28485Frisch A., Thor G., Moon K.H. & Ohmura Y. (2017): Arthonia incarnata (Arthoniaceae), a rare and poorly known old-growth forest lichen new to Asia. - Nordic Journal of Botany, 35: 587–594.
The rare and poorly known Northern Hemisphere old-growth forest lichen Arthonia incarnata is reported for the first time for Asia from Japan and Korea. A detailed description and illustration is provided for the species based on the collections from Japan and South Korea. Bayesian and RAxML analyses of mtSSU, nLSU and RPB2 sequence data show A. incarnata to be only distantly related to the other Arthonia species hitherto sequenced and in particular to superficially similar species occurring in the same type of habitat such as A. didyma, A. spadicea and A. vinosa. For the analysis we generated new sequence data of A. incarnata for the mtSSU (5 specimens) and RPB2 (5) gene loci. Slight variation was observed in sequence data of the RPB2 gene between collections from eastern Asia and Sweden, but this is not substantiated by differences in morphology or ecological behaviour. Arthonia incarnata is confined to humid forests and only grows on parts of tree trunks shaded from precipitation and running water such as the lower side of leaning trunks or cavities at the base of trees. The species is found on trees with acidic bark, in eastern Asia mainly on Betula but also on coniferous trees and on dead wood. It was not found on bark of Salix (caprea), a common substrate for the species in Europe.
28484Malíček J. (2017): Nenápadní obyvatelé kůry stromů. Pralesovité porosty Česka - ráj epifytických lišejníků. - Přírodovědci.cz, 2017/3: 16-17.
28483Francová A., Chrastný V., Šillerová H., Vítková M., Kocourková J. & Komárek M. (2017): Evaluating the suitability of different environmental samples for tracing atmospheric pollution in industrial areas. - Environmental Pollution, 220: 286–297.
Samples of lichens, snow and particulate matter (PM10, 24 h) are used for the source identification of air pollution in the heavily industrialized region of Ostrava, Upper Silesia, Czech Republic. An integrated approach that uses different environmental samples for metal concentration and Pb isotope analyses was applied. The broad range of isotope ratios in the samples indicates a combination of different pollution sources, the strongest among them being the metallurgical industry, bituminous coal combustion and traffic. Snow samples are proven as the most relevant indicator for tracing metal(loid)s and recent local contamination in the atmosphere. Lichens can be successfully used as tracers of the long-term activity of local and remote sources of contamination. The combination of PM10 with snow can provide very useful information for evaluation of current pollution sources. Keywords: Atmospheric contamination; Pb isotopes; Metals; Lichens; Snow.
28482Francová A., Chrastný V., Šillerová H., Kocourková J. & Komárek M. (2017): Suitability of selected bioindicators of atmospheric pollution in the industrialised region of Ostrava, Upper Silesia, Czech Republic. - Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 189: 478 [14 p.].
This study is a continuation of our preceding research identifying suitable environmental samples for the tracing of atmospheric pollution in industrial areas. Three additional types of environmental samples were used to characterise contamination sources in the industrial area of Ostrava city, Czech Republic. The region is known for its extensive metallurgical and mining activities. Fingerprinting of stable Pb isotopes was applied to distinguish individual sources of anthropogenic Pb. A wide range of 206Pb/207Pb ratios was observed in the investigated samples: 206Pb/207Pb = 1.168–1.198 in mosses; 206Pb/207Pb = 1.167–1.215 in soils and 206Pb/207Pb = 1.158–1.184 in tree cores. Black and brown coal combustion, as well as metallurgical activities, is the two main sources of pollution in the area. Fossil fuel burning in industry and households seems to be a stronger source of Pb emissions than from the metallurgical industry. Concentration analyses of tree rings showed that a significant increase in As concentrations occurred between 1999 and 2016 (from 0.38 mg kg−1 to 13.8 mg kg−1). This shift corresponds to the use of brown coal from Bílina, Czech Republic, with an increased As concentration. The burning of low-quality fuels in households remains a problem in the area, as small ground sources have a greater influence on the air quality than do industrial sources. Keywords: Atmospheric pollution; Lead isotopes; Moss; Soil; Tree rings.
28481Tumur A. & Abbas A. (2017): The Lichens of the Tomur Peak National Nature Reserve, Xinjiang, China, including a checklist. - Evansia, 34(2): 65–72.
The lichens of the Tomur Peak National Nature Reserve in Xinjiang, part of the Tianshan Mountain system in northwest China, have been studied for the last 30 years. A historical review of the lichen studies carried out in this region and a checklist for this World Heritage Site is provided. This is based on c. 1800 collected specimens from 35 sites and comprises 150 species, 9 varieties and 9 forms belonging to 62 genera. Keywords. Lichenized ascomycetes, floristics, Tianshan Mountain, World Heritage Site.
28480Brinker S.R. & Scott P.A. (2017): Leptogium rivulare (Ach.) Mont. new to Minnesota, from the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness. - Evansia, 34(2): 54–60.
Leptogium rivulare is a rarely reported boreal-temperate cyanolichen widely distributed in glaciated portions of Asia, eastern North America, and eastern, central, and western Europe, between the 44°N and 60°N parallels. In the USA, its historical range extended as far south as Illinois and Vermont (possibly in glacial refugia) but records from the last 100 years are only from central Wisconsin. Here, we report the first records of L. rivulare in Minnesota from the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness, and from novel habitat in Ontario, periodically flooded bedrock shoreline of alkaline lakes. In Canada, it is federally listed as Special Concern by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC), and globally as Near Threatened by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Keywords: Collemataceae, biogeography, cyanolichen, rare species, semiaquatic lichen.
28479Pérez C.A., Silva W.A., Aravena J.C. & Armesto J.J. (2017): Limitations and relevance of biological nitrogen fixation during postglacial succession in Cordillera Darwin, Tierra del Fuego, Chile. - Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, 49(1): 29–42.
We tested the main hypothesis that nutrient accumulation during late stages of postglacial succession would decrease nutrient limitation of diazotrophic activity. We tested this hypothesis by adding carbon (C), phosphorus (P), and molybdenum (Mo) independently or in combination, and nitrogen (N) only to symbiotic, epiphylls on bryophytes, and free-living diazotrophs in three stages of glacier foreland succession in Cordillera Darwin (55°S), southern South America. Experiments were run in spring 2013 and 2014 and in autumn 2015. Diazotrophic activity (DA) was assessed by the acetylene reduction assay. Results showed no effect of C, P, or Mo added either singly or in combination in the spring incubations. During autumn, DA was enhanced by adding a mix of C, P, and Mo to the symbiotic N2-fixing Gunnera magellanica from young successional sites, while in the late successional sites, adding C and Mo alone to the diverse bryophyte carpet on the forest floor enhanced DA. Nitrogen added as ammonium sulfate had a strong negative effect on N2 fixation by free-living diazotrophs in the spring and autumn samples from the late successional site, in the bryophyte carpet from the early successional site (autumn), and in Pseudocyphellaria freycinetii of the midsuccessional site (spring). As in other high-latitude biomes, symbiotic and epiphyllous associations and free-living diazotrophs play a crucial role in the incorporation of new N to postglacial subantarctic forest ecosystems, especially in recently exposed substrates that are strongly limited by nutrient availability in soils. The increasing rates of glacier melting in southern South America is exposing new substrates to microbial colonization, including diazotrophic bacteria. In this environment, largely free of reactive N from atmospheric sources, new ecosystems are rapidly developing on deglaciated surfaces, provided that key elements such as Mo and P and C are present in the substrates.
28478Tavili A., Jafari M., Chahouki M.A.Z. & Sohrabi M. (2017): How do cryptogams affect vascular plant establishment?. - Cryptogamie, Bryologie, 38(3): 313–323.
There are many conflicting reports regarding the effects of cryptogamic biological soil crusts on seed germination, seedling emergence and plant establishment. The current research investigated the effects of cryptogams (mosses and lichens) on seedling emergence and initial establishment of two vascular plants, namely Stipa barbata and S. capensis, under greenhouse conditions. For this purpose, 28 cylindrical pots were used to carefully transport field soil to the greenhouse, from two adjacent areas with similar conditions with and without cryptogams in the northeast of Golestan province of Iran. For S. barbata and S. capensis seeds planted in pots, seedling emergence, establishment and performance were evaluated over two months. The rate and percentage were higher for plants, particularly S. capensis, on soils with cryptogams than those on soils without cryptogams; such improvements could be related to the effects of cryptogams on moisture, temperature and nutrient increase in soil. Keywords: Bryophytes / Lichens / Seedling emergence / Stipa barbata / Stipa capensis / Interactions / Initial growth.
28477Wietrzyk P., Węgrzyn M. & Lisowska M. (2017): Lichen diversity on glacier moraines in Svalbard. - Cryptogamie, Mycologie, 38(1): 67–80.
This paper contributes to studies on the lichen biota of Arctic glacier forelands. The research was carried out in the moraines of three different glaciers in Svalbard: Longyearbreen, Irenebreen and Rieperbreen. In total, 132 lichen taxa and three lichenicolous lichens were recorded. Eight species were recorded for the first time in the Svalbard archipelago: Arthonia gelidae, Buellia elegans, Caloplaca lactea, Cryptodiscus pallidus, Fuscidea kochiana, Merismatium deminutum, Physconia distorta, and Polyblastia schaereriana. One species, Staurothele arctica, was observed for the first time in Spitsbergen (previously recorded only on Hopen island). All the studied glaciers lie in Spitsbergen's warm region. However, Kaffiøyra Plain, where Irenebreen is located, is characterized by higher levels of humidity, which may explain its different lichen composition compared to that of the other two moraines. The forelands of Rieperbreen and Longyearbreen are located in the same area of Svalbard, which is also the warmest and the driest and where high species diversity is expected. This proved to be true for the Rieperbreen moraine, but not for the Longyearbreen moraine, where species diversity was lowest. The expansion of tourism along Longyearbyen appears to be a major factor behind the poor development of lichen biota on the Longyearbreen moraine. Keywords: Arctic, Irenebreen, Rieperbreen, Longyearbreen, species richness.
28476Medina E.S., Aptroot A. & Lücking R. (2017): Aspidothelium silverstonei and Astrothelium fuscosporum, two new corticolous lichen species from Colombia. - Cryptogamie, Mycologie, 38(2): 253–258.
Two species of lichen-forming fungi with pyrenocarpous ascomata are described as new to science: Aspidothelium silverstonei and Astrothelium fuscosporum. The epiphytic lichens were found in Chocó Biogeographic region of Colombia. Aspidothelium silverstonei is characterized by the largest muriform ascospores known in the genus, while Astrothelium fuscosporum is the first species of Astrothelium known to produce pigmented ascospores. Keywords: Chocó biographic region, Dothideomycetes, pyrenocarpous, taxonomy.
28475Michlig A., Rodríguez M.P., Aptroot A., Niveiro N. & Ferraro L.I. (2017): New species of the Heterodermia comosa-group (Physciaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) from southern South America. - Cryptogamie, Mycologie, 38(2): 155–167.
A revision of the specimens from southern South America deposited at CTES herbarium identified as Heterodermia comosa (Eschw.) Follmann & Redón was made. As a result, four new species, viz. H. mobergiana Michlig, M.P. Rodríguez & Aptroot, H. neocomosa M.P. Rodríguez L.I. Ferraro & Aptroot, H. ramosociliata M.P. Rodríguez, Michlig & Aptroot, and H. sorediosa Michlig, L.I. Ferraro & Aptroot, all closely related to H. comosa, are here proposed. Each species is described, illustrated and commented. A distribution map is also presented. Keywords: Laminal cilia, norstictic acid, pigments, soredia.
28474Aptroot A., Gumboski E.L. & Cáceres M.E.S. (2017): New Arthoniales from Santa Catarina (South Brazil). - Cryptogamie, Mycologie, 38(2): 275–281.
The following new species of Arthoniales are described, from Santa Catarina state in South Brazil: Herpothallon tricolor, Neosergipea bicolor, and Opegrapha xanthonica. In addition, 92 species are reported new to Santa Catarina state, 15 of which are new to Brazil, mostly species that are widespread in temperate regions on the northern hemisphere. Keywords: Corticolous, new species, restinga, Herpothallon, Neosergipea, Opegrapha.
28473Zakeri Z., Divakar P.K. & Otte V. (2017): Taxonomy and phylogeny of Aspiciliella, a resurrected genus of Megasporaceae, including the new species A. portosantana. - Herzogia, 30: 166–176.
The genus Aspiciliella M.Choisy (type: A. intermutans) is resurrected to accommodate two species previously placed in Aspicilia, and a new species, A. portosantana Sipman & Zakeri. The new combination A. cupreoglauca (B.de Lesd.) Zakeri, Divakar & Otte is proposed. Molecular investigation based on three genetic markers, the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1, 5.8S and internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS) region, the nuclear large subunit (nuLSU) and the mitochondrial small subunit (mtSSU) ribosomal DNA, of samples from a wide geographical range including Iran, Caucasia, Greece and Macaronesia revealed a strongly supported clade in a sister position to the other genera of the family Megasporaceae (PP = 1.00; MP/ML BS = 100/100). Morphological and chemotaxonomic surveys showed that the genus is characterized by a thallus that is crustose, rimose-areolate, partially continuous, K+ red; a green, olive-green to greenish-brown N+ light green epihymenium; 8-spored asci, ellipsoid, colourless, simple ascospores and very small (7–11 μm long) conidia. An identification key to the species of the genus is provided. Key words: Lichenized fungi, Aspicilia, combined analysis, integrated taxonomy, western Eurasia, Mediterranean, Macaronesia.
28472Kuhlmann J. & Wagner H.-G. (2017): Thelocarpon magnussonii on La Palma, Canary Islands – first record for the Macaronesian archipelago. - Herzogia, 30: 313–316.
For the first time, Thelocarpon magnussonii is recorded from the island of La Palma, Macaronesian archipelago. The collection is described in detail and compared to literature sources. Key words: Biodiversity, lichenized Ascomycota, Thelocarpon.
28471Czeika H. & Czeika G. (2017): Placynthium garovaglioi var. subtile – ein Synonym von Placynthium caesium. - Herzogia, 30: 322–323.
Placynthium garovaglioi var. subtile corresponds morphologically and anatomically with Placynthium caesium. As a consequence Placynthium garovaglioi var. subtile should be classified in Placynthium caesium. Key words: Taxonomy, lichens, Placynthiaceae.
28470Szczepańska K. & Kossowska M. (2017): Cetrariella commixta and the genus Melanelia (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) in Poland. - Herzogia, 30: 272–288.
The paper presents the distribution and ecology of Cetrariella commixta and the species of Melanelia occurring in Poland. Morphological and chemical analyses of herbarium material confirmed the presence of three species of the studied group, earlier recorded in the country: Cetrariella commixta, Melanelia hepatizon and M. stygia. Cetrariella commixta is a rare species with distribution limited to the Sudetes. None of the previously reported localities of this taxon in the Carpathians were confirmed. Chemotaxonomic studies demonstrated the presence of two chemotypes of C. commixta in the country, but no correlation between chemical races and distribution was observed. In contrast, Melanelia hepatizon and M. stygia proved to be rather common in Poland, where their distribution is restricted to the mountain regions. Additionally, Melanelia agnata is reported here as a new species to Poland. It is the rarest species of the studied group, occurring only in few localities in the High Tatras. It should be considered critically endangered in the country. Key words: Parmelioid lichens, Cetrariella commixta, Melanelia agnata, M. hepatizon, M. stygia, morphology, distribution, ecology, chemotaxonomy.
28469Luangsuphabool T., Piapukiew J., Lumbsch H.T. & Sangvichien E. (2017): First record of Viridothelium virens (Trypetheliales, Ascomycota) in the Southeast Asian tropics. - Herzogia, 30: 317–321.
Viridothelium virens was found growing on tree bark at 1500 m altitude in an oak forest in northern Thailand. Phenotypical and molecular data (mtSSU and nuLSU rDNA sequences) supported the identification of the sample as V. virens. This is a new record for Thailand and extends the distributional range from temperate regions (North America and Japan) to the tropics. Keywords: Biodiversity, distribution, lichens, new record, Southeast Asia, Thailand, Trypetheliaceae.
28468Wieczorek A., Łysko A., Popiela A. & Śliwa L. (2017): Additions to the flora of lichenized and lichenicolous fungi of Bornholm (Denmark). - Herzogia, 30: 304–308.
Based on a recent collection from Bornholm island, two lichens, Lecanora thysanophora and Micarea nigella, and two lichenicolous fungi, Dactylospora parasitica and Illosporiopsis christiansenii are newly reported; the first species is new record for Denmark and the others are new to Bornholm. Key words: Biodiversity, new records, Europe.
28467Breuss O. & Haji Moniri M. (2017): A new Placopyrenium species (Ascomycota: Verrucariaceae) from Iran. - Herzogia, 30: 177–181.
Placopyrenium ariyanense from northeastern Iran is described as new to science. It is characterized by a small, areolate thallus, grey pruinose, black-rimmed areoles, a granule-inspersed, but not chalky medulla, and simple ascospores, which are broader than those in P. iranicum. It is probably a juvenile parasite on crustose lichens. Key words: Pyrenocarpous lichens, fungi, taxonomy.
28466Schiefelbein U., Brackel W. v., Cezanne R., Czarnota P., Eckstein J., Eichler M., Kison H.-U., Ungethüm K. & Stordeur R. (2017): Trimmatostroma arctoparmeliae sp. nov. and noteworthy records of lichenized, lichenicolous and allied fungi from the Harz Mountains and surrounding regions. - Herzogia, 30: 80–102.
Fifty-nine species (21 lichens, 37 lichenicolous fungi and one non-lichenized fungus) are reported as new or noteworthy from the Harz Mountains in north-central Germany. Trimmatostroma arctoparmeliae (on Arctoparmelia incurva) is described as new, Lasiosphaeriopsis lecanorae and Tremella diploschistina are new to Central Europe, Lichenothelia tenuissima, Pertusaria lactescens, Polycoccum kerneri, Sphaerellothecium atryneae, S. contextum and Verrucaria policensis are new to Germany; 41 species are new to Saxony-Anhalt, and one each for Lower Saxony, Thuringia and Bavaria. Hyperphyscia adglutinata was rediscovered in Saxony-Anhalt after more than 180 years, Lichenodiplis pertusariicola after 141 years and Porpidia flavocruenta after 83 years. Eopyrenula leucoplaca was rediscovered in Lower Saxony after more than 130 years. Key words: Germany, Lower Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Thuringia, Bavaria, lichen diversity.
28465Tsurykau A. (2017): New or otherwise interesting records of lichens and lichenicolous fungi from Belarus. III. With an updated checklist of lichenicolous fungi. - Herzogia, 30: 152–165.
Data on 13 species of lichenized and lichenicolous fungi from Belarus are presented; two lichens (Biatora efflorescens and Catillaria croatica) and ten lichenicolous fungi (Abrothallus microspermus, A. suecicus, Arthonia phaeophysciae, Arthrorhaphis aeruginosa, Merismatium decolorans, Phacopsis oxyspora, Polycoccum peltigerae, Pronectria subimperspicua, Taeniolella delicata and Zwackhiomyces echinulatus) are new to the country. Diploschistes muscorum is reported on lichens for the first time from Belarus. An updated checklist of lichenicolous fungi known from Belarus is also provided. Key words: Biodiversity, distribution, new records, checklist.
28464Burgaz A.R., Fontecha-Galán A., Gutiérrez-Larruga B. & Rodríguez-Arribas C. (2017): The Cladoniaceae and three additional noteworthy lichens from Croatia. - Herzogia, 30: 138–151.
In the framework of a project on the family Cladoniaceae in the Mediterranean area of Eurasia many new records and the chemical variability of the family in Croatia are discussed. Cladonia conista, C. cyathomorpha, C. dimorpha, C. homosekikaica, C. novochlorophaea, C. peziziformis and C. umbricola are reported as new to Croatia. In addition, Flavoparmelia soredians, Parmelia serrana and Peltigera membranacea were discovered as new to Croatia. A key to all the Cladoniaceae taxa known from Croatia is provided. Key words: Biodiversity, Cladonia, Pycnothelia, Flavoparmelia, Parmelia, Peltigera, Mediterranean Region.
28463Bergmann T.C. & Werth S. (2017): Intrathalline distribution of two lichenicolous fungi on Lobaria hosts – an analysis based on quantitative Real-Time PCR. - Herzogia, 30: 253–271.
The biology of lichenicolous fungi is still poorly known, including intrathalline hyphal distribution patterns and the density of hyphae these fungi may form within lichen thalli. Since the hyphae of most lichenicolous fungi cannot be morphologically distinguished from those of the lichen mycobiont, we used quantitative Real-Time PCR (qPCR) to detect and quantify lichenicolous fungi and lichen bionts. We investigated the lichenicolous fungi Plectocarpon lichenum and Tremella lobariacearum which inhabit species of the genus Lobaria using the following sample types to determine intrathalline distribution patterns: material with obvious infections, material next to infections, as well as visually uninfected plectenchyma from central and marginal thallus parts. Furthermore, some visually uninfected thalli were sampled for T. lobariacearum. Based on the qPCR data, we show that the two lichenicolous fungi occur predominantly in the symptomatic areas and in a certain area around symptomatic areas. Samples derived from lichen thalli without symptoms of infection showed no evidence of the lichenicolous fungi. We did not observe an alteration of the proportion of lichen bionts in visually infected material. Our data suggest that the structures formed by T. lobariacearum represent galls, whereas those formed by P. lichenum represent stromata. These results raise the question of how intrathalline growth of lichenicolous mycelia might be controlled by the mycobiont. Key words: Plectocarpon lichenum, Tremella lobariacearum, quantitative Real-Time PCR (qPCR), lichens, intrathalline hyphal density, proportion of mycobiont and photobiont, Symbiochloris (Dictyochloropsis) reticulata, Lobaria pulmonaria, Lobaria immixta, Lobaria macaronesica.
28462Diederich P., Lücking R., Aptroot A., Sipman H.J.M., Braun U., Ahti T. & Ertz D. (2017): New species and new records of lichens and lichenicolous fungi from the Seychelles. - Herzogia, 30: 182–236.
Sixteen species of lichens and lichenicolous fungi from the Seychelles are described as new: Abrothallus ramalinae (on Ramalina), Coenogonium beaverae, Fissurina seychellensis, Fulvophyton macrosporum, Graphis lindsayana, Nigrovothelium inspersotropicum, Opegrapha salmonea, Porina morelii, Pseudopyrenula media, Ramichloridium tropicum (on sterile lichen with Trentepohlia), Sarcographa praslinensis, S. subglobosa, Stictographa dirinariicola (on Dirinaria picta), Stirtonia epiphylla, Talpapellis mahensis (on sterile lichen with Trentepohlia) and Trimmatothele petri; Abrothallus ramalinae is also reported from Australia, New Zealand and Papua New Guinea, and Nigrovothelium inspersotropicum from Guyana. The following 29 species are new to Africa: Acanthothecis asprocarpa, Amandinea diorista var. hypopelidna, Ampliotrema palaeoamplius, Anisomeridium leptospermum, Aptrootia terricola, Chiodecton congestulum, Coenogonium saepincola, Dictyocatenulata alba, Diorygma salvadoriense, Epigloea urosperma, Fissurina globulifica, Graphis diplocheila, G. novopalmicola, G. oxyclada, G. subamylacea, Leptogium mastocheilum, Leucodecton album, Moelleropsis nebulosa, Ocellularia ascidioidea, O. piperis, Polymeridium microsporum, Ramonia rappii, Sarcographa maculosa, S. ramificans, Sphaerellothecium cinerascens, Spirographa fusisporella, Sporopodium flavescens, Thalloloma hypoleptum and Thelotrema capetribulense, and the following 18 species are new for the Seychelles: Cladonia digitata, Cryptolechia nana, Etayoa trypethelii, Fissurina comparilis, Glomerulophoron mauritiae, Graphis proserpens, G. renschiana, Julella geminella, Leucodecton compunctellum, Mazosia phyllosema, Opegrapha vermelhana, Phaeographis brasiliensis, Placynthiella dasaea, Porina atrocoerulea, Pyrenula nitidula, P. sexlocularis, Roselliniella cladoniae and Trichothelium alboatrum. A further 83 species are reported from the Seychelles. Amandinea melaxanthella, Cryptolechia subincolorella and Leptogium denticulatum have been removed from the Seychelles checklist. Key words: Biodiversity, Palaeotropics, distribution, taxonomy.
28461Motiejūnaitė J. & Skridlaitė G. (2017): New records of lichens and lichenicolous fungi in Lithuania, mainly from quarries. - Herzogia, 30: 126–137.
The lichen floras of dolomite, limestone, opoka, clay, sand and gravel quarries, as well the few existing natural dolomite outcrops suitable for lichens in various parts of Lithuania were studied. Also, some lichen records from built-up areas were examined. Quarries and built-up areas proved to be habitats rich in lichens, harbouring a number of rare species, two of which, Lecania leprosa and Stigmidium collematis, are new for the whole Baltic Sea region, and Caloplaca soralifera, Hawksworthiana peltigericola and Skyttella mulleri are recorded for the first time in the Baltic States. Seven lichens, Blennothallia crispa, Dirina massiliensis f. sorediata, Gregorella humida, Hymenelia epulotica, Protoblastenia rupestris, Psoroglaena dictyospora and Thelidium incavatum and two lichenicolous fungi, Didymellopsis pulposi and Stigmidium peltideae, are new for Lithuania. Ecology and conservation issues of rare calcicolous lichens in the country are discussed, and it is noted that transient type of their habitats and the habitat management make lichen protection unfeasible. Key words: Calcicolous, limestone, dolomite, sand, gravel.
28460Paukov A., Sipman H.J.M., Kukwa M., Repin R. & Teptina A. (2017): New lichen records from the mountains Kinabalu and Tambuyukon (Kinabalu Park, Malaysian Borneo) . - Herzogia, 30: 237–252.
One hundred twenty-six species of lichenized fungi are reported as new to the Kinabalu region. Of these, six are new to Sabah, 90 new to Malaysia, 15 new to Southeast Asia (Bryoria bicolor, Byssoloma subleucoblepharum, Graphis kollaimalaiensis, G. nuda, Lecidea paupercula, Lepraria ecorticata, L. finkii, L. incana, L. yunnaniana, Placynthiella uliginosa, Porpidia superba, Ramalina throwerae, Rhizocarpon plicatile, Sporopodium citrinum, Stereocaulon sasakii) and 15 new to Asia (Ainoa geochroa, Arthonia accolens, Astrothelium inspersaeneum, Bacidina defecta, Fissurina consentanea, Graphis argentata, G. flavens, Gyalideopsis brevipilosa, G. puertoricensis, Hypotrachyna afrorevoluta, Lepraria leuckertiana, Porpidia contraponenda, Psorotheciopsis premneella, Ramboldia laeta, Variolaria multipunctoides). Key words: Biodiversity, distribution, similarity index, Southeast Asia.
28459Ismailov A., Urbanavichus G., Vondrák J. & Pouska V. (2017): An old-growth forest at the Caspian Sea coast is similar in epiphytic lichens to lowland deciduous forests in Central Europe. - Herzogia, 30: 103 –125.
We have recorded 138 species (125 of them epiphytic/epixylic) in a single preserved lowland forest in Dagestan (Russia), “Samurski” forest at the west coast of the Caspian Sea. Within its 2,000 hectares, some remnants of oldgrowth forests persist, dominated by Acer campestre, Carpinus betulus and Quercus robur. This mix of tree species is typical of many lowland deciduous forests in Central Europe, and we found that the lichen flora of Samurski also has much in common with those forests, but less in common with other types of Central European forests. Comparison with geographically closer lowland forests in Azerbaijan, Russia and Iran is impossible due to a lack of data. Using Detrended Correspondence Analysis, we defined a group of species diagnostic for temperate lowland deciduous forests; it includes about 20 species recorded in Samurski, most of which are crustose and usually with Trentepohlia as photobiont. In contrast to Central European lowland deciduous forests, the lichen flora of Samurski includes several species known mainly from the oceanic western Caucasus and Western Europe. To enable comparison with “fixedarea” lichen inventories, we have obtained a separate list of 82 lichen species from a detailed survey of a 1 ha plot in one of the best-preserved forest spots in Samurski. Fifty-nine species in 17 genera (Arthothelium, Bactrospora, Bryostigma, Catinaria, Coniocarpon, Cresporhaphis, Dendrographa, Enchylium, Enterographa, Inoderma, Lecanographa, Lepraria, Pachnolepia, Peridiothelia, Sclerophora, Xanthoriicola, Zwackhia) are new to Dagestan. Agonimia flabelliformis, Arthonia exilis, Bacidina auerswaldii, Cresporhaphis wienkampii, Caloplaca raesaenenii, C. tominii, Candelariella superdistans and Verrucaria umbrinula are new to the Greater Caucasus. Agonimia borysthenica, Bacidina adastra and Lecanographa lyncea are new to Russia. Candelariella superdistans is new to Asia. Key words: Dagestan, forest protection, Hyrcanian, inventory, lichen diversity, lowland forest indicator, Russia.
28458Timdal E. (2017): Endocarpon crystallinum found in Crete, a window-lichen new to Europe. - Herzogia, 30: 309–312.
The window-lichen Endocarpon crystallinum is reported as new to Europe from a soil crust locality in Crete, Greece. It was collected in 1988 and recently identified by its DNA barcode sequence. This is the first report of the species outside deserts of Shanxi, China. Key words: Distribution, DNA barcode, Greece, ITS, soil crust, Verrucariaceae.
28457Lendemer J.C., Anderson Stewart C.R., Besal B., Goldsmith J., Griffith H., Hoffman J.R., Kraus B., LaPoint P., Li L., Muscavitch Z., Schultz J., Schultz R. & Allen J.L. (2017): The lichens and allied fungi of Mount Mitchell State Park, North Carolina: A first checklist with comprehensive keys and comparison to historical data. - Castanea, 82(2): 69–97.
A total of 171 species of lichens and allied fungi are reported from the spruce-fir forests of Mount Mitchell State Park, in the Black Mountains of North Carolina, based on both historical and modern records. Comparison of the modern baseline with the historical macrolichen baseline generated in the 1970s revealed potential losses of high-elevation southern Appalachian endemics (2 species), cyanolichens (5 species), species typical of exposed rock outcrops (1 species), and widespread species typical of hardwood substrates at high elevations (8 species). In addition to a checklist and summary of lichen biodiversity, dichotomous keys are provided that include all reported species. Keywords: Biodiversity, historical baseline, invasive species, macrolichens, pollution.
28456Joneson S. & O'Brien H. (2017): A molecular investigation of free-living and lichenized Nostoc sp. and symbiotic lifestyle determination. - Bryologist, 120(4): 371–381.
Individual cyanobacterial species can occupy a diversity of symbiotic lifestyles yet how this lifestyle is determined is unknown. In this study we focus on the symbiotic lifestyles of the cyanobacterial genus Nostoc, and define their lifestyle based on their symbiotic state: free-living or symbiotic with lichenforming fungi. Within an evolutionary context, members of one symbiotic lifestyle can be found more closely related to members of another symbiotic lifestyle and do not form monophyletic groups. This pattern can be explained by either deterministic or variable factors, by whether or not switches between lifestyles occur infrequently or frequently, and by limitations on symbiont dispersal. We began this study by focusing within a single habitat in which both free-living and symbiotic Nostoc sp. individuals occur in order to test amongst hypotheses. Using the rbcLX genetic region we placed individuals within a larger phylogenetic context using a worldwide dataset of free-living and symbiotic Nostoc sp. Free-living Nostoc sp. growing at this site were distinct from co-occurring lichenized strains, but closely related to symbiotic Nostoc sp. from other continents. We expanded our sampling to a larger geographic area, including freeliving Nostoc sp., as well as two additional sites in which free-living and lichenized Nostoc sp., co-occurred. We found no evidence of spatial structure on a regional scale. Based on these results, we conclude that symbiotic lifestyles within distinct Nostoc sp. lineages are determined by variable factors, and their distributions are constrained and exclude physical proximity. Finally, in the course of identifying the fungal symbionts of Nostoc we identified two species of Peltigera using ITS rDNA sequences; These species are either under-reported in Wisconsin (P. ponojensis ) or new to the U.S.A. (P. islandica). Kezwords: Nostoc, symbiosis, free-living, lichen, rbcLX, ITS rDNA, symbiotic-lifestyle.
28455Nurtai L., Knudsen K. & Abbas A. (2017): A new species of the Acarospora strigata group (Acarosporaceae) from China. - Bryologist, 120(4): 382–387.
The Acarospora strigata group is distinguished by a common phenotype of heavily pruinose areoles with deep fissures cleaving the cortex. It occurs from South and North America through Asia to Africa and Europe. One new species is described from China in Xinjiang in central Asia: Acarospora tianshanica, which produces gyrophoric acid. Acarospora interrupta is lectotypified and reported new from China. In addition, a key is supplied to the nine species currently recognized in the Acarospora strigata group. Keywords: Acarospora coloradiana, amyloid, hemiamyloid, taxonomy.
28454Lagostina E., Dal Grande F., Ott S. & Printzen C. (2017): Fungus-specific SSR markers in the Antarctic lichens Usnea antarctica and U. aurantiacoatra (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota). - Applications in Plant Sciences, 5(9): 1700054 [5 p.].
• Premise of the study: Usnea antarctica and U. aurantiacoatra (Parmeliaceae) are common lichens in the maritime Antarctic. These species share the same habitats on King George Island (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica) and are distinguishable based on reproductive strategies. • Methods and Results: We developed 23 fungus-specific simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers that cross-amplify between the two species. We used a low-coverage genome-skimming approach on one sample of each species to identify SSR repeats in the two species. Primers were designed for 3–4-bp repeats, and only the loci common to both species were selected for further analyses. Seventy-seven samples of the two species were selected to assess fungal specificity, genetic variability, and linkage of the markers. In addition, we tested cross-amplification in other Usnea species. • Conclusions: The 23 newly designed SSR markers are suitable for population genetic and phylogeographic studies of Usnea species. Key words: Antarctic lichens; microsatellites; Parmeliaceae; Usnea antarctica; Usnea aurantiacoatra.
28453Lendemer J.C., Stone H.B. & Tripp E.A. (2017): Taxonomic delimitation of the rare, eastern North American endemic lichen Santessoniella crossophylla (Pannariaceae). - Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society, 144(4): 459–468.
The taxonomic delimitation and generic placement of Santessoniella crossophylla (Old Gray Crosslobes), a cyanolichen endemic to eastern North America, are revisited based on newly generated nrITS and mtSSU sequences. A population from Nova Scotia whose identification as S. crossophylla has been questioned is confirmed as belonging to the species. The monospecific genus Rockefellera is introduced to accommodate lichens ascribable to S. crossophylla in light of molecular results herein presented. The new name honors the Rockefeller family for their century-long support of North American conservation efforts, particularly with respect to national parks. Key words: Appalachian Mountains, overhang, Ozark Highlands, rare species, species delimitation.
28452Seaward M.R.D., Richardson D.H.S., Brodo I.M., Harris R.C. & Hawksworth D.L. (2017): Checklist of lichen-forming, lichenicolous and allied fungi of Eagle Hill and its vicinity, Maine. - Northeastern Naturalist, 24(3): 349–379.
600 lichens and 82 lichenicolous and allied fungi have been recorded from Eagle Hill in Steuben, ME, and its vicinity over the past 25 years, mainly as a consequence of courses and research centered upon the Eagle Hill Institute (formerly the Humboldt Field Research Institute). Of the 682 taxa listed, 331 have been recorded within the Institute’s boundary, of which 27 were not found elsewhere in the vicinity; a further 66 taxa recorded but lacking voucher material are listed. One lichen, Lambiella fuscosora, and 7 lichenicolous fungi, Cornutispora pyramidalis, Epicladonia stenospora, Monodictys epilepraria, Muellerella polyspora, Taeniolella cladinicola, and Tremella coppinsii, are additional to the North American checklist; Lambiella fuscosora and Cornutispora pyramidalis are also recorded as new for Canada. Five lichens, Alyxoria ochrocheila, Cladonia albonigra, Ephebe solida, Myriolecis schofieldii, and Parmotrema stuppeum, are new for Maine. Notes on new records and interesting taxa are provided.
28451Brodo I.M. & McCune B. (2017): Ochrolechia brodoi, a new lichen for North America from Alaska, with updates to the Key of corticolous North American species. - Evansia, 34(3): 110–113.
Ochrolechia brodoi Kukwa is reported as new for North America and Alaska. Other corticolous species of Ochrolechia reported since the publication of Brodo’s (1991) revision are summarized, and some couplets from the key in that publication are emended with the addition of O. brodoi and O. xanthostoma. The latter is reported new to Oregon. Keywords. Pertusariales, key, Lake Clark National Park, Norway, Oregon.
28450Tucker S. (2017): Rare lichens collected in California by Judith (Judy) and Ron Roberston. - Evansia, 34(3): 74–84.
Judy and Ron Robertson were outstanding amateur lichenologists in California. Their huge lichen collection (over 8,500 collections) was donated to the University of California Herbarium after their deaths. This article describes 36 unusual lichens that they collected in California, together with their provenance, many of them extremely rare or new to the California flora. Keywords: California, UC Herbarium, lichens, Robertson.
28449McMullin R.T. (2017): Lichen holdings at the Biodiversity Institute of Ontario Herbarium at the University of Guelph, Ontario. - Evansia, 34(3): 85–103.
The history and current status of the lichen collections at the Biodiversity Institute of Ontario Herbarium (OAC) are presented, including a list of all taxa. Seven hundred and seventy-three lichen and allied fungi in 239 genera have been deposited into the herbarium since 2005. Key words. Natural history, conservation, biodiversity, biogeography, reference library.
28448Musharraf S.G., Siddiqi F., Ali S. & Thadhani V.M. (2017): Sensitive analysis of bioactive secondary metabolites in lichen species using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. - Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis , 146: 279–284.
Lichens are a large group of valuable lower plants with unique features and diverse applications worldwide such as in medicine, cosmetics, food, and textile industries. They are also well known for their potential in observing climate and environmental monitoring. Their successful exploitations require reliable analytical methods to check and maintain quality and efficacy of the products based on them. This study focuses on the development of a sensitive and reliable quantification method for the analysis of important depsides, depsidones, dibenzofuran and monocyclic phenols inseven known and an unidentified lichen species. Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) approach using UHPLC-QqQ-MS instrument was employed for the development of the quantitative method. Both LC and MS parameters were optimized to ensure maximum separation. High sensitivity, and selectivity. LODs and LOQs were found to be in the range of 2.1–71.5 ng/mL and 6.3–212.9 ng/mL, respectively. The accuracy (% bias) and precision (% RSD) were found to be <5% in most cases. Metabolites 1–9 were found in the range of 0.5–41429 μg/g in the analysed lichen extracts. The analysis revealed that metabolites 1, 2 and 3 are the predominant ones. This method can be used for the identification and absolute quantification of secondary metabolites in lichen extracts, and herbal or consumer products based upon them.
28447Esseen P.-A., Rönnqvist M., Gauslaa Y. & Coxson D.S. (2017): Externally held water e a key factor for hair lichens in boreal forest canopies. - Fungal Ecology, 30: 29–38.
