of Zoysia, has predominantly dichotomous branches with wide angles throughout the thallus; solid branches without soredia; round or ellipsoid pseudocyphellae; long fusiform spores of 10–12.5 × 2.3–2.5 μm in size; and norstictic acid or sekikaic acid. Ramalina yokotae, an epiphytic species on Zoysia over calcareous rocks, has a hollow thallus with clearly dichotomous branches without soredia, separated perforations, and norstictic acid and sekikaic acid (±). They are only known from the Nansei Islands in Japan. Key words: Japan, lichens, Nansei Islands, new species, Ramalina ryukyuensis, Ramalina yokotae.
32175Ohmura Y. & Frisch A. (2016): Sporodophoron primorskiense (Arthoniaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) new to Japan, as the second locality in the World. - 植物研究雑誌 [The Journal of Japanese Botany], 91: 69–73. http://www.jjbotany.com/pdf/JJB_091_69_73.pdf.
Sporodophoron primorskiense is reported as new to Japan, as the second locality in the world. This species was previously only known from Primorsky territory in Russia. In Japan it was found on bark of Fagus crenata at ca. 1000 m elev. in an old-growth forest in Toyama Prefecture. This locality is situated at the Japanese side of the Sea of Japan opposite from Primorsky territory. The Japanese specimen agrees well with the type of S. primorskiense in terms of morphology and chemistry. Sequence data of mtSSU support conspecificity with the type. A key to Japanese Arthoniaceae with sporodochia or elevated, white pruinose pycnidia is also provided. Key words: Conidia, distribution, mtSSU, pycnidia, sorediate crust, sporodochia.
32174van den Boom P.P.G., Clerc P. & Ertz D. (2015): New records of lichens and lichenicolous fungi from La Gomera (Canary Islands, Spain), including the new species: Usnea boomiana P. Clerc. - Candollea, 70: 165–177. https://www.ville-ge.ch/cjb/publications/cando702/C702_165-177.pdf.
Lichens and lichenicolous fungi are very diverse in the Canary Islands but the flora is still poorly known despite numerous recent publications. For this reason, two field trips were undertaken in 2011 in order to study the lichen flora of La Gomera (western Canary Islands). About 1000 specimens were collected in the different habitats of the island. In addition, c. 200 specimens collected in 1986, and c. 60 specimens from the Oslo herbarium (O) were studied. As a result, an annotated list of 107 newly recorded lichens and lichenicolous fungi from La Gomera is presented. Terricolous, saxicolous, as well as corticolous species are included. Further notes are given for 17 taxa that are new for the Canary Islands. Hypotrachyna meyeri (Zahlbr.) Streim. is new to Macaronesia. In addition, one species is newly described in the genus Usnea Dill. ex Adans., Usnea boomiana P. Clerc characterized notably by large and convex soralia and by the presence of caperatic acid in the medulla. Keywords: Ascomycetes – Usnea – Mycoflora of Macaronesia – La Gomera – Canary Islands – Taxonomy – Ecology.
32173Nordén B., Andersson R., Andreasen M., Aptroot A., Chomnunti P., Friebes G., Jaklitsch W., Johannesen E., Jordal J.B. & Voglmayr H. (2019): Ascomycetes new to Norway found at workshop in Hordaland, 13-16 May 2019. - Agarica, 39: 53–59. .
During a workshop in Hordaland with invited international experts, we found 13 ascomycete species new to Norway. These are presented with photos and notes on their micromorphology, ecology and occurrence in Skandinavia. In addition, the rarely collected species Melaspileella proximella and “Dothiorina tulasnei” (the asexual morph of Chlorociboria aeruginascens) are reported. Two lichenized fungi are presented: Ptychographa xylographoides and Strigula taylorii.
32172Dorval H.R. & McMullin R.T. (2019): Lichens and allied fungi of Sandbar Lake Provincial Park, Ontario. - Canadian Field-Naturalist, 133(3): 206–215. https://doi.org/10.22621/cfn.v133i3.2209.
