29601Larsson J.E. (1970): 137Cs in lichen communities on the Baltic coast. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 64(2): 173–178.
29600Degelius G. (1971): In memoriam: Torsten Edvard Hasselrot. 15.10.1903–6.9.1970. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 65(1): 126–131.
[in Swedish] Necrology, bibliography
29599Nicklasson A. (1972): Epilitisk moss- och lavvegetation i centrala Småland [Vegetation of epilithic bryophytes and lichens in central Småland. I]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 66(4): 377–406.
The vegetation within an area in the central part of Småland is investigated with special regard to the epilithic flora of bryophytes and lichens. The southern part of the area is characterized by a rather even bedrock plain, northwards changing into a more mountainous terrain. From phytogeographical point of view the area is of great interest. Detailed, brief descriptions of the epilithic vegetation from thirteen localities are given. Some species have not earlier been published from the province.
29598Söderberg I., Nicklasson A., Christoffersson J. & Johannesson J. (1971): Om floran i Moråns dalgång med särskild hänsyn till mossorna [The flora of the Morå valley with special regard to the bryophytes]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 65(4): 371–392.
This east-west valley in eastern Småland has been investigated for a distance of about 5 km. The stream Morån runs along the bottom of the valley and Lake Mörtsjön is situated in the lower part of the ravine. The bedrock consists of red hälleflinta. On the south-exposed sides we meet well-developed talus, where deciduous trees such as Acer, Quercus, Tilia etc. grow. Steep rocks with rich bryophytic vegetation characterize the north-exposed walls. As a contribution to the discussion of ecological conditions in the valley a microclimatological investigation is reported, dealing with light, temperature, and humidity over a short period. The example shows the continental climatic character predominating on the south-exposed slopes contrary to the maritime conditions of the north-exposed ones. The marked floristic differences between the two sides depend greatly on differences in the microclimatological conditions. Totally ca. 270 bryophytes are noted. Some lichens and most vascular plants are also given in the list of species.
29597Kreuzer W. & Schauer T. (1972): The vertical distribution of 137Cs in Cladonia rangiferina and C. silvatica. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 66(3): 226–238.
In mostly Central European lichens of the species Cladonia silvatica and C. rangiferina the upper parts of the lichens were always more strongly contaminated with 137Cs than the middle and lower parts. The most obvious differences in the vertical contamination existed especially in lichens with very long thalli; not to such a marked extent, however, as in the samples of C. alpestris examined. Despite differences of degree, 137Cs shows a similar vertical distribution in the three Cladonia species examined. The divergences are likely to result primarily from specific differences in the effect the upper parts of the lichens have in shielding their middle and lower parts from 137Cs. In lichens of the same species the differences in the development of their upper parts caused by their locality is significant. In both cases they can be explained above all from differences in the size and structure of the upper parts and the texture of their surfaces. On the other hand, there seems to be no variation from species to species in the 137Cs affinity among the three kinds. It therefore also seems unlikely that the 137Cs migrates at varying rates within the three different lichen species.
29596Sundell S. (1972): Lavar från Värmland. II [Lichens from Värmland. II]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 66(3): 159–183.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] An attempt is made to discern the following distribution groups within the lichen flora of the province: (1) Very common to common species appearing in all or nearly all of the 87 parts (= parishes) of the province. (2) Rather common to less common species with a more or less uniform though more dispersed distribution all over the province. (3) Species with a m.o.l. obvious concentration towards the northern parts of the province. (4) Species with a more or less pronounced southern distribution pattern in the province. (5) Species with a western restriction within the province. Details are also given on the distribution of a number of single species and over new or rare species found.
29595Rodenborg L. (1972): Beiträge zur Flechtenflora von Öland [Contributions to the lichen flora of the island of Öland]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 66(2): 103–112.
[in German with English abstract: ] I. Lecidea albilabra (Duf.) Duf. on Öland, a phytogeographically interesting discovery. — In 1970 Lecidea albilabra was found near the village Gösslunda on the Great Alvar of Öland. The species is new to Sweden. In Scandinavia it has previously been found only on some localities in northern Gudbrandsdalen in the southeast of Norway. The ecology and sociology of the species in Scandinavia are treated. The distribution outside Scandinavia is briefly traced. The relation of the species to L. deceptoria Nyl. is discussed. II. Squamarma gypsacea (Sm.) Poelt found again on Öland. — The species that had previously been found on the Great Alvar of Öland in the middle of the 19th century was rediscovered there in 1970. In Scandinavia outside Öland it grows only on some places on Gotland. The distribution and ecology outside Scandinavia are briefly reported on.
29594Sundström E.W. (1973): Lavtäthet på aspbark i mellersta Gästrikland [Lichen density on bark of Populus tremula affected by industrial smoke emission]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 67(4): 459–461.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] To get a quantitative view of the damage to lichens by industrial smoke emissions, the author has measured the percentage of area covered by lichens on mature aspens, diameter 200-400 mm, between 1 and 2 m above ground. 500 trees in 130 locations in central Gästrikland were studied. A marked reduction in lichen cover is noticeable up to 10-15 km from the emission points. No difference in sensitivity between the most common lichens was noted. Proximity to lakes or ploughed fields seems to counteract the smoke effect. Lichens on other trees are less sensitive to the smoke. Main roads and non-industrial settlements have no influence on the lichens treated here.
29593Moberg R. (1974): Smith, D. C., 1973, The Lichen Symbiosis. 16 s. — Smith, D. C., 1973, Symbiosis of Algae with Invertebrates. 16 s. Oxford Biology Readers nr 42 och 43. Oxford University Press. London. Pris 20p. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 68(1): 118–119.
Book review [in Swedish]
29592Moberg R. (1975): Hanneman, B. 1973, Anhangsorgane der Flechten. Ihre Strukturen und ihre systematische Verteilung. 123 s. 66 figursid., Verlag von J. Cramer, Lehre. Pris DM 50. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 69(3): 377–378.
Book review [in Swedish]
29591Nannfeldt J.A. & Santesson R. (1975): Stray Studies in the Coronophorales (Pyrenomycetes) 4–8. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 69(3): 289–335.
Comparative morphological studies on ascocarps, asci and spores lead to the conclusions (1) that Coronophorales is a highly specialized homogeneous group, derived from Lasiosphaeriaceae, (2) that Coronophoraceae and Nitschkiaceae should be united under the latter name, (3) that Coronophorales should be given up as a separate order and placed as a “satellite” family close to Lasiosphaeriaceae, and (4) that the number of genera grouping round Nitschkia should be radically reduced. A lichenicolous fungus parasitic in apothecia of two species of Sticta in tropical Africa and South America is described as Nitschkiopsis stictarum Nannf. & R. Sant. nov. gen. et sp. Its taxonomical position is doubtful but probably Lasiosphaeriacean.
29590Bremer K. (1976): Svenska Botaniska Föreningens och Botaniska Sällskapets exkursion till Öland 12-14 juni 1976. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 70(3): 253–254.
[in Swedish] Report on excursion
29589Ericson L. (1977): Strandvegetation vid Höga kusten i Ångermanland [Shore vegetation along the "High coast" in Ångermanland, Sweden]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 71(4): 383–413.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] A survey of the shore vegetation along the topographically unique "High coast", at the N part of the Bothnian Sea, is given. The vegetational differentiation due to exposure, substrate, solifluction, frost-lifting, topography and salinity is outlined. The vegetation in the sub- and hydrolittoral corresponds to the rather bigh salinity of the sea (above 4 %), while the vegetation in the geolittoral is strongly influenced by ground- and soilwater drainage from the mainland and consequently of another composition than normal along the Bothnian Sea coast. Due to the topography and the resulting habitat conditions the geolittoral vegetation is characterized by: (I) The absence or low frequency of several species otherwise of great importance in Bothnian sea-shore vegetation. (2) The marked increase of several species otherwise with a more restricted importance in Bothnian sea-shore vegetation. Of regional interest is the gradual shift from Bothnian Sea- to Bothnian Bay-conditions in flora and vegetation along the "High coast".
29588Lundqvist J.A.G. (1977): [in Swedish with English abstract: ] Vegetation och flora i Halsviksravinens naturreservat [The Halsviksravinen nature reserve - vegetation and flora]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 71(4): 335–361.
The vegetation and flora of tbe Halsviksravinen nature reserve (prov. Ångermanland, E Central Sweden) is described. The Halsviksravinen is a narrow valley leading down to the sea; the total area is c. 0.5 km2. The bedrock in the surrounding mountains is diabase which, together with the good supply of seepage water, makes soil conditions extremely favourable. The area is nowadays forested, but was previously used for hay production and grazing. Picea abies usually dominates, sometimes mixed with deciduous species. Pure stands of deciduous species also occur, especiaUy near brooks. The field layer is dominated by herbs except for in the driest areas where communities with Vaccinium species predominate. The area is rich in southem species, many of which reach or come close to their NE limit in Sweden here, e.g. Acer platanoides, Anemone nemorosa, Calamagrostis arundinacea, Campanula latifolia, C. persicifolia, Corydalis intermedia, Dentaria bulbifera, Festuca altissima, Gagea lutea, Galium odoratum, Geranium robertianum, Geum urbanum, Juncus conglomeratus, Lactuca mura/is, Lathyrus vernus, Lonicera xylosteum, Neottia nidus-avis, Stachys sylvatica and Vicia sylvatica. Nature conservancy measures will include selective tree-felling to favour the growth of deciduous species as well as spruce; smaller parts will be left to develop spontaneously towards conditions resembling those in primary forest. Lichens are occassionallz mentioned in the text and a photograph of Ophioparma ventosa (as Haematomma ventosum) is provided.
29587Tibell L. (1977): Lavordningen Caliciales i Sverige. Inledning och släktet Calicium [The lichen order Caliciales in Sweden. lntroduction and the genus Calicium]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 71(3): 239–259.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] A short historical account of the taxonomy of Caliciales is given, with particular emphasis on the contribution by older Swedish lichenologists. A general survey of the morphology, habitat ecology, dispersa( and distribution of the species in Sweden is given. Mycocaliciaceae is excluded from Caliciales, since the species of Mycocaliciaceae have no mazaedium, they have an active spore dispersal and they are parasymbiontic-parasitic or saprophytic. Very few species in Caliciales s. str. are parasymbiontic-parasitic and there are no saprophytic ones. Keys are given to the Scandinavian genera of Caliciales and Mycocaliciaceae, and to the twelve species of Calicium known from Sweden. The species of Calicium are briefly characterized and their distribution is outlined. Calicium adaequatum Nyl. is reported for the first time from Sweden.
29586Carlin G. & Swahn U. (1977): De svenska Usnea-arterna (skägglavar) [The Swedish species of Usnea]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 71(2): 89–100.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] A key to the Swedish species of Usnea is presented. The morphology of each species and the genus in general is discussed. As the taxonomy of Usnea has been poorly understood in the past, and many species are rare, very little is known about the distribution and ecological preferences of most species. The following species in the monograph by Motyka (1936-38), are reduced to synonymy: U. graciosa with U. chaetophora; U. prostrata with U. barbata; U. caucasica, U. esthonica, U. fibrillosa, V. flagellata, U. hirtella, U. sublaxa and U. subscabrata with U. filipendula; U. rugulosa and (?) U. silvatica with U. scabrata; U. arnoldii, U. compacta, U. fulvoreagens, U. lapponica, U. laricina and U. substerilis with U. perplexans; U. betulina, U. distincta and U. wasmuthii with U. glabrescens.
29585Arvidsson L. (1978): Svampangrepp på lavar - en orsak till lavöken [Fungus attacks on lichens and lichen deserts in cities]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 72(4): 285–292.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] Chemical pollution (especially by sulphur dioxide) is considered to be of great importance in explaining the origin of lichen deserts in cities. There are also biological factors which have been unduly neglected. One of these, the destruction of lichens by the fungal parasite Athelia arachnoidca (Berk.) Jiil. (Corticiaceae, Basidiomycetes) is discussed. This fungus is common in urban areas in S Sweden and many cilies in W Europe. It is easily recognized by its parasitic nature, growing on epiphytes on standing trunks, e.g. on trees in parks. The fungus attacks free-living algae (e.g. Pleurococcus) as well as phycobionts in lichens. A thelia arachnoidea forms white circles similar to mould colonies. An attack results in the rapid dying off of algae and lichens. Lecanora conizaeoides Nyl. ex Cromb. is often killed. The parasite can prevent lichens from becoming established by destroying the vulnerable initial stages (e.g. growing diaspores). A. arachnoidea is evidently favoured by air pollution. Attacks of this fungus could perhaps be regarded as a secondary biological effect of chemical pollution. This paper is based on field observations made in S Sweden, particularly in Göteborg.
29584Tibell L. (1978): Lavordningen Caliciales i Sverige. Släktena Chaenotheca och Coniocybe [The Iichen order Caliciales in Sweden. The genera Chaenotheca and Coniocybe] . - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 72(3): 171–188.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] Keys are given to the twelve species of Chaenotheca and eight species of Coniocybe known from Sweden. The species are briefly characterized and their ecology and distribution are outlined. Chaenotheca laevigata Nádv., C. xyloxena Nádv. and Coniocybe coniophaea Norm. are reported for the first time from Sweden.
29583Gilsenius B. (1979): Månadens omslagsbild: ringlaven. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 73(2): 96.
[in Swedish] A note on Parmelia centrifuga
29582Rydberg H. (1980): Fynd av Cryptogramma crispa, krusbräken, i Södermanland [Cryptogramma crispa new to the province of Södermanland, C Sweden]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 74(6): 387–388.
Cryptogramma crispa has been found in the parish of Vårdinge, Södermanland, C Sweden This is an eastern outpost for the species. There is only one plant, growing in a rock fissure. Associated lichens noted.
29581Lindström H. (1980): Hackslått - en försvinnande biotop i mellersta Norrland [Remnants of hay-meadow vegetation in the province of Medelpad, E Central Sweden]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 74(4): 281–306.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] The vegetation and present use of unfertilized hay-meadows in the province of Medelpad (E Central Sweden) is described. Hay-meadows of this kind are mainly found in stony areas and as narrow borders around the arable land. The turf is low-grown and is dominated by grasses, but is rather rich in species. Numerous species are restricted to this type of vegetation within the province, e.g. Gentianella amarella and campestris, Botrychium species, and several fungi of the genera Camarophyllus, Hygrocybe and Rhodophyllus. Nowadays only small remnants are left of this vegetation, which was formerly widespread and common. Nature conservancy measures will be necessary if it is to be preserved to the future. Ca. two dozens of lichens from relevés listed in table.
29580Kärnefelt I. (1980): En ny norsk lavflora: Krog, H., Østhagen, H. & Tønsberg, T. 1980: Lavflora. Norske busk- og bladlav. 312 s. (Supplement in English. 52 s). Universitetsförlaget, Oslo - Bergen - Tromsø. Pris 189 kr. (209 kr med engelskt supplement.) Beställes från Universitetsförlaget, Box 7508, Skillebekk, Oslo 2, Norge. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 74(3): 255–256.
Book review [in Swedish]
29579Arvidsson L. & Lindström M. (1980): Förändringar i lavfloran i Botaniska trädgården i Göteborg [Changes in the lichen flora in the Botanical Gardens in Göteborg 1960-1979] . - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 74(2): 133–143.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] The macrolichen flora of the Botanical Gardens in Göteborg (Gothenburg) was investigated and compared with the flora described by Degelius in 1961. Only 38 of 65 species were found again in 1979. Of the 27 species lost, 5 have disappeared because their substrates were removed, 8 as a result of natural succession, and 12 because of air pollution. Some species have decreased since 1960: in 16 cases due to the removal of some of their substrates; in 5 due to natural succession, in 11 due to air pollution. Attacks by Athelia arachnoidea (corticiaceae) may also contribute to the deterioration of lichens. Cladonia furcata and Usnea sp. have obviously increased, and can be found in several new places (although removed from others). Many species are now absent from coniferous trees or other trees with acid bark (e.g. Betula) but can be found on new substrates with less acid bark (e.g. Ulmus, Fraxinus, and Populus). Parmelia glabratula ssp.fuliginosa and Physcia tenella are now consistently sterile, although in 1961 they were fertile. No new species were found. Several young thalli of some species were observed, indicating that the lichen flora may now be slowly recovering from a period of heavy air pollution (S02) in the 1960’s.
29578Löfgren L. (1980): Efterlysning av oceaniska makrolavar i Sverige. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 74(2): 132.
[in Swedish] A note on oceanic macrolichens in Sweden
29577Bohlin A., Gustafsson L. & Hallingbäck T. (1980): Mossan Campylopus atrovirens i Sverige [The Swedish occurrences of Campylopus atrovirens (Musci)] . - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 74(2): 123–131.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] Campylopus atrovirens De Not. reaches the northeasternmost limits of its distribution in Sweden. It has been reported from 5 Swedish localities, all situated within a small area near Gothenburg on the W coast. The localities were revisited in 1977-1978 and the moss was still present in all of them. It grows on steep, shaded, vertical, base-deficient cliffs. Species lists and climatical data are given for all localities. The topography of some localities is shown in diagrams. The reason for the very local distribution in Sweden is probably a limited dispersal capacity rather than specific demands on the habitat. Associated lichens from relevés are included.
29576Tibell L. (1980): Lavordningen Caliciales i Sverige. Släktena Cyphelium, Microcalicium, Sphaerophorus, Sphinctrina, Thelomma och Tholurna [The lichen order Caliciales in Sweden. The genera Cyphelium, Microcalicium, Sphaerophorus, Sphinctrina, Thelomma and Tholurna]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 74(1): 55–69.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] Keys are given to the seven species of Cyphelium, three species of Microcalicium, two species of Sphaerophorus and three species of Sphinctrina known from Sweden. The species, as well as the single species of Thelomma and Tholurna, are briefly characterized and their ecology and distribution are outlined.
29575Nicklasson A. & Söderberg I. (1980): Växtligheten vid gruvfältet Fredriksberg i Småland [The flora around the mine-field of Fredriksberg, S Sweden] . - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 74(1): 19–24.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] The abandoned copper and zinc mines of Fredriksberg lies c. 20 km SW of the town of Vetlanda in the S Swedish uplands (prov. Småland). The concentration of heavy metals is sufficiently high to prevent most vascular plants to colonize the area around the mines. The most common species in the field layer is Agrostis tenuis. Only a limited number of bryophytes have occupied the old waste rocks. On moist areas Pohlia nutans usually dominates. Morphological changes have been observed in Cephalozia bicuspidata. The chapter on lichens at p. 20.
29574Carlin G. (1981): Fältbiologernas lavflora: Lindqvist, M. 1981: Lavflora. Fälthandbok över Sveriges vanligaste bitsk- och bladlavar. 128 s. ISBN 91-85094-161. Fältbiologerna, Box 6022, 191 06 Sollentuna. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 75(6): 396.
Book review [in Swedish]
29573Carlin G. (1981): De svenska bägarlavarna (Cladonia undersläktet Cladonia) [The Swedish species of Cladonia subgen. Cladonia]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 75(6): 361–396.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] Keys are given to the 61 species of Cladonia subgen. Cladonia presently known from Sweden. Each species is illustrated and briefly characterized, and the ecology and distribution are outlined. The C. chlorophaea complex is on morphological grounds divided into C. grayi, C. merochlorophaea (including C. cryptochlorophaea) and C. pyxidata (including C. chlorophaea s. str).
29572Morander R. (1981): Om svampfloran i Salatrakten [Fungi from the Sala area, C Sweden] . - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 75(5): 315–320.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] The ores of the silver mine at Sala (prov. Västmanland, C Sweden) lie within a large limestone area W of Sala town. The limestone, which is exposed in places, gives rise to a rich flora of vascular plants, described by K. V. O. Dahlgren in three papers in Svensk Bot. Tidskr. (1910, 1923, 1949). The fungus flora is no less remarkable. In this paper a list of finds is given, mainly from 1945-1948. Most determinations have been checked by or made by specialists and vouchers are at UPS. Notable finds are: (Agaricales) Calocybe gambosa, Coprinus angulatus, Entoloma bahusiense, Inocybe appendiculata, /. dulcamara, I. obscura, Paxillus panuoides, Pluteus nanus, Tricholoma fucatum; (Aphyllophorales) Clavaria sp’hagnicola, Clavicorona pyxidata, Fomitopsis rosea, Multiclavula vernalis, Polyporus melanopus, Thelephora anthocephala; (Tremellales) Sebacina effusa, S. epigaea, S. incrustans, Tremella atrovirens; (Discomycetes) 11 species of Helvetia, Pezicula coryh, Pulvinula constellatio; (Fungi imperfecti) Didymopsis helvetlae, Hirsutella lecaniicola, Mycogone cervina.
29571Skarpe C. & Bergström R. (1981): Ny lokal i Uppland för Usnea florida [A new find of Usnea florida in C Sweden] . - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 75(3): 145–146.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] Usnea florida (L.) Wigg. has been found in the province of Uppland, C Sweden, at 65°06'N 49°22'E (c. 45 km NE of Uppsala). The lichen is abundant on some fifty oaks in a wet depression, especially on rather small branches, but not on the finest twigs or on the trunks. The old spruce forest surrounding the depression was felled in 1979, which will mean a great change in the environmental conditions for the rare lichen.
29570Anonymus (1982): Lavar och människor. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 76(6): 359–361.
[in Swedish] Botanik från början
29569Andersson L. & Appelqvist T. (1982): Brunbräken, Asplenium adulterinum, funnen i norra Västergötland [Asplenium adulterinum on a new locality in Sweden] . - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 76(5): 308–310.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] Asplenium adulterinum Milde has been found in the parish Älgarås in northern Västergötland in central Sweden. This is the second locality known in Sweden. Species of lichens and mosses in the vicinity of the fern are listed. The lichen Caloplaca concilians (Nyl.) H. Olivier is recorded from Sweden for the second time. Serpentinic / ultramafic rocks.
29568Almborn O. (1982): En ny svensk lavflora: Moberg, R. & Holmåsen, I. 1982: Lavar. En fälthandbok. 237 sid. Interpublishing AB Förlag, Stockholm. ISBN 91-970221-7-9. Pris ca 195 kr. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 76(3): 206–207.
Book review [in Swedish]
29567Kullman L. (1982): Tandövala - fjäll eller va(r)d? [Tandövala - a real barren hill or what ?]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 76(3): 185–196.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] The hill Tandövala (C. Sweden, 60°51'N; 13° 11'E) is a good representative of a category of hills east of the Scandes mountain chain. These hills have in common a very sparse tree-layer on the top and a flora comprising some alpine vascular plants. However, their isolated position in the vast coniferous woodland and the absence of melting snow during the summer makes them not quite comparable with the tree-line ecotone in the mountain chain proper. A dialectal word ”vard” is proposed as a scientific term for such hills or high-lying areas. By comparing a series of photographs from 1919 with the same prospects today, a striking invasion and growth of Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris and Betula pubescens s.l. is shown. The photographs suggest a more dense field-layer today. Cladonia spp. and Calluna vulgaris have receded while Vaccinium myrtillus seems more vigorous today. A few alpine plants have decreased or disappeared, viz. Carex bigelowii and Loiseleuria procumbens. It is postulated that all these changes are parts of a post-fire succession which started at the end of the 17th century. Because of the harsh climatic conditions during the Little Ice Age (ca 1590-1850) the reproduction of trees did not start until the warming up during the early decades of the 20th century.
29566Hallingbäck T. & Kristensson G. (1982): Mossorna Tortula laevipila och T. virescens på västkusten [The bryophytes Tortula laevipila and T. virescens on the Swedish west coast] . - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 76(3): 171–176.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] Tortula laevipila (Brid.) Schwaegr. and T. virescens (De Not.) De Not. are two epiphytic bryophytes with a southern distribution in Sweden. Six new localities on the Swedish west coast are reported and described. T. laevipila prefers bark of Salix and other deciduous trees. T. virescens grows on bark as well as stone. Both species are found on bark impregnated by dust and salt. Morphological characteristics and ecological demands are discussed. Maps of the Swedish distribution of the two species are given. Numerous associated lichens are included.
29565Bohlin A., Gustafsson L. & Hallingbäck T. (1982): Levermossan Porella arboris-vitae i Sverige [Porella arboris-vitae in Sweden]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 76(1): 31–36.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] The liverwort Porella arboris-vitae (With.) Grolle occurs in Europe, North Africa, the Canary Islands and the Caucasus. It has been reported from six localities in Sweden. All these were visited during 1978, 1979 and the liverwort was found at two of them. The sites were investigated regarding species composition. The results are given in tables, drawings and photographs. Maps are presented of the world distribution and the Swedish distribution. Associated lichens are mentioned.
29564Asklund L. (1983): Floristiska notiser från Västmanland. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 77(6): 365.
[in Swedish] Umbilicaria vellea
29563Sjöqvist O. (1983): Lavar. – In: Karlsson T. (ed.), Floristiska notiser [Floristical notes]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 77(3): 198.
[in Swedish] A new Swedish locality for Pleopsidium chlorophanum (as Acarospora chlorophana) in Södermanland province is noted.
29562Hallingbäck T. & Larsson K.-H. (1983): En urskogssvamp på Lybergsgnupen [Pycnoporellus alboluteus, a species of virgin forest new to Sweden]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 77(2): 117–121.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] Pycnoporellus alboluteus (Ellis & Everhart) Kotlaba & Pouzar (Polyporaceae) is reported from Sweden. The fungus is known from very few localities in Europe, all of them being more or less virgin forest. A map of the European distribution of P. alboluteus is given. The Swedish locality, the NE slope of Mt Lyberget, Venjan parish, Dalarna, C Sweden, is a slope with old, herb-rich spruce forest rich in mosses and lichens, some of which are characteristic of old primeval forest. In spite of earlier efforts to protect the area, part of it was clear-felled in 1982. Several notes on lichens are made depicting Usnea longissima and Platismatia norvegica.
29561Backéus I. (1983): Hedlav, Cornicularia aculeata, på mossar [Cornicularia aculeata on bogs]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 77(1): 27–28.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] The lichen Cornicularia aculeata coll., common on rocks etc., has a strictly limited distribution on ombrotrophic bogs. In Sweden it is confined to the southern, mainly southwestern, parts and, in addition, a suboceanic area in prov. Jämtland. It is assumed that its distribution on bogs is suboceanic.
29560Arvidsson L. (1984): Ny förteckning över Skandinaviens lavar: Santesson, R. 1984: The lichens of Sweden and Norway. 333 sid. ISBN 91-86510-00-2. Beställes från Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Box 50007, 104 05 Stockholm. Pris 110 kr. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 78(5): 308.
Book review [in Swedish]
29559Arvidsson L. & Skoog L. (1984): Svaveldioxidens inverkan på lavfloran i Göteborgsområdet [Effect of sulphur dioxide air pollution on the distribution of lichens in the Göteborg area, SW Sweden]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 78(3): 137–144.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] The epiphytic lichen vegetation in the Göteborg area, SW Sweden, was mapped and compared with air pollution data. In all 48 species were found in the 40 localities investigated. In the most heavily polluted area (about 65 pg S02 m~3 air) only some toxitolerant species are present, viz. Cladonia coniocraea, Lecanora conizaeoides, Lepraria incana and Hypogymnia physodes. The critical S02-levels for the present taxa have been estimated, and the relative sensitiveness between various species seems to conform with data from other European cities. However, in Göteborg lichens seem to disappear at lower S02-levels than, e.g., in Denmark and England. This can be explained by differences in climate or in measuring methods.
29558Nordin A. (1984): Lavar. – In: Karlsson T. (ed.), Floristiska notiser [Floristical notes]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 78(1): 60.
[in Swedish] Report on Lobaria amplissima and L. pulmonaria from Uppland province, Sweden
29557Moberg R. (1985): Lavar med svenska namn [Lichens with Swedish names] . - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 79(3): 221–236.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] Swedish names of 517 lichens are provided. Most have been published previously in floras, but c. 100 names are new. Names and species to be included have been selected in collaboration with several colleagues, and the list is to be regarded as the official list of Swedish names of lichens.
29556Carlin G. (1985): Stereocaulon capitellatum i Skandinavien [Stereocaulon capitellatum in Sweden and Norway]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 79(1): 49–50.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] The distribution of Stereocaulon capitellatum in Sweden and Norway is mapped. The species has been collected in subalpine and alpine areas throughout the Scandinavian mountain range. A new chemical strain containing lobaric acid instead of perlatolic and anziaic acids is reported. S. farinaceum is narrowly circumscribed and is only represented by the type collection, which is sufficiently deviant to call the recent inclusion of S. farinaceum in S. capitellatum in question. S. capitellatum is mainly (exclusively?) saxicolous, while S. farinaceum was collected on soil. The former species has a distinct main stem, whereas the latter is repeatedly divaricately branched and the upper sides of its branches are covered by phyllocladia.
29555Tehler A. (1985): Några svampfynd från Furusund. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 79(1): 39–40.
[in Swedish], notes on findings of several macromycetes in suburv of Stockholm, several associated lichens reported incl. Lobaria pulmonaria
29554Almborn O. (1990): En flora över skorplavar: Foucard, T. 1990: Svensk skorplavsflora. 306 sid. Stenström Interpublishing AB, Stockholm. ISBN 91-86448-27-7. Pris ca 330 kr. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 84(5): 311–312.
Book review [in Swedish]
29553Ekman S. (1990): Lavfloran i Dalby Söderskog [The lichen flora of Dalby Söderskog National Park]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 84(3): 191–198.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] A floristic survey of the corticolous and lignicolous lichens of Dalby Söderskog National park, SW Skåne (southernmost Sweden), has been carried out in 1987. The forest (0.37 km“) consists mainly of Ulmus glabra, Quercus robur, Fagus sylvatica and Fraxinus excelsior. The results are compared with old records from the area, mainly a floristic study made by Gustaf Malme in 1934. Some species have vanished, e. g. Arthonia tumidula. Bactrospora dryina, Bacidla polychroa, B. rosella and Lobaria pulmonaria. Among the species still present in the forest, Pertusaria pertusa is the one which has decreased the most. Also Opegrapha atra, O. varia and Pertusaria amara have decreased markedly. Some species have instead increased in frequency or are new to the forest: Arthothelium ruanum, Calicium viride, Chaenotheca brachypoda, C. carthusiae, C. ferruginea, C. xyloxena, Cliostomum griffithii, Cladonia digitata, Hypocenomyce scalaris, Hypogymnia physodes, Lecanora conizaeoides, Ochrolechia androgyna, Opegrapha vermicellifera, Parmelia glabratula, Parmeliopsis ambigua and Porina aenea. The main reasons for the changes in the lichen flora are (1) air pollution, (2) a reduction of the amount of light and a corresponding increase in the amount of moisture, and (3) an increased quantity of lignum in the forest. In all, 38 (73%) of the 52 species which were met with in Dalby Söderskog during 1891-1960 still occur, and in addition 28 species are new to the forest. Anisomeridium nyssaegenum (Ellis & Everhart) R. C. Harris and Biatorella monasteriensis (Koerb.) Lahm are reported new to the province of Skåne.
29552Lundqvist R. (1990): Vad suckar ringlaven?. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 84(2): 65–66.
[in Swedish]
29551Arvidsson L. (1986): Nya Zeelands lavar i ny flora: Galloway, D. J. 1985: Flora of New Zealand lichens. 662 sid. P. D. Hasselberg Government Printer, Wellington, New Zealand. ISBN 0-477-01266-3. Pris ca 300 kr. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 80(1): 7–8.
Book review [in Swedish]
29550Magnusson M. (1986): Människans påverkan på Sandhammarens dynområde i sydöstra Skåne [The impact of man on the dune area at Sandhammaren, SE Skåne, southernmost Sweden]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 80(2): 81–94.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] The dune area at Sandhammaren consists of two parts with different morphology, vegetational successions and human influence. The outer regular dunes near the sea are being stabilized by dune grass vegetation succeeded by a dwarf shrub heath with invading trees (birch, pine and oak). The pine is not native in the area but spreads from plantations. The human influence has here been small until now when an increasing tourism causes increasing numbers of paths and bare sand patches. Left in peace these patches are colonized mainly by Corynephorus canescens and to a lesser degree by Carex arenaria. This type of colonization dominates on the inner dunes where on a large scale open sand patches are the result of earlier destruction of the vegetation cover by tree clearing and grazing. Through wind erosion of the open sand surface a landscape with broken topography has been formed. The sand is nowadays stabilized and the trample from the few visitors cannot prevent the overgrowing via a dwarf shrub heath to oakwood or pinewood. From aerial photographs the area of open sand of the central part of the dune area has been calculated to 91 ha in 1938, 49 ha in 1959 and 37 ha in 1975.
29549Holmåsen I. (1986): Växtfotografering: Små motiv. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 80(4): 228–243.
[in Swedish] Photographing natural objects incl. lichens
29548Nilsson K.G. (1986): Floran i Rinkaby och Glanshammars socknar i Närke [The flora of the parishes of Rinkaby and Glanshammar in Närke, C Sweden]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 80(5): 335–368.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] The flora of the parishes of Rinkaby and Glanshammar in the province of Närke, C Sweden, is described. The two parishes lie E of Örebro and N of Lake Hjälmaren. The land area is 105,5 km2. The northern half is covered with coniferous forest, whereas the southern half is an agricultural area with scattered deciduous woods. The bedrock mainly consists of leptite, but Archaean limestone and dolomite is also present and is exposed in places. The soils are mainly moraines, but in the agricultural district clay is also present. A large esker runs across the area. In the north there are five small lakes with oligotrophic vegetation, and in the south part of the highly eutrophic Lake Hjälmaren is included. The flora was closely investigated in 1978-1984, but earlier finds are also included in this paper. The total number of vascular plants found is 928; of these 745 are wild species and subspecies, 25 hybrids, 138 garden escapes and 20 cultivated plants. A selection of non-vascular plants (212 fungi, 6 bryophytes and 8 lichens) is also presented. Among the more remarkable finds are Equisetum scirpoides, Sparganium erectum ssp. erectum, Malaxis monophylla, Potendlla tabernaemontani and Sarcosoma globosum.
29547Knutsson T. (1986): Lavar. – In: Karlsson T. (ed.), Floristiska notiser [Floristical notes]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 80(5): 333.
[in Swedish] Chaenotheca furfuracea (as Coniocybe f.) reported as new to Öland province, Sweden (det. L. Tibell)
29546Hallingbäck T. (1986): Lunglavarna, Lobaria, pä reträtt i Sverige [The decline of three species of Lobaria in Sweden]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 80(6): 373–381.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] The present distribution and ecology of three species of Lobaria in south Sweden is compared with previous conditions. L. scrobiculata has declined most. It has been known from c. 280 localities in S Sweden but only 14 finds have been made after 1950. It is now known from only three localities; on two of them the specimens were in bad condition, on the third they looked healthy but were very few. L. pulmonariu is still rather frequent in parts of the inland. In the southernmost provinces it is clearly threatened by extinction and it is likely that it will decline in the rest of S Sweden too in the future. L. amplissima has recently been found on new localities in E and C Sweden, but it has at the same time declined strongly in SW Sweden where it has had its main distribution. A shift in substrate preference from poor bark to rich bark can be traced for all three species. The major cause for the decline is thought to be air pollution, but forestry and collecting are also contributing factors. If air pollution is not reduced these species are likely to become extinct in S Sweden.
29545Muhr L.-E. (1987): Lavfloran i Gravbäcksravinen i Värmland [The lichen flora of Gravbäcksravinen, Värmland, W Sweden]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 81(1): 17–36.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] The result of an investigation of the lichen flora in a ravine in northern Värmland is presented. An account is given of the physical characteristics of the site. The lichen vegetation is described, and the main features of the lichen flora are outlined. The ravine has proved to be a site of great lichenological interest, being the habitat of several rare or threatened forest species. The total number of species recorded is c. 360 (including some non-lichenized fungi). Special attention is given to twenty rare, overlooked or otherwise interesting species and notes on their identification, ecology and distribution are given. Thelocarpon depressellum and Trapeliopsis percrenata are reported new to Scandinavia. Cladonia norvegica is new to Sweden. A new combination, Micarea vulpinaris (Nyl.) Muhr, is made. English summary dealing with species of special interest is included as well.
29544Oldhammer B. (1987): Samarbete med skogsbruket lindrar utarmningen. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 81(1): 1–6.
In Swedish
29543Hallingbäck T. & Olsson K. (1987): Lunglavens tillbakagång i Skåne [The retreat of Lobaria pulmonaria in Scania]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 81(2): 103–108.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] Lobaria pulmonaria was formerly fairly evenly distributed in south Sweden and was considered to be common in the beginning of this century. In the province of Scania, southernmost Sweden, there are documented finds from 35 localities. 25 accurately localized sites, on which the species was known to grow before 1950, were revisited in 1986. The lichen was only found on six of these. The occurrences were sparse and as a rule the thalli looked unhealthy. The phorophytes had a comparatively high bark pH and grew sheltered from southern and western winds. No specimens with apothecia were seen. Nearly all the 25 localities have been forested continuously since the time when the first finds were made, and suitable phorophytes are usually still present. The disappearance of the lichen therefore cannot be due to changes in forest management. The main reason is obviously the increasing amount of air pollution in Scania.
29542Andersson L. & Appelqvist T. (1987): Lunglav och almlav, indikatorer på värdefull lövskog [Lobaria pulmonaria and Gyalecta ulmi as indicators of deciduous woodland with high nature qualities]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 81(3): 185–194.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] During an investigation of the nature qualities of 1250 deciduous woods in six communes in SW Sweden all occurrences of the lichens Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm. and Gyalecta ulmi (Sw.) Zahlbr. were noted. They were found in 33 and 35 localities, respectively. In c. 50% of all cases the species were only present on one tree. Gyalecta ulmi is closely associated with old specimens of Fraxinus excelsior. In this area as well as in other parts of S Sweden Gyalecta ulmi seems to be most abundant in remnants of former park meadows. Due to the high frequency of oak woods in the material Quercus species, mainly Q. robur, dominate as phorophyte for Lobaria pulmonaria. Both species are almost absent from the central part of the studied region. This is possibly due to the fact that this area was deforested for a long period ending a century ago. Lobaria pulmonaria is an excellent indicator of deciduous woodland with high nature qualities since it is widespread and easy to discover and recognize. Rich stands of Gyalecta ulmi are often present in deciduous woodland which for other reasons have high qualities from a biological point of view.
29541Nordin A. (1987): De oceaniska lavarna Lobaria amplissima och Pannaria conoplea i Gästrikland [Lobaria amplissima and Pannaria conoplea, two oceanic lichens in Gästrikland, E Sweden]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 81(3): 154–156.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] Lobaria amplissima and Pannaria conoplea are reported for the first time from the province of Gästrikland in E Central Sweden. They both belong to the group of oceanic lichens seriously threatened by extinction in SW Sweden. Both species grow on mossy trunks of Fraxinus excelsior on the bank of the river Testeboån, c. 10 km NW of Gävle. An additional list of rare and interesting lichens from the area is given.
29540Floravårdskommittén för lavar (1987): Preliminär lista över hotade lavar i Sverige [A preliminary list of threatened lichens in Sweden]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 81(4): 237–256.
A preliminary list of threatened lichens in Sweden is presented. 214 taxa have been classified into national red data categories (0 vanished, 1 endangered, 2 vulnerable, 3 rare, 4 caredemanding). Five main habitat types (S forest land, J agricultural land, V water and wetland, F alpine region, B cliffs and outcrops of bedrock outside the alpine region) have been defined and for each species the main habitat types in which it occurs is indicated. 17 species, viz. Arthonia tumidula, Calicium subquercinum, Collema fasciculare, Cyphelium notarisii, C. trachylioides, Erioderma pedicellatum, Evernia illyrica, Maronea constans, Pannaria sampaiana, Parmelia reddenda, P. subrudecta, Porina grandis, Sphinctrina anglica, Sticta fuliginosa, S. sylvatica, Thelopsis rubella and Usnea ceratina are regarded as vanished from Sweden. 46 species have been classified as endangered, 30 as vulnerable, 102 as rare and 19 as care-demanding. Many species are excluded from the list, either because they are taxonomically poorly understood, or because there is no information about present state or habitat preferences. A number of these might turn out to be endangered.