Lichens hold water inside (internal pool) and outside their body (external pool). Yet, external pool size is not known in hair lichens dominating boreal forest canopies. Here we quantify morphological traits and internal/external water in two widespread Bryoria species along Picea abies canopy-height gradients: Bryoria fuscescens at 5–20 m and Bryoria capillaris at 15–20 m. Dry mass and specific thallus mass (STM) of intact B. fuscescens increased with height, while STM of individual branches did not. Maximum water holding capacity (mg H2O cm−2) increased with height, but did not differ between the species. Bryoria had much larger external (79–84% of total) than internal water pools, trapping water by dense clusters of thin, overlapping branches. They thus increase water storage in boreal forest canopies and influence hydrology. High external water storage extends hydration periods and improves lichen performance in upper canopies, and thereby contributes to the success of these hair lichens.
28446Webb J.C. & Goodenough A.E. (2018): Questioning the reliability of “ancient” woodland indicators: Resilience to interruptions and persistence following deforestation. - Ecological Indicators, 84: 354–363.
Indicator species can provide invaluable insights into environmental conditions but robust empirical testing of their effectiveness is essential. Ancient woodland indicators (AWIs) are plant species considered indicative of sites that have been continuously wooded for a long period by virtue of poor dispersal ability and intolerance of non-woodland habitats. Many countries now utilise AWI species lists to classify ancient woodlands. Here we use a metastudy approach to test resilience of AWIs to interruptions and persistence following deforestation − and thus the robustness of using AWI lists − using a novel approach. We compare current AWI assemblage with woodland history based on pollen evidence at nine sites across the UK with a robustly-dated and spatially-precise palynological profile. Sites were split into: (1) proven continuous woodland; (2) previously interrupted woodland; and (3) previously but not currently wooded. Vegetation history was >1000 years at most sites. Assessment of ancientness using AWIs agreed with palynologically-proven ancient woodland at two sites, including a species-poor woodland of previously-uncertain age. However, four interrupted woodland sites and three clear-felled sites supported extensive AWI floristic communities. This suggests AWIs are resilient to interruptions, possibly by remaining in the seed bank longer than expected, and persistent following deforestation. Persistence might be due to other species (e.g. heathland plants) acting as pseudo-canopy or because some AWIs are more tolerant of non-woodland locations than previously thought. We conclude that use of floristic AWIs alone in defining ancient woodland should be reviewed, especially where status links to planning policy and conservation prioritisation. We suggest species on AWI lists be reviewed under expert and local guidance and a system of weighting species based on their strict or strong affinity solely with ancient woodland be developed. The use of multi-taxa indicators is recommended to allow stakeholders globally to make informed decisions about ancient woodland status.
28445Widory D., Vautour G. & Poirier A. (2018): Atmospheric dispersion of trace metals between two smelters: An approach coupling lead, strontium and osmium isotopes from bioindicators. - Ecological Indicators, 84: 497–506.
Bioindicators, by naturally cumulating the impacts of chemical contaminants over time, have demonstrated their added value in evaluating environmental quality. We studied Pb, Sr and Os isotope systematics from Cladonia rangiferina lichens collected along a transect between two smelting complexes located in Rouyn-Noranda and Sudbury (Canada) to identify sources of these metals in the Abitibi region and to delineate the extent of their respective emission plumes. Results show that metals present in the study area are explained by the contamination of the regional background by deposition from the atmospheric emissions of the different smelters over distances up to 250 km. A rough estimate of the respective metal contributions of each smelter to the lichen samples was calculated. At low metal concentrations, lichen samples indicate that dispersion plumes may differ for the Pb and Os contamination, perhaps to be linked to differential volatility. Keywords: Air contamination; Osmium; Lead; Strontium; Smelters; Bioindicators.
28444van den Elzen E., van den Berg L.J.L., van der Weijden B., Fritz C., Sheppard L.J. & Lamers L.P.M. (2018): Effects of airborne ammonium and nitrate pollution strongly differ in peat bogs, but symbiotic nitrogen fixation remains unaffected. - Science of the Total Environment, 610–611: 732–740.
Pristine bogs, peatlands in which vegetation is exclusively fed by rainwater (ombrotrophic), typically have a low atmospheric deposition of reactive nitrogen (N) (< 0.5 kg ha− 1 y− 1). An important additional N source is N2 fixation by symbiotic microorganisms (diazotrophs) in peat and mosses. Although the effects of increased total airborne N by anthropogenic emissions on bog vegetation are well documented, the important question remains how different N forms (ammonium, NH4+, versus nitrate, NO3−) affect N cycling, as their relative contribution to the total load strongly varies among regions globally. Here, we studied the effects of 11 years of experimentally increased deposition (32 versus 8 kg N ha− 1 y− 1) of either NH4+ or NO3− on N accumulation in three moss and one lichen species (Sphagnum capillifolium, S. papillosum, Pleurozium schreberi and Cladonia portentosa), N2 fixation rates of their symbionts, and potential N losses to peat soil and atmosphere, in a bog in Scotland. Increased input of both N forms led to 15–90% increase in N content for all moss species, without affecting their cover. The keystone species S. capillifolium showed 4 times higher N allocation into free amino acids, indicating N stress, but only in response to increased NH4+. In contrast, NO3− addition resulted in enhanced peat N mineralization linked to microbial NO3− reduction, increasing soil pH, N concentrations and N losses via denitrification. Unexpectedly, increased deposition from 8 to 32 kg ha− 1 y− 1 in both N forms did not affect N2 fixation rates for any of the moss species and corresponded to an additional input of 5 kg N ha− 1 y− 1 with a 100% S. capillifolium cover. Since both N forms clearly show differential effects on living Sphagnum and biogeochemical processes in the underlying peat, N form should be included in the assessment of the effects of N pollution on peatlands.
28443Kulkarni A.N., Watharkar A.D., Rane N.R., Jeon B.-H. & Govindwar S.P. (2018): Decolorization and detoxification of dye mixture and textile effluent by lichen Dermatocarpon vellereceum in fixed bed upflow bioreactor with subsequent oxidative stress study. - Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 148: 17–25.
Navy Blue HE22 (NBHE22), dye mixture and real textile effluent were decolorized and degraded by lichen Dermatocarpon vellereceum. Up-flow bioreactor showed about 80%, 70%, 80% and 65% removal of American dye manufacturer index (ADMI), biological oxygen demand (BOD), total suspended solids (TSS) and total dissolved solids (TDS), respectively of dye mixture at flow rate of 25 ml h−1. The removal of ADMI, BOD, TSS and TDS of real textile effluent were 75%, 65%, 82% and 70%, respectively at flow rate of 30 ml h−1. Significant induction of extracellular enzymes such as manganese peroxidase and lignin peroxidase was observed up to 46% and 36% during decolorization of dye mixture, while 43% and 24% during effluent treatment, respectively. Exponential enhancement in the activities of stress enzymes such as catalase (CAT) and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) was observed after exposure to NBHE22 (116% and 125%, respectively), dye mixture (150% and 300%, respectively) and effluent (400% and 350%, respectively) endorsing the stress tolerance ability of model lichen. Phytotoxicity and genotoxicity studies demonstrated less toxic nature of metabolites resulted from biodegradation.
28442Manninen S. (2018): Deriving nitrogen critical levels and loads based on the responses of acidophytic lichen communities on boreal urban Pinus sylvestris trunks. - Science of the Total Environment, 613–614: 751–762.
The deposition of reactive nitrogen (N) compounds currently predominates over sulphur (S) deposition in most of the cities in Europe and North America. Acidophytic lichens growing on tree trunks are known to be sensitive to both N and S deposition. Given that tree species and climatic factors affect the composition of epiphytic lichen communities and modify lichen responses to air pollution, this study focused on the impact of urban air pollution on acidophytes growing on boreal conifer trunks. The study was performed in the Helsinki metropolitan area, southern Finland, where annual mean nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations range from 4–5 μg m− 3 to > 50 μg m− 3. In addition, background forest sites in southern and northern Finland were included. The results demonstrated elevated N contents (≥ 0.7%) in Hypogymnia physodes and Platismatia glauca at all the sites where the species occurred. In the Helsinki metropolitan area, a higher frequency of green algae + Scoliociosporum chlorococcum and reduced numerical frequencies of other indicator lichen species (e.g. Pseudevernia furfuracea, Bryoria spp., Usnea spp.) were associated with elevated atmospheric concentrations of NO2 and particulate matter containing N, as well as elevated concentrations of inorganic N in bark. The N isotope values (δ15N) of lichens supported the uptake of oxidized N mainly originating from road traffic. Sulphur dioxide (SO2) also negatively affected the most sensitive species, despite the current low levels (1–4 μg m− 3 yr− 1). Critical levels of 5 μg NO2 m− 3 yr− 1 and 0.5 μg NH3 m− 3 yr− 1, and a critical load of 2–3 kg N ha− 1 yr− 1 are proposed for protecting the diversity of boreal acidophytes. This study calls for measurements of the throughfall of various N fractions in urban forest ecosystems along precipitation and temperature gradients to verify the proposed critical levels and loads.
28441Ametrano C.G., Selbmann L. & Muggia L. (2017): A standardized approach for co-culturing dothidealean rock-inhabiting fungi and lichen photobionts in vitro. - Symbiosis, 73: 35–44.
Black, rock inhabiting fungi (RIF) are polyextremotolerant, oligotrophic organisms which colonize bare rocks and are specialized to grow in niches precluded to other microorganisms in the harshest environments. In many cases RIF share this environment with green algae and cyanobacteria forming subaerial biofilms; some of them have also been found to be associated with lichen thalli. The RIF genus Lichenothelia is of particular interest because it includes lichen parasites and species which are loosely associated with algae or grow independently on rocks. Here, in vitro culture experiments studied the development of three Lichenothelia species when cocultured with two different lichen photobionts on growth media differing in nutrient content. The growth rates of these fungi were statistically evaluated and the structure of the mixed cultures was analyzed by light and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the presence of algae neither influence the growth rate of fungi nor the formation of any lichen-like structure; tight contacts between the hyphae and the algal cells were also not detected. Since multiple trials were carried out on well characterized species of microcolonial fungi and the methodological procedures were established, standardized and coupled with morphological analyses, this approach proves suitable for future investigations on fungal-algal interactions in other systems. Keywords: Carbon sources . Coccomyxa . Mixed culture . Lichenothelia . Saxomyces . Trebouxia.
28440Zúñiga C., Leiva D., Carú M. & Orlando J. (2017): Substrates of Peltigera lichens as a potential source of cyanobionts. - Microbial Ecology, 74: 561–569.
Photobiont availability is one of the main factors determining the success of the lichenization process. Although multiple sources of photobionts have been proposed, there is no substantial evidence confirming that the substrates on which lichens grow are one of them. In this work, we obtained cyanobacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences from the substrates underlying 186 terricolous Peltigera cyanolichens from localities in Southern Chile and maritime Antarctica and compared them with the sequences of the cyanobionts of these lichens, in order to determine if cyanobacteria potentially available for lichenization were present in the substrates. A phylogenetic analysis of the sequences showed that Nostoc phylotypes dominated the cyanobacterial communities of the substrates in all sites. Among them, an overlap was observed between the phylotypes of the lichen cyanobionts and those of the cyanobacteria present in their substrates, suggesting that they could be a possible source of lichen photobionts. Also, in most cases, higher Nostoc diversity was observed in the lichens than in the substrates from each site. A better understanding of cyanobacterial diversity in lichen substrates and their relatives in the lichens would bring insights into mycobiont selection and the distribution patterns of lichens, providing a background for hypothesis testing and theory development for future studies of the lichenization process. Keywords Cyanobacteria . Nostoc . Peltigera . Photobiont availability . Terricolous lichens.
28439Fernández-Mendoza F., Fleischhacker A., Kopun T., Grube M. & Muggia L. (2017): ITS1 metabarcoding highlights low specificity of lichen mycobiomes at a local scale . - Molecular Ecology, 26: 4811–4830.
As self-supporting and long-living symbiotic structures, lichens provide a habitat for many other organisms beside the traditionally considered lichen symbionts—the myco- and the photobionts. The lichen-inhabiting fungi either develop diagnostic phenotypes or occur asymptomatically. Because the degree of specificity towards the lichen host is poorly known, we studied the diversity of these fungi among neighbouring lichens on rocks in an alpine habitat. Using a sequencing metabarcoding approach, we show that lichen mycobiomes clearly reflect the overlap of multiple ecological sets of taxa, which differ in their trophic association with lichen thalli. The lack of specificity to the lichen mycobiome is further supported by the lack of community structure observed using clustering and ordination methods. The communities encountered across samples largely result from the subsampling of a shared species pool, in which we identify three major ecological components: (i) a generalist environmental pool, (ii) a lichenicolous/endolichenic pool and (iii) a pool of transient species. These taxa majorly belong to the fungal classes Dothideomycetes, Eurotiomycetes and Tremellomycetes with close relatives in adjacent ecological niches. We found no significant evidence that the phenotypically recognized lichenicolous fungi influence the occurrence of the other asymptomatic fungi in the host thalli. We claim that lichens work as suboptimal habitats or as a complex spore and mycelium bank, which modulate and allow the regeneration of local fungal communities. By performing an approach that minimizes ambiguities in the taxonomic assignments of fungi, we present how lichen mycobiomes are also suitable targets for improving bioinformatic analyses of fungal metabarcoding. Keywords: Chaetothyriales, Dothideomycetes, endolichenic, lichenicolous, symbiosis, Tremellales.
28438Palmqvist K., Franklin O. & Näsholm T. (2017): Symbiosis constraints: Strong mycobiont control limits nutrient response in lichens. - Ecology and Evolution, 7(18): 7420–7433.
Symbioses such as lichens are potentially threatened by drastic environmental changes. We used the lichen Peltigera aphthosa—a symbiosis between a fungus (mycobiont), a green alga (Coccomyxa sp.), and N2-fixing cyanobacteria (Nostoc sp.)—as a model organism to assess the effects of environmental perturbations in nitrogen (N) or phosphorus (P). Growth, carbon (C) and N stable isotopes, CNP concentrations, and specific markers were analyzed in whole thalli and the partners after 4 months of daily nutrient additions in the field. Thallus N was 40% higher in N-fertilized thalli, amino acid concentrations were twice as high, while fungal chitin but not ergosterol was lower. Nitrogen also resulted in a thicker algal layer and density, and a higher δ13C abundance in all three partners. Photosynthesis was not affected by either N or P. Thallus growth increased with light dose independent of fertilization regime. We conclude that faster algal growth compared to fungal lead to increased competition for light and CO2 among the Coccomyxa cells, and for C between alga and fungus, resulting in neither photosynthesis nor thallus growth responded to N fertilization. This suggests that the symbiotic lifestyle of lichens may prevent them from utilizing nutrient abundance to increase C assimilation and growth.
28437Lendemer J.C. (2017): Recent literature on lichens—246. - Bryologist, 120(3): 361-369.
recent literature
28436Simon A., Liu Y., Sérusiaux E. & Goffinett B. (2017): Complete mitogenome sequence of Ricasolia amplissima (Lobariaceae) reveals extensive mitochondrial DNA rearrangement within the Peltigerales (lichenized Ascomycetes). - Bryologist, 20(3): 335-339.
The structure of mitochondrial genomes varies among non-lichenized fungi in terms of their genic and intronic content and genic order. Whether lichenized fungal mitogenomes are equally labile is unknown due to the paucity of available mitogenomes. We assembled the mitogenome of Ricasolia amplissima (Peltigerales, Lobariaceae), using massive parallel sequencing, and compared its structure to that of two species of Peltigera (Peltigeraceae). The mitochondrial genome of R. amplissima comprised 82,333 bp, with a 29.8% GþC content, and holds 15 unique protein-coding genes, 29 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and one non-coding RNA gene. Although the protein-coding gene content in the mitogenome of Peltigera and Ricasolia was identical, the relative gene order differed substantially, revealing that significant gene rearrangements also characterize the evolution of mitogenomes of lichenized ascomycetes at a relatively shallow phylogenetic depth, such as within the order Peltigerales. Gene duplication, genome rearrangement, Lecanoromycetes, lichen, Peltigerinae
28435McCune B. & Lumbsch T.H. (2017): Lambiella arenosa, a new species from the coastal Oregon dunes. - Bryologist, 120(3): 329-334.
The Lambiella caeca group of North America is a poorly known group of diminutive epiphytes with black lecideine apothecia occurring on conifer bark. We describe a new species in this group, L. arenosa, which occurs on Pinus contorta on the dunes of the Oregon coast. Both Lambiella caeca and L. arenosa share a black disk with raised, thin, persistent, often flexuose, black margins, an internally dark exciple that is thin and even, a thin, usually dark brown epithecium, and branched paraphyses that are moniliform in the upper part with K. The easiest characters to differentiate them are the smaller spores (averaging 8–11 lm long) and more conspicuous thallus of L. caeca, in contrast to somewhat larger spores (averaging over 11 lm long) and endosubstratal thallus in L. arenosa. While the known ranges of L. arenosa and L. caeca s.str. do not overlap (hyperoceanic West Coast for L. arenosa, boreal for L. caeca s.str.), a third group of specimens is problematic. Currently, we lack the data to establish whether previously sequenced members of the L. caeca group from western North America belong to L. caeca, L. arenosa, or additional undescribed species. Lambiella caeca, lichen, North America, Trapeliaceae, Xylographaceae.
28434Aptroot A., Feuerstein S.C., Cunha-Dias I.P.R., Nunes Á.R.L., Honorato M.E. & Cáceres M.E.S (2017): New lichen species and lichen reports from Amazon forest remnants and Cerrado vegetation in the Tocantina Region, northern Brazil. - Bryologist, 120(3): 320–328.
A recent field trip to the adjacent states of Maranhão, Pará and Tocantins yielded the following undescribed lichens: Buellia lichexanthonica, Chrysothrix citrinella, Cryptothecia isidioxantha and Heterocyphelium triseptatum (which is also reported from Tanzania). In addition, 127 species are reported new to Tocantins state, 126 to Maranhão and 73 to Pará; 22 of these are first records for Brazil. viz. Astrothelium ferrugineum, A. nigratum, A. norisianum, Bathelium inspersomastoideum, Bulbothrix sipmanii, Caloplaca oxfordensis, Collema rugosum, C. texanum, Diorygma erythrellum, Graphis atrocelata, G. deserpens, G. hiascens, G. norstictica, Lecanographa subcaesioides, Lecanora jamesii, Platygramme computata, Platythecium suberythrellum, Porina coralloidea, P. hibernica, Staurothele arenaria, Synarthothelium cerebriforme and Verrucaria margacea. The new combination Gassicurtia endococcinea is also made; it is the first saxicolous member of this genus. Keywords: Corticolous, saxicolous, Maranhão, Pará, Tocantins, Tanzania.
28433Allen J.L. (2017): Testing lichen transplant methods for conservation applications in the southern Appalachian Mountains, North Carolina, U.S.A.. - Bryologist, 120(3): 311-319.
Three experiments were conducted to test new and established methods for lichen transplantation in the southern Appalachian Mountains. First, small fragments of Graphis sterlingiana, Hypotrachyna virginica and Lepraria lanata were placed on medical gauze attached to the most common substrate of each species to test the feasibility of transplanting narrowly endemic species with this established method. The medical gauze did not withstand the weather conditions at the transplant site, so a second experiment was conducted to test more resilient materials. Burlap, cheesecloth, medical gauze and a plastic air filter were directly compared for their use as artificial transplant substrates with Lepraria finkii as the test lichen. Third, transplants of Usnea angulata were established to test its amenability to transplantation by hanging fragments on monofilament. The first two experiments were established on Roan Mountain, North Carolina, and the third experiment at Highlands Biological Station, North Carolina. In the first two experiments medical gauze did not withstand local weather conditions and nearly all gauze fell from the trees within 6 months. The plastic air filter and burlap performed best as artificial substrates for transplants, with a 60% and 80% success rate, respectively. Cheesecloth remained attached to the trees, but only 20% of lichen fragments remained attached to the substrate after one year. In the third experiment U. angulata grew 3.5 6 1.4 cm in the first five months and 1.8 6 1.5 cm in the next four months, exceeding previously reported growth rates for this species. These results advance methods for conservation-focused lichen transplants, and expand established methods to a new region and new species. Translocation, assisted migration, restoration
28432Tripp E.A., Zhuang Y. & Lendemer J.C. (2017): A review of existing whole genome data suggests lichen mycelia may be haploid or diploid. - Bryologist, 120(3): 302-310.
Fungi exhibit some of the greatest reproductive diversity among Eukaryotes. In addition to sexual and asexual reproduction, fungi engage in parasexual processes (e.g., mitotic recombination), which results in new genetic variation. Lichenized fungi possess the full complement of reproductive processes present in their non-lichenized relatives but with further embellishment as a result of obligate symbiosis with algae and other organisms. Therefore, lichens serve as an excellent model system in reproductive biology, but no study has yet tested the commonly held assumption that lichen mycelia are haploid. We present new whole genome assemblies from seven unrelated lichens and use allelic ratio frequencies to estimate ploidy. Of these seven, three were derived from multispore mycelial cultures and the remaining four were derived from intact lichen thalli (i.e., from metagenomic reads). Data from the metagenome samples indicate that two are likely haploid or highly homozygous diploid as a result of clonal mating whereas the remaining two yielded highly skewed allelic ratios that warrant further study. In contrast, we recovered evidence consistent with a hypothesis of a diploid or dikaryotic rather than haploid mycelium for all three multispore cultures. The most likely explanation for the latter is an early developmental fusion of sporelings, or fusion of hyphae resulting from these sporelings, to yield a diploid or dikaryotic lichen mycelium. Our data provide insights into understanding lichen ploidy and reproduction in lichen-forming fungi. Allele, diploid, fungi, genome, haploid, lichen, mating type, parasexual ploidy.
28431Sparrius L.B., Aptroot A., Sipman H.J.M., Pérez-Vargas I., Matos P., Gerlach A. & Vervoort M. (2017): Estimating the population size of the endemic lichens Anzia centrifuga (Parmeliaceae) and Ramalina species (Ramalinaceae) on Porto Santo (Madeira archipelago). - Bryologist, 120(3): 293-301.
Due to isolation, islands are known to harbor a high number of endemics. Although most lichen species are widespread, a number of genera are well-known for the large number of endemics. Often, those endemic taxa have a low population size and are vulnerable to ecosystem change. We carried out a survey of all seven endemic lichens of the island of Porto Santo (Madeira, Portugal, 42 km2) in order to generate data for a IUCN Red List assessment. Six km2 of suitable habitat for the species were searched and mapped at 100 m resolution. The main habitat for the species consisted of volcanic outcrops, mainly basalt peaks and lava flows on the slopes. All accessible areas—circa 90% of the peaks and 50% of all outcrops—were surveyed by the authors during one week as a volunteer project. The population size of Anzia centrifuga was estimated to be 50–100 individuals. It occurred only on exposed, stable, vertical, N to W facing rock faces above 240 m, restricting the potential habitat to less than 1.0 km2. Ramalina nematodes occurred often abundantly on most of the larger exposed ridges. Ramalina confertula and R. portosantana each occur on several rock outcrops in the N part of the island. Ramalina erosa, R. jamesii and R. timdaliana were restricted to an area often less than 1000 m2 in the surroundings of their type localities. After application of the IUCN criteria, all studied endemics fitted well into category Critically Endangered although no immediate threats seem present. Endangered species, island biogeography, Macaronesia, IUCN Red List.
28430Lendemer J.C. (2017): Revision of Gyalideopsis ozarkensis and G. subaequatoriana (Gomphillaceae; lichenized Ascomycetes), leads to the description of an overlooked new species. - Bryologist, 120(3): 274-286.
Recent collections from southeastern North America prompted a revision of Gyalideopsis ozarkensis and G. subaequatoriana. The protologues and original material of these names are shown to comprise elements of three seemingly allopatric taxa that can be recognized based on differences in diahyphae morphology that appear to be correlated to different biogeographic patterns. Gyalideopsis ozarkensis is restricted to specimens with long multi-septate diahyphae from the Ozarks, Ouachitas, and the southwestern Appalachian Mountains. Gyalideopsis subaequatoriana is restricted to collections from tropical central Florida with moniliform diahyphae. A third species, G. bartramiorum, is described as new to science for material from the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain and southern Appalachians Mountains. All three taxa are illustrated and maps of their geographic distributions are presented. Biogeography, conidia, lichens, taxonomy
28429Aptroot A. & Common R.S. (2017): Pyrenula clavatispora, a new species from Florida with narrowly clavate ascospores, with a key to similar species. - Bryologist, 120(3): 270-273.
The new species Pyrenula clavatispora is described from Florida. It has 7–12-septate, narrowly clavate ascospores and clavate asci. The only somewhat similar species are distributed over various islands in the Pacific Ocean. A key is provided for all species of Pyrenula with ascospores over 4 times as long as wide. Pyrenulaceae, lichen, corticolous, Pacific
28428Lendemer J.C. (2017): Recent literature on lichens—245. - Bryologist, 120(2): 236-256.
Recent literature
28427Carlberg T. (2017): Book review: Brodo, I. M. 2016. Keys to Lichens of North America: Revised and Expanded. Yale University Press. New Haven and London. 427 pp. [ISBN 978-0-300-19573-6]. Price $29.95 USD.. - Bryologist, 120(2): 257-258.
book review
28426Anonymous (2017): Correction to book review. The Lichens of Italy. A Second Annotated Checklist. The Bryologist 120(1): 110–111. - Bryologist, 120(2): 261.
The above book review was inadvertently published with a slightly incorrect title and incorrect link added by the book editor. The correct title and link are: The Lichens of Italy. A Second Annotated Catalogue https://www.eut.units.it/dettaglio?query1⁄4JID1⁄4600
28425Maceda-Veiga A. & Gómez-Bolea A. (2017): Small, fragmented native oak forests have better preserved epiphytic lichen communities than tree plantations in a temperate sub-oceanic Mediterranean climate region. - Bryologist, 120(2):191-201.
In increasingly fragmented landscapes tree plantations are thought to help maintain forest continuity among native patches. Epiphytic lichens are one of the most sensitive groups to change in forest conditions, but the effects of this management practice are still poorly studied in temperate regions. In this study we compared epiphytic lichen diversity among small patches of old, native oaks (Quercus pyrenaica) and young, planted chestnuts (Castanea sativa) and Monterey pines (Pinus radiata) in a major forestry area in northwestern Spain. Our results showed that the richness of epiphytic lichens was higher in C. sativa than Q. pyrenaica, but that the latter had more lichen species typical of mature forests, including macrocyanolichens. Overall, C. sativa plantations had more species typical of well-lit, dry environments than Q. pyrenaica or P. radiata, which is likely caused by the natural architecture of each tree species, and to differences in forest age and management. At the tree level, Q. pyrenaica had the highest total richness including all species of conservation interest, which were exclusively found on this species. On a corollary, this study shows that Q. pyrenaica forests had the best preserved epiphytic lichen communities but with marked signs of forest fragmentation. In this fragmented landscape, young plantations of C. sativa and P. radiata seem to be of limited help for providing connectivity to epiphytic lichens among old native forest patches. Forest fragmentation, lichen diversity patterns, oak forests, traditional forest management, bioindicators.
28424Lendemer J.C. & Harris R.C. (2017): Nomenclatural changes for North American members of the Variolaria- group necessitated by the recognition of Lepra (Pertusariales). - Bryologist, 120(2):183-190.
A distinctive group of species historically classified within Pertusaria subgenus Pionospora have been treated at the genus level under the name Variolaria, and more recently Marfloraea. Recent work has shown that Lepra is the oldest available name for this group. A nomenclatural summary of the members of the group that occur in North America north of Mexico is presented, including formal new combinations for the epithets that have not already been transferred to Lepra (i.e., P. andersoniae, P. commutata, P. floridiana, P. hypothamnolica, P. multipunctoides, V. pustulata, P. subdactylina, P. trachythallina, P. ventosa and P. waghornei). A key to the species occurring in the region is also presented. Asexual reproduction, anatomy, soralia.
28423Wei X., Schmitt I., Hodkinson B., Flakus A., Kukwa M., Divakar P.K., Kirika P.M., Otte J., Meiser A. & Lumbsch H.T. (2017): Circumscription of the genus Lepra, a recently resurrected genus to accommodate the “Variolaria”-group of Pertusaria sensu lato (Pertusariales, Ascomycota). - PLoS ONE, 12(7): e0180284 [14 p.].
Pertusarialean lichens include more than 300 species belonging to several independent phylogenetic lineages. Only some of these phylogenetic clades have been comprehensively sampled for molecular data, and formally described as genera. Here we present a taxonomic treatment of a group of pertusarialean lichens formerly known as “Pertusaria amara-group”, “Monomurata-group”, or “Variolaria-group”, which includes widespread and well-known taxa such as P. amara, P. albescens, or P. ophthalmiza. We generated a 6-locus data set with 79 OTUs representing 75 species. The distinction of the Variolaria clade is supported and consequently, the resurrection of the genus Lepra is followed. Thirty-five new combinations into Lepra are proposed and the new species Lepra austropacifica is described from mangroves in the South Pacific. Lepra is circumscribed to include species with disciform ascomata, a weakly to non-amyloid hymenial gel, strongly amyloid asci without clear apical amyloid structures, containing 1 or 2, single-layered, thin-walled ascospores. Chlorinated xanthones are not present, but thamnolic and picrolichenic acids occur frequently, as well as orcinol depsides. Seventy-one species are accepted in the genus. Although the distinction of the genus from Pertusaria is strongly supported, the relationships of Lepra remain unresolved and the genus is tentatively placed in Pertusariales incertae sedis.
28422Kiebacher T., Keller C., Scheidegger C. & Bergamini A. (2017): Epiphytes in wooded pastures: Isolation matters for lichen but not for bryophyte species richness. - PLoS ONE, 12(7): e0182065 [22 p.].
Sylvo-pastoral systems are species-rich man-made landscapes that are currently often severely threatened by abandonment or management intensification. At low tree densities, single trees in these systems represent habitat islands for epiphytic cryptogams. Here, we focused on sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) wooded pastures in the northern European Alps. We assessed per tree species richness of bryophytes and lichens on 90 sycamore maple trees distributed across six study sites. We analysed the effects of a range of explanatory variables (tree characteristics, environmental variables and isolation measures) on the richness of epiphytic bryophytes and lichens and various functional subgroups (based on diaspore size, habitat preference and red list status). Furthermore, we estimated the effect of these variables on the occurrence of two specific bryophyte species (Tayloria rudolphiana, Orthotrichum rogeri) and one lichen species (Lobaria pulmonaria) of major conservation concern. Bryophytes and lichens, as well as their subgroups, were differently and sometimes contrastingly affected by the variables considered: tree diameter at breast height had no significant effect on bryophytes but negatively affected many lichen groups; tree phenological age positively affected red-listed lichens but not red-listed bryophytes; increasing isolation from neighbouring trees negatively affected lichens but not bryophytes. However, the high-priority bryophyte species T. rudolphiana was also negatively affected by increased isolation at small spatial scales. Orthotrichum rogeri was more frequent on young trees and L. pulmonaria was more frequent on trees with thin stems and large crowns. The results indicate that local dispersal is important for lichens, whereas long distance dispersal seems to be more important for colonisation by bryophytes. Furthermore, our study highlights that different conservation measures need to be taken depending on the taxonomic and functional species group or the individual species that is addressed. In practice, for the conservation of a high overall richness in sylvo-pastoral systems, it is crucial to sustain not only old and large trees but rather a wide range of tree sizes and ages.
28421Malíček J. (2017): Středoevropské pralesy a lišejníky I. Příklady nejcennějších lokalit a ekologie lesních lišejníků. - Živa, 2017/4: 152-155 .
V tomto článku jsme stručně popsali nej cennější pralesovité porosty ve střední Evropě a nastínili schopnost lišejníků in dikovat různé vlastnosti lesního porostu - stáří, kontinuitu, velikost stanoviště a jeho heterogenitu, fragmentaci, management, míru a historii disturbancí, složení dřevin atd. V následujícím díle se zaměříme na druhovou diverzitu lišejníků v různých pralesovitých porostech, na metody prů zkumu a předběžné srovnání smrkových a bukových lesů na území naší republiky
28420Knudsen K., Kocourková J. & Lendemer J.C. (2017): Acarospora smaragdula var. lesdainii forma fulvoviridula is a synonym of Myriospora scabrida. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 16: 312–316.
Acarospora smaragdula var. lesdainii forma fulvoviridula is lectotypified and synonymized with Myriospora scabrida. The use of the epithet at the species level as A. flavoviridula is shown to be illegitimate, as is the combination into Myriospora. Keywords. – Acarosporaceae, Czech Republic, France, Germany, lectotype, nomenclature, taxonomy.
28419Elvebakk A. & Elix J.A. (2017): A trio of endemic New Zealand lichens: Pannaria aotearoana and P. gallowayi, new species with a new chemosyndrome, and their relationship with P. xanthomelana. - Nova Hedwigia, 105: 167–184.
The endemic New Zealand lichen Pannaria xanthomelana has been restudied and found to be characterized by a secondary chemistry of pannarin and porphyrilic acid in addition to terpenoids, and by always having abundant, conspicuously large, and mostly foliose cephalodia. Its verruciform pycnidia and bacilliform pycnoconidia/spermatia are described here for the first time. Two other related New Zealand endemics, P. gallowayi and P. aotearoana, are described as new. Both have small, relatively rare and inconspicuous cephalodia. They contain a new chemosyndrome, with pannarin, contortin and O-methyl-leprolomin together with major quantities of several unidentified terpenoids, previously reported from the related Australian species, P. isidiata. O-methyl-leprolomin is a novel compound, with similar TLC properties to leprolomin, but with different Rf values. Most collections of both species from the North and the South Islands of New Zealand contain additional porphyrilic acid. However, this compound is absent from many collections of these species from the subantarctic Campbell and Auckland Islands. Aside from chemistry, Pannaria gallowayi is also distinguished by having broad, papery lobes. Pannaria aotearoana which appears to be the more common species, has a thick thallus and characteristic thick, convex, marginal phyllidia, larger spermatia and more conspicuous pycnidia than P. gallowayi and P. xanthomelana. The three species share two different major chlorobionts. Trebouxia dominates in the north, and is gradually replaced southwards by a type provisionally called cf. Myrmecia. Key words: Pannariaceae, taxonomy, vegetative propagules, cyanobionts, O-methyl-leprolomin, contortin.
28418Döbbeler P. & Buck W.R. (2017): Dactylospora inopina (Lecanorales), a new biotrophic parasite on Radula (Hepaticae) from the Cape Horn Archipelago, Chile. - Nova Hedwigia, 105: 87–93.
The lecanoralean fungus Dactylospora inopina Döbbeler & W.R.Buck sp. nov. (Dactylosporaceae) is described on the liverwort Radula spp. (Radulaceae, Jungermanniales) based on collections from southernmost Chile. The species is characterized by small, warty apothecial ascomata, polysporous asci and subcylindrical, four-celled, brown ascospores. Polyspory has previously been known only in five lichenicolous species having two-celled spores. The combination of polyspory and phragmospory is a new character in the genus. The parasite grows by a mycelium within the host cell walls and does not cause visible damage. Dactylospora inopina is one of the relatively few hepaticolous discomycetes known so far. Apart from two Octosporella species with perithecia-like apothecia it is the first one on the large genus Radula, which is a good host for pyrenocarpous ascomycetes. Key words: Bryophilous fungi, hepaticolous ascomycetes, intercellular mycelium.
28417Malíček J., Berger F., Palice Z. & Vondrák J. (2017): Corticolous sorediate Lecanora species (Lecanoraceae, Ascomycota) containing atranorin in Europe. - Lichenologist, 49(5): 431–455.
Sixteen sorediate epiphytic species of Lecanora with atranorin from Europe are reported here. Lecanora substerilis is described as a new species from Carpathian beech forests in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Romania and Ukraine; it belongs to the L. subfusca group in its strict sense and is characterized by its usually verrucose thallus, sorediate apothecial margin, epihymenium with coarse granules at paraphyses tips, amphithecium with large crystals and it produces atranorin and fatty acid(s). A new, yellow chemotype of L. barkmaniana containing pulvinic acid derivatives is recognized from Austria. Morphological, ecological and chemical variation in L. exspersa, L. farinaria and L. variolascens is discussed in detail, and brief comments on the remaining 11 species are provided. Evaluation of the type material and molecular data indicate that the predominantly saxicolous L. caesiosora is a sorediate form of L. cenisia. Molecular data confirmed the identities of the sorediate forms of L. albella and L. allophana that are conspecific with their fertile counterparts. New Central European localities are listed for the rare species, L. barkmaniana, L. exspersa, L. mughosphagneti, L. norvegica and L. variolascens. Positions in ITS and mtSSU phylogenies are outlined for most species. Identification keys to fertile as well as sterile populations are provided. epiphytic lichens, Lecanora subfusca group, Lecanora substerilis, old-growth beech forests, pulvinic acid
28416Davydov E.A. & Yakovchenko L.S. (2017): Rhizocarpon smaragdulum, a new monosporic yellow-thalline species and some additional species of the genus Rhizocarpon from the Altai Mountains (Siberia). - Lichenologist, 49(5): 457–466.
Abstract: Rhizocarpon smaragdulum Davydov & Yakovchenko sp. nov. is described and a phylogenetic analysis (ITS, mtSSU) is presented, confirming its distinctiveness and indicating a sister relationship with R. suomiense and R. subgeminatum. The species is unique among yellow Rhizocarpon species in having a single hyaline ascospore per ascus. The phylogenetic tree suggests that the number of ascospores per ascus has been reduced in Rhizocarpon more than once during the course of its evolution. Two new distributional records are also reported: Rhizocarpon atroflavescens is new for Siberia and R. norvegicum is new for the Altai Mountains. Rhizocarpon norvegicum in this region grows on rocks and is also lichenicolous on Acarospora bullata. Ascomycota, Asia, lichenized fungi, new taxon, taxonomy, Rhizocarpaceae, Tuva
28415Lücking R., Thorn R.G., Saar I., Piercey-Normore M.D., Moncada B., Doering J., Mann H., Lebeuf R., Voitk M. & Voitk A. (2017): A hidden basidiolichen rediscovered: Omphalina oreades is a separate species in the genus Lichenomphalia (Basidiomycota: Agaricales: Hygrophoraceae). - Lichenologist, 49(5): 467–481.
Molecular studies have shown the type collection of Omphalina oreades to be conspecific with a small brown basidiolichen from the Appalachian range in Newfoundland, both with 4-spored basidia. Two sequences deposited in GenBank, originally identified as O. grisella, fell in the same clade. Sequences of the type collection of Omphalia grisella, with 2-spored basidia, formed a sister clade together with two GenBank deposits, one identified as O. grisella and the other as Omphalina velutina. Omphalina oreades is recombined here as Lichenomphalia oreades comb. nov., and the species redescribed and illustrated. Sequences of the internal transcribed spacer regions of nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS rDNA) from the algae associated with two collections of L. oreades fell within a highly supported clade with members of an undetermined species of Coccomyxa. The most abundant algal ribosomal large subunit sequence from granules at the base of a different collection matched GenBank sequences identified as Chloroidium ellipsoideum, which is probably either a free-living algal species or a partner to a species of Trapeliopsis. The second most abundant sequence matched Coccomyxa subellipsoidea and is the most likely photobiont of L. oreades. Further studies are required to elucidate the relationship of L. velutina to these taxa. ITS barcoding, Illumina sequencing, New Hampshire, phylogeny, typification
28414Colesie C., Williams L. & Büdel B. (2017): Water relations in the soil crust lichen Psora decipiens are optimized via anatomical variability. - Lichenologist, 49(5): 483–492.