Sandbar Lake Provincial Park (Sandbar Lake) covers 8053 ha in the boreal forest in northwestern Ontario. Within the park boundary are natural forests representative of those in the region, as well as forests that are heavily disturbed from resource extraction activities, which are prevalent in northwestern Ontario. The lichen biota in this part of the boreal forest is known to be rich and abundant, but lichen diversity is also known to be negatively impacted by disturbances (e.g., timber harvesting, mining, and climate change). Therefore, lichens can be used to monitor the effects of these disturbances, but baseline data are required. Here, we present the results of the first detailed inventory of the lichens and allied fungi of Sandbar Lake. We report 139 species in 69 genera from 16 sites that represent all macrohabitats present in the park. Seven species have a provincial conservation status rank from S1 to S3 (critically imperilled to vulnerable), and one species, Arthrosporum populorum, has previously been collected only once in northwestern Ontario. Our results fill biogeographic gaps for many species and allow lichens to be used as biomonitors during further study at Sandbar Lake. We show that Sandbar Lake has important conservation value, and our data provide an opportunity for further study in an area with no previous research on lichens. Key words: Sandbar Lake Provincial Park; lichens; fungi; boreal forest; Great Lakes–St. Lawrence forest; conservation; biogeography; bioindicators; protected areas.
32171Váňa J. (1976): Floristický výzkum území budoucího odkaliště Louchov (nižší rostliny). - In: Přírodovědecký výzkum složiště popílku elektrárny SSM Prunéřov na lokalitě Louchov v Krušných horách okres Chomutov (1973/1975), p. 56–71, Krajské muzeum Teplice. .
[in Czech], a chapter in a booklet; floristic paper dealing with macromycetes, lichens and bryophytes in the area of the planned depositary basin near the power plant Prunéřov, commented list of 13 lichen taxa at p. 62-63
32170Roberts P. (2011): Marchandiomyces aurantiacum and Efibulobasidium rolleyi: two unusual fungi on a Welsh apple twig. - Field Mycology, 12(4): 132–134. .
lichenicolous basidiomycetes
32169Taylor J.J., Lawler J.P., Aronsson M., Barry T., Bjorkman A.D., Christensen T., Coulson S.J., Cuyler C., Ehrich D., Falk K., Franke A., Fuglei E., Gillespie M.A., Heiðmarsson S., Høye T., Jenkins L.K., Ravolainen V., Smith P.A., Wasowicz P. & Schmidt N.M. (2020): Arctic terrestrial biodiversity status and trends: A synopsis of science supporting the CBMP State of Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Report. - Ambio, 90: 833–847. .
This review provides a synopsis of the main findings of individual papers in the special issue Terrestrial Biodiversity in a Rapidly Changing Arctic. The special issue was developed to inform the State of the Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Report developed by the Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program (CBMP) of the Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF), Arctic Council working group. Salient points about the status and trends of Arctic biodiversity and biodiversity monitoring are organized by taxonomic groups: (1) vegetation, (2) invertebrates, (3) mammals, and (4) birds. This is followed by a discussion about commonalities across the collection of papers, for example, that heterogeneity was a predominant pattern of change particularly when assessing global trends for Arctic terrestrial biodiversity. Finally, the need for a comprehensive, integrated, ecosystem-based monitoring program, coupled with targeted research projects deciphering causal patterns, is discussed. Keywords: Arctic;  Biodiversity monitoring;  CAFF; CBMP;  Focal ecosystem components;  Status and trends.
32168Bjorkman A.D., Criado M.G., Myers-Smith I.H., Ravolainen V., Jónsdóttir I.S., Westergaard K.B., Lawler J.P., Aronsson M., Bennett B., Gardfjell H., Heiðmarsson S., Stewart L. & Normand S. (2020): Status and trends in Arctic vegetation: Evidence from experimental warming and long-term monitoring. - Ambio, 49: 678–692. .
Changes in Arctic vegetation can have important implications for trophic interactions and ecosystem functioning leading to climate feedbacks. Plot-based vegetation surveys provide detailed insight into vegetation changes at sites around the Arctic and improve our ability to predict the impacts of environmental change on tundra ecosystems. Here, we review studies of changes in plant community composition and phenology from both long-term monitoring and warming experiments in Arctic environments. We find that Arctic plant communities and species are generally sensitive to warming, but trends over a period of time are heterogeneous and complex and do not always mirror expectations based on responses to experimental manipulations. Our findings highlight the need for more geographically widespread, integrated, and comprehensive monitoring efforts that can better resolve the interacting effects of warming and other local and regional ecological factors. Keywords: Arctic;  Experimental warming; Long-term monitoring;  Phenology;  Vegetation change. P. 682: "Experimental warming led to more dramatic responses, particularly in lichens, which were far more likely to decrease in abundance in response to experimental warming (46–63%) than to increase (0%) or remain stable (37%). Bryophytes also had a tendency to respond negatively to experimental warming, while evergreen and deciduous shrubs were more likely to respond positively."
