34434Sprengel K. P. J. (1821): Neue Entdeckungen im ganzen Umfang der Pflanzenkunde. - Leipzig, F. Fleischer, 386 p. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/50218.
34433Marshall A.J., Blanchon D.J., Aptroot A., Lücking R. & de Lange P.J. (2022): Five new additions to the lichenized mycobiota of the Aotearoa / New Zealand archipelago. - Український ботанічний журнал [Ukrainian Botanical Journal], 79(3): 130–141. https://doi.org/10.15407/ukrbotj79.130.
As part of ongoing studies of the lichenized mycobiota of the Aotearoa / New Zealand archipelago we provide formal documentation of the occurrence of Alyxoria ochrocheila, Anisomeridium anisolobum, Fissurina dumastii, Porina americana and Zwackhia viridis. Through their formal documentation in peer-reviewed literature these species can now be accepted as new additions to the lichenized mycobiota of that region. Keywords: Alyxoria ochrocheila, Anisomeridium anisolobum, Fissurina dumastii, Porina americana, Zwackhia viridis, Aotearoa / New Zealand, lichenized mycobiota, new additions.
34432Dembitsky V.M. (2022): Microbiological aspects of unique, rare, and unusual fatty acids derived from natural amides and their pharmacological profile. - Microbiology Research, 13: 377–417. https://doi.org/10.3390/microbiolres13030030.
In the proposed review, the pharmacological profile of unique, rare, and unusual fatty acids derived from natural amides is considered. These amides are produced by various microor- ganisms, lichens, and fungi. The biological activity of some natural fatty acid amides has been de- termined by their isolation from natural sources, but the biological activity of fatty acids has not been practically studied. According to QSAR data, the biological activity of fatty acids is shown, which demonstrated strong antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral, antineoplastic, anti-inflammatory ac- tivities. Moreover, some fatty acids have shown rare activities such as antidiabetic, anti-infective, anti-eczematic, antimutagenic, and anti-psoriatic activities. For some fatty acids that have pro- nounced biological properties, 3D graphs are shown that show a graphical representation of unique activities. These data are undoubtedly of both theoretical and practical interest for chemists, phar- macologists, as well as for the pharmaceutical industry, which is engaged in the synthesis of biolog- ically active drugs. Keywords: fatty acids; bacteria; fungal endophytes; fungi; lichens; amides.
34431Lu Y., Tao Y., Yin B., Li Y., Tucker C., Zhou X. & Zhang Y. (2022): Nitrogen deposition stimulated winter nitrous oxide emissions from bare sand more than biological soil crusts in cold desert ecosystem. - Science of the Total Environment, 841: 156779 [10 p.]. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.156779.
Dryland ecosystems are often nitrogen-limited, and small nitrogen inputs may produce large responses to dryland ecological processes, such as gaseous nitrogen emission. The effect of increased anthropogenic nitrogen deposition on N2O and NO emissions in desert ecosystems is unclear, especially in non-growing seasons when the surface is covered with snow. In this study, nitrogen applications were performed on biological soil crusts (lichen crust and moss crust, bare sand for control) in the Gurbantunggut Desert, Northwest China. We measured the fluxes of N2O and NO and related nitrogen cycle functional gene abundances in winter for three-years period. Nitrogen addition significantly affected N2O emissions and increased the abundances of key functional gene for nitrogen cycle, while it only slightly influenced NO emissions. These effects of nitrogen addition depended on composition of biological soil crusts. For bare sand and lichen crust, nitrogen addition significantly increased N2O emissions, whereas for moss crust, only a negligible effect was observed. Meanwhile, significant differences in nitrogen cycle functional gene abundances were found among different composition of biological soil crusts. Abundance of amoA, narG, and nosZ genes were highly related to N2O and NO emissions. Thus, our results indicate that gaseous nitrogen emissions were generally increased by nitrogen addition through their effects on related functional microbial groups. The effects were regulated by composition of biological soil crusts which can buffer the effects of increasing nitrogen addition during winter. Keywords: Nitrous oxide; Nitric oxide; Biological soil crust; Nitrogen cycle functional genes; Nitrogen addition.
34430Xiao B., Bowker M.A. , Zhao Y., Chamizo S. & Issa O.M. (2022): Biocrusts: Engineers and architects of surface soil properties, functions, and processes in dryland ecosystems. - Geoderma, 424: 116015 [5 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2022.116015.
Biocrusts are photosynthetic biotic communities of cryptogams and microbes that aggregate minerals at the soil surface in many ecosystems. Due to their high tolerance to harsh environments, biocrusts are present in a wide range of habitats, but are especially representative ground covers in regions with restricted vegetation growth, such as drylands (hyperarid, arid, semiarid, and dry subhumid regions) where water is a limiting factor, or high latitude or altitude regions where cold is a limiting factor. Since biocrusts fulfill a large range of ecological roles particularly in modifying soil properties and regulating functions, their rehabilitation and management is believed to be a promising measure for combating land degradation. We organized this article collection to further highlight the importance of biocrusts and their fundamental roles in reshaping soil properties and multifunctionality in drylands and other ecosystems, and to elucidate the ways in which global change factors are influencing biocrust-soil systems. The special issue brings together 27 research articles pertinent to soil-biocrust interactions or biocrust response to global change and disturbance from 12 countries worldwide (10 papers from China, 6 papers from the USA, 2 papers from Spain, 2 papers from Australia, in addition to studies from Antarctica, Argentina, Brazil, Iceland, Iran, Mexico, Norway, South Africa, and Sweden). The discussed topics include biocrust roles in regulating soil hydrology (6 papers), reducing soil erosion (4 papers), affecting soil carbon fixation and respiration (2 papers), and influencing soil microbial biodiversity (5 papers). The responses of biocrusts themselves and their functions to trampling disturbance (2 papers), land use shifts (2 papers), and climate change (5 papers) are also emphasized. On the whole, we highlight the capability of biocrusts in reshaping most properties of surface soil, acting as engineers and architects of surface soil properties, functions, and processes in dryland or other harsh environments, and we recognize the necessity of their protection and consideration as valuable nature-based measures to combat soil and land degradation. Keywords : Biological soil crust ; Soil multifunctionality ; Dryland hydrology ; Soil erosion ; Soil carbon cycling ; Human disturbance ; Global climate change.
34429Keuler R., Jensen J., Barcena-Peña A., Grewe F., Lumbsch H.T., Huang J.-P. & Leavitt S.D. (2022): Interpreting phylogenetic conflict: Hybridization in the most speciose genus of lichen-forming fungi. - Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 174: 107543 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2022.107543.
While advances in sequencing technologies have been invaluable for understanding evolutionary relationships, increasingly large genomic data sets may result in conflicting evolutionary signals that are often caused by biological processes, including hybridization. Hybridization has been detected in a variety of organisms, influencing evolutionary processes such as generating reproductive barriers and mixing standing genetic variation. Here, we investigate the potential role of hybridization in the diversification of the most speciose genus of lichen-forming fungi, Xanthoparmelia. As Xanthoparmelia is projected to have gone through recent, rapid diversification, this genus is particularly suitable for investigating and interpreting the origins of phylogenomic conflict. Focusing on a clade of Xanthoparmelia largely restricted to the Holarctic region, we used a genome skimming approach to generate 962 single-copy gene regions representing over 2 Mbp of the mycobiont genome. From this genome-scale dataset, we inferred evolutionary relationships using both concatenation and coalescent-based species tree approaches. We also used three independent tests for hybridization. Although different species tree reconstruction methods recovered largely consistent and well-supported trees, there was widespread incongruence among individual gene trees. Despite challenges in differentiating hybridization from ILS in situations of recent rapid radiations, our genome-wide analyses detected multiple potential hybridization events in the Holarctic clade, suggesting one possible source of trait variability in this hyperdiverse genus. This study highlights the value in using a pluralistic approach for characterizing genome-scale conflict, even in groups with well-resolved phylogenies, while highlighting current challenges in detecting the specific impacts of hybridization. Keywords: Conflict; Incomplete lineage sorting; Introgression; Phylogenetic incongruence; Phylogenomics; Reticulation.
34428Srimani S., Schmidt C.X., Gómez-Serranillos M.P., Oster H. & Divakar P.K. (2022): Modulation of cellular circadian rhythms by secondary metabolites of lichens. - Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience, 16: 907308 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2022.907308.
Background: Most mammalian cells harbor molecular circadian clocks that synchronize physiological functions with the 24-h day-night cycle. Disruption of circadian rhythms, through genetic or environmental changes, promotes the development of disorders like obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. At the cellular level, circadian, mitotic, and redox cycles are functionally coupled. Evernic (EA) and usnic acid (UA), two lichen secondary metabolites, show various pharmacological activities including antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective action. All these effects have likewise been associated with a functional circadian clock. Hypothesis/Purpose: To test, if the lichen compounds EA and UA modulate circadian clock function at the cellular level. Methods: We used three different cell lines and two circadian luminescence reporter systems for evaluating dose- and time-dependent effects of EA/UA treatment on cellular clock regulation at high temporal resolution. Output parameters studied were circadian luminescence rhythm period, amplitude, phase, and dampening rate. Results: Both compounds had marked effects on clock rhythm amplitudes and dampening independent of cell type, with UA generally showing a higher efficiency than EA. Only in fibroblast cells, significant effects on clock period were observed for UA treated cells showing shorter and EA treated cells showing longer period lengths. Transient treatment of mouse embryonic fibroblasts at different phases had only minor clock resetting effects for both compounds. Conclusion: Secondary metabolites of lichen alter cellular circadian clocks through amplitude reduction and increased rhythm dampening. Keywords: evernic acid, usnic acid, circadian clocks, amplitude, dampening, in vitro models.
34427Evdokimov G., Afonina O., Konoreva L., Obabko R., Mamontov Yu., Chesnokov S., Frolov I.A. & Babiy U.V. (2022): Flora of lichens, mosses and liverworts of Wrangel Island: New records. - Polish Polar Research, 43(2): 145–163. DOI: 10.24425/ppr.2022.140361.
New records to lichen flora and bryoflora of Wrangel Island are presented. The additions to the island cryptogam flora include 32 lichens and one lichenicolous fungus, 26 mosses and eleven liverwort species. Acarospora sinopica, Alectoria gowardii, Austroplaca sibirica, Calogaya bryochrysion, Hymenelia ceracea, Porpidia ochrolemma, and Sagiolechia protuberans are new to the island and to the Russian Far East. Two lichen species (Lecidea lithophila and Rinodina terrestris), as well as two liverwort taxa (Clevea hyaline, Lophoziopsis excisa var. elegans and Pseudolophozia debiliformis), are new to the Chukotka Autonomous Area. Two of the reported moss species (Funaria arctica and Schistidium umbrosum) are extremely rare. Location data and ecological descriptions for the newly reported species are included. Keywords: Arctic, biodiversity, checklist, new records, cryptogams.
34426Alonso-García M., Pino-Bodas R. & Villarreal A.J.C. (2022): Co-dispersal of symbionts in the lichen Cladonia stellaris inferred from genomic data . - Fungal Ecology, 60: 101165 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.funeco.2022.101165.
We tested the congruence in dispersal patterns of the two main symbionts of the lichen Cladonia stellaris using genotyping-by-sequencing data. Based on 122 samples from eastern Canada, we recovered more than 21000 loci from the photobiont of C. stellaris. We described the population structure and estimate genetic diversity of the photobiont and identified the factors that contribute to explain genetic variation in both lichen partners. We also determined the identity of the dominant photobiont associated to C. stellaris using two molecular markers. Our results showed that C. stellaris is associated with Asterochloris glomerata, A. irregularis, and A. pseudoirregularis. Congruence in the genetic structure of photobiont and mycobiont were confirmed, suggesting co-dispersal of thallus fragments of C. stellaris. Genetic diversity of each symbiont was the factor that explained most of the genetic variation of the other symbiont, whereas geographical location and bioclimatic region seemed to have small or null explanatory power. Keywords: Asexual reproduction ; Asterochloris ; Congruence ; Dispersal ; Eastern Canada ; Genotyping-by-sequencing Reindeer lichen ; Long-distance dispersal ; Spatial genetic structure.
34425Calabon M.S., Hyde K.D., Jones E.B.G., Luo Z.-L., Dong W., Hurdeal V.G., Gentekaki E., Rossi W., Leonardi M., Thiyagaraja V., Lestari A.S., Shen H.-W., Bao D.-F., Boonyuen N. & Zeng M. (2022): Freshwater fungal numbers. - Fungal Diversity, 114: 3–235. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13225-022-00503-2.
A review paper. A comprehensive account of fungal classification from freshwater habitats is outlined and discussed in the present review based on literature of biodiversity studies and recent morpho-phylogenetic analyses. A total of 3,870 freshwater fungal species are listed with additional details on the isolation source, habitat, geographical distribution, and molecular data. The Ascomycota (2,968 species, 1,018 genera) dominated the freshwater fungal taxa wherein Sordariomycetes (823 species, 298 genera) had the largest number, followed by Dothideomycetes (677 species, 229 genera), Eurotiomycetes (276 species, 49 genera), and Leotiomycetes (260 species, 83 genera). Other phyla included in the updated classification of freshwater fungi are: Chytridiomycota (333 species, 97 genera), Rozellomycota (221 species, 105 genera), Basidiomycota (218 species, 100 genera), Blastocladiomycota (47 species, 10 genera), Monoblepharomycota (29 species, 6 genera), Mucoromycota (19 species, 10 genera), Aphelidiomycota (15 species, 3 genera), Entomophthoromycota (6 species, 4 genera), Mortierellomycota (5 species, 3 genera), Olpidiomycota (4 species, 1 genus), Zoopagomycota (3 species, 2 genera), and Sanchytriomycota (2 species, 2 genera). The freshwater fungi belong to 1,361 genera, 386 families and 145 orders. The Pleosporales and Laboulbeniaceae are the largest freshwater fungal order and family comprised of 391 and 185 species, respectively. The most speciose genera are Chitonomyces (87, Laboulbeniomycetes), Verrucaria (50, Eurotiomycetes), Rhizophydium (52, Rhizophydiomycetes), Penicillium (47, Eurotiomycetes), and Candida (42, Saccharomycetes). Keywords: Fungal classification · Fungal taxonomy · Freshwater fungi · Higher fungi · Molecular taxonomy · Basal clades.
34424Baldrian P., Větrovský T., Lepinay C. & Kohout P. (2022): High‑throughput sequencing view on the magnitude of global fungal diversity. - Fungal Diversity, 114: 539–547. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13225-021-00472-y.
High-throughput DNA sequencing has dramatically transformed several areas of biodiversity research including mycology. Despite limitations, high-throughput sequencing is nowadays a predominant method to characterize the alpha and beta diversity of fungal communities. Across the papers utilizing high-throughput sequencing approaches to study natural habitats in terrestrial ecosystems worldwide, > 200 studies published until 2019 have generated over 250 million sequences of the primary mycological metabarcoding marker, the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2). Here we show that at a 97% sequence similarity threshold, the total richness of non-singleton fungal taxa across the studies published so far is 1.08 million, mostly Ascomycota (56.8% of the taxa) and Basidiomycota (36.7% of the taxa). The Chao-1 estimate of the total extant fungal diversity based on this dataset is 6.28 million taxa, representing a conservative estimate of global fungal species richness. Soil and litter represent the habitats with the highest alpha diversity of fungi followed by air, plant shoots, plant roots and deadwood with Chao-1 predictions, for samples containing 5000 sequences, of 1219, 569, 392, 228, 215 and 140 molecular species, respectively. Based on the high-throughput sequencing data, the highest proportion of unknown fungal species is associated with samples of lichen and plant tissues. When considering the use of high-throughput sequencing for the estimation of global fungal diversity, the limitations of the method have to be taken into account, some of which are sequencing platform-specific while others are inherent to the metabarcoding approaches of species representation. In this respect, high-throughput sequencing data can complement fungal diversity predictions based on methods of traditional mycology and increase our understanding of fungal biodiversity. Keywords: High-throughput sequencing · Metabarcoding · Internal transcribed spacer · Alpha diversity · Meta-analysis.
34423He M.-Q., Zhao R.-L., Liu D.-M., Denchev T.T., Begerow D., Yurkov A., Kemler M., Millanes A.M., Wedin M., McTaggart A.R., Shivas R.G., Buyck B., Chen J., Vizzini A., Papp V., Zmitrovich I.V., Davoodian N. & Hyde K.D. (2022): Species diversity of Basidiomycota. - Fungal Diversity, 114: 281–325. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13225-021-00497-3.
A review paper. Fungi are eukaryotes that play essential roles in ecosystems. Among fungi, Basidiomycota is one of the major phyla with more than 40,000 described species. We review species diversity of Basidiomycota from five groups with different lifestyles or habitats: saprobic in grass/forest litter, wood-decaying, yeast-like, ectomycorrhizal, and plant parasitic. Case studies of Agaricus, Cantharellus, Ganoderma, Gyroporus, Russula, Tricholoma, and groups of lichenicolous yeast-like fungi, rust fungi, and smut fungi are used to determine trends in discovery of biodiversity. In each case study, the number of new species published during 2009–2020 is analysed to determine the rate of discovery. Publication rates differ between taxa and reflect different states of progress for species discovery in different genera. The results showed that lichenicolous yeast-like taxa had the highest publication rate for new species in the past two decades, and it is likely this trend will continue in the next decade. The species discovery rate of plant parasitic basidiomycetes was low in the past ten years, and remained constant in the past 50 years. We also found that the establishment of comprehensive and robust taxonomic systems based on a joint global initiative by mycologists could promote and standardize the recognition of taxa. We estimated that more than 54,000 species of Basidiomycota will be discovered by 2030, and estimate a total of 1.4–4.2 million species of Basidiomycota globally. These numbers illustrate a huge gap between the described and yet unknown diversity in Basidiomycota. Keywords: Biodiversity · Fungi · Species number · Taxonomy.
34422Wijayawardene N.N., Phillips A.J.L., Pereira D.S., Dai D.-Q., Aptroot A., Monteiro J.S., Druzhinina I.S., Cai F., Fan X.L., Selbmann L., Coleine C., Castaneda Ruiz R.F., Kukwa M., Flakus A., Fiuza P.O., Kirk P.M., Kumar K.C.R., Arachchi I.S.I., Suwannarach N., Tang L.-Z., Boekhout T., Tan C.S., Jayasinghe R.P.P.K. & Thines M. (2022): Forecasting the number of species of asexually reproducing fungi (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota). - Fungal Diversity, 114: 463–490. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13225-022-00500-5.
A review paper. Asexually reproducing fungi play a significant role in essential processes in managed and wild ecosystems such as nutrients cycling and multitrophic interactions. A large number of such taxa are among the most notorious plant and animal pathogens. In addition, they have a key role in food production, biotechnology and medicine. Taxa without or rare sexual reproduction are distinguished based on their sporulating structures and conidiomata in traditional morphology-based taxonomy. The number, variation and diversity of asexually reproducing taxa are insufficiently known, even though fungi capable of asexual reproduction may provide an untapped, rich biological resource for future exploitation. Currently, ca. 30,000 asexual species belonging to ca. 3800 genera have been reported (including 1388 coelomycetous and 2265 hyphomycetous genera). Recent reports (2017–2020) reiterate that the number of asexually producing fungi is higher than the number of frequently sexually-reproducing fungi. With the advent of molecular tools and the abandonment of the dual nomenclature system for pleomorphic fungi, priority criteria were established and revisited in the latest outline of fungi and fungus-like taxa. However, species numbers and taxonomic boundaries of pleomorphic taxa and their synanamorphs or synasexual morphs have yet to be addressed. The number of species of speciose genera (e.g. Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cercospora, Fusarium, Phoma and Pseudocercospora), cryptic species, species of pleomorphic genera, less studied life modes (such as lichenicolous taxa, taxa from extreme environments) and species from biodiversity-rich areas still need evaluation to achieve more reliable estimates of their diversity. This paper discusses the current knowledge on the matter, with diversity estimates, and potential obstacles in several chapters on (1) speciose genera; (2) pleomorphic genera; (3) cryptic species; (4) well-studied but insufficiently resolved taxa, e.g. leaf inhabiting species, marine fungi, (5) less studied life modes, e.g. lichenicolous, rock-inhabiting fungi, insect-associated and yeast-forming taxa and (6) species from biodiversity-rich areas. Keywords: Cryptic species · DNA sequences · Morphology · Pleomorphism · Speciose genera · Species identification.
34421Senanayake I.C., Pem D., Rathnayaka A.R., Wijesinghe S.N., Tibpromma S., Wanasinghe D.N., Phookamsak R., Kularathnage N.D., Gomdola D., Harishchandra D., Dissanayake L.S., Xiang M., Ekanayaka A.H., Mckenzie E.H.C., Hyde K.D., Zhang H. & Xie N. (2022): Predicting global numbers of teleomorphic ascomycetes. - Fungal Diversity, 114: 237–278. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13225-022-00498-w.
A review paper. Sexual reproduction is the basic way to form high genetic diversity and it is beneficial in evolution and speciation of fungi. The global diversity of teleomorphic species in Ascomycota has not been estimated. This paper estimates the species number for sexual ascomycetes based on five different estimation approaches, viz. by numbers of described fungi, by fungus:substrate ratio, by ecological distribution, by meta-DNA barcoding or culture-independent studies and by previous estimates of species in Ascomycota. The assumptions were made with the currently most accepted, “2.2–3.8 million” species estimate and results of previous studies concluding that 90% of the described ascomycetes reproduce sexually. The Catalogue of Life, Species Fungorum and published research were used for data procurement. The average value of teleomorphic species in Ascomycota from all methods is 1.86 million, ranging from 1.37 to 2.56 million. However, only around 83,000 teleomorphic species have been described in Ascomycota and deposited in data repositories. The ratio between described teleomorphic ascomycetes to predicted teleomorphic ascomycetes is 1:22. Therefore, where are the undiscovered teleomorphic ascomycetes? The undescribed species are no doubt to be found in biodiversity hot spots, poorly-studied areas and species complexes. Other poorly studied niches include extremophiles, lichenicolous fungi, human pathogens, marine fungi, and fungicolous fungi. Undescribed species are present in unexamined collections in specimen repositories or incompletely described earlier species. Nomenclatural issues, such as the use of separate names for teleomorph and anamorphs, synonyms, conspecific names, illegitimate and invalid names also affect the number of described species. Interspecies introgression results in new species, while species numbers are reduced by extinctions. Keywords: Ascomycota · Estimates · Habitat diversity · Molecular techniques · Species concepts.
34420Wiersma Y.F. & McMullin R.T. (2022): Are calicioids useful indicators of boreal forest continuity or condition?. - Biodiversity and Conservation, 31: 1647–1664. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-022-02418-5.
Calicioids are a group of lichenized and non-lichenized fungi that are superficially similar to each other in appearance. Many members of this group tend to be restricted to oldgrowth forests, for which they have been used as indicators. However, the definition of old-growth varies among jurisdictions and forest types. In addition, variables other than tree age, which is often used to define old-growth, have been postulated to be important for influencing the presence of calicioids (e.g., continuity, scale, and ecological and structural variability). These variables, in combination, can be taken to indicate something about forest condition, particularly its ecological integrity. To understand better the ability of calicioids to serve as indicators of forest condition, we recorded the number of species in 51 stands across a chronosequence in Canada’s most homogenous forest ecosystem with the most frequent natural disturbance regime; the boreal forest. We restricted our sampling spatially and temporally in stands with similar tree cover and soil type. We recorded the number of species and biomass of all lichens in each stand along with forest stand attributes. We constructed 13 competing models to explain calicioid species diversity and show that stand age is important, but only in combination with stand condition. The strongest positive correlations were between calicioid density and lichen biomass and richness. Therefore, calicioid diversity appears to be a good indicator of habitat condition or conservation value in the boreal forest, which includes continuity. Similar research in other forest types that are more heterogeneous and have longer natural disturbance regimes will help build a better understanding of how calicioids can be reliably used as indicators of forest quality more broadly for conservation purposes. Keywords: Biodiversity · Forest management · Old-growth · Ontario · Bioindicators.
34419Somphong A., Poengsungnoen V., Buaruang K., Suriyachadkun C., Sripreechasak P., Tanasupawat S. & Phongsopitanun W. (2022): Diversity of the culturable lichen‑derived actinobacteria and the taxonomy of Streptomyces parmotrematis sp. nov.. - Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, 115: 911–920. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10482-022-01744-6.
A total of 37 actinobacteria were isolated from eighteen lichen samples collected in Thailand. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences, they were identified into five genera including Actinoplanes (1 strain), Actinomadura (1 strain), Pseudosporangium (1 strain), Wangella (1 strain) and Streptomyces (33 strains). Among these isolates, strain Ptm05T, Ptm01 and Ptm12 showed low 16S rRNA gene similarity and was selected for the further taxonomic study using the polyphasic approach. These strains showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Streptomyces sparsogenes ATCC 25498T (97.44–97.72%). Strain Ptm05T was selected for the type strain. The chemical cell composition of the strain was similar to the members of Streptomyces genus. LL-diaminopimelic acids were detected in the peptidoglycan. Menaquinones were MK-9(H8) and MK-9(H6). Phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside, one unidentified phospholipid, one unidentified glycolipid and one unidentified lipid were detected as the polar lipids. The predominant cellular fatty acids are anteiso-C15:0, iso-C15:0, iso-C16:0, iso-C17:0 and C16:0. The dDNA-DNA hybridization values among strain Ptm05T and its closely related Streptomyces type strains were 17.2–18.0%. In addition, the ANIb and ANIm between strain Ptm05T and related Streptomyces type strains were ranged from 75.69 to 76.13% and 85.21 to 85.35%, respectively. Based on phenotypic and genomic evidence, strain Ptm05T (= TBRC 14546T = NBRC 115203T) represents the novel species of the genus Streptomyces for which the name Streptomyces parmotrematis sp. nov. is proposed. This study showed that the lichens are the promising source of the novel actinobacterial taxa. Keywords: Actinobacteria · Actinomycetes · Lichen · Parmotrema · Streptomyces parmotrematis.
34418Kossowska M., Krzewicka B., Kościelniak R., Kukwa M., Kowalewska A., Szymczyk R., Smoczyk M., Markiewicz K. & Adamski M. (2022): Materiały do rozmieszczenia porostów i grzybów naporostowych Polski, 2. - Wiadomości Botaniczne, 66: 661 [26 p.]. DOI: 10.5586/wb.661.
Materials for the Distribution of Lichens and Lichenicolous Fungi in Poland, 2. [in Polish with English abstract: ] The paper presents new localities of 39 species of lichens and 10 species of lichenicolous fungi (marked by an asterisk), which are endangered in Poland or are regionally rare. Didymocyrtis epiphyscia s. l. is reported from Poland for the frst time. The name of each taxon is followed by data on its diagnostic features and distribution in Poland. Provided lists of localities contain geographic coordinates and ATPOL grid squares, modifed by S. Cieśliński and W. Fałtynowicz for the purposes of the Atlas of the Geographical Distribution of Lichens in Poland (published by W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, 1993). Keywords: lichenized fungi; lichenicolous fungi; biodiversity; rare species; distribution in Poland.
34417Kocovic A., Jeremic J., Bradic J., Sovrlic M., Tomovic J., Vasiljevic P., Andjic M., Draginic N., Grujovic M., Mladenovic K., Baskic D., Popovic S., Matic S., Zivkovic V., Jeremic N., Jakovljevic V. & Manojlovic N. (2022): Phytochemical Analysis, Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, and Cytotoxic Activity of Different Extracts of Xanthoparmelia stenophylla Lichen from Stara Planina, Serbia. - Plants, 11(13): 1624 [26 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11131624.
The aim of this study was to identify some of the secondary metabolites present in acetonic, methanolic, and hexanic extracts of lichen Xanthoparmelia stenophylla and to examine their antioxidant, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic activity. Compounds of the depsid structure of lecanoric acid, obtusic acid, and atranorin as well as usnic acid with a dibenzofuran structure were identified in the extracts by HPLC. The acetone extract was shown to have the highest total phenolic (167.03 ± 1.12 mg GAE/g) and total flavonoid content (178.84 ± 0.93 mg QE/g) as well as the best antioxidant activity (DPPH IC50 = 81.22 ± 0.54). However, the antimicrobial and antibiofilm tests showed the best activity of hexanic extract, especially against strains of B. cereus, B. subtilis, and S. aureus (MIC < 0.08, and 0.3125 mg/mL, respectively). Additionally, by using the MTT method, the acetonic extract was reported to exhibit a strong cytotoxic effect on the HeLa and HCT-116 cell lines, especially after 72 h (IC50 = 21.17 ± 1.85 and IC50 = 21.48 ± 3.55, respectively). The promising antioxidant, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic effects of Xanthoparmelia stenophylla extracts shown in the current study should be further investigated in vivo and under clinical conditions. Keywords: ethnopharmacology; usnic acid; pharmaceutical potential; biological activities; flavonoid content; phenolic content; DPPH.
34416Arup U. & Ekman S. (1991): Lavfloran på Hallands Väderö [The lichen flora of Hallands Väderö]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 85: 263–308. .
[in Swedish wih English abstract: ] The lichen flora of the island of Hallands Väderö (southernmost Sweden) has been investigated during 1988-90. The island is 3.1 km2 in area. The landscape is dominated by deciduous forests, rock outcrops, grassy and shrubby areas. In comparison with a study published by Ove Almborn in 1955, 36 (13%) of the species have disappeared. Several other species have decreased, and a few have increased. The changes are mainly due to air pollution. The greatest effect can be seen on Pinus mugo, P. nigra, P. sylvestris and Prunus spinosa. Lichens on twigs and thin branches, and on nutrient-rich bark have also been greatly affected. Some corticolous species, although about as common as during Almborn's study, have become confined to fewer substrates. 31 species on the Swedish Red Data List were found by us. The species list comprises 393 species, 346 of which were found during the present investigation. Bacidia delicata, B. vezdae, Cladonia merochlorophaea var. novochlorophaea. Lecania hutchinsiae, L. turicensis, Macentina stigonemoides, Porina borreri and Rinodina parasitica are new to Sweden. Lecanora saxorum H. Magn., L. kauegallensis H. Magn., L. confusa Almb. and Biatora straminea Stenhammar are lectotypified. The taxonomy of Lecanora helicopis, L. salina, the L. umbrina group, L. sublivescens and L. argentata is discussed.
34415Areche C., Parra J.R., Sepulveda B., García-Beltrán O. & Simirgiotis M.J. (2022): UHPLC-MS metabolomic fingerprinting, antioxidant, and enzyme inhibition activities of Himantormia lugubris from Antarctica. - Metabolites, 12(6): 560 [21 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12060560.
Himantormia lugubris is a Chilean native small lichen shrub growing in the Antarctica region. In this study, the metabolite fingerprinting and the antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory potential from this species and its four major isolated compounds were investigated for the first time. Using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometry analysis (UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-MS), several metabolites were identified including specific compounds as chemotaxonomical markers, while major metabolites were quantified in this species. A good inhibition activity against cholinesterase (acetylcholinesterase (AChE) IC50: 12.38 ± 0.09 µg/mL, butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) IC50: 31.54 ± 0.20 µg/mL) and tyrosinase (22.32 ± 0.21 µg/mL) enzymes of the alcoholic extract and the main compounds (IC50: 28.82 ± 0.10 µg/mL, 36.43 ± 0.08 µg/mL, and 7.25 ± 0.18 µg/mL, respectively, for the most active phenolic atranol) was found. The extract showed a total phenolic content of 47.4 + 0.0 mg of gallic acid equivalents/g. In addition, antioxidant activity was assessed using bleaching of DPPH and ORAC (IC50: 75.3 ± 0.02 µg/mL and 32.7 ± 0.7 μmol Trolox/g lichen, respectively) and FRAP (27.8 ± 0.0 μmol Trolox equivalent/g) experiments. The findings suggest that H. lugubris is a rich source of bioactive compounds with potentiality in the prevention of neurodegenerative or noncommunicable chronic diseases. Keywords: Himantormia; phenolics; enzyme inhibition; native lichens; antioxidant; depsides; dibenzofurans; Antarctica; Alzheimer.
34414Jurado V., Cañaveras J.C., Gomez-Bolea A., Gonzalez-Pimentel J.L., Sanchez-Moral S., Costa C. & Saiz-Jimenez C. (2022): Holistic approach to the restoration of a vandalized monument: The cross of the inquisition, Seville City Hall, Spain. - Applied Sciences, 12(12): 6222 [16 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/app12126222.
The Cross of the Inquisition, sculpted in 1903 and raised on a column with a fluted shaft and ornamented with vegetable garlands, is located in a corner of the Plateresque façade of the Seville City Hall. The Cross was vandalized in September 2019 and the restoration concluded in September 2021. A geological and microbiological study was carried out in a few small fragments. The data are consistent with the exposure of the Cross of the Inquisition to an urban environment for more than 100 years. During that time, a lichen community colonized the Cross and the nearby City Hall façades. The lichens, bryophytes and fungi colonizing the limestone surface composed an urban community, regenerated from the remains of the original communities, after superficial cleaning of the limestone between 2008 and 2010. This biological activity was detrimental to the integrity of the limestone, as showed by the pitting and channels, which evidence the lytic activity of organisms on the stone surface. Stone consolidation was achieved with Estel 1000. Preventol RI80, a biocide able to penetrate the porous limestone and active against bacteria, fungi, lichens, and bryophytes, was applied in the restoration. Keywords: green algae; lichens; Trebouxia aggregata; black fungi; bryophytes; limestone; mineralogy; restoration; Seville City Hall.
34413Jurado V., Cañaveras J.C., Gomez-Bolea A., Gonzalez-Pimentel J.L., Sanchez-Moral S., Costa C. & Saiz-Jimenez C. (2022): Holistic approach to the restoration of a vandalized monument: The cross of the inquisition, Seville City Hall, Spain. - Applied Sciences, 12(12): 6222 [16 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/app12126222.
The Cross of the Inquisition, sculpted in 1903 and raised on a column with a fluted shaft and ornamented with vegetable garlands, is located in a corner of the Plateresque façade of the Seville City Hall. The Cross was vandalized in September 2019 and the restoration concluded in September 2021. A geological and microbiological study was carried out in a few small fragments. The data are consistent with the exposure of the Cross of the Inquisition to an urban environment for more than 100 years. During that time, a lichen community colonized the Cross and the nearby City Hall façades. The lichens, bryophytes and fungi colonizing the limestone surface composed an urban community, regenerated from the remains of the original communities, after superficial cleaning of the limestone between 2008 and 2010. This biological activity was detrimental to the integrity of the limestone, as showed by the pitting and channels, which evidence the lytic activity of organisms on the stone surface. Stone consolidation was achieved with Estel 1000. Preventol RI80, a biocide able to penetrate the porous limestone and active against bacteria, fungi, lichens, and bryophytes, was applied in the restoration. Keywords: green algae; lichens; Trebouxia aggregata; black fungi; bryophytes; limestone; mineralogy; restoration; Seville City Hall.
34412da Silva M.K., da Silva A.V., Fernandez P.M., Montone R.C., Alves R.P., de Queiroz A.C., de Oliveira V.M., Dos Santos V.P., Putzke J., Rosa L.H. & Duarte A.W.F. (2022): Extracellular hydrolytic enzymes produced by yeasts from Antarctic lichens. - Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, 94(Suppl.1): e20210540 [14 p.]. DOI 10.1590/0001-3765202220210540.
In the Antarctic environment, yeasts are versatile eukaryotes that have shown wide dispersion in different substrates, producing active enzymes in extreme conditions, but their relevance in biotechnological applications is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of extracellular hydrolases by yeasts isolated from Antarctic lichens and molecularly identify these isolates. From a total of 144 isolates on the screening, 109 (76%) produced at least one of the hydrolases tested, with most activities for proteases 59 (41%), cellulases 58 (40%), esterases 57 (39%), lipases 29 (20%), amylases 23 (16%) and pectinases 20 (14%). Among these isolates, 76 were identifi ed, most belonged to the phylum Basidiomycota (n=73) with the dominance of Vishniacozyma victoriae (n=27), Cystobasidium alpinum (n=3), Mrakia niccombsii (n=3), Cystobasidium laryngis (n=2), Bannozyma yamatoana (n=2), Holtermanniella nyarrowii (n=2), and Glaciozyma martinii (n=2). This study is the fi rst one reporting extracellular enzyme production by yeasts isolated from thallus of the species of Antarctic lichens Lecania brialmontii, Polycauliona candelaria, Usnea capillacea, Cladonia metacorallifera, and Polycauliona regalis. With these data, it’s possible to confi rm lichens as a source of hydrolase-producing yeasts, reinforcing the potential of these microorganisms in bioprospecting studies of catalytic molecules from polar regions that may be useful in promising biotechnological applications. Key words: Bioprospection, cellulase, fungi, lichensphere, Vishniacozyma.
34411Curtis T. & Lendemer J.C. (2022): Catillaria fungoides (Catillariaceae; Lecanoromycetes) an inconspicuous crustose lichen previously overlooked in eastern North America. - Castanea , 87(1): 12–19. https://doi.org/10.2179/0008-7475.87.1.12.
Catillaria fungoides is newly reported for North America based on collections from the temperate eastern United States. A detailed description based on North American material is provided, the distribution is mapped, and images are provided. The species is likely widespread but overlooked due to its inconspicuous appearance. Key words: Appalachian Mountains, biodiversity, corticolous, floristics, lichenized fungi, new record.
34410Rosli N.S. & Zulkifly S. (2022): Application of Index of Atmospheric Purity (IAP) along elevation gradients in Gunung Jerai, Kedah, Malaysia. - Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 194: 496 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-022-10108-6.
The utilisation of biological organisms, especially lichens in the environmental biomonitoring approach, has been proven to be an effective and lowcost technique suitable for developing countries like Malaysia. Index of Atmospheric Purity (IAP) tracked compositional changes in lichen communities which correlate with changes in levels of atmospheric pollution. Gunung Jerai was formed during the Cambrian Period; thus, it is a biodiversity hotspot ideal for a diverse range of lichens. In the present work, a total of 44 corticolous lichen species were sampled and identified to evaluate the pollution status of Gunung Jerai using IAP, starting from 80 to 1200 m with 300 m intervals. The samples were collected within 10 × 50 cm sampling grids attached to 60 trees, bringing a total of 120 000 cm2 of the sampling area. The air quality of the sampling area was determined by IAP score, a low score indicated by high levels of pollution. Results showed that the lowest IAP score was recorded at 300 m; meanwhile, the highest IAP score was recorded at 900 m elevation. Elevational gradient and pollution have a significant effect on the IAP score of Gunung Jerai. On average, Gunung Jerai is indicated as having a low pollution status. However, several elevations of the rainforest showed high and moderate pollution status. The IAP method is best to assess environmental pollution and provide quicker results than chemical monitoring methods. Further research could be done to evaluate the other sampling sites adjacent to other areas of Gunung Jerai. Keywords: Bioindicator · Ecological index · Elevation gradient · Epiphytic lichens · IAP · Malaysia · Mountain · Pollution.
34409Abas A., Aiyub K. & Awang A. (2022): Biomonitoring potentially toxic elements (PTEs) using lichen transplant Usnea misaminensis: A case study from Malaysia. - Sustainability, 14(12): 7254 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14127254.
Urban air pollution has been a major concern due to its impact on global public health. Various techniques for monitoring urban air quality have been developed. However, there is currently a dearth of research on how effective bioaccumulators such as lichen are at monitoring urban air pollution. As a result, the purpose of this research is to investigate the use of U. misaminensis as a biological indicator for biomonitoring urban air quality in Malaysia. Three months were spent exposing lichen samples in three Malaysian cities (Kuala Lumpur, Penang, and Johor Bahru). The trace element content and vitality of the lichens were assessed. The results of this study revealed that U. misaminensis is an effective biological indicator for measuring 25 elements of air pollutants in metropolitan areas. They also revealed that all 25 elements accumulated in the urban area sample were greater than in the control sample. The vitality rate of lichens dropped in the urban area sample when compared with the control sample, indicating that an increase in elements in the air will impact the vitality rate of any biological component. In this study, two arguments are made: (a) Lichen is an excellent biological indicator, particularly for urban air pollutants such as potentially toxic elements; and (b) traffic is the primary contributor to urban air pollution; hence, the local government requires a better plan and design for urban areas to decrease air pollutants build-up. Keywords: ecological indicator; lichens; air pollution; traffic; ecosystem management.
34408Chavarria-Pizarro T., Resl P., Kuhl-Nagel T., Janjic A., Fernandez Mendoza F. & Werth S. (2022): Antibiotic-induced treatments reveal stress-responsive gene expression in the endangered lichen Lobaria pulmonaria. - Journal of Fungi, 8(6): 625 [21 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8060625.
Antibiotics are primarily found in the environment due to human activity, which has been reported to influence the structure of biotic communities and the ecological functions of soil and water ecosystems. Nonetheless, their effects in other terrestrial ecosystems have not been well studied. As a result of oxidative stress in organisms exposed to high levels of antibiotics, genotoxicity can lead to DNA damage and, potentially, cell death. In addition, in symbiotic organisms, removal of the associated microbiome by antibiotic treatment has been observed to have a big impact on the host, e.g., corals. The lung lichen Lobaria pulmonaria has more than 800 associated bacterial species, a microbiome which has been hypothesized to increase the lichen’s fitness. We artificially exposed samples of L. pulmonaria to antibiotics and a stepwise temperature increase to determine the relative effects of antibiotic treatments vs. temperature on the mycobiont and photobiont gene expression and the viability and on the community structure of the lichen-associated bacteria. We found that the mycobiont and photobiont highly reacted to different antibiotics, independently of temperature exposure. We did not find major differences in bacterial community composition or alpha diversity between antibiotic treatments and controls. For these reasons, the upregulation of stress-related genes in antibiotic-treated samples could be caused by genotoxicity in L. pulmonaria and its photobiont caused by exposure to antibiotics, and the observed stress responses are reactions of the symbiotic partners to reduce damage to their cells. Our study is of great interest for the community of researchers studying symbiotic organisms as it represents one of the first steps to understanding gene expression in an endangered lichen in response to exposure to toxic environments, along with dynamics in its associated bacterial communities. Keywords: symbiotic organisms; differential expression; transcriptomic; toxic environments.
34407Nawrot J., Gornowicz-Porowska J., Budzianowski J., Nowak G., Schroeder G. & Kurczewska J. (2022): Medicinal herbs in the relief of neurological, cardiovascular, and respiratory symptoms after COVID-19 infection. A literature review. - Cells, 11(12): 1897 [25 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11121897.
COVID-19 infection causes complications, even in people who have had a mild course of the disease. The most dangerous seem to be neurological ailments: anxiety, depression, mixed anxiety–depressive (MAD) syndromes, and irreversible dementia. These conditions can negatively affect the respiratory system, circulatory system, and heart functioning. We believe that phytotherapy can be helpful in all of these conditions. Clinical trials confirm this possibility. The work presents plant materials (Valeriana officinalis, Melissa officinalis, Passiflora incarnata, Piper methysticum, Humulus lupulus, Ballota nigra, Hypericum perforatum, Rhodiola rosea, Lavandula officinalis, Paullinia cupana, Ginkgo biloba, Murraya koenigii, Crataegus monogyna and oxyacantha, Hedera helix, Polygala senega, Pelargonium sidoides, Lichen islandicus, Plantago lanceolata) and their dominant compounds (valeranon, valtrat, apigenin, citronellal, isovitexin, isoorientin, methysticin, humulone, farnesene, acteoside, hypericin, hyperforin, biapigenin, rosavidin, salidroside, linalool acetate, linalool, caffeine, ginkgolide, bilobalide, mihanimbine, epicatechin, hederacoside C,α-hederine, presegenin, umkaline, 6,7,8-trixydroxybenzopyranone disulfate, fumaroprotocetric acid, protolichesteric acid, aucubin, acteoside) responsible for their activity. It also shows the possibility of reducing post-COVID-19 neurological, respiratory, and cardiovascular complications, which can affect the functioning of the nervous system. Keywords: COVID-19; complications; viral infections; phytotherapy; medicinal herbs.
34406Hemberg J. (2014): SLFs vårexkursion till Blekinge den 26-28 April 2013. - Lavbulletinen, 2-2013: 36–43. .
[in Swedish] Sweden; report on an excursion with photodocumentation by Ulf Arup (Biatoridium delitescens, Bacidia friesiana, Gyalecta derivata, Lecanora sublivescens, Bacidia incompta, Buellia violaceofusca, Lecanora confusa, Bacidia laurocerasi, Megalaria laureri, Phlyctis agelaea, the pyrenomycete Hypoxylon howenum), and by Joakim Hemberg (Diploicia canescens, Arthonia pruinata)
34405Razzaq F., Habib K., Aslam S. & Khalid A.N. (2022): Additions to the list of Graphidaceae (lichenized Ascomycetes) in Pakistan. - Biology Bulletin, 49(1): 14–20. DOI: 10.1134/S1062359022020066.