Biological soil crusts are communities composed of cryptogamic organisms such as lichens, mosses, cyanobacteria and green algae that form a skin on soils in areas where vascular plants are excluded or limited by water availability or temperature. The lichen Psora decipiens (Hedw.) Hoffm. is a characteristic key organism in these communities in many different biomes. The species has a generalistic ecology and high morphological variation, which contributes to the ability of the species to withstand environmental changes. We investigated whether different populations, based on site and associated morpho-anatomical differences, incorporate functional water relations and how/whether this was driven by changes in abiotic factors. Samples were collected from two climatically distinct sites, one ‘dry’ site in southern Spain and one ‘wet’ site in the Austrian Alps. Our results showed that samples from the dry site had a significantly thicker epinecral layer, higher specific thallus area, a faster water uptake and contained more water per dry mass, all of which contributed to a much slower drying rate. Both populations showed a highly adjusted water gain that incorporates functional water relations and diffusion properties as a result of local water availability. We show eco-physiological and morphological mechanisms that underlie the high variability in P. decipiens and suggest how these might provide ecological benefits for this generalist lichen species. drying rate, ecology, epinecral layer, hydrological characteristics, phenotypic plasticity
28413Longinotti S., Solhaug K.A. & Gauslaa Y. (2017): Hydration traits in cephalolichen members of the epiphytic old forest genus Lobaria (s. lat.). - Lichenologist, 49(5): 493–506.
This study aims to quantify the size-dependency of important hydration traits in Lobaria amplissima, L. pulmonaria and L. virens sampled in sympatric populations on deciduous tree trunks in southern Norway, and to discuss possible implications of species-specific traits for the ecological niches of these old forest cephalolichens. Traits measured were thallus size (area and mass), specific thallus mass (STM), internal (WHCinternal) and external water-holding capacity (WHCexternal), and water content (WC) after shaking and after blotting. Lobaria amplissima had the highest WHCinternal, 2·6 times higher than L. pulmonaria with the lowest WHCinternal. WHCinternal, driven by STM, strongly depended on size. WHCexternal was 28% (L. virens) to 47% (L. pulmonaria) of the WHCinternal. Unlike WHCinternal, WHCexternal did not depend on thallus area, meaning that WHCexternal is proportionally higher for smaller compared with larger thalli. The most widespread species, L. pulmonaria, benefits from a flexible hydration strategy due to low STM, facilitating the use of more diverse water sources than the other two species that depend more on rain, particularly L. amplissima with the highest STM and thus relatively high WHCinternal. For L. virens, a combination of less specialized hydration traits and a low tolerance to higher light intensity probably jeopardizes its survival outside rainforest habitats. Lobaria amplissima, Lobaria pulmonaria, Lobaria virens, specific thallus mass, water- holding capacity, water storage
28412Le Pogam P., Pillot A., Lohezic Le Devehat F., Le Lamer A.-C., Legouin B., Gadea A., Sauvager A., Ertz D. & Boustie J. (2017): Mass spectrometry as a versatile ancillary technique for the rapid in situ identification of lichen metabolites directly from TLC plates. - Lichenologist, 49(5): 507–520.
Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) still enjoys widespread popularity among lichenologists as one of the fastest and simplest analytical strategies, today remaining the primary method of assessing the secondary product content of lichens. The pitfalls associated with this approach are well known as TLC leads to characterizing compounds by comparison with standards rather than properly identifying them, which might lead to erroneous assignments, accounting for the long-held interest in hyphenating TLC with dedicated identification tools. As such, commercially available TLC/Mass Spectrometry (MS) interfaces can be easily connected to any brand of mass spectrometer without adjustments. The spots of interest are extracted from the TLC plate to retrieve mass spectrometric signals within one minute, thereby ensuring accurate identification of the chromatographed substances. The results of this hyphenated strategy for lichens are presented here by 1) describing the TLC migration and direct MS analysis of single lichen metabolites of various structural classes, 2) highlighting it through the chemical profiling of crude acetone extracts of a set of lichens of known chemical composition, and finally 3) applying it to a lichen of unknown profile, Usnea trachycarpa. acetone extracts, analytical techniques, chemical profiling, Usnea trachycarpa
28411Ferencova Z., Rico V.J. & Hawksworth D.L. (2017): Extraction of DNA from lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi: a low-cost fast protocol using Chelex. - Lichenologist, 49(5): 521–525.
In the course of our studies of lichenicolous fungi, we have been seeking a quick and reliable method for extracting DNA from minute specimens and microscopic material. Extraction of fungal genomic DNA generally involves breaking the hyphal walls and then extracting and purifying the genomic DNA. Commercial extraction kits (e.g. QIAGEN DNeasy Plant Mini Kit) or the classic CTAB protocol (Grube et al. 1995; Cubero et al. 1999) are generally used. Although these techniques provide DNA of a satisfactory quantity and quality, most are tedious and time-consuming and involve the use of hazar- dous chemicals in the extraction process (e.g. phenol, chloroform, isoamyl alcohol). Moreover, commercial kits are relatively expensive and inappropriate for minute sam- ples which can be easily lost during processing. For our research, we required a method for extracting genomic DNA from lichenicolous and lichen-forming fungi that would be less time consuming, cheap, not hazardous, and suited for use with the large number of samples necessary to thoroughly investigate phylogenetic relationships in these fungi. Here we report a relatively simple thermo- lysis method for extracting fungal genomic DNA, and the testing of its efficacy by amplification, in this case of the nrDNA LSU and ITS regions. Direct PCR as proposed by Wolinski et al. (1999) is commonly used for minute samples (e.g. Lawrey et al. 2007; Ertz et al. 2014) to avoid an extraction step. It is not, however, always easy to use for lichenicolous fungi intimately associated with the host, or appropriate if a stock of extracted DNA is required for future studies. Moreover, direct PCR could be unsuitable for strongly melanized material or in the presence of PCR inhibitors (Eckhart et al. 2000; Schrader et al. 2012)
28410Singh P. & Singh K.P. (2017): New combinations in the family Graphidaceae (lichenized Ascomycota: Ostropales) from India. - Lichenologist, 49(5): 527–533.
Diorygma aeolum (Stirt.) Pushpi Singh & Kr. P. Singh comb. nov., Diorygma spilotum (Stirt.) Pushpi Singh & Kr. P. Singh comb. nov., Kalbographa hypoglaucoides (Kr. P. Singh & D. D. Awasthi) Kr. P. Singh & Pushpi Singh comb. nov., Pallidogramme awasthii (Patw. & C. R. Kulk.) Kr. P. Singh & Pushpi Singh comb. nov., Pallidogramme divaricoides (Räsänen) Pushpi Singh & Kr. P. Singh comb. nov., Phaeographis firmula (Stirt.) Pushpi Singh & Kr. P. Singh comb. nov., Nitidochapsa leprieurii (Mont.) Parnmen, Lücking & Lumbsch
28409Zotz G. (2017): Growth of Rhizocarpon geographicum in the summit region of Volcan Barú, Panama. - Lichenologist, 49(5): 535–538.
The crustose lichens of the genus Rhizocarpon are among the most widely distributed species on rock surfaces worldwide (Armstrong 2011, 2016). Thalli of this species are characterized by yellow-green lichenized areolae on the surface of a non-lichenized fungal hypotha- llus, which forms a dark marginal ring. Rhizocarpon species typically grow very slowly and reach a considerable age, characteristics that have been exploited in numerous studies by earth scientists and archaeologists using these lichens as a tool to estimate the time of exposure of stone surfaces in natural systems (e.g. retreating glaciers, Rodbell (1992)) or to date human artefacts (e.g. tombstones or stone walls, Emerman et al. (2016)). There are hundreds of studies on growth in Rhizocarpon species (McCarthy & Henry 2012), although the large majority of them do not directly measure growth via repeated observations but rather use ‘growth curves’ that are constructed from independently dated substrata. This practice has evoked substantial criticism (e.g. Osborn et al. 2015). In spite of the large number of publications and the occurrence of Rhizocarpon species in both hemispheres over a large latitudinal range from the equator to both the Arctic and Antarctic, there are very few reports about this lichen from the tropics (Rodbell 1992; Solomina et al. 2007; Jomelli et al. 2008). Moreover, none of them deter- mined growth directly, but used the ‘growth curves’ criticized by Osborn et al. (2015) and others. The database is not much better for other crustose lichens. To my knowledge, the only study measuring radial growth in a crustose lichen in the tropics (Zotz 1999) is on an unidentified Cryptothecia species (Arthoniaceae) growing epiphytically in the moist lowland forest of Barro Colorado Island in Panama and this reported remarkably high radial growth rates of >5 mm y − 1. The limited information on the growth of tropical lichens in general, and Rhizocarpon geographicum (L.) DC. in particular, motivated the current study. Twice within three years, I visited the summit region of the Volcán Barú massif in the Republic of Panama. Taking digital photographs of Rhizocarpon thalli on large boulders allowed the direct determina- tion of growth without any of the problematic assumptions that typically underlie licheno- metry (Osborn et al. 2015)
28408Zakeri Z., Elix J.A. & Otte V. (2017): Degradation of alectorialic acid in the lichen genus Usnea. - Lichenologist, 49(5): 539–543.
The benzyl ester, alectorialic acid, is a rela- tively uncommon lichen substance but it has been reported from Alectoria nigricans (Ach.) Nyl., Bryoria capillaris (Ach.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. and B. nadvornikiana (Gyeln.) Brodo & D. Hawksw., as well as from the apothecia of Usnea florida (L.) F. H.Wigg. and the medulla of the lichen currently known as a chemotype of Usnea dasopoga (Ach.) Nyl. (=U. diplotypus auct. non Vain. p.p., Clerc 2011; Wirth et al. 2013), and in Anamylopsora pulcherrima (Vain.) Timdal (Huneck & Elix 1993). In nature, alectorialic acid is usually accompanied by various quantities of other substances which have been assumed to be degradation products of alec- torialic acid (Solberg 1970)
28407Hawksworth D.L. (2017): [review] Lichens of Mexico. The Parmeliaceae – Keys, Distribution and Specimen Descriptions. Edited by Maria Herrera-Campos, Rosa Emilia Pérez-Pérez and Thomas H. Nash III. 2016. Stuttgart: J. Cramer in Borntraeger Science Publishers. Pp. vi + 723, 17 figures (most coloured). Page size 215 mm × 140 mm, weight 995 g. (Bibliotheca Lichenologica No. 110.) ISBN 978-3-443-58089-6. Hardback €199.00. doi. - Lichenologist, 49(5): 545-546.
a book review
28406Coppins B.J. (2017): [review] The Lichens of Italy. A Second Annotated Catalogue. By Pier Luigi Nimis. 2016. Trieste: EUT – Edizioni Università di Trieste. Pp. 739, 2 figures. Page size 296 × 205 mm, weight 3 kg. ISBN 978-88-8303-754-2. Hardback. Price: €80.00. doi:10.1017/S0024282917000457. - Lichenologist, 49(5): 545.
a book review
28405Dal Forno M., Bungartz F., Yánez-Ayabaca A., Lücking R. & Lawrey J.D. (2017): High levels of endemism among Galapagos basidiolichens. - Fungal Diversity, 85: 45–73.
This study is a re-assessment of basidiolichen diversity in the Galapagos Islands. We present a molecular phylogenetic analysis, based on 92 specimens from Galapagos, using two nuclear ribosomal DNA markers (ITS and nuLSU). We also re-examined the morphology and anatomy of all sequenced material. The molecular results confirm our previous assessment that all Galapagos basidiolichens belong to the Dictyonema clade, which in Galapagos is represented by four genera: Acantholichen, Cora, Cyphellostereum, and Dictyonema. Most species previously reported from Galapagos in these genera were at the time believed to represent widely distributed taxa. This conclusion, however, has changed with the inclusion of molecular data. Although almost the same number of species is distinguished, the phylogenetic data now suggest that all are restricted to the Galapagos Islands. Among them, six species are proposed here as new to science, namely Cora galapagoensis, Cyphellostereum unoquinoum, Dictyonema barbatum, D. darwinianum, D. ramificans, and D. subobscuratum; and four species have already been described previously, namely Acantholichen galapagoensis, Cora santacruzensis, Dictyonema pectinatum, and D. galapagoense, here recombined as Cyphellostereum galapagoense. Our analysis is set on a very broad phylogenetic framework, which includes a large number of specimens (N = 826) mainly from Central and South America, and therefore strongly suggests an unusually high level of endemism previously not recognized. This analysis also shows that the closest relatives of half of the basidiolichens now found in Galapagos are from mainland Ecuador, implying that they reached the islands through the shortest route, with all species arriving on the islands through independent colonization events. Keywords: Lichens;  Systematics;  Biodiversity; Evolution;  Lichenized basidiomycetes; Galapagos.
28404Kroukamp E.M., Godeto T.W. & Forbes P.B.C. (2017): Comparison of sample preparation procedures on metal(loid) fractionation patterns in lichens. - Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 189: 451 [17 p.].
The effects of different sample preparation strategies and storage on metal(loid) fractionation trends in plant material is largely underresearched. In this study, a bulk sample of lichen Parmotrema austrosinense (Zahlbr.) Hale was analysed for its total extractable metal(loid) content by ICP-MS, and was determined to be adequately homogenous (<5% RSD) for most elements. Several subsets of this sample were prepared utilising a range of sample preservation techniques and subjected to a modified sequential extraction procedure or to total metal extraction. Both experiments were repeated after 1-month storage at 4 °C. Cryogenic freezing gave the best reproducibility for total extractable elemental concentrations between months, indicating this to be the most suitable method of sample preparation in such studies. The combined extraction efficiencies were >82% for As, Cu, Mn, Pb, Sr and Zn but poor for other elements, where sample preparation strategies ‘no sample preparation’ and ‘dried in a desiccator’ had the best extraction recoveries. Cryogenic freezing procedures had a significantly (p < 0.05) negative effect on metal extractability, and is therefore inappropriate for sequential extraction procedures in lichens. Biotransformation over a period of a month is suspected for most elements, with the exception of Sr and Zn, where changes in the fractionation patterns were statistically significant (p < 0.05), indicating the need for minimal delay in sample cleaning and preservation when species fractionation patterns are of interest. This study also shows that the assumption that species stability can be ensured through cryopreservation and freeze drying techniques needs to be revisited. Keywords: Sequential extraction; Fractionation patterns; Lichen metal(loid)s; Sample preparation; Air biomonitoring.
28403Bowker M.A., Antoninka A.J. & Durham R.A. (2017): Applying community ecological theory to maximize productivity of cultivated biocrusts. - Ecological Applications, 27(6): 1958–1969.
Degraded rangelands around the world may benefit from the reestablishment of lost biological soil crusts (biocrusts, soil surface cryptogamic-microbial communities). Cultivation of biocrust organisms is the first step in this process, and may benefit from harnessing species interactions. Species interactions are a dominant force structuring ecological communities. One key element of community structure, species richness, is itself important because it can promote the productivity of the entire community. Here, we use biological soil crusts as a model to test the effects of species interactions on production of biocrust materials for use in ecosystem rehabilitation. We screened eight different moss and lichen species from semiarid rangelands of Montana, USA, for growth potential under two watering regimes. Mosses generally grew well, but we were unable to cultivate the selected lichen species. We produced a >400% increase in the biomass of one species (Ceratodon purpureus). We tested whether a parasite–host relationship between two lichens could be used to enhance productivity of the parasite species, but this also resulted in no net gain of lichen productivity. Finally, we constructed all possible community combinations from a pool of five moss species to test for overyielding (community productivity exceeding that expected from the growth of community members in monoculture), and to determine both if, and the mode in which, species richness increases productivity. Polycultures yielded more than would be expected based upon the production of community constituents in monoculture. Using structural equation models, we determined that there was a modest effect of species richness on community productivity (r = 0.24–0.25), which was independent of a stronger effect of the identity of species in the community (r = 0.41–0.50). These results will contribute to the optimization of biocrust cultivation, promoting the development of this emerging ecological rehabilitation technology. Key words: biodiversity–productivity relationship; biological soil crust; ecological restoration; lichen; moss; species interactions.
28402Ekman S. (2017): (2542) Proposal to reject the name Variolaria torta (Lecanorales, lichenized Ascomycota). - Taxon, 66(4): 984-985.
Nopmenclature; Bacidia trachona group.
28401Pišút I., Lackovičová A. & Lisická E. (2010): Slovenské názvoslovie lišajníkov (r. 2010). - Kultúra slova, 44: 207-227.
Lišajníky v živote slovenského ľudu mali nepatrný hospodársky a iba malý medicínsky význam, ľudový názov mal iba jediný druh Cetraria islan- dica: pľúcnik, pľúcovník, zaznamenaný už roku 1804 a neskôr aj v ďalších prameňoch (Pišút, 1991). V Gemeri Reuss zaznamenal v polovici 19. storo- čia aj názvy hranica a strieborný moch (Guttová, 2003). V minulosti sa u nás potreba tvorby slovenských národných pomenovaní lišajníkov (lichenizovaných húb) veľmi nepociťovala. Dlho bolo známych iba niekoľko názvov používaných v učebniciach, z najstarších spomeňme napr. názov nešťovnica (Pertusaria – Klemens, 1865) či lyšajník soboživný (Cladonia rangiferina – Matzenauer, 1874). V sedemdesiatych rokoch minulého storočia sa však oživil záujem botanikov o národné názvy aj v takých rastlinných skupinách, pri ktorých sa dovtedy tento záujem neprejavoval. Výnimkou neboli ani lišajníky. Preto sme ako členovia Názvoslovnej komisie Slovenskej botanickej spoločnosti, subkomisie pre lišajníky, utvorili zoznam vybraných vedeckých a slovenských národných pomenovaní rodov a druhov (Pišút a kol., 1983). Zoznam rešpektujúci všetky dovtedy známe a dostupné písomné pramene obsahoval aj množstvo nových slovenských názvov najmä pre nápadné alebo ľahko rozpoznateľné druhy majúce didak- tický či praktický význam
28400Pišút I. (2002): An outline of history of lichenological research in Slovakia. - Acta Fac. Rerum. Nat. Univ. Comenianae, 41: 53-58.
The history of lichenological research in the territory of Slovakia since the second half of 18th century is shortly commented. A lot of botanists (e. g. Lumnitzer, Wahlenberg, Hazslinszky, Lojka, Zahlbruckner, Suza, Szatala, Vězda) participated in it. lichenological research, lichenology
28399McCarthy J., Clayden S. & Voitk A. (2013): Newfoundland birch and its fungi. - Omphalina, 4(8): 14–17.
28398McCarthy J. (2013): Brief descriptions of eleven lichens found on birch. - Omphalina, 4(8): 5–8.
28397McCarthy J., Hanel C., Clayden S., Voitk A., Voitk M. & Voitk A. (2013): Lichens on two birch trees. - Omphalina, 4(8): 3–4.
28396Voitk A. (2012): Collecting lichens. - Omphalina, 3(2): 4–5.
28395Pitcher M. (2012): The Ladder Cladonia Cladonia cervicornis ssp. verticillata. - Omphalina, 3(2): 3.
28394Chowdhury D.P., Solhaug K.A. & Gauslaa Y. (2017): Ultraviolet radiation reduces lichen growth rates. - Symbiosis, 73: 27–34.
We quantified relative growth rates (RGR) in shade-adapted and melanin-deficient thalli of Cetraria islandica and Lobaria pulmonaria cultivated in short-term growth chamber experiments with and without UV-B radiation. In the first experiment done under optimal PAR (125 μmol m−2 s−1), but high UV-B radiation (1 W m−2), UV-B radiation significantly reduced RGR (P < 0.001). The second experiment with higher PAR, but more natural ratios between wavelength ranges (PAR: 500 μmol m−2 s−1; UV-A: 7 W m−2; UV-B: 0.4 W m−2), caused a reduction in mean RGR in L. pulmonaria to just 45% of rates in experiment 1. Lobaria pulmonaria screened from UV-B radiation had 1.9 and 1.6 times higher RGR than non-screened thalli in experiment 1 and 2, respectively. UV-B radiation significantly induced melanin synthesis in the second experiment only, causing significantly less photoinhibition than in thalli receiving just PAR. This is consistent with PAR-protective roles of melanins. Chlorophylls were not affected by UV-B radiation in any experiment. Because UV-B radiation affected RGR more than pure photobiont responses, the mycobiont is likely the more UV-B-susceptible partner. Apart from reduced RGR, we found little evidence for adverse UV-B effects. Keywords Cetraria islandica . Light screening . Lobaria pulmonaria . Melanin . Relative growth rate . UV-B.
28393Cornish J. (2016): A tale of two lichens. - Omphalina, 7(6): 10–12.
Dibaeis baeomyces, Icmadophila ericetorum
28392Piercey-Normore M. (2016): Serpentine rock lichen survey —update 2016. - Omphalina, 7(7): 8–9.
28391Wiersma Y., Padgett T. & Wigle R. (2017): Lichenological time travel —the Pruitt-Murray collection at the Agnes Marion Ayre Herbarium. - Omphalina, 8(1): 10–13.
28390Voitk A. & Thorn G. (2017): Detective in the herbarium: Omphalia luteolilacina. - Omphalina, 8(1): 7–9.
28389Voitk A. (2017): Multiclavula of NL. - Omphalina, 8(1): 3–6.
28388Padgett T., Wigle R. & Wiersma Y. (2017): Lichens from the Pruitt-Murray collection. - Omphalina, 8(2): 16–17.
28387Wigle R., Wiersma Y. & Padgett T. (2017): Lichens from the Pruitt-Murray collection 3. - Omphalina, 8(4): 18–19.
28386Deduke C., McMullin T. & Arsenault A. (2016): Survey of the lichen-forming ascomycetes during the 2016 NL Foray. - Omphalina, 7(8): 68–76.
Canada; In summary, the Goose Bay foray collection included 117 species of lichens and 11 species of nonlichenized allied fungi. The Labrador Interpretation Trail was the richest collection site with 53 species followed by Mud Lake with 49. Cladonia was the most diverse genus of lichen with 24 species, while Peltigera was the most diverse cyanolichen with 11 species. Nine new records were made for Newfoundland at this foray. These included Chaenotheca ferruginea, Chaenothecopsis pusilla, Hypogymnia pulverata, Leptorhaphis epidermidis, Ochrolechia gowardii, Phaeocalicium flabelliforme, Pseudephebe minuscula, Scytinium tenuissimum and S. teretiusculum.
28385McMullin R.T. & Wiersma Y.F. (2016): Arboreal lichens of the Happy Valley-Goose Bay region of Labrador. - Omphalina, 7(8): 26–37.
28384Voitk A. (2016): Multiclavula mucida. - Omphalina, 7(8): 20–21.
28383McMullin R.T. (2016): Hypogymnia pulverata—a new North American population, discovered in Labrador, Canada. - Omphalina, 7(8): 17–19.
28382Rana K., Nayaka S., Shukla P. & Upreti D.K. (2015): Notes on occurrence of fruticose lichens in Joram Top, Ziro Valley, Arunachal Pradesh with 10 new records to the state. - International Journal of Science and Research, 4(12): 1999–2003.
The paper enumerates 22 fruticose lichens species collected from Joram Top, a small village in Ziro Valley of Arunachal Pradesh. The lichen taxa belong to four genera; Cladonia (7 spp.), Ramalina (5 spp.), Teloschistes (1 sp.) and Usnea (9 spp.). The species of Usnea and Ramalina were most common in the area and found growing as epiphytes over tree trunks and twigs, whereas species of Cladonia were found growing over soil and rocks in moist places. Teloschistes found to be a rare lichen in the area was growing intermingled with Usnea and Ramalina. The study also resulted in 10 species as new records to the lichen flora of Arunachal Pradesh – Cladonia subradiata, C. subulata, C. verticillata, Ramalina hossei, R. pollinaria, Teloschistes flavicans, Usnea eumitrioides, U. lucea, U. luridorufa, and U. spinosula. The lichens are considered as indicators of air pollution. The luxuriant growth of fruticose lichens clearly indicates that Joram Top area is still free from air pollution. Keywords: Lichenized fungi, cryptogam, biodiversity, North East India, Parmeliaceae.
28381Zrnzević I., Stanković M., Jovanović V.S., Mitić V., Đorđević A., Zlatanović I. & Stojanović G. (2017): Ramalina capitata (Ach.) Nyl. acetone extract: HPLC analysis, genotoxicity, cholinesterase, antioxidant and antibacterial activity. - EXCLI Journal, 16: 679–687.
In the present investigation, effects of Ramalina capitata acetone extract on micronucleus distribution on human lymphocytes, on cholinesterase activity and antioxidant activity (by the CUPRAC method) were examined, for the first time as well as its HPLC profile. Additionally, total phenolic compounds (TPC), antioxidant properties (estimated via DPPH, ABTS and TRP assays) and antibacterial activity were determined. The predominant phenolic compounds in this extract were evernic, everninic and obtusatic acids. Acetone extract of R. capitata at concentration of 2 μg mL-1 decreased a frequency of micronuclei (MN) for 14.8 %. The extract reduces the concentration of DPPH and ABTS radicals for 21.2 and 36.1 % (respectively). Values for total reducing power (TRP) and cupric reducing capacity (CUPRAC) were 0.4624 ± 0.1064 μg ascorbic acid equivalents (AAE) per mg of dry extract, and 6.1176 ± 0.2964 μg Trolox equivalents (TE) per mg of dry extract, respectively. The total phenol content was 670.6376 ± 66.554 μg galic acid equivalents (GAE) per mg of dry extract. Tested extract at concentration of 2 mg mL-1 exhibited inhibition effect (5.2 %) on pooled human serum cholinesterase. The antimicrobial assay showed that acetone extract had inhibition effect towards Gram-positive strains. The results of manifested antioxidant activity, reducing the number of micronuclei in human lymphocytes, and antibacterial activity recommends R. capitata extract for further in vivo studies. Keywords: Ramalina capitata acetone extract, micronucleus test, antioxidant activity, cholinesterase inhibition, antimicrobial activity, chemical composition.
28380Lin C.-K. (2009): A preliminary study of the lichen genus Ramalina at Mt. Yangtou, Hualien County, eastern Taiwan. - Collection and Research, 22: 131–134.
28379Cornejo A., Salgado F., Caballero J., Vargas R., Simirgiotis M. & Areche C. (2016): Secondary metabolites in Ramalina terebrata detected by UHPLC/ESI/MS/MS and identification of parietin as tau protein inhibitor. - International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 17(8): 1303 [13 p.].
Liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry is an outstanding methodology for fast analysis of phenolic compounds in biological samples. Twenty two compounds were quickly and accurately identified in the methanolic extract of the Antarctic lichen Ramalina terebrata for the first time using ultra high pressure liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detector and high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-PDA-Q/Orbitrap/MS/MS). In addition, the extract and the four compounds isolated from this species were tested for the inhibitory activity of tau protein aggregation, which is a protein involved in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). All compounds showed null activity with the exception of parietin, which it was able to inhibit aggregation process of tau in a concentration range between 3 g/mL (10 M) to 28 g/mL (100 M). In addition, we show how parietin interact with tau 306VQIVYK311 hexapeptide inside of the microtubule binding domain (4R) with the help of molecular docking experiments. Finally, the constituents present in the methanolic extract could possibly contribute to the established anti-aggregation activity for this extract and this in-depth analysis of the chemical composition of R. terebrata could guide further research into its medicinal properties and potential uses. Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; docking; Ramalina; tau protein; lichens; parietin; UHPLC/MS.
28378Timbreza L.P., Delos Reyes J.L., Flores C.H.C., Perez R.J.L.A., Stockel M.A.A. & Santiago K.A.A. (2017): Antibacterial activities of the lichen Ramalina and Usnea collected from Mt. Banoi, Batangas and Dahilayan, Bukidnon, against multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria. - Österreichische Zeitschrift für Pilzkunde – Austrian Journal of Mycology, 26: 27–42.
The present generation is at the start of the "Post-Antibiotic Era", wherein even the most common bacteria are resistant to a broad spectrum of antibiotics. Because of the rapid mutations of bacterial strains against antibiotics, scientists are immensely looking for novel bioactive compounds that can inhibit the growth of multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains. We aimed to determine the efficacy of the extracts from the fruticose lichen genera Ramalina and Usnea from the Philippines in inhibiting the growth of selected MDR bacteria: Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin-resistant S. aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results show that both MRSA and S. pneumoniae were inhibited as shown in their measured zone of inhibitions (ZOI) of 18mm and 18mm, respectively. The lichen crude extracts exhibited promising in vitro activities against the selected bacteria, since the ZOI are significantly higher than that of the positive control Vancomycin (30mg/ml, mean difference=7 mm, sig. α=.05). Interestingly, potential bioactive metabolites such as usnic acid and related compounds, depsides, depsidones, depsones, dibenzofurans, chromanones, monocyclic phenols, xanthones, naphtaquinones, anthraquinones and pulvic acid derivatives were detected by TLC-bioautography. Lichens, therefore, provide wide spectrum of opportunities for the discovery of potential antimicrobial agents. Key words: bioactive secondary metabolites, lichen acids, paper disk diffusion assay, thin layer chromatography, TLC-bioautography.
28377Gunasekaran S., Rajan V.P., Ramanathan S., Murugaiyah V., Samsudin M.W. & Din L.B. (2016): Antibacterial and antioxidant activity of lichens: Usnea rubrotincta, Ramalina dumeticola, Cladonia verticillata and their chemical constituents. - Malaysian Journal of Analytical Sciences, 20(1): 1–13.
The present study was carried out to evaluate the antibacterial and antioxidant activity of extract and chemical constituents of Usnea rubrotincta, Ramalina dumeticola and Cladonia verticillata. Acetone extract of U. rubrotincta showed promising antibacterial activity against Gram positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis with the lowest Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) value of (15.63 μg/mL). Six secondary metabolites were isolated using Preparative High Performance Liquid Chromatography (PHPLC) method from the two bioactive lichens U. rubrotincta and R. dumeticola (compound 1 – 6). Among all six compounds, compound (1) exhibited strongest activity against both the tested Gram positive bacteria at 7.81 μg/mL. Compound (6) had 69.57% scavenging activity against DPPH free radical while the rest only showed below 50% scavenging activity. This is the first evaluation of antibacterial activity of lichens found in Malaysia and to our knowledge, this is the first report of antibacterial and antioxidant activity of compound (3) and (5). Keywords: antibacterial, antioxidant, Usnea rubrotincta, Ramalina dumeticola, Cladonia verticillata, usnic acid.
28376Ronnås C., Werth S., Ovaskainen O., Várkonyi G., Scheidegger C. & Snäll T. (2017): Discovery of long-distance gamete dispersal in a lichen-forming ascomycete. - New Phytologist, 216(1): 216–226.
Summary: •Accurate estimates of gamete and offspring dispersal range are required for the understanding and prediction of spatial population dynamics and species persistence. Little is known about gamete dispersal in fungi, especially in lichen-forming ascomycetes. Here, we estimate the dispersal functions of clonal propagules, gametes and ascospores of the epiphytic lichen Lobaria pulmonaria. •We use hierarchical Bayesian parentage analysis, which integrates genetic and ecological information from multiannual colonization and dispersal source data collected in a large, old-growth forest landscape. •The effective dispersal range of gametes is several hundred metres to kilometres from potential paternal individuals. By contrast, clonal propagules disperse only tens of metres, and ascospores disperse over several thousand metres. •Our study reveals the dispersal distances of individual reproductive units; clonal propagules, gametes and ascospores, which is of great importance for a thorough understanding of the spatial dynamics of ascomycetes. Sexual reproduction occurs between distant individuals. However, whereas gametes and ascospores disperse over long distances, the overall rate of colonization of trees is low. Hence, establishment is the limiting factor for the colonization of new host trees by the lichen in old-growth landscapes. Key words: asexual, clonal, dispersal, gamete, lichen, long distance, sexual, short distance.
28375Sallmén N. (2014): Lavfloran på aspar i Fiby urskog [Lichens on aspen in Fiby urskog]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 108(1): 18–25.
[in Swedish with English summary:] The lichen flora on aspen Populus tremula in Fiby urskog, an 87-ha primaeval forest reserve in Uppland, SE Sweden, was investigated. In total, 81 species were found, including 5 red-listed species. Since regeneration of aspen is virtually absent in the climatically more favourable interior part of the forest, many lichens risk disappearing in the future.
28374Morgan-Jones G. (1973): Endoascosporic cells in three pyrenocarpous lichen genera. - Canadian Journal of Botany, 51: 493-495.
Hyaline, smooth-walled, endoascosporic cells are reported in the lichen genera Anthracothecium Hampe, Pyrenula Ach. em. A.Massal., and Trypethelium Spreng.
28373Grube M., Gaya E., Kauserud H., Smith A.M., Avery S.V., Fernstad S.J., Muggia L., Martin M.D., Eivindsen T., Kõljalg U., Bendiksby M. (2017): The next generation fungal diversity researcher. - Fungal biology reviews, 31: 124-130.
Fungi are more important to our lives than is assumed by the general public. They can comprise both devastating pathogens and plant-associated mutualists in nature, and several species have also become important workhorses of biotechnology. Fungal diversity research has in a short time transcended from a low-tech research area to a method- intensive high-tech discipline. With the advent of the new genomic and post-genomic methodologies, large quantities of new fungal data are currently becoming available each year. Whilst these new data and methodologies may help modern fungal diversity researchers to explore and discover the yet hidden diversity within a context of biological processes and organismal diversity, they need to be reconciled with the traditional ap- proaches. Such a synthesis is actually difficult to accomplish given the current discour- aging situation of fungal biology education, especially in the areas of biodiversity and taxonomic research. The number of fungal diversity researchers and taxonomists in academic institutions is decreasing, as are opportunities for mycological education in international curricula. How can we educate and stimulate students to pursue a career in fungal diversity research and taxonomy and avoid the situation whereby only those few institu- tions with strong financial support are able to conduct excellent research? Our short answer is that we need a combination of increased specialization and increased collaboration, i.e. that scientists with specialized expertise (e.g., in data generation, compilation, interpretation, and communication) consistently work together to generate and deliver new fungal knowledge in a more integrative manner e closing the gap between both traditional and modern approaches and academic and non-academic environments. Here we discuss how this perspective could be implemented in the training of the ‘next generation fungal diversity researcher Big data Biodiversity, Data science Doctoral training Fungi, High throughput sequencing Postgenomics, Taxonomy Visualisation
28372Yavuz M. (2012): Lichens mentioned by Pedanios Dioscorides. - Ethno-Medicine, 6: 103–109.
Lichens are included in the classification system of fungi and have been used in medicine, pharmacy and industry from antiquity to present day in the treatment of various diseases. In this study, Peri Hyles Iatrikes of Dioscorides has been investigated and evaluated from lichenological point of view. It is found that, Dioscorides mentions about medical properties and uses of probable Parmelia species such as P. saxatilis (L.) Ach or P. sulcata Taylor. Keywords: Parmelia sp.; Materia Medica; Ethnobotany; Lichenized Fungi.
28371Hyde K.D., Maharachchikumbura S.S.N., Hongsanan S., Samarakoon M.C., Lücking R., Pem D., Harishchandra D., Jeewon R., Zhao R.-L., Xu J.-C., Liu J.-K., Al-Sadi A.M., Bahkali A.H. & Elgorban A.M. (2017): The ranking of fungi: a tribute to David L. Hawksworth on his 70th birthday. - Fungal Diversity, 84: 1–23.
The previous phylogenies of Sordariomycetes by M.E. Barr, O.E. Eriksson and D.L. Hawksworth, and T. Lumbsch and S. Huhndorf, were mainly based on morphology and thus were somewhat subjective. Later outlines by T. Lumbsch and S. Huhndorf, and Maharachchikumbura and co-authors, took into account phylogenetic evidence. However, even these phylogenetic driven arrangements for Sordariomycetes, were somewhat subjective, as the arrangements in trees depended on many variables, such as number of taxa, different gene regions and methods used in the analyses. What is needed is extra evidence to help standardize ranking in the fungi. Estimation of divergence times using molecular clock methods has been proposed for providing additional rational for higher ranking of taxa. Thus, in Sordariomycetes, a divergence period (i.e. 200–300 MYA) can be used as criteria to judge when a group of related taxa evolved and what rank they should be given. In this paper, we provide an updated classification of accepted subclasses, orders of Sordariomycetes and use divergence times to provide additional evidence to stabilize ranking of taxa in the class. We point out and discuss discrepancies where the phylogenetic tree conflicts with the molecular clock. Keywords: Class; Classification; Divergence times; Phylogenetics; Ranking.
28370Pankratov T.A., Kachalkin A.V., Korchikov E.S. & Dobrovol’skaya T.G. (2017): Microbial communities of lichens. - Microbiology, 8(3): 293–309.
[Original Russian Text © T.A. Pankratov, A.V. Kachalkin, E.S. Korchikov, T.G. Dobrovol’skaya, 2017, published in Mikrobiologiya, 2017, Vol. 86, No. 3, pp. 265–283.] The current state of scientific researches in lichen microbiology was reviewed. Analysis of the literature revealed the main areas and fundamental issues which refer to investigation of microbial consortia in lichen bodies. Special attention was focused on analysis of the prokaryotic community which plays a structural and functional role and is involved in metabolism and regulation of activity of the lichen symbiosis as a whole. In the review, for the first time the information on the yeast community, of which some members do not occur presently in other environmental substrates, was summarized. The data on the protozoa inhabiting lichen thalli were also provided. The reviewed literature enabled us to consider the growing and decaying thallus as a complex ecosystem with specific levels of regulation of abundance, taxonomic diversity, and activity of the members of five kingdoms: fungi, plants, protozoa, eubacteria, and archaea. Keywords: lichens, symbiosis, bacteria, yeasts, archaea, protozoa, microbial communities, ekology.
28369Bertuzzi S., Gustavs L., Pandolfini G. & Tretiach M. (2017): Heat shock treatments for the control of lithobionts: A case study with epilithic green microalgae. - International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 123: 236–243.
Heat shock treatments are an innovative and eco-friendly method to devitalize biodeteriogens of outdoor stone monuments. They consist in short (up to 6 h), mild (40–60 °C) thermal treatments applied to artificially wet surfaces, and are effective against lichens and bryophytes. Epilithic green algae, a polyphyletic and diversified group of photoautotrophs, are among the most important colonizers of stone monuments, forming conspicuous biofilms which cause chemical, physical and aesthetical damage to the substratum. Like lichens and bryophytes, they are able to face the extreme conditions of a stone surface but their resistance mechanisms are only partially known. The present study aims to test the applicability of heat shock treatments to six morphologically and phylogenetically distant green microalgae. Their survival mechanisms have been investigated in relation to photosynthesis and content of selected polyols and non-reducing sugars. Chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements and observations at the epifluorescence microscope demonstrate that the thermal treatments cause negative effects on all the species, although they do not necessarily kill the whole populations, as observed in all the lichens and bryophytes tested so far. The survival capability is discussed in relation to the production of extracellular polymeric substances and non-reducing sugars. Keywords: Biocides; Biodeteriogens; Chlorophyll a fluorescence; Hydration; Polyols; Non-reducing sugars.
