33081Fryday A.M. & Dillman K.L. (2021): Two new species of Ostropales (Lecanoromycetes) and other significant records of lichenized fungi from southeastern Alaska. - Bryologist, 124(1): 20–26. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-124.1.020.
Recent field work in the Petersburg Borough of southeastern (SE) Alaska has led to the discovery of two species of lichenized fungi in the Ostropales that are here described as new to science: Jamesiella dacryoidea Fryday, which has green-grey dacryoid thlasidia, and Sagiolechia bairdensis Fryday, which has very small apothecia (,0.2 mm diam.), 3-septate ascospores and a trebouxioid photobiont. A key to the North American species of Sagiolechia and Gyalidea is also provided. In addition, Bryobilimbia ahlesii (Hepp) Fryday, Printzen & S.Ekman is reported for the first time from Alaska, along with records of several other species that have rarely been collected in the state. Keywords: Alexander Archipelago, Baird Glacier, Mitkof Island, lichen systematics, Patterson Glacier, recently deglaciated terrain.
33080Blanchon D.J. & Bannister J. (2002): Ramalina meridionalis, a new species from New Zealand, Norfolk Island and Lord Howe Island. - Australasian Lichenology, 51:17–19. .
Specimens of"Ramalina arabum" from New Zealand, Norfolk Island and Lord Howe Island are recognized as a new species, R. meridionalis Blanchon & Bannister
33079Broeck D. van den, Aptroot A. & Ertz D. (2013): Three new species in the lichen genus Piccolia (Biatorellaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) from the Palaeotropics. - Plant Ecology and Evolution, 146 (3): 384–388. http://dx.doi.org/10.5091/plecevo.2013.906.
As part of taxonomic revisions of tropical African lichens, two species of Piccolia are described as new to science while a third unknown one collected in the Solomon archipelago was kindly send to us by the second author. Morphology was studied using a stereo and light microscope. Chemistry was studied with spot tests and TLC. P. congolensis Van den Broeck, Aptroot & Ertz sp. nov. was collected twice in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and is characterized notably by a thallus with KC+ orange soralia. The material recorded recently from Reunion Island as P. elmeri (Vain.) Hafellner was shown to represent a different species characterized by a completely dark brown excipulum and is described here as P. kalbii Van den Broeck & Ertz sp. nov. P. nivea Van den Broeck, Aptroot & Ertz sp. nov. is only known from the type location on the Solomon archipelago and is characterized by grey pruinose ascomata and a thallus resembling a leprose crust. A worldwide key to the genus is provided. Piccolia, Biatorellaceae, anthraquinones, Congo basin, Reunion Island, Solomon Islands, tropical forests.
33078Hale M.E., Jr. (1971): Studies on Parmelia subgenus Xanthoparmelia (Lichenes) in South Africa. - Botaniska Notiser, 124(3): 313–354. .
The evolutionary trends in morphology and chemistry of Parmelia subgenus Xanthoparmelia are discussed. Africa has a higher proportion of biogenetically "primitive" acids (hypoprotocetraric, protocetraric acids) and greater morphological diversity than are present in the North American and Australian populations. Twelve new species from South Africa are described: P. almbornii, P. atroventralis, P. diadeta, P. dichromatica, P. encrustans, P. frondosa, P. heterodoxa, P. hyporhytida, P. lecanorica, P. neocongensis, P. quintaria, and P. subdomokosii.
33077Hawksworth D.L. (1971): Regional studies in Alectoria (Lichenes) 1. The central and southern African species . - Botaniska Notiser, 124(1): 122–128. .
In central and southern Africa the lichen genus Alectoria Ach. is largely restricted to the highest mountains of Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda, where A. angolensis Dodge, A. cf. chalybeiformis (L.) Gray, A. fuscescens Gyeln. var. nigrescentifusca (Gyeln.) D. Hawksw. comb. nov.. A. motykae D. Hawksw. sp. nov., A. ruwenzoriensis D. Hawksw. sp. nov. and A. smithii DR. f. esorediata D. Hawksw. f. nov. occur. Reports of A. bicolor (Ehrh.) Nyl., A. epichrysa Stirt.. A. chalybeiformis (L.) Gray f. terrestris Stizenb., A. jubata (L.) Ach., A. jubata (L.) Ach. var. prolixa Ach., A. sulcata (Lév.) Nyl. and Parmelia lichinoidea NYL. ex Cromb. by earlier authors are also discussed.
33076Almborn O. (1980): Cramer, J. (ed.): Bibliotheca Lichenologica. A series of original papers and reprints of books on lichens published by J. Cramer, Box 48, 3301 Lehre, W. Germany. - Botaniska Notiser, 133(4): 649–650. .
Short book reviews written jointly on the following issues of Bibliotheca Lichenologica: 6. Keuck, G. 1977: Ontogenetisch-systematische Studie über Erioderma im Vergleich mit anderen cyanophilen Flechtengattungen. 175 pp. 5 tables, 217 plates, 20 figures in text. ISBN 3-7862-1051-5. Price DM 60:– (paperback). 7. Ritschel, Gabrielle Aiko. 1977: Verbreitung und Soziologie epiphytischer Flechten in Nordwestbayern. 192 pp., 29 tables, 75 figures in text. ISBN 3-7682-1122-3. Price DM 50:– (paperback). 8. Rodemborg, L. 1977: Epilitische Vegetation in einem alten Weidegebiet auf Mittel-Öland, Schweden. 108 pp., 4 tables, 5 plates. ISBN 3-7682-111151-7. Price DM 30:– (paperback). 9. Poelt, J. & Vězda, A. 1977: Bestimmungs-schlüssel europäischer Flechten. Ergänzungsheft I. 258 pp. No illustrations. ISBN 3-7682-1162-2. Price DM 50:– (cloth; as the following volumes). 10. Buschardt, A. 1979: Zur Flechtenflora der inneralpinen Trocken-Täler unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Vinschgaus. 419 pp., 157 distribution maps. ISBN 3-7682-1226-2. Price DM:–. 11. Beltman, H. A. 1978: Vegetative Strukturen der Parmeliaceae und ihre Entwicklung. 193 pp., 51 plates. ISBN 3-7682-1199-1. Price DM 60:–. 12. Mayrhofer, H . & Poelt, J. 1979: Die saxicolen Arten der Flechtengattung Rinodina in Europa. 186 pp., 13 figures (drawings of spores). ISBN 3-7682-1237-8. Price DM 50:–. 13. Schneider, G. 1979: Die Flechtengattung Psora sensu Zahlbruckner. 291 pp., 18 plates, 48 figures in text. ISBN 3-7682-1257-2. Price DM 50:–. 14. Vobis, G. 1980: Bau und Entwicklung der Flechten-Pycnidien und ihre Conidien. 141 pp., 215 plates, 15 figures in text. ISBN 3-7682-1270-X. Price DM 50:–.
33075Almborn O. (1980): Seaward, Mark R. D. (ed.) 1977: Lichen ecology. Academic Press, London. 10+550 pp. ISBN 0-12-634350-0. Price £ 23.00 (cloth). - Botaniska Notiser, 133(4): 647–648. .
Book review
33074Almborn O. (1980): Jahns, H. M. 1980: BLV Bestimmungsbuch. Farne , Moose, Flechten Mittel-, Nord- und Westeuropas. 256 pp. 655 colour photographs. BLV Verlagsgesellschaft München. ISBN 3-405-11893-X. - Botaniska Notiser, 133(4): 647. .
Book review
33073Almborn O. (1980): Krog, H., Østhagen, H. & Tønsberg, T. 1980: Lavflora. Norske brusk- og bladlav. 312 pp. cloth. Supplement in English. 52 pp. wrappers. Universitetsforlaget, Box 7502, Skillebekk, Oslo 2-, Norway. ISBN 82-00-01907-1 and 82-00-01988-8. Price N.Cr. 189.00 or N.Cr. 209.00 (with Supplement).. - Botaniska Notiser, 133(4): 646–647. .
Book review
33072Kärnefelt I. (1980): Lichens of western North America with disjunctions in Macaronesia and West Mediterranean region. - Botaniska Notiser, 133(4): 569–577. .
Six unrelated lichens, Alectoria imshaugii Brodo & D. Hawksw., Cetraria merrillii Du Rietz, Dimelaena radiata (Tuck.) Hale & W. Culb., Parmelia pustulosa Essl., Parmelia subolivacea Nyl. and Thelomma mammosum (Hepp) Massal. have their distributional centre in temperate to subtropical W North America. Five were already known from disjunct ranges in Macaronesia, NW Africa, Portugal and Spain. Cetraria merrillii recently discovered in the central highlands of Spain, is here included in the same group. Possible modern and historical causes of the discontinuous ranges are discussed. Distribution maps are included.
33071Almborn O. (1980): Three centuries of Botany at the University of Lund, a short survey. - Botaniska Notiser, 133(4): 451–474. .
A survey is made of the main features in the history of Botany at the University of Lund from 1668, when the University was founded, till the present day. Special attention has been paid to the Professors of Botany, to the development of the various Chairs and to the pronounced diversification of research in Botany during the 20th century. Some attempt has been made to trace the influence of other Swedish universities on Lund and vice versa. The history of the buildings of the Departments has been sketched not forgetting the almost perpetual need for new premises. A selection of the many botanical theses presented for the doctor’s degree published in Lund is given, in particular those of the present century. Limited space has otherwise permitted mention of only some few works considered to be of special importance.
33070Kärnefelt I. (1980): Everniastrum andense sp. nov., a neotropical paramo lichen. - Botaniska Notiser, 133(3): 387–394. .
Brief introductory remarks on the genus are followed by a detailed description of the new species, E. andense Kärnef. The section on taxonomy deals mainly with the affinity of the new species with E. ecuadoriense (R. Sant.) Hale. E. andense appears to be endemic to the northern Andean region of Neotropis colonizing twigs of paramo shrubs. Illustrations of anatomical and morphological characteristics and a distribution map are included.
33069van der Pluijm (2021): Hyperphyscia lucida in oude wilgenbossen in de Biesbosch, een nieuw ontstane korstmossoort? [Hyperphyscia lucida in the Netherlands, an example of recent, instantaneous speciation?]. - Buxbaumiella, 120: 7–15. .
[in Dutch with English summary: ] Recently, on morphological grounds Hyperphyscia lucida was described as a new species from specimens collected in 2020 in willow forests in the freshwater tidal area the Biesbosch. This article in Dutch summarizes the original report in Lindbergia 43: linbg.01138, and further addresses a possible origin of the new species. With fairly large dimensions and with many differentiating characters it seems unlikely that Hyperphyscia lucida was previously overlooked in the well explored areas of the Biesbosch, the Netherlands or Europe, where so far only H. adglutinata is reported. Hyperphyscia lucida has not yet been tested with molecular tools to determine its genetic position, so synonymization with (sub-)tropical taxa of Hyperphyscia cannot be ruled out. And if it were an undescribed species from (sub-)tropical areas outside Europe, then it must have travelled an extraordinarily long distance. The possibility of a recent, instantaneous speciation is also taken into account. In the Biesbosch area populations of Hyperphyscia adglutinata regularly have apothecia and pycnidia. It is speculated that H. lucida may have evolved from this species via whole-genome doubling, or autopolyploidy, a process cited as an infrequent cause of speciation in plants. Perhaps in a zygote of H. adglutinata abnormal meiotic cell division occurred, a diploid spore was produced, and a diploid fungal anamorph from this spore was able to make a new symbiosis. This scenario could be tested e.g. via flow cytometry by comparing DNA weight per nucleus of H. adglutinata and H. lucida. In recent decades the Dutch lichen flora has undergone significant changes because of e.g. changes in climate and air quality. Recent speciation may also have contributed to this in a very minor extent. A few dozen lichen species have been described new for science from the Netherlands since 1997. Some of these have turned out to be near-endemics for NW-Europe. The current distribution of two species, Lecanora sinuosa and L. compallens is relatively well documented, but they seem absent in older herbarium collections and therefore cannot yet be ruled out as neospecies. Alyxoria viridipruinosa, recently described from England, may also meet criteria for a candidate neospecies.
33068Phinney N.H., Gauslaa Y., Palmqvist K. & Esseen P.‐A. (2021): Macroclimate drives growth of hair lichens in boreal forest canopies. - Journal of Ecology, 109(1): 478–490. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2745.13522.
Epiphytic lichens are important biodiversity components of forest canopies world‐wide, significantly contributing to ecosystem function. The RGR, a measure of fitness, drives population dynamics and shapes lichens’ large‐scale distributions. In a climate change scenario, we need to know how external (macro‐ and microclimate, and nitrogen deposition) and internal factors (cortical pigments, chlorophyll and specimen size) affect RGR in these ecologically important canopy organisms. We used dominant pendulous hair lichens widely distributed across the boreal biome to test the hypothesis that precipitation drives RGR of pale (Alectoria sarmentosa, Usnea dasopoga) and dark species Bryoria fuscescens differently across a large‐scale gradient from continental to oceanic climates (precipitation: 450–2,600 mm) in Scandinavia (60–64°N, 5–19°E). After transplanting lichens to lower branches of Picea abies in nine boreal forest sites for 1 year, we used linear mixed effects models to analyse how total precipitation, rainfall, number of days with rain, temperature sum, nitrogen deposition, light, chlorophyll a (an indicator of photosynthetic capacity) and size influenced their RGR. RGR was highest in the pale species (Alectoria and Usnea) and increased with amount and frequency of precipitation, with >3 times higher RGR in the wettest compared to the driest site. The number of days with rain was a better predictor of RGR than total precipitation or rain. By contrast, RGR of the dark Bryoria weakly increased with precipitation. RGR in all species increased with light and decreased with size. Chlorophyll a concentration, boosted by moderate nitrogen deposition, increased RGR of all species. In conclusion, rainfall likely drives the distribution of the pale species due to their higher RGR and abundance in wet climates but cannot explain why Bryoria dominates drier inland forests. Our results highlight that the functional links between rainfall and RGR depends on both colour of the lichens (pale vs. dark pigments) and water storage traits. Synthesis. Our findings may explain the global, regional and local distribution patterns of hair lichens and help us to predict how environmental hazards such as climate change and forestry influence these important boreal canopy components. Keywords: RGR; chlorophyll; climate change; epiphytic lichens; lichen colour; nitrogen deposition; plant–climate interactions; rainfall.
33067Almborn O. (1980): Kärnefelt, I. 1979: The brown fruticose species of Cetraria. Opera Botanica 46. Stockholm. 150 pages, 74 figures (25 in colour) and distribution maps. ISSN 0078-5237. ISBN 91-546-0254-8. Price SKr 81, libraries SKr 135:- (wrappers).. - Botaniska Notiser, 133(1): 119–120. .
Book review
33066Almborn O. (1980): Jørgensen, P. M. 1978: The lichen family Pannariaceae in Europe. Opera Botanica 45. Stockholm. 123 pages, 53 figures and distribution maps in text. ISSN 0078-5237. ISBN 91-546-0241-6. Price SKr 66:-, libraries SKr 110:- (wrappers). - Botaniska Notiser, 133(1): 118–119. .
Book review
33065Galloway D.J. (1980): Notes on the lichen genus Baeomyces in New Zealand. - Botaniska Notiser, 133(1): 77–83. .
Three species of Baeomyces Pers., occur in New Zealand viz. B. absolutus Tuck ., B. fungoides (Sw.) Ach., and B. heteromorphus Nyl. ex Bab. & Mitt, in Hook. f. A key to species is given together with details of their morphology, chemistry, distribution, habitat and taxonomy. The following taxa are rejected as synonyms: B. arcuatus Stirt., B. subgranosus Stirt. (B. fungoides), B. cupreus Müll. Arg., B. cinnabarinus Zahlbr., B. fuscocarneus F. Wils., B. granosus Stirt., B. haemotropus Leighton, Cladoniopsis caespitosa Zahlbr. (B. heteromorphus), B. novaezelandiae Knight (B. absolutus).