As part of comprehensive study of lichen diversity of northern areas of Pakistan using molecular and morphological approaches, we found four species of the family Graphidaceae. The phylogenetic analysis revealed two new records in the lichen biota of Pakistan namely, Diploschistes candidissimus and Xalocoa ocellata while D. scruposus and D. muscorum are new records for state Azad Jammu & Kashmir. Brief descriptions and phylogenetic analyses of the taxa are given. Keywords: AJ&K, Gilgit-Baltistan, taxonomy, phylogeny.
34404de los Ríos A., Garrido‑Benavent I., Limón A., Cason E.D., Maggs‑Kölling G., Cowan D. & Valverde A. (2022): Novel lichen‑dominated hypolithic communities in the Namib Desert. - Microbial Ecology, 83: 1036–1048. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00248-021-01812-w.
The ventral surfaces of translucent rocks from hot desert pavements often harbor hypolithic microbial communities, which are mostly dominated by cyanobacteria. The Namib Desert fog belt supports extensive hypolithic colonization of quartz rocks, which are also colonized by lichens on their dorsal surfaces. Here, we aim to evaluate whether lichens colonize the ventral surface of the rocks (i.e., show hypolithic lifestyle) and compare the bacterial composition of these coastal hypolithic communities with those found inland. Fungal DNA barcoding and fungal and bacterial Illumina metabarcoding were combined with electron microscopy to characterize the composition and spatial structure of hypolithic communities from two (coastal and inland) areas in the Namib Desert. We report, for the frst time, the structure and composition of lichendominated hypolithic communities found in the coastal zone of the Namib Desert with extensive epilithic lichen cover. Lichen modifed areoles with inverted morphology of the genus Stellarangia (three lineages) and Buellia (two lineages) were the main components of these hypolithic communities. Some of these lineages were also found in epilithic habitats. These lichen-dominated hypolithic communities difered in structural organization and bacterial community composition from those found in inland areas. The hypolithic lichen colonization characterized here seems not to be an extension of epilithic or biological soil crust lichen growths but the result of specifc sublithic microenvironmental conditions. Moisture derived from fog and dew could be the main driver of this unique colonization. Keywords: Cyanobacteria · Lichens · Lithobionts · Habitat specifcity · Dew · Fog · Stellarangia · Buellia.
34403Reddy S.T., Ramakrishna M., Makani V.K.K., Mendonza J.J., Edathara P.M., Bhadra M.P. & Uppuluri V.M. (2022): Synthesis of novel 1,2,3‑triazole hybrids of methyl β‑orsellinate with capabilities to arrest cell cycle and induce apoptosis in breast cancer cells (MCF‑7). - Monatshefte für Chemie - Chemical Monthly, 153: 461–473. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00706-022-02922-y.
A total of eleven novel 1,2,3-triazole hybrids were synthesized in excellent yields from methyl β-orsellinate through a twostep protocol with 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition as the key step. The newly synthesized compounds have been evaluated for their anti-proliferative potential against a panel of cancer cell lines viz. DU-145, MCF-7, PC-3, IMR-32, and HEK-293T. Interestingly, one of the compounds exhibited higher cytotoxicity on MCF-7 cells with an IC50 of 5 µM as compared to noncancerous HEK293T cells (23.28 µM). Flow cytometry analysis and acridine orange/ethidium bromide dual staining have showed the signifcant G0/G1 phase arrest and efective induction of apoptosis, respectively. Furthermore, the inhibition of CDK4/Cyclin D1 complex proteins and thereby downregulation of p-Rb and E2F1 showed that this compound can act as a potent cell-cycle inhibitor. Docking studies also indicated that the compound may act as a strong ATP competitive inhibitor of CDK4/Cyclin D1 complex. Evidently, the methyl β-orsellinate conjugates of 1,2,3-triazole hybrids could be the efective anticancer leads in breast cancer therapeutics. Keywords: Methyl β-orsellinate · 1,2,3-Triazole hybrids · Cell-cycle arrest · Breast cancer · Molecular modelling · Antitumor agents. Parmotrema mesotropum.
34402Phinney N.H., Asplund J. & Gauslaa Y. (2022): The lichen cushion: A functional perspective of color and size of a dominant growth form on glacier forelands. - Fungal Biology , 126: 375–384. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.funbio.2022.03.001.
Mat-forming lichens dominating high-latitudinal habitats vary in color and geometry. Widespread species are light greenish yellow (usnic acid) and reflect solar radiation, whereas melanic species absorbing most solar wavelengths are spatially more restricted. Color thereby influences lichens’ energy budget and thus their hydration and photosynthetically active periods. By using well-defined cushions from early successional stages on glacier forelands e three melanic(m) and three usnic(u) mat-forming lichens with hair-like branches (Alectoria ochroleuca(u), Gowardia nigricans(m)), hollow terete branches (Cladonia uncialis(u), Cetraria muricata(m)), and flat branches (Flavocetraria nivalis(u), Cetraria islandica(m)) e we quantified hydration traits and analyzed how color and cushion size affect water loss rate (WLR) and duration of active periods. Main findings: 1) WLR declined with cushion size and was highest in melanic lichens. 2) Active periods were longer for usnic than for melanic lichens and increased with size in all groups. 3) Size, color, and taxon nested in color significantly influenced WLR and duration of active periods in linear mixed models. 4) Hair lichen cushions had shorter active periods than growth forms with terete or flat branches due to their more open canopy architecture and lower water holding capacity (WHC). 5) WHC measured for isolated branches highly underestimated WHC for intact cushions. Keywords: Hydration traits; Mat-forming lichens; Size; Thallus color; Water loss rate.
34401Xu M., Oppong-Danquah E., Wang X., Oddsson S., Abdelrahman A., Pedersen S.V., Szomek M., Gylfason A.E., Snorradottir B.S., Christensen E.A., Tasdemir D., Jameson C.J., Murad S., Andresson O.S., Magnusson K.P., de Boer H.J., Thorsteinsdottir M., Omarsdottir S., Heidmarsson S. & Olafsdottir E.S. (2022): Novel methods to characterise spatial distribution and enantiomeric composition of usnic acids in four Icelandic lichens. - Phytochemistry, 200: 113210 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2022.113210.
Usnic acid is an antibiotic metabolite produced by a wide variety of lichenized fungal lineages. The enantiomers of usnic acid have been shown to display contrasting bioactivities, and hence it is important to determine their spatial distribution, amounts and enantiomeric ratios in lichens to understand their roles in nature and grasp their pharmaceutical potential. The overall aim of the study was to characterise the spatial distribution of the predominant usnic acid enantiomer in lichens by combining spatial imaging and chiral chromatography. Specifically, separation and quantification of usnic acid enantiomers in four common lichens in Iceland was performed using a validated chiral chromatographic method. Molecular dynamics simulation was carried out to rationalize the chiral separation mechanism. Spatial distribution of usnic acid in the lichen thallus cross-sections were analysed using Desorption Electrospray Ionization-Imaging Mass Spectrometry (DESI-IMS) and fluorescence microscopy. DESI-IMS confirmed usnic acid as a cortical compound, and revealed that usnic acid can be more concentrated around the algal vicinity. Fluorescence microscopy complemented DESI-IMS by providing more detailed distribution information. By combining results from spatial imaging and chiral separation, we were able to visualize the distribution of the predominant usnic acid enantiomer in lichen cross-sections: (+)-usnic acid in Cladonia arbuscula and Ramalina siliquosa, and (− )-usnic acid in Alectoria ochroleuca and Flavocetraria nivalis. This study provides an analytical foundation for future environmental and functional studies of usnic acid enantiomers in lichens. Keywords: Alectoria ochroleuca ; Cladonia arbuscula ; Flavocetraria nivalis ; Ramalina siliquosa ; Parmeliaceae ; Usnic acid Imaging mass spectrometry ; Fluorescence microscopy ; Enantioseparation ; Molecular dynamics simulation.
34400Kalın Ş.N., Altay A. & Budak H. (2022): Diffractaic acid, a novel TrxR1 inhibitor, induces cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and antimigration in human breast cancer cells. - Chemico-Biological Interactions, 361: 109984 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbi.2022.109984.
Breast cancer represents one of the most frequently encountered cancer types among women worldwide. Thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1) is a therapeutic target for breast cancer therapy due to its overexpression in tumor cells. The current research aims to determine the anticancer effect of diffractaic acid, a lichen acid, in breast cancer, and research whether the anticancer effect of diffractaic acid occurs through TrxR1 targeting. According to the XTT assay results, diffractaic acid induced cytotoxicity in both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-453 cells with IC50 values of 51.32 μg/ml and 87.03 μg/ml, respectively. Flow cytometry and cell migration analyses revealed the apoptotic, necrotic, and antimigratory effects of diffractaic acid. qPCR analysis indicated the upregulation of the BAX/BCL2 ratio and the P53 gene in MCF-7 cells with only the P53 gene in MDA-MB-453 cells. The gene, protein, and enzyme activity of TrxR1 were suppressed in MCF-7 cells, whereas only enzyme activity was suppressed in MDA-MB-453 cells. These findings illustrate the anticancer effect of diffractaic acid on breast cancer targeting TrxR1. In conclusion, these data reveal that diffractaic acid may be considered an effective therapeutic agent for breast cancer treatment. Keywords: Thioredoxin reductase 1 ; Lichens ; Diffractaic acid ; Expression ; Enzyme activity ; Breast cancer.
34399Pinna D. (2022): Can we do without biocides to cope with biofilms and lichens on stone heritage?. - International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 172: 105437 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2022.105437.
In the past several years, products and methods alternative to conventional biocides, used in the conservation of cultural heritage objects, have been investigated increasingly to eradicate or prevent the growth of microorganisms and lichens on stone artworks. Although some concerns about conventional biocides are legitimate, the “run” to alternative substances is growing concern as well. This review aims at contributing to the interpretation of recent findings in innovative methods and substances focusing on i) resistance of biofilms to environmental stressors, including antimicrobials; ii) metals and metal-based compounds including nanoparticles; iii) mixtures of metal nanoparticles and metal oxides with water repellents and consolidants; iv) natural compounds (essential oils of plants, secondary metabolites of lichens, microbial by-products, microorganisms, extracts from marine organisms); v) toxicity of essential oils; vi) alternative chemicals (Ionic liquids, dimethyl sulfoxide gel, hydrolase enzymes). This review also includes a discussion on the advantages, drawbacks and limitations of the examined studies to encourage a constructive discussion among professionals involved in the field of stone heritage conservation, and to develop a sustainable path for managing the biological colonization. This state-of-the-art review indicates that further research is needed to propose alternative compounds to conventional biocides. Keywords: Stone artworks ; Microbial colonization ; Conventional biocides ; Alternative substances ; Novel control and preventive strategies.
34398Chowaniec K., Latkowska E. & Rola K. (2022): Does long-term salt stress of environmentally relevant concentrations affect the physiology of inland lichens? – The importance of rainfall to restore thallus vitality. - Environmental and Experimental Botany, 200: 104937 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2022.104937.
During winter seasons, sodium chloride is the most widely used de-icing agent for road maintenance. The aim was to determine the effect of long-term spraying with salt solutions of environmentally relevant concentrations on the physiology of two epigeic lichens i.e., Peltigera didactyla and Cladonia rei. We also aimed at studying lichen responses to rainfall simulations between salt treatments to verify whether the liquid water supply would improve the physiological condition of both symbiotic partners. Long-term salt stress led to a gradual loss of cell membrane integrity, but the damage was lower in the case of an experiment in which thalli were treated with salt solutions and water. Salt stress significantly affected the peroxidation of membrane lipids in both studied species, but their responses differed. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level in P. didactyla increased very late in comparison to C. rei, in which the highest TBARS concentrations were observed at the beginning of the experiment, and then decreased over time. This may be associated with the activation of defence mechanisms protecting against reactive oxygen species. The cyanobiont in P. didactyla was more sensitive to salt stress than the green algal photobiont in C. rei. A low possibility of photosynthesis reactivation of P. didactyla at high humidity may explain the earlier decrease in FV/FM compared to C. rei; whereas the stronger reaction of this species may result from irreversible changes associated with ionic effects. Moreover, significantly higher FV/FM values were recorded in the salt-water experiment in both species. Therefore, we conclude that rainfall could cause at least a partial recovery of the water potential by photobionts and trigger the process of photosynthesis. This is of key importance for lichens, which are constantly exposed to salt stress in the winter season, and rainfall may enable them to continue their physiological processes and survival. Keywords: Chlorophyll fluorescence ; Salt stress ; Lichens ; Cell membrane damage ; Lipid peroxidation ; Road salting.
34397Pakeman R.J., O’Brien D., Genney D. & Brooker R.W. (2022): Identifying drivers of change in bryophyte and lichen species occupancy in Scotland. - Ecological Indicators, 139: 108889 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2022.108889.
The attribution of biodiversity trends to the action of individual drivers is a first step in developing strategies to conserve, enhance and restore that diversity. One approach to that identification is to link information on species trends with information on ecological preferences that relate to the drivers. Long-term and short-term occupancy trends for 326 bryophyte species (1972–2015 and 2005–2015, respectively) and 437 lichen species (1971–2015 and 2005–2015, respectively) for Scotland were linked with appropriate indicators to assess the action of specific drivers. Bryophyte species of heathlands and woodlands showed positive trends, whilst lichen species from these habitats showed negative trends. Bryophytes and lichens of drier habitats and locations tended to have more positive trends whilst those of wetter habitats tended to be negative. Similarly, evidence suggested that bryophytes and lichens of open areas had more negative trends than those of shadier habitats and that species from both groups of higher fertility habitats had more positive trends than those of less fertile ones. Bryophyte species from warmer areas tended to increase in range. Opposite trends for bryophytes and lichens in heathlands and woodlands suggest competition for space or opposite reactions to other drivers, but it is clear that they should not be lumped into a single functional grouping. There were clear trends for suggesting that increased temperatures (bryophytes only), cumulative nitrogen pollution and reduced land use intensity were shifting assemblages. The overall predominance of negative trends for lichens suggests that many species have lost habitat through decreasing light availability and increased dryness, and potentially through competition with bryophytes. Given the international importance of Scotland for both these groups, these trends for lichens are of concern. Keywords: Bryophyte ; Climate Change ; Disturbance ; Ellenberg indicators ; Lichen ; Pollution.
34396Roos R.E., Birkemoe T., Bokhorst S., Wardle D.A. & Asplund J. (2022): The importance of foundation species identity: A field experiment with lichens and their associated micro-arthropod communities. - Basic and Applied Ecology, 62: 45–54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.baae.2022.04.004.
Foundation species provide habitat and modify the availability of resources to other species. In nature, multiple foundation species may occur in mixture, but little is known on how their interactions shape the community assembly of associated species. Lichens provide both structural habitat and resources to a variety of associated organisms and thereby serve as foundation species. In this study, we use mat-forming lichens and their associated micro-arthropods as a miniature ecosystem to study potential synergies between foundation species diversity and the abundance and functional diversity of higher trophic levels. We created lichen patches with monocultures and mixtures of up to four species, and extracted Collembola (identified to species level), Oribatida, Mesostigmata, Pseudoscorpiones, and Araneae with Tullgren apparatuses after 106 days of incubation within a natural lichen mat. We found that different lichen species supported different arthropod abundances. For 19 out of a total of 55 lichen mixtures and arthropod groups, we found non-additive, synergistic effects on arthropod abundance, although the specific lichen mixture causing synergistic effects differed with arthropod group. In addition, synergistic effects on arthropod abundance were more common for arthropod groups at lower trophic levels. The functional diversity of lichen mixtures explained patterns in Collembola abundance, but in the opposite direction than hypothesized because synergistic responses were more frequent in functionally similar lichen mixtures. Finally, we found few effects of lichen mixture identity or diversity on the functional diversity of Collembola communities. When applied to large-scale ecosystems, our results suggest that understanding interactions between coexisting foundation species and identifying those species that drive synergistic effects of foundation species on consumer biota, is likely to be of importance to biodiversity conservation and restoration efforts. Keywords: Collembola; Community assembly; Habitat heterogeneity; Oribatida; Functional traits; Functional diversity.
34395Schmidt A.R., Steuernagel L., Behling H., Seyfullah L.J., Beimforde C., Sadowski E-M., Rikkinen J. & Kaasalainen U. (2022): Fossil evidence of lichen grazing from Palaeogene amber. - Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 302: 104664 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.revpalbo.2022.104664.
Lichens are important in many modern terrestrial ecosystems, but their fossil record has been very sparse. This has limited the chances for finding any evidence of their interactions with animals in past ecosystems. Recently, the fossil record of lichens has improved significantly with the discovery of numerous new inclusions from European Palaeogene ambers. Here, we report the first fossil evidence of animal–lichen interactions from one new fossil from Bitterfeld amber of central Germany. A foliose fossil lichen, possibly belonging to the Physciaceae, exhibits three feeding marks and co-preserved invertebrate faecal pellets. To gain insights into this Palaeogene lichen-invertebrate interaction, we compared the fossil grazing damage and faecal pellets to those obtained from several extant lichen feeders, including mites, collembolans, psocopterans, coleopteran larvae and gastropods. The results of the grazing experiments suggest that gastropods and mites most likely caused the feeding marks preserved in the fossil lichen. Keywords: Animal–lichen interactions; Bitterfeld amber; Fossil lichens; Palaeoecology; Physciaceae.
34394Kantvilas G. (2022): The genus Lambiella Hertel (lichenised fungi) in Tasmania: new combinations, new species and a revised key. - Phytotaxa, 549(2): 209–218. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.549.2.6.
Two new species of Lambiella Hertel from Tasmania are described and illustrated: L. parvipsephota Kantvilas, which is similar to the widespread L. psephota (Tuck.) Hertel but differs by lacking norstictic acid in the thallus and sedifolia-grey pigment in the apothecia, and by having smaller apothecia and ascospores, 8−13 × 5−7.5 μm; and L. plumbea Kantvilas, characterised by a grey thallus lacking lichen substances, minute apothecia 0.075−0.13 mm wide, and small ascospores 4−8.5 × 3−5 μm. Both are currently known only from Tasmania. A further 11 species of Rimularia are transferred to Lambiella: Lambiella albotessellata (Kantvilas) Kantvilas, Lambiella applanata (Kantvilas & Coppins) Kantvilas, Lambiella aspicilioides (Kantvilas) Kantvilas, Lambiella asteriphila (Kantvilas) Kantvilas, Lambiella campestris (Kantvilas & Elix) Kantvilas, Lambiella circumgrisea (Kantvilas) Kantvilas, Lambiella coppinsiana (Kantvilas) Kantvilas, Lambiella exigua (Hertel & Rambold) Kantvilas, Lambiella globulispora (Sipman & Aptroot) Kantvilas, Lambiella ramboldiana (Kantvilas & Elix) Kantvilas and Lambiella umbratilis (Kantvilas & Coppins) Kantvilas. The complexities of assigning many, chiefly Southern Hemisphere taxa to new generic concepts derived essentially from molecular data are discussed briefly. Lambiella is considered to be the genus of best fit for a suite of lichens that share many salient features, particularly with respect to apothecial anatomy and their Trapelia-type asci. An identification key to the 14 species of Lambiella in Tasmania is provided. Keywords: asci, Rimularia, lichens, new species, Trapeliaceae, taxonomy, Xylographaceae.
34393Frolov I.V., Prokopiev I.A., Yakovchenko L.S., Galanina I.A. & Ezhkin A.K. (2022): Coppinsiella extremiorientalis (Teloschistaceae, lichenized Ascomycota), a new species from the Russian Far East and a new genus to the region. - Phytotaxa, 549(2): 219–229. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.549.2.7.
A new epiphytic species of crustose Teloschistaceae, Coppinsiella extremiorientalis, is described from the floodplain forests of the boreal zone of the Russian Far East. It is characterized by its white to whitish grey, thin to disappearing thallus mostly without anthraquinones, dull orange zeorine pruinose apothecia with an anthraquinones composition corresponding to chemosyndrome A. Phylogeny of the genus Coppinsiella, which was previously unknown in the Far East, is discussed, as well as the morphology, ecology and geographical distribution of Coppinsiella species. A new combination for Caloplaca fiumana, an older name for Coppinsiella orbicularis, is also formally proposed. Keywords: Boreal zone, Caloplaca s. lat., Coppinsiella fiumana, floodplain forests, Khabarovsk Territory, new taxa, phylogeny, Sakhalin Region.
34392Joshi Y., Bansal P. & Yadav A.L. (2022): Cercidospora navarroi, a new species of lichenicolous fungus from the Central Himalayan region of India. - Phytotaxa, 549(2): 241–246. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.549.2.10.
Cercidospora navarroi colonizing the thallus and the apothecial discs of Rinodina intermedia is described as new to science from India and is compared with C. exiguella, C. rinodinae, and C. cf. rinodinae which also colonize the lichen genus Rinodina. Keywords: Himalaya, Physciaceae, Rinodina.
34391Fagnani L., Nazzicone L., Bellio P., Franceschini N., Tondi D., Verri A., Petricca S., Iorio R., Amicosante G., Perilli M. & Celenza G. (2022): Protocetraric and salazinic acids as potential inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 3CL protease: biochemical, cytotoxic, and computational characterization of depsidones as slow-binding inactivators. - Pharmaceuticals, 15: 714 [18 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/ph15060714.
The study investigated the inhibitory activity of protocetraric and salazinic acids against SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro. The kinetic parameters were determined by microtiter plate-reading fluorimeter using a fluorogenic substrate. The cytotoxic activity was tested on murine Sertoli TM4 cells. In silico analysis was performed to ascertain the nature of the binding with the 3CLpro. The compounds are slow-binding inactivators of 3CLpro with a Ki of 3.95 μM and 3.77 μM for protocetraric and salazinic acid, respectively, and inhibitory efficiency kinact/Ki at about 3 × 10−5 s−1μM−1. The mechanism of inhibition shows that both compounds act as competitive inhibitors with the formation of a stable covalent adduct. The viability assay on epithelial cells revealed that none of them shows cytotoxicity up to 80 μM, which is well below the Ki values. By molecular modelling, we predicted that the catalytic Cys145 makes a nucleophilic attack on the carbonyl carbon of the cyclic ester common to both inhibitors, forming a stably acyl-enzyme complex. The computational and kinetic analyses confirm the formation of a stable acyl-enzyme complex with 3CLpro. The results obtained enrich the knowledge of the already numerous biological activities exhibited by lichen secondary metabolites, paving the way for developing promising scaffolds for the design of cysteine enzyme inhibitors. Keywords: cysteine enzyme; SARS-CoV-2 3CL protease; lichen secondary metabolites; inhibition assay; slow binding inhibitor; inactivator.
34390Farkas E., Varga N., Veres K., Matus G., Sinigla M. & Lőkös L. (2022): Distribution types of lichens in Hungary that indicate changing environmental conditions. - Journal of Fungi, 8: 600 [17 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8060600.
Distribution data originating from earlier herbarium collections and recent biodiversity records form the basis of distribution analyses in lichen species with different ecological requirements, where the records allowed comparisons or showed clear trends. As the occurrences of lichens are strongly correlated to background environmental conditions (e.g., air pollution, global warming), confirmed byWirth’s ecological indicator values, the analysis of distribution types has a great value for bioindication and the establishment of current and future climatic and pollution situations. Five distribution types were introduced—presented by characteristic examples (13)—according to lichen distribution maps prepared in different periods of time (representing changing environmental conditions): (1) species of decreasing occurrences by time (e.g., Lobaria pulmonaria, Menegazzia terebrata, suboceanic, acidic pollution sensitive species), (2) species with no or few former records but with increasing occurrences in recent decades (e.g., Flavoparmelia soredians, Hyperphyscia adglutinata, Solenopsora candicans, sub-Mediterranean species), (3) species with increasing and then (from c. 2000) decreasing occurrences (e.g., Scoliciosporum chlorococcum, Straminella conizaeoides, acidofrequent species), (4) species with widely increasing occurrences in recent decades (e.g., Physcia aipolioides, Piccolia ochrophora, Xanthoria parietina, nitrofrequent species), and (5) species with rapidly increasing occurrences (e.g., Absconditella lignicola, Coenogonium pineti, Evernia divaricata, rapidly spreading species). The proposed distribution types of lichen species may be applied to wider regions (the European or the global level).
34389Adjiri F. & Ramdani M. (2022): Distribution maps of the fifferent levels of elemental concentrations accumulated by the lichen in the northeast of Algeria. - Journal of Environment and Earth Science, 12(2): 14–22. DOI: 10.7176/JEES/12-2-03.
An evaluation of environmental pollution in the region of Bordj Bou Arreridj (BBA), Algeria according to metallic trace elements has been carried out, to determine the levels of the 10 elements accumulated in lichens and the different sources found in the region. A total of 192 samples of Xanthoria parietina lichen were collected over an area of 3920.42 km². Sampling sites include urban sites, rural sites, green parks, sites near high traffic streets and industrial enterprises. The lichen samples were analyzed by FAAS for the ten elements and their concentrations were mapped. Concentrations of Pb, Cd, Sb and Zn were higher at urban sites and increased with proximity to highways and industrial areas. These results suggest that the composition of lichen elements is strongly affected by road traffic. While the sources of the elements Co, Ni, Fe, Mn and Cr probably come from dust from quarrying and contaminated soil deposits in particular, to the north and west of the region. This mapping of metal pollution can establish the first biological monitoring network in the study area. Keywords: Biomonitoring of lichens, Metallic elements, Pollution sources, Distribution maps, BBA.
34388Stapper N. (2022): Exkursion: Düsseldorf, Moose und Flechten entlang eines Transektes durch die Stadt, die Wirkung der Großstadt auf die Natur erleben. - Jahrbuch des Bochumer Botanischen Vereins, 13: 84–86. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Jahrb-Bochumer-Bot-Ver_13_0084-0086.pdf.
Report on excursion
34387Stapper N.J. (2022): Phaeophyscia orbicularis – Kreisförmige Schwielenflechte (Physciaceae), Stadtpflanze des Jahres 2021. - Jahrbuch des Bochumer Botanischen Vereins, 13: 222–240. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Jahrb-Bochumer-Bot-Ver_13_0222-0240.pdf.
34386Боровичев Е.А., Кожин М.Н., Мелехин А.В., Урбанавичюс Г.П., Химич Ю.Р. & Копеина Е.И. [Borovichev E.A., Kozhin M.N., Melekhin A.V., Urbanavichus G.P., Khimich Yu.R. & Kopeina E.I.] (2021): Значимые находки растений, лишайников и грибов на территории Мурманской области. IV [Noteworthy records of plants, lichens and fungi in Murmansk region. IV]. - Труды Карельского научного центра РАН, Серия "Биология", Петрозаводск [Proceedings of the Karelian Research Centre of Russian Academy of Science, ser. Biology, Petrozavodsk], 8: 5–18. DOI: 10.17076/bg1463.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] Seventy nine important findings of 46 species of vascular plants, bryophytes, lichens and fungi acquired lately from the Kandalaksha District of the Murmansk Region are reported. The findings were considered important if they were red-listed in Russia and/or Murmansk Region, represented other particularly rare species known from not more than five locations in the Murmansk Region, or came from the northernmost locations in Europe or globally. Six fungal species (Boletopsis grisea, Cystostereum murrayi, Irpex lacteus, Lenzites betulinus, Peniophora erikssonii, Steccherinum fimbriatum) were found in the region for the second time. New locations in the Kandalaksha District were found for four rare fungal species (Crustoderma corneum, Cystostereum murrayi, Phellodon melaleucus, Vuilleminia comedens). New location of 35 species listed in the Red Data Book of the Murmansk Region (Leptoporus mollis, Arctoparmelia subcentrifuga, Bryoria fremontii, Chaenotheca brachypoda, C. chlorella, C. gracillima, C. laevigata, C. subroscida, Chaenothecopsis nigra, Evernia divaricata, Lichenomphalia hudsoniana, Lobaria pulmonaria, Melanohalea exasperata, Pertusaria coronata, Phlyctis argena, Usnea glabrescens, Arnellia fennica, Metzgeria furcata, Scapania spitsbergensis, Crossocalyx hellerianus, Riccardia palmata, Buxbaumia aphylla, Asplenium viride, Botrychium lanceolatum, B. multifidum, Butomus umbellatus, Diplazium sibiricum, Epipogium aphyllum, Isoëtes echinospora, Nymphaea candida, Potamogeton filiformis, P. pectinatus, Ribes nigrum, Salix aurita, Viola selkirkii) were found. Keywords: vascular plants; bryophytes; lichens; fungi; new records; rare species; Red Data Book; Kandalaksha District.
34385Тарасова В.Н., Андросова В.И. & Сонина А.В. [Tarasova V.N., Androsova V.I. & Sonina A.V.] (2021): Лишайники национального парка «Водлозерский» (Россия) [Lichens of the National Park «Vodlozersky», Russia]. - Nature Conservation Research. Заповедная наука, 6(Suppl. 1): 32–46. https://dx.doi.org/10.24189/ncr.2021.003.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] Based on long-term (> 25 years) data analysis, the species diversity of lichens of the largest (4683 km2) Protected Area in Northwest Russia, the National Park «Vodlozersky», is presented for the first time. The National Park «Vodlozersky» was established in 1991 to preserve unique natural communities in the basin of Lake Vodlozero and the River Ileksa. The territory of the Protected Area is located along the eastern borders of the Fennoscandian Shield in two administrative regions: the Republic of Karelia and the Arkhangelsk region. This study is the first attempt to generalise all available data on the lichen flora of NP «Vodlozersky». The paper summarises the information from literature and the authors' data on lichen species diversity obtained in 19 expeditions to different parts of the National Park «Vodlozersky» over a 30-year period of study. Field material was collected by combination of floristic (route methods) and geobotanical studies – by the methods of establishing and description of sample plots ranging in size from 400 to 10 000 m2. For a detailed study of the species composition of lichens in the sample plots, all types of substrates were examined: the trunks and branch surface of different tree species under various conditions (living, falling, dead wood), as well as rotting wood, soil and stones. The collection of lichens (565 herbarium specimens) from the National Park «Vodlozersky» deposited in the herbarium of the Helsinki University (H) (H) were revised. A brief history of the lichen study in the Protected Area was described and the dynamics of the accumulation of information on the species diversity of lichens and allied fungi was revealed by years, from 170 species in 1991 to 469 species and 4 subspecies in 2020. The recent studies resulted in a list of 30 new findings, including 13 species for the Karelian part, and 17 for the whole area of the National Park «Vodlozersky». A total of 473 taxa are reported for the National Park «Vodlozersky», including 445 species and 4 subspecies of lichens, 11 species of non-lichenised fungi and 13 species of lichenicolous fungi. The distribution of lichen species number between the two parts of the Protected Area belonging to different regions of the Russian Federation is as follows: 327 are registered on the Karelian territory of the National Park «Vodlozersky», 402 species on the Arkhangelsk part; the number of common species is 259. Among the recorded lichens in the National Park «Vodlozersky» 18 species are listed in the Red Data Book of the Republic of Karelia and 16 species are in the Red Data Book of the Arkhangelsk Region. The obtained data indicate the high potential of the Protected Area in preserving and maintaining the general diversity of lichen species. The number of species found in the Arkhangelsk part of the National Park «Vodlozersky» is 64% of the currently known lichen diversity for the mainland of the Arkhangelsk region. In the Karelian part there are 25% species of lichens known for the Republic of Karelia. The authors emphasise the publication scarcity of accumulated material on the lichen flora of National Park «Vodlozersky», which makes the study relevant. Keywords: Arkhangelsk region, biodiversity, history of the research, intact forest, new species, Republic of Karerlia, taiga.
34384Urbanavichus G.P. & Urbanavichene I.N. (2022): First records of lichenised and lichenicolous fungi for the lichen flora of Russia and Eastern Europe. - Nature Conservation Research. Заповедная наука, 7(2): 95–97. https://dx.doi.org/10.24189/ncr.2022.024.
Noteworthy findings of two lichen species and four lichenicolous fungi are presented. Two species, Celothelium ischnobelum collected from the Nizhnii Novgorod Region and Opegrapha reactiva from the Murmansk Region, are reported for the first time for Russia and Eastern Europe. Four species, Arthonia destruens, Lichenochora gal- ligena, and Schizoxylon albescens collected in the Nizhnii Novgorod Region, and Sphaeropezia cucularis in the Murmansk Region, are new for European Russia. The genus Celothelium is reported for the first time for Russia. Key words: Celothelium ischnobelum, Kerzhensky State Nature Reserve, lichens, new records, Opegrapha reactiva.
34383Simon A., Goffinet B., Wang L.-S., Spribille T., Goward T., Pystina T., Semenova N., Stepanov N.V., Moncada B., Lücking R., Magain N. & Sérusiaux E. (2022): Global phylogeny and taxonomic reassessment of the lichen genus Dendriscosticta (Ascomycota: Peltigerales). - Taxon, 71(2): 256–287. https://doi.org/10.1002/tax.12649.
The genus Dendriscosticta (Ascomycota: Peltigerales) encompasses several distinctive lichen-forming fungal species restricted to the Northern Hemisphere. Most are flagship species of old-growth forests with good air quality. A global phylogeny of the genus based on multilocus sequence data (ITS, RPB1, EF-1α, MCM7), model-based phylogenetic methods, and morphological and chemical assessments, reveals a high level of cryptic speciation often associated with restricted geographical distribution and/or chemical characters. Using sequence-based species delimitation approaches, we circumscribe two main clades referred to as the D. wrightii clade, with five unequivocal species, including D. gelida sp. nov., and the D. praetextata clade, with eight putative species, including D. phyllidiata sp. nov. The absence of recently collected material of D. hookeri comb. nov. from the type locality unfortunately prevents assignment of this epithet to one of the five supported lineages sharing this morphotype. Three new combinations are proposed: D. hookeri, D. insinuans comb. nov. andD. yatabeana comb. nov. Epitypes are designated for D. wrightii and D. yatabeana. Species diversity within the genus increased from four to nine. Our morphological assessment confirmed that Sticta and Dendriscosticta can be readily distinguished by the presence of excipular algae whereas the structure of the lower surface pores is not a reliable diagnostic feature. Keywords: Dendriscocaulon; epitypification; lichenized fungi; Lobariaceae; Lobarioideae; Peltigeraceae; Sticta.
34382Killmann D., Leh B. & Fischer E. (2021): Felsstandorte und Rosselhalden des Nationalparks Hunsrück-Hochwald als Hotspots der Diversität von Flechten und Moosen. - Forschungsband Nationalpark Hunsrück-Hochwald, 1: 158–165. .
34381Fayyaz I., Afshan N.S., Niazi A.R., Khalid A.N. & Orange A. (2022): A new species of Porpidia (Lecideales, Ascomycota) from Pakistan. - Nova Hedwigia, 114: 221–235. DOI: 10.1127/nova_hedwigia/2022/0676.
Porpidia kashmirensis sp. nov. is described from Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. ITS and nrLSU sequences confirm its position within the genus Porpidia and, together with its morphology and chemistry, suggest that it is separate from other species of this genus. The species is characterized by a well-developed, pale grey thallus, up to 2.5 mm thick with areoles, containing confluentic acid, immersed apothecia, ascospores relatively small, 13–16 × 6.3–9.9 µm, paraphyses with relatively wider cap cells, upto 4.5 µm wide; differing from related species. Keywords: Peer chinasi; phylogeny; saxicolous lichens; taxonomy.
34380Nadeem S., Niazi A.R., Habib K. & Khalid A.N. (2022): A new species of Gyalolechia (Teloschistaceae, lichen-forming Ascomycota) from Pakistan. - Nova Hedwigia, 114: 237–249. DOI: 10.1127/nova_hedwigia/2022/0667.
Gyalolechia pakistanica sp. nov. is described and illustrated from dry hot hilly areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The new taxon is characterized by a sublobate thallus with short, indistinct lobes, and by relatively large, 8–20 µm long ascospores with variable shape. According phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequences, the new species is sister to G. subbracteata, from which differs by the less distinctly lobed thallus and the larger ascospores. A tabular comparison between the new species and related and similar taxa is provided. Keywords: Caloplacoideae; Fulgensia; Khyber Pakhtunkhwa; taxonomy.
34379Schiefelbein U. & Sheard J.W. (2021): Rinodina capensis and three other Rinodina species from Chile. - Gayana Botanica, 78(2): 156–161. .
Records of four Rinodina species and Orcularia insperata from the Los Lagos region and Aysén Region in Chile are presented. Orcularia insperata and Rinodina capensis are new to Chile. Information on the worldwide distribution of these species and three others is provided. Furthermore, a key is provided to the Rinodina and related species currently known from Chile. Keywords: distribution, lichens, new records, Physciaceae.
34378Lendemer J.C. (2022): Recent literature on lichens—265. - Bryologist, 125(2): 380–386. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-125.2.380.
34377Mayrhofer H., Mašić E. & Bilovitz P.O. (2019): Additions to the “Catalogue of Lichenized and Lichenicolous Fungi of Bosnia and Herzegovina”. - Phyton (Horn), 59: 55–67. DOI: 10.12905/0380.phyton59-2019-0055.
The additions are based on an evaluation of 53 published sources concerning Bosnia and Herzegovina and on unpublished herbarium specimens. The actual lichen biota of the country includes 648 species (with 4 subspecies and 14 varieties) of lichenized, 13 non-lichenized or doubtfully lichenized, and 26 lichenicolous fungi. Key words: Ascomycota, lichenized fungi, lichenicolous fungi. – Floristics. – Lichen biota of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Balkan Peninsula, Europe.
34376Mollier S., Kunstler G., Dupouey J.-L. & Bergès L. (2022): Historical landscape matters for threatened species in French mountain forests. - Biological Conservation, 269: 109544 [19 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2022.109544.
Ancient forests are known to host a biodiversity of high ecological distinctiveness and are likely to provide habitat for red-listed species. Yet, few studies have investigated the role of forest continuity for the conservation of threatened species. We used species-presence data on red-listed species from 12 taxonomic groups (Spermatophyta, Pteridophyta, Bryophyta, Lichens, Chiroptera, Aves, Squamata, Amphibia, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Odonata and Orthoptera) to ascertain if ancient forests are an important habitat for threatened species in five mountain and subalpine protected areas in France. We compared the effect of the amount of historical forest (1853–1860) with the effect of the amount of current forest on the distribution of red-listed species in six circular landscape buffers ranging in radius from 100 to 1500 m. We showed that the amount of historical forest in the landscape had a positive effect on forest Spermatophyta, Bryophyta, Coleoptera and edge forest Pteridophyta with a better predictive power than current forest area, highlighting a colonization credit in recent forests. Conversely, edge-forest lepidopterans were more negatively affected by historical than by current forest area, highlighting an extinction debt in recent forests. Our findings underline that implementing protective measures of ancient forests would be a better strategy than afforestation to preserve threatened forest species in mountain and subalpine forest landscapes. Keywords: Threatened species ; Colonization credit ; Forest continuity ; Legacy effect ; Conservation biology ; Temperate forests.
34375Roser L.A., Erkoc P., Ingelfinger R., Henke M., Ulshöfer T., Schneider A.-K., Laux V., Geisslinger G., Schmitt I., Fürst R. & Schiffmann S. (2022): Lecanoric acid mediates anti-proliferative effects by an M phase arrest in colon cancer cells. - Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, 148: 112734 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2022.112734.
Lichen extracts containing, among other compounds, depsides such as evernic acid, atranorin, and lecanoric acid possess anti-proliferative effects. We aimed to identify lichen metabolites that are responsible for the observed anti-proliferative effects. We performed cytotoxicity, cell colony, cell cycle and apoptosis assays in various cell lines or primary immune cells. We analyzed several cell cycle proteins and apoptosis-related proteins to gain insights into the underlying mechanism. All depsides reduced the viability of the tested cell lines (HCT-116, HEK293T, HeLa, NIH3T3, RAW246.7) in a cell line-dependent manner with lecanoric acid being the most effective. Atranorin did not influence the cell cycle or colony formation in HCT-116 cells, but induced apoptosis in HCT-116 cells. Evernic acid showed no anti-proliferative effects. Lecanoric acid inhibited cell colony formation already at 0.03 µg/ml in HCT-116 cells and induced a G2 cell cycle block in several cell lines. Moreover, lecanoric acid arrested the cell cycle, presumably in the M phase, since expression of cyclin B1 and phosphorylated histone H3 was upregulated, whereas the inactive cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) was reduced in HCT116 cells. Most importantly, cell death induced by lecanoric acid was more prominent in cancer cells than in primary human immune and endothelial cells. In conclusion, lecanoric acid seems to mediate its antiproliferative effects via arrest of cells in the M phase. Our data suggest lecanoric acid may be a potential new candidate for anti-cancer therapy, because it has anti-proliferative effects on cancer cell lines, and does not affect primary immune cells. Keywords: Lecanoric acid; Atranorin; Evernic acid; M cell cycle arrest; Cyclin B1; CDK1; Lichens.
34374Simonyan A.G., Sargsyan R.R., Panosyan H.H. & Trchounian A.H. (2020): Study of antibacterial and antioxidant activities of saxicolous lichen Xanthoparmelia stenophylla. - Proceedings of the Yerevan State University B: Chemical and Biological Sciences, 54(2): 132–137. https://doi.org/10.46991/PYSU:B/2020.54.2.132.
Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of different extracts of saxicolous lichen Xanthoparmelia stenophylla sampled from Norashen, Gegharkunik Province of Armenia were studied. Methanol, ethanol and acetone extracts of lichen thalli were demonstrated to have activity against only tested gram-positive bacteria. Methanol extract of the lichen showed the highest amount of DPPH radical scavenging activity (~68%). Our studies did not reveal any significant antibacterial and antioxidant activities of aqueous extract. Keywords: Xanthoparmelia stenophylla, saxicolous lichens, antibacterial and antioxidant activities.
34373Yazici K., Aslan A. & Etayo J. (2022): Lichens and lichenicolous fungi from the Bingol Province in Turkey. - Phytologia Balcanica, 28(1): 11–38. DOI 10.7546/PhB.28.2022.2.
This study is a contribution to the Lichen Biota of Turkey. As a result of the examination of lichens and lichenicolous fungi from 169 stations, 341 lichens and 23 lichenicolous fungi have been identified. While Sphaerellothecium contextum, a lichenicolous fungus, is new to Turkey, 19 lichenized and three lichenicolous fungi were found for the second time in Turkey. Key words: Ascomycota, Bingöl, biodiversity, lichen, Turkey.
34372Zakeri Z., Junne S., Jäger F., Dostert M., Otte V. & Neubauer P. (2022): Lichen cell factories: methods for the isolation of photobiont and mycobiont partners for defned pure and co-cultivation. - Microbial Cell Factories, 21: 80 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12934-022-01804-6.
Background: Due to their huge biodiversity and the capability to produce a wide range of secondary metabolites, lichens have a great potential in biotechnological applications. They have, however, hardly been used as cell factories to date, as it is considered to be difcult and laborious to cultivate lichen partners in pure or co-culture in the laboratory. The various methods used to isolate lichen fungi, based on either the ascospores, the conidia, or the thallus, have so far not been compared or critically examined. Therefore, here we systematically investigate and compare the known methods and two new methods to identify the most suitable technology for isolation of fungi from lichens. Results: Within this study six lichen fungi species were isolated and propagated as pure cultures. All of them formed colonies within one month. In case of lichens with ascocarps the spore discharge was the most suitable method. Spores were already discharged within 2 days and germinated within only four days and the contamination rate was low. Otherwise, the soredia and thallus method without homogenization, as described in this work, are also well suited to obtain pure fungal cultures. For the isolation of algae, we were also successful with the thallus method without homogenization. Conclusion: With the methods described here and the proposed strategic approach, we believe that a large proportion of the lichen fungi can be cultivated within a reasonable time and efort. Based on this, methods of controlled cultivation and co-cultivation must now be developed in order to use the potential of lichens with regard to their secondary metabolites, but also for other applications. Keywords: Ascomycota, Lichen cultivation, Isolation method, Colony development, Pure culture, Axenic culture, Co-culture, Secondary metabolites, Biotechnology.
