29957Lamb M. (1959): Lichens. - Scientific American, 201(4): 144–146, 148, 150–152, 154, 156.
Popular paper
29956Gies E. (2017): The Meaning of Lichen. How a self-taught naturalist unearthed hidden symbioses in the wilds of British Columbia —and helped to overturn 150 years of accepted scientic wisdom. - Scientific American, 316(6): 52–59.
A popular paper. A story about genesis of discovery of basidiomycete yeasts present in lichens by a prominent American journalist, prepared from interviews with T. Goward and T. Spribille and their papers.
29955Niittynen P., Heikkinen R.K. & Luoto M. (2018): Snow cover is a neglected driver of Arctic biodiversity loss. - Nature Climate Change, 8: 997–1001.
Snow has far-reaching effects on ecosystem processes and biodiversity in high-latitude ecosystems, but these have been poorly considered in climate change impact models1,2. Here, to forecast future trends in species occurrences and richness, we fitted species–environment models with temperature data from three climate scenarios and simulated up to a 40% decrease in snow cover duration (SCD). We used plot-scale data on 273 vascular plant, moss and lichen species in 1,200 study sites spanning a wide range of environmental conditions typical for mountainous Arctic landscapes (within 165 km2). According to the models, a rise in temperature increased overall species richness and caused only one species to lose all suitable habitat. In contrast, a shorter SCD tempered the effect of increasing temperature on species richness and led to accelerated rates of species’ local extinctions after a tipping point at 20–30% SCD decrease. All three species groups showed similar extinction rates but contrasting species richness responses. Our simulations indicate that future biodiversity patterns in Arctic regions are highly dependent on the evolution of snow conditions. Climate impact models that ignore the effects of snow cover change may provide biased biodiversity projections, with potentially erratic implications for Arctic nature conservation planning.
29954Baumann K., Jung P., Samolov E., Lehnert L., Büdel B., Karsten U., Bendix J., Achilles S., Schermer M., Matus F., Oses R., Osses P., Morshedizad M., Oehlschläger C., Hu Y., Klysubun W. & Leinweber P. (2018): Biological soil crusts along a climatic gradient in Chile: Richness and imprints of phototrophic microorganisms in phosphorus biogeochemical cycling. - Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 127: 286–300.
Biodiversity of phototrophic microorganisms in South American biological soil crusts (BSCs) and their role in the biogeochemical phosphorus (P)-cycle are unknown. Richness of BSC green algae and cyanobacteria was investigated at four climatically different Chilean sites (arid, semi-arid, Mediterranean, humid). Carbon (C), nitrogen (N), sulfur (S), and P contents, P pools and P speciation as well as spatial P species distribution within the BSCs were investigated. Morphological identification of enrichment cultures revealed 24 green algal and 18 cyanobacterial taxa in total. Irrespective of climatic conditions, each BSC comprised 12 to 15 different phototrophic species. Thereby, green algal richness increased, while cyanobacterial richness decreased with increasing humidity/decreasing mean annual temperature (North to South). Total C, N, and S contents ranged between 6.7 and 41.1 g C kg−1, 0.6–2.8 g N kg−1 and 0.2–0.7 g S kg−1, respectively, and increased in the order crust-free soil < crust-adhering soil < BSC. The total P content in BSCs ranged from 310 to 777 mg kg−1 with lowest concentrations at the arid site and highest concentrations at the semi-arid site. Labile P was highest in BSCs from semi-arid and Mediterranean climate implying no P-shortage for BSC organisms at these sites. In BSCs of all sites, stable and non-extractable P was identified as the major P pool (sequential P fractionation) with Ca-P species dominating at all sites except for the humid site at which Al-P was the main P species as determined by P K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure, XANES. P K-edge μ-XANES of BSC cross sections revealed apatite hotspots, a potential P source for BSC organisms except for the arid site, where other Ca-P species dominated. Further, elemental mapping of the arid BSC cross section showed distinct accumulation of S and chloride (Cl) containing compounds within green algae and on their outer surface, respectively, raising the question of function/origin of these compounds. In conclusion, this work expands our knowledge on the richness of phototrophic organisms in South American BSCs and characterizes their possible position in the P-cycle along a strong climatic gradient. Our findings suggest that biotic and abiotic factors shape the structure of BSCs phototrophic communities as well as P pools and species at each habitat.
29953Asplund J., Strandin O.V. & Gauslaa Y. (2018): Gastropod grazing of epiphytic lichen-dominatedcommunities depends on tree species. - Basic and Applied Ecology, 32: 96–102.
Tree species differ in longevity, canopy structure, and bark texture, chemistry and water storage. Tree species-specific traitsplay a role in shaping epiphytic vegetation and likely influence the community assembly of organisms feeding on epiphytes.Lichenivorous gastropods, species with calcium-rich shells in particular, need calcium and likely occur more abundantly in andaround tree species with high available calcium. We quantified gastropod grazing on the epiphytic lichens Lobaria pulmonariaand Lobaria scrobiculata transplanted to blocks of adjacent trunks of Acer platanoides, Quercus robur and Tilia cordata. Wetested the hypothesis that tree species known to have more available Ca, exhibit more grazing damage on transplanted lichensthan trees with lower Ca-availability. The grazing pressure was 1.6–1.8 times higher for lichen transplants on Acer and Tiliaknown to produce litter with easily soluble Ca than on Quercus, which binds Ca as oxalate. Trees with a high grazing pressureon transplants had greater natural abundance of Lobaria virens than of L. pulmonaria. Gastropods preferred L. scrobiculatato L. pulmonaria, evidenced by more observed grazing marks and greater measured biomass loss. We attribute this differenceto the lower concentration of carbon-based secondary compounds in L. scrobiculata. However, the strength of the preferencevaried between the three tree species receiving lichen transplants and was strongest on A. platanoides, while gastropods on T.cordata grazed equal amounts of each transplanted lichen. In conclusion, tree species influenced grazing patterns of gastropodson epiphytic lichens. In addition to bark pH and other factors, we have shown that tree species-specific differences in grazingpressure play a role in shaping the epiphytic macrolichen community. Keywords: Community assembly; Herbivory; Lichenized fungi; Lobaria; Secondary compounds.
29952Santiago R., Martins M.C.B., Vilaça M.D., de Barros L.F.B., Nascimento T., da Silva N.H., Falcão E.P.S., Legaz M.-E., Vicente C. & Pereira E.C. (2018): Phytochemical and biological evaluation of metabolites produced by alginate-immobilized Bionts isolated from the lichen Cladonia substellata vain [sic!]. - Fitoterapia, 131: 23–34.
In this work, new biotechnological procedures have been optimized on the basis of immobilization in alginate of bionts isolated from the lichen C. substellata. From these immobilizates, soluble and biologically active phenolics can be obtained. During bionts-immobilization, stictic, norstictic and usnic acids were secreted to the medium. The amount produced of each of them differed depending on the immobilization time, the precursor supplied and the type of biont used. Greater amounts of stictic acid were detected and maintained over time in all bioreactors. The opposite occurs in non-immobilized thallus. Virtually, all lichen phenols exhibit antioxidant activity to a greater or lesser degree, so that the antioxidant capacity of stictic acid (82.13% oxidation inhibition) was tested. The soluble extract of immobilized algae co-incubated in sodium acetate with fungal hyphae contained carbohydrates and exhibited a potent antioxidant capacity after 13 days of immobilization (94.87%). Therefore, attempts have been made to relate both parameters. On the other hand, the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae was inhibited by phenolic compounds produced by immobilizates, although the organic extract of the whole lichen showed the highest activity due to a possible synergy with other indeterminate compounds. Thus, C. substellata immobilized bionts are a potential source of different natural antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds. Keywords: Alginate; Antimicrobial activity; Antioxidant activity; Cladoniaceae; Immobilization; Isolated symbionts; Lichen substances.
29951Bacior M., Harańczyk H., Nowak P., Kijak P., Marze M., Fitas J. & Olech M.A. (2019): Low-temperature immobilization of water in Antarctic Turgidosculum complicatulum and in Prasiola crispa. Part I. Turgidosculum complicatulum. - Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 173: 869–875.
The studies of low-temperature immobilization of bound water in Antarctic lichenized fungus Turgidosculum complicatulum were performed using 1H NMR and DSC over a wide range of thallus hydration. 1H NMR free induction decays were decomposed into a solid component well described by the Gaussian function and two exponentially decaying components coming from a tightly bound water and from a loosely bound water fraction. 1H NMR spectra revealed one averaged mobile proton signal component. 1H NMR measurements recorded in time and in frequency domain suggest the non-cooperative bound water immobilization in T. complicatulum thallus. The threshold of the hydration level estimated by 1H NMR analysis at which the cooperative bound water freezing was detected was Δm/m0 ≈ 0.39, whereas for DSC analysis was equal to Δm/m0 = 0.375. Main ice melting estimated from DSC measurements for zero hydration level of the sample starts at tm = –(19.29 ± 1.19)°C. However, DSC melting peak shows a composed form being a superposition of the main narrow peak (presumably melting of mycobiont areas) and a broad low-temperature shoulder (presumably melting of isolated photobiont cells). DSC traces recorded after two-hour incubation of T. complicatulum thallus at –20 °C suggest much lower threshold level of hydration at which the ice formation occurs (Δm/m0 = 0.0842). Presumably it is a result of diffusion induced migration of separated water molecules to ice microcrystallites already present in thallus, but still beyond the calorimeter resolution. Keywords: Freezing resistence; Phase growth; Lichens; NMR; DSC.
29950Munzi S., Branquinho C., Cruz C., Máguas C., Leith I.D., Sheppard L.J. & Sutton M.A. (2019): δ15N of lichens reflects the isotopic signature of ammonia source. - Science of The Total Environment, 653: 698–704.
Although it is generally accepted that δ15N in lichen reflects predominating N isotope sources in the environment, confirmation of the direct correlation between lichen δ15N and atmospheric δ15N is still missing, especially under field conditions with most confounding factors controlled. To fill this gap and investigate the response of lichens with different tolerance to atmospheric N deposition, thalli of the sensitive Evernia prunastri and the tolerant Xanthoria parietina were exposed for ten weeks to different forms and doses of N in a field manipulation experiment where confounding factors were minimized. During this period, several parameters, namely total N, δ15N and chlorophyll a fluorescence, were measured. Under the experimental conditions, δ15N in lichens quantitatively responded to the δ15N of released gaseous ammonia (NH3). Although a high correlation between the isotopic signatures in lichen tissue and supplied N was found both in tolerant and sensitive species, chlorophyll a fluorescence indicated that the sensitive species very soon lost its photosynthetic functionality with increasing N availability. The most damaging response to the different N chemical forms was observed with dry deposition of NH3, although wet deposition of ammonium ions had a significant observable physiological impact. Conversely, there was no significant effect of nitrate ions on chlorophyll a fluorescence, implying differential sensitivity to dry deposition versus wet deposition and to ammonium versus nitrate in wet deposition. Evernia prunastri was most sensitive to NH3, then NH4+, with lowest sensitivity to NO3−. Moreover, these results confirm that lichen δ15N can be used to indicate the δ15N of atmospheric ammonia, providing a suitable tool for the interpretation of the spatial distribution of NH3 sources in relation to their δ15N signal. Keywords: Biomonitoring; Chlorophyll a fluorescence; Nitrogen deposition; Physiological response; Source spatial distribution; Xanthoria parietina.
29949Dítě D., Hájek M., Svitková I., Košuthová A., Šoltés R. & Kliment J. (2018): Glacial-relict symptoms in the Western Carpathian flora. - Folia Geobotanica, 53: 277–300.
Glacial relicts have been regionally more common in glacial than in recent times. A rigorous assessment of which species are indeed glacial relicts is extremely difficult because direct evidence is untraceable or equivocal for many species. We aimed to identify species of the Western Carpathian flora (vascular plants, bryophytes and terrestrial lichens) that display apparent biogeographical and ecological symptoms, suggesting a wider regional or supra-regional distribution during glacial times, or at least before the middle-Holocene climate optimum. We worked with the premise that exemplary relict species should tolerate continental and/or arctic climates, should have large distribution ranges with disjunctions, being regionally rare and ecologically conservative nowadays, should be associated with habitats that occurred during glacial times (tundra, steppe, peatland, open coniferous forest) and should display a restriction of ecological niches in the study region. The assessed species were primarily those with boreo-continental or artcic-alpine distribution. We demonstrated a conspicuous gradient of glacial-relict symptoms, with Carex vaginata, Betula nana, Trichophorum pumilum, Nephroma arcticum, Saxifraga hirculus and Cladonia stellaris topping the ranking. Based on the arbitrary ranking, 289 taxa can be considered high-probability relicts. For only a minority of them, there are any phylogeographical and/or palaeoecological data available from the study area. Biogeographical and ecological symptoms of 144 taxa suggest that they retreated rapidly after the Last Glacial Maximum whereas other species probably retreated later. The first principal component of biogeographical symptoms sorted species from circumpolar arctic-alpine species of acidic peatlands and wet tundra to strongly continental species of steppe, steppe-tundra and mineral-rich fens. This differentiation may mirror the altitudinal zonation of glacial vegetation in the Western Carpathians. Keywords: Bryophytes; Biogeography; Central Europe; Habitat preferences; Glacial relict; Macroscopic terrestrial lichens; Vascular plants.
29948Machacova K., Maier M., Svobodova K., Lang F. & Urban O. (2017): Cryptogamic stem covers may contribute to nitrous oxide consumption by mature beech trees. - Scientific Reports, 7:13243 [7 p.].
Naturally produced by microbial processes in soil, nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important greenhouse gas contributing to climate change. Accordingly, there is a need to accurately quantify the capability of forest ecosystems to exchange N2O with the atmosphere. While N2O emissions from soils have been well studied, trees have so far been overlooked in N2O inventories. Here, we show that stems of mature beech trees (Fagus sylvatica) may act as a substantial sink of N2O from the atmosphere under conditions of soils consuming N2O. Consistent consumption of N2O by all stems investigated (ranging between −2.4 and −3.8 μg m−2 h−1) is a novel finding in contrast to current studies presenting trees as N2O emitters. To understand these fluxes, N2O exchange of photoautotrophic organisms associated with beech bark (lichens, mosses and algae) was quantified under laboratory conditions. All these organisms were net N2O sinks at full rehydration and temperature of 25 °C. The consumption rates were comparable to stem consumption rates measured under field conditions. Cryptogamic stem covers could be a relevant sink of N2O in European beech forests.
29947Paul F., Otte J., Schmitt I. & Dal Grande F. (2018): Comparing Sanger sequencing and high-throughput metabarcoding for inferring photobiont diversity in lichens. - Scientific Reports, 8:8624 [7 p.].
The implementation of HTS (high-throughput sequencing) approaches is rapidly changing our understanding of the lichen symbiosis, by uncovering high bacterial and fungal diversity, which is often host-specific. Recently, HTS methods revealed the presence of multiple photobionts inside a single thallus in several lichen species. This differs from Sanger technology, which typically yields a single, unambiguous algal sequence per individual. Here we compared HTS and Sanger methods for estimating the diversity of green algal symbionts within lichen thalli using 240 lichen individuals belonging to two species of lichen-forming fungi. According to HTS data, Sanger technology consistently yielded the most abundant photobiont sequence in the sample. However, if the second most abundant photobiont exceeded 30% of the total HTS reads in a sample, Sanger sequencing generally failed. Our results suggest that most lichen individuals in the two analyzed species, Lasallia hispanica and L. pustulata, indeed contain a single, predominant green algal photobiont. We conclude that Sanger sequencing is a valid approach to detect the dominant photobionts in lichen individuals and populations. We discuss which research areas in lichen ecology and evolution will continue to benefit from Sanger sequencing, and which areas will profit from HTS approaches to assessing symbiont diversity.
29946Meiser A., Otte J., Schmitt I. & Dal Grande F. (2017): Sequencing genomes from mixed DNA samples - evaluating the metagenome skimming approach in lichenized fungi. - Scientific Reports, 7:14881 [13 p.].
The metagenome skimming approach, i.e. low coverage shotgun sequencing of multi-species assemblages and subsequent reconstruction of individual genomes, is increasingly used for indepth genomic characterization of ecological communities. This approach is a promising tool for reconstructing genomes of facultative symbionts, such as lichen-forming fungi, from metagenomic reads. However, no study has so far tested accuracy and completeness of assemblies based on metagenomic sequences compared to assemblies based on pure culture strains of lichenized fungi. Here we assembled the genomes of Evernia prunastri and Pseudevernia furfuracea based on metagenomic sequences derived from whole lichen thalli. We extracted fungal contigs using two different taxonomic binning methods, and performed gene prediction on the fungal contig subsets. We then assessed quality and completeness of the metagenome-based assemblies using genome assemblies as reference which are based on pure culture strains of the two fungal species. Our comparison showed that we were able to reconstruct fungal genomes from uncultured lichen thalli, and also cover most of the gene space (86–90%). Metagenome skimming will facilitate genome mining, comparative (phylo)genomics, and population genetics of lichen-forming fungi by circumventing the time-consuming, sometimes unfeasible, step of aposymbiotic cultivation.
29945Wang Y., Wei X., Huang J. & Wei J. (2017): Modification and functional adaptation of the MBF1 gene family in the lichenized fungus Endocarpon pusillum under environmental stress. - Scientific Reports, 7:16333 [10 p.].
The multiprotein-bridging factor 1 (MBF1) gene family is well known in archaea, non-lichenized fungi, plants, and animals, and contains stress tolerance-related genes. Here, we identified four unique mbf1 genes in the lichenized fungi Endocarpon spp. A phylogenetic analysis based on protein sequences showed the translated MBF1 proteins of the newly isolated mbf1 genes formed a monophyletic clade different from other lichen-forming fungi and Ascomycota groups in general, which may reflect the evolution of the biological functions of MBF1s. In contrast to the lack of function reported in yeast, we determined that lysine114 in the deduced Endocarpon pusillum MBF1 protein (EpMBF1) had a specific function that was triggered by environmental stress. Further, the Endocarpon-specific C-terminus of EpMBF1 was found to participate in stress tolerance. Epmbf1 was induced by a number of abiotic stresses in E. pusillum and transgenic yeast, and its stress-resistant ability was stronger than that of the yeast mbf1. These findings highlight the evolution and function of EpMBF1 and provide new insights into the co-evolution hypothesis of MBF1 and TATA-box-binding proteins.
29944Kraichak E., Divakar P.K., Crespo A., Leavitt S.D., Nelsen M.P., Lücking R. & Lumbsch H.T. (2015): A tale of two hyper-diversities: Diversification dynamics of the two largest families of lichenized fungi. - Scientific Reports, 5:10028 [9 p.].
Renewed interests in macroevolutionary dynamics have led to the proliferation of studies on diversification processes in large taxonomic groups, such as angiosperms, mammals, and birds. However, such a study has yet to be conducted in lichenized fungi – an extremely successful and diverse group of fungi. Analysing the most comprehensive time-calibrated phylogenies with a new analytical method, we illustrated drastically different diversification dynamics between two hyper-diverse families of lichenized fungi, Graphidaceae and Parmeliaceae, which represent more than a fourth of the total species diversity of lichenized fungi. Despite adopting a similar nutrition mode and having a similar number of species, Graphidaceae exhibited a lower speciation rate, while Parmeliaceae showed a sharp increase in speciation rate that corresponded with the aridification during the Oligocene-Miocene transition, suggesting their adaptive radiation into a novel arid habitat.
29943Kukwa M. & Kolanowska M. (2016): Glacial refugia and the prediction of future habitat coverage of the South American lichen species Ochrolechia austroamericana. - Scientific Reports, 6:38779 [9 p.].
The biogeographic history of lichenized fungi remains unrevealed because those organisms rarely fossilize due to their delicate, often tiny and quickly rotting thalli. Also the ecology and factors limiting occurrence of numerous taxa, especially those restricted in their distribution to tropical areas are poorly recognized. The aim of this study was to determine localization of glacial refugia of South American Ochrolechia austroamericana and to estimate the future changes in the coverage of its habitats using ecological niche modeling tools. The general glacial potential range of the studied species was wider than it is nowadays and its niches coverage decreased by almost 25% since last glacial maximum. The refugial areas were covered by cool and dry grasslands and scrubs and suitable niches in South America were located near the glacier limit. According to our analyses the further climate changes will not significantly influence the distribution of the suitable niches of O. austroamericana.
29942Grewe F., Huang J.-P., Leavitt S.D. & Lumbsch H.T. (2017): Reference-based RADseq resolves robust relationships among closely related species of lichen-forming fungi using metagenomic DNA. - Scientific Reports, 7:9884 [11 p.].
Despite increasing availability of phylogenomic datasets, strategies to generate genome-scale data from organisms involved in symbiotic relationships remains challenging. Restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) can effectively generated reduced representation genomic loci. However, when using metagenomic DNA from inseparable symbiotic organisms, RADseq loci may belong to any number of the organisms involved in these intimate associations. In this study, we explored the potential for a reference-based RADseq approach to generate data for lichen-forming fungi from metagenomic DNA extracted from intact lichens. We simulated RAD data from draft genomes of closely related lichenized fungi to test if RADseq can reconstruct robust evolutionary relationships. Subsequently, we generated empirical RADseq data from metagenomic lichen DNA, with RADseq loci mapped back to a reference genome to exclude loci from other lichen symbionts that are represented in metagenomic libraries. In all cases, phylogenetic reconstructions using RADseq loci recovered diversification histories consistent with a previous study based on more comprehensive genome sampling. Furthermore, RADseq loci were found to resolve relationships among closely related species, which were otherwise indistinguishable using a phylogenetic species recognition criterion. Our studies revealed that a modified, reference-based RADseq approach can successfully be implemented to generate symbiont-specific phylogenomic data from metagenomic reads.
29941Sancho L.G., Pintado A., Navarro F., Ramos M., De Pablo M.A., Blanquer J.M., Raggio J., Valladares F. & Green T.G.A. (2017): Recent warming and cooling in the Antarctic Peninsula region has rapid and large effects on lichen vegetation. - Scientific Reports, 7:5689 [8 p.].
The Antarctic Peninsula has had a globally large increase in mean annual temperature from the 1951 to 1998 followed by a decline that still continues. The challenge is now to unveil whether these recent, complex and somewhat unexpected climatic changes are biologically relevant. We were able to do this by determining the growth of six lichen species on recently deglaciated surfaces over the last 24 years. Between 1991 and 2002, when mean summer temperature (MST) rose by 0.42 °C, five of the six species responded with increased growth. MST declined by 0.58 °C between 2002 and 2015 with most species showing a fall in growth rate and two of which showed a collapse with the loss of large individuals due to a combination of increased snow fall and longer snow cover duration. Increased precipitation can, counter-intuitively, have major negative effects when it falls as snow at cooler temperatures. The recent Antarctic cooling is having easily detectable and deleterious impacts on slow growing and highly stress-tolerant crustose lichens, which are comparable in extent and dynamics, and reverses the gains observed over the previous decades of exceptional warming.
29940Liu H.-J., Wang J.-G., Xia Y., Yang M.-J., Liu S.-W., Zhao L.-C., Guo X.-P., Jiang Y.-J., Li X., Wu Q.-F. & Fang S.-B. (2017): Elemental compositions of lichens from Duolun County, Inner Mongolia, China: Origin, road effect and species difference. - Scientific Reports, 7:5598 [8 p.].
To assess the response of lichen elemental compositions to road traffic and species difference in the context of high dust input and anthropogenic emissions, two foliose epiphytic lichens (Phaeophyscia hirtuosa, PHh; Candelaria fibrosa, CAf) were sampled near a road adjacent to Dolon Nor Town (Duolun County, Inner Mongolia, China). Twenty elements (Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Sb, Sr, Ti, V and Zn) in lichen and surface soil samples were analysed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). The results demonstrate that lichen elemental compositions are highly influenced by both their natural environment and anthropogenic input. Windblown dust associated with sand dunes and degraded/desertified steppes represents the predominant source of lichen elements. Road traffic can enhance the lichen elemental burden by increasing the number of soil particles. Anthropogenic emissions from the town and road traffic have also led to the enrichment of Cd and Zn in lichens. PHh was higher than CAf in concentrations of 14 terrigenous metals. Both lichens are applicable to biomonitoring of atmospheric element deposition and, in most cases, yield comparable results.
29939Liu H.-J., Fang S.-B., Liu S.-W., Zhao L.-C., Guo X.-P., Jiang Y.-J., Hu J.-S., Liu X.-D., Xia Y., Wang Y.-D. & Wu Q.-F. (2016): Lichen elemental composition distinguishes anthropogenic emissions from dust storm inputs and differs among species: Evidence from Xilinhot, Inner Mongolia, China. - Scientific Reports, 6:34694 [10 p.].
To test the applicability of lichens in the biomonitoring of atmospheric elemental deposition in a typical steppe zone of Inner Mongolia, China, six foliose lichens (Physcia aipolia, PA; P. tribacia, PT; Xanthoria elegans, XE; X. mandschurica, XM; Xanthoparmelia camtschadalis, XPC; and Xp. tinctina, XPT) were sampled from the Xilin River Basin, Xilinhot, Inner Mongolia, China. Twenty-five elements (Al, Ba, Cd, Ce, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, La, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Tb, Th, Ti, Tl, V and Zn) in the lichens were analysed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results show that Cd, Pb and Zn were mainly atmospheric in origin, whereas the other elements were predominantly of crustal origin. Compared with other studies, our data were higher in crustal element concentrations and lower in atmospheric element concentrations, matching with the frequent, severe dust storms and road traffic in the area. The elemental concentrations in lichens are both species- and element-specific, highlighting the importance of species selection for biomonitoring air pollution using lichens. We recommend PT, XE, XM and XPT for monitoring atmospheric deposition of crustal elements; XPC and XPT for Cd and Pb; PA for Cd and Zn; and PT for Cd.
29938Liu H.-J., Zhao L.-C., Fang S.-B., Liu S.-W., Hu J.-S., Wang L., Liu X.-D. & Wu Q.-F. (2016): Use of the lichen Xanthoria mandschurica in monitoring atmospheric elemental deposition in the Taihang Mountains, Hebei, China. - Scientific Reports, 6:23456 [9 p.].
Air pollution is a major concern in China. Lichens are a useful biomonitor for atmospheric elemental deposition but have rarely been used in North China. The aim of this study was to investigate the atmospheric depositions of 30 trace elements (Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Tb, Th, Ti, Tl, V and Zn) in a region of the Taihang Mountains, Hebei Province, China using lichens as biomonitors. Epilithic foliose lichen Xanthoria mandschurica was sampled from 21 sites and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results show that 1) eight elements (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, P, Pb, Sb and Zn) are of atmospheric origin and are highly influenced by the atmospheric transportation from the North China Plain, as well as local mining activities, while 2) the remaining 22 elements are primarily of crustal origin, the concentration of which has been enhanced by local mining and quarrying activities. These results clearly validate the applicability of lichens in biomonitoring of atmospheric elemental deposition and demonstrate the spatial pattern for air pollution in the region.
29937Ballesteros M., Ayerbe J., Casares M., Cañadas E.M. & Lorite J. (2017): Successful lichen translocation on disturbed gypsum areas: A test with adhesives to promote the recovery of biological soil crusts. - Scientific Reports, 7:45606 [9 p.].
The loss of biological soil crusts represents a challenge for the restoration of disturbed environments, specifically in particular substrates hosting unique lichen communities. However, the recovery of lichen species affected by mining is rarely addressed in restoration projects. Here, we evaluate the translocation of Diploschistes diacapsis, a representative species of gypsum lichen communities affected by quarrying. We tested how a selection of adhesives could improve thallus attachment to the substrate and affect lichen vitality (as CO2 exchange and fluorescence) in rainfall-simulation and field experiments. Treatments included: white glue, water, hydroseeding stabiliser, gum arabic, synthetic resin, and a control with no adhesive. Attachment differed only in the field, where white glue and water performed best. Adhesives altered CO2 exchange and fluorescence yield. Notably, wet spoils allowed thalli to bind to the substrate after drying, revealing as the most suitable option for translocation. The satisfactory results applying water on gypsum spoils are encouraging to test this methodology with other lichen species. Implementing these measures in restoration projects would be relatively easy and cost-effective. It would help not only to recover lichen species in the disturbed areas but also to take advantage of an extremely valuable biological material that otherwise would be lost.
29936Zhou R., Yang Y., Park S.-Y., Nguyen T.T., Seo Y.-W., Lee K.H., Lee J.H., Kim K.K., Hur J.-S. & Kim H. (2017): The lichen secondary metabolite atranorin suppresses lung cancer cell motility and tumorigenesis. - Scientific Reports, 7:8136 [13 p.].
Lichens are symbiotic organisms that produce various secondary metabolites. Here, different lichen extracts were examined to identify secondary metabolites with anti-migratory activity against human lung cancer cells. Everniastrum vexans had the most potent inhibitory activity, and atranorin was identified as an active subcomponent of this extract. Atranorin suppressed β-catenin-mediated TOPFLASH activity by inhibiting the nuclear import of β-catenin and downregulating β-catenin/LEF and c-jun/AP-1 downstream target genes such as CD44, cyclin-D1 and c-myc. Atranorin decreased KAI1 C-terminal interacting tetraspanin (KITENIN)-mediated AP-1 activity and the activity of the KITENIN 3′-untranslated region. The nuclear distribution of the AP-1 transcriptional factor, including c-jun and c-fos, was suppressed in atranorin-treated cells, and atranorin inhibited the activity of Rho GTPases including Rac1, Cdc42, and RhoA, whereas it had no effect on epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers. STAT-luciferase activity and nuclear STAT levels were decreased, whereas total STAT levels were moderately reduced. The human cell motility and lung cancer RT² Profiler PCR Arrays identified additional atranorin target genes. Atranorin significantly inhibited tumorigenesis in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, our results indicated that E. vexans and its subcomponent atranorin may inhibit lung cancer cell motility and tumorigenesis by affecting AP-1, Wnt, and STAT signaling and suppressing RhoGTPase activity.
29935Onuț-Brännström I., Benjamin M., Scofield D.G., Heiðmarsson S., Andersson M.G.I., Lindström E.S. & Johannesson H. (2018): Sharing of photobionts in sympatric populations of Thamnolia and Cetraria lichens: evidence from high-throughput sequencing. - Scientific Reports, 8:4406 [14 p.].
In this study, we explored the diversity of green algal symbionts (photobionts) in sympatric populations of the cosmopolitan lichen-forming fungi Thamnolia and Cetraria. We sequenced with both Sanger and Ion Torrent High-Throughput Sequencing technologies the photobiont ITS-region of 30 lichen thalli from two islands: Iceland and Öland. While Sanger recovered just one photobiont genotype from each thallus, the Ion Torrent data recovered 10–18 OTUs for each pool of 5 lichen thalli, suggesting that individual lichens can contain heterogeneous photobiont populations. Both methods showed evidence for photobiont sharing between Thamnolia and Cetraria on Iceland. In contrast, our data suggest that on Öland the two mycobionts associate with distinct photobiont communities, with few shared OTUs revealed by Ion Torrent sequencing. Furthermore, by comparing our sequences with public data, we identified closely related photobionts from geographically distant localities. Taken together, we suggest that the photobiont composition in Thamnolia and Cetraria results from both photobiont-mycobiont codispersal and local acquisition during mycobiont establishment and/or lichen growth. We hypothesize that this is a successful strategy for lichens to be flexible in the use of the most adapted photobiont for the environment.
29934Sigurbjörnsdóttir M.A., Andrésson Ó.S. & Vilhelmsson O. (2015): Analysis of the Peltigera membranacea metagenome indicates that lichen-associated bacteria are involved in phosphate solubilization. - Microbiology, 161: 989–996.
Although lichens are generally described as mutualistic symbioses of fungi and photosynthetic partners, they also harbour a diverse non-phototrophic microbiota, which is now regarded as a significant part of the symbiosis. However, the role of the non-phototrophic microbiota within the lichen is still poorly known, although possible functions have been suggested, including phosphate solubilization and various lytic activities. In the present study we focus on the bacterial biota associated with the foliose lichen Peltigera membranacea. To address our hypotheses on possible roles of the non-phototrophic microbiota, we used a metagenomic approach. A DNA library of bacterial sequence contigs was constructed from the lichen thallus material and the bacterial microbiota DNA sequence was analysed in terms of phylogenetic diversity and functional gene composition. Analysis of about 30000 such bacterial contigs from the P. membranacea metagenome revealed significant representation of several genes involved in phosphate solubilization and biopolymer degradation.
29933Stocker-Wörgötter E., Elix J.A., Schumm F. & Hametner C. (2012): Bushfire and lichen communities: ecophysiology, culturing and secondary chemistry of two Australasian lichen species, Thysanothecium scutellatum and T. hookeri (Cladoniaceae, lichenized Ascomycetes). - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 108: 241–256.
Species of the Australasian lichen genus Thysanothecium colonize an interesting set of highly specialized habitats, such as red clay, charred wood in a recovered Eucalyptus stand after a bushfire (Thysanothecium scutellatum), and burnt, "old" ant hills and termite mounds (T. hookeri) that have been exposed to weathering processes over a longer period of time. By HPLC-analyscs, it was shown that T scutellatum and T hookeri have different chemical profiles, the former producing medullary depsides of the divaricatic acid chemosyndrome and stenosporic acid, while the latter biosynthesizes barbatic and 4-0-demethylbarbatic acids. In both species the cortical substance usnic acid, and in one case (T. scutellatum) isousnic acid, was present. A study of the ecological and nutritional requirements of Thysanthecium mycobionts is undertaken, and of possible associated organisms (fungi and bacteria), by culture experiments and how these requirements could be adopted and simulated under laboratory conditions. Our investigations demonstrated that mycobionts of both T scutellatum and T hookeri can only be cultured axenically on specifically designed nutrient media, more specifically by using "classical" nutrient media such as Lilly & Barnett and Murashige Skoog Medium for lichen fungi, enriched with carbohydrates and/or extracts from the substrates (on which the lichens grow in nature) and sterilized pieces of charred wood. The latter were shown to serve as an essential additional carbon source for the two Thysanothecium mycobionts. In the laboratory, these mycobionts only biosynthesized the typical depsides when exposed to external stress like drought and lower temperatures. In culture, both mycobionts showed a high degree of adaptation to their specific habitats influenced by occasional bushfires, and these have been simulated in part to keep them growing and developing under artificial laboratory conditions. Keywords: Ecology, bushfire, lichen, Australasia, secondary metabolites.
29932Sundin R., Thor G. & Frisch A. (2012): A literature review of Arthonia s. lat.. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 108: 257–290.
A review of Arthonia s. lat. which focusses on the extensive literature dealing with the infrageneric, generic and suprageneric classification is presented. The generic concepts within Arthoniaceae to a major extent date back to the 19th century and the phylogenetic position of the major lineages within the family remain speculative due to the limited molecular data available. A key to eight possibly monophyletic groups of mainly non-tropical Arthonia s. lat. is presented, namely Arthonia s. str., Arthothelium A. Massa!. s. str., Coniangium Fr., Coniocarpon DC., Mycarthothelium Vain., "Necrothelium" ad int., "Ochrocarpon (Vain.)" ad int. and Trachylia Fr. A short morphological characterization is presented for each group and some synonyms are provided. Since almost half of the species in the Arthoniomycetes belong to Arthonia, further research in this genus is crucial to a better understanding of the phylogeny of this large class of fungi. One important step towards resolving the phylogeny would be extended sampling for molecular studies. A future splitting and re-arrangement of Arthonia, as well as Arthothelium, Cryptothecia, Herpothallon and Opegrapha, based on molecular studies, can be expected. A list of generic synonyms to Arthonia, Arthothelium and some possibly related genera is provided. As indicated here, several old generic names are available for monophyletic segregates, and even more names are available at the infrageneric level. Plearthonis and Allarthonia are placed in synonomy with Chrysothrix, and type species are selected for the genera Leprantha, Pachnolepia and Pseudo-Arthonia. Keywords: Ascomycota, Arthoniaceae, Arthoniales, Arthoniomycetes, nomenclature, taxonomy.
29931Stapper N.J. (2012): Baumflechten in Düsseldorf unter dem Einfluss von Luftverunreinigungen, Stadtklima und Klimawandel. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 108: 221–240.
Occurrence and frequency of epiphytic lichens in the city of Düsseldorf (North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany) are shown as a function of urban heat island effect, traffic related emissions and recent climate changes. For the latter, epiphytic lichens with temperate- mediterranean and subatlantic-mediterranean distributions in Europe are applied as indicator organisms. The data presented in this study were collected during five lichen mapping projects, in all of which the phorophytes were selected according to guideline VDI 3957 Part 13. The number of climate change indicators and their proportion of the lichen species spectrum have significantly increased since 2003; they have mostly spread in the peripheral areas of the city. Keywords: Biomonitoring, lichen, air pollutants (traffic), urban climate, global climate change.