33064Degelius G. (1979): Studies in the lichen family Collemataceae. IV. Collema fecundum, a new species from North America. - Botaniska Notiser, 132(4): 569–572. .
Collema fecundum Degel., a new species from the west coast of N America is described. It is closely related to the New Zealand species C. novozelandicum Degel., from which it differs in, i.a., lack of isidia. Taxonomical and ecological data are given.
33063Almborn O. (1978): Moberg, R. 1977: The lichen genus Physcia and allied genera in Fennoscandia. Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 22(1). Uppsala. 6 + 108 pp., 42 figures in text, 2 plates (illustrating type material in herb. Acharius, Helsinki) and 26 distribution maps. ISBN 91-554-0648-3. ISSN 0082-0644. Price SKr 50 :- (wrappers).. - Botaniska Notiser, 131(1): 179–180. .
Book review
33062Hale M.E. Jr. & Vobis G. (1978): Santessonia, a new lichen genus from Southwest Africa . - Botaniska Notiser, 131(1): 1–5. .
The genus Santessonia Hale & Vobis is proposed as new. The only known species, S. namibensis Hale & Vobis, is fruticose and has buellioid apothecial characters, placing it in the family Physciaceae. It occurs in the coastal fog zone on rocks and shrubs.
33061Kärnefelt I. (1977): Masonhalea, a new lichen genus in the Parmeliaceae. - Botaniska Notiser, 130(1): 101–107. .
The new genus Masonhalea is segregated from Cetraria s. lat. on the basis of anatomy, morphology, ecology and chemistry. Its only species, M. richardsonii (Hook. in Richardson) Kärnef. is described and illustrated and a distribution map is provided.
33060Almborn O. (1977): Brodo, I. M. & Hawksworth, D. L. 1977: Alectoria and allied genera in North America. Opera Botanica 42. Stockholm. 164 pp., 1 +67 figures and distribution maps. ISBN 91-546- 0211-1. ISSN 0078-5237. Price SKr 87:- (libraries SKr 145:-).. - Botaniska Notiser, 130(2): 253–254. .
Book review
33059Almborn O. (1977): Cramer, J. (ed.): Bibliotheca Lichenologica. A series of original papers and reprints of books on lichens. - Botaniska Notiser, 130(2): 251–253. .
A book review written jointly on 5 following monographs published in the Bibliotheca Lichenologica series: 1. Hannemann, B. 1973: Anhangsorgane der Flechten. Ihre Strukturen und ihre systematische Verteilung. IV + 123 pp., 3 tables, 181 drawings and microphotographs. J. Cramer, Lehre, Germany. Price DM 50:- (paperbound as the following volumes). 2. Awasthi, D. D. 1975: A monograph of the lichen genus Dirinaria. IV + 108 pp., 16 distribution maps, 59 figures in 15 plates. Gantner Verlag, Vaduz, Liechtenstein. ISBN 3-7682- 5452-6. Price DM 40:-. 3. Wunder, H. 1974: Schwarzfrüchtige, saxicole Sippen der Gattung Caloplaca (Lichenes, Teloschistaceae) in Mitteleuropa, dem Mittelmeergebiet und Vorderasien. 11 + 186 pp., 9 plates. J. Cramer, Lehre. ISBN 3-7682-0924-5. Price DM 40:—. 4. Jürging, P. 1975: Epiphytische Flechten als Bioindikatoren der Luftverunreinigung, dargestellt an Untersuchungen und Beobachtungen in Bayern. 11 + 164 pp., 43 maps, diagrams and tables. Gantner Verlag, Vaduz. ISBN 3-7862- 0964-4. Price DM 50:-. 5. De Wit, T. 1976: Epiphytic lichens and air pollution in the Netherlands. 115 pp., 114 maps, diagrams and tables. Gantner Verlag, Vaduz. ISBN 3-7682-1059-6. Price DM 60:-.
33058Holm L. & Holm K. (1977): A study of the Leptopeltidaceae. - Botaniska Notiser, 130(2): 215–229. .
The family Leptopeltidaceae von Höhnel ('Phacidiales’) has been amended to comprise unitunicate genera only, viz. Leptopeltis von Höhnel s. lat., Dothiopeltis E. Muller, and Ronnigeria Petrak. Dothithyrella v. Höhn., Leptopeltopsis Petr., and Moeszopeltis Petr. are included in the synonymy of Leptopeltis. The lichenicolous Lichenopeltella maculans (growing on Umbilicaria hirsuta) discussed among excluded taxa, based on previously published observations on bitunicate character of its asci.
33057Kärnefelt I. (1977): Three new species of brown fruticose Cetraria. - Botaniska Notiser, 130(2): 125–129. .
C. arenaria Kärnef. sp. nov., an American lowland species growing on sand and distributed from New England to the Great Plains of western Canada, with a disjunct occurrence in Colombia and C. australiensis W. Weber ex Kärnef. sp. nov., an alpine species from Australia, New South Wales, Snowy Mountains, are described and illustrated. C. fastigiata (Del. ex Nyl. in Norrl.) Kärnef. stat. nov., based on an infraspecific taxon of C. delisei, is redescribed, illustrated and one table is presented comparing it with C. delisei.
33056Zhurbenko M.P. (2020): Lichenicolous fungi from the Holarctic. Part III: New reports and a key to species on Hypogymnia. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 19: 180–189. http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/op/biblio_list.php?BucVolume_tab=19.
Cercidospora parva and Feltgeniomyces mongolicus are reported for the first time from North America, the latter is also first documented from the Arctic. Micarea inquinans is newly reported for Russia, and Epithamnolia xanthoriae is reported as new to European Russia. Baeomyces and Dibaeis are reported as new host genera for Epithamnolia xanthoriae, and Dibaeis for Merismatium nigritellum. A key to the species of lichenicolous fungi growing on Hypogymnia is provided. Keywords. – Biodiversity discovery, biogeography, floristics, lichen-dwelling fungi, United States of America.
33055Ding Y., Salvador C.S.C., Caldeira A.T., Angelini E. & Schiavon N. (2021): Biodegradation and microbial contamination of limestone surfaces: An experimental study from Batalha Monastery, Portugal. - Corrossion and Materials Degradation, 2: 31–45. https://doi.org/10.3390/cmd2010002.
An experimental study was conducted to assess the nature and extent of the biodeterioration of the limestone in the Batalha Monastery in Portugal. Stone fragments covered with microbial biofilms and lichenous crusts were investigated using Optical Microscopy (OM), Low Vacuum Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (LV-SEM + EDS), and X-ray micro-Diffractometry (µ-XRD). Microbial samples were collected from the stone surface, cultured, and analyzed with NGS metagenomic DNA test to classify the bacterial communities associated with the formation of the biofilms. Particulate air pollutants collected on Pall GN-6 paper filters using a cascade impactor were characterized by SEM-EDS + NGS. The results showed that lichens play a major role in biodeterioration by promoting both physical and chemical attack on the limestone substrate via hyphae mechanical penetration along calcite inter-crystalline spaces, the dissolution/leaching of calcite minerals, and the precipitation of secondary minerals such as Ca-oxalates within the stone porosity framework. DNA analyses identified the bacterial communities within the biofilms and their relative abundances. Air quality monitoring results suggest that the microbial population colonizing the monastery limestone could at least partially be derived from the dry and wet deposition of airborne biological particles on the stone surfaces and that S, N, and P-rich air pollutants may have provided nutrients and energy for the bacteria communities, thus indirectly facilitating biofilm formation, the growth of a lichenous crusts, and limestone biodeterioration effects. Keywords: biodeterioration; Batalha Monastery; limestone decay; lichen microbiomes.
33054Søchting U. & Arup U. (2021): Austroplaca sibirica (lichenized Ascomycota, Teloschistaceae) - a bipolar lichen with an austral origin documented by molecular data. - Graphis Scripta, 33(1): 12–16. http://nhm2.uio.no/botanisk/lav/Graphis/33_1/GS_33_12.pdf.
Based on molecular data, the austral lichen genus Austroplaca is shown to be represented in the Northern Hemisphere by the species Caloplaca sibirica. Accordingly, we make the combination Austroplaca sibirica. It grows on detritus and lignum in Canada, Greenland, Iceland, northern Scandinavia, Svalbard and Siberia and its southern range includes Patagonia (Argentina, Chile) and Kerguelen Islands. As its related species and genera are inhabitants of the Southern Hemisphere we hypothesize that it has migrated from the Southern to the Northern Hemisphere.
33053Ertz D. & Tønsberg T. (2021): A new species of Sagiolechia (Sagiolechiaceae) from Norway, with lirelliform ascomata and 1-septate ascospores. - Graphis Scripta, 33(1): 1–11. http://nhm2.uio.no/botanisk/lav/Graphis/33_1/GS_33_1.pdf.
The new species Sagiolechia monoseptata is described from the northern boreal zone of Norway where it was found on a shaded siliceous rock under a boulder in a north-facing, small, steep scree. It is characterized by the pale greyish-green thallus, black, lirelliform ascomata, and 1-septate ascospores of (11–) 12–16 × (4–) 5–6 (–7) μm, all features unique within the genus. Despite the unusual combination of morphological characters, phylogenetic analyses using nuLSU, mtSSU and RPB2 sequences place the new lichen in the genus Sagiolechia with full support.
33052Tibell L. (1976): Calicium denigratum (Vain.) L. Tibell, comb. nov.. - Botaniska Notiser, 129(2): 131–136. .
Calicium denigratum, C. abietinum and C. glaucellum compared on macro- and micromorphological characters.
33051Rosentreter R. & DeBolt A. (2021): Comparing local, state, and global lichen distribution patterns at Jupiter Inlet Lighthouse Outstanding Natural Area (ONA), Florida. - Evansia, 37(4): 125–138. .
Fifty-five lichen species have been identified from the 120-acre Jupiter Inlet Lighthouse Outstanding Natural Area (ONA), located in southeast Florida. The ONA habitat is comprised of sand pine scrub, oak scrub, and coastal hammock. While our emphasis was on documenting macrolichens, several microlichens were identified. Relative abundance ratings were assigned to each lichen species based on its frequency in the ONA and in Florida. The rating of “rare” for the ONA does not necessarily imply that the species is rare in Florida, but it would be considered rare at the ONA, in most cases because of the area’s small size. The sole exception is for the federally endangered Cladonia perforata, which is rare throughout its range. For each species, we used the Consortium of North American Lichen Herbaria to determine the number of known sites from Florida compared to their regional and global geographic distribution. Global distribution patterns are generalized, but no attempt at a global abundance ranking was made. Biogeographic patterns are presented for each species, as well as ecological and climate change considerations regarding management actions on this relatively small nature preserve. Key words: Biogeography, abundance rating, lichen, ecology, Cladonia perforata.
33050Bültmann H. & Lünterbusch C.H. (2008): The Cladonia cariosa group in Greenland. - Abhandlungen aus dem Westfälischen Museum für Naturkunde, 70: 305–312. https://www.lwl.org/wmfn-download/Abhandlungen/Abh_70(3+4)2008_Seite_305-312.pdf.
Five of the known strains of Cladonia cariosa are found in Greenland. Common is C. cariosa with atranorin and with atranorin and norstictic acid. Rarer are types with homosekikaic acid, fumarprotocetraric acid or rangiformic acid instead of norstictic acid. In all, the chemical diversity of the C. cariosa group is high in the Arctic with the joint occurrence of Eurasian and N-American strains. The psoromic acid strain of C. symphycarpia is widely distributed in Greenland. A species with porphyrilic acid chemcally conforms with C. galindezii. C. krogiana is reported new to Greenland. The strains and species occur together quite often and only few geographical and ecological differences were found. None of the strains or species is exclusively Arctic.
33049Gökalsın B., Berber D., Çobanoğlu Özyiğitoğlu G., Yeşilada E. & N.C. Sesal (2020): Quorum sensing attenuation properties of ethnobotanically valuable lichens against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. - Plant Biosystems, 154(6): 792–799. https://doi.org/10.1080/11263504.2019.1701117.
Antimicrobial properties of ethnobotanically valuable lichens are well recognized but it is not known how exactly their therapeutic effects on microbial infections occur. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic Gram-negative pathogen and its nosocomial strains are responsible for high mortality and morbidity rates. It coordinates pathogenesis and virulence via four quorum sensing (QS) mechanisms called las, rhl, pqs and iqs. The objective of this study is to investigate and report the utilization of lichens for QS inhibition against P. aeruginosa. The inhibitory potentials of Ramalina farinacea (L.) Ach. and Platismatia glauca (L.) W.L. Culb. & C.F. Culb extracts were tested against QS systems of P. aeruginosa using biosensor strains (lasB-gfp, rhlA-gfp and pqsA-gfp). All tested lichen acetone extracts have shown inhibitory effects on las, rhl and pqs QS systems. The percentages of QS inhibition were detected between 75.21% and 92.42% for las, 50.62% and 64.22% for rhl, 47.61% and 69.35% for pqs systems. The highest inhibition was detected for the extracts of R. farinacea collected from Bursa–Alaçam. We concluded that these lichen species have significant anti-QS potentials against P. aeruginosa and they can be further evaluated as alternative biosources in medicine. Keywords: Ramalina farinacea; Platismatia glauca; lichen extracts; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; quorum sensing inhibition.
33048Srinivasan M., Shanmugam K., Kedike B., Narayanan S., Shanmugam S. & Gopalasamudram N.H. (2020): Trypethelone and phenalenone derivatives isolated from the mycobiont culture of Trypethelium eluteriae Spreng. and their anti-mycobacterial properties. - Natural Product Research, 34(23): 3320–3327. https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2019.1566823.
The metabolites of the mycobiont culture of the lichen Trypethelium eluteriae were isolated by column chromatography and preparative TLC. Nine compounds (1–9) including two new trypethelones, 8-methoxytrypethelone (6) and 5′-hydroxy-8-ethoxytrypethelone (9), together with four known trypethelones (3–4, 7–8), and two known phenalenones (1–2) were characterized. It is the first report of 8-methoxytrypethelone methyl ether (5) purification as a racemic mixture in T. eluteriae. Earlier, 7-hydroxyl-8-methoxyltrypethelone (10) was reported as new compound with erroneous spectroscopic data. This compound was identified later as 8-hydroxytrypethelone methyl ether (4). X-ray crystallographic structures of compounds 5–7 were elucidated for the first time. Phenalenones (1–2) and trypethelones (5–6 and 9) were the additional compounds discovered in the cultured mycobiont of T. eluteriae. Six compounds (1–2, 5–8) were screened against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and two compounds (7–8) against non-tuberculosis mycobacteria and other human pathogenic bacteria. Compound (7) inhibited M. tuberculosis H37Rv strain with an MIC of 12.5 µg/mL. Keywords: Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv; Trypetheliaceae; Trypethelium eluteriae; mycobiont culture; phenalenone; trypethelone.
33047Dieu A., Mambu L., Champavier Y., Chaleix V., Sol V., Gloaguen V. & Millot M. (2020): Antibacterial activity of the lichens Usnea florida and Flavoparmelia caperata (Parmeliaceae). - Natural Product Research, 34(23): 3358–3362. https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2018.1561678.