34371Yang M.X., Wang L.S., Miao C.C. & Scheidegger C. (2022): From cradle to grave? A global hotspot and new species of the genus Lobaria discovered in the Himalayas and the Hengduan Mountains. - Persoonia, 48: 150–174. https://doi.org/10.3767/persoonia.2022.48.04.
n this study, the East Asian diversity of green-algal Lobaria was evaluated by applying both morphological and phylogenetic approaches. A multi-locus phylogenetic analysis of 72 green-algal Lobaria specimens was performed using a three-locus and time-calibrated species-tree approach. The analyses demonstrate that pairs of sexually and vegetatively reproducing lineages split into highly supported monophyletic clades. Taxonomically, 11 green-algal Lobaria species were identified as new to science, while 10 were previously described species. The species differentiated during the Pliocene and Pleistocene. The coincidence of paleoclimatic events with estimated dates of divergence support a bioclimatic hypothesis for species evolution in the green-algal Lobaria. Molecular phylogenies, a summary of diversity, detailed new species descriptions and geographical analyses are provided. Special recognition of species with a long evolutionary history, which merit high conservation priority, will be critical for preserving geographically restricted endemics in the Himalayas and the Hengduan Mountains, where habitat loss is driving rapid declines. Key words: East Asia; evolution; lichen-forming ascomycetes; Lobaria; multi-locus phylogeny; new taxa.
34370Resl P., Bujold A.R., Tagirdzhanova G., Meidl P., Freire Rallo S., Kono M., Fernández-Brime S., Guðmundsson H., Andrésson Ó.S., Muggia L., Mayrhofer H., McCutcheon J., Wedin M., Werth S., Willis L.M. & Spribille T. (2022): Large differences in carbohydrate degradation and transport potential among lichen fungal symbionts. - Nature Communications, 13: 2634 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-30218-6.
Lichen symbioses are thought to be stabilized by the transfer of fixed carbon from a photosynthesizing symbiont to a fungus. In other fungal symbioses, carbohydrate subsidies correlate with reductions in plant cell wall-degrading enzymes, but whether this is true of lichen fungal symbionts (LFSs) is unknown. Here, we predict genes encoding carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) and sugar transporters in 46 genomes from the Lecanoromycetes, the largest extant clade of LFSs. All LFSs possess a robust CAZyme arsenal including enzymes acting on cellulose and hemicellulose, confirmed by experimental assays. However, the number of genes and predicted functions of CAZymes vary widely, with some fungal symbionts possessing arsenals on par with well-known saprotrophic fungi. These results suggest that stable fungal association with a phototroph does not in itself result in fungal CAZyme loss, and lends support to long-standing hypotheses that some lichens may augment fixed CO2 with carbon from external source.
34369Paukov A., Teptina A., Ermoshin A., Kruglova E. & Shabardina L. (2022): The role of secondary metabolites and bark chemistry in shaping diversity and abundance of epiphytic lichens. - Frontiers in Forests and Global Change, 5: 828211 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/ffgc.2022.828211.
Diversity of secondary lichen metabolites was studied in epiphytic lichens on six phorophytes—spruce, pine, birch, alder, aspen and poplar in the Middle Urals of Russia. Atranorin, usnic, fumarprotocetraric acid, zeorin, and gyrophoric acid were found in 31, 24, 23, 18, and 14 species, respectively, of 237 taxa collected. Seventy-seven species (i.e., 32% of total species documented) contained no secondary metabolites. Spectra of secondary metabolites of fruticose and foliose lichens varied on different phorophytes, while in crustose species the strong dependence on the tree species was not detected. This is different to the pH dependence of saxicolous lichens where crustose lichens were more susceptible to the rock chemistry. The results of Canonical Correspondence Analysis reveal the affinity of species containing depsides, depsidones or usnic acid to acidic substrata and those lacking secondary metabolites or containing terpenes and antraquinones to the pH-neutral bark. We suppose that phenolic compounds and flavonoids, as chemical constituents of bark, may interact with lichen symbioses and elements in phellem, and similarly to the lichen acids shape the affinity of species to the substrata. Keywords: substrate ecology, phorophyte, flavonoids, terpenes, Middle Urals, CCA analysis.
34368Ruas S., Rotchés-Ribalta R., Ó hUallacháin D., Volpato A., Gormally M., White B. & Moran J. (2022): Assessing stone walls habitat quality – Which factors affect bryophytes and macrolichens on farmland stone walls in Ireland?. - Ecological Indicators, 139: 108948 [5 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2022.108948.
Stone walls are ubiquitous field boundaries used to restrict livestock movement or to separate property. Bryophytes and lichens are often the dominant vegetation in dry stone walls and are strongly affected by local microhabitat characteristics. Bryophytes and lichens related metrics can be used to define habitat quality of stone walls. The current study assessed how richness and cover of bryophytes and macrolichens in dry stone walls related to each other and how different environmental variables and farm management descriptors determined richness and cover of both groups in dry stone walls. Bryophytes and macrolichens were sampled in stone walls on sixteen farms across a management intensity gradient in Ireland. Bryophyte cover correlated positively and significantly with bryophyte richness and macrolichen cover and richness, and can thus be used to assess stone walls quality. Farm management intensity emerged as the variable most strongly related with species richness of bryophytes and cover of both groups. Altitude also emerged as a strong predictor of both groups’ richness and cover. This study provides a novel perspective on stone wall habitat quality and results indicate that by promoting extensive farming it is possible to increase stone walls quality. Keywords: Agricultural landscapes; Dry stone walls; Bryophytes; Macrolichens; Farm management intensity.
34367Halda J. (2022): Cryptodiscus foveolaris (Stictidaceae, Lecanoromycetes) z NPR Broumovské stěny. - Mykologické Listy, 151: 53‒56. .
Cryptodiscus foveolaris je nově zaznamenaným druhem mykobioty ČR. V Evropě je známý pouze z několika lokalit. Od lichenizovaných druhů známých z ČR Ramonia interjecta a Cryp­todiscus gloeocapsa se odlišuje stavbou plodnic a tvarem spor
34366Mejstřík V. (1998): Lišejníky ve středních Brdech. - In: Němec J. [red.], Příroda Brd a perspektivy její ochrany, pp. 93–95, EnviTypo Praha, Příbram, . .
34365Mejstřík V. (1998): Lišejníky centrálních Brd. - In: Němec J. [red.], Příroda Brd a perspektivy její ochrany, pp. 33–34, EnviTypo Praha, Příbram, . .
34364Mejstřík V. (1993): Lichenologický průzkum centrálních Brd. - In: Němec J. [red.], Příroda Brd a perspektivy její ochrany, pp. 45–46, Okr. úřad Příbram, . .
34363Suza J. (1936): Funaria mediterranea Lindb., nový příslušník mechové flory české. - Časopis Národního musea, sect. natur., Praha, 110: 55-56. .
Toninia coeruleonigricans, Caloplaca fulgens, Dermatocarpon hepaticum
34362Suza J. (1936): Fimbriaria fragrans Nees, nová zajímavá jatrovka v Čechách. - Časopis Národního musea, sect. natur., Praha, 110: 54-55. .
Cladonia rangiformis
34361Šimr J. (1936): Další lokality Montagnites De Candolleii Fr. v Čes. Středohoří. - Časopis Národního musea, sect. natur., Praha, 110: 125. .
Parmelia Pokornyi, Cladonia alcicornis, Cl. strepsilis, Cl. rangiformis, Cornicullaria tenuissima, Toninia coeruleonigricans
34360Šimr J. (1936): Nové naleziště Rinodina oreina Mass. v Českém Středohoří. - Časopis Národního musea, sect. natur., Praha, 110: 58. .
34359Slavík F. A. (1930): Rožmitál pod Třemšínem a okolí. – Rožmitál p. Tř., 294 pp. [Lichenes p. 30]. - , . .
34358Pilous Z. (1939): Poslední živé rašeliniště v Brdech. - Krása našeho domova, 31: 2–6. .
Umbilicaria (Gyrophora) cylindrica, Parmelia lanata, Parmelia encausta
34357Pilous Z. (1936): Pozoruhodné nálezy Bryophyt v Brdech. - Časopis Národního musea, sect. natur., Praha, 110: 102–103. .
Parmelia encausta, Parmelia lanata, Umbilicaria cylindrica
34356Los V. (1928): Geobotanický ráz lišejníkové oblasti brdské. - In: Panýrek D. [red.], Věstník VI. sjezdu československých přírodozpytců, lékařů a inženýrů v Praze 25.–30. května 1928, díl II., p. 64, Praha., . .
34355Bajpai R., Shukla V., Raju A., Singh C.P. & Upreti D.K (2022): A geostatistical approach to compare metal accumulation pattern by lichens in plain and mountainous regions of northern and central India. - Environmental Earth Sciences, 81: 203 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-022-10336-6.
Based on the physicochemical characteristics, metals emitted from the source (both natural and anthropogenic) contributes towards spatial continuity at a regional scale. Apart from the intrinsic properties of metals, meteorological conditions and topography of the region are also known to contribute towards spatial continuity. In the present study, a comparative spatial assessment of 12 metals in lichen Phaeophyscia hispidula collected from mountains and plains of northern and north-central India was carried out with the help of the indicator kriging method. The total metal concentration varies between 25.4–429 µgg−1 and 22.8–507 µgg−1 dry weight in plains and mountains, respectively. The ‘Indicator Kriging’, a cokriging non-parametric approach has been applied to predict the total metal load (TML) probability from a regional lichen database derived from the diferent metals in the mountain and plain regions. Cr, Cd, Cu and Pb had higher concentrations having higher coverage area, while metals like Cd and Hg had the highest localized distribution indicating point sources. The probability values of TML are further related with topography, population density and land cover attributes to specifc factors responsible for metal accumulation in the study area. Observations indicated that apart from local sources, topography, population density and land cover, also plays an essential role in the spatial behaviour of the metals, which has been verifed by the bioaccumulation pattern of metals in lichen samples from the mountainous region. Among which three mountainous states of Northern India, Uttarakhand has a higher concentration of metals which may be attributed to the topography and local anthropogenic sources. Keywords: Lichens · Metal accumulation · Biomonitoring · Indicator Kriging · Geostatistical mapping · Bivariate relationship.
34354Zhang Y., Clancy J., Jensen J., McMullin R.T., Wang L. & Leavitt S.D. (2022): Providing scale to a known taxonomic unknown—At least a 70-fold increase in species diversity in a cosmopolitan nominal taxon of lichen-forming fungi. - Journal of Fungi, 8: 490 [18 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8050490.
Robust species delimitations provide a foundation for investigating speciation, phylogeography, and conservation. Here we attempted to elucidate species boundaries in the cosmopolitan lichen-forming fungal taxon Lecanora polytropa. This nominal taxon is morphologically variable, with distinct populations occurring on all seven continents. To delimit candidate species, we compiled ITS sequence data from populations worldwide. For a subset of the samples, we also generated alignments for 1209 single-copy nuclear genes and an alignment spanning most of the mitochondrial genome to assess concordance among the ITS, nuclear, and mitochondrial inferences. Species partitions were empirically delimited from the ITS alignment using ASAP and bPTP. We also inferred a phylogeny for the L. polytropa clade using a four-marker dataset. ASAP species delimitations revealed up to 103 species in the L. polytropa clade, with 75 corresponding to the nominal taxon L. polytropa. Inferences from phylogenomic alignments generally supported that these represent evolutionarily independent lineages or species. Less than 10% of the candidate species were comprised of specimens from multiple continents. High levels of candidate species were recovered at local scales but generally with limited overlap across regions. Lecanora polytropa likely ranks as one of the largest species complexes of lichen-forming fungi known to date. Keywords: alpine/arctic/Antarctic; ASAP; cosmopolitan; cryptic species; genome skimming; species delimitation; symbiotic phenotype.
34353Rodi D. (1974): Trockenrasengesellschaften des nordwestlichen Tertiärhügellandes. - Berichte der Bayerischen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 45: 151–172. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Berichte-Bayerischen-Bot-Ges-Erforschung-Flora_45_0151-0172.pdf.
Phytosociology; terricolous lichens included in the phytosociological relevés
34352Ricek E.W. (1982): Die Flora der Umgebung von Gmünd im niederösterreichischen Waldviertel. - Abhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Österreich, 21: 1–204. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/AZBG_21_0001-0204.pdf.
Upper Austria; vegetation; numerous notes on lichens in various parts of the publication; a sketch ("Abb. 8") of a lichen community on illuminated solitary boulder and surrounding ground at p. 28; a separate commented list of lichens at p. 83–89.
34351Trobajo S., Fernández-Salegui A.B, Terrón A. & Martínez I. (2022): Functional traits of epiphytic lichen communities in a Temperate-Mediterranean fragmented landscape: Importance of patch size, tree diameter and summer rainfall. - Fungal Ecology, 57–58: 101160 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.funeco.2022.101160.
Functional traits have become important tools for evaluating the response of epiphytic lichens to environmental changes. In this study, we evaluated which predictors related to fragmentation, habitat quality and climate were driving the richness and cover of lichen growth form, type of photobiont and reproduction traits, at both fragment and plot levels in a Temperate-Mediterranean area dominated by Quercus forests. At fragment level, patch size and summer rainfall positively contributed to richness in most of the traits, while tree diameter and slope were the most important drivers, especially for the type of reproduction and growth form at plot scale. High coverage of growth forms especially sensitive to fragmentation were indicative of high values of total species richness, while early-colonizers indicated the opposite. These results provide important information on how lichen traits respond to environmental conditions in an ecotone area where a shift towards a drier climate is more likely to occur. Keywords: Epiphytic lichens ; Fragment size ; Functional traits ; Growth forms ; Photobiont ; Reproduction ; Summer rainfall Temperate-Mediterranean climate ; Total species richness ; Tree diameter.
34350Fayyaz I., Afshan N.S., Niazi A.R. & Khalid A.N. (2022): Aspicilia nigromaculata sp. nov. (Megasporaceae, Pertusariales, Ascomycota) from Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan, evidence from morphology and DNA sequencing data. - Botanica Serbica, 46(1): 105–111. https://doi.org/10.2298/BOTSERB2201105F .
A new species of Megasporaceae, Aspicilia nigromaculata sp. nov. is described and illustrated from Pakistan. A comparative morpho–anatomical study and ITS–LSU-based molecular analyses confirmed its position within the genus Aspicilia. It differs from the other species of the genus by the following set of features: a well–developed, grey to greenish grey frequently black spotted thick thallus, well–developed thicker peripheral and flat to slightly concave areoles, and small conidia 10–15 × 0.5–1 µm. Its positioning in a separate branch in the phylogenetic tree also makes it distinct from the other known species of the genus. Keywords: ITS nrDNA, nrLSU, phylogeny, saxicolous lichens.
34349Sugimoto M. & Ohmura Y. (2022): Pyrgillus mammosus (Pyrenulaceae, lichenized Ascomycota), a new species from Taiwan. - Taiwania, 67(2): 267‒270. DOI: 10.6165/tai.2022.67.267.
Pyrgillus mammosus, a new species from Xitou, Taiwan is described and illustrated. It is similar to P. tibellii and P. rufus but differs in its potassium hydroxide reaction of the thallus (K+ red) as a main distinguishing feature, additional chemical compounds detected by thin layer chromatography, and larger conical to hemispherical ascomata. Morphological and chemical differences among the closely similar taxa are discussed. Key words: Chemistry, eastern Asia, lichenized fungi, mazaedia, morphology, Pyrgillus rufus, P. tibellii, taxonomy, TLC.
34348Fraser R.H., Pouliot D. & van der Sluijs J. (2022): UAV and high resolution satellite mapping of forage lichen (Cladonia spp.) in a rocky Canadian Shield landscape. - Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing, 48(1): 5–18. https://doi.org/10.1080/07038992.2021.1908118.
Reindeer lichens (Cladonia spp.) are an important food source for woodland and barren ground caribou herds. In this study, we assessed Cladonia classification accuracy in a rocky, Canadian Shield landscape near Yellowknife, Northwest Territories using both Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) sensors and high-resolution satellite sensors. At the UAV scale, random forest classifications derived from a multispectral, visible-near infrared sensor (Micasense Altum) had an average 5% higher accuracy for mapping Cladonia (i.e., 95.5%) than when using a conventional color RGB camera (DJI Phantom 4 RTK). We aggregated Altum lichen classifications from three 5 ha study sites to train random forest regression models of fractional lichen cover using predictor features from WorldView-3 and Planet CubeSat satellite imagery. WorldView models at 6m resolution had an average 6.8% RMSE (R2 ¼ 0.61) when tested at independent study sites and outperformed the 6m Planet models, which had a 9.9% RMSE (R2 ¼ 0.34). These satellite results are comparable to previous lichen mapping studies focusing on woodlands, but the small cover of Cladonia in our study area (11.6% or 16.8% within the barren portions) results in a high relative RMSE (62.2%) expressed as a proportion of mean lichen cover.
34347McNamara J.A., Schaefer J.A., Bastille-Rousseau G. & Mahoney S.P. (2022): Landscape features and caribou harvesting during three decades in Newfoundland. - Écoscience, 29(1): 39–53. https://doi.org/10.1080/11956860.2021.1969825.
Landscapes can influence the distribution of harvesting by influencing animal distribution and hunter access. For species like caribou, Rangifer tarandus, decades-long shifts in abundance and distribution might alter such relationships, but few studies have been conducted at such scales. We examined relationships between landscape features and 21,380 harvest records of migratory caribou in Newfoundland during caribou population growth (1980s), cessation of growth (1990s), and decline (2000s). We focused on features hypothesized to influence the distributions of caribou and hunters: lichen landcover, roads, cutblocks, outfitter camps, power lines, and towns. We uncovered larger harvests by resident hunters of male and female caribou among lichen landcover, likely providing preferred caribou forage, and larger harvests by non-resident hunters of male caribou away from towns, reflecting the locations of outfitter camps. Only during later decades, resident harvests occurred nearer power lines and cutblocks, likely providing hunter access and reflecting risk-prone foraging by caribou. We surmise that the harvest was facilitated by open habitats, preferred by caribou, and anthropogenic features leading to hunter access, especially as the caribou population declined. Such knowledge at broad scales is increasingly important in an era of widespread disruption to landscapes. Keywords: Anthropogenic disturbance; hunting; linear corridors; Rangifer tarandus.
34346Emsen B., Sadi G., Bostanci A. & Aslan A. (2021): In vitro evaluation of cytotoxic, oxidative, genotoxic, and apoptotic activities of physodic acid from Pseudevernia furfuracea in HepG2 and THLE2 cells. - Plant Biosystems, 155(6): 1111–1120. https://doi.org/10.1080/11263504.2020.1852329.
In the present study, cytotoxic (apoptotic and necrotic), antioxidant, prooxidant, genotoxic, and apoptosis- related genes expression modulatory effects of physodic acid (PA) isolated from Pseudevernia furfuracea on cancerous (HepG2) and healthy (THLE2) human liver cells were evaluated. Cytotoxic effects PA obtained from P. furfuracea on HepG2 and THLE2 cells were tested via MTT and LDH analyses. In order to determine genotoxic effect of PA, 8-OH-dG levels in the cells were measured. In addition, apoptotic or necrotic effects of PA on the hepatic cells were determined by qRT-PCR analysis. Cytotoxicity analyses revealed the cytotoxic effect of PA on HepG2 cells, which is much higher than THLE2 cells. Gene expression studies demonstrated the apoptotic effects of PA on HepG2 cells through both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. PA increased the antioxidant capacity of THLE2 cells with increasing concentrations, which describes its antioxidant power. Additionally, none of the tested levels of PA caused oxidative DNA damage on THLE2 cells, but its high concentration increased genetic damages on HepG2. Taken together, P. furfuracea lichen and its metabolite, PA, would be a promising alternative for complementary treatments against liver cancer. Keywords: 8-Hydroxy-20-deoxyguanosine; lactate dehydrogenase; lichen; total antioxidant capacity; total oxidative stress.
34345Dorn R.I. (2021): Assessing biological soil crusts as agents of Ca–Mg silicate dissolution and CO2 sequestration. - Physical Geography, 42(6): 529–541. https://doi.org/10.1080/02723646.2021.1919379.
Biological soil crusts (BSCs) monitored over a 25-year period enhance the dissolution of the Ca-silicate plagioclase and the Mgsilicate olivine at Sonoran Desert and Colorado Plateau, USA, study sites. This first measured biological enhancement of weathering (BEW) for plagioclase is a mean of 2.3±0.4 and 3.0±0.4 for the Organic Pipe, Arizona and Moab, Utah study sites; and it is 4.9±0.8 and 3.9±0.3 for olivine at these respective sites. These BEWs are low compared to other biological agents such as lichens, tree roots, termites and especially ants. If these modern BEW for BCSs reflect the magnitude of BEW in Archean soil crusts, then the presence of abundant BSCs covering an Archean Earth surface would not contradict available evidence for no substantial atmospheric CO2 decline in Earth’s early atmosphere. The relatively low BEW value for BCSs indicates that BSCs would not be a useful geoengineering solution to high levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Keywords: carbon dioxide; drawdown; Earth’s habitability; faint sun hypothesis; in situ weathering.
34344Nugraha A.S., Dayli I.R., Putri C.P.Z.S., Firli L.N., Pratama A.N.W., Triatmoko B., Untari L.F., Wongso H., Keller P.A. & Wangchuk P. (2022): Isolation of antibacterial depside constituents from Indonesian folious lichen, Candelaria fibrosa. - Journal of Biologically Active Products from Nature, 12(1): 24–32. https://doi.org/10.1080/22311866.2021.2021986.
There is an urgent need for novel drug leads, especially for microbial infections due to continuing emergence of drug resistance. Natural products are the backbone of modern medicine and the lichens have an important role to play in the discovery of novel drugs. Indonesia is gifted with a diverse array of lichens, which remain underexplored for medicinal applications. In this study, we have collected a lichen, Candelaria fibrosa, and conducted phytochemical and bioactivity studies. Using high performance liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we have isolated and characterised two depside compounds, atraric acid (7) and methyl 3-hydroxy orsellinate (8). These two depsides were reported from this lichen species for the first time. The evaluation of the crude methanol extract against Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, indicated insignificant activity. However, the isolated compounds have been previously reported to possess low antimicrobial activity against common pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) but to show significant anti-legionellosis. Keywords: Candelaria fibrosa, atraric acid, methyl 3-hydroxy orsellinate, antibacterial, Staphylococcus aureus.
34343Huynh B.L.C., Pham N.K.T. & Nguyen T.P. (2022): Paresordin A, a new diphenyl cyclic peroxide from the lichen Parmotrema praesorediosum. - Journal of Asian Natural Products Research, 24(2): 190–195. https://doi.org/10.1080/10286020.2021.1908271.
From the lichen Parmotrema praesorediosum, one new diphenyl peroxide, named praesordin A (1), together with four depsidones, including virensic acid (2), protocetraric acid (3), 8’-O-methylprotocetraric acid (4), and furfuric acid (5) were purified. Their structures were chacracterized using extensive HR-ESI-MS and NMR spectroscopic methods. The isolated compounds (2-5) possessed stronger α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50 ¼ 43.7-110.1 µM) than the standard drug acarbose (IC50 ¼ 214.5 µM). Keywords: Parmotrema praesorediosum; Parmeliaceae; diphenyl peroxide; depsidone; α-glucosidase inhibitory activity.
34342Huynh B.L.C., Bui V.M., Nguyen K.P.P., Pham N.K.T. & Nguyen T.P. (2022): Three new diphenyl ethers from the lichen Parmotrema praesorediosum (Nyl.) Hale (Parmeliaceae). - Natural Product Research, 36(8): 1934–1940. https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2020.1837818.
Three new diphenyl ethers, named praesorethers E, F and G (1, 2 and 3), were isolated from the lichen Parmotrema praesorediosum. Their chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of extensively spectroscopic analysis including HR-ESI-MS and NMR as well as comparison with previously published data. These compounds were evaluated for the cytotoxicity against three human cancer cell lines (HeLa, NCI-H460 and MCF-7) using SRB assay. As results, 1 and 2 exhibited weak cytotoxic activity against three tested cancer cell lines with the inhibitive percentage of 64–79.9% at the concentration of 100 µg/mL while 3 was inactive. Keywords: Parmotrema praesorediosum; Parmeliaceae; praesorether; diphenyl ether; cytotoxicity.
34341Huynh B.-L.-C., Nguyen T.-T.-L., Nguyen V.-K., Chavasiri W., Nguyen K.-P.-P. & Duong T.-H. (2022): Three new phenolic compounds from the lichen Ramalina peruviana Ach. (Ramalinaceae). - Natural Product Research, 36(8): 2009–2014. https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2020.1839463.
Three new phenolic compounds, peruvinides A-C were isolated from the lichen Ramalina peruviana Ach. (Ramalinaceae). Their structures were unambiguously determined by extensive spectroscopic analyses and comparison with literature data. Peruvinides A and B bearing unusual moieties were found for the first time among lichen metabolites. Keywords: Ramalina peruviana Ach.; Ramalinaceae; lichen; depside; peruvinides A–C.
34340Bui V.-M., Duong T.-H., Chavasiri W., Nguyen K.-P.-P. & Huynh B.-L.-C. (2022): A new depsidone from the lichen Usnea ceratina Arch [sic!]. - Natural Product Research, 36(9): 2263–2269. https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2020.1828405.
Chemical investigation of the lichen Usnea ceratina Arch led to the isolation of five depsidones, including one new compound ceratinalone (1) along with four known compounds bailesidone (2), stictic acid (3), 80-O-methylstictic acid (4) and 80-O-ethylstictic acid (5). The structures were determined by analysis of their MS and NMR data as well as by comparison with literature values. Compounds 1 and 4 were evaluated the cytotoxic activity against HeLa (human epithelial carcinoma), NCI-H460 (human lung cancer), HepG2 (liver hepatocellular carcinoma), and MCF-7 (human breast cancer) cell lines, showing the moderate activity. Keywords: Lichen Usnea ceratina Ach.; depsidone; ceratinalone; cytotoxic activity.
34339Nugraha A.S., Untari L.F., Laub A., Porzel A., Franke K. & Wessjohann L.A. (2021): Anthelmintic and antimicrobial activities of three new depsides and ten known depsides and phenols from Indonesian lichen: Parmelia cetrata Ach.. - Natural Product Research, 35(23): 5001–5010. https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2020.1761361.
An extensive phytochemical study of a foliose lichen from Indonesia, Parmelia cetrata, resulted in the successful isolation of 13 phenol and depside derivatives (1–13) including the previously unreported depsides 30-hydroxyl-50-pentylphenyl 2,4-dihydroxyl-6- methylbenzoate (7), 30-hydroxyl-50-propylphenyl 2,4-dihydroxyl-6- methylbenzoate (8) and 30-hydroxyl-50-methylphenyl 2-hydroxyl-4- methoxyl-6-propylbenzoate (9). The anti-infective activity of isolated compounds was evaluated against the gram-negative bacterium Aliivibrio fischeri and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. 2,4-Dihydroxyl-6-pentylbenzoate (5) and lecanoric acid (6) induced growth inhibition of A. fischeri with inhibition values of 49% and 100% at a concentration of 100 µM, respectively. The antibacterial activity might be due to their free carboxyl group. A phenolic group at C4 also contributed to the antimicrobial activity of the depsides as shown for compounds 7 and 8, which caused 89% and 96% growth inhibition at 100 µM, respectively. Lecanoric acid (6) in addition possesses significant anthelmintic effects causing 80% mortality of C. elegans at 100 µg/mL. Keywords: Lichen; Parmelia cetrata; antimicrobial; anthelmintic; depsides; Aliivibrio fischeri; Caenorhabditis elegans.
34338Phan H.-V.-T., Devi A.P., Le H.-D., Nguyen T.-T., Nguyen H.-H., Le T.-T.-D., Nguyen T.H., Sichaem J. & Duong T.-H. (2021): Dilatatone, a new chlorinated compound from Parmotrema dilatatum. - Natural Product Research, 35(21): 3608–3612. https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2020.1716348.
Chemical investigation of the lichen Parmotrema dilatatum led to the isolation of a new chlorinated compound, named dilatatone (1), along with a known compound, sernanderin (2). Their chemical structures were determined by analysis of their 1D and 2D NMR spectra, HRESIMS, and ECD data. Both compounds showed weak α-glucosidase inhibitor activity. Keywords: Parmotrema dilatatum; lichen; dilatatone; α-glucosidase inhibitory activity.
34337Do T.-H., Duong T.-H., Nguyen H.T., Nguyen T.-H., Sichaem J., Nguyen C.H., Nguyen H.-H. & Long N.P. (2022): Biological activities of lichen-derived monoaromatic compounds. - Molecules, 27(9): 2871 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27092871.
Lichen-derived monoaromatic compounds are bioactive compounds, associated with various pharmacological properties: antioxidant, antifungal, antiviral, cytotoxicity, and enzyme inhibition. However, little is known about data regarding alpha-glucosidase inhibition and antimicrobial activity. Very few compounds were reported to have these activities. In this paper, a series of monoaromatic compounds from a lichen source were isolated and structurally elucidated. They are 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (1), 3,5-dihydroxybenzoate methyl (2), 3,5-dihydroxy-4-methylbenzoic acid (3), 3,5-dihydroxy-4-methoxylbenzoic acid (4), 3-hydroxyorcinol (5), atranol (6), and methyl hematommate (7). To obtain more derivatives, available compounds from the previous reports such as methyl β-orsellinate (8), methyl orsellinate (9), and D-montagnetol (10) were selected for bromination. Electrophilic bromination was applied to 8–10 using NaBr/H2O2 reagents to yield products methyl 5-bromo-β-orsellinate (8a), methyl 3,5-dibromo-orsellinate (9a), 3-bromo-D-montagnetol (10a), and 3,5-dibromo-D-montagnetol (10b). Compounds were evaluated for alpha-glucosidase inhibition and antimicrobial activity against antibiotic-resistant, pathogenic bacteria Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Acinetobacter baumannii. Compound 4 showed stronger alpha-glucosidase inhibition than others with an IC50 value of 24.0 µg/mL. Synthetic compound 9a exhibited remarkable activity against Staphylococcus aureus with a MIC value of 4 µg/mL. Molecular docking studies were performed to confirm the consistency between in vitro and in silico studies. Keywords: lichen; Parmotrema; Roccella; monoaromatic compounds; antimicrobial activity; alpha-glucosidase inhibition.
34336Aigner S., Arc E., Schletter M., Karsten U., Holzinger A. & Kranner I. (2022): Metabolite profiling in green microalgae with varying degrees of desiccation tolerance. - Microorganisms, 10(5): 946 [18 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10050946.
Trebouxiophyceae are microalgae occupying even extreme environments such as polar regions or deserts, terrestrial or aquatic, and can occur free-living or as lichen photobionts. Yet, it is poorly understood how environmental factors shape their metabolism. Here, we report on responses to light and temperature, and metabolic adjustments to desiccation in Diplosphaera epiphytica, isolated from a lichen, and Edaphochlorella mirabilis, isolated from Tundra soil, assessed via growth and photosynthetic performance parameters. Metabolite profiling was conducted by GC–MS. A meta-analysis together with data from a terrestrial and an aquatic Chlorella vulgaris strain reflected elements of phylogenetic relationship, lifestyle, and relative desiccation tolerance of the four algal strains. For example, compatible solutes associated with desiccation tolerance were up-accumulated in D. epiphytica, but also sugars and sugar alcohols typically produced by lichen photobionts. The aquatic C. vulgaris, the most desiccation-sensitive strain, showed the greatest variation in metabolite accumulation after desiccation and rehydration, whereas the most desiccation-tolerant strain, D. epiphytica, showed the least, suggesting that it has a more efficient constitutive protection from desiccation and/or that desiccation disturbed the metabolic steady-state less than in the other three strains. The authors hope that this study will stimulate more research into desiccation tolerance mechanisms in these under-investigated microorganisms. Keywords: Chlorella; Diplosphaera; Edaphochlorella; green algae; microalgae; metabolite; metabolomics.
34335Koch N.M., Stanton D., Müller S.C., Duarte L., Spielmann A.A. & Lücking R. (2022): Nuanced qualitative trait approaches reveal environmental filtering and phylogenetic constraints on lichen communities. - Ecosphere, 13(4): e4042 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1002/ecs2.4042.
We propose that a qualitative trait approach based on more detailed nuanced traits may reveal previously overlooked patterns, especially when combined with phylogenetic perspectives. By sampling epiphytic lichens and using a functional approach based on nuanced qualitative traits, such as a much greater resolution over photobiont identity, type of cortex, and chemical compounds, we evaluated the effects of environmental filtering and phylogenetic constraints on community assembly along a natural succession of Atlantic rainforest. We found changes in taxonomic, functional, and phylogenetic composition, structure, and diversity. Functional traits such as photobiont genera, type of cortex, reproductive structures, propagule size, and protection strategies showed strong responses to succession. Mature forests with a closed canopy impose strong environment filtering that is reflected in lichen species turnover, limiting diversity, but also holding different functional and phylogenetic composition. The use of a nuanced qualitative trait approach may overcome some of the limitations of using this type of traits and shows the importance of often-overlooked key lichen functional traits, including the presence of carbon-concentrating mechanisms in photobionts and cortex properties. Furthermore, this is the first study showing how patterns of phylogenetic assembly along forest succession structure lichen communities. Keywords: Atlantic rainforest, community assembly, functional diversity, lichenized fungi, photobiont, phylogenetic composition, turnover.
34334Tunç E. & Çetindemir B. (2022): The effect of lichens on soil aggregate stability. - International Journal of Energy and Engineering Sciences, 7(1): 40–51. .
This study was carried out to investigate the effect of lichens on soil aggregate stability. In the study, lichen and non-lichen soil samples were taken from the forest areas of the Meulenwald region of Germany, consisting of Picea abies (L.) and Pinus sylvestris (L.) species, where lichens of Cladonia furcata, Cladonia coniocraea, Peltigera rufescens and Baeomyces rufus were detected. In this study, soil samples were evaluated in terms of soil pH, organic matter (%) content, soil permeability, texture analysis, and cation exchange capacity. In the study, it has been determined that the aggregate stability and water holding capacity of lichen soil is higher than that of non-lichen soil. Keywords: Aggregate Stability, Cladonia furcata, C. coniocraea, Peltigera rufescens, Baeomyces rufus.
34333Kaufmann M. (2022): Flechtenvegetationskundliche Momentaufnahmen an einem unreifen, karbonatisch zementierten Quarzsandstein (Reiselsberg-Formation; Vorarlberger Flysch) in unterschiedlichen Verwitterungsstadien, mit einem Seitenblick auf die ökologische Standortskonstanz. - inatura – Forschung online, 99: 1–63. .
Das Hauptaugenmerk der flechtensoziologischen Untersuchungen am Reiselsberger-Sandstein der Flyschzone Vorarlbergs galt dem Gesteins-Chemismus, der durch das Verwitterungsgeschehen geprägt ist. Trotz Dominanz von Quarz zeigt der verwitternde Sandstein aufgrund des gelösten carbonatischen Bindemittels die Charakteristika eines Intermediärgesteins. Bearbeitet wurden großflächige, mehr oder weniger steilgestellte Felsplatten, die an Steilabhängen anstehen oder an Felsabbrüchen und Felsgraten der subalpinen Stufe (bis 1960 m SH). Sie sind von einer krustigen Pionierflechtenvegetation, dem III. Acarosporetum badiofuscae (Asta & Roux, 1977) ex M.Kaufmann nov. comb. (hier in ihrem Kernareal, dem eurosibirischen Raum erstmals gültig beschrieben) besiedelt. An Überhängen des zerblockten Gesteins an Graten wurde das IV. Buellio-Xanthorietum elegantis Creveld, 1981 (bis 1955 m SH), und an einem ausgetrockneten, felsigen Bacheinschnitt im Wald (bei 1485 m SH) wurde das Fragment des V. Stenhammarelletum turgidae Hertel, 1967 ex Asta, Clauzade & Roux, 1973 aufgenommen. Daneben wurden zwei silicole Flechtenassoziationen der Fließgewässer auf Bachfelsen erhoben: Einerseits auf einem steilen Abschnitt einer nordseitigen, licht-bewaldeten Bachschlucht und andererseits an einem flachen sonnigen Wiesenbach fanden sich das II. Porpidietum hydrophilae Ullrich, 1962 in hochmontaner Lage (bei 1070 m SH) und das I. Staurotheletum fuscocupreae Coste, 1981 ass. prov. (um 1640 m SH) ausgebildet. Alle diese Gesellschaften werden im Detail beschrieben und ausgewählte, für sie typische Flechtenarten werden diskutiert. Key words: Flechtensoziologie, Flechtengemeinschaften, Lichenes, Standortskonstanz, Sandstein, Flysch, Verwitterung
34332Denchev C.M., Shivarov V.V., Denchev T.T. & Mayrhofer H. (2022): Checklist of the lichenized and lichenicolous fungi in Bulgaria. - Mycobiota, 12: 1–106. doi: 10.12664/mycobiota.2022.12.01. http://www.mycobiota.com/free/1201_Denchev.pdf.
A checklist of all taxa of lichenized and lichenicolous fungi recorded from Bulgaria is presented. The lichen biota as currently known includes 1137 taxa (1115 species, 5 subspecies, and 17 varieties) of lichenized fungi, 46 species of lichenicolous fungi, and 28 non-lichenized fungi traditionally included in lichenological literature. Lepra corallina is reported for the first time from Bulgaria. An index of synonyms based on literature records from Bulgaria is appended. It includes 1761 infrageneric names. Key words: biodiversity, Bulgaria, fungal diversity, lichenicolous fungi, lichenized fungi.
34331Hesse M. (2001): Zum Gedenken an Frau emer. O. Prof. Dr. Elisabeth Woess. - Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien, 138: 275–278. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/VZBG_138_0275-0278.pdf.
34330Hruby J. (1924): Adolf Oborny †. - Verhandlungen des naturforschenden Vereines in Brünn, 59[1922]: XXVII–XXX. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Verh-naturf-Ver-Bruenn_59_XXVII-XXX.pdf.
34329Gerasimova J.V., Beck A., Werth S. & Resl P. (2022): High diversity of Type I polyketide genes in Bacidia rubella as revealed by the comparative analysis of 23 lichen genomes. - Journal of Fungi, 8(5): 449 [26 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8050449.
Fungi involved in lichen symbioses produce a large array of secondary metabolites that are often diagnostic in the taxonomic delimitation of lichens. The most common lichen secondary metabolites—polyketides—are synthesized by polyketide synthases, particularly by Type I PKS (TIPKS). Here, we present a comparative genomic analysis of the TI‐PKS gene content of 23 lichenforming fungal genomes from Ascomycota, including the de novo sequenced genome of Bacidia rubella. Firstly, we identify a putative atranorin cluster in B. rubella. Secondly, we provide an overview of TI‐PKS gene diversity in lichen‐forming fungi, and the most comprehensive Type I PKS phylogeny of lichen‐forming fungi to date, including 624 sequences. We reveal a high number of biosynthetic gene clusters and examine their domain composition in the context of previously characterized genes, confirming that PKS genes outnumber known secondary substances. Moreover, two novel groups of reducing PKSs were identified. Although many PKSs remain without functional assignments, our findings highlight that genes from lichen‐forming fungi represent an untapped source of novel polyketide compounds. Keywords: lichen; secondary compounds; comparative genomics; fungi; polyketide synthases (PKS); Type I PKS.
34328Tanona M. & Czarnota P. (2022): Do the natural dynamics of West Carpathian forests affect the diversity of epiphytic lichens on Norway spruce?. - Acta Oecologica, 115: 103830 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actao.2022.103830.
Over the last decades the West Carpathian spruce and mixed forests with a share of Picea abies, have been undergoing intensified dynamic changes, determined by windstorms and European spruce bark beetle outbreaks. Those changes should have a decisive effect on the survivability of species and shifts in epiphytic lichen communities on this phorophyte. Research conducted in the Gorce Mts (West Carpathians, Poland) in 1993, 2013 and 2018, on the same 186 spruce trees at 33 sites, revealed an increase in the species diversity of lichen communities in a long-term perspective (25 years). At the same time, there was a decrease in the coverage of the dominant species. Such changes are a result of long-term tree composition processes: the natural thinning of upper mountain spruce forests and the increase of lower mountain forests density after a decrease in the share of Norway spruce. The former prefers photophilous epiphytes, and the latter leads to an increase in the share of shade-tolerant species. The analysis of lichen communities by means of the principal components analysis (PCA) method for all three study periods combined showed that long-term changes were the most significant for this lichen biota, and short-term changes had no considerable effect. The conducted Redundancy Analysis (RDA) revealed, that the forest plant association was a stronger factor affecting the lichen community composition and coverage than tree stand density and saplings density in each observation term. The changes taking place in stands under bark beetle and wind disturbances should be treated differently in different types of forest associations, but in both, they cause differentiation of niches used by more specialized species of epiphytic lichens. Keywords: Epiphytic lichens; Forest disturbances; Forest ekology; Lichen community dynamic; Norway spruce; Permanent plots.
34327Wei D.-P., Wanasinghe D.N., Gentekaki E., Thiyagaraja V., Lumyong S. & Hyde K.D. (2021): Morphological and phylogenetic appraisal of Novel and extant taxa of Stictidaceae from northern Thailand. - Journal of Fungi, 7: 880 [20 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7100880.
Stictidaceae comprises taxa with diverse lifestyles. Many species in this family are drought resistant and important for studying fungal adaptation and evolution. Stictidaceae comprises 32 genera, but many of them have been neglected for decades due to the lack of field collections and molecular data. In this study, we introduce a new species Fitzroyomyces hyaloseptisporus and a new combination Fitzroyomycespandanicola. We also provide additional morphological and molecular data for Ostropomyces pruinosellus and O. thailandicus based on new collections isolated from an unidentified woody dicotyledonous host in Chiang Rai, Thailand. Taxonomic conclusions are made with the aid of morphological evidence and phylogenetic analysis of combined LSU, ITS and mtSSU sequence data. Characteristics such as the shape and septation of ascospores and conidia as well as lifestyles among genera of Stictidaceae are discussed. Keywords: lichenization; new species; non-lichenized fungi; Ostropales; phylogeny; taxonomy
34326Popovici V., Bucur L., Gîrd C.E., Calcan S.I., Cucolea E.I., Costache T., Rambu D., Ungureanu-Iuga M., Oroian M., Mironeasa S., Schröder V., Ozon E.-A., Caraiane A. & Badea V. (2022): Advances in the Characterization of Usnea barbata (L.) Weber ex F.H. Wigg from Călimani Mountains, Romania. - Applied Sciences, 12: 4234 [20 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/ app12094234.
Usnea barbata (L.) Weber ex F.H. Wigg (U. barbata) is a medicinal representative of the lichens from the Usnea genus (Parmeliaceae, lichenized Ascomycetes), containing bioactive secondary metabolites. The aim of this study is a comparative analysis between two separated parts of the thallus layers: medulla–cortex (mcUB) and central cord (ccUB) and the whole dried U. barbata thallus (dUB). These three samples were examined regarding color differences. The U. barbata thallus morphology was examined through fluorescent microscopy (FM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mineral content was measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) preliminarily established the differences in the metabolite content. Finally, extracts in different solvents (ethanol and acetone) were obtained from all studied samples, and their total phenolic content (TPC) and free radical scavenging activity (antiradical activity, AA) were evaluated by spectrophotometry. The ICP-MS results showed that from 23 elements analyzed, 18 minerals were quantified in mcUB, 13 in dUB, and only 12 in ccUB. The ccUB fraction recorded the lowest mineral content, color intensity (chroma), luminosity (L*), and TPC value, followed in increasing order by dUB and mcUB. FT-IR spectra displayed different peaks in ccUB and dUB samples compared to mcUB. The mcUB fraction also showed the highest TPC, significantly correlated with AA. However, dUB had the highest antiradical activity, followed by mcUB and ccUB, with noticeable differences in the acetone extract. The final correlation between all variable data obtained indicates that 99.31% of the total variance was associated with all minerals, total phenolics, and color parameters and was also related to the antiradical activity. These obtained results complete our previous studies on autochthonous U. barbata. Moreover, being a source of bioactive metabolites, extracting them from the mcUB fraction could increase this process’s yield and selectivity. Keywords: Usnea barbata (L.) Weber ex F.H. Wigg; morphology; color; minerals; phenolic secondary metabolites; free radical scavenging activity.
34325Kondratyuk S.Y., Lőkös L., Kondratiuk A.S., Kärnefelt I., Thell A., Farkas E. & Hur J.-S. (2022): Contributions to molecular phylogeny of lichens 3. New monophyletic branches of the Trapeliaceae and Xylariaceae [sic!]. - Acta Botanica Hungarica, 64: 97–135. https://doi.org/10.1556/034.64.2022.1-2.6.