28368Zahradníková M., Andersen H.L., Tønsberg T. & Beck A. (2017): Molecular Evidence of Apatococcus, including A. fuscideae sp. nov., as Photobiont in the Genus Fuscidea. - Protist, 168: 425–438.
The knowledge of the taxonomy and classification of algae (including lichenized) has recently increased rapidly, but there are still many gaps. We aimed to 1) identify the Fuscidea photobionts by locating their taxonomic positions in the green algal classification, and 2) to resolve their interspecific relationships. The lichenized algae were examined based on morphological observations of axenic isolates as well as molecular studies of 18S and ITS nrDNA sequences. Analysis of the secondary structure of the ITS2 operon complemented these investigations. We found that the Fuscidea photobionts were placed within the Trebouxiophyceae, related to Apatococcus lobatus (Chodat) J.B.Petersen. Phylogenetic analyses revealed one clade nesting free-living and lichenized Apatococcus F.Brand which comprised six different lineages in the ITS phylogeny. The lichenized alga associated with the investigated Fuscidea species, except for F. lightfootii (Sm.) Coppins & James, represents a hitherto unknown lineage within Apatococcus. Fuscidea lightfootii was lichenized with a separate lineage within Apatococcus, together with free-living members, which were already known from Genbank sequences. All retrieved groups within Apatococcus were rather different in their ITS sequences, thus most likely corresponding to different species. The most common photobiont of Fuscidea species, Apatococcus fuscideae A.Beck & Zahradn., was described as new to science. Key words: Lichenized algae; lichen; Fuscidea lightfootii; green algal systematics; Trebouxiophyceae; ITS2 secondary structure.
28367Pereira E.C., Martins M.C.B., de Lourdes L Buril M., Santiago R., da S Falcão E.P., da Silva N.H., Legaz M.E. & Vicente C. (2017): Biologically-active compounds from Brazilian lichens and their affinity with ether. - Journal of Drug Design and Research, 4(6): 1057 [6 p.].
It can be obtained from lichens biologically-active extracts and pure substances, many of them of phenolic nature. They are usually obtained by using organic solvents, such as diethyl ether. In this paper the usefulness of ether for the obtainment of crude extracts and the subsequent purification of pure substances from Brazilian lichen is reviewed, as well as alternatives to their production through cells or thallus immobilization in bioreactors and their entrapment in inert matrix. Keywords: Lichen substances; Depsides; Cladoniaceae; Ether extract.
28366Yang Y., Nguyen T.T., Jeong M.-H., Crişan F., Yu Y.H., Ha H.-H., Choi K.H., Jeong H.G., Jeong T.C., Lee K.Y., Kim K.K., Hur J.-S. & Kim H. (2016): Inhibitory activity of (+)-usnic acid against non-small cell lung cancer cell motility. - Plos One, 11(1):e0146575 [16 p.].
Lichens are symbiotic organisms that produce various unique chemicals that can be used for pharmaceutical purposes. With the aim of screening new anti-cancer agents that inhibit cancer cell motility, we tested the inhibitory activity of seven lichen species collected from the Romanian Carpathian Mountains against migration and invasion of human lung cancer cells and further investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying their anti-metastatic activity. Among them, Alectoria samentosa, Flavocetraria nivalis, Alectoria ochroleuca, and Usnea florida showed significant inhibitory activity against motility of human lung cancer cells. HPLC results showed that usnic acid is the main compound in these lichens, and (+)-usnic acid showed similar inhibitory activity that crude extract have. Mechanistically, β-catenin-mediated TOPFLASH activity and KITENIN-mediated AP-1 activity were decreased by (+)-usnic acid treatment in a dose-dependent manner. The quantitative real-time PCR data showed that (+)-usnic acid decreased the mRNA level of CD44, Cyclin D1 and c-myc, which are the downstream target genes of both β-catenin/LEF and c-jun/AP-1. Also, Rac1 and RhoA activities were decreased by treatment with (+)-usnic acid. Interestingly, higher inhibitory activity for cell invasion was observed when cells were treated with (+)-usnic acid and cetuximab. These results implied that (+)-usnic acid might have potential activity in inhibition of cancer cell metastasis, and (+)-usnic acid could be used for anti-cancer therapy with a distinct mechanisms of action.
28365Tabbabi K. & Karmous T. (2016): Characterization and identification of the components extracted from 28 lichens in Tunisia by high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC), morphologic determination of the species and study of the antibiotic effects of usnic acid. - Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 5(4): 253 [8 p.].
This aim of this work is to study the isolation of usnic acid found in many lichen species and the evaluation of its antibacterial activity. The study began with a morphological determination of lichens harvested in Tunisia. The corresponding analysis identified 28 species belonging to the following families: Xanthoria, Parmelia, Caloplaca, Ramalina, Diploschistes, Usnea. A chromatographic study of the chemical composition of these lichens highlighted the presence of many compounds belonging to various chemical categories: depsides and depsidones, xanthones, anthraquinones, dibenzofurans, etc. Special attention was given to the components of this last category and particularly to usnic acid which is therapeutically very interesting. This component plays a very important role in fighting the bacteria responsible for numerous urinary and pulmonary infections and also in fighting viruses responsible for certain tumors. Antibacterial activity tests showed that the Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococci strains have certain sensitivity to usnic acid extracted from the Usnea hirta lichen. Given that various fields, and especially medicine, are currently showing considerable interest in vegetable extracts, this study will be continued in the future with the aim to isolate other components with efficient therapeutic effects. Keywords: Lichen; Usnea; Chromatographic analysis; Chemical composition; Usnic acid; Antibacterial activities.
28364Honda N.K., Lopes T.I.B., Costa R.C.S., Coelho R.G., Yoshida N.C., Rivarola C.R.V., Marcelli M.P. & Spielmann A.A. (2015): Radical-scavenging potential of phenolic compounds from Brazilian lichens. - Orbital: The Electronic Journal of Chemistry, 7(2): 99–107.
Lichens produce a wide range of phenolic substances, mostly depsides and depsidones. As part of our ongoing study of lichens from the Cerrado biome in Mato Grosso do Sul state, the present article reports novel findings on the radical-scavenging activity of two depsides, five depsidones, usnic acid, and lichexanthone that were evaluated against 0.1 and 0.3 mM 2,2’-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical concentrations. These substances were isolated from the lichens Parmotrema tinctorum (Nyl.) Hale, Parmotrema dilatatum (Vain.) Hale, Pseudoparmelia sphaerospora (Nyl.) Hale, Parmotrema lichexanthonicum Eliasaro & Adler, Ramalina anceps Nyl. Usnea subcomosa Vain. and Usnea jamaicensis Ach. Usnic acid (EC50 = 3.34 ± 1.44 and 5.97 ± 1.91 mM, respectively) and atranorin (2.48 ± 1.18 and 10.10 ± 1.18 mM, respectively) proved the most active unmodified compounds. Lecanoric and protocetraric acids exhibited significant EC50 differences between DPPH concentrations. Besides these, nine 9’-O-alkyl protocetraric acid derivatives were also evaluated. 9’-O-methyl protocetraric and 9’-O-iso-propyl protocetraric acids (with respective EC50 values of 1.74 ± 0.83 and 1.03 ± 1.0 mM, both against 0.1 mM DPPH) were the most active compounds evaluated. Except for 9’-O-methyl protocetraric acid, chain elongation correlated with increased scavenging activity in the linear series from 9’-O-ethyl to 9’-O-n-hexyl protocetraric acid. Keywords: lichens; scavenging activity; phenolic compounds; DPPH concentration.
28363Sanders W.B. & de los Rios A. (2017): Parenchymatous cell division characterizes the fungal cortex of some common foliose lichens. - American Journal of Botany, 104(2): 207–217.
Premise of the study: Lichen-forming fungi produce diverse vegetative tissues, some closely resembling those of plants. Yet it has been repeatedly affirmed that none is a true parenchyma, in which cellular compartments are subdivided from all adjacent neighbors by cross walls adjoining older cross walls. Methods: Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we tested this assumption by examining patterns of septum formation in the parenchyma-like cortex of three lichens of different phylogenetic affinities: Sticta canariensis, Leptogium cyanescens, and Endocarpon pusillum. Key results: In the cortex of all three lichens, new septa adjoined perpendicularly or obliquely to previous septa. Septal walls possessed an electrontransparent core (median) layer covered on both sides by layers of intermediate electron density. At septal junctures, the core layer of the newer septum was not continuous with that of the older septum. Amorphous, electron-dense material often became deposited in the core region of older septal walls, and the septum gradually delaminated along its median into what could then be recognized as the distinct walls of neighboring cells. However, cells maintained continuity at pores, where adjacent remnants of the electron-transparent core layer suggested septal partition rather than secondary establishment of a lateral wall connection via anastomosis. Conclusions: Although fungal tissues first arise by the coalescence of filaments early in lichen ontogeny, the mature cortical tissues of some lichens are comparable to true parenchyma in the unrestricted orientation of their septal cross walls and the resulting ontogenetic relationship among neighboring cell compartments. Key words: Endocarpon; fungal cell wall; fungal tissue; L eptogium ; lichen cortex; paraplectenchyma; true parenchyma; pseudoparenchyma; pseudomeristem; septum; Sticta.
28362Cardós J.L.H., Aragón G. & Martínez I. (2017): A species on a tightrope: Establishment limitations of an endangered lichen in a fragmented Mediterranean landscape. - American Journal of Botany, 104(4): 527–537.
Premise of the study: Habitat loss and forest fragmentation affect the dispersal and establishment of species. Furthermore, populations growing far from the species’ optimal climate might be less viable because good-quality habitat can be scarce and easily altered by smaller changes. The lichen Pectenia plumbea has oceanic climatic requirements, so in the Mediterranean region it needs the humidity provided by well-preserved forests to thrive, but most of this habitat has disappeared and the remnants are fragmented. In central Spain, this species occupies only a small proportion of the existing forests, so we aimed to determine whether this scattered distribution is due to limitations on dispersal or establishment. Methods: We selected a Mediterranean fragmented forest surface in central Spain and extracted environmental variables from 371 plots. We modeled the presence and abundance of P. plumbea and developed species distribution models (SDMs) to detect all the suitable habitats inside the Cabañeros National Park area. Key results: Pectenia plumbea was present in most of the habitats predicted as good-quality and was generally absent from the poor-quality zones (85.9% overall success). The abundance correlated fairly well with that predicted by the SDM (67%). Both models show that P. plumbea is linked to high temperature and precipitation. Conclusions: Good-quality habitat requirements for P. plumbea that are similar to oceanic conditions are found only in specifi c forested, stony slopes derived from historical land management. This habitat is scarce, but P. plumbea has successfully tracked all of these scattered areas via its high dispersal capacity. Key words: dispersal; edge eff ect; epiphyte cyanolichen; establishment; fragmentation; habitat loss; lichen reproductive stages; P ectenia plumbea ; predictive modeling; species distribution models (SDMs).
28361Merinero S., Aragón G. & Martínez I. (2017): Intraspecific life history variation in contrasting habitats: Insights from an obligate symbiotic organism. - American Journal of Botany, 104(7): 1099–1107.
Premise of the study: Life history theory predicts that plants in unfavorable habitats for juvenile growth and survival will commence reproduction at smaller sizes and exhibit higher reproductive allocations than those in favorable habitats. The scope of life history theory will increase if these predictions apply to a broad range of organisms. Populations of organisms in contrasting habitats may experience different demographic rates. Thus, we compared the demography and life history traits of a lichen species in contrasting habitats. Methods: We compared the abundance, growth, mortality, and reproductive strategy (threshold size for reproduction and reproductive allometry) of epiphytic and saxicolous populations of the asexually reproducing lichen Lobarina scrobiculata in two oak forests in central Spain. Key results: The growth rates of saxicolous individuals were two times faster than those of epiphytic individuals. Epiphytic specimens exhibited a smaller threshold size for reproduction and a higher reproductive allocation than their saxicolous counterparts. The populations hosted by trees were two times larger than those on rocks (13,788 vs. 6629 individuals, respectively). The mortality rate did not vary between habitats. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that contrasting habitats selected for differences in the demography and life history traits of a lichen species. Consistent with life history theory predictions, in the habitat with slower growth, L. scrobiculata started to reproduce at a smaller size and its reproductive allocation was higher. This study extends the scope of life history theory and improves our understanding of life history patterns and variations in overlooked taxa such as lichens. Key words: asexual reproduction; contrasting habitats; demography; lichen; life history theory; Lobariaceae; population ecology; relative growth rate; reproductive allometry; reproductive strategy.
28360Shivarov V.V., Thüs H. & Denchev C.M. (2017): First records of two freshwater lichens, Hydropunctaria scabra and Verrucaria alpicola, from Bulgaria. - Mycobiota, 7: 1–5.
Two lichen-forming fungi, Hydropunctaria scabra and Verrucaria alpicola (Verrucariaceae, Ascomycota), are reported for the fi rst time from Bulgaria. Descriptions and ecological observations based on the Bulgarian populations are provided. For Verrucaria alpicola the ability to survive a continuous submersion over a period of at least four years is confirmed. Key words: Bulgaria, freshwater habitats, lichen-forming fungi, Verrucariaceae.
28359Anonymous (2017): Index to scientific names and nomenclatural checklist of Trypetheliaceae – ERRATUM. - Lichenologist, 49(4): 429.
The index was erroneously published to run on from the previous article. It, and the pre- ceding article, have now been published online as separate articles, with the correct pagination and running heads.
28358Aptroot A., Cáceres M.E.S., Johnston M.K. & Lücking R. (2017): How diverse is the lichenized fungal family Trypetheliaceae (Ascomycota: Dothideomycetes)? A quantitative prediction of global species richness – ERRATUM. - Lichenologist, 49(4): 427.
This article was erroneously published to run together with the index. It, and the index, have now been published online as separate articles, with the correct pagination and running heads.
28357Aptroot A. & Lücking R. (2017): A revisionary synopsis of the Trypetheliaceae (Ascomycota: Trypetheliales) – ERRATUM. - Lichenologist, 49(4): 425.
28356Will-Wolf S., Jovan S. & Amacher M.C. (2017): Lichen element content is a reliable indicator for relative air pollution load in research and monitoring programmes requiring both efficiency and representation of many sites. We tested the value of costly rigorous field and handling protocols for sample element analysis using five lichen species. No relaxation of rigour was supported; four relaxed protocols generated data significantly different. - Lichenologist, 49(4): 415–424.
Lichen element content is a reliable indicator for relative air pollution load in research and monitoring programmes requiring both efficiency and representation of many sites. We tested the value of costly rigorous field and handling protocols for sample element analysis using five lichen species. No relaxation of rigour was supported; four relaxed protocols generated data significantly different from rigorous protocols for many of the 20 validated elements. Minimally restrictive site selection criteria gave quality data from 86% of 81 permanent plots in northern Midwest USA; more restrictive criteria would likely reduce indicator reliability. Use of trained non-specialist field collectors was supported when target species choice considers the lichen community context. Evernia mesomorpha, Flavoparmelia caperata and Physcia aipolia/stellaris were successful target species. Non-specialists were less successful at distinguishing Parmelia sulcata and Punctelia rudecta from lookalikes, leading to few samples and some poor quality data. Evernia mesomorpha, Flavoparmelia caperata, metals, nitrogen, Parmelia sulcata, Physcia aipolia/stellaris, Punctelia rudecta, sulphur
28355Morando M., Favero-Longo S.E., Carrer M., Matteucci E., Nascimbene J., Sandrone S., Appolonia L. & Piervittori R. (2017): Dispersal patterns of meiospores shape population spatial structure of saxicolous lichens. - Lichenologist, 49(4): 397–413.
Relationships between reproductive strategies and population spatial structure have often been suggested for lichens, but there is a lack of supporting aerobiological data. For the first time, this study couples aerobiological investigations on meiospore dispersal by Caloplaca crenulatella (Nyl.) H. Olivier and Rhizocarpon geographicum (L.) DC. with analysis of local spatial patterns of thalli of both species. During a two-year monitoring period carried out on the walls of a medieval castle in NW Italy, a total of 169 polar diblastic spores, 20% of which were morphologically attributable to C. crenulatella, was detected in the mycoareosol, while muriform spores of R. geographicum were never found. Laboratory experiments confirmed that different dispersal patterns characterize the two species, the meiospores of R. geographicum being poorly discharged and only recovered at a short distance from thalli, whereas those of C. crenulatella were more abundantly discharged, suspended and better dispersed by a moderate air flow. This difference was reflected on the castle walls by the random spatial pattern of C. crenulatella, while R. geographicum showed a clustered distribution. Different discharge rates and take-off limitations, possibly related to size differences between the spores, are not sufficient to explain the different colonization patterns and dynamics of the two species. Additional intrinsic and extrinsic factors are likely to drive their dispersal and establishment success. Nevertheless, information on the relationships between different dispersal patterns of the species and the local spatial structure of their populations might help to predict the recovery potential of lichen species exposed to habitat loss or disturbance, or encrusting monument surfaces. aerobiology, Caloplaca crenulatella, Rhizocarpon geographicum, stone cultural heritage, substratum preference
28354Candotto Carniel F., Pellegrini E., Bove F., Crosera M., Adami G., Nali C., Lorenzini G. & Tretiach M. (2017): Acetone washing for the removal of lichen substances affects membrane permeability. - Lichenologist, 49(4): 387–395.
Removing lichen substances from dry lichen thalli using pure acetone is the least detrimental method. Measurements of properties strictly related to the photobiont, such as chlorophyll a fluorescence (ChlaF), are frequently used to verify acetone toxicity but they cannot reveal possible damage accumulated at the whole thallus level. Here, measurements of ChlaF have been integrated with others concerning the status of cell membranes and photobiont population (potassium leakage, malondialdehyde and photosynthetic pigment content). Dry thalli of Flavoparmelia caperata, Parmotrema perlatum and Xanthoria parietina were subjected to sequential acetone washings according to standard protocols. Membrane permeability was assessed before and after the washing treatment, and after a recovery period of 48 hours. Measurements of ChlaF were taken in a parallel experiment. Acetone washings increased potassium leakage in all the species from 3·9 to 6·6 times greater than the control level. After recovery, only P. perlatum returned to the control level. ChlaF was affected only in F. caperata, with a 20% decrease in Fv/Fm which had not fully recovered after 48 hours. There was neither an increase in lipid peroxidation of membranes nor a change in the photosynthetic pigment content. The sensitivity of F. caperata to this method and the impact of the results on its future application are discussed. chlorophyll fluorescence, lichen secondary compounds, lipid peroxidation, membrane damage, potassium leakage
28353Ludwig L.R., Summerfield T.C., Lord J.M. & Sing G. (2017): Characterization of the mating-type locus (MAT) reveals a heterothallic mating system in Knightiella splachnirima. - Lichenologist, 49(4): 373–385.
In the present study, we characterized the mating-type locus of Knightiella splachnirima (Icmadophilaceae) using degenerate and inverse PCR techniques. We screened for the presence of both mating-type locus idiomorphs in DNA extracts of minuscule samples of haploid thalline tissue. We found that only one of the two idiomorphs was present in each sample, and the mating-type ratio (MAT1-1:MAT1-2) was very balanced, being 8:10 and 13:14 at local and global scales, respectively. This indicates that the species is probably self-incompatible and requires the presence of compatible mating partners for sexual reproduction (heterothallic mating system). Furthermore, we provide a mating-type screening protocol with K. splachnirima specific mating-type locus primers, which could serve as an essential tool for the conservation management of this rare Australasian endemic. heterothallism, Icmadophila splachnirima, Icmadophilaceae, lichen, New Zealand, sexual reproduction
28352Fryday A.M. & Thüs H. (2017): The genus Xenolecia (Lecideaceae s. lat., Lecanoromycetidae inc. sed.), including a second species in the genus from Campbell Island, New Zealand. - Lichenologist, 49(4): 365–372.
The new species Xenolecia cataractarum Fryday is described from Campbell Island. It differs from X. spadicomma, the only other species of the genus, in having much smaller apothecia and ascospores, an olivaceously pigmented epihymenium (brown in X. spadicomma), and a thallus with a non-amyloid medulla and norstictic acid (amyloid medulla and confluentic acid in X. spadicomma). Xenolecia spadicomma is reported here from several localities on the Falkland Islands and three from the Región de Los Lagos, Chile, which are the first reports of this species since its description from Isla Wellington in the south-west of Patagonia in 1868. A full description of X. spadicomma is also provided. Chile, Falkland Islands, lichen, Porpidiaceae, subantarctic islands
28351Fryday A.M., Schmitt I. & Pérez-Ortega S. (2017): The genus Endocena (Icmadophilaceae): DNA evidence suggests the same fungus forms different morphologies. - Lichenologist, 49(4): 347–363.
Numerous recent studies of lichenized fungi have uncovered hidden genetic diversity within a single phenotypic entity (so-called ‘cryptic species’). Here we report the opposite situation with vastly different morphologies apparently deriving from the same genotype. Endocena is a monotypic genus known only from southern South America. The single reported species, the terricolous E. informis, is morphologically variable; the type and other collections from the west coast of Chile being subfruticose, whereas specimens from further south and east are almost crustose in form. A sorediate terricolous lichen that is frequent on the Falkland Islands was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis of ITS rDNA and mtSSU rDNA sequences as being congeneric with E. informis and, surprisingly, both taxa were recovered as congeneric with the recently described genus and species Chirleja buckii, which is morphologically distinct from both E. informis and the sorediate taxon. Consequently, the genus Chirleja is included in the synonymy of Endocena and the new combination Endocena buckii is proposed. Because E. informis and the sorediate specimens have a similar thallus structure that differs radically from that of E. buckii, the name E. informis var. falklandica is proposed for the sorediate taxon. Poorly developed, incipient apothecia are also described from both varieties of E. informis, the first time that these have been reported for Endocena. We also report two lichenicolous fungi from E. informis var. informis, which are the first reports of lichenicolous fungi occurring on this genus. Chirleja, lichenized fungi, lichens, molecular systematics, phenotypic plasticity, southern South America, typification
28350Broeck D. van den, Lücking R., Gaya E., Chaves J.L., Lejju J.B. & Ertz D. (2017): Heterocyphelium leucampyx (Arthoniales, Ascomycota): another orphaned mazaediate lichen finds its way home. - Lichenologist, 49(4): 333–345.
Heterocyphelium is a mazaediate genus containing a single species, H. leucampyx. The species was originally described from Cuba within the genus Trachylia (Arthoniales, Arthoniaceae) and later placed in various genera of the collective order Caliciales s. lat. For the past three decades, Heterocyphelium was considered an orphaned genus (incertae sedis) within the Ascomycota, since morphology alone could not resolve its systematic position. In this study, we added molecular data with the aim of resolving this uncertainty. Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses of newly generated sequence data from the mitochondrial ribosomal RNA small subunit (mtSSU) and the RNA polymerase II second largest subunit gene (RPB2) provide clear evidence that Heterocyphelium leucampyx is nested within the order Arthoniales, in the family Lecanographaceae, sister to the genus Alyxoria. Heterocyphelium is a further example of parallel evolution of passive spore dispersal, prototunicate asci and the occurrence of a mazaedium in the Ascomycota, and another calicioid genus whose systematic placement could be eventually clarified by means of molecular data. Heterocyphelium is the fourth mazaediate genus in Arthoniales, in addition to Sporostigma, Tylophorella and Tylophoron. Alyxoria, Caliciales, Lecanographaceae, mtSSU, phylogeny, RPB2
28349Schultz M. (2017): Morphological and molecular data support Lichina intermedia as a distinct austral-marine species in the L. pygmaea group. - Lichenologist, 49(4): 321–332.
Morphological characteristics and analyses of molecular sequence data (ITS, mtSSU) indicate that the austral-marine lichen Lichina pygmaea var. intermedia is distinct from the chiefly European marine species L. confinis and L. pygmaea. It is thus proposed to treat var. intermedia as a separate species. Lichina intermedia differs from L. confinis chiefly in the distinctly corticated branches, and deviates from L. pygmaea in the shorter and thinner branches. Diagnostic differences between the three species are summarized and distribution patterns discussed. distribution, lichen, Lichina, Lichinomycetes, phylogeny, taxonomy
28348Gasparyan A., Sipman H.J.M., Lücking R. (2017): Ramalina europaea and R. labiosorediata, two new species of the R. pollinaria group (Ascomycota: Ramalinaceae), and new typifications for Lichen pollinarius and L. squarrosus. - Lichenologist, 49(4): 301–319.
Ramalina europaea Gasparyan, Sipman & Lücking and R. labiosorediata Gasparyan, Sipman & Lücking, two species of the R. pollinaria group, are described here as new to science. Ramalina europaea, widely distributed in Europe, can be distinguished by small, punctiform, often terminal soralia starting out on small, spine-like branchlets, whereas R. labiosorediata from North America differs from R. pollinaria s. str. and R. europaea in the almost exclusively terminal soralia formed on the tips of normal lobes, originating from the underside and becoming irregularly labriform. Morphological characters, chemistry, ecology and geographical distribution are discussed and a key to the species of the Ramalina pollinaria group is provided. The topology of a maximum likelihood tree based on ITS shows the presence of three well-supported clades, corresponding to the morphological differences of the three species. The status of several historical names variously placed in synonymy with or described as infraspecific entities of R. pollinaria is reassessed and a new neotype and an epitype are designated for Lichen pollinarius, a neotype for L. squarrosus, making it a synonym of R. farinacea, and lectotypes for R. pollinaria var. elatior, making it a synonym of R. pollinaria s. str., and for var. humilis, a taxon of yet unknown affinity. Lobaria squarrosa, Ramalina fennica, Ramalina squarrosa, species delimitation, taxonomy
28347Seaward M.R.D. & Hawksworth D.L. (2017): A tribute to Jack Laundon (1934–2016). - Lichenologist, 49(4): 297–299.
28346Medeiros I.D., Kraichak E., Lücking R., Mangold A. & Lumbsch H.T. (2017): Assembling a taxonomic monograph of tribe Wirthiotremateae (Lichenized Ascomycota: Ostropales: Graphidaceae). - Fieldiana Life and Earth Sciences, 9(1): 1–31.
Phylogenetic studies of the lichenized fungal family Graphidaceae necessitate various nomenclatural changes. Tribe Wirthiotremateae is more narrowly circumscribed on the basis of new molecular data and phenotypical differences towards allied clades. The new genus Austrotrema is described to accommodate the three species of the Thelotrema bicinctulum group, Asteristion is resurrected for the seven species of the Chapsa platycarpa group, and Nadvornikia is expanded to include two non-mazaediate species in addition to its two mazaediate species. Asteristion australianum is newly described for Australian material previously identified as T. albo-olivaceum. Eleven new combinations are made: Asteristion alboannuliforme (Bas.: Thelotrema alboannuliforme), As. albo-olivaceum (Bas.:T. albo-olivaceum), As. cupulare (Bas.: T. cupulare), As. leucophthalmum (Bas.: T. leucophthalmum), As. platycarpoides (Bas.: T. platycarpoides), As. platycarpum (Bas.: T. platycarpum), Austrotrema bicinctulum (Bas.: T. bicinctulum), Au. myriocarpum (Bas.: T. myriocarpum), Au. terebrans (Bas.: T. terebrans), Nadvornikia expallescens (Bas.: Leucodecton expallescens), and N. peninsulae (Bas.: Myriotrema peninsulae). Descriptions and discussions of Wirthiotremateae species are provided, along with keys to the species of the tribe. Phylogenetic analyses were based on six markers: the mitochondrial small subunit (mtSSU) and nuclear large subunit (nuLSU) rDNA, RNA polymerase II largest (RPB1) and second largest (RPB2) subunit, elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1-α), and internal transcribed spacer (ITS). Key Words: lichen systematics, tropical lichens, thelotremoid Graphidaceae, identification key, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Thailand, Philippines,Australia, Fiji,
28345Sujetovienė G. (2017): Epiphytic lichen diversity as indicator of environmental quality in an industrial area (central Lithuania). - Polish Journal of Ecology, 65(1): 38–45.
The objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of nitrogen fertilizer industry pollution on epiphytic lichen communities. The study plots are located in Scots pine Pinus sylvestris stands at differ - ent distances (up to 12 km) to the northeast and southwest of the nitrogen fertilizer producer plant in central Lithuania. The stands were semi-mature and mature and growing on sandy sites of the Vaccinio-myrtillosa site type. Species richness, composition and in - dex of atmospheric purity (IAP) were assessed at each site. Species diversity was calculated by grouping species by their ecological val - ues for eutrophication. Species frequency was calculated according to lichen life strategies (growth forms, photobionts, reproductive strategies). Twenty lichens species were recorded in the surround - ing of the pollution source. An increase in species richness and di - versity was found with increasing the distance up to 10 km from the plant. Based on IAP values three zones (< 5, 5–10, > 10 km) with different air pollution were distinguished. The increase in spe - cies richness was related to the increase in eutrophication-toler - ating species along with sensitive to pollution species. The lichen diversity value of nitrophytic species (LDV nitro ) increased with in - creasing distance from the pollution source. Foliose and fruticose growth forms were both positively significantly related with the distance, being common in the plots with lower level of pollution. Crustose lichens are less sensitive to this factor and the prevalence of crustose thalli was found in the nearest vicinity to the plant. Key words: air quality; biomonitoring; environmental variables; lichen diversity.
28344Etayo J. (2017): Hongos liquenícolas de Ecuador. - Opera Lilloana, 50: 1-535.
An annotated catalogue of the lichenicolous fungi collected by the author during two trips to Ecuador in 1999 and 2003 is presented. It is based on the examination of hundreds of samples, representing ca. 400 taxa, of which we have been able to identify 36 8 (incl. 16 lichenized fungi). Seven new genera are described: Chondronectria Etayo, Flakus & Kukwa, Cylindronectria Etayo, Leptobarya Etayo, Lichenopenicillus Etayo, Lichenotubeufia Etayo, Paragyalideopsis Etayo and Pygmaeosphaera Etayo & Diederich. The following 80 new taxa including two subspecies and two varieties are proposed: Abrothallus heterodermiicola Etayo & F. Berger on Heterodermia, A. niger Etayo on Everniastrum, and perhaps on Parmotrema and Usnea, Arthonia catillarioides Etayo on Sticta, A. heterodermiae Etayo on Heterodermia, Arthonia lobariellae Etayo on Lobariella, Arthrorhaphis phyllobaeis Etayo & Palice on Phyllobaeis, Capronia amylacea Etayo on Peltigera, C. muellerelloides Etayo on Heterodermia, C. solitaria Etayo on Heterodermia and perhaps on Lobaria, Lobariella and Sticta, Cercidospora hypotrachynicola Etayo on Hypotrachyna, Chondronectria eriodermaticola Etayo, Flakus & Kukwa on Erioderma, Clypeococcum amylaceum Etayo on Parmotrema, C. cajasense Etayo on Hypotrachyna, C. rugosisporum Etayo & Zhurb. on Parmotrema, Cornutispora ophiurospora Etayo on Lobariella, Cylindronectria cyanobactericola Etayo on epilichenic cyanobacteria, Dacampia pentaseptata Etayo on Parmotrema, Dactylospora heterodermiae Etayo on Heterodermia, Didymellopsis viridireagens Etayo on Leptogium, Didymocyrtis micropunctum Etayo on Parmotrema, Endococcus sipmanii Etayo on Heterodermia, Enterographa epigraphis Etayo & Sipman on Graphis, Fellhanera stictae Etayo on Sticta, Gyalideopsis usneicola Etayo on Usnea, Hainesia atrolazulina Etayo on Hypotrachyna, Hyalopeziza heterodermiae Etayo on Heterodermia, Leptobarya auranticarpa Etayo on Leptogium, L. nigra Etayo on Leptogium, Lettauia usneae Etayo on Usnea, Lichenochora bacidiispora Etayo on Parmotrema, L. chimaerica Etayo on Pertusaria, Lichenopeltella heterodermiicola ssp. endothallina Etayo on Heterodermia, L. thalamica Etayo, Flakus & Kukwa on Pseudocyphellaria, Lichenopenicillus versicolor Etayo on Sticta and Leptogium, Lichenotubeufia boomiana Etayo on Sticta, Lichenotubeufia tafallae Etayo on Leptogium, Llimoniella bergeriana Etayo on Punctelia, Ll. parmotrematis Etayo on Parmotrema, Micarea stereocaulorum Etayo & van den Boom on Stereocaulon, Nanostictis confusa Etayo on Everniastrum and Hypotrachyna, N. heterodermiae Etayo on Heterodermia, Nectriopsis albida Etayo on Sticta, N. curtiseta Etayo on Sticta, N. melongenoidea Etayo on Gomphillus, N. vinosa Etayo on Usnea, Nectriopsis vivida Etayo & Sipman on undetermined crustaceous lichen, Niesslia evae Etayo on Erioderma, N. sitctarum ssp. nuda Etayo on Lobariella, Opegrapha chapsae Etayo on Chapsa, O. lopezariae Etayo & Sipman on Lopezaria, O. stellanigra Etayo on Sticta, Paragyalideopsis breussii Etayo on Hypotrachyna, P. minuta Etayo on Trypethelium, Placidiopsis minor var. longispora Etayo & Breuss on Diploschistes, Plectocarpon aequatoriale Etayo on Sticta, Pronectria biglobosa Etayo on Hypotrachyna, P. pycnidioidea Etayo on Heterodermia, Protounguicularia usneae Etayo on Usnea, Pygmaeosphaera epigraphis Etayo on Graphis, P. sipmaniana Etayo on Parmeliella, Rhizocarpon tungurahuae Etayo & Palice on Gyalidea, Roselliniomyces erinaceus Etayo on Sticta, Sclerococcum phyllobaeis Etayo on Phyllobaeis, Skyttea recognita Etayo & Diederich on epiphytic crustaceous lichens, Skyttella stictae Etayo on Sticta, Sphaerellothecium episoralium Etayo on soralia of Heterodermia, S. usneicola Etayo on Usnea, Spirographa longispora Etayo on Sticta, Sporidesmium usneae Etayo on Usnea, Stigmidium ahtii Etayo & Palice on apothecia of Cladonia lopezii, S. epinesolechia Etayo on Nesolechia galls on Punctelia, S. hypotrachynicola Etayo on Hypotrachyna, Telogalla cajasense Etayo on Leptogium, Trichonectria apiculata Etayo on Usnea, Trichonectria intermedia Etayo on Parmotrema, Unguiculariopsis peltigericola Etayo on Peltigera, Xenonectriella coppinsiana Etayo on Yoshimuriella subdissecta, X. subimperspicua var. degenerans Etayo on Parmotrema, X. rugulatispora Etayo on Lobariella and X. vertebrata Etayo on Heterodermia. Furthermore 9 new combinations are proposed: Lichenotubeufia eriodermae (Etayo) Etayo, L. heterodermiae (Etayo) Etayo, L. pannariae (Etayo) Etayo, Paragyalideopsis floridae (Etayo & Diederich) Etayo, P. stereocaulicola (Etayo) Etayo, Protounguicularia hispidula (Etayo) Etayo, Pygmaeosphaera coccocarpiae (Diederich) Etayo & Diederich, Xenonectriella fissuriprodiens (Etayo) Etayo and X. subimperspicua (Speg.) Etayo. For many species a detailed description or a short diagnosis is given, together with discussion, host preferences, world-wide or South American distribution and autoecology based on own studies. For genera with newly described taxa, identification keys for the South American species, or sometimes for all known species are provided. A brief general introduction on lichenicolous fungi, with observations on vegetation, ecology and the relation between lichenicolous fungi and their hosts in Ecuador are given. Keywords: Andes; ascomycetes; lichens; South America; taxonomy.
28343Ohlert A. (1871): Lichenologische Aphorismen II. - Schriften der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft Danzig, N.F., 2: 1-38.
28342Reimers H. (1940): Geographische Verbreitung der Moose im südlichen Harzvorland (Nordthüringen) mit einem Anhang über die Verbreitung einiger bemerkenswerter Flechten. - Hedwigia, 79: 175-373.
28341Schiffner V. (1890): Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Moosflora Böhmens. - Lotos, N.F., 10: 1-36.
Bohemia; few lichens reported from Bohemian Forest at p. 28 (Blöckenstein = Mt. Plechý; Lobaria pulmonaria, Usnea longissima, Umbilicaria arctica)
28340Исмаилов А.Б., Урбанавичюс Г.П., Яковченко Л.C. & Урбанавичене И.Н. [Ismailov A.B., Urbanavichus G.P., Yakovchenko L.S. & Urbanavichene I.N.] (2017): Род Candelariella (Candelariaceae) в лихенофлоре Кавказа [The genus Candelariella (Candelariaceae, Candelariales) in the lichen flora of the Caucasus]. - Ботанический журнал [Botanicheskiy Zhurnal], 102(6): 780-796.
A taxonomic review of the genus Candelariella in the Caucasus is provided. The genus Candelariella includes approximately 50 species worldwide. Until recently, six years ago, in the first Russian checklist of lichens this genus was represented by 22 species. Only seven species of Candelariella were known from the Northern Caucasus. The Caucasus, however, is a world’s biodiversity hotspot, and this number of species was too low. The number of Candelariella species increased significantly after the start of our intensive floristic studies with new records of C. antennaria, C. efflorescens, C. oleaginescens, C. plumbea, C. rhodax, C. viae-lacteae. In this paper three species (C. faginea, C. rosulans and C. superdistans) are reported new to the Caucasus. Two species (C. medians and C. placodizans) are excluded from the Caucasian lichen flora. Currently there are a total of 16 species of Candelariella in the Caucasus. The most of the species were recorded from Adygeya (10 species), Dagestan (10), Armenia (8) and Krasnodar Region (8). Candelariella commutata, C. efflorescens, C. rhodax are reported for the first time for North Ossetia and Ingushetia, C. lutella — for Dagestan and Ingushetia, C. vitellina — for Ingushetia. This paper aims to contribute to a better understanding of this poorly known genus in the Caucasus, focusing mainly on authors’ collection in different regions of the Northern Caucasus in between 2009 and 2016. A key for the identification of all the Caucasian species (including 8 provisory species) is given. Detailed descriptions, taxonomic remarks, notes on ecology, distribution in the Caucasus and known distribution in the world for each taxon are provided. Key words: lichens, Candelariella, taxonomic review, new records, key to species, Northern Caucasus, Russia.
28339Anonymous (1863): Herbarium Normale Transsilvanicum, Centuria II. - Verhandlungen und Mitteilungen des Siebenbürgischen Vereins für Naturwissenschaften zu Hermannstadt, 14: 188-207.
Exsiccat by M. Fuss; Romania; lichens n. 110-112.
28338Fuss M. (1865): Zur Kryptogamenflora Siebenbürgens. - Verhandlungen und Mitteilungen des Siebenbürgischen Vereins für Naturwissenschaften zu Hermannstadt, 16: 23-31.
Romania; lichens at p. 26-27.
28337Fuss M. (1857): Zur Cryptogamenflora Siebenbürgens. - Verhandlungen und Mitteilungen des Siebenbürgischen Vereins für Naturwissenschaften zu Hermannstadt, 8: 231-242.
Romania; lichens at p. 236-242.
28336Fuss M. (1868): Herbarii normalis Transsilvanici. Centuriam VI. - Verhandlungen und Mitteilungen des Siebenbürgischen Vereins für Naturwissenschaften zu Hermannstadt, 19: 190-197.
Exsiccat; Romania; lichens n. 508-510.