32167Nguyen T.T.T., Vu T.H. & Retailleau P. (2018): Study on chemical constituents of the lichen Parmotrema tinctorum (Nyl.) Hale. - Vietnam Journal of Science and Technology, 56(4): 434–440. .
A phytochemical investigation was conducted on foliose lichen, Parmotrema tinctorum (Nyl.) Hale, collected in Lam Dong province, Vietnam. Color reactions for identification of lichen substances (+K deep yellow, +C red, +KC red, + P pale yellow) suggested the presence of atranorin, lecanoric acid, quinones, depsides, and xanthones containing two free hydroxyl groups in meta-position. In fact, six compounds, including atranol (1), methyl haematomate (2), divaricatinic acid (3), methyl divaricatinate (4), atranorin (5) and lecanoric acid (6) were isolated in the acetone extract, in which isolates (3) and (4) were reported for the first time in such species. Their structures were elucidated by X-ray diffraction or spectroscopic data and compared with those in references. Keywords: atranorin, lecanoric acid, lichen, Parmotrema tinctorum, X-ray diffraction.
32166Nguyen T.T.T., Dinh H.A., Huynh H.T. & Nguyen N.T. (2020): Investigation of chemical constituents and cytotoxic activity of the lichen Usnea undulata. - Vietnam Journal of Chemistry, 58(1): 63–66. .
Lichens are a promising source of good anticancer agents. However the study on their bioactivities remains limited, especially in Vietnam. In this study, three extracts of lichen Usnea undulata Stirt. including n‐hexane, acetone and methanol were investigated for their cytotoxic activity on two human cancer cell lines (MCF‐7, NCI‐H460) and normal fibroblasts by sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. The results showed that the n‐hexane extract exhibited the highest inhibition activity with IC50 5.26±0.13 μg/mL for MCF‐7 and 6.83±0.64 μg/mL for NCI‐H460, followed by acetone extract with IC50 66.44±1.37 μg/mL and 92.14±1.49 μg/mL, respectively. The methanol extract possessed weak cytotoxic effect against MCF‐7 and NCI‐H460 (IC50 values more than 100 μg/mL). The n‐hexane extract demonstrated interesting activity particularly on MCF‐7 as good selectivity index was recorded (SI > 3). The phytochemical study on n‐hexane and acetone extracts led to the isolation of four compounds including usnic acid (1), methyl orsellinate (2), methyl β‐orsellinate (3), 7‐hydroxyl‐5‐methoxy‐6‐methylphtalide (4) in which compound (4) was isolated the first time in such species. Their structures were elucidated by NMR analysis and compared with literature data. Keywords: Anticancer, cytotoxicity, lichen, selectivity index, Usnea undulata.
32165Song G., Li X. & Hui R. (2020): Biological soil crusts increase stability and invasion resistance of desert revegetation communities in northern China. - Ecosphere, 11(2): e03043 [13 p.]. 10.1002/ecs2.3043. .