Seven new genera, i.e. Brianiopsis for the former ‘Lambiella’ impavida group, Farkasiella for the former ‘Trapeliopsis’ aeneofusca group, Gallowayiopsis for the former ‘Trapelia’ collaris group, Kleopowiella for the former ‘Trapelia’ placodioides group, Trapegintarasia for the former ‘Trapelia’ lilacea group, Trapejamesia for the former ‘Trapelia’ corticola branch, as well as Xyloelixia for the former ‘Xylographa’ isidiosa group are proposed. Isolated position of ‘Lambiella’ caeca, ‘Lambiella’ insularis, ‘Lambiella’ hepaticicola, ‘Lambiella’ sphacellata, ‘Placopsis’ bicolor, ‘Xylographa’ bjoerkii, and ‘Xylographa’ lagoi, is discussed too. Correctness of identification of vouchers of various species of the following genera Placynthiella, Placopsis, Trapelia, and Trapeliopsis is also discussed. New combinations are proposed for the following 27 species: ‘Ainoa’ sphacellata (for Lecidea sphacelata Th. Fr.), Brianiopsis aliphatica (for Lambiella aliphatica T. Sprib. et Resl), Brianiopsis cerebriformis (for Rimularia cerebriformis Kantvilas), Brianiopsis globulosa (for Rimularia globulosa Coppins), Brianiopsis gyrizans (for Lecidea gyrizans Nyl.), Brianiopsis gyromuscosa (for Rimularia gyromuscosa Aptroot), Brianiopsis impavida (for Lecidea impavida Th. Fr.), Brianiopsis mullensis (for Lecidea mullensis Stirt.), Farkasiella aeneofusca (for Lecidea aeneofusca Flörke ex Flot.), Farkasiella gelatinosa (for Lecidea gelatinosa Flörke), Gallowayiopsis collaris (for Trapelia collaris Orange), Gallowayiopsis glebulosa (for Lichen glebulosus Sm.), Gallowayiopsis obtegens (for Biatora coarctata subsp. obtegens Th. Fr.), Gallowayiopsis roseonigra (for Placopsis roseonigra Brodo), Kleopowiella placodioides (for Trapelia placodioides Coppins et P. James), Kleopowiella bisorediata (for Trapeliopsis bisorediata McCune et F. J. Camacho), Kleopowiella thieleana (for Trapelia thieleana Kantvilas, Lumbsch et Elix), Rimularia coreana (for Trapelia coreana S. Y. Kondr., Lőkös et Hur), Trapegintarasia antarctica (for Trapelia antarctica Ertz, Aptroot, G. Thor et Ovstedal), Trapegintarasia lilacea (for Trapelia lilacea Kantvilas et Elix), Trapegintarasia tristis (for Trapelia tristis Orange), Trapejamesia corticola (for Trapelia corticola Coppins et P. James), Trapejamesia hurii (for Placynthiella hurii S. Y. Kondr. et L. Lőkös), Xyloelixia constricta (for Xylographa constricta T. Sprib.), Xyloelixia disseminata (for Xylographa disseminata Willey), Xyloelixia isidiosa (for Hypocenomyce isidiosa Elix), and Xyloelixia septentrionalis (for Xylographa septentrionalis T. Sprib.). Kew words: Ainoa, Brianiopsis, Farkasiella, Gallowayiopsis, Kleopowiella, Korea, Lambiella, Placynthiella, Placopsis, Rimularia, Trapelia, Trapegintarasia, Trapejamesia, Trapeliopsis, Xyloelixia, Xylographa.
34324Kondratyuk S.Y., Popova L.P., Kondratiuk A.S., Lőkös L. & Danylyk I.M. (2022): Regionally unique lichens of the Ukrainian Carpathians and perspectives of their protection. - Acta Botanica Hungarica, 64: 73–96. https://doi.org/10.1556/034.64.2022.1-2.5.
The Carpathian Mts, showing the highest lichen biodiversity in Ukraine, i.e. 1,395 species of 2,106 of the total Ukrainian lichens, have been found to contain the highest proportion of regionally unique taxa (i.e. so far recorded only from the Carpathian Mts) (i.e. 551 species, or 39.5% of the Carpathian and 26.2% of the total Ukrainian lichen flora). Species diversity of widely distributed lichens (i.e. which hitherto known from all five macroregions of Ukraine), as well as ‘scarcely distributed’ lichens (i.e. missing at least in one or more macroregions) are also discussed. Representation of these three groups of lichens in the geomorphological districts of the Carpathian Mts and the administrative oblasts Zakarpattia, Lviv, Ivano-Frankivsk and Chernivtsi is shown. The Chornohora Mts, a district of the Carpathian Mts, found to show the highest proportion of species so far recorded from this district of the Carpathian Mts, while the Eastern Beskydy and the Gorgany Mts are characterised hitherto by the highest species diversity of lichens. That is established that among geomorphological districts of Zakarpattia oblast, the Eastern Beskydy and the Gorgany Mts parts of Zakarpattia oblast territory are characterised by the highest number of species of lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi in the Carpathian macroregion (674 and 611 species, respectively), and the proportion of regionally unique taxa in these two florae is also the highest (483 species or 71.6% and 453 species or 74.1%, respectively). Lichens of the Chyvchyn Mts of Ivano-Frankivsk oblast are found to be the most diverse in this oblast (344 species totally), and they include the highest proportion of regionally unique taxa (171 species or 49.7%). The Eastern Beskydy Mts, part of Lviv oblast territory, the only part of this oblast in the Carpathian Mts, are found to be represented by 224 lichen species of which 32 (i.e. 14.3%) are regionally unique to the Carpathian Mts. List of the rarest taxa of the regionally unique group (hitherto known from single or a few localities) proposed as candidates for including to regional red lists of Zakarpattia, Lviv, Ivano-Frankivsk and Chernivtsi oblasts since the whole nature protection activity in Ukraine is done according to oblast division. 254 lichen species are proposed for including in the red list of Zakarpattia oblast, while 44, 4 and 9 species in the red lists of Ivano-Frankivsk, Lviv and Chernivtsi oblasts, respectively. The smallest amount of these taxa is proposed for the red list of Lviv oblast, which includes also the Forest zone of the Ukrainian Plains. Key words: administrative oblast, geomorphological district, nature protection, red list.
34323Lee B.G., Shin H.T. & Hur J.-S. (2022): A new lichen-forming fungus, Aspicilia humida, from a forested wetland in South Korea, with a taxonomic key for aspicilioid species of Korea. - Mycobiology, 50: 20–29. https://doi.org/10.1080/12298093.2021.2021642.
Aspicilia humida Lee is described as a new lichen-forming fungus from a wetland forest, South Korea. The new species is distinguishable from Aspicilia aquatica (Fr.) Körb., the most similar species, by the absence of prothallus, black disk without green color in water, olive-brown epihymenium, shorter hymenium, hymenium I + yellowish blue-green, wider paraphysial tips without a vivid pigment, smaller asci, smaller ascospores, and the presence of stictic acid. Molecular analyses employing internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and mitochondrial small subunit (mtSSU) sequences strongly support A. humida as a distinct species in the A. cinerea group. A surrogate key is provided to assist in the identification of all 28 aspicilioid species of Korea. Keywords: Biodiversity; Megasporaceae; phylogeny; saxicolous; taxonomy.
34322Webber Q.M.R., Ferraro K.M., Hendrix J.G. & Vander Wal E. (2022): What do caribou eat? A review of the literature on caribou diet. - Canadian Journal of Zoology, 100: 197–207. https://doi.org/10.1139/cjz-2021-0162.
Historically, the study of caribou and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus (Linnaeus, 1788)) diet has been specific to herds and few comprehensive circumpolar analyses of Rangifer diet exist. As a result, certain diet items may play an outsized role in the caribou diet Zeitgeist, e.g., lichen. We challenge this notion and test the relevant importance of various diet items within the context of prevailing hypotheses. We provide a systematic overview of 30 caribou studies reporting caribou diet and test biologically relevant hypotheses about spatial and temporal dietary variation. Our results indicate that in the winter caribou primarily consume lichen, but in warmer seasons and when primary productivity is lower, caribou primarily consume graminoids and other vascular plants. In more productive environments, where caribou have more competitors and predators, consumption of lichen increase. Overall, our description of caribou diet reveals that it is highly variable, but in circumstances where caribou can consume vascular plants, then they will. As climate change affects Boreal and Arctic ecosystems, the type and volume of food consumed by caribou have become an increasingly important focus for conservation and management of caribou. Key words: caribou conservation, dietary niche, lichen, niche variation, Rangifer.
34321Strother I.E., Coxson D. & Goward T. (2022): Why is the rainforest lichen Methuselah’s beard (Usnea longissima) so rare in British Columbia’s inland temperate rainforest?. - Botany, 100: 283–299. https://doi.org/10.1139/cjb-2021-0057.
Coastal (CTR) and inland temperate rainforests (ITR) in western North America share a rich oceanic lichen flora. The distinctive Methuselah’s beard lichen (Usnea longissima Ach.) is an exception to this pattern of shared distributions, with very few ITR locations. Does this absence reflect dispersal limitations or climatic intolerance? To answer this question, we transplanted U. longissima thalli from the CTR to three ITR locations, assessing growth rates against reciprocal CTR transplants. Canopy microclimate measurements provided concurrent data on growth conditions. Growth rate responses (length, mass, and area) were evaluated after summer and full-year transplants. Notwithstanding extended drought conditions during the summer period, annual transplants at two of the three ITR locations supported growth rates comparable to those at the CTR source U. longissima population, with summer dewfall and autumn rains being major ITR hydration sources. Thalli transplanted to a third ITR site (summer measurements only) in a location transitional to the drier interior plateau lost both mass and length. Based on these findings, we suggest that the absence of U. longissima from much of the ITR reflects the combined influence of dispersal limitations and requirements for stands with long site continuity and topographically induced summer wetting of thalli by dewfall. Key words: temperate rainforest, lichen biogeography, old-growth forest, lichen growth, transplant, occult precipitation.
34320Fryday A.M. & Dillman K.L. (2022): A preliminary investigation of the lichen biota associated with recently deglaciated terrain in southeastern Alaska. - Botany, 100: 313–328. https://doi.org/10.1139/cjb-2021-0087.
Glaciers worldwide are currently retreating at unprecedented rates, revealing large tracts of newly exposed rock and till. We present the results of a preliminary, qualitative investigation of the lichen diversity of transient habitats near three glaciers in southeastern Alaska: Muir Glacier within Glacier Bay National Park, and Baird and Patterson Glaciers in the Tongass National Forest. This work is noteworthy as it (i) documents previously undescribed lichen species and communities within rapidly changing glacier habitats, (ii) illustrates the importance of cryptogams (lichens, bryophytes, algae, and cyanobacteria) in the primary colonization of recently deglaciated terrain, (iii) sets apart the lichen biota of recently deglaciated terrain in southeastern Alaska from that of other glacial regions worldwide (e.g., the European Alps, Svalbard, and southern South America) and even other parts of Alaska (e.g., Brooks Range), and (iv) emphasizes the importance of more lichen studies that focus on this rapidly changing habitat. The lichen biotas found at different successional stages near these glaciers are described and compared. The role of lichens and other cryptogams in post-glacial vegetation initiation, the threats to the lichen biota, and suggestions for the possible origins of the lichen propagules that colonize these newly exposed surfaces are also discussed. Key words: climate change, maritime glaciers, post-glacial succession, prolonged snow-lie, rare lichen species.
34319Storm C., Cezanne R., Eichler M., Stroh M., Weißmantel B. & Schwabe A. (2022): Restitution von Sandrasen auf ehemaligen Äckern durch Inokulation und Beweidung – eine 16jährige Modellstudie aus Südhessen. - Botanik und Naturschutz in Hessen, 34: 67–114. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Botanik-Naturschutz-Hessen_34_0067-0114.pdf.
Restoration of sandy grassland on former fields by inoculation and grazing – a 16-year model study in southern Hesse. [in German with English summary: ] Base-rich open sandy habitats in the Upper Rhine area of Hesse are wellknown for their highly endangered plant and animal species and vegetation types. Only remnants still exist of habitats that were once widely distributed, prompting initation of nature conservation projects involving installation of stepping stones and corridors to reconnect fragmented sandy habitats. Since 1998, we have developed suitable restoration methods, accompanied by scientific monitoring, for sandy habitats (in cooperation with local authorities in the Darmstadt-Dieburg and Darmstadt districts, and with a landscape management farm) using biotic and/or abiotic improvement measures combined with grazing management strategies. For the first time, we report on development of the vegetation in a former field over 16 years as a model for restoration practice without any abiotic measures. We sampled relevés every year and analysed floral and other structural data. In addition, we compared these relevés with relevés from Griesheimer Düne, a reference site situated nearby. The restoration site in the former field had been inoculated with raked plant material from reference sites and has been grazed continuously by sheep and donkeys. In terms of nature conservation, the vegetation has developed surprisingly well over the 16-year period. Phosphate concentrations in the upper soil layer have decreased but still remain elevated. The number and cover of target species are high, and in the case of Koelerio-Corynephoretea species are higher than in the nearby reference site. We also recorded a high number of species on the Red List. The former field retains a ruderal potential, mainly with the key species of Calamagrostis epigejos and Cynodon dactylon. The grazing management strategy must be continued to control any further increase in these species.
34318Černajová I., Schiefelbein U. & Škaloud P. (2022): Lichens from the littoral zone host diverse Ulvophycean photobionts. - Journal of Phycology, 58: 267–280. https://doi.org/10.1111/jpy.13234.
Crustose Verrucariaceae lichens form a distinctive black belt on seashores all over the world. This lifestyle is apparently enabled by a specific set of photobionts. However, their diversity is understudied. We sampled these lichens from the northern Patagonian Pacific coast of Chile. Using molecular markers, we identified both mycobionts and photobionts. The lichens, belonging to the genus Hydropunctaria and to the Wahlenbergiella group, hosted solely Ulvophycean photobionts. Pseudendoclonium submarinum (Kornmanniaceae, Ulvales) was the most common, but representatives of other closely related, yet undescribed, lineages were also found. Undulifilum symbioticum gen. et sp. nov. is described within Kornmanniaceae based on culture morphology and DNA sequence data. Furthermore, the free-living macroscopic genus Urospora (Acrosiphoniaceae, Ulotrichales) is reported as a lichen photobiont for the first time and is the first of its kind in the order. These results indicate that undescribed algal diversity is waiting to be uncovered in seashore lichens. Key index words: Chile; Hydropunctaria; intertidalrocks; Pseudendoclonium; symbiosis; Undulifilum symbioticum gen. et sp. nov.; Urospora; Verrucaria.
34317Ahmadian N., Abedi M., Escudero A., Sohrabi M. & Luzuriaga A.L. (2022): Artemisia sieberi dominated landscapes of Northeastern Iran host great diversity in lichen and annual plant species. - Flora, 288: 152019 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.flora.2022.152019.
In this study, we aim to evaluate the diversity of vascular plants and lichens coexisting in Artemisia sieberi dominated landscapes of northern Iran. Specifically, we wanted to unveil to what extent Artemisia plant cover and soil features affected species diversity and composition of annuals and lichens growing beneath them, and if annual plants and lichen species were associated at fine spatial scales. The study area was located in Artemisia steppes in North-Eastern Iran. Therefore, four localities dominated by Artemisia sieberi in Golestan National Park and Alagol wetland were selected. We quantified plant and lichen species cover in 5 plots in each location, including 25 subplots and five soil samples to characterize edaphic heterogeneity. Data were analyzed using GLM, NMDS, PERMANOVA, and Mantel Tests. We recorded 19 lichen species, three moss species, and 21 annual plant species in the four localities. Alagol and Alikhani had the most similar lichen compositions and Almeh showed great differences with other sites. However, Bagh and Almeh had the most similar and the most different annual species composition comparing the rest locations, respectively. Location explained 50% and 30% of the variance in lichens and annuals species composition, respectively. Soil chemical properties had no significant influences on lichens and annuals parameters except for Mg content in lichen evenness and clay content on total plant cover. We found a highly significant relationship between the lichen composition and annual plant species composition on fine scale (Mantel r: 0.13; p = 0.0003). The cover of Artemisia explained significant but tiny fractions of lichen species composition (1%) and annual plant species composition (2%) at subplot level. Artemisia steppes of northeastern Iran are not homogeneous habitats and shelter high diversity in lichen and annual plant species. Site location conditions may explain the differences among lichens and annuals compositions. Keywords: Steppes ; Golestan National Park ; Patch Soil conditions ; Species composition.
34316Wieder R.K., Vile M.A., Vitt D.H., Scott K.D., Xu B., Quinn J.C. & Albright C.M. (2022): Can plant or lichen natural abundance 15N ratios indicate the influence of oil sands N emissions on bogs?. - Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies, 40: 101030 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrh.2022.101030.
Highlights: • Oil sands development has led to increasing N emissions and regional N deposition. • Can δ15N of bog plant or lichen tissues indicate an oil sands emission influence? • δ15N (‰) and N (mg/g) in Evernia mesomorpha may suggest an oil sands influence. • Scarce data on oil sands N source δ15N signatures preclude definitive interpretations.
34315Kumari M., Kamat S. & Jayabaskaran C. (2022): Usnic acid induced changes in biomolecules and their association with apoptosis in squamous carcinoma (A-431) cells: A flow cytometry, FTIR and DLS spectroscopic study. - Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, 274: 121098 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2022.121098.
Many natural products induce apoptotic cell death in cancer cells, though studies on their interactions with macromolecules are limited. For the first time, this study demonstrated the cytotoxic potential of usnic acid (UA) against squamous carcinoma (A-431) cells and the associated changes in cell surface proteins, lipids and DNA by attenuated total reflection- fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) spectroscopic studies. The IC50 for UA was 98.9 mM after treatment of A-431 cells for 48 h, while the IC50 reduced to 39.2 mM after 72 h of incubation time. UA induced oxidative stress in treated cells as confirmed by DCFHDA flow cytometry assay, depletion in reduced glutathione and increase in lipid peroxidation. The oxidative stress resulted in conformation change in amide I, amide II protein bands and DNA as observed by ATR-FTIR in UA treated A-431 cells. Shift in secondary structures of proteins from a helix to b sheets and structural changes in DNA was observed in UA treated A-431 cells. An increase in the band intensity of phospholipids, increased distribution of lipid and change in membrane potential was noted in UA treated cells, which was confirmed by externalization of phosphatidylserine to the outer membrane by annexin V-FITC/PI assay. Increase in mitochondrial membrane potential, cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase by flow cytometry and activation of caspase-3/7 dependent proteins confirmed the UA induced apoptosis in treated A-431 cells. FTIR and DLS spectroscopy confirmed the changes in biomolecules after UA treatment, which were associated with apoptosis, as observed by flow cytometry. Keywords: Apoptosis; FTIR; Zeta potential; Natural product; Secondary structure.
34314Heim R.J., Heim W., Bültmann H., Kamp J., Rieker D., Yurtaev A. & Hölzel N. (2022): Fire disturbance promotes biodiversity of plants, lichens and birds in the Siberian subarctic tundra. - Global Change Biology, 28: 1048–1062. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.15963.
Fire shapes the world's terrestrial ecosystems and has been influencing biodiversity patterns for millennia. Anthropogenic drivers alter fire regimes. Wildfires can amplify changes in the structure, biodiversity and functioning of the fast-warming tundra ecosystem. However, there is little evidence available, how these fires affect species diversity and community composition of tundra ecosystems over the long term. We studied long-term fire effects on community composition and diversity at different trophic levels of the food web in the subarctic tundra of Western Siberia. In a spacefor-time approach we compared three large fire scars (>44, 28 and 12 years old) to unburnt controls. We found that diversity (measured as species richness, Shannon index and evenness) of vascular and non-vascular plants and birds was strongly affected by fire, with the greatest species richness of plants and birds for the intermediate-age fire scar (28 years). Species composition of plants and birds still differed from that of the control >44 years after fire. Increased deciduous shrub cover was related to species richness of all plants in a hump-shaped manner. The proportion of southern (taiga) bird species was highest in the oldest fire scar, which had the highest shrub cover. We conclude that tundra fires have long-term legacies with regard to species diversity and community composition. They may also increase landscape-scale species richness and facilitate range expansions of more southerly distributed species to the subarctic tundra ecosystem. Keywords: birds, bryophytes, indicator species, lichens, plants, Russia, self-organizing map, shrub cover.
34313Ehlers L., Coulombe G., Herriges J., Bentzen T., Suitor M., Joly K. & Hebblewhite M. (2021): Critical summer foraging tradeoffs in a subarctic ungulate. - Ecology and Evolution, 11: 17835–17872. https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.8349.
Summer diets are crucial for large herbivores in the subarctic and are affected by weather, harassment from insects and a variety of environmental changes linked to climate. Yet, understanding foraging behavior and diet of large herbivores is challenging in the subarctic because of their remote ranges. We used GPS video-camera collars to observe behaviors and summer diets of the migratory Fortymile Caribou Herd (Rangifer tarandus granti) across Alaska, USA and the Yukon, Canada. First, we characterized caribou behavior. Second, we tested if videos could be used to quantify changes in the probability of eating events. Third, we estimated summer diets at the finest taxonomic resolution possible through videos. Finally, we compared summer diet estimates from video collars to microhistological analysis of fecal pellets. We classified 18,134 videos from 30 female caribou over two summers (2018 and 2019). Caribou behaviors included eating (mean = 43.5%), ruminating (25.6%), travelling (14.0%), stationary awake (11.3%) and napping (5.1%). Eating was restricted by insect harassment. We classified forage(s) consumed in 5,549 videos where diet composition (monthly) highlighted a strong tradeoff between lichens and shrubs; shrubs dominated diets in June and July when lichen use declined. We identified 63 species, 70 genus and 33 family groups of summer forages from videos. After adjusting for digestibility, monthly estimates of diet composition were strongly correlated at the scale of the forage functional type (i.e., forage groups composed of forbs, graminoids, mosses, shrubs and lichens; r = 0.79, p < .01). Using video collars, we identified (1) a pronounced tradeoff in summer foraging between lichens and shrubs and (2) the costs of insect harassment on eating. Understanding caribou foraging ecology is needed to plan for their long-term conservation across the circumpolar north, and video collars can provide a powerful approach across remote regions. Keywords: animal-borne video cameras, behavior patterns, caribou, citizen-science, insect harassment, summer diet.
34312Asplund J., van Zuijlen K., Roos R.E., Birkemoe T., Klanderud K., Lang S.I. & Wardle D.A. (2022): Divergent responses of functional diversity to an elevational gradient for vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens. - Journal of Vegetation Science, 33(1): e13105 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1111/jvs.13105.
Question: Cold environments are stressful for vascular plants, and stress-tolerant non-vascular photoautotrophs, e.g. bryophytes and lichens, become relatively more important as competition from vascular plants decreases towards higher elevations. Under increasingly stressful climatic conditions, species assembly of vascular plants is commonly driven more by environmental filtering, and abiotic constraints may lead to increased similarity between species and thus low functional diversity. Because bryophytes and lichens are less constrained by harsh environments, environmental filtering may be less strong. Instead, reduced competition from vascular plants can potentially free up niche space for non-vascular vegetation. Therefore, we hypothesized that functional diversity of vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens are likely to show contrasting responses to elevation. Location: Finse Alpine Research Centre, Southern Norway. Methods: We utilized measurements of species abundance and functional traits of the three groups along a 500-m elevational gradient in alpine southern Norway and calculated multi-trait and single-trait functional dispersion. Results: Functional diversity of vascular plants declined with elevation, indicating increased environmental filtering. By contrast, functional diversity of lichens and bryophytes increased along the same gradient, suggesting they are less exposed to environmental filtering, in line with our hypothesis. Instead, they likely benefit from the lower abundance of vascular plants at higher elevation. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that different photoautotroph groups vary in how they respond to the same environmental gradient, which may contribute to contrasting community assembly processes across groups. These divergent responses likely occur because non-vascular vegetation differs from vascular plants in terms of nutrient acquisition and water economy strategies, meaning that they respond differently to the same factors. This highlights the need to explicitly consider bryophytes and lichens in community-level studies whenever these groups are abundant. Keywords: alpine ecology, bryophytes, community assembly, functional dispersion, functional diversity, functional traits, lichens, stress gradient, vascular plants.
34311Reinhardt S., Aartsma P., Skøyen K. & Renssen H. (2022): Shrub encroachment interacts with environmental variation to reduce the albedo of alpine lichen heaths: an experimental study. - Nordic Journal of Botany, 2021: e03314 [6 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1111/njb.03314.
Global warming causes the replacement of lichens by shrubs in alpine and Arctic ecosystems. Since shrubs have lower albedo than lichens, this shrub encroachment can lead to a positive climatic feedback, resulting in higher temperatures in the surroundings. Therefore, gaining knowledge on the surface albedo of shrubs and lichens is important. Environmental factors also influence the surface albedo, but have often been neglected, potentially leading to biased results. In an experimental setup, we analyzed albedos of the lichen species Cladonia stellaris, Flavocetraria nivalis and Cetraria islandica, and how albedo changes with a stepwise replacement by the dwarf shrub Empetrum nigrum. Albedo was measured with radiometers in a paired set up. By setting certain environmental variables and species composition (monocultures) to be constant, we quantified the impact of environmental factors such as cloud cover, aspect and zenith angle on the surface albedo of two lichen species. Surface albedo (mean values ± SD) differed between C. islandica (0.155 ± 0.015), C. stellaris (0.364 ± 0.019), F. nivalis (0.350 ± 0.022) and E. nigrum (0.154 ± 0.016), and an increase in shrub cover at the expense of lichen cover led to a corresponding decrease in albedo. A 0.6 reduction in clearness index (more clouds) produced a 0.054 albedo decline. On the north-facing aspect, albedo was 0.023 lower than on the south-facing aspect. Albedo increased by 0.032 with an increase in zenith angle of 15°. Albedo variations caused by these studied environmental factors significantly affect the radiation budget of alpine and Arctic vegetation. We therefore stress the importance of considering environmental factors when surface albedos are estimated. Likewise, our species-specific measurements can be a basis for further studies of the impact of climate change on alpine and Arctic vegetation and species-related feedback mechanisms. Keywords: alpine and Arctic ecosystems, climate change, radiation budget, radiometer, surface albedo, vegetation.
34310Nelson P.R., Maguire A.J., Pierrat Z., Orcutt E.L., Yang D., Serbin S., Frost G.V., Macander M., Thompson D.R., Wang J.A., Oberbauer S.F., Vargas Zesati S., Davidson S.J., Epstein H.E., Unger S., Campbell P.K.E., Carmon N., Velez-Reyes M. & Huemmrich K.F. (2022): Remote sensing of tundra ecosystems using high spectral resolution reflectance: Opportunities and challenges. - Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 127: e2021JG006697 [32 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JG006697.
Observing the environment in the vast regions of Earth through remote sensing platforms provides the tools to measure ecological dynamics. The Arctic tundra biome, one of the largest inaccessible terrestrial biomes on Earth, requires remote sensing across multiple spatial and temporal scales, from towers to satellites, particularly those equipped for imaging spectroscopy (IS). We describe a rationale for using IS derived from advances in our understanding of Arctic tundra vegetation communities and their interaction with the environment. To best leverage ongoing and forthcoming IS resources, including National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Surface Biology and Geology mission, we identify a series of opportunities and challenges based on intrinsic spectral dimensionality analysis and a review of current data and literature that illustrates the unique attributes of the Arctic tundra biome. These opportunities and challenges include thematic vegetation mapping, complicated by low-stature plants and very fine-scale surface composition heterogeneity; development of scalable algorithms for retrieval of canopy and leaf traits; nuanced variation in vegetation growth and composition that complicates detection of long-term trends; and rapid phenological changes across brief growing seasons that may go undetected due to low revisit frequency or be obscured by snow cover and clouds. We recommend improvements to future field campaigns and satellite missions, advocating for research that combines multi-scale spectroscopy, from lab studies to satellites that enable frequent and continuous long-term monitoring, to inform statistical and biophysical approaches to model vegetation dynamics. A subchapter dealing with lichens at p. 7-10.
34309Esseen P.-A., Ekström M., Grafström A., Jonsson B.G., Palmqvist K., Westerlund B. & Ståhl G. (2022): Multiple drivers of large-scale lichen decline in boreal forest canopies. - Global Change Biology, 28: 3293–3309. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.16128.
Thin, hair-like lichens (Alectoria, Bryoria, Usnea) form conspicuous epiphyte communities across the boreal biome. These poikilohydric organisms provide important ecosystem functions and are useful indicators of global change. We analyse how environmental drivers influence changes in occurrence and length of these lichens on Norway spruce (Picea abies) over 10 years in managed forests in Sweden using data from >6000 trees. Alectoria and Usnea showed strong declines in southern-central regions, whereas Bryoria declined in northern regions. Overall, relative loss rates across the country ranged from 1.7% per year in Alectoria to 0.5% in Bryoria. These losses contrasted with increased length of Bryoria and Usnea in some regions. Occurrence trajectories (extinction, colonization, presence, absence) on remeasured trees correlated best with temperature, rain, nitrogen deposition, and stand age in multinomial logistic regression models. Our analysis strongly suggests that industrial forestry, in combination with nitrogen, is the main driver of lichen declines. Logging of forests with long continuity of tree cover, short rotation cycles, substrate limitation and low light in dense forests are harmful for lichens. Nitrogen deposition has decreased but is apparently still sufficiently high to prevent recovery. Warming correlated with occurrence trajectories of Alectoria and Bryoria, likely by altering hydration regimes and increasing respiration during autumn/winter. The large-scale lichen decline on an important host has cascading effects on biodiversity and function of boreal forest canopies. Forest management must apply a broad spectrum of methods, including uneven-aged continuous cover forestry and retention of large patches, to secure the ecosystem functions of these important canopy components under future climates. Our findings highlight interactions among drivers of lichen decline (forestry, nitrogen, climate), functional traits (dispersal, lichen colour, sensitivity to nitrogen, water storage), and population processes (extinction/colonization). Keywords: climate change, colonization, epiphytic lichens, extinction, forestry, long-term monitoring, microclimate, nitrogen deposition.
34308Kater I. & Baxter R. (2022): Abundance and accessibility of forage for reindeer in forests of Northern Sweden: Impacts of landscape and winter climate regime. - Ecology and Evolution, 12: e8820 [16 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.8820.
he survival of reindeer during winter, their period of greatest food stress, depends largely on the abundance and accessibility of forage in their pastures. In Northern Sweden, realized availability of forage is notably affected by snow conditions and the impacts of forestry. While these factors have been examined in isolation, their combined effect has, to the best of our knowledge to date, not been researched. In this study, vegetation surveys and analysis of snow conditions were undertaken in forest stands at various stages of recovery from clear-cutting. The variation in abundance and growth of understory species edible by reindeer, such as lichen, was noted as forests matured. The barrier effect of ice lenses in the snow was also measured in these stands. Lichen biomass was significantly affected by a combination of stand maturity, understory vegetation height, and lichen height. Soil disturbance from the processes of felling and competition in the vegetation communities recovering from this disturbance were identified as key drivers of change in lichen biomass. Overall, clear-cut forests had some of the greatest prevalence of ice lenses in the snow column, and forage availability at these sites was up to 61% less than in mature stands over 58 years in age. It is suggested that alternative silviculture methods are investigated for use in this reindeer herding region, as frequent clear-cutting and consequent reduction in the average forest stand age and maturity class may be detrimental to reindeer grazing, reducing both abundance of forage, and access to it during winter. Keywords: competition, forestry, grazing, ice, reindeer, snow.
34307Nokes L.F., Haelewaters D. & Pfister D.H. (2022): Exploration of marine lichenized fungi as bioindicators of coastal ocean pollution in the Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area. - Rhodora, 122(992): 251–273. https://doi.org/10.3119/20-10.
This preliminary exploration of marine lichenized fungi (lichens) as bioindicators of water pollution examined the distribution of intertidal lichen communities in the Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area with respect to recorded pollution throughout the harbor. We found significant negative associations between pollution measurements and the health of the lichen community based on cover and species richness. We also observed significant differences in species composition between areas of higher pollution and areas of lower pollution, though not enough data are available to establish the pollution sensitivity or tolerance of individual species. We note that difficulties in the collection and identification of marine lichens hamper efforts to use them broadly as bioindicators. This study suggests that marine lichens could prove useful as bioindicators, but more research is needed to understand the differential effects of pollution on individual species as well as to establish practical procedures both for quantifying marine lichen community health and for widespread bioindication using marine lichens. Finally, one species collected during this study, Verrucaria ceuthocarpa, represents a first report for the Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area. Key words: environmental impact, intertidal zone, lichen diversity, marine ecology, ocean health, water pollution.
34306Berend K., Amatangelo K.L., Weihrauch D., Norment C. & Penberthy M. (2022): Plant traits and community metrics across a snowmelt gradient at alpine snowbank sites on Mt. Washington, New Hampshire. - Rhodora, 122(992): 290–320. https://doi.org/10.3119/20-14.
In northeastern North America, alpine snowbank communities are rare plant assemblages that form in sheltered sites above treeline where latelying snow provides insulation from late-season frosts and a longer-lasting source of water. We measured snowpack and studied community composition and plant traits at the species and community scales across the snowmelt gradient at snowbank sites on Mt. Washington, New Hampshire. We used nonmetric multidimensional scaling ordination and analysis of similarity to examine community composition across the snowmelt gradient and measured plant traits (height, leaf dry matter content, leaf area, and specific leaf area) of four focal species (Carex bigelowii, Chamaepericlymenum canadense, Clintonia borealis, and Maianthemum canadense). We assessed trait variability of the four focal species across the snowmelt gradient and evaluated community-weighted mean trait values and phenotypic plasticity between snowbank core and edge habitats. Analysis of similarity indicated that vascular plant diversity increased (p < 0.001), lichen and bryophyte cover decreased (p < 0.001; p < 0.025), and community-weighted mean leaf area increased (p < 0.001) in the core of snowbank communities where melting dates were later. Analysis of similarity indicated that vascular plant communities varied significantly across the snowmelt gradient. The transition in community composition and trait values across the snowmelt gradient are indicative of changing environmental conditions and ecosystem functions, though more research is needed to determine the extent to which phenotypic plasticityand ecotypic uniqueness influence trait expression of snowbank species. Genetic analysis may be necessary to evaluate population dynamics among isolated alpine communities, which may be vulnerable to climate change or displacement by exotic or lowland species. Key words: adaptation, climate change, community-weighted mean, diversity, plasticity, snowbed.
34305Schulte F. (1905): Zur Anatomie der Flechtengattung Usnea. - Beihefte zum Botanischen Centralblatt, 18: 1–22. .
34304Post E., Pedersen C. & Watts D.A. (2022): Large herbivores facilitate the persistence of rare taxa under tundra warming. - Scientific Reports, 12: 1292 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-05388-4.
Ecological rarity, characterized by low abundance or limited distribution, is typical of most species, yet our understanding of what factors contribute to the persistence of rare species remains limited. Consequently, little is also known about whether rare species might respond diferently than common species to direct (e.g., abiotic) and indirect (e.g., biotic) efects of climate change. We investigated the efects of warming and exclusion of large herbivores on 14 tundra taxa, three of which were common and 11 of which were rare, at an inland, low-arctic study site near Kangerlussuaq, Greenland. Across all taxa, pooled commonness was reduced by experimental warming, and more strongly under herbivore exclusion than under herbivory. However, taxon-specifc analyses revealed that although warming elicited variable efects on commonness, herbivore exclusion disproportionately reduced the commonness of rare taxa. Over the 15-year duration of the experiment, we also observed trends in commonness and rarity under all treatments through time. Sitewide commonness increased for two common taxa, the deciduous shrubs Betula nana and Salix glauca, and declined in six other taxa, all of which were rare. Rates of increase or decline in commonness (i.e., temporal trends over the duration of the experiment) were strongly related to baseline commonness of taxa early in the experiment under all treatments except warming with grazing. Hence, commonness itself may be a strong predictor of species’ responses to climate change in the arctic tundra biome, but large herbivores may mediate such responses in rare taxa, perhaps facilitating their persistence. p. 4: "The interaction between warming and herbivore exclusion infuenced commonness of five taxa: B. nana, S. glauca, Aulacomnium sp., S. longipes, and Peltigera sp. (Supplemental Table S1)." ...; "and warming reduced commonness of the lichen Peltigera sp. under herbivore exclusion but increased its commonness under grazing (Fig. 2)."
34303Vicol I. & Mihăilescu S. (2022): A biogeographical study of red listed lichen species at temporal and spatial scales within protected and non‑protected areas. - Scientific Reports, 12: 898 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-04872-1.
The present study is focused on the temporal and spatial distribution of red listed lichen (RLL) species identifed in both non-protected areas (NPAs) and protected areas (PAs) in Romania. This study revealed diferent scenarios of RLL based on two major patterns: (1) the fate of RLL before and after their designation in the red list in Romania and (2) the fate of RLL before and after the designation of PAs in Romania. Generally, the occurrences of RLL were well represented in time and space in both NPAs and PAs through geomorphological and biogeographical units. In particular, the occurrences of RLL were well represented, especially in hilly areas within PAs before and after their ofcial designation, and this was an important aspect over a long period of time. Although NPAs were not less important regarding the occurrences of RLL species, it was observed that they followed the same pattern as PAs, namely, they were well represented in hilly areas and over a long period of time. The bioregions were signifcant for RLL species in both NPAs (continental and stepic) and PAs (continental, panonic, and stepic). As a signifcant fnding of this study, NPAs and PAs should be subjected to an adequate conservation regime due to their biotical traditional heritage.
34302Elečko J., Vilková M., Frenák R., Routray D., Ručová D., Bačkor M. & Goga M. (2022): A comparative study of isolated secondary metabolites from lichens and their antioxidative properties. - Plants, 11(8): 1077 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11081077.
Free radicals play a critical role in the chemical processes that occur in all cells. Pharmaceutical companies manufacture a variety of synthetically prepared antioxidants, but it is known that many of these can be carcinogenic. As a result, efforts are being made to find natural antioxidants that do not have these side effects. Lichens may be suitable candidates because they contain secondary metabolites with proven antioxidant properties. This could be explained by the presence of compounds with phenolic groups in lichens. The radical scavenging reaction is a chemical reaction governed by stoichiometry, and our aim is to determine the efficacy of these reactions. The aim of this study is to compare metabolite activity based on the same amount of substance involved in radical scavenging, calculated in micromoles rather than weight concentration. This provides an accurate way of comparing radical scavenging activity. We tested superoxide anion scavenging activity and free radical scavenging activity of isolated lichen secondary metabolites and their mixtures in different ratios. The following compounds were isolated and tested for antioxidant activity: gyrophoric acid (Umbilicaria hirsuta), evernic acid (Evernia prunastri), physodic acid, 3-hydroxyphysodic acid, physodalic acid and atranorin (Hypogymnia physodes), and usnic acid (as a synthetic compound). Of all the tested compounds, 3-hydroxyphysodic acid, as well as mixtures containing this metabolite, showed the strongest scavenging activity. The results also demonstrated that calculation by amount of substance leads to a new consideration of antioxidant activity. Keywords: superoxide anion; DPPH; antioxidant activity; secondary metabolites; lichens; NMR.
34301Saag A., Randlane T., Thell A. & Obermayer W. (2002): Phylogenetic analysis of cetrarioid lichens with globose ascospores. - Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences: Biology, Ecology, 51(2): 103–123. .
The group of cetrarioid lichens with globose ascospores includes 37 species from eight genera. Phylogenetic analysis, using program PAUP 3.1.1, was carried out on two different data sets – morphological (incl. anatomical and chemical) and molecular characters (ITS1, 5.8S, and ITS2 rDNA sequences) – to verify the correspondence of current taxonomy to the probable evolution of the taxa involved. The paraphyletic nature of the genus Allocetraria in regard to two species of Dactylina is assumed based on morphological characters. Still, the separation of these genera is strongly supported by the analysis of molecular data. The genus Tuckermannopsis (11 species) is paraphyletic in regard to Esslingeriana idahoensis and “Nephromopsis” weii. Monophyletic origin can be declared only for the Tuckermannopsis ciliaris group. The analysis based on molecular characters exhibits the monophyletic origin of the group including three Tuckneraria species. Monophyly of the genus Ahtiana was not supported by the analysis of morphological data. Key words: cetrarioid lichens, Parmeliaceae, Ahtiana, Allocetraria, Dactylina, Esslingeriana, “Nephromopsis” weii, Tuckneraria, Tuckermannopsis, Vulpicida, ITS rDNA sequences, cladistic analysis.
34300Lee B.G. & Hur J.-S. (2022): A new lichenized fungus, Psoroglaena humidosilvae, from a forested wetland of Korea, with a taxonomic key to the species of Psoroglaena. - Journal of Fungi, 8(4): 392 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8040392.
Psoroglaena humidosilvae Lee is described as a new lichen species from a wetland forest in South Korea. The new species is distinct from P. stigonemoides (Orange) Henssen by little projections locally present on the thallus; smaller, paler, and globose perithecia; smaller asci; and smaller ascospores generally 3-septate. Molecular analyses employing internal transcribed spacer (ITS), mitochondrial small subunit (mtSSU), and nuclear large subunit ribosomal RNA (LSU) sequences strongly support P. humidosilvae as a nonidentical species in the genus Psoroglaena. A surrogate key is provided to assist in the identification of all 22 species of Psoroglaena. Keywords: biodiversity; corticolous; phylogeny; taxonomy; Verrucariaceae.
34299Diederich P., Millanes A.M., Etayo J., van den Boom P.P.G. & Wedin M. (2022): Finding the needle in the haystack: a revision of Crittendenia, a surprisingly diverse lichenicolous genus of Agaricostilbomycetes, Pucciniomycotina. - Bryologist, 125(2): 248–293. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-125.2.248.
While most lichenicolous fungi belong to the Ascomycota, c. 5% of them are members of the Basidiomycota. Among these, the poorly known genus Crittendenia in the Pucciniomycotina has recently been described for lichenicolous fungi with minuscule needle-like synnematous basidiomata. Although only two species were hitherto known, the wide observed host-spectrum suggested a larger number of mainly host-specific species. A classical revision using morphological characters alone proved to be virtually impossible, because of the large variability of the material from each host genus, and the scant morphological differences between hypothetically distinct species from different hosts. We studied over sixty specimens and made a large number of measurements of the available morphological characters. We additionally generated 18 ITS and 21 nuLSU rDNA sequences and conducted maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses. We also performed one species delimitation analysis (bPTP-ML). By combining sometimes subtle morphological differences, host choice and phylogenetic results, we were able to accept eighteen morphologically and/or genetically distinct species, all confined to a single host genus or to several closely related host genera. Two further putative species are left unnamed, as richer material is needed and molecular data are missing. Sixteen new species are described: Crittendenia absistentis (on Bacidia absistens), C. bacidinae (on Bacidina apiahica), C. bryostigmatis (on Bryostigma muscigenum), C. byssolomatis (on Byssoloma maderense), C. crassitunicata (on Melanohalea ushuaiensis), C. heterodermiae (on Heterodermia comosa), C. hypotrachynae (on Hypotrachyna), C. kakouettae (on ‘Byssoloma’ kakouettae), C. lecanorae (on Lecanora), C. lecidellae (on Lecidella elaeochroma), C. lopadii (on Lopadium disciforme), C. parvispora (on Bacidia), C. physciiphila (on Phaeophyscia, Physcia and Physciella), C. physconiae (on Physconia distorta), C. stictae (on Sticta fuliginosa) and C. teloschistis (on Teloschistes). Further, a ML analysis of the Agaricostilbomycetes using ITS and nuLSU sequences suggested that Crittendenia cannot be included in any known family, and the new family Crittendeniaceae is therefore described for the genus. Keywords: Basidiomycetes, Chionosphaera, Crittendeniaceae, heterobasidiomycetes, lichenicolous fungi, phylogeny, taxonomy.
34298Shevkar C., Armarkar A., Weerasinghe R., Maduranga K., Pandey K., Behera S.K., Kalia K., Paranagama P. & Kate A.S. (2022): Cytotoxic bioxanthracene and macrocyclic polyester from endolichenic fungus Talaromyces pinophilus: In-vitro and in-silico analysis. - Indian Journal of Microbiology, 62(2): 204–214. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12088-021-00994-8.
Lichens are used in folklore medicines across the globe for wound healing and to treat skin disorders and respiratory diseases. They are an intricate symbiosis between fungi and algae with the domination of fungal counterparts. Recent research studies pointed out that yeast is a third major partner in lichens. Endolichenic fungi (ELF) are also a part of this complex miniature ecosystem. The highly competitive environment of lichens compels ELF to produce toxic metabolites which are comparatively less explored for their chemical diversity and use. Here, we investigated 31 ELF isolated from 32 lichens found on mangrove plants at Puttalam Lagoon of Sri Lanka to find cytotoxic molecules by applying LC-UV-HRMS analysis and in vitro bioassays. The studies resulted in the identification of three potent cytotoxic molecules from endolichenic fungi Talaromyces pinophilus isolated from host lichen Porina tetracerae. The ethyl acetate extract of this fungus showed moderate cytotoxicity against the breast cancer cell line. Chemical characterization of ethyl acetate extract of T. pinophilus produced peniazaphilin B, 152G256a-1, and ES-242-3. The structures of these molecules were confirmed by NMR and MS data. We are reporting ES-242-3 for the first time from the genus Talaromyces and peniazaphilin B and 152G256a-1 from T. pinophilus. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their anticancer potential against breast, oral and cervical cancer cell lines. Compound 152G256a-1 showed potent cytotoxicity against oral cancer (CAL-27 cell line) with an IC50 value of 2.96 ± 0.17 lM while ES-242-3 showed the best activity against breast cancer (MCF-7 cell line) and cervical cancer (HeLa cell line) with IC50 value 14.08 ± 0.2 lM and 4.46 ± 0.05 lM respectively. An insilico analysis was carried out to predict the mechanism of in-vitro activity, drug likeliness, and pharmacokinetic profile of the isolated compounds. The study confirms the potential of ELF T. pinophilus to produce diverse bioactive scaffolds and encourages the researchers to further explore the fungus and its metabolites with newer technologies to produce potent anticancer leads. Keywords: Talaromyces pinophilus ; Peniazaphilin B ; 152G256a-1 ; ES-242-3 ; Cytotoxic ; Anticancer.