29539Mattsson J.-E. (1988): Några Cetraria-arters tillbakagång i södra Sverige [The decrease of some Cetraria species in southern Sweden]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 82(1): 27–31.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] The old localities in southern Sweden known from herbaria of Cetraria juniperina (L.) Ach., C. pinastri (Scop.) S. F. Gray and C. alvarensis (Wahlenb.) Vain, were visited during 1986. All specimens growing on calciferous ground are here regarded as C. alvarensis, although some of them have been determined as C. juniperina v. alvarensis (Wahlenb.) Torss., C. j. v. terrestris Schaer. or C. tilesii Ach. C. juniperina is almost extinct in the southern parts of the Swedish mainland. C. pinastri is still abundant except in the southwestern parts of the area. C. alvarensis has probably disappeared from its mainland localities. Possible explanations for the present reduction in distribution are discussed.
29538Carlsson T. & Clemedson C.-J. (1989): Bråtön – en ö med värdefull lundflora i Södermanland [Bråtön – a floristically remarkable island in Södermanland, SE Sweden]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 83(5): 283–295.
The island Bråtön is situated in the SW corner of the parish of Länna in the district of Strängnäs in N Södermanland. The island has an area of 0.35 km2 and is almost entirely covered by a grove with trees mostly of a fairly young age. The predominant tree species are Tilia cordata and Populus tremula, and large areas are more or less covered with small lime bushes. Bråtön is known as a habitat of the very rare orchid species Epipogium aphyllum, which was discovered there in 1848, but which has not been observed during the last ten years. A large number of grove herbs are present, such as Anemone ranunculoides, A. nemorosa x ranunculoides, Cardamine bulbifera, Galium odoratum, Lathraea squamaria, Lalhyrus niger, L. vernus and Polygonatum multiflorum, the grasses Bromus benekenii, Festuca altissima, F. gigantea and Poa remota and the lichen Lobaria pulmonaria. The list of species comprises 225 vascular plants, 80 mosses, 13 lichens and 23 mushroom species.
29537Hallingbäck T. (1989): Bokfjädermossa, Neckera pumila, en försurningshotad mossa [Neckera pumila, a moss threatened by acidification in south Sweden]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 83(3): 161–173.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] The moss Neckera pumila has earlier been fairly common in S Sweden but is today fairly rare. 37 old localities in Skåne, the southernmost province of Sweden, and a selection of localities in other parts of S Sweden, were revisited in 1986-87. The species was refound on only 14 places in Skåne, but on nearly all localities outside this province. In south Sweden N. pumila prefers tree-trunks, especially of Fagus sylvatica, in shaded localities, e.g. ravines and Nfacing slopes. Most often it is found on the north side of very big trunks, and it always avoids rain tracks and parts exposed to direct rain. In other parts of Sweden it only grows on cliffs, eruptive as well as metamorphic bedrock. The pH of the substrate ranges between 4.6 and 6.7 with a mean and standard deviation of 5.8 ± 0.58. In places where N. pumila shows good vitality the bark pH is 5.4-7.0. A voluminous list of associated lichens (often old-growth forest species) provided.
29536Arvidsson L. (1989): Parmelia submontana – en för Skandinavien ny lav [Parmelia submontana found in Scandinavia]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 83(3): 156–160.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] Parmelia submontana Nadv. ex Hale is reported for the first time from Scandinavia. It was found at Gårdshult, c. 18 km E of Halmstad in Halland, S Sweden. The lichen grew on the bark of a medium-sized Fraxinus excelsior at a small road. The occurrence is sparse, covering only c. 2 dm2. An updated map of the total distribution of P. submontana is included.
29535Ekman S. (1989): Förändringar i Stenshuvuds lavflora under ett halvt sekel [Changes in the lichen flora of Stenshuvud National Park over a period of fifty years]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 83(1): 13–26.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] The lichen flora of Stenshuvud National Park (55°39’N 14°16’E) in the parish of S. Mellby, easternmost Skåne (southernmost Sweden), has been investigated. The results are compared with a similar study of the same area made in 1934 by Gustaf Malme. Many of the lichens Malme found still occur at Stenshuvud. Some changes in the lichen flora, both negative and positive ones, have taken place, because the grazing has ceased. The forest has become more dense and dark, formerly open places have been overgrown with shrubs and trees, and areas which are still open have a more dense vegetation of grasses and sedges. Air pollution probably plays a less important part but has almost certainly caused the extinction of six species of Sticta, Lobaria and Nephroma. It is very likely that the great increase of Lecanora conizaeoides and Cliostomum griffithii is, directly or indirectly, due to air pollution. A species list is presented, comprising 226 species, 190 of which were found during the present investigation. Over the period 1890-1950 157 species were met with at Stenshuvud, 119 (76 %) of which still occur. 71 species are new to Stenshuvud.
29534Moberg R. (1988): Synpunkter på floravårdsarbetet på kryptogamsidan [Aspects of protecting cryptogams]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 82(6): 401–402.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] In Sweden there are three committees treating endangered cryptogams, for bryophytes, fungi and lichens, respectively. The interest to protect cryptogams is considerable even outside these committees. 216 bryophytes, ca 500 fungi and 214 lichens have been classified into national red data categories 0-4. Insufficient knowledge of taxonomy, ecology and distribution excludes many taxa which probably should have been treated within these categories. Protection of sites where the species have the possibility to survive in the future and a considerable decrease in air pollution are two of the most important desires.
29533Ståhl P. (1988): Hotade växter i östra Gästrikland [Threatened plants in SE Gästrikland, a province in C Sweden]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 82(6): 393–400.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] In 1983-84 a survey of locally threatened plants was carried through in Gästrikland, a province in the middle of Sweden. The investigated area comprises 1603 km2 and, due to the presence of calcareous soils in the central part, it has a rich and interesting flora. 144 species, including 4 lichens and 4 bryophytes, have been controlled. 21 of the vascular plants turned out to be extinct. Seven are regarded as endangered and 21 as vulnerable. Many of the vanished and endangered species are tied to habitats of the former agricultural landscape. A smaller proportion belongs to natural habitats such as forests, bogs, waters and seashores. Botrychium virginianum, Microstylis monophyllos and Viola uliginosa have been found on several new localities while Taxus baccata and Chimaphila umbellata are examples of decreasing forest plants. The lichens Usnea longissima and Ramalina thrausta have not been refound and Evernia divaricata has disappeared from 25 old localities, probably due to acidification and modern forest management.
29532Ingelög T. (1988): Floraläget i Sverige [Conservation and the status of the Swedish flora]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 82(6): 376–378.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] In the early 1970s a comprehensive work on flora conservation started in Sweden. Project Linnaeus included inventory and documentation of a number of threatened vascular plant species. A project on threatened and disfavoured plant species growing in forest included documentation and proposed conservation measures for about 300 vascular plants, bryophytes, lichens and fungi. Since 1984 the flora conservation work is coordinated from the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, where a database for threatened plant species is established. Several hundred botanists send their reports to this database. About 8% of the vascular plant species, 5% of the bryophytes and 4% of the lichens are considered endangered or vulnerable. The main threats to the flora are forestry, agriculture and air pollution, where the nitrogen deposition seems to be of an increasing importance.
29531Hermansson J.-O., Lundqvist R. & Oldhammer B. (1988): Nya fynd av ringlav, Evernia divaricata, i Dalarna [New finds of Evernia divaricata in the province of Dalarna, C Sweden]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 82(5): 314–323.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] Eight new localities for the rare and endangered lichen Evernia divaricata have been found in the province of Dalarna, C Sweden, during 1986 and 1987. Three or four of these are very rich in specimens; in one the lichen has been recorded from more than 1200 trees. Up to 90 cm tall specimens have been seen. The lichen usually grows on Picea abies but also on e.g. Pinus sylvestris, Betula, Juniperus communis, or dead trees. The localities are damp or wet; either they are situated along rivers or brooks, or they lie in slopes with moving subsoil water. The topography usually gives shelter from strong winds. Old slow-growing trees are characteristically present, but the lichen is not restricted to these. Several localities have been affected by fire, and in these cases the lichen has probably re-colonized from refugia sheltered from fire.
29530Hallingbäck T. & Thor G. (1988): Jättelav, Lobaria amplissima, i Sverige [The distribution and ecology of Lobaria amplissima in Sweden]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 82(2): 125–139.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] The present distribution and ecology of the lichen Lobaria amplissima in Sweden is compared with previous conditions. L. amplissima has declined rapidly the last years and is now endagered. Fifty-seven old localities were visited but the lichen was only found on 16. Totally it was found on 67 trees and one rock surface. Cephalodia were found on two localities, apothecia on seven and neither apothecia nor cephalodia on ten. A number of environmental factors were studied on all localities. The substrate preference has shifted from poor bark (e. g. Quercus spp. and Fagus sylvatica) to rich bark (e. g. Fraxinus excelsior and Acer platanoides). All localities on rocks but one have disappeared. Bark pH was measured on 40 trees with L. amplissima. On 31 of 41 localities, where the species was not found, the localities were unchanged. Seven localities were destroyed by forestry and three were transformed into built-up area. The major cause for the decline is thought to be air pollution. The two largest localities are exposed towards E, and there the lichens are protected from most of the air pollution.
29529Moberg R. (1988): Framsteg på lavfronten: Peveling, E. (red) 1987: Progress and problems in lichenology in the eighties. Proceedings of an international symposium held at the University of Münster on 16—21 March 1986. 497 sidor. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 25. J. Cramer, Berlin & Stuttgart. ISBN 3-443-58004-1. Pris ca 150 DM. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 82(4): 238 & 266.
Book review [in Swedish]
29528Kärnefelt I. (1988): Lavfloristik i superklassen: Wirth, V. 1987: Die Flechten Baden-Württembergs. 528 sidor, 408 färgfoton samt 860 utbredningskartor. Verlag Eugen Ulmer, Postfach 700561, D-7000 Stuttgart 70, BRD. ISBN 3-8001-3305-9. Pris 78 DM. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 82(4): 237.
Book review [in Swedish]
29527Mattsson J.-E. (1988): Lavarnas ekofysiologi - en nyckel till deras uppträdande i naturen [The ecophysiology of lichens - a key to their occurrence in nature]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 82(4): 239–256.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] The artide aims at a presentation of recent physiological and ecological research on lichens primarily to introduce the problems and the results to a wider Swedish public. It is shown that what we usually regard as primitive organisms, because of their rather simple thalli, really are advanced in their way of controlling their physiological processes. The interactions between external environmental factors as temperature, moisture and ions and internal processes as nitrogen fixation, photosynthesis and respiration are discussed. From this background it is then possible to understand the complexity in the reasons for the changes in the lichen flora and which possibilities there are when trying to save endangered species. The consequences of ditching, modern forestry and agriculture, and modern road construction are pointed out.
29526Arvidsson L., Lindström M., Muhr L.-E., Ståhl B. & Wall S. (1988): Lavfloran i Näverkärrsskogen i Bohuslän [The lichen flora of Näverkärr, Bohuslän, SW Sweden]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 82: 167–192.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] The lichen flora of a small forest reserve of coastal Bohuslän, SW Sweden (58° 21’N, 11° 21’E) is presented. An account of the physical characteristics of the site is given. The lichen vegetation is described and the main features of the lichen flora are outlined. This small (0.05 km2) deciduous wood (mostly of elm, ash, oak and hazel) has proved to be a locality of great lichenological interest, being the habitat of several rare or threatened (e.g. oceanic) species. The total number of species recorded slightly exceeds 300 (297 identified to species or genus including some non-lichenized fungi). Of these, 186 are epiphytic (bark and wood). The index of ecological continuity (RIEC) is 55, the highest figure known from a Swedish locality. The forest is at least 300 years old and this long continuity is considered the principal reason for the unusually rich flora. Two species, viz. Opegrapha sorediifera and Strigula jamesii, are reported as new to Scandinavia and Thelopsis flaveola as new to Sweden. The parasite Dactylospora pertusaricola is new to Europe. Twenty-two species are first records for the province of Bohuslän. Attention is drawn to an overlooked association of minute lichens localized to basal parts of old deciduous trees.
29525Brakni R., Ahmed M.A., Burger P., Schwing A., Michel G., Pomares C., Hasseine L., Boyer L., Fernandez X., Landreau A. & Michel T. (2018): UHPLC‐HRMS/MS based profiling of Algerian lichens and their antimicrobial activities. - Chemistry and Biodiversity, 15(4): e1800031 [17 p.].
Lichens are complex symbiotic organisms able to produce a vast array of compounds. The Algerian lichen diversity has only prompted little interest even given the 1085 species listed. Herein, the chemodiversity of four Algerian lichens including Cladonia rangiformis, Ramalina farinaceae, R. fastigiata, and Roccella phycopsis was investigated. A dereplication strate gy, using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution- electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS/MS), was carried out for a comprehensive characterization of their substances including phenolics, depsides, depsidones, depsones, dibenzofurans, and aliphatic acids. Some known compounds were identified for the first time in some species. Additionally, the lichenic extracts were evaluated for their antifungal and antimicrobial activities on human pathogenic strains (Candida albicans, C. glabrata, Aspergillus fumigatus , Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherich ia coli). Cyclohexane extracts were found particularly active against human pathogenic fungi with MIC 80 values ranging from 8 to 62.5 lg/mL, without cytotoxicity. This study highlights the therapeutic and prophylactic potential of lichenic extracts as ant ibacterial and antifungal agents. Keywords: algerian lichens, UHPLC-HRMS, dereplication, antifungal activity, ant ibacterial activity.
29524Wietrzyk P., Rola K., Osyczka P., Nicia P., Szymański W. & Węgrzyn M. (2018): The relationships between soil chemical properties and vegetation succession in the aspect of changes of distance from the glacier forehead and time elapsed after glacier retreat in the Irenebreen foreland (NW Svalbard). - Plant and Soil, 428: 195–211.
Aims: The aim of this study was to determine relationships between soil chemical parameters (i.e. content of total organic carbon, total nitrogen, total sulphur, soil pH) and vegetation development in relation to distance from the current glacier forehead and time elapsed after glacier retreat in the Irenebreen foreland. Methods: Three transects were designated along the foreland. Species and vegetation cover were investigated in 1 m2 plots, placed every 50 m along each transect; corresponding soil samples were collected and chemically analysed. Results: The total organic carbon and total nitrogen contents in soil change according to power and exponential functions, respectively, whereas soil pH decreases linearly with increased time elapsed after glacier retreat. The wide variation in total sulphur contents prevent the determination of clear relationships. Bryophytes and vascular plants dominate in the younger part of the foreland, whereas epigeic lichens prevail in the older part. Conclusions: Vegetation cover seems to be the main factor effects on soil properties; however, chemical soil properties and distance from the glacier forehead affect species distribution and vegetation cover. Considered so far as the first pioneers, the epigeic lichens need more time than bryophytes and vascular plants to colonise the foreland. Keywords: Arctic . Carbon . Cryptogamic species . Nitrogen . Sulphur . Tundra soils.
29523Czerepko J., Boczoń A., Wróbel M., Gawryś R. & Sokołowski K. (2018): Removal of birch as a means of protecting raised bog mossy vegetation Ledo-Sphagnetum magellanici. - Wetlands Ecolology and Management, 26: 689–702.
Keywords: Raised bog;  Active protection; Vegetation succession;  Piska forest;  NE Poland. p. 694: "Significant changes in the mosses and lichens layer were observed; this layer gradually increased the coverage from 59.6% in 2006 to 65.7% in 2008. The total number of plant species, the number of tree and shrub species, and moss and lichen species numbers were significantly higher in 2013 compared to 2008 and 2006." p. 694-695: "While models indicated statistically significant differences in the layer of shrubs and of mosses and lichens, significant differences were not identified in pairwise comparisons between years. After reducing coverage in 2008, the shrub layer cover increased slightly in 2013. Moss and lichen coverage was equal in 2006 and 2008, but increased slightly in 2013. Similarly, the herb layer coverage was equal in 2006 and 2008 and insignificantly increased in 2013. There was a trend of increasing number of plant species from 15.4 in 2006 to 18.9 in 2013, but the difference in the total number of species was significant only between 2006 and 2013. Mosses and lichen species numbers also showed a statistically significant increase."
29522Benavent-González A., Delgado-Baquerizo M., Fernández-Brun L., Singh B.K., Maestre F.T. & Sancho L.G. (2018): Identity of plant, lichen and moss species connects with microbial abundance and soil functioning in maritime Antarctica. - Plant and Soil, 429: 35–52.
Background and aims: We lack studies evaluating how the identity of plant, lichen and moss species relates to microbial abundance and soil functioning on Antarctica. If species identity is associated with soil functioning, distributional changes of key species, linked to climate change, could significantly affect Antarctic soil functioning. Methods: We evaluated how the identity of six Antarctic plant, lichen and moss species relate to a range of soil attributes (C, N and P cycling), microbial abundance and structure in Livingston Island, Maritime Antarctica. We used an effect size metric to predict the association between species (vs. bare soil) and the measured soil attributes. Results: We observed species-specific effects of the plant and biocrust species on soil attributes and microbial abundance. Phenols, phosphatase and β-Dcellobiosidase activities were the most important attributes characterizing the observed patterns. We found that the evaluated species positively correlated with soil nutrient availability and microbial abundance vs. bare soil. Conclusions: We provide evidence, from a comparative study, that plant and biocrust identity is associated with different levels of soil functioning and microbial abundance in Maritime Antarctica. Our results suggest that changes in the spatial distribution of these species linked to climate change could potentially entail changes in the functioning of Antarctic terrestrial ecosystems. Keywords: Antarctic vegetation . Bacteria . Fungi . qPCR . Soil enzyme activities.
29521Stefańska‑Krzaczek E., Fałtynowicz W., Szypuła B. & Kącki Z. (2018): Diversity loss of lichen pine forests in Poland. - European Journal of Forest Research, 137: 419–431.
In Central Europe, deciduous forests are the dominant community type and lichen pine forests are restricted to certain areas with extremely nutrient-poor and xeric soil types. In recent decades, a retreat of vegetation of oligotrophic habitats has been observed in Central Europe. In this study, we assessed changes of lichen pine forests in Poland: within the main area of the range in Central Europe. We used two sets of data collected at a local and regional (nation-wide) scale. On the basis of data from semi-permanent plots, we examined changes in the structure and species composition of lichen pine forests over 33 years at the local scale (between 1975 and 2008). To compare trends at the regional scale, we used data collected in the Polish Vegetation Database (PVD). For identification of lichen pine forests we determined a group of co-occurring Cladonia species. We analyzed differences in species richness and vegetation structure at the regional scale in tree time periods (1) between 1951 and 1969, (2) 1970 and 1989, and (3) 1990 and 2011. We found that changes in lichen pine forests are primarily quantitative at both scales. Our results indicate that the abundance of Cladonia species is limited by strong competitors, i.e., vascular plants and bryophytes, which may be explained by eutrophication and climate warming. Only pine forests with a minor abundance of lichens have chances to persist in the vegetation of Central Europe, while the most valuable communities with high abundance of indicators will disappear. Though an assessment of the total decrease in the area of lichen pine forests is not possible with the available regional data, local observations indicate a large decline in the area of lichen pine forests in Central Europe. Their conservation seems to be a serious challenge, because it is difficult to provide optimal conditions for all indicators. Keywords: Cladonia species · Cryptograms · Forest exploitation · Scots pine stands · Species co-occurrence.
29520Banchi E., Stankovic D., Fernández-Mendoza F., Gionechetti F., Pallavicini A. & Muggia L. (2018): ITS2 metabarcoding analysis complements lichen mycobiome diversity data. - Mycological Progress, 17: 1049–1066.
Lichen thalli harbor complex fungal communities (mycobiomes) of species with divergent trophic and ecological strategies. The complexity and diversity of lichen mycobiomes are still largely unknown, despite surveys combining culture-based methods and high-throughput sequencing (HTS). The results of such surveys are strongly influenced by the barcode locus chosen, its sensitivity in discriminating taxa, and the depth to which public sequence repositories cover the phylogenetic spectrum of fungi. Here, we use HTS of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) to assess the taxonomic composition and diversity of a wellcharacterized, alpine rock lichen community that includes thalli symptomatically infected by lichenicolous fungi as well as asymptomatic thalli. Taxa belonging to the order Chaetothyriales are the major components of the observed lichen mycobiomes. We predict sequences representative of lichenicolous fungi characterized morphologically and assess their asymptomatic presence in lichen thalli.We demonstrated the limitations of metabarcoding in fungi and show how the estimation of species diversity widely differs when ITS1 or ITS2 are used as barcode, and particularly biases the detection of Basidiomycota. The complementary analysis of both ITS1 and ITS2 loci is therefore required to reliably estimate the diversity of lichen mycobiomes. Keywords: Ascomycetes . Basidiomycetes . Endophytes . Fungal isolates . Ion torrent . ITS1.
29519Wieners P.C., Mudimu O. & Bilger W. (2018): Survey of the occurrence of desiccation‑induced quenching of basal fluorescence in 28 species of green microalgae. - Planta, 248: 601–612.
Main conclusion: Desiccation-induced chlorophyll fluorescence quenching seems to be an indispensable part of desiccation resistance in the surveyed 28 green microalgal species. Lichens are desiccation tolerant meta-organisms. In the desiccated state photosynthesis is inhibited rendering the photobionts potentially sensitive to photoinhibition. As a photoprotective mechanism, strong non-radiative dissipation of absorbed light leading to quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence has been proposed. Desiccation-induced quenching affects not only variable fluorescence, but also the so-called basal fluorescence, F0. This phenomenon is well-known for intact lichens and some free living aero-terrestrial algae, but it was often absent in isolated lichen algae. Therefore, a thorough screening for the appearance of desiccation-induced quenching was undertaken with 13 different aero-terrestrial microalgal species and lichen photobionts. They were compared with 15 aquatic green microalgal species, among them also three marine species. We asked the following questions: Do isolated lichen algae show desiccation-induced quenching? Are aero-terrestrial algae different in this respect to aquatic algae and is the potential for desiccation-induced quenching coupled to desiccation tolerance? How variable is desiccation-induced quenching among species? Most of the aero-terrestrial algae, including all lichen photobionts, showed desiccation-induced quenching, although highly variable in extent, whereas most of the aquatic algae did not. All algae displaying quenching were also desiccation tolerant, whereas all algae unable to perform desiccation-induced quenching were desiccation intolerant. Desiccation-induced fluorescence quenching seems to be an indispensable part of desiccation resistance in the investigated species. Keywords Aero-terrestrial algae · Desiccation tolerance · Lichens · Photobionts · Photoprotection.
29518Bajpai R., Shukla V., Singh C.P., Tripathy O.P., Nayaka S. & Upreti D.K. (2018): Lichen community composition in Tawang district of Arunachal Pradesh, tool for long-term climate change monitoring. - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India Section B: Biological Sciences, 88(3): 915–922.
The lichen diversity in Tawang district of Arunachal Pradesh, India was studied in order to access the long-term effect of climate change in alpine regions of the area. The present study provides an enumeration of 122 species of lichens belonging to 47 genera and 24 families at five major sites of Tawang district of Arunachal Pradesh. Out of 5 sites, Mangalam Gompa (HSP 3), PTSO Lake (HSP 2) and Nagula (HSP 1) are the three highest summit point (HSPs), which have been designated as permanent long-term monitoring sites under the Indian Space Research Organization programme for monitoring the effect of climate change on Himalayan alpine ecosystem while two adjoining additional localities Tawang and SeLa pass were also surveyed. Among 5 localities, the Tawang area has the maximum diversity of lichens represented by 48 species followed by HSP 3 with 41 species and 28 species each in both HSP 2 and HSP 1. The SeLa Pass is represented by occurrence of 26 species only. Lichen family Parmeliaceae is the dominant in the study area, belonging to 51 species followed by Cladoniaceae and Lecanoraceae with 16 and 7 species, respectively. Any alteration in the substratum as well as growth forms of baseline lichen species in near future may help us to predict the habitat shift/composition of species in the area. The biomonitoring procedure could be further standardized and used as part of an environmental monitoring programme in near future. Keywords: Alpine regions;  Climate change;  Diversity; Lichens;  Northeastern Himalaya.
29517Durham R.A., Doherty K.D., Antoninka A.J., Ramsey P.W. & Bowker M.A. (2018): Insolation and disturbance history drive biocrust biodiversity in Western Montana rangelands. - Plant and Soil, 430: 151–169.
Background and Aims: Biological soil crust (biocrust) communities, though common and important in the intermountain west, have received little research attention. There are gaps in understanding what influences biocrust species’ abundance and distributions in this ecoregion. Climatic, edaphic, topographic, and biotic forces, in addition to anthropogenic disturbance can all influence the biocrust. Methods: We determined the relative influence of several possible environmental filters in biocrust communities of western Montana (USA) grasslands at two spatial scales. The larger scale exploited strong topographically-dictated climatic variation across >60km2, while the smaller scale focused on differences among distinct microsites within ~700m2 plots. Results: We detected a total of 96 biocrust taxa, mostly lichens. Biocrust richness at each site ranged from 0 to 39 species, averaging 14 species. Insolation, aspect, and disturbance history were the strongest predictors of biocrust richness, abundance, and species turnover across the landscape; soil texture was influential for some biocrust community properties. Steep, northfacing slopes that receive longer periods of shade harbored higher diversity and cover of biocrust than southfacing sites. At a small scale, interspaces among native herbaceous communities supported the greatest diversity of biocrust species, but microsites under shrub canopies supported the greatest cover. Conclusions: We found that, among the variables investigated, tillage, insolation, soil texture and the associated vegetation community were the most important drivers of biocrust abundance and species richness. This study can inform the practice of restoration and conservation, and also guide future work to improve predictions of biocrust properties. Keywords: Biocrust . Lichens . Bryophytes . Terricolous . Montana . Community analysis.
29516Sinigla, M., Lőkös, L., Molnár, K., Németh, Cs. & Farkas, E. (2018): Distribution of the legally protected lichen species Solorina saccata in Hungary. - Studia bot. hung., 49(1): 47–70.
Solorina saccata received endangered status in the Hungarian lichen red list in 1997, and legal protection in Hungary in 2013. Based on its ca 200, old and recent, herbarium and literature records ca 100 localities from the Aggtelek karst (1), Bakony Mts (29), Balaton Uplands (5), Buda Mts (8), Bükk Mts (7), Gerecse Mts (6), Keszthely Mts (10), Kőszeg Mts (2), Pilis Mts (2) and Vértes Mts (30) are registered. These currently known occurrence data are presented on a distribution map. Although it seems to be common at present in its potential habitats in the Transdanubian Mountain Range, these habitats are considered to be under real risk of habitat destruction and fragmentation parallel to the global tendency of population shrinkage of the species in Europe. In addition, habitat preferences and population dynamical conditions of Solorina saccata, necessary also for conservational purposes, are still insufficiently known. Maintaining the current condition of its habitats is crucial for the effective protection. Hungary, legally protected, lichen-forming fungi, Solorina saccata
29515Schmidt D., Csiky J., Matus G., Balogh R., Szurdoki E., Höhn M., Ábrán P., Buczkó K. & Lőkös L. (2018): Taxonomical and chorological notes 6 (71–74). - Studia bot. hung., 49(1): 121–130.
The present part of the series of miscellaneous new records provides new chorological data of one lichen-forming fungus and three vascular plants. One basidiolichen species (Multiclavula mucida) is reported for the first time from the territory of Romania as native and one (Oenothera oehlkersii) from Hungary as a garden escape. One species (Dryopteris affinis) is new for the Bakony Mts and one is confirmed for the Great Hungarian Plain (Danthonia decumbens). Clavulinaceae, Dryopteridaceae, Hungary, Onagraceae, Poaceae, Romania
29514Németh C. & Eckstein J. (2018): Vezdaea retigera (Vezdaeaceae), a facultatively epibryophytic lichenized fungus new to Hungary. - Studia bot. hung., 49(1): 41–46.
Vezdaea retigera, a lichenized fungus often growing on the gametophyte of various moss species, on thalli of the lichen Peltigera and also on soil was first observed in Hungary in the Börzsöny, Bükk and Zemplén Mts. The Hungarian finds are described in detail and illustrated with various macro- and micrographs. epibryophytic, goniocyst, lichenized fungi
29513Lőkös L., Crişan F., Hur J-S.., Varga N. & Farkas E. (2018): Enumeration of the lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi of the Călimani Mountains (Eastern Carpathians, Romania). - Studia bot. hung., 49(1): 5–40.
Having studied ca 300 specimens and 23 publications, 170 taxa of lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi are reported from various sources, 140 from published literature records and old herbarium specimens, and 30 species from recently collected material. One lichen species (Xylo- grapha pallens), and two lichenicolous fungi (Clypeococcum hypocenomycis, Endococcus macrosporus) are new for Romania, and 30 lichen species are considered as new for the Călimani Mountains. According to available specimens, Coniocybe gracilenta was revised as Chaenotheca furfuracea, and Peltigera aphthosa as P. didactyla. Călimani Mts, Eastern Carpathians, lichen-forming fungi, lichenicolous fungi, Roma- nia
29512Etayo J., Flakus A. & Kukwa M. (2018): Three new lichenicolous species of the genus Plectocarpon (Ascomycota: Lecanographaceae) discovered in the Bolivian Andes. - Phytotaxa, 357(4): 275–283.
In this paper three new species of Plectocarpon, P. dimorphosporum (on Ricasolia patinifera), P. parmotrematis (on Parmotrema reticulatum) and P. ramalinae (on Ramalina celastri), are described from tropical montane forests in the Bolivian Andes. Plectocarpon dimorphosporum is characterized by strongly convex ascomata covered by the host cortex when young, presence of Atra-brown pigment and 1–3-septate ascospores developing a brown-pigmented granular perispore, P. parmotrematis by rounded and slightly superficial ascomata, presence of pigments reacting K+ aeruginose to turquoise and colorless 3-septate ascospores, and P. ramalinae by ellipsoid, black ascomata, Atra-brown pigment, and short, colorless, 3- septate ascospores. In addition, the rare Protounguicularia fasciculata is reported here for the first time from Bolivia. Keywords: biodiversity, Celidium, Lecanoromycetes, Neotropics, Protounguicularia fasciculata, South America, taxonomy.
29511Käffer M.I. & Martins S.M.A. (2014): Evaluation of the environmental quality of a protected riparian forest in Southern Brazil. - Bosque [Valdivia], 35(3): 325–336.
Environmental Protection Areas (EPA) are of extreme importance for species conservation and establishment. We investigated different areas of riparian forests in the Environmental Protection Area of Ibirapuitã, southern Brazil. We analyzed the environmental quality of these areas by studying the lichen community and using the index of atmospheric purity (IAP) with the environmental classification factor (ECF) as the correction factor. The lichen community was analyzed in 12 riparian forest stands located in the southern region of EPA. Lichens were registered on 60 tree barks, from 50 cm to 150 cm above the ground, on both north and south sides. A cluster analysis was used to test whether there were changes in lichen species similarity among communities from each forest vegetation stands. A total of 193 lichen species were registered. The stands were classified into poor-lichen, transition zone, and normal for lichen development. The cluster analysis showed distinct groups, demonstrating differences in species composition among the stands. Indicator lichen species were registered in 80 % of the studied stands. In the most conserved areas, higher species richness and a greater number of fruticose species were registered, besides the presence of key species such as the genus Lobaria. The conservation of forest areas in environmental protection areas is essential for biodiversity conservation. Our results confirm the usage of the index of atmospheric purity with ECF to evaluate environmental quality of forest areas. Key words: EPA of Ibirapuitã, protected, conservation, corticolous lichens, IAP.
29510Pérez-Pérez R.E. & Guzmán G. (2015): Parmotrema species in a cloud forest region turned into an urban zone in Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico. - Bosque [Valdivia], 36(3): 357–362.
The cloud forest of Mexico has the highest biodiversity among the country’s diverse forest types; however, 90 % of the cloud forest ecosystem in the region of Xalapa has been destroyed and what remains is at risk. This region is home to an enormous diversity of lichen species. In a lichen survey carried out in this remnant of cloud forest in Xalapa, which has been turned into an urban area, we identified only eight species of Parmotrema, all of which showed vegetative propagules. Regardless of the role of the genus in the ecosystems, these lichens may be disappearing as a result of the transformation and destruction of the cloud forest ecosystem in Mexico. Key words: Parmotrema, cloud forest, Xalapa Region, Mexico.
29509Nelson P.R. & Wheeler T.B. (2016): Persistence of epiphytic lichens along a tephra-depth gradient produced by the 2011Puyehue-Cordón Caulle eruption in Parque Nacional Puyehue, Chile. - Bosque [Valdivia], 37(1): 97–105.
Lichens, symbioses between fungi and algae or cyanobacteria, are diverse and abundant in humid temperate forests in mountain ranges such as the Andes. They are also sensitive to changes in atmospheric conditions. We suspected lichens would show die back as a result of tephra fall from the 2011 Puyehue-Cordón Caulle volcanic eruption. We measured macrolichen community composition six months after initiation of the Caulle eruption at four sites along a tephra depth gradient from 10 to 50 cm. We also monitored the lichen community on permanent tree-bole quadrats over the next three years. We found 81 macrolichens species on seven plots at four sites across the tephra depth gradient. Plot species richness ranged between 23 and 34 lichen taxa. Nearly three years after the eruption, lichens in quadrats on tree boles showed no obvious trend of mortality in response to depth of tephra deposition. We concluded that lichen communities, despite being sensitive to atmospheric conditions, were able to survive the disturbance of up to 50 cm of tephra deposition three years after the eruption in part because of their position on the vertical sides of tree boles, which prevented abrasive impact and smothering by tephra deposition. Key words: montane forest, repeat photography, vegetation, volcanic disturbance.
29508Zilio L., Hammond H. & Castro A.S. (2017): Levantamiento planimétrico y análisis liquenométrico en el Sitio Campo de Chenques, costa norte de Santa Cruz (Patagonia Argentina) [Planimetric survey and lichenometric analysis in Campo de Chenques site, northern coast of Santa Cruz (Argentinian Patagonia)]. - Chungará, Revista de Antropología Chilena [Arica], 49(1): 65–80.
[in Spanish with English abstract: ] This paper presents the results obtained from the planimetric survey and lichenometric analyses conducted for the first time in the hunter-gatherer archaeology of Patagonia. Campo de Chenques site is a concentration of chenque-type human burial structures located on the Atlantic coast of the province of Santa Cruz, Argentina. A planimetric survey of the structures that make up the site was performed using a differential GPS. In addition, lichenometric studies were undertaken in order to obtain minimum estimated ages for the structures. To this end, lichen genus Rhizocarpon (subgenus Rhizocarpon) that grow on the rocks were measured.Based on these studies, a georeferenced map of the site was made, the number and morphology of the structures were determined, and a minimum age of approximately 770 years for the chenque construction was obtained by lichenometry, which is consistent with radiocarbon ages obtained for the site. Thus, Campo de Chenques becomes the oldest archaeological context of Patagonia in which a lichenometric technique was applied for the first time.The results are discussed in relation to the dynamics of occupation of the area by hunter-gatherer populations during the late Holocene. Key words: Planimetric survey, lichenometry, differential GPS, Chenques, Patagonia.
29507Vargas Castillo R., Stanton D. & Nelson P.R. (2017): Aportes al conocimiento de la biota liquénica del oasis de neblina de Alto Patache, Desierto de Atacama. - Revista de Geografía Norte Grande, 68: 49–64.
[in Spanish with English abstract:] Fog oases are zones along the Atacama Desert where the regular input of fog favors the development of rich communities of vascular plants, becoming biodiversity hotspots. In these areas, the lichen biota has been poorly explored and represents one of the most conspicuous elements among the perennials organisms that form the community. In a previous study of the lichen biota of the fog oasis at Alto Patache 7 species were reported. With the intent of update this information, lichen richness was assessed following 2 altitudinal transects at diff erent aspects of the coastal bluff . Here we present preliminary data indicating the presence of 77 species. Of these, 61 species are new records for the Tarapacá Region, and the species Amandinea eff lorescens, Diploicia canescens, Myriospora smaragdula and Rhizocarpon simillimum are new records for the Chilean lichen flora. Alto Patache is also acknowledged as the sole locality for Santessonia cervicornis, an endemic Critically Endangered species. Key words: Fog oasis, Atacama Desert, lichens.
29506Root H.T., Brinda J.C. & Dodson E.K. (2018): Biotic soil crust community composition 12–16 years after wildfires in Idaho, U.S.A.. - Bryologist, 121(3): 286–296.
Biological Soil Crusts (BSCs) are important components of sagebrush steppe ecosystems that may be affected by wildfire frequency and severity. As wildfires become more frequent and severe with exotic annual grasses and climate change, it is unknown how BSCs will be affected. We examined the sites of four 12–16 year-old wildfires in Idaho, U.S.A. and adjacent unburned habitats. We found that several lichen and bryophyte species were more frequent and abundant in unburned plots but no species were significantly associated with burned plots. Burned BSC communities were largely a subset of unburned communities. We compared sampling methods using eight 1 m31 m subplots per plot to eight 0.25 m3 0.25 m microplots per plot. We observed 80 total taxa in the subplots, as compared with 68 in the microplots. However, even using the smaller sampling area, the difference in community composition between burned and unburned plots was evident. The number of observed taxa was unusually high for BSC studies in the area and may reflect our sampling in varied plant communities in four wildfire sites, unusually well-developed BSCs, larger plot sizes, or greater attention to taxonomic detail. These results add to our understanding of longer-term BSC community recovery following wildfires in the western United States. Keywords: Biological soil crusts, disturbance, recovery, sagebrush steppe, nestedness, diversity.
29505Vančurová L., Muggia L., Peksa O., Řídká T. & Škaloud P. (2018): The complexity of symbiotic interactions influences the ecological amplitude of the host: A case study in Stereocaulon (lichenized Ascomycota). - Molecular Ecology, 27: 3016–3033.
Symbiosis plays a fundamental role in nature. Lichens are among the best known, globally distributed symbiotic systems whose ecology is shaped by the requirements of all symbionts forming the holobiont. The widespread lichen‐forming fungal genus Stereocaulon provides a suitable model to study the ecology of microscopic green algal symbionts (i.e., phycobionts) within the lichen symbiosis. We analysed 282 Stereocaulon specimens, collected in diverse habitats worldwide, using the algal ITS rDNA and actin gene sequences and fungal ITS rDNA sequences. Phylogenetic analyses revealed a great diversity among the predominant phycobionts. The algal genus Asterochloris (Trebouxiophyceae) was recovered in most sampled thalli, but two additional genera, Vulcanochloris and Chloroidium, were also found. We used variation‐partitioning analyses to investigate the effects of climatic conditions, substrate/habitat characteristic, spatial distribution and mycobionts on phycobiont distribution. Based on an analogy, we examined the effects of climate, substrate/habitat, spatial distribution and phycobionts on mycobiont distribution. According to our analyses, the distribution of phycobionts is primarily driven by mycobionts and vice versa. Specificity and selectivity of both partners, as well as their ecological requirements and the width of their niches, vary significantly among the species‐level lineages. We demonstrated that species‐level lineages, which accept more symbiotic partners, have wider climatic niches, overlapping with the niches of their partners. Furthermore, the survival of lichens on substrates with high concentrations of heavy metals appears to be supported by their association with toxicity‐tolerant phycobionts. In general, low specificity towards phycobionts allows the host to associate with ecologically diversified algae, thereby broadening its ecological amplitude.
29504Lu J., Magain N., Miadlikowska J., Coyle J.R., Truong C. & Lutzoni F. (2018): Bioclimatic factors at an intrabiome scale are more limiting than cyanobiont availability for the lichen-forming genus Peltigera. - American Journal of Botany, 105(7): 1198–1211.
Premise of the Study: Factors shaping spatiotemporal patterns of associations in mutualistic systems are poorly understood. We used the lichen‐forming fungi Peltigera and their cyanobacterial partners Nostoc to investigate the spatial structure of this symbiosis at an intrabiome scale and to identify potential factors shaping these associations. Methods: Ninety‐three thalli were sampled in Québec, Canada, along a south–north and an east–west transect of ~1300 km each. We identified the two main partners (Peltigera species and Nostoc phylogroups) using molecular markers and modeled the effects of environmental variables and partner occurrence on Peltigera–Nostoc distributions. Key Results: Peltigera species showed a high degree of specialization toward cyanobionts, whereas two Nostoc phylogroups dominated both transects by associating with several Peltigera species. Peltigera species had narrower ranges than these two main cyanobionts. Distributions of three Peltigera species were highly associated with precipitation and temperature variables, which was not detected for Nostoc phylogroups at this spatial scale. Conclusions: For these cyanolichens, factors driving patterns of symbiotic associations are scale dependent. Contrary to global‐scale findings, generalist Peltigera species were not more widespread within the boreal biome than specialists. Nostoc availability was not the only driver of Peltigera species’ geographic ranges; environmental factors also contributed to their intrabiome distributions. Climatic conditions (especially precipitation) limited the range of some Peltigera species more than the range of their cyanobacterial partners at an intrabiome (boreal) scale.