Acetone extracts of the two common epiphytes lichens Usnea florida and Flavoparmelia caperata have been evaluated for their antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and Aspergillus brasiliensis. The dibenzofuran derivative (+)-usnic acid (1) was the main metabolite in these two species. Thamnolic (5), evernic (6), physodic (7) and 3-hydroxyphysodic acids (8) were isolated from U. florida, as well as 5,7-dihydroxy-6-methylphtalide (2) which was newly identified in this Genus. Protocetraric (3) and caperatic acids (4) and ergosterol peroxide (9) are usually biosynthezised by F. caperata. Antibacterial activity was determined for the four main compounds against Staphylococcus aureus using bioautography and broth dilution method. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of usnic acid, caperatic acid and protocetraric acid were comprised between 7.25 and 12.5 µg/mL. Keywords: lichens extracts, Flavoparmelia caperata, Usnea florida, Staphylococcus aureus, bioautography.
33046Plymale A.E., Wells J.R., Pearce C.I., Brislawn C.J., Graham E.B., Cheeke T.E., Allen J.L., Fansler S.J., Arey B.W., Bowden M.E., Saunders D.L., Danna V.G., Tyrrell K.J., Weaver J.L., Sjöblom R., Paul R., McCloy J.S., Hjärthner-Holdar E., Englund M., Ogenhall E., Peeler D.K. & Kruger A.A. (2021): Niche partitioning of microbial communities at an ancient vitrified Hillfort: Implications for vitrified radioactive waste disposal. - Geomicrobiology Journal, 38(1): 36–56. https://doi.org/10.1080/01490451.2020.1807658.
Because microbes cannot be eliminated from radioactive waste disposal facilities, the consequences of bio-colonization must be understood. At a pre-Viking era vitrified hillfort, Broborg, Sweden, anthropogenic glass has been subjected to bio-colonization for over 1,500 years. Broborg is used as a habitat analogue for disposed radioactive waste glass to inform how microbial processes might influence long-term glass durability. Electron microscopy and DNA sequencing of surficial material from the Broborg vitrified wall, adjacent soil, and general topsoil show that the ancient glass supports a niche microbial community of bacteria, fungi, and protists potentially involved in glass alteration. Communities associated with the vitrified wall are distinct and less diverse than soil communities. The vitrified niche of the wall and adjacent soil are dominated by lichens, lichen-associated microbes, and other epilithic, endolithic, and epigeic organisms. These organisms exhibit potential bio-corrosive properties, including silicate dissolution, extraction of essential elements, and secretion of geochemically reactive organic acids, that could be detrimental to glass durability. However, long-term biofilms can also possess a homeostatic function that could limit glass alteration. This study documents potential impacts that microbial colonization and niche partitioning can have on glass alteration, and subsequent release of radionuclides from a disposal facility for vitrified radioactive waste. Keywords: Community structure; habitat analogue; microbes and surfaces; molecular ecology; near surface radioactive waste disposal.
33045Gheza G., Nascimbene J., Barcella M. & Assini S. (2020): A first lichen survey in Valle Imagna (Lombardy, Northern Italy). - Borziana, 1: 77-86. https://doi.org/10.7320/Borziana.001.077.
Within the province of Bergamo, the less known one in Lombardy (N Italy) under a lichenolog-ical point of view, the Valle Imagna was completely devoid of previous lichen surveys. In thiswork, we report 111 records of 40 lichen taxa, mostly epiphytic, from five sites located on theBergamasque side of Mount Resegone (Orobic Prealps). Most of them are common species,whereas 11 are new to the province of Bergamo, and three of them (Buellia griseovirens,Phaeophyscia ciliata, Punctelia jeckeri) have been rarely recorded in the region. These findshighlight that, in spite of being recognized as one of the most lichen species-rich regions inItaly, Lombardy is still in need of further explorations. broadleaved forests, floristics, macrolichens, Natura 2000 Habitats, Orobic Prealps
33044Solhaug K.A., Asplund J. & Gauslaa Y. (2021): Apparent electron transport rate – a non‑invasive proxy of photosynthetic CO2 uptake in lichens. - Planta, 253: 14 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00425-020-03525-9.
Lichens are poikilohydric organisms passively regulated by ambient conditions. In theory, apparent electron transport rate (ETRapp), estimated by photosystem II yield measured in light (ΦPSII), is a proxy of photosynthetic CO2 uptake. Hydration level, however, is a complicating factor, particularly during suprasaturation that strongly reduces CO2 difusion. Here, the cephalolichen Lobaria pulmonaria and two chlorolichens Parmelia sulcata and Xanthoria aureola were excessively hydrated before photosynthetic CO2 uptake and ΦPSII using imaging fuorescence tools were simultaneously measured while drying at 200 µmol photons m−2 s−1. CO2 uptake peaked when hydration had declined to a level equivalent to their respective internal water holding capacity (WHCinternal) i.e., the water per thallus area after blotting external water. CO2 uptake and ETRapp in all species were highly correlated at hydration levels below WHCinternal, but weaker at higher hydration (chlorolichens) or absent (cephalolichen). Yet, at a specimen level for the two chlorolichens, the correlation was strong during suprasaturation. The CO2 uptake—ETRapp relationship did not difer between measured species, but may vary between other lichens because the slope depends on cortical transmittance and fraction of electrons not used for CO2 uptake. For new lichen species, calibration of ETRapp against CO2 uptake is therefore necessary. At intrathalline scales, ΦPSII during drying initially increased along thallus margins before reaching maximum values in central portions when hydration approached WHCinternal. WHCinternal represents the optimal hydration level for lichen photosynthesis. In conclusion, ETRapp is an easily measured and reliable proxy of CO2 uptake in thalli without external water but overestimates photosynthesis during suprasaturation. Keywords: Desiccation · Imaging chlorophyll fuorescence · Infrared gas analysis · Suprasaturation · Water holding capacity. Main conclusion: During desiccation, both apparent electron transport rate (ETRapp) and photosynthetic CO2 uptake peak when external water has evaporated. External water, causing suprasaturation, weakens the strong correlation between ETRapp and CO2 uptake.
33043Darmostuk V.V. & Khodosovtsev A.Ye. (2020): Notes to lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi in Ukraine I. - Чорноморський ботанічний журнал [Chornomorski Botanical Journal], 16(3): 257–274. doi: 10.32999/ksu1990553X/2020-16-3-6. http://cbj.kspu.edu/images/PDF/2020/16.3/8%201.pdf.
In this contribution, new data concerning lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi in Ukraine are presented. It includes new records, exclusions, and confirmations to the Ukrainian administrative regions or taxa in the genera of Arthonia, Aspicilia, Aspiciliella, Bacidia, Buellia, Cercidospora, Circinaria, Cladonia, Clypeococcum, Codonmyces, Didymellopsis, Didymocyrtis, Heterocephalacria, Laetisaria, Lambiella, Lecanora, Lepraria, Lichenochora, Lichenoconium, Lichenostigma, Lichenothelia, Marchandiomyces, Montanelia, Phaeospora, Placynthiella, Polycoccum, Protoparmeliopsis, Pyrenochaeta, Pyrenodesmia, Pyrenopsis, Refractohilum, Rinodina, Rosellinula, Scytinium, Sphaerellothecium, Sphinctrina, Staurothele, Stigmidium, Taeniolella, Thallinocarpon, Toninia, Trapelia, Weddellomyces, Xanthoparmelia and Xanthoriicola. Among them 28 species of lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi are new to Mykolaiv region, 21 species new to Dnipropetrovsk region, 17 species new to Cherkasy region, 7 species new to Kherson region, 5 species new to Zaporizhzhia region, 3 species new to Chernivtsi region, 3 species new to Odessa region, 3 species new to Luhansk region, 2 species new to Donetsk region, 2 species new to Kirovograd region, one species new to Ternopil region and one species new to Rivne region. Caloplaca xerica is a new host species for Lichenochora caloplacae. In Ukraine, Aspicilia cinerea is a dubious species and it needs to be removed from lichen list of Cherkasy, Donetsk, Dnipropetrovsk, Kirovograd, Mykolaiv and Zaporizhzhia regions. Lepraria neglecta was erroneously reported for Donetsk, Mykolaiv and Zaporizhzhia regions and should be removed from the species lists of these regions. Miriquidica complanata is erronoeusly reported for Zaporizhzhia regions and should be excluded from the list of this region.
33042Brackel W. v. (2020): Lichenicolous fungi from Molise (Italy). - Borziana, 1: 53–65. .
During a one week excursion to Molise in 2016, 18 lichenologically interesting sites were visited. The results of these field studies with special emphasis on lichenicolous fungi are presented, completed with data from the literature. The resulting list comprises four species known only from literature and 45 based on original data. Among these, three species (Epicladonia stenospora, Spirographa triangularis and Xenonectriella physciacearum) are new to Italy and 39 species are new to Molise. In addition, the finds of five lichens new to Molise are mentioned. Key words: Ascomycotina, Basidiomycotina, lichens, Mediterranean.
33041Wigle R.D., Wiersma Y.F., Arsenault A. & McMullin R.T. (2021): Drivers of arboreal lichen community structure and diversity on Abies balsamea and Betula alleghaniensis in the Avalon Forest Ecoregion, Newfoundland. - Botany, 99: 43–54. https://doi.org/10.1139/cjb-2020-0061.
There is debate about what drives and maintains the structure of arboreal lichen communities and the relative importance of substrate vs. local environment. Here, we examined which lichen species are unique to two tree species [Abies balsamea (L.) Mill. and Betula alleghaniensis Britton] in the boreal forests of the Avalon Peninsula, Newfoundland, and which environmental variables are most important for lichen colonization and community structure. We collected data on lichen diversity from tree boles along with environmental data (tree size, bark pH, canopy cover) for each tree and each site. Multivariate analyses were used to determine the relationship between community structure and environmental data. The results show that a diverse range of tree characteristics are needed to support a diverse range of lichen species. Certain stands, such as old B. alleghaniensis stands, are more suitable to host a unique community of lichens than others. These results can inform land managers on the Avalon, recommending strategies for protected areas and providing forest harvest guidelines that limit clear-cutting of A. balsamea to maintain a diverse community structure and limit harvest of B. alleghaniensis trees in sites less optimal for lichen growth. These baseline data can also be used to monitor changes caused by moose browse and selective harvesting, two locally important threats to lichen diversity. Key words: boreal forest, epiphyte, substrate specificity, distribution patterns, community structure.
33040Мучник Е.Э.  & Тихонова Е.В. [Muchnik E.E. & Tikhonova E.V.] (2020): Дополнения к лихенофлоре Смоленской области [Additions to lichen flora of Smolensk region]. - Ботанический журнал [Botanicheskiy Zhurnal], 105(8): 807–815. DOI: 10.31857/S0006813620080104.
[in Russian with English summary: ] Additions to the list of lichens and allied fungi of the Smolensk Region and the “Smolensk Lakeland” National Park are presented, including the lichenicolous fungus Phaeosporobolus usneae, recorded in Central Russia for the first time, and 16 species of lichens new to the Smolensk Region: Bacidina chloroticula, Bryoria fuscescens, B. vrangiana, Buellia erubescens, Carbonicola anthracophila, Cladonia glauca, C. norvegica, C. pleurota, Fuscidea arboricola, F. pusilla, Lecanora thysanophora, Lepraria jackii, Ochrolechia androgyna, Pertusaria coronata, Ropalospora viridis. Another 6 lichen species were first identified on the territory of the “Smolensk Lakeland” National Park: Bryoria capillaris, Cladonia deformis, Lecanora compallens, Peltigera polydactylon, Trapeliopsis flexuosa, Usnea hirta. Carbonicola anthracophila, Cladonia glauca, C. norvegica, Ochrolechia androgyna and Pertusaria coronata are recommended to include in the list of protected species of the region. Keywords: lichens, lichenicolous fungi, rare species, specially protected nature areas, “Smolensk Lakeland” National Park, Central Russia.
33039Галанина И.А. [Galanina I.A.] (2016): Дополнение к лихенобиоте дюнных комплексов (тукуланов) Центральной Якутии [Addition to the lichen biota of dune complexes of Central Yakutia]. - Ботанический журнал [Botanicheskiy Zhurnal], 101(12): 1486–1497. .
[in Russian with English abstract: ] Additional data on the lichens of the dune complexes in the Central Yakutia (tukulans) are presented. A total of 48 new species were identified, 15 of them being new to Yakutia. The total list of lichens in Yakut tukulans comprises 104 taxa. There are species of a special interest, namely those directly inhabiting the sands to contribute to their stabilization: Diploschistes muscorum, Trapeliopsis granulosa, Baeomyces carneus, Cladonia coccifera, Placynthiella uliginosa, Stereocaulon sp. An interesting group of lichens characteristic of tukulans inhabits dry wood and coal: Arthrosporum populorum, Biatora subduplex, Cliostomum corrugatum, C. griffithii, C. leprosum, Cyphelium tigillare, Carbonicola myrmecina, Hypocenomyce castaneocinerea. Keywords: lichens, tukulans, dunes, Yakutia.
33038Цуриков А.Г. [Tsurykau A.G.] (2019): Динамика географической структуры лихенобиоты Беларуси как индикатор современных биоклиматических условий [Dynamics of the geographic structure of Lichen biota of Belarus as indicator of modern bioclimatic conditions]. - Ботанический журнал [Botanicheskiy Zhurnal], 104(8): 1167–1188. DOI: 10.1134/S000681361908012X.
[in Russian with English summary: ] The biogeographical structure of the lichen biota of Belarus was studied in order to understand its distribution patterns (floristic elements) against the background of modern ecogeographical and historical factors. Seven floristic elements are distinguished, namely arid, boreal (cool-temperate), hypo-arctic-montane, montane, multi-zonal, nemoral (mild-temperate) and suboceanic. Nemoral element is the most diverse in the country, counting 205 (30.9%) species. The share of arid and mild-temperate species has increased over the past 20 years due to the climate warming. In contrast, hypo-arctic-montane and montane lichens are vulnerable to warming and may soon experience local extinction. For the suboceanic and multi-zonal species, sensitivity to climate change remains unknown. Keywords: lichens, lichenicolous fungi, geographic analysis, climate change.
33037Цуриков А.Г. [Tsurykau A.G.] (2019): Ареалогический анализ лихенобиоты Беларуси [Analysis of geographic distribution of lichen biota of Belarus]. - Ботанический журнал [Botanicheskiy Zhurnal], 104(11): 1665–1680. DOI: 10.1134/S0006813619110176.
[in Russian with English summary: ] The paper represents the results and problems of the analysis of geographic ranges (distribution) of lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi of Belarus. In total, seven types of geographic ranges are distinguished, namely European, European-North African, Euro-American, Eurasian, Palearctic, circumpolar (Holarctic) and multiregional. The share of the species with the widest geographic distribution (multiregional and Holarctic) is 88%. It is assumed that a real part of the species with narrower ranges can be lower due to the current insufficient knowledge of their geography. This is confirmed by comparison of modern (2019) and historical (1982) data on geographic distribution of lichens. For this period, the data on the half (50%) of the analyzed species has been changed. Furthermore, the geographic distribution structure of lichen biota of the country has become looking poorer as the share of multiregional species increased significantly while the amount of European, Eurasian and EuroAmerican species has decreased by 6 times. Keywords: range, distribution, geographic structure, geographic analysis, lichens, lichenicolous fungi.
33036Урбанавичюс Г.П. [Urbanavichus G.P.] (2016): Phaeophyscia dagestanica (Physciaceae) – новый вид лишайника с Восточного Кавказа (Внутригорный Дагестан, Россия) [Phaeophyscia dagestanica (Physciaceae), a new lichen species from Eastern Caucasus (Inner-mountain Dagestan, Russia)]. - Ботанический журнал [Botanicheskiy Zhurnal], 101(7): 810–814. .