34297Dal Forno M., Lawrey J.D., Moncada B., Bungartz F., Grube M., Schuettpelz E. & Lücking R. (2022): DNA barcoding of fresh and historical collections of lichen‐forming basidiomycetes in the genera Cora and Corella (Agaricales: Hygrophoraceae): A success story?. - Diversity, 14(4): 284 [34 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/d14040284.
Lichen collected worldwide for centuries have resulted in millions of specimens deposited in herbaria that offer the potential to assess species boundaries, phenotypic diversification, ecology, and distribution. The application of molecular approaches to historical collections has been limited due to DNA fragmentation, but high-throughput sequencing offers an opportunity to overcome this barrier. Here, we combined a large dataset of ITS sequences from recently collected material and historical collections, obtained through Sanger, 454, or Illumina Sequencing, to test the performance of ITS barcoding in two genera of lichenized Basidiomycota: Cora and Corella. We generated new sequence data for 62 fresh specimens (from 2016) and 274 historical collections (collected between 1888 and 1998), for a dataset of 1325 sequences. We compared various quantitative approaches to delimit species (GMYC, bPTP, ASAP, ABGD) and tested the resolution and accuracy of the ITS fungal barcoding marker by comparison with a six-marker dataset. Finally, we quantitatively compared phylogenetic and phenotypic species delimitation for 87 selected Cora species that have been formally described. Our HTS approach successfully generated ITS sequences for 76% of the historical collections, and our results show that an integrative approach is the gold-standard for understanding diversity in this group. Keywords: ASTRAL; biological collections; cryptic species; diversification; fungal barcoding; fungarium; historical specimens; natural history collections; phenotype.
34296Xavier-Leite A.B., Cáceres M.E.S., Aptroot A., Moncada B., Lücking R. & Goto B.T. (2022): Phylogenetic revision of the lichenized family Gomphillaceae (Ascomycota: Graphidales) suggests post-K–Pg boundary diversification and phylogenetic signal in asexual reproductive structures. - Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 168: 107380 [23 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2021.107380.
We present the first broad molecular-phylogenetic revision of the lichenized family Gomphillaceae, based on 408 newly generated sequences of the mitochondrial SSU rDNA and nuclear LSU rDNA, representing 342 OTUs. The phylogenetic analysis of 20 out of the 28 currently accepted genera resulted in 48 clades. Twelve genera were resolved as monophyletic: Actinoplaca, Arthotheliopsis, Bullatina, Caleniopsis, Corticifraga, Gomphillus, Gyalectidium, Gyalidea, Jamesiella, Rolueckia, Rubrotricha, and Taitaia. Two genera resulted paraphyletic, namely Aulaxina (including Caleniopsis) and Asterothyrium (including Linhartia). Six genera were in part highly polyphyletic: Aderkomyces, Calenia, Echinoplaca, Gyalideopsis, Psorotheciopsis, and Tricharia. While ascoma morphology and anatomy has traditionally been considered as main character complex to distinguish genera, our study supported the notion that the characteristic asexual anamorph of Gomphillaceae, the so-called hyphophores, are diagnostic for most of the newly recognized clades. As a result, we recognize 26 new genus-level clades, three of which have names available (Microxyphiomyces, Psathyromyces, Spinomyces) and 23 that will require formal description as new genera. We also tested monophyly for 53 species-level names for which two or more specimens were sequenced: 27 were supported as monophyletic and representing a single species, 13 as monophyletic but with an internal topology suggesting cryptic speciation, four as paraphyletic, and nine as polyphyletic. These data suggest that species richness in the family is higher than indicated by the number of accepted names (currently 425); they also confirm that recently refined species concepts reflect species richness better than the broad concepts applied in Santesson’s monograph. A divergence time analysis revealed that foliicolous Gomphillaceae diversified after the K–Pg-boundary and largely during the Miocene, a notion supported by limited data available for other common foliicolous lineages such as Chroodiscus (Graphidaceae), Pilocarpaceae, and Porinaceae. This contradicts recent studies suggesting that only macrofoliose Lecanoromycetes exhibit increased diversification rates in the Cenozoic. Keywords: Cretaceous; Foliicolous lichens; Jurassic; Mesozoic; Wet tropical forests.
34295Veres K., Csintalan Y., Laufer Y., Engel R., Szabó K. & Farkas E. (2022): Photoprotection and high-light acclimation in semi-arid grassland lichens – a cooperation between algal and fungal partners. - Symbiosis, 86: 33–48. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13199-021-00823-y.
Abstract In lichens, each symbiotic partner cooperates for the survival of the symbiotic association. The protection of the susceptible photosynthetic apparatus is essential for both participants. The mycobiont and photobiont contribute to the protection against the damaging effect of excess light by various mechanisms. The present study investigated the effect of seasonality and microhabitat exposure on photoprotection and photoacclimation in the photo- and the mycobiont of six lichen species with different thallus morphology in inland dune system in the Kiskunság region (Hungary) with shaded, more humid and exposed, drier dune sides. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography, spectrophotometry, chlorophyll a fluorescence kinetic technique were used, and micrometeorological data were collected. The four years data series revealed that the north-eastfacing side was characterized by higher relative humidity and lower light intensities compared to the south-west-facing drier and more exposed sides. The south-west facing side was exposed to direct illumination 3–4 hours longer in winter and 1–2 hours shorter in summer than the north-east facing side of the dune, influencing the metabolism of sun and shade populations of various species. Because rapid desiccation caused short active periods of lichens during bright and drier seasons and on exposed microhabitats, the rapid, non-regulated non-photochemical quenching mechanisms in the photobiont had a significant role in protecting the photosynthetic system in the hydrated state. In dehydrated conditions, thalli were mainly defended by the solar screening metabolites produced by the mycobiont and curling during desiccation (also caused by the mycobiont). Furthermore, the efficacy of light use (higher chlorophyll and carotenoid concentration) increased because of short hydrated periods. Still, a lower level of received irradiation was appropriate for photosynthesis in dry seasons and on sun exposed habitats. In humid seasons and microhabitats, more extended active periods lead to increased photosynthesis and production of solar radiation protectant fungal metabolites, allowing a lower level of photoprotection in the form of regulated non-photochemical quenching by the photobiont. Interspecific differences were more pronounced than the intraspecific ones among seasons and microhabitat types. Keywords: photoacclimation · seasonality · microhabitat · species-specific response · lichen secondary metabolites · plastid pigments.
34294Nekhoroshev S.V., Leonov V.V., Nekhorosheva A.V., Gornikov N.V., Kot M.F. & Karpova Ya.A. (2022): Antimicrobial activity of some lichen extracts. - Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal, 55(11): 1190–1195. DOI 10.1007/s11094-022-02557-7.
[Translated from the Russian original published in Khimiko-Farmatsevticheskii Zhurnal, Vol. 55, No. 11, pp. 22–27, November, 2021.] Cladonia rangiferina is a bushy lichen of the genus Cladonia and has a multi-regional distribution. This plant contains usnic acid as the main biologically active substance and has been tested against some opportunistic microorganisms. Among the studied C. rangiferina extracts, only glycerol extracts obtained at an extraction temperature of 40°C were biologically active and only against Gram-positive microorganisms (S. aureus) and fungi (C. albicans). The antimicrobial activity of the extracts decreased if the extraction temperature was raised to 90°C. The results showed that C. rangiferina lichen could be a potential rich source of effective antimicrobial agents.
34293McDonough A.M., Bird A.W., Luciani M.A. & Todd A.K. (2022): Establishing trace element concentrations for lichens and bryophytes in the ring of fire region of the Hudson Bay Lowlands, Ontario, Canada. - Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 194: 226 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-022-09890-0.
Peatlands dominate the landscape of the Hudson Bay Lowlands in Ontario, Canada. Recently, mineral deposits of chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), and copper (Cu) were discovered in the region and anticipated future industrial mining operations have the potential to impact the environment. Lichens and bryophytes are considered excellent biomonitors and indicators of deposition, deriving their nutrients directly from the atmosphere. Trace element concentrations in lichens and bryophytes have not been reported in the Hudson Bay Lowlands. Here, we seek to determine the baseline trace element concentrations of six non-vascular species (Evernia mesomorpha, Bryoria spp., Cladonia stellaris, Cladonia stygia, Sphagnum fuscum, and Sphagnum capillifolium) common to the region, explore linear relationships of trace elements with iron (Fe) as a signature of particulates with geogenic origin, and calculate trace element enrichment factors. Thalli, foliage, and peat (0–30 cm) were collected from 55 locations between 2013 and 2018 and analyzed for trace elements. Thalli and foliar concentrations are among the lowest reported in the broader literature and differ substantially from peat. Fe concentrations were significantly correlated (Pearson’s r ≥ 0.8) with aluminum (Al), titanium (Ti), and vanadium (V) in all six species. Enrichment factors show some anthropogenic deposition effects non-vascular organism chemistry. Most trace element concentrations in lichens and bryophytes are indicative of long-range atmospheric transport of dust, but some is attributed to industry, with only minimal inclusions from the local area. Epiphytic lichens are well suited for ongoing atmospheric biomonitoring as industrialization commences. Keywords: Non-vascular · Plants · Bog · Fen · Enrichment · Deposition · Background · Iron · Peatlands.
34292Fujii K. & Hayakawa C. (2022): Recalcitrance of lichen and moss litters increases soil carbon storage on permafrost. - Plant and Soil, 472: 595–608. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-021-05273-5.
Aims Climate warming is predicted to increase permafrost degradation and soil carbon (C) loss, while changes in microrelief and vegetation cover can also influence soil C storage at local scale. Black spruce forests develop lichen/moss-covered organic mounds on permafrost. Recalcitrance of lichen and moss litters, as well as cold climate, is hypothesized to increase C storage in hummocky soils. Methods We compared the decomposition rates of lichen and moss litters, spruce root litter, and cellulose at hummocky clayey soils, non-hummocky clayey soils, and non-hummocky sandy soils in northwest Canadian subarctic. Results Lichen/moss-covered hummocky clayey soils displayed greater C stocks than non-hummocky clayey and sandy soils. Lichen and moss litters decomposed more slowly than did spruce root litter and cellulose. Recalcitrant litter inputs of lichen and moss contributed to greater C stocks of hummocky clayey soils, compared to non-hummocky clayey and sandy soils. Lower temperature dependency of lichen and moss litter decomposition, compared to vascular plant litter, suggests stronger resistance of lichen and moss litters to decomposition. Conclusion Permafrost degradation by climate warming would reduce hummocky microrelief covered by lichen and moss, major contributors to soil C, and decrease the high potential for C storage of black spruce forests on permafrost. Keywords: Active layer · Decomposition · Gelisol · Hummocky soil · Soil organic matter.
34291Galanina I.A. & Ohmura Y. (2022): Rinodina endospora and R. macrospora (Physciaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) new to Japan. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 56(1): 97–102. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2022.56.1.97.
Rinodina endospora and R. macrospora are reported as new to Japan. These species are known to be rare in Northeastern Asia and have a disjunctive distribution. Rinodina endospora was collected on bark of Alnus sp. and Salix sp. at 290 m a. s. l. in Hokkaido, and R. macrospora was on bark of Abies mariesii at elevation between 1960 and 2000 m a. s. l. in Toyama Prefecture of central Honshu. The paper provides data on morphology, ecology, differentiation and distribution of two Rinodina species. Keywords: biodiversity, biogeography, lichens, new records, North-East Asia.
34290Himelbrant D.E., Stepanchikova I.S., Gagarina L.V., Tsurykau A.G. & Konoreva L.A. (2022): Remarkable lichen diversity in the old manor park Osinovaya Roscha (St. Petersburg, Russia) . - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 56(1): 103–124. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2022.56.1.103.
The revealed lichen diversity of the historical territory Osinovaya Roscha has a total of 230 species, including 206 lichenized, 17 lichenicolous, and seven non-lichenized saprobic fungi. Epithamnolia xanthoriae is new to North-Western European Russia; Arthonia vinosa, Caloplaca ahtii, Cladonia merochlorophaea, Hawksworthiana peltigericola, Lecania erysibe, Rinodina pityrea, Roselliniella cladoniae, Taeniolina scripta, and Trichonectria rubefaciens are new to St. Petersburg. In total, eight lichen species reported from Osinovaya Roscha are red-listed in St. Petersburg. In spite of small size of this area, the lichen diversity of Osinovaya Roscha is high compared to other territories in the city, and is worthy of protection. Keywords: lichen biota, lichenicolous fungi, new records, protected species, North-West European Russia.
34289Жданов И.С. [Zhdanov I.S] (2022): Ревизия лишайников рода Hypotrachyna s. l. (Parmeliaceae) в России с ключом для определения видов [A revision of the lichen genus Hypotrachyna s. l. (Parmeliaceae) in Russia, with a key to the species]. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 56(1): 125–140. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2022.56.1.125.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] The survey of eight Russian species of the genus Hypotrachyna is presented, including H. afrorevoluta, H. cirrhata, H. endochlora, H. koyaensis, H. laevigata, H. pseudosinuosa, H. revoluta, and H. sinuosa. Descriptions of the species, data on their ecology, distribution in Russia and in the world, and a key to species are provided. Keywords: biodiversity, lichens, systematics, Russian Far East, Caucasus.
34288Урбанавичюс Г.П. & Урбанавичене И.Н. [Urbanavichus G.P. & Urbanavichene I.N.] (2022): К лихенофлоре Северо-Осетинского заповедника (Северная Осетия — Алания). II. Кластер «Карца» [Contributions to the lichen flora of the North Ossetia Nature Reserve (Republic of North Ossetia — Alania). II. Cluster “Kartsa”]. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 56(1): 141–159. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2022.56.1.141.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] New data on the lichen flora of the North Ossetia Nature Reserve from the cluster “Kartsa” are provided. This cluster is located in Kartsinskii Range slopes, Central Caucasus. The specimens of lichens and lichenicolous fungi were collected near the top of Ol’dukhankhokh Mt. in cluster “Kartsa” in June 2016. In total, 115 lichen species and 15 lichenicolous fungi were recorded. Among them, 128 species are new to the cluster “Kartsa”. Of these, 77 species are new for the North Ossetia Nature Reserve, including 71 species new for the Republic of North Ossetia — Alania, 36 species new for the Central Caucasus, and 5 species new for the Caucasus. The genus Poeltinula and three species (Arthonia punctella, Opegrapha hellespontica, Poeltinula cerebrina) are reported for the first time from Russia. The representative specimens of new for Russia and rare species are kept in the Lichenological Herbarium of the Komarov Botanical Institute RAS (LE). Keywords: Arthonia punctella, Opegrapha hellespontica, Poeltinula cerebrina, lichenicolous fungi, lichens, new records, Central Caucasus, Russia.
34287Kotkova V.M., Beljakova R.N., Gorin K.K., Himelbrant D.E., Khanov Z.M., Kolganikhina G.B., Moroz E.L., Notov A.A., Novozhilov Yu.K., Popova N.N., Stepanchikova I.S., Zhdanov I.S. & Zholobova Zh.O. (2022): New cryptogamic records. 9. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 56(1): 203–220. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2022.56.1.203.
First records of cyanoprokaryotic species for the Russian part of the Gulf of Finland of the Baltic Sea, aphyllophoroid fungi for the Yaroslavl Region, myxomycetes for the Republic of Belarus, lichens and allied fungi for the Tver Region, lichens for the Nizhny Novgorod Region, Kabardino- Balkarian and Karachayevo-Circassian republics, and Perm Territory, mosses for the Kursk, Lipetsk and Saratov regions are presented. The data on their localities, habitats, distribution are provided. The specimens are kept in the herbaria of the Komarov Botanical Institute RAS (LE), Department of Botany of St. Petersburg State University (LECB), Kuprevich Institute of Experimental Botany NAS of Belarus (MSK-F), Francisk Skorina Gomel State University of Belarus (GSU), National Research Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (NNSU), Galichya Gora Reserve of the Voronezh State University (VU). Keywords: Acrocordia gemmata, Antrodiella faginea, Antrodiella leucoxantha, Antrodiella pallescens, Arthrorhaphis aeruginosa, Basidiomycota, Biatora sphaeroidiza, Candelariella xanthostigma, Catillaria chalybeia var. chloropoliza, Chaenotheca subroscida, Chaenothecopsis haematopus, Cladonia monomorpha, Cyanoprokaryota, Diachea subsessilis, Dicranum tauricum, Diderma hemisphaericum, Fontinalis antipyretica, Frutidella caesioatra, Fuscidea arboricola, Gloeocapsopsis crepidinum, Gloeocystidiellum convolvens, Gloeocystidiellum luridum, Herzogiella seligeri, Isothecium alopecuroides, Kneiffia subalutacea, Lecania turicensis, Lecanora compallens, Lecidella stigmatea, Leptoporus mollis, Monodictys epilepraria, Myriospora rufescens, Niphotrichum canescens, Phanerochaete laevis, Placynthium asperellum, Plagiothecium nemorale, Pterigynandrum filiforme, Rhizocarpon lavatum, Romjularia lurida, Sarcogyne hypophaea, Sciuro-hypnum populeum, Staurothele frustulenta, Strigula jamesii, Syntrichia virescens, Toninia squalida, Xylodon radula, algae, fungi, lichenicolous fungi, lichens, mosses, mycobiota, myxomycetes, Baltic Sea, Caucasus, European Russia, Gulf of Finland, Kabardino-Balkarian Republic, Karachayevo-Circassian Republic, Kursk Region, Leningrad Region, Lipetsk Region, National Park “Narochansky”, Nizhny Novgorod Region, North Caucasus, Northern Urals, Perm Territory, Republic of Belarus, Russia, Russian Caucasus, Saratov Region, St. Petersburg, Tver Region, Yaroslavl Region.
34286Anderson F., Bouchard M., Boudreault C., McCarthy J. & Hanel C. (2022): Noteworthy range extensions of two lichens in Eastern Canada: Erioderma pedicellatum (Pannariaceae) new to Québec and Parmelia fraudans (Parmeliaceae) new to Nova Scotia. - Evansia, 39(1): 20–28. https://doi.org/10.1639/0747-9859-39.1.20.
The globally rare epiphyte Erioderma pedicellatum is reported for the first time from Québec and the saxicolous Parmelia fraudans, uncommon in eastern North America, is reported for the first time from Nova Scotia. Key words. Biogeography, Atlantic provinces, Eastern Canada, lichen species at risk.
34285Perlmutter G.B. (2022): Lichens and allied fungi of Mitchell Mill State Natural Area, North Carolina, USA. - Evansia, 39(1): 43–53. https://doi.org/10.1639/0747-9859-39.1.43.
One hundred five species of lichenized and allied fungi are reported from recent and historical collections made in the Mitchell Mill State Natural Area in northeastern Wake County, North Carolina, USA. Mitchell Mill is unique among granitic flatrock communities in the southeastern United States by having riparian elements from the Little River, which flows directly over the flatrock, supporting semi-aquatic lichen communities along creek edges represented by species in Dermatocarpon, Verrucaria, and Lichinales. Recently described or renamed species Cladonia ignatii, Lecanora provertula and Phyllopsora isidiosa were found in recent collections. Compared to historical records, 38 taxa including five of six species of large cyanolichen were not found in recent visits, indicating a loss of diversity over the past 100 years, likely due to human activities. Key words. Lichen biodiversity, conservation, granitic flatrock.
34284Cannon P., Coppins B., Fletcher A., Sanderson N., Simkin J. & van den Boom P. (2022): Caliciales: Leprocaulaceae, including the genera Halecania and Leprocaulon. - Revisions of British and Irish Lichens, 23: 1–8. https://www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/files/leprocaulaceae.pdf.
34283Cannon P., Orange A., Aptroot A., Coppins B., Fletcher A., Fryday A., Sanderson N., Simkin J. & van den Boom P. (2022): Caliciales: Catillariaceae, including the genera Catillaria and Solenopsora. - Revisions of British and Irish Lichens, 22: 1–13. https://www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/files/catillariaceae.pdf.
34282Zhurbenko M. (2022): Two new species of Lichenotubeufia (Dothideomycetes, Tubeufiales) from Chile and New Zealand, with a revised key to the genus. - Lichenologist, 54(2): 117-122. doi:10.1017/S0024282922000081.
Two species of lichenicolous fungi are described as new to science: Lichenotubeufia etayoi Zhurb. (on Trachyderma), with light orange peri- thecia up to 360 μm diam., non-fasciculate excipular hairs, and 10–13-septate ascospores, 110–162 × 3–5 μm; and L. tibellii Zhurb. (on Coccocarpia), with light orange perithecia up to 275 μm diam., non-fasciculate excipular hairs, and 5–12-septate ascospores, 50–100 × 3– 4.5 μm. An updated key to the species of Lichenotubeufia is provided. Australasian biogeographical realm, lichen parasites, taxonomy, Valdivian temperate rainforests
34281Nilsson A., Solhaug K. & Gauslaa Y. (2022): The globally threatened epiphytic cyanolichen Erioderma pedicellatum depends on a rare combination of habitat factors . - Lichenologist, 54(2): 123-136. doi:10.1017/S002428292200007X.
Lichen extinction occurs at rapid rates as a result of human activity, although species could potentially be rescued by conservation management based on ecophysiological knowledge. The boreal old forest cyanolichen Erioderma pedicellatum currently occurs in few sites worldwide. To protect it from extinction, it is essential to learn more about it. The last remaining good European site is a canyon with a waterfall, in a low- rainfall region of Norway. Here, a spatially restricted population of 1500–2000 thalli dominates the epiphytic vegetation of a small number of Picea abies canopies. We were able to document that 1) E. pedicellatum grew on thin branches with higher bark pH than is normal for P. abies in a canyon that provided an unusual combination of very high light, high air humidity, and cool temperatures in the growing season. However, the species did not inhabit the main waterfall spray zone. 2) Erioderma pedicellatum had a high light saturation point, high CO2 uptake at high light (≥ 600 μmol m−2 s−1) and cool temperatures (5–20 °C), and experienced strong suprasaturation depression of photosynthesis when fully hydrated. 3) It showed good tolerance of desiccation and high light; it was slightly more tolerant than the morphologically similar, but more common cyanolichen Pectenia plumbea. 4) The European population in its sunny habitat had higher water holding capacity than previously recorded in slightly shaded rainforest populations in Newfoundland, consistent with acclimation to compensate for high evaporative demands. Understanding the ecological niche and responses to critical environmental factors is essential for action plans to avoid extinction of E. ped- icellatum. Methods used in this study could also be applicable for ecological understanding of other threatened lichen species. bark pH, CO2 uptake, desiccation tolerance, ecophysiology, hydration traits, Pectenia plumbea
34280Rodrigues A., Da Costa P., Lorenz A. & Jungbluth P. (2022): Hypotrachyna neohorrescens, a new species in the subgenus Parmelinopsis (Parmeliaceae) from Brazil. - Lichenologist, 54(2): 107-115. doi:10.1017/S0024282922000020.
This study describes a new species of Hypotrachyna subgenus Parmelinopsis from the south-eastern Cerrado (Brazilian savannah), a bio- diversity hotspot. The species is especially common in open vegetation, including urban environments. Hypotrachyna neohorrescens sp. nov. is morphologically and chemically similar to H. horrescens. Nevertheless, phylogenetic analyses of the nuITS and mtSSU regions revealed that H. neohorrescens is a distinct species and closely related to the North American H. mcmulliniana, differing by the size of the laciniae and ascospores. Cerrado, lichenized fungi, phylogeny, taxonomy
34279Lepista Z. & Aptroot A. (2022): Five further species of Graphis reported new to Europe from Portugal. - Lichenologist, 54(2): 101-106. doi:10.1017/S0024282922000093.
Five Graphis species are reported as new to Europe from the Mata Nacional do Buçaco, a region in Portugal where graphidoid Graphidaceae are abundant and diverse. The following species were identified: Graphis dendrogramma, G. duplicata, G. gonimica, G. librata and G. pyr- rhocheiloides. An updated key is given to the Graphis species known from Europe. All those newly reported were identified with names corresponding to tropical species. Allographa, Graphidaceae, graphidoid, Mata Nacional do Buçaco
34278Feuerstein S., Aptroot A., Da Silveira R., Lücking R. & Cáceres M. (2022): An updated world key to the species of Acanthothecis s. lat. (Ascomycota: Graphidaceae), with ten new species from Brazil . - Lichenologist, 54(2): 87-99. doi:10.1017/S0024282922000019.
As part of a revision of the genus Acanthothecis s. lat. (Graphidaceae) in Brazil, an updated world key to the known species of the genus is presented. From Brazil, the following ten new species are described: A. latispora, with single-spored asci, large, muriform ascospores, and norstictic and stictic acids; A. megalospora, with single-spored asci, very large, transversely septate ascospores, and norstictic and protoce- traric acids; A. multiseptata, with 8-spored asci, medium-sized and narrow, transversely multiseptate ascospores, and lacking secondary sub- stances except terpenoids; A. norstictica, with 1–2-spored asci, large, muriform ascospores, and norstictic acid; A. oryzoides, with 8-spored asci, medium-sized, transversely septate ascospores, and norstictic acid; A. rimosa, with 2-spored asci, small to medium-sized, muriform ascospores, and stictic acid; A. roseola, with 1–2-spored asci, large, muriform ascospores, and norstictic, stictic and subnorstictic acids; A. saxicola, with 8-spored asci, small, 3-septate ascospores, and norstictic acid; A. subfarinosa, with 8-spored asci, small, 6–8-septate ascos- pores, and norstictic acid; and A. submuriformis, with 8-spored asci, small, submuriform ascospores, and lichexanthone. In addition, three further species are formally validated, namely A. bicellulata, A. farinosa and A. subabaphoides, and the new combination A. bicellularis is proposed, based on Acanthotrema bicellularis Amazonia, Atlantic Forest, Cerrado, Graphidoideae, lichens, periphysoids
34277Richardson D. (2022): Urban Lichens: A Field Guide for Northeastern North America By Jessica L. Allen and James C. Lendemer. 2021. Yale University Press, New Haven and London. Pp 158, 121 colour photographs and illustrations. 20.3 x 12.7 cm. ISBN 9780300252996. Flexibound. Widely available, including from www.nhbs.com (£24.99 postage) and www.amazon.com ($19.87 postage) . - Lichenologist, 54(2): 137-138. doi:10.1017/S0024282922000068.
book review
34276Phi K.-H., Shin M.-J., Lee S., So J.E., Kim J.H., Suh S.-S., Koo M.H., Shin S.C., Kim J.-H., Lee J.H. & Youn U.J. (2022): Bioactive terphenyls isolated from the Antarctic lichen Stereocaulon alpinum. - Molecules, 27(7): 2363 [8 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27072363.
Three p-terphenyls (2–4)—2-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy-p-terphenyl (2), 2-hydroxy-3,6-dimethoxy-p-terphenyl (3), and 2,3,5,6-tetramethoxy-p-terphenyl (4)—were isolated for the first time as natural products along with seven known compounds (1, 5–10) from the Antarctic lichen Stereocaulon alpinum. Structures of the new compounds were elucidated by comprehensive analyses of 1D and 2D NMR and HREIMS experiments. Compound 3 exhibited cytotoxicity against HCT116 cells with the IC50 value of 3.76 ± 0.03 μM and also inhibited NO production in LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophages with the IC50 value of 22.82 ± 0.015 μM. Keywords: Stereocaulon alpinum; Antarctic lichen; terphenyl; cytotoxicity; anti-inflammation.
34275Acharius E. (1795): Nya och mindre kända Svenska Lafarter beskrifne; (Fortsaettning). - Kongl. Vetenskaps Academiens Nya Handlingar, [ser. 2], 16[3]: 127–142, tab. .
Lichen luridus, Lichen microphyllus, Lichen cartilagineus, Lichen citrinellus, Lichen corticola, Lichen abietinus, Lichen scalaris,
34274Acharius E. (1795): Nya och mindre kända Svenska Laf-arter, beskrifne; (Fortsaettning). - Kongl. Vetenskaps Academiens Nya Handlingar, [ser. 2], 16: 3–21, tab.. .
Collema, Lichen crispus, Lichen cristatus, Lichen marginalis, Lichen sinuatus, Lichen tenax, Lichen fascicularis, Lichen plicatilis, Lichen muscicola, Lichen nigrescens, Lichen flaccidus, Lichen discolor, Lichen tunaeformis, Lichen lacerus
34273Schiefelbein U. & Sipman H.J.M. (2022): Johann Heinrich Sandstedes Flechtenaufsammlungen von seiner Reise nach Vorpommern. - Archiv Natur- und Landeskunde Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, 57: 104–129. DOI 10.30819/anlk.57.06.
The lichen collections of Johann Heinrich Sandstede from his travel to Western Pomerania. Lichen specimens have been revised that had been collected by Johann Heinrich Sandstede 1902 on his field trip to the islands Rügen, Vilm and Greifswalder Oie, and are deposited in the herbarium of the Überseemuseum Bremen. A total of 219 species (196 lichens, 23 lichenicolous fungi) have been identified. Not previously known from Mecklenburg-West Pomerania were Skyttea tephromelarum Kalb & Hafellner being new for entire Germany, Arthonia epiphyscia Nyl., Arthonia varians (Davies) Nyl., Bachmanniomyces uncialicola (Zopf) D. Hawksw., Endococcus propinquus agg., Intralichen lichenicola (M. S. Christ. & D. Hawksw.) D. Hawksw. & M. S. Cole, Ochrolechia alboflavescens (Wulfen) Zahlbr., Polycoccum pulvinatum (Eitner) R. Sant., Scytinium pulvinatum (Hoffm.) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin, Toninia subfuscae (Arnold) Timdal, Verrucaria fusconigrescens Nyl., Weddellomyces epicallopisma (Wedd.) D. Hawksw. and Zwackhiomyces coepulonus (Norm.) Grube & R. Sant.. Keywords: biodiversity, lichenized fungi, lichenicolous fungi, collections, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany.
34272Ertz D. & Diederich P. (2022): Unravelling the diversity of the lichen genus Porina (Porinaceae) in Mauritius. - Plant Ecology and Evolution, 155(1): 123–152. https://doi.org/10.5091/plecevo.84545.
Background and aims – Despite the publication of a recent checklist for Mauritius, a small archipelago in the south-western Indian Ocean, our knowledge of the lichen flora of this region remains incomplete. The present contribution is part of an ongoing study of lichen diversity of the islands of Mauritius and Rodrigues. It aims to unravel the diversity of the genus Porina s.l. on these islands and to improve the taxonomy and the phylogeny of the family Porinaceae following the morphological study and the sequencing of recently collected material. Material and methods – Lichens were collected in 2016 and 2019 in a range of environments, from lowland dry habitats up to dense evergreen upland forests on the islands of Mauritius and Rodrigues. In total, 85 samples of Porina were examined using light microscopy. A molecular study using mtSSU sequences was performed in order to investigate the phylogenetic position of the species of Porina occurring in the study area. Key results – The analyses revealed the presence of 23 species of Porina s.l. in Mauritius, while only four were previously accepted for this country. Five new species are described: Porina covidii, P. griffithsii, P. mauritiana, P. nuculoides, and P. rupicola, while two sterile species remain unidentified. The mtSSU phylogenetic tree includes 19 of the 23 species occurring in Mauritius. These species are dispersed throughout the phylogenetic tree, in at least eight main and strongly supported lineages, suggesting multiple colonizations of Mauritius. A new lineage only including Paleotropical and mainly foliicolous species (P. epiphylloides, P. longispora, P. mauritiana, and P. mazosioides) is revealed. Pseudosagedia crocynioides, a species that was previously known only from Florida, is newly reported from Mauritius, highlighting a remarkable disjunct distribution. Photos of each taxon are provided, along with an identification key to all species. Conclusion – The study of the genus Porina in Mauritius highlights a rich flora. The true diversity of Porina species in the south-western Indian Ocean is certainly underestimated and in need of further investigation, while a taxonomic-phylogenetic revision of tropical Porina at a broader geographical scale is highly desirable. The identity of several Mauritian specimens remains uncertain despite the use of molecular data. Keywords – Forest; Gyalectales; foliicolous; lichens; Mascarene Islands; phylogenetic analysis; Pseudosagedia; south-western Indian Ocean.
34271Fryday A.M., Søchting U., Bungartz F. & Perlmutter G. (2022): (2872) Proposal to conserve the name Huea (Ascomycota: Teloschistales) with a conserved type. - Taxon, 71(2): 465–466. https://doi.org/10.1002/tax.12695.
34270Giordani P., Benesperi R. & Nascimbene J. (2022): Lung lichens face challenges from climate change. - Frontiers for Young Minds, 10: 659341 [6 p.]. doi: 10.3389/frym.2022.659341.
Lichens are a type of fungi that live in close relationships with algae or bacteria. Unfortunately, the future is not looking very bright for these organisms, because they have no protective structures and are sensitive to environmental change. The lung lichen is a large species that, in the upcoming years, will find itself in trouble. Climate change will reduce the amount of available water and increase air temperatures. Global warming is also expected to change the environments where the lung lichen lives. One of the main threats will be the expansion of some very competitive trees. Among them, the black locust has become invasive, forming dense woods that will replace the native tree species. Even though it seems like the situation is bad, there is still hope! Lichen scientists are trying to figure out how to prepare suitable shelters to save lung lichen from climate change.
34269Gorshkova N.A., Brovko O.S., Palamarchuk I.A. & Bogolitsyn K.G. (2022): Influence of the structure of alginate-chitosan materials on the kinetics of usnic acid release. - Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology, 58(2): 110–117. DOI: 10.1134/S0003683822020089.
[Original Russian Text published in Prikladnaya Biokhimiya i Mikrobiologiya, 2022, Vol. 58, No. 2, pp. 123–131] Porous materials, cryogels and aerogels, were synthesized based on a sodium alginate–chitosan interpolymer complex via freeze-drying and supercritical drying. It was shown that the specific surface area of aerogels was approximately ten times higher than that of cryogels due to the developed mesoporous structure and amounted to 260 m2 /g. The polyelectrolyte nature of the obtained materials, their dimensional stability, and their high water absorption (15 and 45 g/g for cryogel and aerogel, respectively) allowed us to use the obtained materials for sorption-application therapy. To impart antimicrobial properties, the materials were impregnated with usnic acid isolated from the lichen Usnea subfloridana, which has antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli bacteria and the microorganism species Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. It was shown that the minimum inhibitory concentration of usnic acid for these test cultures was 0.03 mg/mL. The resulting materials are capable of a slow release of usnic acid over 5 h, while its maximum release was 60% for aerogel and 30% for cryogel. The kinetics of usnic acid release of from both materials is adequately described by the Korsmeyer–Peppas equation. Keywords: chitosan, alginate, aerogel, wound dressing, usnic acid, lichen, Usnea subfloridana, supercritical drying, freeze-drying, antibacterial activity.
34268Pankratov T.A., Nikitin P.A. & Patutina E.O. (2022): Genome analysis of two lichen bacteriobionts, Lichenibacterium ramalinae and Lichenibacterium minor: Toxin‒antitoxin systems and secretion proteins. - Microbiology, 91(2): 160–172. DOI: 10.1134/S0026261722020096.
[Original Russian Text published in Mikrobiologiya, 2022, Vol. 91, No. 2, pp. 191–203.] The genomes of two bacteriobionts of the fruticose lichen Ramalina pollinaria, Lichenibacterium ramalinae and L. minor, were analyzed. Genetic determinants potentially determining the integration and adaptation of these bacteria in the lichen thallus were identified. This is the first report on assessment of genetic determinants of the stress reaction factors and secretion systems of lichen bacteriobionts. The genes encoding the proteins of the VapCB toxin–antitoxin (TA) systems exhibited >60% homology with the genes of the known plant symbionts Bradyrhizobium, Sinorhizobium, Agrobacterium, Mesorhizobium, and Ralstonia, as well as with those of a human pathogen Bartonella. The genes encoding the proteins of type II secretion system were found in the genomes of both species. The genes encoding type IV secretion proteins were found only in the genome of L. ramalinae; they were homologous to those of epiphytic Methylobacterium, plant pathogens Agrobacterium, and plant root symbionts Rhizobium and Neorhizobium. Homology between the genes encoding TA system and secretion system proteins and the genes of plant-associated bacteria was over 60%. This may indicate that green algae are the main target for invasion. Detection of the urease synthesis genes in the genomes of lichen bacteriobionts suggested the hypothesis that urea decomposition results in an additional supply of ammonium and bicarbonate to the symbiosis. The latter may potentially be utilized by phototrophic eukaryotes and prokaryotes as an additional carbon source. Analysis of the genomes of lichen bacteriobionts L. ramalinae and L. minor revealed the possible differences in their survival strategies, with L. ramalinae more integrated into the symbiosis, while L. minor is characterized by more autonomous features. Keywords: Lichenibacterium, genome analysis, virulence, adaptation, lichens.
34267Rosqvist G.C., Inga N. & Eriksson P. (2022): Impacts of climate warming on reindeer herding require new land-use strategies. - Ambio, 51: 1247–1262. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13280-021-01655-2.
Climate in the Arctic has warmed at a more rapid pace than the global average over the past few decades leading to weather, snow, and ice situations previously unencountered. Reindeer herding is one of the primary livelihoods for Indigenous peoples throughout the Arctic. To understand how the new climate state forces societal adaptation, including new management strategies and needs for preserved, interconnected, undisturbed grazing areas, we coupled changes in temperature, precipitation, and snow depth recorded by automatic weather stations to herder observations of reindeer behaviour in grazing areas of the Laevas Sa´mi reindeer herding community, northern Sweden. Results show that weather and snow conditions strongly determine grazing opportunities and therefore reindeer response. We conclude that together with the cumulative effects of increased pressures from alternative land use activities, the nonpredictable environmental conditions that are uniquely part of the warming climate seriously challenge future reindeer herding in northern Sweden. Keywords Climate warming  Indigenous knowledge  Land use  Northern Sweden  Reindeer herding  Snow conditions.
34266Churakova E.Yu., Mizin I.A. & Rozhnov V.V. (2022): Summer feeding of the Novaya Zemlya reindeer (Rangifer tarandus pearsoni). - Doklady Biological Sciences, 502: 36–41. DOI: 10.1134/S0012496622010033.
[Original Russian Text published in Doklady Rossiiskoi Akademii Nauk. Nauki o Zhizni, 2022, Vol. 502, pp. 93–99.] New data on the diet of the wild reindeer (Rangifer tarandus pearsoni) on the Yuzhny Island of the Novaya Zemlya archipelago in the summer are presented. The coprological method shows the predominance of vascular plants in the studied samples of reindeer feces. The selectivity of reindeer in relation to pasture habitats and forage groups of plants indicates that the area and variety of forage lands in the summer are sufficient for the reindeer and are not limiting factors for it. Keywords: Novaya Zemlya wild reindeer, Rangifer tarandus pearsoni, Novaya Zemlya archipelago, Yuzhny Island, grazing, cuticular analysis, mosses, vascular plants. The obtained results of coprological analysis are presented in Table 1. ...the share of lichens was only about 2% (Fig. 3).
34265Kosecka M., Kukwa M, Jabłońska A., Flakus A., Rodriguez-Flakus P., Ptach Ł. & Guzow-Krzemińska B. (2022): Phylogeny and ecology of Trebouxia photobionts from Bolivian lichens. - Frontiers in Microbiology, 13: 779784 [21 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2022.779784.
In the past few years, new phylogenetic lineages in Trebouxia were detected as a result of molecular approaches. These studies included symbiont selectivity in lichen communities, transects along altitudinal gradients at local and global scales and the photobiont diversity in local populations of lichen-forming fungal species. In most of these studies, phylogenetic and haplotype analyses based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) locus have continuously allowed the recognition of new monophyletic lineages, which suggests that still numerous undiscovered Trebouxia lineages can be hidden in lichens from unexplored areas, especially in the tropics. Here, we estimated the biodiversity of photobionts in Bolivian Andean vegetation and assessed their specificity. About 403 lichen samples representing 42 genera, e.g., Haematomma, Heterodermia, Hypotrachyna, Lecanora, Lepra, Leucodermia, Parmotrema, Pertusaria, Polyblastidium, and Usnea, containing Trebouxia photobionts, were analyzed. ITS ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and rbcL markers were used. We obtained Trebouxia sequences from Bolivian samples belonging to already described clades A, C, I, and S. Thirtynine Trebouxia lineages were distinguished within these clades, while 16 were new. To reveal the structure of the community of Bolivian photobionts and their relationships with mycobionts, the comparative effects of climate, altitude, geographical distances, substrate, and habitat type, as well as functional traits of lichens such as growth forms, propagation mode and secondary metabolites, were analyzed. Furthermore, new Bolivian records were included in analysis on a global scale. In our study, the mycobiont genus or even species are the most important factors correlated with photobiont identity. Moreover, we revealed that the community of Bolivian photobionts is shaped by altitude. Keywords: biodiversity, secondary metabolites, selectivity, specificity, symbiosis.
34264De Carolis R., Cometto A., Moya P., Barreno E., Grube M., Tretiach M., Leavitt S.D. & Muggia L. (2022): Photobiont diversity in lichen symbioses from extreme environments. - Frontiers in Microbiology, 13: 809804 [21 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2022.809804.
Fungal–algal relationships—both across evolutionary and ecological scales—are finely modulated by the presence of the symbionts in the environments and by the degree of selectivity and specificity that either symbiont develop reciprocally. In lichens, the green algal genus Trebouxia Puymaly is one of the most frequently recovered chlorobionts. Trebouxia species-level lineages have been recognized on the basis of their morphological and phylogenetic diversity, while their ecological preferences and distribution are still only partially unknown. We selected two cosmopolitan species complexes of lichen-forming fungi as reference models, i.e., Rhizoplaca melanophthalma and Tephromela atra, to investigate the diversity of their associated Trebouxia spp. in montane habitats across their distributional range worldwide. The greatest diversity of Trebouxia species-level lineages was recovered in the altitudinal range 1,000–2,500 m a.s.l. A total of 10 distinct Trebouxia species-level lineages were found to associate with either mycobiont, for which new photobionts are reported. One previously unrecognized Trebouxia species-level lineage was identified and is here provisionally named Trebouxia “A52.” Analyses of cell morphology and ultrastructure were performed on axenically isolated strains to fully characterize the new Trebouxia “A52” and three other previously recognized lineages, i.e., Trebouxia “A02,” T. vagua “A04,” and T. vagua “A10,” which were successfully isolated in culture during this study. The species-level diversity of Trebouxia associating with the two lichen-forming fungi in extreme habitats helps elucidate the evolutionary pathways that this lichen photobiont genus traversed to occupy varied climatic and vegetative regimes. Keywords: chloroplast morphology, culture, phylogeny, Rhizoplaca, Tephromela, Trebouxia.
34263Biju H., Sabeena A. & Nayaka S. (2021): New records of Graphidaceae (lichenized fungi) from the Western Ghats of Kerala state, India. - Studies in Fungi, 6(1): 213–223. Doi 10.5943/sif/6/1/14.
In the present paper, 15 lichenized fungal species belonging to family Graphidaceae are described, of which Ocellularia albomaculata, O. ascidioidea, O. kanneliyensis, O. monosporoides, O. pertusariiformis and O. rhicnopora are new records to Indian lichen biota and Pallidogramme chrysenteron is new to Peninsular India, whereas Asteristion alboolivaceum, Chapsa hiata, Diploschistes rampoddensis, Fissurina rubiginosa, Pseudochapsa phlyctidioides, Thelotrema canarense, T. piluliferum and T. subtile are new to lichen biota of Kerala state. Keywords – Ascomycota – Biodiversity – Taxonomy.
34262Yakovchenko L.S., Davydov E.A. & Ohmura Y. (2022): Candelariella xanthostigmoides (Candelariaceae, Ascomycota) – a new lichen record to East Asia from Japan. - Turczaninowia, 25(1): 124–128. https://doi.org/10.14258/turczaninowia.25.1.10.