29930Søchting U. & Sancho L.G. (2012): Caloplaca magellanica sp. nova, a southern Patagonian parasite on Zahlbrucknerel/a. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 108: 215–220.
Caloplaca magellanica is described from southernmost Chile. It is lichenicolous on Zahlbrucknerella maritima and characterized by two-celled spores with a thin septum and a central constriction.
29929Sipman H.J.M. (2012): The lichen genus Usnea on the smaller Aegean islands, Greece. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 108: 201–214.
On the islands in the Aegean Sea (Greece), excluding Crete and Evia, the lichen genus Usnea is represented by 12 species, four of which, U. praetermissa, U. rubicunda, U. subscabrosa and U. wasmuthii, are new to Greece. One species, U. glabrescens, has to be considered as unreported for Greece. The species occur only at medium elevations (c. 600-1200 m) on hilltops which are frequently shrouded by clouds. No species were found in the northern Aegean. All species are widespread worldwide, and in Europe most have a Mediterranean-Atlantic rather than a Central European distribution. A key and details of chemical variation, differentiating characters and ecological preferences are presented. Keywords: lichenized fungi, distribution, fog exposure, air pollution, chemical strains.
29928Schaper T. & Ott S. (2012): Initial developmental processes and interactions in the xerophilic lichen community of Gotland, Sweden: in situ culture experiments using the crustaceous cyanolichen Placynthium nigrum. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 108: 187–200.
The xerophilic lichen community found on the rock alvar on Gotland (Baltic Sea, Sweden) is characterized by many inter- and intra-specific interactions. Communities developing on flat limestone areas mainly comprise the lichens Placynthium nigrum, Synalissa symphorea, Collema cristatum and Lecidea lurida. Placynthium nigrum appears to play a key role in the development and subsequently in the maintenance of the community. Detailed culture experiments in situ were undertaken in order to elucidate (1) the initial developmental and colonization processes of P. nigrum and (2) the interspecific interactions involved in the early successional stages of this lichen community. The lichen symbiosis in P. nigrum involves a loose and unstable contact between mycobiont and photobiont (both bionts being capable of independent growth) that may facilitate the distribution and colonization of this species. This lichen has highly plastic and dynamic regeneration, growth and colonization processes. Its specific growth form promotes the initial colonization of bare rock surfaces, and can be described as a prerequisite for the subsequent establishment of further elements of the interacting xerophilic lichen community on Gotland. Keywords: life strategy, culture experiments, colonization processes, adaptive strategy, limestone lichen community.
29927Kondratyuk S.Y., Elix J.A., Kärnefelt I. & Thell A. (2012): An artificial key to Australian Caloplaca species (Teloschistaceae, Ascomycota). - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 108: 141–160.
An artificial key to the 122 Caloplaca species presently known for the Australian continent is provided. Keywords: Ca!oplaca, Teloschistaceae, Australia, lichen key.
29926Hansen E.S. (2012): Lichens from five localities in south-east Greenland and their exposure to climate change. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 108: 123–134.
97 lichen taxa are reported from five localities in the Sermilik and Angmagssalik Fjord area near Tasiilaq in south-east Greenland. The climatic preferences of the lichens in relation to the degree of oceanity or continentality are stated, and the distribution types are discussed. Some preliminary results of lichenometric measurements made in Little Ice Age landscapes in front of three glaciers in the investigation area are given. Keywords: Arctic, climate change, distribution types, ecology, lichenized ascomycetes.
29925Hametner C., Brunauer G. & Stocker-Wörgötter E. (2012): Molecular analyses of cultured lichenicolous fungi from cetrarioid lichens. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 108: 103–122.
Lichenicolous fungi growing on cetrarioid lichen genera, namely Arctocetraria, Cetraria, Flavocetraria, Nephromopsis and Tuckermannopsis, have been cultured under axenic conditions for the first time. ITS-sequences of voucher specimens and cultured fungal isolates obtained from the surface and also from within the lichen thallus are compared with sequences from the NCBI GenBank. The DNA analyses demonstrated that most of the isolated and cultured fungi from the investigated cetrarioid lichens were in fact not the authentic mycobionts of the lichens, but were, in most cases, related to ascomycetes known as endophytes in leaves of vascular plants or to lichenicolous fungi, and in some cases to soil fungi. Additionally, some of the hyphal isolates were described as ascomycetous fungi of hitherto unknown origin. A molecular phylogeny analysis reveals the relationships between the cultured fungi and sequences in the Genbank. The consensus tree was created by using the programs Geneious, MrBayes, and Tree View. Keywords: Cetraria, cetrarioid lichens, lichenicolous fungi, DNA analyses, molecular phylogeny, ecological correlation.
29924Feuerer T. & Hertel H. (2012): The saxicolous lichens of Munich (Germany) - a preliminary evaluation. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 108: 65–74.
87 species of saxicolous lichens are listed for the city of Munich, 23 of which have not been seen since the 19th century and were thought to be extinct; 17 species are listed for the first time, and 41 % of the current flora is threatened to varying degrees, in some cases only being represented by a single specimen. Keywords: checklist, Munich, urban lichens, saxicolous.
29923Arvidsson L. (2012): Presidents of the International Association for Lichenology. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 108: 1–20.
This paper briefly reviews the nine Presidents of the International Association for Lichenology (IAL) in chronological order, namely P. W. James, T. Ahti, M. Hale, D. J. Galloway, I. Kärnefelt, H. M. Jahns, P. L. Nimis, I. M. Brodo and P. Crittenden, and provides short biographical notes for each of them, together with the author's personal recollections and a few selected references. Keywords: IAL, presidents, lichens, biographies, references.
29922Bültmann H. & Daniëls F.J.A. (2012): Net photosynthesis as an alternative for relative growth rate in classifying lichens in Grime’s plant strategy types. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 108: 21–44.
Classification of species in Grime's life-strategy system requires a measurement of size, the morphology index (MI), and of potential speed of growth, the maximum relative growth rate (RGR). While data for the MI are easy to obtain, those for maximum RGR are scarce for lichens. Growth of lichens depends on chlorophyll content and photosynthesis. The intention of this contribution was to find out if net photosynthesis (PS), which is easier to measure and for which more data are available, can be used as a model of RGR of lichens. Maximum values of RGR, growth rate (GR) and PS were assembled from literature. Linear regression revealed a good relationship of RGR and PS, but neither RGR and GR nor GR and PS are related. With RGR from literature and RGR modelled from PS, 192 lichen species could be ordinated according to Grime. Examples for the three main strategies are Peltigera praetextata as a competitor, Strigula spp. as a ruderal and Rhizocarpon reductum as a stress-tolerator. A group of lichens with rather tall but open canopies does not fit into Grime's triangle: these could belong to another category of stress-tolerators, the biomass storers (KAUTSKY 1988), or the MI after ROGERS (1990) need to be reappraised. Keywords: competitor, morphology index, ruderal, stress-tolerator Abbreviations: GR: growth rate, MI: morphology index, PS: net photosynthesis, RGR: relative growth rate.
29921Pizarro D., Divakar P.K., Grewe F., Leavitt S.D., Huang J.-P., Dal Grande F., Schmitt I., Wedin M., Crespo A. & Lumbsch H.T. (2018): Phylogenomic analysis of 2556 single-copy protein-coding genes resolves most evolutionary relationships for the major clades in the most diverse group of lichen-forming fungi. - Fungal Diversity, 92(1): 31–41.
Phylogenomic datasets continue to enhance our understanding of evolutionary relationships in many lineages of organisms. However, genome-scale data have not been widely implemented in reconstructing relationships in lichenized fungi. Here we generate a data set comprised of 2556 single-copy protein-coding genes to reconstruct previously unresolved relationships in the most diverse family of lichen-forming fungi, Parmeliaceae. Our sampling included 51 taxa, mainly from the subfamily Parmelioideae, and represented six of the seven previously identified major clades within the family. Our results provided strong support for the monophyly of each of these major clades and most backbone relationships in the topology were recovered with high nodal support based on concatenated dataset and species tree analyses. The alectorioid clade was strongly supported as sister-group to all remaining clades, which were divided into two major sister-groups. In the first major clade the anzioid and usneoid clades formed a strongly supported sister-group relationship with the cetrarioid + hypogymnioid group. The sister-group relationship of Evernia with the cetrarioid clade was also strongly supported, whereas that between the anzioid and usneoid clades needs further investigation. In the second major clade Oropogon and Platismatia were sister to the parmelioid group, while the position of Omphalora was not fully resolved. This study demonstrates the power of genome-scale data sets to resolve long-standing, ambiguous phylogenetic relationships of lichen-forming fungi. Furthermore, the topology inferred in this study will provide a valuable framework for better understanding diversification in the most diverse lineage of lichen-forming fungi, Parmeliaceae. Keywords: Fungi; Lecanorales; Lichenized fungi; Parmeliaceae; Parmelioideae; Phylogeny.
29920Ismed F., Lohézic-Le Dévéhat F., Guiller A.. Corlay N., Bakhtiar A. & Boustie J. (2018): Phytochemical review of the lichen genus Stereocaulon (Fam. Stereocaulaceae) and related pharmacological activities highlighted by a focus on nine species. - Phytochemistry Reviews, 17: 1165–1178 .
The Stereocaulon genus is one of the fruticose lichen groups distributed worldwide from tropical zones to polar zones. However, the scientific study of this tricky genus is still limited, making it a challenge to study the group further. Detailed morphological studies are essential to discriminate closely shaped species which is illustrated through personal data focused on phyllocladia, apothecia and spores of nine species. Secondary metabolites isolated from Stereocaulon species are mostly some depsides, depsidones, diphenylethers and dibenzofurans which can have a taxonomic value. The use of Stereocaulon lichens as a traditional medicine in several regions of the world and pharmacological studies of extracts and isolated compounds have been compiled. Biological activities as cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal or antioxidant are reported. Keywords: Biogenetic;  Bioactivities;  Folk medicines;  Lichens;  Secondary metabolites;  Stereocaulon.
29919Pandır D., Hilooglu M. & Kocakaya M. (2018): Assessment of anticytotoxic effect of lichen Cladonia foliacae [sic!] extract on Allium cepa root tips. - Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 25: 32478–32490.
The aim of this study is to investigate the protective effect of lichen Cladonia foliacea (Huds.) (CF) on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced toxicity through cell death, chromosome aberrations, mitotic index, oxidative stress parameters, and DNA damage in a Allium cepa root meristematic cells. Any chemical was not given for control group. Two doses of H2O2 (3 and 7%) were given to the roots for 1 h and the root tips were treated with CF water extract (50 and 100 μL) with increasing times for treatment groups. The roots were taken from control and treatment groups, and mitotic index, cell death, and chromosome aberrations were performed by light microscope. Changing antioxidant capacity of roots was revealed by FRAP and TEAC assay. Also, DNA damage was measured by comet assay and RAPD-PCR technique. Chromosome aberration values were obtained with increasing concentrations with longer treatment times, such as chromosome bridge, vagrant, and polyploidy in both groups. Increasing exposure doses of H2O2 caused decreasing mitotic index values at 72 h. TEAC and FRAP assay demonstrated that roots’ capacity of antioxidant was altered by increasing concentrations of H2O2. The tail DNA% and tail length significantly increased in all exposure times when compared to control group. Three and seven percent of H2O2 caused the genotoxic effect on genetic material at 72 h according to RAPD-PCR technique. Increasing the doses of H2O2 resulted in increased toxicity to all studied parameters of A. cepa, but CF extract altered all changing parameters of A. cepa root cell. The H2O2 tested in this study have cytotoxic and mutagenic potential, but extract of CF was protective against H2O2 caused toxicological changes. But, it did not protect completely in the A. cepa root meristematic cells. Keywords: Cladonia foliacea; DNA damage; RAPD-PCR; Genotoxicity; Allium; test H2O2.
29918Kirchhoff N., Hoppert M. & Hallmann C. (2018): Algal and fungal diversity on various dimension stone substrata in the Saale/Unstrut region. - Environmental Earth Sciences, 77:609 [10 p.].
Physical, chemical and biogenic weathering considerably threatens all historic stone monuments. Microorganisms, though inconspicuous, are key players of stone surface colonization and penetration. This study highlights eukaryotic microbial communities on dimension stone surfaces from two representative monuments of the “cultural landscape corridor” in the Saale–Unstrut area. The historical buildings were erected from local Triassic limestone and sandstone and are prone to various deteriorative mechanisms. Generally, trebouxiophyceaen algae and ascomycete fungi dominate among the latter dematiaceous fungi and lichen fungi are abundant. Inside the stone substratum, ascomycetes, mosses and even large soil organisms (tardigrades) are present. This may be taken as a hint for the formation of pores with large radii, which are “risk indicators” for progressive weathering and degradation of the rock matrix. Keywords Endoliths · Biogenic weathering · Dematiaceous fungi · Terrestrial algae.
29917Tønsberg T. & Printzen C. (2018): Biatora troendelagica new to North America from Alaska, USA. - Graphis Scripta, 30(9): 161–165.
Biatora troendelagica is reported new to North America from Kenai Fjord National Park, Alaska, USA, where it was found on a Picea sitchensis snag, on driftwood, and lignicolous on a branch of Tsuga mertensiana. The species was previously known only from the type locality in Norway.
29916Pykälä J. (2018): Additions to the lichen flora of Finland. IX. - Graphis Scripta, 30(8): 155–160.
Thirteen lichen species are reported new to Finland including three species new to Fennoscandia: Bacidia biatorina, Bacidina mendax (new to Fennoscandia), Biatora vacciniicola, Bryobilimbia sanguineoatra, Buellia arnoldii, Caloplaca fuscorufa, Lecidea strasseri (new to Fennoscandia), Opegrapha vermicellifera, Placynthium pulvinatum, Psorotichia lugubris, Thelocarpon sphaerosporum, Trapelia elachista and Verrucaria corcontica (new to Fennoscandia). Verrucaria cincta is excluded from the lichen flora of Finland.
29915Цуриков А.Г., Голубков В.В. & Цурикова Н.В. [Tsurykau A.G., Golubkov V.V. & Tsurykova N.V.] (2015): Ревизия лишайников группы видов Cladonia chlorophaea в Беларуси: Cladonia homosekikaica и Cladonia novochlorophaea [Revision of lichens of the Cladonia chlorophaea group in Belarus: Cladonia homosekikaica and Cladonia novochlorophaea]. - Вестник Белорусского государственного университета [Herald of Belarus State University], 2015/3: 30–33.
There are no reliable data on the species diversity, ecology and distribution within Cladonia chlorophaea group in Belarus. With this in mind, revision of all available material of this group by modern chemical methods seems to be urgently needed. This study is based on the samples with goblet-shaped podetia of lichen genus Cladonia housed in Belarusian State University (MSKU), F. Skorina Gomel State University (GSU), Ya. Kupala Grodno State University (GRSU) and V. F. Kuprevich Institute of experimental botany of National Academy of Sciences of Belarus (MSK) lichen herbaria. In total 514 specimens collected during 1937–2014 were studied. The specimens were examined using standard methods of microcopy with Nikon SMZ-745. Chemistry of lichens was studied by thin layer chromatography. As a result, three samples were found to contain homosekikaic acid complex. Two specimens appeared to be Cladonia homosekikaica Nuno, one specimen was Cladonia novochlorophaea Asahina. Both species are new to the county. Their morphological description and chemistry are provided in the article. The data obtained clarify the ecology and distribution of these species, both within our country and Europe. Key words: lichen; Cladonia chlorophaea; biodiversity; podetia; squamules; chemotaxonomy; chromatography; secondary metabolites.
29914van den Boom P.P.G. & Haji Moniri M. (2018): Notes on the lichen genus Lecania (Ramalinaceae) in Iran, with the description of a new Arthonia species (Arthoniaceae). - Nova Hedwigia, 107: 407–421.
Based on an examination of 40, mostly recent, Lecania specimens from Iran and a study of the literature, 17 species are accepted for the country. A key is provided and, for each species, a short description and notes are given. The poorly understood names Lecania brachyspora and L. rechingeriana were revised and turned out to be synonyms of Lecania polycycla and Lecidea varians, respectively. Two undescribed species were discovered: the lichenicolous Arthonia lecaniicola and the saxicolous Lecania triseptatoides. Formal descriptions for both are provided. Lecidea varians is newly recorded from Iran. Key words: crustose lichens, checklist, taxonomy, ecology, biodiversity.
29913McCampbell B.C. & Maricle B.R. (2018): Natural history of biological soil crusts in prairie ecosystems of the Great Plains: Organismal composition and photosynthetic traits. - Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science, 121: 241–260.
Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are soil-surface microecosystems composed of a close association of algae, cyanobacteria, fungi, lichens, and nonvascular plants with soil particles. BSCs have several ecological functions including carbon fixation, nitrogen fixation, nutrient relations, soil stabilization, water relations, and floral community development, which make them extremely important in many of the ecosystems where they occur. While BSCs have been studied throughout the American West, little work has been done in the Great Plains region where they are less prominent among the dominant vascular plant communities. This study examined organismal composition and photosynthetic traits of BSCs in four ecosystems within the Great Plains—shortgrass, sandsage, southern mixed grass, and tallgrass prairies. To document the BSCs, seasonal photosynthesis measurements were performed in the field and samples were collected for lab analysis. Prairie BSCs primarily consisted of lichens, bryophytes, and cyanobacteria with lichens being dominant in all ecosystems and varying proportions of bryophytes and cyanobacteria. Bryophyte proportion tended to increase with wetter, cooler climates. Heterocystic (nitrogen-fixing) cyanobacteria, which contribute to soil nitrogen content, and non-heterocystic cyanobacteria were present in lichens at all sites. Photosynthesis rates varied between sites and seasons, ranging from 0.26 to 3.31 µmol CO2 m-2 s-1, and were generally correlated with precipitation and temperature. Results indicate that BSCs of these prairie ecosystems possess diverse communities and perform several important ecological functions. Keywords: Biological soil crusts; cryptobiotic soil crusts; ecological gradient; gas exchange; grasslands; photosynthesis; precipitation gradient; Respiration.
29912Černohorský, Z. (1949): Lišejníky Šáreckého údolí. - In: Klika J. (ed.): Šárka. Přírodovědecký a archeologický průzkum a výzkum chráněné oblasti šárecké. – Pražské nakladatelství pro památkový sbor Hlavního města Prahy., 40-45.
Soupis historických a vlastních údajů o výskytu lišejníků v Šárce. (A list of historical and own records of lichen in the Šárka valley, now in Prague; in Czech).
29911Maloles J.R., McMullin R.T., Consiglio J.A., Chapman C.J., Riederer L.L. & Renfrew D.E. (2018): The lichens and allied fungi of the Credit River Watershed, Ontario, Canada. - Rhodora, 120(983): 229–253.
The Credit River Watershed contains a mosaic of habitat types, which support a large number of lichen species; however, no detailed inventories of the lichen diversity in this region exist. We present a checklist of 124 species of lichens and allied fungi discovered in the watershed. We report new collections of Illosporium carneum, Microcalicium ahlneri, and Pseudoschismatomma rufescens, which are provincially rare. In this checklist, twelve species are ranked as S1 (critically imperiled), S2 (imperiled), or S3 (vulnerable) in Ontario by the Natural Heritage Information Centre. Local municipalities and conservation authorities can use these baseline data to help monitor changes in populations and in determining areas of high biodiversity in the watershed. Key Words: conservation, inventories, rare species, lichen diversity.
29910Aptroot A. & Weerakoon G. (2018): Three new species and ten new records of Trypetheliaceae (Ascomycota) from Sri Lanka. - Cryptogamie, Mycologie, 39(3): 373–377.
The following three new species of Trypetheliaceae are described from Sri Lanka: Astrothelium inspersoconicum, A. isohypocrellinum, and Polymeridium fernandoi. Ten species are newly recorded from Sri Lanka: Astrothelium flavoduplex, A. galligenum, A. scoria, A. straminicolor, Constrictolumina planorbis, C. porospora, Dictyomeridium proponens, Marcelaria cumingii, Polymeridium jordanii, and Pseudopyrenula media. Keywords: Astrothelium / Constrictolumina / corticolous / Dictyomeridium / lichens / Marcelaria / Polymeridium / Pseudopyrenula.
29909Lendemer J.C. (2018): Recent literature on lichens—250. - Bryologist, 21(3): 447–455.
Bibliography
29908Diederich P., Lawrey J.D. & Ertz D. (2018): The 2018 classification and checklist of lichenicolous fungi, with 2000 nonlichenized, obligately lichenicolous taxa. - Bryologist, 21(3): 340–425.
Lichenicolous fungi represent a highly specialized and successful group of organisms that live exclusively on lichens, most commonly as host-specific parasites, but also as broad-spectrum pathogens, saprotrophs or commensals. We present here the most recent update to the classification of lichenicolous fungi in the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota to genus level, arranged phylogenetically according to published classifications. For each genus, all known lichenicolous taxa (obligately lichenicolous taxa, lichenicolous lichens, and facultatively lichenicolous taxa) are listed, along with information about types, synonyms, pertinent literature and whether or not molecular data are available for any of the listed species. The number of accepted lichenicolous fungi is now 2319, with 2000 obligately lichenicolous species, subspecies or varieties, 257 lichenicolous lichens and 62 facultatively lichenicolous taxa. These species are found in 10 different classes of Fungi (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota), 55 orders, 115 families and 397 genera. The 2319 total taxa is an increase from the 1559 total species reported in the last published catalogue in 2003, and a larger number than the approximately 1800 reported in the most recent online checklist (www.lichenicolous.net) posted in January 2018. Of the total number of taxa, 2219 (96%) are ascomycetes and 100 (4%) are basidiomycetes. Of the 397 genera containing lichenicolous species, c. 50% (198) are entirely lichenicolous. In addition, six families (Abrothallaceae, Adelococcaceae, Cyphobasidiaceae, Obryzaceae, Polycoccaceae, Sarcopyreniaceae) and two orders (Abrothallales, Cyphobasidiales) are entirely lichenicolous. Sequence information is available for lichenicolous species in 128 (32%) of the 397 genera containing lichenicolous species, and in 56 (28%) of the 198 entirely lichenicolous genera. Many species are known from only one host lichen, but it is likely that broader host ecologies will be discovered as new sequence information is obtained from ongoing microbiome studies. Phaeopyxis Rambold & Triebel is considered as a new synonym of Bachmanniomyces D.Hawksw., resulting in five new combinations B. australis (Rambold & Triebel) Diederich & Pino-Bodas (≡ P. australis), B. carniolicus (Arnold) Diederich & Pino-Bodas (≡ Biatora carniolica), B. muscigenae (Alstrup & E.S.Hansen) Diederich & Pino-Bodas (≡ P. muscigenae), B. punctum (A.Massal.) Diederich & Pino-Bodas (≡ Nesolechia punctum) and B. varius (Coppins, Rambold & Triebel) Diederich & Pino-Bodas (≡ P. varia). As a consequence of a phylogenetic analysis including new sequences, Dactylospora Körb. is regarded as a new synonym of Sclerococcum Fr. : Fr., resulting in one new name (S. acarosporicola Ertz & Diederich) and 46 new combinations. Sclerococcaceae Réblová, Unter. & W.Gams is considered as a new synonym of Dactylosporaceae Bellem. & Hafellner. The new Sclerococcum ophthalmizae Coppins is described. Sclerophyton occidentale Herre is lectotypified on the lichenicolous fungus present in the type specimen and becomes a younger synonym of Sclerococcum parasiticum. A replacement name is Arthonia polydactylonis Diederich & Ertz (≡ A. ceracea). Further new combinations are Abrothallus lobariae (Diederich & Etayo) Diederich & Ertz (≡ Phoma lobariae), A. psoromatis (Zhurb. & U. Braun) Diederich & Zhurb. (≡ P. psoromatis), Asteroglobulus pyramidalis (Etayo) Diederich (≡ Cornutispora pyramidalis), Didymocyrtis grumantiana (Zhurb. & Diederich) Zhurb. & Diederich (≡ Phoma grumantiana), Epithamnolia atrolazulina (Etayo) Diederich (≡ Hainesia atrolazulina), Gyalolechia epiplacynthium (Etayo) Diederich (≡ Fulgensia epiplacynthium), Nesolechia doerfeltii (Alstrup & P.Scholz) Diederich (≡ Phacopsis doerfeltii), N. falcispora (Triebel & Rambold) Diederich (≡ P. falcispora), N. oxyspora var. fusca (Triebel & Rambold) Diederich (≡ P. oxyspora var. fusca), Preussia peltigerae (Brackel) Diederich (≡ Sporormiella peltigerae), Scutula curvispora (D.Hawksw. & Miądl.) Diederich (≡ Libertiella curvispora), S. didymospora (D.Hawksw. & Miądl.) Diederich (≡ L. didymospora), Stigmidium haesitans (Nyl.) Diederich (≡ Verrucaria haesitans), and S. parvum (Henssen) Diederich (≡ Pharcidia parvum). Keywords: Endolichenic fungi, lichenicolous lichens, microbiome, mycoparasites, phylogeny.
29907Kistenich S., Timdal E., Bendiksby M. & Ekman S. (2018): Molecular systematics and character evolution in the lichen family Ramalinaceae (Ascomycota: Lecanorales). - Taxon, 67(5): 871–904.
The Ramalinaceae is the fourth-largest family of lichenized ascomycetes with 42 genera and 913 species exhibiting considerable morphological variation. Historically, generic boundaries in the Ramalinaceae were primarily based on morphological characters. However, molecular systematic investigations of subgroups revealed that current taxonomy is at odds with evolutionary relationships. Tropical members of the family remain particularly understudied, including the large genus Phyllopsora. We have generated and collected multilocus sequence data (mtSSU, nrITS, nrLSU, RPB1, RPB2) for 149 species associated with the Ramalinaceae and present the first comprehensive molecular phylogeny of the family. We used ancestral state reconstructions on our molecular family phylogeny to trace the evolution of character states. Our results indicate that the Ramalinaceae have arisen from an ancestor with long, multiseptate ascospores living in humid temperate forests, and that the phyllopsoroid growth form has evolved multiple times within the family. Based on our results using integrative taxonomy, we discuss sister-relations and taxon-delimitation within five well-supported clades: The Bacidia, Biatora-, Ramalina-, Rolfidium-, and Toninia-groups. We reduce six genera into synonymy and make 49 new nomenclatural combinations. The genera Bacidia, Phyllopsora, Physcidia and Toninia are polyphyletic and herein split into segregates. We describe the two genera Bellicidia and Parallopsora and resurrect the genera Bibbya, Kiliasia, Sporacestra, and Thalloidima. According to our new circumscription, which also includes some additional changes, the family Ramalinaceae now comprises 39 genera. Keywords ancestral state reconstruction; integrative taxonomy; multilocus phylogeny; Phyllopsora; Toninia; tropical lichens.
29906Magain N., Truong C., Goward T., Niu D., Goffinet B., Sérusiaux E., Vitikainen O., Lutzoni F. & Miadlikowska J. (2018): Species delimitation at a global scale reveals high species richness with complex biogeography and patterns of symbiont association in Peltigera section Peltigera (lichenized Ascomycota: Lecanoromycetes). - Taxon, 67(5): 836–870.
This comprehensive phylogenetic revision of sections Peltigera and Retifoveatae of the cyanolichen genus Peltigera is based on DNA sequences from more than 500 specimens from five continents. We amplified five loci (nrITS, β-tubulin and three intergenic spacers part of colinear orthologous regions [COR]) for the mycobiont, and the rbcLX locus for the cyanobacterial partner Nostoc. Phylogenetic inferences (RAxML, BEAST) and species delimitation methods (bGMYC, bPTP, bPP) suggest the presence of 88 species in section Peltigera, including 50 species new to science, hence uncovering a surprisingly high proportion of previously unnoticed biodiversity. The hypervariable region in ITS1 (ITS1-HR) is a powerful marker to identify species within sections Peltigera and Retifoveatae. Most newly delimited species are restricted to a single biogeographic region, however, up to ten species have a nearly cosmopolitan distribution. The specificity of mycobionts in their association with Nostoc cyanobionts ranges from strict specialists (associate with only one Nostoc phylogroup) to broad generalists (up to eight Nostoc phylogroups uncovered), with widespread species recruiting a broader selection of Nostoc phylogroups than species with limited distributions. In contrast, species from the P. didactyla clade characterized by small thalli and asexual vegetative propagules (soredia) associate with fewer Nostoc phylogroups (i.e., are more specialized) despite their broad distributions, and show significantly higher rates of nucleotide substitutions. Keywords collinear orthologous region; COR; cyanobiont; internal transcribed spacer; ITS1-HR; ITS1 hypervariable region; lichen; mycobiont; Nostoc; molecular systematics; Peltigerales; phylogeny; rates of evolution; specificity; symbiosis.
29905Pettersson B. (1958): Dynamik och konstans i Gotlands flora och vegetation [Dynamik und Konstanz in der Flora und Vegetation von Gotland, Schweden]. - Acta Phytogeographica Suecica, 40: 1–288.
Doctoral thesis. Sweden, Gotland. Chapter on on lichens at p. 134-142. [in Swedish with German summary]
29904Olsson H. (1974): Studies on south Swedish sand vegetation. - Acta Phytogeographica Suecica, 60: 1–176.
Doctoral thesis. The vegetation on sand in South Sweden is distributed within the Scandinavian outlier of the Nemoral zone. From the 16th century documents record the sand shifting. Later many sites were planted with marram grass and pine. Of the flora the genus Cladonia is extensively treated. The phytosociological investigation, agreeing with the Braun-Blanquet system, mainly stresses the floristic composition, in certain cases with stronger consideration of the physiognomy. 36 plant communities, many new or differently conceived, are arranged in 18 classes. The synthetic description of the vegetation deals with classification, structure, development, ecological remarks, distribution and sociological relationships. Vegetational changes and development from immature to rnature soils during different processes have been investigated. A number of climate-phytomorphous and hydromorphous soils are treated. A halo-nitrosere contains two series. A xerosere is split into a maritime dune subsere, a subsere of the sand affected by man and a subsere on inland glacifluvial sand. A hygrosere consists of a eutrophic subsere and an oligotrophic subsere with two series: one zonatian on the west coast and one mosaic camplex at Sandhammaren (Baltic coast). The ecological relationships between Sandhammaren and Tönnersa (west coast) are particularly compared. The variation in harizontal and vertical distribution of soil parameters such as water content, loss on ignition, pH and various nutrients is studied in relation to investigated vegetation units and gradients (seres). In the plant cover a quotient metais/total elements was higher at Tönnersa than at Sandhammaren.
29903Kistenich S., Rikkinen J.K., Thüs H., Vairappan C.S., Wolseley P.A. & Timdal E. (2018): Three new species of Krogia (Ramalinaceae, lichenised Ascomycota) from the Paleotropics. - MycoKeys, 40: 69–88.
Krogia borneensis Kistenich & Timdal, K. isidiata Kistenich & Timdal and K. macrophylla Kistenich & Timdal are described as new species, the first from Borneo and the two latter from New Caledonia. The new species are supported by morphology, secondary chemistry and DNA sequence data. Krogia borneensis and K. isidiata contain sekikaic and homosekikaic acid, both compounds reported here for the first time from the genus. Krogia macrophylla contains an unknown compound apparently related to boninic acid as the major compound. DNA sequences (mtSSU and nrITS) are provided for the first time for Krogia and a phylogeny of the genus based on 15 accessions of five of the six accepted species is presented. Krogia antillarum is reported as new to Brazil, Guatemala and Mexico. Keywords: Borneo, New Caledonia, lichens, Phyllopsora, phylogeny, rainforest, TLC.
29902Barcenas-Peña A., Leavitt S.D., Huang J.-P., Grewe F. & Lumbsch H.T. (2018): Phylogenetic study and taxonomic revision of the Xanthoparmelia mexicana group, including the description of a new species (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota). - MycoKeys, 40: 13–28.
Xanthoparmelia (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) is the most species-rich genus of lichen-forming fungi. Species boundaries are based on morphological and chemical features, varying reproductive strategies and, more recently, molecular sequence data. The isidiate Xanthoparmelia mexicana group is common in arid regions of North and Central America and includes a range of morphological variation and variable secondary metabolites – salazinic or stictic acids mainly. In order to better understand the evolutionary history of this group and potential taxonomic implications, a molecular phylogeny representing 58 ingroup samples was reconstructed using four loci, including ITS, mtSSU, nuLSU rDNA and MCM7. Results indicate the existence of multiple, distinct lineages phenotypically agreeing with X. mexicana. One of these isidiate, salazinic acid-containing lineages is described here as a new species, X. pedregalensis sp. nov., including populations from xerophytic scrub vegetation in Pedregal de San Angel, Mexico City. X. mexicana s. str. is less isidiate than X. pedregalensis and has salazinic and consalazinic acid, occasionally with norstictic acid; whereas X. pedregalensis contains salazinic and norstictic acids and an unknown substance. Samples from the Old World, morphologically agreeing with X. mexicana, are only distantly related to X. mexicana s. str. Our results indicate that X. mexicana is likely less common than previously assumed and ongoing taxonomic revisions are required for isidiate Xanthoparmelia species. Keywords: Cryptic species, lichenised fungi, Mexico, phylogeny, taxonomy.
29901Hasselrot T.E. (1941): Till kännedomen om några nordiska umbilicariacéers utbredning [Zur Kenntnis der Verbreitung einiger Umbilicariaceen in Fennoskandia]. - Acta Phytogeographica Suecica, 15: 1–75.
On distribution of Umbilicariaceae in Fennoscandia [in Swedish with German summary]
29900Gunnlaugsdóttir E. (1985): Composition and dynamical status of heathland communities in Iceland in relation to recovery measures. - Acta Phytogeographica Suecica, 75: 1–84.
Doctoral thesis
29899Fransson S. (1972): Myrvegetation i sydvästra Värmland [Mire Vegetation in South-Westem Värmland, Sweden]. - Acta Phytogeographica Suecica, 57: 1–133.
Doctoral thesis; short chapter on three lichens (p. 61-62): Cetraria delisei, Cetraria nivalis, Cladonia delessertii (= C. subfurcata), provided with maps (p. 115); in Swedish with English summary
29898Albertson N. (1946): Österplana hed: ett alvarområde på Kinnekulle. - Acta Phytogeographica Suecica, 20: 1–267.
Doctoral thesis on Alvar flora, numerous lichens mentioned [in Swedish with German summary]
29897Bjarnason Á.H. (1991): Vegetation on lava fields in the Hekla area, Iceland. - Acta Phytogeographica Suecica, 77: 1–110.
The vegetation development on 13 dated historical lava fields around the volcano Mt. Hekla is described. The lava fields have been divided into three main topographical categories, the main surface, holes and crags. The investigation was concentrated on the main surface at 22 sites i n the 11 oldest lava fields, the oldest from 1158 , the youngest from 1947. At each s ite the topography, substrate (profile, pH and loss on ignition), flora and the physiognomy and the floristical composition of the vegetation were studied. Local climatic conditions (temperatures) are described for one lava field. The vegetation description included a floristic inventory, quantitative analyses (releves) of the vegetation both of permanent and non-permanent plots, drawings and photographic documentation. The total number of analyses made were: 1566 for the main surface, 81 for the holes and 13 for the crags. At each site the following abiotic factors were recorded: (a) the irregularity of the topography, (b) the age of the lava field, (c) the elevation, (d) the number of deposited tephra falls, (e) the quantity of deposited aeolian material between the tephra layers, (f) the cover of tephra and (g) the surface roughness was judged for every plot. In studies of the colonization of plants in the youngest fields records were also made of: (a) the position within the layer of clinkers, (b) the microsurface (texture) of the lava blocks and the age ofthe lava field when the analyses were carried out. The analyses made of the main surface were treated with the clustering and relocation program TABORD and with the ordination program Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA, CANOCO program). First, local clusters were obtained for each of the lava fields. These primary clusters were then clustered again to obtain a set of second-order clusters. The CANOCO results were used to check whether the second-order clusters were ecologically and floristically homogeneous or needed to be subdivided. The classification results were compared with vegetation types described earlier. Due to the phytosociologically incomplete floristic composition of many clusters an ad hoc typology was used with three hierarchical levels: communities, variants and facies. Eleven communities, some variants and facies are described and their distribution interpreted in terms of the prevailing environmental conditions. The dynamics of the vegetation in the historical lava fields is summarized as a clear case of primary succession with elements of regeneration after disturbance by tephra fall, accumulation of wind-blown material and grazing. The early development of the moss carpet of Racomitrium lanuginosum, prohibiting the development of further successional phases is considered as a first example of the inhibition model in primary succession.
29896Almquist E. (1929): Upplands vegetation och flora. - Acta Phytogeographica Suecica, 1: 1–622.
29895Hedberg O. (1964): Features of Afroalpine plant ecology. - Acta Phytogeographica Suecica, 49: 1–144.
29894Joseph S., Nayaka S., Randive P. & Upreti D.K. (2018): New records and a key to the species of Malmidea (lichenized Ascomycota) from India. - Feddes Repertorium, 129: 189–192.