Biological soil crusts (BSCs) in arid region provide critical ecosystem services. However, most previous studies on BSC–plant topic have had a narrow spatiotemporal and taxonomic focus, so context dependency concerning exotic plant responses to BSCs remains poorly understood. In this study, using a series of manipulative experiments under greenhouse conditions, we investigated the influence of BSCs in the Tengger Desert in northern China on seed germination and seedling growth of an exotic grass species, Stipa glareosa P. Smirn., with or without two native plants species, Eragrostis poaeoides Beauv. and Artemisia capillaris Thunb., both of whose ontogeny differs from that of the exotic species. BSC treatments included intact crusts, disturbed crusts, and bare soil. Compared to bare soil, the presence of BSCs reduced the germination of E. poaeoides and A. capillaris by 78% and 74%, respectively. For the exotic species, BSCs reduced the germination percentage by as much as 90%. With gradual increases in soil nutrients such as organic carbon, available phosphorus, and available nitrogen, the shoot biomass of the three plants increased along the sequence from bare soil to lichens and mosses. Shoot biomass of the two native plant species was reduced by the exotic species S. glareosa. The percent germination and shoot biomass of S. glareosa on the disturbed crusts were greater than those on the intact crusts and bare soils. Overall, the presence of BSCs on stabilized sand dunes can reduce the germination of these three plant species, but compared with native plant species, BSCs have a stronger inhibitory effect on the seed germination of the exotic plant species. However, the disturbance may weaken the inhibition of the seed germination of the exotic grass S. glareosa and may provide more nutrients for the exotic grass S. glareosa to establish a revegetation region. We concluded that compared with the absence of BSCs, BSCs in this desert ecosystem can provide more nutrients and a suitable environment for native vascular plants and exert an inhibitory effect on the exotic plants. Key words: arid ecosystem; biological soil crusts; biomass; biotic resistance; disturbance; exotic grass.
32164Knudsen K., Kocourková J. & Lendemer J.C. (2020): Calicium brachysporum, a rare California endemic. - Bulletin of the California Lichen Society, 26(2): 51–53. .
Calicium brachysporum (Nádv.) K. Knudsen, Kocourk. & Lendemer, comb. nov. MB 833014 (Fig. 1). =Cyphelium brachysporum Nádv., Ann. Myc. 40: 133 (1942). TYPE: U.S.A. California, Riverside County, near Murrieta, H.E. Hasse, 1903 (Holotype, PRM. lsotype, BRA).
32163Expósito J.R., Barreno E. & Catalá M. (2020): Biological strategies of lichen symbionts to the toxicity of lead (Pb). - In: Gupta D.K., Chatterjee S. & Walther C. (eds), Lead in Plants and the Environment, Radionuclides and Heavy Metals in the Environment, p. 149–170, Springer, Cham. .
Lichens are symbiotic organisms, originated by mutualistic associations of heterotrophic fungi (mycobiont), photosynthetic partners (photobionts) which can be either cyanobacteria (cyanobionts) or green microalgae (phycobionts), and bacterial consortia. They are poikilohydric organisms without cuticles or nutrient absorption organs adapted to anhydrobiosis. They present a large range of tolerance to abiotic stress (UV radiation, extreme temperatures, high salinity, mineral excess, etc.) and prosper all around the Earth, especially in harsh habitats, including Antarctica and warm deserts. Their biodiversity is widely used as a bioindicator of environmental quality due to this diversity of tolerance in different species, and they are included in air Pb monitoring programmes worldwide. Their ability to bioaccumulate environmental substances, including some air pollutants and heavy metals, makes them excellent passive biomonitors of Pb. Heavy metal tolerance is related to diverse mechanisms: cell walls and exclusion systems (such as extracellular polymeric substances), intracellular chelators and an extraordinary antioxidant and repair capacity. But recent data show that the most powerful mechanism is related with the upregulation of mutual systems by symbiosis. Keywords: Pb · Lichens · Bioindicators · Biomonitors · Tolerance · Microalgae.
32162Paukov A.G. & Davydov E.A. (2020): Aspicilia stalagmitica (Megasporaceae) – a new lichen species with isidia-like thalline outgrowths. - Turczaninowia, 23(1): 5–12. .
Aspicilia stalagmitica Paukov et Davydov from the Altai Mts, a species with isidia-like outgrowths on areoles, is described as new to science. From other species of the genus Aspicilia stalagmitica differs by the following set of characters: short narrow marginal lobes, conidiomata in the isidia-like outgrowths, appressed to almost substipitate apothecia, long picnoconidia, and stictic acid as a main secondary metabolite. A phylogenetic analysis of Aspicilia stalagmitica (ITS) showing its relationships within Aspicilia is presented. Keywords: Altai, Aspicilia, China, ITS, molecular phylogeny, new taxon, Xinjiang.
32161Galanina I.A. & Ezhkin A.K. (2019): The genus Rinodina in the Kuril Islands (Russian Far East). - Turczaninowia, 22(4): 5–16. .