[in Russian with English abstract: ] The new lichen species Phaeophyscia dagestanica G. Urbanav. sp. nov. is described, based on collections from the eastern part of the Great Caucasus (Dagestan, Russia). It is distinguished from a similar species Ph. nigricans by its black lower surface of lobules with black rhizines, upper surface with tiny cortical colorless hairs, and phylogenetic position. The species grows on calcareous rocks in subalpine meadows and birch-pine forests at the altitudes from ca. 1750 to 2250 m a. s. l.; so far is known from Gunib Plateau only (Gunib district, Inner-Mountain Dagestan). Keywords: lichen, Phaeophyscia, new species, Dagestan, Caucasus, Russia.
33035Урбанавичюс Г.П. & Урбанавичене И.Н. [Urbanavichus G.P. & Urbanavichene I.N.] (2020): Новые лихенофлористические находки из Мурманской области [New records to the lichen flora of Murmansk Region]. - Ботанический журнал [Botanicheskiy Zhurnal], 105(12): 1221–1225. DOI: 10.31857/S0006813620120182.
[in Russian with English summary: ] Based on field research by the first author, seven rare and noteworthy species from Murmansk Region are recorded. Among them, five species, namely Bryoria glabra, Myriolecis invadens, Myriospora scabrida, Phaeocalicium praecedens and Thelidium minutulum are reported for the first time for Murmansk Region. The information about the localities, ecology and distribution of all mentioned species is provided. Keywords: lichens, new findings, distribution, Murmansk Region.
33034Урбанавичене И.Н. & Урбанавичюс Г.П. [Urbanavichene I.N. & Urbanavichus G.P.] (2016): Лихенофлора Мордовского заповедника (аннотированный список видов) [The lichen flora of the Mordovskii Reserve (an annotated species list)]. - Москва, Флора и фауна заповедников. Вып. 126 / Moscow, Flora and fauna of Reserves. Issue 126 , 41 p. .
[in Russian with English abtsract: ] The results of author’s inventory of the lichen flora of the Mordovskii Reserve in 2013–2015 are presented. Annotated list includes 361 species of lichens and systematically close non-lichenized lichenicolous and saprotrophic fungi.
33033Hamäläinen A., Ranius T. & Strengbom J. (2021): Increasing the amount of dead wood by creation of high stumps has limited value for lichen diversity. - Journal of Environmental Management, 280: 111646 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2020.111646.
Artificial creation of dead wood in managed forests can be used to mitigate the negative effects of forestry on biodiversity. For this to be successful, it is essential to understand the conservation value that the created dead wood has in comparison to naturally occurring dead wood, and, furthermore, where in the landscape addition of dead wood is most beneficial, i.e. how landscape composition influences species occurrence on dead wood. We examined these questions by surveying epixylic lichens on artificially created high stumps of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) in 3–17 years old clear-cuts. We compared lichen assemblages on high stumps to those on other types of pine dead wood in mature forests, and examined how stump age, the amount of dead wood at the clear-cuts, and landscape composition at 500 m - 2.5 km scale influenced the assemblages. In comparison to other dead wood types, high stumps hosted lower lichen richness and less variable assemblages containing mainly common generalist species. Species richness increased with stump age, whereas dead wood amount and landscape composition were not important; only the total amount of forests in the landscape had a minor positive effect. We conclude that at the studied timescale high stumps of Scots pine are not particularly valuable for epixylic lichens and provide a poor substitute for naturally occurring dead wood in mature forests, although their value may increase with age. Furthermore, directing dead wood creation to specific stands or landscapes does not appear beneficial for lichen biodiversity, given the minor effect of landscape composition found at scales below 2.5 km. Keywords: Colonization; Dead wood; Epixylic; Landscape composition; Pinus sylvestris.
33032Tatsumi S., Strengbom J., Čugunovs M. & Kouki J. (2020): Partitioning the colonization and extinction components of beta diversity across disturbance gradients. - Ecology , 101(12): e03183 [10 p.]. 10.1002/ecy.3183. https://doi.org/10.1002/ecy.3183.
Changes in species diversity often result from species losses and gains. The dynamic nature of beta diversity (spatial variation in species composition) that derives from such temporal species turnover, however, has received relatively little attention. Here, we disentangled extinction and colonization components of beta diversity by using the sets of species that went locally extinct and that newly colonized the study sites. We applied this concept of extinction and colonization beta diversity to ground vegetation communities that have been repeatedly surveyed in forests where fire and harvesting were experimentally applied. We first found that fire and harvesting caused no effect on beta diversity 2 yr after the treatments. From this result, we might conclude that they did not alter the ways in which species assemble across space. However, when we analyzed the extinction and colonization beta diversity between pretreatment and 2 yr after the treatments, both measures were found to be significantly lower in burned sites compared to unburned sites (i.e., the groups of excluded and newly colonized species both showed low beta diversity in the burned sites). These results indicate that the fire excluded similar subsets of species across space, making communities become more heterogeneous, but at the same time induced spatially uniform colonization of new species, causing communities to homogenize. Consequently, the effects of these two processes canceled each other out. The relative importance of extinction and colonization components per se also changed temporally after the treatments. Fire and harvesting showed synergetic negative impacts on extinction beta diversity between pre-treatment and 10 yr after the treatments. Overall, analyses using extinction and colonization beta diversity allowed us to detect nonrandom disassembly and reassembly dynamics in ground vegetation communities. Our results suggest that common practices of analyzing beta diversity at one point in time can mask significant variation driven by disturbance. Acknowledging the extinction–colonization dynamics behind beta diversity is essential for understanding the spatiotemporal organization of biodiversity. Key words: biotic homogenization; community assembly; dispersal; ecosystem function; extinction debt; fire; forest dynamics; resilience; retention harvest; spatial heterogeneity; succession.
33031Reyes-Tur B., González-Guillén A., Rosabal D. & Capote-Danet A. (2020): Associations between tree snails and corticolous lichens in a secondary forest in eastern Cuba. - Poeyana, 510: 18–26. http://revistas.geotech.cu/index.php/poey.
Snail-lichen interactions have received little attention in tropical ecosystems. Here, we studied the species richness of corticolous lichens with snail grazing traces on host trees inhabited by the Cuban tree snails, Polymita venusta, Liguus fasciatus and Hemitrochus lucipeta at La Rinconada, eastern Cuba. We sampled lichen specimens from ground level to 2 m, on the trunks of 15 host trees of eight species, in a 6 000 m² forest patch, in April 2012. In addition, we sampled snail feces from the three snail species. Most of the tree snail and lichen species were associated with a tree species usually with smooth bark, Senna atomaria. We found 30 lichen species, of which 19 were identified to species, three to genus, and eight remain undetermined. Non-metric multidimensional scaling and χ2 tests showed that the three snail species had different associations with lichen species. Liguus fasciatus is associated with Physcia sorediosa and P. aipolia; H. lucipeta is associated with Platythecium grammitis and an unknown lichen, and P. venusta is associated with Buellia spuria and Chrysothrix candelaris. Evidence from snail grazing damage on lichen species, together with ingested spores from six species, suggested that L. fasciatus and P. venusta are generalist herbivores. Keywords: herbivory, lichen-animal interaction, Gastropoda, Stylommatophora.
33030Massalongo A.B. (1860): Sulla Chrysothrix nolitangere, Mont.. - Atti Imp. Reg. Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere et Arti, ser. 3, 5: 499–504 [+ Tab. III]. .
33029Massalongo A. (1855): Nemacola novum genus Byssacearum. - Flora [Regensburg], 38: 36–37 [+ Tab. I]. .
Nemacola criniformis gen. et spec. nov.
33028Massalongo A. (1853): Alcuni generi di Licheni nuovamente limitati e descritti. - Tip. di Giuseppe Antonelli, Verona, 44 p. http://nhm2.uio.no/botanisk/lav/RLL/PDF1/M31941.pdf.
Tricholechia A.Massal. gen. nov., Trichoplacia A.Massal. gen. nov., Raphiospora A.Massal. gen. nov., Lecania A.Massal. gen. nov., Cryptolechia A.Massal. gen. nov., Fulgensia A.Massal. & de Not. gen. nov., Xanthocarpia A.Massal. & de Not. gen. nov.
33027Massalongo A. (1852): Sui generi Dirina e Dirinopsis. - Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien, 1: 207–224 [+ 4 plates]. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/VZBG_1_0001-0234.pdf.
Hagenia albana sp. nov. (= Rinodina albana)
33026Senoner [A.] (1861): Professor Dr. A. B. Massalongo. Eine biographische Skizze. - Österreichische Botanische Zeitschrift, 11: 257–262. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/OeBoZ_011_0257-0262.pdf.
biography; bibliography
33025Massalongo A. (1854): Geneacaena lichenum. - Veronae: Typis Ramanzinianis, 24 p. https://ia801208.us.archive.org/14/items/geneacaenaliche00mass/geneacaenaliche00mass.pdf.
Koerberia gen. nov., Collolechia gen. nov., Cormothecium gen. nov., Sagiolechia gen. nov., Encephalographa gen. nov., Leciographa gen. nov., Krempelhuberia gen. nov., Acrocordia gen. nov.
33024Pant R., Joshi A., Joshi T., Maiti P., Nand M., Joshi T., Pande V. & Chandra S. (2021): Identification of potent Antigen 85C inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis via in-house lichen library and binding free energy studies Part-II. - Journal of Molecular Graphics and Modelling, 103: 107822 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmgm.2020.107822.
Tuberculosis remains the cause of mortality throughout the world. Currently, the available antitubercular drugs are not effective because of the existence of Multi-Drug resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB) and Extensively-Drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB). It has, therefore, become necessary to develop novel drugs that inhibit the activity of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Due to the existence of MDR and XDR-TB, Mtb Ag85C has risen out as a propitious molecular drug target as it has importance in the synthesis of main components of the Mtb cell envelope which are essential for the virulence and survival of Mtb. In a previous paper, we studied a potential drug target by virtual high throughput screening of compounds and in continuation of the study on Mtb Ag85C, we further studied the role of lichen compounds in the inhibition of Ag85C. In the current research work, virtual screening of a lichen compounds library was performed against Ag85C. Further, ADMET analysis was employed to filter out the screened lichen compounds. Bioactivity score and toxicity prediction finalized four lichen compounds i.e. Portentol, Aspicilin, Parietinic acid and Polyporic acid as potential inhibitors of Ag85C. The stability and dynamic behavior of four compounds were analyzed by using Molecular dynamics simulation which indicated that they may be potential inhibitors of Ag85C. Therefore, based on the above results, Portentol, Aspicilin, Parietinic acid and Polyporic acid may be potential drug candidates against Mtb. We suggest that the use of these compounds can minimize the treatment time-period and the various side effects associated with the currently available anti-tubercular drugs. Keywords: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Antigen 85C; Virtual screening; ADMET; Molecular dynamics; MMPBSA.
33023Belova S.E., Danilova O.V., Ivanova A.A., Merkel A.Y. & Dedysh S.N. (2020): Methane-oxidizing communities in lichen-dominated forested tundra are composed exclusively of high-affinity USCα methanotrophs. - Microorganisms, 8(12): 2047 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8122047.
Upland soils of tundra function as a constant sink for atmospheric CH4 but the identity of methane oxidizers in these soils remains poorly understood. Methane uptake rates of −0.4 to −0.6 mg CH4-C m−2 day−1 were determined by the static chamber method in a mildly acidic upland soil of the lichen-dominated forested tundra, North Siberia, Russia. The maximal CH4 oxidation activity was localized in an organic surface soil layer underlying the lichen cover. Molecular identification of methanotrophic bacteria based on retrieval of the pmoA gene revealed Upland Soil Cluster Alpha (USCα) as the only detectable methanotroph group. Quantification of these pmoA gene fragments by means of specific qPCR assay detected ~107pmoA gene copies g−1 dry soil. The pmoA diversity was represented by seven closely related phylotypes; the most abundant phylotype displayed 97.5% identity to pmoA of Candidatus Methyloaffinis lahnbergensis. Further analysis of prokaryote diversity in this soil did not reveal 16S rRNA gene fragments from well-studied methanotrophs of the order Methylococcales and the family Methylocystaceae. The largest group of reads (~4% of all bacterial 16S rRNA gene fragments) that could potentially belong to methanotrophs was classified as uncultivated Beijerinckiaceae bacteria. These reads displayed 96–100 and 95–98% sequence similarity to 16S rRNA gene of Candidatus Methyloaffinis lahnbergensis and “Methylocapsa gorgona” MG08, respectively, and were represented by eight species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs), two of which were highly abundant. These identification results characterize subarctic upland soils, which are exposed to atmospheric methane concentrations only, as a unique habitat colonized mostly by USCα methanotrophs. Keywords: atmospheric methane oxidation; forested tundra; acidic soils; methanotrophic bacteria; USCα group; pmoA gene; bacterial diversity
33022Migliozzi A., Catalano I., Mingo A. & Aprile G.G. (2020): Detecting the drivers of functional diversity in a local lichen fora: a case study on the extinct volcano of Roccamonfna (southern Italy). - Oecologia, 194: 757–770. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-020-04790-x.
Current strategies for conservation reportedly sufer from an inadequate awareness of the drivers afecting lichen diversity, pointing to the need to fully develop a functional approach to lichen ecology. This study is an attempt to detect the drivers afecting functional diversity in the lichen fora of a volcanic Mediterranean area. Data on epiphytic lichen distribution were correlated with information coming from a GIS analysis. Species richness, functional diversity and indicator values of lichens species were analyzed as a function of altitude, bioclimatic patterns and land use patterns. Both taxonomic and functional diversity were found to increase with altitude, peaking at 600 m a.s.l. and slightly decreasing at higher elevations. A fltering efect of altitude on lichen growth-forms was detected at increasing altitude, with foliose isidiate lichens replacing crustose lichens with sexual reproduction, cyanobacteria replacing Trentepohlia as photobiont, and oligotrophic species linked to partially shaded environments gradually replacing species indicating eutrophic conditions. Forest stations impacted by low impact traditional agriculture tended to express higher lichen diversity compared to either undisturbed broadleaved forests or intensive orchards. These data demonstrate the need to integrate traditional low-impact agricultural practices in protected areas. Moreover, they provide the evidence that reanalyzing past and recent lichenological censuses with the proposed analytical tools may help previewing and driving the evolution of endangered ecosystems. Keywords: Altitudinal gradient · Bioindicators · GIS analysis · Land-use patterns · Protected areas.
33021Behera P.K. & Nayaka S. (2020): Updated checklist of lichen biota of Meghalaya, India with 93 new distributional records for the state. - Journal of Indian Botanical Society, 100: 134–147. .
The paper reports the occurrence of 337 species of lichens from Meghalaya in North-East India. The study includes compilation of previous reports and recent collections from the state. The 337 species are distributed under 40 families and 102 genera, out of which 93 species are reported for the first time from the state Meghalaya. The lichen biota is dominated by crustose lichens (226 spp.) with maximum representation of graphidaceous (66 spp.) forms. Frequent encountering of previously unrecorded species from Meghalaya indicates the lichen richness and insufficient exploration in the state. Keywords: Biodiversity, Cryptogam, Distribution, Lichenized fungi, North-east, Taxonomy.