29503Ханов З.М., Урбанавичюс Г.П. & Урбанавичене И.Н. [Khanov Z.M., Urbanavichus G.P. & Urbanavichene I.N.] (2018): Дополнения к лихенофлоре Кабардино-Балкарии и Центрального Кавказа [Additions to the lichen flora of Kabardino-Balkaria and Central Caucasus]. - Ботанический журнал [Botanicheskiy Zhurnal], 103(1): 116–122.
The Kabardino-Balkarian Republic is located in the central part of the northern macro-slope of the Caucasus. The Republic differs sharply from the rest of the North Caucasus in terms of climatic indicators, geomorphological and lithological features. Only 312 species were previously known in the Republic according to the literature and data of our local floristic study. This paper presents data on 20 species and 5 genera (Alyxoria, Athallia, Carbonea, Physciella, Pleopsidium) new to the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic. The information on their distribution in the Caucasus with data on the localities is given. Five species are recorded for the first time in the Central Caucasus: Brodoa atrofusca, Cetraria muricata, Cladonia cornuta, Lepra schaereri, Ramalina subgeniculata. For these species the characteristic features of specimens are given, and the nearest locality is cited. Key words: lichens, new records, Central Caucasus, Kabardino-Balkarian Republic, Nalchik, «Prielbrusye» National Park.
29502Salo H., Hannuksela M. & Hausen B. (1981): Lichen picker's dermatitis (Cladonia alpestris (L.) Rab.). - Contact Dermatitis, 7: 9-13.
The frequency and immunological background of dermatitis occurring in lichen pickers during the 3- to 4-month picking season were studied in a small community in northern Finland. Thirty of 164 lichen pickers had suffered from dermatitis at least on the fingers and the dorsa of their hands, and many of them also had dermatitis on their forearms, faces, etc. Fifteen of them were subjected to epicutaneous and photo-epicutaneous testing with crushed Cladonia alpestris (L.) Rab. and some fractions of it. Allergic contact reactions were seen in nine subjects, three of whom also had positive photo-epicutaneous test reactions from lichen allergens. No immediate reactions were seen in scratch or scratch chamber tests with crushed Cl. alpestris or with its alcoholic extract.
29501Hausen B.M., Emde L. & Marks V. (1993): An investigation of the allergenic constituents of Cladonia stellaris (Opiz) Pous & Vežda [sic!] (‘silver moss’, ‘reindeer moss’ or ‘reindeer lichen’). - Contact Dermatitis, 28: 70-76.
The sensitizing potency of Cladonia stellaris (‘reindeer lichen silver moss’) extracts was determined in guinea pigs by a modified FCA (Freund's complete adjuvant) lest. The lichen showed a moderate sensitizing potency. Similar investigations with pure common lichen constituents revealed a moderate sensitizing potency for fumarprotocetraric acid and atranorin and a weak one for evernic acid, stictic acid and both forms of usnic acid. Although generallt weak, (–)‐usnic acid was at least 2 × stronger than (+)‐usnic acid. After separation of the Cladonia ether extract into ‘usnic‐acid‐free’ and ‘usnic‐acid‐containing’ fractions, perlatolic acid was identified as the main allergenic constituent of the ‘usnic‐acid‐free fraction’. Stictic, evernic. fumarprotocetraric acid and atranorin were not detectable. Lichens and lichen products generally possess a weak to moderate sensitizing capacity. Compared with common sensitizers of occupational and environmental importance, these products play only a minor role.
29500Sanmartín P., DeAraujo A. & Vasanthakumar A. (2018): Melding the old with the new: trends in methods used to identify, monitor, and control microorganisms on cultural heritage materials. - Microbial Ecology, 76: 64–80.
Microbial activity has an important impact on the maintenance of cultural heritage materials, owing to the key role of microorganisms in many deterioration processes. In order to minimize such deleterious effects, there is a need to fine-tune methods that detect and characterize microorganisms. Trends in microbiology indicate that this need can be met by incorporating modern techniques. All of the methods considered in this review paper are employed in the identification, surveillance, and control of microorganisms, and they have two points in common: They are currently used in microbial ecology (only literature from 2009 to 2015 is included), and they are often applied in the cultural heritage sector. More than 75 peer-reviewed journal articles addressing three different approaches were considered: molecular, sensory and morphological, and biocontrol methods. The goal of this review is to highlight the usefulness of the traditional as well as the modern methods. The general theme in the literature cited suggests using an integrated approach. Keywords: Microorganisms . Biofilms . Biodeterioration . Destructive and non-destructive techniques .Microbial growth and survival . DNA . RNA . Fungi.
29499Chagnon P.L., Magain N., Miadlikowska J. & Lutzoni F. (2018): Strong specificity and network modularity at a very fine phylogenetic scale in the lichen genus Peltigera. - Oecologia, 187: 767–782.
Identifying the drivers and evolutionary consequences of species interactions is a major goal of community ecology. Networkbased analyses can provide mathematical tools to detect non-random patterns of interactions, and potentially help predicting the consequences of such patterns on evolutionary dynamics of symbiotic systems. Here, we characterize the structure of a lichen network at a very fine phylogenetic scale, by identifying the photosynthetic partners (i.e., cyanobacteria of the genus Nostoc) of lichenized fungi belonging to a monophyletic section of a single genus (i.e., section Polydactylon of the genus Peltigera), worldwide. Even at such a fine phylogenetic scale, we found that interactions were highly modular and anti-nested, indicating strong preferences in interactions. When considering local Peltigera communities, i.e., datasets at small spatial scales with only a slightly broader phylogenetic range, interactions remained modular but were asymmetric, with generalist Nostoc partners interacting with specialized Peltigera species. This asymmetry was not detected with our global spatial scale dataset. We discuss these results in the light of lichen community assembly, and explore how such interaction patterns may influence coevolution in lichens and the evolutionary stability of the mutualism in general. Keywords: Cyanolichens · Partner selection · Mutualism · Nostoc · Symbiosis.
29498Joshi Y., Upadhyay S., Shukla S., Bisht K., Chandra K. & Tripathi M. (2018): Sacred Groves: Treasure House for Macrolichen Diversity in Kumaun Himalaya. - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India Section B: Biological Sciences, 88(3): 935–948.
The present study conducted in 21 sacred groves of Almora and Pithoragarh districts of Uttarakhand, India revealed the occurrence of 116 macrolichen species, belonging to 13 families and 38 genera, colonizing Quercus, Lyonia, Pinus, Rhododendron, Cedrus and Myrica trees along with some shrubs viz. Pyracantha, Berberis and miscellaneous substrates. Sacred groves having Quercus as climax vegetation came out as abode of a good number of lichens making it the best host for lichens in Himalaya encompassing 79 macrolichen species, which is quite high in comparison to Pinus that only hosts 29 species. Parmeliaceae was the dominant family with 51 species of macrolichens, followed by Physciaceae (36), Collemataceae and Lobariaceae (10 species each). Since lichens are very slow growing organisms, and quite sensitive to ecological and environmental fluctuations, if once got vanished from a particular location, they will take several years to reestablish, hence, conservation of their habitat (sacred grove) is very important to prevent their extinction. The study revealed that macrolichen diversity in the studied sacred groves was positively correlated with associated taboos of the sacred groves (0.680**, P\0.01), stating that, strictly obeying the taboos in sacred groves/forests can be one of the best way to conserve lichens. Keywords: Diversity; Kumaun Himalaya;  Macrolichens; Sacred groves; Taboos.
29497Cornejo C., Chabanenko S. & Scheidegger C. (2018): Are species-pairs diverging lineages? A nine-locus analysis uncovers speciation among species-pairs of the Lobaria meridionalis-group (Ascomycota). - Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 129: 48–59.
In spite of considerable effort to verify the theory of species-pairs, uncertainty still exists about the relationship between sexually or vegetatively reproducing populations of morphologically indistinguishable, sympatric lichen species. The current paper studies putative species-pairs within the Asian Lobaria meridionalis-group, using a nine-locus and time calibrated species-tree approach. Analyses demonstrate that pairs of sexually or vegetatively reproducing lineages split into highly supported monophyletic clades—confirming molecularly the species-pair concept for the L. meridionalis-group. In the broader context of evolution and speciation dynamics in lichenized fungi, this paper attempts to synthesize molecular findings from the last two decades to promote a more modern perception of the species-pair concept. Taxonomically, eight species were found to currently conform to the L. meridionalis-group, which differentiated during the Pliocene and Pleistocene. The coincidence of paleoclimatic events with estimated dates of divergence support a bioclimatic hypothesis for the evolution of species in the L. meridionalis-group, which also explains their current eco-geographic distribution patterns. Greater recognition for species with a long and independent evolutionary history, which merit high conservation priority, will be especially critical for preserving geographically restricted endemics from Southeast Asia, where habitat loss is driving rapid declines. Keywords: Lichenized fungi; Speciation; East Asia; Endemics; Pliocene; Pleistocene.
29496Janda J. & Tichá J. (2018): Determination of the gross activity of uranium, plutonium, americium and strontium in environmental samples using solid-state scintillation. - Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 192: 181–186.
Rapid determination of selected gross alpha and beta emitters in environmental matrices by solid-state scintillation technique is discussed. This method is based on sample treatment using microwave reactor and direct measurement of digested products using powder scintillator and alkaline solution as a substitute for traditional liquid scintillation cocktail. The selected group of radionuclides was chosen with respect to their use in nuclear industry, high radiotoxicity, and the possibility of potential misuse. The work aimed at verifying the connection of microwave decomposition using alkaline solution with solid-state scintillation using a powder scintillator YAP:Ce together with an alkaline medium. This paper deals with the rapid determination of the selected environmental samples, such as algae, fish, shrimps, mosses, lichen and milk using microwave digestion and solid-state scintillation technique, as a possible approach in emergency monitoring. p. 182: "The investigated samples were mosses and lichen, which were collected in the Moravian countryside, as well as algae. Milk, fish (cod fillet) and shrimps were bought from local distributors." p. 184: "Digestion of lichen The 0.1 g of dried lichen was ground and then transferred into the vessel followed by 6 ml of H2O2 and 6 ml of 7M NaOH. The digestion was realized in the same way as algae." "The lichen, contrary to other samples, colored the resulting decomposition product ranging from slightly red to brown-red color. The results of the digestion procedures are shown in Fig. 1."
29495Boonpeng C., Sriviboon C., Polyiam W., Sangiamdee D., Watthana S. & Boonpragob K. (2018): Assessing atmospheric pollution in a petrochemical industrial district using a lichen-air quality index (LiAQI). - Ecological Indicators, 95: 589–594.
Physiological processes within the thalli of lichens respond differently to accumulated pollutants. The chemical and physiological responses of lichens to atmospheric pollution from a petrochemical industrial complex were used to develop a lichen-air quality index (LiAQI). Thalli of the lichen Parmotrema tinctorum collected from an unpolluted area were transplanted to eight monitoring sites in the surrounding area of the Map Ta Phut industrial estate, two sites in an agricultural zone and a control site in a national park. Thirty chemical substances and eight physiological parameters were measured and analyzed. These data were then used to calculate the LiAQI of each monitoring site. The LiAQI values suggested that three industrial sites within 3–5 km of the main industrial area had poor air quality, three sites at a distance of 4–7 km had moderate air quality and two sites at a distance of 8–9 km had good air quality. Both agricultural sites at a distance of 35–55 km had very good air quality when compared with the control site. Air quality was found to improve with greater distance from the industrial center. The LiAQI developed from lichens was effective at detecting atmospheric pollution. Keywords: Chlorophyll fluorescence; Map Ta Phut; Parmotrema tinctorum; Physiological parameter; Pollutant; Thailand.
29494Serrano H.C., Oliveira M.A., Barros C., Augusto A.S., Pereira M.J., Pinho P. & Branquinho C. (2019): Measuring and mapping the effectiveness of the European Air Quality Directive in reducing N and S deposition at the ecosystem level. - Science of the Total Environment, 647: 1531–1538.
To protect human health and the environment (namely ecosystems), international air quality protocols and guidelines, like the Gothenburg protocol (1999) and the 2001 EU Air Quality Directive (NECD), conveyed national emission ceilings for atmospheric pollutants (Directive 2001/81/EC), including the reduction of sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) emissions by 2010. However, to what degree this expected reduction in emissions had reflections at the ecosystem level (i.e. pollutant levels reaching and impacting ecosystems and their organisms) remains unknown. Here, we used lichens as ecological indicators, together with reported air and precipitation pollutant concentrations, to determine and map the consequences of the S and N atmospheric emission's reduction, during the implementation of the 2001 Directive (in 2002 and 2011), due primarily to the industrial-sector. The study area is a mixed-land-use industrialized Mediterranean agroforest ecosystem, in southwest Europe. The reduction of S emissions (2002−2011) was reflected at the ecosystem level, as the same S-declining trend was observed in atmospheric measurement stations and lichens alike (−70%), indicating that most S deposited to the ecosystem had an industrial origin. However, this was not the case for N with a slight N-reduction near industrial facilities, but mostly N-deposition in lichens increased in areas dominated by agricultural land-uses. Taken together, these results highlight the importance of going beyond emissions estimation and modeling, to assess the success of the implementation of the NECD in lowering pollutant accumulation in living organisms and their environment. This can only be achieved by measuring pollutant deposition at the ecosystem level (e.g. living organisms). By doing so, we were able to show that the 2001 NECD was successful in reducing S concentrations from Industry, whereas N remains a challenge. Despite the small reduction in N-emissions, deposition into ecosystems did not reflect these changes as agriculture and transport sectors must reduce NH3 and NOx emissions. Keywords: Ecological indicator; Nitrogen; Sulfur; Deposition; Emission; Air Quality Directive.
29493Урбанавичюс Г.П. [Urbanavichus G.P.] (2016): Род Strigula (Strigulaceae, Strigulales) в лихенофлоре Кавказа [The genus Strigula (Strigulaceae, Strigulales) in the lichen flora of the Caucasus]. - Ботанический журнал [Botanicheskiy Zhurnal], 101(2): 154–166.
[in Russian with English abstract:] The genus Strigula is predominantly tropical and subtropical lichen genus with the least diversity in temperate regions. Based on field studies, herbarium revision and published data, a review of the genus Strigula in the lichen flora of the Caucasus is presented. Seven species (Strigula affinis, S. buxi, S. glabra, S. jamesii, S. minor, S. nitidula, and S. stigmatella) of the eight ones known in Russia occur in the Caucasus. One species (S. glabra) is the first record from the Russian Caucasus. An identification key to all the Caucasian and Russian species of Strigula is provided. Descriptions are provided for each species, together with ecological and distributional data. Key words: lichens, Strigula, review, Caucasus, Russia.
29492Урбанавичюс Г.П., Вондрак Я. & Урбанавичене И.Н. [Urbanavichus G.P., Vondrák J. & Urbanavichene I.N.] (2017): Род Porina (Porinaceae, Lichenes) во флоре Кавказа [Genus Porina (Porinaceae, Lichenes) in the lichen flora of the Caucasus]. - Ботанический журнал [Botanicheskiy Zhurnal], 102(4): 563–576.
[in Russian with English summary:] Porinaceae (Ostropomycetidae) contains more than 400 predominantly tropical and subtropical lichenized species. Its diversity steeply decreases toward higher latitudes, so there is only one genus (Porina) with 16 species known from the whole territory of Russia. We report 14 species from the Russian part of the Caucasus: five species (P. aenea, P. borreri, P. leptalea, P. pseudohibernica and P. rosei) are corticolous, five species — foliicolous (P. colchica, P. hoehneliana, P. nitidula, P. oxneri, P.rubentior) and four species — saxicolous (P. byssophila, P. chlorotica, P. ginzbergeri, P. lectissima). P. colchica is considered endemic of the Caucasus. On the basis of field studies, herbarium research and literature data, we reviewed ecology and distribution of the genus Porina in the Caucasus. P. leptalea and P. pseudohibernica are new to Russia, P. borreri and P. pseudohibernica are new to the Caucasus and Asia, and P. leptalea is new to the Caucasus, P. oxneri and P. rosei are new to the Republic of Adygea. We provide an identification key to all Caucasian Porina (also including prospective species). We further provide descriptions of all Caucasian species, together with ecological and distributional data. Keywords: lichens, Porina, taxonomical review, distribution, Northern Caucasus, Russia.
29491Khodosovtsev A.Ye. & Darmostuk V.V. (2017): Collemopsidium kostikovii sp. nov. (Collemopsidales, Xanthopyrenaceae), a new algicolous fungus on terricolous Nostoc crust from Ukraine. - Український Ботанічний Журнал [Ukrainian Botanical Journal], 74(5): 431–434.
Collemopsidium kostikovii Khodos. & Darmostuk sp. nov. (Collemopsidales, Xanthopyrenaceae) is described as a new for science species of algicolous fungi. The new species is characterized by pseudothecia fully immersed in algal crust, (80–)90–170(–200) μm wide, not widening ostiole, 10–20 μm diam., 8-spored asci and 1-septate hyaline ascospores, (14.8–)16– 19.6(–23) × (6.3–)6.4–7.8(–9.0) μm. It is morphologically similar to C. iocarpum, but differs by its not widening ostiole and association with terricolous cyanobacterial crust with dominant Nostoc muscorum. Keywords: Nostoc, Pyrenocollema, saline soil, Poltava Region.
29490Khodosovtsev A.Ye. & Darmostuk V.V. (2018): New for Ukraine species of lichens and lichenicolous fungi from marl limestones in the Northern Black Sea Region. - Український Ботанічний Журнал [Ukrainian Botanical Journal], 75(1): 33–37.
During the recent field season, we focused on lichens and lichenicolous fungi of petrophytic steppe habitats. They are widespread within the Black Sea Lowland in Ukraine. The marl limestones and pure limestone pebbles are outcropped in the central parts of the steppe slopes. The stone surfaces are colonized by pioneer lichen communities where endolithic life forms are mostly imperceptible. The petrophytic steppe habitats are protected in Europe. Six new for Ukraine species of lichens and two species of lichenicolous fungi from these habitats are reported in the article. A lichenicolous fungus, Acaroconium punctiforme, is characterized by subglobose black pycnidia, ampuliform conidiogenous cells, enteroblastic broadly ellipsoid aseptate pale brown conidia and Sarcogyne regularis as a host. Aspicilia subfarinosa has chalky-white thallus with farinose, smooth surface with occasional small cracks. The lichenicolous fungus Lichenochora wasseri s. l. was found on Xanthocarpia lactea. It is a new host for this lichenicolous fungus. Psorotichia montinii has minutely areolate thin crustose to almost powdery blackish thallus, minute invisible apothecia with punctiform discs. Verrucaria bernaicensis is characterized by pale gray, epruinose, areolate or subsquamulose thallus, immersed perithecia, lacking involucrellum, and small ellipsoid ascospores. Verrucaria papillosa differs from V. viridula by its completely endolithic thallus and undeveloped involucrellum. Verrucaria schindleri is similar to V. muralis, but has dark exciple in the lower part. The localities in Ukraine, ecology and distribution data for the new records are provided. Keywords: Acaroconium, Aspicilia, Lichenochora, Psorotichia, Verrucaria, Ukraine.
29489Нипорко С.О., Барсуков О.О. & Капець Н.В. [Nyporko S.O., Barsukov O.O. & Kapets N.V.] (2018): Флористичні знахідки мохоподібних, лишайників та ліхенофільних грибів з Національного природного парку "Гуцульщина" [Floristic records of mosses, lichens and lichenicolous fungi from Hutsulschyna National Nature Park]. - Український Ботанічний Журнал [Ukrainian Botanical Journal], 75(2): 179–186.
[in Ukrainian with English abstract: ] Results of the research conducted during 2016–2017 in Hutsulshchyna National Nature Park are reported. Main goals of our study were to obtain new information on distribution of liverworts, mosses, lichens and allied fungi of the study area and to find new localities of rare species. The data on 25 new for Hutsulschyna National Nature Park species are provided: lichen Arctoparmelia incurva, lichenicolous fungi Marchandiomyces corallinus, Phaeopyxis punctum, liverworts Barbilophozia sudetica, Calypogeia integristipula, Crossocаlyx helleriаnum, Lejeunea cavifolia, Scapania nemorea, and mosses Atrichum tenellum, Brachythecium mildeanum, B. rivulare, Bryum subapiculatum, Campylium protensum, C. sommerfeltii, Ditrichum flexicaule, Grimmia laevigata, Homomallium incurvatum, Hygroamblystegium varium, Orthotrichum affine, O. diaphanum, O. pallens, Plagiomnium affine, Pseudoleskeella catenulata, Thuidium recognitum, Zygodon rupestris. A genus Phaeopyxis (species P. punctum) of lichenicolous fungi and a lichen species Arctoparmelia incurva are newly reported for Ukraine. A lichenicolous fungus Marchandiomyces corallinus is first registered for the Ukrainian Carpathians. Detailed localities for each species are presented, their ecological and biogeographical issues are discussed. Following our research, 53 species of liverworts, 204 species of mosses, 217 species of lichens and lichenicolous fungi are known in Hutsulshchyna National Nature Park. Keywords: new for Ukraine, lichens, allied fungi, bryophytes, Сarpathians.
29488Шершова Н.В. [Shershova N.V.] (2018): Ліхеноіндикація стану атмосферного повітря в місті Васильків Київської області [Lichen indication of air quality in Vasylkiv town (Kyiv Region)]. - Український Ботанічний Журнал [Ukrainian Botanical Journal], 75(2): 143–148.
[in Ukrainian with English abstract: ] As a result of the conducted survey, 39 species of epiphytic lichens were identified in the town of Vasylkiv (Kyiv Region) including 18 indicator species. Five of these lichen species are indicators of particulate (dust) and acid pollution, three species have high sensitivity and 10 species – medium sensitivity to air pollution. Indicators of dust and acid pollution were found on trees along highways, near industrial enterprises, in private housing. Distribution of indicators with high and medium sensitivity is confined to the remnants of oak forests and old abandoned apple orchards in the eastern part of the town. Medium-sensitive species were also found in a birch grove in the southern part of the town and on the trees in a cantonment in its northern part. In the central part of the town, lichen indicators with high and medium sensitivity have not been found. Based on the analysis of the obtained data, maps of lichen distribution were made. On the basis of calculation of the air purity index of LeBlanc and De Sloover, the town area has been subdivided into three isotoxic zones corresponding to different levels of pollution. The zone with an average level of pollution occupies about 25% of the entire territory of the town. The slightly polluted zone occupies about 60% of the town area. Uncontaminated sites occupy the least area (almost 20%) and are located on the outskirts. Our study shows that low values of the indices and, accordingly, the unsatisfactory state of atmospheric air in the first zone is due to the cumulative influence of several factors, among which the most important are rugged terrain, road and rail transport, as well as the lack of green areas in this part of the Vasylkiv urban settlement. Keywords: air purity index, indicator species, fruticose lichens, foliose lichens, polluted zone, relatively clean zone, clean zone.
29487Шершова Н.В. [Shershova N.V.] (2017): Ліхеноіндикація стану атмосферного повітря в смт Фастів Київської області [Lichen indication of air quality in Fastiv urban settlement, Kiev Region]. - Український Ботанічний Журнал [Ukrainian Botanical Journal], 74(5): 435–441.
[in Ukrainian with English abstract:] The results of lichen indication studies of the atmospheric air in Fastiv (Kiev Region) are presented. In total, 68 species of lichens have been identified, of which 19 species are indicative. Distribution maps of the indicative species of lichens were produced. Based on the data obtained as a result of calculation of atmospheric purity index (IAP) by Le Blanc & De Sloover, a distribution map of lichen indication zones within the town was prepared. The location of various zones is analyzed. In general, the atmospheric air in the urban settlement of Fastiv is moderately polluted. The area near railway station and the eastern part of Fastiv are more polluted than the rest of its territory. Species with high sensitivity to air pollution were found mostly in the western part of Fastiv. Keywords: epiphyte lichens, lichen indication, mapping, index of atmospheric purity, Fastiv, Kiev Region.
29486Müller F. (2018): Kison, H.-U., Seelemann, A., Czarnota, P., Ungethüm, K., Schiefelbein, U. & Hammelsbeck, U. 2017. Die Flechten im Nationalpark Harz. – Schriftenreihe aus dem Nationalpark Harz 16, 305 Seiten. ISSN 2199-0182 (Serie). Preis: 15 €. - Herzogia, 31: 332–333.
Book review
29485Schultz M. & Steindl P. (2018): Erstnachweis von Sclerophora amabilis in Deutschland. - Herzogia, 31: 317–321.
First record of Sclerophora amabilis in Germany. The coniocarpous lichen Sclerophora amabilis has been observed on alley trees in Hamburg, Germany. This is the first record of the species from Germany. The characters distinguishing Sclerophora amabilis from other species of the genus occurring in central Europe are discussed. Key words: Germany, Hamburg, Sclerophora amabilis.
29484Kirschbaum U. & Sipman H.J.M. (2018): Lichen records from Northern Cyprus . - Herzogia, 31: 245–251.
Eighty-two taxa of lichenized fungi (lichenes) are reported from Northern Cyprus (Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus), mostly from the Beşparmak Mountains. Of these, thirty-four taxa are new for the northern part of the island, and 14 are new for the whole island. The large number of widespread species among the new records suggests that many more widespread species may show up. An unusual substrate, calcareous rock, is reported for Buellia tesserata, Rhizocarpon macrosporum and Xanthoparmelia attica. Pertusaria rhodiensis was found for the first time outside the Aegean Sea region.
29483Khedim R., Maatoug M., Benhassaini H. & Ait Hammou M. (2018): Macrolichens new to Algeria and other interesting species from Theniet-el-Had National Park. - Herzogia, 31: 252–267.
This work is the first inventory of the macrolichens of Theniet-el-Had National Park in western Algeria, the oldest in Algeria with beautiful forest and ancient cedar stands. Seventy macrolichens were observed. Lichenomphalia umbellifera and Umbilicaria nylanderiana are new to North Africa; Hypocenomyce scalaris, Hypogymnia tubulosa, Melanohalea elegantula, Melanohalea laciniatula, Parmelina pastillifera, Ramalina capitata (var. capitata, digitellata and protecta), and Protoparmeliopsis muralis var. diffracta are new to Algeria. Many lichen species, which are usually sterile or whose apothecia are very rarely observed in the literature, are fertile in this study area, e.g. Parmelina tiliacea, Physcia adscendens, Phaeophyscia orbicularis, Platismatia glauca and Pseudevernia furfuracea.
29482Kupradze I., Inashvili T., Batsatsashvili K., Lachashvili N. & Gabelashvili S. (2018): Lichens of the arid region of David Gareji, Georgia (South Caucasus). - Herzogia, 31: 268–275.
The arid region of David Gareji, Georgia, is located on the Iori Upland in the southeastern part of the country, in the central part of the South Caucasus. The vegetation of the study area is dominated by steppe with patches of semi-desert communities, but hemixerophilous ‘shiblyak’ scrub occurs in relatively small areas. To date, the lichen flora of the David Gareji region has received little attention. The present study recorded 93 species in 38 genera and 17 families, including six species new for Georgia: Aspicilia grossheimii, Diplotomma nivale, Lecidella carpathica, Lobothallia praeradiosa, Melanelia disjuncta and Melanelixia huei.
29481Gheza G., Nascimbene J., Mayrhofer H., Barcella M. & Assini S. (2018): Two Cladonia species new to Italy from dry habitats in the Po Plain. - Herzogia, 31: 293–303.
Cladonia conista and C. pulvinata occur at several sites in dry lowland habitats in the Po Plain (northern Italy). Vegetation relevés are provided in order to characterize the main lichen associations (Cladonietum rei, Cladonietum foliaceae, Pycnothelio-Cladonietum cervicornis) and vascular plant communities in which the two species were found in Thero-Airion dry acidic grasslands and in dry open Calluna heathlands.
29480Diederich P. & Ertz D. (2018): Lectotypification of Plectocarpon diedertzianum (Arthoniales). - Herzogia, 31: 322–326.
Plectocarpon diedertzianum Y.Joshi, Upadhyay & Chandra was described from India from four different parmelioid host genera. The figure illustrating the holotype specimen in the original publication appears to represent heterogeneous elements. Therefore, a re-examination of the holotype specimen was performed and confirmed the presence of two similar but distinct arthonialean lichenicolous species belonging to Opegrapha melanospila on Parmotrema reticulatum and to a Plectocarpon species on Myelochroa aurulenta. As a consequence, the name P. diedertzianum is lectotypified on the lichenicolous fungus growing on Myelochroa.
29479Muggia L., Kati V., Rohrer A., Halley J. & Mayrhofer H. (2018): Species diversity of lichens in the sacred groves of Epirus (Greece). - Herzogia, 31: 231–244.
The sacred groves in the mountains of Epirus in NW Greece have been established during the Ottoman period and consist of locally adapted systems set apart from the surrounding intensively managed, anthropogenic landscape. We inventoried eight sacred groves and compared them with nearby control (managed) forests. In total, 166 taxa of lichens and five of lichenicolous fungi were recorded. The most common lichen species were Anaptychia ciliaris, Phlyctis argena and Lecidella elaeochroma. Seven species are new for Greece: Calicium quercinum, Chaenotheca ferruginea, Chaenotheca trichialis, Chaenothecopsis nana, Leptogium hibernicum, Parvoplaca nigroblastidiata and Rinodina orculata. The sacred groves appeared not very different from the control forests; more pronounced differences were observed between deciduous oak evergreen oak and pine forests. Localities characterized by deciduous oak forest hosted the highest number of taxa belonging to the order Peltigerales, the most frequent were: Nephroma laevigatum, Collema subflaccidum, Leptogium lichenoides and Lobaria pulmonaria, but also rare species such as Polychidium muscicola, Koerberia biformis and Degelia atlantica were recorded.
29478Konoreva L., Tchabanenko S., Ezhkin A., Schumm F. & Chesnokov S. (2018): New and noteworthy lichen and allied fungi records from Sakhalin Island, Far East of Russia. - Herzogia, 31: 276–292.
Lecanora loekoesii and Chrysothrix xanthina are reported for the first time for Russia from the Sakhalin region. Bactrospora brodoi is new for Asia. A further forty-eight species are noteworthy for Sakhalin Island including five species new to the Russian Far East and ten species new to the southern part of the Russian Far East.
29477Christensen S.N. (2018): Lichens of Picea abies forests in Greece. - Herzogia, 31: 219–230.
Twenty-six epiphytic and 12 epigeic species are reported from oroboreal Picea abies forests in the Rodopi Mountains, northern Greece. All species except Usnea intermedia also occur in the boreal zone of northern Europe and most inhabit a broad range of climatic zones. Conservation aspects of the forests are briefly discussed. Six taxa, Bryoria nadvornikiana, Cladonia subulata, Fellhanera subtilis, Peltigera hymenina, Ramalina obtusata and R. thrausta, are new to Greece, and two, Usnea intermedia and U. subfloridana, are new to Macedonia.
29476Kocakaya M., Halıcı M. G., Ahti T. & Kocakaya Z. (2018): New or otherwise interesting records of Cladonia species from Turkey. - Herzogia, 31: 327–331.
Six Cladonia species (C. conista, C. graeca, C. magyarica, C. peziziformis, C. scabriuscula and C. subturgida) are reported from Turkey; C. graeca, C. peziziformis and C. subturgida for the first time, for which comments on their habitats, substrates and distribution are provided.
29475Oïhénart M., Clerc P. & Breuss O. (2018): New and interesting species of the lichen genus Verrucaria (Verrucariaceae, Ascomycota) for Switzerland and France. - Herzogia, 31: 209–218.
Ten Verrucaria species are new for Switzerland (V. ahtii, V. bisagnoensis, V. carnea, V. endocarpoides, V. floerkeana, V. gudbrandsdalensis, V. invenusta, V. pilosoides, V. pseudovirescens, and V. schindleri), one for the canton of Geneva (V. fuscoatroides) and one for France (V. transiliens). One species is confirmed in Geneva (V. inornata). Short notes on diagnostic features, ecology and distribution of the species are provided.
29474Brackel W. v., Cezanne R., Eichler M., Hohmann M.-L., Otte V., Seaward M.R.D., Stapper N.J. & Teuber D. (2018): Flechten, flechtenbewohnende und flechtenähnliche Pilze im „Parc naturel régional des Ballons des Vosges“, Frankreich (Ergebnisse der BLAM-Exkursion 2016). - Herzogia, 31: 190–208.
Lichens, lichenicolous and allied fungi of the “Parc naturel régional des Ballons des Vosges”, France (Results of the BLAM-excursion 2016). A list of 272 lichens and 55 lichenicolous or allied fungi is presented from five sites visited during the 2016 BLAMexcursion to the Natural Park “Ballons des Vosges” (Grand Est and Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, France). The lichen Agonimia repleta and the lichenicolous fungi Arthonia coniocraeae, Cornutispora intermedia, Dactylospora deminuta, Epicladonia simplex, Nectriopsis hirta, Pronectria subimperspicua and Thelocarpon epibolum are new to France, and Caeruleoconidia biazrovii is new to Europe. Ten species (four lichens, six lichenicolous fungi) were previously known from only one French locality, and 21 species (11 lichens, 10 lichenicolous fungi) are in danger of extinction in France.
29473Czarnota P., Mayrhofer H. & Bobiec A. (2018): Noteworthy lichenized and lichenicolous fungi of open-canopy oak stands in east-central Europe. - Herzogia, 31: 172–189.
Eighteen species of lichenized and two species of lichenicolous fungi from oak stands of east-central Europe’s rural landscapes are presented. Rinodina isidioides is new to eastern Europe and the Carpathians, Abrothallus microspermus is new to the Carpathians, Rinodina excrescens is new to the eastern Carpathians, Biatora pontica is new to the Polish Carpathians, Lecanora substerilis, Ramonia chrysophaea and Verrucaria viridigrana are new to the Polish Carpathians and Poland, and others are new to Hungary, Romania or Ukraine. Distinguishing characters are emphasised and notes on ecology as well as global and Carpathian distributions are given. Open-canopy oak stands and solitary oaks in wood-pastures are important for the protection of the lichen diversity of the Carpathians and need the special attention of conservation authorities and local stakeholders.
29472Schiefelbein U., Brackel W. v., Cezanne R., Eichler M., Krzewicka B., Neumann P., Schultz M. & Dolnik C. (2018): Additional interesting records of lichenized and lichenicolous fungi from Northern Germany. - Herzogia, 31: 114–132.
Sixty-one species (32 lichens and 29 lichenicolous fungi) are reported as new or noteworthy from northern Germany or one of its federal states. Epicladonia simplex and Minutoexcipula tephromelae are new to Germany; Didymocyrtis cladoniicola, D. foliaceiphila, Endococcus fusiger, Hymenelia ceracea, Lichenochora coarctatae, Lichenostigma chlaroterae, Pyrenochaeta xanthoriae, Schismatomma umbrinum and Vouauxiella verrucosa are recorded for the first time from northern Germany; nine species are added to the lichen flora of the federal state Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, 34 species to Schleswig-Holstein, seven species to Lower Saxony and one species each to Hamburg and Saxony-Anhalt. Verrucaria polygonia is rediscovered in Germany after more than 150 years.
29471Knudsen K. & Kocourková J. (2018): Sarcogyne praetermissa (Acarosporaceae), a new calcicolous lichen species from Europe, with a key to the European Sarcogyne species. - Herzogia, 31: 133–139.
The new lichen species Sarcogyne praetermissa is described from the Czech Republic. It is also reported from Finland, Hungary, Montenegro and Sweden. Sarcogyne privigna var. calcicola is lectotypifyed and synonymized with S. praetermissa. A key to the European species of Sarcogyne is provided.
29470Malíček J., Palice Z., Acton A., Berger F., Bouda F., Sanderson N. & Vondrák J. (2018): Uholka primeval forest in the Ukrainian Carpathians – a keynote area for diversity of forest lichens in Europe. - Herzogia, 31: 140–171.
One of the largest European primeval forests, Uholka-Shyrokyi Luh in the Ukrainian Carpathians, has received increased attention in recent years. In spring 2015 we explored the lichen biota in the southern part of the reserve. Species richness of epiphytic and epixylic lichens presented in this paper far exceeds all numbers achieved in other Central European old-growth forests. In total, 370 lichenized and lichen-allied fungi and 30 lichenicolous fungi were recorded. We focused on forest lichens on organic substrata, inorganic substrata were largely ignored. Species composition in the Uholka forest includes many rare taxa and typical old-growth forest species: e.g. Cetrelia spp., Gyalecta spp., Leptogium saturninum, Lobaria pulmonaria, Ricasolia amplissima, Sclerophora farinacea, S. pallida, Thelopsis flaveola and T. rubella. Opegrapha fumosa, Pyrenula chlorospila and P. dermatodes represent oceanic species that are very rare outside western Europe. Biatora longispora, Calicium montanum, Menegazzia subsimilis, Micarea perparvula, Ochrolechia trochophora, Pyxine sorediata, Ramonia luteola and Thelotrema suecicum are examples of phytogeographically remarkable or generally very rare lichens. Thirty lichenized and ten lichenicolous fungi are new to Ukraine, including Biatora bacidioides and Pertusaria macounii not previously reported from Europe.
29469Ходосовцев О.Є., Дармостук В.В., Ходосовцева Ю.А., Наумович Г.О. & Малюга Н.Г. [Khodosovtsev A.Ye., Darmostuk V.V., Khodosovtseva Yu.A., Naumovich A.O. & Maluga N.G.] (2018): Лишайники та ліхенофільні гриби Чалбаської арени нижньодніпровських пісків (Херсонська область) [The lichens and lichenicolous fungi of the Chalbasy arena in Lower Dnipro sand dunes (Kherson region)]. - Чорноморський ботанічний журнал [Chornomorski Botanical Journal], 14(1): 69–90.
160 species of lichens and lichenicolous fungi have been found in Chalbasy arena in Lower Dnipro sand dunes. Absconditella lignicola, Anaptychia crinalis, Bacidia fraxinea, Ramalina canariensis were a new for the Ukrainian plains and Caloplaca monacensis, Chaenotheca chlorella, Cladonia macilenta, Heterocephalacria physciacearum, Lecanora chlarotera, Lepraria lobificans, Porina aenea, Punctelia subrudecta were firstly found for steppe zone. Among Chalbasy arena, the habitats of Burkuty plavni are hotspot for lichens and lichenicolous fungi diversity of the steppe zone of Ukraine. The landscape is cover of 0,5% of Lower Dnipro Sand dunes and has 77% lichens and lichenicolous fungi founding on this territory. The Chalbasy arena represents a northern lichen elements. It occupied of the sand dunes habitats after the last glacial period 10–12 thouthand years ago. Probably, Absconditella lignicola, Candelariella kuusamoensis, Punctelia subrudecta, Usnea glabrescens are relics of the early Holocene. Probably, the penetration of Atlantic species, Anaptychia crinalis, Athallia alnetorum, Bacidia fraxinea, Candelaria pacifica, Ramalina canariensis to the territory of Lower Dnipro sand dunes habitas began in the second half of the Holocene and it continues to this time. In Chalbasy arena, Cetraria aculeata, Ramalina canariensis, Xanthoparmelia camtschadalis are listed in the Red Data Book of Ukraine and Anaptychia ciliaris, Bacidia rubella, Candelaria concolor, Chaenotheca trichialis, Flavoparmelia caperata, Lecania ephredrae, Parmelina quercina, Parmelina tiliacea, Placynthiella olygothropha, Phlyctis argena, Usnea hirta, U. glabrescens are included to the Red List of Kherson region. Absconditella lignicola, Anaptychia crinalis, Athallia alnetorum, Bacidia fraxinea, Candelaria pacifica, Cladonia macilenta, Caloplaca monacensis, Lepra albescens, Chaenotheca chlorinа, Porina aenea, Pseudoschismatomma rufescens, Punctelia subrudecta are vulnerable lichen species within steppe zone and are in need of protection. It is proposed to expand the territory of the Oleshkivski pisky National Park and create a Gileya Regional Landscape Park on western part of Chalbasy arena with aim to protect of the lichen habitats. Key words: hotspot lichen diversity, steppe zone, northern elements, Red List, Ukraine.