Six species of the genus Malmidea, M. atlantica (M. Cáceres & Lücking) M. Cáceres & Kalb, M. duplomarginata (Papong & Kalb) Kalb & Papong, M. hypomelaena (Nyl.) Kalb & Lücking, M. papillosa Weerak. & Aptroot, M. subaurigera (Vain.) Kalb et al., and M. variabilis Kalb, are reported as new records to India. A key to all known Indian species of Malmidea is provided. Keywords: Lecanorales, Malmideaceae, tropical lichens, new records, India.
29893Elshobary M.E., Becker M.G., Kalichuk J.L., Chan A.C., Belmonte M.F. & Piercey-Normore M.D. (2018): Tissue-specific localization of polyketide synthase and other associated genes in the lichen, Cladonia rangiferina, using laser microdissection. - Phytochemistry, 156: 142–150.
The biosynthesis of two polyketides, atranorin and fumarprotocetraric acid, produced from a lichen-forming fungus, Cladonia rangiferina (L.) F. H. Wigg. was correlated with the expression of eight fungal genes (CrPKS1, CrPKS3, CrPKS16, Catalase (CAT), Sugar Transporter (MFsug), Dioxygenase (YQE1), C2H2 Transcription factor (C2H2), Transcription Factor PacC (PacC), which are thought to be involved in polyketide biosynthesis, and one algal gene, NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin 2 (AsNAD)), using laser microdissection (LMD). The differential gene expression levels within the thallus tissue layers demonstrate that the most active region for potential polyketide biosynthesis within the lichen is the outer apical region proximal to the photobiont but some expression also occurs in reproductive tissue. This is the first study using laser microdissection to explore gene expression of these nine genes and their location of expression; it provides a proof-of-concept for future experiments exploring tissue-specific gene expression within lichens; and it highlights the utility of LMD for use in lichen systems.
29892Lelli C., Bruun H.H., Chiarucci A., Donati D., Frascaroli F., Fritz Ö., Goldberg I., Nascimbene J., Tøttrup A.P., Rahbek C. & Heilmann-Clausen J. (2019): Biodiversity response to forest structure and management: Comparing species richness, conservation relevant species and functional diversity as metrics in forest conservation. - Forest Ecology and Management, 432: 707–717.
Aim: We investigated the consistency between richness and trait-based diversity metrics in capturing the effects of management-related habitat factors on biodiversity. The choice of biodiversity metrics can substantially affect the evaluation of conservation tools. However, the relative sensitivity of different metrics is not well investigated, especially in a multi-taxon framework. Location: European beech forests in Denmark. Methods: We studied 20 beech stands comprising four management types (from intensively managed to long unmanaged stands). We analyzed how management-related environmental variables were reflected in the measure of: (i) species richness, (ii) number of conservation-relevant species (red-listed species and old-growth forest indicators) and (iii) functional diversity targeting five organism groups with different habitat requirements, i.e. vascular plants, epiphytic lichens and bryophytes, saproxylic fungi and breeding birds. Results: Plain species richness at stand level was generally misleading, as it did not capture changes in the number of conservation relevant species with changes in management-related environmental variables. The interpretation of functional responses was most informative for the better known vascular plants, while responses were more fragmented for the other organism groups. Overall, however, functional responses were consistent with a loss of specialization and progressive simplification of species assemblages from long-unmanaged to intensively managed stands. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the occurrence of conservation-relevant species is a sound and relevant metric for planning and evaluating conservation actions, especially for less studied organism groups (e.g., saproxylic fungi and epiphytes). The functional approach is promising, but presupposes the availability of databases of relevant traits. Keywords: European beech forests; Birds; Community-weighted mean; Epiphytes; GLMM; Habitat structure; Multi-taxon biodiversity; Rao’s quadratic diversity; Vascular plants; Wood-inhabiting fungi.
29891Mishra K.B., Vítek P. & Barták M. (2019): A correlative approach, combining chlorophyll a fluorescence, reflectance, and Raman spectroscopy, for monitoring hydration induced changes in Antarctic lichen Dermatocarpon polyphyllizum. - Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, 208: 13–23.
Lichens are successful colonizers in extreme environments worldwide, and they are considered to have played an important role during the evolution of life. Here, we have used a correlative approach, combining three optical signals (chlorophyll a fluorescence (ChlF), reflectance, and Raman spectra), to monitor hydration induced changes in photosynthetic properties of an Antarctic chlorolichen Dermatocarpon polyphyllizum. We measured these three signals from this lichen at different stages (after 4 h, 24 h, and 48 h) of hydration, and compared the data obtained from this lichen in “dry state” as well as in different “hydrated state”. We found that dry state of this lichen has: (1) no variable ChlF, (2) high reflectance, with no red-edge and almost zero photochemical reflectance index (PRI), and (3) low-intensity Raman bands of their carotenoids. Furthermore, 4 h of hydration, increased its relative water content (RWC) by 93%, showed red-edge in reflectance spectra, and changed the maximum quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fm) from 0 to 0.57 ± 0.01. We found that reflectance indices, normalized difference index (NDVI) and PRI, significantly differed between brown and black/green surface areas, at all hydration stages; whereas, a shift in the Raman ν1(CC) band, between brown and black/green surface areas, occurred in 24 h or 48 h hydrated samples. These data indicate that hydration shortly (within 4 h) activated functions of photosynthetic apparatus, and the de novo synthesis of carotenoids occured in 24 h or 48 h. Furthermore, exposure to high irradiance (2000 μmol photons m−2 s−1), in 48 h hydrated lichen, significantly reduced Fv/Fm (signifies photoinhibition) and increased PRI (represents changes in xanthophyll pigments). We conclude that the implication of such a correlative approach is highly useful for understanding survival and protective mechanisms on extremophile photosynthetic organisms. Keywords: Carotenoids; Chlorophyll a fluorescence transient; Extremophile organisms; Optical signal; Raman mapping; Reflectance spektra.
29890Gabdullin R.R., Badulina N.V., Bakai E.A., Rubtsova E.V., Yurchenko A.Yu., Karpova E.V., Ivanov A.V., Varzanova M.A., Sergienko A.V., Konovalova T.A. & Parakhina M.V. (2018): The structure and formation conditions of the Callovian–Oxfordian deposits of Sudak Bay (Crimea). - Moscow University Geology Bulletin, 73(4): 346–360.
[Original Russian Text published in Vestnik Moskovskogo Universiteta, Seriya 4: Geologiya, 2018, No. 3, pp. 25–40] The composition and origin of the Callovian–Oxfordian deposits of the Sudak Bay were characterized on the basis of the generalization and analysis of our own results, as well as published and unpublished data. The botanical future was first implemented for the geological mapping of the Oxfordian deposits. Keywords: Mesozoic, Callovian stage, Oxfordian stage, stratigraphy, Crimea. A geological treatment with Rhizocarpon geographicum and Parmelia sulcata several times mention within the text. According to substrate and descriptions the mentioned lichens are likely misidentified, e.g: [p. 356]: "The limestones are covered by black-orange lichens Rhizocarpon geographicum (L.), fruticose gray–white lichens Parmelia sulcata Taylor."
29889Bisht K., Joshi Y., Upadhyay S. & Metha P. (2018): Recession of Milam Glacier, Kumaun Himalaya, Observed via Lichenometric Dating of Moraines. - Journal of the Geological Society of India, 92(2): 173–176 .
Glaciers being very sensitive to climate change have been identified as one of the best indicators of climate change and evidences have proved that most of the Himalayan glaciers have receded with an increased rate during the recent past under the influence of global warming. Lichenometric study was carried out on the moraines of Milam glacier (located in Pithoragarh district of Uttarakhand) with the help of lichen species Dimelaena oreina having an average annual growth rate of 1.31 mm. The study revealed that Milam glacier has receded 1450 m in last 69.37 years with an average recession rate of 20.90 m/year. Since lichenometric studies are cost effective and ecofriendly in comparison to carbon dating, satellite and remote sensing based studies and also reliable, hence, it should be promoted in Himalaya which is an abode of glaciers.
29888Siddiqi K.S., Rashid M., Rahman A., Tajuddin, Husen A. & Rehman S. (2018): Biogenic fabrication and characterization of silver nanoparticles using aqueousethanolic extract of lichen (Usnea longissima) and their antimicrobial activity. - Biomaterials Research, 22:23 [9 p.].
Background: Biogenic fabrication of silver nanoparticles from naturally occurring biomaterials provides an alternative, eco-friendly and cost-effective means of obtaining nanoparticles. It is a favourite pursuit of all scientists and has gained popularity because it prevents the environment from pollution. Our main objective to take up this project is to fabricate silver nanoparticles from lichen, Usnea longissima and explore their properties. In the present study, we report a benign method of biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles from aqueous-ethanolic extract of Usnea longissima and their characterization by ultraviolet–visible (UV-vis), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses. Silver nanoparticles thus obtained were tested for antimicrobial activity against gram positive bacteria and gram negative bacteria. Results: Formation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by the appearance of an absorption band at 400 nm in the UV-vis spectrum of the colloidal solution containing both the nanoparticles and U. longissima extract. Poly(ethylene glycol) coated silver nanoparticles showed additional absorption peaks at 424 and 450 nm. FTIR spectrum showed the involvement of amines, usnic acids, phenols, aldehydes and ketones in the reduction of silver ions to silver nanoparticles. Morphological studies showed three types of nanoparticles with an abundance of spherical shaped silver nanoparticles of 9.40–11.23 nm. Their average hydrodynamic diameter is 437.1 nm. Results of in vitro antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus pyrogenes, Streptococcus viridans, Corynebacterium xerosis, Corynebacterium diphtheriae (gram positive bacteria) and Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneuomoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (gram negative bacteria) showed that it was effective against tested bacterial strains. However, S. mutans, C. diphtheriae and P. aeruginosa were resistant to silver nanoparticles. Conclusion: Lichens are rarely exploited for the fabrication of silver nanoparticles. In the present work the lichen acts as reducing as well as capping agent. They can therefore, be used to synthesize metal nanoparticles and their size may be controlled by monitoring the concentration of extract and metal ions. Since they are antibacterial they may be used for the treatment of bacterial infections in man and animal. They can also be used in purification of water, in soaps and medicine. Their sustained release may be achieved by coating them with a suitable polymer. Silver nanoparticles fabricated from edible U. longissima are free from toxic chemicals and therefore they can be safely used in medicine and medical devices. These silver nanoparticles were stable for weeks therefore they can be stored for longer duration of time without decomposition. Keywords: Biosynthesis, Usnea longissima, Silver nanoparticles, Electron microscopy, Antimicrobial aktivity.
29887Cannone N., Convey P. & Malfasi F. (2018): Antarctic Specially Protected Areas (ASPA): a case study at Rothera Point providing tools and perspectives for the implementation of the ASPA network. - Biodiversity and Conservation, 27: 2641–2660.
Antarctica is considered among the world’s last great wildernesses, but its current network of Antarctic Specially Protected Areas (ASPAs) is inadequate, unrepresentative and at risk, needing urgent expansion due to the vulnerability of Antarctica to increasing threats from climate change and human activities. Among the existing ASPAs, no. 129 Rothera Point is unique because its designation related specifically to the monitoring of the impacts associated with the neighbouring Rothera Research Station, operated by the United Kingdom. The station is located on Adelaide Island (Antarctic Peninsula) in Antarctic Conservation Biogeographic Region 3 (ACBR3). We aim here to: (1) provide an improved description of the botanical values of the ASPA, and detailed vegetation mapping as for the establishment of future monitoring, (2) assess the representativeness of the ASPA vegetation within a wider geographical context encompassing Marguerite Bay and Adelaide Island and, (3) use this case study as a contribution to the ongoing discussion within the Antarctic Treaty System on the future development of the continent-wide ASPA network. Even though this specific ASPA was not initially designated for its biodiversity value, a higher species richness was recorded within the ASPA than outside the protected area on Rothera Point. Within the local geographic context, based on the available data, Rothera Point is characterized by high biodiversity and, above all, Léonie Island exhibits the greatest floristic richness within Marguerite Bay and Adelaide Island, being a biodiversity hot-spot of exceptional value. This case study emphasizes the continued existence of significant knowledge gaps relating to Antarctic terrestrial biodiversity, and the urgent need for large-scale assessment of the biological values of Antarctica, as one of the main challenges for the implementation of a robust and representative system of protected areas in terrestrial Antarctica, to protect this global natural heritage in the face of current and predicted future environmental change. Keywords: Wilderness protection · Threats to biodiversity · Case study · Environmental representativeness · Antarctica.
29886Moberg R. (2018): Lichenes Selecti Exsiccati Upsalienses. Index to Fascicles 1–20. Nos 1–500. - Museum of Evolution, Uppsala University, [12 p., not paginated].
Exsiccat index
29885Moberg R. (2018): Lichenes selecti exsiccati Upsalienses. Fasc. 19 & 20 (Nos 451–500). - Thunbergia, 40: 1–18.
Fascicles 19 & 20 contain isotype material of Hertella subantarctica Henssen, Phylliscum tenue Henssen and Santessoniella rosettiformis Henssen. These types belong to a rest set of material ment to be issued in A. Henssen: Lichenes Cyanophili et Fungi Saxicolae Exsiccati. Further eight numbers belongs to the same set. The fascicles also contain thirteen numbers sent by Dr. Tom Nash mainly from USA and Mexico which is herewith acknowledged. The collections in these fascicles represent material from Antarctia (1), North America (18), South America (7), Australia & New Zealand (6) and Europe (18).
29884Яцына А.П. [Yatsyna A.P.] (2013): Лишайники усадебных парков северо-западной части Минской области [Lichens of Manor Parks of North-Western Part of Minsk Region]. - Веснік Віцебскага дзяржаўнага ўніверсітэта [Bulletin of the Vitebsk State University], 2013/5: 58–64.
[in Russian with the following English summary: ] As a result of an inventory of lichen at six manor parks of north-western part of Minsk region 91 species of lichens belonging to 48 genera was found. The largest number of species of lichens is observed in parks of Luban and Berezinskoye – 62 species in each, in the park of Ostyukovichi – 59 in Vazan – 56, in Yahimovschina – 53 in Lukovets – 51. At manor parks 12 indicator species were recorded. Caloplaca lichen is tedindic for the first time for the lichens in Belarus. At manor parks 47 crustose, 35 foliose and 9 fruticose lichens were found. Lichens of manor parks are represented by three ecological groups: 76 species of epiphytes, epilit – 20, epiksil – 6. Lichens of manor parks belong to three geographical elements: nemoral contains 47 species, multi-zone 27 species and boreal – 14 species.
29883Яцына А.П. [Yatsyna A.P.] (2018): Лишайники и близкородственные грибы заказника «Красный Бор» [Lichens and Closely Related Fungi of the Reserve «Krasny Bor»]. - Веснік Віцебскага дзяржаўнага ўніверсітэта [Bulletin of the Vitebsk State University], 2018/1: 81–89.
[in Russian with the following English summary: ] Despite a large number of studies devoted to the study of the biological diversity of lichens and closely related fungi of Belarusian protected areas Lichenbiota of the reserve «Krasny Bor» was not the subject of a special study. The purpose of the article is to carry out taxonomic and ecological studies of the biological diversity of lichens and closely related fungi of the reserve «Krasny Bor». Material and methods. The work is based on the material collected by the author during 2 field seasons (2015–2016). Lichens were collected mainly in 6 forest formations and 13 types of forest. Species composition of lichens and closely related fungi was studied in 98 localities of the reserve. Findings and their discussion. On the territory of the reserve «Krasny Bor» 179 taxa were identified: 168 species of lichens, 8 non-lichenized saprobic fungi (Chaenothecopsis nana, C. pusilla, C. savonica, Microcalicium disseminatum, Mycocalicium subtile, Sarea difformis, S. resinae, Stenocybe pullatula) and 3 lichenicolous fungus (Chaenothecopsis consociata, Clypeococcum hypocenomycis and Corticifraga peltigerae). For the first time in Belarus 7 species of lichens are pointed out: Arthonia didyma, Biatora efflorescens, Lecidea erythrophaea, Ochrolechia bahusiensis, Pycnora praestabilis, Thelocarpon epibolum and Verrucaria xyloxena, non-lichenic fungi – Chaenothecopsis savonica and lichenophilic fungi – Corticifraga peltigerae. Lichens and closely related fungi are found on 9 types of substrates, the largest number of species is found on the bark of trees – 120. For the old-growth forests of the reserve «Krasny Bor» 27 indicator species are identified: 25 lichen species and 2 non-lichen fungi. On the territory of the reserve 6 species of lichens from 26 localities listed in the 4th edition of the Red Book of Belarus were noted. Conclusion. The species composition of lichens and closely related fungi of the reserve «Krasny Bor» has been revealed. The identified indicator species for old growth forest as well as the found localities of protected species of lichens can be used for the establishing rare habitats and restriction of forestry activities on the whole territory of the reserve. Key words: lichens, biodiversity, habitat, substrate, reserve, Belarus.
29882Яцына А.П. [Yatsyna A.P.] (2017): Лихенобиота спелых еловых насаждений двух особо охраняемых природных территорий Витебской области [Lichen biota of mature spruce forests of two protected areas of Vitebsk Region]. - Веснік Віцебскага дзяржаўнага ўніверсітэта [Bulletin of the Vitebsk State University], 2017/3: 74–79.
[In Russian with the following English summary:] Despite the large number of studies devoted to the analysis of the genesis and geography of spruce forests, species diversity of lichens of mature spruce forests still has not been the subject of a special study. The purpose of the research is to conduct taxonomic and ecological studies of lichen of mature spruce forests of Vitebsk Region, on the example 2 of protected areas: National Park «Braslav Lakes» and Reserve «Krasny Bor». Material and methods. Collection of lichen in mature spruce forest aged 8 to 120 years was carried out by conventional methods. The age of spruce forest was determined with the help of forest taxation characteristics. Species composition of lichen in mature spruce forests was studied in 32 localities, in the area of 109 hectares. Lichens on the protected areas were collected in 7 types of spruce forests. Findings and their discussion. The species composition of lichens and closely related fungi of mature spruce forest contains 122 species, including 117 species of lichens, and 4 non-lichenized saprobic fungi and one lichenfilous species. For the first time in Belarus Biatora epixanthoides lichen was recorded. For spruce forests of the Republic for the first time 17 new species of lichens and closely related fungi were identified, and in spruce forests of Vitebsk Region – 26 species. Thus, for the first time for the spruceforests of Vitebsk Region 44 new species of lichens and closely related fungi were identified. The biggest number of species in mature spruce forests was noted in spruce bilberry – 57 species. On tree bark the greatest number of species was found among 8 substrates – 91 species. Conclusion. The obtained data clarify and complement the diversity of lichen in spruce forests of Belarus. As our initial studies showed lichen of spruce forest requires further study. Key words: lichen, biodiversity, mature spruce forests, Vitebsk Region, Belarus.
29881Sernander R. (1908): Stipa pennata i Västergötland. En studie öfver den subboreala periodens inflytande på den nordiska vegetationens utvecklingshistoria. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 2: 49–84 & 390–426.
29880Malme G.O. (1908): Fr. Rosendahl, Vergleichend-anatomische Untersuchungen über die braunen Parmelien. — Abhandl. der Kaiserl. Leopoldinisch-Carolinischen deutschen Akademie der Naturforscher. Band 87 (Halle 1907). 59 s. + 4 tafl.. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 2(2): (50)–(52).
review
29879Malme G.O. (1908): Birger Nilson, Die Flechtenvegetation des Sarekgebirges. — Naturwissenschaftliche Untersuchungen des Sarekgebirges in Schwedisch-Lappland, geleitet von dr Axel Hamberg. Band III, s. 1—70. Stockholm 1907. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 2(1): (14)–(17).
review
29878Malme G.O. (1909): Parmelia intestiniformis (Villars) Acharius funnen i Stockholmstrakten. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 3(2): (84)–(85).
29877Malme G.O. (1909): Ett litet bidrag till Ombergs lafflora. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 3(2): (80)–(83).
29876Malme G.O. (1909): Malme, Lichenes suecici exsiccati. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 3(1): (24)–(25).
Exsiccat
29875Witte H. (1909): Några bidrag till kännedomen om lafvarnas utbredning i vårt land. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 2(4) [1908]: (126)–(127).
29874Witte H. (1909): Om lafvegetationen på Mössebergs diabas. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 2(4) [1908]: (125)–(126).
29873Malme G.O. (1910): Malme, Lichenes suecici exsiccati. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 4(1): (19)–(20).
Exsiccat
29872Magnusson A.H. (1910): Parmelia tubulosa (Hagen) Bitter funnen fertil i Uppland. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 4(2): (47).
Hypogymnia tubulosa found fertile in Uppland
29871Malme G.O.A. (1910): Stockholmstraktens bruna Parmelia-arter. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 4(2): 113–125.
29870Malme G.O. (1910): Några lafvar insamlade under Svenska botaniska föreningens exkursion till Älfkarleö sept. 1910. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 4(3): (100)–(101).
29869Malme G.O. (1910): Parmelia pertusa (Schrank) Schaer. funnen i Södermanland. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 4(3): (92)–(94).
Menegazzia
29868Sernander G. (1910): Pinguicula alpina och P. villosa i Härjedalen. Några synpunkter på den centralskandinaviska fjällflorans vandringshistoria. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 4(3): 203–217.
29867Malme G.O. (1911): Bernt Lynge, De norske busk- og bladlaver. (Bergens Museums Aarbog. 1910. N:o 9.). - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 4(4) [1910]: (166)–(168).
Review
29866Lagerheim G. (1911): Usnea longissima Ach. i Medelpad. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 4(4) [1910]: (165).
29865Malme G.O. (1911): Malme, Lichenes suecici exsiccati. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 4(4) [1910]: (162)–(165).
Exsiccat
29864Malme G.O. (1911): Lopadium fuscoluteum (Dicks.) Th. Fr. i Jämtland. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 4(4) [1910]: (161)–(162).
Brigantiaea
29863Blomqvist S.G. (1911): Till högbuskformationens ekologi. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 5(1–2): 1–81.
29862Westerberg F.O. (1911): Parmelia pertusa (Schrank) Schaer. funnen äfven i Östergötland. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 5(1–2): 218–219.
Menegazzia
29861Vesterberg [recte Westerberg] F.O. (1912): Parmelia cetrarioides (Dub.) Nyl. anträffad i Östergötland. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 5(4) [1911]: 436–437.
Cetrelia
29860Vestergren T. (1914): Vestergren, Micromycetes rariores selecti. Fasc. 67—68. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 8(1): 89–92.
Exsiccat; one lichen included (Sqarcosagium campestre, sub Biatorella c.)
29859Sernander G. (1912): Studier öfver lafvarnes biologi. I. Nitrofila lafvar. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 6(3): 803–883.
29858Sernander G. (1914): Exkursionen till södra Närke juli 1913. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 8(1): 93–107.
Report on excursion
29857Malme G.O. (1914): F. Erichsen, Die Flechten von Kullen in Schweden. Verhandl. des Naturw. Vereins in Hamburg. XXI (1913), p. 25—94. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 8(3): 395–396.
review
29856Malme G.O.A. (1913): Rinodina septentrionalis n. sp.. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 6(4) [1912]: 920–923.
29855Hulting J. (1912): En bokskog i Västergötland och dess lafflora. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 6(3): 427–432.
29854Hulth J.M. (1914): Förteckning öfver af Th. M. Fries utgifna skrifter. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 8(1): 130–146.
Bibliography
29853Hemmendorff E. (1914): In Memoriam. Th. M. Fries. * 28/10 1832 † 29/3 1913. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 8(1): 109–129.
Biography
29852Eriksson J.V. (1912): Bälinge mossars utvecklingshistoria och vegetation. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 6(2): 105–194 [+ tab. I-IV].
29851Samuelsson G. (1915): Studier öfver vegetationen i Dalarne. 1. Några lafvar från Dalarne. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 9(3): 362–366.
29850Malme G.O. (1916): Lichenologiska notiser. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 10(1): 81–88.
29849Malme G.O. (1916): Malme, Lichenes suecici exsiccati. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 10(1): 77–80.
29848Du Rietz G.E. (1916): Lichenologiska fragment. II. Några märkligare öländska laffynd. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 10(3): 471–478.
29847Magnusson A.H. (1916): Om de bruna Parmelia-arternas och Hypogymniernas förekomst och fertilitet, särskildt på västkusten. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 10(3): 365–373.
29846Lundqvist G. (1917): Utbredningen af Letharia divaricata (L.) Hue i Fennoskandia. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 11(3–4): 381–386.
29845Du Rietz G.E. (1917): Några synpunkter på den synekologiska vegetationsbeskrifningens terminologi och metodik. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 11(1): 51–71.
29844Matwiejuk A. (2018): Diversity and vertical distribution of lichens on the bark of roadside poplars in Podlaskie Vovoideship (North Eastern Poland). - Pakistan Journal of Botany, 50(1): 429–432.
A list of 65 species of lichens including interesting and rare lichen species recorded on the bark of poplar in Podlaskie Voivodeship (NE Poland) is given. Herbal data and the results of field studies conducted on roadsides in Podlaskie Voivodeship between 2010 and 2015 are used in the report. Sixteen species of lichens are threatened facing extinction in Poland, e.g., Hypogymnia farinacea, Physconia persidiosa, Pleurosticta acetabulum, Ramalina fastigiata, Usnea hirta. An analysis of the occurrence of lichens in different parts of the tree is presented. Key words: Lichens, Poplar, Poland.
29843van der Pluijm A. (2015): Phaeographis smithii terug in Nederland in wilgenbossen in de Biesbosch. - Buxbaumiella, 103: 7–13.
Rediscovery of Phaeographis smithii in the Netherlands in willow forests in the Biesbosch. Until recently in the Netherlands only a few, very old records of Phaeographis smithii existed. In 1841 and 1852 the species was collected on Fagus in the ‘Liesbosch’, an ancient broad-leaved forest near the city of Breda. Since then it was thought to be extinct. In the winter of 2014-2015 a survey of the Biesbosch, a former freshwater tidal area along the river Meuse, yielded several new finds of this ‘dark-spored script lichen’. It was found on young branches of Alnus, Salix and Acer in forests dominated by willows. These forests have a young history and mostly arose after 1970, when the Haringvliet estuary, the main connec tion between the sea and the Biesbosch, was closed by a dam. Since then the tidal amplitude was greatly reduced, which led to a large scale abandonment of osier beds in the area. On the various trees P. smithii was accompanied by a diverse assembly of common epiphytes with a broad ecological amplitude, such as Arthonia radiata, A. spadicea, Opegrapha atra, O. vulgata, Lecidella elaeochroma, Hyperphyscia adglutinata, Porina aenea, Anisomeridium polypori, Orthotrichum affine and Pylaisia polyantha. The new Dutch locality of the southern-temperate oceanic Phaeographis smithii is at the northern limit of its range on the European continent, with nearest stations in S-England and NW-France. The same more or less holds for two other recent oceanic newcomers, P. dendritica and Graphina anguina. In NW-Europe these lichens are sometimes categorised as old woodland species. This relation seems not strict, however. More likely, the extensive, humid and sheltered forests here acted as a long time refuge for these frost and drought avoiding species. In warmer times, as in the present decades, young forests may also become suitable for colonisation. Apparently some ‘old woodland’ species now get new chances in new habitats as a result of global warming.
29842Asher O.A. & Lendemer J.C. (2018): Lecanora caperatica (Lecanoraceae, lichenized ascomycetes) a new sorediate species widespread in eastern North America. - Bryologist, 121(3): 306–323.
Lecanora caperatica is described based on collections from throughout temperate eastern North America. It is a crustose sorediate species in the L. subfusca group which has pulcaris-type apothecia, and produces atranorin and caperatic acid often with accessory roccellic/angardianic acid. The species is chemically similar to the European L. mughosphagneti, which differs in ecology, thallus morphology and in having albella-type apothecia. The generic placement of L. caperatica, and its affinity to the L. subfusca group, are confirmed by molecular phylogenetic analysis. Keywords: Asexual reproduction, biodiversity, endemism, mtSSU, sterile crustose lichens.
29841Lücking R. & Nelsen M.P. (2018): Ediacarans, protolichens, and lichen-derived Penicillium: a critical reassessment of the evolution of lichenization in fungi. - In: Krings M., Harper C.J., Cúneo N.R. & Rothwell G.W. (eds), Transformative Paleobotany, p. 551–590, Elsevier, Amsterdam.
Book chapter; Keywords: Acarosporomycetes; Amber; Biocrusts; Ediacarans; Fossil calibration; Gondwanagaricites; Honeggeriella complexa; Lichenization; Molecular clock; Penicillium; Proterozoic; Protolichens; Umbilicariomycetes.
29840Nelson P.R., McCune B., Wheeler T., Geiser L.H. & Crisafulli C.M. (2018): Lichen community development along a volcanic disturbance gradient at Mount St. Helens. - In: Crisafulli C.M. & Dale V.H. (eds), Ecological responses at Mount St. Helens: Revisited 35 years after the 1980 Eruption, p. 185–198, Springer.
Book chapter; Keywords: Volcanic disturbance; Lichen; Fungi; Algae; Community composition; Succession; Colonization; Survival; Mount St. Helens; Disturbance gradient.
29839Han L.-F., Xu X.-M., Yang J.-Y. & Guo S.-Y. (2018): Peltigera neodegenii sp. nov. from Central China. - Mycotaxon, 133(2): 323–332.
Peltigera neodegenii from Central China is described and illustrated as a new species. It is similar in general appearance to P. degenii, P. membranacea, and P. canina, but is distinguished by its shiny upper surface in the central part of lobes, tomenta around the margins of upper surface of lobes, distinct and raised veins on the lower surface of lobes, and simple rhizines. Comparisons of the ITS (ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2) sequences of the nuclear ribosomal DNA repeat tandem, both in phylogenetic analysis and secondary structure models of ITS2, support the taxonomic distinctness of this species. Key words—biodiversity, cyanolichen, Peltigeraceae, Peltigerales, Shennongjia Mountain.
29838Shrestha G., Raphael J., Leavitt S.D. & St. Clair L.L. (2014): In vitro evaluation of the antibacterial activity of extracts from 34 species of North American lichens. - Pharmaceutical Biology, 52(10): 1262–1266.
Context: The emergence of antibiotic resistant pathogens is a serious global health threat. Hence, the search for new antibiotic drugs from various natural sources should be given high priority. Lichens produce a variety of low molecular weight metabolic compounds and many cultures have utilized these compounds in traditional medicine for centuries. Objective: Report the antibiotic properties of extracts from 34 North American lichens screened against four pathogenic bacteria. Materials and methods: The micro-well dilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of acetone and methanol extracts of 34 lichen species against four bacterial strains. Major chemical compounds in each species were identified using thin layer chromatography (TLC). Results: Most of the lichen extracts demonstrated inhibitory effects against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) with MIC values ranging from 3.9 to 500 µg/ml. In addition, extracts from three species, Letharia columbiana (Nutt.) J. W. Thomson (Parmeliaceae), Letharia vulpina (L.) Hue (Parmeliaceae), and Vulpicida canadensis (Räsänen) J.-E. Mattsson & M. J. Lai (Parmeliaceae) (MIC = 125–500 µg/ml) were also effective against Escherichia coli. Generally, acetone extractions were found to be more effective than methanol extractions. Discussion and conclusion: Results of this study show that lichen extracts provide significant antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. These results suggest that lichens may be an important potential source of antibacterial drugs. Keywords: Antibiotic, MIC, micro-broth dilution, natural products, TLC.
29837Regan S., Matwichuk L., Cloutis E., Goltz D. & Mann P. (2016): Potential signatures of heavy metal complexes in lichen reflectance spectra. - International Journal of Remote Sensing, 37(11): 2621–2640.
Lichens are sensitive to atmospheric pollutants emitted from anthropogenic activities and are thus effective biomonitors. A variety of heavy metals, such as nickel (Ni), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), and cadmium (Cd), can be emitted by metal smelters. The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to measure the spectral reflectance properties (350–2500 nm) of expected heavy metal complexes in lichens (oxalates and sulphides); and (2) to determine whether these complexes contribute features to reflectance spectra of lichens from the vicinity of a heavy metal smelter. Some metal oxalate spectra are characterized by crystal field transition absorption bands in the 500–1300 nm region, which are specific to the particular metal cation they contain and its oxidation state. The 1900–2500 nm region exhibits multiple absorption bands attributable to the oxalate molecule. The metal sulphide reflectance spectra are characterized by generally low reflectance and few if any strong or diagnostic spectral features; those that are found can be related to a specific cation and its oxidation state. These spectra were used to determine whether reflectance spectra of a diverse suite of lichens collected downwind of a smelter showed spectral evidence indicative of heavy metal oxalates or sulphides. The lichen spectra, coupled with the oxalate and sulphide spectra and independently determined heavy metal concentration, failed to reveal spectral features that could be unambiguously related to heavy metal complexes. This was likely due to a number of causes: lichen reflectance spectra have absorption bands that overlap those of oxalates; oxalate and sulphide concentrations may have been too low to allow for their unambiguous identification, and lichen spectra are naturally diverse in the region below 1300 nm. There were no strong or significant linear trends between metal concentrations and distance from the smelter (coefficient of determination (R2) values <0.05), or between absorption band depths in the lichen spectra and distance from the smelter (R2 values <0.06). This was likely due to the inclusion of multiple lichen species in the analysis, which may interact with airborne pollutants in different ways, and microenvironmental effects.
29836Ranković B., Mišić M. & Sukdolak S. (2007): Antimicrobial activity of extracts of the lichens Cladonia furcata, Parmelia caperata, Parmelia pertusa, Hypogymnia physodes and Umbilicaria polyphylla. - British Journal of Biomedical Science, 64(4): 143–148.
The antimicrobial activity of acetone, methanol and aqueous extracts of the lichens Cladonia furcata, Parmelia caperata, Parmelia pertusa, Hypogymnia physodes and Umbilicaria polyphylla is assessed. The extracts are tested on six species of bacteria and 10 species of fungi using the disk-diffusion method, and broth tube dilution is used to determine minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). The tested bacteria were more sensitive than the tested fungi. Aqueous extracts of the investigated lichens showed no antimicrobial activity against any of the test organisms, whereas the acetone and methanol extracts showed antimicrobial activity. In general, methanol extracts had stronger activity than did acetone extracts. The strongest activity was recorded for the methanol extract of Parmelia pertusa, which had the lowest measured MIC value (0.78 mg/mL). The least active species was Parmelia caperata (highest MIC value: 50 mg/mL). Bacillus mycoides was the most sensitive of the tested bacterial species, while Candida albicans was the most sensitive fungal species. Keywords: Antibacterial agents, Antifungal agents, Lichens, Microbial sensitivity tests.
29835Seo C., Choi Y.-H., Ahn J.S., Yim J.H., Lee H.K. & Oh H. (2009): PTP1B inhibitory effects of tridepside and related metabolites isolated from the Antarctic lichen Umbilicaria antarctica. - Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry, 24(5): 1133–1137.
The selective inhibition of PTP1B has been widely recognized as a potential drug target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity. In the course of screening for PTP1B inhibitory natural products, the MeOH extract of the dried sample of the Antarctic lichen Umbilicaria antarctica was found to exhibit significant inhibitory effect, and the bioassay-guided fractionation and purification afforded three related lichen metabolites 1-3. Compounds 1-3 were identified as gyrophoric acid (1), lecanoric acid (2), and methyl orsellinate (3) mainly by analysis of NMR and MS data. These compounds inhibited PTP1B activity with 50% inhibitory concentration values of 3.6 ± 0.04 μM, 31 ± 2.7 μM, and 277 ± 8.6 μM, respectively. Furthermore, the kinetic analysis of PTP1B inhibition by compound 1 suggested that the compound inhibited PTP1B activity in a non-competitive manner. Keywords: Umbilicaria antarctica, Antarctic lichen, Lichen metabolites, Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), Non-competitive inhibitor.
29834Wang J.-H., Du Y.-Q., Sun H.-J. & Zhang J.-C. (2015): Extraction and preliminary characterization of polysaccharide from Umbilicaria esculenta cultivated in Huangshan Mountain. - Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment, 29(4): 714–722.
In this study, the effects of extraction temperature, extraction time and liquid–solid ratio on the extraction yield of polysaccharide (HSSEP) from Umbilicaria esculenta cultivated in Huangshan Mountain were investigated using Box–Behnken response surface design. A second-order polynomial equation was employed to optimize the heat water extraction of HSSEP. The optimal extraction conditions of HSSEP were: 100.37 °C extraction temperature, 0.98 h extraction time and 11.02 mL/g liquid–solid ratio. Under these conditions, the maximum extraction yield of HSSEP was 27.68%. Additionally, two purified polysaccharide fractions, designated as HSSEP1 and HSSEP2, were prepared from HSSEP. The results indicated that HSSEP1 and HSSEP2 were acidic polysaccharides. HSSEP1 was mainly composed of mannose, glucose and galactose, in a ratio of 12%, 76% and 12%, respectively, while HSSEP2 was mainly composed of glucose. This study demonstrated the optimal extraction conditions and structure characterizations of HSSEP for the first time. Keywords: Umbilicaria esculenta cultivated in Huangshan Mountain, polysaccharide, Box–Bohnken design, structure characterization.