Candelariella xanthostigmoides is newly reported from East Asia. It was collected on bark of Tsuga diversifolia in Honshu (Japan) at elevations between 900 and 1100 m. Characteristic features of the species, distribution and the comparison with the closest species are given. Keywords: distribution, Far East, new records, sorediate crust, thin layer chromatography.
34261Acharius E. (1795): Anmaerkningar och Foerbaettringar vid Afhandlingen om Lafvarnes Indelning infoerd uti desse Handlingars 4:de Quartal foer år 1794. - Kongl. Vetenskaps Academiens Nya Handlingar, [ser. 2], 16: 66–71. .
Verrucaria, Patellaria, Platisma, Peltidia, Endocarpon, Umbilicaria, Cladonia, Cornicularia, Stereocaulon, Filaria, Usnea
34260Nusbaumer L., Cáceres M. E. S., Aptroot A., Gibertoni T. B. & Horak E. (2015): Fungos e Liquens da Reserva Biológica de Pedra Talhada. – In: Studer, A., Nusbaumer, L. & Spichiger, R. (Eds.). Biodiversidade da Reserva Biológica de Pedra Talhada (Alagoas, Pernambuco - Brasil). - Boissiera, 68: 137–151. .
34259Curtis T.J. & Lendemer J.C. (2022): A new species of Halecania (Leprocaulaceae, Lecanoromycetes) from eastern North America. - Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society, 149(1): 79–85. doi: 10.3159/TORREY-D-21-00037.1.
Halecania robertcurtisii is described as new to science from dry sandstone cliffs and overhangs in Ohio, USA, in eastern North America. It has a smooth and continuous to rimose-areolate thallus, pseudolecanorine apothecia with reddish to rust colored disks, and lacks lichen substances. The species is similar to Halecania subsquamosa but lacks the diagnostic unidentified terpenoid present in that taxon. Key words: Biodiversity, crustose lichens, endemism, Halecania punctata.
34258Baradaran B., Saadatmand S., Haji Moniri M. & Asri Y. (2020): New lichen records from north-east of Iran. - Iranian Journal of Botany, 26(2): 166–171. DOI: 10.22092/ijb.2020.351116.1293.
Samples of lichens were collected in North-East (NE) of Iran (Khorasan Razavi Province, Torghabeh city) and studied with morphological, anatomical and ecological characteristics. Accordingly, Anema prodigulum (Nyl.) Henssen (Lichinaceae) and Pyrenodesmia microstepposa (Frolov, Nadyeina, Khodos. & Vondrák) Hafellner & Türk (Teloschistaceae) are reported for the first time from Iran.
34257Pérez Catán S., Bubach D., Messuti M.I., Arribére M.A. & Ribeiro Guevara S. (2022): Mercury and REE contents in fruticose lichens from volcanic areas of the south volcanic zone. - Atmospheric Pollution Research, 13: 101384 [7 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apr.2022.101384.
Volcanic eruptions represent one of the natural sources of Hg along with evasion from the oceans. This work evaluates the influence of these sources on the Hg bioaccumulation by fruticose lichens. The sampling areas were located in nearby sites affected by recent volcanic activity in the Patagonia Andean range. Geological techniques such as the study of REE and multi-element patterns were used to identify the volcanic ash sources. The rela- tionship among Hg and semi volatile elements with the distance to the emitting points were considered. In general, the results found in the lichens were in agreement with the provenance of glass fractions from volcanic eruptions in the influenced zone. The diagrams of lichen multi-elements concentration showed similar patterns for lichens taken from locations further south (near Hudson volcano) which were different from the lichens taken from the northern area (near Puyehue, Calbuco and Copahue volcanoes). The average values of LREE/MREE showed similar values in lichen samples taken from the north and south areas from Puyehue Cordon Caulle Volcanic Complex and the ranges of the volcanic glass particles expelled during the 2011 eruption. The results suggest that normalized patterns of the REEs in fruticose lichens might provide a proxy record of the elements released from a volcanic source. Correlations of concentration of semi volatile elements to the volcanic distances and to the Pacific Ocean showed that Hg and Sb bioaccumulation in lichens had one or both contributions. Keywords: Bio-monitors ; Atmospheric mercury ; Volcanic mercury ; Elemental composition ; Patagonian Andes ; South American Andes.
34256Pardo-De la Hoz C.J., Medeiros I.D., Gibert J.P., Chagnon P.-L., Magain N., Miadlikowska J. & Lutzoni F. (2022): Phylogenetic structure of specialization: A new approach that integrates partner availability and phylogenetic diversity to quantify biotic specialization in ecological networks. - Ecology and Evolution, 12: e8649 [18 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.8649.
Biotic specialization holds information about the assembly, evolution, and stability of biological communities. Partner availabilities can play an important role in enabling species interactions, where uneven partner availabilities can bias estimates of biotic specialization when using phylogenetic diversity indices. It is therefore important to account for partner availability when characterizing biotic specialization using phylogenies. We developed an index, phylogenetic structure of specialization (PSS), that avoids bias from uneven partner availabilities by uncoupling the null models for interaction frequency and phylogenetic distance. We incorporate the deviation between observed and random interaction frequencies as weights into the calculation of partner phylogenetic α-diversity. To calculate the PSS index, we then compare observed partner phylogenetic α-diversity to a null distribution generated by randomizing phylogenetic distances among the same number of partners. PSS quantifies the phylogenetic structure (i.e., clustered, overdispersed, or random) of the partners of a focal species. We show with simulations that the PSS index is not correlated with network properties, which allows comparisons across multiple systems. We also implemented PSS on empirical networks of host–parasite, avian seed-dispersal, lichenized fungi–cyanobacteria, and hummingbird pollination interactions. Across these systems, a large proportion of taxa interact with phylogenetically random partners according to PSS, sometimes to a larger extent than detected with an existing method that does not account for partner availability. We also found that many taxa interact with phylogenetically clustered partners, while taxa with overdispersed partners were rare. We argue that species with phylogenetically overdispersed partners have often been misinterpreted as generalists when they should be considered specialists. Our results highlight the important role of randomness in shaping interaction networks, even in highly intimate symbioses, and provide a much-needed quantitative framework to assess the role that evolutionary history and symbiotic specialization play in shaping patterns of biodiversity. PSS is available as an R package at https://github.com/cjpardodelahoz/pss.
34255Masumoto H. & Degawa Y. (2022): Cyphellostereum ushimanum sp. nov. (Hygrophoraceae, Agaricales) described from Amami‑Oshima Island (Kagoshima Prefecture, Ryukyu Islands), Japan, with ultrastructural observations of its Rhizonema photobiont flaments penetrated longitudinally by a central haustorium. - Mycological Progress, 21: 167–179. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11557-021-01766-w.
We collected a resupinate fungus lichenized with flamentous Rhizonema cyanobacteria in Amami-Oshima Island, Japan. Microscopic observations and molecular phylogenetic analyses of both the basidioma and the lichenized thallus indicated afnities within Cyphellostereum, the frst record of this basidiomycete genus from Japan. Its unique combination of structural characters and ITS rDNA sequences suggests a new species, described here as C. ushimanum. Light and transmission electron microscopic observations revealed tubular intracellular haustoria penetrating longitudinally within the cyanobacterial cells, a feature typically seen in the related genus Dictyonema, but unusual in Cyphellostereum. The generic circumscription of Cyphellostereum was therefore emended to include features of C. ushimanum and other recently described species that deviate from the conventional defnition of the genus. Ultrastructural details of symbiont interactions are provided for the frst time in this genus. We also succeeded in cultivating the fungus from hyphae regenerated from thallus fragments, and include a brief description of those results. Keywords: Athelia · Culture · Haustorium · Lichenized basidiomycetes · Rhizonema · TEM.
34254Vondrák J., Svoboda S., Malíček J., Palice Z., Kocourková J., Knudsen K., Mayrhofer H., Thüs H., Schultz M., Košnar J. & Hofmeister J. (2022): From Cinderella to Princess: an exceptional hotspot of lichen diversity in a long-inhabited central-European landscape. - Preslia, 94: 143–181. doi: 10.23855/preslia.2022.143.
Biodiversity is a key criterion in nature protection and often indicates habitats and localities rich in endangered species. Our research, using 48 one-man one-day field trips, located an exceptional lichen diversity hotspot and refugium for rare species, the Týřov National Nature Reserve (Czech Republic, central Bohemia). Within its 410 hectares, we detected 787 species of lichens and related taxa (675 lichens, 35 semilichens, 58 lichenicolous fungi and 19 bark microfungi). This is more species of these organisms than has ever been recorded from such a small area, up to 10 km2, anywhere in Europe (and probably anywhere in the world). The species richness is positively correlated with the habitat heterogeneity within Týřov, which is very far from uniform. In most of the reserve, the species richness is fairly typical for the broader region, and only three sites, with an overall area of a mere 80 hectares, have distinctly higher species richnesses. The most species-rich site, with 502 species, is only about 25 hectares and is distinctly more diverse in habitats than other sites. The enormous importance of Týřov for biodiversity protection is emphasized by the nine species described as new to science: Acarospora fissa, Bacidia hyalina, Buellia microcarpa, Micarea substipitata, Microcalicium minutum, Rufoplaca griseomarginata, Verrucaria substerilis, V. tenuispora and V. teyrzowensis. Three species are new to Europe, 55 to the Czech Republic and 191 species are included in the national Red-list. Keywords: biodiversity hotspot, DNA barcoding, lichenized fungi, Verrucaria.
34253Schindler H. (1983): Über den Nachweis der Diffractasäure in der Flechte Usnea ceratina Ach. aus dem Schwarzwald. - Andrias, 2: 5–8. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Andrias_2_0005-0008.pdf.
In the lichen Usnea ceratina Ach. (mostly from the Black Forest, Germany) diffractaic acid were identified by thin-layer chromatographic method; microcrystal tests (Asahina) were used to confirm the results of TLC. Pure diffractaic acid for comparison were extracted from the lichen Alectoria ochroleuca (Hoffm.) Massal. In all proved specimens diffractaic acid is present.
34252Nusbaumer L., Cáceres M.E.S., Aptroot A., Gibertoni T.B. & Horak E. (2018): Inventaire de la Réserve Biologique de Pedra Talhada: Champignons et lichens. - In: Studer A., Nusbaumer L. & Spichiger R. (eds), Biodiversité de la Réserve Biologique de Pedra Talhada (Alagoas, Pernambuco - Brésil), p. 567–582, Nordesta & Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de la Ville de Genève. .
book chapter; Brazil; list and photodocumentation of fungi and lichen species in a reserve [in French]
34251Ohmura Y., Moon K.-H. & Kashiwadani H. (2008): Morphology and molecular phylogeny of Ramalina pollinaria, R. sekika and R. yasudae (Ramalinaceae, Lichenized Ascomycotina). - 植物研究雑誌 / Journal of Japanese Botany, 83: 156–164. .
Three Ramalina species having sublabriform soralia–R. pollinaria, R. sekika, and R. yasudae–were revised morphologically, chemically, and molecular phylogenetically. These species are considered indistinguishable morphologically but distinguishable by their chemical and ecological habits. We found that soredium size was significantly different for each species. Molecular phylogenetic trees based on internal transcribed spacer regions of nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences showed that R. pollinaria is distantly related to R. yasudae and that R. sekika and R. yasudae together formed a monophyletic clade although the monophyly of R. yasudae could not be confirmed within the clade. These results suggest that R. pollinaria and R. yasudae should be treated as different species. Ramalina sekika could be treated as a chemical strain of R. yasudae according to the molecular phylogenetic result. However, we retain R. sekika and R. yasudae as distinct species because of the differences in soredium size, chemical nature, distribution, ecological habit, and inadequate molecular information. Key words: ITS rDNA, phylogeny, Ramalina pollinaria, Ramalina sekika, Ramalina yasudae, soredia.
34250Kantvilas G. (2022): The trouble with Neophyllis pachyphylla (lichenised Ascomycetes). - Swainsona, 36: 1–7. .
The genus Neophyllis F.Wilson in Australia is considered to comprise two morphologically and chemically distinct species, N. pachyphylla (Müll.Arg.) Gotth.Schneid. and N. melacarpa (F.Wilson) F.Wilson. The confusion surrounding the application of the former name is clarified and revised descriptions of both are presented. Keywords: Australia, grayanic acid, lichens, melacarpic acid, New Zealand, Tasmania.
34249Hitch C.J.B. [ed.] (2000): New, rare and interesting british lichen and lichenicolous fungus records. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 86: 42-56. https://www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2086%20Summer%202000.pdf.
34248Liška J. & Černohorský Z. (2000): Czech Lichenology in 1999. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 86: 39-40. https://www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2086%20Summer%202000.pdf.
34247Singh K.K., Upreti D.K. & Kumar K. (2000): Ethnobotanical notes on some lesser known Himalayan lichens. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 86: 36-37. https://www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2086%20Summer%202000.pdf.
ethnobotany, himalayas, human uses, incense, Notes on the use of parmelioid lichens (Cetrelia, Everniastrum, Melanelia, Parmotrema) in an incense used in Hindu worship.
34246Randlane T. & Mark K. (2000): Lichenology in Estonia in 1998-1999. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 86: 23-26. https://www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2086%20Summer%202000.pdf.
bibliography, estonia, Includes a bibliography of recent literature.
34245Pennie I. (2000): An interesting piece of lichen history. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 86: 28-29. https://www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2086%20Summer%202000.pdf.
evernia, human uses, oak moss, perfume, A note about collecting Evernia in Great Britain for use in perfumery.
34244Pedley I. (2000): Mobile sites - further observations on the car and another, more curious, substrate. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 86: 31-32. https://www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2086%20Summer%202000.pdf.
air pollution, automobiles, man-made substrates, substrate, urban, Notes on lichens growing on a car from more polluted environs than the report from the previous bulletin.
34243Jørgensen P.M. (2000): Porina isidiata Kalb & Hafellner, new to the British Isles. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 86: 40-41. https://www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2086%20Summer%202000.pdf.
british isles, porina, Includes corrected key couplets for the Porina key in the British Lichen Flora.
34242Fletcher M. (2000): Growing lichens. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 86: 20-22. https://www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2086%20Summer%202000.pdf.
cultivation, gardens, greenhouse, growth, Brief notes on growing lichens and bryophytes in the garden or greenhouse.
34241Carter N. (2000): Small ecological proaect progress report: controls on lichen species distribution, community structure and species richness on limestone heritage buildings in Oxford and the Cotswolds. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 86: 33-35. https://www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2086%20Summer%202000.pdf.
biodiversity, buildings, community structure, limestone, man-made substrates, 3 tab.
34240Acharius E. (1794): Försök til en förbättrad Lafvarnes indelning; (Dianome Lichenum). - Kongl. Vetenskaps Academiens Nya Handlingar, [ser. 2], 15: 237–259. .
Lepra, Verrrucaria, Patellaria, Placodium, Psora, Imbricaria, Collema, Platisma, Physcia, Lobaria, Sticta, Peltidia, Endocrpon, Umbilicaria, Pyxidium, Cladonia, Stereocaulon, Cornicularia, Usnea
34239Popovici V., Bucur L., Gîrd C.E., Rambu D., Calcan S.I., Cucolea E.I., Costache T., Ungureanu-Iuga M., Oroian M., Mironeasa S., Schröder V., Ozon E.-A., Lupuliasa D., Caraiane A. & Badea V. (2022): Antioxidant, cytotoxic, and rheological properties of canola oil extract of Usnea barbata (L.) Weber ex F.H. Wigg from Călimani Mountains, Romania. - Plants, 11(7): 854 [33 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11070854.
Usnea genus (Parmeliaceae, lichenized Ascomycetes) is a potent phytomedicine, due to phenolic secondary metabolites, with various pharmacological effects. Therefore, our study aimed to explore the antioxidant, cytotoxic, and rheological properties of Usnea barbata (L.) Weber ex F.H. Wigg (U. barbata) extract in canola oil (UBO) compared to cold-pressed canola seed oil (CNO), as a green solvent used for lichen extraction, which has phytoconstituents. The antiradical activity (AA) of UBO and CNO was investigated using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Their cytotoxicity was examined in vivo through a brine shrimp lethality (BSL) test after Artemia salina (A. salina) larvae exposure for 6 h to previously emulsified UBO and CNO. The rheological properties of both oil samples (flow behavior, thixotropy, and temperature-dependent viscosity variation) were comparatively analyzed. The obtained results showed that UBO (IC50 = 0.942 ± 0.004 mg/mL) had a higher 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity than CNO (IC50 = 1.361 ± 0.008 mg/mL). Both UBO and CNO emulsions induced different and progressive morphological changes to A. salina larvae, incompatible with their survival; UBO cytotoxicity was higher than that of CNO. Finally, in the temperature range of 32–37 °C, the UBO and CNO viscosity and viscoelastic behavior indicated a clear weakening of the intermolecular bond when temperature increases, leading to a more liquid state, appropriate for possible pharmaceutical formulations. All quantified parameters were highly intercorrelated. Moreover, their significant correlation with trace/heavy minerals and phenolic compounds can be observed. All data obtained also suggest a possible synergism between lichen secondary metabolites, minerals, and canola oil phytoconstituents. Keywords: Usnea barbata (L.) Weber ex F.H. Wigg extract in canola oil; mineral content; usnic acid; phenolic compounds; antioxidant activity; cytotoxicity; BSL-test; rheological properties.
34238Majchrzak-Celińska A., Kleszcz R., Studzińska-Sroka E., Łukaszyk A., Szoszkiewicz A., Stelcer E., Jopek K., Rucinski M., Cielecka-Piontek J. & Krajka-Kuźniak V. (2022): Lichen secondary metabolites inhibit the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in glioblastoma cells and improve the anticancer effects of temozolomide. - Cells, 11: 1084 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11071084.
Lichens are a source of secondary metabolites with significant pharmacological potential. Data regarding their possible application in glioblastoma (GBM) treatment are, however, scarce. The study aimed at analyzing the mechanism of action of six lichen secondary metabolites: atranorin, caperatic acid, physodic acid, squamatic acid, salazinic acid, and lecanoric acid using two- and three-dimensional GBM cell line models. The parallel artificial membrane permeation assay was used to predict the blood-brain barrier penetration ability of the tested compounds. Their cytotoxicity was analyzed using the MTT test on A-172, T98G, and U-138 MG cells. Flow cytometry was applied to the analysis of oxidative stress, cell cycle distribution, and apoptosis, whereas qPCR and microarrays detected the induced transcriptomic changes. Our data confirm the ability of lichen secondary metabolites to cross the blood-brain barrier and exert cytotoxicity against GBM cells. Moreover, the compounds generated oxidative stress, interfered with the cell cycle, and induced apoptosis in T98G cells. They also inhibited the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, and this effect was even stronger in case of a co-treatment with temozolomide. Transcriptomic changes in cancer related genes induced by caperatic acid and temozolomide were the most pronounced. Lichen secondary metabolites, caperatic acid in particular, should be further analyzed as potential anti-GBM agents. Keywords: lichen secondary metabolites; glioblastoma; Wnt/β-catenin pathway; caperatic acid; physodic acid; temozolomide; blood-brain barrier permeability; microarrays.
34237Morillas L., Roales J., Cruz C. & Munzi S. (2022): Non-toxic increases in nitrogen availability can improve the ability of the soil lichen Cladonia rangiferina to cope with environmental changes. - Journal of Fungi, 8: 333 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8040333.
Climate change and atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition on drylands are greatly threatening these especially vulnerable areas. Soil biocrust-forming lichens in drylands can provide early indicators of these disturbances and play a pivotal role, as they contribute to key ecosystem services. In this study, we explored the effects of different long-term water availability regimes simulating climate changes and their interaction with N addition on the physiological response of the soil lichen Cladonia rangiferina. Three sets of this lichen were subjected to control, reduced watering, and reduced watering and N addition (40 kg NH4NO3 ha−1 year−1) treatments for 16 months. Finally, all samples were subjected to daily hydration cycles with N-enriched water at two levels (40 and 80 kg NH4NO3 ha−1 year−1) for 23 days. We found that reduced watering significantly decreased the vitality of this lichen, whereas N addition unexpectedly helped lichens subjected to reduced watering to cope with stress produced by high temperatures. We also found that long-term exposure to N addition contributed to the acclimation to higher N availability. Overall, our data suggest that the interactions between reduced watering and increased N supply and temperature have an important potential to reduce the physiological performance of this soil lichen. Keywords: soil lichens; soil biocrust; global change; climate change; biomonitoring; synergetic effects; reduced watering; aridity; drylands; Mediterranean ecosystems.
34236Winchester V. (2000): Lichenometry in a patagonian wilderness. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 86: 1-5. https://www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2086%20Summer%202000.pdf.
34235Ravera S., Vizzini A., Puglisi M., Assini S., Benesperi R., Bianchi E., Boccardo F., Bottegoni F., von Brackel W., Clericuzio M., Darmostuk V., De Giuseppe A.B., Di Nuzzo L., Dovana F., Galli R., Gheza G., Giordani P., Guttová A., Isocrono D., Malíček J., Martellos S., Mayrhofer H., Nascimbene J., Nimis P.L., Paoli L., Passalacqua N.G., Prosser F., Puntillo D., Seggi L., Sicoli G., Timdal E., Trabucco R. & Vallese C. (2022): Notulae to the Italian flora of algae, bryophytes, fungi and lichens: 13. - Italian Botanist, 13: 1–17. https://doi.org/10.3897/italianbotanist.13.82155.
In this contribution, new data concerning bryophytes, fungi and lichens of the Italian flora are presented. It includes new records and confirmations for the bryophyte genera Bryum, Cryphaea, Didymodon, and Grimmia; the fungal genera Bryostigma, Cercidospora, Conocybe, Cortinarius, Endococcus, Inocybe, Psathyrella, and Sphaerellothecium; the lichen genera Agonimia, Anisomeridium, Bilimbia, Diplotomma, Gyalecta, Huneckia, Lecidella, Lempholemma, Myriolecis, Nephroma, Pannaria, Pycnothelia, Pyrrhospora, Rinodina, Stereocaulon, Thalloidima, Trapelia, Usnea, Variospora, and Verrucaria. Keywords: Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Bryidae.
34234Allen J.L. & Scheidegger C. (2022): Co-occurring Lobaria pulmonaria and Ricasolia quercizans share green algal photobionts: Consequences for conservation. - Bryologist, 125(2): 219–221. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-125.2.219.
34233Torres J.M., Aptroot A. & Spielmann A. (2021): Microliquens no Chaco Brasileiro. - In: Sartori A.L.B., Souza P.R. & Arruda R.C.O. (eds), Chaco: Caracterização, riqueza, diversidade, recursos e interações, p. 190–221, Editora UFMS, Campo Grande. .
[in Portuguese]; chapter in book, microlichens, Chaco, Brazil
34232Chmura D., Żarnowiec J. & Staniaszek-Kik M. (2022): Altitude is a better predictor of the habitat requirements of epixylic bryophytes and lichens than the presence of coarse woody debris in mountain forests: a study in Poland. - Annals of Forest Science, 79: 7 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13595-022-01125-z.
Key message: In order to preserve the continuity of epiphytic and epixylic cryptogamic flora, two things are essential: maintaining the near-natural character of a forest community in relation to the montane zonation and more sustainable forest management in relation to deadwood. Context: Lichens and bryophytes are common species that inhabit dead wood. The relationship between their habitat requirements, which can be expressed by their Ellenberg indicator values and the characteristics of dead logs, are not yet known. Aims: We formulated the hypothesis that altitude is positively correlated with the demands of species for higher light and lower temperature, while the decomposition stage of deadwood is positively correlated with species’ requirements for nutrients and moisture. Moreover, we assumed that there would be differences in the habitat requirements among specific groups of species, i.e., lichens, liverworts, and mosses. Methods: A total of 629 logs that were colonized by bryophytes and lichens were analyzed in terms of their mean Ellenberg indicator values in order to determine whether there is a link between the location, decomposition of logs and the species’ environmental requirements. Results: Altitude correlated with the moisture and nutrients in the habitats of liverworts and mosses and light and soil acidification only in mosses. Conclusions: The obtained results demonstrate that the altitudinal distribution of epixylic species in a montane region is of greater importance than the deadwood properties like decomposition stage and moisture content. Keywords: Ellenberg indicator value system, Hepatics, mosses, Lichens, Elevation, Montane region.
34231Sequeira S., Christy A., Anilkumar A. & Arsha S.M. (2022): Parmotrema sahyadrica (Parmeliaceae): A new species of parmelioid lichen from Wayanad, Southern Western Ghats, India. - Phytotaxa, 539(3): 287–292. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.539.3.8.
A new species of Parmotrema with characteristic yellow medulla is described as new to science. The new species P. sahyadrica has a densely isidiate thallus with 6-10 mm wide lobes and contains entothein and atranorin as major compounds. The material was collected from Wayanad district of Kerala state at an elevation of 750 m. Keywords: Parmelioid, Parmotrema, Kerala, Wayanad, Yellow medulla, Fungi.
34230Phinney N.H., Ellis C.J. & Asplund J. (2022): Trait-based response of lichens to large-scale patterns of climate and forest availability in Norway. - Journal of Biogeography, 49: 286–298. https://doi.org/10.1111/jbi.14297.
Aim: Functional traits offer a window into how organisms are adapted, and might acclimate, to environmental pressures. Despite being important in ecosystem function, lichens are underrepresented in trait-based research; understanding how lichen functional traits vary with climate and habitat availability will be useful in predicting how communities will respond to climate change, for example, in wetter and warmer boreal and arctic ecosystems. Here, we assess the influence of macroclimate and forest availability on the spatial distribution of lichen traits across Norway. Location: Norwegian mainland. Taxon: Lichens. Methods: We used relative trait frequency (RTF) data from LIAS gtm, a database combining trait information from LIAS (A Global Information System for Lichenized and Non-Lichenized Ascomycetes) and GBIF (Global Biodiversity Information Facility) species observations. The 20 traits included photobiont types, growth forms, cortical features and reproductive modes. Nonparametric multiplicative regression (NPMR) models were used to explore the relationships between the environmental predictors of precipitation, temperature and forest availability. Results: All traits showed significant relationships with the three environmental predictors. Photobiont type and reproductive mode traits produced the strongest models and revealed ecologically meaningful biogeographical patterns. Trebouxioid species peaked in colder, drier upland regions, while trentepohlioid lichens displayed an affinity for wetter and warmer climates and had a western and southern distribution. Cyanolichens increased with increasing precipitation and were strongly coastal. Sorediate and isidiate lichens were positively related to temperature, the former also increasing with forest cover. The above responses were consistent with the physiological and habitat requirements of the associated lichens. The remaining traits had weaker responses. Main conclusions: Discrete traits (i.e. photobiont type and reproductive mode) with relatively low ecological plasticity reflect clear functional environmental responses at the large scale. By contrast, growth form and thallus structural features—proxies for continuous variables—are too variable within each given category to show observable distribution patterns. Keywords: growth form, lichenized fungi, photobionts, precipitation, response traits, spatial distribution, temperature.
34229Myrin C. G. (1835): Dagbok under en botanisk resa uti vestliga Norrige 1834 . - Skandia, 6(1): 17–67. .
(p. 25 protologue of Aspilidea myrinii sub ”Parmelia Myrini”)
34228Громакова А.Б. & Дармостук В.В. [Gromakova A.B. & Darmostuk V.V.] (2022): Лишайники та ліхенофільні гриби міста Берегове (Закарпатська область) [Lichens and lichenicolous fungi of Beregove town (Zakarpattia region)]. - Чорноморський ботанічний журнал [Chornomorski Botanical Journal], 17(4) [2021]: 385–394. Doi: 10.32999/ksu1990-553X/2021-17-4-6.
[in Ukrainian with English abstract: ] The article presents data on the study of lichen biota in the city of Beregovo (Zakarpattia region). Totaly, 84 species of lichens and 13 species of lichenicolous fungi were identified. Among them Bryostigma phaeophysciae, Epiphloea byssina, Heterocephalacria physciacearum, Laetisaria lichenicola, Lichenochora obscuroides, Stigmidium fuscatae, Xanthomendoza huculica are reported for the first time to the Zakarpattia region. Calogaya decipiens, Candelariella aurella, C. vitellina, Flavoplaca austrocitrina, and Xanthocarpia crenulatella were quite common on reinforced concrete structures in town. Circinaria contorta, Protoparmeliopsis muralis, Polyozosia dispersa, and Sarcogyne regularis grows on stone fences and house foundations. Botanical reserve “Ardov” is situated in the ourkirts of Beregovo town and represented by a pannonian oak forest with a few silicicolous outcrops. Acarospora fuscata, Circinaria caesiocinerea, Rhizocarpon distinctum, R. geographicum, Trapelia placodioides, Xanthoparmelia conspersa, X. pulla are dominated on the siliceous outcrops on Ardov Mt. Bactrospora dryina is a rare corticolous species which can be an indicator of virgin oak forest was found on Ardov Mt. Only eight terricolous species were found during this research. Among them, Catapyrenium squamulosum, Epiphloea byssina, Peltigera didactyla and Scytinium tenuissimum are rarely reported on soil of hills near a small lake. Cladonia cenotea, C. fimbriata, C. subcariosa, and C. rangiformis were found on the ground between the boulders only on Ardov Mt. Corticolous lichens within town represented by typical nitrophylous species. Keywords: Bactrospora, Epiphloea, Heterocephalacria, new records, Ardov.
34227Ходосовцев О.Є., Ширяєва Д.В., Безсмертна О.О., Вашеняк Ю.А., Кучер О.О., Чусова О.О. & Куземко А.А. [Khodosovtsev A.Ye., Shyriaieva D.V., Bezsmertna O.O., Chusova O.O., Kucher О.О., Vasheniak Iu.A. & Kuzemko A.A.] (2022): Лишайники роду Cladonia P. Browne в трав’яних біотопах України [Lichens of the genus Cladonia P. Browne in grassland habitats of Ukraine]. - Чорноморський ботанічний журнал [Chornomorski Botanical Journal], 17(4) [2021]: 348–384. DOI: 10.32999/ksu1990-553X/2021-17-4-5.
[in Ukrainian with English abstract: ] It has been analyzed the distribution of Cladonia P. Browne in the grassland habitats of Ukraine. A total of 39 lichens were identified in grasslands, of which C. asahinae, С. acuminata, C. decorticata and C. conista were new to Ukraine, C. carneola, С. сervicornis, C. floerkeana, та C. polydactyla, С. portentosa та С. scabriuscula – for Mykolaiv region, C. cervicornis – for Donetsk and Kherson region, C. deformis and C. floerkeana – for Rivne region, C. monomorpha – for Donetsk, Kirovohrad, Mykolaiv, Rivne, Kherson and Chernivtsi regions, C. polycarpoides – for AR Crimea, Dnipropetrovsk, Donetsk and Zaporizhia regions, C. rei – for Vinnytsia and Rivne regions, C. subulata – new species for Volyn regions, C. strepsilis – for Donetsk region, С. peziziformis – for Kherson and Mykolaiv regions, C. carneola – for Kirovohrad region. Certain locations of С. grayi are first time reported for Ukraine from Zakarpattia region. Lichens of the genus Cladonia have been identified in 14 grassland habitats. The largest number (23 species) has been found in cryptogam- and annual-dominated vegetation on siliceous rock outcrops (R12) of the Ukrainian Crystal Shield. Fourteen species have been found in the habitats of inland sanddrift and dune with siliceous grassland (R1Q), which are common in northern Ukraine. Twelve species of the genus have been observed in the sandy grasslands of the Pannonian and Pontic sandy steppes (R11) in southern Ukraine. Ten species of the genus have been found in the habitats of continental dry steppe (R1B). Cladonia mitis has a dominant role in inland sanddrift and dune with siliceous grassland (R1Q), C. foliacea and C. rangiformis in grasslands on siliceous rock outcrops (R12), C. foliacea and C. furcata in the Pannonian and Pontic sandy steppes (R11). For some grassland habitat types Cladonia species have diagnostic value: C. carneola, C. monomorpha, C. polycarpoides, C. strepsilis – for R12, C. cervicornis – for R11, C. rei – for R11 та R12, C. macroceras and C. pleurota – for R41 and R43; C. foliacea, C. furcata, C. rangiformis – for R1B, R11 and R12. A key for identifying 50 species of Cladonia genus has been compiled, which highlights the most characteristic features of species for their identification in the field. Key words: expert system EUNIS–ESy, sandy grasslands, rocky grasslands, dry continental steppes, diagnostic species.
34226Acharius E. (1794): Nya och mindre kända Svenska Lafarter, beskrifne. - Kongl. Vetenskaps Academiens Nya Handlingar / Nova Acta Reg. Acad. Sci. Holmiae, [ser. 2], 15: 81–103, tab., 176–194, tab. .
Umbilicaria, descriptions, Sweden
34225Di Nuzzo L., Benesperi R., Nascimbene J., Papini A., Malaspina P., Incerti G. & Giordani P. (2022): Little time left. Microrefuges may fail in mitigating the effects of climate change on epiphytic lichens. - Science of the Total Environment, 825: 153943 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.153943.
Climate change is already causing considerable reductions in biodiversity in all terrestrial ecosystems. These consequences are expected to be exacerbated in biomes that are particularly exposed to change, such as those in the Mediterranean, and in certain groups of more sensitive organisms, such as epiphytic lichens. These poikylohydric organisms find suitable light and water conditions on trunks under the tree canopy. Despite their small size, epiphytic communities contribute significantly to the functionality of forest ecosystems. In this work, we surveyed epiphytic lichen communities in a Mediterranean area (Sardinia, Italy) and hypothesized that 1) the effect of microclimate on lichens at tree scale is mediated by the functional traits of these organisms and that 2) micro-refuge trees with certain morphological characteristics can mitigate the negative effects of future climate change. Results confirm the first hypothesis, while the second is only partially supported, suggesting that the capability of specific trees to host specific conditions may not be sufficient to maintain the diversity and ecosystem functionality of lichen communities in the Mediterranean. Keywords: Lichens; Stemflow; Throughfall; Microclimate; Trees; Fourth corner analysis.
34224Holien H. & Frisch A. (2022): Microcalicium loraasii, a new calicioid fungus from old-growth boreal forest in Norway. - Graphis Scripta, 34(4): 42–50. https://nhm2.uio.no/botanisk/lav/Graphis/34_4/GS_34_42.pdf.
Microcalicium loraasii is described as new to science from old-growth boreal forest in Grane municipality, Northern Norway. It is characterized by its sessile to short stalked, cylindrical ascomata with a greyish white pruina, non-protruding mazaedium and 0–4-septate ascospores. Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference phylogenetic analyses of mtSSU, nrLSU and nrITS sequence data confirm its placement in Microcalicium. The species is so far only known from the type locality where it was growing on a decorticated snag of Pinus sylvestris. A key to Microcalicium worldwide is provided.
34223Chang R., Cao W., Wang Y., Li S., Li X., Bose T. & Si H.L. (2022): Melanodevriesia, a new genus of endolichenic oleaginous black yeast recovered from the Inner Mongolia Region of China. - Fungal Systematics and Evolution, 9: 1–9. https://doi.org/10.3114/fuse.2022.09.01.
Black yeasts are a phylogenetically diverse group of ascomycetous fungi that may exist in both unicellular and mycelial morphs. This group of fungi contains numerous commercially significant species as well as others whose precise roles are unknown, such as endolichenic species. There is currently a paucity of data about endolichenic black yeast species. To bridge this gap, we surveyed China’s Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in July 2019. Several fungal species associated with diverse lichens were isolated during this survey. Among these were two isolates of a previously unknown species of oleaginous black yeast from Mycosphaerellales. Analyses of morphological and molecular data revealed that these two isolates were closely related to Xenodevriesia strelitziicola (Xenodevriesiaceae), although with significant differences. As a result, we established the genus Melanodevriesia gen. nov. to describe this previously unknown species, Melanodevriesia melanelixiae sp. nov. In addition, we used Transmission Electron Microscopy to visualise the intracellular oil bodies metabolised by this fungus in its unicellular state. The black yeast species identified in this study may have a wide range of commercial applications. More research is needed to determine the chemical composition of the microbial oil synthesized by this fungus and whether it has commercial value. Keywords: Endolichenic fungi; Mycosphaerellales; Xenodevriesiaceae; intracellular oil bodies; new taxon.
34222Konoreva L. & Chesnokov S. (2021): Lichens of the Innvika Bay, Prins Oscars Land (Nordaustlandet, Svalbard). - Czech Polar Reports, 11(2): 253–269. DOI: 10.5817/CPR2021-2-17.
The paper presents a list of lichens for the Innvika Bay, which includes 157 lichenized and 2 lichenicolous fungi. Alectoria gowardii and Peltigera elisabethae are new to Svalbard. Furthermore, 36 other species were found new to Nordaustlandet. Twenty-seven species are rare on Svalbard, among them Aspilidea myrinii, Candelariella borealis, Gyalecta erythrozona, Miriquidica deusta, Rhizocarpon viridiatrum (reported for the second time), and Aspicilia cinerea,Cetraria nigricans, Cladonia arbuscula, Cystocoleus ebeneus, Lecidea ecrustacea, Peltigera frippii, Rhizocarpon eupetraeoides, Rinodina terrestris, Stereocaulon cumulatum, Toninia squalida, Verrucaria hydrela. Localities, substrates and distribution in Svalbard are given for each species. For rare and extremely rare species, all known locations are given. For some species, differences from closely related species are given. Key words: Arctic, lichen biota, new records, Norway, rare species.
34221Kahraman M. & Halıcı M.G. (2021): Buellia epigaea (Pers.) Tuck, a new record of lichenized fungus species for Antarctica. - Czech Polar Reports, 11(1): 9–15. DOI: 10.5817/CPR2021-1-2.
Buellia epigaea, a terricolous lichenized fungal species known from numerous localities in Northern Hemisphere, but only from Australia in Southern Hemisphere, is reported from Antarctica for the first time. Here we provide morphological, anatomical, and molecular characteristics (nrITS) of this species. Besides, the differences of B. epigaea with morphologically, ecologically or phylogenetically related species are discussed. Key words: Southern Hemisphere, lichens, Caliciaceae, Antarctic Peninsula, Buellia epigaea.
34220Steinová J., Holien H., Košuthová A. & Škaloud P. (2022): An exception to the rule? Could photobiont identity be a better predictor of lichen phenotype than mycobiont identity?. - Journal of Fungi, 8(3): 275 [16 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8030275 .
With rare exceptions, the shape and appearance of lichen thalli are determined by the fungal partner; thus, mycobiont identity is normally used for lichen identification. However, it has repeatedly been shown in recent decades that phenotypic data often does not correspond with fungal gene evolution. Here, we report such a case in a three-species complex of red-fruited Cladonia lichens, two of which clearly differ morphologically, chemically, ecologically and in distribution range. We analysed 64 specimens of C. bellidiflora, C. polydactyla and C. umbricola, mainly collected in Europe, using five variable mycobiont-specific and two photobiont-specific molecular markers. All mycobiont markers exhibited very low variability and failed to separate the species. In comparison, photobiont identity corresponded better with lichen phenotype and separated esorediate C. bellidiflora from the two sorediate taxa. These results can be interpreted either as an unusual case of lichen photomorphs or as an example of recent speciation, in which phenotypic differentiation precedes the separation of the molecular markers. We hypothesise that association with different photobionts, which is probably related to habitat differentiation, may have triggered speciation in the mycobiont species. Keywords: Asterochloris; barcoding; Cladonia; lichens; speciation; species delimitation.
34219Halıcı M.G., Osmanoğlu O.M. & Kahraman M. (2020): A new record of lichenized fungus species for Antarctica: Peltigera castanea Goward, Goffinet & Miądl.. - Czech Polar Reports, 10(1): 50–58. https://www.sci.muni.cz/CPR/19cislo/Halici_web.pdf.
As a result of our studies aiming to determine the lichen mycota of the James Ross Island (Antarctic Peninsula), we report Peltigera castanea, a species in the P. didactyla complex from Antarctica and Southern Hemisphere for the first time. Collections were evaluated using morphological, anatomical and molecular characteristics (nrITS). Peltigera castanea has foliose, 4-6 cm lobate thallus; upper surface dark brown to chestnut brown, weakly tomentose (especially in the margins of the lobes) and sorediate. The morphological and ecological variations of this species are discussed in this paper. Key words: Antarctica, first report, lichens, biodiversity, James Ross Island.
34218Monteiro J.S., Sotão H.M.P., Cáceres M.E.S., Lücking R. & Gutiérrez A.H. (2018): Checklist dos fungos da Floresta Nacional de Caxiuanã, Pará, Brasil. I. Fungos conidiais e liquenizados. - Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi. Ciências Naturais, 13(2): 221–245. .
[in Poruguese with English abstract: ] The objectives of this study are to summarize and present a checklist of species of conidial and lichenized fungi from the Caxiuanã National Forest (FLONA) in the state of Pará, Brazil. Data from this checklist were obtained from herbarium collections and the literature, resulting from field expeditions carried out at FLONA of Caxiuanã between 1995 and 2013. These groups of fungi are mostly in the phylum Ascomycota. A total of 233 species were identified for Caxiuanã, being 56 species of conidial fungi and 177 of lichenized fungi. The species Septomyrothecium uniseptatum Matsush. and Pyrenidium zamiae (Müll. Arg.) Matzer represent the first records for Brazil. New records for Pará and FLONA of Caxiuanã are presented. The geographical distribution in Brazil is given for all species. These data demonstrate the importance of studies on the mycobiota of areas with scant or nonexistent data. Keywords: Ascomycota. Hyphomycetes. Lichens. Amazon.
34217Apostolova I., Sopotlieva D., Valcheva M., Ganeva A., Shivarov V., Velev N., Vassilev K.,Terziyska T. & Nekhrizov G. (2022): First survey of the vascular and cryptogam flora on Bulgaria’s ancient mounds. - Plants, 11(5): 705 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11050705.
This work represents the first study of the floristic diversity on Bulgaria’s ancient mounds. The objective of this research was to assess the importance of the mounds for the preservation of the native vascular and cryptogam flora. Our sampling design included 111 ancient mounds distributed throughout the country. We recorded a total of 1059 vascular plants, 58 bryophytes and 61 lichen taxa. Despite their small area, the mounds were shown to preserve nearly a quarter of the Bulgarian flora. The vegetation cover on the mounds included 61% perennials indicating a long-term persistence and stability. The majority (98%) of the established vascular plants were native species. Although the conservation significance of the vascular plant species were not common, we recorded 2 critically endangered, 9 endangered and 14 Balkan endemics during the present study. The lichen Arthopyrenia salicis was recorded for the first time in Bulgaria and a new locality of the rare bryophyte Ceratodon conicus was discovered. The established compositional difference between plots from the northern and southern slopes of the mounds (88.95%) is a testament to the high local habitat diversity. The prevalence of species characteristic for Festuco-Brometea suggests that the mounds preserve fragments of native grasslands and steppes. The variation in cover of agricultural and other human modified areas in the mounds’ immediate surroundings did not substantially affect their species richness. We argue that the ancient mounds should be taken into consideration in future green space planning. Keywords: bryophytes; generalist plants; grassland specialists; historical monuments; invasive alien plants; kurgans; lichens; native plants.
34216Soto-Correa J.C., Saldaña-Vega A., Cambrón-Sandoval V.H., Concostrina-Zubiri L. & Gómez-Romero M. (2022): Diversity of saxicolous lichens along an aridity gradient in central México. - Phyton - International Journal of Experimental Botany, 91(4): 827–840. DOI: 10.32604/phyton.2022.017929.
Lichens are symbiotic organisms that comprise a fungus and a photosynthetic partner wich are recognized as a good indicator of climate change. However, our understanding of how aridity affects the diversity of saxicolous lichens in drylands is still limited. To evaluate the relationship between saxicolous lichen diversity and aridity in a central México dryland, a geographical transect was established of 100 km to build an aridity gradient in the semiarid zone of the State of Querétaro, Mexico, comprising ten sampling sites with a 10 km separation. Species richness, abundance and diversity of soil lichen species were recorded using two sampling methods: the quadrat- intercept and the line-intercept method, to compare their performance in assessing soil lichen diversity in drylands. The number of species and Shannon diversity of saxicolous lichens were higher at intermediate values of the aridity index (AI = 0.10–0.34). Quadrat intercept and point intercept methods gave quite similar results, which means that the selected method does not influence the results in a significant way. This study confirms the role of saxicolous lichens as climate change indicators and reveals the importance of the sampling method selection in the evaluation of different parameters of soil lichen diversity in drylands. Keywords: Climate change; drylands; ecological indicators; environmental stress; precipitation; temperature.
34215Nelsen M.P., Leavitt S.D., Heller K., Muggia L. & Lumbsch H.T. (2022): Contrasting patterns of climatic niche divergence in Trebouxia—A clade of lichen-forming algae. - Frontiers in Microbiology, 13: 791546 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2022.791546.