29468Tsurykau A. & Ropat A. (2018): Phaeophyscia endophoenicea (Lecanoromycetes) – lichen species new to Belarus. - Botanica, 24(1): 98–100.
Phaeophyscia endophoenicea (Harm.) Moberg was reported for the first time in Belarus. It was recorded growing on bark of Carpinus betulus in old-growth broadleaved forest in Gomel region, the southeastern part of Belarus. Keywords: Ascomycota, biodiversity, distribution, foliose lichens, Gomel, Physciaceae.
29467Golubkov V., Matwiejuk A., Bely P. & Tsurykau A. (2015): Revision of the genus Cetrelia (Lecanorales, Ascomycota) in the Białowieża Forest (Belarussian part). - Steciana, 19(3): 123–132.
In the territory of NP the Białowieża Forest no special research on specific structure of lichens of the Cetrelia has been carried out, and there are only single instructions in publications (Golubkov 1986, 1987 and others) whose definitions are based on morphological characteristics and results of colour chemical reactions which are not always reliable. Three taxa of Cetrelia (C. cetrarioides, C. monachorum, C. olivetorum) have been identified in a study of the genus in Belarussian part of the Białowieża Forest. Cetrelia monachorum is the commonest member of the genus in the Białowieża Forest (46 records), whereas C. olivetorum is known from 35 localities. Cetrelia cetrarioides appears to be the rarest species of the genus in the Białowieża Forest (2 records). The distribution and status of three species in the Białowieża Forest are reviewed, distribution maps are provided, and the merits of the segregates for conservation measures are discussed. Key words: cetrarioid lichens, biodiversity, Białowieża Forest, Belarus.
29466Matwiejuk A. & Chojnowska P. (2016): Lichens of Łomża town (Podlasie, north-eastern Poland). - Steciana, 20(2): 53–62.
This paper presents new distribution stands for 70 species of lichenized town from Łomża town (Podlasie, NE Poland). The investigations in the area of Łomża were carried out in the years 2014–2015, on 34 research stands. Seven species have been put on the Red list of the lichens in Poland (Cieśliński et al. 2006), including Rhizocarpon lavatum in critically endangered – CR, Ramalina fastigiata, R. fraxinea in the endangered category – EN, in the Ramalina farinacea in the vulnerable category – VU and Evernia prunastri, Hypogymnia tubulosa, Physcia aipolia in the category of near threatened – NT and five have been put under legal protection, two of which are strictly (Ramalina fastigiata, R. fraxinea) and three of which are partially protected (Cladonia arbuscula, Hypogymnia tubulosa, Ramalina farinacea). The lichens occur on following substrate types: soil, decaying wood, bark of all trees and shrubs species, boulders, concrete, foundation, mortar, plaster and bryophytes. Key words: Lichens, distribution, urban area, north-eastern Poland.
29465Fałtynowicz W., Kowalewska A., Fałtynowicz H., Piegdoń A., Patejuk K., Górski P., Halama M. & Staniaszek-Kik M. (2018): Epiphytic lichens of Quercus robur in Wigry National Park (NE Poland). - Steciana, 22(1): 9–17.
The study covered diversity of lichens on bark of Quercus robur in rich deciduous forest Tilio-Carpinetum and Scotch pine forest Serratulo-Pinetum in Wigry National Park (NE Poland). Ninety eight taxa of lichenized fungi have been recorded, which accounts for over 30% of lichens biota of the Park. Greater diversity of species has been noticed on oaks grown in Tilio-Carpinetum phytocenosis. Among the found lichens, 14 are protected by law and 18 are threatened in Poland. Moreover, 10 new species for Wigry National Park lichen biota have been found. Key words: epiphytic lichens, Quercus robur, NE Poland, coniferous and deciduous forests.
29464Navarro-Rosinés P., Roux C. & Hafellner J. (2018): Sphaerellothecium pumilum comb. nov. (hongos liquenícolas, Dothideomycetes), un nombre prioritario sobre S. aipolium. - Revista Catalana de Micologia, 39: 117–127.
Sphaerellothecium pumilum comb. nov. (lichenicolous fungi, Dothideomycetes), a prioritary name over S. aipolium. Because of the characteristics of the hamathecium, Sphaerellothecium pumilum (Lettau) Nav.-Ros., Cl. Roux et Hafellner is proposed as a new combination, to include Stigmidium pumilum (Lettau) Matzer and Hafellner. Sphaerellothecium aipolium Vouaux ex Nav.-Ros. et Cl. Roux is considered a synonym of this taxon. The current distribution of this species and some unclear aspects of its morphology are discussed. Sphaerellothecium pumilum is reported as new for Liechtenstein, Romania, Armenia, Mongolia, Nepal and Canada. Key words: lichenicolous fungi, Mycosphaerellaceae, Sphaerellothecium pumilum comb. nov., Stigmidium pumilum, Sphaerellothecium aipolium.
29463Gonnet D., Gonnet O., Gardiennet A. & Roux C. (2018): Les lichens et champignons lichénicoles de l’île de Cavallo (archipel des Lavezzi, Corse) [Lichens and lichenicolous fungi of Cavallo island (Lavezzi archipelago, Corsica)]. - Ecologia Mediterranea, 43(2): 171–184.
During a lichenological field session on the island of Cavallo (southern Corsica), a total of 109 taxa of lichens and lichenicolous fungi were recorded, among which 31 species were newly reported for southern Corsica. Comments are provided for the typically thermo-Mediterranean species and/or for rare ones. The most interesting reports are those of Amandinea maritima, Catillaria servitii, Ramalina bourgeana and Ramalina clementeana and of the non lichenized lichenicolous fungus Polycoccum rinodinae which are mentioned for the first time in France. The presence of Ramalina bourgeana initially cited by Jatta (1900) but without indication of locality is confirmed for that area. Finding Cypheliopsis mediterranea is remarkable, as the species was hitherto only known from its type locality in France (Giens Peninsula–southern France, recorded by Crozals in 1924). A full list of taxa can be found in appendix. Keywords: Cavallo, Southern Corsica, lichens, lichenicolous fungi, thermomediterranean, adlittoral.
29462Moura J.B., Vargas A.C., Gouveia G.V., Gouveia J.J.S., Ramos-Júnior J.C., Botton S.A., Pereira E.C. & da Costa M.M. (2017): In vitro antimicrobial activity of the organic extract of Cladonia substellata Vainio and usnic acid against Staphylococcus spp. obtained from cats and dogs. - Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira, 37(4): 368–378.
Cladonia substellata Vainio is a lichen found in different regions of the world, including the Northeast of Brazil. It contains several secondary metabolites with biological activity, including usnic acid, which has exhibited a wide range of biological activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of the organic extract of C. substellata and purified usnic acid. Initially, Staphylococcus spp., derived from samples of skin and ears of dogs and cats with suspected pyoderma and otitis, were isolated and analyzed. In antimicrobial susceptibility testing against Staphylococcus spp., 77% (105/136) of the isolates were resistant to the antimicrobials tested. In the assessment of biofilm production, 83% (113/136) were classified as producing biofilm. In genetic characterization, 32% (44/136) were positive for blaZ, no isolate (0/136) was positive for the mecA gene, and 2% (3/136) were positive for the icaD gene. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the organic extract of C. substellata and purified usnic acid against Staphylococcus spp. ranged from 0.25mg/mL to 0.0019mg/mL, inhibiting bacterial growth at low concentrations. The substances were more effective against biofilm-producing bacteria (0.65mg/mL-0.42mg/mL) when compared to non-biofilm producing bacteria (2.52mg/mL-2.71mg/mL). Usnic acid and the organic extract of C. substellata can be effective in the treatment of pyoderma and otitis in dogs and cats caused by Staphylococcus spp. Keywords: Antimicrobial activity; Cladonia substellata; lichens; usnic acid; Staphylococcus spp.; cats; dogs; bacteria; biofilm; genes.
29461Studzińska-Sroka E., Hołderna-Kędzia E., Galanty A., Bylka W., Kacprzak K. & Ćwiklińska K. (2015): In vitro antimicrobial activity of extracts and compounds isolated from Cladonia uncialis. - Natural Product Research, 29(24): 2302–2307.
Heptane (Hep), diethyl ether (Et2O), acetone (Me2CO) and methanolic (MeOH) extracts, as well as ( − )-usnic acid and squamatic acid, were obtained from thallus of Cladonia uncialis (Cladoniaceae). The antimicrobial activities of these extracts, ( − )-usnic acid and squamatic acid, were tested against reference strains: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. In addition, Me2CO extract was analysed against 10 strains of Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolated from patients. All extracts exerted antibacterial activity against the reference strain S. aureus, comparably to chloramphenicol [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) = 5.0 μg/mL]. The Me2CO extract exhibited the strongest activity against S. aureus (MIC = 0.5 μg/mL), higher than ( − )-usnic acid, whereas squamatic acid proved inactive. The Me2CO extract showed potent antimicrobial activity against MRSA (MIC 2.5–7.5 μg/mL). Also no activity of C. uncialis extracts against E. coli and C. albicans was observed. Keywords: Cladonia uncialis; antimicrobial activity; extracts; squamatic acid; usnic acid.
29460Ramos D.B.M., Gomes F.S., Napoleão T.H., Paiva P.M.G., Silva M.D.C. & Coelho L.C.B.B. (2014): Antimicrobial activity of Cladonia verticillaris lichen preparations on bacteria and fungi of medical importance. - Chinese Journal of Biology, 2014: ID 219392 [7 p.].
Cladonia verticillaris lichen lectin (ClaveLL) was purified using a previously established protocol and then evaluated for its potential antimicrobial activity. Initially, the autochthonous lichen was submitted to extraction with sodium phosphate buffer pH 7.0, followed by filtration and centrifugation to obtain crude extract. A salt fractionation was performed with 30% ammonium sulfate. After centrifugation, the protein fraction was loaded onto molecular exclusion chromatography using Sephadex G-100 matrix to purify active lectin. ClaveLL showed antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae) assayed strains, with greater inhibitory effect on growth of E. coli (MIC of 7.18 μg mL−1). The lowest minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC, 57.4 μg mL−1) was detected against E. faecalis. The antifungal assay performed with Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichosporon cutaneum, and Trichosporon asahi evaluated crude extract, fraction, and ClaveLL preparations. ClaveLL was the most active against T. rubrum with an inhibition percentage of 35% compared to negative control (phosphate buffer). Extract and fraction showed better activity on growth inhibition of T. mentagrophytes (35%). The results indicate the potential of ClaveLL and other C. verticillaris preparations as antimicrobial agents useful for applications focusing on human health.
29459Ferraro L.I. & Ahti T. (1987): Contribución al conocimiento del género Cladonia (Cladoniaceae-Liquenes) de Argentina y regiones limítrofes. - Bonplandia, 6: 57–69.
Cladonia subradiata (Vain.) Sandst. se reporta como nueva para la Argentina y Paraguay, C. turgidior (Nyl.) Ahti para la Argentina, y C. peziziformis (With.) Laundon para Paraguay. Cladonia ramulosa (With.) Laundon y C.humilis (With.) Laundon se reportan por primera vez para el norte de Argentina. Cinco especies de Cladonia son reconocidas ahora en la provincia de Corrientes. Se presenta una clave e ilustraciones.
29458Athukorala S.N.P., Huebner E. & Piercey-Normore M.D. (2014): Identification and comparison of the 3 early stages of resynthesis for the lichen Cladonia rangiferina. - Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 60: 41–52.
A lichen is an association between a biotrophic fungal partner and a green algal and (or) cyanobacterial partner, which may be considered a “controlled” parasitic interaction. While controlled parasitism implies benefit to both interacting partners, a parasitism that is not controlled implies that one partner benefits to the detriment of the other partner. The objective of this study was to compare morphological development of the interaction between Cladonia rangiferina with its compatible algal partner (Asterochloris glomerata/irregularis) and incompatible algae (Coccomyxa peltigerae and Chloroidium ellipsoideum) at 3 early resynthesis stages. The fungus was co-inoculated with each alga separately and the stages of development were compared using quantitative measures. The first 3 stages of development of the lichen thallus were identified in the compatible interaction as the “pre-contact” stage (1 day post co-inoculation (PCI)), “contact” stage (8 days PCI), and “growth together” stage (21 days PCI). Compatible interactions showed significantly shorter internode length, significantly more new lateral hyphal branches, significantly greater appressorial frequency, and no reduction in cell diameter of the algal cells, compared with incompatible interactions. At 21 days PCI, a parasitic interaction was observed between Cladonia rangiferina and Chloroidium ellipsoideum. These findings support the importance of recognition between compatible partners for successful lichenization. This study also revealed a strategy that may explain the success of this species in northern habitats. Identification of the resynthesis stages of Cladonia rangiferina is required before expression of the proteins involved in recognition and defense can be understood. Key words: Asterochloris glomerata/irregularis, Chloroidium ellipsoideum, culture, Coccomyxa peltigerae, compatibility, resynthesis stages.
29457Studzińska-Sroka E., Galanty A. & Bylka W. (2017): Atranorin – an interesting lichen secondary metabolite. - Mini-Reviews in Organic Chemistry, 17: 1633–1645.
Background: Atranorin, a compound with the depside structure, is one of the most common lichen secondary metabolites, characteristic for numerous lichen families but rarely found in some mosses and higher plants. Over the years various biological properties of atranorin were examined. Objective: This review summarizes the studies on atranorin, focusing on a number of biological activities in different fields. The literature describes anti-inflammatory, analgesic, as well as wound healing, antibacterial, antifungal, cytotoxic, antioxidant, antiviral, and immunomodulatory activities of the depside. Furthermore, lack of toxicity of atranorin was confirmed in the animals’ in vivo assays. Conclusion: In conclusion, atranorin seems to be an interesting lichen substance, which needs to be investigated in more detail in order to allow further applications, e.g. in pharmacy, medicine or cosmetology. Keywords: Atranorin, biological activity, biosynthesis, depside, lichen, secondary metabolites.
29456Stojanović G., Stojanović I. & Šmelcerović A. (2012): Lichen depsidones as potential novel pharmacologically active compounds. - Mini-Reviews in Organic Chemistry, 9: 178–184.
For centuries, lichens have been used in traditional medicine and their use persists to the present day in some parts of the world. Depsidones are one of the classes of secondary metabolites which are mostly produced in lichens. Lichen depsidones have been reported to possess many biological activities, such as antitumor and antimicrobial activities. In order to point out the pharmacological potential of this class of compounds, the present article reviews the structure and biological properties of the known lichen depsidones. The biosynthesis of depsidones and the relationship between their chemical structure and biological activity is also discussed. Keywords: Biological activity, biosynthesis, depsidones, lichen, structure-activity relationship.
29455Eaton S., Zúñiga C., Czyzewski J., Ellis C., Genney D.R., Haydon D., Mirzai N. & Yahr R. (2018): A method for the direct detection of airborne dispersal in lichens. - Molecular Ecology Resources, 18: 240–250.
This study sets out a novel method to determine dispersal distances in lichens. Direct measurement of dispersal often remains difficult for lichens and other small inconspicuous species because of the need to track microscopic reproductive propagules, which even if they can be captured, cannot be identified using traditional morphological approaches. A low-cost device (<£200) was developed to trap the reproductive propagules of lichens, capable of sampling around 0.1 m3 of air per minute. In parallel, molecular techniques were developed to enable species-specific detection of propagules caught by the devices, with identification using novel species- specific primers and optimization of a standard DNA extraction and nested PCR protocol. The methods were tested for both their sensitivity and specificity against a suite of lichen epiphytes, differing in their reproductive mechanisms, dispersal structures and rarity. Sensitivity tests showed that the molecular techniques could detect a single asexual propagule (soredium or isidium), or as few as 10 sexual spores. As proof of concept, propagule traps were deployed into a wooded landscape where the target epiphytes were present. Extractions from deployed propagule traps were sequenced, showing that the method was able to detect the presence of the target species in the atmosphere. As far as we are aware, this is the first attempt to use mechanized propagule traps in combination with DNA diagnostics to detect dispersal of lichens. The tests carried out here point the way for future dispersal studies of lichen epiphytes and other passively dispersed microscopic organisms including fungi or bryophytes. Keywords: airborne propagules, ecological genetics, nested PCR, rotating arm propagule trap, species-specific primers.
29454LaGreca S., Goyette S. & Medeiros I.D. (2018): The lichens of Lizard Lick, North Carolina. - Evansia, 35(2): 53–57.
Seventy-four lichen species, identified from both modern and historical vouchers, are reported for Lizard Lick, Wake County, North Carolina. Like many granite flat rock areas in the southeastern United States, the Lizard Lick flora is a unique combination of Piedmont and Coastal Plain species. The Lizard Lick lichen flora shares 24 species in common with two similar, nearby granite flat rock sites, Temple Flat Rock Preserve and Turnipseed Nature Preserve. Species characteristic of granite flat rock habitats were found, including Peltula cylindrica and Pyrenopsis portoricensis; the latter collection represents the second record of this species for North America. Keywords: Lichens, North Carolina, Wake County, floristics, granite flat rock.
29453Ezhkin A.K. & Jørgensen P.M. (2018): New records of Pannariaceae (lichenized Ascomycota) from Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands, Russian Far East. - Evansia, 35(2): 43–52.
Eleven taxa in the lichen family Pannariaceae connected with boreal coniferous or nemoral broad-leaved forests are documented. Notes on their taxonomy, ecology and geography are provided. Fuscopannaria leprosa is new to Eurasia; Fuscopannaria poeltii, Pannaria insularis, Pannaria lurida ssp. russellii and Parmeliella miradorensis are new to Russia. Keywords: Biodiversity, plant geography, broad-leaved forests, Asia, rare species.
29452Leavitt S.D., Newberry C.C., Hollinger J., Wright B. & St. Clair L.L. (2018): An integrative perspective into diversity in Acarospora (Acarosporaceae, Ascomycota), including a new species from the Great Basin, U.S.A.. - Bryologist, 121(3): 275–285.
A broad range of morphological variation is known to occur within the lichen-forming fungal genus Acarospora (Acarosporaceae, Ascomycota). In this study, we investigated the relationships of a number of interesting Acarospora collections from western North America using morphological, chemical and molecular sequence data. Our results revealed patterns of apparent convergence of some morphologies traditionally considered a single taxon, coupled with a striking range of morphological disparity within other lineages. Based on the results of this study, a species of lichen-forming fungi, Acarospora tintickiana sp. nov., is formally described as new to science, occurring on hard limestone substrates in the Great Basin of western North America. Furthermore, a number of additional candidate species are recognized and merit additional research before formal taxonomic recognition. This study highlights the importance of implementing an integrative taxonomic approach, incorporating a broad range of data, including molecular sequence data, for diagnosing evolutionarily independent species-level lineages in lichen-forming fungi. Keywords: Acarospora nevadensis, A. strigata, A. tintickiana sp. nov., Great Basin, integrative taxonomy.
29451Tedersoo L., Sánchez-Ramírez S., Kõljalg U., Bahram M., Döring M., Schigel D., May T., Ryberg M. & Abarenkov K. (2018): High-level classification of the Fungi and a tool for evolutionary ecological analyses. - Fungal Diversity, 90: 135–159.
High-throughput sequencing studies generate vast amounts of taxonomic data. Evolutionary ecological hypotheses of the recovered taxa and Species Hypotheses are difficult to test due to problems with alignments and the lack of a phylogenetic backbone. We propose an updated phylum- and class-level fungal classification accounting for monophyly and divergence time so that the main taxonomic ranks are more informative. Based on phylogenies and divergence time estimates, we adopt phylum rank to Aphelidiomycota, Basidiobolomycota, Calcarisporiellomycota, Glomeromycota, Entomophthoromycota, Entorrhizomycota, Kickxellomycota, Monoblepharomycota, Mortierellomycota and Olpidiomycota. We accept nine subkingdoms to accommodate these 18 phyla. We consider the kingdom Nucleariae (phyla Nuclearida and Fonticulida) as a sister group to the Fungi. We also introduce a perl script and a newick-formatted classification backbone for assigning Species Hypotheses into a hierarchical taxonomic framework, using this or any other classification system. We provide an example of testing evolutionary ecological hypotheses based on a global soil fungal data set. Keywords: 51 new taxa; Species; Hypothesis; Taxonomy of fungi; Phylogenetic classification; Subkingdom; Phylum; Nucleariae; Ascomycota; Aphelidiomycota; Basidiobolomycota; Basidiomycota; Blastocladiomycota; Calcarisporiellomycota; Chytridiomycota; Entomophthoromycota; Entorrhizomycota; Glomeromycota; Kickxellomycota; Monoblepharomycota; Mortierellomycota; Mucoromycota; Neocallimastigomycota; Olpidiomycota; Rozellomycota; Zoopagomycota. Collemopsidiomycetes Tedersoo et al. cl. nov.
29450Obermayer W. (2017): Dupla Graecensia Lichenum (2017, numbers 1101–1190). - Fritschiana (Graz), 87: 15–40.
The exsiccata 'Dupla Graecensia Lichenum (2017, numbers 1101–1190)' comprises 90 collections (575 specimens) of lichen duplicates (including the lichenicolous fungus Arthonia parietinaria) from the following 14 countries: Albania (district Lushnë), Armenia (province Syunik‘), Austria (states Carinthia, Salzburg, Styria, Tirol, and Upper Austria), Canada (province British Columbia), Croatia (county Istria), Finland (region Uusimaa), France (region Auvergne- Rhône-Alpes), Germany (states Baden-Württemberg, Bavaria, and Schleswig-Holstein), Greece (Attica peninsula and isles of Corfu and Crete), Macedonia, Montenegro, Slovenia, Switzerland (cantons of Bern and Ticino), and U.S.A. (states Alaska and North Carolina). TLC investigations were carried out for 21 lichenized taxa.
29449Obermayer W. (2017): Lichenotheca Graecensis, Fasc. 23 (Nos 441–480). - Fritschiana (Graz), 87: 1–13.
Fascicle 23 of 'Lichenotheca Graecensis' comprises 40 collections of lichens from the following countries (and administrative subdivisions): Albania, Australia (New South Wales; Norfolk Island; Queensland; Western Australia), Austria (Carinthia; Salzburg; Styria; Upper Austria), Germany (Baden-Württemberg), Greece (Corfu Island), Spain (Mallorca), Switzerland (Canton of Jura), and U.S.A. (Alaska). Isotypes of Caloplaca dahlii, C. norfolkensis, and Trapeliopsis granulosa var. australis are distributed. TLC-analyses were carried out for Chrysothrix candelaris, Cladonia rei, Hypogymnia physodes (growing on ground), Hypotrachyna revoluta aggregate, Lepra albescens, Lepraria caesioalba, L. crassissima aggregate, Melanohalea exasperata, Parmotrema arnoldii, Parmotrema reticulatum aggregate, Pycnora sorophora, Ramalina capitata, R. fraxinea, and Trapeliopsis pseudogranulosa.
29448Hafellner J. (2017): Lichenicolous Biota (Nos 251–270). - Fritschiana (Graz), 86: 31–46.
The 11th fascicle (20 numbers) of the exsiccata 'Lichenicolous Biota' is published. The issue contains material of 20 nonlichenized fungal taxa (16 teleomorphs of ascomycetes, 2 anamorphic states of ascomycetes, 2 basidiomycetes), including paratype material of Tremella graphidis Diederich et al. (no 269). Furthermore, collections of the type species of the following genera are distributed: Abrothallus (A. bertianus), Lichenostigma (L. maureri), Phacopsis (P. vulpina), Skyttea (S. nitschkei), and Telogalla (T. olivieri).
29447Mayrhofer H., Stešević D., Brudermann A., Fötschl B.R. & Bilovitz P.O. (2017): New or otherwise interesting lichenized and lichenicolous fungi from Montenegro II. - Fritschiana (Graz), 86: 1–30.
A list of two hundred and twelve taxa of lichenized fungi, three species of lichenicolous fungi, and two nonlichenized fungi is presented. Thirtysix lichenized taxa (thirtytwo species, one subspecies and three varieties), the lichenicolous fungus Biatoropsis usnearum, and the nonlichenized fungus Microcalicium arenarium are new to Montenegro.
29446Werth S. & Obermayer W. (eds) (2017): Lichen Genomics Workshop II. Institute of Plant Sciences, University of Graz, Austria. 2–5 November 2017. Program and Abstracts. - Fritschiana (Graz), 85: 1–50.
29445Hafellner J. (2017): A new generic record of lichenized ascomycetes for Central America: Thelocarpon laureri. - Fritschiana (Graz), 87: 41–46.
Based on a sample of Thelocarpon laureri from a high elevation locality in Costa Rica the genus Thelocarpon is recorded for the first time from Central America. The specimen is compared with material from Europe.
29444Cezanne R., Eichler M., Mestdagh X., Titeux N. & Diederich P. (2016): Zur Bestandssituation der Rentierflechten (Cladonia-Arten der Cladina-Gruppe) in Luxemburg. - Bulletin de la Société des naturalistes luxembourgeois, 118: 53–68.
An inventory of the reindeer lichens (Cladonia species belonging to the Cladina group) in Luxembourg. – Almost all Luxembourg localities from where the five known species of reindeer lichens have been reported in the past have been carefully surveyed between 2011 and 2015. The size and structure of each population, details on habitat, and possible impairments have been recorded, together with a list of all accompanying terricolous lichen species. Amongst the 61 localities studied, Cladina species were present only in 25. In the remaining 36, either they have disappeared, or previous records were erroneous. The most common species are Cladonia portentosa (19 localities), C. ciliata (17) and C. arbuscula (12), while C. mitis (5) and C. rangiferina (4) are nowadays very rare. Only five localities in the Oesling have rich populations with at least four of the five species.
29443Egorova I.N., Kobanova G.I., Sudakova E.A., Lishtva A.V. & Takhteev V.V. (2017): Ecological description of the sodium chloride mineral springs in the Kirenga river basin and the upper reaches of the Lena river: 2. Flora of non-vascular plants: algae, lichens. - Inland Water Biology, 10(4): 342–354.
[Translation of the original Russian text published in Biologiya Vnutrennykh Vod, 2017, No. 4, pp. 15–27] For the first time, the flora of algae and aquatic lichens is studied in the sodium chloride mineral springs of the Northern Baikal region flowing from the Lower Cambrian salt-bearing formations. The full list of algae found in six springs is presented. In total, 257 taxa are identified belonging to six divisions: Cyanoprokaryota (=Cyanophyta), Euglenophyta, Bacillariophyta, Xanthophyta, Chlorophyta, and Streptophyta. The flora of diatoms is the richest (196 taxa, or 76%). The similarity of algoflora of different springs is negligible. Species that are indifferent to salinity prevail in most of the mineral springs; mesohaline species dominate in the Ust’-Kutskii spring. Nineteen taxa of halophile diatoms are identified. The marine species Percursaria percursa (Chlorophyta) is recorded in Klyuchevskoi and Ust’-Kutskii springs. In the three springs, seven lichen species from the four genera are identified, five species are truly aquatic and two species may stand flooding; all these species are found in the freshwater ponds and streams. Two species of the genus Bagliettoa are probably relict in the Baikal region. Keywords: Baikal region, mineral springs, algae, lichens, species composition, halotolerance, similarity of communities.
29442Thakur P. & Ward A.L. (2018): 241Pu in the environment: insight into the understudied isotope of plutonium. - Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 317: 757–778.
Studies of plutonium in the environment have focused on the α-emitting isotopes 238Pu, 239Pu and 240Pu, often overlooking the β-emitting isotope 241Pu because of its relatively short half-life (14.4 years). Here, we summarize sources of 241Pu and discuss its distribution and behavior in the environment. In the short term, 241Pu, the largest contributor to the total plutonium radioactivity whereas in the long term its decay products, 241Am and 237Np, are the major contributors as some 46% of current total 241Am is attributable to 241Pu decay. In this context, understanding the fate and transport of 241Pu is crucial to assessing long-term radiological dose. Keywords: 241Pu; 241Am; 237Np; Marine samples; Environmental samples. Several paragraphs (p. 768-769) discuss the occurrence of 241Pu in lichens.
29441Vondrák J., Shahidin H., Haji Moniri M., Halıcı G. & Košnar J. (2018): Taxonomic and functional diversity in Calogaya (lichenised Ascomycota) in dry continental Asia. - Mycological Progress, 17: 897–916.
The genus Calogaya (Teloschistaceae, Xanthorioideae) was established to accommodate mainly epilithic lichens with lobate thalli, previously regarded as the "Caloplaca saxicola group". Data supporting the recognition of this new genus came from European lichens, and although the genus is soundly based, we have found in Asia numerous epiphytic lineages and lineages with reduced, non-lobate thallus in dry continental areas. The taxonomic and functional diversity of Calogaya is distinctly higher in steppe and desert areas of Asia than in the less arid regions of Europe. We sampled 238 specimens, mostly from arid regions of north-western China, Iran, southern Siberia and Turkey. Three nuclear DNA loci were analysed separately and jointly by Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood and *BEAST approaches. Delimitations of 28 putative species were tested by BP&P multispecies coalescent model with joint analysis of species delimitation and species-tree estimation. Finally, we recognised 22 taxonomic units: 16 are at species rank, 3 are treated as subspecies and 3 are complexes, treated here as a single entity, but in reality probably including more than one species. Calogaya altynis, C. biatorina subsp. asiatica, C. decipiens subsp. esorediata, C. haloxylonis, C. orientalis, C. xanthoriella and C. xinjiangis are newly described. Caloplaca zoroasteriorum is combined into Calogaya, and Calogaya persica is reduced to a subspecies. The taxonomic status of Calogaya saxicola is unclear, and the name is employed here "sensu lato" for several nonmonophyletic epilithic lineages with short-lobed thalli. Calogaya biatorina and C. ferrugineoides are the two other heterogeneous taxonomic units probably including more species. Keywords: Caloplaca saxicola . Functional traits . Species concept . Infraspecific taxa . Taxonomic units . New taxa.
29440Bowker M.A., Reed S.C., Maestre F.T. & Eldridge D.J. (2018): Biocrusts: the living skin of the earth. - Plant and Soil, 429: 65–75.
Editorial
29439Chilton A.M., Neilan B.A. & Eldridge D.J. (2018): Biocrust morphology is linked to marked differences in microbial community composition. - Plant and Soil, 429: 65–75.
Background and aims: Biocrust morphology is often used to infer ecological function, but morphologies vary widely in pigmentation and thickness. Little is known about the links between biocrust morphology and the composition of constituent microbial community. This study aimed to examine these links using dryland crusts varying in stage and morphology. Methods: We compared the microbial composition of three biocrust developmental stages (Early, Mid, Late) with bare soil (Bare) using high Miseq Illumina sequencing. We used standard diversity measures and network analysis to explore how microbe-microbe associations changed with biocrust stage. Results: Biocrust richness and diversity increased with increasing stage, and there were marked differences in the microbial signatures among stages. Bare and Late stages were dominated by Alphaproteobacteria, but Cyanobacteria was the dominant phylum in Early and Mid stages. The greatest differences in microbial taxa were between Bare and Late stages. Network analysis indicated highly-connected hubs indicative of small networks. Conclusions: Our results indicate that readily discernible biocrust features may be good indicators of microbial composition and structure. These findings are important for land managers seeking to use biocrusts as indicators of ecosystemhealth and function. Treating biocrusts as a single unit without considering crust stage is likely to provide misleading information on their functional roles. Keywords: Cyanobacteria . Network analysis . Biological soil crust . Semi-arid, microbial ecology. Drylands . Soil function.
29438Mallen-Cooper M., Eldridge D.J. & Delgado-Baquerizo M. (2018): Livestock grazing and aridity reduce the functional diversity of biocrusts. - Plant and Soil, 429: 175–185.
Background and aims: Livestock grazing and climate change are two of the most important global change drivers affecting ecosystem functioning in drylands. Grazing and climate are known to influence the cover and composition of biocrusts, which are substantial components of dryland soils globally. Much less is known, however, about how these global change drivers affect the functional diversity of biocrust communities in these ecosystems. Methods: Here, we evaluate the role of increasing aridity and grazing intensity in driving the functional diversity of biocrusts. We collected data on multiple biocrust functional traits and community composition, recent and historic grazing intensity, and vascular plants at 151 sites from drylands in eastern Australia. We then used structural equation modelling and a fourth corner analysis to examine the combined effects of aridity and grazing on biocrust functional diversity and individual functional traits. Results: Aridity had a significant direct suppressive effect on biocrust functional diversity. Effects of grazing by livestock, kangaroos and rabbits on functional diversity were predominantly indirect and suppressive, mediated by a reduction in biocrust cover. Grazing did, however, promote functional diversity via an increase in vascular plant richness, with a concomitant increase in biocrust richness. The overall effect of grazing on biocrust functional diversity however was negative. Fourth corner analyses revealed that livestock grazing had a significant negative effect on the ability of biocrusts to stabilise the soil. Aridity had strong negative effects on biocrust height and their ability to absorb water and capture sediment. Few significant relationships were detected between enzyme-related traits and environmental variables. Conclusions: Our findings provide novel evidence that the combination of increasing aridity and intensified livestock grazing will reduce the functional diversity and capabilities of biocrust communities, with resultant declines in ecosystem functioning. Keywords: Trait . Biological soil crust . Soil crusts . Ecosystemfunction . Functional diversity. Livestock . Drylands.
29437Ferrenberg S., Faist A.M., Howell A. & Reed S.C. (2018): Biocrusts enhance soil fertility and Bromus tectorum growth, and interact with warming to influence germination. - Plant and Soil, 429: 77–90.
Background and aims: Biocrusts are communities of cyanobacteria, mosses, and/or lichens found in drylands worldwide. Biocrusts are proposed to enhance soil fertility and productivity, but simultaneously act as a barrier to the invasive grass, Bromus tectorum, in western North America. Both biocrusts and B. tectorum are sensitive to climate change drivers, yet how their responses might interact to affect dryland ecosystems is unclear. Methods: Using mesocosms with bare soil versus biocrust cover, we germinated B. tectorum seeds collected from warmed, warmed + watered, and ambient temperature plots within a long-term climate change experiment on the Colorado Plateau, USA. We characterized biocrust influences on soil fertility and grass germination, morphology, and chemistry. Results: Biocrusts increased soil fertility and B. tectorum biomass, specific leaf area (SLA), and root:shoot ratios. Germination rates were unaffected by mesocosm covertype. Biocrusts delayed germination timing while also interacting with the warmed treatment to advance, and with the warmed + watered treatment to delay germination. Conclusions: Biocrusts promoted B. tectorum growth, likely through positive influence on soil fertility which was elevated in biocrust mesocosms, and interacted with seed treatment-provenance to affect germination. Understanding how anticipated losses of biocrusts will affect invasion dynamics will require further investigation of how plant plasticity/adaptation to specific climate drivers interact with soil and biocrust properties. Keywords: Biocrusts . Bromus tectorum . Cheatgrass . Drylands .Nitrogen .Phenotypic plasticity .Provenance . Soil fertility.
29436Tamm A., Caesar J., Kunz N., Colesie C., Reichenberger H. & Weber B. (2018): Ecophysiological properties of three biological soil crust types and their photoautotrophs from the Succulent Karoo, South Africa. - Plant and Soil, 429: 127–146.
Background and Aims: Biological soil crusts cover about one third of the terrestrial soil surfaces in drylands, fulfilling highly important ecosystem services. Their relevance to global carbon cycling, however, is still under debate. Methods: We utilized CO2 gas exchange measurements to investigate the net photosynthetic response of combined cyanobacteria/cyanolichen-, chlorolichen- and moss-dominated biocrusts and their isolated photoautotrophic components to light, temperature, and water. The results were compared with field studies to evaluate their compatibility. Results: Different biocrust types responded similarly, being inhibited by limited and excess water, saturated by increasing light intensities, and having optimum temperatures. Cyanobacteria/cyanolichen-dominated biocrusts reached their water optimum at lowest contents (0.52– 0.78 mm H2O), were saturated at highest light intensities, and had a comparably high temperature optimum at 37 °C. Chlorolichen-dominated crusts had a medium water optimum (0.75–1.15mmH2O),medium saturating light intensities and a moderate temperature optimum of 22 °C. Moss-dominated biocrusts had the highest water optimum (1.76–2.38 mm H2O), lowest saturating light intensities, and a similar temperature optimum at 22 °C. Isolated photoautotrophs responded similar to complete crusts, only isolated moss stems revealed much lower respiration rates compared to complete crusts. Conclusions: In addition to their overall functional similarities, cyanobacteria/cyanolichen-dominated biocrusts appeared to be best adapted to predicted climate change of increasing temperatures and smaller precipitation events, followed by chlorolichen-dominated biocrusts. Mossdominated biocrusts needed by far the largest amounts of water, thus likely being prone to anticipated climate change. Keywords: Biological soil crust . CO2 gas exchange . Photosynthesis . Soil respiration.
29435Antoninka A., Bowker M.A., Chuckran P., Barger N.N., Reed S. & Belnap J. (2018): Maximizing establishment and survivorship of field-collected and greenhouse-cultivated biocrusts in a semi-cold desert. - Plant and Soil, 429: 213–225.
Aims: Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are soil-surface communities in drylands, dominated by cyanobacteria, mosses, and lichens. They provide key ecosystem functions by increasing soil stability and influencing soil hydrologic, nutrient, and carbon cycles. Because of this, methods to reestablish biocrusts in damaged drylands are needed. Here we test the reintroduction of fieldcollected vs. greenhouse-cultured biocrusts for rehabilitation. Methods: We collected biocrusts for 1) direct reapplication, and 2) artificial cultivation under varying hydration regimes. We added field-collected and cultivated biocrusts (with and without hardening treatments) to bare field plots and monitored establishment. Results: Both field-collected and cultivated cyanobacteria increased cover dramatically during the experimental period. Cultivated biocrusts established more rapidly than field-collected biocrusts, attaining ~82% cover in only one year, but addition of fieldcollected biocrusts led to higher species richness, biomass (as assessed by chlorophyll a) and level of development. Mosses and lichens did not establish well in either case, but late successional cover was affected by hardening and culture conditions. Conclusions: This study provides further evidence that it is possible to culture biocrust components from later successional materials and reestablish cultured organisms in the field. However, more research is needed into effective reclamation techniques. Keywords: Biological soil crust . Drylands . Hardening . Field establishment . Ecological restoration . Ecological rehabilitation . Soil erosion resistence.
29434Dettweiler-Robinson E. (2018): Biocrust carbon isotope signature was depleted under a C3 forb compared to interspace. - Plant and Soil, 429: 101–111.
Aims: Plants and biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are the key producers in drylands, but biocrusts seldom show net CO2 uptake. I hypothesized that biocrusts could augment CO2 fixation by incorporating plant-derived carbon. Methods: I collected biocrusts located at the base of Gutierrezia sarothrae (C3 forb), Bouteloua gracilis (C4 grass), and from bare interspaces between plants, and from a mesocosm experiment with live B. gracilis or dead B. gracilis roots. To trace carbon sources, I determined 13C values of the biocrust community, isolated cyanobacteria and lichen, and plant leaves because the photosynthetic pathway distinguishes the tissue 13C values. Results: Biocrust communities and washed cyanobacteria and cyanolichen in G. sarothrae microsites were depleted by ~2‰ relative to other locations. Biocrust δ13C did not differ between the interspace and live or dead B. gracilis. Conclusions: Potential mechanisms for the trend in biocrust δ13C adjacent to C3 plants include differences in microsite conditions, biocrust communities, use of respired CO2 in the soil matrix for photosynthesis, or mixotrophic use of plant photosynthates. Further investigation of this observation may improve understanding of the degree to which the activities of dryland primary producers are coupled. Keywords: Biological soil crust; C3 plant C4 plant; Delta 13C; Carbon dynamics.
29433Raggio J., Green T.G.A., Pintado A., Sancho L.G. & Büdel B. (2018): Environmental determinants of biocrust carbon fluxes across Europe: possibilities for a functional type approach. - Plant and Soil, 429: 147–157.