29833Bargagli R., Borghini F. & Celesti C. (2000): Elemental composition of the lichen Umbilicaria decussata. - Italian Journal of Zoology, 67, Suppl. 1: 157–162.
Total concentrations of major and trace elements were determined in thalli of the epilithic lichen Umbilicaria decussata from 37 habitats in Victoria Land (continental Antarctica). Average concentrations of Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr, Mn and Fe were among the lowest ever reported for lichens of genus Umbilicaria. On the contrary, Cd and Hg concentrations fell within the same range or were higher than those usually measured in samples from remote areas of the southern and northern hemispheres. No impact of local or remote human activities was detected. Comparison between average metal concentrations in U. decussata samples collected in 1989 and 1999 did not show significant variations, and this result was assumed to be indicative of negligible changes in the environmental biogeochemistry of Antarctic terrestrial ecosystems. The ad/absorption of soil and rock dust particles, atmospheric depositions, marine aerosols, guano of seabirds, and the uptake of soluble elements from widespread salt encrustations and/or rock minerals are the main sources of major and trace elements for epilithic lichens in continental Antarctica. Although the present results can be taken as baseline levels, further research is necessary in view of the expected effects of climatic changes on element bioavailability in ice‐free areas of Antarctica. Key words: Continental Antarctica, Macrolichens, Elemental composition, Environmental biogeochemistry.
29832Snelgar W.P., Brown D.H. & Green T.G.A. (1980): A provisional Survey of the interaction between net photosynthetic rate, respiratory rate, and thallus water content in some New Zealand cryptogams. - New Zealand Journal of Botany, 18(2): 247–256.
The effect of water content on photosynthetic and respiratory rates in eight lichen species and one bryophyte species were studied using an injection infrared gas analyser technique. All species showed a strong relationship between net assimilation rate (NAR), respiration rate, and water content similar to relationships reported in published studies overseas. Species from moist habitats showed negative NAR at low water contents. Species from high-light areas showed a depression in NAR at high water contents which could be alleviated by higher light intensities. The experiments confirmed the suitability of New Zealand species for these studies. Keywords: bryophytes, lichens, Stictaceae, photosynthesis, respiration, water Content.
29831Nilsen L., Brossard T. & Joly D. (1999): Mapping plant communities in a local Arctic landscape applying a scanned infrared aerial photograph in a geographical information system. - International Journal of Remote Sensing, 20(2): 463–480.
The vegetation of a 5km2 area in front of the Midtre Lovenbreen glacier, Northwest Spitsbergen, Svalbard, was mapped on the scale 1 10000. The main aim of the study was to develop a new method of vegetation classification based on a probability model, and apply the method on a digitized aerial colour infrared (CIR) photograph with a better ground resolution than provided by the Landsat and SPOT satellites. Large-scale data from different sources such as the CIR-aerial photograph, information layers derived from a digital elevation model (DEM) and vegetation sampling in the field have been integrated in a GIS. Probability models build the links between GIS data layers and plant communities resulting from classification of field data. Eight plant communities were defined by means of vegetation data and mapped automatically by classification of the CIR-photograph. Based on the probability model, maps were produced showing the actual and potential distribution of plant communities. The accuracy of the vegetation map was improved by including additional information from the DEM.
29830Moreau M., Laffly D. & Brossard T. (2009): Recent spatial development of Svalbard strandflat vegetation over a period of 31 years. - Polar Research, 28(3): 364–375.
Vegetation succession was analysed at the forefields of two glaciers in Svalbard over an interval of 31 years (1975–2006). In 1975, 85 sampling sites were positioned along transects extending from the coastline to the glacier fronts: botanical observations were made at each sampling site. This protocol allowed us to carry out new observations in 2006 under the same conditions. Thus, it was possible to undertake a botanical assessment of species and taxa, and to see how the vegetation has changed with reference to a typology established by coupling correspondence analysis and ascending hierarchical classification. Vegetation succession at the sampling sites was also measured by using vectors positioned in the multidimensional space of correspondence analysis. In this way, the changes over the interval between seven vegetation types were plotted and mapped, and the colonization process was calibrated and dated against a series of reference stages, mainly since the end of the Little Ice Age. Keywords: Correspondance analysis, plant dynamics, releves, Spitsbergen.
29829Fiantis D., Nelson M., Shamshuddin J., Goh T.B. & Van Ranst E. (2016): Initial carbon storage in new tephra layers of Mt. Talang in Sumatra as affected by pioneer plants. - Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 47(15): 1792–1812.
To date, no global data on carbon sequestration at the initial weathering phase of tephra deposits are available. To study carbon storage in the new volcanic deposit, tephra layers were reconstructed for a period of 46 months. The tephra samples were collected immediately after eruption of Mount (Mt.) Talang on 12 April 2005, over portions of the Solok District in West Sumatra, Indonesia. Pot experiments were filled with and without soil materials and covered with the collected tephra. The pot experiments were conducted in a wired house. The tephra was applied in 0, 2.5 and 5 cm depths to simulate natural tephra deposition. Every day 250 ml of filtered water was added and allowed to percolate. Solid fraction from the tephra layer was collected and analyzed at regular intervals and primary plant succession was observed over a period of 4 years. After 2 months, blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) started to colonize the bare surface tephra layer to form an algae mat. After 16 months, the surface was transformed into a green biofilm of lichen. Vascular plants (grasses and shrubs) started to be established after 2 years. Total carbon (TC) content of the tephra layer was increased significantly from 0.19 to 1.75% or eight times higher after 46 months of incubation. Higher TC storage was found in the 2.5 cm compared to that of the 5.0 cm tephra layer, which was reconstructed above the soil, with values of 1.75 and 0.89%, respectively. On the contrary, lesser amount of TC was accumulated in the single tephra layer (without soil underneath). Between 71 and 90% of TC was considered as total organic carbon (TOC). The labile organic carbon (LOC) content in the 2.5 cm and 5.0 cm of tephra layer was found to be 0.22 and 0.77%, respectively, at the end of incubation. This experiment confirmed the potential of tephra to capture carbon from the atmosphere with the help of nonvascular plants and then by vascular plants and finally sink them in the tephra layer. Keywords: Carbon storage, cyanobacteria, lichens, moss, plant succession, tephra.
29828Garibotti I.A., Pissolito C.I. & Villalba R. (2011): Vegetation development on deglaciated rock outcrops from Glaciar Frías, Argentina. - Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, 43(1): 35–45.
The retreat of glaciers during past decades has led to the emergence of large rock outcrops in many glaciated areas around the world. Primary succession of vegetation in glacier forelands has been described for many regions, but most studies have been conducted on glacial deposits, whereas deglaciated rock outcrops have received little attention. This study assesses the pattern of primary succession on a chronosequence of five rock outcrops exposed during the past 140 years by the retreat of Glaciar Frías in the Patagonian Andes, Argentina. Data on floristic composition and species cover for algae, lichens, ferns, bryophytes, and vascular plants were recorded on sampling plots. Ordination and classification analyses discriminate three major successional stages, each dominated by a different species assemblage, suggesting directional replacement of species in the succession. The pioneer stage is dominated by the crustose lichen Placopsis perrugosa, the mid-successional stage by a lichen-moss mat dominated by the moss Racomitrium lanuginosum, and the late-successional stage by a large diversity of vascular plants. The low density of Nothofagus dombeyi saplings in the late-successional site indicates that plant succession is still in progress 140 years after deglaciation. Progress in succession appears to be influenced by species life-cycle traits and facilitative interactions among species. The comparison of the successional processes between rock outcrops and unconsolidated glacial deposits suggests that the vegetation sequence is similar, but the rate of succession is slower on rock outcrops. The development of a ground lichen-moss cover, previous to the widespread colonization by vascular plants, accounts for the slower succession progress on rock outcrops. The establishment of Nothofagus stands takes at least 100 yrs longer on the rock outcrops than on glacial deposits. Under predicted climate warming, most Patagonian Andes glaciers will continue the retreat along steep bedrock slopes, where similar, long-term vegetation successional patterns to those observed on Glaciar Frías foreland will eventually occur.
29827Vistnes I.I. & Nellemann C. (2008): Reindeer winter grazing in alpine tundra: impacts on ridge community composition in Norway. - Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, 40(1): 215–224.
We analyzed lichen species composition and biomass in 815 plots on 163 sites across wild reindeer regions in Norway, ranging from ranges with a long history of very low grazing pressure to heavily grazed sites. Reindeer density (1974–2000) and lichen biomass were well correlated for sites with comparable snow cover, altitude and terrain (R 2  =  0.81, P  =  0.006, n  =  12). Absence of grazing for potentially several centuries has virtually resulted in a monoculture consisting of Cladina stellaris, Flavocetraria nivalis, and Alectoria ochroleuca (Syn. Bryocaulon ochroleuca). Light grazing in terms of 20 to 30% removal of initial lichen cover easily eroded Cladina stellaris from exposed ridges by cratering and trampling by reindeer through the snow, while Flavocetraria nivalis persisted longer. This decline in lichen cover observed along a historic grazing gradient further resulted in increasing cover of bare ground, but less than expected from lichen removal due to gradual colonization of other species, such as mosses (incl. Polytrichum piliferum), crustose and fruticose lichens, dwarf shrubs (Arctostaphylos spp., Empetrum nigrum, Loiseleuria procumbens), and graminoids, particularly rushes (Juncus trifidus). Moderate grazing may thus increase plant diversity on ridges compared to ungrazed lands, and hence strongly influence gradients in biomass, composition and abundance of ridge communities across the landscape.
29826Fortin M.-J., Payette S. & Marineau K. (1999): Spatial vegetation diversity index along a postfire successional gradient in the northern boreal forest. - Écoscience, 6(2): 204–213.
Boreal forest dynamics and biodiversity are mainly governed by natural disturbances such as fire. Because boreal forest communities are typically species-poor and composed predominantly of wide-ranging circumboreal species, all measurements of biodiversity using the most common species richness-based indices are likely to underestimate vegetation diversity at the stand level. To estimate vegetation diversity differences, we introduce a spatial diversity index (SDI), which accounts not only for species richness and species abundance, but also for the spatial occupancy of species, a neglected although important component of plant diversity. We tested the SDI along a postfire successional gradient of the lichen woodland zone in northern Québec using eleven sites with different postfire ages. The SDI allowed us to statistically differentiate three species’ spatial occupancy patterns, which correspond to three successional stages (pioneer, expansion and stabilization). In our study, we were unable to discriminate between these three successional structural phases using only Simpson and Shannon diversity indices. We conclude that indices based only upon species richness and species abundance may fail to differentiate vegetation diversity between sites in the boreal forest, whereas the spatial diversity index has succeeded because it incorporates species space occupancy. Keywords: boreal forest, postfire succession, lichen, moss, liverwort, patchiness, spatial occupancy, spatial diversity index.
29825Nordberg M.-L. & Allard A. (2002): A remote sensing methodology for monitoring lichen cover. - Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing, 28(2): 262–274.
Land degradation has been recognised in the mountainous areas of Sweden due to increased land use, particularly the intensive grazing and trampling by reindeer, which causes mechanical damage to the vegetation cover. As these areas are often inaccessible, it is valuable to be able to use satellite data to monitor vegetation changes. The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency has proposed an environmental quality objective for mountainous areas of Sweden, which emphasizes the need for monitoring. The aim of this paper is to investigate a method for such monitoring using satellite data. Of the different heath communities above the tree line, the lichen-dominated heath is among the most sensitive to mechanical damage. Hence lichen cover is used as an indicator of change because of its ecological relevance and its spectral characteristics. Landsat-5 thematic mapping (TM) data, hyperspectral imaging scanner data, and spectral characteristics of relevant mountainous plant communities and lichen species were used to study heath vegetation in the southern part of the Swedish mountain range. For comparison, colour-infrared (CIR) aerial photographs at a scale of 1 : 60 000 and field data were used. The changes in lichen cover have been detected by spectral changes using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) differencing technique and thresholding. The results show that mountainous lichen-dominated heath, above the tree line, can be mapped with good accuracy using Landsat TM data, and this heath is proposed for change detection, as it is possible to differentiate lichen cover in the following classes: low (20‐50% cover), moderate (51‐80% cover), and high (>80% cover). A lichen cover <20% cannot be separated from other types of dry heath. The class boundaries have been determined using field observations and CIR aerial photographs. The method indicates that a change in lichen cover can be classified and mapped in three classes: unchanged, moderate decrease, and high decrease. The classes can be regarded as three risk-assessment classes for vegetation degradation and ensuing soil erosion. The major conclusion from this study is that a change in lichen cover, differentiated in three classes, can be used as a tool for monitoring disturbed ecosystems in the Swedish mountain range.
29824Ingólfsdóttir K., Lee S.K., Bhat K.P.L., Lee K., Chai H.-B., Kristinsson H., Song L.L., Gills J., Gudmundsdóttir J.T., (2000): Evaluation of selected lichens from Iceland for cancer chemopreventive and cytotoxic activity. - Pharmaceutical Biology, 38(4): 313–317.
Cancer chemopreventive effects of organic extracts from 29 species of lichens collected in Iceland were evaluated using a panel of in vitro bioassays whereby extracts were tested for potential to induce quinone reductase (QR) and differentiation of human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cells, inhibit cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), phorbol ester-induced ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), aromatase and sulfatase, as well as for antioxidant, estrogenic/anti-estrogenic and antiproliferative activity. In addition, the extracts were tested for cytotoxicity against 12 cancer cell lines. The most significant results were exhibited by extracts from Xanthoria elegans and Alectoria nigricans , which respectively, induced QR activity (concentration to double activity = 4.8 µg/ml) and inhibited phorbol ester-induced ODC activity with mouse 308 cells in culture (IC 50 = 2.6 µg/ml). Moderate inhibition of [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation with HL-60 cells was exhibited by the Peltigera leucophlebia extract. Several extracts prevented estrogen formation from estrogen precursors by inhibiting the enzymatic activities of aromatase ( Sphaerophorus globosus , Cetrariella delisei , Melanelia hepatizon ) and sulfatase ( Cladonia gracilis , Sphaerophorus fragilis , S. globosus ). None of the extracts demonstrated significant cytotoxic effects with selected cell lines. Keywords: Cancer chemoprevention, lichens, Icelandic plants, ornithine decarboxylase, quinone reductase, HL-60 cell differentiation, aromatase, sulfatase, cytotoxicity.
29823Harper K.A. & Kershaw G.P. (1996): Natural revegetation on borrow pits and vehicle tracks in shrub tundra, 48 years following construction of the CANOL No. 1 pipeline, N.W.T., Canada. - Arctic and Alpine Research, 28(2): 163–171.
An intensive study of longterm revegetation patterns in Erect Deciduous Shrub Tundra on anthropogenic disturbances was conducted in the summer of 1993 within the abandoned CANOL pipeline corridor. Primary and secondary succession were investigated on vehicle tracks and borrow pits by collecting data on the cover of all vascular and nonvascular species. Significant differences in species composition were evident among disturbance types from nested analyses of variance. Disturbance sites were characterized by lower abundance of woody plants and overall greater species richness than undisturbed areas. Borrow pits, still dominated by pioneer species, were in the preliminary stages of succession. Pioneer species persisted on vehicle tracks in the intermediate succession stages, although some species replacement was evident.
29822Wojciechowski M.F. & Heimbrook M.E. (1984): Dinitrogen fixation in alpine tundra, Niwot Ridge, Front Range, Colorado, U.S.A.. - Arctic and Alpine Research, 16(1): 1–10.
The process of dinitrogen fixation was studied in the alpine tundra ecosystem at Niwot Ridge, Colorado. In situ fixation activities were measured by the acetylene reduction method in the soils of the major plant community habitats found on the ridge: dry Trifolium fellfield, dry Kobresia meadow, moist Deschampsia meadow, wet Caltha meadow, moist Sibbaldia snowbed, and moist Salix shrub tundras. The highest overall acetylene reduction rates are found in the Caltha meadow and Salix shrub tundra sites (5.8 to 7.8 μmol ethylene produced in m-2 h-1), while the lowest activities are found in the soils of the xeric sites, Kobresia meadow and fellfield tundras (0.13 to 0.33 μmol ethylene m-2 h-1). The mean 1980 (summer season) acetylene reduction rate for all sites is 1.4 μmol ethylene m-2 h-1. Soil moisture is the primary environmental factor influencing in situ rates of acetylene reduction in this alpine system. Acetylene reduction activity was found associated with the vascular plants Dryas octopetala L. ssp. hookeriana and Trifolium dasyphyllum T. & G. (0.13 to 5.4 μmol ethylene m-2 h-1), and the lichens Peltigera aphthosa and Stereocaulon alpinum (0.05 to 0.42 μmol ethylene g-1 h-1). Low activity associated with the moss Pohlia is attributed to epiphytic cyanobacteria. The contribution of nitrogen by dinitrogen fixation, estimated to be 5 mg N m-2 annually, does not apparently constitute the major source of nitrogen input to this tundra system.
29821Victoria F.C., de Albuquerque M.P., Pereira A.B., Simas F.N.B., Spielmann A.A. & Schaefer C.E.G.R. (2013): Characterization and mapping of plant communities at Hennequin Point, King George Island, Antarctica. - Polar Research, 32(1) 19261 [10 p.].
King George Island is the largest island and the principal area used for research bases in Antarctica. Argentina, Brazil, Chile, China, Poland, Russia, South Korea and Uruguay have permanent open bases on this island. Other countries have seasonal summer stations on different parts of this island, which demonstrates that human impact is strong on King George Island relative to other areas in the maritime and continental Antarctica. The objective of this work was to present a phytosociological approach for ice-free areas of Hennequin Point, eastern coast of Admiralty Bay, King George Island. The study started with the classification and description of the plant communities based primarily on phytosociological and biodiversity data. The area was mapped using an Astech Promark II® DGPS, yielding sub-metric precision after post-processing with software. The plant communities were described as follows: (1) lichen and moss cushion formation; (2) moss carpet formation; (3) fellfield formation; (4) grass and cushion chamaephyte formation; and (5) Deschampsia Antarctica–lichen formation. Characterizations and distributions of the plant communities are presented on a map at a scale of 1:5000. The plant communities found at Hennequin Point, in general, differ from those found in other areas of the Admiralty Bay region, probably because of the concentration of skua nests in the area and the relief singularities. We conclude by highlighting the importance of the study of plant species found in the ice-free areas of the Antarctic with respect to environmental monitoring and for evaluating global climate and environmental changes. Keywords: Plant communities mapping, lichens, mosses, flowering plants, Antarctic.
29820Kantvilas G., Jarman S.J. & Minchin P.R. (2015): Early impacts of disturbance on lichens, mosses and liverworts in Tasmania’s wet eucalypt production forests. - Australian Forestry, 78(2): 92–107.
The impacts of silvicultural disturbance (felling and burning) on lichens, mosses and liverworts in Eucalyptus obliqua-dominated wet forest in Tasmania were investigated. The study was based on presence–absence data for 452 taxa from 52 sampling events, spanning unlogged forest and disturbed, regenerating forest about 1, 3 and 5 years after disturbance. Three aspects of species composition were compared: total species richness, occurrence of pre-disturbance species in the post-disturbance flora and relative richness of ecological groups in the flora. Total species richness was the least reliable measure for evaluating changes due to disturbance. Felling and burning in different combinations were represented in a range of silvicultural treatments applied in the study area. They produced different levels of disturbance and different microhabitats, and thereby defined the character of the cryptogamic flora. The most severe impacts occurred at burnt sites, regardless of whether the forest had been felled or not, and the least impact was found in standing, unburnt forest. The consequences of severe disturbance were a substantial change in species composition, with a reduction, in particular, of mature wet forest species in favour of species associated with disturbance or brightly lit, exposed environments. In the lichens, the loss of old tree indicators, old forest indicators, foliicolous species, rare species of conservation significance and species indicative of a succession towards cool temperate rainforest was especially severe. Mosses and liverworts also showed a very pronounced loss of mature wet forest species. In the mosses, the presence of newcomers, represented mostly by disturbance species or species typical of open drier conditions, masked the extent of these losses. In the liverworts, there were few newcomers and the composition of the post-disturbance flora was much depleted. Keywords: ecology, disturbance, forestry, silvicultural systems, cryptogams, lichens, mosses, liverworts, Eucalyptus obliqua, Tasmania.
29819Jönsson A.M. (1998): Bark lesions on beech (Fagus sylvatica) and their relation to epiphytes and site variables in Scania, South Sweden. - Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 13: 297–305.
Beech bark lesions, (Cryptococcus fagisuga), the most common lichen and fungi epiphytes on beech (Fagus sylvatica) stems were studied at 48 sites in Scania, south Sweden. Different site variables and the influence of nitrogen deposition were investigated. The field vegetation and lichens were used as biological indicators by calculating indices for nutrition status, toxicity, pH, light and moisture. Two sets of lichen indices, from Hultengren and Ellenberg, respectively, were calculated. Beech bark lesions were found at 25 sites and were more frequent at more polluted sites with much C. fagisuga and Lecanora conizaeoides, and on largish trees. Algae cover and C. fagisuga were positively correlated. Both preferred sites with no direct light exposure, high nitrogen deposition and low pH. The two sets of lichen indices were fairly comparable for toxitolerance, light and pH. In this investigation, Lepraria incana was the most frequent of all epiphytes, often determining the value of the lichen indices. Key words: beech bark disease, biological indicator, Cryptococcus fagisuga, lichen.
29818Purvis O.W., Tittley I., Chimonides P.D.J., Bamber R., Hayes P.A., James P.W., Rumsey F.J. & Read H. (2010): Long-term biomonitoring of lichen and bryophyte biodiversity at Burnham Beeches SAC and global environmental change. - Systematics and Biodiversity, 8(2): 193–208.
Long-term monitoring began 20 years ago at Burnham Beeches Site of Special Interest (SSSI), National Nature Reserve (NNR) and European Special Area of Conservation (SAC) lying 40 km west of London as a consequence of the authorization of an application to extract gravel from an adjacent site lying north of Slough Trading Estate. Dust monitoring (sticky pads) and photographic monitoring, recording and image analysis was instigated in 1992 on Parmelion communities to assess changes in lichen growth, health and community composition. Long-term monitoring identifies that the lichen flora on free-standing trees has undergone rapid expansion from a near dominance by the SO2-tolerant ‘acidophyte’ species Lecanora conizaeoides and Hypogymnia physodes following reductions in SO2 concentrations. Long-term influences of low levels of eutrophication, gaseous pollutants (particularly globally rising background ozone concentrations) on lichen and bryophyte communities and succession under changing climatic conditions are unknown. Soil–plant relationships, lichen–invertebrate interactions and a pollution legacy must also be considered. Key words: biomonitoring, bryophyte, climate change, episode, lichen, pollution, public policy.
29817Moncada B., Mercado-Díaz J.A. & Lücking R. (2018): The identity of Sticta damicornis (Ascomycota: Lobariaceae): a presumably widespread taxon is a Caribbean endemic. - Lichenologist, 50(5): 591–597.
Sticta damicornis (Sw.) Ach., described as Lichen damicornis Sw. (original orthographic variant ‘damaecornis’ corrected acc. to ICN Art. 60.8, Ex. 20), is one of the most fre- quently used names for green-algal Sticta species; to a lesser extent, this also applies to the name S. canariensis (Ach.) Bory. Based on published records and occurrence data in public repositories (Fig. 1), both taxa are presumably subcosmopolitan. Sticta canar- iensis has 2144 occurrence records in GBIF (https://www.gbif.org/species/8491362), most in the Americas and Western Europe but also in southern Africa and the Mascarenes. Notably, most published records refer to Western Europe (including Macaronesia) and North America only (Tønsberg 1990; Brodo 1994; Coppins & Coppins 2002; Gabriel & Bates 2005; Arocena et al. 2007). In contrast, S. damicornis has much fewer GBIF entries (508) but exhibits an even wider inferred global distribution pattern (https:// www.gbif.org/species/7790288; https://www. gbif.org/species/7250273); this name is also applied much more frequently to identify green-algal species at a global level, including in the Americas, Europe, Africa and Asia (Durand & Pittier 1891; Stizenberger 1895; Hitchcock 1898; Schiffner 1901; Riddle 1912; Merrill 1913; Howe 1914; Plitt 1921; Malme 1934; Welch 1950; Herre 1951; Imshaug 1956; Zahlbruckner 1956; Dix 1957; Thomasson 1959; Choisy 1960; Foll- mann 1976; Tønsberg 1990; da Silva et al. 1990; Wolf 1993; Brodo 1994; Marcano et al. 1996; de Oliveira et al. 2002; Käffer & Mar- tins 2005; Nayaka & Upreti 2005; Holz 2006; Sipman 2006; Spielmann 2006; Käffer et al. 2007, 2009; Cerón & Quintero 2009; Gum- boski & Eliasaro 2011; Joshi et al. 2011; Martins et al. 2011; Rincón-Espitia et al. 2011; Benítez et al. 2012; Bungartz et al. 2013; Mishra & Upreti 2014; Aptroot 2016; Nelson & Sandoval 2018). At times, the concepts of the two species became rather diffuse; thus, both Flörke (1809) and Acharius (1814) considered S. canariensis an infraspecific entity of S. damicornis.
29816Sanders W. & de Los Ríos A. (2018): Structural evidence of diffuse growth and parenchymatous cell division in the cortex of the umbilicate lichen Lasallia pustulata. - Lichenologist, 50(5): 583–590.
How growth is distributed within the morphologically diverse thalli of lichens is still poorly known and the anatomical mechanisms involved are not well understood. This work applies electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) to examine cell- and tissue-level events in the umbilicate thallus of Lasallia pustulata, whose pattern of expansion was the subject of a previous field study. Stacks of epinecral tissue accumulating at the thallus surface showed broadening bases and recurring rupture attributable to diffuse expansion of the living tissue below. Cortical cells, dividing anticlinally, adjoined septa to previous septa, indicating parenchymatous divisions. These observations are all consistent with previous contentions that mature, organized tissues within the thallus are capable of continued diffuse growth. They provide a developmental explanation for the morphology of the epinecral layer and suggest that anatomical characteristics may be helpful in recognizing diffuse growth patterns. Parenchymatous cell divisions, believed until recently to never occur in lichen thallus tissues, are shown to play a developmental role in the diffuse growth of the umbilicate lichen thallus. anatomy, epinecral layer, histogenetic processes, morphogenetic processes, septa
29815Kantvilas G., Rivas Plata E. & Lücking R. (2018): The lichen genus Coenogonium in Tasmania. - Lichenologist, 50(5): 571–582.
The genus Coenogonium Ehrenb. in Tasmania comprises seven species. New to science are: C. atherospermatis Kantvilas, Rivas Plata & Lücking, endemic to Tasmania and characterized by pale yellowish beige apothecia and relatively small ascospores, 6–8·5 × 2·5–3 μm; C. urceolatum Kantvilas, Rivas Plata & Lücking, likewise endemic to Tasmania and characterized by orange, urceolate apothecia, 0·3–0·4 mm wide, and uniseriate ascospores, 8·5–11×2·5–3μm; and C. australiense Kantvilas & Lücking, recorded from Tasmania, South Australia and New South Wales, and characterized by orange apothecia, 0·5–2 mm wide, and relatively broad ascospores, 10–14 × 3–4·5 μm. Also treated are C. lutescens (Vĕzda & Malcolm) Malcolm (Tasmania and New Zealand) and three widespread taxa, namely C. implexum Nyl. (Southern Hemisphere), C. luteum (Dicks.) Kalb & Lücking and C. pineti (Schrad. ex Ach.) Lücking & Lumbsch (both subcosmopolitan). All species are described in full from Tasmanian collections and illustrated, and their ecology, variation and affinities to related species are discussed. The Tasmanian taxa are also discussed in the context of the Australasian lichen biota. Coenogoniaceae, Dimerella, lichens, Southern Hemisphere, taxonomy
29814Goward T. & Arsenault A. (2018): Calicioid diversity in humid inland British Columbia may increase into the 5th century after stand initiation. - Lichenologist, 50(5): 555–569.
Maintenance of biodiversity in managed forested landscapes requires detailed knowledge of the ecological requirements of specialist organisms linked to key microhabitats. Here we examine the relationship of 37 lichenized and unlichenized epiphytic calicioid species to stand age and substratum type in seven pairs of mid-seral (70–165 y) and old (220–470 y) forest stands in humid east-central British Columbia. Based on our inventory of eight host tree species, total calicioid diversity and mean species richness are highest in old stands, with 12 species not detected and nine additional species much less frequent in mid-seral stands. Thuja plicata supports by far the highest level of total calicioid diversity, with 31 of 37 species; mostly associated with very old trees. Owing primarily to the late recruitment of lignicolous calicioids, stand-level calicioid richness continues to increase into the 5th century after stand initiation. Our study thus has two major findings pertinent to the maintenance of forest biodiversity in managed forests: first, stand-level calicioid richness increases slightly for at least three centuries past the acquisition of old-growth status; second, remnant trees and snags carried forward into mid-seral, regenerating stands enhance overall calicioid species richness. These results suggest that very old old- growth ( = ‘antique’) forests might play an important role in the long-term maintenance of calicioid species richness, further suggesting that the standard practice of lumping all forests above a set age into a single old-growth category is not ecologically tenable for all taxonomic groups. Biodiversity, lichens, Mycocaliciaceae, old-growth dependency, Physciaceae, Thuja
29813Gumboski E.L., Eliasaro S., Scur M.C., Lorenz-Lemke A.P. & Borges da Silveira R.M. (2018): A new riparian species of Ramalina (Ramalinaceae) from Brazil, with a key to neotropical saxicolous species. - Lichenologist, 50(5): 541–553.
The new species Ramalina fleigiae from Brazil is described growing on rocks in riverbeds in high altitude grasslands of southern Brazil. It grows in areas with constant water flow, sometimes almost immersed, and always in exposed habitats. Through an integrative approach, the detailed description of R. fleigiae includes morphological, anatomical, ecological, chemical and molecular data. Ribosomal DNA-based phylogenies suggest that R. fleigiae is more closely related to a species that shares its habitat preference (R. laevigata) than to the morphologically and chemically similar R. exiguella and R. gracilis. Ramalina fleigiae and R. laevigata can be distinguished by thallus morphology (irregularly flat branches in R. fleigiae vs. flat to canaliculate in R. laevigata) and pattern of chondroid tissue, as genetic distances between them are compatible with the interspecific range. It is possible that many species of Ramalina still remain hidden within the morphological or chemical variation of currently accepted species. Combining ecological, anatomical and molecular data will improve our future understanding of this genus. Ascomycota, fruticose thallus, lichenized fungi, rock, taxonomy
29812Khodosovtsev A., Darmostuk V., Suija A. & Ordynets A. (2018): Didymocyrtis trassii sp. nov. and other lichenicolous fungi on Cetraria aculeata. - Lichenologist, 50(5): 529–540.
Recently, nine species of lichenicolous fungi were found growing on Cetraria aculeata (Parmeliaceae) in a sand dune system in the Ukraine. One of them, Didymocyrtis trassii, is described here as new to science. This species is similar to D. pseudeverniae but differs in having smaller pycnidia, smaller obpyriform to clavate conidia as well as its DNA sequence. The new monotypic lichenicolous genus Katherinomyces is described here. Acremonium lichenicola s. l., Eonema pyriforme, Didymocyrtis cladoniicola and Lichenoconium erodens are reported for the first time on Cetraria aculeata. Furthermore, E. pyriforme is reported for the first time from lichen thalli. Acremonium lichenicola, E. pyriforme and Taeniolella rolfii are new for the mycobiota of the Ukraine. A key to the eleven known lichenicolous species on Cetraria aculeata is provided. Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, coelomycetes, corticioid fungi, psammophytic communities, Ukraine
29811Clerc P. & Otte V. (2018): Usnea viktoriana (Ascomycota, Parmeliaceae), a new European taxon of the Usnea barbata-dasopoga group, with a key to the shrubby-subpendulous sorediate Usnea species in Europe. - Lichenologist, 50(5): 513–527.
Usnea viktoriana P. Clerc & Otte is described as new. It is characterized by the presence of alectorialic acid as major secondary compound mainly present in the aggregated efflorescent soralia with long isidiofibrils. Usnea parafloridana K. Mark, Will-Wolf & Randlane is synonymized with U. praetervisa (Asahina) P. Clerc. Both U. viktoriana and U. praetervisa are supported by molecular analysis. A key to the shrubby-subpendulous sorediate Usnea species in Europe is provided. alectorialic acid, lichen, phylogenetics, systematics, taxonomy, TLC
29810Mukhin V.A., Patova E.N., Sivkov M.D., Novakovskaya I.V. & Neustroeva N.V. (2018): Diversity and nitrogen-fixing activity of phototrophic mycetobionts of xylotrophic fungi. - Russian Journal of Ecology, 49(5): 406–412.
[English version of the original Russian text published in Ekologiya, 2018, No. 5, pp. 368–375] It is shown that the basidiocarps of many wood-decomposing fungi are inhabited by taxonomically and biomorphologically various eukaryotic (Charophyta, Chlorophyta, and Ochrophyta) and prokaryotic (Cyanophyta/Cyanobacteria) algae. They represent widespread eurybiont species and do not include any specialized mycetobionts. The communities formed by them have a host preference and green algae are their basic and obligate component, while other organisms are facultative components. Basidiocarps in which mycetobionts include heterocytic cyanoprokaryotes (Anabaena sp., Calothrix parietina, Hassallia byssoidea, Nostoc commune, N. punctiforme, Nostoc sp., and Scytonema ocellatum) are capable of molecular nitrogen fixation. Its activity is 0.044–0.903 mg of C2H4/m2/h in the basidiocarps of Bjerkandera adusta, Cerrena unicolor, Gloeophyllum sepiarium, and Trametes ochracea and 0.001–0.008 mg of C2H4/m2/h in the basidiocarps of Onnia leporina, Phellinus chrysoloma, Ph. tremulae, and Trametes pubescens. Basidiocarps without algae and those inhabited only by eukaryotic algae have no nitrogenase activity. Keywords: forest ecosystems, fungi, Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes, eukaryotic algae, cyanoprokaryotes/ cyanobacteria, biodiversity, nitrogen fixation, symbiosis. [p. 410:] "The level of nitrogenase activity is almost 30 times higher in the basidiocarps of xylotrophic fungi than in the thalli of the nitrogen-fixing epiphytic lichen Lobaria pulmonaria (3.191 mg of C2H4/m2/h) that were collected in the same areas as the basidiocarps under study."
29809Prokopiev I.A., Poryadina L.N., Konoreva L.A., Chesnokov S.V. & Shavarda A.L. (2018): Variation in the composition of secondary metabolites in Flavocetraria lichens from Western Siberia. - Russian Journal of Ecology, 49(5): 401–405.
[English version of the original Russian text published in Ekologiya, 2018, No. 5, pp. 362–367] The composition and contents of secondary metabolites in Flavocetraria lichens from Eastern Siberia were analyzed using herbarium specimens. Based on the composition of identified metabolites, three F. cucullata chemotypes and two F. nivalis chemotypes were distinguished. Distinct geographic differentiation between the F. cucullata chemotypes was revealed, probably reflecting their adaptation to environmental conditions. The content of usnic acid in F. cucullata thalli was found to correlate with the latitude of growing region. This may be regarded as evidence for a protective role of this metabolite in lichens growing at high latitudes and exposed to excess solar irradiation during the polar day. Keywords: lichens, genus Flavocetraria, secondary metabolites, chemotypes.
29808Kaynar S.Ç., Kaynar U.H., Sevinç O.S. & Hiçsönmez U. (2018): Studying of 210Po and 210Pb deposition in some lichen species in Manisa, Turkey. - Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 101: 494–500.
Lichens are very useful for monitoring of the radionuclide deposition because having a high efficiency capturing the radionuclides from the atmospheric fallout. In the present work, 210Po and 210Pb deposition in some lichen species were determined using an alpha spectrometer. Different lichens were collected around Demirci-Manisa and investigated their uses as biomonitor for 210Po and 210Pb deposition. The highest activity concentrations for 210Po and 210Pb were detected in Neofuscelia pulla (898 Bq kg−1 and 1207 Bq kg−1, respectively). The mean activities in the lichen species ranged from 164 to 584 Bq kg−1 for 210Po and from 175 to 671 Bq kg−1 for 210Pb. The activity ratios for 210Po/210Pb ranged from 0.75 to 1.57. Keywords: Biomonitor Lichen 210Po 210Pb.
29807Vogt-Schilb H., Moreau P.-A., Malaval J.-C., Schatz B. & Richard F. (2018): Effects of long-term landscape dynamics and city growth on biodiversity in the Mediterranean: the case study of Montpellier, France. - Urban Ecosystems, 21: 921–932.