Lichen associations are overwhelmingly supported by carbon produced by photosynthetic algal symbionts. These algae have diversified to occupy nearly all climates and continents; however, we have a limited understanding of how their climatic niches have evolved through time. Here we extend previous work and ask whether phylogenetic signal in, and the evolution of, climatic niche, varies across climatic variables, phylogenetic scales, and among algal lineages in Trebouxia—the most common genus of lichen-forming algae. Our analyses reveal heterogeneous levels of phylogenetic signal across variables, and that contrasting models of evolution underlie the evolution of climatic niche divergence. Together these analyses demonstrate the variable processes responsible for shaping climatic tolerance in Trebouxia, and provide a framework within which to better understand potential responses to climate changeassociated perturbations. Such predictions reveal a disturbing trend in which the pace at which modern climate change is proceeding will vastly exceed the rate at which Trebouxia climatic niches have previously evolved. Keywords: climate, niche, diversification, lichen, photobiont, Trebouxia.
34214Papp B., Erzberger P., Lőkös L., Szurdoki E., Németh C., Buczkó K., Höhn M., Aszalósné Balogh R., Baráth K., Matus G., Pifkó D. & Farkas E. (2020): Taxonomical and chorological notes 12 (126–136). - Studia Botanica Hungarica, 51(1): 77–98. DOI: 10.17110/StudBot.2020.51.1.77.
The present part of the series provides new records of 11 taxa, among them fi ve lichenforming fungi and six bryophytes. One lichen-forming fungus was discovered as new species in Hungary (Parmeliella triptophylla), however it was collected 115 years ago, this species should be considered as an extinct species in Hungary. One bryohyte is newly reported from Hungary (Brachytheciastrum olympicum). The occurrence of one lichen-forming fungus (Parmelia submontana) and two bryophyte species (Palustriella falcata, Ptychostomum pseudotriquetrum var. bimum) was confi rmed in Hungary. Amendments to the known distribution of lichen-forming fungi species are reported from Hungary (Cladonia mitis) and Romania (Multiclavula mucida, Xanthoparmelia protomatrae) and three bryophytes from Hungary are also reported (Callicladium haldanianum, Codonoblepharon forsteri, Ephemerum cohaerens). Key words: Amblystegiaceae, Brachytheciaceae, Bryaceae, bryophyte, Callicladiaceae, Cladoniaceae, Clavulina ceae, Hungary, lichen-forming fungi, Orthotrichaceae, Pannariaceae, Parmeliaceae, Pottiaceae, Romania.
34213Nayaka S. (2020): Additions to the bibliography of Indian lichens in the years 2018 and 2019. - Cryptogam Biodiversity and Assessment, 4(2): 7–13. DOI: 10.21756/cab.v4i2.2.
This communication is in continuation with “Bibliography to the Indian lichens from the year 2010 onwards” published in a special volume of this journal by Joseph et al. (2018). Here a total of 146 research articles, books and chapters published during the years 2018 and 2019 are listed. The list also includes some of the references missing in the previous list. It is interesting to note that the range of publications during this period included all aspects of lichenology, starting from taxonomy to bioprospecting and lichenized fungi to endolichen and lichenicolous fungi. The missing publications, if any, in this list will be included in the forthcoming volume of the journal. Keywords: Bioprospecting, Endolichens, Lichenicolous fungi, Lichenized fungi, Literature survey, Taxonomy.
34212James P.W. (1982): Key to Parmelia in Great Britain. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 51: 27-36. .
Parmelia, British Isles, key, many species
34211Vitikainen O. (1982): A key to Peltigera in Great Britain. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 50: 28-36. .
Peltigera, British Isles, key, 18 taxa of Peltigera
34210Holien H. & Frisch A. (2022): Perigrapha superveniens (Nyl.) Hafellner, a lichenicolous fungus new to Fennoscandia from Norway. - Graphis Scripta, 34(3): 36–41. https://nhm2.uio.no/botanisk/lav/Graphis/34_3/GS_34_36.pdf.
The lichenicolous fungus Perigrapha superveniens (Nyl.) Hafellner is reported from Norway for the first time from three separate localities. It is a gall inducing obligate parasitic fungus on Parmelia sulcata and seems to prefer highly oceanic areas. A brief description of the species and notes on its ecology and distribution are provided.
34209Adrees M., Habib K. & Khalid A.N. (2022): Bacidia suffusa (Fr.) A. Schneider (Ramalinaceae), an addition to the lichen biota of Pakistan confirmed by molecular phylogeny. - Pakistan Journal of Botany, 54(2): 731–736. http://dx.doi.org/10.30848/PJB2022-2(32).
Bacidia suffusa, a member of lichenized family Ramalinaceae is reported on the bark of Alnus nitida, from Himalayan moist temperate forest of Pakistan, based on critical morpho-anatomical and ITS-based phylogenetic analysis. Its occurrence here indicates that it is the first report of this lichen from Pakistan and South East Asia as well. The taxonomic characters of the taxon are given, along with an ITS-based phylogenetic tree and notes on its ecology and distribution. Key words: Himalaya, Koza Gali, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, New record.
34208Coppins B.J. (1984): Key to crustose pyrenocarpous lichens on limestone and associated substrata (excluding aquatic and marine habitats). - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 54: 36-45. .
pyrenocarpous, key, limestone, british isles, own, Many figures. Preliminary key to British taxa with helpful drawings illustrating important characteristics of pyrenocarp reproductive structures
34207Hale M.E. (1982): Lichens of the old Antarctic deserts. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 51: 1-3. .
34206Paoli L., Fačkovcová Z., Lackovičová A. & Guttová A. (2021): Air pollution in Slovakia (Central Europe): a story told by lichens (1960–2020). - Biologia, 76: 3235–3255. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11756-021-00909-4.
Researches and applied lichenological studies carried out in Slovakia were reviewed, with reference to the period 1960–2020. Field studies and reviews devoted to the causal relation between environmental pollution and lichens are presented, encompassing the use of biodiversity and bioaccumulation techniques as well as ecophysiological parameters in native and transplanted lichens. The review includes pioneering up to recent monitoring studies of air pollution effects in urban and industrial areas, monitoring changes in species distribution between the nineteenth and twentieth centuries due to atmospheric pollution and habitat alteration, the retreat of sensitive species (with a focus on Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm.), as well as recent regional and large-scale biomonitoring in forests. Beside urban pollution, the topics cover copper and mining activities, mercury pollution, magnesite and aluminium production, steel and cement industry. Finally, also indoor biomonitoring has been considered. Keywords Bioaccumulation . Biomonitoring . Biodiversity . Heavy metals . Sulfur dioxide . Western Carpathians.
34205Ohmura Y., Sugimoto M., Yakovchenko L. & Davydov E.A. (2022): Additional species and ITS rDNA data for the lichen mycota of the Imperial Palace Grounds, Tokyo, Japan. - Bulletin of the National Museum of Nature and Science. Series B, Botany [Tokyo], 48(1): 1–6. DOI: 10.50826/bnmnsbot.48..
The lichen mycota of the Imperial Palace Grounds, Tokyo, Japan was revised in the light of ITS rDNA sequences and updated knowledge. The following, formerly unidentified or misidentified species were revealed: Candelaria asiatica (as ‘C. concolor’) and Flavoplaca flavocitrina (as ‘Caloplaca aff. citrina’) are new to Japan, and Cladonia rei (as ‘C. ramulosa’), Pertusaria flavicans, Phaeographis pruinosa, and Phaeophyscia limbata (as ‘P. hispidula’) are new to the Imperial Palace Grounds. The ITS rDNA sequences for 31 species were successfully obtained from 81 specimens as well as 12 specimens collected from other places outside of the Imperial Palace Grounds. The BLAST search with registered sequences in GenBank was performed for each sample. Keywords: Ascomycota, Asia, BLAST, DNA barcoding, lichenized fungi, urban area.
34204Chen P., Liu L., Xie C. & Zhang L. (2022): Four new species of Herpothallon (Arthoniaceae, Arthoniales, Arthoniomycetes, Ascomycota) from China. - Phytotaxa, 536(1): 83–91. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.536.1.5 .
Four new species of Herpothallon: H. capilliferum, H. polyisidiatum, H. subglobosum and H. viridi-isidiatum are described from southern China. Detailed taxonomic descriptions, ecological and chemical characters, and illustrations are provided for the new species. A key to all known Chinese Herpothallon species is also provided. Keywords: Arthoniaceae, East Asia, lichenized fungi, taxonomy, lichens.
34203Yamano Y. & Rakotondraibe H.L. (2022): Understanding the biosynthesis of paxisterol in lichen-derived Penicillium aurantiacobrunneum for production of fluorinated derivatives. - Molecules, 27(5): 1641 [7 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27051641.
The U.S. endemic lichen (Niebla homalea)-derived Penicillium aurantiacobrunneum produced a cytotoxic paxisterol derivative named auransterol (2) and epi-citreoviridin (6). Feeding assay using 13C1-labelled sodium acetate not only produced C-13-labelled paxisterol but also confirmed the biosynthetic origin of the compound. The fluorination of bioactive compounds is known to improve pharmacological and pharmacokinetic effects. Our attempt to incorporate the fluorine atom in paxisterol and its derivatives using the fluorinated precursor sodium monofluoroacetate resulted in the isolation of 7-monofluoroacetyl paxisterol (7). The performed culture experiment, as well as the isolation and structure elucidation of the new fluorinated paxisterol, is discussed herein. Keywords: lichen; Penicillium; fluorinated metabolite; antiproliferative.
34202Kondratyuk S.Y. & Mosyakin S.L. (2022): Wilketalia S.Y.Kondr., a new name for Andina Wilk, Pabijan & Lücking, nom. illeg. (Teloschistaceae, lichenized Ascomycota). - Ukrainian Botanical Journal, 79(1): 3–5. https://doi.org/10.15407/ukrbotj79.01.003.
A new generic name, Wilketalia S.Y.Kondr. (nom. nov.; Teloschistaceae, lichenized Ascomycota), is published to replace the name Andina Wilk, Pabijan & Lücking (nom. illeg.), which is an illegitimate later homonym of Andina J.A.Jiménez & M.J.Cano (Pottiaceae, Bryophyta) and Andinia (Luer) Luer (Orchidaceae). A new species-rank combination Wilketalia citrinoides (Wilk & Lücking) S.Y.Kondr. (Andina citrinoides Wilk & Lücking) is also validated. Brief nomenclatural comments are provided. Keywords: Andina, homonymy, new name, nomenclature, taxonomy, Teloschistaceae, Wilketalia.
34201Breuss O. & Türk R. (2021): Involucropyrenium altimontanum (Verrucariaceae) ‒ eine neue Flechtenart aus den Hohen Tauern (Österreich). - Österreichische Zeitschrift für Pilzkunde, 29: 171–175. https://www.univie.ac.at/oemykges/wp-content/uploads/2021/11/OZP29_Breuss_Tuerk_Hohe_Tauern.pdf.
Involucropyrenium altimontanum is described as new from an alpine site in the National Park Hohe Tauern in the Austrian Alps, where it was found growing on soil and plant debris. It is characterized by a small squamulous thallus, perithecia with an involucrellum that completely encircles the exciple and small ellipsoidal ascospores. Key words: Lichenized Ascomycota, Verrucariaceae, Involucropyrenium, taxonomy, sp. nov., 1 new species. ‒ Alpine lichens, mycoflora of Austria.
34200Peer A. & Breuss O. (2021): Die Flechten des Hernalser Friedhofs (Wien, Österreich) – Eine qualitative Erhebung der Flechtenflora. - Österreichische Zeitschrift für Pilzkunde, 29: 155–170. https://www.univie.ac.at/oemykges/wp-content/uploads/2021/11/OZP29_Othmar_Hernals.pdf.
The results of an investigation on the lichen flora of a cemetery (cemetary of Hernals) in the city of Vienna, Austria, are presented. The cemetary was therefore divided in nine sections and a comparison of the lichen biota of these sections is provided. Altogether 77 lichen species are listed; 22 lichen species are recorded for the first time from Vienna, two species (Flavoparmelia soredians und Verrucaria nigrofusca) are additions to the known lichen biota of Austria. The results are compared with a species list from another graveyard (Zentralfriedhof) in Vienna. Key words: Lichenized Ascomycota, urban lichens, new records. – Mycobiota of Vienna, Austria.
34199Breuss O. (2021): Neue Funde pyrenocarper Flechten (lichenisierte Ascomycota, Verrucariaceae). - Österreichische Zeitschrift für Pilzkunde, 29: 117–121. https://www.univie.ac.at/oemykges/wp-content/uploads/2021/08/OZP29_Breuss_Neue.pdf.
First records of five rare or little-known lichen species are presented. Verrucaria illinoisensis and V. trabicola are new to Germany; Verrucaria olivascens is reported for the first time from North America, and Placidium yoshimurae is new to Georgia. A second record for Austria of Involucropyrenium romeanum is reported. Short notes on diagnostic features and distributions of the species are provided. Key words: Pyrenocarpous lichens, Verrucariales. – First records, noteworthy lichens.
34198Breuss O. & Lanner D. (2021): Eine qualitative Aufnahme von Flechten am Donaukanal in Wien (Österreich). - Österreichische Zeitschrift für Pilzkunde, 29: 69–83. https://www.univie.ac.at/oemykges/wp-content/uploads/2021/07/OZP29c_Breuss_Lanner.pdf.
40 lichen species are listed for the embankment of the Donaukanal, a watercourse through the city of Vienna, Austria. Five lichens are recorded for the first time from Vienna. Key words: Lichenized Ascomycota, urban lichens, new records. – Mycobiota of Vienna, Austria.
34197Breuss O. (2020): Key to the species of Agonimia (lichenised Ascomycota, Verrucariaceae). - Österreichische Zeitschrift für Pilzkunde, 28: 69–74. https://www.univie.ac.at/oemykges/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/Breuss_OZP28.pdf.
A key to the 24 Agonimia species presently known is provided. A short survey of relevant literature on the genus and its affinities is added. Key words: Pyrenocarpous lichens, Verrucariales, Agonimia, Agonimiella, Flakea. – Taxonomy, key.
34196McCune B., Schultz M., Fennell T., Passo A. & Rodriguez J.M. (2022): A new endemic, Pannaria oregonensis, replaces two misapplied names in the Pacific Northwest of North America. - Bryologist, 125(1): 170–185. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-125.1.170.
We evaluated the taxonomic status of specimens representing two listed rare species of Pannaria in the Pacific Northwest, P. rubiginosa and P. rubiginella, based on DNA sequences of recently collected samples. We combined those data with new sequences for other Pannaria species in North America and South America as well as all available sequences from the P. rubiginosa and P. lurida groups plus closely related P. hookeri, based on results from initial analyses. Historically, P. rubiginosa and P. rubiginella have been separated in the Pacific Northwest based on the paraphenylenediamine (P) reaction of the cortex versus the medulla. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on ITS sequences demonstrated that both chemotypes belong to a single well-supported clade, and that it belongs to neither P. rubiginosa nor P. rubiginella. Instead, the Pacific Northwest material appears to belong to an undescribed species very similar morphologically to P. rubiginosa, but genetically and geographically distinct from that species and with smaller spores. We describe this new species as Pannaria oregonensis, assigning all of the material from the Pacific Northwest to this taxon, regardless of the location of the Pþreaction. This conclusion is supported by phylogenetic analysis of co-occurring populations of different chemotypes. We recommend removing P. rubiginella from the North American checklist. We also provide a revised key to the North American species of Pannaria, based on our current understanding. Furthermore, based on new sampling of Pannaria species from North and South America, we show a need for revision of the isidiate species of Pannaria, in particular P. tavaresii in the broad sense. KEYWORDS. Endangered species, ITS barcode, lichen systematics, lichenized fungi, Pannariaceae, South America, taxonomy.
34195Stone D.F. & McCune B. (2022): Two new hairy Leptogium (Collemataceae) species from western North America. - Bryologist, 125(1): 157–169. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-125.1.157.
Leptogium bacatum is described as a new species with spherical-celled (moniliform) hairs and Leptogium umpquaense has matted, tangled hairs on the upper surface. Both are in the so-called section Mallotium. The species differ in morphology and DNA sequences from others in this group. We supplement existing GenBank data with new ITS and nuLSU sequences for 12 Leptogium specimens from Arizona, California, Mexico, New Mexico, Oregon, Nova Scotia and Ontario. Leptogium bacatum is distinguished by a medium-sized thallus, lobes to 6 mm wide, with long, distinct longitudinal wrinkles so that lobes look stretched, a lower surface covered with short (to 40 lm), fine, spherical-celled tomentum, numerous laminal and marginal lobules and granular to cylindrical isidia. The known range is northern California and New Mexico. Leptogium umpquaense has matted, tangled white hairs on the upper and lower surfaces and produces prolific coralloid to flattened isidia in dense groups along the margins, giving the thallus the look of a cauliflower. We provide a key to the Leptogium species known from western North America. Keywords: Lichen systematics, section Mallotium, cyanolichen, DNA sequences, western North America, moniliform hairs, matted hairs.
34194Lendemer J.C. (2022): Recent literature on lichens—264. - Bryologist, 125(1): 205–214. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-125.1.205.
34193Jacobsen P. (1987): Liste der in Schleswig-Holstein gefundenen Flechtenarten. - Kieler Notizen zur Pflanzenkunde, 19: 45–84. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Kieler-Notizen-zur-Pflanzenkunde_19_0045-0084.pdf.
34192Walker F.J. & James P.W. (1980): A revised guide to microchemical techniques for the identification of lichen products. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 46 (supplement): 13-29. https://www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2046%20May%201980.pdf.
chemistry, technique, tlc, review, 1 table, 1 appendix, Excellent introductory account of most aspects of chemical testing for lichens including spot tests, crystal tests and thin-layer chromatography
34191Moxham T.H. (1980): Lichens and perfume manufacture. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 47: 44593. https://www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/files/bulletins/BLS%20Bulletin%2047%20December%201980.pdf.
perfume, uses,1 figure, Brief general article on the present status of this use of lichens
34190Furmanek Ł., Czarnota P. & Seaward M.R.D. (2022): The efect of lichen secondary metabolites on Aspergillus fungi. - Archives of Microbiology, 204: 100 [34 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00203-021-02649-0.
A systematic review of literature data on the antifungal potential of extracted lichen compounds and individual secondary metabolites against mold species of the genus Aspergillus is provided. Crude extracts from 49 epiphytic, 16 epigeic and 22 epilithic species of lichens and 44 secondary metabolites against 10 species, Aspergillus candidus, A. favus, A. fumigatus, A. nidulans, A. niger, A. ochraceus, A. parasiticus, A. restrictus, A. stellatus and A. ustus, were analysed. Several measuring techniques were employed for such analyses. Lichen substances were extracted with alcoholic and other organic solvents mainly using the Soxhlet apparatus. Among the three most-studied mold species, the results showed that the crude extracts from the thalli of the lichens Cladonia foliacea, Hypotrachyna cirrhata, Leucodermia leucomelos, Platismatia glauca and Pseudevernia furfuracea against Aspergillus favus, from C. foliacea, Nephroma arcticum and Parmelia sulcata against A. fumigatus and from Evernia prunastri, Hypogymnia physodes, Umbilicaria cylindrica and Variospora dolomiticola against A. niger have the greatest antifungal potential. The lichen secondary metabolites showed a higher inhibitory potential, e.g. protolichesterinic acid against A. favus, lecanoric acid against A. fumigatus and orsellinic acid against A. niger; the other seven species of Aspergillus have been poorly studied and require further investigation. A comparison of the inhibitory potential of the tested mixtures of lichen substances and their secondary metabolites shows that they can compete with commonly used antifungal substances, such as ketoconazole and clotrimazole against A. favus, A. nidulans, A. niger and A. parasiticus and fuconazole in the case of A. fumigatus. Keywords: Lichen extracts · Aspergillus · Inhibition · Antifungal potential · Allelopathy.
34189Soofi M., Sharma S., Safaei-Mahroo B., Sohrabi M., Organli M.G. & Waltert M. (2022): Lichens and animal camouflage: some observations from central Asian ecoregions. - Journal of Threatened Taxa, 14(2): 20672–20676. https://doi.org/10.11609/jot.7558.14.2.20672-20676.
Camouflage is a fitness-relevant trait that supports survival and fosters evolutionary adaptation by which animals match their body pattern to a background setting. Lichens are among the most common of these backgrounds that several animal species use for camouflage. Lichens are omnipresent and grow in wide arrays of colorations and compositions. Their composition and phenotypic diversity might facilitate cryptic coloration and habitat matching by various animal species. Here, we describe the role of lichens in providing camouflage to various animal species in central Asian and Caucasus mountain ecoregions, which are categorized as global biodiversity hotspots. Despite multiple ecological studies, no information is available on the role of this regions‘ lichen diversity in providing animal camouflage. Casual field observations of lichen camouflage are reported for four (one mammal and three reptile) species: the Persian Leopard’s Panthera pardus saxicolor body coat seems to closely match the colors and patterns of saxicolous lichens (Acarospora sp. and Circinaria sp.) in their habitat. A similar background matching pattern was observed in both morphs of the Caucasian Rock Agama Paralaudakia caucasiaupon crustose lichens: Caloplaca spp., Circinaria spp., and the Radde’s Rock Lizard Darevskia raddei to the crustose lichens Acarosporasp. and Caloplaca sp. Likewise, the Horny-scaled Agama’s Trapelus ruderatus grey matches with the color of multiple lichens (Lecanoraspp., Circinaria spp., Protoparmeliopsis spp., Rinodina spp., and Anaptychia spp.). Our observations preliminarily suggest that lichens play an important role for species of different trophic levels, ensuring adaptation and survival through camouflage. We call for more field-based empirical and experimental studies in various terrestrial ecosystems in other parts of the world to test the role of lichens in local adaption and evolutionary plasticity of regional species.Keywords: Caucasus, climate change, cryptic coloration, dry ecosystems, Irano-Anatolian, mammals, plasticity, phenotypic traits, reptiles, saxicolous.
34188Guttová A. & Nimis P.L. (2021): The genus Solenopsora (Lichenized Ascomycetes, Leprocaulaceae) in Italy. - Flora Mediterranea, 31 (Special Issue): 55–65. https://doi.org/10.7320/FlMedit31SI.055.
This paper includes a dichotomous key, descriptions and predictive distributional maps for all of the 9 infrageneric taxa of the lichen genus Solenopsora (Leprocaulaceae) known to occur in Italy. The genus includes obligatory saxicolous lichens with the main centre of diversity in the Mediterranean, Macaronesian, and Madrean biogeographical regions. All taxa have their optima below the montane belt. Most of them have a distinctly Thyrrenian-Mediterranen distribution pattern in Italy, being most frequent in areas with a mild, suboceanic climate. Key words: Biogeography, dichotomous key, flora, lichens, Southern Europe.
34187Gueidan C. & Li L. (2022): A long-read amplicon approach to scaling up the metabarcoding of lichen herbarium specimens. - MycoKeys, 86: 195–212. https://doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.86.77431.
Reference sequence databases are critical to the accurate detection and identification of fungi in the environment. As repositories of large numbers of well-curated specimens, herbaria and fungal culture collections have the material resources to generate sequence data for large number of taxa, and could therefore allow filling taxonomic gaps often present in reference sequence databases. Financial resources to do that are however often lacking, so that recent efforts have focused on decreasing sequencing cost by increasing the number of multiplexed samples per sequencing run while maintaining high sequence quality. Following a previous study that aimed at decreasing sequencing cost for lichen specimens by generating fungal ITS barcodes for 96 specimens using PacBio amplicon sequencing, we present a method that further decreases lichen specimen metabarcoding costs. A total of 384 mixed DNA extracts obtained from lichen herbarium specimens, mostly from the four genera Buellia, Catillaria, Endocarpon and Parmotrema, were used to generate new fungal ITS sequences using a Sequel I sequencing platform and the PacBio M13 barcoded primers. The average success rate across all taxa was high (86.5%), with particularly high rates for the crustose saxicolous taxa (Buellia, Catillaria and others; 93.3%) and the terricolous squamulose taxa (Endocarpon and others; 96.5%). On the other hand, the success rate for the foliose genus Parmotrema was lower (60.4%). With this taxon sampling, greater specimen age did not appear to impact sequencing success. In fact, the 1966–1980 collection date category showed the highest success rate (97.3%). Compared to the previous study, the abundance-based sequence denoising method showed some limitations, but the cost of generating ITS barcodes was further decreased thanks to the higher multiplexing level. In addition to contributing new ITS barcodes for specimens of four interesting lichen genera, this study further highlights the potential and challenges of using new sequencing technologies on collection specimens to generate DNA sequences for reference databases. Keywords: Collection specimens, ITS barcode, lichenised fungi, PacBio amplicon sequencing.
34186Lee B.G. & Hur J.-S. (2022): Two new Rinodina lichens from South Korea, with an updated key to the species of Rinodina in the far eastern Asia. - MycoKeys, 87: 159–182. https://doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.87.71524.
Rinodina salicis Lee & Hur and Rinodina zeorina Lee & Hur are described as new lichen-forming fungi from forested wetlands or a humid forest in South Korea. Rinodina salicis is distinguishable from Rinodina excrescens Vain., the most similar species, by its olive-gray thallus with smaller areoles without having blastidia, contiguous apothecia, non-pruinose discs, paler disc color, wider ascospores in the Pachysporaria type II, and the absence of secondary metabolites. Rinodina zeorina differs from Rinodina hypobadia Sheard by areolate and brownish thallus, non-pruinose apothecia, colorless and wider parathecium, narrower paraphyses with non-pigmented and unswollen tips, longer and narrower ascospores with angular to globose lumina, and the absence of pannarin. Molecular analyses employing internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences strongly support the two new species to be unique in the genus Rinodina. An updated key is provided to assist in the identification of all 63 taxa in Rinodina of the far eastern Asia. Keywords: Biodiversity, corticolous, phylogeny, Physciaceae, taxonomy.
34185Jia Z.-F., Li M., Fu Y.-R. & Pu J. (2021): Notes on lichenized fungi of chroodiscoid Thelotremataceae from China. - Mycotaxon, 136(4): 831–840. https://doi.org/10.5248/136.831.
Chinese collections representing eleven species in four genera of lichenized chroodiscoid Thelotremataceae are reviewed taxonomically. Four species—Astrochapsa platycarpella, Chapsa patens, C. diploschistoides, C. pulchra—are reported as new records for China. Each new record is described, illustrated, and discussed in detail. Descriptions and remarks are also provided for the other seven species previously reported from China—Astrochapsa mirabilis, Chapsa indica, C. leprocarpa, Chroodiscus argillaceus, Reimnitzia santensis, Rhabdodiscus asiaticus, and Xalocoa ocellata. Keywords: Graphidales, Ostropomycetidae, Lecanoromycetes.
34184Zhang J., Xue X., Liu L., Qiu X. & Ren Q. (2021): Lepra yunlingensis and L. taiwanensis spp. nov. from China. - Mycotaxon, 136(4): 779–784. https://doi.org/10.5248/136.779.
Two new species of Lepra are described from China: L. yunlingensis is characterized by its 2-spored asci and the presence of norstictic and cryptostictic acids; L. taiwanensis is characterized by its 1-spored asci and the presence of barbatic acid. Key words—lichenized fungi, Pertusaria, Pertusariaceae, Pertusariales, taxonomy.
34183Guzmán-Guillermo J. & Llarena-Hernández R.C. (2021): Architrypethelium barrerae sp. nov. from a cloud forest in Veracruz, Mexico. - Mycotaxon, 136(4): 749–753. https://doi.org/10.5248/136.749.
A new species of corticolous microlichen,Architrypethelium barrerae, is described from the cloud forest in the ecological park 'El Haya' in Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico. It is characterized by two-spored asci, cortex UV+ yellow, and an internal K+ pigment in its pseudostromata. Photographs of macro- and microscopic structures are presented. Key words—tropical lichens, Trypetheliales, Trypetheliaceae.
34182Liu L. & Ren Q. (2021): Aspicilia lixianensis, A. nivalis, and A. pycnocarpa spp. nov. from China. - Mycotaxon, 136(4): 739–748. https://doi.org/10.5248/136.739.
As a result of our study of Aspicilia from China, three new lichen species—A. lixianensis, A. nivalis, and A. pycnocarpa—are proposed and typified. Detailed descriptions, comparisons with related species, morphological photographs, and phylogenetic analysis of these taxa are provided. Key words — ITS, Megasporaceae, Pertusariales, secondary metabolites, taxonomy.
34181Zhang J., Liu L., Xue X. & Ren Q. (2021): Pertusaria wui sp. nov. on bamboo from Yunnan, China. - Mycotaxon, 136(4): 719–723. https://doi.org/10.5248/136.719.
A new species Pertusaria wui is described from bamboo in Yunnan Province, China. Diagnostic characters include a thin, shiny, off-white, continuous and crustose thallus, numerous (mostly conical) verrucae with punctiform ostioles, uniseriate ascospores of 47.5–62.5 × 25–30 μm, 8-spored asci, and major lichen compounds lichexanthone and stictic acid. Key words—lichenized Ascomycota, Pertusariaceae, Pertusariales, taxonomy.
34180Wijayawardene N.N., Hyde K.D., Dai D.Q., Sánchez-García M., Goto B.T., Saxena R.K., Erdoğdu M., Selçuk F., Rajeshkumar K.C., Aptroot A., Błaszkowski J., Boonyuen N., da Silva G.A., de Souza F.A., Dong W., Ertz D., Haelewaters D., Jones E.B.G., Karunarathna S.C., Kirk P.M., Kukwa M., Kumla J., Leontyev D.V., Lumbsch H.T., Maharachchikumbura S.S.N., Marguno F., Martínez-Rodríguez P., Mešić A., Monteiro J.S., Oehl F., Pawłowska J., Pem D., Pfliegler W.P., Phillips A.J.L., Pošta A., He M.Q., Li J.X., Raza M., Sruthi O.P., Suetrong S., Suwannarach N., Tedersoo L., Thiyagaraja V., Tibpromma S., Tkalčec Z., Tokarev Y.S., Wanasinghe D.N., Wijesundara D.S.A., Wimalaseana S.D.M.K., Madrid H., Zhang G.Q., Gao Y., Sánchez-Castro I., Tang L.Z., Stadler M., Yurkov A. & Thines M. (2022): Outline of Fungi and fungus-like taxa – 2021. - Mycosphere, 13(1): 53–453. Doi 10.5943/mycosphere/13/1/2.
This paper provides an updated classification of the Kingdom Fungi (including fossil fungi) and fungus-like taxa. Five-hundred and twenty-three (535) notes are provided for newly introduced taxa and for changes that have been made since the previous outline. In the discussion, the latest taxonomic changes in Basidiomycota are provided and the classification of Mycosphaerellales are broadly discussed. Genera listed in Mycosphaerellaceae have been confirmed by DNA sequence analyses, while doubtful genera (DNA sequences being unavailable but traditionally accommodated in Mycosphaerellaceae) are listed in the discussion. Problematic genera in Glomeromycota are also discussed based on phylogenetic results. Keywords – Ascomycota – basal fungi – Basidiomycota – Classification – Fossil fungi – Rozellomycota.
34179Di Nuzzo L., Masoni A., Frizzi F., Bianchi E., Castellani M.B., Balzani P., Morandi F., Sozzi Y., Vallese C., Santini G. & Benesperi R. (2022): Red wood ants shape epiphytic lichen assemblages in montane silver fir forests. - iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, 15(1): 71–76. https://doi.org/10.3832/ifor3897-014.
The Formica rufa group comprises several ant species which are collectively referred to as “red wood ants” (hereafter RWA). These species have key roles in forest ecosystems, where they are ecologically dominant and greatly influence the dynamics of the habitat they colonise. Various studies have shown how their trophic activity may affect other organisms, which include both other invertebrates and plants. We can therefore hypothesize that their presence could affect the taxonomic and functional composition of epiphytes, despite clear information on such an effect is lacking. This study aimed to fill this research gap by evaluating whether the presence of red wood ants could affect the structure and composition of lichen communities. We selected two sites on the Apennine Mountains in Italy, where the red wood ant F. paralugubris was introduced from the Alps more than 50 years ago. In each site, lichen assemblages on Abies alba trees located within the colonised areas were compared to those from nearby, non-occupied areas. The results allowed for the identification of significant effects of F. paralugubris on the structure of lichen communities. Although there was no detectable impact on lichen species richness, a significant difference in their community composition between colonised and control sites was detected. Furthermore, ant presence seemed to be associated with specific lichen functional traits such as asexual reproduction. We argue that RWA could affect the lichen community either directly, e.g., by actively dispersing the species capable of asexual reproduction through their movements on trees (ant-mediated dispersion), or indirectly through herbivore exclusion. Finally, we also observed differences in β-diversity among the colonised and non-colonised sites. Keywords: Formica paralugubris, Red Wood Ants, Lichen Diversity, Impact, Introduced Species, Functional Diversity.
34178Ručová D., Đorđević T., Baláž M., Weidinger M., Lang I., Gajdoš A. & Goga M. (2022): Investigation of calcium forms in lichens from travertine sites. - Plants, 11(5): 620 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11050620.
Lichens are symbiotic organisms with an extraordinary capability to colonise areas of extreme climate and heavily contaminated sites, such as metal-rich habitats. Lichens have developed several mechanisms to overcome the toxicity of metals, including the ability to bind metal cations to extracellular sites of symbiotic partners and to subsequently form oxalates. Calcium is an essential alkaline earth element that is important in various cell processes. Calcium can serve as a metal ligand but can be toxic at elevated concentrations. This study investigated calcium-rich and calcium-poor sites and the lichen species that inhabit them (Cladonia sp.). The calcium content of these lichen species were analyzed, along with localized calcium oxalate formed in thalli collected from each site. The highest concentration of calcium was found in the lichen squamules, which can serve as a final deposit for detoxification. Interestingly, the highest content of calcium in Cladonia furcata was localized to the upper part of the thallus, which is the youngest. The produced calcium oxalates were species-specific. Whewellite (CaC2O4∙H2O) was formed in the case of C. furcata and weddellite (CaC2O4∙2H2O) was identified in C. foliacea. Keywords: calcium oxalate; X-ray diffraction; Raman spectroscopy; EDX analysis; lichens.
34177Zorn S., Carvalho A., Bento H., Gambarato B., Pedro G., da Silva A., Gonçalves R., Da Rós P. & Silva M. (2022): Use of fungal mycelium as biosupport in the formation of lichen-like structure: recovery of algal grown in sugarcane molasses for lipid accumulation and balanced fatty acid profile. - Membranes, 12(3): 258 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes12030258.
In this study, a lichen-like structure was obtained through the production of a unique biomass, formed by algae cells of Scenedesmus obliquus adhering to the mycelium of filamentous fungal Mucor circinelloides. This structure was composed in two steps; in the first one, microalgal cells and spores were incubated separately, and in the second one, after 72 h of growth, isolated, mature mycelium was harvested and added to cell culture. For spores’ incubation, a culture medium containing only 2 g·L−1 of glucose and minerals was used. This culture medium, with low sugar content, provided a fungal biomass to the anchorage of microalgae cells. WC medium was used without and with sugarcane molasses supplementation for microalgae cells’ incubation. The lichen-type structure that was formed resulted in 99.7% efficiency in the recovery of microalgae cells and in up to 80% efficiency in the recovery of algae biomass in the lichen biomass composition. In addition, the resulting consortium attained a satisfactory lipid accumulation value (38.2 wt%) with a balanced fatty acid composition of 52.7% saturated plus monounsaturated fatty acids and 47.4% polyunsaturated fatty acids. Since fungal species are easy to recover, unlike microalgae, the lichen-like structure produced indicates an efficient low-cost bioremediation and harvesting alternative; in addition, it provides an oleaginous biomass for various industrial applications. Keywords: lichen-like structure; Scenedesmus obliquus; Mucor circinelloides; mature mycelium; fatty acid composition.
34176Scur M.C., Kitaura M.J., Bianchi de Paula J. & Spielmann A.A. (2022): Contrasting variation patterns in Austroplaca hookeri and Rusavskia elegans (Teloschistaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) in maritime Antarctica. - Polar Biology, 45: 101–111. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00300-021-02976-4.
Teloschistaceae is one of the largest lichen-forming fungal lineages, with more than one thousand species worldwide distributed, including areas with extreme environmental conditions, such as Antarctica. Two species of this family, Austroplaca hookeri and Rusavskia elegans were investigated with molecular, morphological, and anatomical data to understand their diversity patterns in maritime Antarctica. These species can be confounded in a superficial identification due to their apparent similarities in color, shape, size, and dispersal mode (spores). Sampling area included the King George Island (South Shetland Islands), James Ross Island, and the Antarctica Peninsula. New nuITS sequences revealed low divergence in A. hookeri (haplotypes with a maximum divergence of 0.8%) and high phylogenetic diversity in R. elegans (haplotypes with up to 5.5% of divergence distributed in three different lineages). The same pattern was found examining the morphological and anatomical features, with phenotypic uniformity in A. hookeri and several variations among the R. elegans specimens (such as the presence and location of the isidioid structures, the margin of the hymenial disc, and the parahimenial tissue thickness). The phenotypic variability found in R. elegans is not linked to the different nuITS lineages or to the geographic origin of the specimens analyzed. These patterns probably reflect the unique evolutionary history of each species and their different pathways in the colonization of Antarctica. Keywords: DNA barcoding · Lichens · nuITS sequences · Species complex.
34175Clerc P. (2020): Lichens (Ascomycètes lichénisés) nouveaux ou intéressants pour la Suisseet/ou le canton de Genève - 1. - Saussurea, 49: 193–201. https://socbotge.ch/wp-content/uploads/Saussurea49/Saussurea_49-2020_Pg193-202_Clerc.pdf.
[New or interesting lichens (lichenized Ascomycetes) for Switzerland and/or the Geneva canton - 1] This paper starts a new series aimed at publishing the new or interesting lichenological discoveries, made in Switzerland or in the Geneva canton. There are today 1934 known taxa of lichens in Switzerland and 614 known species in the Geneva canton. Thelocarpon sphaerosporum is a new species for Switzerland. Flavopunctelia soredica, a rare species in Europe, and Phaeophyscia poeltii, a southern species in Europe, are new to the Geneva canton. The Geneva canton has a key responsability in maintaining and protecting the locality of the small population of Flavopunctelia soredica in the valley of the Allondon. Key words: Flavopunctelia soredica; Phaeophyscia poeltii; Thelocarpon sphaerosporum; floristice conservation.
34174Clerc P. (2021): Lichens (Ascomycètes lichénisés) nouveaux ou intéressants pour la Suisse et/ou le canton de Genève - 2. - Saussurea, 50: 117–123. .
[New or interesting lichens (lichenized Ascomycetes) for Switzerland and/or the Geneva canton] This paper is a continuation of the new series started in 2020 to publish the new or interesting lichenological discoveries made in Switzerland or in the Geneva canton. Lobaria pulmonaria, a macrolichen endangered in a large part of its distribution area in Europe, was rediscovered in the canton of Geneva. Rhizoplaca subdiscrepans a distinct species from R. chrysoleuca was found to occur in three localities in Switzerland. Key words: Lobaria pulmonaria; Rhizoplaca subdiscrepans; floristice; conservation.
34173Lendemer J. & Stone D. (2022): Leptogium stancookii, a new name for the western North American lichen referred to as L. cookii whose type corresponds to L. saturninum s. str. . - Lichenologist, 54(1): 85-86. doi:10.1017/S0024282921000451.
As part of a revision of the Leptogium saturninum group in North America, we described L. cookii D. F. Stone & Lendemer as a new species from the western United States and Canada (Stone et al. 2016). The separation of L. cookii from other members of the group was based on a combination of morphological differences (isidium morphology, medulla anatomy and thallus colour) with support from molecular phylogenetic analyses. Unfortunately, in the protologue we selected as type a specimen that had not been sequenced and which subsequent study by Matthias Schultz and Bruce McCune has demonstrated is conspecific with L. saturninum (Dicks.) Nyl. s. str.
34172Kraft M., Scheidegger C. & Werth S. (2022): Stressed out: The effects of heat stress and parasitism on gene expression of the lichen-forming fungus Lobaria pulmonaria. - Lichenologist, 54(1): 71-83. doi:10.1017/S0024282921000463.
Gene expression variation can be partitioned into different components (regulatory, genetic and acclimatory effects) but for lichen-forming fungi, the relative importance of each of these effects is unclear. Here, we studied gene expression in the lichen-forming fungus Lobaria pulmonaria in response to thermal stress and parasitism by the lichenicolous fungus Plectocarpon lichenum. Our experimental procedure was to acclimate lichen thalli to 4 °C over three weeks and then expose them to 15 °C and 25 °C for 2 hours each, sampling infected and visually asymptomatic thalli at each temperature. Quantitative Real-Time PCR was utilized to quantify gene expression of six candidate genes, normalizing expression values with two reference genes. We found that two genes encoding heat shock proteins (hsp88 and hsp98), two polyketide synthase genes (rPKS1, nrPKS3) and elongation factor 1-1-α (efa) were upregulated at higher temperatures. Moreover, we observed higher expression of hsp98 at 25 °C in samples infected by P. lichenum than in uninfected samples. Finally, in partial redundancy analyses, most of the explained variation in gene expression was related to temperature treatment; genetic variation and long- term acclimatization to sites contributed far less. Hence, regulatory effects (i.e. direct adjustments of gene expression in response to the temperature change) dominated over genetic and acclimatory effects in the gene expression variability of L. pulmonaria. This study suggests that L. pulmonaria could become a valuable lichen model for studying heat shock protein responses in vivo. acclimation, heat shock genes, lichenicolous fungi, polyketide synthase genes (PKS), quantitative Real-Time PCR (qPCR), stress response, thermal stress, transcriptome
34171Feuerstein S., Lücking R. & Borges da Silveira R. (2022): A worldwide key to species of Carbacanthographis (Graphidaceae), with 17 species new to science. - Lichenologist, 54(1): 45-70. doi:10.1017/S002428292100044X.
We provide an updated, worldwide key to species of the genus Carbacanthographis, which is characterized by lirellate ascomata, a carbo- nized excipulum, warty periphysoids, and mostly non-amyloid ascospores. New collections and revision of herbarium material revealed 17 species new to science: Carbacanthographis acanthoamicta, with a thinly corticate thallus, a completely carbonized excipulum, apically warty paraphyses, small and (sub-)muriform ascospores, and salazinic acid; C. acanthoparaphysata, with a completely carbonized excipu- lum, apically warty paraphyses, small and submuriform, amyloid ascospores, and protocetraric acid; C. aggregata, with aggregated lirellae, a completely carbonized excipulum, small and submuriform ascospores, and salazinic acid; C. amazonica, with a completely carbonized exci- pulum, small and transversely septate ascospores, and stictic acid; C. aptrootii, with a completely carbonized excipulum, apically warty par- aphyses, small to medium-sized and transversely septate, amyloid ascospores, and norstictic acid; C. brasiliensis, with a completely carbonized excipulum, apically warty paraphyses, medium-sized and transversely septate, amyloid ascospores, and no substances; C. chio- nophoroides, with a completely carbonized excipulum, small and transversely septate ascospores, and protocetraric acid; C. halei, with a corticate thallus, a completely carbonized excipulum, small and transversely septate ascospores, and stictic acid; C. latispora, with a com- pletely carbonized excipulum, very large and transversely septate ascospores, and stictic acid; C. megalospora, with a corticate thallus, a com- pletely carbonized excipulum, very large muriform ascospores, and stictic acid; C. multiseptata, with a completely carbonized excipulum, very large and transversely septate ascospores, and protocetraric acid; C. novoguineensis, with a completely carbonized excipulum, small and submuriform ascospores, and salazinic acid; C. pseudorustica, with a corticate thallus, a completely carbonized excipulum, medium-sized and transversely septate, amyloid ascospores, and stictic acid; C. salazinicoides, with a corticate thallus, a completely carbonized excipulum, medium-sized and muriform ascospores, and salazinic acid; C. sipmaniana, with a completely carbonized excipulum, apically warty par- aphyses, small and transversely septate, weakly amyloid ascospores, and norstictic acid; C. spongiosa, with a completely carbonized excipu- lum, inspersed hymenium, small, transversely septate ascospores, and stictic acid; and C. subchionophora, with a completely carbonized excipulum, small and transversely septate ascospores, and protocetraric acid. New molecular data confirm the position of C. megalospora in the genus. In addition, we propose one new combination, Carbacanthographis nematoides. The known world distribution of four species is expanded: C. amicta is reported from Papua New Guinea; C. induta from Thailand; C. marcescens from French Guyana and Papua New Guinea; and C. stictica from Colombia, French Guyana, Venezuela and Suriname. For all species, short descriptions and distribution notes are given, and most species are illustrated. apically warty paraphyses, lichens, microlichens, periphysoids, Wirthiotremateae
34170Fernanda de Souza M., Aptroot A. & Spielmann A. (2022): Key to Heterodermia (Physciaceae, Teloschistales) in Brazil, with 15 new species. - Lichenologist, 54(1): 25-44. doi:10.1017/S0024282921000499.