Background and aims: Due to the well-known importance of biocrusts for several ecosystem properties linked to soil functionality, we aim to go deeper into the physiological performance of biocrusts components. Possible functional convergences in the physiology of biocrust constituents would facilitate the understanding of both species and genus distributional patterns and improve the possibility of modelling their response to climate change. Methods: We measured gas exchange in the laboratory under controlled conditions of lichen- and mossdominated biocrusts from four environmentally different locations in Europe. Field data were used to determine the natural hydration sources that drive metabolic activity of biocrusts. Results: Our results show different activity drivers at the four sites. Within site analyses showed similar C fixation for the different crust types in the three sites without hydric stress whilst light use related parameters and respiration at 15 °C were similar in the between sites analyses. There were significant differences in water relations between the biocrusts types, with mossdominated crusts showing higher maximum and optimum water contents. Conclusions: The functional type approach for biocrusts can be justified from a physiological perspective when similar values are found in the within and between site analyses, the latter indicating habitat independent adaptation patterns. Our multi-site analyses for biocrusts functional performance provide comparisons of C fluxes and water relations in the plant-soil interface that will help to understand the adaptation ability of these communities to possible environmental changes. Keywords: Biological soil crusts . Climate change impact modelling . Functional ecology. Metabolic activity drivers . Photosynthesis . Stress tolerance.
29432Vos C., McKinney P., Pearson C., Heiny E., Gunawardena G. & Holt E.A. (2018): The optimal extraction and stability of atranorin from lichens, in relation to solvent and pH. - Lichenologist, 50(4): 499–512.
Atranorin is a secondary metabolite found in many lichens. This compound can act as a photo-buffer, supporting its use as a marker of metabolic response to changes in light. In preliminary trials, atranorin was found to be unstable over time when in solution, potentially precluding its usefulness in this capacity. The present study tests the stability of atranorin in different extraction solvents and at different pH values over time using HPLC analysis. We found that atranorin is most stable in acetonitrile, among six tested solvents, and that the presence of strong acid or a strong base destabilizes the compound. We propose that atranorin breaks down through transesterification in methanol and ethanol until an equilibrium is reached, while a strong base breaks down atranorin through saponification and under acidic conditions, atranorin concentration significantly increases with time. Although atranorin levels were found to be stable in whole thallus extracts from fresh lichens using a leaching method, chemicals isolated using chromatographic separation showed similar breakdown to an atranorin standard. In future work on lichens atranorin should be extracted in acetonitrile or acetone without an added base or acid to yield the greatest stability and thus provide more accurate concentration values of atranorin with time using HPLC. The interactions of atranorin with acid and with chloroform need further study. Keywords: acetonitrile, depside, HPLC, methanol.
29431Pearson K., Cameron R. & McMullin R.T. (2018): Habitat associations and distribution model for Fuscopannaria leucosticta in Nova Scotia, Canada. - Lichenologist, 50(4): 487–497.
Fuscopannaria leucosticta is a rare and understudied cyanolichen with an interesting and unusual distribution in tertiary relict hotspots worldwide. There is a relatively large population in eastern North America, where it occurs mostly throughout the Appalachian Mountains and reaches its northernmost extent in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, Canada. The ability to detect this species, and thus determine its habitat requirements, is critical for understanding how it might be affected by human- induced environmental degradation. Maximum entropy modelling with MaxEnt was used to predict the distribution of suitable habitat for this species in Nova Scotia using 62 presence locations, 1405 pseudo- absence locations and four environmental covariates: depth to water table (a proxy for relative soil moisture), distance to the coast and mean annual temperature and precipitation. Our predictive maps identify important habitat features and areas of high suitability in Nova Scotia with an area under the curve value of 0·85. The predicted distribution of this lichen was most affected by temperature. This study elucidates locations as well as species-habitat relationships for F. leucosticta, providing land managers with baseline data that can aid in the discovery of additional populations and provide a better understanding of its ecological requirements which will support the development of sound conservation strategies for this rare lichen. Keywords: conservation, cyanolichen, MaxEnt, rarity, SDM, tertiary relic hotspots.
29430Kitaura M.J., Scur M.C., Spielmann A.A. & Lorenz-Lemke A.P. (2018): A revision of Leptogium (Collemataceae, lichenized Ascomycota) from Antarctica with a key to species. - Lichenologist, 50(4): 467–485.
With more than 180 known species, Leptogium has its greatest richness in tropical regions. Only three species have so far been reported from Antarctica but extensive surveys in the Antarctic Maritime Islands have shown that this is an underestimate. Leptogium antarcticum (non-isidiate, with medulla composed of columnar hyphae), L. marcellii (non-isidiate, with medulla composed of a sponge-like arrangement of hyphae) and L. tectum (isidiate, with medulla composed of columnar hyphae) are described here as new to science. The new species are compared with those already reported for the genus in Antarctica, namely L. crispatellum, L. menziesii and L. puberulum, and an identification key is provided. Sequences of ITS and mrSSU regions were obtained from recently collected L. antarcticum, L. marcellii, L. puberulum and L. tectum specimens. Morphological and anatomical data were compared along with available genetic data in order to delimit these species more accurately, using an integrative approach. Keywords: columnar hyphae, isidia, ITS, lichen anatomy, mrSSU, phylogenetic analysis.
29429Kantvilas G. (2018): Studies on Bacidia (lichenized Ascomycota, Ramalinaceae) in temperate Australia, including Tasmania: saxicolous and terricolous species. - Lichenologist, 50(4): 451–466.
Descriptions, illustrations, discussion and an identification key are presented for six saxicolous and terricolous species of the lichen genus Bacidia De Not. occurring in temperate Australia and Tasmania. Three species are described as new to science: B. lithophila Kantvilas from northern Tasmania, characterized by having only brown apothecial pigments and 3–5-septate, acicular ascospores, 23–35×1·5–2·0μm; B. littoralis Kantvilas from Tasmania, South Australia (Kangaroo Island) and New South Wales, characterized by green and brown apothecial pigments and acicular, 3–7-septate ascospores, 24–48 × 2·0–3·5 μm; and B. maccarthyi Kantvilas from New South Wales, with pruinose apothecia and long, filiform, 17–25-septate ascospores, 65–115 × 2·5–4·0 μm. Three further species are reported for the region for the first time: B. bagliettoana (A. Massal. & de Not.) Jatta (Tasmania), B. curvispora Coppins & Fryday (Tasmania) and B. scopulicola (Nyl.) A. L. Sm. (Tasmania, Victoria). Kangaroo Island, lichens, new records, New South Wales, new species, taxonomy, Victoria
29428Yakovchenko L.S. & Davydov E.A. (2018): Sporastatia crassulata, a new species from the Altai Mountains with a key to Sporastatia and remarks on some additional species. - Lichenologist, 50(4): 439–450.
Sporastatia crassulata Yakovchenko & Davydov sp. nov. is described and a phylogenetic analysis (mtSSU) is presented, confirming its distinctness and indicating a sister relationship with S. testudinea. The species is unique among Sporastatia species in having a distinctly squamulose, thick, uneven thallus composed of convex, rounded squamules irregularly ascending in the central part of the thallus. The new combination Sporastatia karakorina (Poelt & Obermayer) Davydov & Yakovchenko is proposed. The type specimen of S. subasiatica was examined. A key to the six species of Sporastatia is given. Mountainous Central Asia appears to be the centre of species diversity and endemism for Sporastatia. Ascomycota, Asia, China, lichen, new taxon, Rhizocarpales, Russia, Siberia, Tuva
29427Zahradníková M., Andersen H.L. & Tønsberg T. (2018): Fuscidea lightfootii and F. pusilla (Fuscideaceae, Umbilicariomycetidae, Ascomycota), two similar but genetically distinct species. - Lichenologist, 50(4): 425–438.
The two corticolous species Fuscidea lightfootii (Sm.) Coppins & P. James and F. pusilla Tønsberg are morphologically and chemically similar and it has been suggested that they are conspecific. We investigated the interspecific relationship between F. lightfootii and F. pusilla using ITS, LSU and mtSSU rDNA. The combined multigene phylogeny shows that these species are genetically distinct. They are similar in ascocarp anatomy but in thallus morphology and substratum preferences there may be slight differences between them. Moreover, F. pusilla displays a broader ecological range than F. lightfootii. Even though some morphotypes appeared distinct and may be assigned to one of the two species with some degree of certainty, the use of DNA sequencing is recommended for their identification. Epitypes are designated for both species. cryptic species, lichenized ascomycetes, medially constricted ascospores, sorediate lichens, sterile lichens
29426Orange A. (2018): Caloplaca sol (Teloschistaceae), a new coastal lichen from Great Britain. - Lichenologist, 50(4): 411–424.
Caloplaca sol is described as a new species from limestone and basic siliceous rocks on the southern and western coasts of Great Britain. It is characterized by a well-developed, crustose, non- placodioid, epilithic, cracked, orange-yellow thallus, almost concolorous apothecia up to 0·66mm diameter, and ascospores c. 11·0–12·2–13·0μm long with a septum c. 0·4×the ascospore length. Caloplaca dalmatica is related but differs in the endolithic or only thinly epilithic thallus. Caloplaca marina is darker orange in colour, with more convex areoles, and is mostly confined to the splash zone of the seashore. Caloplaca maritima differs in the typically more convex, sometimes isolated areoles, and often in the presence of a crenulate thalline margin in young apothecia. Caloplaca itiana is newly reported from Great Britain from coastal limestone; it differs from C. sol in the thallus being endolithic or almost so, and from C. dalmatica in the more completely endolithic thallus and the larger ascospores, Flavoplaca, France, key, maritime, taxonomy, Wales
29425Singh G., Dal Grande F., Schnitzler J., Pfenninger M. & Schmitt I. (2018): Different diversification histories in tropical and temperate lineages in the ascomycete subfamily Protoparmelioideae (Parmeliaceae). - MycoKeys, 36: 1–19.
Background: Environment and geographic processes affect species’ distributions as well as evolutionary processes, such as clade diversification. Estimating the time of origin and diversification of organisms helps us understand how climate fluctuations in the past might have influenced the diversification and present distribution of species. Complementing divergence dating with character evolution could indicate how key innovations have facilitated the diversification of species. Methods: We estimated the divergence times within the newly recognised subfamily Protoparmelioideae (Ascomycota) using a multilocus dataset to assess the temporal context of diversification events. We reconstructed ancestral habitats and substrate using a species tree generated in *Beast. Results: We found that the diversification in Protoparmelioideae occurred during the Miocene and that the diversification events in the tropical clade Maronina predate those of the extratropical Protoparmelia. Character reconstructions suggest that the ancestor of Protoparmelioideae was most probably a rock-dwelling lichen inhabiting temperate environments. Conclusions: Major diversification within the subtropical/tropical genus Maronina occurred between the Paleocene and Miocene whereas the diversifications within the montane, arctic/temperate genus Protoparmelia occurred much more recently, i.e. in the Miocene. Keywords: Diversification pattern, dating, extra-tropical, mountain uplifts, ancestral state reconstruction, substrate, habitat, parallel evolution, lichenised fungi.
29424Knudsen K. & Arcadia L. in (2018): (2614) Proposal to conserve the name Lichen flavus Bellardi (Pleopsidium flavum) against L. flavus Schreb. (Acarosporaceae: lichenised Ascomycota). - Taxon, 67(3): 638–639.
Nomenclature
29423Pykälä, J., Launis A. & Myllys L. (2018): Verrucaria tenebrosa (Verrucariaceae), a new lichen species from Finland and Norway, and notes on the taxonomy of epiphytic taxa belonging to the V. hydrophila complex. - Phytotaxa, 361(2): 211–221.
Species related to Verrucaria hydrophila and V. placida in Finland were studied based on morphology and ITS sequences. V. tenebrosa is described as new. The species is characterized by a thin, variable-coloured thallus, small and rather sparsely occurring perithecia with a thin thalline cover, and relatively broad ascospores. V. tenebrosa occurs in shady habitats, usually on calcareous pebbles on N-facing cliffs. It has an eastern distribution in Finland, but it also occurs in Norway. The sequences of an epiphytic species V. lignicola were grouped together with V. hydrophila. However, based on morphological differences we consider them not to be conspecific, but suggest that V. hydrophila is a species complex in need of further studies. An epiphytic occurrence of V. hydrophila is confirmed by an ITS sequence. One putative sequence of V. trabicola is also grouped together with V. hydrophila, but further studies are needed on the identity of V. trabicola. Keywords: aquatic lichens, epiphytic lichens, calcareous rocks, ITS, taxonomy.
29422Ćujić M. & Dragović S. (2018): Assessment of dose rate to terrestrial biota in the area around coal fired power plant applying ERICA tool and RESRAD BIOTA code. - Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 188: 108–114.
This paper presents the environmental radiation risk assessment based on two software program approaches ERICA Tool (version 1.2) and RESRAD BIOTA (version 1.5) to estimate dose rates to terrestrial biota in the area around the largest coal fired power plant in Serbia. For dose rate assessment software's default reference animals and plants and the best estimated values of activity concentrations of 238U, 234U, 234Th, 232Th, 230Th, 226Ra, 210Pb, 210Po, 137Cs in soil were used. Both approaches revealed the highest contribution to the internal dose rate due to 226Ra and 210Po, while 137Cs contributed the most to the external dose rate. In the investigated area total dose rate to biota derived using ERICA Tool ranged from 0.3 to 14.4 μGy h−1. The natural radionuclides exhibited significantly higher contribution to the total dose rate than the artificial one. In the investigated area, only dose rate for lichens and bryophytes exceeded ERICA Tool screening value of total dose rate of 10 μGy h−1 suggested as confident that environmental risks are negligible. The assessed total dose rates for reference animals and plants using RESRAD BIOTA were found to be 7 and 3 μGy h−1, respectively. In RESRAD BIOTA - Level 3, 10 species (Lumbricus terrestris, Rana lessonae, Sciurus vulgaris, Anas platyrhynchos, Lepus europaeus, Vulpes vulpes, Capreolus capreolus, Suss crofa, Quercu srobur, Tilia spp.) representative for the study area were modeled. Among them the highest total dose rate (4.5 μGy h−1) was obtained for large mammals. Differences in the predicted dose rates to biota using the two software programs are the consequence of the difference in the values of transfer parameters used to calculate activity concentrations in biota. Doses of ionizing radiation estimated in this study will not exhibit deterministic effects at the population level. Thus, the obtained results indicate no significant radiation impact of coal fired power plant operation on terrestrial biota. This paper confirms the use ERICA Tool and RESRAD BIOTA softwares as flexible and effective means of radiation impact assessment.
29421Concostrina-Zubiri L., Matos P., Giordani P. & Branquinho C. (2018): Biocrust tissue traits as potential indicators of global change in the Mediterranean. - Plant and Soil, 429: 159–174.
Background and aims: Functional traits are promising indicators of global changes and ecosystem processes. Trait responses to environmental conditions have been examined widely in vascular plants. In contrast, few studies have focused on soil lichens and mosses composing biocrusts. We aimed to evaluate the potential of biocrust tissue traits as indicators of changes in climate and soil properties. Methods: Isotope ratios and nutrient content in biocrust tissue were analyzed in 13 Mediterranean shrublands along an aridity gradient. Differences in tissue traits between biocrust groups (lichens and mosses), and relationships between tissue traits and climatic and soil variables were examined. Results: Lichens and mosses differed in δ13C, δ15N and N content, indicating distinct physical and physiological attributes. Tissue traits correlated strongly with numerous climatic variables, likely due to a modulator effect on biocrust water relations and metabolism. We found contrasting responses of lichen and moss traits to climate, although they responded similarly to soil properties. Overall, the most responsive trait was δ15N, suggesting this trait is the best to reflect integrated processes occurring in the atmosphere and soil. Conclusions: Biocrust tissue traits arise as cost-effective, integrative ecological indicators of global change drivers in Mediterranean ecosystems, with potential applications in response-effect trait frameworks. Keywords: Isotope ratios; Tissue nutrient content; Biocrusts; Climate; Soil; Mediterranean.
29420Johansson V., Wikström C.-J. & Hylander K. (2018): Time-lagged lichen extinction in retained buffer strips 16.5 years after clearcutting. - Biological Conservation, 225: 53–65.
Tree retention on clear-cuts is a relatively new measure in forestry aimed at ‘lifeboating’ forest species during young seral periods. However, the effectiveness of tree retention for maintaining biodiversity for more than a few years is still poorly known. We investigated lichen persistence in retained buffer strips along small streams after clear-cutting of the surrounding forest, and compared with clear-cuts and un-cut references. Specifically, we compared richness and frequency of red-listed/signal species, calicioids and pendulous species before clear-cutting with 2.5 years and 16.5 years after clear-cutting, and also analysed their colonization-extinction dynamics over time. The results show that the richness of red-listed/signal species and calicioids in buffer strips had declined significantly after 16.5 years, but not after 2.5 years, while frequency displayed a significant difference already after 2.5 years. The richness of pendulous lichens remained relatively stable over time, but the frequency had declined significantly after 16.5 years. In clear-cuts all groups declined more than in buffer-strips (~2–3.5 times more) and the main decline had occurred already after 2.5 years. References remained stable over time. The colonization-extinctions dynamics reflected the richness declines, with high early extinction in clear-cuts and lower but late extinction in buffer-strips, and low (re)colonization. We conclude that retained buffer strips cannot maintain lichen richness over time due to time-lagged extinction, but they are clearly more effective than clear-cuts. Wider buffer strips could potentially reduce tree mortality and decrease lichen extinction. The large amounts of standing dead wood makes buffer strips potential future colonization targets. Keywords: Boreal forest; Calicioid; Colonization; Extinction debt; Pendulous; Tree retention.
29419Raggio J., Green T.G.A., Pintado A. & Sancho L.G. (2018): Photosynthetic rate and thallus size are not related in alpine yellow-green Rhizocarpon crustose lichens: Implications for lichenometry and growth. - Geomorphology , 318: 348–353.
Lichenometry, first proposed at the beginning of the XXth century, is a technique that uses growth rates of saxicolous crustose lichens to date exposed surfaces over an age range of 500 years from present. Despite of the wide use of the methodology, it has been strongly criticized by several authors who consider that biological aspects involved in growth rates of lichens used are not sufficiently considered and that this will contribute to uncertainty in the final surface dating. The assumption, important for direct lichenometric measurements, that crustose lichens have constant growth rates through all their life span, is controversial, with some works pointing to a change in growth rate with thallus size in yellow-green Rhizocarpon sp. samples, the most widely lichens used for surface dating. This change in growth rate with size would contribute to inaccuracy in dating. In this work, we contribute to the discussion with a novel approach in which we measure several physiological parameters linked to carbon gain in 42 Rhizocarpon sp. samples of different sizes collected in the same locality. We found no significant relationship between thallus photosynthetic rate and thallus size indicating that possible growth rate variations over Rhizocarpon life span are not linked to carbon gain. The experiment performed provides a new data set to include in lichenometric modelling with the aim to obtain a better understanding of crustose lichens biology before attempting more feasible and accurate surface dating strategies. Measurements of length of activity periods and carbon allocation in Rhizocarpon are recommended to achieve future improvements in this direction. Keywords: Chlorophyll fluorescence;Lichen growth rates; Photosynthesis; Surface dating.
29418Youn U.J., So J.E., Kim J.H., Han S.J., Park H., Kim C. & Yim J.H. (2018): Chemical constituents from the Antarctic lichen, Stereocaulon caespitosum. - Biochemical Systematics and Ecology , 80: 73–75.
A phytochemical study of the methanol extract of the Antarctic lichen Stereocaulon caespitosum Redgr. led to the isolation of a tridepside (1), two depsides (2 and 3), a montagnetol derivative (4), and four mono-phenolic compounds (5–8). The structures of these compounds were confirmed by 1D- and 2D-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments, as well as by comparison with published values. This is the first phytochemical study of S. caespitosum. In particular, compounds 1, 3, 4, and 8 have been isolated for the first time from the genus Stereocaulon and the family Stereocaulaceae. The chemotaxonomic significance of the isolated compounds is discussed. Keywords: Stereocaulon caespitosum; Antarctic lichen; Depside; Montagnetol.
29417De La Cruz A.R.H., De La Cruz J.K.H., Tolentino D.A. & Gioda A. (2018): Trace element biomonitoring in the Peruvian andes metropolitan region using Flavoparmelia caperata lichen. - Chemosphere, 210: 849–858.
In the present study, in situ lichens (Flavoparmelia caperata) were used to assess the deposition of atmospheric trace elements in the metropolitan area of Huancayo (Junín, Peru). In total, ten sampling sites were chosen and categorized as urban, peri-urban (rural-urban) and rural areas according to land use. In addition, samples were also collected from a non-contaminated area categorized as a control site. The concentrations of 16 trace elements were measured using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) and examined by enrichment factor (EF), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), and principal component analysis (PCA). Twelve of the 16 trace elements in urban and peri-urban sites present concentration higher than those at the rural and control sites (p < 0.05). The EF results revealed significant enrichment (at least twice that of the control site) of Ba, Cr, Cd, Pb, Sb, V, and Zn at most sites. PCA and HCA showed that more elements were derived from vehicular sources and fewer from agricultural and natural sources. Keywords: Lichen biomonitoring; Central Andes; Trace elements; Air pollution; Enrichment factor; peri-Urban growth.
29416Granlund L., Keski-Saaria S., Kumpula T., Oksanen E. & Keinänen M. (2018): Imaging lichen water content with visible to mid-wave infrared (400–5500 nm) spectroscopy. - Remote Sensing of Environment, 216: 301–310.
The unique adaptation of lichens to repeated cycles of drying and rehydration makes them ideal subjects for developing remote sensing methodologies for water content estimation. This laboratory-based study evaluates the suitability of simple ratios (SR) and normalized difference indices (NDI), from several spectral regions; visible to near infrared (VNIR, 400–1000 nm), short-wave infrared (SWIR, 1000–2500 nm) and mid-wave infrared (MWIR, 2500–5500 nm) in the water content estimation of seven lichen species. The utilization of a wide wavelength range and several different lichen species allowed the evaluation of the robustness of the water content indices. Our results show that although there was high variability between different lichen species in their spectral responses to increasing water content, the best indices predicted water content accurately for the combination of species (RMSE 16.3%, 10.3% and 13.9% for the test set, in the VNIR, SWIR and MWIR regions, respectively). Generally the NDI indices were found to be slightly better than the SR indices. We also demonstrate the capability of imaging spectroscopy in creating detailed heat maps of the water content with these indices. Keywords: Spectral imaging; Water content; Indices; Remote sensing indices; Lichen; VNIR; SWIR; MWIR.
29415Roulier M., Bueno M., Thiry Y., Coppin F., Redon P.-O., Le Hécho I. & Pannier F. (2018): Iodine distribution and cycling in a beech (Fagus sylvatica) temperate forest. - Science of the Total Environment, 645: 431–440.
Radioiodine is of health concerns in case of nuclear events. Possible pathways and rates of flow are essential information for risk assessment. Forest ecosystems could influence the global cycle of long-lived radioiodine isotope (129I) with transfer processes similar to stable isotope (127I). Understanding iodine cycling in forest involves study of the ecosystem as a whole. In this context, we determined the 127I contents and distribution in soil, tree compartments and atmospheric inputs during a three years in situ monitoring of a temperate beech forest stand. The iodine cycle was first characterized in terms of stocks by measuring its concentrations in: tree, litterfall, humus, soil, rainfall, throughfall, stemflow and soil solutions.Main annual fluxes (requirement, uptake and internal transfers) and forest input-output budget were also estimated using conceptual model calculations. Our findings show that: (i) soil is the main I reservoir accounting for about 99.9% of ecosystem total stock; (ii) iodine uptake by tree represents a minor fraction of the available pool in soil (b0.2%); (iii) iodine allocation between tree compartments involves lowimmobilization inwood and restricted location in the roots; (iv) translocation of excess iodine towards senescing foliage appears as an elimination process for trees, and (v) litterfall is a major pathway in the I biological cycling. In our soil conditions, the input – output budget shows that the ecosystem behaves as a potential source of I for groundwater. Keywords: Iodine Forest Biogeochemical cycling Annual terrestrial flux. p. 432: "Mosses and lichens were also sampled."; p. 435: according to table 3 by far the highest I concentration (μg kg−1) was measured in lichens (6684 ± 363) from all organic items in Beech temperate forest; p. 439: "The high I concentrations measured in lichens and mosses (6.7 ± 0.4 and 4.7 ± 0.2 mg kg−1, respectively), which are known to bioaccumulate aerial fallout, support assumption of a contribution of dry deposition on I concentration of stembark."
29414Torres-Cruz T.J., Howell A.J., Reibold R.H., McHugh T.A., Eickhoff M.A. & Reed S.C. (2018): Species-specific nitrogenase activity in lichen-dominated biological soil crusts from the Colorado Plateau, USA. - Plant and Soil, 429: 113–125.
Background and aim: Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) play numerous crucial roles in drylands, which comprise over 40% of Earth’s terrestrial surface. Among these key contributions is the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen. Yet, relatively little is known about the N2 fixation capabilities of different lichen species that are found in late successional biocrust communities across drylands globally. Methods: In order to improve our species-specific understanding of biocrust lichen N2 fixation, we collected biocrusts dominated by four common species of lichens – Collema spp., Gyalolechia desertorum, Psora decipiens, and Squamarina lentigera – that represent a range of lichen families and morphological types. Nitrogenase activity of the biocrust community dominated by these lichens was evaluated using the acetylene reduction assay. Additionally, biocrust community composition was assessed using the point-intercept method along transects at varied distances from exposed bedrock. Results: As expected, Collema spp.-dominated biocrusts had the highest rates of nitrogenase activity, with rates up to seven times larger than those of the other three target species. Nitrogen concentrations and carbon:nitrogen ratios of lichen tissue differed among lichen species. However, when the composite biocrust profile was assessed (i.e., biocrust tissue, microbial cells, and mineral soil to a 2 cm depth) these amongspecies differences in total nitrogen disappeared. Community composition changed according to distance from exposed bedrock, with a higher diversity of lichens closer to the bedrock. Conclusion: Multiple drivers, including climate and land use change, affect biocrust community composition and species-specific functional information, even within a group such as late successional biocrusts, could help in forecasting the potential effects of global change on N2 fixation, and consequently, soil fertility in drylands. Keywords: Acetylene reduction assay. Chlorolichens . Collema spp. . Drylands . Nitrogen fixation.
29413Ignatenko R.V. & Tarasova V.N. (2018): Assessment of the state of lung lichen, Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm., in forest communities with different times since disturbance in the Northeast of European Russia. - Russian Journal of Ecology, 49(4): 277–285.
[Translation of original Russian text published in Ekologiya, 2018, No. 4, pp. 245–253] Quantitative parameters of cenopopulations of Lobaria pulmonaria, an endangered cyanolichen, have been studied in spruce phytocenoses of Karelia recovering after disturbance through the successional stage of aspen stands for a period ranging from 80 to 450 years. The results show that, as the time since disturbance increases, the total number of L. pulmonaria thalli and the number of colonized substrate units increase as well, with no stabilization of these parameters being observed in the series of communities studied. The total area of thalli in the phytocenoses is restored within approximately 200 years after the last disturbance. In old-growth forests (>400 years), L. pulmonaria thalli colonize a broad spectrum of tree species in different life states, including lower branches of young spruce trees. Even if they serve as temporary substrates, this can markedly strengthen the potential of the species for further expansion within the community in case of shortage in the main phorophyte (aspen). Thus, the proportion of regressive populations decreases, while that of colonizing populations increases, which is indicative of successful reproduction of the species. Keywords: Lobaria pulmonaria, taiga ecosystem, time since disturbance, succession, old-growth forests, population ekology.
29412Kristinsson H. & Ahti T. (2009): Two new species of Cladonia from Iceland. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 99: 279–283.
Two new species, Cladonia islandica and C. glacialis, are described from Iceland, where the former is widespread and the latter is known from a single locality by a glacier. Both species appear to belong to the ―supergroup Cladonia within the genus. Key words: new species, Cladonia, Iceland.
29411Ciferri R. & Tomaselli R. (1953): Saggio di una sistematica microlichenologica. - Atti Istituto Botanico della Università Laboratorio Crittogamico Pavia, ser. 5, 10: 25–84.
29410Nguyen-Xuan T., Bergeron Y., Simard D., Fyles J.W. & Paré D. (2000): The importance of forest floor disturbance in the early regeneration patterns of the boreal forest of western and central Quebec: a wildfire versus logging comparison. - Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 30: 1353–1364.
The nonvascular and vascular plant composition of the early regenerating vegetation present following wildfires and clear-cut logging has been compared separately in three areas of the black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP) – feathermoss (Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt.)) forest of western and central Quebec. In each area, a detrended correspondence analysis successfully differentiated the burned and logged stands along the first ordination axis. This separation mainly resulted from the greater abundance of pioneer species or lichens after fire and the greater abundance of residual species after clear-cutting. Spearman’s correlation coefficients were calculated to relate variables characterizing physical disturbance of the forest floor and general site conditions to the two first differentiating axes. Variables characterizing forest floor disturbance severity were strongly associated with the first ordination axis in two of the study areas but not in the third one. The interpretation of compositional differences in the light of plant reproductive strategies led to the identification of regeneration patterns that illustrated the influence of disturbance type and severity on post-disturbance vegetation composition. These results suggest that certain forestry practices such as careful logging with the protection of regeneration and soil, scarification, and prescribed burning may differ in their capability to address sustainable forest management issues.
29409Kozik J. (2006): Strangospora ochrophora (Nyl.) A.A. Anderson (Acarosporaceae) – nowy gatunek w Pieninách [Strangospora ochrophora (NYL.) A.A. Anderson (Acarosporaceae) – a new species in the Pieniny Mts.]. - Pieniny – Przyroda i Człowiek, 9: 91–93.
[in Polish with English abstract: ] Strangospora ochrophora, a rare lichen species, until now has been reported only from several localities in Poland. During the field studies in 2005, it was found in the area of Pieniny National Park (ATPOL grid square: EG 32), growing on the bark of Salix sp. in the sunlit place. This is the first record of this species in the Pieniny Mountains.
29408Matwiejuk A. (2012): Lichens of birch (Betula sp.) on area with differentiated anthropopressure within city limits of Białystok – floristic-ecological study. - In: Łaska G. (ed.), Biological diversity – from cell to ecosystem, p. 253–269, Polish Botanical Society, Białystok.
29407Kolanko K. (2012): Differentiation and dynamic tendencies of epiphylic lichen associations of birch (Betula sp.) in the Biebrza National Park. - In: Łaska G. (ed.), Biological diversity – from cell to ecosystem, p. 239–252, Polish Botanical Society, Białystok.
29406Kubiak D. & Sucharzewska E. (2015): Szarek humusowy Trapeliopsis glaucolepidea w lasach Polski [Trapeliopsis glaucolepidea in the forest environment in Poland]. - Studia i Materiały CEPL w Rogowie, 16: 169–176.
[in Polish with English abstract: ] The available data on the occurrence of Trapeliopsis glaucolepidea in Poland are given in this study and its new localities recorded in the Pojezierze Mazurskie lakeland are presented. The most important data on the ecology and general distribution of the species are given, as well as the diagnostic characteristics that help to differentiate it from similar species are described. Based on the current knowledge on the distribution and ecology of this species it may be suggested that T. glaucolepidea is a relatively rare species, potentially threatened with extinction. However, it can be assumed that further research in similar ecological conditions in other parts of the country will result in discovery of new localities of the species. Key words: lichen, new localities, epixylic species, dead wood.
29405Matwiejuk A. (2015): Porosty objęte ochroną strefową występujące w Polsce północno-wschodniej [Lichens protected zonal occurring in north-eastern Poland]. - Studia i Materiały CEPL w Rogowie, 17: 130–137.
[in Polish with English abstract:] October 9, 2014, the Regulation of the Minister of Environment, establishing new rules for the protection of species of wild mushrooms. Compared to the previous Regulation of 2004, many lichens species changed form of protection, including species requiring protection zones to determine their stand and positions. The paper presents the current state of research (eg. the biology of species, habitat preferences, their location) for the determination of lichen species requiring protection zones of refuge and positions in Poland NE. Keywords: lichens, protected zonal, Poland NE.
29404Janczar R. & Kwilecki K. (2015): Porosty jako wyznacznik przydatności Puszczy Wkrzańskiej dla turystyki i rekreacji [Lichens as the indicator of usefulness of Ueckermünde Heath (Puszcza Wkrzańska) for tourism and recreation]. - Studia i Materiały CEPL w Rogowie, 17: 83–89.
[in Polish with English abstract: ] One of the most reliable methods for determination of sanitary condition of the air is lichen-indication. Lichens are natural air purity monitors. They refl ect infl uence of air pollution on the entirety of organisms living in specifi c environment. Based on lichen- -indication tables, it is possible to outline lichen vegetation zones allowing to determine the areas specifi cally useful for “healthy” tourism and recreation. Such zones have been established within the Ueckermünde Heath area. The most valuable, in terms of positive infl uence on human’s health, are the parts of the Heath that are the furthest from Szczecin and Police. Current infrastructure facility network does not overlap with these zones. Tourist routes and facilities are concentrated in the Heath regions with the highest air pollution levels. The paper presents a suggestion to verify the tourist routes within the Ueckermünde Heath area so that such routes encompass health-improving and cognitive aspects of tourism and recreation. Keywords: tourism, lichens, aerosanitary conditions, Wkrzańska Forest, north-western Poland.
29403Zaniewski P.T., Ciurzycki W. & Marciszewska K. (2015): Kształtowanie się i charakterystyka borów chrobotkowych na gruntach porolnych w uroczysku Gutkowice [The formation and characteristics of Cladonia-Scots pine forests on the post-agricultural habitats within Gutkowice forest complex]. - Studia i Materiały CEPL w Rogowie, 17: 157–171.
[in Polish with English abstract:] Post-agricultural forests are not a new phenomenon in Poland, and when developing on poor soils, they may constitute a habitat for Cladonia-Scots pine forests. Within Gutkowice forest complex (Central Poland) a mosaic of post-agricultural forest patches originating from spontaneous secondary succession and supported secondary succession have developed. In order to determine the diversity and origin of Cladonia-Scots pine forest, a series of 32 relevés was prepared within stands of the planting and natural succession origin. The TWINSPAN algorithm was used to differentiate 9 plant communities. Relationships between them were determined using DCA. The Cladonio- Pinetum var. Cladonia mitis association and accompanying successional phases (grassland and mesic pine forest communities) were found on the study site. Cladonia-Scots pine forest originated both from spontaneous secondary succession, as well as within birch stands, from the process of supported secondary succession. The considered patches develop only on the most oligotrophic habitats. The process of supported secondary succession with the use of dense pine planting often leads to the formation of mesic pine forest with visible degeneration in the form of “bryophytization”. Cladonia-Scots pine forest originating from spontaneous secondary succession are likely to be more sustainable communities. Keywords: supported secondary succession, spontaneous secondary succession, dry Scots pine forest, Cladonio-Pinetum, lichens, Cladonia.
29402Bernatowicz A., Zaniewski P. & Pestka Z. (2015): Zbiorowiska roślinne z udziałem Cladonia stellaris na obszarach wydmowych Basenu Dolnego doliny Biebrzy – wyniki wstępne [Plant communities with Cladonia stellaris in a dune areas of the Lower Basin of the Biebrza Valley – preliminary results]. - Studia i Materiały CEPL w Rogowie, 17: 198–210.
[in Polish with English abstract: ] Cladonia stellaris is an indicator species of the optimal form of Cladonio-Pinetum Juraszek 1927. Nowadays, the species is disappearing in almost all over Poland and is threatened with extinction. One of the most important places of occurrence of this species in the Polish Lowland are dune areas in the Lower Basin of the Biebrza Valley. In order to define its preferences for some plant communities, created on poor sands, 39 releves have been performed, each with a surface of 150 sq m, using the modified Braun-Blanquet method. The plant communities were determined, using TWINSPAN algorithm. Relation between Cladonia stellaris and them was identified using DCA analysis. Connections between the occurrence of young specimens of Cladonia stellaris and subcontinental bearberry heaths habitat has been observed. It has been also confirmed that this species is an indicator of Cladonio-Pinetum. Disturbance have a positive influence on maintaining of its population. Keywords: Cladonia stellaris, Scots pine forest, heaths, grasslands, disturbances, forest management.
29401Zaniewski P.T., Potoczny B., Siedlecki Ł., Krasińska R. & Bernatowicz A. (2015): Bogactwo gatunkowe porostów w fitocenozach regenerujących na pożarzyskach obszarów wydmowych Basenu Dolnego doliny Biebrzy [Lichen species richness of phytocoenoses regenerating on post-fire dune areas of the Lower Basin of the Biebrza valley]. - Studia i Materiały CEPL w Rogowie, 17: 185–197.
Fires belong to the most intensive disturbances in forest ecosystems. Many lichen species are pioneer organisms, connected with disturbances. The aim of this research was to identify species composition on three post-fire areas, located in the Lower Basin of Biebrza Valley, as well as to compare their lichen species richness. For each post-fire area and control area, 14 inventory lists of species were prepared, on the area of 150 sq m each. They were supplemented with lists of all species of terrestrial lichens, lichens on dead wood, on birch (Betula pendula) and pine (Pinus sylvestris), occurring in the considered areas. Species richness of terrestrial lichens for each area was calculated by rarefaction curve method. Areas affected by fires 15 and 31 years ago are both distinguished by the highest richness of terrestrial lichens. These areas are also characterized by the highest level of humicolous species, connected with mature grasslands and heaths. Most of the epixylic species were found in the area affected by fire 31 years ago. The highest number of species on pine (20 and 16) were recorded in the 59 years and 31 years old post-fire spots respectively. The highest number of species on birch (27 and 26) were recorded in 31 and 59 years old post-fire areas. The records of the occurrence of Cladonia botrytes, Cl. stellaris and Cl. turgida in the 31 years old post-fire area deserve special attention. In all studied post-fire areas, a spontaneous secondary succession takes place. High richness of terrestrial lichens is a typical feature of young post-fire areas with the earlier stages of spontaneous secondary succession. Higher number of epiphytic species is a feature of older post-fire plots, brought about by higher availability of proper microhabitats resulting from the regeneration of tree layer.
29400Zaniewski P. (2014): Porosty – organizmy pożyteczne dla człowieka [Lichens – organisms useful for humans]. - Studia i Materiały CEPL w Rogowie, 16: 119–128.
Although lichens are small organisms, they are of the great importance to humans. They were used as food in times of famine. They are a very important source of food for animals in the far north and of high importance to the economy. Lichens have a specific ability to produce the entire range of specific substances – “lichen acids”. They have been used in dyeing for centuries, but also in the modern perfumery and in intensively developing pharmaceutical industry. There are important organisms in forests, where they constitute shelter and food for many animals. Their great utility also stems from the fact that lichens are among the best indicators of the state of the environment in the world. With their use it is possible to carry both the assessment of the conservation status of forest communities as well as the air pollution evaluation, which is known to be a threat to the forest. Due to these reasons, there is a growing need to protect this group of organisms. Key words: lichens, utilities, food, dyeing, medicine, culture, bioindication.
29399Zaniewski P.T., Topolska K., Kozub Ł., Dembicz I. & Wierzbicka M. (2015): Rezerwat przyrody Puszcza Słupecka jako przykład młodego lasu o wysokim bogactwie gatunkowym porostów [Puszcza Słupecka Nature Reserve as an example of young forest abundant in lichen species]. - Studia i Materiały CEPL w Rogowie, 17: 84–95.
[in Polish with English abstract: ] Puszcza Słupecka Nature Reserve (160.56 ha) is located in a short distance from the capital city of Warsaw, in the Drewnica Forest District of State Forest. It was created in 1993 in order to maintain diverse forest communities. It is known for the presence of many species of vascular plants associated with old forests, despite the fact that its deforestation in the interwar period. Lichenological study in the reserve was conducted in 2010 and 2011. It has shown the occurrence of 99 lichens and lichenicolous fungi, including species rarely observed in Mazovia. It is a high number comparing to the other objects of the region. Such a high number of species is most likely affected by the fact that there are many forest microhabitats within many of forest communities present in the reserve, which originated in a substantial part in the conditions of spontaneous secondary succession. Keywords: Calicium adspersum, Chaenotheca stemonea, Chrysothrix candelaris, old forest indicator species, lichen biota, lichenicolous fungi.
29398Kubiak D. & Szczepkowski A. (2012): Porosty Lasów Rogowskich SGGW (3): rezerwat „Doliska”, zespół przyrodniczo-krajobrazowy „Dolina Mrogi” i uroczysko „Gutkowice” [Lichens of the Rogów Forests of Warsaw University of Life Sciences - SGGW (3): “Doliska” reserve, “Dolina Mrogi” nature-landscape complex and “Gutkowice” forest part]. - Studia i Materiały CEPL w Rogowie, 14: 190–204.