In the Mediterranean, long-term land-use changes have resulted into landscape mosaics composed of very few ancient woodland remnants scattered across extended post-agricultural woodlands. Patches of ancient woodlands are now suffering rapid urban growth that reduces their area and impact their associated biodiversity. Here we use the case study of Montpellier, one of the most dynamic cities in France, to 1) characterize temporal changes in land covers (between 1860 and 2006) in its area, and 2) using two guilds of fungal bioindicators (i.e., polypores and lichens), to compare biodiversity stakes between ancient and secondary Mediterranean woodlands. We used a combination of historical maps, archives, fungal collections and field survey in eight Quercus ilex patches (4 ancient versus 4 recent replicates) to reconstruct landscapes dynamics and assess biodiversity changes. From the 19th to the 21st century, over half (52.4%) of the ancient woodlands within Montpellier were replaced by other land covers, mainly by urban equipment, while secondary patches (16.8% of the total area) were naturally established. Remaining ancient woodlands show multilayered vegetation made of multi-secular Pinus halepensis dominating a dynamic understorey made of Quercus ilex and various Mediterranean shrubs. Polypores, but not macrolichens, tended to differ in community composition between ancient and recent woodland patches, with the highest diversity found in ancient woodlands. This study highlights that urban woodland patches of contrasted histories harbour distinct biodiversity stakes to be included in urban planning and provide valuable areas to evaluate biodiversity patterns and dynamics. Keywords: Ancient woodlands . Lichens . Mediterranean . Polypores . Quercus ilex . Urban growth.
29806Bohuslavová O., Macek P., Redčenko O., Láska K., Nedbalová L. & Elster J. (2018): Dispersal of lichens along a successional gradient after deglaciation of volcanic mesas on northern James Ross Island, Antarctic Peninsula. - Polar Biology, 41: 2221–2232.
Aerial dispersal in the colonization of bare ground by lichens in the polar regions remains poorly understood. Potential colonists may arrive continually, although extreme abiotic conditions limit their viability. We investigated the vegetative dispersal of Antarctic macrolichens along a successional gradient (from 8.6–7.0 ka BP up to present) after glacial retreat on James Ross Island, in the Antarctic Peninsula region. We collected lichen fragments by means of sticky traps glued on the ground and exposed for 1 year. Foliose or fruticose growth types were the most frequently recorded species (namely Usnea spp. and Leptogium puberulum) together with widely distributed fungi mycelia, while crustose lichens were not found. Although these two lichen species are also locally the most common, their frequency of occurrence in the traps was largely unrelated to local dominance, indicating long-distance dispersal. On the other hand, the dispersed community assembly was related to overall lichen cover and ground physical structure (clast size). There was a gradient of species occurrence frequency increasing with maximal clast size and distance from the glacier front. These results imply that there is no dispersal limitation (at least for certain lichen species) in the colonization of newly deglaciated substrates at the regional scale on James Ross Island. However, lichen establishment is rather rare, and growth of a lichen community is therefore a long-term process. Keywords: Antarctic · James Ross Island · Macrolichen community assembly · Lichen functional traits · Local species pool · Soredia · Fragments of thalli.
29805Kraus D., Bütler R., Krumm F., Lachat T., Larrieu L., Mergner U., Paillet Y., Rydkvist T., Schuck A. & Winter S. (2016): Catalogue of tree microhabitats – Reference field list. - Integrate Technical Paper, European Forest Institute, Freiburg, 16 p.
Technical paper downloadable at: www.integrateplus.org
29804Asbeck T., Pyttel P., Frey J. & Bauhus J. (2019): Predicting abundance and diversity of tree-related microhabitats in Central European montane forests from common forest attributes. - Forest Ecology and Management, 432: 400–408.
The continued provision of old-growth elements in forest landscapes is a critical factor for biodiversity conservation in Central Europe. A well-established method for predicting the potential of forests to maintain biodiversity is to quantify tree-related microhabitat structures (TreMs). Our aim was to predict the TreM abundance and diversity for collectives of TreM-bearing trees; here 15 large trees per plot that were preselected by the largest crown sizes using remote sensing information. TreMs were inventoried on 2085 living trees across 139 plots (each 1 ha) in montane forests of the Black Forest, southwest Germany according to a detailed catalogue comprising 64 different TreM structures. We tested the influence of forest management, forest cover in the surrounding landscape (25 km radius), forest type, the number of standing dead trees, altitude and mean diameter at breast height (DBH) on the abundance and diversity of TreMs on living trees. All plots are managed or have been recently (20–40 yrs) abandoned from management. Generalized linear models (GLM) were used to identify the drivers of abundance and diversity of TreMs. The abundance of TreMs borne by the 15 large trees per plot is greater on plots located at higher altitudes. Increasing mean DBH leads to significantly higher abundance and diversity of TreMs. Groups of TreM-bearing trees in monospecific coniferous forests have the highest abundance but those in mixed-coniferousbroadleaved forests have the greatest diversity of TreMs. The occurrences of 11 out of 64 specific TreM structures were related to forest management, forest type, altitude or mean DBH. Large branch holes and buttress cavities increased with mean DBH and were found more frequently in mixed-coniferous-broadleaved forests than in the other forest types. The abundance of epiphytes on TreM bearing trees increased with altitude. This study demonstrates that the average abundance and diversity of TreMs can be predicted with readily available forest attributes. Additionally, the occurrence of specific TreMs could be described with the variation in these selected forest attributes. [p. 406:] "The altitude of plots had a significant influence on the abundance of some TreMs such as root buttress cavities and epiphytic lichens that increased with elevation."
29803Tengwall T.Å. (1928): Renlavarnas tillväxt och biologi i Torne och Lule Lappmarker. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 22(1–2): 18–32.
[in Swedish with German summary:] Der Zuwachs und die Biologie der Renntierflechten in den Torne- und Lule Lappmarken. Während der Jahre 1914—1919 unternahm der Verfasser Untersuchungen über den Zuwachs und die Biologie der Renntierflechten in Torne und Lule Lappmark. Zu diesem Zwecke wurden acht Versuchsquadrate, im allgemeinen von 15 X 15 m Grösse eingefriedet, so dass sie vor Remitieren geschützt wurden. Sie sind zwischen Gällivare und Riksgränsen gelegen und repräsentieren Kiefernwald, Fichtenwald, Birkenwald und Zwergstrauchheiden, sämtlich flechtenreich. Die Vegetation innerhalb der Versuchsquadrate wurde auf den Seiten 20—25 beschrieben. Innerhalb jedes Versuchsquadrates wurden bestimmte Exemplare Renntierflechten ausgewählt, deren Länge 1914—1917 sowie 1919 gemessen wurde. Die Flechtenarten, die untersucht wurden, sind Cladohia alpestris, C. rangiferina, C. silvatica, C. uncialis und Stereocaulon paschale. Das Ergebnis der Messungen geht aus den Tabellen I—V hervor, wo die Länge der Flechten in mm angegeben ist. — Im Sommer 1916 wurde eine Anzahl sehr kleine Flechtenindividuen ausgewählt; sie wurden auch 1917 und 1919 gemessen. Ihr Zuwachs wird in den Tabellen VI—X gezeigt. Das Ergebnis der Messungen zeigt u. a., dass die Zuwachsschnelligkeit der kleinen Individuen etwa dieselbe ist wie die der grossen. Erst wenn die Flechten sich ihrer Maximumgrösse nähern, wird der Zuwachs verlangsamt. Der kleinste Zuwachs wurde für die Flechten bei Riksgränsen notiert. Die Feuchtigkeit des Substrates dieser Einfriedungen war grösser als die der anderen, aber der unbedeutende Zuwachs der anderen wird nicht dadurch bewirkt, sondern dadurch, dass die Vegetationsperiode für diese Versuchsquadrate durch das späte Schmelzen des Schnees und die frühen Schneegestöber beträchtlich kürzer ist, als für die ersteren. Es zeigte sich, dass gewisse, grosse Flechtenindividuen während der ganzen Untersuchungsperiode' nicht wuchsen; diese haben also ihre Maximumgrösse (45—65 mm) erreicht. Davon ausgehend kann man für die verschiedenen Flechtenarten die Zeit approximativ berechnen, die für sie erforderlich ist, um diese Grösse zu erreichen. Claclonia alpestris braucht 30—45 Jahre, um (SO mm hoch zu werden. Cladonia rangiferina erreicht dieselbe Höhe in 15—20 Jahren; Cladonia silvatica fordert 20—30 Jahre. Cladonia uncialis wurde nur in wenigen Versuchsquadraten gemessen, weshalb aus diesen Messungen keine Schlüsse gezogen werden können; sie wächst wahrscheinlich ziemlich schnell. Stereocaulon paschale braucht c:a 15 Jahre um 50 mm Höhe — ihre Maximumgrösse — zu erreichen. Wie aus diesen Berechnungen hervorgeht, braucht ein Flechtenboden 15—30 Jahre um regeneriert zu werden. Stereocaulon dürfte in diesem Falle die Rolle eines Pioniers spielen, weil es schneller als die Cladoniae wächst. Ihre Ökologie ist von der der anderen ein wenig verschieden, da sie die kleinen Vertiefungen und andere feuchteren Teile des Standorts bevorzugt. Sie ist ausserdem ausgezeichnet durch ihre Fähigkeit in die aus Becher-Cladonien gebildeten Teppiche von sterilen Thalluslappen und Podetien einzudringen und diese zu verdrängen. Wenn dies geschehen ist, dringen die strauchförmigen Cladoniae ein.
29802Sterner R. (1925): Einige Notizen über die Vegetation der Insel Öland. Führer für die vierte I. P. E.. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 19(3): 303–322.
29801Nilsson G. (1929): Magnusson, A. H., Flora över Skandinaviens busk- och bladlavar. Utarbetad huvudsakligen för nybörjare. — Stockholm. P. A. Norstedt & Söners förlag (Svenska Bokförlaget) 1929. 127 s., 6 pl., 11 textfig. 8:o. Pris (häftad) kr. 8: —. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 23(4): 506–508.
[in Swedish] book review
29800Nilsson G. (1929): Anders, Josef, Die Strauch-und Laubflechten Mitteleuropas. Anleitung zum Bestimmen der in Mitteleuropa vorkommenden Strauch- und Laubflechten. — Jena. Verlag von Gustav Fischer. 1928. Med 8 avbildningar i texten och 30 ljustryckstavlor. 217 sid. 4:o. Pris häftad Rm. 30: —, inbunden Rm. 32: —. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 23(4): 508–511.
[in Swedish] book review
29799Malme G.O.A. (1926): Några lavar från Trosatrakten. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 20(1): 52–59.
29798Malme G.O. (1927): Ytterligare några lavar från Trosatrakten. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 21(3): 361–364.
29797Malme G.O. (1927): Lichenologiska notiser. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 21(2): 251–259.
Rinodina efflorescens sp. nov.
29796Malme G.O. (1924): Lichenologiska notiser. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 18(2): 312–318.
29795Malme G.O. (1924): En ny fyndort i Västergötland för Cetraria normoerica (Gunn.) Lynge. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 18(4): 548–550.
29794Magnusson A.H. (1927): A Monograph of the British Lichens. A Descriptive Catalogue of the Species in the Department of Botany, British Museum. Part II. Second Edition. Revised by Annie Lorrain Smith. F. L. S. London 1926. Printed by order of the Trustees of the British Museum. 447 sid. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 21(1): 98–100.
[in Swedish]; book review
29793Erikson J. (1921): Karl Fredrik Dusén. * 1/7 1819, † 14/7 1919. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 15(2–4): 278–281.
[in Swedish]; obituary, biography
29792Hesselman H. (1920): Usnea longissima Ach. i Värmland. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 14(4): 349.
29791Du Rietz G.E. (1926): Den subantarktiska florans bipolära element i lichenologisk belysning. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 20(2): 299–303.
[in Swedish] extract from conference (autoreferat)
29790Du Rietz G.E. (1923): Studien über die Helianthemum oelandicum-Assoziationen auf Öland. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 17(1): 69–82.
29789Du Rietz G.E. (1925): Die Hauptzüge der Vegetation der Insel Jungfrun. Führer für die vierte I. P. E.. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 19(3): 323–346.
29788Du Rietz G.E. (1925): Die Hauptzüge der Vegetation des äusseren Schärenhofes von Stockholm. Führer für die vierte I. P. E.. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 19(3): 347–369.
29787Du Rietz G.E. (1925): Die Bedeutung der sekundären Standortsfaktoren. Eine Berichtigung. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 19(2): 232–235.
29786Abdel-Hameed M.E., Bertrand R.L., Donald L.J. & Sorensen J.L. (2018): Lichen ketosynthase domains are not responsible for inoperative polyketide synthases in Ascomycota hosts. - Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 503: 1228–1234.
Efforts by lichenologists to characterize lichen polyketide synthases (PKS) through heterologous expression experiments have so far proved unfruitful. A determination of systematic causes of failure is therefore required. Three hypotheses involving the ketosynthase (KS) domain of lichen polyketide synthases (PKS) from Cladonia uncialis are tested: (1) Horizontal versus vertical gene transfer; (2) Typical versus atypical active site residues; (3) Typical versus atypical tertiary protein structure and active site architecture. Phylogenetics, amino acid sequence alignment, and protein modelling indicate that C. uncialis PKS evolved through vertical transfer from Ascomycota fungi, possess Cys-His-His catalytic triads typical of KS from most organisms, and possess protein and catalytic site architecture identical to well-characterized KS from non-lichen organisms. Though the reason for lack of functional activity in heterologous hosts remains unknown, complications involving the KS are ruled out as a likely explanation. Heterologous translation of lichen PKS (or parts thereof) have not been reported. We demonstrate heterologous translation of two lichen KS domains in E. coli. Keywords: Polyketides; Lichen; Ketosynthase; Protein expression; Mass spektrometry; Usnic acid.
29785Kim M.-K., Kim M.-A., Yim J.H., Lee D.-H., Cho S.K. & Yang S.-G. (2018): Ramalin, an antioxidant compound derived from Antarctic lichen, prevents progression of liver fibrosis induced by dimethylnitrosamine (DNM) in rats. - Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 504: 25–33.
Hepatic fibrosis is characterized by the excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM), primarily collagen, within the liver. Because reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in its pathogenesis, the use of antioxidants as a potential treatment has been broadly explored. Here, we investigated the hepatoprotective properties of ramalin (RM), a compound extracted from the Antarctic lichen Ramalina terebrata, against hepatic fibrosis in vitro and in vivo. RM suppressed hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation in vitro without any significant signs of adverse effects on the cells tested, and the accumulation of ECM was dramatically reduced in the liver tissue. Oral administration of RM in rats noticeably improved the gross appearance of the liver with increased body and liver weight relative to the DMN injected rats, and all of the serum biochemical markers returned to the normal range. RM treatment have ameliorated hepatic fibrosis in rats induced by DMN by repressing α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and upregulating heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). In addition, RM significantly reduced collagen accumulation, and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydroxyproline (HP) in the liver tissue of DMN injected rats. The efficacy exerted by RM was through erythroid 2–related factor 2 (Nrf2) mediated antioxidant response proteins such as HO-1 and NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1 (NQO-1). Our results show the beneficial effect of RM against the progression of hepatic fibrosis. Keywords: Ramalin; Antarctic lichen extract; Antioxidant; Hepatic fibrosis; Reactive oxigen species.
29784Vinyard D.J., Ananyeva G.M. & Dismukes G.C. (2018): Desiccation tolerant lichens facilitate in vivo H/D isotope effect measurements in oxygenic photosynthesis. - Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Bioenergetics , 1859(10): 1039–1044.
We have used the desiccation-tolerant lichen Flavoparmelia caperata, containing the green algal photobiont Trebouxia gelatinosa, to examine H/D isotope effects in Photosystem II in vivo. Artifact-free H/D isotope effects on both PSII primary charge separation and water oxidation yields were determined as a function of flash rate from chlorophyll-a variable fluorescence yields. Intact lichens could be reversibly dehydrated/re-hydrated with H2O/D2O repeatedly without loss of O2 evolution, unlike all isolated PSII preparations. Above a threshold flash rate, PSII charge separation decreases sharply in both D2O and H2O, reflecting loss of excitation migration and capture by PSII. Changes in H/D coordinates further slow charge separation in D2O (−23% at 120 Hz), attributed to reoxidation of the primary acceptor QA−. At intermediate flash rates (5–50 Hz) D2O decreases water oxidation efficiency (O2 evolution) by −2–5%. No significant isotopic difference is observed at slow flash rates (<5 Hz) where charge recombination dominates. Slower D2O diffusion, changes in hydrogen bonding networks, and shifts in the pKa's of ionizable residues may all contribute to these systematic variations of H/D isotope effects. Lichens' reversible desiccation tolerance allows highly reproducible H/D exchange kinetics in PSII reactions to be studied in vivo for the first time. Keywords: Photosystem II; Lichens; Isotope effects; Water oxidation.
29783Barre J.P.G., Deletraz G., Sola-Larrañaga C., Santamaria J.M., Bérail S., Donard O.F.X. & Amouroux D. (2018): Multi-element isotopic signature (C, N, Pb, Hg) in epiphytic lichens to discriminate atmospheric contamination as a function of land-use characteristics (Pyrénées-Atlantiques, SW France). - Environmental Pollution, 96: 961–971.
Multi-elemental isotopic approach associated with a land-use characteristic sampling strategy may be relevant for conducting biomonitoring studies to determine the spatial extent of atmospheric contamination sources. In this work, we investigated how the combined isotopic signatures in epiphytic lichens of two major metallic pollutants, lead (206Pb/207Pb) and mercury (δ202Hg, Δ199Hg), together with the isotopic composition of nitrogen and carbon (δ15N, δ13C), can be used to better constrain atmospheric contamination inputs. To this end, an intensive and integrated sampling strategy based on land-use characteristics (Geographic information system, GIS) over a meso-scale area (Pyrénées-Atlantiques, SW France) was applied to more than 90 sampling stations. To depict potential relationships between such multi-elemental isotopic fingerprint and land-use characteristics, multivariate analysis was carried out. Combined Pb and Hg isotopic signatures resolved spatially the contribution of background atmospheric inputs from long range transport, from local legacy contamination (i.e. Pb) or actual industrial inputs (i.e. Pb and Hg from steel industry). Application of clustering multivariate analysis to all studied isotopes provided a new assessment of the region in accordance with the land-use characteristics and anthropogenic pressures.
29782Degtjarenko P., Matos P., Marmor L., Branquinho C. & Randlane T. (2018): Functional traits of epiphytic lichens respond to alkaline dust pollution. - Fungal Ecology, 36: 81–88.
Dust pollution has a harmful impact on the environment and human health. Lichen trait-based metrics are increasingly used to monitor effects of air pollution, but studies using this technique to monitor the effects of dust pollution are still scarce. Functional traits of lichens along a gradient of long-term alkaline dust pollution were investigated. Species composition was affected along this gradient according to two easily identifiable “soft” traits (growth form and main reproductive strategy) and one expert-assessed “hard” trait (species preference for substrate pH). Particularly, crustose species and lichens with sexual reproduction were related to the most polluted side of the gradient and higher pH, while foliose narrow-lobed species and lichens with asexual reproduction were associated with the opposite side. Keywords: Air pollution; Ecological indicators; Estonia; Lichenized fungi; Limestone; Particulate matter; pH Trait-based ecology.
29781Allen J.L., McKenzie S.K., Sleith R.S. & Alter S.E. (2018): First genome-wide analysis of the endangered, endemic lichen Cetradonia linearis reveals isolation by distance and strong population structure . - American Journal of Botany, 105(9): 1556–1567.
Premise of the study: Lichenized fungi are evolutionarily diverse and ecologically important, but little is known about the processes that drive their diversification and genetic differentiation. Distributions are often assumed to be wholly shaped by ecological requirements rather than dispersal limitations. Furthermore, although asexual and sexual reproductive structures are observable, the lack of information about recombination rates makes inferences about reproductive strategies difficult. We investigated the population genomics of Cetradonia linearis, a federally endangered lichen in the southern Appalachians of eastern North America, to test the relative contributions of environmental and geographic distance in shaping genetic structure, and to characterize the mating system and genome-wide recombination. Methods: Whole-genome shotgun sequencing was conducted to generate data for 32 individuals of C. linearis. A reference genome was assembled, and reads from all samples were aligned to generate a set of single-nucleotide polymorphisms for further analyses. Key results: We found evidence for low rates of recombination and for isolation by distance, but not for isolation by environment. The species is putatively unisexual, given that only one mating-type locus was found. Hindcast species distribution models and the distribution of genetic diversity support C. linearis having a larger range during the Last Glacial Maximum in the southern portion of its current extent. Conclusions: Our findings contribute to the understanding of factors that shape genetic diversity in C. linearis and in fungi more broadly. Because all populations are highly genetically differentiated, the extirpation of any population would mean the loss of unique genetic diversity; therefore, our results support the continued conservation of this species. Key words: biogeography; Cladoniaceae; conservation genetics; endangered species; fungal biology; Gymnoderma lineare; population genetics; population genomics; rock gnome; symbiosis.
29780Ivanova V., Bačkor M., Dahse H.-M. & Graefe U. (2010): Molecular structural studies of lichen substances with antimicrobial, antiproliferative, and cytotoxic effects from Parmelia subrudecta. - Preparative Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 40(4): 377–388.
Lecanoric acid (1), orsellinic acid methyl ester (2), orcinol (3), and usnic acid (4) were isolated from the lichen Parmelia subrudecta, collected on Palma of the Canary Islands, Spain. Compounds 1, 2, 3, and 4 were purified by solvent extraction, silica gel column chromatography, and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) consecutively. The structures of the four compounds were elucidated by one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments and mass spectrometric investigations. These compounds showed activity against important gram-positive and gram-negative pathogens like mycobacteria and multiresistant staphylococci. This activity is combined with antiproliferative activity and cytotoxicity. Keywords: antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects, bioresources, lecanoric acid, lichens, orcinol, orsellinic acid methyl ester, Parmelia subrudecta, usnic acid.
29779Drbal K., Elster J. & Komárek J. (1992): Heavy metals in water, ice and biological material from Spitsbergen, Svalbard. - Polar Research, 11(2): 99–101.
Concentrations of heavy metals Zn, Mn, Cu, Fe, Ni, Cr, Pb, Cd, Hg and Co were determined in surface waters, glacier ice and plant and animal materials from three regions in Spitsbergen, Svalbard. The concentrations of these metals in two samples of surface waters and in the vascular plants from Spitsbergen were found to be lower than what is commonly found in Cental Europe. Elevated concentrations were found in old ice from the surface of a glacier. The concentrations of heavy metals in algae were lower than in vascular plants. The concentrations of metals in the samples of feathers and animal hair from Spitsbergen were higher than what is common for Central Europe.
29778Pipíška M., Horník M., Vrtoch L., Augustín J. & Lesný J. (2008): Biosorption of Zn and Co ions by Evernia prunastri from single and binary metal solutions. - Chemistry and Ecology, 24(3): 181–190.
Dried biomass of lichen Evernia prunastri was studied as biosorbent for zinc and cobalt removal from single and binary ZnCl2 and CoCl2 solutions. The solution pH significantly influenced both cobalt and zinc biosorption. Maximum uptake was reached at pH 4–6 and negligible biosorption was observed at pH 2. The experimental data were fitted to the adsorption isotherms. The Langmuir, Redlich-Peterson and Langmuir-Freundlich isotherms were found to represent the measured sorption data well. The maximum sorption capacities onto lichen biomass from single metal solutions calculated by Langmuir equation were 112 μmol g−1 for Zn and 97 μmol g−1 for Co. To evaluate the Zn-Co sorption system, simple curves were replaced by three-dimensional sorption isotherm surfaces. Binary Langmuir type equations were used to fit the experimental data. Results revealed that E. prunastri exhibited preferential uptake of zinc from equimolar binary Zn 2+−Co 2+ mixtures. Keywords: sorption, Evernia prunastri , zinc, cobalt, isotherms.
29777Demková L., Bobul’ská L., Árvay J., Jezný T. & Ducsay L. (2017): Biomonitoring of heavy metals contamination by mosses and lichens around Slovinky tailing pond (Slovakia). - Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A, 52(1): 30–36.
Three moss (Pleurozium spp., Polytrichum spp., and Rhytidiadelphus spp.) and two lichen (Hypogymnia physodes and Pseudevernia furfuracea) taxons covered in the bags were used to monitor air quality. Bags were exposed at the different distances from the tailing pond because of insufficient security and source of heavy metal pollution. Moss/lichen bags were exposed for six weeks at 0-, 50-, 100-, 150- and 200-m distances from Slovinky tailing pond, in the main wind direction (down the valley). Accumulation ability of heavy metals expressed by relative accumulation factor (RAF) increases in the order of Polytrichum spp.
29776Eaton S. & Ellis C.J. (2012): Local experimental growth rates respond to macroclimate for the lichen epiphyte Lobaria pulmonaria. - Plant Ecology & Diversity, 5(3): 365–372.
Background: Bioclimatic models are widely applied in biogeography and conservation biology; however, the functional relevance of macroclimate as an explanation for species performance (e.g. establishment, growth and survival, fecundity) has been challenged. Aims: In this study, we aimed to determine whether the ecological performance of an epiphytic lichen is related to coarse-grained macroclimate. Methods: A meta-analysis was carried out to compare local growth rates for a lichen epiphyte, Lobaria pulmonaria, to coarse-grained interpolated climate surfaces. Growth rates were sampled from small-scale experiments conducted within different forest settings and for different regions of the world. Generalised linear mixed models were used to compare thallus growth (response) to a suite of climatic variables derived from the WorldClim dataset. Results: A significant relationship between thallus growth measured for experimental forest microhabitats and macroclimatic variables (total precipitation and annual mean temperature) was found. This relationship was validated through a comparison with L. pulmonaria's North American range for which projected growth rates were higher and lower where the species tended to be present and absent, respectively. Conclusions: The ecological relevance of coarse-grained macroclimate applied in bioclimatic modelling has been challenged. We show that the use of macroclimatic data may be functionally defensible where correlated with independent measures of local ecological success. Keywords: bioclimatic modelling, epiphyte, growth rates, Lobaria pulmonaria , macroclimate, North America.
29775Moore O. & Crawley M.J. (2015): Red deer impacts on the montane Racomitrium lanuginosum moss-heath community in north-west Scotland. - Plant Ecology & Diversity, 8(3): 427–436.
Background: The effect of sheep grazing on the internationally important moss-heath community of the British uplands has been well studied but less is known about the impact of red deer (Cervus elaphus). Aim: To compare the impact of different densities of red deer on bryophytes and lichens associated with moss-heath vegetation at Beinn Eighe National Nature Reserve (low deer density) and a traditional sporting estate at Letterewe (with higher deer density), Scotland. Methods: Suitable pairs of summit study sites were selected at random, and species cover data were collected from thirty 1-m2 quadrats at each location. The dung pellet group count method was used to estimate red deer usage. Generalised linear models were fitted to the data. Results: Mean graminoid cover was significantly higher in two of the Letterewe study sites compared with their Beinn Eighe counterparts. Bryophyte cover and height in general matched the pattern for Racomitrium lanuginosum in that they were not significantly different between any of the study site pairings. Conclusions: Despite differences in mean deer density between the Beinn Eighe and Letterewe properties as a whole, red deer numbers actually using the exposed summit moss-heath vegetation were estimated to be very low. Therefore, bryophyte cover within the Letterewe summit study sites was not significantly different from that at Beinn Eighe. Keywords: Beinn Eighe, bryophyte, Cervus elaphus, graminoid, lichen, sheep grazing, summit vegetation.
29774Colloff M.J. (1988): Species associations of oribatid mites in lichens on the island of Ailsa Craig, Firth of Clyde (Acarei: Cryptostigmata). - Journal of Natural History, 22(4): 1111–1119.
Species associations of oribatid mites in maritime lichens on the island of Ailsa Craig, Firth of Clyde, were investigated. The thirteen lichen species examined yielded a total of seventeen oribatid species assignable to two discrete associations. One was characteristic of foliose lichens on exposed rocks and the other was found in terricolous fruticose lichen on acid healthland. Morphology of the lichen thallus and altitude of the collection site were found to influence the abundance, occurrence and species diversity of the mites. Keywords : Oribatid mites, species associations, maritime lichens, Ailsa Craig.
29773Ellis C.J. & Eaton S. (2016): Future non-analogue climates for Scotland’s temperate rainforest. - Scottish Geographical Journal, 132(3–4): 257–268.
Temperate rainforest is restricted to a globally rare set of climatic conditions. Scotland has among the best remaining examples of intact temperate rainforest in Europe, characterised ecologically by a unique assemblage of epiphytic bryophytes and lichens. Given climatic control on rainforest distribution and ecology, climate change is a probable risk to Scotland’s rainforest. This study investigated climate change impacts for 20 target sites, classified based on (i) bioclimatic conditions, and (ii) epiphytic diversity, into contrasting rainforest and more continental (non-rainforest) examples. Space-for-time matching identified climate analogues within the European conservation forest network, which at present have a climate similar to that expected of the target sites during the 2080s (WorldClim datasets). The results show that 2080s analogues for sites in more continental north-eastern Scotland occur in Wales and southern England. However, Scottish rainforest sites were their own ‘best analogues’ through to the 2080s, despite the fact that their climate is projected to change significantly; they had no suitable future analogue within Europe’s conservation forest network. These contrasting regional patterns highlight the need for a flexible approach to species conservation during climate change, including a strategy to cope with ecological uncertainty in Scotland’s zone of oceanic rainforest. Key Words: bryophyte, climate change, epiphytes, lichen, woodland ecology, WorldClim.
29772Young M.E. (1998): Algal and lichen growth following chemical stone cleaning. - Journal of Architectural Conservation, 4(3): 48–58.
Chemical cleaning methods have commonly been used to remove soiling from sandstone building facades. There has been anecdotal evidence suggesting that algal regrowth on facades can be increased following cleaning. It is shown here that both algal and lichen growths on sandstones may be substantially increased following chemical cleaning if the cleaning agents leave residues of phosphate (a nutrient normally in limited supply) in the sandstone. The growth of algae and lichens on samples of chemically-cleaned sandstones has been followed over five years. The effects of chemical residues with respect to biological growths were found to vary substantially depending on the characteristics of the sandstone. Phosphate may be chemically bound to iron compounds in sandstones. Iron-rich sandstones can therefore retain more residual phosphate than iron-poor sandstones. The duration of increased algal growth was found to vary from two years (iron-poor sandstone) to over five years (iron-rich sandstone). Where the sandstone was of low porosity and algal growth was consequently slow to become established, increased algal growth could be delayed until three years following cleaning. Lichens appeared to be stimulated by lower amounts of phosphate, and increased lichen growth was found to be of longer duration than increased algal growth. Biological growths can be disfiguring, may encourage soiling and some are capable of causing damage to stone. These results indicate that phosphate-bearing chemical cleaning methods should be used with caution on porous stone types in situations where biological growths could cause problems.
29771Fryday A.M. (2001): Effects of grazing animals on upland/montane lichen vegetation in Great Britain. - Botanical Journal of Scotland, 53(1): 1–19.
The effects of grazing animals on montane lichen vegetation was shown to be both quantitative and qualitative, and to decrease with increasing elevation. There was a significant decrease in biomass of fruticose lichens, which were also fragmented so that colonies were smaller and did not form luxuriant cushions. There was an increase in the influence of the substratum due to the destruction of the deep vascular plant and bryophyte layer. There was also an increase in the number of crustose species, due to reduced competition from vascular plants and exposure of additional habitats. Lichen species diversity was shown to be inversely related to the height of the vascular-plant vegetation. Key words: Moorhouse, Snowdon, Inchnadamph, Red deer, Sheep, Exclosure, Biodiversity, Montane, Lichen.
29770Hansell M.H. (1996): The function of lichen flakes and white spider cocoons on the outer surface of birds' nests. - Journal of Natural History, 30(2): 303–311.
The predictions from two hypotheses for the adaptive significance of the application of lichen flakes and white silk cocoons to the outer surface of bird nests are compared. The hypotheses are: (a) concealment by resemblance to the branches to which the nest is attached, and (b) concealment by light reflection to make the nest dissolve into the background beyond the site of attachment. The predictions are tested with evidence obtained from a sample of 42 Long-tailed Tit (Aegithalos caudatus) nests and 64 Blue-grey Gnatcatcher (Polyoptila caerulea) nests, and from examination of single nests of over 50 other species. Little evidence is found to support branch matching although this hypothesis may partly or wholly explain the external application of lichen to the nests of some species. The hypothesis of concealment by light reflection is supported by the data, in particular by the general absence of lichen on branches to which lichen-covered nests are attached and the substitution in some species of pieces of white man-made materials for pieces of lichen or white silk cocoons. Thus concealment by light reflection is probably an important method of nest camouflage for a range of species of small bird. Keywords : Bird, nest, cryptic, lichen, spider cocoon.
29769Tuovila H., Cobbinah J.R. & Rikkinen J. (2011): Chaenothecopsis khayensis, a new resinicolous calicioid fungus on African mahogany. - Mycologia, 103(3): 610–615.
The new species Chaenothecopsis khayensis (Ascomycota, Mycocaliciaceae) is described from Ghana, western Africa, on the resin of Khaya anthotheca and K. ivorensis. The species is distinctive in forming asci without crosiers and in possessing ascospores that are faintly longitudinally striate. Analysis of large subunit rDNA gene sequences positioned this species within a clade corresponding to the Mycocaliciales and identified its closest relative as Sphinctrina leucopoda. Chaenothecopsis khayensis occurs commonly on resin exuding from trees damaged by the larvae of the mahogany shoot borer (Hypsipyla sp.), and we discuss the possible ecological relationship between the fungus and these moths. Keywords: exudate, insect dispersal, Mycocaliciales, resinicolous fungi.
29768Zamora J.C., Millanes A.M., Wedin M., Rico V.J. & Pérez-Ortega S. (2016): Understanding lichenicolous heterobasidiomycetes: new taxa and reproductive innovations in Tremella s.l.. - Mycologia, 108(2): 381–396.
Four new lichenicolous Tremella species are described and characterized morphologically and molecularly. Tremella celata grows on Ramalina fraxinea, inducing the formation of inconspicuous galls, and having hyphae with incomplete clamps. Tremella endosporogena develops intrahymenially in the apothecia of Lecanora carpinea, having single-celled basidia and clampless hyphae. Tremella diederichiana is the name proposed for a species micromorphologically close to T. christiansenii but inducing the formation of small, pale galls on the thallus and apothecia of Lecidea aff. erythrophaea. Tremella variae grows on Lecanora varia thallus, instead of on the apothecia, as do the other known Tremella species parasitizing Lecanora s.l. Phylogenetic relationships and host specificity of these species are investigated and compared with other taxa that show morphological resemblances, phylogenetic affinities or similar hosts. The formation of mitotic conidia inside old basidia (endospores), which is a poorly known reproductive strategy in the Basidiomycota, is also a distinctive character of Tremella endosporogena. A discussion on the reproductive role and systematic implications of endospores is included. Keywords: endospores, host specificity, ITS, rDNA, Tremellomycetes.
29767Suija A., van den Boom P., Zimmermann E., Zhurbenko M.P. & Diederich P. (2018): Lichenicolous species of Hainesia belong to Phacidiales (Leotiomycetes) and are included in an extended concept of Epithamnolia. - Mycologia, 109(6) [2017]: 882–899.
The lichenicolous taxa currently included in the genus Hainesia were studied based on the nuclear rDNA (18S, 28S, and internal transcribed spacer [ITS]) genes. The authors found that lichenicolous taxa form a distinct lineage sister to Epiglia gloeocapsae (Phacidiales, Leotiomycetes), only distantly related to the type species of Hainesia (Chaetomellaceae, Helotiales). Owing to morphological similarities, the authors include the lichenicolous species into the previously monotypic genus Epithamnolia. A new species, Epithamnolia rangiferinae, is described, several names are reduced into synonymy, and a key to the species of Epithamnolia is provided. The incorporation of public environmental ITS sequences showed that the closest relatives of these lichenicolous taxa are various endophytic, endolichenic, and soil-inhabiting fungi. Keywords: Asexual ascomycetes, environmental sequences, intraspecific variation, rRNA secondary structure.
29766Liu D., Goffinet B., Ertz D., De Kesel A., Wang X., Hur J.-S., Shi H., Zhang Y., Yang M. & Wang L. (2018): Circumscription and phylogeny of the Lepidostromatales (lichenized Basidiomycota) following discovery of new species from China and Africa. - Mycologia, 109(5) [2017]: 730–748.