28335Fuss M. (1868): Herbarii normalis Transsilvanici. Centuriam VII . - Verhandlungen und Mitteilungen des Siebenbürgischen Vereins für Naturwissenschaften zu Hermannstadt, 19: 204-212.
Exsiccat; Romania; lichens n. 603-607.
28334Sprengel C. (1827): Caroli Linnaei Systema Vegetabilium. Editio decima sexta. Voluminis IV, Pars II. - Gottingae, 410 p..
Classification; lichens at p. 326-331.
28333Türk R. & Erschbamer B. (2010): Die Flechten im Gletschervorfeld des Rotmoosferners. - In: Koch E.-M. & Erschbamer B. (eds), Glaziale und periglaziale Lebensräume im Raum Obergurgl, p. 155–163 & 278–280, Innsbruck University Press, Innsbruck.
In the forefield of the Rotmoos glacier 75 terricolous, saxicolous and debricolous lichens occur. On 10 years icefree areas only higher plants and some bryophytes occur. With advancing age of the icefree areas terricolous lichens appear sporadically. In the older margines (icefree since 35-40 years) the biodiversity of the terricolous, saxicolous and debricolous lichens increases. The abundance and diversity of lichens is the highest on the oldest moraines.
28332Neuwirth G. (2012): Bemerkenswerte Flechtenhabitate auf der irischen Insel und in Schottland – ein Exkursionsbericht. - Stapfia, 97: 17–30.
A list of 134 lichen species and 3 lichenicolous fungi in their habitats is presented. The results show representative samples of lichens occurring on typical substrata in Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland and Scotland. Key words: Biodiversity, lichen habitats, lichenized and lichenicolous fungi, British Islands.
28331Forssell K.B.J. (1885): Die anatomischen Verhältnisse und die phylogenetische Entwicklung der Lecanora granatina Sommerf.. - Botanisches Centralblatt, 22: 54–58 & 85–89.
Lichinaceae; Euopsis granatina; anatomy.
28330Neuwirth G. (2012): Revision der Flechtenspezies Graphis elegans (Graphidaceae, Ostropales) in Österreich. Erstfunde einer seltenen Art im lichenologischen Herbar des Linzer Biologiezentrums (LI). - Stapfia, 97: 31–35.
New results on the distribution of Graphis elegans (Graphidaceae) in Austria are presented. Two historical specimens, recently found in the herbarium of the Biology Center of the Upper Austrian State Museum (Linz, Austria), confirm the occurrence of this species already in the years 1932 and 1967. Therefore, the new records from the herbarium in Linz are introduced as first and second records to Austria. Key words: Austria, lichenized fungi, Graphidaceae, historical records, lichen herbarium.
28329Breuss O. (2012): Flechtenfunde auf Madeira. - Stapfia, 97: 47–52.
The author’s recent lichen collections of two one-week excursions on the Atlantic island of Madeira are presented. Most collections are from laurel forests in the central mountainous part of the island. The following species are reported for the first time from Madeira: Calopadia subcoerulescens, Cladonia humilis, Cladonia ramulosa, Helocarpon lesdainii, Lecanora rubicunda, Lecidella achristotera, Leptogium velutinum, Lichinodium ahlneri, Parmotrema pseudoreticulatum, Placidium squamulosum, Ramalina implectens, and Usnea geissleriana. Byssoloma vezdanum and Koerberia biformis are new to Macaronesia. A list of all lichen records from all localities is added. Key words: Lichenised Ascomycetes. New records, systematics, floristics. Mycota of Madeira.
28328Breuss O. (2012): Zur Verbreitung von Psoroma tenue var. boreale (lichenisierte Ascomycota, Pannariaceae) in den Alpen. - Stapfia, 97: 169–173.
Psoroma tenue var. boreale is shown to be widely distributed and common in the Austrian Alps and is reported for the first time for Albania and Slovakia. All samples have been found in herbarium material labelled as „Psoroma hypnorum“. The species differ in morphology of thallus squamules, apothecia, and cephalodia. Key words: Lichenized Ascomycota. Taxonomy, systematics, new records. Mycota of Austria, Slovakia, and Albania.
28327Hierschläger M. & Türk R. (2012): Immission related lichen mapping in the city zone of Salzburg. - Stapfia, 97: 137–152.
From April to June 2009 a study in the city zone of Salzburg was conducted to determine the air quality by means of lichen mapping. The method used was the VDI-Guideline 3957 Part 13 according to Verein Deutscher Ingenieure, 2005. The results show that moderate air quality prevails in Salzburg. A comparison with technical measurements of air pollutants reveals an overall pattern, namely that local sites with high air pollutant values obtained by technical measurement also tend to have a rather low air quality obtained by lichen mapping. A comparison with Roth 1988 and Schulmeister 1996 revealed a trend of declining air quality since then. A recalculation of the air quality indices after leaving out the two most abundant lichens shows a severe decline in air quality. Above all, this study is designed to serve as a basis for subsequent studies. Key words: bioindication, Salzburg/Austria, lichen mapping.
28326Bilovitz O. & Grube M. (2012): Flechten im Ostalpenraum – sensible Zeiger von Umweltbedingungen. - Stapfia, 96: 141–161.
Lichens in the Eastern Alps - sensible indicators of environmental conditions.
28325Breuss O. (2011): Weitere Flechtenfunde aus Nicaragua. - Stapfia, 95: 106–109.
30 new records of lichen species from Nicaragua are listed and commented. Key words: Lichenised ascomycetes, taxonomy, new records, systematics, floristics, mycoflora of Nicaragua.
28324Neuwirth G. (2014): Revision of the lichen genus Candelaria (Ascomycota, Candelariales) in Upper Austria. - Stapfia, 101: 39–46.
A first assessment of the distribution and morphology of the revised lichen genus Candelaria in Upper Austria is presented. Candelaria, originally a monospecific genus in Europe, was expanded by separating a second species which shows distinct morphological and genetical characters (C. pacifica). This report summarizes first data and proves an astonishing percental quota of the separated species C. pacifica (27.6%) in Upper Austria. Key Words: Candelaria, taxonomy, distribution, Upper Austria.
28323Neuwirth G. (2016): Beachtenswerte, historische Belege der Flechtengattung Cladonia (Cladoniaceae, Lecanorales) im Herbar des Biologiezentrums Linz (LI). - Stapfia, 105: 155–160.
Twelve so far not identified historic specimens of the lichen genus Cladonia are presented. The surprisingly good condition of the old material made it possible to exactly determine the lichen species and and enrich the collection of the herbarium in the Biology Centre of the Upper Austrian State Museum in Linz. The investigated specimens were discovered at least 50 years ago, the oldest lichen specimen having already been collected 198 years ago by P. M. Opiz. Keywords: Lichenized fungi, historic specimens, revision, herbarium LI.
28322Türk R. & Hafellner J. (2017): Zweiter Nachtrag zur Bibliographie der Flechten in Österreich. - Stapfia, 104/3: 1–137.
Second supplement to the bibliography of lichens in Austria. Amplifying the new checklist of the lichenized fungi from Austria (Hafellner & Türk 2016) in this publication we present bibliographical informations about lichens in Austria that are mentioned in the lichenological literature published since the year 2008. A number of additional publications from past centuries and decades so far overlooked to contain lichen records from Austria has been incorporated. In total the bibliography contains data to 2491 lichen taxa excerpted from 288 original papers and books. The number of quotations for individual taxa admits to estimate the abundance of lichen species in Austria. Keywords: Lichens, lichenized fungi, Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, mycoflora of Austria.
28321Grishkan I. & Temina M. (2017): Basaltic stones with epilithic lichens as a novel substrate for an osmotolerant fungus, Aspergillus glaucus. - Acta Mycologica, 52(1):1091 [5 p.].
Aspergillus glaucus is a fungus able to tolerate low water activity of the environment. Its dense growth and sporulation were found on basaltic stones with epilithic lichens after 14 years of storage at a temperature of 4–7°C and relative humidity of 14–18%. Dust and soil particles deposited on the lichen thalli and dissolved in the water condensed on the stones during the storage period, apparently served as a nutrient source for the fungus. Probably, strongly xeric water regime on basaltic stones suitable for A. glaucus did not allow mesophilic fungi to develop and prevented the xerotolerant fungus from competition with other microfungi for nutrient sources. It is also possible that specific cellular mechanism associated with the production of chaotropic compounds (such as glycerol) supported germination and development of A. glaucus at low temperatures, which were considered non-optimal for the fungus. Keywords: basaltic stones; epilithic lichens; low temperatures; osmotolerant fungus; sporulation.
28320Wieczorek A., Łysko A. & Motiejŭnaite J. (2017): New and interesting species of lichens from xerothermic habitats in NW Poland. - Acta Mycologica, 52(1):1097 [12 p.].
This paper presents data on the occurrence of lichens in xerothermic grasslands, representing a great mycological peculiarity of the NW part of Pomerania, Poland. The 12 examined specimens of six species originated from fieldwork carried out in 2011–2014 in the nature reserves Brodogóry, Stary Przylep, Bielinek, Wrzosowiska Cedyńskie, Prof. Adam Wodziczko Nature Reserve in the Wolin National Park, and an old chalk excavation site on Wolin Island. Within the study sites, four lichen species were recorded as a new to Western Pomerania: Agonimia gelatinosa, Collema cristatum, Dermatocarpon luridum, and Leptogium subtile. The other two species, Collema auriforme and C. flaccidum, are rarely observed in the studied region. Keywords: biodiversity; lichens; nature reserves; NW Poland.
28319Bloch-Orłowska J., Afranowicz-Cieślak R., Żółkoś K., Kukwa M., Kaczorowska E., Gerstmann E., Ściborski M., Meissner W., Pleskot I. & Mikoś J (2015): Przyroda rezerwatu „Helskie Wydmy” (północna Polska) [Nature of the „Helskie Wydmy” reserve (northern Poland)]. - Acta Botanica Cassubica, Monographiae, 5: 1–135.
Natural values of the „Helskie Wydmy” reserve are presented. The reserve, located in the south-eastern part of the Hel Peninsula, is one of the very few places along Polish seashore, where coastal dune ecosystems altogether with active geomorphological processes of erosion and aeolian accumulation are protected. Within the area of 108.48 ha, managed by Polish State Forests, 180 species of vascular plants, 31 bryophytes, 124 lichens and 20 lichenicolous fungi, 86 vertebrates and 252 inverterbrata were found. Among them there were many taxa of special concern, i.e. under law protecion or belonging to different threat categories in both country and regional scale. Moreover, 6 plant communities were distinguished, among which 5 were connected with habitat types of European importance. Kezwords: coastal dunes, coastal ecosystems, flora and vegetation, lichen biota, fauna, Hel Peninsula, northern Poland.
28318Wieczorek A., Achrem M., Truszkowska A., Łysko A. & Popiela A. (): Genetic diversity of natural psammophilous populations of Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. on Polish seacoast dunes. - Acta Mycologica, 52(1):1096 [6 p.].
Hypogymnia physodes is a lichenized fungus of the family Parmeliaceae. The aim of this study was to compare the level of genetic diversity in eight psammophilous and three epiphytic populations of this species from the Baltic coast in Poland, based on randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. In the reactions with nine primers, 153 fragments were obtained, of which 133 were polymorphic. In one reaction, from 0 (for lich2 primer) to 55 (for C02 primer) amplicons were obtained. A Dice’s genetic similarity index matrix was constructed based on the results of RAPD marker polymorphism examination. The values of similarity indices ranged from 0.00 to 0.73. Results of this study confirm the separateness of all three epiphytic populations from those found on sand dunes (100% support, UPGMA/1000 trees). Keywords: genetic polymorphism; interpopulation variability; randomly amplified polymorphic DNA; RAPD; Hypogymnia physodes; sand dunes.
28317Hansen E.S. (2017): Contribution to the lichen flora of North East Greenland. V. Zackenberg and Clavering Ø area. - Botanica Lithuanica, 23(1): 43–50.
The paper lists 202 lichen taxa from Zackenberg and Clavering Ø area, North East Greenland. Ochrolechia androgyna, Psora globifera and Rhizocarpon renneri are new to East Greenland. Sixteen lichen taxa are new to North East Greenland, viz. Aspicilia aquatica, Candelariella dispersa, Chaenotheca furfuracea, Circinaria caesiocinerea, Cladonia libifera, Lecanora cenisia, L. chloroleprosa, L. leptacina, Lichenomphalia alpina, Miriquidica atrofulva, M. nigroleprosa, Ochrolechia alaskana, Peltigera castanea, P. extenuata, Phylliscum demangeonii and Pyrenopsis furfurea. Keywords: Arctic region, diversity, lichens.
28316Tsurykau A., Travkin V.E. & Korchikov E.S. (2017): Lichenicolous fungi new to Orenburg region, southern part of European Russia. - Botanica Lithuanica, 23(1): 51–58.
Twenty two species of lichenicolous fungi are reported as new to Orenburg region. Of these, Didymocyrtis cladoniicola is new to European Russia; Lichenoconium lichenicola, Marchandiomyces corallinus, Merismatium decolorans, Phoma peltigerae and Roselliniella cladoniae are new to the southern part of European Russia. Keywords: biodiversity, distribution, forest, new records, steppe.
28315Motiejūnaitė J., Prigodina Lukošienė I., Stončius D. & Uselienė A. (2017): Contribution to the Lithuanian flora of lichens and allied fungi. - Botanica Lithuanica, 23(1): 71–74.
Three species of lichens and four species of lichenicolous fungi were reported as new to Lithuania: Cercidospora macrospora, Didymocyrtis cladoniicola, Miriquidica leucophaea, Montanelia disjuncta, Plectocarpon lichenum, Porpidia nigrocruenta and Telogalla olivieri. Of these, two species, Didymocyrtis cladoniicola and Miriquidica leucophaea, were recorded for the first time in the Baltic States. Three lichens, namely Lecanora sulphurea, Protoparmelia badia and Punctelia subrudecta previously known in Lithuania from literature data were only confirmed with certainty for the first time. Keywords: Baltic States, lichenicolous fungi, lichenized fungi.
28314Moisejevs R. & Degtjarenko P. (2017): Four species of saxicolous lichenized fungi new to Latvia. - Botanica Lithuanica, 23(1): 60–62.
Four species of saxicolous and acidophilous lichens – Dermatocarpon miniatum, Trapelia coarctata, Trapelia placodioides, and Umbilicaria hirsuta found on different types of granite boulders were reported as new to Latvian lichen biota. Data on substratum geology, accompanying species, microhabitat and distribution in neighbouring to Latvia countries are provided. Keywords: acidophilous, epilithic, lichens.
28313Su Q.-X. & Ren Q. (2017): A new species of Megalaria (Ascomycota, Ramalinaceae) and M. laureri new to mainland China. - Phytotaxa, 313(1): 147–150.
Megalaria hainanensis is described as new to science. It occurs on bryophytes over rock, and is characterized by its large apothecia, light-brown to brown-red proper exciple, an epithecium containing cinereorufa-green, arnoldiana-brown in the hypothecium, ascospores of (22) –24– (25) × (9) –10 μm, and the presence of atranorin and zeorin in the thallus. Megalaria laureri is also reported from mainland China for the first time. Key words: lichenized fungi, lichen substances, Lecanorales, taxonomy.
28312Fischer E., Killmann D., Ertz D. & Sérusiaux E. (2017): Heterodermia pindurae (Physciaceae)—a new foliose lichen from Rwanda. - Phytotaxa, 311(3): 277–282.
The new species Heterodermia pindurae, found in the Nyungwe and Volcanoes National Parks in Rwanda, is described and illustrated. It differs from the morphologically similar H. subcomosa and H. pellucida in the minute, only 0.3–0.6 cm long thallus, blackish cilia, lack of laciniae, the pedicellate, cup-like apothecia with sorediate margins and production of norstictic acid. Key Words: Heterodermia pindurae, H. subcomosa, H. pellucida, new species, Nyungwe National Park, Volcanoes National Park, taxonomy.
28311Kim J.I., Nam S.W., So J.E., Hong S.G., Choi H.-G. & Shin W. (2017): Asterochloris sejongensis sp. nov. (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta) from King George Island, Antarctica. - Phytotaxa, 295(1): 60–70.
The new species Asterochloris sejongensis sp. nov. has been collected from four localities of King George Island, Antarctica, and is described as a phycobiont of the lichen species Cladonia pyxidata and Sphaerophorus globosus. This discovery is based on morphological and molecular data obtained using light microscopy, confocal laser microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and two molecular markers; nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA and actin genes. This species is characterized by five unique hemi-CBCs in the nuclear ITS transcripts, deeply lobed and echinulate chloroplasts (depending on the life stage), and two rows of pyrenoglobuli associated with two thylakoid envelopes. A molecular phylogenetic analysis of the ITS and actin gene sequences indicated that this new species is closely related to A. woessiae and forms a distinct well-supported lineage with the genus. Key words: Antarctica, Asterochloris, phycobiont, phylogeny, ultrastructure.
28310Ignatenko R.V. & Tarasova V.N. (2017): The population structure of the lichen Lobaria pulmonaria in the middle boreal forests depends on the time-since-disturbance. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 54: 83–94.
The population structure of the lichen Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm. was analyzed in the Vodlozersky National Park (Karelia, Russia), for middle boreal forest stands having a time-since-disturbance spanning 80 to 450 years. To estimate the age of the last disturbance, a method of evaluation for the tree population structure was applied. The forest stand communities belonged to a successional series: middle-aged aspen – mixed aspen-spruce – pre-climax spruce – climax (old-growth) spruce forest. All thalli (1055) of L. pulmonaria from all substrate units (165, separately standing or lying trees and shrubs) were described within 7 sample plots of 1 ha. For each thallus, the area (cm2) and the functional-age group were determined. The number of Lobaria thalli per ha, number of substrate units, number of substrate types (living, standing dead and lying dead trees of different species) colonized by L. pulmonaria, as well as number of substrate types on which the lichen had completed its life cycle increased with time-since-disturbance. Keywords: Lobaria pulmonaria; middle boreal forest; succession; population ekology.
28309Kuznetsova E.S. & Dudov S.V. (2017): New records of lichens from the Zeysky Nature Reserve (Amur Region, Russia). - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 54: 51–58.
The lichen biota of the Zeysky Nature Reserve (southern Russian Far East) was studied in the course of geobotanical expedition. In total 36 species of lichens and one lichenicolous fungus are reported for the first time for the reserve. Among them 19 are new to the Amur Region. Parmelia asiatica is reported for the first time for the southern Russian Far East, Cladonia norvegica – for the Asian part of Russia, Tuckermannopsis gilva – for Russia, Melanohalea laciniatula – for Asia. Four species are included in the Red Data Book of Russian Federation. Keywords: Russian Far East; Cladonia norvegica; Melanohalea laciniatula; Parmelia asiatica; Tuckermannopsis gilva.
28308Himelbrant D.E., Stepanchikova I.S., Motiejūnaitė J., Gerasimova J.V., Kuznetsova E.S., Dyomina A.V. & Tsurykau A.G. (2017): New records of lichens and allied fungi from the Leningrad Region, Russia. VIII. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 54: 63–70.
Thirteen species and one variety of lichens, nine lichenicolous and two saprobic fungi are reported for the first time for St. Petersburg, the whole Leningrad Region or its western or eastern parts. The lichens Bacidina brandii, B. neosquamulosa, Porina leptalea, Rinodina aspersa and the lichenicolous fungus Scutula dedicata are reported for the first time for Russia, lichenicolous fungus Lichenoconium aeruginosum – for European Russia, the lichen Tetramelas chloroleucus, lichenicolous fungi Lichenoconium pyxidatae and Tremella cetrariicola are new for the North-Western European Russia. The most interesting records are briefly discussed. Keywords: European Russia; Bacidina brandii; Bacidina neosquamulosa; Porina leptalea; Rinodina aspersa; Scutula dedicata.
28307Urbanavichus G. & Urbanavichene I. (2017): New records and noteworthy lichens and lichenicolous fungi from Pasvik Reserve, Murmansk Region, Russia. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 54: 31–36.
Sixteen species of lichens, five lichenicolous fungi and two non-lichenized fungi are reported for the first time for Pasvik Reserve (NW Murmansk Region). Clypeococcum hypocenomycis, Protoparmelia ochrococca and Xylographa vermicularis are new to the Murmansk Region and Xylographa vermicularis is new to Europe. Ten species are rarely recorded for Murmansk Region, European Russia or Russia: Arctoparmelia subcentrifuga, Chaenothecopsis debilis, Lathagrium undulatum, Merismatium nigritellum, Microcalicium disseminatum, Phaeophyscia nigricans, Placynthium asperellum, Protothelenella leucothelia, Stereocaulon capitellatum and Stigmidium leprariae. Fourteen species are new to the biogeographic province of Lapponia petsamoënsis. Two species, Arctoparmelia subcentrifuga and Stereocaulon capitellatum, are included in the Red Data Book of the Murmansk Region. Brief notes, mainly on habitats and distribution, are provided for all species listed. Keywords: lichens; new records; diversity; conservation; distribution; North-Western Russia.
28306Paukov A.G., Gagarina L.V. & Frolov I.V. (2017): New and interesting lichen records from the Ural Mountains, Russia. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 54: 25–30.
Ten species of lichenized ascomycetes are reported from the Urals. Aspicilia spermatomanes, Fuscidea praeruptorum, Lepra excludens, L. monogona, Metamelanea caesiella and Pertusaria amarescens are new to Russia while Bryobilimbia ahlesii, Lecanora orosthea, L. rouxii and Tephromela grumosa are new for the Urals. Our records considerably extend the ranges or fill gaps in the formerly disjunctive distributions of these species. The morphology, secondary chemistry and ecology of the species are discussed. Keywords: saxicolous lichens; range extension; biodiversity.
28305Konoreva L.A., Frolov I.V. & Chesnokov S.V. (2017): Lichens and allied fungi from the Pechenga district and surroundings (Lapponia Petsamoënsis, Murmansk Region, Russia). - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 54: 17–23.
168 species of lichens are specified for the Pechenga district and surroundings. Microcalicium ahlneri and Placidium norvegicum are new for the Murmansk Region. 18 species are new for Lapponia Petsamoënsis. Stereocaulon dactylophyllum is included into the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation. Caloplaca diphyodes, Dermatocarpon meiophyllizum, Haematomma ochroleucum, Phlyctis argena and Stereocaulon dactylophyllum are included into the Red Data Book of the Murmansk Region. Keywords: lichens; new records; Pechenga and Kola districts; Murmansk Region.
28304Moisejevs R. (2017): Lichens and allied fungi new for Latvia. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 54: 9–12.
Six lichenized fungi (Calicium parvum, C. trabinellum, Carbonicola anthracophila, C. myrmecina, Peltigera extenuata, Pycnora sorophora), two lichenicolous (Clypeococcum hypocenomycis and Illosporium carneum), and two saprobic calicioid fungi (Chaenothecopsis savonica and Microcalicium arenarium) are reported as new for Latvia. Keywords: Latvia; lichenicolous; calicioid; saprobic fungi.
28303Zhurbenko M.P., Ezhkin A.K., Skirina I.F. & Ohmura Y. (2017): Dactylospora anziae, a new lichenicolous ascomycete on Anzia from East Asia. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 54: 13–16.
Dactylospora anziae growing on species of Anzia is described from Russia and Japan. Keywords: new species; Russia; Japan.
28302Tsurykau A. & Korchikov E.S. (2017): Lichenicolous fungi from the Samara Region, southern part of European Russia. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 54: 1–8.
Twenty two species of lichenicolous and two occasionally lichen-inhabiting fungi are reported from the Samara Region. Twenty three of them are new to the region, eighteen – to southern part of European Russia; Intralichen lichenum is new to European Russia, and Phoma grumantiana and Pyrenidium crozalsii are reported for the first time for Russia. Keywords: biodiversity; distribution; new records.
28301Devkota S., Chaudhary R.P., Werth S. & Scheidegger C. (2017): Trade and legislation: consequences for the conservation of lichens in the Nepal Himalaya. - Biodiversity and Conservation, 26: 2491–2505.
Lichen harvest and trade are closely associated with the livelihood of most of the rural people in Western Nepal. The present study investigates the commercial collection of lichens, quantifies the traded volume and relates it to a market scenario, and discusses conservation measures in relation to established legal practices in Nepal. Data on lichen trade and revenue generated for the 12 years (2000–2011) were collected and analyzed from 74 districts of Nepal. Voucher specimens were deposited at TUCH (Tribhuvan University Central Herbarium) in Nepal. The lichens collected in West Nepal are mainly used in international trade, while those in East Nepal are used locally for food. A total of 20 commercially important species of lichens were identified from five trade centers and one local market. During 2000–2011, Nepal legally exported 2020 tons of lichens and collected NRs 25,293,305 (USD 240,000). The average annual quantity of turnover was 168 tons, though it is estimated that much was exported illegally. The hill districts in Nepal, which traded 1774 tons, were more important for the collection of commercial lichen species than the Mountainous and inner-Tarai districts, which traded 167 and 108 tons, respectively. Through the Forest Act, Forest Regulations and its amendment in 2011, the collection of lichens for harvest, trade and export in any crude or processed form was banned. However, the legislation lacks an effective implementation strategy, and sustainable harvest of lichen resources based on scientific data would better serve local livelihood and lichen conservation in Nepal. Keywords: Legislation; Revenue; Cross-border trade; Socioeconomics; Sustainable management.
28300Zawierucha K., Węgrzyn M., Ostrowska M. & Wietrzyk P. (2017): Tardigrada in Svalbard lichens: diversity, densities and habitat heterogeneity. - Polar Biology, 40: 1385–1392.
Tardigrades in lichens have been poorly studied with few papers published on their ecology and diversity so far. The aims of our study are to determine the (1) influence of habitat heterogeneity on the densities and species diversity of tardigrade communities in lichens as well as the (2) effect of nutrient enrichment by seabirds on tardigrade densities in lichens. Forty-five lichen samples were collected from Spitsbergen, Nordaustlandet, Prins Karls Forland, Danskøya, Fuglesongen, Phippsøya and Parrøya in the Svalbard archipelago. In 26 samples, 23 taxa of Tardigrada (17 identified to species level) were found. Twelve samples consisted of more than one lichen species per sample (with up to five species). Tardigrade densities and taxa diversity were not correlated with the number of lichen species in a single sample. Moreover, the densities of tardigrades was not significantly higher in lichens collected from areas enriched with nutrients by seabirds in comparison to those not enriched. The incorporation of previously published data on the tardigrades of Spitsbergen into the analysis showed that tardigrade densities was significantly higher in moss than it was in lichen samples. We propose that one of the most important factors influencing tardigrade densities is the cortex layer, which is a barrier for food sources, such as live photosynthetic algal cells in lichens. Finally, the new records of Tardigrada and the first and new records of lichens in Svalbard archipelago are presented. Keywords: High Arctic · Biodiversity · Ecology · Microhabitat. heterogeneity · Mosses · Tardigrada.
28299Mafole T.C., Chiang C., Solhaug K.A. & Beckett R.P. (2017): Melanisation in the old forest lichen Lobaria pulmonaria reduces the efficiency of photosynthesis. - Fungal Ecology, 29: 103–110.
The old forest lichen Lobaria pulmonaria synthesizes melanic pigments when exposed to ultraviolet light and high solar radiation. Here, we tested the effect of melanisation on photosynthetic efficiency. Melanisation effectively reduces high-light stress in lichen photobionts, as the photobionts of melanised thalli are healthy, based on chlorophyll contents and maximum rates of photosynthesis. However, the quantum yields of both photosynthetic CO2 uptake and O2 evolution were more than 40 percent lower in melanised thalli compared with control thalli. While chlorophyll fluorescence measurements suggested that melanised and pale thalli had similar apparent electron transport rates, this result was probably an artefact caused by screening reducing the light reaching the photobionts. Melanic thalli also had a higher chlorophyll a/b ratio and more xanthophyll cycle pigments, suggesting that the photosynthetic apparatus had adapted to high light. In conclusion, while protecting photobionts from high light, melanisation clearly reduced photosynthetic efficiency. Melanised thalli will be significantly disadvantaged if light levels return to lower values, more typical for those habitats in which this shade adapted lichen is most abundant. Keywords: Lobaria pulmonaria; Melanin; Quantum yield; Non-photochemical quenching; UV-Radiation; Reflectance.
28298Vuorinen K.E.M., Oksanen L., Oksanen T., Pyykönen A., Olofsson J. & Virtanen R. (2017): Open tundra persist, but arctic features decline—Vegetation changes in the warming Fennoscandian tundra. - Global Change Biology, 23(9): 3794–3807.
In the forest-tundra ecotone of the North Fennoscandian inland, summer and winter temperatures have increased by two to three centigrades since 1965, which is expected to result in major vegetation changes. To document the expected expansion of woodlands and scrublands and its impact on the arctic vegetation, we repeated a vegetation transect study conducted in 1976 in the Darju, spanning from woodland to a summit, 200 m above the tree line. Contrary to our expectations, tree line movement was not detected, and there was no increase in willows or shrubby mountain birches, either. Nevertheless, the stability of tundra was apparent. Small-sized, poorly competing arctic species had declined, lichen cover had decreased, and vascular plants, especially evergreen ericoid dwarf shrubs, had gained ground. The novel climate seems to favour competitive clonal species and species thriving in closed vegetation, creating a community hostile for seedling establishment, but equally hostile for many arctic species, too. Preventing trees and shrubs from invading the tundra is thus not sufficient for conserving arctic biota in the changing climate. The only dependable cure is to stop the global warming. Keywords: alpine, arctic, climate change, disturbance, Empetrum nigrum, lichens, mosses, reindeer, tree line, tundra, vegetation.
28297Piovár J., Weidinger M., Bačkor M., Bačkorová M. & Lichtscheidl I. (2017): Short-term influence of Cu, Zn, Ni and Cd excess on metabolism, ultrastructure and distribution of elements in lichen Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th. Fr.. - Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 145: 408–419.
Lichens are symbiotic organisms that are very sensitive to heavy metal pollution. However, there is little evidence of how heavy metal pollution affects the physiological status, ultrastructural changes and distribution of elements in the layers of lichen thalli. For this purpose we simulated metal pollution to lichens and studied its impact on Xanthoria parietina. Thalli were treated with the heavy metals Cu, Zn, Ni, Cd in the form of sulfates at concentrations of 100 µM and 500 µM during 24, 48 and 72 h. Untreated lichens served as controls. We assessed the status of physiological parameters (fluorescence and integrity of chlorophyll a, content of soluble proteins and ergosterol), ultrastructural changes, especially to the photobiont, and the distribution of elements in the layers of thalli in relation to treatment with heavy metals. We found positive correlations between the content of all tested heavy metals and the physiological response. We assessed the toxicity of the selected metals as follows: Cd >= Cu >= Ni > Zn, based on the effects on the photobiont layer in the lichen thallus and physiological measurements. Keywords: Lichens; Heavy metals; Photobiont; Light microscopy; Fluorescence microscopy; Electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.
28296Pinho P., Barros C., Augusto S., Pereira M.J., Maguas C. & Branquinho C. (2017): Using nitrogen concentration and isotopic composition in lichens to spatially assess the relative contribution of atmospheric nitrogen sources in complex landscapes. - Environmental Pollution, 230: 632–638.
Reactive nitrogen (Nr) is an important driver of global change, causing alterations in ecosystem biodiversity and functionality. Environmental assessments require monitoring the emission and deposition of both the amount and types of Nr. This is especially important in heterogeneous landscapes, as different land-cover types emit particular forms of Nr to the atmosphere, which can impact ecosystems distinctively. Such assessments require high spatial resolution maps that also integrate temporal variations, and can only be feasibly achieved by using ecological indicators. Our aim was to rank land-cover types according to the amount and form of emitted atmospheric Nr in a complex landscape with multiple sources of N. To do so, we measured and mapped nitrogen concentration and isotopic composition in lichen thalli, which we then related to land-cover data. Results suggested that, at the landscape scale, intensive agriculture and urban areas were the most important sources of Nr to the atmosphere. Additionally, the ocean greatly influences Nr in land, by providing air with low Nr concentration and a unique isotopic composition. These results have important consequences for managing air pollution at the regional level, as they provide critical information for modeling Nr emission and deposition across regional as well as continental scales. Keywords: Reactive nitrogen; Eutrophication; Isoscapes; Multiple pollution sources.
28295Raggio J., Green T.G.A., Sancho L.G., Pintado, Colesie C., Weber B. & Büdel B. (2017): Metabolic activity duration can be effectively predicted from macroclimatic data for biological soil crust habitats across Europe. - Geoderma, 306: 10–17.
Biological soil crusts (BSC) perform several important environmental functions such as soil erosion prevention, soil nutrient enrichment through photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation, and are receiving growing interest due to their importance in some changing habitats with soils under degradation risk. Primary producers within BSC (cyanobacteria, lichens, algae and bryophytes) are all poikilohydric and active only when wet, meaning that knowledge of the period of metabolic activity is essential to understand growth and adaptation to environment. Finding links with macroclimatic factors would allow not only prediction of activity but also the effects of any climate change over these communities. Metabolic activity and microclimate of BSC at four sites across Europe with different soils from semi-arid (Almeria, SE Spain) to alpine (Austria) was monitored during one year using a chlorophyll fluorometer. Local climatic data were also recorded. Mean monthly activity of crust within each site were strongly linked irrespective of crust type whilst, using the data from all sites, highly significant linear relationships (mean monthly values) were found for activity with incident light, air temperature and air relative humidity, and a nonlinear response to rainfall saturating at about 40 mm per month. Air relative humidity and air temperature were the best predictors of metabolic activity duration. The links observed are all highly significant allowing climate data to be used to model activity and to gain inferences about the effects of climate change over BSC communities, soil structure and fertility. Linear relationships mean that small changes in the environment will not produce massive alterations in activity. BSC also appear to behave as a single functional group, which is helpful when proposing general management policies for soil ecosystems protection. Keywords: Biocrust; Chlorophyll fluorescence; Climate change impact modelling; Functional type; Plant-soil interactions; Soil erosion prevention.
28294Fodor E. (2015): Analysis of the saxicolous lichen communities in Măcin Mountains National Park. - Acta Horti Botanici Bucurestiensis, 42(1): 67–86.
The assemblage of saxicolous lichenized fungal communities in Măcin Mountains National Park was assessed during a biodiversity study developed between 2006 and 2008. Fifty three species of saxicolous lichenized fungi were identified on Hercynic granites and granitoid outcrops characterized by intense weathering process. Apparently, competition was not the main mechanism in community assemblage as calculated C score showed (non-significant difference between mean calculated and simulated score). Niche overlap assessment showed that lichens avoided competition by spatial niche partition (mean Pianka index of 0.07 for sampling quadrats and 0.20 for locations). The estimation of nestedness index (N=0.63 at local scale and N=0.88 at sampling quadrat scale) indicated that local communities were subsets of a larger, regional scale metacommunity. Similarities in community composition across locations were assessed by means of Ward algorithm, results indicating that the most dissimilar communities were encountered at Pietrele Mariei, a residual inselberg and Suluc foothill. Conservation of saxicolous communities containing endangered species such as Umbilicaria grisea, critically endangered Ramalina obtusata and vulnerable Acrocordia gemmata, Pertusaria hemisphaerica, Pertusaria pertusa will be challenged in the future by anthropogenic impact coming from agriculture, sheep grazing and quarries operating in the proximity of the reserve area. Keywords: community assemblage; saxicolous lichenized fungal community; Hercynic granites; C-score; niche overlap; nestedness; conservation of endangered species.
28293Vicol I. (2010): Preliminary study on epiphythic lichens as indicator of environmental quality in forest from around Bucharest municipality (Romania). - Analele Universităţii din Oradea - Fascicula Biologie, 17(1): 200–207.
The epiphytic lichens were investigated for three forests situated around Bucharest Municipality. The comparative historical background studies concerned with epiphytic lichens in relation to environmental conditions were related. Five variables close related with the distance was analysed within this study, as follow: (1) in close correlation with the distance, the taxonomic analysis reveals a major significance regarding the dominant roll of the genera with a low epiphytic lichens diversity, within the Andronache Forest, unlike Cernica and Pustnicul Forest where, the number of genera is do not significantly owing increasing species number; (2) regarding the substrate, epiphytic lichens species from all investigated forests prefer trees with a roughly rhytidoma. Trees sampled in a great deal belong to the Quercus genus with a roughly rhytidoma facilitating a good growing of epiphytic lichens species because keeps for a long periods of time a high degree of humidity; (3) the analysis of toxi-tolerance degree has shown how the sensitive epiphytic lichens species to pollution is increasing depending on the distance; (4) autsozological categories are marked in a great deal by a great distance from an urban Bucharest area. Thus, the number of rare and disappearing lichens species is increasing direct proportional depending on the distance from the Bucharest Municipality area to investigated forests due to improvement of the environmental quality; (5) from geographical distribution of lichens species point of view, take a place an increasing number of epiphytic lichens species which is close correlated with the distance from Bucharest Municipality area to investigated forests. In addition, a great importance was conferred the presence of rare and disappearing epiphytic lichens species nearest perturbation area of Bucharest Municipality (Andronache Forest). This fact is possible to occur owing to the direction of prevailed winds. It was used of sensitivity values of epiphytic lichens species to quantify spatial gradients in environmental alteration. Keywords: epiphytic lichen, Bucharest Municipality (Romania), environmental quality, Andronache, Pustnicul, Cernica
28292Vicol I. (2016): Ecological patterns of lichen species abundance in mixed forests of Eastern Romania. - Annals of Forest Research, 59(2): 237–248.
The importance of this study consists in the knowledge of the ecological attributes characteristic to mixed forestry habitats and how they affect the structure of the lichen species abundances. The field activities were performed within five forest habitat types from Moldavia Province, characterised mainly by oak mixed forests, riparian mixed forests and mixed beech forests. The habitat variables, tree variables and the lichen species abundances were analysed to get informations on the structural disimilarities, on the one hand, and relationships on the other hand. Within this study no significant disimilarities were found out from abundance lichen species point of view. The lichen species abundances are a result of interactions between components of their microhabitat and macrohabitat. The correlation analysis pointed out the preferences of lichen species to their host trees, especially Quercus and Fraxinus, altitude and tree level variables as are aspect and mosses coverage. The regression analysis has highlighted that the changes in lichen species abundances are caused by macrohabitat level predictors such as host trees represented by Fraxinus. This study demonstrates that, structure of lichen species is influenced by attributes of mixed forest habitats; therefore maintaining the diversity of tree species and ensuring the continuous occurrence of forestry land is necessary for lichen and their habitat conservation. Keywords: Fraxinus, macrohabitat drivers, microhabitat particularities, Quercus, forest conservation.
28291Śliwa L. (2017): New combinations for Myriolecis zosterae (Ascomycota, lichenized fungi) varieties and a new record of the species for Poland. - Polish Botanical Journal, 62(1): 37–39.
Two new combinations for Myriolecis zosterae (Ach.) Śliwa, Zhao Xin & Lumbsch varieties are proposed: M. zosterae var. beringii (Nyl.) Śliwa and M. zosterae var. palanderi (Vain.) Śliwa. Additionally, M. zosterae var. zosterae is reported for the first time from Poland. The species is briefly discussed and its known distribution in Poland illustrated Keywords: nomenclature, lichenized Ascomycota, Lecanoraceae, new record, Poland.