The presented work is based on the study of extensive material collected by Ezhkin A. K. in 2014–2018 from the islands of Kunashir, Iturup, Paramushir, and Shikotan. As a result of the study, the new list of species of the genus Rinodina for the Kuril Islands consists of 17 taxa. One species, Rinodina herrei H. Magn., is new to northeastern Asia and Russia, 14 taxa are new to the Kuril Islands. The genus Rinodina is represented by species with disjunctive distribution by 35.3 % (6 species). They are divided into two groups: East Asian – West American (R. herrei, R. megistospora) and East Asian – East North American (R. ascociscana, R. subminuta, R. tenuis and R. willeyi). East Asian species account for 17.6 % (3 species: R. hypobadia, R. subalbida and R. xanthophaea) of the known number of Rinodina species of the Kuril Islands. Keywords: biodiversity, disjunctive distribution, lichens, new species, northeast Asia, Physciaceae.
32160Frisch A., Klepsland J., Palice Z., Bendiksby M., Tønsberg T. & Holien, H. (2020): New and noteworthy lichens and lichenicolous fungi from Norway. - Graphis Scripta, 32 (1): 1–47. http://nhm2.uio.no/botanisk/lav/Graphis/32_1/GS_32_1.pdf.
Twelve species of lichens and lichenicolous fungi are reported as new to Fennoscandia. Additionally, we report 19 species as new to Norway. New localites are given for 47 rare or seldom collected species. The new combination Reichlingia anombrophila (Coppins & P. James) Frisch is proposed. Most collections were made in the boreo-nemoral and boreal rainforests during the NBIC funded project Three storied diversity – mapping and barcoding crustose lichens and lichenicolous fungi in the Norwegian rainforests and associated fieldwork in recent years. With the present contribution, we hope to raise awareness on previously neglected groups of lichenised and lichenicolous fungi and encourage further fieldwork in understudied habitats in Norway.
32159Tokizawa M., Ohmura Y., Moon K.H. & Takeshita S. (2015): Sarcogyne endopetrophila (Acarosporaceae, Lichenized Ascomycota), a New Species from Japan. - J. Jpn. Bot., 90: 46–51. http://www.jjbotany.com/pdf/JJB_090_46_51.pdf.
Sarcogyne endopetrophila Tokiz. & Y. Ohmura, an endolithic lichen, is described as a new species from Hiroshima, western Japan, where it grows on granodiorite rocks along a river. Sarcogyne endopetrophila resembles S. clavus, S. gibberella, and S. hypophaea in having endolithic thalli and lecideoid apothecia with black to dark-red discs lacking pruina. However, it is distinguished from them by having smaller apothecia with smooth margin, pale brown and thick hypothecium, and indistinct subhymenium. Pycnidia of S. endopetrophila were also found on the bare rock surfaces. The identity of pycnidia was confirmed by comparisons with ITS rDNA sequences of the pycnidia, apothecia and endolithic thalli. Endolithic lichen, ITS rDNA, pycnidia, taxonomy
32158Bannister J., Harrold P. & Blanchon D. (2020): Additional lichen records from New Zealand 51.Usnea dasaea Stirt.. - Australasian Lichenology, 86: 114–117. .
Usnea dasaea is reported for the first time from New Zealand.
32157Joshi Y., Falswal A. & Halda J.P. (2017): Polycoccum ochvarianum – a new species of Dothideomycetes from India. - Sydowia, 69: 147-151. .
Polycoccum ochvarianum, sp. nov., a lichenicolous fungus growing on the thallus of Ochrolechia, Pertusaria and Varicellaria species is described as new to science from India. The species is mainly distinct by its ascospore size and host selection. Addition- ally, four species of lichenicolous fungi growing on Pertusaria are reported as new to India. ascomycetes, commensalistic, lichenicolous, taxonomy
32156Orange A. (2013): British and Other Pyrenocarpous Lichens. - Department of Biodiversity and Systematic Biology National Museum of Wales, Cardiff CF10 3NP, Wales, Version 2 , 250 p.. https://museum.wales/media/13849/Orange-A-2013-British-and-other-pyrenocarpous-lichens.pdf.