[in Polish with English abstract: ] The paper represents another contribution to the knowledge of taxonomic and ecological diversity of lichens in the Forest Experimental Station of the Warsaw University of Life Sciences - SGGW in Rogów (LZD). It presents the results of the lichenological inventories conducted from 2006-2011 in the three objects of LZD: “Doliska” reserve, “Dolina Mrogi” nature-landscape complex and “Gutkowice” forest part. In total, 86 species of lichens have been found in the analyzed area, including 38 new for the Rogów Forests. The biota contains 15 species under protection in Poland, and 12 species threatened with extinction in the country, listed on the polish Red List. Based on the results presented in this work and previous reports, it can be concluded that the lichen biota of LZD in Rogów include at least 124 species of lichens. Key words: lichens, lichenized fungi, diversity, rare and interesting species, Central Poland.
29397Zaniewski P. & Ciurzycki W. (2014): Sukcesja mszaków i porostów na pniakach po trzebieży w zbiorowisku boru świeżego, na przykładzie lasów gospodarczych w Nadleśnictwie Drewnica [The bryophyte and lichen succesion on stumps of the thinning origin within mesic pine forest community on the example of managed forests of the Drewnica State Forest District]. - Studia i Materiały CEPL w Rogowie, 16: 223–231.
[in Polish with English abstract: ] Dead wood is the most important habitat for many bryophyte and lichen species. In recent times it is postulated to leave some amount of dead wood within managed forests for natural decomposition. The formation of dead wood in the form of stumps is being an integral part of the production cycle. Stumps of the clearcut origin constitute a habitat for many cryptogam species. However only litle is known about the importance of stumps created during thinnig treatment for them. The study presents results of the research on the dynamics of bryophyte-lichen communities, developing on the stumps of various age, which originated as a result of thinning procedure. The study was conducted at the Drewnica State Forest District, within mesic scots pine forest. The stumps are initially colonised by lichens, followed by mosses, ending with typical species of the forest floor. The longevity of the stumps is of about 12 years and is longer than the average period between thinnings (10 years). It can be assumed that at least since from the half of the forest production cycle, there is a continuity of deadwood supply providing microhabitats for at least some of cryptogam species connected with it. Key words: dead wood, Pinus sylvestris, mesic pine forest, Poland, primary succession.
29396Kubiak D., Biedunkiewicz A. & Ejdys E. (2015): Porosty kontynentalnego boru sosnowego świeżego w okolicy wsi Pluski na Pojezierzu Olsztyńskim [Lichens in continental Scots pine forest near the Pluski village in the Pojezierze Olsztyńskie Lakeland]. - Studia i Materiały CEPL w Rogowie, 17: 106–118.
[in Polish with English abstract: ] The study presents the results of lichenological researches carried out in continental pine forest Peucedano-Pinetum in the Puszcza Napiwodzko-Ramucka Forest (NE Poland). The study area included two forest sections of the Nowe Ramuki forest district with total area of 58 ha. The aim of this study was to investigate the species composition and ecological preferences of the lichen biota. In total, 90 species of lichens and six species of lichenicolous fungi were recorded. The most diversified ecological group of lichens were epiphytes – 74 species. Amongst these, the greatest diversity was recorded on the bark of Scots pine and aspen – 30 taxa. A significantly less diversified group, comprised 27 taxa, were epixylic lichens. Terricolous lichens were represented by as little as 15 species. On the studied area, 16 species of lichens were identified that are threatened with extinction in Poland as well as 12 species protected by law. Some of the most interesting taxa (Absconditella sphagnorum, Fellhanera bouteillei, Hypocenomyce anthracophila, Micarea lithinella) are discussed in detail.
29395Ruta R., Gruszka W., Rogala S. & Żuk K. (2014): Walory przyrodnicze Borów Kujańskich [Natural values of the Bory Kujańskie forest]. - Przegląd Przyrodniczy, 25(2): 3–75.
[in Polish with English abstract:] The paper summarizes the knowledge of nature of Bory Kujańskie forest. Although high natural values of the area were identified as early as in 19th century, conservation attempts to protect selected areas were mostly ineffective or short-term. Partly due to lack of protection, some plants became extinct, but the area in general is still very valuable. An overview of research history and nature protection is presented in the paper, recorded organisms are listed, the most valuable areas are briefly described, and perspectives of study and nature conservation in the area are discussed. Studies of archival documents allowed to analyze in detail the influence of forest management on the most valuable areas of Bory Kujańskie forest, and to demonstrate its negative impact in 1950-1980. Nevertheless, it should be stressed that current efforts of the Złotów forest inspectorate should help to protect the most valuable areas of the discussed area. The paper is illustrated with many unpublished archival photographs and maps. Key words: algae, fungi, lichens, flora, fauna, nature protection, history.
29394Szymczyk R., Szydłowska J. & Zalewska A. (2015): Wpływ stanu zachowania zbiorowisk leśnych na cenne gatunki porostów na przykładzie wybranych rezerwatów Wysoczyzny Elbląskiej [Impact of the various level of forest communities alteration on valuable lichen species – on an example of selected reserves in the Elbląg Plateau]. - Studia i Materiały CEPL w Rogowie, 17: 59–70.
[in Polish with English abstract:] In the years 2012 and 2013, lichenological studies were carried out in the Elbląg Forest District, in the area of the three nature reserves ‘Buki Wysoczyzny Elbląskiej’, ‘Dolina Stradanki’ and ‘Nowinka’. The reserves differ in their time of establishment and level of its forest communities alteration. In total, 120 lichen species were identified within the investigated reserves. Well preserved communities and old stands were found to be the most important factors for the occurrence of rare and endangered lichen species. Such lichens were the most abundant in ‘Buki Wysoczyny Elbląskiej’ reserve established in 1961 and comprising the best-preserved beech and oak-hornbeam phytocenoses with average tree age of 146 years. This reserve harbours 28 red- -listed species, including 10 species considered as indicators of the lowland old-growth forests. The smallest group of the valuable lichens was found in ‘Nowinka’ nature reserve, established in 2006 to protect erosion valleys with beech and hornbeam forests. Nearly 41% of the reserve area is covered with transformed communities and younger stands (with average tree age of 90 years). Keywords: Ascomycota, lichenized fungi, endangered species, indicators of old-growth forests, forest communities.
29393Bohdan A. (2014): Znaczenie ochrony biernej dla zachowania porostów – reliktów lasów pochodzenia pierwotnego w Puszczy Białowieskiej [The importance of passive protection to preservation of lichens - relics of the primeval forests in the Białowieża Forest]. - Przegląd Przyrodniczy, 25(4): 151–161.
[in Polish with English abstract:] This article attempts to answer the question - whether passive protection is significant for the preservation of selected macrolichens classified as old forest species? The work was carried out within the Białowieża Forest and was focused on extremely rare relic species. For two of them: Evernia divaricata and Usnea ceratina, the examined complex is the most important refuge in the country. For tree other species: Lobaria amplissima, Ramalina thrausta, Usnea glabrescens Białowieża Forest is the last refuge in Central European Lowland. Distribution of individual species within areas, diameter at breast height of phorophyte and age of the tree stands were surveyed. Most of the species: Evernia divaricata, Ramalina thrausta, Usnea ceratina, U. glabrescens preferred the oldest and most protected part of the Białowieski National Park, while Lobaria amplissima preferred Natural Forest Reserve Białowieża Forest outside the National Park. Key words : lichens, Evernia divaricata, Lobaria amplissima, Ramalina thrausta, Usnea ceratina, Usnea glabrescens.
29392Zarabska-Bożejewicz D. (2018): Nowe stanowisko pustułki oprószonej Hypogymnia farinacea Zopf na Nizinie Wielkopolsko-Kujawskiej [New locality of Hypogymnia farinacea Zopf in the Wielkopolska-Kujawy Lowland]. - Przegląd Przyrodniczy, 29(1): 101–106.
[n Polish with English summary:] In 2016 Hypogymnia farinacea Zopf was found in the Żerków-Czeszewo Landscape Park located in the central part of the Wielkopolska-Kujawy Lowland. Its single thallus was recorded on a fallen oak branch in deciduous forests dominated by Quercus robur. H. farinacea is an endangered species and legally protected species in Poland. The majority of its known localities in central-western Poland are historical. The species had been reported mainly from the Noteć Forest and its surroundings, as well as the western part of the Wielkopolska-Kujawy Lowland.
29391Zarabska-Bożejewicz D. (2017): Nowe stanowisko obrostnicy rzęsowatej Anaptychia ciliaris (L.) Körb. na Nizinie Wielkopolsko-Kujawskiej [New locality of Anaptychia ciliaris (L.) Körb. in the Wielkopolska-Kujawska Lowland]. - Przegląd Przyrodniczy, 28(2): 23–31.
[in Polish with English abstract:] The article describes a new locality of Anaptychia ciliaris, located in the southern part of the Wielkopolska-Kujawska Lowland. A. ciliaris is an endangered lichen species, legally protected in Poland. It seems to be more frequent only in north-eastern Poland. It is a nitrophilous and heliophilous lichenized fungus and it grows mainly on the bark of broadleaved trees, especially roadside phorophytes. The majority of the known localities in the Wielkopolska-Kujawska Lowland are historical; last records are given only from western and north-western parts of the region (Lubuskie Province). Habitat loss through removing of roadside trees is one of the major threats to A. ciliaris occurrence. Key words: threatened species, distribution, lichens, central-western Poland.
29390Štrba T., Turisová I. & Aschenbrenner Š. (2014): Flora and vegetation of a copper mine heap in Richtárová (The Starohorské Vrchy Mts., Slovakia). - Annales Universitatis Marie Curie-Skłodowska, Sectio C - Biologia [Lublin], 69(1): 29–39.
The paper presents the results of floristic and phytosociological research conducted during growing season 2011 on a copper mine heap Richtárová, near the village Staré Hory situated in buffer zone of the Low Tatras National Park. In total, we found 147 taxa of vascular plants. The dominant plant species of the mine heap is Agrostis capillaris, which sometimes forms relatively continuous cover, and other species growing in small islands of plants tolerant to specific environmental conditions, especially Silene dioica, Acetosella vulgaris, Arabidopsis arenosa. We sampled 8 phytosociological relevés. Localities of relevés were selected considering variability of plant communities on the all mine heap. Lichens listed from relevés were identified by U. Bielczyk and R. Kościelniak.
29389Bystrek J. & Bystrek J. (2016): Usnea balcanica Bystr. – a new Usnea species in Poland (Ascomycota, Parmeliaceae). - Annales Universitatis Marie Curie-Skłodowska, Sectio C - Biologia [Lublin], 71(2): 75–80.
Usnea balcanica Bystr., a new species in Poland, was collected in the Roztocze National Park in 1962. It grew on a branch of an old beech, in a light beech forest, in the Obrocz reserve. This very rare species is known so far only from the mountain forests of the Balkan Peninsula (11). Keywords: Usnea balcanica, the lichens of Poland, Roztocze National Park.
29388Kubiak D. & Nowakowska P. (2016): Porosty epifityczne parku przypałacowego w Łężanach (NE Polska) [Epiphytic lichens of the manor park in Łężany (NE Poland)]. - Acta Botanica Silesiaca, 12: 101–114.
[in Polish with English abstract:] The aim of this study was to investigate the species diversity of epiphytic lichens in the manor park in Łężany (NE Poland). In total, 87 species have been recorded. The highest diversity of lichens was noted on the bark of Fraxinus (53), Acer (48) and Tilia (38 species). The attached list of identified taxa comprises six species protected in Poland, including two species under strict and four species under partial protection. 28 species are on the red list of threatened lichens in Poland, including 17 under a high-risk category (CR+EN+VU). Sclerophora farinacea, critically endangered species that has been previously knownfrom only very few localities in the country are discussed in detail. Keywords: lichenized fungi, epiphytes, threatened species, old-growth stand, ecological continuity.
29387Ceynowa-Giełdon M., Adamska E. & Kamiński D. (2017): The importance of habitat islands in the preservation of relict xerothermic and calcicolous epigeic lichens based on the example of the “Ostnicowe Parowy Gruczna” nature reserve (N Poland). - Ecological Questions, 25: 19–26.
The objective of this paper is to discuss the role of environmental islands isolated in the agricultural landscape in the preservation of xerothermic and calcicolous epigeic lichens. The site of lichens associated with relict steppe vegetation, rare in northern Poland, has been preserved in the reserve “Ostnicowe Parowy Gruczna”. The list of lichen taxa identified in the study area comprises 16 species that are very rare in lowland, e.g. Gyalolechia fulgens, Heppia adglutinata, Squamarina lentigera, Endocarpon pusillum, Gyalolechia bracteata, Placidium squamulosum and Toninia sedifolia. In many places, the lichens associated with dry grasslands become extinct despite the optimum light conditions. These lichen species are sensitive to the impact of agriculture. Preservation of epigeic lichens’ localities is possible in specific habitat conditions when they are isolated from surface runoff of fertile farm water. Key words: terricolous lichens, relicts, anthropogenic changes, dry grasslands lichens, habitat island.
29386Gruszka W. (2017): The concept of lichen refugia classification. A proposal based on the case study of Krajeńskie Lakeland, Poland. - Ecological Questions, 27(3): 65–75.
The article presents a proposal for the classification of lichen refuges based on the research conducted in the Krajeńskie Lakeland in 2009–2014. Four types of refuges have been distinguished during the research: 1 – primeval (natural) – associated with the least transformed areas, 2 – regenerative (semi-natural) – with species of high conservation value, spread by natural forces despite a small anthropogenic impact, 3 – colonized (anthropogenic) – solely formed by human activity and extraneously inhabited by adventive lichens, 4 – incidental (spontaneous) – formed instantaneously as a result of a favourable situation or an event. The last type was not found in the course of the study. The publication presents the characteristics of all types of refuges along with a key for their identification. Key words: lichens, refuge, endangered species, Krajeńskie Lakeland.
29385Adamska E., Filbrandt-Czaja A. & Richert A. (2018): Contribution of selected lichens species of the genus Cladonia on the heathlands in Toruń (N, Poland). - Ecological Questions, 29(1): 21–29.
The study presents data on the distribution of selected species of lichens – Cladonia furcata (Huds.) Schrad., C. rangiferina (L.) Weber ex F.H. Wigg. and C. uncialis (L.) Weber ex F.H. Wigg. in Toruń and along its southern boundary - on a heathland on the military training ground. A comparison was carried out of the research findings on the occurrence of the analysed species against variable habitat conditions over a period of nearly 40 years. The occurrence of Cladonia uncialis was most frequently observed within the city, in the habitats of Calluna vulgaris. A tendency was shown of selected lichen species to spread in the investigated area. Keywords: lichens, Cladonia, epigeic, Calluna vulgaris, heathlands, psammophilous grasslands, urban.
29384Matwiejuk A. (2018): New and noteworthy species of lichens from the Augustów Forest (northeastern Poland). - Acta Mycologica, 52(2):1102 [7 p.].
The Augustów Forest is one of the biggest forest complex in Poland. In this paper, 13 rare species of lichens from Augustów Forest are presented. Four of these species are new to Augustów Forest: Bacidina egenula, Lecanora persimilis, Rhizocarpon reductum, Scoliciosporum pruinosum and one species, Rhizocarpon hochstetteri, is new to northeastern Poland. Short notes on their features and distributions are provided. Keywords: biodiversity; lichenized fungi; new records; distribution.
29383Prather H.M., Eppley S.M. & Rosenstiel T.N. (2018): Urban forested parks and tall tree canopies contribute to macrolichen epiphyte biodiversity in urban landscapes. - Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 32: 133–142.
Land use changes through urbanization can dramatically impact floral and faunal species-specific survival and alter patterns of regional biodiversity. These changes can lead to complex, ecosystem scale interactions that yield both positive and negative impacts on urban and ex-urban biota. The Pacific Northwest region is one of the most rapidly urbanizing areas of the United States, with the human population estimated to increase more than fifty percent by 2050. Despite rapid population growth in the Pacific Northwest and a forest system known to provide extraordinary ecosystem services, relatively little is known about how human activities affect urban tree biology and the services these trees provide. Specifically, little is known about how urbanization impacts tall tree canopy epiphyte communities, a unique and sensitive component of Pacific Northwest trees which are known to contribute essential ecosystem functions. Here, we revisit a historic study of urban epiphytic lichen communities, initially conducted 18 years ago in Portland, Oregon, USA. Additionally, to compare ground and canopy-based survey methods and to gain a broader understanding of urban epiphytic communities, we comprehensively investigated the biodiversity of stratified urban canopy epiphyte lichen communities, for the first time. Our results show that tall, urban conifer trees and urban parks and forested areas can provide both heterogeneous and stratified habitats for urban-tolerant epiphytic lichens. We found significant and highly eutrophied lichen communities in all epiphytic surveys, suggesting that continued urbanization in the Portland metro region may further impact these communities despite overall gains in regional air quality during the 18 year study period. Our results support the distinct homogenization of urban epiphytic lichen communities, suggesting that it may be necessary to expand beyond measures of biodiversity to consider community composition and functional biodiversity in assessments of the ecology and potential ecosystem services of epiphyte communities within urbanizing landscapes. Keywords: Air quality; Biodiversity; Bioindicators; Forest canopies; Pseudotsuga menziesii; Urban forests; Urban parks.
29382Ellis C.J. (2018): A mechanistic model of climate change risk: Growth rates and microhabitat specificity for conservation priority woodland epiphytes. - Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 32: 38–48.
Climate change studies need to develop models for species risk that are mechanistic and predictive, with conservation strategies explored through the use of scenarios. This study focused on a diverse group for climate change analysis – lichen epiphytes – to develop a heuristic model for quantifying risk that has two key components. First, it draws on the classic ecological concept – ‘das Gesetz der relativen Standortskonstanz’ – which explains how the suitable niche space of a species (at a microhabitat-scale) may occur under different local circumstances in contrasting macroclimatic zones. To quantify this pattern, conservation priority cyanolichen and tripartite epiphytes were sampled across a steep climatic gradient, to characterise their different microhabitat preferences in optimal and sub-optimal macroclimates. Second, the model used climatically controlled growth rates as a functional response to climate variability, leading to an increase in generation time for sub-optimal climates. Together, the macroclimate-microhabitat and growth rate data parameterise a mechanistic population model that was used to explore the effect of environmental change scenarios, including: 1. Climate change leading to longer generation times, and 2. A reduction in habitat quality, e.g. through a tree disease scenario such as ash dieback. The advantage of this population approach was its down-scaling to better understand a species’ local vulnerability. Accordingly, the study suggested how management at landscape or habitat-scales can be used to offset the negative effects of climate change. Because extinction rates for the epiphyte populations are low, and established individuals are relatively long-lived, there is a time-lag during which conservation can increase the resilience of threatened populations. However, multiple threats, such as climate change and tree disease combined, severely shorten this window of opportunity. Keywords: Climate change; Epiphyte; Fecundity; Generation time; Lichen; Population simulation.
29381Solhaug K.A., Chowdhury D.P. & Gauslaa Y. (2018): Short- and long-term freezing effects in a coastal (Lobaria virens) versus a widespread lichen (L. pulmonaria). - Cryobiology, 82: 124–129.
Lichens are considered freezing tolerant, although few species have been tested. Growth, a robust measure of fitness integrating processes in all partners of a lichen thallus, has not yet been used as a viability measure after freezing. We compared relative growth rates (RGR) after freezing with short-term viability measures of photo- and mycobiont functions in the coastal Lobaria virens and the widespread L. pulmonaria to test the hypothesis that low temperature shapes the coastal distribution of L. virens. Hydrated thalli from sympatric populations were subjected to freezing at −10, −20 and −40 °C for 5 h. The rate of cooling and subsequent warming was 5 °C h−1. Short-term viability measures of photobiont (maximal photosystem II efficiency, effective PSII yield) and mycobiont viability (conductivity index), as well as subsequent RGR, were assessed. The exotherms showed that L. virens froze at −3 °C; L. pulmonaria, at −4 °C. Freezing significantly impaired short-term viability measures of both photo- and mycobiont, particularly in the coastal species. Lobaria pulmonaria grew 2.1 times faster than L. virens, but the short-term damage after one freezing event did not affect the long-term RGR in any species. Thereby, short-term responses were impaired by freezing, long-term responses were not. While the lacking RGR-responses to freezing suggest that freezing tolerance does not shape the coastal distribution of L. virens, the significant reported adverse short-term effects in L. virens may be aggravated by repeated freezing-thawing cycles in cold winters. In such a perspective, repeated freezing may eventually lead to reduced long-term fitness in L. virens. Keywords: Lobaria pulmonaria; Lobaria virens; Exotherm; Freezing tolerance; Relative growth rate; Membrane damage; Chlorophyll fluorescence; Effective PSII yield.
29380Ravera S., Vizzini A., Cogoni A., Aleffi M., Benesperi R., Bianchi E., von Brackel W., Cataldo D., D'Antonio C., Di Nuzzo L., Favero Longo S.E., Gheza G., Isocrono D., Matteucci E., Martellos S., Morosini L., Nimis P.L., Ongaro S., Poponessi S., Puntillo D., Sguazzin F. & Tretiach M. (2018): Notulae to the Italian flora of algae, bryophytes, fungi and lichens: 5. - Italian Botanist, 5: 31–43.
In this contribution, new data concerning bryophytes, fungi, and lichens of the Italian flora are presented. It includes new records and confirmations for the bryophyte genera Diplophyllum and Ptychostomum, the fungal genera Arrhenia, Gymnosporangium, and Sporidesmium and the lichen genera Arthonia, Coenogonium, Flavoplaca, Gyalolechia, Parmotrema, Peltigera, Pterygiopsis, Squamarina, Tornabea, and Waynea. Keywords: Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Bryidae, Jungermanniidae, floristic data.
29379Ekanayaka A.H., Ariyawansa H.A., Hyde K.D., Jones E.B.G., Daranagama D.A., Phillips A.J.L., Hongsanan S., Jayasiri S.C. & Zhao Q. (2017): DISCOMYCETES: the apothecial representatives of the phylum Ascomycota. - Fungal Diversity, 87: 237–298.
Discomycetes are an artificial grouping of apothecia-producing fungi in the phylum Ascomycota. Molecular-based studies have revealed that the discomycetes can be found among ten classes of Ascomycota. The classification of discomycetes has been a major challenge due to the lack of a clear understanding of the important morphological characters, as well as a lack of reference strains. In this review, we provide a historical perspective of discomycetes, notes on their morphology (including both asexual and sexual morphs), ecology and importance, an outline of discomycete families and a synoptical cladogram of currently accepted families in Ascomycota showing their systematic position. We also calculated evolutionary divergence times for major discomycetous taxa based on phylogenetic relationships using a combined LSU, SSU and RPB2 data set from 175 strains and fossil data. Our results confirm that discomycetes are found in two major subphyla of the Ascomycota: Taphrinomycotina and Pezizomycotina. The taxonomic placement of major discomycete taxa is briefly discussed. The most basal group of discomycetes is the class Neolectomycetes, which diverged from other Taphrinomycotina around 417 MYA (216–572), and the most derived group of discomycetes, the class Lecanoromycetes, diverged from Eurotiomycetes around 340 MYA (282–414). Further clarifications based on type specimens, designation of epitypes or reference specimens from fresh collections, and multi-gene analyses are needed to determine the taxonomic arrangement of many discomycetes. Keywords: Asci; amyloidity; Lichenized discomycetes; Non-operculate discomycetes; Operculate discomycetes.
29378Kaczmarek Ł., Parnikoza I., Gawlak M., Esefeld J., Peter H.-U., Kozeretska I. & Roszkowska M. (2018): Tardigrades from Larus dominicanus Lichtenstein, 1823 nests on the Argentine Islands (maritime Antarctic). - Polar Biology, 41: 283–301.
Tardigrada in Antarctic regions are poorly known. The aim of this study was to examine for tardigrades the nests material of the kelp gull (Larus dominicanus Lichtenstein, 1823) in maritime Antarctic and discuss the possible ways of migration and dispersion of tardigrades by birds. We also discuss the influence of bird’s guano on the communities of microscopic invertebrates (mainly tardigrades). In the positive samples (mainly bryophytes and lichens) of seven Larus dominicanus nests, collected on Ardley Island (near Fildes Peninsula) and Argentine Islands, ca. 850 tardigrades and their eggs were found. In total, 13 taxa (including Ramajendas sp.) were identified, and four are new to science: Bryodelphax olszanowskii sp. nov., Diphascon puchalskii sp. nov., D. rudnickii sp. nov. and Hypsibius conwentzii sp. nov.. Bryodelphax olszanowskii sp. nov. differs from known Bryodelphax species in the weglarskae group mainly by having a different ventral plate configuration. Belonging to the pingue group, D. puchalskii sp. nov. differs from other species by some quantitative characters and D. rudnickii sp. nov. by having the first and second macroplacoids situated very close to each other. Hypsibius conwentzii sp. nov. differs from other species of the genus Hypsibius, with two macroplacoids and septulum, by some morphological and morphometric characters. Summarizing, Antarctic tardigrades are a very diverse group, and birds can be responsible for translocation of small invertebrates (including tardigrades) inside of various parts of plants and lichens. They also deposit large amounts of guano, which provides a lot of nutrients for poor tundra ecosystems and support small invertebrate communities.
29377Parnikoza I., Rozhok A., Convey P., Veselski M., Esefeld J., Ochyra R., Mustafa O., Braun C., Peter H.-U., Smykla J., Kunakh V. & Kozeretska I. (2018): Spread of Antarctic vegetation by the kelp gull: comparison of two maritime Antarctic regions. - Polar Biology, 41: 1143–1155.
In the present paper, we compare how the kelp gull, Larus dominicanus, utilizes various nest building materials, particularly vascular plants, bryophytes, lichens and other components, in the Fildes Peninsula area (King George Island) and on the Argentine Islands area. In both areas, nest material primarily consisted of the Antarctic hairgrass (Deschampsia antarctica), bryophytes, lichens, feathers, limpets, and algae. Our study reveals area-specific differences in the utilization of plants for nest building related to local conditions during the nesting season. In the Fildes area, vegetation emerges from under the winter snow cover earlier in the spring, giving the gulls greater choice locally, meaning that the gulls need not resort to long distance material transfer. Here, mosses and lichens dominate in the nest material, likely collected from the nearby vegetation formations. The Antarctic hairgrass in these conditions is mostly found in nests located directly within hairgrass formations. However, on the more southern Argentine Islands, kelp gulls routinely use D. antarctica and some mosses, transferring them from coastal hill tops where snow generally disappears earlier. Here, the gulls appear to be selective still, as they rarely use some mosses, such as Polytrichum strictum, that are abundant near the nesting locations. In the Argentine Islands area, we documented long-range transfer of the Antarctic hairgrass and some other vegetation materials from places of abundance to bare rocks of low islands lacking developed vegetation. This demonstrates the potential of the gulls to serve as dispersal and gene pool exchange agents for the local terrestrial biota in the maritime Antarctic, especially between highly isolated populations from small islands and ice-free areas. Keywords Vegetation · Larus dominicanus · Deschampsia antarctica · Colobanthus quitensis · King George Island · Fildes Peninsula · Argentine Islands.
29376Wanasinghe D.N., Phukhamsakda C., Hyde K.D., Jeewon R., Lee H.B., Jones E.B.G., Tibpromma S., Tennakoon D.S., Dissanayake A.J., Jayasiri S.C., Gafforov Y., Camporesi E., Bulgakov T.S., Ekanayake A.H., Perera R.H., Samarakoon M.C., Goonasekara I.D., Mapook A., Li W.-J., Senanayake I.C., Li J., Norphanphoun C., Doilom M., Bahkali A.H., Xu J., Mortimer P.E., Tibell L., Tibell S. & Karunarathna S.C. (2018): Fungal diversity notes 709–839: taxonomic and phylogenetic contributions to fungal taxa with an emphasis on fungi on Rosaceae. - Fungal Diversity, 89: 1–236.
This paper is the seventh in the Fungal Diversity Notes series, where 131 taxa accommodated in 28 families are mainly described from Rosa (Rosaceae) and a few other hosts. Novel fungal taxa are described in the present study, including 17 new genera, 93 new species, four combinations, a sexual record for a species and new host records for 16 species. Bhatiellae, Cycasicola, Dactylidina, Embarria, Hawksworthiana, Italica, Melanocucurbitaria, Melanodiplodia, Monoseptella, Uzbekistanica, Neoconiothyrium, Neopaucispora, Pararoussoella, Paraxylaria, Marjia, Sporormurispora and Xenomassariosphaeria are introduced as new ascomycete genera. We also introduce the new species Absidia jindoensis, Alternaria doliconidium, A. hampshirensis, Angustimassarina rosarum, Astragalicola vasilyevae, Backusella locustae, Bartalinia rosicola, Bhatiellae rosae, Broomella rosae, Castanediella camelliae, Coelodictyosporium rosarum, Comoclathris rosae, C. rosarum, Comoclathris rosigena, Coniochaeta baysunika, C. rosae, Cycasicola goaensis, Dactylidina shoemakeri, Dematiopleospora donetzica, D. rosicola, D. salsolae, Diaporthe rosae, D. rosicola, Endoconidioma rosaehissaricae, Epicoccum rosae, Hawksworthiana clematidicola, H. lonicerae, Italica achilleae, Keissleriella phragmiticola, K. rosacearum, K. rosae, K. rosarum, Lophiostoma rosae, Marjia tianschanica, M. uzbekistanica, Melanocucurbitaria uzbekistanica, Melanodiplodia tianschanica, Monoseptella rosae, Mucor fluvius, Muriformistrickeria rosae, Murilentithecium rosae, Neoascochyta rosicola, Neoconiothyrium rosae, Neopaucispora rosaecae, Neosetophoma rosarum, N. rosae, N. rosigena, Neostagonospora artemisiae, Ophiobolus artemisiicola, Paraconiothyrium rosae, Paraphaeosphaeria rosae, P. rosicola, Pararoussoella rosarum, Parathyridaria rosae, Paraxylaria rosacearum, Penicillium acidum, P. aquaticum, Phragmocamarosporium rosae, Pleospora rosae, P. rosae-caninae, Poaceicola agrostina, P. arundinicola, P. rosae, Populocrescentia ammophilae, P. rosae, Pseudocamarosporium pteleae, P. ulmi-minoris, Pseudocercospora rosae, Pseudopithomyces rosae, Pseudostrickeria rosae, Sclerostagonospora lathyri, S. rosae, S. rosicola, Seimatosporium rosigenum, S. rosicola, Seiridium rosarum, Setoseptoria arundelensis, S. englandensis, S. lulworthcovensis, Sigarispora agrostidis, S. caryophyllacearum, S. junci, S. medicaginicola, S. rosicola, S. scrophulariae, S. thymi, Sporormurispora atraphaxidis, S. pruni, Suttonomyces rosae, Umbelopsis sinsidoensis, Uzbekistanica rosaehissaricae, U. yakutkhanika, Wojnowicia rosicola, Xenomassariosphaeria rosae. New host records are provided for Amandinea punctata, Angustimassarina quercicola, Diaporthe rhusicola, D. eres, D. foeniculina, D. rudis, Diplodia seriata, Dothiorella iberica, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Lecidella elaeochroma, Muriformistrickeria rubi, Neofusicoccum australe, Paraphaeosphaeria michotii, Pleurophoma pleurospora, Sigarispora caulium and Teichospora rubriostiolata. The new combinations are Dactylidina dactylidis (=Allophaeosphaeria dactylidis), Embarria clematidis (=Allophaeosphaeria clematidis), Hawksworthiana alliariae (=Dematiopleospora alliariae) and Italica luzulae (=Dematiopleospora luzulae). This study also provides some insights into the diversity of fungi on Rosa species and especially those on Rosa spines that resulted in the characterisation of eight new genera, 45 new species, and nine new host records. We also collected taxa from Rosa stems and there was 31% (20/65) overlap with taxa found on stems with that on spines. Because of the limited and non-targeted sampling for comparison with collections from spines and stems of the same host and location, it is not possible to say that the fungi on spines of Rosa differ from those on stems. The study however, does illustrate how spines are interesting substrates with high fungal biodiversity. This may be because of their hard structure resulting in slow decay and hence are suitable substrates leading to fungal colonisation. All data presented herein are based on morphological examination of specimens, coupled with phylogenetic sequence data to better integrate taxa into appropriate taxonomic ranks and infer their evolutionary relationships. Keywords: Ascomycota;  Dothideomycetes;  Eurotiomycetes;  Italy;  Lecanoromycetes;  Mucoromycetes; Phylogeny;  Rosa;  Rosaceae;  Russia;  Sordariomycetes;  Taxonomy;  UK;  Uzbekistan.
29375Kováčik J., Dresler S., Peterková V. & Babula P. (2018): Metal-induced oxidative stress in terrestrial macrolichens. - Chemosphere, 203: 402–409.
Short-term (24 h) responses of Cladonia arbuscula subsp. mitis and Cladonia furcata to copper (CuII) or chromium (CrIII) excess (10 or 100 μM) were compared. C. arbuscula accumulated more Cu and Cr at higher metal doses but both species revealed depletion of K and/or Ca amount. Not only Cu but also Cr typically elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation (fluorescence microscopy detection of total ROS and hydrogen peroxide) and depleted nitric oxide (NO) signal, with Cu showing more negative impact on lipid peroxidation (BODIPY 581/591 C11 staining reagent). Metals and staining reagents also affected anatomical responses and photobiont/mycobiont visibility. Principally different impact of Cu and Cr was observed at antioxidative metabolites level, indicating various ways of metal-induced ROS removal and/or metal chelation: Cu strongly depleted glutathione (GSH) and stimulated phytochelatin 2 (PC2) content while ascorbic acid accumulation was depleted by Cu and stimulated by Cr. Subsequent experiment with GSH biosynthetic inhibitor (buthionine sulfoximine, BSO) revealed that 48 h of exposure is needed to deplete GSH and BSO-induced depletion of GSH and PC2 amounts under Cu or Cr excess elevated ROS but depleted NO. These data suggest close relations between thiols, NO and appearance of oxidative stress (ROS generation) under metallic stress also in lichens. Keywords: Antioxidants; Bioaccumulation; Fluorescence microscopy; Heavy metals; Oxidative stress; Reactive oxygen species (ROS).
29374Piska K., Galanty A., Koczurkiewicz P., Żmudzki P., Potaczek J., Podolak I. & Pękala E. (2018): Usnic acid reactive metabolites formation in human, rat, and mice microsomes. Implication for hepatotoxicity. - Food and Chemical Toxicology, 120: 112–118.
Usnic acid is a lichen compound which is extensively studied due to its cytotoxic, antiproliferative, antimicrobial, antiviral, antiprotozoal, and anti-inflammatory activities. Despite a broad spectrum of biological properties, usnic acid is a hepatotoxic agent, thus its potential use as a drug is limited. Certain hepatotoxic drugs may act by generating reactive metabolites that damage the liver. The aim of the study was to predict the biotransformation of usnic acid enantiomers to reactive products using a trapping assay with glutathione in human, rat, and mice liver microsomes. Our results indicate that each enantiomer forms two reactive metabolites; in turn, these metabolites form adducts with glutathione, which may partially explain the toxicity of usnic acid. In silico analysis indicated structural alerts for the generation of reactive metabolites in usnic acid formula. This study proposes a novel mode of the hepatic toxicity of usnic acid enantiomers; it also provides some useful suggestions for designing safer usnic acid derivatives. Keywords: Usnic acid; Liver failure; Reactive metabolites; Drug toxicity; Hepatotoxicity.
29373Łubek A., Kukwa M., Jaroszewicz B. & Czortek P. (2018): Changes in the epiphytic lichen biota of Białowieża Primeval Forest are not explained by climate warming. - Science of the Total Environment, 643: 468–478.
Epiphytic lichens are sensitive bioindicators responding to climate change and atmospheric pollutants. Climate warming changes in lichen biota have been reported from Western and Central Europe; therefore, similar trends in the biota of the close-to-natural forests of Eastern Europe were expected. In both examinations (1987–1989 and 2015–2016) of 144 permanent plots the same field method was used. The following functional epiphyte groups were distinguished: climate warming indicators (VDI species and species containing Trentepohlia algae) and Wirth's ecological indicators (T – temperature, N – eutrophication, R – reaction, M – moisture). PCA ordination for exploring species composition changes, species richness and diversity (Shannon-Wiener index) in different forest types was used. When compared with the earlier survey, a higher plot species richness, Shannon-Wiener diversity index, and proportion of more nitrogen-demanding lichens, and lower proportions of warm-demanding and high-acidity tolerant lichens were found. No change in the epiphyte biota composition influenced by the decreasing atmospheric precipitation was detected. The species richness and Shannon-Wiener index of climate warming indicators did not show a significant change. Although the share and frequency of epiphytic lichen species and their functional groups changed over a 25-year period, no relationship was found to be related to climate warming: indicators of global warming showed no significant change in frequency, while those with higher value of T even decreased frequency. The changes suggest a connection with eutrophication (increase in frequency of species with higher value of N) and a decrease in sulphur deposition (increase in frequency of species with higher value of R). Keywords: Biodiversity; Climate change; Ecological indicators; Eutrophication; Old-growth; Trentepohlia.
29372Araújo H.D.A., Silva L.R.S., Siqueira W.N., Fonseca C.S.M., Silva N.H., Melo A.M.M.A., Martins M.C.B. & Lima V.L.M. (2018): Dataset on usnic acid from Cladonia substellata Vainio (Lichen) schistosomiasis mansoni's vector control and environmental toxicity. - Data in brief, 17: 288–291.
This text presents complementary data corresponding to schistosomiasis mansoni's vector control and enviromental toxicity using usnic acid. These informations support our research article “Toxicity of Usnic Acid from Cladonia substellata (Lichen) to embryos and adults of Biomphalaria glabrata” by Araújo et al. [1], and focuses on the analysis of the detailed data regarding the different concentrations of Usnic Acid and their efficiency to B. glabrata mortality and non-viability, as also to environmental toxicity, evaluated by A. salina mortality.
29371Ratier A., Dron J., Revenko G., Austruy A., Dauphin C.-E., Chaspoul F. & Wafo E. (2018): Characterization of atmospheric emission sources in lichen from metal and organic contaminant patterns. - Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 25: 8364–8376.
Lichen samples from contrasted environments, influenced by various anthropic activities, were investigated focusing on the contaminant signatures according to the atmospheric exposure typologies. Most of the contaminant concentrations measured in the 27 lichen samples, collected around the industrial harbor of Fos-sur-Mer (France), were moderate in rural and urban environments, and reached extreme levels in industrial areas and neighboring cities (Al up to 6567 mg kg−1, Fe 42,398 mg kg−1, or ΣPAH 1417 μg kg−1 for example). At the same time, a strong heterogeneity was noticed in industrial samples while urban and rural ones were relatively homogeneous. Several metals could be associated to steel industry (Fe, Mn, Cd), road traffic, and agriculture (Sb, Cu, Sn), or to a distinct chemical installation (Mo). As well, PCDFs dominated in industrial samples while PCDDs prevailed in urban areas. The particularities observed supported the purpose of this work and discriminated the contributions of various atmospheric pollution emission sources in lichen samples. A statistical approach based on principal component analysis (PCA) was applied and resolved these potential singularities into specific component factors. Even if a certain degree of mixing of the factors is pointed out, relevant relationships were observed with several atmospheric emission sources. By this methodology, the contribution of industrial emissions to the atmospheric metal, PAH, PCB, and PCDD/F levels was roughly estimated to be 60.2%, before biomass burning (10.2%) and road traffic (3.8%). These results demonstrate that lichen biomonitoring offers an encouraging perspective of spatially resolved source apportionment studies. Keywords: Lichen bioaccumulation; Metal; PAH; PCB; PCDD/F; Contaminant profiles; Source apportionment; Industrial emission sources.
29370Hong J.-M., Suh S.-S., Kim T.K., Kim J.E., Han S.J., Youn U.J., Yim J.H. & Kim I.-C. (2018): Anti-cancer activity of lobaric acid and lobarstin extracted from the Antarctic lichen Stereocaulon alpnum [sic!]. - Molecules, 23(3): 658; doi:10.3390/molecules23030658.