28290Khodosovtsev A.Ye. & Darmostuk V.V. (2017): Zwackhiomyces polischukii sp. nov., and other noteworthy lichenicolous fungi from Ukraine. - Polish Botanical Journal, 62(1): 27–35.
The new lichenicolous fungus Zwackhiomyces polischukii Darmostuk & Khodos. is described from Bacidia fraxinea Lönnr. and B. rubella (Hoffm.) A. Massal. in Ukraine. Cercidospora caudata Kernst., Cladophialophora parmeliae (Etayo & Diederich) Diederich & Untereiner, Epicladonia simplex D. Hawksw., Laetisaria lichenicola Diederich, Lawrey & Van den Broeck, Lichenochora caloplacae Zhurb., L. weillii (Werner) Hafellner & R. Sant., Microsphaeropsis caloplacae Etayo & Yazıcı, Pronectria casaresii Etayo and P. cf. dillmaniae Zhurb. are new for Ukraine. Seven species are new for the plains of Ukraine and four species are new for the steppe zone. Pronectria diplococca, P. cf. dillmaniae, Lichenochora caloplacae and Microsphaeropsis caloplacae were previously known only from their original descriptions. Key words: Cercidospora, Pronectria, Lichenochora, Zwackhiomyces, distribution, new species, steppe zone.
28289Bertrand M. & Roux C. (2016): Compte rendu de la session lichénologique de l’AFL en Haute-Ubaye - juillet 2014. - Bull. Ass. fr. Lichénologie, 41(1): 23–62.
Report on a field meeting [in French:] En 2010, une étude de la flore et de la végétation lichéniques du secteur Haute-Ubaye du Parc national du Mercantour a été menée par cinq membres de l’AFL (C. ROUX, C. BAUVET, M. BERTRAND, O. BRICAUD et D. MASSON) pour le compte du PNM et a permis de recenser 802 taxons : 729 lichens, 67 champignons lichénicoles non lichénisés et 6 champignons non lichénisés non lichénicoles ordinairement traités par les lichénologues. Parmi ces taxons se trouvent de nombreuses nouveautés : un taxon signalé pour la première fois en Europe (Lecidella lecanoricola, champignon lichénicole non lichénisé) ; 36 taxons signalés pour la première fois en France, 31 lichens[Anaptychia ulotrichoides, Bryoria implexa (chémo. 2, acide norstictique), Caloplaca variabilis (morpho. fulva), Cladonia crispata var. elegans, Cladonia symphycarpa (chémo. dahliana ; acide psoromique), Diploschistes gypsaceus (morpho. ochrophanes), Halecania alpivaga, Involucropyrenium terrigenum, Lecanora eurycarpa, Lecanora leptacina Sommerf., Lecanora perpruinosa Fröberg, Lecidea albohyalina, Lecidea atrobrunnea subsp. saxosa, Lecidea praenubila Nyl., Parmelia barrenoae, Peccania cernohorskyi, Placynthium asperellum, Placynthium garovaglioi, Polyblastia burensis, Thelidium antonellianum, Thelidium inundatum, Thelidium minimum, Thelidium submethorium, Verrucaria rivalis, Verrucaria schindleri, Verrucaria slovaca, Verrucaria transfugiens, Verrucula elegantaria, Verrucula latericola, Verrucula microspora, Xylographa trunciseda) et 5 champignons lichénicoles non lichénisés (Endococcus brachysporus, Llimoniella phaeophysciae, Sphaerellothecium araneosum Chaenothecopsis epithallina, Chaenothecopsis savonica]; 1 taxon nouvellement signalé en France continentale (Lecanora rupicola subsp. rupicola morpho. glaucescens) ; 52 taxons nouvellement signalés dans les Alpes françaises s.l. (40 lichens, 10 champignons lichénicoles non lichénisés et 2 champignons non lichénisés non lichénicole, 1 champignon non lichénicole non lichénisé) ; 36 taxons nouvellement signalés dans la région Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur (35 lichens et 1 champignon lichénicole non lichénisé), 365 nouvellement signalés dans le département des Alpes-de-HauteProvence (346 lichens, 17 champignons lichénicoles non lichénisés et 2 champignons non lichénisés non lichénicoles). Parmi les lichens nous avons dressé une liste d’espèces patrimoniales qui comprend 27 taxons d’intérêt mondial ou européen et 48 taxons d’intérêt national.
28288Roux C. (2016): Lichens et champignons lichénicoles de deux localités du Tarn-et-Garonne (82). - Bull. Ass. fr. Lichénologie, 41(2): 151–170.
L’étude des lichens et champignons lichénicoles non lichénisés de deux localités du département de Tarn-et-Garonne permet de dresser une liste de 198 taxons, dont 169 nouvellement trouvés dans ce département. Sarcopyrenia sigmoideospora est signalé pour la première fois en France et Bagliettoa cazzae, Caloplaca calcitrapa, Porina ginzbergeri, Rinodina luridata subsp. immersa, Zwackhiomyces calcisedus pour la première fois en France eurosibérienne. 24 associations et peuplements ont été observés : 13 saxicoles-calcicoles, 3 terricoles et 8 corticoles.
28287Ceynowa-Giełdon M., Adamska E. & Kamiński D. (2017): An isolated site of calciphilous lichens in the Kujawy region. - Ecological Questions, 24/2016: 37–43.
The paper presents a list of lichen species occurring in three quarries and on mine dumps located within the dust emission impact zone of the cement plant “Kujawy”. The species occur in the lowlands far from their natural localities on limestone rocks in southern Poland. The study area is therefore a valuable habitat island for epilithic and epigeic species of calciphilous lichens in central Poland. Particularly noteworthy are taxa characteristic of natural limestone rocks found in mountain areas of Poland: Verrucaria calciseda, Verrucaria nigroumbrina V. obfuscans and V. polysticta, as well as nine species from the Polish Red List of Lichens: Bacidia rubella, Caloplaca cf. cerina, Enchylium coccophorum, Endocarpon pusillum, Heppia adglutinata, Lempholema chalazanum, Goidanichia ambrosiana, Thelidium incavatum and Th. papulare. Key words: biodiversity, lichenized fungi, endangered species, calciphilous lichens, Kujawy, environmental island, anthropopression, anthropogenic habitats.
28286Roux C. et coll. (2017): Catalogue des lichens et champignons lichénicoles de France métropolitaine. 2e édition revue et augmentée. Tome 2 (cartes). - Édit. Association française de lichénologie (A. F. L.), Fontainebleau, p. 1176-1581.
France; distribution; maps.
28285Coste C. & Pinault P. (2016): Découverte ďun champignon lichénicole extrêmement rare en France : Sphaerellothecium araneosum (Rehm ex Arnold) Zopf. - Carnets natures, 3: 27–30.
Presentation of Sphaerellothecium araneosum (Rehm ex Arnold) Zopf, a parasitic lichenicolous fungus frond on Ochrolechia or Stereocaulon observed in the Pyrenees- Atlantiques, Puy-de-Dôme and Spain. Keywords : Sphaerellothecium, araneosum, Ochrolechia, Stereocaulon, Pyrénées-Atlantiques, Spain.
28284Coste C. (2016): Présence en Corse du Sud d’un champignon lichénicole non signalé en France continentale : Lichenostigma diploiciae Calatayud, Navarro-Rosinès & Hafellner. - Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Toulouse, 152: 5–8.
Presence in southern Corsica of a lichenicolous fungus not recorded in mainland France : Lichenostigma diploiciae Calatayud, Navarro-Rosinès & Hafellner. Presentation of a lichenicolous fungus on thallus of Diploicia subcanescens (Werner) Hafellner & Poelt, Lichenostigma diploiciae Calatayud, Navarro-Rosinès & Hafellner first observation in France and Corsica. The note briefly describes the species, its ecology, distribution and systematically related taxa. A list of species belonging to the genus Lichenostigma described to date is given. Keywords : Lichenostigma, diploiciae, lichenicolous fungus, Diploicia subcanescens, Corsica.
28283Pinault P. & Coste C. (2017): Découverte de Toninia taurica (Szatala) Oxner sur le causse Méjean (Parc national des Cévennes, Gatuzières, 48). - Bulletin de la Société Botanique du Centre Ouest, 48: 13–74.
Discover Toninia taurica (Szatala) Oxner in the Cévennes National Park, lichen considered rare in France. Contribution of four French new observations in the Tarn, Aveyron and Lozère. Keywords : Toninia taurica, Cévennes.
28282Xiao B. & Veste M. (2017): Moss-dominated biocrusts increase soil microbial abundance and community diversity and improve soil fertility in semi-arid climates on the Loess Plateau of China. - Applied Soil Ecology, 117–118: 165–177.
Various ecological functions of biocrusts are mostly determined by their bacterial and fungal abundance and community diversity, which has not yet been fully investigated. To provide more insights into this issue, we collected samples of moss biocrusts, fixed sand, and mobile sand from a watershed with semi-arid climate on the Loess Plateau of China. The relative abundances and community diversities of soil bacteria and fungi of the samples were determined using high-throughput DNA sequencing. Finally, we analyzed the characteristics of bacterial and fungal community of the moss biocrusts and their relationships to the content of soil nutrients. Our results showed that the moss biocrusts had 1048 bacterial OTUs (operational taxonomic units) and 58 fungal OTUs, and their Shannon diversity indexes were 5.56 and 1.65, respectively. The bacterial community of the moss biocrusts was dominated by Acidobacteria (24.3%), Proteobacteria (23.8%), Chloroflexi (15.8%), and Actinobacteria (14.5%), and their fungal community was dominated by Ascomycota (68.0%) and Basidiomycota (23.8%). The moss biocrusts had far more bacterial OTUs (≥ 56.9%) but similar number of fungal OTUs as compared with the uncrusted soil, and their Sorenson’s similarity coefficients of bacterial and fungal communities were less than 0.768 and 0.596, respectively. Moreover, the contents of soil nutrients (C, N, P) were significantly correlated with the OTU numbers of bacteria and the relative abundances of bacteria and fungi. Our results indicated that moss biocrusts harbor a large number and high diversity of bacteria and fungi, and these diversified bacteria and fungi play important roles in ecosystem functioning through improving soil fertility. Keywords: Biological soil crust; Microbiotic crust; Microbial community composition; Microbial community diversity; Relative abundance of species; High-throughput sequencing.
28281Lan S., Ouyang H., Wu L., Zhang D. & Hu X. (2017): Biological soil crust community types differ in photosynthetic pigment composition, fluorescence and carbon fixation in Shapotou region of China. - Applied Soil Ecology, 111: 9–16.
In order to ensure the smooth operation of the Baotou-Lanzhou railway in Shapotou region of China (southeast edge of the Tengger Desert), vegetation protecting system was established, and then substantial biological soil crusts (BSCs) gradually developed there, however so far little study has focused on the refined crust community types and their related ecological functions. In this study, eight main crust community types were distinguished from the restoration region, and their pigment composition and photosynthetic performance were compared through spectrophotometry, chlorophyll fluorescence and infrared gas analysis technologies. The results showed that crust chlorophyll-a and carotenoids contents had a good linear relationship (R2 = 0.964; P < 0.001), generally increased with the development and succession of BSCs, while crust scytonemin content was highest in cyanolichen soil crusts. When chlorophyll-a content was less than 15 μg cm−2, crust original fluorescence (Fo) linearly increased with the increasing chlorophyll-a content (R2 = 0.758; P = 0.001), providing a convenient approach to monitor crust photosynthetic biomass in situ, but without crust destruction. Compared with cyanobacterial and cyanolichen soil crusts, chlorolichen and moss soil crusts had the higher photosynthetic activities (Fv/Fm), although the chlorolichen soil crusts performed the lowest net photosynthetic carbon fixation (average 1.5–1.8 mmol CO2 m−2 h−1), while moss soil crusts had the greater carbon fixation efficiency, about 2.4–7.5 fold higher according to the different community types. Conclusively, a finely divided classification of BSCs will not only improve the estimation of crust carbon fixation, but also strengthen the accuracy and importance of crust community types at the landscape scale. Keywords: Biological soil crusts; Ecological function; Chlorophyll; fluorescence; Photosynthesis.
28280Gauslaa Y., Alam M.A., Lucas P.-L., Chowdhury D.P. & Solhaug K.A. (2017): Fungal tissue per se is stronger as a UV-B screen than secondary fungal extrolites in Lobaria pulmonaria. - Fungal Ecology, 26: 109–113.
To test the hypotheses that (1) protective mycobiont tissues and/or (2) medullary UV-B-absorbing carbon-based secondary compounds (CBSCs) protect lichen photobionts against UV-B radiation, we quantified cortical UV-transmittance and ran a three-way factorial lab experiment with (1) three UV radiation regimes, (2) photobiont layers with/without a screening cortex, and (3) with natural/reduced CBSC-concentration. We used melanin-deficient Lobaria pulmonaria from shaded forests. Maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) in photobionts inside thalli with natural CBSC-concentrations was not affected by any UV-regime, consistent with close to 0% measured cortical transmittance of wavelengths <325 nm. Exposing photobiont layers to direct radiation strongly aggravated photoinhibition (P < 0.001), as did an increase in UV-exposure (P < 0.001). The effect of CBSC-removal was weaker (yet significant at P = 0.001), mainly affecting exposed photobiont layers given short-wavelength UV radiation. Based on these findings, we conclude that the primary role of extrolites in L. pulmonaria is not to screen excess solar radiation. Keywords: Carbon-based secondary compounds; Lobaria pulmonaria; Green algae; Stictic acid; Sun screens; UV-A; UV-B; UV tolerance; UV transmittance.
28279Delebassée S., Mambu L., Pinault E., Champavier Y., Liagre B. & Millot M. (2017): Cytochalasin E in the lichen Pleurosticta acetabulum. Anti-proliferative activity against human HT-29 colorectal cancer cells and quantitative variability. - Fitoterapia, 121: 146–151.
A biological screening of sixteen lichen extracts on human HT-29 colorectal cancer cells, led to the selection of Pleurosticta acetabulum, a lichen widely present in tree barks in Europe. Bioguided purification of the acetonic extract resulted in the isolation of cytochalasin E, a common fungal metabolite. This compound is responsible for the anti-proliferative activity of the extract. Its presence in lichens is reported here for the first time. LC-MS quantitation of cytochalasin E in different samples of P. acetabulum demonstrated quantitative variations of cytochalasin E production in the lichen and especially high concentrations in apothecia. Keywords: Lichen; Pleurosticta acetabulum; Parmeliaceae; Cytochalasin E; Colorectal cancer cells.
28278Gauslaa Y., Solhaug K.A. & Longinotti S. (2017): Functional traits prolonging photosynthetically active periods in epiphytic cephalolichens during desiccation. - Environmental and Experimental Botany, 141: 83–91.
By fluorescence imaging, we quantified how hydration traits and thallus size determine the duration of photosynthetic activity during drying in light and darkness for sympatric populations of three epiphytic old forest cephalolichens differing in specific thallus mass (STM) and growth form. Maximal PS II efficiency (FV/FM) during drying in darkness and effective PSII yield (ФPSII) during drying in light (200 μmol m−2 s−1) was repeatedly monitored in lichens under controlled conditions, using chlorophyll fluorescence imaging with simultaneous recordings of wet mass. STM shaping the water holding capacity (WHC), water content in percent at start (WC), and water loss rate per thallus area (WLR) in combination determined the duration of active periods during desiccation between (r2adj = 0.86) and within species (r2adj = 0.60–0.92). Lobaria pulmonaria with the lowest STM and the most upright growth form experienced the shortest active periods, Lobaria amplissima with the highest STM and the most prostrate growth form had the longest periods. Across the more compact species (L. amplissima, L. virens), WLR strongly declined with increasing thallus size, but weakly in the loosely attached L. pulmonaria. ФPSII, a proxy of photosynthesis, exhibited suprasaturation depression at maximal hydration. Fluorescence imaging allowed a rapid, non-invasive evaluation of the contribution of various functional traits to active periods in entire thalli during desiccation. A thick, prostrate growth form prolongs active periods by maximizing water storage, whereas a thin, loosely attached growth form uses a more flexible hydration strategy with shorter active periods. Keywords: Desiccation; Fluorescence imaging; Poikilohydry; Lobaria amplissima; Lobaria pulmonaria; Lobaria virens.
28277Coste C. (2016): Les lichens de la forêt de la Massane (Réserve Naturelle Nationale des Pyrénées-Orientales). - Travaux de la Massane, 104: 1–54.
This work aims at bringing up to date the previous lichen inventories from the area of the Natural Reserve of La Massane Forest. The main previous inventories were carried out by Henry Des Abbayes, Nylander W. (1891)- Lichenes Pyreaeorum orientalium observatis novis ; Clauzade and Rodon (1960) - Observations sur la végétation lichénique de la hêtraie de la Massane et de ses environs immédiats ; et Roux C., Coste C, Bricaud O. and Masson D. (2006) - Catalogue des Lichens et des Champignons lichénicoles de la région Languedoc-Roussillon (France méridionale). This new inventory raises the number of known lichens from the Reserve to 360 species, out of which 16 are cited for the first time. In addition to this inventory, a considerable work on the synonymies has been accomplished to bring the on hand data up to date.
28276Lü L. & Zhao Z.-T. (2017): Lecanora shangrilaensis sp. nov., on pinecones from China. - Mycotaxon, 132(2): 441–444.
Lecanora shangrilaensis from southwestern China is described as a new species. It can be distinguished from other multispored species of Lecanora by the presence of usnic acid instead of atranorin and the epruinose discs with coarse granular epihymenium. It is otherwise characterized by the thin thallus, yellow to yellowish brown apothecial disc, 12–16-spored ascus, and the pinecone substrate. Key words—East Asia, Lecanoraceae, lichenized Ascomycota.
28275Zhao X.-X., Zhao Z.-T., Miao C.-C., Ren Z.-J. & Zhang L.-L. (2017): Five Lecidea lichens new to China. - Mycotaxon, 132(2): 317–326.
Five Lecidea lichen taxa—L. andersonii, L. grisella, L. laboriosa, L. atrobrunnea subsp. saxosa, L. atrobrunnea subsp. stictica—are reported for the first time from China. Keywords: Asia; Lecideales; Lecideaceae; saxicolous lichens; taxonomy.
28274Cernava T., Erlacher A., Aschenbrenner I.A., Krug L., Lassek C., Riedel K., Grube M. & Berg G. (2017): Deciphering functional diversification within the lichen microbiota by meta-omics. - Microbiome, 5:82 [13 p.].
Background: Recent evidence of specific bacterial communities extended the traditional concept of fungal-algal lichen symbioses by a further organismal kingdom. Although functional roles were already assigned to dominant members of the highly diversified microbiota, a substantial fraction of the ubiquitous colonizers remained unexplored. We employed a multi-omics approach to further characterize functional guilds in an unconventional model system. Results: The general community structure of the lichen-associated microbiota was shown to be highly similar irrespective of the employed omics approach. Five highly abundant bacterial orders—Sphingomonadales, Rhodospirillales, Myxococcales, Chthoniobacterales, and Sphingobacteriales—harbor functions that are of substantial importance for the holobiome. Identified functions range from the provision of vitamins and cofactors to the degradation of phenolic compounds like phenylpropanoid, xylenols, and cresols. Conclusions: Functions that facilitate the persistence of Lobaria pulmonaria under unfavorable conditions were present in previously overlooked fractions of the microbiota. So far, unrecognized groups like Chthoniobacterales (Verrucomicrobia) emerged as functional protectors in the lichen microbiome. By combining multi-omics and imaging techniques, we highlight previously overlooked participants in the complex microenvironment of the lichens. Keywords: Metagenomics, Metaproteomics, Metatranscriptomics, Amplicon sequencing, Lichen symbiosis, Lobaria pulmonaria.
28273Réblová M., Untereiner W.A., Štěpánek V. & Gams W. (2017): Disentangling Phialophora section Catenulatae: disposition of taxa with pigmented conidiophores and recognition of a new subclass, Sclerococcomycetidae (Eurotiomycetes). - Mycological Progress, 16: 27–46.
A new genus Rhopalophora is described for Phialophora clavispora, a lignicolous species formerly placed in Phialophora section Catenulatae that possesses pigmented conidiophores, phialides with a single conidiogenous locus that occasionally appear as schizophialides, and clavate, aseptate conidia arranged in chains or sometimes in heads. Sexual morphs are not known for this taxon. Phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences from five loci (nucSSU, ITS, nucLSU, mitSSU, rpb1 and rpb2) of this and related fungi supports the introduction of a new family, Sclerococcaceae, for which we establish the order Sclerococcales. This order belongs to the new subclass Sclerococcomycetidae, a strongly supported clade within the Eurotiomycetes that is basal to a lineage containing the Chaetothyriomycetidae, Coryneliomycetidae and Eurotiomycetidae. Rhopalophora clavispora fits in this new family and is closely related to an isolate of Fusichalara minuta. The Sclerococcales also encompass marine, lignicolous species of Dactylospora, two species of the lichenicolous genus Sclerococcum, and a lineage comprised of strains from the digestive tracts ofNeotropical wood-inhabiting beetles.We confirm that Dactylospora is polyphyletic; the phylogenetic placement of D. parasitica, the generic type, remains unknown. Keywords: Dactylospora . Fusichalara . Lichenicolous fungi . Marine fungi . Rhopalophora . Sclerococcum.
28272Divakar P.K., Crespo A., Kraichak E., Leavitt S.D., Singh G., Schmitt I. & Lumbsch H.T. (2017): Using a temporal phylogenetic method to harmonize family and genus-level classification in the largest clade of lichen-forming fungi. - Fungal Diversity, 84: 101–117.
Although classification at supra-specific ranks is inherently arbitrary, comparable taxonomic ranks within clades can facilitate more consistent classifications and objective comparisons among taxa. Different circumscriptions of the hyper-diverse lichen-forming fungal family Parmeliaceae and widely different generic circumscriptions among authors have been proposed. For this study, we use a recently developed temporal approach that uses timecalibrated chronograms to identify temporal bands for specific ranks in Parmeliaceae and allied groups with the overarching goal of establishing a consistent, stable classification. A data set of 330 species, representing 73 genera in the family and 52 species of related families was used to address the circumscription of Parmeliaceae and its genera following the proposed temporal approach. Based on the results of this study, we propose a revised, temporal-based classification for Parmeliaceae, including all clades that share a common ancestor 102.13–112.88 Ma for families and a time window of 29.45–32.55 Ma for genera. Fortyfive of the currently accepted genera in Parmeliaceae were supported in their current circumscription. Two subfamilies are accepted within Parmeliaceae: Protoparmelioideae Divakar et al. subfam. nov., including Protoparmelia and the resurrected genus Maronina, and Parmelioideae, including the bulk of genera in the family. The new genus Austromelanelixia Divakar et al. is proposed to accommodate a clade of southern Hemisphere species previously included in Melanelixia. Eumitria and tentatively Dolichousnea are resurrected as genera separate from Usnea. The following genera are reduced to synonymy: Allocetraria, Cetrariella, Usnocetraria, and Vulpicida with Cetraria; Arctocetraria, Cetreliopsis, Flavocetraria, Kaernefeltia, Masonhalea, Tuckermanella, and Tuckermannopsis with Nephromopsis; and the lichenicolous genera Nesolechia and Raesaenenia with the lichen-forming genera Punctelia and Protousnea, respectively. A total of 47 new combinations and three new names at the species level are proposed. Keywords: Ascomycota; Gypsoplacaceae; Lecanorales; Lichenized fungi; Parmeliaceae; Phylogeny; Protoparmelia; Taxonomy; Taxonomic ranks.
28271Lücking R. & Moncada B. (2017): Dismantling Marchandiomphalina into Agonimia (Verrucariaceae) and Lawreymyces gen. nov. (Corticiaceae): setting a precedent to the formal recognition of thousands of voucherless fungi based on type sequences. - Fungal Diversity, 84: 119–138.
Based on an unexpected result of obtaining molecular sequence data from tropical representatives of the genus Normandina, we revised the biological concept of the neotropical taxon Marchandiomphalina foliacea. The obtained data let us conclude that M. foliacea is not a basidiomycete, as originally proposed, but belongs in Verrucariaceae, in the genus Agonimia, including its perithecia which had been identified with the lichenicolous Norrlinia peltigericola. The ITS (and nuLSU) sequences previously obtained from M. foliacea, seemingly confirming its status as a basidiomycete, are from an unmanifested lichenicolous fungus, present also in numerous specimens of Normandina. ITS data suggest the presence of seven lineages that can be recognized at the species level, forming two clusters: one cluster of three lineages found in thalli of M. foliacea, and a second cluster of four lineages found in thalli of Normandina. This pattern is similar to what has recently been found in the basidiomycete genus Cyphobasidium occurring predominantly in Parmeliaceae lichens. We propose the combination of Omphalina foliacea into the genus Agonimia, as Agonimia foliacea (P.M. Jørg.) Lücking & Moncada, comb. nov., and place Marchandiomphalina in synonymy with Agonimia. To formally recognize the unnamed lichenicolous basidiomycete present in Agonimia and Normandina thalli, we take advantage of provision ICN Art. 40.5 in the Code and describe the unmanifested fungus as a new genus, with seven new species, even if no physical type specimens can be preserved (except for the corresponding host lichens which, however, do not show the features of the fungus): Lawreymyces Lücking & Moncada, gen. nov. (Type: L. palicei), with L. bogotensis Lücking & Moncada, sp. nov., L. columbiensis Lücking & Moncada, sp. nov., L. confusus Lücking & Moncada, sp. nov., L, foliaceae Lücking & Moncada, sp. nov., L. palicei Lücking & Moncada, sp. nov., L. pulchellae Lücking & Moncada, sp. nov., and L. spribillei Lücking & Moncada, sp. nov. This opens the door to the formal recognition of thousands of species of voucherless fungi detected through environmental sequencing techniques under the current Code. Keywords: Artwork; International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants; Illustration; Sequences as types; Typification; Work of art.
28270Vanga N.R., Kota A., Sistla R. & Uppuluri M. (2017): Synthesis and anti-inflammatory activity of novel triazole hybrids of (+)-usnic acid, the major dibenzofuran metabolite of the lichen Usnea longissima. - Molecular Diversity, 21: 273–282.
(+)-Usnic acid ((R)-2,6-diacetyl-7,9-dihydroxy-8,9b-dimethyl-1,3(2H,9bH)-dibenzo-furandione), a dibenzofuran isolated from the lichen Usnea longissima, has been chemically transformed to synthesize a series of sixteen novel triazole analogs by click chemistry approach. The synthesized compounds were tested for their anti-inflammatory potential against the cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β in U937 cell lines. The bromo enamines (2a, 2b), azido enamines (3a, 3b) and triazole analogs (4f, 4g, 4h, 5f, 5g and 5h) exhibited promising anti-inflammatory activity against TNF-α with IC 50 values ranging from 1.40 to 5.70 μM. Most significantly, the IC 50 values of compounds 5f (1.40 μM) and 5h (1.88 μM) are the lowest among the compounds tested and found close to that of standard prednisolone. Hence, these two compounds can be considered as lead molecules for further fine tuning to make highly potent anti-inflammatory therapeutic agents.
28269Santos A., Pinho P., Munzi S., Botelho M.J., Palma-Oliveira J.M. & Branquinho C. (2017): The role of forest in mitigating the impact of atmospheric dust pollution in a mixed landscape. - Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 24: 12038–12048.
Atmospheric dust pollution, especially particulate matter below 2.5 μm, causes 3.3 million premature deaths per year worldwide. Although pollution sources are increasingly well known, the role of ecosystems in mitigating their impact is still poorly known. Our objective was to investigate the role of forests located in the surrounding of industrial and urban areas in reducing atmospheric dust pollution. This was tested using lichen transplants as biomonitors in a Mediterranean regional area with high levels of dry deposition. After a multivariate analysis, we have modeled the maximum pollution load expected for each site taking into consideration nearby pollutant sources. The difference between maximum expected pollution load and the observed values was explained by the deposition in nearby forests. Both the dust pollution and the ameliorating effect of forested areas were then mapped. The results showed that forest located nearby pollution sources plays an important role in reducing atmospheric dust pollution, highlighting their importance in the provision of the ecosystem service of air purification. Keywords: Heavy metals; Ecosystem services; Ecological indicators; Lichens; Particulate matter.
28268Domínguez-Morueco N., Augusto S., Trabalón L., Pocurull E., Borrull F., Schuhmacher M., Domingo J.L. & Nadal M. (2017): Monitoring PAHs in the petrochemical area of Tarragona County, Spain: comparing passive air samplers with lichen transplants. - Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 24: 11890–11900.
The levels of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in 8 passive air samples (PAS) and 6 lichen transplants (Ramalina fastigiata) deployed for a period of 2 months in different zones of Tarragona County (Catalonia, Spain), an area with an important number of chemical and petrochemical industries. The accumulated amount of the sum of the 16 PAHs ranged between 1363 to 7866 ng/sample in air samples. The highest concentration was found in the neighborhood of Puigdelfí (village of Perafort), in the vicinity of a big oil refinery and well under the potential influence of the petrochemical emissions. In lichen samples, the sum of the 16 PAHs ranged between 247 and 841 ng/g (dry weight), being the greatest value also observed in Puigdelfí. Data on the levels and profiles of PAHs in both passive monitoring methods were compared. A significant positive linear correlation was found between the concentrations of low molecular weight PAHs in lichens and the amounts accumulated in passive air samples (R = 0.827, P < 0.05), being especially significant the correlation of 4-ring PAHs (R = 0.941, P < 0.05). These results strongly suggest that lichens can be used to monitor gas-phase PAHs, providing data that can be quantitatively translated into equivalents for air. Keywords: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); Passive air sampling (PAS); Polyurethane foams (PUF); Lichens samples; Biomonitoring; Tarragona, Spain.
28267Jha B.N., Shrestha M., Pandey D.P., Bhattarai T., Bhattarai H.D. & Paudel B. (2017): Investigation of antioxidant, antimicrobial and toxicity activities of lichens from high altitude regions of Nepal. - BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine (2017) , 17:282 [8 p.].
Background: Several lichen species are reported to be used tradiationally in many theraupatic practices. Many lichen species are reported as sources of several bioactive natural compounds. Several lichen species of Nepal are so far chemically unexplored. Methods: The morphological, anatomical and phytochemical characteristics of lichens were compared for the taxonomic identification of the species. Methanol- water extract of lichens were sub fractionated into hexane, dichloromethane and methanol fractions for bioactivity assays. Antimicrobial activities of extracts were evaluated agaisnt pathogenic bacteria and fungal species. DPPH test was used for antioxidant potential evaluation. Brineshrimp test was perfermed to evaluate toxicity of the extracts. Results: A total of 84 lichen specimens were collected and identified from Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) Nepal. The specimens were identified as belonging to 19 genera and 47 species. Methanol fractions of 16 specimens and dichloromethane (DCM) fractions of 21 lichens specimens showed antioxidant activities comparable with commercial standards (BHA, Butylated hydroxyanisole, IC50=4.9±0.9 μg/mL) even at crude extract level. Similarly, the DCM fraction of 17 lichens showed potential antimicrobial activity against a Gram-positive bacterium (Staphylococcus aureus KCTC3881) and DCM fractions of 45 lichens showed antimicrobial activity against a Gramnegative bacterium (Klebsiella pneumoniae KCTC2242). DCM fractions of three lichens showed antifungal activity against the yeast, Candida albicans KCTC 7965. Likewise, methanol fractions of 39 lichens and DCM fractions of 74 lichens showed strong toxicity against brine shrimp nauplii with more than 80% mortality. Conclusion: Such biological activity-rich lichen specimens warrant further research on exploration of natural products with antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti cancer (toxic) potential. Keywords: Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, DPPH, Lichen, Thin layer chromatography.
28266Castro O.N., Benites J., Rodilla J., Santiago J.C., Simirgiotis M., Sepulveda B. & Areche C. (2017): Metabolomic analysis of the lichen Everniopsis trulla using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-OT-MS). - Chromatographia, 80: 967–973.
A new depside was identified in the methanolic extract from the lichen Everniopsis trulla based on the metabolomics UHPLC–DAD–MS analysis and HESI–MS–MS fragmentation patterns along with thirty-two known compounds for the first time. The compounds were structurally characterized by UV and high resolution quadrupole orbitrap mass spectra and by comparison with literature. According to the characteristic fragmentation patterns, the presence of two simple aromatic compounds, six lipid derivatives, eight depsidones, thirteen depsides, a chromone, two diphenylethers, and a dibenzofuran were identified. To our knowledge, this is the first study of the lichen E. trulla by liquid chromatography hyphenated with tandem mass spectrometry. Keywords: Depsides; Depsidones; UHPLC–ESI–MS; Everniopsis trulla; Lichens; Orbitrap.
28265Devkota S., Chaudhary R.P., Werth S. & Scheidegger C. (2017): Indigenous knowledge and use of lichens by the lichenophilic communities of the Nepal Himalaya. - Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 13:15 [10 p.].
Background: The aim of the study was to document the prevailing indigenous knowledge and various uses of lichens among the lichenophilic communities in the hills and mountainous settlements of Nepal. Methods: Ethnic uses were recorded during twelve field trips, each of roughly 15 days in three consecutive years, through direct questionnaires administered to 190 respondents. Lichen samples were identified applying microscopic observation and thin layer chromatography (TLC). Voucher specimens of identified species are deposited at TUCH (Tribhuvan University Central Herbarium) in Nepal. Results: Lichens are being used in several ways by different communities of Nepal. We recorded the ethnic use of seven species of lichens belonging to four families (Parmeliaceae, Physciaceae, Ramalinaceae and Usneaceae) and six genera (Heterodermia, Everniastrum, Parmotrema, Ramalina, Thamnolia and Usnea) among the Limbu, Sherpa, Lama, Gurung, Rai, Dalit, Tamang, Chhetri and Brahman communities. The present study revealed six use values namely; Medicinal value (MV), food value (FV), ritual and spiritual value (RSV), aesthetic and decorative value (ADV), bedding value (BV) and ethno-veterinary value (EVV) from different parts of Nepal. Three lichen species, Everniastrum cirrhatum, E. nepalense and Parmotrema cetratum were consumed by the Limbu and Rai communities. The Limbu and Sherpa ethnic groups are regarded as most lichenophilic communities while respondents from Brahman, Chhetri and Tamang communities showed less interest in lichen uses. Conclusions: The present study contributes to document traditional knowledge on various uses of lichens among nine communities with three different cultural background, inhabitants of eight different altitudinal levels of Nepal. Regarding the six values as identified from this research, significant difference (p = <0.05) were found along altitudinal gradients or locations of the settlements, cultural groups and ethnicity of the respondents. Keywords: Ethnolichenology, Use values, Limbu and Sherpa ethnic groups, Ethnoveterinary.
28264Boonpeng C., Polyiam W., Sriviboon C., Sangiamdee D., Watthana S., Nimis P.L. & Boonpragob K. (2017): Airborne trace elements near a petrochemical industrial complex in Thailand assessed by the lichen Parmotrema tinctorum (Despr. ex Nyl.) Hale. - Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 24: 12393–12404.
Several trace elements discharged by the petrochemical industry are toxic to humans and the ecosystem. In this study, we assessed airborne trace elements in the vicinity of the Map Ta Phut petrochemical industrial complex in Thailand by transplanting the lichen Parmotrema tinctorum to eight industrial, two rural, and one clean air sites between October 2013 and June 2014. After 242 days, the concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Ti, V, and Zn in lichens at most industrial sites were higher than those at the rural and the control sites; in particular, As, Cu, Mo, Sb, V, and Zn were significantly higher than at the control site (p < 0.05). Contamination factors (CFs) indicated that Cd, Cu, Mo, and Sb, which have severe health impacts, heavily contaminated at most industrial sites. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that most elements were associated with industry, with lesser contributions from traffic and agriculture. Based on the pollution load indexes (PLIs), two industrial sites were highly polluted, five were moderately polluted, and one had a low pollution level, whereas the pollution load at the rural sites was comparable to background levels. This study reinforces the utility of lichens as cost-effective biomonitors of airborne elements, suitable for use in developing countries, where adequate numbers of air monitoring instruments are unavailable due to financial, technical, and policy constraints. Keywords: Biomonitor; Contamination factor; Map Ta Phut; Pollution; load index.
28263Kinoshita Y., Yamamoto Y., Kurokawa T. & Yoshimura I. (2001): Influences of nitrogen sources on usnic acid production in a cultured mycobiont of the lichen Usnea hirta (L.) Wigg.. - Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry, 65(8): 1900–1902.
Effects of the nitrogen sources in the medium for the production of secondary metabolites in lichens were examined. The usnic acid production by a mycobiont of the lichen Usnea hirta was higher in the liquid medium containing ammonium and nitrate ions than in those containing amino acids.
28262Chekanov K., Feoktistov A. & Lobakova E. (2017): Spatial organization of the three-component lichen Peltigera aphthosa in functional terms. - Physiologia Plantarum, 160: 328–338.
The cephalolichen Peltigera aphthosa (L.) Willd. is characterized by lateral heterogeneity, which manifests itself in the presence of three thallus zones, referred to as the apical, basal and medial zone. These zones differ in terms of interaction between lichen bionts and their physiological activity. The apical thallus zone is more efficient in establishing a contact with cyanobacteria, because of a higher lectin content and a larger overall thallus surface area due to the presence of numerous mycobiont hyphae. Cephalodia are formed in this zone. The interaction between the mycobiont and cyanobiont is more intense in the medial zone. However, the establishment of the contact with cyanobacteria in this zone less probable. The spatial distribution of lectins in the thallus was determined. To reveal the differences in photosynthetic activity in three thallus zones, transient analysis of chlorophyll a fluorescence and the assessment of non-photochemical quenching of excited chlorophyll states were performed. Assimilation of absorbed light energy was more effective in the medial zone. The basal zone was characterized by decreased photosynthetic activity, lichen dissociation and thallus death.
28261Matteucci E., Occhipinti A., Piervittori R., Maffei M.E. & Favero-Longo S.E. (2017): Morphological, secondary metabolite and ITS (rDNA) variability within usnic acid-containing lichen thalli of Xanthoparmelia explored at the local scale of rock outcrop in W-Alps. - Chemistry and Biodiversity, 14: e1600483 [15 p.].
Lichen secondary metabolites (LSMs) are regarded with interest for valuable biological properties, but chemical variability among/within lichen taxa has been only fragmentarily characterized by advanced analytical techniques. Knowledge of variability at a local geographic scale has been particularly neglected, while it should address the collection of chemically homogeneous materials to test and exploit LSMs. Here we evaluated the chemical variability of 48 Xanthoparmelia specimens from two rock outcrops in Western Italian Alps, representative of nine morphotypes and sixteen rDNA ITS haplotypes. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were performed by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS2 and UPLC-HDR-DAD, respectively, and revealed the occurrence of 18 LSMs. Chemical partition allowed distinguishing six chemical groups, only partially overlapping with distinct morphotypes and three divergent haplotype groups, which, overall, accounted for the co-occurrence of different taxa only in part identifiable with species described for Europe. Some morphotypes were variable in presence and concentration of LSMs, and chemical divergences also characterized single ITS haplotypes. Accordingly, the collection of chemically homogeneous materials, even at a local scale, may be not properly addressed by morphological features and ITS barcoding, and should be confirmed by a specimen-level chemical characterization.