This informal identification guide was originally prepared for the British Lichen Society Workshop ‘Pyrenocarps on Rock’, held at the Blencathra Field Study Centre, Keswick, Cumbria, on 26 August to 2 September 2006. Although much of the material is original, most of the accounts were originally prepared for the second edition of the The Lichen Flora of the Great Britain and Ireland, and the authorship is complex. Some accounts are almost completely the work of other authors. This version updates some taxonomy and nomenclature, and includes some colour images, but is still only a preliminary account, especially for Verrucariaceae
32155Beschel R. (1959b): Glacier foreland succession in West Greenland. - Proceedings of the IXth International Botanical Congress, Montreal, August 19–29, 1959, volume 2 Abstracts: 29–30, Toronto: University of Toronto Press. .
32154Beschel R. (1954d): Growth of lichens, a mathematical indicator of climate (lichenometry). - Huitième Congrès International de Botanique, Paris 1954, Rapports et Communications parvenue avant le congrès aux sections 7 et 8: 148. – Paris: P. André, . .
32153Beschel R. (1954c): Eine Flechte als Niederschlagsmesser. - Wetter und Leben, 6(3–4): 56–60. .
32152McCarthy P.M., Elix J.A. & Kantvilas G. (2020): New species and new records of the lichen genus Rhizocarpon from Tasmania, with a key to the Australian taxa. - Australasian Lichenology, 86: 36–61. .
Rhizocarpon austroalpinum P.M.McCarthy, Elix & Kantvilas, R. exiguum P.M.McCarthy, Elix & Kantvilas and R. torquatum P.M.McCarthy, Elix & Kantvilas are described as new to science from Tasmania; the first species also occurs in alpine New South Wales. Rhizocarpon exiguum is most similar to R. intersitum Arnold; it differs by having a sparse, minutely areolate thallus lacking lichen substances, very small apothecia with an exceptionally thin excipulum, a thin hymenium and significantly smaller and more sparingly septate, dark brown submuriform ascospores. The other new taxa are related to the common, pantemperate R. reductum Th.Fr., but they have substantially larger apothecia, and they are distinguishable from each other by a suite of differences in thalline and apothecial anatomy and morphology as well as thallus chemistry and apothecial pigmentation. Detailed descriptions are provided for the Tasmanian collections of R. intersitum and R. reductum for comparative purposes. Four other species of Rhizocarpon are reported for the first time from Tasmania, including R. aff. lusitanicum (Nyl.) Arnold, a parasite of the lichen Lepra sp. An updated key is provided to the 22 species currently accepted from Australia.
32151McCarthy P.M. & Kantvilas G. (2020): Thelidium carbonaceum (Verrucariaceae), a new saxicolous lichen from Tasmania. - Australasian Lichenology, 86: 109–113. .
The lichen Thelidium carbonaceum P.M.McCarthy & Kantvilas (Verrucariaceae) is described from siliceous rock in south-western Tasmania. It has very small, thin thalli that are jet-black and rimose-areolate along with diminutive, semi-immersed perithecia, 0.08–0.17 mm diam., with an excavate apex and a well-developed, carbonized involucrellum, a brown-black excipulum, and 1-septate ascospores, 11–18 × 4.5–6 μm.
32150Keepers K.G., Pogoda C.S., White K.H., Anderson-Stewart C.R., Hoffman J.R., Ruiz A.M., McCain C.M., Lendemer J.C., Kane N.C. & Tripp E.A. (2019): Whole genome shotgun sequencing detects greater lichen fungal diversity than amplicon-based methods in environmental samples. - Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 7: 484 [14 p.] doi: 10.3389/fevo.2019.00484. .
In this study we demonstrate the utility of whole genome shotgun (WGS) metagenomics in study organisms with small genomes to improve upon amplicon-based estimates of biodiversity and microbial diversity in environmental samples for the purpose of understanding ecological and evolutionary processes. We generated a database of full-length and near-full-length ribosomal DNA sequence complexes from 273 lichenized fungal species and used this database to facilitate fungal species identification in the southern Appalachian Mountains using low coverage WGS at higher resolution and without the biases of amplicon-based approaches. Using this new database and methods herein developed, we detected between 2.8 and 11 times as many species from lichen fungal propagules by aligning reads from WGS-sequenced environmental samples compared to a traditional amplicon-based approach. We then conducted complete taxonomic diversity inventories of the lichens in each one-hectare plot to assess overlap between standing taxonomic diversity and diversity detected based on propagules present in environmental samples (i.e., the “potential” of diversity). From the environmental samples, we detected 94 species not observed in organism-level sampling in these ecosystems with high confidence using both WGS and amplicon-based methods. This study highlights the utility of WGS sequence-based approaches in detecting hidden species diversity and demonstrates that amplicon-basedmethods likely miss important components of fungal diversity. We suggest that the adoption of this method will not only improve understanding of biotic constraints on the distributions of biodiversity but will also help to inform important environmental policy. Keywords: metagenomics, ribosomal RNA, sequence database, biological soil crusts, lichen, potential of diversity, taxonomic diversity.