Based on an exhaustive sampling of all known Lepidostromatales, a lineage of clavarioid lichen-forming basidiomycetes, we assess (i) the phylogenetic affinities of the six Chinese species currently accommodated in Multiclavula (Cantharellales) based on inferences from the 18S and 28S subunits of the nuclear ribosomal DNA repeat and (ii) the phylogenetic structure among Chinese populations of Lepidostromatales, based on the nuc rDNA ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 (internal transcribed spacer [ITS]) regions. Multiclavula fossicola and M. sinensis belong to the Lepidostromatales and are transferred to Sulzbacheromyces. Chinese reports of M. clara and M. vernalis belong to species of Lepidostromatales, and specimens identified as M. mucida belong to the nonlichenized genus Clavaria. Hence, evidence of Multiclavula occurring in China is lacking. Similarly, L. calocerum is excluded from the Chinese flora. The recently described L. asianum should be regarded as conspecific with S. sinensis. Three new species of Sulzbacheromyces are described: S. bicolor and S. yunnanensis from China and S. miomboensis from the Democratic Republic of Congo. Consequently, Sulzbacheromyces is new to Asia and Africa. A worldwide key to the species of Lepidostromatales is provided. Keywords: China, Lepidostroma, Multiclavula, Sulzbacheromyces.
29765Elshobary M.E., Osman M.E., Abo-Shady A.M., Komatsu E., Perreault H., Sorensen J. & Piercey-Normore M.D. (2017): Algal carbohydrates affect polyketide synthesis of the lichen-forming fungus Cladonia rangiferina. - Mycologia, 108(4) [2016]: 646–656.
Lichen secondary metabolites (polyketides) are produced by the fungal partner, but the role of algal carbohydrates in polyketide biosynthesis is not clear. This study examined whether the type and concentration of algal carbohydrate explained differences in polyketide production and gene transcription by a lichen fungus (Cladonia rangiferina). The carbohydrates identified from a free-living cyanobacterium (Spirulina platensis; glucose), a lichen-forming alga (Diplosphaera chodatii; sorbitol) and the lichen alga that associates with C. rangiferina (Asterochloris sp.; ribitol) were used in each of 1%, 5% and 10% concentrations to enrich malt yeast extract media for culturing the mycobiont. Polyketides were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and polyketide synthase (PKS) gene transcription was measured by quantitative PCR of the ketosynthase domain of four PKS genes. The lower concentrations of carbohydrates induced the PKS gene expression where ribitol up-regulated CrPKS1 and CrPKS16 gene transcription and sorbitol up-regulated CrPKS3 and CrPKS7 gene transcription. The HPLC results revealed that lower concentrations of carbon sources increased polyketide production for three carbohydrates. One polyketide from the natural lichen thallus (fumarprotocetraric acid) also was produced by the fungal culture in ribitol supplemented media only. This study provides a better understanding of the role of the type and concentration of the carbon source in fungal polyketide biosynthesis in the lichen Cladonia rangiferina. Keywords: axenic culture, HPLC, lichen algae, polyols, qPCR, secondary metabolite.
29764Muggia L., Mancinelli R., Tønsberg T., Jablonska [recte Jabłońska] A., Kukwa M. & Palice Z. (2017): Molecular analyses uncover the phylogenetic placement of the lichenized hyphomycetous genus Cheiromycina. - Mycologia, 109(4): 588–600.
The genus Cheiromycina is one of the few genera of lichenized hyphomycetes for which no sexual reproductive stages have been observed. The genus includes species from boreal to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere where it is found growing on bark or wood. Congeners in Cheiromycina are characterized by a noncorticate thallus, nearly immersed in the substrate and presenting powdery unpigmented sporodochia, and containing chlorococcoid photobionts. The relationships of members of Cheiromycina with other fungi are not known. Here we inferred the phylogenetic placement of Cheiromycina using three loci (nuSSU, nuLSU, and mtSSU) representing C. flabelliformis, the type species for the genus, C. petri, and C. reimeri. Our results revealed that the genus Cheiromycina is found within the family Malmideaceae (Lecanorales) where members formed a monophyletic clade sister to the genera Savoronala and Malmidea. This phylogenetic placement and the relationships of Cheiromycina with other lichenized hyphomycetous taxa are here discussed. Keywords: Cheiroid conidia; Lecanorales; Malmideaceae; mycobiont; ribosomal DNA; symbiosis.
29763Du Rietz G.E. (1925): Tobler, Friedrich, Biologie der Flechten. Entwicklung und Begriff der Symbiose. Leipzig 1925. (Verlag von Gebrüder Borntraeger). 265 sidor, 67 textfigurer och en färglagd tavla. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 19(4): 525–527.
[in Swedish] book review
29762Konoreva L.A., Chesnokov S.V. & Poryadina L.N. (2018): Lichen genus Micarea Fr. in Asian Part of Russia. Sakha Republic (Yakutia) and Trans-Baikal Territory. - Turczaninowia, 21(3): 102–120.
Fourteen species of Micarea Fr. were found in the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) and nothern part of Trans- Baikal Territory. M. prasina and M. denigrata groups were identified by studiyng the lichen substances using standard technique of thin-layer chromatography (TLC) in solvent systems A and B. M. tomentosa Czarnota et Coppins is new to Eastern Siberia and M. incrassata Hedl. – to South Siberia. M. hedlundii Coppins, M. lignaria (Ach.) Hedl., M. tomentosa and M. incrassata are reported for the first time from Trans-Baikal Territory and M. elachista (Körb.) Coppins et R. Sant. – from Sakha Republic (Yakutia). M. cinerea (Schaer.) Hedl. and M. cf. pseudomarginata Coppins are given only according to literature data, because the original materials were unavailable to find or examined. Distribution in the territory of Sakha Republic (Yakutia) and Trans-Baikal Territory has been clarified for most of the listed species. Identification key, notes with diagnostic features and distribution data with maps for each species are provided. According to the results of our studies Asian part of Russia is much richer with lichens of the genus Micarea than it was previously known. Samples were deposited in the herbaria of Helsinki (H), the Komarov Botanical Institute (LE) and the Altai State University (ALTB). Keywords: distribution, Eastern Siberia, lichenized fungi, new records.
29761Urbanavichene I., Palice Z. & Urbanavichus G. (2018): New lichen records from the mountain forests of Southern Siberia. - Turczaninowia, 21(3): 81–88.
Based on the results of field works mainly in 2009–2017, new data on new and noteworthy lichen species from Southern Siberia are presented. The lichen specimens were collected predominantly by the first author in the mountain dark coniferous forests with Abies sibirica, Pinus sibirica, Populus suaveolens, Sorbus sibirica and Padus avium in Baikal State Nature Biosphere Reserve (Khamar-Daban Range, Republic of Buryatia) and Ergaki Nature Park (Western Sayan Mts, Krasnoyarsk Territory). In the present paper, 14 species are reported as new for the lichen flora of study areas, among them: Biatorella flavella is reported for the first time for Russia, Ropalospora viridis is new to Asia, 5 species – Bryoria vrangiana, Dictyocatenulata alba, Elixia flexella, Lecanora compallens and Micarea soralifera – are new for Siberia, Chaenotheca subroscida and Fuscidea arboricola are new for Southern Siberia, 4 species – Absconditella annexa, Caloplaca sorocarpa, Bryobilimbia sanguineoatra and Protothelenella sphinctrinoidella are new for Baikal Siberia, Caloplaca sorocarpa is new for Krasnoyarsk Territory, Pilophorus strumaticus is new for Republic of Buryatia. A full text of herbarium labels, some comments and comparisons with similar species are given. The information about distribution of all mentioned species in Russia and world is also presented. Our records considerably extend the ranges or fill gaps in the formerly disjunctive distributions of these species.
29760Tunblad R. (1937): Gyrophora rigida DR. funnen i Västergötland. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 31(4): 432–433.
29759Tunblad R. (1934): Två nya lokaler för Cladonia incrassata Flk.. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 28(4): 467–468.
29758Stålfelt M.G. (1939): Über die Natur der Licht- und Temperaturoptima in der Kohlensäureassimilation. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 33(4): 383–417.
29757Torén C.A. (1934): Ett litet bidrag till Smålands busk- och bladlavsflora. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 28(4): 468.
29756Palm B.T. (1932): Clavarien und Algen. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 26(1–2): 175–190.
29755Nilsson G. (1930): Haugsjå, Pål K., Über den Einfluss der Stadt Oslo auf die Flechten vegetation der Bäume. — Nyt Magazin for Naturvidenskaberne, Bd. LXVIII, Oslo 1930. 110 s. text, 10 s. kartor. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 24(3): 476–478.
[in Swedish] review
29754Neander G. (1939): Finnerödja sockens kärlväxtflora. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 33(2): 127–182.
[p. 134: ] several lichens listed (det. R. Sernander)
29753Malme G.O.A. (1937): Lichenologiska notiser. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 31(2): 176–185.
29752Malme G.O.A. (1936): Ein steinbewohnendes Cryptothelium, Cr. saxicolum n. sp.. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 30(3): 244–246.
29751Malme G.O.A. (1931): Två märkliga lavfynd på ön Karta i Sorunda (Södertörn). - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 25(2): 271–272.
29750Malme G.O.A. (1930): Ett bidrag till spetsbergsöarnas lavflora. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 24(2): 298–300.
29749Fries M. (1938): Ein neuer Fund von Parmelia Kernstockii Lynge et Zahlbr.. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 32(2): 212–214.
29748Du Rietz G.E. (1930): Classification and nomenclature of vegetation. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 24(4): 489–510.
29747Degelius G. (1939): Några lavfynd från Upplands urkalkområden. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 33(4): 423–428.
[in Swedish with German summary: ] Einige Flechtenfunde aus den Urkalk gebieten Upplands. — Polyblastia gelatinosa ist vorher aus Skandinavien nur von den Hochgebirgsgegenden Norwegens (wenige Fundorte) bekannt; einige nomenklatorische, systematische und pflanzengeographische Notizen nebst einem Schema über die in Skandinavien angetroffenen moos- und erdbewohnenden Polyblastia-Arten werden mitgeteilt. Staurothele rupifraga ist jetzt von 5 Fundorten in Schweden bekannt (in Östergötland, Södermanland, Uppland, Dalarne), Lempholemma isidioides von 4 (in Bohuslän, Västergötland, Östergötland, Uppland). Für die beiden Collema-Arten wird die Nordgrenze in Schweden durch die neuen Funde vorgeschoben.
29746Degelius G. (1934): Anteckningar till Smålands busk- och bladlavflora. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 28(3): 405–435.
29745Arwidsson T. (1936): Nya svenska lokaler för Siphula ceratites (Wg.) Fr.. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 30(2): 214–216.
29744Ahlner S. (1938): Cavernularia hultenii Degel. funnen i Skandinavien. En ny medborgare i Europas lavflora. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 32(2): 160–170.
29743Kirchhoff N., Hoppert M. & Hallmann C. (2018): Algal and fungal diversity on various dimension stone substrata in the Saale/Unstrut region. - Environmental Earth Sciences, 77:609 [10 p.].
Physical, chemical and biogenic weathering considerably threatens all historic stone monuments. Microorganisms, though inconspicuous, are key players of stone surface colonization and penetration. This study highlights eukaryotic microbial communities on dimension stone surfaces from two representative monuments of the “cultural landscape corridor” in the Saale–Unstrut area. The historical buildings were erected from local Triassic limestone and sandstone and are prone to various deteriorative mechanisms. Generally, trebouxiophyceaen algae and ascomycete fungi dominate among the latter dematiaceous fungi and lichen fungi are abundant. Inside the stone substratum, ascomycetes, mosses and even large soil organisms (tardigrades) are present. This may be taken as a hint for the formation of pores with large radii, which are “risk indicators” for progressive weathering and degradation of the rock matrix. Keywords: Endoliths; Biogenic weathering; Dematiaceous fungi; Terrestrial algae.
29742Selbmann L., Pacelli C., Zucconi L., Dadachova E., Moeller R., de Vera J.-P. & Onofri S. (2018): Resistance of an Antarctic cryptoendolithic black fungus to radiation gives new insights of astrobiological relevance. - Fungal Biology, 122(6): 546–554.
The Antarctic black meristematic fungus Cryomyces antarcticus CCFEE 515 occurs endolithically in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica, one of the best analogue for Mars environment on Earth. To date, this fungus is considered one of the best eukaryotic models for astrobiological studies and has been repeatedly selected for space experiments in the last decade. The obtained results are reviewed here, with special focus on responses to space relevant irradiation, UV radiation, and both sparsely and densely ionizing radiation, which represent the major injuries for a putative space-traveller. The remarkable resistance of this model organism to space stress, its radioresistance in particular, and mechanisms involved, significantly contributed to expanding our concept of limits for life and provided new insights on the origin and evolution of life in planetary systems, habitability, and biosignatures for life detection as well as on human protection during space missions. Keywords: Astrobiology; Desiccation; Melanin; Planetary protection; Radioprotection.
29741Tsuji M. (2018): A catalog of fungi recorded from the vicinity of Syowa Station. - Mycoscience, 59: 319–324.
The Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE) was started in 1957. The expedition marked its 60th anniversary in January 2017. In total 76 fungal species (61 ascomycetous fungi, including 9 unidentified species, and 16 basidiomycetous fungi) have thus far been recorded from the area around Syowa Station. In this review, I present a catalog of the fungal species isolated from the vicinity of Syowa Station to mark the 60th anniversary of JARE. Keywords: Antarctic fungi; Cold-adapted fungi; Lützow Holm Bay area.
29740Degtjarenko P., Tõrra T., Mandel T., Marmor L., Saag A., Scheidegger C. & Randlane T. (2018): Unconstrained gene flow between populations of a widespread epiphytic lichen Usnea subfloridana (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) in Estonia. - Fungal Biology, 122: 731–737.
Few studies have investigated the genetic diversity of populations of common and widespread lichenized fungi using microsatellite markers, especially the relationships between different measures of genetic diversity and environmental heterogeneity. The main aim of our study was to investigate the population genetics of a widespread and mainly clonally reproducing Usnea subfloridana at the landscape scale, focusing on the comparison of lichen populations within hemiboreal forest stands. Particular attention has been paid to the genetic differentiation of lichen populations in two geographically distinct regions in Estonia and the relationships between forest characteristics and measures of genetic diversity. We genotyped 578 Usnea thalli from eleven lichen populations using seven specific fungal microsatellite markers. Measures of genetic diversity (allelic richness, Shannon's information index, Nei's unbiased genetic diversity, clonal diversity, the number of multilocus genotypes, the number of private alleles, and the minimum number of colonization events) were calculated and compared between Usnea populations. Shared haplotypes, gene flow and AMOVA analyses suggest that unconstrained gene flow and exchange of multilocus genotypes exist between the two geographically remote regions in Estonia. Stand age, mean circumference of the host tree, size of forest site and tree species composition did not show any significant influence on allelic richness, Shannon's information index, Nei's unbiased genetic diversity, clonal diversity, the number of private alleles, and the minimum number of colonization events of U. subfloridana populations. Therefore it was concluded that other factors of habitat heterogeneity could probably have a more significant effect on population genetics of U. subfloridana populations. Keywords: Forest age; Genetic diversity; Lichenized fungi; Microsatellites; Population genetics.
29739Gauslaa Y., Johlander S. & Nordén B. (2018): Gastropod grazing may prevent reintroduction of declining N-fixing epiphytic lichens in broadleaved deciduous forests. - Fungal Ecology, 35: 62–69.
We studied the potential to use reintroduction of two declining N-fixing flagship lichens to identify factors affecting failure or success in SW Swedish sites that had experienced substantially reduced acidification. After transplanting the critically endangered Lobaria amplissima ± external cephalodia and its near-threatened associate Lobaria pulmonaria onto tree trunks, seasonal growth rates were quantified. We added a phosphorus treatment, using site as a random factor. Growth was positive in winter, and negative in summer, particularly in L. amplissima. Reintroduction of L. amplissima was unsuccessful because gastropods caused significant loss, evidenced by grazing marks. Acer platanoides, a high-pH host, had more grazing than the more acidic Quercus petraea. Gastropods preferred the cephalodia, resulting in substantial loss of the cephalodiate L. amplissima. Phosphorus fertilization had no effects. The widespread L. pulmonaria grew faster than the rare L. amplissima that lost its local growth potential due to aggravated gastropod grazing. Keywords: Biotic interactions; Epiphytic lichens; Herbivory; Lobaria amplissima; Lobaria pulmonaria; Phosphorus; Reintroduction; Seasonal growth rate; Terrestrial gastropods.
29738Eriksson A., Gauslaa Y., Palmqvist K., Ekström M. & Esseen P.-A. (2018): Morphology drives water storage traits in the globally widespread lichen genus Usnea. - Fungal Ecology, 35: 51–61.
Links between lichen morphology, internal/external water storage and distribution patterns are poorly known. We compared mass- (WC, % H2O) and area-based (WHC, mg H2O cm−2) hydration traits in seven pendent or shrubby Usnea species from oceanic to continental climates. All species held more external than internal water. Internal WHC and WC increased with specific thallus mass (STM, mg cm−2), while external WC decreased. Shrubby species had higher STM and total WHC than pendent ones. The continental Usnea hirta (shrubby) had the highest total and external storage; the suboceanic Usnea longissima (pendent) had the lowest internal storage. Morphology drives hydration traits and explains distributions of some Usnea species, but such traits did not distinguish oceanic from widespread species. Shrubby species maximize water storage and thus prolong hydration after rainfall events and/or hydration by dew. The low internal WHC in pendent species is likely an adaptation to frequent hydration in humid air. Keywords: Epiphytic lichens; Functional traits; Specific thallus mass; Water-holding capacity; Water content.
29737Váczi P., Gauslaa Y. & Solhaug K.A. (2018): Efficient fungal UV-screening provides a remarkably high UV-B tolerance of photosystem II in lichen photobionts. - Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 132: 89–94.
Lichen photobionts in situ have an extremely UV-B tolerant photosystem II efficiency (Fv/Fm). We have quantified the UV-B-screening offered by the mycobiont and the photobiont separately. The foliose lichens Nephroma arcticum and Umbilicaria spodochroa with 1: intact or 2: removed cortices were exposed to 0.7 Wm-2 UV-BBE for 4 h. Intact thalli experienced no reduction in Fv/Fm, whereas cortex removal lowered Fv/Fm in exposed photobiont layers by 22% for U. spodochroa and by 14% for N. arcticum. We also gave this UV-B dose to algal cultures of Coccomyxa and Trebouxia, the photobiont genera of N. arcticum and U. spodochroa, respectively. UV-B caused a 56% reduction in Fv/Fm for Coccomyxa, and as much as 98% in Trebouxia. The fluorescence excitation ratio (FER) technique comparing the fluorescence from UV-B or UV-A-excitation light with blue green excitation light using a Xe-PAM fluorometer showed that these photobiont genera did not screen any UV-B or UV-A The FER technique with a Multiplex fluorometer estimated the UV-A screening of isolated algae to be 13–16%, whereas intact lichens screened 92–95% of the UV-A. In conclusion, the cortex of N. arcticum and U. spodochroa transmitted no UV-B and little UV-A to the photobiont layer beneath. Thereby, the upper lichen cortex forms an efficient fungal solar radiation screen providing a high UV-B tolerance for studied photobionts in situ. By contrast, isolated photobionts have no UV-B screening and thus depend on their fungal partners in nature. Keywords: Chlorophyll fluorescence; Coccomyxa; Lichen cortex; Nephroma arcticum; Trebouxia; Umbilicaria spodochroa; UV-screening.
29736Shin C.P., Hoffman A., Lee W., Kendrick R.C., Baker D.M. & Bonebrake T.C. (2018): Stable isotopes of Lithosiini and lichens in Hong Kong show the biodindicator potential of lichenivorous moths. - Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology, 21(4): 1110–1115.
Highlights: • No significant difference in C or N isotopes between body parts • Moths with lichenivorous larvae have similar isotopic values to lichens. • Larval lichenivory distinguishes related moth groups. Urban landscapes provide unique environments for a wide variety of plants and animals, but their suitability may be limited by anthropogenic impacts such as pollution. We examined the potential utility of lichen and lichen-feeding moths as biodindicators of air pollution in Hong Kong by comparing carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stable isotope values in lichens, lichenivorous and non-lichenivorous moths (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) and a moth outgroup (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). Our results show that stable isotope values for C and N were similar for lichens and lichen feeding moths, while non-lichen feeding moths formed a distinct group. In addition, we found consistent δ13C and δ15N values across moth body parts, indicating that any portion of the specimen is suitable for isotopic fingerprinting. Our results highlight that lichen feeding moths may be useful for integrating signals of atmospheric nitrogen pollution and could therefore have utility in monitoring and quantifying air quality over time and space.
29735Fernandes R.F., Porto A.B., Flores L.S., Maia L.F., Corrêa C.C., Spielmann A.S., Edwards H.G.M. & de Oliveira L.F.C. (2018): Nature of light-absorbing pigments from Brazilian lichens identified by Raman spectroscopy. - Vibrational Spectroscopy, 99: 59–66.
Light-absorbing pigments from different chemical classes have been identified from the lichens Usnea sp. and Crocodia aurata using Raman spectroscopy supported by quantum mechanical DFT calculations. Raman spectra were obtained directly from the lichen tissues as well as from isolated extracts. Usnic acid, a chemomarker of Usnea spp has been reported together with a minor constituent, namely stictic acid, which has been unambiguously identified by 1H and 13C NMR spectral analysis. The structures of calycin and pulvinic dilactone isolated from Crocodia aurata have been confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The ubiquitous carotenoids have been characterized by FT-Raman and dispersive Raman microimaging in tissues of Usnea sp. and C. aurata, respectively. The Raman map has revealed the presence of a mixture of carotenoids heterogeneously distributed in the upper layer of C. aurata. In this work we have demonstrated that Raman spectroscopy can be used to monitor aromatic and conjugated polyenic pigments in different layers of lichen tissues. Keywords: Lichens; Pigments; Raman spectroscopy; DFT calculation; X-ray diffraction.
29734Rola K. & Osyczka P. (2019): Temporal changes in accumulation of trace metals in vegetative and generative parts of Xanthoria parietina lichen thalli and their implications for biomonitoring studies. - Ecological Indicators, 96: 293–302.
Certain lichens are widely used in air pollution biomonitoring because the contents of various elements in their thalli accurately reflect the chemical composition of the air. Temporal changes in selected concentrations of trace metals in vegetative and generative parts of Xanthoria parietina thalli exposed to urban-related pollution were analysed and the relationship between anatomical organisation and element accumulation identified. The lichen material included thalli relocated to an urban area of Cracow (southern Poland) along with their host trees, which had previously been cultivated at a site characterised by a lower level of air pollution. The thalli were sampled immediately and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after planting trees. Concentrations of Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, and Cr, as measured by means of flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), and various anatomical characteristics were determined in vegetative thalli and the corresponding apothecia. Accumulation of Pb over time demonstrated a pronounced upward trend; calculated exposed-to-control (EC) ratios indicate ‘severe accumulation’ of this element. Diverse levels of accumulation in different parts of thalli – higher, in the cases of Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, Cr, and lower, in the case of Zn, in vegetative parts compared to apothecia – were observed. Thus sampling uniformity is highly desirable in air biomonitoring studies, along with a determination of which part of the thallus is to be designated for elemental analysis. The results also showed that certain anatomical characteristics are correlated with concentrations of metal elements in the thallus. Keywords: Lichenized fungi; Biomonitors; Metal elements; Air pollution; Urban pollution; Particulate matter (PM).
29733Marié D.C., Chaparro M.A.E., Lavornia J.M., Sinito A.M., Castañeda Miranda A.G., Gargiulo J.D., Chaparro M.A.E. & Böhnel H.N. (2018): Atmospheric pollution assessed by in situ measurement of magnetic susceptibility on lichens. - Ecological Indicators, 95: 831–840.
The use of environmental magnetism methods and biomonitors allows us the development of a low-cost tool for assessing atmospheric pollution through trapped magnetic particulate matter. Such particles concentration was monitored in situ, on the lichen’s thallus, using magnetic susceptibility as a pollution proxy. We studied the magnetic particle distribution on the thallus surface from weekly measurements of in situ magnetic susceptibility κis during 16 months for seven sites. A total of ∼8300 measurements was carried out; and mean overall κis values for each lichen varied between 4.1 and 23.9 × 10−5SI revealing the influence of different atmospheric pollution sources on Parmotrema pilosum, such as metallurgical factories and vehicular emissions. Weekly measurements of κis show areas of magnetic accumulation on the thallus over a period of 60 measurement campaigns. Iron rich spherules and irregular particulate matter between PM2.5 and PM1.0 were observed by SEM-EDS. A joint analysis of meteorological variables and magnetic susceptibility shows an inverse relation between this magnetic parameter and temperature, i.e., a trend of decreasing κis values during seasons of higher temperatures which tend toward higher values of atmospheric mixing height. Precipitation also affects the magnetic signal over time, producing decreases in mean values of κis after rainy periods. Keywords: Fe-rich particles; In situ biomonitoring; Magnetic susceptibility; Parmotrema pilosum; PM2.5.
29732Uboni A., Blochel A., Kodnik D. & Moen J. (2019): Modelling occurrence and status of mat-forming lichens in boreal forests to assess the past and current quality of reindeer winter pastures. - Ecological Indicators, 96: 99–106.
Lichens play an essential role in northern ecosystems as important contributors to the water, nutrient and carbon cycles, as well as the main winter food resource for reindeer (Rangifer tarandus, also called caribou in North America), the most abundant herbivores in arctic and subarctic regions. Today, climate change and several types of land use are rapidly transforming northern ecosystems and challenging lichen growth. Since lichens are important indicators of ecosystem health and habitat suitability for reindeer, large-scale assessments are needed to estimate their past, present and future status. In our study, we aimed to develop models and equations that can be used by stakeholders to identify the occurrence of lichen-dominated boreal forests and to determine lichen conditions in those forests. Data were collected in Sweden and most input data are publicly available. We focused on mat-forming lichens belonging to the genera Cladonia and Cetraria, which are dominant species in the reindeer and caribou winter diet. Our models described lichen-dominated forests as being dominated by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), having low basal area and thin canopy cover, and being located in south- and west-facing areas with high summer precipitation, low winter precipitation and temperature, and on gentle slopes. Within those forests, lichen biomass was positively related to tree canopy cover and summer precipitation, while negatively and exponentially related to intensity of use of the area by reindeer. Forest, meteorological, topographic and soil data can be used as input in our models to determine lichen conditions without having to estimate lichen biomass through demanding and expensive fieldwork. Keywords: Caribou; Ground lichen; Lichen growth; Lichen volume; Reindeer forage; Reindeer husbandry; Terricolous lichen.
29731Kelleghan D.B., Hayes E.T., Everard M. & Curran T.P. (2019): Mapping ammonia risk on sensitive habitats in Ireland. - Science of the Total Environment, 649(1): 1580–1589.
Highlights: • A GIS risk-based approach gauges atmospheric NH3 impacts in Ireland • Integrates best available agricultural data to identify “at-risk” areas in Ireland • Provides stakeholders with an atmospheric ammonia risk map for Ireland • 80.7% of Natura 2000 sites likely to exceed critical level of 1 μg/m3 • 5.9% of Natura 2000 sites likely to exceed critical level of 3 μg/m3. The aim of this study was to provide a simple, cost-effective, risk-based map of terrestrial areas in Ireland where environmental quality may be at risk from atmospheric ammonia. This risk-based approach identifies Natura 2000 sites in Ireland at risk from agricultural atmospheric ammonia, collating best available data using Geographical Information Systems (GIS). In mapping ammonia risk on sensitive habitats (MARSH), the method identifies sources of ammonia, classifying them on a scale of risk from 0 to 5. These sources are subsequently summed based on a weighting determined by their contribution to national emissions divided by their potentially impacted area. A Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.72 allows for concentrations from United Kingdom's FRAME modelling to be applied to the MARSH model, which are corrected based on recent monitoring. Applying Designation Weighted Indicators (DWI), the MARSH model predicts that 80.7, 34.3 and 5.9% of Natura 2000 sites in Ireland may exceed ambient concentrations of 1, 2, and 3 μg/m3, respectively. A Nitroindex map of Ireland based on available lichen records was also developed and is presented as part of this study. This Nitroindex was used to identify areas where impacts have already been recorded, thus informing the classification of sites “at-risk”. The combination of both the MARSH and Nitroindex models ascertains which Natura 2000 sites are most at risk, thereby providing valuable data to relevant authorities. The MARSH model acts as a first step towards screening and assessing Natura 2000 sites most at risk from atmospheric ammonia, providing a tool to demonstrate compliance with the National Emissions Ceilings Directive.
29730Gadea A., Le Lamer A.-C., Le Gall S., Jonard C., Ferron S., Catheline D., Ertz D., Le Pogam P., Boustie J., Lohézic - Le Devehat F. & Charrier M. (2018): Intrathalline metabolite profiles in the lichen Argopsis friesiana shape gastropod grazing patterns. - Journal of Chemical Ecology, 44: 471–482.
Lichen-gastropod interactions generally focus on the potential deterrent or toxic role of secondary metabolites. To better understand lichen-gastropod interactions, a controlled feeding experiment was designed to identify the parts of the lichen Argopsis friesiana consumed by the Subantarctic land snail Notodiscus hookeri. Besides profiling secondary metabolites in various lichen parts (apothecia, cephalodia, phyllocladia and fungal axis of the pseudopodetium), we investigated potentially beneficial resources that snails can utilize from the lichen (carbohydrates, amino acids, fatty acids, polysaccharides and total nitrogen). Notodiscus hookeri preferred cephalodia and algal layers, which had high contents of carbohydrates, nitrogen, or both. Apothecia were avoided, perhaps due to their low contents of sugars and polyols. Although pseudopodetia were characterized by high content of arabitol, they were also rich in medullary secondary compounds, which may explain why they were not consumed. Thus, the balance between nutrients (particularly nitrogen and polyols) and secondary metabolites appears to play a key role in the feeding preferences of this snail. Keywords: Herbivory . Chemical ecology . Snail . Lichen-gastropod interactions . Subantarctic islands . Stereocaulaceae . Notodiscus hookeri.
29729Barták M., Hájek J., Morkusová J. & Košuthová A. (2018): Dehydration-induced changes in spectral reflectance indices and chlorophyll fluorescence of Antarctic lichens with different thallus color, and intrathalline photobiont. - Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 40:177 [19 p.].
In this study, we investigated responses of the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI), and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) to gradual dehydration of several Antarctic lichen species (chlorolichens: Xanthoria elegans, Rhizoplaca melanophthalma, Physconia muscigena, cyanolichen: Leptogium puberulum), and a Nostoc commune colony from fully wet to a dry state. The gradual loss of physiological activity during dehydration was evaluated by chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. The experimental lichen species differed in thallus color, and intrathalline photobiont. In the species that did not exhibit color change with desiccation (X. elegans), NDVI and PRI were more or less constant (mean of 0.25, − 0.36, respectively) throughout a wide range of thallus hydration status showing a linear relation to relative water content (RWC). In contrast, the species with apparent species-specific color change during dehydration exhibited a curvilinear relation of NDVI and PRI to RWC. PRI decreased (R. melanophthalma, L. puberulum), increased (N. commune) or showed a polyphasic response (P. muscigena) with desiccation. Except for X. elegans, a curvilinear relation was found between the NDVI response to RWC in all species indicating the potential of combined ground research and remote sensing spectral data analyses in polar regions dominated by lichen flora. The chlorophyll fluorescence data recorded during dehydration (RWC decreased from 100 to 0%) revealed a polyphasic species-specific response of variable fluorescence measured at steady state—Fs, effective quantum yield of photosystem II (ΦPSII), and non-photochemical quenching (qN). Full hydration caused an inhibition of ΦPSII in N. commune while other species remained unaffected. The dehydration-dependent fall in ΦPSII was species-specific, starting at an RWC range of 22–32%. Critical RWC for ΦPSII was around 5–10%. Desiccation led to a species-specific polyphasic decrease in Fs and an increase in qN indicating the involvement of protective mechanisms in the chloroplastic apparatus of lichen photobionts and N. commune cells. In this study, the spectral reflectance and chlorophyll fluorescence data are discussed in relation to the potential of ecophysiological processes in Antarctic lichens, their resistance to desiccation and survival in Antarctic vegetation oases. Keywords: Spectral indices; PRI; NDVI; Non-photochemical quenching; James Ross Island.
29728Banchi E., Ametrano C.G., Stanković D., Verardo P., Moretti O., Gabrielli F., Lazzarin S., Borney M.F., Tassan F., Tretiach M., Pallavicini A. & Muggia L. (2018): DNA metabarcoding uncovers fungal diversity of mixed airborne samples in Italy. - PLoS ONE, 13(3): e0194489 [20 p.].
[p. 11:] "Peculiar taxa. Interestingly, our molecular analyses catch the presence of fungal taxa that are not expected in urban areas and are peculiar because of their life styles, being these lichenized and rock-inhabiting fungi. Indeed, we report the presence of eight lichen genera (Caloplaca, Cladonia, Flavoparmelia, Lecidella, Physcia, Hyperphyscia, Rinodina, Umbilicaria) of which the spores of only the genus Caloplaca were identified during the morphological inspections of the samples. The majority of the detected taxa are epiphytic lichens commonly distributed in Italy, and can occur also in urban environment if these are not highly polluted. The only exception is the genus Umbilicaria which comprises of only epilithic species occurring in montane and alpine environments. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the detection of lichen spores and lichen sequence data in airborne samples."
29727Vondrák J., Malíček J., Palice Z., Bouda F., Berger F., Sanderson N., Acton A., Pouska V. & Kish R. (2018): Exploiting hot-spots; effective determination of lichen diversity in a Carpathian virgin forest. - PLoS ONE, 13(9): e0203540 [19 p.].
Although lichenized fungi are among the most reliable indicators of forest quality and represent a considerable part of forest biodiversity, methods maximizing completeness of their species lists per area are lacking. Employing a novel methodological approach including a multi-expert competition and a search for local hot-spot plots, we have obtained outstanding data about epiphytic lichen biota in a part of the largest Central European virgin forest reserve Uholka±Shyrokyi Luh situated in Ukrainian Carpathians. Our field research consisted of two four-day periods: (1) an overall floristic survey and a search for spots with raised lichen diversity, and (2) survey in four one-hectare plots established in lichen diversity hot-spots along an altitudinal gradient. Recorded alpha-diversities in plots ranged from 181± 228 species, but estimated species richness is in the range 207±322 species. Detected gamma-diversity was 387 species; estimates are 409±484 species. 93% of the species found in the forest were recorded in plots, but only 65% outside the plots. This underlines the high-efficiency of the multi-expert competitive survey in diversity hot-spot plots. Species richness in each one-hectare plot was equal to the numbers of species obtained by floristic surveys of much larger old-growth forest areas in Central Europe. Gamma-diversity detected in the Uholka primeval forest far exceeded all numbers achieved in Central European old-growth forests. Our method appears to be both effective (it obtains a more nearly complete inventory of species) and practical (the resources required are not unreasonably large).
29726Maduranga K., Attanayake R.N., Santhirasegaram S., Weerakoon G. & Paranagama P.A. (2018): Molecular phylogeny and bioprospecting of Endolichenic Fungi (ELF) inhabiting in the lichens collected from a mangrove ecosystem in Sri Lanka. - PLoS ONE, 13(8): e0200711 [22 p.].
Endolichenic fungi (ELF) are unexplored group of organisms as a source for the production of bioactive secondary metabolites with radical scavenging activity, antilipase and amylase inhibitory activities. Endolichenic fungi in lichens collected from mangrove or mangrove associated plants are least known for their fungal diversity and potential to produce bioactive compounds. A total of 171 ELF strains were isolated from the lichens collected from mangrove and mangrove associated plants in Puttalam lagoon. Out of this collection, 70 isolates were identified using rDNA-ITS region sequence homology to the GenBank accessions and a phylogenetic analysis was performed. Commonly isolated genera of ELF from lichens were Aspergillus, Byssochlamys, Talaromyces, Diaporthe, Phomopsis, Endomelanconiopsis, Schizophyllum, Cerrena, Trichoderma, Xylaria, Hypoxylon, Daldinia, Preussia, Sordaria, Neurospora, and Lasiodiplodia. In the present study, the effectiveness of ethyl acetate extracts of the ELF isolates were investigated against antioxidant activity, antilipase activity and α-amylase inhibition activity in in-vitro conditions. The results revealed that the extracts of Daldinia eschscholtzii, Diaporthe musigena and Sordaria sp. had the highest radical scavenging activity with smaller IC50 values (25 μg/mL to 31 μg/mL) compared to the IC50 values of BHT (76.50±1.47 μg/mL). Antilipase assay revealed that 13 extracts from ELF showed promising antiobesity activity ranged between 25% to 40%. Amylase inhibitory assay indicated that the test extracts do not contain antidiabetic secondary metabolites.
29725Wang Y., Geng C., Yuan X., Hua M., Tian F. & Li C. (2018): Identification of a putative polyketide synthase gene involved in usnic acid biosynthesis in the lichen Nephromopsis pallescens. - PLoS ONE, 13(7): e0199110 [16 p.].