33020Исмаилов А.Б. & Урбанавичюс Г.П. [Ismailov A.B. & Urbanavichus G.P.] (2020): Виды лишайников, рекомендуемые к включению в новое. издание Красной книги Республики Дагестан [Species of lichens recommended for inclusion in the new edition of the Red data book of the Republic of Dagestan]. - Ботанический вестник Северного Кавказа [Botanical Herald of the North Caucasus], 2020/1: 7–22. DOI: 10.33580/2409-2444-2020-6-1-7-22.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] During on the field work of 2009–2020 years were obtained data on diversity, distribution and occurrence of lichens in the Republic of Dagestan including data on rare and endangered species. Based on them we recommend 24 species for inclusion in the new edition of the red data book of the Republic of Dagestan. Among them, 8 species are included in the red book of the Russian Federation (Leptogium burnetiae, L. hildenbrandii, Letharia vulpina, Lobaria pulmonaria, Nephromopsis laureri, Ricasolia amplissima, Tornabea scutellifera, Usnea florida), 16 species are rare and vulnerable in the region (Anaptychia elbursiana, A. roemeri, Chaenotheca hispidula, Circinaria vagans, Coniocarpon cinnabarinum, Enterographa hutchinsiae, Flavoparmelia soredians, Hypotrachyna laevigata, Inoderma byssaceum, Lecanographa lyncea, Lobarina scrobiculata, Pannaria conoplea, Parmelina quercina, Sclerophora farinacea, Seirophora lacunosa, Usnea articulata). Most of the species (20) were proposed to be included with «Vulnerable» category, 2 species (Leptogium burnetiae, Nephromopsis laureri) with «Near Threatened» and 2 species (Tornabea scutellifera, Usnea florida) with «Least Concern». Most of the lichens recommended on protection are epiphytes and concentrated in forest communities on the Coastal lowland (Samur river Delta), in mountain broad-leaved and mixed forests. Keywords: lichens, rare species, vulnerable species, protected species.
33019Gerlach A., Kantvilas G., Herrera Campos M.A., Truong C., Flakus A. & Miadlikowska J. (2020): A Festschrift in honor of Philippe Clerc: an eminent and multitalented lichenologist in Switzerland. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 65(2): 239. https://doi.org/10.35535/pfsyst-2020-0019.
33018Gerlach A., Rodrigues D., Rodriguez J.M., Rojas C., Temu S. & Kantvilas G. (2020): A tribute to Philippe Clerc: an eminent and multitalented lichenologist in Switzerland. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 65(2): 240–246. https://doi.org/10.35535/pfsyst-2020-0020.
anniversary; biography
33017Ferron S., Berry O., Olivier-Jimenez D., Rouaud I., Boustie J., Lohézic-Le Dévéhat F. & Poncet R. (2020): Chemical diversity of five coastal Roccella species from mainland France, the Scattered Islands, and São Tomé and Príncipe. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 65(2): 247–260. https://doi.org/10.35535/pfsyst-2020-0021.
Roccella species constitute interesting models to address questions regarding lichen metabolite diversity across taxonomic, ecological and geographic gradients. Indeed, owing to their wide distribution, their taxonomic diversity and the narrow ecological niche they occupy, Roccella species are good candidates to study the drivers of lichen chemistry. This study focuses on the chemical profiling of five species: R. applanata, R. belangeriana, R. fuciformis, R. montagnei and R. phycopsis. These five species were sampled in a rather narrow longitudinal range (1°51′W to 47°17′E) covering the Eastern Atlantic and Western Indian Ocean areas along an extended latitudinal range (48°49′N to 22°23′S). High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis followed by mass spectrometry of 31 Roccella thalli revealed a number of interesting patterns through a multivariate (PCA) analysis, including the first detailed chemical profiles for two species from the Scattered Islands: R. applanata and R. belangeriana. Metabolite segregation amongst all studied Roccella species, including R. montagnei and R. belangeriana, gave some insight into the taxonomy of the latter two species, which we interpret as separate species. An additional analysis focusing on R. montagnei samples revealed chemical differences along both a latitudinal and ecological gradient (from Europa Island to São Tomé and Príncipe). Three mass spectra databases were built to dereplicate the ions, which gave an overview of the factors that could drive quantitative and qualitative metabolite composition in lichens. Additionally, several new Roccella species records are reported for the Scattered Islands, as well as São Tomé and Príncipe. Key words: Roccella applanata, Roccella belangeriana, Roccella fuciformis, Roccella montagnei, Roccella phycopsis, chemical profile.
33016Kantvilas G. (2020): A new species of Mazosia (lichenised Ascomycetes: Roccellaceae) from Tasmania. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 65(2): 261–264. https://doi.org/10.35535/pfsyst-2020-0022.
Two species of Mazosia occur in Tasmania: the foliicolous, pantropical M. phyllosema and M. corticola, here described as new to science. The new species is characterised by a corticolous thallus containing psoromic acid and three-septate ascospores, 17–27 × 4–6.5 µm; it occurs in Tasmanian and Victoria. Key words: Australia, corticolous, foliicolous, lichens, new species.
33015Ohmura Y. (2020): Usnea nipparensis and U. sinensis form a ‘species pair ’ presuming morphological, chemical and molecular phylogenetic data. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 65(2): 265–271. https://doi.org/10.35535/pfsyst-2020-0023.
Phylogenetic relationships between Usnea nipparensis and U. sinensis, caperatic acid containing Usnea species, were examined based on ITS rDNA, and the phylogenetic position of U. nipparensis was inferred based on multi-locus gene analysis using ITS rDNA, nuLSU, and MCM7. Although U. nipparensis and U. sinensis have a sorediate and an esorediate shrubby thallus, respectively, and in general look quite different, other detailed morphological and chemical features are similar. Analysis of the ITS rDNA sequences suggests their close relationship, but also confirms the independence of both species, and that they most likely form a ‘species pair’ based on morphological, chemical and molecular phylogenetic data. Phylogenetic trees based on both multi-locus gene and ITS rDNA alone strongly support that U. nipparensis and U. angulata belong to the same clade. Key words: Asia, caperatic acid, ITS rDNA, lichenized fungi, nuLSU, MCM7, phylogeny, taxonomy.
33014Gerlach A., da Silveira R.M.B., Rojas C. & Clerc P. (2020): Naming and describing the diversity in the Usnea cornuta aggregate (lichenized Ascomycota, Parmeliaceae) focusing on Brazilian specimens. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 65(2): 272–302. https://doi.org/10.35535/pfsyst-2020-0024.
This study is a reassessment of the Usnea cornuta aggregate diversity mainly in Brazil. Based on previous multi-locus species delimitation analyses using the multispecies coalescent model (MSC), we carried out a posteriori morphological and anatomical studies. The following corticolous new species are described: Usnea arianae with norstictic or fatty or lobaric acids, convex and efflorescent soralia and a lax medulla; U. flabelliformis with protocetraric acid, fan-shaped main branches and a high medulla/cortex ratio; U. rubropallens with protocetraric acid and a faint orange cortical/subcortical pigment; U. stipitata with constictic acid, stipitate soralia and a high medulla/cortex ratio; and U. tenuicorticata with protocetraric acid, a thin cortex and a high medulla/cortex ratio. The newly described species were found to occur so far only in the Americas, except U. arianae which shows an amphi-atlantic distribution in Europe and on the American continent. Seven species already described belonging to the U. cornuta aggr. in Brazil are further treated here: Usnea boomiana with caperatic acid and large, concave soralia, new to South America; U. brasiliensis with protocetraric acid, minute and irregular soralia; U. cornuta with mainly salazinic acid and minute soralia fusing into consoralia; U. macaronesica (syn. nov.: U. subglabrata) with barbatic acid, large excavate soralia and a lax medulla; Usnea subpectinata, a so far european species resurrected from the U. cornuta synonymy, with stictic acid and numerous isidiofibrils, new to South America; and U. trachyclada with thamnolic acid and K+ bright yellow stipitate soralia. Full descriptions with morphological, anatomical and chemical features, geographical distributions, and illustrations are provided for each species along with an identification key. Key words: Central America, Europe, multispecies coalescent (MSC) model, secondary metabolites, South America, species delimitation analyses, systematics.
33013Lücking R., Nadel M.R.A., Araujo E. & Gerlach A. (2020): Two decades of DNA barcoding in the genus Usnea (Parmeliaceae): how useful and reliable is the ITS?. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 65(2): 303–357. https://doi.org/10.35535/pfsyst-2020-0025.
We present an exhaustive analysis of the ITS barcoding marker in the genus Usnea s.lat., separated into Dolichousnea, Eumitria, and Usnea including the subgenus Neuropogon, analyzing 1,751 accessions. We found only a few low-quality accessions, whereas information on voucher specimens and accuracy and precision of identifications was of subpar quality for many accessions. We provide an updated voucher table, alignment and phylogenetic tree to facilitate DNA barcoding of Usnea, either locally or through curated databases such as UNITE. Taxonomic and geographic coverage was moderate: while Dolichousnea and subgenus Neuropogon were well-represented among ITS data, sampling for Eumitria and Usnea s.str. was sparse and biased towards certain lineages and geographic regions, such as Antarctica, Europe, and South America. North America, Africa, Asia and Oceania were undersampled. A peculiar situation arose with New Zealand, represented by a large amount of ITS accessions from across both major islands, but most of them left unidentified. The species pair Usnea antarctica vs. U. aurantiacoatra was the most sampled clade, including numerous ITS accessions from taxonomic and ecological studies. However, published analyses of highly resolved microsatellite and RADseq markers showed that ITS was not able to properly resolve the two species present in this complex. While lack of resolution appears to be an issue with ITS in recently evolving species complexes, we did not find evidence for gene duplication (paralogs) or hybridization for this marker. Comparison with other markers demonstrated that particularly IGS and RPB1 are useful to complement ITS-based phylogenies. Both IGS and RPB1 provided better backbone resolution and support than ITS; while IGS also showed better resolution and support at species level, RPB1 was less resolved and delineated for larger species complexes. The nuLSU was of limited use, providing neither resolution nor backbone support. The other three commonly employed protein-coding markers, TUB2, RPB2, and MCM7, showed variable evidence of possible gene duplication and paralog formation, particularly in the MCM7, and these markers should be used with care, especially in multimarker coalescence approaches. A substantial challenge was provided by difficult morphospecies that did not form coherent clades with ITS or other markers, suggesting various levels of cryptic speciation, the most notorious example being the U. cornuta complex. In these cases, the available data suggest that multimarker approaches using ITS, IGS and RPB1 help to assess distinct lineages. Overall, ITS was found to be a good first approximation to assess species delimitation and recognition in Usnea s.lat., as long as the data are carefully analyzed, and reference sequences are critically assessed and not taken at face value. In difficult groups, we recommend IGS as a secondary barcode marker, with the option to employ more resource-intensive approaches, such as RADseq, in species complexes involving so-called species pairs or other cases of disparate morphology not reflected in the ITS or IGS. Attempts should be made to close taxonomic and geographic gaps especially for the latter two markers, in particular in Eumitria and Usnea s.str. and in the highly diverse areas of North America and Central America, Africa, Asia, and Oceania. Key words: accuracy in GenBank, incorrect sequence labeling, paralogs, species delimitation; species richness.
33012Moncada B., Sipman H.J.M. & Lücking R. (2020): Testing DNA barcoding in Usnea (Parmeliaceae) in Colombia using the internal transcribed spacer (ITS). - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 65(2): 358–385. https://doi.org/10.35535/pfsyst-2020-0026.
We tested the functionality of ITS-based DNA barcoding in lichen fungi using Colombian samples of the genus Usnea as an example. New ITS sequences were generated for 15 samples from five localities in two different ecoregions, representing varying morphologies and medullary chemistries. We employed five strategies to identify the samples: (1) BLASTn on the NCBI BLAST site with the original identifications of the best matching reference sequences; (2) as previous, but with revised identifications of the reference sequences based on a separately published revision of ITS sequences published for the genus; (3) local BLASTn in BioEdit using a separately published, revised and curated set of ITS reference sequences for the genus; (4) multiple alignment based phylogenetic analysis within the framework of all available ITS sequences for Usnea s.str.; and (5) integrative taxonomy, combining molecular phylogeny and comparative analysis of phenotype and chemical data. Using the latter approach as reference, we found that NCBI BLASTn with original identifications performed poorly, resulting in an identification success rate of only 7% (a single sample). NCBI BLASTn with revised identifications more than tripled identification success (23%), but was still unsatisfactory. Local BLASTn in BioEdit using the revised, curated reference data further doubled identification success (47%), but remained inadequate. Multiple alignment-based phylogenetic analysis achieved an identification success rate of 80% compared to the result from integrative taxonomy. Based on these results, we conclude that ITS-based DNA barcoding of the genus Usnea under the current circumstances performs poorly, but can be substantially improved using three strategies: (1) update identifications of reference sequences in primary repositories such as GenBank or alternatively use a curated reference data set; (2) perform local BLAST with a curated reference data set focusing on the target genus only, combined with multiple alignment-based phylogenetic analysis as a verification step; and (3) close substantial geographic and taxonomic gaps in the existing reference data. Our analyses suggest that if a near-complete reference data set with correct identifications existed for the genus, then standard BLAST approaches could achieve high levels of identification success close to 100%. As part of our DNA barcoding exercise, which generated the first 15 ITS sequences for Colombian samples of the genus Usnea, we confirm the presence of U. aranea and U. wasmuthii in Colombia and we report for the first time U. tenuicorticata for the country. Key words: Usnea columbiana, Usnea concinna, Usnea fruticans, Usnea macrura, Usnea nidulans, Usnea setulosa, Usnea sulphurascens.
33011Rodriguez J.M., Diaz Dominguez R.E., Mayrhofer H., Passo A. & Renison D. (2020): High lichen species richness in Polylepis australis forest: new records from South America and Argentina. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 65(2): 386–402. https://doi.org/10.35535/pfsyst-2020-0027.
The Polylepis australis forests in Central Argentina support a great biodiversity in a relative small area. As a result of this study focusing on the diversity and ecology of the lichen communities of these forests, we present five new species for South America: Rinodina ficta, R. malcolmii, R. obscura, Usnea glabrata, Tetramelas triphragmioides and eight taxa new for Argentina: Calicium abietinum, Erioderma leylandii subsp. leylandii, Leptogium microstictum, Phaeophyscia endococcinodes, Rinodina dolichospora, R. intermedia, Usnea cirrosa and U. flavocardia. Unidentified Usnea species, similar to U. silesiaca, were also characterized and discussed. Key words: Caliciaceae, Collemataceae, Córdoba, Pannariaceae, Parmeliaceae, Physciaceae, taxonomy.
33010Spielmann A.A. & Marcelli M.P. (2020): Type studies on Parmotrema (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) with salazinic acid. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 65(2): 403–508. https://doi.org/10.35535/pfsyst-2020-0028.
The species of Parmotrema with salazinic acid were revised, based on the types of the accepted names, as well as their synonyms. Descriptions for 66 species are given and the synonymy, chemistry, distribution and taxonomic affinities of each species discussed. Three new species are described: Parmotrema austromaculatum sp. nov., P. bifidum sp. nov. and P. clercianum sp. nov. One new combination in Parmelinella is made, P. afrocetrata comb. nov., as well as 13 new combinations in Parmotrema: P. acanthifolium comb. nov., P. concors comb. nov., P. foliolosum comb. nov., P. granulare comb. nov., P. lividotessellatum comb. nov., P. magnum comb. nov., P. maximum comb. nov., P. nudum comb. nov., P. petropoliense comb. nov., P. radiatum comb. nov., P. reterimulosum comb. nov., P. sieberi comb. nov. and P. warmingii comb. nov. One new name, Parmotrema elixii nom. nov. is proposed for Rimelia pustulata. Two lectotypifications are made: Parmotrema erubescens and P. ruminatum. Twelve taxa remain without definite status and are included in the nomina inquirenda. Key words: lichens, Brazil, Parmelia, Rimelia, Canomaculina, Rimeliella, Parmelinella.