32149Kantvilas G., Stajsic V. & M. McCarthy P. (2020): A new combination in Angiactis (lichenised Ascomycetes: Roccellaceae). - Muelleria, 38: 71–75 . https://www.rbg.vic.gov.au/documents/Muelleria_vol_38_Angiactis_Kantvilas_pp_71–75.pdf.
The new combination Angiactis banksiae (Müll.Arg.) Kantvilas & Stajsic is proposed. The ecology of this remarkable species, known from coastal south-western Western Australia, Victoria, Flinders Island (Tasmania) and southern New South Wales, is discussed. Keywords: Lecanographa, rare species, taxonomy.
32148Kocourková J. (2004): Lišejníky (Lichenes). - In: Jóža M., Vonička P. et al. (eds), Jizerskohorská rašeliniště, p. 44–45, Jizersko-ještědský horský spolek, Liberec. .
[in Czech], chapter on lichens in a popular book about peat-bogs in Jizerské hory Mts
32147Eichler M., Cezanne R. & Teuber D. (2015): Ergänzungen zur Liste der Flechten und flechtenbewohnenden Pilze Hessens – 5. Folge. - Botanik und Naturschutz in Hessen, 28: 85–99. .
Contributions to the list of lichens and lichenicolous fungi in Hesse – 5 instalment. Brief comments are provided on 32 taxa of lichens or lichenicolous fungi that are either new for the state of Hesse or have long not been confirmed. Three species are new for Germany: Endocarpon adsurgens, Lichenochora aipoliae and Tremella candelariellae.
32146Cezanne R., Eichler M. & Teuber D. (2013): Ergänzungen zur Liste der Flechten und flechtenbewohnenden Pilze Hessens – 4. Folge. - Botanik und Naturschutz in Hessen, 26: 181–196. https://d-nb.info/1161763996/34.
Contributions to the list of lichens and lichenicolous fungi in Hesse – 4th instalment. Short comments are given on 38 new, re-discovered, and unpublished records of lichens and lichenicolous fungi in Hesse. Three species are new for Germany: Agonimia repleta, Caloplaca xerica and Tremella caloplacae.
32145Zugic A., Tadic V. & Savic S. (2020): Nano- and microcarriers as drug delivery systems for usnic acid: Review of literature. - Pharmaceutics, 12: 156 [25 p.] doi:10.3390/pharmaceutics12020156. .
Usnic acid is one of the most investigated lichen secondary metabolites, with several proven biological properties with potential medical relevance. However, its unfavorable physico-chemical properties, as well as observed hepatotoxicity, have discouraged wide-range utilization of usnic acid as a promising therapeutic agent. In accordance with the growing research interest in the development of nanotechnology, especially in the arena of preparations based on natural sources of medicinal compounds, usnic acid incorporated into nano- and microsized colloidal carriers has been a subject of a large number of publications. Therefore, this review discusses the overall results of the studies dealing with usnic acid encapsulated into lipid-based, polymeric and nonorganic micro- and/or nanocarriers, as potential drug delivery systems for this natural compound, in an attempt to introduce its usage as a potential antitumor, antimicrobial, wound-healing, antioxidative and anti-inflammatory drug. Keywords: usnic acid; nanocarriers; microcarriers; delivery systems; natural products.
32144Spribille T. (2019): Lichen symbionts outside of symbiosis: how do they find their match? A commentary on: ‘A case study on the re-establishment of the cyanolichen symbiosis: where do the compatible photobionts come from?’. - Annals of Botany, 124(3): vi–vii. .
Commentary on the paper by Cardós et al. (2019) [jjh32143], in the same issue of the journal.