The species of Heterodermia in Brazil have been revised based on literature reports, public databases and examination of 500 recent speci- mens from 15 states. So far, 43 species have been reported in the literature, two of which are not accepted here. We report 10 additional species from Brazil and describe 15 new to science, mostly from the Atlantic rainforest biome, raising the total number to 68, including two still undescribed species from Santa Catarina State. A key to all accepted species is given, keying out more species than represented in any previously published key of the genus. Based on new phylogenetic work, we do not accept the split genera that were recently proposed. We do informally recognize an additional group, the H. dactyliza-group. The following species are described as new: Heterodermia amphila- cinulata M. F. N. Martins & M. P. Marcelli, H. caneziae M. F. Souza & Aptroot, H. delicatula M. P. Marcelli & M. F. N. Martins, H. dissecticodiademata M. F. Souza & Aptroot, H. dissecticoflabellata M. F. Souza & Aptroot, H. flavodactyliza M. F. Souza & Aptroot, H. flavulifera M. F. Souza & Aptroot, H. labiata M. P. Marcelli & M. F. N. Martins, H. macrosoraliata M. P. Marcelli & M. F. N. Martins, H. minor M. F. Souza & Aptroot, H. neocrocea M. F. Souza & Aptroot, H. nigromarginata M. F. Souza & Aptroot, H. phyllalbicans M. F. Souza & Aptroot, H. spielmannii M. F. Souza & Aptroot and H. sublinearis M. P. Marcelli & M. F. N. Martins. The following new combinations are also proposed: Heterodermia africana (Kurok.) M. F. Souza & Aptroot and H. borphyllidiata (Kalb & Meesim) M. F. Souza & Aptroot. Dissectic acid was found in species belonging to three different groups and was not restricted to (and characteristic of) one subgroup, as previously reported. Atlantic rainforest, Cerrado, Leucodermia, lichens, phylogeny, Polyblastidium, taxonomy
34169Košuthová A., Westberg M. & Wedin M. (2022): A revision of the Rostania occultata (Collemataceae) complex in Fennoscandia. - Lichenologist, 54(1): 13-24. doi:10.1017/S0024282921000487.
The Rostania occultata species complex (‘Collema occultatum s. lat.’) is revised in Fennoscandia and found to consist of four species, all epiphytes on deciduous trees: Rostania effusa A. Košuth., M. Westb. & Wedin sp. nov., R. occultata (Bagl.) Otálora et al., R. pallida A. Košuth., M. Westb. & Wedin sp. nov. and R. populina (Th. Fr.) A. Košuth., M. Westb. & Wedin comb. nov. Rostania effusa and R. pallida are newly described from humid habitats in old-growth boreal coniferous forests, usually with a mixture of deciduous trees, and from similar areas in the subalpine birch-dominated forests of Fennoscandia. Rostania effusa is characterized by apothecia with red-brown apothecium discs and an excipulum thallinum with a simple pseudocortex and cubic to oblong, muriform spores. Rostania pallida has apothecia with whitish to pale yellowish discs and an excipulum thallinum with a distinct cellular pseudocortex, and ellipsoid, muriform mature spores that are often constricted at the centre. A lectotype is designated for Collema quadratum J. Lahm ex Körb. The new combination Rostania popu- lina is introduced for the species recognized until now as the variety Rostania occultata var. populina (Th. Fr.) Perlmutter & Rivas Plata. A key to the six species in Rostania s. str. is included. cyanolichens, morphology, new species, Peltigerales, Scandinavia, systematics, taxonomy
34168Davydov E. & Masson D. (2022): Umbilicaria meizospora comb. nov., a south-western European endemic species of the subgenus Papillophora. - Lichenologist, 54(1): 1-12. doi:10.1017/S0024282921000475.
Detailed morphological investigations and phylogenetic analyses of the ITS/5.8S nrDNA, mtLSU and RPB2 of the Umbilicaria crustulosa– U. spodochroa species complex reveal Umbilicaria hirsuta var. meizospora Harm. to be a separate species. The lectotype has been designated in ANGUC and a new combination Umbilicaria meizospora (Harm.) D. M. Masson & Davydov is proposed. Umbilicaria crustulosa var. badio- fusca was recognized as the heterotypic synonym of U. meizospora and the lectotype was designated based on Frey’s collection preserved in G. We provide a full description of U. meizospora and outline its distribution and ecology. The species is newly reported from Austria. crustinic acid, lectotypification, lichens, Umbilicaria crustulosa var. badiofusca, Umbilicaria vellea-group, Umbilicariaceae
34167Etayo J., Sancho L.G., Gómez-Bolea A., Søchting U., Aguirre F. & Rozzi R. (2021): Catalogue of lichens (and some related fungi) of Navarino Island, Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve, Chile. - Anales Instituto de la Patagonia, 49: 1–110. https://doi.org/10.22352/AIP202149013.
The Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve, Chile, has been identified as a hotspot of bryophyte diversity and it has been suggested to be the same for lichens. However, in contrast to the extensive bryophyte studies, only preliminary lichen inventories had been conducted in this reserve. We conducted the first intensive study on the diversity of lichens on Navarino Island during the southern summers of 2005 and 2008. We explored the main habitat types of the island, including coastal areas, evergreen and deciduous forests, Magellanic tundra, and high Andean (“alpine”) habitats on the mountain summits. The following substrates on which lichens grow were considered: bark, wood (incl. logs, stumps), soil, mosses, and rocks. We recorded a total of 416 taxa, although some of them not identified to species level. A main result is the finding of two species that are proposed as new: The lichen Candelariella magellanica, and the saprobic fungus Sclerococcum nothofagi that grows on the bark of trees of the genus Nothofagus. In addition, one species of lichenicolous fungus is recorded for the first time on Navarino Island: Tremella haematommatis. These results provide additional evidence about the great diversity of lichens that are conserved in the Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve. Key words: biodiversity, flora, lichenicolous fungi, sub-Antarctic, Tierra del Fuego.
34166Schweiger A.H., Ullmann M., Nürk N.M., Triebel D., Schobert R. & Rambold G. (2022): Chemical properties of key metabolites determine the global distribution of lichens. - Ecology Letters, 25: 416–426. DOI: 10.1111/ele.13930.
In lichen symbioses, fungal secondary metabolites provide UV protection on which lichen algae such as trebouxiophycean green algae—the most prominent group of photobionts in lichen symbioses—sensitively depend. These metabolites differ in their UV absorbance capability and solvability, and thus vary in their propensity of being leached from the lichen body in humid and warm environments, with still unknown implications for the global distribution of lichens. In this study covering more than 10,000 lichenised fungal species, we show that the occurrence of fungal-derived metabolites in combination with their UV absorbance capability and their probability of being leached in warm and humid environments are important eco-evolutionary drivers of global lichen distribution. Fungal-derived UV protection seems to represent an indirect environmental adaptation in which the lichen fungus invests to protect the trebouxiophycean photobiont from high UV radiation in warm and humid climates and, by doing this, secures its carbon source. Keywords: fungal secondary metabolite evolution, global trait distribution, indirect environmental adaptation, lichen symbiosis, macrophysiology.
34165Xie C.-M., Wang L.-S., Zhao Z.-T., Zhang Y.-Y., Wang X.-Y. & Zhang L.-L. (2022): Revision of Immersaria and a new lecanorine genus in Lecideaceae (lichenised Ascomycota, Lecanoromycetes). - MycoKeys, 87: 99–132. https://doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.87.72614.
The species Immersaria cupreoatra has been included in Bellemerea. This caused us to reconsider the relationships between Bellemerea and the lecanorine species of Immersaria and to question the monophyly of Immersaria. Amongst 25 genera of the family Lecideaceae, most have lecideine apothecia, the exceptions being Bellemerea and Koerberiella, which have lecanorine apothecia. According to previous classifications, Immersaria included species with both lecanorine and lecideine apothecia. A five-loci phylogenetic tree (nrITS, nrLSU, RPB1, RPB2, and mtSSU) for Lecideaceae showed that Immersaria was split into two clades: firstly, all the lecideine apotheciate species and secondly, all the lecanorine apotheciate species. The latter clade was closely related to the remaining lecanorine apotheciate genera: Bellemerea and Koerberiella. Therefore, the genus concept of Immersaria is revised accordingly and a new lecanorine genus Lecaimmeria is proposed. Furthermore, four new species for Immersaria and seven new species and three new combinations for the new genus Lecaimmeria are proposed. Keys to Immersaria and the new genus Lecaimmeria are provided. Keywords: China, generic classification, lecanorine apothecia, lichen, phylogeny, taxonomy.
34164Kotkova V.M., Afonina O.M., Dejidmaa T., Doroshina G.Ya., Erokhina O.V., Guziev Kh.Yu., Ivchenko T.G., Kuzmina E.Yu., Lavrinenko O.V., Makarova M.A., Mingalimova A.I., Moroz E.L., Neshataeva V.Yu., Novozhilov Yu.K., Potemkin A.D., Shadrina S.N., Vlasenko A.V. & Vlasenko V.A. (2021): New cryptogamic records. 8. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 55(2): 495–516. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2021.55.2.495.
First records of silica-scaled chrysophyte alga for the Leningrad Region and North-West of European Russia, fungi for the Pskov and Novosibirsk regions, and the Republic of Tuva, myxomycetes for the Republic of Belarus, lichens for the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Area and West Siberia, liverworts for the Kurgan Region, mosses for the Republic of North Ossetia – Alania, the Taimyr Peninsula, the Chukotka Autonomous Area, and the Kamchatka Territory from the North Koryakia are presented. The data on their localities, habitats, distribution, and specimens are provided. The specimens are kept in the Herbarium of the Komarov Botanical Institute RAS (LE), the Herbarium of M. G. Popov at the Central Siberian Botanical Garden RAS (NSK), or the Herbarium of the Kuprevich Institute of Experimental Botany NAS of Belarus (MSK-F). Key words: Absconditella delutula, Aneura maxima, Basidiomycota, Bryoria vrangiana, Calypogeia sphagnicola, Cephalozia bicuspidata, Cephalozia pleniceps, Cephaloziella elachista, Cerioporus varius, Chiloscyphus profundus, Chrysophyceae, Exidia nigricans, Exidia pithya, Hydnellum aurantiacum, Liochlaena subulata, Mallomonas scalaris, Neofavolus alveolaris, Niphotrichum elongatum, Oncophorus elongatus, Perichaena liceoides, Phellodon niger, Picipes tubaeformis, Protothelenella leucothelia, Riccardia latifrons, Saccosoma farinaceum, Sarmentypnum trichophyllum, Sphagnum warnstorfii, Suillus aurihymenius, Thelephora anthocephala, Thelephora caryophyllea, Trechinothus smardae, Trichia erecta, Trichia flavicoma, Trichia lutescens, Trichia persimilis, algae, chrysophytes, fungi, lichens, liverworts, mosses, mycobiota, myxomycetes, Chukotka Autonomous Area, East Siberia, European part of Russia, Far East of Russia, Kamchatka Territory, Krasnoyarsk Territory, Koryak Area, Kurgan Region, Leningrad Region, National Park “Narochansky”, North Caucasus, Northern Koryakia, Novosibirsk Region, Pskov Region, Republic of Belarus, Republic of North Ossetia — Alania, Republic of Tuva, Russia, Taimyr Dolgan-Nenets District, Taimyr Peninsula, West Siberia, Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Area.
34163Скирина И.Ф., Царенко Н.А. & Скирин Ф.В. [Skirina I.F., Tsarenko N.A. & Skirin F.V.] (2021): Лихенофлора болотных комплексов острова Сахалин (Сахалинская область, Российский Дальний Восток) [Lichens of swamp complexes of Sakhalin Island (Sakhalin Region, Russian Far East)]. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 55(2): 405–426. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2021.55.2.405.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] This paper presents the results of the study of lichen flora in swamp complexes of Sakhalin Island, obtained during expeditionary research in 2005–2009 and 2014–2020. The revealed species composition of lichens includes 172 species. The 28 of them are new for Sakhalin and 93 are new for the island swamp complexes. Bryocaulon pseudosatoanum is included in the regional and federal Red lists. Lecidea nylanderi is new to the south of the Far East. The information about substrates, habitats and locations is given for all species. The data on the distribution in the south of the Far East and, in some cases for all Far East, are listed for selected species that are new for Sakhalin Island and the south of the Far East. For the first time, a characteristic of the distribution of lichens in oligotrophic, eutrophic and mesotrophic bogs of Sakhalin Island is given. Key words: Bryocaulon pseudosatoanum, Lecidea nylanderi, lichens, new lichen locations, wetlands.
34162Galanina I.A., Chesnokov S.V., Himelbrant D.E., Davydov E.A., Ezhkin A.K., Kharpukhaeva T.M., Konoreva L.A., Kuznetsova E.S., Poryadina L.N., Stepanchikova I.S., Yakovchenko L.S. & Zheludeva E.V. (2021): Rinodina sibirica (Physciaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) in Eurasia. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 55(2): 393–404. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2021.55.2.393.
The paper provides data on morphology, ecology, differentiation and distribution of the crustose, epiphytic and epixylic lichen Rinodina sibirica in Eurasia. An anatomical and morphological description of R. sibirica is provided based on 138 specimens studied. Based on these records, we show that the distribution of the species from the Russian Far East is ranging from the Kamchatka Peninsula to the Mongolian border in the south and the Krasnoyarsk Territory and the Tyumen Region in the west. Current data suggest that R. sibirica is an American-Asian species with a wide Amphiberingian range, only slightly extending to Europe in the Ural Mts. Key words: biogeography, disjunction, range, Asia.
34161Chesnokov S.V. & Konoreva L.A. (2021): Addition to the lichen flora of Iturup Island (Sakhalin Region, Russian Far East). - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 55(2): 379–392. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2021.55.2.379.
As a result of expeditionary investigations on Iturup Island (southern group of islands of the Kuril archipelago), 61 species of lichens were identified as new to the island, including Porpidia contraponenda and Xylographa rubescens — new to the Russian Far East, and Amandinea coniops and Arthonia dispuncta — new to the South of the Russian Far East. Six species are new to the Sakhalin Region. The difference in species composition of the Sea of Okhotsk coast and the Pacific coast of Iturup Island is briefly discussed. Keywords: distribution of lichens, new records, Kuril Islands.
34160Kristinsson H. (1998): Fléttur á íslenskum trjám. - Ársrit Skógræktarfélags Íslands, 1998: 34–47. .
34159Knudsen K., Kocourková J. & Hodková E. (2022): Four species from New Mexico and Europe (Acarosporaceae). - Archive for Lichenology, 32: 1–10. http://www.fschumm.de/Archive/Vol%2032_Knudsen_Acarospora.pdf.
The lichenicolous fungus Sarcogyne bicolor H. Magn. was recovered as an Acarospora and is given the replacement name, Acarospora destructans. It is reported new from New Mexico. Two new species of Acarospora are described from New Mexico, Acarospora eganiana and A. worthingtoniana. A form or variety of A. glaucocarpa is treated as a species, Sarcogyne melaniza, an apparently rare taxa in Europe. Keywords: Chihuahuan Desert, pathogenic lichenicolous fungi, species based on a single specimen.
34158Aptroot A., de Souza M.F., Cáceres M.E.S, dos Santos L.A. & Spielmann A.A. (2022): New lichen records from Brazil. - Archive for Lichenology, 31: 1–51. http://www.fschumm.de/Archive/Vol%2031_Aptroot_new%20records.pdf.
Based on recent records, 89 lichen species are reported as new to Brazil. For the genera Ancistrosporella, Jamesiella, Lambiella, Paulia, Polyblastia, Porocyphus, and Trimmatothele, it is the first time they are reported from Brazil. Many more, in total 523 species, are newly reported from individual states.
34157Kalb K. (2022): The lichen genus Catillochroma (Ascomycota, Ramalinaceae). Three new species and eight new combinations. - Archive for Lichenology, 30: 1–14. http://www.fschumm.de/Archive/Vol%2030_Kalb_Catillochroma.pdf.
Three new species of Catillochroma are described, viz. C. danfordianum Kalb and C. maree- baense Kalb, both from Queensland, Australia, and C. phayapipakianum Kalb from Chiang Rai Province, Thailand. Eight species are transferred to Catillochroma, viz. C. alleniae, C. alligatorense, C. beechingii, C. bicoloratum, C. coralloideum, C. flavosorediatum, C. hainanese and C. yunnanense. Habit photographs of the new and some other species, mentioned in the text are provided.
34156Aptroot A. (2021): World key to the species of Pyrenulaceae and Trypetheliaceae. - Archive for Lichenology, 29: 1–91. http://www.fschumm.de/Archive/Vol%2029_Aptroot%20key.pdf.
Separatum from F. Schumm & A. Aptroot, Atlas of Pyrenulaceae and Trypetheliaceae, Volume 1, ISBN 978-3-7543-9685-8
34155Kalb K. & Aptroot A. (2021): New lichens from Africa. - Archive for Lichenology, 28: 1–12. http://www.fschumm.de/Archive/Vol%2028_Kalb_new%20records%20Africa.pdf.
The following species are described as new to science, mostly based on specimens collected by the first author: Candelariella flavosorediata from Réunion, Chiodecton leprarioides from Réunion, Lecanactis leprarica from Cameroon, Multisporidea nitida, which is a new species and a new, monotypic genus in the Malmideaceae from Réunion, Neoprotoparmelia fuscosorediata from Kenya, Pyrrhospora endaurantia from Kenya, and Tapellaria isidiata from Cameroon. Key words: Candelariella, Chiodecton, Lecanactis, Malmideaceae, Multisporidea, Neo protoparmelia, Pyrrhospora, Tapellaria, Cameroon, Kenya, Réunion.
34154Kalb K. (2021): New or otherwise interesting lichens mainly from Brazil and Venezuela with special reference to the genus Malmidea. - Archive for Lichenology, 27: 1–41. http://www.fschumm.de/Archive/Vol%2027_Kalb_%20Brazil%20and%20Venezuela.pdf.
In a continuation of my investigation of tropical lichenized fungi, a treatment of new or otherwise interesting lichens mainly from Brazil and Venezuela is presented. A total of 34 species are reported here, most of them new discoveries for at least one the two countries or a new discovery for a state, including 11 species new to science. These are Malmidea albomarginata Kalb & Hernández from Venezuela, differing from M. granifera by the thin, white apothecial margins and a white to yellowish medulla, M. allobakeri Kalb & M. Cáceres from Brazil, differing from M. bakeri in lacking atranorin and in having smaller ascospores, M. allopapillosa Kalb from Venezuela, differing from M. papillosa in having atranorin as a major metabolite, M. atlanticoides Kalb & M. Cáceres from Brazil, differing from M. atlantica in containing atranorin and an unknown anthraquinone as major metabolites, M. hechicerae from Venezuela, differing from M. coralliformis by the K+ lemon-yellow medulla of the thallus, M. hernandeziana Kalb from Venezuela, differing from M. fellhaneroides in having a chocolate-brown hypothecium, larger apothecia and larger ascospores, M. isidiifera Kalb from Brazil and Venezuela, differing from M. piperis in having granular to coralloid isidia and atranorin as a major metabolite, M. leucopiperis Kalb from Brazil and Venezuela, differing from M. piperis in the pale-colored hypothecium, M. rhodopisoides Kalb from Brazil, differing from M. rhodopis in having granular isidia, M. subcinerea Kalb from Venezuela, differing from M. cinerea in producing no lichen substances, and M. volcaniana Kalb & Hernández from Venezuela and Brazil, differing from M. sulphureo- sorediata in having an alternative anthraquinone-chemistry. In addition, the new combination Stigmatochroma glaucothecum (Fée) Kalb is proposed. New reports for Venezuela include Bacidiopsora microphylla Kalb, B. silvicola (Malme) Kalb (new also for Guatemala), Buellia albula (Nyl.) Müll. Arg., Coenogonium pyrophthalmum (Mont.) Lücking, Aptroot & Sipman, Dirinaria rhodocladonica Kalb, Schumm & Elix, Malmidea badimioides (M. Cáceres & Lücking) M. Cáceres & Kalb (new also for Mexico), M. leptoloma (Müll. Arg.) Kalb & Lücking, M. nigromarginata (Malme) Lücking & Breuss, M. perplexa Kalb, M. polycampia (Tuck.) Kalb & Lücking, M. rhodopis (Tuck.) Kalb, Rivas Plata & Lumbsch, M. sulphureosorediata M. Cáceres, D. A. Mota & Aptroot, M. vinosa (Eschw.) Kalb, Rivas Plata & Lumbsch, Psilolechia lucida (Ach.) Choisy, Rhizocarpon sipmanianum Kalb & Aptroot, Sipmaniella sulfureofusca (Fée) Kalb, Stigmatochroma glaucothecum (Fée) Kalb and Vainionora aemulans (Vain.) Kalb. A collection of Pyxine caesiopruinosa (Nyl.) Imsh. from Venezuela is mentioned and its differentiation from P. albovirens (G. Mey.) Aptroot is discussed. New reports for Brazil include Malmidea atlantica (M. Cáceres & Lücking) M. Cáceres & Kalb (for Bahia state) and M. sulphureosorediata (for São Paulo state). A morphological, anatomical and chemical comparison of type material of Malmidea polycampia (Tuck.) Kalb & Lücking and M. flavopustulosa (M. Cáceres & Lücking) M. Cáceres & Kalb revealed that both names are synonym, the first one having priority. For many species revised descriptions and revised chemistry are presented based on South American material. To facilitate the identification of anthraquinones occurring in Malmidea species a table of relative R f - values in solvents A, B' and C is presented. Key words: Bacidiopsora, Coenogonium, Dirinaria, Guatemala, lichen chemistry, Malmidea, Mexico, Psilolechia, Pyxine, Rhizocarpon, Sipmaniella, Stigmatochroma, Vainionora.
34153Swarnalatha G. (2021): A new species of Diorygma (Graphidaceae) from India. - Archive for Lichenology, 26: 1–4. http://www.fschumm.de/Archive/Vol%2026_Swarnalatha_Diorygma%20isidiatum.pdf.
Diorygma isidiatum Swarnal., sp. nov., characterized by ecorticate and isidiate thallus; ascomata with anastomosing paraphyses, asci without ascospores and by the presence of salazinic acid, is described from India. Key words: Assam, isidiate, Kameng River, salazinic acid, taxonomy.
34152Joseph S., Nayaka S. & Sinha G.P. (2021): Taxonomic identity of Bactrospora lamprospora. - Archive for Lichenology, 25: 1–5. http://www.fschumm.de/Archive/Vol%2025_Joseph_Bactrospora.pdf.
The species, Bactrospora lamprospora (Nyl.) Lendemer is treated as a synonym of B. metabola (Nyl.) Egea & Torrente. The comparission of characters of all accessible materials and type specimens confirmed that B. lamprospora is conspecific with B. metabola. The distinguishing characters of B. metabola from other species in this group are initially a Homalotropa-type ascospores becomes muriform at maturity, with up to 24–30 transverse septa and ascospore size of 48–105 × 7–14 μm.
34151Lisowska M. (2011): Lichen recolonisation in an urban-industrial area of southern Poland as a result of air quality improvement. - Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 179: 177–190. DOI 10.1007/s10661-010-1727-6.
Dynamics of epiphytic lichen distribution and diversity in the town of Skawina, one of the major industrial centres of southern Poland, over the last 30 years, was documented in relation to air quality changes. Fieldwork was conducted in 2006–2007. A total of 34 species were recorded at 202 sites, which is similar to the historical data, however, significant qualitative changes occurred. Nitrogen- and dust-tolerant species have expanded and dominate, while some acidophytes, such as Lecanora conizaeoides, are in decline. Lichens have recolonised the former ‘lichen desert’ in the town centre. Species richness at study sites has increased; and an improvement in the health of lichen thalli was noted. These trends reflect air quality improvement, mainly SO2 decline in the last few decades and transport-related compounds, mainly NOx and dust that have became the main pollutants. Host tree species and diameter diversity also contribute significantly to lichen species diversity in the study area. The recolonisation process seems far from complete and further changes in the lichen distribution and diversity in the study area are expected. Keywords: Lichens · SO2 · NOx · Fluorine · Recolonisation · Air pollution.
34150Waters D.P. (2021): The Abbott Marshlands of New Jersey: A natural experiment in lichen community response to changes in air quality. - Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society, 148(3): 214–222. https://doi.org/10.3159/TORREY-D-21-00006.1.
Lichens are known to be sensitive to changes in air quality. The recent closure of a coal-fired electric generating plant in New Jersey has set up a natural experiment to study the potential rebound of nearby lichen communities. The study area is the Abbott Marshlands, an ecologically important freshwater tidal wetland along the Delaware River, much of which is protected open space. To establish a baseline for future study, a biodiversity inventory of lichens and allied fungi was undertaken in the Abbott Marshlands, yielding 57 species. Key words: Charles Conrad Abbott, Coastal Plain, floristics, sulfur dioxide, symbiosis, tidal wetlands.
34149Allen J.L. & McMullin R.T. (2021): Lichens and allied fungi of the North Fork Nooksack River valley bottom, Whatcom County, Washington: important biodiversity in a high-use area. - Western North American Naturalist, 81(4): 503–517. https://doi.org/10.3398/064.081.0403.
The North Fork of the Nooksack River is the northernmost river in Washington State. It is located on the western slope of the North Cascade Mountains and runs east to west near the Canadian border. Here we report the findings of a lichen and allied fungi survey of the valley bottom conducted in 2019. One hundred and forty-five species were documented from 69 genera, increasing the number of species known from this area to 153 in 71 genera. Six species are reported for the first time from Washington State: Abrothallus santessonii (D. Hawksw.) Suija, D. Hawksw. & Pérez-Ort.; Gyalectaria diluta (C. Björk, G. Thor & T.B. Wheeler) Schmitt, T. Sprib. & Lumbsch; Lecanora thysanophora R.C. Harris; Lepraria nivalis J.R. Laundon; Multiclavula mucida (Fr.) R.H. Petersen; and Sarea difformis (Fr.) Fr. The bottom of this valley, like many others in the region, has been heavily disturbed by timber harvesting, development, and recreational use. Despite these impacts, we show that this area is still important habitat for lichen biodiversity, including rarities.
34148Haldeman M. (2021): New and interesting records of lichens, lichenicolous fungi and other Ascomycota from northwestern USA IV. - Evansia, 38(4): 149–158. https://doi.org/10.1639/0747-9859-38.4.149.
The lichenicolous fungi Calycina alstrupii, Clypeococcum cladonema, Laetisaria lichenicola and Stigmidium humidum are reported as new to North America. The hepaticolous fungus Epibryon hypophyllum is reported as new to western North America. The lichenicolous fungi Sphaerellothecium pumilum and Stigmidium gyrophorarum are reported as new to northwestern North America. The hepaticolous fungus Epibryon metzgeriae is reported as new to the USA, and the lichenicolous fungi Niesslia lobariae, Plectocarpon nephromeum and Protounguicularia nephromatis are reported as new to the contiguous 48 states of the USA. Extra-limital records for the taxa Cercidospora stenotropae, Epibryon bryophilum s. lat. and E. casaresii s. lat. are discussed. Key words. Arthonia, Epibryon, hepaticolous fungi, Washington, Whatcom County.
34147Stone D. & Root H.T. (2021): A niche for Platismatia wheeleri. - Evansia, 38(4): 137–145. https://doi.org/10.1639/0747-9859-38.4.137.
The distribution of Platismatia wheeleri was determined using the USDA Forest Service’s Forest Inventory and Analysis plots in Washington, Oregon, Idaho and California and was compared to that of P. glauca on the same set of plots. Platismatia glauca inhabits a broad climatic niche, living in areas with 34 to 325 frost-free days and moderate to high May through September precipitation (100–425 mm). Platismatia wheeleri inhabits an ecotone between forested, mountainous regions and drier regions with open canopies. These plots, with 225 to 300 frost-free days, are on the warm end of the P. glauca habitat. The co-occurrence of these species on several plots and overlapping climate niches suggest either historic separation of populations that now cooccur; sympatric speciation; or a more complex pattern within this widely-distributed, variable species. Key words. Lichens, habitat, co-occurrence, Pacific Northwest, Forest Inventory and Analysis, Platismatia glauca.
34146Davydov E.A. (2022): Umbilicaria platyrhiza—a new Mediterranean endemic species of the subgenus Papillophora (Umbilicariaceae, lichenized Ascomycota). - Phytotaxa, 533(2): 143–148. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.533.2.3.
Umbilicaria platyrhiza Davydov sp. nov. is described within the Umbilicaria crustulosa – U. spodochroa species complex and illustrated. The new species resembles Umbilicaria crustulosa phenotypically, but is distinct by apothecia with a single gyrus of sterile tissue, grey-brown to black lower surface with flattened to strap-like rhizinomorphs, and by producing umbilicaric (vs. crustinic) acid. Umbilicaria platyrhiza inhabits silicate rocks at low elevations in the Mediterranean region of Eurasia (Prov. Izmir in Turkey and Burgas Region in Bulgaria). Keywords: Asia, endemic, Europe, HPLC, lichens, new taxa, U. vellea-group.
34145Elvebakk A. (2022): Psoroma femsjonense (Fr.) Trevis., a misunderstood species possibly extinct from Europe. - Graphis Scripta, 34(2): 22–35. https://nhm2.uio.no/botanisk/lav/Graphis/34_2/GS_34_22.pdf.
Psoroma femsjonense, long considered to be a synonym of P. hypnorum, is shown here to represent a distinct, misunderstood species. The collections seen are from the lowlands of southern Sweden, Denmark, Germany, the Czech Republic, and France. In these areas, the species has not been collected since 1945 and may prove to be regionally extinct from these countries. However, a report indicates that the species has recently been collected in high-altitude steppes in Anatolia of NE Turkey. Psoroma femsjonense is most similar to P. tenue var. tenue, known from Antarctica and adjacent areas of the Southern Hemisphere, and obviously has different climatic demands, in addition to having different apothecium margins and paraphyses. In Europe, P. femsjonense can be distinguished from P. hypnorum by the chestnut-brown thallus, crenulate (but not squamulose) apothecium margins, low perispore verrucae, and the presence of porphyrilic acid methyl ester and pannaric acid in the thallus. Psoroma tenue var. boreale differs from P. femsjonense by the distinct cinnamon-brown colour, strongly glossy thallus, and a predominantly alpine and arctic distribution.
34144Bartemucci P., Lilles E. & Gauslaa Y. (2022): Silvicultural strategies for lichen conservation: smaller gaps and shorter distances to edges promote recolonization . - Ecosphere, 13(1): e3898 [20 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1002/ecs2.389820.
Conservation of epiphytic lichens in managed forest landscapes relies on understanding limitations to their dispersal and establishment after harvesting. A hot spot for cephalo- and cyanolichens, the Kispiox inland temperate rainforest of British Columbia, Canada, is an example of where forest managers seek silviculture options that allow for forest harvesting to continue, while also conserving threatened species. To characterize colonization of these lichens (including the nationally threatened Nephroma occultum and Lobaria retigera), we quantified thalli on 25-year-old regenerating spruce trees at varying distances from forest edges in logged openings of different sizes surrounded by mature (160 years) or old-growth (≥350 years) forest. Lichen colonization 25 years after logging was influenced by distance from the forest edge, surrounding forest age, and opening size. Total mean colonization and number of species per three branches were 81 thalli and 8 species at the forest edge, declining to 18 and 4, respectively, approximately 50 m into the openings. Colonization of most species reached minimum levels within 80 m. Nationally threatened species and old-forest associates had higher abundances and longer colonization distances in openings surrounded by old-growth forests; whereas widespread species had greater colonization when surrounded by mature forests. Logged gaps <0.6 ha promoted higher and more diverse lichen colonization than clearcuts (>3.8 ha). This study demonstrates that forest managers should consider the spatial patterning of harvesting, with smaller openings and shorter distances between edges (likely in tandem with higher levels of retention) in forests rich in epiphytic lichens to facilitate their recolonization and conservation. Keywords: canopy retention, cyanolichens, dispersal, epiphytic lichens, logging, temperate rainforest.
34143Albornoz L., Torres-Benítez A., Moreno-Palacios M., Simirgiotis M.J., Montoya-Serrano S.A., Sepulveda B., Stashenko E., García-Beltrán O. & Areche C. (2022): Phylogenetic studies and metabolite analysis of Sticta species from Colombia and Chile by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution-Q-orbitrap-mass spectrometry. - Metabolites, 12: 156 [16 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12020156.
Eleven species of lichens of the genus Sticta, ten of which were collected in Colombia (S. pseudosylvatica S. luteocyphellata S. cf. andina S. cf. hypoglabra, S. cordillerana, S. cf. gyalocarpa S. leucoblepharis, S. parahumboldtii S. impressula, S. ocaniensis) and one collected in Chile (S. lineariloba), were analyzed for the first time using hyphenated liquid chromatography with high-resolution mass spectrometry. In the metabolomic analysis, a total of 189 peaks were tentatively detected; the analyses were divided in five (5) groups of compounds comprising lipids, small phenolic compounds, saturated acids, terpenes, and typical phenolic lichen compounds such as depsides, depsidones and anthraquinones. The metabolome profiles of these eleven species are important since some compounds were identified as chemical markers for the fast identification of Sticta lichens for the first time. Finally, the usefulness of chemical compounds in comparison to traditional morphological traits to the study of ancestor–descendant relationships in the genus was assessed. Chemical and morphological consensus trees were not consistent with each other and recovered different relationships between taxa. Keywords: chemotaxonomyc; lichens; metabolomics; Sticta; phylogenetic; UHPLC-MS-MS.
34142Svoboda D. (2021): Lišejníky. - In: Žák K., Cílek V. & Majer M. (eds), Srdce Českého krasu. Obec Srbsko a krajina v jejím okolí, p. 246–248, Dokořán, Praha. .
34141Урбанавичюс Г.П. & Урбанавичене И.Н. [Urbanavichus G.P. & Urbanavichene I.N.] (2021): Виды лишайников, предлагаемые к внесению в Красную книгу Республики Северная Осетия – Алания [Lichen species, proposed for the Red Data Book of the Republic of North Ossetia - Alania]. - Ботанический вестник Северного Кавказа [Botanical Journal of the North Caucasus], 2021/1: 60–71. DOI: 10.33580/24092444_2021_1_60.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] Thirteen lichen species proposed for the Red Data Book of Republic of North Ossetia – Alania on based of the results of author's field works and analysis of literature information. Among them, seven species are included in the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation (Leptogium burnetiae, Letharia vulpina, Lobaria pulmonaria, Menegazzia terebrata, Nephromopsis laureri, Ricasolia amplissima, Usnea florida). Ten species are rare and vulnerable due to the state of populations in the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania at the current time (Bactrospora dryina, Buellia elegans, Candelariella boleana, Chaenothecopsis trassii, Gyalolechia lenae, Hypotrachyna afrorevoluta, Myelochroa aurulenta, Usnea articulata, U. cornuta, Xalocoa ocellata). Seven rarest lichen species in the Republic and in the Caucasus, data on the state of populations of which are currently absent (Ephebe lanata, Lathagrium dichotomum, Pannaria conoplea, Phylliscum demangeonii, Stereocaulon pileatum, Sticta sylvatica, Usnea longissima). Information on distribution in the republic, ecology and proposed categories of the threatened are given. Most of the species (15) were proposed to be included with category 3 “Rare species”, and 9 species – with category 4 “Undefined by status”. Keywords: lichens, rare species, vulnerable species, protection.
34140Cichowski D., Sutherland G.D., McNay R.S. & Sulyma R. (2022): Direct and indirect effects of habitat disturbances on caribou terrestrial forage lichens in montane forests of British Columbia. - Forests, 13: 251 [27 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/f13020251.
Cumulative effects of increased forest harvesting, mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae; MPB) outbreaks, and wildfire in low-elevation lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests could limit long-term winter habitat supply for the northern group of southern mountain caribou (Rangifer tarandus). In a 17 year longitudinal study of vegetation remeasurements at eight sites in north-central and west-central British Columbia (BC), we assessed responses of terrestrial caribou forage lichen abundances to nine forest harvesting treatments and one prescribed burn 8–14 years following treatment, as well as to MPB attack. Overall, after initially declining following forest harvesting, mean forage lichen abundance increased between 1 and 2 years post-harvest and 13 and 14 years post-harvest at 10 of 11 site/treatment combinations. Mean forage lichen abundance decreased following MPB attack at all sites. Biophysical factors influencing rates of lichen recovery post-disturbance include site type (transitional vs. edaphic), a reduction in favourable conditions for moss recovery, level of MPB attack, and both seasonal timing and method of forest harvesting. When considering effects of forest harvesting on forage lichens, objectives of silvicultural management strategies should focus on protecting and retaining terrestrial lichens at edaphic sites and on re-establishing terrestrial lichens at transitional sites. Keywords; lichen; caribou forage; Rangifer; natural disturbance; forest harvesting; prescribed burns; mountain pine beetle (MPB); bryophyte; moss; feathermoss; site characteristics.
34139Pereira A.C., Aptroot A. & Gumboski E.L. (2020): Phyllobaeis Kalb & Gierl (Baeomycetaceae, Ascomycota) in Southern Brazil. - Acta Biológica Catarinense, 7(2): 40–47. .
Phyllobaeis is mainly a Neotropical genus and contains six species. It has a squamulose primary thallus (except for one species with crustose primary thallus), stipitate podetia, and simple or 1-septate hyaline, ovoid to fusiform ascospores. The species occur mainly on soil in altitudes of 700 to 4,400 m. In Brazil three species are known, recorded mainly from the southeast. The aim of this work is contributing to the knowledge of the distribution of Phyllobaeis in Brazil. We studied specimens from southern Brazil. The morphological, anatomical and chemical analyses follow standard lichenological protocols. We found two species in southern Brazil: Phyllobaeis erythrella, which is the first record to Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul states; and P. rubescens, which is the first record to Paraná and Santa Catarina states. Both occur in environments on the plateau, as well as in high-grasslands, between 700 to 1400 m altitude. A distribution map in Brazil, descriptions, figures and a key to the species of Phyllobaeis are given. Keywords: Baeomyces; Dibaeis; fungi; lichen; rain forest.
34138Pyrczak-Felczykowska A., Reekie T.A., Jąkalski M., Hać A., Malinowska M., Pawlik A., Ryś K., Guzow-Krzemińska B. & Herman-Antosiewicz A. (2022): The isoxazole derivative of usnic acid induces an ER stress response in breast cancer cells that leads to paraptosis-like cell death. - International Journal of Molecular Science, 23: 1802 [21 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23031802.
Derivatives of usnic acid (UA), a secondary metabolite from lichens, were synthesized to improve its anticancer activity and selectivity. Recently we reported the synthesis and activity of an UA isoxazole derivative, named 2b, against cancer cells of different origins. Herein, the molecular mechanisms underlying its activity and efficacy in vivo were tested. The viability of breast cancer or normal cells has been tested using an MTT assay. Cell and organelle morphology was analyzed using light, electron and fluorescence microscopy. Gene expression was evaluated by RNAseq and protein levels were evaluated by Western blotting. In vivo anticancer activity was evaluated in a mice xenograft model. We found that 2b induced massive vacuolization which originated from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). ER stress markers were upregulated both at the mRNA and protein levels. ER stress was caused by the release of Ca2+ ions from the ER by IP3R channels which was mediated, at least partly, by phospholipase C (PLC)-synthetized 1,4,5-inositol triphosphate (IP3). ER stress led to cell death with features of apoptosis and paraptosis. When applied to nude mice with xenografted breast cancer cells, 2b stopped tumour growth. In mice treated with 2b, vacuolization was observed in tumour cells, but not in other organs. This study shows that the antiproliferative activity of 2b relates to the induction of ER stress in cancer, not in healthy, cells and it leads to breast cancer cell death in vitro and in vivo. Keywords: usnic acid; anticancer activity; ER stress; IP3R; apoptosis; paraptosis.
34137Lee S., Jeong S.Y., Nguyen D.L., So J.E., Kim K.H., Kim J.H., Han S.J., Suh S.-S., Lee J.H. & Youn U.J. (2022): Stereocalpin B, a new cyclic depsipeptide from the Antarctic lichen Ramalina terebrata. - Metabolites, 12: 141 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12020141.
Stereocalpin B, a new cyclic depsipeptide (1), and a new dibenzofuran derivative (3), were isolated from the Antarctic lichen, Ramalina terebrata (Ramalinaceae), along with a known cyclic depsipeptide (2). The structures of new compounds were characterized by comprehensive spectrometric analyses; high-resolution fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (HR-FABMS) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Stereocalpin B (1) existed in a rotameric equilibrium, which was confirmed using nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY)/ exchange spectroscopy (EXSY) spectrum. Absolute configurations of the amino acid units in 1 were assigned using the advanced Marfey’s method and subsequent NOESY analysis of the 5- hydroxy-2,4-dimethyl-3-oxo-decanoic acid residue confirmed the complete stereochemistry of 1. Compounds 1-3 exhibited moderate antimicrobial activities against E. coli, with the IC50 values ranging from 18‒30 μg/mL. Compound 2 exhibited cell growth inhibition against HCT116 cell lines, with the IC50 value of 20 ± 1.20 μM, and compounds 1 and 2 also showed potent anti-inflammatory activities against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 macrophages with the IC50 values ranging from 5‒7 μM. Keywords: Ramalina terebrata; cyclic depsipeptides; dibenzofuran; antimicrobial; cytotoxicity; antiinflammation.
34136Darmostuk V.V., Khodosovtsev A.Ye., Gromakova A.B., Sira O.Ye, Davydov D.A., Gavrylenko L.M. & Khodosovtseva Yu.A. (2021): Notes to lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi in Ukraine II. - Чорноморський ботанічний журнал [Chornomorski Botanical Journal], 17(3): 276–295. doi: 10.32999/ksu1990-553X/2021-17-3-6.
In this contribution, new data concerning lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi in Ukraine are presented. It includes new records, exclusions, and confirmations to the Ukrainian administrative regions of taxa in the genera of Absconditella, Alyxoria, Arthonia, Athelia, Briancoppinsia, Buellia, Buelliella, Caloplaca, Candelariella, Chaenotheca, Circinaria, Clypeococcum, Didymocyrtis, Diplotomma, Hypocenomyce, Lawalreea, Lecania, Lecidea, Lichenochora, Lichenoconium, Lichenostigma, Micarea, Monodictys, Mycomicrothelia, Muellerella, Naevia, Pachyphiale, Parmeliopsis, Pertusaria, Phaeophyscia, Phoma, Physcia, Physconia, Piccolia, Placynthiella, Polycoccum, Polyozosia, Porpidia, Pronectria, Protoparmeliopsis, Pseudoschismatomma, Punctelia, Ramalina, Rinodina, Sarcopyrenia, Sclerophora, Sphaerellothecium, Staurothele, Strangospora, Stigmidium, Taeniolella, Tephromela, Thelocarpon, Tuckermannopsis, Verrucaria, Xanthoparmelia, Xanthoria, Zeroviella. Among them 24 species of lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi are new to the Kharkiv region, 13 species new to the Rivne region, 9 species new to the Mykolaiv region, 6 species new to the Kherson region, 3 species new to the Zaporizhzhia region, 3 species new to the Ivano-Frankivsk region, 3 species new to the Ternopil region, 2 species new to the Dnipropetrovsk and Zakarpattia, Chernivtsi and Volyn regions, one species new to the Chernihiv, Khmelnytskyi, Kyiv, Poltava, Sumy regions as well as 5 species new to Autonomous Republic of Crimea. Keywords: biodiversity, new records, Lawalreea, Muellerella, Phoma.
34135Davydov E.A. (2022): On the status of Umbilicaria aprina var. halei and U. canescens (Umbilicariaceae, lichenized Ascomycota). - Phytotaxa, 533(1): 91–97. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.533.1.6.
To clarify the nomenclature of Umbilicaria aprina var. halei and U. canescens, type material from LE and MIN was investigated. Description, measurements and photos of the thalloconidia of the type specimens are provided. According to our investigation Umbilicaria aprina var. halei is a synonym of U. rhizinata, and U. canescens is a synonym of U. aprina. Both species belong to the U. aprina group and are distinguished by the septation of their thalloconidia. Additional specimens identified by previous authors as Umbilicaria aprina var. halei and U. canescens were re-identified. Umbilicaria rhizinata is reported as new to Xinjiang, China. Keywords: Altai, China, Mongolia, thalloconidia, Umbilicaria rhizinata.