Lobaric acid and lobarstin, secondary metabolites derived from the antarctic lichen Stereocaulon alpnum, exert various biological activities, including antitumor, anti-proliferation, anti-inflammation, and antioxidant activities. However, the underlying mechanisms of these effects have not yet been elucidated in human cervix adenocarcinoma and human colon carcinoma. In the present study, we evaluated the anticancer effects of lobaric acid and lobarstin on human cervix adenocarcinoma HeLa cells and colon carcinoma HCT116 cells. We show that the proliferation of Hela and HCT116 cells treated with lobaric acid and lobarstin significantly decreased in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Using flow cytometry analysis, we observed that the treatment with these compounds resulted in significant apoptosis in both cell lines, following cell cycle perturbation and arrest in G2/M phase. Furthermore, using immunoblot analysis, we investigated the expression of cell cycle and apoptosis-related marker genes and found a significant downregulation of the apoptosis regulator B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and upregulation of the cleaved form of the poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), a DNA repair and apoptosis regulator. These results suggest that lobaric acid and lobarstin could significantly inhibit cell proliferation through cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis via the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in cervix adenocarcinoma and colon carcinoma cells. Taken together, our data suggests that lobaric acid and lobarstin might be novel agents for clinical treatment of cervix adenocarcinoma and colon carcinoma. Keywords: lobaric acid; lobarstin; antarctic lichen; apoptosis; cell cycle arrest; human cervix adenocarcinoma; human colon carcinoma.
29369Garibotti I.A., Gonzalez Polo M. & Tabeni S. (2018): Linking biological soil crust attributes to the multifunctionality of vegetated patches and interspaces in a semiarid shrubland. - Functional Ecology, 32: 1065–1078.
Understanding the importance of biotic community structure on ecosystem functioning, and whether communities inhabiting different microhabitats in highly heterogeneous areas provide different ecological functions is a challenge in ecological research in the face of biodiversity and habitat loss. Biological soil crusts (BSCs) have been largely treated as unique entities, and have been mostly examined in interspaces between perennial plants, limiting current understanding of their role as drivers of ecosystem functioning and their relative contribution in comparison to vascular plants. We assessed the role of BSCs on ecosystem functioning in vegetated patches and interspaces, and how individual soil functions and ecosystem multifunctionality are related to changes in BSC species‐ and community‐level attributes. We contemplated nine ecosystem functions associated with soil water dynamics, nutrient cycling and erosion potential. We found that vegetated patches improve infiltration rates, soil stability and net potential nitrogen (N) mineralization compared to interspaces, and thus dominate multifunctionality. However, well‐developed BSCs improve soil moisture and N pool in both microsites, and are multifunctional stabilizing soils and regulating soil moisture and infiltration in the interspaces. BSC surface microstructure, including changes in total cover, species richness, morphological functional groups and surface discontinuities, has significant effects on soil moisture. Differences in soil N and phosphorous are mostly related to the presence of BSC‐lichens. The effect of BSCs on multifunctionality varies in dependence of the particular set of functions that are sought to simultaneously maximize. Our results suggest that vascular plants and BSCs have idiosyncratic effects on different key ecosystem functions and multifunction, and BSCs substitute vascular plants in stabilizing soils and regulating water dynamics in the interspaces. BSCs greatly contribute to small‐scale heterogeneity in the functioning of vegetated patches and interspaces, hence consideration of BSCs in different microsites is essential for enhancing our understanding of their functional relevance at a regional scale. In addition, quantification of BSC microstructure is crucial, owing to the contrasting effects of BSC species‐ and community‐level attributes on different functions and multifunction. Keywords: BSC floristic composition; BSC functional structure; soil aggregate stability; soil moisture; soil nutrients; spatial distribution.
29368Williams L., Jung P., Zheng L.-J., Maier S., Peer T., Grube M., Weber B. & Büdel B. (2018): Assessing recovery of biological soil crusts across a latitudinal gradient in Western Europe. - Restoration Ecology, 26(3): 543–554.
Biological soil crusts are ecologically important communities in areas where vascular plant coverage is low, and their presence is often vital in prevention of soil erosion. Despite recurrent threats to biological soil crusts across different environments, their recovery after disturbance has been little studied. We therefore established experiments across a latitudinal gradient in Europe, from Öland, Sweden in the north, to Gössenheim, Germany and Hochtor, Austria, to Almeria, Spain in the south, spanning over 20° latitude and 2,300 m in altitude, and including natural and semi‐natural sites. At each site 10 (1 × 1 m) paired plots were constructed where the biological soil crusts were either completely removed, or left intact. Over a 2‐year period (2012–2014) the plots were regularly sampled to assess functional group recovery (cyanobacteria, algae, lichens, bryophytes, vascular plants), soil stability, and chlorophyll, carbon, and nutrient contents. Cyanobacterial assemblages were examined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, a technique used to detect DNA in environmental samples. The results indicated that recovery was site dependent, suggesting that physical and climatic parameters play a major role in biological soil crust recovery. This conclusion is supported by the results of the soil properties, which were found to differ between sites, although they did not show meaningful recovery over the study period. Although 2 years was insufficient for pronounced biological soil crust recovery, this study documents changes over the initial recovery period, suggests management practices for future projects, and recommends proxies for measuring recovery over time. Keywords: chlorophyll content; cyanobacteria; denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis; disturbance; functional groups; restoration; soil properties.
29367Bertrand M., Monnat J.-Y. & Lohézic-Le Dévéhat F. (2018): Myriolecis massei, a new species of Lecanoraceae from the coasts of the Armorican Massif in Western Europe. - Bryologist, 121(3): 253–263.
A new species of Lecanora s.l. (Lecanoraceae) has been found in several localities on the coasts of the Armorican Massif (Brittany, Normandy, Channel Islands), only on siliceous rocks in the supralittoral zone. It is particularly distinguished by its well-developed thallus reacting C+ orange in the cortex and containing chlorinated xanthones identified by HPLC-DAD-MS. Placed in the new genus Myriolecis, it is described in this study as Myriolecis massei sp. nov. and is compared to similar maritime species containing chloroxanthones. A key is given to European maritime species of Myriolecis reacting C+. Keywords: Epilithic lichens, maritime, chlorinated xanthone, asemone, Brittany, Channel Islands.
29366Darmostuk V.V., Khodosovtsev A.Ye., Naumovich G.O. & Kharechko N.V. (2018): Roselliniella lecideae sp. nov. and other interesting lichenicolous fungi from the Northern Black Sea region (Ukraine). - Turkish Journal of Botany, 42: 354–361.
The lichenicolous fungus Roselliniella lecideae sp. nov. on Lecidea fuscoatra is described from Ukraine. It is characterized by globose ostiolate perithecia, 2-3 septate hyaline periphyses, unitunicate 8-spored asci, and unicellular ellipsoid brown ascospores. This species, close to Roselliniella microthelia, has shorter periphyses, smaller asci, and ascospores, and its hosts. Brackelia lunkei, Henfellra muriformis, Lichenoconium aeruginosum, Lichenohendersonia squamarinae, Lichenostigma dimelaenae, Sphaerellothecium atryneae, Stigmidium epistigmellum, S. stygnospilum, Pronectria xanthoriae, Refractohilum achromaticum, and Zwackhiomyces lithoiceae are reported for the first time from Ukraine. Two species are new for the plains of Ukraine, three are new to the steppe zone of Ukraine, and one species is new to Crimea. A key to the known Roselliniella species is provided. Keywords: Brackelia, Henfellra, Lichenohendersonia, Refractohilum, Stigmidium.
29365Dudani S.N., Nayaka S., Ingle K.K. & Joseph S. (2018): New species and new records of lichenized Ascomycota from tropical deciduous forests of the Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot, India. - Turkish Journal of Botany, 42: 346–353.
Stirtonia ghattensis Sumesh N. Dudani, Nayaka, Komal K. Ingle & S. Joseph sp. nov. having UV+ white thallus, 4–6-spored asci, and 5(–7)-septate ascospores and lacking lichen substances is described as new to science. Pertusaria mesotropa Müll. Arg. is reported for the first time from India. Bacidia subannexa (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Graphis caesiella Vain., G. handelii Zahlbr., Hemithecium scariosum Makhija & Adaw., and Pertusaria coccodes (Ach.) Nyl. are new records for Western Ghats. Arthothelium aphanocarpum (Nyl.) Zahlbr., which had a restricted distribution in the Andaman Islands, is collected from the mainland of India for the first time. An updated world key for 28 Stirtonia taxa known to date is provided. Key words: Arthoniomycetes, Lecanoromycetes, Stirtonia, biodiversity, taxonomy, Karnataka state.
29364Funk E.R., Adams A.N., Spotten S.M., Van Hove R.A., Whittington K.T., Keepers K.G., Pogoda C.S., Lendemer J.C., Tripp E.A. & Kane N.C. (2018): The complete mitochondrial genomes of five lichenized fungi in the genus Usnea (Ascomycota: Parmeliaceae). - Mitochondrial DNA Part B, 3(1): 305–308.
Known colloquially as ‘Old Man’s Beard’, Usnea is a genus of lichenized Ascomycete fungi characterized by having a fruticose growth form and cartilaginous central axis. The complete mitochondrial genomes of Usnea halei, U. mutabilis, U. subfusca, U. subgracilis, and U. subscabrosa were sequenced using Illumina data and then assembled de novo. These mitogenomes ranged in size from 52,486 bp (U. subfusca) to 94,464 bp (U. subgracilis). All were characterized by having high levels of intronic and intergenic variation, such as ORFs that encode proteins with homology to two homing endonuclease types, LAGLIDADG and GIY-YIG. Genes annotated within these mitogenomes include 14 protein-coding genes, the large and small ribosomal subunits (LSU and SSU), and 23–26 tRNAs. Notably, the atp9 gene was absent from each genome. Genomic synteny was highly conserved across the five species. Five conserved mitochondrial genes (nad2, nad4, cox1, cox2, and cox3) were used to infer a best estimate maximum likelihood phylogeny among these five Usnea and other relatives, which yielded relationships consistent with prior published phylogenies. Keywords: Symbiosis, Usnea halei, Usnea mutabilis, Usnea subfusca, Usnea subgracilis, Usnea subscabrosa.
29363Lõhmus P., Lõhmus A. & Hämäläinen A. (2018): Rapid legacy-dependent succession of lichen assemblages after forest fires: Insights from two boreal regions. - Journal of Vegetation Science, 29: 200–212.
Questions: (i) What is the impact of legacy structures on lichen assemblage development up to two decades post-fire? (ii) How does that impact vary among ecological groups? (iii) Are charcoal-inhabiting lichen assemblages regionally distinct? Location: Hemiboreal pine forests, Estonia, and middle-boreal pine forests, eastern Finland. Methods: We performed standard lichen surveys (4 hr effort per 2 ha plot; on all substrates 0–2 m from the forest floor) and measured forest structure in 18 burned sites (nine in Finland and nine in Estonia). The sites included both old (15–21 years) and recent (9 years) fires, and half of the latter had been harvested for timber. We analysed lichen assemblages (full assemblages and different ecological groups) in relation to site factors (GLM for species richness; multivariate techniques for assemblage composition). Results: Lichen assemblages on burned sites (altogether 187 species recorded) were regionally distinct and, additionally, significantly affected by the large variation in legacy and regeneration abundance among sites. Species richness was negatively related to abundance of fallen trees 9 years after fire but the relationship was positive 15–21 years post-fire; this pattern indicated a change from the initial damage effect to a substrate-providing effect of the fire. Microlichens and vegetatively dispersing lichens appeared more sensitive to disturbance (including harvesting), whereas macrolichens were more responsive to substrate provision. The main structural influences on lichens inhabiting charred substrates (67 species recorded in total) were similar to the factors affecting the composition of full lichen assemblages. Conclusions: Within 10 years post-fire, initial disturbance-related damage to forest lichen assemblages was replaced by the dominance of substrate-providing factors (legacies, regeneration). These damage and recovery phases differ among lichen groups, but are consistent between hemi-and middle-boreal regions. The availability of post-fire legacies, including charred surfaces, is of critical importance for the management of burned areas in modern landscapes. Keywords: boreal forest, charcoal, dead wood, disturbance, epiphyte, geographic variation, lichenized fungi, lif-history traits, salvage logging, stand structure.
29362Coleine C., Zucconi L., Onofri S., Pombubpa N., Stajich J.E. & Selbmann L. (2018): Sun exposure shapes functional grouping of fungi in cryptoendolithic antarctic communities. - Life, 8:19 [15 p.].
Antarctic cryptoendolithic microbial communities dominate ice-free areas of continental Antarctica, among the harshest environments on Earth. The endolithic lifestyle is a remarkable adaptation to the exceptional environmental extremes of this area, which is considered the closest terrestrial example to conditions on Mars. Recent efforts have attempted to elucidate composition of these extremely adapted communities, but the functionality of these microbes have remained unexplored. We have tested for interactions between measured environmental characteristics, fungal community membership, and inferred functional classification of the fungi present and found altitude and sun exposure were primary factors. Sandstone rocks were collected in Victoria Land, Antarctica along an altitudinal gradient from 834 to 3100 m a.s.l.; differently sun-exposed rocks were selected to test the influence of this parameter on endolithic settlement. Metabarcoding targeting the fungal internal transcribed spacer region 1 (ITS1) was used to catalogue the species found in these communities. Functional profile of guilds found in the samples was associated to species using FUNGuild and variation in functional groups compared across sunlight exposure and altitude. Results revealed clear dominance of lichenized and stress-tolerant fungi in endolithic communities. The main variations in composition and abundance of functional groups among sites correlated to sun exposure, but not to altitude. Keywords: Antarctica; endolithic communities; fungal ecology; FUNGuild; ITS metabarcoding
29361Huang J.-P., Leavitt S.D. & Lumbsch H.T. (2018): Testing the impact of effective population size on speciation rates - A negative correlation or lack thereof in lichenized fungi. - Scientific Reports, 8:5729 [6 p.].
The effect of microevolutionary processes on macroevolutionary patterns, and vice versa, is an important but under-investigated question. Here we present an integrative population genetic and phylogenetic study using molecular sequence data from three lichen-forming fungal lineages to empirically test the potential correlation between effective population size – approximated by the parameter θ – and estimated speciation rates using a phylogenetic tree (λ). A negative association between θ and λ was supported in one lineage of lichen-forming fungi, Melanelixia (Parmeliaceae), while no significant relationships was found for two other genera within the same family, Melanohalea and Xanthoparmelia. We discuss the significance of our results and the importance of considering microevolutionary processes when studying macroevolutionary patterns.
29360Урбанавичюс Г.П. & Фадеева М.А. [Urbanavichus G.P. & Fadeeva M.A.] (2013): Дополнение к лихенофлоре заповедника «Пасвик» (Мурманская область). - Вестник Тверского государственного университета. Серия: Биология и экология [Herald of Tver State University. Series: Biology and Ecology], 30(7): 77–84.
[in Russian with English summary:] The localities of 25 new for the lichen flora of Pasvik Reserve and 9 rare and protected lichen species and lichenicolous fungi from adjacent territories are presented. Thirteen species are new for the biogeographic province Lapponia petsamoënsis, among them 2 species are new for the Murmansk region (Physcia subalbinea Nyl., Polyblastia gothica Th. Fr.). Keywords: lichens, lichenicolous fungi, lichen flora, Pasvik Reserve, Murmansk region, Lapponia petsamoënsis, new records.
29359Урбанавичюс Г.П. & Фадеева М.А. [Urbanavichus G.P. & Fadeeva M.A.] (2018): Находки новых и редких видов для лихенофлоры заповедника «Пасвик» (Мурманская область) [New records for lichen flora of Pasvik Reserve (Murmansk region)]. - Учёные записки Петрозаводского государственного университета [Uchenye zapiski Petrozavodskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta / Proceedings of Petrozavodsk State University], 2018/3: 104–110.
[in Russian with English summary:] The Pasvik State Nature Reserve is located in the north-western part of Murmansk Region. The reserve is important for the conservation of lichen diversity because it represents the northernmost, mainly undisturbed old-aged forests of the North-Western European part of Russia. The main goals of the expedition in 2017 was to study the lichen diversity of the old-aged pine and spruce forests and mountain tundra of Kalkupya Mt. Based on the material, collected mainly in 2017 and partially in 2015–2016, 29 species and 4 genera (Athelia, Bryostigma, Leptorhaphis, Sarea) are reported new to the Pasvik Reserve, including 26 lichenized species, 2 lichenicolous fungi, and 1 saprobic fungus. Six species are new to the biogeographic Province Lapponia Petsamoënsis. In addition, eleven rarely collected species are also reported. Detailed characteristics of their localities are presented. The annotated listing of species is given. New localities for six species from the Red Data Books of Murmansk Region and Russia (Arthonia vinosa, Bryoria fremontii, B. nitidula, Chaenotheca gracillima, Chaenothecopsis nigra and Lichenomphalia hudsoniana) are reported. As a result, the reserve accounts for 506 lichenized species, 37 lichenicolous species, and 13 saprobic fungi. Therefore, 42 % of the known species diversity of lichen flora is located in Murmansk Region. Key words: lichens, new records, rare species, Pasvik Reserve, Murmansk region.
29358Himelbrant D.E., Stepanchikova I.S., Kuznetsova E.S., Motiejūnaitė J. & Konoreva L.A. (2018): Konevets Island (Leningrad Region, Russia) – a historical refuge of lichen diversity in Lake Ladoga. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 55: 51–78.
We present an updated checklist for Konevets Island (Leningrad Region, Russia). The revealed lichen biota comprises 435 species, including 378 lichens, 46 lichenicolous fungi and 11 non-lichenized saprobic fungi, of which 31 species (27 lichens and 4 lichenicolous fungi) are known only from collections made by Veli Räsänen (1917, 1938). Acremonium hypholomatis is reported for the first time for Russia; Caloplaca soralifera, Trapelia corticola, and Muellerella lichenicola for Northwestern European Russia; and Bacidia vermifera, Lecanora mughicola, Micarea contexta, Pyrenochaeta xanthoriae, Rhizocarpon disporum, Stigmidium squamariae and Xylographa difformis for Leningrad Region. From lichenological point of view, the most valuable habitats of Konevets Island are old-growth spruce forests. The studied lichen biota is rich and diverse and exceptionally well-preserved in comparison to the mainland part of Karelian Isthmus. It definitely deserves protection. Keywords: Lake Ladoga, Isthmus karelicus, Räsänen, old-growth forests, Acremonium hypholomatis, Caloplaca soralifera, Trapelia corticola, Muellerella lichenicola.
29357Ezhkin A. & Schumm F. (2018): New and noteworthy records of lichens and allied fungi from Sakhalin Island, Russian Far East, II. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 55: 45–50.
Eopyrenula intermedia is a new finding for Eurasia. Fauriea orientochinensis and Hafellia subnexa are reported for the first time for Russia, from Sakhalin Island. A further seventeen species are noteworthy for Sakhalin Island, including two species new to the Russian Far East and five species new to the southern part of the region. Keywords: biodiversity, Ascomycota, Asia, rare species.
29356Istomina N.B., Likhacheva O.V., Stepanchikova I.S., Kuznetsova E.S. & Himelbrant D.E. (2018): New and rare lichens and allied fungi from the Pskov Region, Russia. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 55: 21–31.
Forty-one species of lichens and two lichenicolous fungi are reported from the Pskov Region. Of them, thirty-nine species are new for the region, including Lempholemma dispansum – a rare species with scattered distribution, previously recorded only once in the European Russia in the 19th century. The most important findings are confined to ancient limestone outcrops and old manor parks: these habitats are also promising for further investigations, taking in account high level of anthropogenic transformation of the Pskov Region. Keywords: Flavoplaca polycarpa, Lempholemma dispansum, lichens of calcareous rocks, new records, old manors.
29355Zhurbenko M.P. & Ohmura Y. (2018): Perigrapha cetrariae, a new lichenicolous ascomycete on Cetraria from Japan. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 55: 17–19.
Perigrapha cetrariae growing on Cetraria laevigata is described from Japan. The new species differs from the generic type in having loculi completely embedded in a stroma and ascospores without caudate appendages. Keywords: lichen-inhabiting fungi, new species, Japan.
29354Malíček J. & Vondrák J. (2018): Příspěvek k diverzitě lišejníků NPR Děvín a Tabulová v CHKO Pálava [Contribution to the lichen diversity of the Děvín and Tabulová National Nature Reserves in the Pálava Hills]. - Bryonora, 61: 1-17.
The Pálava Protected Landscape Area in South Moravia is very rich in xerothermic saxicolous species on limestone rocks. We briefly explored the lichen biota of two large protected areas: the Děvín- Kotel-Soutěska and Tabulová National Nature Reserves. Saxicolous communities in the two reserves are very similar; the former locality even harbours comparatively rich epiphytic lichen communities. We recorded 192 lichenized and four non-lichenized fungi from the Děvín reserve and 146 lichenized and five non-lichenized fungi from the Tabulová reserve. Four of the recorded species (Candelariella viae-lactae, Placynthium caesium, Strigula glabra, Verrucaria cincta) have their only known localities in the Czech Republic in the area. Other rare and phytogeographically remarkable species are Caloplaca aurantia, C. biatorina, C. emilii, C. erodens, C. fiumana, C. ochracea, Candelariella blastidiata, C. reflexa s. str., Eopyrenula leucoplaca, Fulgensia fulgens, Hymenelia prevostii, Peccania coralloides, Peltigera ponojensis, Phaeophyscia hirsuta, Physconia muscigena, Protoblastenia lilacina, Rinodinella controversa, Squamarina lentigera, Verrucaria breussii, Verrucaria pinguicula and Xanthoria papillifera. Teloschistaceae is the most species-rich family with 41 species recorded in the two reserves. The names Caloplaca albopruinosa and C. alociza are applied here to different species than proposed by Muggia et al. (2008).
29353Peksa O. (2018): Zprávy ze Sekce [News from the Section]. - Bryonora, 61: 50-50.
V. československá lichenologická konference
29352Kučera J., Herben T., Mikulášková E. & Svoboda D. (2018): Personalia: Prof. RNDr. Jiří Váňa, DrSc. (*11. 1. 1940 – †8. 4. 2018) . - Bryonora, 61: 63-80.
29351Bérešová A. (2018): Personalia: RNDr. Anna Kubinská, CSc. (*26. 7. 1949 – †23. 12. 2017) . - Bryonora, 61: 62-63.
29350Lackovičová A. & Bérešová A. (2018): Personalia: RNDr. Ivan Pišút, DrSc. (*13. 3. 1935 – †14. 12. 2017) – náš učiteľ, priateľ a neúnavný terénny výskumník . - Bryonora, 61: 57-61.
29349Malíček J. (2018): Žurnál Klub: Nordic Lichen Flora VI. . - Bryonora, 61: 56-56.
29348Malíček J. (2018): Žurnál Klub: Seznam alpských lišejníků . - Bryonora, 61: 56-56.
29347Černajová I. (2018): Žurnál Klub: Lišajníky medzi endofytmi . - Bryonora, 61: 54-55.
29346Vondrák J. (2018): Žurnál klub: Vliv fotobionta na způsob rozmnožování a fenotyp lišejníků [Journal club]. - Bryonora, 61: 52-54.
29345Holá E., Manukjanová A. & Syrovátková L. (2018): Jarní bryologicko-lichenologické setkání na pošumavských vápencích, 19.–22. duben 2018 [2018 Spring Bryological and Lichenological Meeting in the Šumava Mts]. - Bryonora, 61: 50-52.
Jarní bryologicko-lichenologické setkání na pošumavských vápencích, 19.–22. duben 2018
29344Bouda F. (2018): Lišejníky NPR Čertova stěna-Luč u Loučovic [Lichens of the Čertova stěna-Luč National Nature Reserve near Loučovice]. - Bryonora, 61: 18-26.
A list of 178 lichen species recorded in 2013 in the Čertova stěna- Luč National Natural Reserve near the village of Loučovice in South Bohemia is presented. The reserve is rich in various types of substrates and habitats: exposed rocks, boulder screes, stones in the river Vltava, shaded mossy boulders in forests and abundant fallen dead wood. The locality is home to the glacial relicts Arctoparmelia centrifuga, Cladonia amaurocraea and Hertelidea botryosa. Hypogymnia vittata, which is usually epiphytic, grows here only on mossy granite boulders on the top of Mt Luč
29343Urbanavichus G. & Urbanavichene I. (2018): New records of lichens and allied fungi from Lapponia petsamoënsis, Murmansk Region, Russia. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 55: 1–5.
Fourteen species of lichens, four lichenicolous and two non-lichenized calicioid fungi are reported for the first time from the biogeographic province Lapponia petsamoënsis (NW Murmansk Region, Russia); of these, Buellia pulverea, Endococcus brachysporus and Micarea coppinsii are reported for the first time for Russia, Rosellinula haplospora is new to European Russia, and Aspicilia mashiginensis, Chaenothecopsis rubescens, C. vainioana, Lecidea sudetica, Micarea micrococca, Porpidia pachythallina, Protoparmelia atriseda and Psorotichia schaereri are new to the Murmansk Region. Brief notes, mainly on habitats and distribution, are provided for all species listed. Keywords: Buellia pulverea, Endococcus brachysporus, Micarea coppinsii, Pasvik Nature Reserve, North-Western Russia.
29342Nowak P., Harańczyk H., Kijak P., Marzec M., Fitas J., Lisowska M., Baran E. & Olech M.A. (2018): Bound water behavior in Cetraria aculeata thalli during freezing. - Polar Biology, 41: 865–876.
Lichens are extremophilic organisms surviving in extremely low temperature and dehydration; however, the molecular mechanism of frost and dehydration resistance is not yet fully understood. Low temperature behavior of Cetraria aculeata thalli at the hydration level between ∆m/m0 = 0.039 and ∆m/m0 = 0.964, defined as a ratio of mass of water adsorbed to the thalli, ∆m, to dry mass of the thalli, m0, and interpreted as water content, %WC, in a fractional form (∆m/m0 = %WC/100) was investigated using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Proton free induction decays were decomposed into components: coming from solid matrix of thallus and exponentially decaying from loosely bound and from tightly bound water. At low hydration levels the loosely bound water fraction (cooperatively freezing water) is detected down to − 15.6 °C. With the decreasing temperature loosely bound water fraction is gradually transferred to the tightly bound water pool (non-freezing water) which could play significant role in freezing resistance mechanism. At higher hydration levels DSC scans show the presence of cooperative water freezing in thallus. The lowest hydration level at which the cooperative freezing of water bound in C. aculeata thallus is detected by DSC is equal to 0.453. DSC courses recorded after 120 min incubation of C. aculeata thallus in − 20 °C suggest the lowest hydration level in which ice formation could be observed is decreased to 0.167, as a result of water molecule diffusion to places where ice microcrystallites were formed. Supercooled water behavior in C. aculeata thalli reveals a composed behavior. Two processes take place: supercooled liquid water mobility gradually decrease with the decreased temperature and the diffusion of supercooled water molecules to ice microcrystallites and, thus the solid phase growth. Keywords: Lichens · Cetraria · Freezing resistance · Phase growth · NMR · DSC.
29341Favero-Longo S.E., Matteucci E., Giordani P., Paukov A.G. & Rajakaruna N. (2018): Diversity and functional traits of lichens in ultramafic areas: a literature-based worldwide analysis integrated by field data at the regional scale. - Ecological Research, 33: 593–608.
While higher plant communities found on ultramafics are known to display peculiar characteristics, the distinguishability of any peculiarity in lichen communities is still a matter of contention. Other biotic or abiotic factors, rather than substrate chemistry, may contribute to differences in species composition reported for lichens on adjacent ultramafic and non-ultramafic areas. This work examines the lichen biota of ultramafics, at global and regional scales, with reference to species-specific functional traits. An updated world list of lichens on ultramafic substrates was analyzed to verify potential relationships between diversity and functional traits of lichens in different Köppen–Geiger climate zones. Moreover, a survey of diversity and functional traits in saxicolous communities on ultramafic and non-ultramafic substrates was conducted in Valle d’Aosta (North-West Italy) to verify whether a relationship can be detected between substrate and functional traits that cannot be explained by other environmental factors related to altitude. Analyses (unweighted pair group mean average clustering, canonical correspondence analysis, similarity-difference-replacement simplex approach) of global lichen diversity on ultramafic substrates (2314 reports of 881 taxa from 43 areas) displayed a zonal species distribution in different climate zones rather than an azonal distribution driven by the shared substrate. Accordingly, variations in the frequency of functional attributes reflected reported adaptations to the climate conditions of the different geographic areas. At the regional scale, higher similarity and lower species replacement were detected at each altitude, independent from the substrate, suggesting that altitude-related climate factors prevail over putative substrate–factors in driving community assemblages. In conclusion, data do not reveal peculiarities in lichen diversity or the frequency of functional traits in ultramafic areas. Keywords: Functional traits; Lichen; Köppen–Geiger climate zones; Serpentine; Ultramafic.
29340Kushnevskaya H. & Shorohova E. (2018): Presence of bark influences the succession of cryptogamic wood-inhabiting communities on conifer fallen logs. - Folia Geobotanica, 53: 175–190.
Predictors of cryptogamic wood-inhabiting communities need to be examined to understand the drivers of forest biodiversity. We estimated the influence of bark cover on the wood-inhabiting vegetation on conifer logs in early stages of epixylic succession in mature European boreal and hemi-boreal forests. Abundance of substrate groups with respect to log attributes was estimated with generalized linear and generalized linear mixed models. The structure and composition of epixylic communities was analysed using non-metric multidimensional scaling with subsequent environmental fitting. The abundance of true epixylics was inversely related to bark cover. In the first stage, bark cover did not influence the abundance of epiphytes and epigeous species; positively influenced the abundance of facultative epixylics on spruce logs and negatively influenced it on pine logs. In the second stage, the effect of bark cover was positive for epiphytes and epigeous species on spruce logs and for facultative epixylics independent of log species identity and negative for epigeous species on pine logs. Generalist species did not depend on bark cover. Total cover of wood-inhabiting vegetation was marginally influenced by bark cover. The effect of bark cover on epixylic vegetation at community level was negligible. In general, bark cover favours the establishment and growth of species with low substrate specificity. This preference may lead to either burial of logs by epigeous bryophytes, or facilitation of succession towards the dominance of ground vegetation. Keywords: Decay; Decomposition; Deadwood; Coarse Woody debris; Bryophytes; Log diameter.
29339Shi H., Wang X., Zhou Y., Liu D., Zhang Y., Yang M., Timdal E. & Wang L. (2018): Three new species and one new combination of Gypsoplaca (lichenized Ascomycota) from the Hengduan Mountains in China. - Mycological Progress, 17: 781–790.
Three new species are described as follows: Gypsoplaca alpina H. X. Shi and Li S. Wang, G. bullata H. X. Shi and Li S. Wang, and G. rosulata H. X. Shi, Li S. Wang, and Timdal sp. nov. Gypsoplaca alpina is characterized by a small thallus, upper cortex with very thick gelatinized layer, ascocarp warty with a cerebriform ridging, and by growing on soil in alpine meadows. Gypsoplaca bullata characterized by having bullate ascocarp, uneven to bullate thallus. Gypsoplaca rosulata is characterized by rosulate thallus and 4–6-spored asci. The new combination Gypsoplaca blastidiata (Zhurb) H. X. Shi and Li S. Wang comb. & stat. nov. is proposed. A phylogenetic tree is established, based on combined sequences of ITS and nrLSU, and all species formed monophyletic clades. Two main chemical compounds, brialmontin and sesterterpenes, are reported for the first time from Gypsoplaca by analysis of NMR and MS data. Triterpenoids are absent in Chinese Gypsoplaca specimens. Keywords: Taxonomy . Phylogeny . Chemistry . Gypsoplacaceae.
29338Ellis C., Yahr R. & Coppins B.J. (2018): Quantifying the anthropocene loss of bioindicators for an early industrial region: an equitable baseline for biodiversity restoration. - Biodiversity and Conservation, 27: 2363–2377.
Directly observed biodiversity data have a limited temporal span of c. 100– 150 years. Consequently, for a region such as temperate Western Europe, our knowledge of species distributions is restricted to a period impacted by the process of massive industrialisation. There is a danger of shifted baselines in terms of conservation policy and targets. Here we present a novel source of high resolution archaeobotanical information for lichen epiphyte bioindicators; these data can reconstruct species distributions for the pre-industrial European landscape. We compare these historic records to a species’ postindustrial distribution and environmental response, quantifying the spatial trend and causes of biodiversity loss. The results indicate regional extinction rates of c. 76% in response to habitat loss and industrial pollution. We propose pre-industrial baselines that would better represent biodiversity restoration for temperate regions (net gain), and which would be equitable with advocacy for species and habitat protection in the present-day tropics (no net loss). Keywords: Anthropocene · Archaeobotany · Bioindicators · Net biodiversity gain · Restoration ecology · Shifting baselines.
29337Rola K. & Osyczka P. (2018): Data on cryptogamic biota in relation to heavy metal concentrations in soil. - Data in Brief, 19: 1110–1119.
The data presented here are related to the research article entitled “Cryptogamic communities as a useful bioindication tool for estimating the degree of soil pollution with heavy metals” (Rola and Osyczka, 2018) [1]. These data concern the relationships between epigeic cryptogamic biota and heavy metal concentrations in soil of areas associated with Zn–Pb industry. The presence of particular species and coverage of lichens and bryophytes as well as soil chemical parameters in relation to three different soil pollution classes and five habitat types are provided. Included data could be used to compare cryptogamic community structure and pollutant concentration levels with other Zn–Pb polluted areas. Keywords: Lichens; Bryophytes; Cryptogamic biota structure; Zn–Pb ores; Post-industrial areas; Environmental assessment.
29336Banchi E., Candotto Carniel F., Montagner A., Petruzzellis F., Pichler G., Giarola V., Bartels D., Pallavicini A. & Tretiach M. (2018): Relation between water status and desiccation-affected genes in the lichen photobiont Trebouxia gelatinosa. - Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 129: 189–197.
The relation between water status and expression profiles of desiccation -related genes has been studied in the desiccation tolerant (DT) aeroterrestrial green microalga Trebouxia gelatinosa, a common lichen photobiont. Algal colonies were desiccated in controlled conditions and during desiccation water content (WC) and water potential (Ψ) were measured to find the turgor loss point (Ψtlp). Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to measure the expression of ten genes related to photosynthesis, antioxidant defense, expansins, heat shock proteins (HSPs), and desiccation related proteins in algal colonies collected during desiccation when still at full turgor (WC > 6 g H2O g−1 dry weight), immediately before and after Ψtlp (−4 MPa; WC ∼ 1 g H2O g−1 dry weight) and before and after complete desiccation (WC < 0.01 g H2O g−1 dry weight), quantifying the HSP70 protein levels by immunodetection. Our analysis showed that the expression of eight out of ten genes changed immediately before and after Ψtlp. Interestingly, the expression of five out of ten genes changed also before complete desiccation, i.e. between 0.2 and 0.01 g H2O g−1 dry weight. However, the HSP70 protein levels were not affected by changes in water status. The study provides new evidences of the link between the loss of turgor and the expression of genes related to the desiccation tolerance of T. gelatinosa, suggesting the former as a signal triggering inducible mechanisms. Keywords: Water potential; Water content; HSP70 DRPs; Green microalga; Turgor loss.
29335Ćujić M. & Dragović S. (2018): Assessment of dose rate to terrestrial biota in the area around coal fired power plant applying ERICA tool and RESRAD BIOTA code. - Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 188: 108–114.
This paper presents the environmental radiation risk assessment based on two software program approaches ERICA Tool (version 1.2) and RESRAD BIOTA (version 1.5) to estimate dose rates to terrestrial biota in the area around the largest coal fired power plant in Serbia. For dose rate assessment software's default reference animals and plants and the best estimated values of activity concentrations of 238U, 234U, 234Th, 232Th, 230Th, 226Ra, 210Pb, 210Po, 137Cs in soil were used. Both approaches revealed the highest contribution to the internal dose rate due to 226Ra and 210Po, while 137Cs contributed the most to the external dose rate. In the investigated area total dose rate to biota derived using ERICA Tool ranged from 0.3 to 14.4 μGy h−1. The natural radionuclides exhibited significantly higher contribution to the total dose rate than the artificial one. In the investigated area, only dose rate for lichens and bryophytes exceeded ERICA Tool screening value of total dose rate of 10 μGy h−1 suggested as confident that environmental risks are negligible. The assessed total dose rates for reference animals and plants using RESRAD BIOTA were found to be 7 and 3 μGy h−1, respectively. In RESRAD BIOTA - Level 3, 10 species (Lumbricus terrestris, Rana lessonae, Sciurus vulgaris, Anas platyrhynchos, Lepus europaeus, Vulpes vulpes, Capreolus capreolus, Suss crofa, Quercu srobur, Tilia spp.) representative for the study area were modeled. Among them the highest total dose rate (4.5 μGy h−1) was obtained for large mammals. Differences in the predicted dose rates to biota using the two software programs are the consequence of the difference in the values of transfer parameters used to calculate activity concentrations in biota. Doses of ionizing radiation estimated in this study will not exhibit deterministic effects at the population level. Thus, the obtained results indicate no significant radiation impact of coal fired power plant operation on terrestrial biota. This paper confirms the use ERICA Tool and RESRAD BIOTA softwares as flexible and effective means of radiation impact assessment. Keywords: Dose rate assessment; Biota; ERICA tool; RESRAD BIOTA; Coal fired power plant.
29334Alcalá-Reygosa J., Palacios D., Schimmelpfennig I., Vázquez-Selem L., García-Sancho L., Franco-Ramos O., VillanuevaJ., Zamorano J.J., Aumaître G., Bourlès D. & Keddadouche K. (2018): Dating late Holocene lava flows in Pico de Orizaba (Mexico) by means of in situ-produced cosmogenic 36Cl, lichenometry and dendrochronology. - Quaternary Geochronology, 47: 93–106.
The knowledge of the eruptive history of volcanic centers allows for improving the evaluation of the related risks and hazards in populated areas, but substantially depends on the ability of dating the lava flows. However, traditional methods such as U-Th/He, 40Ar-39Ar, 40K-40Ar and radiocarbon dating are not always suitable. Therefore, an alternative approach based on the combination of in situ-produced 36Cl based cosmic ray exposure dating, lichenometry and dendrochronology was tested on two lava flows (called Lava flow “A” and “B”) from Pico de Orizaba (Mexico), previously attributed to 16th and 17th century eruptions, respectively. The presented results show that both lava flows are significantly older than their assumed 16th and 17th century ages. Regarding lava flow “A”, the measured in situ-produced 36Cl concentrations lead to a mean age of 3.03 ± 0.70 ka, while dendrochronology and lichenometry yield minimum ages of 834 and 1130 years, respectively. Regarding lava flow “B”, the measured in situ-produced 36Cl concentrations lead to a mean age of 1.45 ± 0.35 ka, whereas lichenometry gives a minimum age of ∼1000 years. Overall, this demonstrates that the combination of in situ-produced 36Cl based cosmic ray exposure dating, lichenometry and dendrochronology has a considerable potential for dating purposes on young deposits and landforms, in particular on lava flows at high elevation sites. Keywords: Late Holocene Lava flows; In situ-produced cosmogenic 36Cl; Juniperus monticola; Rhizocarpon geographicum.
29333Alfaro F.D., Manzano M., Abades S., Trefault N., de la Iglesia R., Gaxiola A., Marquet P.A., Gutierrez J.R., Meserve P.L., Kelt D.A., Belnap J. & Armesto J.J. (2018): Exclusion of small mammals and lagomorphs invasion interact with human-trampling to drive changes in topsoil microbial community structure and function in semiarid Chile. - Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 124: 1–10.