33009La Greca S. (2020): Chrysothrix bergeri (Ascomycota: Arthoniales: Chrysothricaceae), a new lichen species from the southeastern United States, the Caribbean, and Bermuda. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 65(2): 509–514. https://doi.org/10.35535/pfsyst-2020-0029.
A crustose lichen species new to science – previously characterized in the literature but unnamed – is formally described. This new species, Chrysothrix bergeri sp. nov., ranges from the southeastern United States southwards to the Caribbean islands (Bahamas and Cuba) and eastwards to Bermuda. It is most easily confused with C. xanthina, from which it differs in both chemistry and ascospore shape. Bilimbia aurata and Bilimbia stevensoni are both confirmed as synonyms of C. xanthina. A lectotype is selected for Bilimbia aurata. Solvent E is recommended for the chromatographic separation of leprapinic and pinastric acids – two lichen secondary products critical for diagnosing certain species of Chrysothrix, including C. bergeri. Key words: Arthoniomycetes, leprapinic acid, Neotropics, pinastric acid, taxonomy.
33008Bungartz F., Søchting U. & Arup U. (2020): Teloschistaceae (lichenized Ascomycota) from the Galapagos Islands: a phylogenetic revision based on morphological, anatomical, chemical, and molecular data. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 65(2): 515–576. https://doi.org/10.35535/pfsyst-2020-0030.
The lichen family Teloschistaceae from the Galapagos is revised. Most of the species belong to the Caloplacoideae, two to Teloschistoideae and a few to Xanthorioideae, three subfamilies not validly published, which is remedied here. Four different datasets were analyzed using Bayesian inference. For the bulk of the species, a combined dataset of nrITS, nrLSU and mrSSU was analyzed. Additionally, three analyses were performed using nrITS to further investigate phylogenetic relationships within and between species in each subfamily, and in the genera Xanthomendoza and Squamulea. Four new genera are described: Lacrima, Oceanoplaca, Phaeoplaca, Sucioplaca. Twenty-four species are reported, of which ten are new to science: Caloplaca nigra, Lacrima galapagoensis, Oceanoplaca chemoisidiosa, O. sideritoides, Phaeoplaca tortuca, Squamulea chelonia, S. humboldtiana, S. osseophila, S. oceanica, and Xanthomendoza leoncita. Several new combinations are proposed and three species of Xanthomendoza are reduced to synonymy. Several new combinations and species placed into synonymy do not occur in the Galapagos, but are treated as a consequence of our taxonomic revision. Morphology, anatomy, secondary chemistry, distribution and molecular phylogenetic affiliation are presented for each species and a key is provided. Eight different chemical patterns are quantitatively described based on HPLC analyses. The new genus Lacrima includes L. galapagoensis, a species without vegetative propagules, and two densely isidiate species, L. epiphora and L. aphanotripta that are morphologically similar to ‘Caloplaca’ wrightii. The only species of Galapagos Teloschistaceae that contains xanthones is placed into Huneckia. Oceanoplaca includes two species with the new anthraquinone isidiosin, O. isidiosa and O. chemoisidiosa, while a third species, O. sideritoides, does not contain this secondary metabolite. Phaeoplaca camptidia has previously been reported from Galapagos, but our phylogenetic analysis suggests that it is a new species, here named P. tortuca. An isolated position is occupied by ‘Caloplaca’ diplacia, which we place in it its own monotypic genus Sucioplaca. Some Galapagos Teloschistaceae can be considered a ‘residue’ of unresolved Caloplaca s.l., i.e. the corticolous C. floridana is possibly related to the saxicolous C. nigra, while C. cupulifera can currently not be placed. Squamulea remains particularly problematic and includes S. phyllidizans, that is nested among otherwise unresolved Squamulea species. Based on molecular data, S. phyllidizans is close to ‘Huriella’. ‘Huriella’ flakusii, described from Peru, is confirmed to occur in the Galapagos and the genus is reduced to synonymy with Squamulea. The Squamulea squamosa/subsoluta group remains largely unresolved, but the new species S. chelonia, S. humboldtiana, S. oceanica, and S. osseophila are phylogenetically distinct. Foliose Teloschistaceae are represented only by one species, described as Xanthomendoza leoncita, while the only fruticose species, Teloschistes chrysophthalmus and T. flavicans, are cosmopolitan. Key words: Census of Galapagos Biodiversity, Caloplaca, Galapagos Lichen Inventory, Squamulea, taxonomy, identification key, South America, HPLC, secondary metabolites.
33007Lücking R., Moncada B., Sipman H.J.M., Sobreira P.N.B., Viñas C., Gutíerrez J. & Flynn T.W. (2020): Saxiloba: a new genus of placodioid lichens from the Caribbean and Hawaii shakes up the Porinaceae tree (lichenized Ascomycota: Gyalectales). - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 65(2): 577–585. https://doi.org/10.35535/pfsyst-2020-0031.
The new genus Saxiloba is described with the two species S. firmula from the Caribbean and S. hawaiiensis from Hawaii. Saxiloba is characterized by a unique, placodioid thallus forming distinct lobes, growing on rock in shaded to exposed situations with a trentepohlioid photobiont and a fenestrate thallus anatomy with distinct surface lines. The material is often sterile, but Porina-like perithecia and ascospores had previously been described for the Caribbean taxon and were here confirmed for both species. Molecular sequence data also confirmed placement of this lineage in Porinaceae. Its position within that family supports the notion that Porinaceae should be subdivided into a larger number of genera than proposed in previous classification attempts. Compared to other Porinaceae, Saxiloba exhibits a unique morphology and anatomy that recalls taxa in the related family Graphidaceae and it substantially expands the known phenotypic variation within Porinaceae. The two recognized species are similar in overall morphology but, apart from their disjunct distribution and different substrate ecology, differ in lobe configuration, color and disposition of the crystal clusters and resulting surface patterns. Key words: Labyrintha, Leucodecton, Poeltidea, Trichotheliaceae, window lichens.
33006McCune B., Arup U., Breuss O., Di Meglio E., Di Meglio J., Esslinger T.L., Miadlikowska J., Miller A.E., Rosentreter R., Schultz M., Sheard J., Tønsberg T. & Walton J. (2020): Biodiversity and ecology of lichens of Kenai Fjords National Park, Alaska. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 65(2): 586–619. https://doi.org/10.35535/pfsyst-2020-0032.
We inventoried lichens in Kenai Fjords National Park in Alaska, USA We assembled the known information on occurrence and ecology of lichens in this park by combining field, herbarium, and literature studies. Our results provide baseline data on lichen occurrence that may be used in resource condition assessments, vulnerability assessments, long-term ecological monitoring, and resource management. We report a total of 616 taxa of lichenized fungi from the Park, plus an additional five subspecies and three varieties, all of which are new additions to the National Park Service database for this park unit. An additional five species of nonlichenized lichenicolous fungi are reported here. Eight non-lichenized fungi that are traditionally treated with lichens are also included, most of these associated with bark of particular host species. Four taxa new to North America are reported here (Arctomia delicatula var. acutior, Aspicilia dudinensis, Myriospora myochroa, and Ochrolechia bahusiensis), along with 44 species new to Alaska. Numerous species have been confirmed using ITS barcoding sequences. Also several records assigned to the genus level are reported, many of those are likely new species. Key words: biological inventory, Kenai Peninsula, lichenized fungi, North America.
33005Tsurykau A., Bely P. & Arup U. (2020): Molecular phylogenetic analyses reveal two new synonyms of Xanthoria parietina. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 65(2): 620–623. https://doi.org/10.35535/pfsyst-2020-0033.
Molecular analyses of the recently described Xanthoria polessica collected from the type locality and of the Australian species X. coomae were used to determine whether these taxa are distinct species or fall within the wide phenotypic variation of the wellknown and cosmopolitan X. parietina. Our results clearly indicate that both taxa should be considered as synonyms of X. parietina since the infraspecific morphological range is accommodated by the observed variation in the thallus and lobe size, their color, position of apothecia, the shape of ascospores, and width of ascospore septum. Key words: taxonomy, phylogeny, ITS, Teloschistaceae, lichens.
33004Brunialti G., Giordani P., Ravera S. & Frati L. (2021): The reproductive strategy as an important trait for the distribution of lower-trunk epiphytic lichens in old-growth vs. non-old growth forests. - Forests, 12: 27 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/f12010027.
(1) Research Highlights: The work studied the beta diversity patterns of epiphytic lichens as a function of their reproductive strategies in old-growth and non-old growth forests from the Mediterranean area. (2) Background and Objectives: The reproductive strategies of lichens can drive the dispersal and distribution of species assemblages in forest ecosystems. To further investigate this issue, we analyzed data on epiphytic lichen diversity collected from old-growth and non-old growth forest sites (36 plots) located in Cilento National Park (South Italy). Our working hypothesis was that the dispersal abilities due to the different reproductive strategies drove species beta diversity depending on forest age and continuity. We expected a high turnover for sexually reproducing species and high nestedness for vegetative ones. We also considered the relationship between forest continuity and beta diversity in terms of species rarity. (3) Materials and Methods: we used the Bray–Curtis index of dissimilarity to partition lichen diversity into two components of beta diversity for different subsets (type of forest, reproductive strategy, and species rarity). (4) Results: The two forest types shared most of the common species and did not show significant differences in alpha and gamma diversity. The turnover of specific abundance was the main component of beta diversity, and was significantly greater for sexually reproducing species as compared to vegetative ones. These latter species had also the least turnover and greater nestedness in old-growth forests. Rare species showed higher turnover than common ones. (5) Conclusions: Our results suggest that sexually reproducing lichen species always have high turnover, while vegetative species tend to form nested assemblages, especially in old-growth forests. The rarity level contributes to the species turnover in lichen communities. Contrary to what one might expect, the differences between old-growth and non-old growth forests are not strong. Keywords: sexual reproduction; vegetative propagules; forest management; functional traits; beta diversity.
33003Schmitz D., Villa P.M., Putzke J., Michel R.F.M., Campos P.V., Neto J.A.A.M. & Schaefer C.E.R.G. (2020): Diversity and species associations in cryptogam communities along a pedoenvironmental gradient on Elephant Island, Maritime Antarctica. - Folia Geobotanica, 55: 211–224. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12224-020-09376-2.
The Maritime Antarctica region has terrestrial ecosystems dominated by lichens and mosses, representing important ecological indicators of climate change. However, little is known about environmental factors that shape regional cryptogam communities at local scale. In this study we analyse changes in species richness, species composition and coverage of representative cryptogam communities across a pedoenvironmental gradient inMaritime Antarctica. We hypothesized that soil texture and chemical properties shape variations in species richness and composition. We selected fifteen different pedoenvironments, where 20 plots (20 × 20 cm) were sampled for obtaining phytosociological parameters of cryptogamous communities, and in each plot a composite topsoil sample was collected to determine chemical and physical soil properties.Wethen evaluated the main effects of soil attributes on the richness and composition of cryptogam species using direct gradient analysis and linear models. The ecological value of species was determined, allowing to identify the type of plant community and species associations in each pedoenvironment. Differences in species composition, richness and coverage were detected along the pedoenvironmental gradient. The model analysis showed that soil fertility has significant effects on species composition, but not on species richness. Based on gradient analysis, variability on soil fertility and nutrient contents were important pedoenvironmental filters for cryptogam communities in Maritime Antarctica. This study reveals that small-scale heterogeneity contributes to specific associations along pedoenvironmental gradients. We conclude that soil attributes drive the composition pattern of cryptogam species and also the type of communities present. Keywords: lichens . mosses . richness . soil texture . soil fertility . species composition.
33002McMullin R.T., Sokoloff P.C. & Lendemer J.C. (2020): Molecular data reveal the identity of an unusual form of Calogaya saxicola and the first report from the Queen Elizabeth Islands in the Canadian High Arctic. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 19: 190–198. .
Calogaya saxicola (≡ Caloplaca saxicola) is reported for the first time from the Queen Elizabeth Islands in the Canadian High Arctic. The report is based on an unusual form with inconspicuous or absent lobes and clustered apothecia forming hemispherical mounds. It was identified using a molecular phylogenetic analysis of ITS nrDNA sequence data. Our analysis recovered the sequence in the C. saxicola group, within a clade of sequences assigned to C. saxicola s. str. in previous studies. Keywords. – Biogeography, genotype, morphological plasticity, phenotype, Teloschistaceae.
33001Kelso N. & Hansen C.J. (2020): Discovery of the first large population of Phaeophyscia leana in northern Alabama. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 19: 174–179. http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/op/biblio_list.php?BucVolume_tab=19.
One year after two individuals of the rare lichen Phaeophyscia leana were reported from north Alabama, a significant subpopulation of more than 500 individual thalli was discovered nearby in the Goldsmith-Schiffman Wildlife Sanctuary, Owens Cross Roads, Alabama. The site is located in a young forest surrounding an 80-year-old pond on protected property, affording some environmental protections that may have allowed this subpopulation to grow to its current size. This affirms that P. leana occurs at the southern edge of the Ohio Valley and furthers regional knowledge of the species by documenting that it occurs in at least one larger, more stable subpopulation. The discovery has positive implications for the future of the species in northeast Alabama and throughout its range. Keywords. – Huntsville, Madison County, lichen diversity, southeastern United States, Tennessee River.
33000Sierra R. & Molinari-Novoa E.A. (2020): Neoechinodiscus, a new name for Echinodiscus Etayo & Diederich (lichenicolous Helotiales). - Opuscula Philolichenum, 19: 172–173. http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/op/biblio_list.php?BucVolume_tab=19.
The name Echinodiscus Etayo & Diederich is illegitmate because it is a later homonym of Echinodiscus Bentham (a genus of legume) and Echinodiscus A. Mann (a genus of diatoms). Neoechinodiscus is introduced to provide a legitimate name for the genus of lichenicolous fungi. The new combinations N. lesdainii and N. kozhevnikovii are also proposed for the species included in Echinodiscus Etayo & Diederich. Keywords. – Echinodiscus kozhevnikovii, nomenclature, Phacopsis lesdainii, taxonomy.
32999Perlmutter G.B. & Rivas Plata E. (2020): Lecanora (Aspicilia) albopruinosa Looman is a synonym of Circinaria contorta. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 19: 168–171. http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/op/biblio_list.php?BucVolume_tab=19..
Material of Lecanora albopruinosa Looman was examined and found to belong to Circinaria contorta. This confirms the synonymy that was previously published seemingly without examination of the authentic material of L. albopruinosa. Further, L. albopruinosa Looman was found to be an illegitimate homonym of the European L. albopruinosa (Arnold) Nyl., which is a species of Caloplaca. Keywords. – Megasporaceae, North America, nomenclature, taxonomy.
32998Brodo I.M. & Sheard J.W. (2020): The lichens and lichenicolous fungi of Haida Gwaii, British Columbia, Canada. 6. A new species of Buellia with four-celled, Callispora-type ascospores. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 19: 163–167. http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/op/biblio_list.php?BucVolume_tab=19.
A new species of crustose lichen belonging to the “Hafellia” group of the genus Buellia, i.e., having Callispora-type ascospores with uneven lateral wall thickening, was discovered growing on lignum on a beach on Haida Gwaii, British Columbia. It resembles and is related to B. fosteri but has longer, predominantly 4-celled ascospores and a hymenium that is not inspersed with oil. It is described and illustrated here as B. gibstoneorum. It is compared with B. fosteri and some other species with Callispora-type ascospores. The new combination Buellia bispora is made for Hafellia bispora. Keywords. – Coastal lichens, Hafellia, Pacific Northwest, Buellia gibstoneorum.