28260Prieto M., Martínez I., Aragón G. & Verdú M. (2017): Phylogenetic and functional structure of lichen communities under contrasting environmental conditions. - Journal of Vegetation Science, 28: 871–881.
Question: In order to identify the factors and assembly rules which potentially shape natural lichen communities we asked whether these communities are phylogenetically and functionally structured along an environmental gradient in beech forests in the Iberian Peninsula. Location: A climatic gradient in the Iberian Peninsula. Methods: We used species inventories, trait data and a molecular dated phylogeny to calculate phylogenetic and functional community metrics. We examined the phylogenetic and functional diversity of epiphytic lichen assemblages in nine beech forests along an environmental gradient. Results: We found a significant pattern in the average phylogenetic and functional diversity across sites. Species at northern sites were less closely related than expected by chance (phylogenetic and functional overdispersion), suggesting that these communities could be structured by species interactions limiting the similarity among them (e.g. by competition and facilitation). In contrast, species occurring in the southern distributional limit of the host tree were phylogenetically and functionally clustered, implying that these communities could be primarily structured by environmental filtering, driven by the reduction of summer rainfall. Lower precipitation areas favoured fruticulose and squamulose species and a larger proportion of species with green algal photobionts and asexual reproduction. Conclusions: Our results suggest that environmental filtering and species interactions regulate lichen communities differently under contrasting environmental conditions in beech forests in the Iberian Peninsula. These processes are reflected by the presence of key lichen traits that are phylogenetically conserved and can provide advantages for competition or adaptation to the environment. Keywords: Competition; CWM; Facilitation; Functional traits; Habitat filtering; NRI; NTI; Phylogenetic signal; Phylogeny.
28259Míguez F., Fernández-Marín B., Becerril J.M. & García-Plazaola J.I. (2017): Diversity of winter photoinhibitory responses: a case study in co-occurring lichens, mosses, herbs and woody plants from subalpine environments. - Physiologia Plantarum, 160: 282–296.
Winter evergreens living in mountainous areas have to withstand a harsh combination of high light levels and low temperatures in wintertime. In response, evergreens can activate a photoprotective process that consists of the downregulation of photosynthetic efficiency, referred to as winter photoinhibition (WPI). WPI has been studied mainly in woody evergreens and crops even when, in many instances, other functional groups such as lichens or bryophytes dominate in alpine and boreal habitats. Thus, we aimed to (1) assess the occurrence of WPI within overwintering evergreens comprising woody species, herbs, mosses and lichens, (2) compare the recovery kinetics among those groups and (3) clarify the role of thylakoid proteins and pigments in both processes: WPI and recovery. With this aim, WPI was analyzed in 50 species in the field and recovery kineticcs were studied in one model species from each functional group. Results showed that high levels of WPI are much more frequent among woody plants than in any other group, but are also present in some herbs, lichens and mosses. Winter conditions almost always led to the de-epoxidation of the xanthophyll cycle. Nevertheless, changes in the de-epoxidation level were not associated with the activation/deactivation of WPI in the field and did not match changes in photochemical efficiency during recovery treatments. Seasonal changes in thylakoid proteins [mainly D1 (photosystem II core complex protein) and PsbS (essential protein for thermal dissipation)] were dependent on the functional group. The results highlight the diversity of physiological solutions and suggest a physical–mechanical reason for the more conservative strategy of woody species compared with other groups.
28258Asplund J. & Wardle D.A. (2017): How lichens impact on terrestrial community and ecosystem properties. - Biological Reviews, 92: 1720–1738.
Lichens occur in most terrestrial ecosystems; they are often present as minor contributors, but in some forests, drylands and tundras they can make up most of the ground layer biomass. As such, lichens dominate approximately 8% of the Earth’s land surface. Despite their potential importance in driving ecosystem biogeochemistry, the influence of lichens on community processes and ecosystem functioning have attracted relatively little attention. Here, we review the role of lichens in terrestrial ecosystems and draw attention to the important, but often overlooked role of lichens as determinants of ecological processes. We start by assessing characteristics that vary among lichens and that may be important in determining their ecological role; these include their growth form, the types of photobionts that they contain, their key functional traits, their water-holding capacity, their colour, and the levels of secondary compounds in their thalli. We then assess how these differences among lichens influence their impacts on ecosystem and community processes. As such, we consider the consequences of these differences for determining the impacts of lichens on ecosystem nutrient inputs and fluxes, on the loss of mass and nutrients during lichen thallus decomposition, and on the role of lichenivorous invertebrates in moderating decomposition. We then consider how differences among lichens impact on their interactions with consumer organisms that utilize lichen thalli, and that range in size from microfauna (for which the primary role of lichens is habitat provision) to large mammals (for which lichens are primarily a food source). We then address how differences among lichens impact on plants, through for example increasing nutrient inputs and availability during primary succession, and serving as a filter for plant seedling establishment. Finally we identify areas in need of further work for better understanding the role of lichens in terrestrial ecosystems. These include understanding how the high intraspecific trait variation that characterizes many lichens impacts on community assembly processes and ecosystem functioning, how multiple species mixtures of lichens affect the key communityand ecosystem-level processes that they drive, the extent to which lichens in early succession influence vascular plant succession and ecosystem development in the longer term, and how global change drivers may impact on ecosystem functioning through altering the functional composition of lichen communities. Key words: decomposition, functional traits, invertebrate food webs, lichenized fungi, nutrient cycling, trophic interactions.
28257St. Martin P. & Mallik A.U. (2017): The status of non-vascular plants in trait-based ecosystem function studies. - Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 27: 1–8.
The contributions of non-vascular plants (NVPs) to ecosystem function can be significant in high latitude and high altitude ecosystems and yet their inclusion in trait-based studies is rare. Our aim in this paper is to argue for a more thorough and widespread inclusion of NVPs in trait-based studies of ecosystem function. We focused on three specific objectives, (i) to review and summarize the current knowledge base as to how NVP traits are measured and used in assessing ecosystem function, (ii) to highlight challenges in incorporating vascular plants (VPs) and NVPs together in trait-based studies, and (iii) discuss a framework by which VPs and NVPs can be included in explaining ecosystem function. From a literature search of the Web of Science database we found that the majority of trait-based studies examined mostly vascular plants (VPs), occasionally VPs and NVPs separately, but rarely the two groups together to describe ecosystem function. To date compared to VPs, assessment of the contributions of NVPs to ecosystem function has remained relatively unexplored. Plant communities comprising VPs and NVPs can influence, and in turn be influenced by their habitats. We argue that the response and effect traits of VPs and NVPs are comparable and that classifying NVPs simply as “mosses” and “lichens” and assessing their functions as such is inadequate. We summarized and identified particular measurable traits of both VPs and NVPs that have significant effects on nutrient cycling and community assembly. Future studies in areas where NVPs are abundant should include both VPs and NVPs, aggregated at the finest taxonomic resolution possible to relate ecosystem processes such as cycling of matter and plant community assembly. Keywords: Mosses; Lichens; Functional traits; Plant functional types; Ecosystem processes; Ecosystem function.
28256Moyo C.E., Beckett R.P., Trifonova T.V. & Minibayeva F.V. (2017): Extracellular redox cycling and hydroxyl radical production occurs widely in lichenized Ascomycetes. - Fungal Biology, 121: 582–588.
Some free-living Ascomycetes and white and brown rot Basidiomycetes can generate hydroxyl radicals using extracellular redox cycling. However, the mechanisms of hydroxyl radical production differ between white and brown rot Basidiomycetes, and are unknown for Ascomycetes. Here, we present a survey of extracellular hydroxyl radical production by a range of lichenized Ascomycetes. Results show that given a quinone and chelated ferric ions, many lichens can readily produce hydroxyl radicals, and this is accompanied by the reduction of Fe3+ to Fe2+. In white rot fungi, extracellular redox enzymes have been proposed to be involved in hydroxyl radical generation. However, a survey of a wide range of lichens suggests that in these fungi hydroxyl radical production does not directly correlate with the activity of laccases and peroxidases. Rather, radicals are probably produced by a mechanism like that proposed for brown rot fungi. Potential roles of hydroxyl radicals produced by lichens include the breakdown of lignocellulosic residues in the soil which may allow lichens to live a partially saprotrophic existence, the breakdown of toxic soil chemicals and the formation of an ‘oxidative burst’ to deter potential pathogens. Keywords: Laccases; Peroxidases; Quinone reductases; Reactive oxygen species; Saprophyte.
28255Favero-Longo S.E., Benesperi R., Bertuzzi S., Bianchi E., Buffa G., Giordani P., Loppi S., Malaspina P., Matteucci E., Paoli L., Ravera S., Roccardi A., Segimiro A. & Vannini A. (2017): Species- and site-specific efficacy of commercial biocides and application solvents against lichens. - International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 123: 127–137.
Control of lichens on stone cultural heritage is mostly achieved by a combination of mechanical removal with biocide applications. However, there is a lack of scientific evidence on the efficacy of different biocides on different species, and on the consistency of biocide effects on heritage sites in different environmental conditions. This results in some uncertainty when conservation interventions to control lichens are routinely defined on the basis of restoration tradition or empirical evaluation, without experimental measures of how lichens respond. In this work, we quantitatively evaluated (a) the efficacy of five commercially-available biocides, applied using a brush or with a cellulose poultice, against two species (Protoparmeliopsis muralis, Verrucaria nigrescens), and (b) whether the effects on the two species were consistent, per treatment, across three Italian heritage sites. Lichen vitality was quantified through analyses of chlorophyll a fluorescence (ChlaF) and ergosterol content. The results indicated that all the tested biocides, and their organic solvents, affected the vitality of both the species. However, most of treatments displayed different efficacy on each species, across the different sites and between brush and poultice applications. Accordingly, when a conservation intervention to control lichen growth is planned, biocide treatments need both species- and site-specific calibrations and lichen vitality should be properly ascertained in situ by monitoring ChlaF parameters (FV/FM and F0) twenty days after trial biocide applications. Keywords: Biocide; Chlorophyll a fluorescence; Ergosterol; Lichen; Organic solvents.
28254Tatsumi S., Ohgue T., Azuma A., Tuovinen V., Imada Y., Mori A.S., Thor G. & Ranlund Å. (2017): Tree hollows can affect epiphyte species composition. - Ecological Research, 32: 503–509.
Tree hollows often harbor animals and microorganisms, thereby storing nutritive resources derived from their biological activities. The outflows from tree hollows can create unique microenvironments, which may affect communities of epiphytic organisms on trunk surfaces below the hollows. In this study, we tested whether the species richness and composition of epiphytic bryophytes (liverworts and mosses) and lichens differ above and below tree hollows of Aria japonica and Cercidiphyllum japonicum in a Japanese temperate forest. The species richness of epiphytic bryophytes and lichens did not differ above and below hollows; however, the species composition of bryophytes differed significantly above and below hollows. Indicator species analyses showed that the moss species Anomodon tristis and the liverwort species Porella vernicosa were significantly more common below than above hollows, while the liverwort species Radula japonica and four lichen species, including Leptogium cyanescens, occurred more frequently above than below hollows. Our results highlight that tree hollows can produce unique microenvironments on trunk surfaces that potentially contribute to the maintenance of epiphytic diversity on a local scale. Keywords: Biodiversity; Cryptogams; Bryophytes; Lichens; Tree cavities.
28253Vanneste T., Michelsen O., Graae B.J., Kyrkjeeide M.O., Holien H., Hassel K., Lindmo S., Kapás R.E. & De Frenne P. (2017): Impact of climate change on alpine vegetation of mountain summits in Norway. - Ecological Research, 32: 579–593.
Climate change is affecting the composition and functioning of ecosystems across the globe. Mountain ecosystems are particularly sensitive to climate warming since their biota is generally limited by low temperatures. Cryptogams such as lichens and bryophytes are important for the biodiversity and functioning of these ecosystems, but have not often been incorporated in vegetation resurvey studies. Hence, we lack a good understanding of how vascular plants, lichens and bryophytes respond interactively to climate warming in alpine communities. Here we quantified long-term changes in species richness, cover, composition and thermophilization (i.e. the increasing dominance of warm-adapted species) of vascular plants, lichens and bryophytes on four summits at Dovrefjell, Norway. These summits are situated along an elevational gradient from the low alpine to high alpine zone and were surveyed for all species in 2001, 2008 and 2015. During the 15-year period, a decline in lichen richness and increase in bryophyte richness was detected, whereas no change in vascular plant richness was found. Dwarf-shrub abundance progressively increased at the expense of lichens, and thermophilization was most pronounced for vascular plants, but occurred only on the lowest summits and northern aspects. Lichens showed less thermophilization and, for the bryophytes, no significant thermophilization was found. Although recent climate change may have primarily caused the observed changes in vegetation, combined effects with non-climatic factors (e.g. grazing and trampling) are likely important as well. At a larger scale, alpine vegetation shifts could have a profound impact on biosphere functioning with feedbacks to the global climate. Keywords: Alpine vegetation; Climate change; Resurvey study; Thermophilization; Cryptogams.
28252Logesh A.R., Chinlampianga M., Shukla A.C. & Upreti D.K. (2017): Studies on lichens of Mizoram, northeast India. - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India, Section B: Biological Sciences, 87(2): 445–457.
The paper enumerates 159 species of lichens recorded from the Mizoram state of northeast India. Buellia aeruginascens, Chaenotheca chrysocephala, Diorygma reniforme, Gassicurtia acidobaeomyceta, Graphis granulosa, Hafellia demutans, Phyllopsora soralifera, Ramboldia sorediata, R. subnexa, Relicina sublanea, Stigmatochroma adaucta, S. gerontoides, S. kryptoviolascens, S. metaleptodes are new records for Indian lichen biota. An inventory of lichen species together with detailed account of new records of lichens are provided in the present communication. Keywords: Lichenized fungi  New records  Indo-Burma hotspot  Northeastern India.
28251Felczykowska A., Pastuszak-Skrzypczak A., Pawlik A., Bogucka K., Herman-Antosiewicz A. & Guzow-Krzemińska B. (2017): Antibacterial and anticancer activities of acetone extracts from in vitro cultured lichen-forming fungi. - BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 17:300 [12 p.].
Background: Lichens that were used in traditional medicine for ages produce numerous secondary metabolites, however our knowledge about biological activities of substances secreted by separated bionts is scarce. The main objectives of this study were to isolate and find optimal conditions for the growth of mycelia from three common lichen-forming fungi, i.e. Caloplaca pusilla, Protoparmeliopsis muralis and Xanthoria parietina and to evaluate antibacterial and antiproliferative activities of their acetone extracts. Methods: Agar disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods were used to test antimicrobial activity against six species of bacteria. MTT method, flow cytometry assay and DAPI staining were applied to test antiproliferative activity of selected extracts against MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma), PC-3 (human prostate cancer) and HeLa (human cervix adenocarcinoma) cancer cells. Results: P. muralis strongly inhibited the growth of Gram-positive bacteria, i.e. Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis (MICs from 6.67 to 100.00 μg mL−1). X. parietina grown on PDA and G-LBM media decreased HeLa or MCF-7 cancer cells viability with IC50 values of about 8 μg mL−1, while C. pusilla grown on G-LBM medium showed the highest potency in decreasing MCF-7 (7.29 μg mL−1), PC-3 (7.96 μg mL−1) and HeLa (6.57 μg mL−1) cancer cells viability. We also showed induction of apoptosis in HeLa, PC-3 and MCF-7 cell lines treated with increasing concentrations of C. pusilla extract. Conclusion: We showed that selected acetone extracts demonstrated a strong antimicrobial and anticancer effects that suggests that aposymbiotically cultured lichen-forming fungi can be a source of antibacterial and antiproliferative compounds. Keywords: Antibacterial activity, Antiproliferative effect, Apoptosis, Lichen, MIC, MBC.
28250Mikhailova I.N. (2017): Initial stages of recovery of epiphytic lichen communities after reduction of emissions from a copper smelter. - Russian Journal of Ecology, 48(4): 335–339.
[Translation of Original Russian Text by N. Gorgolyuk © I.N. Mikhailova, 2017, published in Ekologiya, 2017, No. 4, pp. 277–281.] Analysis has been made of changes in the species composition and abundance of epiphytic lichens on fir trees during the first decade after a sharp reduction of emissions from a large copper smelter in the Middle Urals. The results show that lichens have recolonized the area of the former lichen desert and that the abundance of lichen species in the impact and buffer zones has increased. However, a fairly long time is required before lichen communities in the vicinity of the smelter can recover to the background state, since species highly sensitive to pollution still occur only in the background area. Keywords: recolonization, succession, resistance, elasticity, heavy metals, sulfur dioxide, industrial pollution, the Middle Urals.
28249Zemanová L., Trotsiuk V., Morrissey R.C., Bače R., Mikoláš M. & Svoboda M. (2017): Old trees as a key source of epiphytic lichen persistence and spatial distribution in mountain Norway spruce forests. - Biodiversity and Conservation, 26: 1943–1958.
Habitat loss and fragmentation can negatively impact the persistence of dispersal-limited lichen species with narrow niches. Rapid change in microclimate due to canopy dieback exposes species to additional stressors that may limit their capacity to survive and colonize. We studied the importance of old trees as micro-refuges and microclimate stability in maintaining lichen survival and diversity. The study was situated in mountain Norway spruce (Picea abies) forests of the Gorgany Mountains of the Ukrainian Carpathian mountain belt. Lichens were collected on 13 circular study plots (1000 m2). Dendrochronological methods were used to reconstruct age structure and maximum disturbance event history. A linear mixed effects model and general additive models were used to explain patterns and variability of lichens based on stand age and disturbance history for each plot. Tree age was the strongest variable influencing lichen diversity and composition. Recent (<80 years ago) severely disturbed plots were colonized only by the most common species, however, old trees (>200 years old) that survived the disturbances served as microrefuges for the habitat-specialized and/or dispersal limited species, thus epiphytic lichen biodiversity was markedly higher on those plots in comparison to plots without any old trees. Most species were able to survive microclimatic change after disturbances, or recolonize disturbed patches from surrounding old-growth forests. We concluded that the survival of old trees after disturbances could maintain and/or recover large portions of epiphytic lichen biodiversity even in altered microclimates. Keywords: Biodiversity Colonization Forest continuity Microclimate Species refuges Tree age.
28248Vidal-Russell R. & Messuti M.I. (2017): Phylogenetic signal of photobiont switches in the lichen genus Pseudocyphellaria s. l. follows a Brownian motion model. - Symbiosis, 72: 215–223.
Lichen symbioses are defined as a symbiotic relationship between a mycobiont (generally an ascomycete) and one or more photobionts (green algae or/and cyanobacteria). It was proposed that cephalodia emancipation is an evolutionary driver for photobiont switch from chlorophyte to cyanobacteria. In this study we want to test the monophyly of cyanolichens and to measure the phylogenetic signal of the symbiotic relationship between cyanobacteria and a mycobiont partner in the lichen genus Pseudocyphellaria. This genus includes some species that have a chlorophyte as primary photobiont (and Nostoc in internal cephalodia), while others have only cyanobacteria. In a phylogenetic framework we measure the phylogenetic signal (or phylogenetic dispersion) as well as mapped photobiont switches performing stochastic character mapping. Results show that having cyanobacteria as main photobiont has a strong phylogenetic signal that follows a Brownian motion model. Seven clades in the phylogeny had an ancestor with cyanobacteria. Reversal to a green algae photobiont is rare. Several switches were estimated through evolutionary time suggesting that there was some flexibility in these traits along the phylogeny; however, close relatives retained cyanobacteria as main photobiont throughout the cyanolichen’s history. Photobiont switches from green algae to cyanobacteria might enhance ecotypical differentiation. These ecotypes could lead to several speciation events in the new lineage resulting in the phylogenetic signal found in this study. We give insights into the origin of lichen diversity exploring the photobiont switch in a phylogenetic context in Pseudocyphellaria s. l. as a model genus. Keywords: Evolutionary driver . Lichenized fungi . Photobiont switch . Speciation . Symbiosis.
28247Saccardo P.A. & Saccardo D. (1905): Supplementum universale. Pars VI. Hymenomycetae-Laboulbeniomycetae. - Sylloge Fungorum, 17: 1-991.
28246Gallo L., Corapi A., Apollaro C., Vespasiano G. & Lucadamo L. (2017): Effect of the interaction between transplants of the epiphytic lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea L. (Zopf) and rainfall on the variation of element concentrations associated with the water-soluble part of atmospheric depositions. - Atmospheric Pollution Research, 8(5): 912–920.
Water Soluble Bulk Deposition (WSBD) and Water Soluble Leaching (WSL) from Pseudevernia furfuracea thalli transplanted in a anthropized zone were separately collected in four locations where weather stations were set up for monitoring rainfalls rate and daily temperature. The thalli were exposed for three months during which 13 major rainfalls took place. The concentrations of 15 elements (Al, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, Pb, As, Cd, Ti, Sn, Sb) were measured as well in WSBD and WSL as in the lichen thalli at the end of the exposure period. The total bioaccumulation of each element was significantly correlated with its % representation in both the lichen input (WSBD) and output (WSL). Elements with a small water-soluble input-pool were mostly taken up by the thalli (output/input < 1). Among the elements with a high input-pool, Zn was nearly systematically taken up while Al and Mn were lost (output/input > 1). Al showed a significant direct correlation with the increase in mm and hours of rainfall (i.e. transition from net loss to net uptake) while Mn showed an inverse correlation (transition from net uptake to net loss), which may be due to element competition modulated by water-stimulated lichen physiology. Al was strongly bioaccumulated while Mn showed a slight increase in exposed thalli. This suggests that rainfall-induced loss can result in an underestimation by lichen biomonitoring of element concentrations in atmospheric deposition and an increase in the bioavailability of potential toxic elements for other environmental compartments.
28245Kaufmann S., Hauck M. & Leuschner C. (2017): Comparing the plant diversity of paired beech primeval and production forests: Management reduces cryptogam, but not vascular plant species richness. - Forest Ecology and Management, 400: 58–67.
Conflicting evidence of the impact of forest management on biodiversity exists, either decreasing or increasing species richness. Variable diversity responses may result from the adoption of different unmanaged reference systems, ranging from stands with management abandonment in the recent past to true primeval forests. We compared the species richness of epiphytic bryophytes and lichens and vascular forest floor plants in three primeval forest/production forest pairs of Fagus sylvatica in Slovakia, adopting a replicated design and a reference system without any management legacy. Mean number of bryophyte and lichen species per 500 m2-plot tended to be higher in the primeval forests, while the mean α-diversity of vascular plants was higher in the production forests. In contrast, the β-diversity of the three plant groups as expressed by the Sørensen Dissimilarity Index was generally higher in the primeval forest plot sample, reflecting a higher heterogeneity of plant community composition and habitat diversity. Plotting cumulative species numbers against plot numbers suggests that the curves for bryophyte and lichen species richness may saturate at ca. 250 plots or ∼12.5 ha in the primeval forests, but already at 30–60 plots (<3 ha) in the more homogeneous production forests. Total bryophyte and lichen species numbers are estimated to be 30–100% larger in the primeval forests than the production forests. Contrary to general belief, vascular plant species richness was similarly high, or even higher, in the primeval forests when >50 plots (total area: 2.5 ha) were investigated, evidencing the importance of natural disturbance regimes for maintaining high forest biodiversity. Our results show that Fagus sylvatica primeval forests are inhabited by a species-rich epiphyte flora despite the species poverty of the tree layer. This evidences the outstanding value of primeval forest reserves for the conservation of temperate forest biodiversity. Keywords: biodiversity offsetting, old-growth, restoration, secondary forest.
28244Spake R., Martin P.M., Ezard T.H.G., Newton A.C. & Doncaster C.P. (2015): A meta-analysis of functional group responses to forest recovery outside of the tropics . - Conservation Biology, 29(6): 1695–1703.
Both active and passive forest restoration schemes are used in degraded landscapes across the world to enhance biodiversity and ecosystem service provision. Restoration is increasingly also being implemented in biodiversity offset schemes as compensation for loss of natural habitat to anthropogenic development. This has raised concerns about the value of replacing old-growth forest with plantations, motivating research on biodiversity recovery as forest stands age. Functional diversity is now advocated as a key metric for restoration success, yet it has received little analytical attention to date. We conducted a meta-analysis of 90 studies that measured differences in species richness for functional groups of fungi, lichens, and beetles between old- growth control and planted or secondary treatment forests in temperate, boreal, and Mediterranean regions. We identified functional-group–specific relationships in the response of species richness to stand age after forest disturbance. Ectomycorrhizal fungi averaged 90 years for recovery to old-growth values (between 45 years and unrecoverable at 95% prediction limits), and epiphytic lichens took 180 years to reach 90% of old-growth values (between 140 years and never for recovery to old-growth values at 95% prediction limits). Non-saproxylic beetle richness, in contrast, decreased as stand age of broadleaved forests increased. The slow recovery by some functional groups essential to ecosystem functioning makes old-growth forest an effectively irreplaceable biodiversity resource that should be exempt from biodiversity offsetting initiatives. Keywords: biodiversity offsetting, old-growth, restoration, secondary forest.
28243McMullin R.T., Ure D., Smith M., Clapp H. & Wiersma Y.F. (2017): Ten years of monitoring air quality and ecological integrity using fieldidentifiable lichens at Kejimkujik National Park and National Historic Site in Nova Scotia, Canada. - Ecological Indicators, 81: 214–221.
Arboreal lichens have a wide range of tolerance to habitat disturbance. As a result, they have been used globally as bioindicators of environmental change, particularly for monitoring atmospheric pollution. Here, we use lichens to monitor air quality and ecological integrity (EI) at Kejimkujik National Park and National Historic Site in Nova Scotia, Canada. We provide descriptions of two protocols and compare the results using data gathered in 2006, 2011, and 2016. To monitor air quality, we established 12 monitoring sites throughout the park and used a suite of lichens that are intolerant to air pollution to develop an index of air purity (IAP) that we compared every 5 years. Our protocol for monitoring EI of forest ecosystems was set up at these same 12 sites. We selected 50 regionally common field-identifiable lichen species and genera ranging in sensitivity from disturbance-tolerant to intolerant, and compare their presence in spatially constrained zones on a variety of tree species every 5 years. Our results suggest that air quality in Kejimkujik has increased slightly in the 10 years since monitoring was implemented, which is consistent with improvements in local air quality. Species richness also increased slightly, suggesting that EI has not declined. The maintenance of EI, through protection and restoration of natural resources, is a key priority in the management of national parks in Canada. Our protocols will provide early detection of changes to EI, enabling park managers to take responsive action. We are confident that our protocols can be replicated in other parts of the world with different suites of regionally common lichens. Highlights: • A regionally specific suite of lichen species was successfully selected to monitor air quality and ecological integrity. • New monitoring protocols for air quality and ecological integrity were developed and successfully implement. • A positive correlation between the abundance of pollution intolerant species and a decline in air pollution was shown. • Regional suites of lichens can be used as a management tool for early detection ofdisturbances and environmental changes. Keywords: Bio-monitoring; Index of air purity; Sustainable forest management; Acadian forest; Maritimes.
28242Graney J.R., Landis M.S., Puckett K.J., Studabaker W.B., Edgerton E.S., Legge A.H. & Percy K.E. (2017): Differential accumulation of PAHs, elements, and Pb isotopes by five lichen species from the Athabasca Oil Sands Region in Alberta, Canada. - Chemosphere, 184: 700–710.
A 2014 case study investigated the relative accumulation efficiency of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), total sulfur (S), total nitrogen (N), major and minor elements and Pb isotopes in five common lichen species at three boreal forest sites in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) in northeastern Alberta, Canada to identify the optimum lichen species for future biomonitoring. Differences in concentrations of PAHs, multiple elements, and Pb isotopes in fruticose (Bryoria furcellata, Cladina mitis, Evernia mesomorpha) and foliose (Hypogymnia physodes and Tuckermannopsis americana) lichens were found along a 100 km distance gradient from the primary oil sands operations. Integration of insights from emission source samples and oil sands mineralogy in consort with aerosol collection indicates incorporation of more fine particulate matter (PM) into foliose than fruticose lichen biomass. Contrasting PAH with element concentrations allowed lichen species specific accumulation patterns to be identified. The ability of lichen species to incorporate different amounts of gas phase (S and N), petrogenic (V, Ni, Mo), clay (low Si/Al and more rare earth elements), and sand (higher Si/Al and Ti) components from the oil sand operations reflects aerosol particle size and lichen physiology differences that translate into differences in PM transport distances and lichen accumulation efficiencies. Based on these findings Hypogymnia physodes is recommended for future PAH biomonitoring and source attribution studies. Highlights: Five lichen species collected from three site transect in Athabasca Oil Sands Region. Lichen specific concentration gradients in PAHs, S, N, and 32 elements were found. Different coarse and fine particulate matter multi-element fingerprints identified. Oil sands mineralogy and Pb isotopes provided particulate matter source insights. Size dependent incorporation of aerosols in foliose and fruticose lichens documented. Keywords: Oil sands; PAHs; Pb isotopes; Foliose and fruticose lichens; Major and minor elements.
28241Lücking R., Hodkinson B.P. & Leavitt S.D. (2017): Corrections and amendments to the 2016 classification of lichenized fungi in the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. - Bryologist, 120(1): 58–69.
The following corrections and amendments are made to the 2016 classification of lichenized fungi published in the previous issue of this journal. Four families are added: Harpidiaceae (Pezizomycotina incertae sedis), with the two genera Euopsis and Harpidium; Pleomassariaceae (Pleosporales), with the genus Splanchonema; Squamarinaceae (Lecanorales), with the two genera Herteliana (moved from Ramalinaceae) and Squamarina (moved from Stereocaulaceae); and Trichosphaeriaceae (Sordariomycetes: Trichosphaeriales), with the genus Cresporhaphis. The following previously overlooked genera are also added: Allophoron (Pezizomycotina incertae sedis), Cresporhaphis (Trichosphaeriaceae), Gabura (Arctomiaceae), Julella (Trypetheliaceae), Knightiella (Icmadophilaceae), Porpidinia (Lecideaceae), Protoroccella (Roccellaceae), Psoromidium (Pannariaceae) and Tremotylium (Arthoniales incertae sedis). The classification is adjusted for four genera: Asteroporum (moved from Pezizomycotina incertae sedis to Dothideomycetes incertae sedis), Eremastrella (moved from Psoraceae to Lecideaceae), Hosseusia (moved from Pannariaceae to Lecanoromycetes incertae sedis) and Joergensenia (moved from Lecanorales incertae sedis to Pannariaceae). Further, the following overlooked generic synonyms are listed: Buscalionia (= Marcelaria [nom. cons. prop.]), Degeliella (= Psoromaria), Dirinastrum (= Buellia), Gymnographa (= Phaeographis), Kroswia (= Fuscopannaria), Marfloraea (= Lepra), Medusulina (= Fissurina), and Phaeographina (= Pliariona); the genus Anapyrenium is discussed as a potential synonym of Thelomma. Species numbers are adjusted for nine genera: Austrella (Pannariaceae; 3 spp.), Icmadophila (Icmadophilaceae; 5 spp.), Lepidocollema (Pannariaceae; 23 spp.), Massalongia (Massalongiaceae; 6 spp.), Parmeliella (Pannariaceae; 70 spp.), Psoromidium (Pannariaceae; 1 spp.), Pyrgillus (Pyrenulaceae; 7 spp.), Siphula (Icmadophilaceae; 17 spp.) and Synarthonia (Arthoniales incertae sedis; 5 spp.). The fossil lichen Honeggeriella (complexa) is validated by adding MycoBank registration numbers, the validity of the genus name Pallidogramme (Graphidaceae) is discussed and confirmed, and the authorship of the name Thallinocarpon (Lichinaceae) is clarified. Several genera are (continued to be) considered non-lichenized, namely Chaenothecopsis (Eurotiomycetes: Mycocaliciales: Sphinctrinaceae), Limboria (newly lectotypified with L. constellata; Pezizomycotina incertae sedis), Naetrocymbe (Dothideomycetes: Pleosporales: Naetrocymbaceae), and Obryzum (Dothideomycetes incertae sedis: Obryzaceae); the status of the genus Pleurotrema (Dothideomycetes incertae sedis: Pleurotremataceae) is also discussed. Seven genera are corrected to have molecular data available: Adelolecia, Aspiciliopsis, Aspilidea, Crocodia, Parasiphula, Vezdaea and Xylopsora. With these corrections, the number of lichenized species is now tabulated at 19,409 and the number of fungal genera, families, and orders including lichens at 1,002, 119, and 40, respectively.Keywords: Delichenization, Diploschistes, lichen species richness, Mycocaliciales, Peltigerales.
28240Lumbsch H.T. (2017): [Review:] The Lichens of Italy. A Second Annotated Checklist. - Bryologist, 120(1): 110–111.
Book review. Nimis, P. L. 2016. The Lichens of Italy. A Second Annotated Checklist. 739 pp., 2 figs, hardcover. EUT – Edizioni Universit`a di Trieste, Trieste, Italy [ISBN 9788883037542]. Price: E80.00 (approx. $85.00)þshipping. Available from http://dbiodbs.univ.trieste.it/egbooks/scli.html.
28239Lendemer J.C. (2017): Recent literature on lichens—244. - Bryologist, 120(1): 97–109.
28238Brodo I.M. (2017): [Review:] A lichen hotspot in the city of Boulder. - Bryologist, 120(1): 112–113.
Book review. Tripp, Erin A. 2016. Field Guide to the Lichens of White Rocks (Boulder, Colorado). University Press of Colorado, Boulder. 170 pages. Paper: ISBN 978-1-60732-553-6. $21.95; Ebook: ISBN 978-1-60732-554-3, $17.95.
28237Cáceres M.E.S., Aptroot A., Mendonça C.O., dos Santos L.A. & Lücking R. (2017): Sprucidea, a further new genus of rain forest lichens in the family Malmideaceae (Ascomycota). - Bryologist, 120(2): 202–211.
We describe the new genus, Sprucidea M.Cáceres, Aptroot & Lücking, from rain forest areas in South America and Southeast Asia. Phylogenetic analysis of the mtSSU and nuLSU markers place Sprucidea within Malmideaceae, sister to the genus Savoronala from Madagascar. Like Malmidea, Sprucidea is characterized by frequently red thalli containing norsolorinic acid, but differs in the bacillar instead of ellipsoid ascospores and in the stalked sporodochia as conidiomata; from Savoronala, Sprucidea is distinguished by the crustose thallus and short stalks of the sporodochia. The new genus thus far contains four species, two of them new to science, namely S. granulosa M.Cáceres, Aptroot & Lücking and S. rubropenicillata M.Cáceres, Aptroot & Lücking (type species), and two newly proposed combinations: S. gymnopiperis (Kalb) M.Cáceres, Aptroot & Lücking (basionym: Malmidea gymnopiperis Kalb) and S. penicillata (Aptroot, M.Cáceres, Lücking & Sparrius) M.Cáceres, Aptroot & Lücking (basionym: Bacidina penicillata Aptroot, M.Cáceres, Lücking & Sparrius). In addition, we propose the new combination Malmidea floridensis (Nyl.) M.Cáceres, Aptroot & Lücking (basionym: Lecidea floridensis Nyl.). We further include the pantropical genus Crustospathula (with currently five species) in Malmideaceae, differing from the other genera by its stalked soralia. With the recent addition of the genus Kalbionora, Malmideaceae thus contains five genera and two additional, orphaned lineages of species currently included in Lecidea s.l. A key to all genera and lineages is provided, as well as a key to all species of Sprucidea and Crustospathula. Keywords: Brazil, corticolous, Costa Rica, Lecidea cyrtidia, Lecidea plebeja, Papua New Guinea, Thailand, Venezuela.
28236Wieczorek A., Achrem M., Mitka J.R., Rogalski M. & Werczyńska K. (2014): Genetic variability of the populations of Zwackhia viridis (Ach.) Poetsch & Schied [sic!] (Lecanographaceae, Lichenized Ascomycetes) in the eastern Poland: Geographic versus habitat distance. - Polish Journal of Ecology, 62: 253–261.
Zwackhia viridis is a crustose lichen being found in forests throughout Poland. It belongs to rare species being labelled primeval forest lichens which are associated with large forest complexes. The eastern populations of Z. viridis were examined using RAPD technique in order to check whether geographic distance affects genetic diversity of the populations under study. The analysis of seven populations of that species showed large intraspecific diversity. The greatest genetic similarity occurred between populations from the north-eastern area of the country, about 300 km away from each other. In dendrograms, only these populations have simple matching distance greater than 50%. Keywords: lichens; random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), genetic variation.
28235Domaschke S., Fernández-Mendoza F., García M., Martín M. & Printzen C. (2012): Low genetic diversity in Antarctic populations of the lichen-forming ascomycete Cetraria aculeata and its photobiont. - Polar Research, 31: 17353.
Lichens, symbiotic associations of fungi (mycobionts) and green algae or cyanobacteria (photobionts), are poikilohydric organisms that are particularly well adapted to withstand adverse environmental conditions. Terrestrial ecosystems of the Antarctic are therefore largely dominated by lichens. The effects of global climate change are especially pronounced in the maritime Antarctic and it may be assumed that the lichen vegetation will profoundly change in the future. The genetic diversity of populations is closely correlated to their ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions and to their future evolutionary potential. In this study, we present evidence for low genetic diversity in Antarctic mycobiont and photobiont populations of the widespread lichen Cetraria aculeata. We compared between 110 and 219 DNA sequences from each of three gene loci for each symbiont. A total of 222 individuals from three Antarctic and nine antiboreal, temperate and Arctic populations were investigated. The mycobiont diversity is highest in Arctic populations, while the photobionts are most diverse in temperate regions. Photobiont diversity decreases significantly towards the Antarctic but less markedly towards the Arctic, indicating that ecological factors play a minor role in determining the diversity of Antarctic photobiont populations. Richness estimators calculated for the four geographical regions suggest that the low genetic diversity of Antarctic populations is not a sampling artefact. Cetraria aculeata appears to have diversified in the Arctic and subsequently expanded its range into the Southern Hemisphere. The reduced genetic diversity in the Antarctic is colonization
28234Werth S. & Sork V. L. (2014): Ecological specialization in Trebouxia (Trebouxiophyceae) photobionts of Ramalina menziesii (Ramalinaceae) across six range-covering ecoregions of western North America. - American Journal of Botany, 101: 1127–1140.
Premise of the study: Many lichens exhibit extensive ranges spanning several ecoregions. It has been hypothesized that this wide ecological amplitude is facilitated by fungal association with locally adapted photobiont strains. Methods: We studied the identity and geographic distribution of photobionts of the widely distributed North American lichen Ramalina menziesii based on rbcL (chloroplast DNA) and nuclear ribosomal ITS DNA sequences. To test for ecological spe- cialization, we associate photobiont genotypes with local climate and phorophyte. Key results: Of the photobiont lineages of R. menziesii, 94% belong to a clade including Trebouxia decolorans. The remaining are related to T. jamesii. The photobionts showed (1) significant structure according to ecoregion and phorophyte species and (2) genetic associations with phorophyte species and climate. Conclusions: Geography, climate, and ecological specialization shape genetic differentiation of lichen photobionts. One great advantage of independent dispersal of the fungus is symbiotic association with locally adapted photobiont strains. ecological specialization; genetic differentiation; host plant specificity; lichenized ascomycetes; phorophyte; photobiont; Ramalina menziesii; Ramalinaceae; symbiosis; Trebouxia decolorans; Trebouxiophyceae.