Usnic acid is a unique polyketide produced by lichens. To characterize usnic acid biosynthesis, the transcriptome of the usnic-acid-producing lichen-forming fungus Nephromopsis pallescens was sequenced using Illumina NextSeq technology. Seven complete non-reducing polyketide synthase genes and nine highly-reducing polyketide synthase genes were obtained through transcriptome analysis. Gene expression results obtained by qPCR and usnic acid detection with LCMS-IT-TOF showed that Nppks7 is probably involved in usnic acid biosynthesis in N. pallescens. Nppks7 is a non-reducing polyketide synthase with a MeT domain that also possesses beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase, acyl transferase, product template, acyl carrier protein, C-methyltransferase, and Claisen cyclase domains. Phylogenetic analysis shows that Nppks7and other polyketide synthases from lichens form a unique monophyletic clade. Taken together, our data indicate that Nppks7 is a novel PKS in N. pallescens that is likely involved in usnic acid biosynthesis.
29724Krisai-Greilhuber I., Chen Y., Jabeen S., Madrid H., Marincowitz S., Razaq A., Ševčíková H., Voglmayr H., Yazici K., Aptroot A., Aslan A., Boekhout T., Borovička J., Crous P.W., Ilyas S., Jami F., Jiang Y.-L., Khalid A.N., Kolecka A., Konvalinková T., Norphanphoun C., Shaheen S., Wang Y., Wingfield M.J., Wu S.-P., Wu Y.-M. & Yu J.-Y. (2017): Fungal Systematics and Evolution: FUSE 3. - Sydowia, 69: 229–264.
The present study introduces seven new species, one new combination, one new variety and several interesting taxonomical notes and/or geographical records. Most of the new taxa are Ascomycetes, but the study also includes a new variety of a Basidiomycete. Novel species include Gyromitra khanspurensis (Discinaceae, Pezizales, Pezizomycetes) from Pakistan growing near Cedrus deoadara and Paramyrothecium guiyangense and Paramyrothecium verruridum (Stachybotriaceae, Hypocreales, Sordariomycetes) both isolated from soil in China. New species from South Africa are Sclerostagonospora elegiae on culm litter of Elegia equisetacea, Sclerostagonospora fusiformis on culm litter of Thamnochortus spicigerus, Sclerostagonospora pinguis on culm litter of Cannomois virgata and Sclerostagonospora sulcata on culm litter of Ischyrolepis subverticellata (Phaeosphaeriaceae, Pleosporales, Dothideomycetes). Hapalocystis berkeleyi var. kickxii with its basionym Hypoxylon kickxii is shown to be a taxon on species level and thus recombined as Hapalocystis kickxii (Sydowiellaceae, Diaporthales, Sordariomycetes), and it is lecto- and epitypified. The new variety Pluteus romellii var. luteoalbus (Pluteaceae, Agaricales, Agaricomycetes) growing on a mossy fallen stem of a deciduous tree is described from Czech Republic. Cortinarius scaurocaninus (Cortinariaceae, Agaricales, Agaricomycetes) is new for Austria, Humicola grisea (Chaetomiaceae, Sordariales, Sordariomycetes) is an interesting new record for Chile. Two taxa are reported as new for Turkey: the lichenicolous fungus Opegrapha parasitica (Opegraphaceae, Arthoniales, Arthoniomycetes) growing partly immersed in the thallus of Aspicilia and the lichen Rinodina zwackhiana (Physciaceae, Teloschistales, Lecanoromycetes) from calcareous rock. Finally, Xerula strigosa (Physalacriaceae, Agaricales, Agaricomycetes), described from China, is confirmed to be present also in Pakistan. Keywords: biodiversity, ITS barcodes, phylogeny, systematics.
29723Belinchón R., Coppins B.J., Yahr R. & Ellis C.J. (2016): The diversity and community dynamics of hazelwood lichens and bryophytes along a major gradient of human impact. - Plant Ecology & Diversity, 9(4): 359–370.
Background: Oceanic hazelwoods in western Scotland are hypothesised to be unmanaged post-glacial relicts, representing an unusual type of old-growth forest habitat in Europe. They are characterised by an exceptionally high epiphytic diversity, including their status as ‘hotspots’ for indicators of woodland ecological continuity. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of climate, pollution and management on the occurrence of epiphytic lichens and bryophytes on Corylus avellana. Methods: Thirteen hazelwood study sites were systematically sampled along a climate, pollution and management gradient in Britain. Epiphyte composition and richness were examined in a strict hierarchical framework, and compared against site-, stool- and stem-scale environmental predictors. Results: The study showed that along the gradient from ‘clean-air’ relict sites to ‘polluted’ coppiced sites: (i) epiphytic local stem-scale diversity declined, (ii) there was a loss of late-successional species including foliose cyano- and tripartite lichens and bryophytes and (iii) stem sizes were reduced, providing a further limit to the accumulation of species richness within a site. Conclusions: Relict hazelwoods in western Scotland are confirmed as an example of the most intact epiphyte communities. In particular, we show that the transition to coppicing can be clearly linked to ecological processes causing species loss. Keywords: bryophytes; climate gradient; ecological continuity; epiphytes; lichens; forest management; SO2 pollution; species richness; succession.
29722Giordani P. & Malaspina P. (2017): Do tree-related factors mediate the response of lichen functional groups to eutrophication?. - Plant Biosystems, 151(6): 1062–1072.
In the last decades, the pollution regime has been drastically changed in most industrialized countries, with a considerable decrease in sulphur dioxide (SO2) emissions and an increasing relevance of eutrophication compounds, such as nitrogen compounds and particulate matter. This situation hampers the interpretation of data in biomonitoring surveys, as high lichen diversity is not always associated with good air quality. The objective of this study was to test whether the effects of eutrophication on the abundance of different lichen functional groups varies according to some tree-related factors. We analysed the relationships between epiphytic lichen diversity, emissions of main atmospheric pollutants and tree characteristics (circumference and bark pH, light transmitted through the canopy). Hierarchical partitioning of variance and Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM) confirmed that lichen functional groups with different nitrogen tolerances responded to several atmospheric pollutants, with both independent and joint effects, whereas they did not show significant differences depending on main tree-related factors. We demonstrated that, under high eutrophication levels, differences in bark pH did not significantly differentiated the composition of epiphytic lichen communities. Keywords: Biomonitoring, air pollution, oligotrophic species, nitrophytic species, nitrogen, hierarchical partitioning.
29721García R.A.& Rosato V.G. (2018): Observations of the development of Xanthoparmelia farinosa under optical and electron microscopy. - Mycology, 9(1): 35–42.
Xanthoparmelia farinosa is a foliose lichen widely distributed in South America, growing not only on rocks but also on man-made structures. This species has abundant soralia, but it is unknown how development occurs from the soredium to the formation of a complete thallus. The soredia were extracted from the thallus with forceps, planted on glass plates and exposed to outdoor conditions for a period of 24 months; in every 3 months, optical inspection was performed with a stereomicroscope and a compound microscope, in addition, four samples with different exposure times were chosen to observe under a scanning electron microscope. The development of hyphae and the adhesion of these to the substrate, and the outlines of the formation of the lobules and rhizines could be observed. Our study is a first attempt to understand the development of this species which is endemic to South America and very common in the area. Keywords: Lichen, outdoor, soralia, glass, adhesion to the substrate, lobe formation.
29720Ylisirniö A.-L. & Hallikainen V. (2018): Retention patches maintain diversity of epiphytic and epixylic indicator lichens more effectively than solitary trees. - Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 33(4): 320–331.
The effectiveness of retention trees and patches in preserving diversity of nine epiphytic and epixylic old-growth forest lichens was studied in north boreal spruce forests in Finland. We compared (1) 7–8-year-old retention cuts, with at least 5–10 living or dead retention trees per hectare, (2) 10–12-year-old clear-cuts, with some scattered living and dead retention trees on the sites, (3) old-growth spruce forests, and (4) 7-8-year-old retention patches (0.06–0.45 ha) representing the original tree species composition of old-growth forests. The occurrence of indicator lichens was studied on 150 deciduous trees and snags in each forest category. The species richness was significantly higher in old-growth forests than in the clear-cuts and retention cuts, but did not differ between old-growth forests and retention patches. Only three species were found in clear-cuts and two in retention cuts. Foliose cyanolichens Leptogium saturninum and Nephroma bellum thrived on solitary retention trees, whereas humidity-requiring pin lichens from the genus Chaenotheca were found only in old-growth forests and retention patches. Our results suggest that the ability of epiphytic and epixylic species to survive on retained trees depends on several factors: (1) substrate quality (tree species, tree type and diameter of a tree), (2) environmental factors (e.g. humidity, slope exposition), and (3) morphological and physiological characteristics of species. Besides of substrate trees, the retained conifers (esp. spruce) seem to be important in retention patches to provide the shading necessary to maintain humidity. Keywords: Epiphytic lichens, boreal forests, retention trees, retention patches, calicioid lichens, cyanolichens.
29719Stech M., van Andel T., Aptroot A., Bertin A. & Stefanaki A. (2018): Bryophytes and lichens in 16th-century herbaria. - Journal of Bryology, 40(2): 99–106.
The diversity of bryophyte and lichen collections in 9 of the oldest preserved herbaria (dating from ca 1542 to 1577) was compared, including the first reports of bryophytes and lichens from the ‘En Tibi’ herbarium (possibly 1542–1544) and the herbarium of Leonhard Rauwolf (1560–1563). Bryophytes and lichens formed only a minority in each herbarium compared to the numbers of vascular plant specimens; numbers ranged from representatives of 21 genera in the herbarium of Ulisse Aldrovandi to the single genus Conocephalum in the Rauwolf herbarium. The focus was on large, handsome species of bryophytes and macrolichens, apart from small amounts of additional species collected as ‘by-catch’ in mixed collections. All herbaria together included 34 genera of bryophytes (36 species and 10 specimens identified to genus level) and 13 genera of lichens (24 species and 4 specimens identified to genus level). The diversity of mosses was higher than that of liverworts, and pleurocarpous mosses were more diverse than acrocarpous mosses. The collectors probably aimed at selecting material that was either characteristic of the vegetation in the respective areas of collecting or used for certain purposes (or both). The former hypothesis is supported by the small overlap in taxonomic diversity between the herbaria, and the latter by the fact that several moss, liverwort, and lichen genera are included whose traditional uses are well documented. Keywords: 16th-century herbaria, En Tibi, Lichens, Liverworts, Mosses, Rauwolf.
29718Assini S., Mondino G.P., Varese P., Barcella M. & Bracco F. (2013): A phytosociological survey of the Corynephorus canescens (L.) Beauv. communities of Italy. - Plant Biosystems, 147(1): 64–78.
29717Gheza G., Assini S. & Valcuvia-Passadore M. (2015): Contribution to the knowledge of lichen flora of inland sand dunes in the western Po Plain (N Italy). - Plant Biosystems, 149(2): 307–314.
This paper describes the lichen flora surveyed in inland sand dunes, called dossi, in the western Po Plain (Lombardy region, Italy). Here, lichens were marginally known in comparison with the epigaeous component, but they were never studied before in relation to the epiphytic, epixylic and epilithic components. The floristic list includes 50 species; ecological and chorological analyses were carried out. Thirteen lichen species observed on various substrata were not reported in the lichen list of the Ticino Natural Park, which distances only few kilometres from our study area. Nine species are new for the Po phytoclimatic region and one species, Cladonia portentosa, is new for Lombardy. Particularly interesting are some species related to the Corynephorus grasslands, such as Cladonia sp. pl. and Stereocaulon condensatum, and three species usually absent, at our latitudes, beneath the montane belt: Cladonia digitata, Hypocenomyce scalaris and Parmeliopsis ambigua. These data confirm the importance of inland sand dunes for lichen diversity of the Po Plain. Some preliminary remarks concerning the management of the habitats hosting lichens are given, with particular emphasis to their conservation. Suggested actions include the possibility to keep woody coarse debris, to favour epixylic species, and mechanical disturbance, dispersal of lichen fragments and sheep grazing, to favour epigaeous species. Keywords: Corynephorus grasslands, Dossi di Cergnago, ecological indicator values, inland sand dunes, lichens, open woods.
29716Ravera S., Isocrono D., Nascimbene J., Giordani P., Benesperi R., Tretiach M. & Montagnani C. (2016): Assessment of the conservation status of the matforming lichens Cladonia subgenus Cladina in Italy. - Plant Biosystems, 150(5): 1010–1022.
Cladina species are likely to suffer the impact of human pressure, resulting in a potential, as well as currently unknown, extinction risk for some of them. In this study, we used herbarium specimen data and literature data combined with geographic information system (GIS)-based analyses to assess the threatened status of Italian Cladina species according to IUCN criteria. A total of 485 records, reported during the period 1833–2013, were evaluated. Biological traits, habitat requirements and distribution patterns were used to infer species extinction risk. Extent of occurrence and area of occupancy have been calculated at the national scale, based on a 2km x 2km cell grid. The potential threats for the taxa were assessed using a decision-support protocol in order to set conservation targets for taxa lacking population viability analyses and habitat modelling data. The species were assigned to the IUCN categories mainly using the geographical criterion B, related to species with restricted and fragmented distribution and continuous declining trend, but the species have been tested against the maximum number of criteria for which data were available and/or appropriate. This has provided an opportunity to discuss some basic aspects of the process of lichen red-listing, suggesting some methodological improvements for the mat-forming ones. Keywords: Extinction risk, fragmentation, habitat directive, habitat loss, lichen conservation.
29715Park J.S., Park C.-H., Park S.-Y., Oh S.-O. Jayalal U. & Hur J.-S. (2018): Revision of the lichen genus Stereocaulon (Stereocaulaceae, Ascomycota) in South Korea. - Mycobiology, 46(2): 101–113.
Lichen genus Stereocaulon (Schreb.) Hoffm is distributed throughout the world. Although 15 Stereocaulon species have been recorded in Korea, no detailed taxonomic or revisionary research has been conducted for nearly two decades. In this study, we collected 260 putative Stereocaulon spp. samples and identified the species based on morphological, chemical, and molecular characteristics. From the collected samples, 10 species of Stereocaulon were identified, nine of which had already been reported, although this was the first report for the tenth, S. octomerellum Hue, in Korea. General characteristics of Stereocaulon spp. include coralloid phyllocladia and tubercular cephalodia; however, the specimen first collected in Korea was a rare species with tomentum on the pseudopodetia. The specimen of S. octomerellum is characterized by the presence of a primary thallus, granule to short coralloid phyllocladia, and pseudopodetia up to 1 cm in size, with tubercular cephalodia. To determine the phylogeny of the specimens, we compared the ITS sequences of ribosomal DNA and the β-tubulin gene sequences. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Korean Stereocaulon species were monophyletic and placed in the previous phylogenetic classification. Species of S. intermedium and S. exutum, however, were polyphyletic, and are morphologically variable and widespread species. Overall, we present here detailed morphological and chemical descriptions of each species identified and a revised key of all known Stereocaulon species in South Korea. Keywords: ITS sequences, β-tubulin, molecular phylogeny, Stereocaulon, taxonomy.
29714Dixon J.C., Thorn C.E., Darmody R.G. & Campbell S.W. (2002): Post-glacial rock weathering processes on a roche moutonnée in the Riksgränsen area (68°N), northern Norway. - Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift – Norwegian Journal of Geography, 56: 257–264.
29713André M.-F. (2002): Rates of postglacial rock weathering on glacially scoured outcrops (Abisko–Riksgränsen area, 68°N). - Geografiska Annaler: Series A, Physical Geography, 84(3-4): 139–150.
29712Wierzchos J., Ascaso C., Sancho L.G. & Green A. (2003): Iron-rich diagenetic minerals are biomarkers of microbial activity in Antarctic rocks. - Geomicrobiology Journal, 20: 15–24.
The cold, dry ecosystems of Antarctica have been shown to harbor traces left behind by microbial activity within certain types of rocks, but only two indirect biomarkers of cryptoendolithic activity in the Antarctic cold desert zone have been described to date. These are the geophysical and geochemical bioweathering patterns macroscopically observed in sandstone rock. Here we show that in this extreme environment, minerals are biologically transformed, and as a result, Fe-rich diagenetic minerals in the form of iron hydroxide nanocrystals and biogenic clays are deposited around chasmoendolithic hyphae and bacterial cells. Thus, when microbial life decays, these characteristic neocrystalized minerals act as distinct biomarkers of previous endolithic activity. The ability to recognize these traces may have potential astrobiological implications because the Antarctic Ross Desert is considered a terrestrial analogue of a possible ecosystem on early Mars. Keywords: Antarctic Granite , Biomarkers , Cryptoendoliths , Microfossils. Results: The SEM-BSE images of a transverse rock section showed the presence of a saxicolous lichen Lecidea cancriformis (Dodge et Barker) frequently accompanied by bacterial cells. Microdivided minerals, such as biotite layers, and quartz and plagioclase grains derived from underlying rock could be seen within the lichen thallus. Fungal hyphae and chasmoendolithic colonies of bacteria were often observed inside fissures and cracks. In the deeper fissures of up to 5 mm, it was possible to observe extracellular coatings in the form of small spheres around the cross-sectioned hyphal cells (white arrows in Figure 1a). Using EDS point microanalysis, these inorganic deposits were found to contain high amounts of Fe and O along with lower levels of Si and Al, and traces of Na, Mg, K, and Ti. The Fe/Si distribution maps (Figures 1b–c) show that these major elements were evenly distributed around the hyphal cells. The morphological and crystallographic structure of these deposits around the live fungal sheaths was established by HRTEM (EDS) examination of extracted, re-embedded and ultrathin-sectioned hyphae from a rock fissure (Figures 1d–f). These images revealed two different phases within the secondary mineral coatings. First, there was a predominance of Fe-oxyhydroxide nanocrystals on the external surface of fungal hyphae in the form of small irregular subrounded grains, from 30–500 nm in size. Second, clays composed of Fe-rich aluminosilicate (white arrows in Figure 1e) could be seen in some of the spaces between these Fe-oxyhydroxide grains.
29711Ginns J. & Worrall J. (2003): Josiah Lincoln Lowe, 1905–1997. - Mycologia, 95(2): 374–378.
biography
29710Cooksey C.J. (2003): Lichen purple—an annotated bibliography. - Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 78(6): 313–320.
This bibliography lists and contains comments on publications describing the textile dyeing applications and organic chemistry of purple dyes derived from lichens. Elsewhere in this issue such colorants are termed orcein; the usage ‘‘lichen purple’’ reflects the historical emphasis of the work described. Note that commentary by CJC is placed after the bibliographic information in italics.
29709André M.-F., Hall K. & Comte V. (2004): Optical rock properties and weathering processes in polar environments (with special reference to Antarctica). - Polar Geography, 28(1): 43–62.
As a result of the “freeze-thaw dogma,” the polar scientific community has, for a long time, emphasized the importance of physical properties of rocks (porosity, jointing, etc) as a primary control on rock weathering. More recently, due to growing interest in chemically driven processes operating in cold areas, attention has been drawn to the chemical rock properties. Surprisingly, the optical properties of rocks have either been ignored or only alluded to in most rock weathering studies. Based on the available Antarctic biological and geomorphological literature, it is now appropriate to consider these optical properties as exerting a potentially significant influence and to promote a Manichean view in which the light-colored and translucent rocks (e.g., the emblematic Beacon sandstones) are considered from the perspective of biogenic weathering, whereas the dark rocks (e.g., the dolerites of the Dry Valleys) are viewed as being influenced by thermal weathering. Field observations and monitoring carried out from Labrador to Antarctica, lead, however, to a much more subtle appreciation, for it appears necessary to: (1) integrate the optical properties within a corpus of rock properties (within which some operate synergistically and others antagonistically with those optical properties); (2) to take into account the impact of scale (e.g., macro vs. micro); and (3) to consider the nature and role of lithophytic communities involved in bioweathering.
29708Coppins B.J. & Coppins A.M. (2005): Lichens — the biodiversity value of western woodlands. - Botanical Journal of Scotland, 57(1-2): 141–153.
The Atlantic broad-leaved woodlands of Britain are of international renown for their lichen floras. They are inhabited by 517 lichens, representing 28.3% of the total lichen flora and 73.2% of all British woodland lichens, and they are the main habitat for 165 species. Of these, 31 have a marked southern distribution and do not reach Scotland, whereas 26 species are found in Scotland, but not England or Wales. Their British Red-listed species are outnumbered by the 86 species for which Britain has International Responsibility. Within the Atlantic broad-leaved woodlands, only 30 lichens show a preponderance for oak. With the exception of some ancient oakwoods in southern England, a high lichen biodiversity is rarely dependent on a dominance of oak in the woodland canopy, more usually it is the result of a long ecological continuity, often a varied tree and shrub composition, a varied canopy density, and good air quality. Consequently, the oak stands within former ‘industrial’ woodlands have a much lower lichen biodiversity compared with woodlands that have a history as ‘pasture woodland’ or, as with some ravine woodlands, have otherwise escaped intensive management. The life-history of an oak tree is considered in relation to the niches it provides for lichen colonisation with time. Some management scenarios are provided with the enhancement of the lichen interest of former ‘industrial’ oakwoods as an objective.
29707Ranius T., Mestre L., Bouget C. & Schroeder M. (2017): Fragmentation effects on dead wood-dependent species associated with disturbed forest habitats: implications for stump harvesting. - Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 32(3): 260–267.
Stump harvesting after clear-felling may be detrimental for species’ landscape-scale persistence. Sensitivity to it is most likely due to reductions in habitat density, resulting in a non-linear relationship between population size and total habitat amount (i.e. fragmentation effects). Here we summarize theoretical expectations and empirical findings on fragmentation effects in stumps and other types of dead wood in disturbed forest habitats and draw conclusions about the consequences of stump harvesting. Within disturbed patches, some negative fragmentation effects have been observed for beetles and lichens, but most studies have found a linear relationship between habitat amount and population size. At landscape scale, evidence of fragmentation effects in disturbed forest habitats has been detected in some published investigations, but none of them focused on stumps. Thus, although organisms associated with disturbed forest habitats are assumed to be strong dispersers, they may still be sensitive to habitat fragmentation. We conclude that stump harvesting at a moderate level is not likely to increase risks for landscape-scale species extinctions markedly, despite clearly negative local effects. However, due to large uncertainties, adaptive management with monitoring of dead wood-dependent species should be applied wherever stump harvesting is more extensive. Keywords: Crowding effect, dispersion effect, early-successional, metapopulation, population density, population viability, saproxylic.
29706Suryanarayanan T.S. & Thirunavukkarasu N. (2017): Endolichenic fungi: the lesser known fungal associates of lichens. - Mycology, 8(3): 189–196.
Lichens are the result of a stable mutualism between a fungal and a photosynthesising partner (alga or cyanobacterium). In addition to the fungal partner in this mutualism, lichens are associated with endolichenic fungi which reside inside their thalli. The endolichenic fungi appear to have evolved with the lichen and many of them are a source of novel metabolites vested with unique bioactivities. There is very little information on the biology of endolichenic fungi and their interactions with the other components of a lichen microbiome. There is an urgent need to understand these aspects of endolichenic fungi such that their ecology and economic potential are known more completely. The current knowledge on endolichenic fungi is reviewed here. Keywords: Endophyte, lichen symbiont, lichen microbiome.
29705Abakumov E., Lupachev A. & Andreev M. (2017): Trace element content in soils of the King George and Elephant islands, maritime Antarctica. - Chemistry and Ecology, 33(9): 856–868.
Trace element concentrations were studied in soils of the King George and Elephant islands in the maritime part of West Antarctica. The lowest concentrations of Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, Ni and Mn were typical for the pristine soil of Elephant Island. The highest concentrations of these elements were found in the Fildes Peninsula and revealed the influence of human activities in the area of the Bellingshausen station and adjacent waste disposal sites. Ornithogenic soils of the Fildes Peninsula have shown low concentrations of Cd and As. Using geoaccumulation indexes, all the pristine soils of King George and Elephant islands and ornithogenic soils of the Fildes Peninsula were classified as unpolluted; the human-affected soils were mainly identified as moderately polluted. Obtained data can be used as background concentration levels for further researches.
29704Boonpragob K., Homchantara N., Coppins B.J., McCarthy P.M. & Wolseley P.A. (1998): An introduction to the lichen flora of Khao Yai National Park, Thailand. - Botanical Journal of Scotland, 50(2): 209–219.
A workshop in tropical forests of Khao Yai National Park on lichenized fungi, identified major components of the lichen flora on corticolous, foliicolous and saxicolous substrata. 161 taxa were recorded in three areas of the park including a riverine site on the Lam Takhong river, a montane forest at Khao Khieo and areas of tropical forest around the park headquarters. Species new to Thailand included foliicolous and corticolous species of equatorial forests, and others yet to be identified or described.
29703Coppins B.J. (2003): Lichen conservation in Scotland. - Botanical Journal of Scotland, 55(1): 27–38.
The significance of the Scottish lichen flora is outlined within the context of the British Isles and Europe, prompting a cautionary note on an over-reliance of assessing conservation importance using national Red Data Book categorisations. The conservation needs of lichens and their habitats, from ‘gardening’ to landscape management are discussed.
29702Fryday A.M. (2002): Distribution and importance of the lichen vegetation of the Scottish Highlands. - Botanical Journal of Scotland, 54(2): 133–151.
The mountains of the Western Highlands of Scotland support a lichen vegetation that is apparently unique in Europe, and probably the world. This lichen vegetation consists mainly of microlichens and is important both intrinsically, with a number of rare and apparently endemic taxa and communities, and as a major contributor to the botanical biodiversity of the ecosystem. By contrast, the lichen vegetation of the Eastern Highlands, which consists mostly of terricolous macrolichens, is best considered a fragmented, species-poor outlier of that present in Scandinavia and is of national interest only. Key words: lichens, Scottish Highlands.
29701Nimis P.L., Seaward M.R.D., Ariño X. & Barreno E. (1998): Lichen-induced chromatic changes on monuments: a case-study on the Roman amphitheater of Italica (S. Spain). - Plant Biosystems, 132(1): 53–61.
Based on classification and ordination of vegetational data recorded on the Roman amphitheater of Italica (S. Spain), the compositional variation of lichen communities is related to the main ecological parameters: type of substratum, solar irradiation and eutrophication. The data were further processed by a program of automatic mapping, to produce a model showing the main patterns of lichen-induced chromatic changes within the amphitheater. Key words: Lichens, biodeterioration, ecological gradients, monuments, Italica, Spain.
29700Whittet R., Hope J. & Ellis C.J. (2015): Open structured woodland and the ecological interpretation of Scotland's ancient woodland inventory. - Scottish Geographical Journal, 131(2): 67–77.
Following intensive human land use over millennia, European forest ecosystems record among the largest values of deforestation globally. This puts a premium on European ancient woodland, which has existed in the landscape minimally over several centuries. Ancient woodland in the UK was quantified in the Ancient Woodland Inventory (AWI). In cross-checking AWI sites in Scotland, it came to our attention that a proportion of ‘Class 3’ woodlands, which are thought to be of recent origin (regenerated since the nineteenth century), retain scattered tree symbols. This paper quantifies the degree to which Class 3 AWI sites may correspond to areas of scattered trees or open growth woodland. We show that a significant number (c. 50%) of Class 3 sites appear to have continuity of tree/woodland habitat; this may be particularly important for interpreting the distribution of ecological guilds such as tree-dependent epiphytic lichens and invertebrates. The study serves to re-emphasise that (i) technological limits and priorities of map makers, (ii) value systems of historical geographers, and (iii) biology of species, should be carefully considered and aligned during ecological research, so that potential anomalies, for example, the continuous existence of open structured woodland, can be fully recognised during application of systems such as the AWI. Key Words: ancient woodland indicators, epiphyte, historical ecology, pasture woodland, woodland continuity.
29699Lewis J.E.J. & Ellis C.J. (2010): Taxon- compared with trait-based analysis of epiphytes, and the role of tree species and tree age in community composition. - Plant Ecology & Diversity, 3(2): 203–210.
Background: Trait-based assembly rules are a powerful tool in community ecology, used to explore the pattern and process of community structure (richness and composition). Aims: A preliminary test for the utility of trait-based assembly rules in explaining cryptogamic epiphyte communities (lichens and bryophytes). Methods: We sampled epiphytes from three different tree species (aspen, birch and pine), and from trees of contrasting age. The community composition of epiphyte species (taxon analysis) and functional groups (trait analysis) was summarised using multivariate ordination (nonmetric multidimensional scaling, NMDS). Results: Ordination documented a widely observed pattern in which different tree species have taxonomically different epiphyte communities. However, NMDS sample scores were correlated to tree age in the trait-based analysis, but not in the taxon analysis. Conclusions: Our results point to the existence of a common pattern in community traits during succession (on trees of different age) when measured for epiphyte communities with contrasting taxonomic composition. This pattern is evidenced by consistent trends in lichen growth form and reproductive strategy (sexual vs. asexual). Keywords: assembly rules; community structure; functional traits; nonmetric multidimensional scaling; succession.
29698Nascimbene J., Marini L. & Ódor P. (2012): Drivers of lichen species richness at multiple spatial scales in temperate forests. - Plant Ecology & Diversity, 5(3): 355–363.
Background: Few studies analysing lichen diversity have simultaneously considered interactions among drivers that operate at different spatial and temporal scales. Aims: The aims of this study were to evaluate the relative importance of host tree, and local, landscape and historical factors in explaining lichen diversity in managed temperate forests, and to test the potential interactions among factors acting at different spatial scales. Methods: Thirty-five stands were selected in the Őrség region of western Hungary. Linear models and multi-model inference within an information-theory framework were used to evaluate the role of different variables on lichen species richness. Results: Drivers at multiple spatial scales contributed to shaping lichen species richness both at the tree and plot levels. Tree-level species richness was related to both tree- and plot-level factors.With increasing relative diffuse light lichen species richness increased; this effect was stronger on the higher than on the lower part of the trunks. At the plot scale, species richness was affected by local drivers. Landscape and historical factors had no, or only a marginal, effect. Conclusions: Lichen conservation in temperate managed forests could be improved if the complex interactions among host tree quality and availability, micro-climatic conditions, and management were taken into consideration. Keywords: conservation; diffuse light; epiphytic lichens; forest management; historical factors; landscape.
29697Bjerke J.W., Bokhorst S., Callaghan T.V., Zielke M. & Phoenix G.K. (2013): Rapid photosynthetic recovery of a snow-covered feather moss and Peltigera lichen during sub-Arctic midwinter warming. - Plant Ecology & Diversity, 6(3-4): 383–392.
Background: Arctic lichens and mosses are covered by snow for more than half the year and are generally considered as being dormant for most of this period. However, enhanced frequency of winter warming events due to climate change can cause increased disturbance of their protective subnivean environment. Aim: To further understand cryptogamic responses to midwinter warming we compared the ecophysiological performance of one lichen and one moss species during a simulated warming event. Methods: We measured photosynthesis and dark respiration in samples of the moss Hylocomium splendens and the lichen Peltigera aphthosa removed from under snow, and on natural refreezing after the warming event, which was simulated by using infrared heaters suspended above the ground. Results: The moss exposed to light at +5 °C immediately after removal from their subnivean environment and from warmed plots showed positive net gas exchange within 332 s; the lichen required 1238 s. Photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation rates were equal to that, or higher than, during the preceding growing season. Upon refreezing after the event, moss photosynthesis declined considerably. Conclusions: The moss, and to a lesser extent the lichen, may contribute to subnivean midwinter ecosystem respiration, and both are opportunistic, and can take advantage of warmer winter phases for photosynthesis and growth. This ought to be taken into account in vegetation change projections of cryptogam-rich ecosystems. Keywords: carbon flux, climate change, cryptogams, dormancy, gas exchange, nitrogen fixation, reactivation, snow melt, subnivean environment, winter warming.
29696Hauck M. (2014): Edge effects on epiphytic lichen diversity in the forest-steppe of the Kazakh Altai. - Plant Ecology & Diversity, 7(4): 473–483.
Background: Forests in forest-steppe ecotones are usually highly fragmented and much of the forested area is exposed to climate and land-use-related edge effects. Aim: To test the hypothesis that the epiphytic lichen diversity at the forest edges was reduced compared with that in the forest interior, and to analyse lichen diversity in comparison with the more highly elevated and more continental Mongolian Altai. Methods: Six plots each in the interior and the edge with a total of 240 Larix sibirica trees were studied in the Katon-Karagai National Park, East Kazakhstan. Results: Species richness and evenness at the tree level were higher in the interior than at the edge. The epiphytic lichen diversity in the forest interior was similar in the Kazakh and Mongolian Altai, whereas that at the forest edge was lower in the Mongolian Altai. Conclusions: Strong degradation of the forest edges in the Kazakh Altai is the probable cause of the reduced epiphytic lichen diversity compared with the interior. The similar species richness in the forest interiors of the Kazakh and Mongolian Altai suggests that the differences at the forest edge are probably, at least partly, due to different land-use regimes and not to differences in macroclimate. Keywords: alpha-diversity; Central Asia; evenness; forest grazing; nitrophytes; selective logging; Siberian larch (Larix sibirica); silver birch (Betula pendula).
29695Joshi Y., Tripathi M., Divakar P.K. & Upreti D.K. (2014): A note on the occurrence of Xanthoparmelia saxeti (Stizenb.) Amo, A. Crespo, Elix & Lumbsch in India. - Webbia, 69(1): 137–139.
The paper describes for the first time the occurrence of Xanthoparmelia saxeti (Stizenb.) Amo, A. Crespo, Elix and Lumbsch in Himalaya, where it was found growing over siliceous rocks in and around Sun Temple, Kosi Katarmal, Almora district, Uttarakhand. Previously, the species was reported for the first time under the name Karoowia saxeti from Karnantaka and recently Divakar and colleagues collected specimens from the same state, but the species had not been previously mentioned by any Indian worker from India. A brief description of the species along with the status of Karoowia and Xanthoparmelia is given in the text. Keywords: Himalaya; Karoowia; Uttarakhand; Xanthoparmelia saxeti.
29694Armstrong R.A. (2014): Within-site variation in lichen growth rates and its implications for direct lichenometry. - Geografiska Annaler: Series A, Physical Geography, 96(2): 217–226.
Variation in lichen growth rates poses a significant challenge for the application of direct lichenometry, i.e. the construction of lichen dating curves from direct measurement of growth rates. To examine the magnitude and possible causes of within-site growth variation, radial growth rates (RaGRs) of thalli of the fast-growing foliose lichen Melanelia fuliginosa ssp. fuliginosa (Fr. ex Duby) Essl. and the slow-growing crustose lichen Rhizocarpon geographicum (L.) DC. were studied on two S-facing slate rock surfaces in north Wales, UK using digital photography and an image analysis system (Image-J). RaGRs of M. fuliginosa ssp. fuliginosa varied from 0.44 to 2.63 mm yr–1 and R. geographicum from 0.10 to 1.50 mm yr–1.5. Analysis of variance suggested no significant variation in RaGRs with vertical or horizontal location on the rock, thallus diameter, aspect, slope, light intensity, rock porosity, rock surface texture, distance to nearest lichen neighbour or distance to vegetation on the rock surface. The frequency distribution of RaGR did not deviate from a normal distribution. It was concluded that despite considerable growth rate variation in both species studied, growth curves could be constructed with sufficient precision to be useful for direct lichenometry. Key words: direct lichenometry, radial growth rate (RaGR), growth variation, Melanelia fuliginosa ssp. fuliginosa (Fr. ex Duby) Essl., Rhizocarpon geographicum (L.) DC., normal distribution.
29693Bull W.B. (2014): Using earthquakes to assess lichen growth rates. - Geografiska Annaler: Series A, Physical Geography, 96(2): 117–133.
Botanists make yearly measurements of lichen sizes that describe highly variable radial expansion of young, and old, Rhizocarpon subgenus Rhizocarpon that is a function of thallus size and age. Such non-uniform growth would negate use of lichens to date geomorphic events, such as landslides and moraines, of the past 1000 years. Fortunately, many crustose lichens tend toward circular shapes, which can be achieved only when overall uniform radial growth prevails. Largest lichen measurements on rockfall blocks that accumulate incrementally as hillslope talus in earthquake-prone California plot as distinct peaks in frequency distributions. Rockfall surface-exposure times are known to the day for historical earthquakes and to the year where mass movements damage trees. Lichenometry consistently dates regionally synchronous rockfall events with an accuracy and precision of ±5 years. Only historical records and tree-ring dating of earthquakes are better. The four crustose lichens used here have constant longterm growth rates, ranging from 9.5 to 23.1 mm per century. Growth rates do not vary with altitude or climate in a 900 km long mountainous study region in California, USA. Linear growth regressions, when projected to the present, constrain estimates of colonization time and possible styles of initial lichen growth. Key words: lichenology, lichenometry, landslides, California, New Zealand.
29692Baran E.J. (2014): Review: Natural oxalates and their analogous synthetic complexes. - Journal of Coordination Chemistry, 67(23-24): 3734–3768.