Species losses and additions can disrupt the relationship between resident species and the structure and functioning of ecosystems. Persistent human-trampling, on the other hand, can have similar effects through the disruption of biocrusts on surface soils of semiarid systems, affecting soil stability and fixation of carbon and nitrogen. Here, we tested the interactive and synergistic impacts of the exclusion of native mammalian herbivores and the effects of introduced lagomorphs in a semiarid thorn scrub ecosystem, where soils were subjected to two different trampling intensities (i.e., trampled and non-trampled). We postulated that because of their differential habitat use and fossorial activities, with respect to native small mammals, lagomorphs would have strong negative effects on soil structure, biocrust cover, and biocrust bacterial community structure. Our expectations were that changes in biocrust cover in response to trampling where native mammals were excluded, but exotic lagomorphs were present, will spread their impacts on soil chemical and physical features. To test our hypotheses, we measured changes in soil biogeochemical properties in four experimental plots where lagomorphs (L)/small mammals (SM) were experimentally manipulated to exclude them from the plots (−), or let them be present (+). The experimental combinations monitored were: -L/+SM, -L/-SM, +L/+SM, and +L/-SM. Results showed that human-trampling disturbance interacted with the loss of native small mammals and the presence of non-native lagomorphs to cause large changes on biological (i.e., biocrust cover, bacterial and nifH genes abundance), physical (i.e., soil moisture and soil stability) and chemical (i.e., TC and TN) soil features. The relative impacts of trampling disturbance on biological and physicochemical features were strongly influenced by the presence of non-native lagomorphs. For example, larger decreases in biocrust cover and bacterial abundance were observed in treatments without lagomorphs (-L/+SM; -L/-SM). In turn, losses of biocrust cover, in addition to trampling, determined decreases in soil stability in all treatments. These results suggest that non-native lagomorphs surpass the effects of the loss of native small mammals in reducing soil quality and productivity. Therefore, human-trampling has the potential to convert low disturbed soils, as those observed in non-trampled soils in treatments -L/+SM, -L/-SM into poor soils with low biocrusts cover and concomitant low stability, as observed in +L/+SM; +L/-SM treatments. These findings agree with previous observations that different components of global change act in synergic ways in fragile, water-limited environments. Because biological invasions and soil surface disturbance are becoming widespread in dryland regions globally, understanding the long-term consequences of these interactions is essential. Keywords: Biocrusts; Nitrogen; Semi-arid ecosystem; Biodiversity loss; Soil stability.
29332Miralles I., Ladrón de Guevara M., Chamizo C., Rodríguez-Caballero E., Ortega R., van Wesemael B. & Cantón Y. (2018): Soil CO2 exchange controlled by the interaction of biocrust successional stage and environmental variables in two semiarid ecosystems. - Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 124: 11–23.
Biocrusts are a critical biological community that represents one of the most important photosynthetic biomass pools in dryland regions. Thus, they play an important role in CO2 fluxes in these regions, where water availability limits vascular plant growth and development. The effect of biocrusts on CO2 fluxes was expected to be controlled by the interplay of several environmental factors, as well as biocrust developmental stage and coverage. To test this hypothesis, we performed an in situ study during which we measured net CO2 fluxes and dark respiration over biocrusted soils at different successional stages in two semiarid ecosystems, where biocrusts are one of the main surface components. In addition, CO2 flux was measured in annual plants, which were an abundant interplant cover in one of the study sites during the measurement period. Field campaigns were conducted from early morning to dusk on selected days with different environmental conditions over the year. Gross photosynthesis was calculated from net CO2 flux and dark respiration. Biocrusts showed contrasting responses in CO2 exchange depending on environmental conditions during the day and the year and depending on biocrust developmental stage. CO2 flux in biocrusts was highly correlated with soil moisture, but also with photosynthetically active radiation and temperature. During dry soil periods, soils colonized by biocrusts had net CO2 fluxes close to zero, but after precipitation events (light or heavy) all the biocrust types began to photosynthesize. When the rainfall was right after an extended drought, the respiration by biocrusts themselves and underlying soil exceeded the biocrust gross photosynthesis, and consequently soils colonized by biocrusts behaved as CO2 sources. On the contrary, consecutive precipitation events and mild temperatures caused soil colonization by biocrusts to behave as CO2 sinks. Annual plants were measured during their senescence and acted as CO2 sources during all measurement campaigns. The time of day when the biocrusts showed net CO2 fixation depended on the interplay of humidity just above them, air temperature and photosynthetically active radiation. The biocrust type also significantly influenced CO2 fluxes in both semiarid ecosystems. In general, during wet periods, late successional biocrusts (i.e. lichens and mosses) had higher gross photosynthesis than early successional biocrusts (developed and incipient cyanobacteria crusts). Nevertheless, dark respiration from late successional biocrusts and underlying soils was also higher than from early successional biocrusts, so both biocrust types had similar net CO2 fluxes. These results highlight the importance of considering the whole soil profile under biocrusts with their associated microbial communities as well as the temporal variability of CO2 fluxes in soils covered by biocrusts in carbon balance studies in semiarid regions. Keywords: Net CO2 fluxes; Dark respiration; Gross photosynthesis; Lichens; Cyanobacteria; Mosses.
29331Kakeh J., Gorji M., Sohrabi M., Tavili A. & Pourbabaee A.A. (2018): Effects of biological soil crusts on some physicochemical characteristics of rangeland soils of Alagol, Turkmen Sahra, NE Iran. - Soil and Tillage Research, 181: 152–159.
Salinity, water scarcity in the summer season, and grazing pressure are major problems in semi-arid ecosystems in the south-east region of the Caspian Sea where the Alagol rangelands of Turkmen Sahra (Golestan province) of North East Iran suffer from over-grazing and soil loss. This study investigated the influence of biological soil crusts (biocrusts) on soil physicochemical properties. Biocrusts create complex communities of specialized organisms composed of cyanobacteria, algae, microfungi, lichens, mosses and other microorganisms. Results have shown that bioencrusted soils increased levels of organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, copper, and iron, and reduced pH, calcium carbonate, sodium, calcium, magnesium, sodium adsorption ratio and exchangeable sodium percentages compared to soils without biocrusts. Other positive influences of biocrusts on soil properties included increased infiltration (0.16 v. 0.081 cm min−1 for steady state rates), available water content, mean weight diameter of soil aggregates, geometric mean diameter and water stable aggregates. Bulk density was reduced under bioencrusted soils relative to non-biocrusts soils. In general, biocrusts had a positive effect on many soil properties and thus enhanced soil quality. Keywords: Alagol rangelands; Biocrusts; Lichens; Infiltration; Salinity; Turkmen Sahra.
29330Widhelm T.J., Bertoletti F.R., Asztalos M.J., Mercado-Díaz J.A., Huang J.-P., Moncada B., Lücking R., Magain N., Sérusiaux E., Goffinet B., Crouch N., Mason-Gamer R. & Lumbsch H.T. (2018): Oligocene origin and drivers of diversification in the genus Sticta (Lobariaceae, Ascomycota). - Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 126: 58–73.
A major challenge to evolutionary biologists is to understand how biodiversity is distributed through space and time and across the tree of life. Diversification of organisms is influenced by many factors that act at different times and geographic locations but it is still not clear which have a significant impact and how drivers interact. To study diversification, we chose the lichen genus Sticta, by sampling through most of the global range and producing a time tree. We estimate that Sticta originated about 30 million years ago, but biogoegraphic analysis was unclear in estimating the origin of the genus. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of dispersal ability finding that Sticta has a high dispersal rate, as collections from Hawaii showed that divergent lineages colonized the islands at least four times. Symbiont interactions were investigated using BiSSE to understand if green-algal or cyanobacterial symbiont interactions influenced diversification, only to find that the positive results were driven almost completely by Type I error. On the other hand, another BiSSE analysis found that an association with Andean tectonic activity increases the speciation rate of species.
29329Mallik A. & Kayes I. (2018): Lichen mated seedbeds inhibit while moss dominated seedbeds facilitate black spruce (Picea mariana) seedling regeneration in post-fire boreal forest. - Forest Ecology and Management, 427: 260–274.
The subject of conifer regeneration failure after canopy removing disturbance leading to expansion of ericaceous heaths in boreal forests received considerable attention. However, despite seedbed quality being a key factor in tree regeneration, our understanding of the role of lichen and moss dominated seedbeds on tree seedling regeneration after forest fires remains unclear. Objective of this study was to investigate the effect of time since fire and post-fire cryptogamic (lichen and moss) seedbeds with variable organic matter thickness on black spruce regeneration. We conducted black spruce seeding experiment in black spruce – Kalmia forests burned 11, 17 and 37 years ago. In each site we applied three seedbed manipulation treatments (mat-intact, mat-mixed and mat-removed) to test if seedbed manipulation improves spruce regeneration. This experiment was extended to three moss-dominated seedbeds to compare seedbed moisture and temperature effects on spruce regeneration. We also tested potential allelopathic effect of two common lichen and moss species in laboratory bioassay. Seed regeneration was low in all seedbeds. Black spruce germination and seedling growth was lowest in presence of Cladonia cristatella followed by C. stellaris, Polytrichum juniperinnum and Pleurozium schriberi. HPLC analysis of C. cristatella indicated the presence of usnic acid, a common germination inhibiting allelochemical. Moss seedbeds were relatively favourable for spruce regeneration. We conclude that (i) lichen seedbeds inhibit seedling regeneration due to adverse biophysical and chemical (allelopathic) effects, (ii) moss seedbeds facilitate black spruce regeneration by maintaining favourable moisture and temperature, and (iii) seedbed manipulation treatments produce mixed results depending on the dominant cryptogam, organic matter thickness and seedbed moisture and temperature. Keywords: Seedbed conditions; Lichen woodland; Boreal forest; Disturbance; Conifer regeneration.
29328Potter C. & Weigand J. (2018): Imaging analysis of biological soil crusts to understand surface heating properties in the Mojave Desert of California. - Catena, 170: 1–9.
Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are composed of a combination of cyanobacteria, green algae, lichens, and mosses that can protect arid soil surfaces from erosive forces. The presence of biocrusts in desert regions is influenced by a complex interaction of climatic, edaphic, and topographic variables, but their distribution and coverage densities in southern California deserts are not precisely mapped. Visible satellite bands (red-green-blue; RGB) and infra-red image resolution are generally too coarse to distinguish between biocrusts and their interstitial sand substrates, limiting most remote sensing analysis of these soil biotic assemblages. The purpose of this study was to better understand the relationships between biocrust cover, surface coloration and roughness, and the thermal infra-red (TIR) emission properties of biocrusts to determine if new types of imaging of desert surfaces could be used to more accurately detect biocrust presence. Based on the results from megapixel digital photos and TIR imaging for nearly 130 different, well-developed biocrust surfaces in the Mojave and Lower Colorado Deserts of California, we designed laboratory heating experiments to test the effect of biocrust cover on the heating properties of sandy wash habitats. Biocrust samples collected from the field were subjected to artificial heating and cooling to simulate the Mojave Desert diurnal cycle. We used image segmentation algorithms to separate true-color biocrust images from their sandy substrates, and to map the heating and cooling patterns of these surfaces with different levels of biocrust coloration and roughness. The major findings of this study showed that biocrust patch images in the field had Red texture mean values between digital numbers of 95 and 131 with moderate positive tail shewness levels, indicative of a highly rugose surface of the biocrust cover. Such patches were also well-compacted overall, with moderate skewness toward negative tails. In controlled laboratory temperature experiments to simulate the desert diurnal cycle, surface wetting with a fine mist of water resulted in significantly lower peak surface temperatures of biocrust samples compared to dry biocrust heating results of the same crust and sand samples. The findings of this study can improve future mapping for lichen-dominated biocrust surfaces in the Mojave Desert. Keywords: Soil biological crusts; Mojave Desert; Lower Colorado Desert; Infra-red imaging; Surface temperature.
29327Ходосовцев О.Є., Дармостук В.В. & Ходосовцева Ю.А. [Khodosovtsev A.Ye., Darmostuk V.V. & Khodosovtseva Yu.A.] (2017): Лишайники та ліхенофільні гриби національного природного парку «Білобережжя Святослава» [The lichens and lichenicolous fungi of National Nature Park «Biloberezhzhya Svyatoslavа»]. - Чорноморський ботанічний журнал [Chornomorski Botanical Journal], 13(3): 324–332.
[in Ukrainian with English abstract:] 82 species of lichens and 12 species of lichenicolous fungi are protected on the territory of the National Nature Park «Biloberezhzhya Svyatoslavа». The lichen Athallia alnetorum and lichenicolous fungus Pronectria xanthoriae are the first time reported to Ukraine, 12 species are new for Mykolaiv region, 71 species are new for the National Nature Park. Among lichens, 66 species are corticolous and they were found on the bark of Alnus glutinosa, Pinus sylvestris, Populus tremula, Quercus robur, Salix alba. 12 terricolous species cover sand dunes and sandy steppe areas. 4 species were found on artificial stone substrate. Cetraria aculeata, Seirophora lacunosa, Xanthoparmelia camtschadalis are included into the Red Data Book of Ukraine. Chaenotheca trichialis, Parmelina quercina, Usnea hirta, Xanthoparmelia pokornyi from «Red list» of the Mykolaiv region are protected. Keywords: Kinburn, Komendantske, Kovalivska saga, Orchidne field, conservation.
29326Frisch A., Grube M., Kashiwadani H. & Ohmura Y. (2018): Arthoniaceae with reddish, K+ purple ascomata in Japan. - Phytotaxa, 356(1): 19–33.
Arthonia sanguinaria is described as new to science. The East Asian Arthonia lopingensis and the widely distributed Arthonia picea are reported as new to Japan from Honshu and the Ogasawara Islands, respectively. The phylogenetic position of A. picea, A. sanguinaria and Coniocarpon cinnabarinum from the Ogasawara Islands is shown by RAxML and Bayesian analysis of mtSSU, nLSU and RPB2 sequence data. Our results confirm the polyphyletic origin of quinoid pigments in Arthoniaceae. A key is presented to the Arthoniaceae with reddish ascomata in Japan. Keywords: Arthoniales, East Asia, Pacific region, phylogeny, taxonomy.
29325Bajpai R., Upreti D.K. & Nayaka S. (2018): The lichen genera Lepraria (Stereocaulaceae) and Leprocaulon (Leprocaulaceae) in India. - Phytotaxa, 356(2): 101–116.
A taxonomic study of the genus Lepraria in India revealed one new species Lepraria indica R. Bajpai & Upreti and 14 new records (L. achariana, L. aurescens, L. caesiella, L.caesioalba, L. cupressicola, L. eburnea, L. ecorticata, L. elobata, L. friabilis, L. granulata, L. incana, L. isidiata, L. leuckertiana, L. lobata) together with two new records of Leprocaulon (L. adhaerens and L. textum) for the lichen flora of the country. An artificial key to all known species of Lepraria and Leprocaulon from India is also provided. Keywords: leprose lichens, new records, taxonomy.
29324Чесноков С.В., Конорева Л.А., Порядина Л.Н., Пауков А.Г., Кузнецова Е.С., Андреев М.П. & Гагарина Л.В. [Chesnokov S.V., Konoreva L.A., Poryadina L.N., Paukov A.G., Kuznetsova E.S., Andreev M.P. & Gagarina L.V.] (2017): Новые и интересные находки лишайников для Республики Саха (Якутия). III [New and interesting lichen records for Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). III]. - Новости систематики низших растений / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 51: 220–231.
Lichen specimens collected in 2008, 2015 and 2016 in Central (Olekminsky district), Eastern (Oimyakon district) and Southern (Aldan, Neryungri districts) Yakutia were studied. As a result 16 lichen species are recorded for Yakutia for the first time, among them 8 species are new to Eastern Siberia and one species — Ramonia himelbrantii — new to Asia. At present the list of lichens of Yakutia numbers about 820 species. Keywords: lichen flora, Eastern Siberia, Aldan district, Neryungri district, Oimyakon district, Olekma district, Ramonia himelbrantii.
29323Urbanavichene I.N. (2017): The genus Parmelina (Parmeliaceae) in the Russian Caucasus. - Новости систематики низших растений / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 51: 204–219.
The present study provides a brief survey of the genus Parmelina in the Russian Caucasus (Western Transcaucasia, Western, Central and Eastern Caucasus) with a special emphasis on species distribution. The study area is located in the largest nature reserves of the Russian Caucasus — Kavkazskiy, Utrish, Severo-Osetinskiy, Erzi. This paper contributes to a better understanding of the genus in the Caucasus, focusing mainly on the author’s collections in different regions of the Northern Caucasus in 2008–2016. Four species have been identified from the Russian Caucasus — Parmelina carporrhizans, P. pastillifera, P. quercina and P. tiliacea. Notes on their morphology, anatomy, ecology and distribution are based on data obtained from a study of ca. 20 specimens of each species. The presence of whitish macules on the upper surface of P. carporrhizans (after Clerc, Truong, 2008) as an important diagnostic feature was shown. The Caucasian material shows the differences in size and proportions of ascospores, size and shape of pycnoconidia between critical species P. carporrhizans and P. quercina. An identification key for Caucasian Parmelina species is composed for the first time and can be used for central regions of Russia. Keywords: lichens, genus Parmelina, taxonomic review, key to species, Caucasus, nature reserves, Russia.
29322Макрый Т.В. [Makryi T.V.] (2017): Peltula daurica (Peltulaceae) — новый вид лишайника из Даурии (Забайкальский край) [Peltula daurica (Peltulaceae), a new lichen species from Dauria (Transbaikal Territory)]. - Новости систематики низших растений / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 51: 191–203.
A description of a new lichen species Peltula daurica from the vicinity of the village of Aksha (South-Eastern Transbaikal Region), collected in the Onon River valley, near the river bank on steep basalt rocks along the road surrounded by steppe, is provided. The new species differs from all the known Peltula species by the presence of a prothallus and peltate squamules (with «pseudoumbilicus») developing from areoles. The species takes a separate position both among the peltate species and among the crustose species. Its affi nity is unknown and may to a certain degree be established by using molecular analysis, for which additional materials are required. Keywords: lichens, Peltula, new species, thallus squamulose-crustose, prothallus, peltate squamules, Russia.
29321Ismailov A.B. (2017): A contribution to the lichen flora of Tlyaratinskiy Protected Area (East Caucasus, Dagestan, Russia). - Новости систематики низших растений / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 51: 178–190.
The lichen flora of the Tlyaratinskiy Protected Area (Zakaznik) in Dagestan, North-Eastern Caucasus is surveyed. In total 165 species, including 162 lichenized and 3 lichenicolous fungi, representing 82 genera are listed here with their localities and substrates. Caloplaca diphyodes is new to the Russian Caucasus. Arthonia intexta, Bryoria smithii, Protoparmelia badia and Sphaerellothecium reticulatum are new to Dagestan. Two species ( Tornabea scutellifera, Usnea florida) represent those listed in the Red Data Book of Russia. The territory of Tlyaratinskiy Protected Area is the only known locality in the Caucasus of the species Carbonea assimilis, Lecidea silacea, Rhizocarpon ridescens and R. superficiale. Keywords: lichens, lichenicolous fungi, Keywords> floristic study, biodiversity, pine forest, new records, red-listed species, highlands.
29320Яцына А.П. [Yatsyna A.P.] (2016): Обзор лишайников родов Chaenotheca и Sclerophora (Coniocybaceae) в Беларуси. I [A review of the lichen genera Chaenotheca and Sclerophora (Coniocybaceae) in Belarus. I]. - Новости систематики низших растений / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 50: 257–267.
The paper presents data on 11 lichen species of the genera Chaenotheca and Sclerophora in Belarus. A new locality of Chaenotheca cinerea has been discovered; until now the species was known in Belarus from the only record published in 1830. New localities of protected lichens C. chlorella and C. gracilenta are found. Data on localities, habitats and substrates of all species are provided. It is established, that C. chlorella, C. chrysocephala, C. gracilenta, C. phaeocephala, Sclerophora farinacea, S. pallida and S. peronella inhabit mainly the bark of old-growth deciduous or rarely coniferous trees. The specimens are deposited at the lichen herbarium of V. F. Kuprevich Institute of Experimental Botany, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus (MSK-L). Keywords: lichens, Chaenotheca, Sclerophora, new records, distribution, ecology, red-listed species, Chaenotheca chlorella, Chaenotheca gracilenta, Belarus.
29319Урбанавичене И.Н. & Урбанавичюс Г.П. [Urbanavichene I.N. & Urbanavichus G.P.] (2016): К лихенофлоре долины реки Шахе (Краснодарский край, Западное Закавказье) [Contribution to the lichen flora of the Shakhe River valley (Krasnodar Territory, Western Transcaucasia)]. - Новости систематики низших растений / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 50: 243–256.
A total of 138 species of lichens, lichenicolous and allied fungi are reported from broad-leaved forests with Buxus colchica from the Shakhe River valley in the Caucasus State Nature Reserve (Krasnodar Territory, Western Transcaucasia). The list includes 10 foliicolous lichens, namely Arthonia microsticta, Bacidina apiahica, Byssoloma leucoblepharum, Fellhanera bouteillei, F. viridisorediata, Gyalectidium caucasicum, G. setiferum, Phyllogyalidea phyllophila, Porina oxneri, Strigula buxi. On the thallus of the latter, a lichenicolous fungus Lambinonia strigulae was found. Nine species are recorded for the fi rst time for the Russian Caucasus, fi ve of them being new for the Caucasus. Endococcus ramalinarius, Eopyrenula septemseptata and Pyrenula subelliptica are reported for the first time for Russia. The list includes five species included in the Red Data Book of Russian Fеderation (2008) and ten species included in the Red Data Book of Krasnodar Territory (2007). Keywords: lichens, foliicolous, new records, Buxus colchica, Shakhe River, Caucasian Reserve, Krasnodar Territory, Russia.
29318Макрый Т.В. [Makryi T.V.] (2016): Peltula pannarioides и P. rosulata (Peltulaceae) — новые виды лишайников из Байкальской Сибири []. - Новости систематики низших растений / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 50: 231–242.
The objective of the study was to conduct a thorough anatomical, morphological and taxonomic study of the species of the lichen genus Peltula from Baikal Siberia belonging to the group with peltate-umbilicate sorediate thallus (euplocabolanderi-type). Until now, among over 40 Peltula species, only four ones belonged to this group (P. africana, P. bolanderi, P. euploca and P. farinosa). In addition to the widespread species P. euploca, two new species have been identifi ed, essentially different from all the four previously known members of the group, primarily by the expressed polyphyllous character of the thallus. Descriptions of the new species, P. pannarioides and P. rosulata, with their macro and micro photos and a map of their distribution, are provided. P. pannarioides is characterized by a thick polyphyllous thallus, upturned undulate sorediate margins of lobes, brown-grey reticulate-grained pruinose upper surface, large granulose soredia, thick cracked epinecral layer, and medulla composed of densely interwoven periclinally oriented hyphae. P. rosulata is characterized by thin polyphyllous thallus, upturned undulate sorediate margins of lobes, dark-brown, smooth, matte upper surface, large granulose soredia, thin continuous brownish epinecral layer, and medulla composed of loosely interwoven periclinally and anticlinally oriented hyphae. The territory of Baikal Siberia and of Southern Siberia as a whole may be regarded as one of the centers of the species diversity of genus Peltula, namely of the group of species with polyphyllous umbilicate sorediate thallus. The entire complex of the species with the euploca-bolanderi-type thallus requires more detailed study. Keywords: lichens, Peltula, new species, peltate-umbilicate, polyphyllous, sorediate, Russia.
29317Himelbrant D.E., Stepanchikova I.S. & Tagirdzhanova G.M. (2016): The lichens and allied fungi of the Oranienbaumsky Prospective Protected Area (St. Petersburg). - Новости систематики низших растений / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 50: 210–230.
The diversity of lichens and allied fungi of the Oranienbaumsky (Rambovsky) Prospective Protected Area (St. Petersburg, Russia) has been studied for the fi rst time. Among 214 discovered species 199 are lichens, 11 are lichenicolous fungi and 4 are saprobic fungi traditionally reported in lichenological lists. The lichen diversity of the territory is estimated as one of the richest within the limits of St. Petersburg. The lichen Protothelenella petri is recorded for the fi rst time for Russia, the lichens Biatora cuprea, Brianaria bauschiana, Micarea leprosula and Thelocarpon lichenicola are new for the North-Western European Russia, lichens Aspicilia laevata and Trapelia glebulosa, as well as the lichenicolous fungi Stigmidium fuscatae and Syzygospora physciacearum are new for St. Petersburg, the lichenicolous fungus Sphaerellothecium coniodes was not earlier known either from St. Petersburg or Leningrad Region. Nine species included in the Red Data Book of St. Petersburg are known from the Oranienbaumsky Prospective Protected Area. Of these, Ramalina sinensis has not been reported from the administrative territory since 1938 and is probably extinct from the historical localities. Parmelia fraudans was found in St. Petersburg for the fi rst time in 80 years and we propose to include this species into the Red Data Book. The lichen fl ora of the Oranienbaumsky Prospective Protected Area comprises regionally rare and vulnerable species and deserves protection as one of the richest in St. Petersburg. Keywords: lichens, new records, red-listed species, Biatora cuprea, Brianaria bauschiana, Micarea leprosula, Thelocarpon lichenicola, Protothelenella petri, St. Petersburg, Oranienbaumsky Prospective Protected Area.
29316Aхти Т., Алвердиева С.М. & Агаева Д.Н. [Ahti T., Alverdiyeva S.M. & Aghayeva D.N.] (2016): Новые находки лишайников рода Cladonia (Cladoniaceae) для Азербайджана [New records of lichens of the genus Cladonia (Cladoniaceae) for Azerbaijan]. - Новости систематики низших растений / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 50: 203–209.
[In Russian with English abstract:] When processing the specimens of the lichens from the Cladonia genus (51 taxa), which were collected in various years by different collectors and which are stored in a lichenological and bryological herbarium of Botanical Institute of Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences (city of Baku), there were revealed three species and two subspecies: C. borealis, C. farinacea, C. mitis, C. gracilis subsp. turbinata and C. uncialis subsp. uncialis. These taxa are considered new and rare for lichen biota of Azerbaijan. Keywords: new records, lichens, Azerbaijan.
29315Урбанавичюс Г.П. [Urbanavichus G.P.] (2014): Семейство Verrucariaceae в России. II. Род Placidiopsis [Family Verrucariaceae in Russia. II. Genus Placidiopsis]. - Новости систематики низших растений / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 48: 327–338.
The review of species of the genus Placidiopsis Beltr. distributed in Russia — P. cervinula (Nyl.) Vain., P. cinerascens (Nyl.) Breuss, P. pseudocinerea Breuss, P. tiroliensis Breuss (new to Russia) — is presented. P. oreades Breuss is reported for the fi rst time from Mongolia. Descriptions of the species, ecology, distribution in Russia and the world, and a key are given. Keywords: Placidiopsis, Verrucariaceae, taxonomy, distribution, ecology, key, Russia.
29314Урбанавичене И.Н. & Урбанавичюс Г.П. [Urbanavichene I.N. & Urbanavichus G.P.] (2014): К лихенофлоре долины реки Ачипсе (Юго-Западный Кавказ, Краснодарский край) [Contribution to the lichen fl ora of the Achipse River valley (SW Caucasus, Krasnodarsky Kray)]. - Новости систематики низших растений / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 48: 315–326.
In total 124 species of lichens, lichenicolous and allied fungi are reported from the Achipse River Valley (Kavkazsky Reserve, Krasnodarsky Kray, SW Caucasus). Among them 44 species are recorded for the fi rst time for Krasnodarsky Kray, including 16 species which are new for the Russian Caucasus. Agonimia repleta Czarnota et Coppins, Opegrapha anomea Nyl. and Usnea fl avocardia Räsänen are reported for the fi rst time for Russia and Caucasus. Biatora mendax Anzi, Biatoropsis usnearum Räsänen, Bryoria americana (Motyka) Holien, Cryptodiscus pallidus (Pers.) Corda, Fuscidea stiriaca (A. Massal.) Hafellner, Ochrolechia trochophora (Vain.) Oshio and Stictis radiata Pers. are new for Caucasus. Updated distribution of Usnea fl avocardia is presented. Keywords: lichens, lichenicolous fungi, new records, Kavkazsky Reserve, Krasnodarsky Kray, Russia.
29313Макрый Т.В. [Makryi T.V.] (2014): Обзор секции Mallotium рода Leptogium (Collemataceae) в России и новые для России виды L. pseudopapillosum и L. hirsutum [A review of the sect. Mallotium of the genus Leptogium (Collemataceae) in Russia and L. pseudopapillosum and L. hirsutum new records for Russia]. - Новости систематики низших растений / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 48: 264–290.
Based on the literature data and the original research, a review of the species of the sect. Mallotium of the genus Leptogium occurring in the territory of Russia (11 species) is made and a key for their identifi cation is provided. L. pseudopapillosum P. M. Jørg. et Wallace and L. hirsutum Sierk are reported for the fi rst time for Russia, descriptions and localities for both of them are provided. Descriptions of four poorly known in Russia species — L. arcticum P. M. Jørg., L. asiaticum P. M. Jørg., L. furfuraceum (Harm.) Sierk, L. pedicellatum P. M. Jørg. are given. New fi ndings are reported for three species, L. asiaticum P. M. Jørg., L. hildenbrandii Nyl., and L. saxatile Makryï. The greatest diversity of hairy Leptogium species is found to occur in the south of the Russian Far East and Siberia — eight and seven species, respectively. Keywords: lichens, Leptogium, new records, Siberia, Far East, Russia.
29312Катаева О.А. [Kataeva O.A.] (2014): Ramalina sekika Asahina (Ramalinaceae) — новый для России вид с Дальнего Востока [Ramalina sekika (Ramalinaceae), a new species for the lichen fl ora of Russia from the Far East]. - Новости систематики низших растений / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 48: 256–263.
Ramalina sekika Asahina is reported for the fi rst time from Russia from Sakhalin. It refers to the number of rare and poorly investigated species of the genus. Until now it was considered to be endemic to northeastern China. The original description and the location in the Far East are given, as well as the data on anatomical and morphological study of the Russian specimen. The differences in the anatomical structure of its thallus are discussed. A comparison of anatomical and morphological characters of R. sekika, R. pollinaria (Westr.) Ach. (European material), R. yasudae Räsänen has been made; the author considers them as independent species. Keywords: lichens, Ramalina, Ramalina sekika, new record, the Far East, Russia.
29311Жданов И.С. [Zhdanov I.S.] (2014): Редкие и интересные лихенологические находки в Приморском крае [Rare and interesting lichen records from the Primorye Territory (Russia)]. - Новости систематики низших растений / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 48: 249–255.
The annotated list of 15 species of lichens and lichenicolous fungi collected by the author in 2005 and 2007 is presented. Eight species are new to the Primorye Territory, including Absconditella delutula (Nyl.) Coppins et H. Kilias which is new to Asia, Cetraria annae Oxner and Fuscidea kochiana (Hepp) V. Wirth et Vězda — new to the Russian Far East. The genus Absconditella is new to the Russian Far East. Distribution of species is discussed. Keywords: lichens, Absconditella, Cetraria, Fuscidea, Russia, Primorsky Kray, Zov Tigra National Park.
29310Ежкин А.К. & Galanina I.A. [Ezhkin A.K. & Галанина И.А.] (2014): Дополнения к лихенобиоте острова Сахалин [Additions to the lichen biota of the Sakhalin Island]. - Новости систематики низших растений / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 48: 233–248.
Records of 32 lichen species new to the island of Sakhalin are reported. One of them — Physcia dimidiata (Arnold) Nyl. is new to the Russian Far East. New species for the Sakhalin island are Buellia dives Th. Fr., Flavopunctelia soredica (Nyl.) Hale, Heterodermia dissecta (Kurok.) D. D. Awasthi, H. microphylla (Kurok.) Skorepa, H. pseudospeciosa (Kurok.) W. L. Culb. var. tremulans (Müll. Arg.) Kurok., Hypogymnia arcuata Tchaban. et McCune, Lasallia pensylvanica (Hoffm.) Llano, Lecanora hagenii (Ach.) Ach., Lepraria incana (L.) Ach., Leptogium asiaticum P. M. Jørg., Melanelia hepatizon (Ach.) A. Thell, Mycoblastus sanguinarioides Kantvilas, Myelochroa entotheiochroa (Hue) Elix et Hale, M. metarevoluta (Asahina) Elix et Hale, M. subaurulenta (Nyl.) Elix et Hale, Nephroma parile (Ach.) Ach., Oxneria huculica S. Y. Kondr., Parmelia praesquarrosa Kurok., Peltigera collina (Ach.) Schrad., Pertusaria amara (Ach.) Nyl., Physcia adscendes (Fr.) H. Olivier, P. dimidiatа, Physconia grumosa Kashiw. et Poelt, P. kurokawae Kashiw., P. lobulifera Kashiw., Pyrenula japonica Kurok., Ramalina asahinana Zahlbr., Schismatomma pericleum (Ach.) Branth et Rostr., Usnea lapponica Vain., Vahliella leucophaea (Vahl) P. M. Jørg., Xanthoparmelia conspersa (Ehrh. et Ach.) Hale, X. stenophylla (Ach.) Ahti et D. Hawksw. Heterodermia microphylla in the south of the Russian Far East more often is sorediate. The form with soredia was registered earlier as Anaptychia hypoleuca (Mühl.) A. Massal. var. microphila Kurok. f. granulosa (Kurok.) Kurok. Mycoblastus sanguinarioides is very common in Sakhalin and prevails in collections of the genus. Altogether 386 species of lichens are known for the island of Sakhalin nowadays. Keywords: lichens, Sakhalin, vegetation, lichen cover.
29309Гагарина Л.В. [Gagarina L.V.] (2014): Два новых для Абхазии вида рода Lepraria (Stereocaulaceae) [Two new Lepraria species (Stereocaulaceae) for Abkhazia]. - Новости систематики низших растений / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 48: 226–229.
Lepraria lobificans Nyl. and L. rigidula (de Lesd.) Tønsberg were found in Abkhazia for the first time. The descriptions of new to Abkhazia lichen species are given and the localities in Abkhazia are reported. Keywords: lichens, Lepraria lobificans, L. rigidula, Abkhazia, Caucasus.
29308Gerasimova Y.V., Konoreva L.A. & Chesnokov S.V. (2014): The first record of Bacidia reagens (Ramalinaceae) for Eurasia . - Новости систематики низших растений / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 48: 230–232.
Bacidia reagens Malme, a corticolous lichen species, is reported as new to Eurasia. The species was found in the Transbaikal Territory of Eastern Siberia in a humid locality on the bark of Sorbus sp. Its morphology, worldwide distribution and ecology are briefl y outlined. Keywords: Bacidia, Ramalinaceae, Transbaikal Territory, Eastern Siberia, new species to Eurasia, Russia.
29307Макрый Т.В. & Желудева Е.В. [Makryi T.V. & Zheludeva E.V.] (2018): Fuscopannaria cheiroloba (Pannariaceae) – новый для России вид лишайника [Fuscopannaria cheiroloba (Pannariaceae), a new to Russia lichen species]. - Turczaninowia, 21(1):153–159.
The description and locality of the new to Russia lichen species Fuscopannaria cheiroloba, found in the Kilgan Mountains (Magadan Region) are reported. The species is characterized by elongated fan-shaped marginal squamules, epruinose not-felted squamule margins, convex apothecia without thalline margin. Based on the analysis of the localities of the species in North America and in Central Asia a conclusion was made that its ecological range is quite broad: it occurs in the mountains located in different solar zones and in the regions of different degrees of continentality/oceanity of the climate – from subtropics to the northern latitudes of the boreal zone. In areas with a continental climate it is confined to the highlands (to 4650 m a. s. l.), and in regions with a humid climate it also inhabits in the forest belt (at 200–400 m a. s. l.). F. cheiroloba has the Asian-North American areal. It is a terricolous bryophilous species, living also on mossy stones and rocks, more rarely on tree trunks. Keywords: Fuscopannaria cheiroloba; lichens; Magadan Region; North-Eastern Siberia; Russia.
29306Урбанавичюс Г.П. & Урбанавичене И.Н. [Urbanavichus G.P. & Urbanavichene I.N.] (2017): Tylophoron hibernicum (Arthoniaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) – первое указание рода и вида для России [Tylophoron hibernicum (Arthoniaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) – the first record of the genus and species for Russia]. - Turczaninowia, 20(4): 82–86.
The genus Tylophoron Nyl. ex Stizenb. and species Tylophoron hibernicum (D. Hawksw.) Ertz et al. are reported for the first time from Russia, based on the materials collected in the North-Western Caucasus from the Krasnodar region, where its grows on Quercus pubescens in oak and oriental hornbeam forest, in Utrish Reserve, Abrau Peninsula. The genus Tylophoron is widely distributed in the tropics and subtropics, and only one pantropic species T. hibernicum is extending into the temperate latitudes in oceanic parts of the Western Europe (Ireland, United Kingdom, Belgium, France, Spain). Earlier, the genus was referred to the order Caliciales, and only recently molecular data have shown that the genus belongs to the Arthoniaceae. Species T. hibernicum is easily recognized by its pale yellowish sporodochia, 0.2–0.6(–1) mm diam., growing on felty, pale greyish to creamy or bluish thallus (containing lecanoric acid, C+red), and hyaline, 0–1-septate conidia – simple conidia ellipsoid to oblong, rarely spherical, (4.5–)6–6.5(–8) × 3–4 μm and 1-septate conidia often distinctly constricted at the septum, (6–)7–11.5(–15) × (3–)3.5–4.5(–5) μm. Keywords: Caucasus; distribution; ecology; floristic finding; lichens; Russia; Tylophoron hibernicum; Utrish Reserve.
29305Желудева Е.В. [Zheludeva E.V.] (2017): Новинки лихенофлоры Магаданской области [New records of lichen species from Magadan region]. - Turczaninowia, 20(2): 64–74.
In 2007–2016 the author of the article was studying lichen flora from the Ola (valley of the Taui R. and the Ola R., Talan Island, Atargan, Yamsk, Ola and Kava-Chelomdzha areas of the Magadan nature reserve), Magadan (surroundings of Magadan and Snezhnaya Dolina settlement), Severo-Evensk (valley of the Gizhiga R. and Nayakhan R.), Srednekansky (surroundings of Ezop mountain) and Khasynsky (Yablonevy pass and 86th km of the main highway) regions of Magadan Oblast. Certain samples were collected by the institute workers: by E. A. Andriyanova, N. A. Sazanova, M. G. Khoreva and O. A. Mochalova. Processing of lichen collections resulted in discovery of new locations for 20 species of lichens. Three of them (Peltigera continentalis, P. ponojensis, and P. scabrosella) are reported for first time for the Far East. Another 17 (Brodoa oroarctica, Cetraria aculata, Cladonia stygia, Flavocetraria minuscula, Hypogymnia tubulosa, Lecanora bicincta, Nephroma bellum, Peltigera collina, P. neckeri, P. praetextata, Physciella chloantha, Placopsis cribellans, Porpidia cinereoatra, Psora decipiens, Solorina bispora var. bispora, S. saccata, and Xanthoria candelaria) are newly reported to Magadan Oblast of Russia. The information about general distribution of all mentioned species is also presented. Keywords: biogeography; lichens; new records; Okhotsk area; Russian Far East.
29304Holien H. & Timdal E. (2018): Tor Tønsberg: A birthday tribute. - Graphis Scripta, 30(6): 30–33.
29303Frisch A. & Holien H. (2018): Arthonia toensbergii, a new lichenicolous fungus on Mycoblastus affinis from the boreal rainforests in Norway. - Graphis Scripta, 30(6): 34–43.
Arthonia toensbergii is described from old-growth boreal rainforests in Norway. The new species parasitizes Mycoblastus affinis growing on branches and trunks of Picea abies. It can be recognised among related species by its combination of characters including the adnate, non-aggregated, matt, (brownish-)black ascomata not visibly breaking through the host thallus, 0.07–0.15 μm diam; medium olivish brown epi- and hypothecium without distinct apical caps on the tips of the paraphysoids; hyaline, slipper-shaped, 1-septate ascospores with slight constriction at the septum, 11–14 × 4–5.5 μm; hymenial gels I+ vinose, KI+ sky blue; and a KI+ blue ring in the tholus. Arthonia toensbergii is shown to belong to the Bryostigma-clade by RAxML and Bayesian analysis of mtSSU, nLSU, and RPB2 sequence data. The related species Arthonia parietinaria is reported as new to Norway.
29302Fryday A.M. & McCarthy J.W. (2018): Hymenelia parva (Hymeneliaceae, Ostropomycetidae): A new species from Newfoundland, Canada. - Graphis Scripta, 30(6): 44–50.
The new species Hymenelia parva is described from a single locality on the Avalon Peninsula, Newfoundland, Canada. It differs from all previously described species of the Hymenelia/Ionaspis complex by the combination of its small apothecia, lack of apothecial pigmentation, negative epihymenium reactions, green chlorococcoid photobiont and occurrence on siliceous rocks.