28233Alors D., Dal Grande F., Cubas P., Crespo A., Schmitt I., Molina M. C. & Divakar P. K. (2017): Panmixia and dispersal from the Mediterranean Basin to Macaronesian Islands of a macrolichen species. - Scientific Reports, 7: 40879.
The Mediterranean region, comprising the Mediterranean Basin and the Macaronesian Islands, represents a center of diversi cation for many organisms. The genetic structure and connectivity of mainland and island microbial populations has been poorly explored, in particular in the case of symbiotic fungi. Here we investigated genetic diversity and spatial structure of the obligate outcrossing lichen-forming fungus Parmelina carporrhizans in the Mediterranean region. Using eight microsatellite and mating-type markers we showed that fungal populations are highly diverse but lack spatial structure. This is likely due to high connectivity and long distance dispersal of fungal spores. Consistent with low levels of linkage disequilibrium and lack of clonality, we detected both mating-type idiomorphs in all populations. Furthermore we showed that the Macaronesian Islands are the result of colonization from the Mediterranean Basin. The unidirectional gene ow, though, seemed not to be su cient to counterbalance the e ects of drift, resulting in comparatively allelic poor peripheral populations. Our study is the rst to shed light on the high connectivity and lack of population structure in natural populations of a strictly sexual lichen fungus. Our data further support the view of the Macaronesian Islands as the end of the colonization road for this symbiotic ascomycete
28232Wiens J. J. (2012): Why biogeography matters: historical biogeography vs. phylogeography and community phylogenetics for inferring ecological and evolutionary processes. - Frontiers of Biogeography, 4(3): 128–135.
Phylogenetic and phylogeographic approaches have become widespread in evolutionary biol‐ ogy, ecology, and biogeography. However, analyses that incorporate inferences from historical biogeography (e.g., timing of colonization of a region) may be essential to answer the most important large‐ scale questions in these fields, but they remain infrequently used. I focus on two examples here. First, I argue that understanding the origins of biodiversity hotspots (and other high‐diversity regions) requires comparing the timing of biogeographic colonization and diversification rates among regions. In contrast, phylogeographic studies (e.g., analyses within species within a region) may themselves say little about why a region is diverse relative to others. Second, incorporating historical biogeograpy can help address the processes that determine community species richness and structure, such as dispersal, in‐situ trait evolution, and in‐situ speciation. In contrast, the widespread “community phylogenetics” approach (focusing on relatedness of species in communities) may have limited ability to explain community rich‐ ness and structure. biodiversity hotspot, biogeography, community ecology, community phylogenetics, phylogeny, phylogeography, species richness
28231Leavitt S. D. & Lumbsch H. T. (2016): Ecological biogeography of lichen-forming fungi. In: Druzhinina I. S. & Kubicek C. P. (eds), Environmental and microbial relationships, Ed. 3. - The Mycota IV, Springer International Publishing, Switzerland., p. 15–37.
Current research has dramatically increased our understanding of the geographical distribu- tion of lichens and allowed new insights in the importance of the photosynthetic partners for shaping the spatial distribution of these symbi- otic organisms. Novel methods, including the increased availability of data from environmen- tal sampling, will further enhance and refine our hypotheses to explain distribution patterns. These are truly exciting times—with the help of next-generation sequencing techniques, increased number of species for which micro- satellite markers have been identified, and improved analytical tools, biogeographical questions can be addressed that were beyond our reach only a decade ago. Improved under- standing of species delimitations of the fungal partners has allowed us to better understand distribution patterns, and in tandem with enhanced knowledge of species diversity of photosynthetic partners, this provides an ave- nue to better understand patterns that explain distribution patterns at an ecological level. Currently, ecological biogeographical studies focus on a few species that provide great insights, but we look forward to seeing these exemplary studies extended to other lichens, including phylogenetically distant groups and also tropical species, which are currently severely understudied. The extension of research to include a wider amplitude of species will also strengthen predictions of the impact of global climatic change to lichen distribution.
28230Knudsen K. (2004): A preliminary study of Acarospora smaragdula var. lesdainii in California. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 1: 21–24.
The current state of Acarospora studies is discussed. Acarospora hassei Herre and Acarospora particularis H. Magnusson are placed in synonymy with Acarospora smaragdula var. lesdainii (Harmand in A.L. Smith) H. Magnusson. A lectotype is selected for A. hassei Herre.
28229Lendemer J.C. (2004): Placynthiella knudsenii sp. nov., a new lichen from western New York. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 1: 75–78.
Placynthiella knudsenii Lendemer, a new species from western North America is described. It differs from all previously described species in the genus by the combination of a fissured and wrinkled areolate thallus composed primarily of isidioid structures, proportionally larger spores, and the presence of two unknowns by TLC and lack of gyrophoric acid.
28228Harris R.C. (2004): A preliminary list of the lichens of New York. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 1: 55–74.
A list of 808 species and 7 subspecific taxa of lichens known to the author to occur in New York state is presented. The new combination Myriospora immersa (Fink ex J. Hedrick) R. C. Harris is made.
28227Lendemer J.C. (2004): Recent records of lichens in the local area (MD, NJ, PA). I. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 1: 9–20.
An index to the collections of lichens made by the author in Maryland, New Jersey, Pennsylvania from 2002 to 2004 is provided.
28226Lendemer J.C. (2004): A preliminary checklist of the lichen flora of Lehigh Gorge State Park. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 1: 1–8.
Recent field work in the Lehigh Gorge, NE Pennsylvania, USA, revealed the presence of 100 lichen species. Of these, 22 have not previously been reported for the state of Pennsylvania and several represent undescribed taxa.
28225Lendemer J.C. (2005): Lichens of Eastern North America Exsiccati. Fascicle IV, nos. 151-200 . - Opuscula Philolichenum, 2: 37–52.
In conjunction with the preparator’s work on the lichen flora of eastern North America he began distribution of this exsiccat (Lichens of Eastern North America Exsiccati) from the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia (PH). This, the fourth fascicle in the series comprises the nos. 151 to 200 and is distributed in 20 sets on exchange to the following herbaria: ASU, B, BG, CANB, CHR, DOV, FH, GZU, H, HMAS, M, MIN, S, TSB, TNS, TU, UPS, herb. Lendemer. Lepraria caesiella R.C. Harris sp. nov., is described as new to science. The new combination Phlyctis ludoviciensis (Müll. Arg.) Lendemer, is proposed.
28224Knudsen K. (2005): Lichens of the Santa Monica, Part One. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 2: 27–36.
63 taxa are reported from the Santa Monica Mountains in southern California. Endocarpon pseudosubnitescens Breuss is reported as new to North America. New collections of the rare species Cladonia pulvinella Hammer and Placynthiella knudsenii Lendemer are reported. Acarospora arenosa Herre, Acarospora smaragdula (Wahlenberg) A. Massalongo var. smaragdula, Lecanora glaucopsina Nylander in Hasse, and Lecidea subplebeia Nylander in Hasse are discussed. Two new combinations are made: Mycobilimbia austrocalifornica (Zahlbruckner) Knudsen, and Sarcogyne arenosa (Herre) Knudsen & Standley. Acarospora craterifolia H. Magnusson is synonomized with Acarospora smaragdula var. smaragdula, and Acarospora carnegiei Zahlbruckner is synonomized with Acarospora obpallens (Nylander in Hasse) Zahlbruckner. Lectotypes are selected for the following names: Acarospora arenosa Herre, Lecanora obpallens Nylander in Hasse, and Lecidea subplebeia Nylander in Hasse.
28223Lendemer J.C. (2005): Contributions to the lichen flora of Pennsylvania: The lichen flora of the diabase region of northern Bucks and Montgomery Counties. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 2: 21–26.
This preliminary checklist of lichens and lichenicolous fungi occurring in the diabase region of northern Bucks and Montgomery Counties, Pennsylvania, USA, includes a total of 72 taxa, of which ten have not previously been reported from the state. The range of Lecanora oreinoides (Krber) Hertel & Rambold, is extended to include Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Pennsylvania.
28222Knudsen K. (2005): Polysporina lapponica in southern California. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 2: 17–20.
The occurrence of Polysporina lapponica (Acharius ex Schaerer) Degelius is reported for Southern California. Sarcogyne bicolor H. Magnusson is recognized as a new synonym of Polysporina lapponica. The species is discussed as a possible lichenized fungus and as an opportunistic parasite.
28221Harris R.C. (2005): Some name changes in Porina s. lat.. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 2: 15–16.
North American species of Porina Acharius s. lat (Porinaceae, Ostropomycetidae, Lecanoromycetes) lacking setae assigned by Harris to Trichothelium Müll. Arg. are here recognized as Pseudosagedia (Müll. Arg.) M. Choisy to co-ordinate with recent European checklists. The requisite new combinations are Pseudosagedia cestrensis (Michener) R. C. Harris, Pseudosagedia crocynioides (R. C. Harris) R. C. Harris, Pseudosagedia isidiata (R. C. Harris) R. C. Harris, and Pseudosagedia rhaphidosperma (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris.
28220Knudsen K. (2005): Acarospora epilutescens rediscovered. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 2: 11–14.
Acarospora epilutescens Zahlbruckner is assigned a neotype. Acarospora albida H. Magnusson is made a synonym of A. epilutescens. Its relation to Acarospora epilutesecens sensu Hasse and Magnusson is discussed.
28219Harris R.C. & Lendemer J.C. (2005): Contributions to the lichen flora of Pennsylvania: A checklist of lichens collected during the First Howard Crum Bryological Workshop, Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 2: 1–10.
A checklist of 209 species of lichens and lichenicolous fungi collected during the First Howard Crum Bryological Workshop in the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area, Pennsylvania, USA is provided. The new species Opegrapha bicolor R.C. Harris & Lendemer, collected during the Foray, is described. Chrysothrix flavovirens Tønsberg and Merismatium peregrinum (Flotow) Triebel are reported as new to North America.
28218Knudsen K. (2007): Lichenicolous Fungi of the Czech Republic (The First Commented Checklist) by Jana Kocourková. Acta Musei Nationalis Pragae. Sborník Nárosního [sic!] Muzea V Praze. Series B-Historia Naturalis, 55, 3-4, pp. 59-167 with eight plates of black and white photographs. 1999 (published in 2000). - Opuscula Philolichenum, 4: 81.
Literature review
28217Lendemer J.C. (2007): Lichens of eastern North America Exsiccati, Fascicle V, Nos. 201- 250. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 4: 69–80.
Data for the fifth fascicle, comprising the nos. 201 to 250, of Lichens of Eastern North America Exsiccati is presented. The exsiccat is distributed to ASU, B, BG, CANB, CHR, DOV, FH, GZU, H, HMAS, M, MIN, S, TSB, TNS, TU, UPS, and hb. Lendemer. The new combinations Fissurina cypressi (Müll. Arg.) Lendemer and F. scolecitis (Tuck.) Lendemer, are proposed.
28216Beeching S.Q. (2007): Dimelaena tenuis (lichenized Ascomycota) new to North America, and Xanthoparmelia pseudocongensis new to Georgia, USA. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 4: 55–56.
Dimelaena tenuis is reported as new to North America. Xanthoparmelia pseudocongensis is reported for the first time from Georgia.
28215Tønsberg T. (2007): Notes on lichen genus Lepraria in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, southeastern North America: Lepraria lanata and L. salazinica spp. nov.. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 4: 51–54.
Lepraria lanata Tønsberg and L. salazinica Tønsberg are described as new from the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, North Carolina and Tennessee, U.S.A. Lepraria lanata has exceptionally large consoredia, produces protocetraric and angardianic/roccellic acids and occurs on rock walls. It is easily recognized even in the field. Lepraria salazinica forms a thin, grayish white cover of soredia and consoredia on overhanging rock surfaces and produces atranorin, salazinic acid, and angardianic/roccellic acid.
28214Lendemer J.C. & Harris R.C. (2007): Lepraria normandinoides, a new widespread species from eastern North America. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 4: 45–50.
Lepraria normandinoides, a new species found to be widely distributed in eastern North America, USA is described.
28213Lendemer J.C. (2007): Megalaria beechingii (lichenized ascomycota), a new species from eastern North America. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 4: 39–44.
Megalaria beechingii, a new species from the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA is described.
28212Lendemer J.C. & Knapp W.M. (2007): Contributions to the lichen flora of Maryland: Recent collections from the Delmarva Peninsula. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 4: 23–28.
Results of a recent collecting trip to the Delmarva Peninsula in Maryland, USA, are presented. The Delmarva Peninsula (coastal Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia) is the northern limit of the geographic distribution of numerous typical coastal plain species. Lichen checklists for six localities are provided, and 46 taxa are reported for the first time from the state.
28211Knudsen K., Elix J.A. & Lendemer J.C. (2007): Lepraria adhaerens: A new species from North America. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 4: 5–10.
Lepraria adhaerens K. Knudsen, Elix & Lendemer is described as a new species of lichenized fungi growing usually over mosses and lichens on rock and soil, in southern California, Missouri and Pennsylvania. It is characterized by the presence of pannarin and zeorin. Keywords: Lepraria, lichenized Ascomycetes, North America, California, Santa Monica Mountains, Ozarks, Pennsylvania, Stereocaulaceae.
28210Fryday A.M., Lendemer J.C. & Howe N.M. (2007): Porpidia soredizodes (lichenized ascomycota) in North America. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 4: 1–4.
The occurrence of the sorediate species Porpidia soredizodes (Nyl. ex Lamy) J.R. Laundon in North America is confirmed based on a collection from the zinc contaminated superfund site at Lehigh Gap, Carbon Co., Pennsylvania. Another recent collection from Connecticut is also referable to P. soredizodes and two earlier collections from eastern Canada that were provisionally referred to this species are re-examined.
28209Buaruang K., Boonpragob K., Mongkolsuk P., Sangvichien E., Vongshewarat K., Polyiam W., Rangsiruji A., Saipunkaew W., Naksuwankul K., Kalb J., Parnmen S., Kraichak E., Phraphuchamnong P., Meesim S., Luangsuphabool T., Nirongbut P., Poengsungnoen V., Duangphui N., Sodamuk M., Phokaeo S., Molsil M., Aptroot A., Kalb K., Lücking R. & Lumbsch H.T. (2017): A new checklist of lichenized fungi occurring in Thailand. - MycoKeys, 23: 1–91.
A new revised checklist of lichenized fungi in Thailand is presented, including 1,292 species. Recent work on the taxonomy of these organisms in Thailand resulted in an enormous increase in our knowledge of the lichen biota of the country – the current checklist includes more than twice as many species as the previous catalogue published 15 years ago – and phylogenetic studies resulted in numerous changes in the generic classification of lichenized fungi. Hence, a new checklist is here presented summarizing the current knowledge of lichens in Thailand. Six new records are reported, viz. Acanthothecis salazinica, Bactrospora metabola, Buellia parastata, Diploschistes cinereocaesius, Rolfidium coccocarpioides, and Trapelia placodioides. Five previously recorded species, namely Lecanora carpinea, Platismatia glauca, P. lacunosa, P. tuckermanii and Roccella phycopsis are shown to be based on misidentifications and are excluded from the checklist. Three new combinations of species previously placed in Pertusaria to Lepra are proposed: L. bulolensis (A.W.Archer, Elix & Streimann) Schmitt & Lumbsch, L. patellifera (A.W.Archer) Schmitt & Lumbsch, and L. subventosa (Malme) Schmitt & Lumbsch. Keywords: Asia, biodiversity, lichens, new records, taxonomy.
28208Jia Z.-F. & Lücking R. (2017): Resolving the species of the lichen genus Graphina Müll. Arg. in China, with some new combinations. - MycoKeys, 25: 13–29.
In the framework of continuing studies on the Graphidaceae in China, the status of all taxa traditionally assigned to the genus Graphina reported from China are resolved in the present paper. Five new combinations are made, namely Diorygma isabellinum (Zahlbr.) Z.F. Jia & Lücking, comb. nov., Fissurina adscribens (Nyl.) Z.F. Jia & Lücking, comb. nov., Graphis lecanactiformis (Zahlbr.) Z.F. Jia & Lücking, comb. nov., Phaeographis haloniata (Zahlbr.) Z.F. Jia & Lücking, comb. nov. and Platygramme taiwanensis (J.C. Wei) Z.F. Jia & Lucking, comb. nov. Five new synonymies were found: Graphina olivascens Zahlbr. (= Fissurina adscribens), Graphina plumbicolor Zahlbr. (= Phaeographis haloniata), Graphina roridula Zahlbr. and its variety platypoda Zahlbr. [= Diorygma pachygraphum (Nyl.) Kalb, Staiger & Elix], and Graphina taiwanensis f. obscurata J.C. Wei (= Platygramme taiwanensis). Key words: Lichens, taxonomy, Graphidaceae, Ostropales, Lecanoromycetes, Ascomycota.
28207Svensson M., Ekman S., Klepsland J.T., Nordin A., Thor G., von Hirschheydt G., Jonsson F., Knutsson T., Lif M., Spribille T. & Westberg M. (2017): Taxonomic novelties and new records of Fennoscandian crustose lichens. - MycoKeys, 25: 51–86.
We present taxonomic, distributional and ecological notes on Fennoscandian crustose lichens and lichenicolous fungi, based on new collections as well as revision of herbarium material. Two new combinations are proposed: Frutidella furfuracea comb. nov. for F. pullata and Puttea duplex comb. nov. for Fellhanera duplex. Lecidea byssoboliza, L. carneoglauca and Variolaria torta are all reduced to synonymy with Bacidia antricola, Bacidia invertens is synonymized with B. igniarii, B. atrolivida with Mycobilimbia tetramera, and Gyalidea fruticola with Thelenella pertusariella. A new description is provided for Micarea hylocomii. 25 species of lichens and lichenicolous fungi are reported as new to Finland, Norway and/or Sweden: Absconditella lignicola (Norway), Bacidia antricola (Norway), B. polychroa (Norway), B. pycnidata (Sweden), Bacidina adastra (Sweden), Biatora veteranorum (Norway), Briancoppinsia cytospora (Finland), Catillaria scotinodes (Norway), Cliostomum subtenerum (Norway), Dirina fallax (Sweden), Fellhaneropsis almquistiorum (Norway), Gyalidea subscutellaris (Sweden), Lecania inundata (Norway), L. suavis (Norway), Micarea capitata (Norway), M. deminuta (Norway), M. hylocomii (Sweden), M. lynceola (Sweden), M. soralifera (Sweden), M. subconfusa (Sweden), Mycoblastus sanguinarioides (Finland, Sweden), Paralecia pratorum (Sweden), Puttea duplex (Sweden), Sarcogyne algoviae (Finland) and Toninia subnitida (Norway). Lectotypes are designated for Bacidia antricola, Lecidea byssoboliza, Lecidea carneoglauca, Lecidea subconfusa and Lecidea submoestula. Key words: Ascomycota, lectotypification, lichens, Ramalinaceae, Pilocarpaceae.
28206Harris R.C. & Ladd D. (2007): New taxa of lichens and lichenicolous fungi from the Ozark Ecoregion. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 4: 57–68.
Three genera and species of lichens from the Ozark region of midcontinental North America are described as new to science and illustrated. Pachyphysis ozarkana (Porpidiaceae s. lat.) is widely distributed on exposed carbonate rocks, Phoebus hydrophobius (Roccellaceae) occurs on sheltered areas of massive carbonate bluffs, and Xyleborus sporodochifer (Stereocaulaceae) occurs on lightly shaded decorticate hardwoods logs and stumps in wooded uplands. A lichenicolous fungus, Opegrapha diffracticola (Roccellaceae), occurring on Bacidia diffracta, is also described and illustrated.
28205McCarthy P.M. & Kantvilas G. (2017): A new species of Porina (lichenized Ascomycota, Porinaceae) from Tasmania. - Telopea, 20: 109–113.
Porina australis sp. nov. (lichenized Ascomycota, Porinaceae) is described from seasonally inundated, siliceous rocks in the Frankland River, north-western Tasmania, Australia. It has a thin, medium yellow-brown to dark rusty red-brown, rimose to areolate thallus, prominent, medium-sized, outwardly blackish perithecia that are mainly orange-brown within, a comparatively thick, pale excipulum and fusiform or narrowly oblong, 7(–9)-septate ascospores of 37–65 × 5–8 μm
28204Urbanavichene I.N. & Urbanavichus G.P. (2017): Micarea tomentosa (Pilocarpaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) new to Russia from the Republic of Mordovia. - Turczaninowia, 20(1): 30-34.
lichens, oristic nding, biogeography, ecology, indicator species, ecological continuity, Mordovskiy Reserve, Eastern Europe. Micarea tomentosa is reported as new to Russia from one locality in the Republic of Mordovia, where it grows on decaying wood of Alnus glutinosa in humid habitat of the old alder forest in the oodplain of the Vyaz- Pushta stream in Mordovskiy Reserve. M. tomentosa is similar to M. hedlundii stalked, whitish and tomentose pycnidia, but has a more brightly colored and more continuous thallus which is composed of granules larger than the goniocysts of M. hedlundii; anatomically, the two species can be differentiated by the presence of the dull orange pig- ment (reacting K+ violet, C+ violet) within the goniocysts of M. hedlundii; the apothecia of M. tomentosa are pale to slightly brownish, pinkish-brown usually simple and adnate while the apothecia of M. hedlundii are often tuberculate, larger and darker, pinkish-brown or brown pigmented. In addition, M. tomentosa has short (meso)condia. The spe- cies was known earlier only from four European countries (Poland, Slovakia, Estonia and Sweden), where it occurrs mostly within large complexes of natural forest ecosystems, especially in protected nature reserves, demonstrating its particular role as an indicator of ecological continuity for forest habitats. Considering the earlier known distribution of M. tomentosa, the Mordovian nding extends its known geographic range far to the East and con rms its occurrence in the Eastern Europe
28203Zhurbenko M.P. & Pino-Bodas R. (2017): A revision of lichenicolous fungi growing on Cladonia, mainly from the Northern Hemisphere, with a worldwide key to the known species. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 16: 188-266.
The paper documents 70 species of fungi found on species of the lichen genus Cladonia, 65 of which are obligately lichenicolous. One genus, Brackelia, and seven species, Biciliopsis cladoniae, Brackelia lunkei, Caeruleoconidia biazrovii, Neolamya ahtii, Niesslia keissleri, Sclerococcum crassitunicatum and S. epicladonia, are here described as new to science. The names Caeruleoconidia and C. ochrolechiae are validated. Ameroconium cladoniae is considered as a heterotypic synonym of Taeniolella beschiana. Merismatium cladoniicola most likely is a heterotypic synonym of M. decolorans. Taxonomic notes on critical specimens, including those of Abrothallus cf. pezizicola, Arthonia cf. lepidophila, Cladophialophora cf. cladoniae, Hainesia cf. bryonorae, Merismatium cf. nigritellum as well as of unidentified species of Acremonium, Dactylospora, Leptosphaeria, Lichenopeltella and Pronectria found on Cladonia are provided. Cercidospora cladoniicola, Didymocyrtis cladoniicola, Hainesia longicladoniae, Pezizella ucrainica, Plectocarpon cladoniae and Polycoccum laursenii are documented as new to Asia. Biazrovia stereocaulicola, Hainesia longicladoniae and Polycoccum microcarpum are new to North America. The following species are new to various countries: Argentina (Bachmanniomyces uncialicola and Niesslia cladoniicola), Finland (Didymocyrtis foliaceiphila and Roselliniella cladoniae), Japan (Lichenosticta alcicorniaria), Lithuania (Abrothallus cf. pezizicola), Mongolia (Arthonia digitatae, Didymocyrtis cladoniicola, Epicladonia stenospora s. lat., Lichenostigma alpinum s. lat., Phaeopyxis punctum, Sphaerellothecium cladoniicola and Taeniolella beschiana), New Zealand (Abrothallus cladoniae s. lat. and Epicladonia sandstedei), Norway (Arthonia digitatae), Kazakhstan (Sphaerellothecium cladoniae), Kyrgyzstan (Epicladonia sandstedei), Papua New Guinea (Opegrapha cladoniicola), Portugal (Epicladonia stenospora s. lat.), Russia (Abrothallus cladoniae s. lat., A. cf. pezizicola, Arthrorhaphis aeruginosa, Didymocyrtis foliaceiphila, Hainesia longicladoniae, Neoburgoa freyi, Pezizella ucrainica and Polycoccum laursenii), Spain (Lichenoconium aeruginosum), U.S.A. (Biazrovia stereocaulicola, Hainesia longicladoniae, Niesslia cladoniicola and Polycoccum microcarpum), Venezuela (Roselliniella cladoniae) and Vietnam (Pyrenidium actinellum s. lat.). Epicladonia sandstedei and E. stenospora s. lat. are new to Macaronesia. Heterocephalacria bachmannii is for the first time documented in the polar desert biome. Biazrovia stereocaulicola, Coniochaeta sp., Merismatium coccisporum and Pyrenidium actinellum s. lat. are newly reported to occur on Cladonia. A key to 138 species of fungi so far known to occur on Cladonia is provided. Cladoniicolous fungi, new taxa, new records, new host lichens, taxonomy
28202Lewis C.J. Brinker & Samuel R. (2017): Notes on new and interesting lichens from Ontario, Canada - III. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 16: 153-187.
We report on fifty-seven lichen species from forty-four genera that are new either to Canada or the Province of Ontario, are the first published records in approximately the last century, or are additional provincial records of rare species with few collections. Ranges of several species are also expanded in northeastern North America. The first published reports of Abrothallus microspermus, Lecanora epanora, Parmotrema hypotropum, and Placidium arboreum in Canada are presented, as well as, the first published reports of Arthrorhaphis alpina, Dermatocarpon intestiforme, Menegazzia subsimilis, Multiclavula vernalis, Parmelia neodiscordans, Polychidium muscicola, Porpidia melinodes, Protothelenella corrosa, and Ramalina sinensis in Ontario. We report the first documented records since the late 19th to early 20th century for Ontario of Arthonia ruana, Heterodermia hypoleuca, Leptogium corticola, Lithothelium septemseptatum, Phaeophyscia hispidula ssp. hispidula, and Scyntinium dactylinum. Details on the following additional rare species are also provided: Acarospora sinopica, Anaptychia palmulata, Arthothelium spectabile, Catapyrenium cinereum, Chrysothrix chlorina, C. xanthina, Evernia prunastri, Gyalecta jenensis, Heppia adglutinata, Lecanora fugiens, Lepraria humida, Scytinium subtile, S. teretiusculum, Microcalicium arenarium, Myriospora smaragdula, Normandina pulchella, Opegrapha mougeotii, O. rufescens, Parmeliella triptophylla, Psilolechia lucida, Psora decipiens, P. globifera, P. pseudorussellii, Punctelia appalachensis, Rhizocarpon oederi, Rhizoplaca chrysoleuca, Teloschistes chrysophthalmus, Thyrea confusa, Toninia sedifolia, and Usnea longissima. Rare lichens, Appalachian-Great Lakes, arctic-alpine, metallophytes, range extension, Ontario lichens
28201Xu M., Heidmarsson S., Thorsteinsdottir M., Eiriksson F.F., Omarsdottir S. & Olafsdottir E.S. (2017): DNA barcoding and LC-MS metabolite profiling of the lichen-forming genus Melanelia: Specimen identification and discrimination focusing on Icelandic taxa. - PLoS ONE, 12(5): e0178012.
Taxa in the genus Melanelia (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) belong to a group of saxicolous lichens with brown to black foliose thalli, which have recently undergone extensive changes in circumscription. Taxa belonging to Parmeliaceae are prolific producers of bioactive com- pounds, which have also been traditionally used for chemotaxonomic purposes. However, the chemical diversity of the genus Melanelia and the use of chemical data for species dis- crimination in this genus are largely unexplored. In addition, identification based on morpho- logical characters is challenging due to few taxonomically informative characters. Molecular identification methods, such as DNA barcoding, have rarely been applied to this genus. This study aimed to identify the Melanelia species from Iceland using DNA barcoding approach, and to explore their chemical diversity using chemical profiling. Chemometric tools were used to see if lichen metabolite profiles determined by LC-MS could be used for the identifi- cation of Icelandic Melanelia species. Barcoding using the fungal nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (nrITS) successfully identified three Melalenlia species occurring in Iceland, together with Montanelia disjuncta (Basionym: Melanelia disjuncta). All species formed monophyletic clades in the neighbor-joining nrITS gene tree. However, high intra- specific genetic distance of M. stygia suggests the potential of unrecognized species line- ages. Principal component analysis (PCA) of metabolite data gave a holistic overview showing that M. hepatizon and M. disjuncta were distinct from the rest, without the power to separate M. agnata and M. stygia due to their chemical similarity. Orthogonal partial least– squares to latent structures–discriminate analysis (OPLS-DA), however, successfully distin- guished M. agnata and M. stygia by identifying statistically significant metabolites, which lead to class differentiation. This work has demonstrated the potential of DNA barcoding, chemical profiling and chemometrics in identification of Melanelia species
28200Park C.-H., Li X.R., Zhao Y., Jia R.L. & Hur J.-S. (2017): Rapid development of cyanobacterial crust in the field for combating desertification. - Plos One, 12(6): e0179903.
Desertification is currently a major concern, and vast regions have already been devastated in the arid zones of many countries. Combined application of cyanobacteria with soil fixing chemicals is a novel method of restoring desertified areas. Three cyanobacteria, Nostoc sp. Vaucher ex Bornet & Flahault, Phormidium sp. Ku ̈tzing ex Gomont and Scytonema arcan- geli Bornet ex Flahault were isolated and tested in this study. Tacki-SprayTM (TKS7), which consists of bio-polysaccharides and tackifiers, was used as a soil fixing agent. In addition, superabsorbent polymer (SAP) was applied to the soil as a water-holding material and nutri- ent supplement. Application of cyanobacteria with superabsorbent polymer and TKS7 (CST) remarkably improved macro-aggregate stability against water and erodibility against wind after 12 months of inoculation when compared to the control soil. The mean weight diameter and threshold friction velocity of the CST treated soil were found to be 75% and 88% of those of the approximately 20-year-old natural cyanobacterial crust (N-BSC), re- spectively, while these values were 68% and 73% of those of the N-BSC soil after a single treatment of cyanobacteria alone (CY). Interestingly, biological activities of CST were similar to those of CY. Total carbohydrate contents, cyanobacterial biomass, microbial biomass, soil respiration, carbon fixation and effective quantum yield of CST treated soil were en- hanced by 50–100% of the N-BSC, while those of control soil were negligible. Our results suggest that combined application of cyanobacteria with soil fixing chemicals can rapidly develop cyanobacterial crust formation in the field within 12 months. The physical properties and biological activities of the inoculated cyanobacterial crust were stable during the study period. The novel method presented herein serves as another approach for combating desertification in arid regions
28199Halda J. P. (2016): Druhová diverzita lišejníků v údolí Zdobnice mezi Souvlastním a Plačtivou skálou. - Orlické hory a Podorlicko, 23(1-2): 125-140.
A detailed lichenological exploration has been made in Zdobnice‘s valley between Souvlastní settlement and Plačtivá skála rock formation. Several rare and endangered epiphytic and freshwater species were found. Well preserved valley of the river Zdobnice presents a lot of considerable biotopes and localities for rare lichens (Arthonia endlicheri, Bacidina inundata, Ente- rographa zonata, Ionaspis lacustris, Lecidea ahlesii, Micarea lutulata, Micarea tuberculata, Opegrapha lithyrga a Porina lectissima, Verrucaria funckii, V. margacea and V. praetermissa). lichen diversity, Zdobnice river, Orlické hory Mts, East Bohemia
28198Vondrák J., Haji Moniri M., Malíček J. & Košnar J. (2017): Extensive yellow crusts below limestone overhangs: a new taxon close to a minute epiphytic lichen. - Nordic Journal of Botany, 35: 368–376.
A conspicuous yellow crust forming extensive covers on some dry and shaded limestone rocks in Europe is described here as Caloplaca substerilis subsp. orbicularis M. Haji Moniri, Vondrák & Malíček subsp. nov. Based on nuITS rDNA, 28S nuLSU rDNA and mtSSU rDNA sequence data, the new taxon is closely related to Caloplaca substerilis and C. ulcerosa. e three taxa form a supported clade in the subfamily Xanthorioideae (Teloschistaceae), but none of the recently seggregated genera are suitable for them. In the ITS phylogeny, the new taxon forms a monophylum nested within C. substerilis. However, its extensive yellow thalli and absence of vegetative diaspores clearly distinguish it from Caloplaca substerilis (subsp. substerilis). Indeed, if it had not been for the molecular evidence, we would have described it at the rank of species. We suggest that the substrate switch and accompanying processes are responsible for the striking phenotypic di erence between Caloplaca substerilis subsp. substerilis and C. substerilis subsp. orbicularis.
28197Wagner B. (2017): Lišejníky vrchu Sedlo v Českém středohoří (severní Čechy). [Lichens of the Sedlo Hill in the České středohoří Mts (North Bohemia)]. - Bryonora, 59: 37–43.
This contribution presents the results of a lichenofloristic survey of the Sedlo Hill near the town of Úštěk in North Bohemia, which was undertaken in 2011–2013. The tephrite hill is covered mostly by a scree forest. In total, 72 lichen species were recorded, including one endangered lichen (Usnea subfloridana) and three vulnerable species (Bryoria fuscescens, Melanelixia subaurifera and Physcia stellaris). Aspicilia cinerea, Lecanora cenisia, L. soralifera, Miriquidica leucophaea, Porpidia rugosa and Rimularia insularis represent remarkable species from tephrite rocks
28196Malíček J. (2017): Lišejníky NPP Kaňk u Kutné Hory [Lichens of the protected area Kaňk near Kutná Hora]. - Bryonora, 59: 30–36.
A list of 101 lichen taxa recorded in 2016 in the Kaňk National Nature Monument near Kutná Hora in Central Bohemia is presented. The locality is well known due to findings of fossils in calcareous conglomerates. Acarospora rehmii is reported here for the first time from the Czech Republic. Caloplaca albolutescens, C. velana, C. xerica, Diplotomma porphyricum, Lecanora albellula, Lempholemma polyanthes, Melanelixia elegantula, Sarcogyne privigna, Verrucaria bryoctona and Xanthoparmelia delisei represent further remarkable findings from the protected area.
28195Bouda F. (2017): Nové druhy žluté skupiny rodu Rhizocarpon v České Republice. [A new species of yellow Rhizocarpon in the Czech Republic]. - Bryonora, 59: 24–29.
Three species of map lichens, Rhizocarpon atroflavescens, R. carpaticum and R. ferax, have newly been discovered in the Czech Republic. These taxa occur predominantly in mountain regions with uncovered rocky outcrops and boulders. Rhizocarpon atrofla- vescens has a whitish prothallus and ascospores containing at most one longitudinal septum. It grows on slightly calcareous rocks. The acidophilous species Rhizocarpon carpaticum also rarely has one longitudinal septum; however, the species has convex apothecia extending up above the areoles and the thallus margin is bordered with a black prothallus. Rhizocarpon ferax occurs mainly on overhangs or at bases of vertical faces of acidic rocks. It has muriform spores and its roundish apothecia are usually hidden between two crescent-shaped areoles
28194Halda J.P., Kocourková J., Lenzová V., Malíček J., Müller A., Palice Z., Uhlík P. & Vondrák J. (2017): Lišejníky zaznamenané během 22. jarního setkání bryologicko-lichenologické sekce ČBS v Moravském krasu v dubnu 2015. [Lichens recorded during the 22th spring meeting of the Bryological and lichenological section of the CBS in the Moravian Karst (Czech Republic), April 2015]. - Bryonora, 59: 1–23.
A list of 297 lichen species and non-lichenized or lichenicolous fungi recorded in the Moravian Karst region in April 2015 during the 22th spring meeting of the Bryological and lichenological section of the Czech Botanical Society is presented. Remarkable endangered lichens were found: Anaptychia ciliaris, Arthonia byssacea, A. calcicola, Bacidia arceutina, B. auerswaldii, B. vermifera, Biatora albohyalina, Caloplaca biatorina, C. lucifuga, Candelariella reflexa s. str., Catillaria minuta, Chaenotheca hispidula, C. chlorella, Dirina stenhammari, Gyalecta geoica, Lecania cuprea, L. sylvestris, Lecanora intumescens, Lecidea strasseri, Lemmopsis arnoldiana, Lepraria diffusa, Leptogium subtile, Mycobilimbia tetramera, Parabagliettoa cyanea, Phaeophyscia hirsuta, Placynthium subradiatum, Polychidium muscicola, Porina linearis, Protoblastenia laeta, Psorotichia diffracta, Rinodina excrescens, Schismatomma pericleum, Thelenella muscorum, Thelidium incavatum and Thelopsis rubella
28193Moon K.H., Nakanishi M., Futagami Y. & Kashiwadani H. (2011): Studies on Cambodian species of Graphidaceae (Ostropales, Ascomycota) (I). - J. Jap. Bot., 86(5): 273-278.
Cambodia, Fissurina batavana, Graphis chlorotica, Graphis taneina, lichen. Three species of two genera, Fissurina batavana (Zahlbr.) M. Nakan., Kashiw. & K. H. Moon, Graphis taneina M. Nakan., Kashiw. & K. H. Moon and Graphis chlorotica A. Massal. in the lichen family Graphidaceae are newly reported from Cambodia and their distribution ranges are presented. Among them, Graphis taneina is new to science. G. taneina is distinct from the allied species of the genus in having sorediate thallus, erumpent lirellae without striation, labia covered by a thallus nearly up to the top of exciples, transversely septate colorless spores which are 30-32 × 7-8 um and in producing 2-methoxypsoromic acid. A new combination, Fissurina batavana (Zahlbr.) M. Nakan., Kashiw. & K. H. Moon is proposed. In addition, these are the second worldwide records for F batavana and Graphis chlorotica. Graphis taneina M. Nakan., Kashiw. & K. H. Moon; Fissurina batavana (Zahlbr.) M. Nakan., Kashiw. & K. H. Moon
28192Shibuichi H., Kashiwadani H., Yoshida K. & Timdal E. (2006): Materials for the Distribution of Lichens in Japan (15). - J. Jap. Bot., 81(1): 52-53.
Japan, Toninia
28191Shibuichi H. & Kurokawa S. (2006): Materials for the Distribution of Lichens in Japan (14). - J. Jap. Bot., 81(1): 51.
Japan, Cladonia
28190Kantvilas G., Kashiwadani H. & Moon K.H. (2005): The lichen genus Siphula Fr. (Lecanorales) in East Asia. - J. Jap. Bot., 80: 208-213.
Siphula decumbens, East Asia, Japan, Taiwan, China
28189Asahina Y. (1931): The Raiken's Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. XXXVI. - J. Jap. Bot., 7(5): 143-146.
Japan, Umbilicaria
28188Asahina Y. (1931): The Raiken's Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. XXXV. - J. Jap. Bot., 7(4): 102-106.
Japan, Umbilicaria, Phylliscum, Pseudocyphellaria, Cladia
28187Asahina Y. (1930): The Raiken\'s Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. XXXIII. - J. Jap. Bot., 7(1): 3-6.
28186Kon Y., Kashiwadani H., Masada M. & Tamura G. (1993): Effects of culture conditions on the growth of symbionts from Usnea confusa subsp. kitamiensis. - J. Jap. Bot., 68(6): 348-354.
Japna, Usnea confusa subsp. kitamiensis