Metal oxalates, commonly classified as organic minerals, are widely distributed in Nature, occurring in mineral deposits or as biominerals in plants, fungi, and lichens or in the form of deposits, of different kinds, in animal tissues. Eighteen natural species of this type have so far been reported and investigated. In the first part of this review we give an overview on the general characteristics of these minerals, including also some comments on their environmental effects. The central part of the review is devoted to the discussion of synthetic oxalates, analogous to the natural species, including the usual procedures employed for their synthesis and the thorough analysis of their crystallographic and structural peculiarities. The thermal, spectroscopic, and magnetic properties of these complexes are also discussed in detail. Some comparisons with related coordination compounds are also made along the text. Keywords: Oxalate minerals; Synthetic analogous complexes; Synthesis; Structural properties; Thermal, spectroscopic and magnetic behavior.
29691Koneva V.V. (2015): Lichen biota in the low land of the Ob basin. - International Journal of Environmental Studies, 72(3): 521–526.
The article reviews the lichen diversity in the low land of the Ob basin based on the data published by the author and other specialists. So far, species diversity has reached 430 taxonomic units from 102 genera and 42 families. There are data about the distribution of certain lichen species for the main types of habitat and substrates with in cenosis. The largest variety is shown in communities of dark coniferous forests and mixed forests with declining aspens in the tree layer (215 species), of forested fens (161 species), and inundated forest cenosis (100 species). The least variety is found in ground slope communities (13 species) and phytocenoses of transition moors (12 species). Keywords: Lichen biota, Ob basin, Phytocenosis, Habitat.
29690Koneva V.V. (2014): The role of local lichen biota in zonal ecosystems formation in Western Siberia. - International Journal of Environmental Studies, 71(5): 637–646.
This paper describes the data on lichen biota of the major forest and wetland ecosystems in northern, central and southern taiga and sub-taiga in Western Siberia. It shows the results of floristic and comparative analysis of certain lichen biota basing on family and genus composition, cluster analysis (Sorensen-Chekanovsky, Simpson indices), a taxon’s presence or absence on the species list or the weight characteristics of species. Keywords: Lichen biota, Taiga subzones, Western Siberia.
29689Cossu T.A., Zedda L. & Camarda I. (2016): Lichen diversity on dolmen and menhir in the Megalithic complex of Sa Coveccada (Mores, Sardinia). - Plant Biosystems, 150(4): 821–828.
This work describes the lichen diversity found on the megalithic Dolmen of Sa Coveccada (Mores, Sardinia) until 2010. After that year, a restoration with chemical removal of lichen crusts took place, which destroyed a great part of the lichen communities. These were studied again after removal and lichen communities occurring on rock outcrops in the surroundings of the Dolmen and on a contiguous menhir were investigated as well for comparison. Before the restoration, 33 species had been recorded on the Dolmen, most being crustose, followed by foliose and fruticose forms. Among these, eight species are regarded as rare in Sardinia and five rare at lower elevations. Most of the recorded species are typical for eutrophic substrates and for meso- to xerophytic conditions. Studies on lichen diversity on archaeological monuments in Sardinia are limited. This is the first report on the lichens of a Sardinian dolmen. This paper questions whether the lichen diversity of such monuments should be preserved as lichens have been an important part of the monument ecosystem and of the landscape for many centuries. This work also aims to improve collaboration among lichen and monument experts, in order to avoid hasty restoration decisions. Keywords: biodiversity, dolmen, Italy, lichens, monument, Sardinia.
29688Köhler S., Levia D.F., Jungkunst H.F. & Gerold G. (2015): An in situ method to measure and map bark pH. - Journal of Wood Chemistry and Technology, 35(6): 438–449.
Bark pH is an essential parameter which partly governs the chemistry of the bark as well as its suitability as a microhabitat to a wide range of epiphytic organisms. Bark pH is known to vary with tree species, epiphytic cover, stemflow channelization, and anthropogenic influences. To date, reliable methods to quantify the spatial and temporal dimensions of bark pH have remained elusive. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate an in situ method to measure the surface pH of bark with high spatial resolution. Agar-agar panels, prepared with a pH indicator, were used to quantify and map the spatial variation of bark pH for cacao trees in Indonesia. Fine-scale changes of bark pH were clearly detectable and quantifiable with our bark pH mapping method. Bark pH was found to vary as a function of bark microrelief and the presence of epiphytes. The use of pH reference panels validated the bark pH measurements obtained from our method. The bark pH measurement method developed, described, and validated in this article is inexpensive and straightforward. It has the potential for wide adoption by scientists across disciplines who are interested in bark pH and its effect on life in the cortisphere. Unlike conventional methods to measure bark pH in deionized water or KCl extracts, our method is able to identify fine-scale spatial changes in bark pH that are relevant for the colonization of bark by organisms. Keywords: Cortisphere, epiphyte, bark microrelief, bark chemistry, stemflow, cacao.
29687Baykara T. & Işık M.C. (2016): Physical characterization, microstructural evaluation, and condition assessment of ancient Ahlat Tombstones in the Seljukian cemetery of Ahlat (Turkey). - International Journal of Architectural Heritage, 10(8): 1025–1040.
A typical Seljukian town of Ahlat, located between the north-western shores of the Lake Van and the Nemrud and Suphan volcanoes of the Eastern Turkey is hosting rich and colorful cultural heritage sites. Among these, famous Seljukian Cemetery is a major archeological district with monumental tombstones (stelae). Excessive deterioration, erosion and lichen colonization can be observed in these cultural artifacts. The main objective of this study is the investigation of stones’ physical characterization and evaluation of the microstructural features. A degradation model was outlined starting with the capillary water uptake from the bottom section and lichen colonization starting from the top and covering these tombstones upto their mid sections. This article provides some information about the historical town of Ahlat and its tombstones. Some physical and microstructural characterization of the gravestones and the results of chemical and physical analysis are also presented along with some recommendations. Keywords: Ahlat Stone, biodeterioration, condition assessment, degradation, fungi, ignimbrite, lichens, physical properties, tombstones.
29686Sparkes J.H., de Lange P.J. & Blanchon D.J. (2014): Notes on Caloplaca allanii Zahlbr. (Teloschistaceae) a poorly known West Auckland, North Island, New Zealand endemic. - New Zealand Journal of Botany, 52(3): 304–309.
After a lapse of 81 years we report the rediscovery of Caloplaca allanii (Teloschistaceae), a lichen previously known only from the type collection. The species appears to be endemic to the Waitakere Ranges coastline west of Auckland, North Island, New Zealand. A revised description of the species based on fresh material is provided, and we expand the distribution of the species as well as describing its habitats and associated species. A table and key to the saxicolous, coastal Caloplaca of the Waitakere Ranges is also provided. As a narrow-range endemic, with apparently very specific habitat requirements, C. allanii is a naturally uncommon, biologically sparse species. Nevertheless because of the small total area of occupancy, we assess C. allanii as ‘Threatened’/‘Nationally Critical’ using the New Zealand Threat Classification System. Keywords: Caloplaca, Caloplaca allanii, Caloplaca acheila, Caloplaca cribosa, Caloplaca cf. litoralis, Teloschistaceae, ecology, conservation status, New Zealand mycobiota.
29685Park S.-Y., Jang S.-H., Oh S.-O., Kim J.A. & Hur J.-S. (2014): An easy, rapid, and cost-effective method for DNA extraction from various lichen taxa and specimens suitable for analysis of fungal and algal strains. - Mycobiology, 42(4): 311–316.
Lichen studies, including biodiversity, phylogenetic relationships, and conservation concerns require definitive species identification, however many lichens can be challenging to identify at the species level. Molecular techniques have shown efficacy in discriminating among lichen taxa, however, obtaining genomic DNA from herbarium and fresh lichen thalli by conventional methods has been difficult, because lichens contain high proteins, polysaccharides, and other complex compounds in their cell walls. Here we report a rapid, easy, and inexpensive protocol for extracting PCR-quality DNA from various lichen species. This method involves the following two steps: first, cell breakage using a beadbeater; and second, extraction, isolation, and precipitation of genomic DNA. The procedure requires approximately 10 mg of lichen thalli and can be completed within 20 min. The obtained DNAs were of sufficient quality and quantity to amplify the internal transcribed spacer region from the fungal and algal lichen components, as well as to sequence the amplified products. In addition, 26 different lichen taxa were tested, resulting in successful PCR products. The results of this study validated the experimental protocols, and clearly demonstrated the efficacy and value of our KCl extraction method applied in the fungal and algal samples. Keywords: Lichens, Fungi, Algae, Genomic DNA, rRNA, Sequencing.
29684Savale S.A., Pol C.S., Khare R., Verma N., Gaikwad S., Mandal B. & Behera B.C. (2016): Radical scavenging, prolyl endopeptidase inhibitory, and antimicrobial potential of a cultured Himalayan lichen Cetrelia olivetorum. - Pharmaceutical Biology, 54(4): 692–700.
Context: Lichens are source of natural bioactive compounds which are traditionally used to cure a variety of ailments. Objective: The objective of this study is to assess free radical scavenging, prolyl endopeptidase inhibitory (PEPI), and antimicrobial potential of a high altitude lichen species Cetrelia olivetorum (Nyl.) W. L. Culb. & C. F. Culb (Parmeliaceae). Materials and methods: Lichen C. olivetorum has been cultured in vitro, and optimized culture conditions were implemented in bioreactor to obtain high quantity of biomass for the study of radical scavenging, PEPI, and antimicrobial activities. Radical scavenging activity of methanol extract of Cetrelia olivetorum (MECO) was tested at 100 µg/mL, PEPI activity at 25 and 50 µg/mL, and antimicrobial activity at 5, 25, 50, and 100 µg/mL conc. All the biological activities of natural thallus extract and its derived culture extract were evaluated spectrophotometrically. Results: Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 3% glucose and 100 ppb indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) supported biomass growth at flask level and yielded 5.095 g biomass in bioreactor. MECO of both the cultured and the natural lichen exhibited half inhibiting concentration (IC50) for radical scavenging activities in the range of 50–60 µg/mL, whereas the IC50 value of standard antioxidants was found to be in the range of 12–29 µg/mL. The IC50 value of lichen extract for PEPI activity was 144–288 µg/mL, whereas the IC50 value of standard prolyl endopeptidase inhibitor, Z-pro-prolinal, was 57.73 µg/mL. As far as the antimicrobial activity of MECO is concerned, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of lichen extracts against tested microorganisms was obtained in the range of 50–104 µg/mL and found to be more effective than commercially available standard erythromycin. Discussion: Murashige and Skoog medium containing IBA was found to be suitable for maximum biomass production of C. olivetorum under bioreactor conditions. The cultured lichen biomass extract also showed antioxidant, PEPI, and antimicrobial potential. Conclusion: The present study indicates therapeutic potential of Himalayan lichen C. olivetorum against neurodegenerative diseases owing to its radical scavenging, PEPI, and antimicrobial activities. Further, the result encourages its commercial exploitation through mass culture for production of its bioactive components and their use in pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries. Keywords: Antioxidants, lichenized fungi, minimum inhibitory concentration, neurodegenerative diseases.
29683Studzińska-Sroka E., Piotrowska H., Kucińska M., Murias M. & Bylka W. (2016): Cytotoxic activity of physodic acid and acetone extract from Hypogymnia physodes against breast cancer cell lines. - Pharmaceutical Biology, 54(11): 2480–2485.
Context: Lichens produce specific secondary metabolites with different biological activity. Objective: This study investigated the cytotoxic effects of physodic acid, in addition to the total phenolic content and cytotoxic and antioxidant activity of acetone extract from Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. (Parmeliaceae). Materials and methods: Cytotoxicity of physodic acid (0.1–100 μM) was assessed in MDA-MB-231, MCF-7 and T-47D breast cancer cell lines and a nontumorigenic MCF-10A cell line using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, neutral red uptake and crystal violet assays during 72 h of incubation. An MTT assay was also used to assess the cytotoxic effects of the acetone extract (0.1–100 μg/mL) in the MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, T-47D breast cancer cell lines after 72 h. The total phenolic content of the acetone extract, expressed as the gallic acid equivalent, was investigated using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. The antioxidant activity of the extract was assessed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and ferric-reducing antioxidant power assays. Results: The cytotoxic activity of physodic acid appeared to be strong in the tumorigenic cell lines (IC50 46.0–93.9 μM). The compound was inactive against the nontumorigenic MCF-10A cell line (IC50 >100 μM). The acetone extract showed cytotoxicity in the breast cancer cell lines (IC50 46.2–110.4 μg/mL). The acetone extract was characterized by a high content of polyphenols, and it had significant antioxidant activity. Discussion and conclusion: Physodic acid and acetone extract from H. physodes displayed cytotoxic effects in the breast cancer cell lines. Furthermore, acetone extract from H. physodes possessed significant antioxidant properties. Keywords: Anticancer, antioxidant, depsidone, lichen, polyphenols.
29682Koç Ş.N., Ataşlar E., Türk A. &. Tufan-Çetіn Ö. (2017): Lichens of Barla Mountain in Isparta, Turkey: Diversity study and ecological assessment of the area. - Plant Biosystems, 151(6): 985–995.
This study reports on 230 infrageneric lichenized and lichenicolous taxa from Barla Mountain, Isparta, Turkey and assesses the ecological features of the area using the distribution of the lichens in the region and their poleophoby and solar irradiation ecological indicator values. One lichenized fungus, Protoblastenia terricola, and one lichenicolous fungus, Zwackhiomyces dispersus, are recorded as new in Turkey and 194 taxa are reported for the first time from Barla Mountain. After this research, number of the lichenized and lichenicolous fungi taxa of Barla Mountain rose to 241. Based on assessments using the ecological indicator values, the area is dominated by natural or semi-natural and well-preserved habitats. Keywords: Biodiversity, ecological indicator value, lichens, lichenicolous fungi, Barla Mountain.
29681Sandoval-Leiva P., Niveiro N., Urbina-Casanova R. & Scherson R. (2017): Lichenomphalia altoandina, a new species of Hygrophoraceae from the Chilean Altiplano. - Mycologia, 109(1): 92–99.
Lichenomphalia is a lichenized agaric genus characterized by its omphalinoid basidiomes. Lichenomphalia species are associated with unicellular green algae in the genus Coccomyxa and are mainly distributed in polar and alpine habitats. The aim of this work is to describe L. altoandina, a new species from northern Chile that grows among cushion plants over 3000 m above sea level in the Andes Mountains. The species is remarkable for living in highly saline environments, in some cases virtually on salt crusts. Lichenomphalia altoandina differs from other known species and particularly from L. aurantiaca, the most morphologically similar species, in its smooth and broader stipe and its slightly larger spores. Lichenomphalia altoandina is also morphologicaly and ecologically more similar to the core Lichenomphalia clade. Our phylogenetic study based on nuclear rDNA ITS and partial 28S sequences shows that L. altoandina belongs to the Protolichenomphalia clade and is sister to an unknown lineage, L. aff. umbellifera, from New Zealand. Key words: basidiolichen, Basidiomycota, Chile, Lichenomphalia aurantiaca, L. chromacea, phylogeny.
29680Pol C.S., Savale S.A., Khare R., Verma N. & Behera B.C. (2017): Antioxidative, cardioprotective, and anticancer potential of two lichenized fungi, Everniastrum cirrhatum and Parmotrema reticulatum, from Western Ghats of India. - Journal of Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants, 23(2): 142–156.
The antioxidative, cardioprotective, and anticancer potential of extracts of the edible lichens Everniastrum cirrhatum and Parmotrema reticulatum were evaluated. Acetone extracts of P. reticulatum exhibited nitric oxide scavenging and anti-lipid peroxidation in the range of 35.0–97.0%. IC50 values of extracts for angiotensin-converting enzyme and HMG-CoA reductase inhibition were observed in the range of 97–375 µg.mL–1 and 89–118 µg.mL–1, respectively, against standard inhibitors captopril (32 µg.mL–1) and pravastatin (26 µg.mL–1); methanol extract of P. reticulatum displayed the highest cytotoxicity, reducing HCT-116 cell viability to 40%, suggesting potential use of these lichens as nutraceuticals. Keywords: Cancer drugs, cardiac diseases, cytotoxicity, nutraceuticals, oxidative stress, parmelioid lichens.
29679Park J.S., Park S.-Y., Park C.-H., Jang S.-H. & Hur J.-S. (2018): Arthothelium punctatum (Arthoniaceae, Arthoniales), a new lichen species from South Korea. - Mycobiology, 45(4): 255–262.
A total of 121 species of lichens belonging to the genus Arthothelium have been described to date, most of which have been found in tropical regions. Here, we describe the discovery of a novel Arthothelium species for the first time in South Korea. Until now, Arthothelium ruanum was the only Arthothelium species reported in South Korea. Among the 113 specimens collected in this study, we identified A. ruanum and a putative new species, Arthothelium punctatum (J. S. Park & J.-S. Hur, sp. nov.). The diagnostic characters of A. punctatum are as follows: apothecia punctate, shortly elongate to branched, small, 0.1–0.2 mm wide, hypothecium hyaline to pale brown and obovate to broadly ellipsoid, muriform ascospores, 29.5–44.6 × 12.2–18.2 μm. The new species was found in Mt. Seokbyeong at an altitude of 790 m on smooth bark. Upon phylogenic analysis, the putative new species, A. punctatum, was separated from other Arthothelium species although the specimens analyzed were clustered with Arthoniaceae in phylogenetic trees based on both the mitochondrial small subunit (mtSSU) sequence and combined mtSSU and nuclear ribosomal large subunit sequences. Our data clearly indicate that this species is a new species belonging to the family Arthoniaceae. To elucidate the taxonomic characteristics of the new species, we provide morphological descriptions and a distribution map. Keywords: Arthothelium, mtSSU, nuLSU, Phylogenic analysis, RPB2, Taxonomy.
29678Halıcı M.G., Bartak M. & Güllü M. (2018): Identification of some lichenised fungi from James Ross Island (Antarctic Peninsula) using nrITS markers. - New Zealand Journal of Botany, 56(3): 276–290.
James Ross Island (Antarctic Peninsula) is one of the lichen rich islands of Antarctica because of its large deglaciated area, with over 140 species of lichenised fungi being reported from the island. Because of its rich lichen biodiversity we decided to study the lichen biodiversity of James Ross Island in more detail, using molecular techniques in addition to morphological characters. Collections made from James Ross Island in the 2016–2017 season by the first and second authors showed that lichen biodiversity of Antarctica is still poorly known and that molecular studies should be carried out to determine the lichen mycota of the white continent. For this research we selected five species and, after morphological and anatomical studies, we also worked with the nrITS gene regions of the selected specimens. Aspicilia virginea and Peltigera ponojensis are new to Antarctica and we provide nrITS data for Candelaria murrayi and Flavoparmelia gerlachei for the first time. Austroplaca frigida was only known from continental Antarctica and we report this species from maritime Antarctica for the first time. Detailed descriptions, habitat preferences and nrITS phylogenies of these species are provided. We believe that the lichen biodiversity of Antarctica will be much better known if molecular techniques are used in the classification of lichenised fungi. Keywords: Antarctica; lichens; nrITS; polar lichens.
29677Voglmayr H., Fournier J. & Jaklitsch W.M. (2019): Two new classes of Ascomycota: Xylobotryomycetes and Candelariomycetes. - Persoonia, 42: 36–49.
Phylogenetic analyses of a combined DNA data matrix containing nuclear small and large subunits (nSSU, nLSU) and mitochondrial small subunit (mtSSU) ribosomal RNA and the largest and second largest subunits of the RNA polymerase II (rpb1, rpb2) of representative Pezizomycotina revealed that the enigmatic genera Xylobotryum and Cirrosporium form an isolated, highly supported phylogenetic lineage within Leotiomyceta. Acknowledging their morphological and phylogenetic distinctness, we describe the new class Xylobotryomycetes, containing the new order Xylobotryales with the two new families Xylobotryaceae and Cirrosporiaceae. The two currently accepted species of Xylobotryum, X. andinum and X. portentosum, are described and illustrated by light and scanning electron microscopy. The generic type species X. andinum is epitypified with a recent collection for which a culture and sequence data are available. Acknowledging the phylogenetic distinctness of Candelariomycetidae from Lecanoromycetes revealed in previous and the current phylogenetic analyses, the new class Candelariomycetes is proposed. Keywords: Ascomycota; Dothideomycetes; Eurotiomycetes; Sordariomycetes; five new taxa; multigene phylogenetic analyses; pyrenomycetes.
29676Rolshausen G., Dal Grande F., Sadowska‐Deś A.D., Otte J. & Schmitt I. (2018): Quantifying the climatic niche of symbiont partners in a lichen symbiosis indicates mutualist‐mediated niche expansions. - Ecography, 41(8): 1380–1392.
The large distributional areas and ecological niches of many lichenized fungi may in part be due to the plasticity in interactions between the fungus (mycobiont) and its algal or cyanobacterial partners (photobionts). On the one hand, broad‐scale phylogenetic analyses show that partner compatibility in lichens is rather constrained and shaped by reciprocal selection pressures and codiversification independent of ecological drivers. On the other hand, sub‐species‐level associations among lichen symbionts appear to be environmentally structured rather than phylogenetically constrained. In particular, switching between photobiont ecotypes with distinct environmental preferences has been hypothesized as an adaptive strategy for lichen‐forming fungi to broaden their ecological niche. The extent and direction of photobiont‐mediated range expansions in lichens, however, have not been examined comprehensively at a broad geographic scale. Here we investigate the population genetic structure of Lasallia pustulata symbionts at sub‐species‐level resolution across the mycobiont's Europe‐wide range, using fungal MCM7 and algal ITS rDNA sequence markers. We show that variance in occurrence probabilities in the geographic distribution of genetic diversity in mycobiont‐photobiont interactions is closely related to changes in climatic niches. Quantification of niche extent and overlap based on species distribution modeling and construction of Hutchinsonian climatic hypervolumes revealed that combinations of fungal–algal interactions change at the sub‐species level along latitudinal temperature gradients and in Mediterranean climate zones. Our study provides evidence for symbiont‐mediated niche expansion in lichens. We discuss our results in the light of symbiont polymorphism and partner switching as potential mechanisms of environmental adaptation and niche evolution in mutualisms.
29675Molins A., Moya P., García‐Breijo F.J., Reig‐Armiñana J. & Barreno E. (2018): Molecular and morphological diversity of Trebouxia microalgae in sphaerothallioid Circinaria spp. lichens. - Journal of Phycology, 54: 494–504.
Three vagrant (Circinaria hispida, Circinaria gyrosa, and Circinaria sp. ‘paramerae’) and one crustose (semi‐vagrant, Circinaria sp. ‘oromediterranea’) lichens growing in very continental areas in the Iberian Peninsula were selected to study the phycobiont diversity. Mycobiont identification was checked using nrITS DNA barcoding: Circinaria sp. ‘oromediterranea’ and Circinaria sp. ‘paramerae’ formed a new clade. Phycobiont diversity was analyzed in 50 thalli of Circinaria spp. using nrITS DNA and LSU rDNA, with microalgae coexistence being found in all the species analyzed by Sanger sequencing. The survey of phycobiont diversity showed up to four different Trebouxia spp. as the primary phycobiont in 20 thalli of C. hispida, in comparison with the remaining Circinaria spp., where only one Trebouxia was the primary microalga. In lichen species showing coexistence, some complementary approaches are needed (454 pyrosequencing and/or ultrastructural analyses). Five specimens were selected for high‐throughput screening (HTS) analyses: 22 Trebouxia OTUs were detected, 10 of them not previously known. TEM analyses showed three different cell morphotypes (Trebouxia sp. OTU A12, OTU S51, and T. cretacea) whose ultrastructure is described here in detail for the first time. HTS revealed a different microalgae pool in each species studied, and we cannot assume a specific pattern between these pools and the ecological and/or morphological characteristics. The mechanisms involved in the selection of the primary phycobiont and the other microalgae by the mycobiont are unknown, and require complex experimental designs. The systematics of the genus Circinaria is not yet well resolved, and more analyses are needed to establish a precise delimitation of the species. Keywords: 454 pyrosequencing; Sanger sequencing; Trebouxia; coexistence; ultrastructure; vagrant lichen.
29674Heuchert B., Braun U., Diederich P. & Ertz D. (2018): Taxonomic monograph of the genus Taeniolella s. lat. (Ascomycota). - Fungal Systematics and Evolution, 2: 69–261.
A taxonomic monograph of the ascomycete genus Taeniolella (asexual dematiaceous hyphomycetes, sexual morphs unknown) is provided. Recent phylogenetic analyses demonstrated the polyphyly of this genus. The type species of Taeniolella pertains to the Kirschsteiniotheliaceae within Dothideomycetes, while other saprobic species clustered far away within Sordariomycetes, Savoryellaceae s. lat., and Lindgomycetaceae, whereas lichenicolous species belong to a monophyletic clade that represents the order Asterotexiales, but for most species assigned to Taeniolella sequence data and phylogenetic analyses are not yet available. The main focus of the present taxonomic study was on a revision of the lichenicolous Taeniolella species. Since the currently available phylogenetic analyses do not allow final taxonomic conclusions at generic rank, the exclusion of lichenicolous species from Taeniolella s. lat. has been postponed pending a broader sampling and more phylogenetic data of allied ascomycete genera within the order Asterotexiales. For the interim, Taeniolella s. lat., including lichenicolous and saprobic species, is maintained. The taxonomic background, history, generic description and discrimination from morphologically confusable genera, phylogeny, biology, host range and distribution, and species concept of Taeniolella species are briefly outlined and discussed. Keys to the species of Taeniolella divided by ecological groups (lichenicolous taxa, saprobic taxa) are provided, supplemented by a tabular key to lichenicolous species based on host (lichen) families and genera. Twenty-nine lichenicolous species and a Taeniolella sp. (putative asexual morph of Sphaerellothecium thamnoliae) as well as 16 saprobic species are described in detail and illustrated by drawings, macroscopic photographs, light microscopic and SEM micrographs, including six new lichenicolous species (T. arctoparmeliae on Arctoparmelia separata, T. lecanoricola on Lecanora rupicola, T. thelotrematis on Thelotrema, T. umbilicariae and T. umbilicariicola on Umbilicaria, T. weberi on Thelotrema weberi), three new saprobic species (T. filamentosa on Salix, T. ravenelii on Quercus, T. stilbosporoides on Salix caprea), and one new combination, T. arthoniae. Keywords: Ascomycetes; Asterotexiales; hyphomycetes; lichenicolous; new taxa; saprobic.
29673Yu N.H., Park S.-Y., Kim J.A., Park C.-H., Jeong M.-H., Oh S.-O., Hong S.G., Talavera M., Divakar P.K. & Hur J.-S. (2018): Endophytic and endolichenic fungal diversity in maritime Antarctica based on cultured material and their evolutionary position among Dikarya. - Fungal Systematics and Evolution, 2: 263–272.
Fungal endophytes comprise one of the most ubiquitous groups of plant symbionts. They live asymptomatically within vascular plants, bryophytes and also in close association with algal photobionts inside lichen thalli. While endophytic diversity in land plants has been well studied, their diversity in lichens and bryophytes are poorly understood. Here, we compare the endolichenic and endophytic fungal communities isolated from lichens and bryophytes in the Barton Peninsula, King George Island, Antarctica. A total of 93 fungal isolates were collected from lichens and bryophytes. In order to determine their identities and evolutionary relationships, DNA sequences of the nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS), nuclear ribosomal small subunit (nuSSU), nuclear large subunit (nuLSU), and mitochondrial SSU (mtSSU) rDNA were obtained and protein coding markers of the two largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB1 and RPB2) were generated. Multilocus phylogenetic analyses revealed that most of the fungal isolates were distributed in the following six classes in the phylum Ascomycota: Dothideomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, Lecanoromycetes, Leotiomycetes, Pezizomycetes and Sordariomycetes. For the first time we report the presence of subphylum Mortierellomycotina that may belong to an undescribed order in endophytic fungi. Taken together, our results imply that lichens and bryophytes provide similar niches and harbour a selection of these fungi, indicating generalists within the framework of evolutionary adaptation. Keywords: bryophytes; endophytes; lichens; multi-locus molecular phylogeny.
29672Boluda C.G., Rico V.J., Divakar P.K., Nadyeina O., Myllys L., McMullin R.T., Zamora J.C., Scheidegger C. & Hawksworth D.L. (2019): Evaluating methodologies for species delimitation: the mismatch between phenotypes and genotypes in lichenized fungi (Bryoria sect. Implexae, Parmeliaceae). - Persoonia, 42: 75–100.
In many lichen-forming fungi, molecular phylogenetic analyses lead to the discovery of cryptic species within traditional morphospecies. However, in some cases, molecular sequence data also questions the separation of phenotypically characterised species. Here we apply an integrative taxonomy approach ‒ including morphological, chemical, molecular, and distributional characters ‒ to re-assess species boundaries in a traditionally speciose group of hair lichens, Bryoria sect. Implexae. We sampled multilocus sequence and microsatellite data from 142 specimens from a broad intercontinental distribution. Molecular data included DNA sequences of the standard fungal markers ITS, IGS, GAPDH, two newly tested loci (FRBi15 and FRBi16), and SSR frequencies from 18 microsatellite markers. Datasets were analysed with Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic reconstruction, phenogram reconstruction, STRUCTURE Bayesian clustering, principal coordinate analysis, haplotype network, and several different species delimitation analyses (ABGD, PTP, GMYC, and DISSECT). Additionally, past population demography and divergence times are estimated. The different approaches to species recognition do not support the monophyly of the 11 currently accepted morphospecies, and rather suggest the reduction of these to four phylogenetic species. Moreover, three of these are relatively recent in origin and cryptic, including phenotypically and chemically variable specimens. Issues regarding the integration of an evolutionary perspective into taxonomic conclusions in species complexes, which have undergone recent diversification, are discussed. The four accepted species, all epitypified by sequenced material, are Bryoria fuscescens, B. glabra, B. kockiana, and B. pseudofuscescens. Ten species rank names are reduced to synonymy. In the absence of molecular data, they can be recorded as the B. fuscescens complex. Intraspecific phenotype plasticity and factors affecting the speciation of different morphospecies in this group of Bryoria are outlined. Keywords: chemotypes; cryptic species; haplotypes; incomplete lineage sorting; integrative taxonomy; microsatellites; speciation; species concepts.
29671Barták M., Pláteníková E., Carreras H., Hájek J., Morkusová J., Mateos A.C. & Marečková M. (2018): Effect of UV-B radiation on the content of UV-B absorbing compound s and photosynthetic parameters in Parmotrema austrosinense from two contrasting habitats. - Plant Biology , 20(5): 808–816.
We studied the resistance of Parmotrema austrosinense to UV‐B stress. We focused on the effects of a high dose UV‐B radiation on the content of chlorophylls, carotenoids and UV‐B screening compounds. Photosynthetic parameters were measured by chlorophyll fluorescence (potential and effective quantum yields, photochemical and non‐photochemical quenching) and evaluated in control and UV‐B‐treated lichens. Lichens from two different locations in Cordoba, Argentina, were selected: (i) high altitude and dry plots at (Los Gigantes) and (ii) lowland high salinity plots (Salinas Grandes). UV‐B treatment led to a decrease in the content of photosynthetic pigments and UV‐B screens (absorbance decrease in 220–350 nm) in the samples from Salinas Grandes, while in Los Gigantes samples, an increase in UV‐B screen content was observed. Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters showed a UV‐B‐induced decline in FV/FM, ΦPSII and qP indicating limitation of primary photosynthetic processes in photosystem II (PSII) of symbiotic alga, more pronounced in Salinas Grandes samples. Protective mechanism of PSII were activated by the UV‐B treatment to a higher extent in samples from Salinas Grandes (NPQ 0.48) than in Los Gigantes samples (NPQ 0.26). We concluded that site‐related characteristics, and in particular different UV‐B radiation regimen, had a strong effect on resistance of the photosynthetic apparatus of P. austrosinense to UV‐B radiation. Keywords: Absorbance; UV spectra; UV‐B resistance; chlorophyll fluorescence parameters; lichens.
29670Malmström C. (1966): Sickla udde vid Hammarby sjö. Ett intressant område inom Stockholm med från äldre tid ännu bibehållen vegetation [Sickla udde on the lake Hammarby sjö. An interesting area within Stockholm with a vegetation maintained from older times]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 60(1): 1–22.
[in Swedish] (med bidrag av S. Ahlner, E. Asplund och E. Nyholm) [with a contribution by S. Ahlner, E. Asplund and E. Nyholm] a voluminous list of lichens, amended by a paragraph on some commented species prepared by S.Ahlner (p. 21-22)
29669Coca L.F., Lücking R. & Moncada B. (2018): Two new, sympatric and semi-cryptic species of Sulzbacheromyces (Lichenized Basidiomycota, Lepidostromatales) from the Chocó Biogeographic Region in Colombia. - Bryologist, 121(3): 297–305.
Nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region is well-established as universal DNA barcode marker for Fungi. Here we examined the utility of DNA barcoding for delimiting species in lichenized Basidiomycota from Colombia, focusing on the genus Sulzbacheromyces (Lepidostromatales). The topology of the best-scoring maximum likelihood tree based on ITS data shows eight separate, wellsupported lineages within Sulzbacheromyces, including the six already known species S. caatingae from Brazil, S. miomboensis De Kesel & Ertz from Africa, and S. bicolor, S. fossicola, S. sinensis, and S. yunnanensis from Asia. In addition, two further, sympatric and semi-cryptic species from the Chocó Biogeographic Region, one of the most diverse regions of the world, are recognized: S. chocoensis Coca, Lücking & Moncada sp. nov and S. tutunendo Coca, Lücking & Moncada sp. nov. Both form separate, strongly supported species-level lineages, but differ morphologically from each other and from S. caatingae in minor details only, which are best assessed with fresh material in the field. Keywords: Basidiolichens, cryptic speciation, ITS barcoding, maximum likelihood, phylogeny.
29668Albertson N. (1940): Rhytidium rugosum (Hedw.) Lindb. i Fennoscandia. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 34(2): 77–100.
[in Swedish] several moss-associated lichens mentioned
29667Du Rietz G.E. (1942): Rishedsförband i Torneträskområdets lågfjällbälte. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 36(2–3): 124–146.
[in Swedish with German summary: ] Zwergstrauchheideverbiinde in der unteralpinen Stufe des Torneträskgebietes. Drei Verbände werden in der unteralpinen Zwergstrauchheide Fennoskandias unterschieden. Der Dryadion (octopetalae) - Verband (Kalliola 1939, Elynion Bellardii boreoarcticum Nordhagen 1936) der kalkreichen, zirkumneutralen Böden ist artenreich und wird durch viele kalkfordernde Scheidearten, die in den beiden anderen Verbänden ganz oder fast ganz fehlen, von diesen getrennt. Der Empetrion (emyrtillosum)-Verband (Loiseleurieto- Diapension Nordhagen in Braun-Blanquet, Sissingh und Vlieger 1939, Loiseleurieto-Arctostaphylion, Kalliola 1939) und der Myrtillion (alpinum)-Verband (Phyllodoco- Vaccinion Nordhagen 1936) der kalkarmen, stark sauren Böden sind artenarm. Die Grenze zwischen dem einen guten winterlichen Schneeschutz entbehrenden Empetrion und dem im Winter gut schneegeschützten Myrtillion wird am besten nach dem völligen Verschwinden der im Empetrion fehlenden Scheidearten Vaccinium Myrtillus und Deschampsia flexuosa gezogen.
29666Du Rietz G.E. (1945): Om fattigbark- och rikbarksamhällen. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 39(1): 147–150.
[in Swedish] autoreferat; an extract from a lecture; lichen communities in relation to bark pH are discussed
29665Tunblad R. (1943): Några västgötalokaler för Stereocaulon tyroliense (Nyl.) Lettau v. Iapponicum H. Magn.. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 37(3): 308–309.
29664Tunblad R. (1943): Ett intressant Umbilicariafynd i Västergötland. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 37(3): 307–308.
29663Westfeldt G.A. (1947): Vegetationen på Kråkeboberg vid Ulricehamn. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 41(1): 159–181.
29662Albertson N. (1945): Leptogium palmatum (Huds.) Mont. på Varaslätten. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 39(1): 118–120.
29661Albertson N. (1941): Bidrag till Falbygdens moss- och lavflora. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 35(2): 113–132.
29660Sernander R. (1943): Bernt Lynge. Några minnesord. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 37(4): 425–428.
[in Swedish] biography
29659Almquist E. (1944): Sigfrid Almquist 18 15/2 44 - 19 18/10 23. En minnesteckning. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 38(4): 459–464.
[in Swedish] biography
29658Pettersson B. (1946): Mannia fragrans (Balbis) Frye et Clark. Ett nytt tillskott till den svenska marchantiacé-floran. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 40(1): 31–54.
[in Swedish with English summary] Mannia fragrans (Balbis) Frye et Clark. A new addition to the Swedish Marchantiaceous flora. Some lichens associated with the liverwort on the Swedish localities are listed.