32997Han L.-F., Xie Y.-H., Zhang H.-B., Li L.-S. & Guo S.-Y. (2020): A new species of Usnea (Parmeliaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) from Southwest China. - Phytotaxa, 472(1): 23–32. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.472.1.3.
During the study of Usnea from China, we identified and illustrated a new species, Usnea sulphuridiscoidea S. Y. Guo & L. F. Han from the Ailaoshan Mountain of Southwest China, based on morphological characteristics and nrDNA ITS sequence data. This new species can be distinguished morphologically from other apotheciate members of Usnea by the special lateral apothecia with sulphur disc, the inflated branches with glossy surface and numerous papillae as well as many fibrils, meanwhile lacking pseudocyphellae and soralia. The nrDNA ITS sequence data supported the recognition of the new species. Keywords: Ailaoshan Mountain, ITS sequence, Lecanorales, phylogenetic analysis, taxonomy.
32996Rodriguez-Flakus P. (2020): Non-saxicolous lecideoid lichens in southern South America. - Phytotaxa, 476(1): 1–73. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.476.1.1.
Lecidea Ach. in its broad sense, is one of the largest and most heterogeneous genus of lichenized fungi with a worldwide distribution and with diversity hotspots located in the temperate and polar regions. The genus belongs to a crust-like microlichen group and inhabits many different substrates (e.g., bark, rock, wood, soil, mosses). Lecidea does not form a coherent systematic entity, and previous studies have revealed it as a polyphyletic assemblage with species spread across various families within the Lecanoromycetes. The present study is a modern taxonomic revision of southern South America non-saxicolous lecideoid lichens based on morphological, anatomical and chemical characters. A total of 27 species belonging to ten genera are recognized. The current study reveals a substantial, previously hidden, diversity of lichens in Valdivian temperate and Magellanic subpolar forests; increasing the number of known lecideoid lichens in the studied area. Many new regional records are also reported including six species new to South America (Bryobilimbia hypnorum, Hertelidea botryosa, H. eucalypti, Japewiella tavaresiana, Placynthiella oligotropha, and Ramboldia brunneocarpa). The following species are here described as new to science: Bryobilimbia flakusii Rodr. Flakus sp. nov. (Argentina), B. pallida Rodr. Flakus sp. nov. (Argentina, Chile), Hertelidea printzenii Rodr. Flakus sp. nov. (Argentina), H. stipitata Rodr. Flakus sp. nov. (Argentina, Chile), “Lecidea” vobisii Rodr. Flakus sp. nov. (Argentina), and Ramboldia australis Rodr. Flakus sp. nov. (Argentina, Chile). All species are described and illustrated in detail, and an identification key to the species is provided. In addition, as a result of a revision of available type material, a list of 48 additional species excluded from this study, including brief remarks on their taxonomical affiliations, is provided. Keywords: Argentina, biodiversity, Bryobilimbia, Chile, Hertelidea, Hypocenomyce, Japewiella, Lecidea s. lat., lichenized Ascomycota, Miltidea, new species, Palicella, Placynthiella, Ramboldia, taxonomy, temperate forests, Trapeliopsis.
32995Avonto C., Chittiboyina A.G., Khan S.I., Dale O.R., Parcher J.F., Wang M. & Khan I.A. (2021): Are atranols the only skin sensitizers in oakmoss? A systematic investigation using non-animal methods. - Toxicology in Vitro, 70: 105053 [8 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2020.105053.
Oakmoss and treemoss absolutes are the major natural extracts of concern as potential sources of skin sensitizers in cosmetics and personal care products (PCP). Two single constituents, atranol and chloroatranol, have been identified as primary culprits in both lichens, and industrial self-regulation has been proposed to limit their contents to less than 100 ppm. Nonetheless, evidence points to the presence of additional candidate skin sensitizers in these multicomponent extracts. These observations, along with a lack of data from non-animal alternative methods and the chemical variability of commercial absolutes, prompted further investigation of oakmoss absolute along with altranol-like compounds in these extracts. The major chemical constituents of a commercial sample were identified by two independent analytical techniques, GC–MS and HPLC-DAD-MS. The crude oakmoss extract and pure compounds were assayed with two in chemico methods (HTS-DCYA and DPRA) to gauge their chemical reactivity. Activation of inflammatory responses in vitro was also investigated by KeratinoSens ™ and human cell line activation tests (h-CLAT). Based on weight of evidence, orcinol, ethyl orsellinate, and usnic acid were classified as candidate sensitizers, along with both atranols and oakmoss extract. Keywords: Skin sensitization; Oakmoss absolutes; Non-animal alternative methods; DPRA; KeratinoSens; h-CLAT; HTS-DCYA.
32994Mugas M.L., Calvo G., Marioni J., Céspedes M., Martinez F., Sáenz D., Di Venosa G., Cabrera J.L., Núñez Montoya S. & Casas A. (2021): Photodynamic therapy of tumour cells mediated by the natural anthraquinone parietin and blue light. - Journal of Photochemistry & Photobiology, B: Biology, 214: 112089 [8 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2020.112089.
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment for superficial tumours involving the administration of a photosensitiser followed by irradiation. The potential of the natural anthraquinone parietin (PTN) in PDT is still relatively unexploited. In the present work, PTN isolated from the lichen Teoloschistes nodulifer (Nyl.) Hillman (Telochistaceae) was evaluated as a potential photosensitiser on tumour cells employing UVA-Vis and blue light. Blue light of 2 J/cm2 induced 50% death of K562 leukaemic cells treated 1 h with 30 μM PTN (Protocol a). Higher light doses (8 J/cm2) were needed to achieve the same percentage of cell death employing lower PTN concentrations (3 μM) and higher exposure times (24 h) (Protocol b). Cell cycle analysis after both protocols of PTN-PDT revealed a high percentage of sub-G1 cells. PTN was found to be taken up by K562 cells mainly by passive diffusion. Other tumour cells such as ovary cancer IGROV-1 and LM2 mammary carcinoma, as well as the normal keratinocytes HaCaT, were also photosensitised with PTN-PDT. We conclude that PTN is a promising photosensitiser for PDT of superficial malignancies and purging of leukaemic cells, when illuminated with blue light. Thus, this light wavelength is proposed to replace the Vis-UVA lamps generally employed for the photosensitisation of anthraquinones.
32993Abas A. (2021): A systematic review on biomonitoring using lichen as the biological indicator: A decade of practices, progress and challenges. - Ecological Indicators, 121: 107197 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2020.107197.
Various methods have been developed to monitor environmental quality, including biomonitoring using lichen. In this paper, a total of 143 previous studies from the last decade were analyzed to gain insight into current practices, progress, and challenges. Content analysis was employed to systematically characterize and classify the existing biomonitoring using lichen studies into several groups based on research area and scope. Various aspects of current biomonitoring applications using lichen were analyzed and it was found that the number of related studies increased significantly in recent years. Two main techniques for biomonitoring using lichen were identified, with varying research scope and types of parameters that were measured in the studies. Finally, the current practices, progress, and challenges of biomonitoring using lichen as the biological indicator were discussed, and future recommendations were provided. Key words: Lichens; Environmental impact assessment; Biological monitoring; Environmental management; Air pollution.
32992Hei Y., Zhang H., Tan N., Zhou Y., Wei X., Hu C., Liu Y., Wang L., Qi J. & Gao J.-M. (2021): Antimicrobial activity and biosynthetic potential of cultivable actinomycetes associated with Lichen symbiosis from Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. - Microbiological Research, 244: 126652 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micres.2020.126652.
Actinobacteria that inhabit lichen symbionts are considered a promising yet previously underexplored source of novel compounds. Here, for the first time, we conducted a comprehensive investigation with regard to strain isolation and identification of lichen-associated actinobacteria from Tibet Plateau, antimicrobial activity screening, biosynthetic genes detection, bioactive metabolites identification and activity prediction. A large number of culturable actinomycetes were isolated from lichens around Qinghai Lake, in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Twenty-seven strains with distinct morphological characteristics were preliminarily studied. 16S rRNA gene identification showed that 13 strains were new species. The PCR-screening of specific biosynthetic genes indicated that these 27 isolates had abundant intrinsic biosynthetic potential. The antimicrobial activity experiment screened out some potential biological control antagonistic bacteria. The metabolites of 13 strains of Streptomyces with antibacterial activity were analyzed by LC-HRMS, and further 18 compounds were identified by NMR and / or LC-HRMS. The identified compounds were mainly pyrrolidine and indole derivatives, as well as anthracyclines. Seven compounds were identified with less biological activity, then predicted and evaluated their biological activity. The predicted results showed that compound 2 had excellent inhibitory activity on HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. Overall, the results indicate actinobacteria isolated from unexploited plateau lichen are promising sources of biological active metabolite, which could provide important bioactive compounds as potential antibiotic drugs. Keywords: Actinobacteria; Lichens; Antimicrobial activity; Biosynthetic potential; Activity prediction.
32991Sepahvand A., Studzińska-Sroka E., Ramak P. & Karimian V. (2021): Usnea sp.: Antimicrobial potential, bioactive compounds, ethnopharmacological uses and other pharmacological properties; a review article. - Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 268: 113656 [25 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2020.113656.
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Usnea sp. is a fruticose thalli lichen with interesting medicinal properties. Since ancient times, Usnea sp. has been used in traditional medicine worldwide to treat various diseases. The broad scientific studies on this lichen have proved its multidirectional biological effect, such as antimicrobial activity, which is attributed to its usnic acid content. Purpose: The main aim of this review is to provide an up-to-date overview of the antimicrobial activities of Usnea sp., including the traditional and medicinal uses, and a critical evaluation of the presented data. Also, the mechanism of this type of action will be explained. Methods: To prepare this manuscript, the information was extracted from scientific databases (Pubmed, ScienceDirect, Wiley, Springer, and Google Scholar), books, and theses. The available scientific information was critically analysed. Results: Analysis of the scientific literature regarding traditional uses and bioactivity research showed that Usnea sp. extracts exhibit high antibacterial activity. The Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis) and aquatic oomycetous fungi were the most sensitive Usnea sp. extracts. Moderate activity against Malassezia furfur and dermatophytes was observed, as well. Gram-negative bacteria, yeast, and fungi were more frequently resistant to Usnea sp. extracts (included Escherichia coli, Candida sp., Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Aspergillus sp.). The antiviral activity of Usnea sp. was limited. Conclusion: The results show that the use of Usnea sp. in traditional medicine can be scientifically documented. Studies show that usnic acid is the active compound present in Usnea sp. extracts. This compound, which has a high antibacterial and cytotoxic activity, exists in large quantities in low-polarity extracts, and low concentration in these of high-polarity. Usnea sp. extracts contain compounds other than usnic acid as well with biological effects. Usnea barbata is a species that has been employed in modern-day cosmetic and pharmaceutical preparations. The information presented in the review can be considered as a source of knowledge about the Usnea sp. It presents research on biological properties reported for different species of Usnea genus and thus can facilitate their use in medicine. Keywords: Antibacterial activity; Antifungal activity; Antiviral activity; Cytotoxic activity; Antioxidant activity; Lichen extracts and compounds; Usnic acid mechanism of action; Staphylococcus aureus.
32990Kowallik K.V. & Martin W.F. (2021): The origin of symbiogenesis: An annotated English translation of Mereschkowky’s 1910 paper on the theory of two plasma lineages. - BioSystems, 199: 104281 [34 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystems.2020.104281.
In 1910, the Russian biologist Konstantin Sergejewitch Mereschkowsky (Константин Сергеевич Мережковский, in standard transliterations also written as Konstantin Sergeevič Merežkovskij and Konstantin Sergeevich Merezhkovsky) published a notable synthesis of observations and inferences concerning the origin of life and the origin of nucleated cells. His theory was based on physiology and leaned heavily upon the premise that thermophilic autotrophs were ancient. The ancestors of plants and animals were inferred as ancestrally mesophilic anucleate heterotrophs (Monera) that became complex and diverse through endosymbiosis. He placed a phylogenetic root in the tree of life among anaerobic autotrophic bacteria that lack chlorophyll. His higher level classification of all microbes and macrobes in the living world was based upon the presence or absence of past endosymbiotic events. The paper's primary aim was to demonstrate that all life forms descend from two fundamentally distinct organismal lineages, called mykoplasma and amoeboplasma, whose very nature was so different that, in his view, they could only have arisen independently of one another and at different times during Earth history. The mykoplasma arose at a time when the young Earth was still hot, it later gave rise to cyanobacteria, which in turn gave rise to plastids. The product of the second origin of life, the amoeboplasma, arose after the Earth had cooled and autotrophs had generated substrates for heterotrophic growth. Lineage diversification of that second plasma brought forth, via serial endosymbioses, animals (one symbiosis) and then plants (two symbioses, the second being the plastid). The paper was published in German, rendering it inaccessible to many interested scholars. Here we translate the 1910 paper in full and briefly provide some context. Keywords: Endosymbiosis; Symbiogenesis; Symbioses; Mereschkowsky; Origin of eukaryotes; Origin of the nukleus. p. 5: That brings us to the last words of Mereschkowsky’s 1910 paper, which appear in a footnote: “Either the symbiosis is present, and they are lichens, or the symbiosis is not present, and they are fungi; there are no transitional forms nor can they exist.” Such is the nature of symbiogenesis.
32989Wilhelm K., Longman J., Orr S.A. & Viles H. (2021): Stone-built heritage as a proxy archive for long-term historical air quality: A study of weathering crusts on three generations of stone sculptures on Broad Street, Oxford. - Science of the Total Environment, 759: 143916 [11 p.]. .
Highlights: • Novel concept of ‘pollution clock’ in layers of black crusts • Finer-scale resolution pollution reconstruction of the ‘pollution clock’ • First time pollution signals in crusts linked to changing sources of air pollution • Distinct pollutants represent modern pollution, leaded petrol use and coal burning. • Potential for calibrating black crusts with continuous pollution record. Black crusts on historic buildings are mainly known for their aesthetic and deteriorative impacts, yet they also can advance air pollution research. Past air pollutants accumulate in distinct layers of weathering crusts. Recent studies have used these crusts to reconstruct pollution to improve our understanding of its effects on stone-built heritage. However, the majority of the studies provide only coarse resolution reconstruction of pollution, able to distinguish between ‘inner=old’ and ‘outer=modern’ crust layers. In contrast, very few studies have linked distinct periods of exposure to pollution variations in the composition of these crusts. Herewe address this research gap by developing a finer-scale resolution pollution record.Our study explored the unique configuration of limestone sculptures in central Oxford,which have been exposed over the last 350 years to three different periods of atmospheric pollution; the early Industrial Revolution, the Victorian period and the 20th century.When the first two generations of sculptures weremoved to less polluted areas, their ‘pollution clocks’ were stopped. Herewe discuss the potential of investigating the ‘pollution clock’ recorded in the geochemicalmakeup of each sculpture generation'sweathering crust layers. We found the analysed crusts record clear changes related to the evolution ofmodes of transport and industrial and technological development in Oxford. Higher levels of Arsenic (As), Selenium (Se) are linked to pollution from coal burning during Victorian times and Lead (Pb) indicated leaded petrol use inmodern times. Our work shows that stone-built heritage with a known history of air pollution exposure allows improving the pollution reconstruction resolution of these weathering crusts. The results provide the basis for calibrating long-term geochemical archives. This approach may be used to reconstruct past air quality and has the potential to inform stoneweathering research and conservation, in addition to improving the reconstruction of historical pollution. Keywords: Geochemical archives; Coal burning; Black crusts; Palaeopollution; Environmental pollution; Heavy metals.
32988Lyanguzova I.V., Bondarenko M.S., Belyaeva A.I., Kataeva M.N., Barkan V.Sh. & Lyanguzov A.Yu. (2020): Migration of heavy metals from polluted soil to plants and lichens under conditions of field experiment on the Kola Peninsula. - Russian Journal of Ecology, 51(6): 528–540. DOI: 10.1134/S1067413620060053.
[Original Russian Text published in Ekologiya, 2020, No. 6, pp. 427–440] We have carried out a field experiment to study the migration of Ni, Cu, and Co from the organic horizon of Al–Fe-humus podzols polluted with heavy metals (HMs) to the dominant species of dwarf shrubs, mosses, and lichens forming the ground vegetation layer in middle-aged pine forests. The following hypotheses were tested: (1) the introduction of metallurgical dust causes destruction of ground vegetation layer even in the absence of sulfur dioxide; (2) the destruction of this layer is caused by high concentrations of HMs in the aboveground organs of plants and lichens, which lead to their death; and (3) the level of HM accumulation by different taxa is directly correlated with their strategy of mineral nutrition. The contents of Ni, Cu, and Co in the organic horizon of podzols and in the assimilatory organs of dominant dwarf shrub, moss, and lichen species were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. High inter- and intracenotic variation in the level of HM pollution of the soil organic horizon was revealed, which caused spatially uneven destruction of the ground vegetation layer. The translocation of HMs from the polluted soil to the aboveground parts of plants and lichens leads to a 1.5- to 5-fold increase in the content of HMs in all species, which does not exceed the toxicity threshold and does not prevent their growth in the experimental plots. The introduction of metallurgical dust over 5 years made the level of pollution of the organic soil horizon comparable to that in the buffer zone of the Severonikel Plant. This made it possible to compare the HM content in plants and lichens under the conditions of soil and aerotechnogenic pollution and determine the features of HM accumulation by organisms with different strategies of mineral nutrition. The Ni < Cu concentration ratio in the organic soil horizon is reversed in the leaves of dwarf shrubs and green and brown parts of moss Pleurozium schreberi under conditions of either soil pollution and aerotechnogenic pollution. Keywords: pine forests, ground vegetation layer, northern taiga, Murmansk oblast, heavy metals, environmental pollution.
32987Lafuente A., Durán J., Delgado-Baquerizo M., Recio J., Gallardo A., Singh B.K. & Maestre F.T. (2020): Biocrusts modulate responses of nitrous oxide and methane soil fluxes to simulated climate change in a Mediterranean dryland . - Ecosystems , 23: 1690–1701. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-020-00497-5.
Little is known about the role of biocrusts in regulating the responses of N2O and CH4 fluxes to climate change in drylands. Here, we aim to help filling this knowledge gap by using an 8-year field experiment in central Spain where temperature and rainfall are being manipulated (~ 1.9°C warming, 33% rainfall reduction and their combination) in areas with and without well-developed biocrust communities. Areas with initial high cover of well-developed biocrusts showed lower N2O emissions, enhanced CH4 uptake and higher abundances of functional genes linked to N2O and CH4 fluxes compared with areas with poorly developed biocrusts. Moreover, biocrusts modulated the responses of gases emissions and related functional genes to warming and rainfall reductions. Specifically, we found under rainfall exclusion and its combination with warming a sharp reduction in N2O fluxes (~ 96% and ~ 197%, respectively) only under well-developed biocrust cover. Warming and its combination with rainfall exclusion reduced CH4 consumption in areas with initial low cover of well-developed biocrust, whereas rainfall exclusion enhanced CH4 uptake only in areas with high initial cover of well-developed biocrusts. Similarly, the combination of warming and rainfall exclusion increased the abundance of the nosZ gene compared to the rainfall exclusion treatment and increased the abundance of the pmoA gene compared to the control, but only in areas with low biocrust cover. Taken together, our results indicate that well-developed biocrust communities could counteract the impact of warming and altered rainfall patterns on soil N2O and CH4 fluxes, highlighting their importance and the need to preserve them to minimize climate change impacts on drylands. Key words: biocrust; denitrifiers; dryland; methane; methanotrophs; nitrous oxide.
32986Wagner M., Bathke A.C., Cary S.C., Green T.G.A., Junker R.R., Trutschnig W. & Ruprecht U. (2020): Myco‑ and photobiont associations in crustose lichens in the McMurdo Dry Valleys (Antarctica) reveal high diferentiation along an elevational gradient . - Polar Biology, 43: 1967–1983. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00300-020-02754-8.
Climatically extreme regions such as the polar deserts of the McMurdo Dry Valleys (78° S) in Continental Antarctica are key areas for a better understanding of changes in ecosystems. Therefore, it is particularly important to analyze and communicate current patterns of biodiversity in these sensitive areas, where precipitation mostly occurs in form of snow and liquid water is rare. Humidity provided by dew, clouds, and fog are the main water sources, especially for rock-dwelling crustose lichens as one of the most common vegetation-forming organisms. We investigated the diversity and interaction specifcity of myco-/photobiont associations of 232 crustose lichen specimens, collected along an elevational gradient (171–959 m a.s.l.) within the McMurdo Dry Valleys. The mycobiont species and photobiont OTUs were identifed by using three markers each (nrITS, mtSSU, RPB1, and nrITS, psbJ-L, COX2). Elevation, positively associated with water availability, turned out to be the key factor explaining most of the distribution patterns of the mycobionts. Pairwise comparisons showed Lecidea cancriformis and Rhizoplaca macleanii to be signifcantly more common at higher elevations and Carbonea vorticosa and Lecidea polypycnidophora at lower elevations. Lichen photobionts were dominated by the globally distributed Trebouxia OTU, Tr_A02 which occurred at all habitats. Network specialization resulting from myco-/photobiont bipartite network structure varied with elevation and associated abiotic factors. Along an elevational gradient, the spatial distribution, diversity, and genetic variability of the lichen symbionts appear to be mainly infuenced by improved water relations at higher altitudes. Keywords: Crustose lichens · Specifcity · Spatial patterns · Polar desert · Foehn winds · Humidity.
32985Shelyakin M., Zakhozhiy I. & Golovko T. (2020): The efect of temperature on Antarctic lichen cytochrome and alternative respiratory pathway rates. - Polar Biology, 43: 2003–2010. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00300-020-02758-4.
Respiration is a crucial process that provides all living organisms with energy and metabolites for growth and cellular maintenance. The processes that control respiration in lichens remain poorly understood. We investigated the efects of short-term temperature changes on the respiration rate, as well as the relative contributions of the cytochrome and alternative pathways of thalli from four green-algal lichen species collected from their natural habitats in Antarctica. Lichen respiration was sensitive to short-term temperature increases over a range of 5–35 °C. The total O2 uptake rate was increased by fourfold, and the mean respiratory coefcient (Q10) decreased from 2.5 to 1.3 as the temperature increased. An increase in temperature from 5 to 15 °C had a positive efect on cytochrome respiration coupled with energy production. Temperatures above 15 °C stimulated the activation of the alternative (energy-dissipating) respiratory pathway. Hyperthermia led to increased O2 consumption that was not associated with mitochondrial oxidases. The efects of increased temperature on the respiration rates were more pronounced in the bipolar lichens Umbilicaria decussata and Usnea sphacelata than in the Usnea aurantiaco-atra species with a narrower geographical distribution. Keywords: Lichens · Antarctica · Temperature · Respiration · Cytochrome and alternative respiratory pathways · Residual respiration.
32984Şenol Z.M., Gül Ü.D. & Gürkan R. (2020): Bio-sorption of bisphenol a by the dried- and inactivated-lichen (Pseudoevernia furfuracea) biomass from aqueous solutions. - Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering, 18: 853–864. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40201-020-00508-6.
Bisphenol A (BPA), which is known as one of the endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with hydrophilic hydroxyl groups and hydrophobic aromatic groups, has been widely used in plastic industries. The chemical waste from the industry is sometimes discharges into lakes and rivers, and then these surface waters can be polluted. So, this article aims to investigate the bio-sorption process of BPA by the inactivated lichen (Pseudoevernia furfuracea) biomass from aqueous solution. At initial, the effect of the variables such as initial BPA concentration, solution pH, temperature, contact time and recovery rate on the bio-sorption process was investigated. From the optimal results, it has been observed that the highest removal efficiency is approximately 64% at a contact time of 3-h, the bio-sorbent concentration of 9 mg/L, initial BPA concentration of 40 mg/L, and agitation speed of 150 rpm at pH 5.0. In explaining the bio-sorption potential of lichen biomass, Langmuir and/or Redlich-Peterson isotherms with two and three parameters, respectively were observed to be better fit with the experimental isotherm data (R2 = 0.982). From equilibrium data based on difference between the measured and predicted results (qe, exp and qe, pre), it was shown that biosorption of BPA could be best described by the pseudo second order kinetic model with minimum sum of square error of 2.61%. In addition, it shows more film diffusion, and partly pore diffusion in linearity region in terms of kinetic sorption behaviors of BPA in the rate-limiting step as well as intra-particle diffusion according to Boyd’s kinetic model with better regression coefficient than 0.981 when compared to the other used kinetic models, including Bangham’s pore diffusion and Elovich kinetic models (with R2 of 0.958 and 0.929). The thermodynamic studies showed that the biosorption process was spontaneous, and chemically feasible. Therefore, due to be low-cost, eco-friendly character, wide availability and easily accessible, the lichen biomass could be used as a promising bio-sorbent for the removal of BPA from the environment and wastewater effluents. Keywords Lichen . Pseudevernia furfuracea . Bio-sorption . Bisphenol A.
32983García R., Márquez G. & Acosta Hospitaleche C. (2020): Richness of lichens growing on Eocene fossil penguin remains from Antarctica. - Polar Biology, 43: 2011–2019. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00300-020-02761-9.
Antarctica presents one of the most severe environmental conditions for life. Under these circumstances, cryptogams are the dominant photosynthetic organisms, among which we fnd a great richness of lichens. In Antarctic environments, lichens can grow on rocks or in this case on fossil remains, among the few available substrates. In the present contribution, we examined all fossil penguins of the Antarctic collection of the Museo de La Plata, as a signifcant sample of fossil vertebrates. The selected materials here described come from the Submeseta Formation (Eocene) on Seymour/Marambio Island, located northeast of the Antarctic Peninsula on the Weddell Sea. Given the scarcity of lichenological studies on this island, and the results presented here add signifcantly to our knowledge of the lichen species that occur there with the recognition of 11 taxa with a crustose morphology (epilithic and endolithic), the sampling of lichens growing on fossil bones acquired an evident importance. Keywords: Fossil penguin bones · Endolithic · Bioerosion · Taphonomy · Fungi systematic · Seymour/Marambio Island.
32982Upadhyay S., Bisht K. & Chandra K. (2020): Further additions to the plasticolous lichens from India. - National Academy Science Letters, 43(7): 647–649. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40009-020-00946-8.
The present paper describes diversity of plasticolous lichens colonizing a 15-year-old nylon net house at Chamoli district, Garhwal Himalaya, documenting a total of 19 species of lichens, in which 12 species are being reported for the first time as plasticolous lichen mycota from India and out of these 12 species, 9 species are being reported first time across the world as plasticolous. Keywords: India; Lichen; New report; Plasticolous.
32981Grewe F., Ametrano C., Widhelm T.J., Leavitt S., Distefano I., Polyiam W., Pizarro D., Wedin M., Crespo A., Divakar P.K. & Lumbsch H.T. (2020): Using target enrichment sequencing to study the higher-level phylogeny of the largest lichen-forming fungi family: Parmeliaceae (Ascomycota). - IMA Fungus, 11: 27 [11 p.]. s43008-020-00051-x.
Parmeliaceae is the largest family of lichen-forming fungi with a worldwide distribution. We used a target enrichment data set and a qualitative selection method for 250 out of 350 genes to infer the phylogeny of the major clades in this family including 81 taxa, with both subfamilies and all seven major clades previously recognized in the subfamily Parmelioideae. The reduced genome-scale data set was analyzed using concatenatedbased Bayesian inference and two different Maximum Likelihood analyses, and a coalescent-based species tree method. The resulting topology was strongly supported with the majority of nodes being fully supported in all three concatenated-based analyses. The two subfamilies and each of the seven major clades in Parmelioideae were strongly supported as monophyletic. In addition, most backbone relationships in the topology were recovered with high nodal support. The genus Parmotrema was found to be polyphyletic and consequently, it is suggested to accept the genus Crespoa to accommodate the species previously placed in Parmotrema subgen. Crespoa. This study demonstrates the power of reduced genome-scale data sets to resolve phylogenetic relationships with high support. Due to lower costs, target enrichment methods provide a promising avenue for phylogenetic studies including larger taxonomic/specimen sampling than whole genome data would allow. Keywords: Next-generation sequencing, Target capture, HybPiper, Phylogenomics, Maximum likelihood, Bayesian interference, ASTRAL, Parmotrema, Parmelioideae, Protoparmelioideae.
32980Joshi Y., Bisht K. & Suda N. (2020): Lichenicolous fungi colonising members of the lichen-forming family Teloschistaceae in India. - Kew Bulletin, 75: 54 [7 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12225-020-09912-5.
This paper gives an account of lichenicolous fungi colonising members of the lichen-forming family Teloschistaceae from India. A new species, Lichenochora ajaysinghii, colonising Caloplaca saxicola is described and a key to so-far-known lichenicolous fungi colonising Indian Teloschistaceae taxa is provided. Key Words. Caloplaca, Himalaya, key, new species, taxonomy.
32979Hafellner J. (2020): Lichenicolous Biota (Nos 321–340). - Fritschiana (Graz), 96: 29–45. .
The 14th fascicle (20 numbers) of the exsiccata 'Lichenicolous Biota' is published. The issue contains material of 12 non-lichenized fungal taxa (10 teleomorphs of ascomycetes, 2 basidiomycetes) and 8 lichenized ascomycetes. Among others, collections of the type species of the following genera are distributed: Arthrorhaphis (A. flavovirescens, under its heterotypic synonym A. citrinella), Biatoropsis (B. usnearum), Dacampia (D. hookeri), Nesolechia (N. oxyspora), Paralecanographa (P. grumulosa), Stigmidium (S. schaereri), and Telogalla (T. olivieri).
32978Obermayer W. (2020): Dupla Graecensia Lichenum (2020, numbers 1191–1290). - Fritschiana (Graz), 96: 1–28. .
The exsiccata 'Dupla Graecensia Lichenum (2020, numbers 1191–1290)' comprises 100 collections (747 specimens) of lichen duplicates from the following 18 countries: Albania (district of Shkodër), Australia (state of Queensland), Austria (states of Carinthia, Salzburg, Styria, Tyrol, Upper Austria, and Vorarlberg), Brazil (states of Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul), Canada (territory of Nunavut), China (Tibet, province Xizang), Croatia (island of Košljun), Czech Republic (North Bohemia and South Bohemia), Greece (islands of Corfu and Rhodes), Italy (region of Veneto and autonomous region of Trentino - Alto Adige), Nepal, New Zealand (South Island), Portugal (Madeira Island), Slovenia, Spain (Canary Islands), Switzerland (canton of Bern), Thailand (province of Chumphon), and Venezuela (state of Merida). Isotype specimens of Buellia maungatuensis are distributed. TLC-investigations were carried out for 40 issued taxa.
32977Tarasova V.N., Sonina A.V., Androsova V.I., Valekzhanin A.A. & Konoreva L.A. (2020): The lichens and allied fungi of forest rocky communities of the Vysokaya (Volda) Mountain (Windy Belt Ridge, Arkhangelsk Region, NW Russia). - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 57: 133–146. https://doi.org/10.12697/fce.2020.57.12.
The paper presents the results of continuing research of lichen diversity in rocky communities of Windy Belt Ridge (Arkhangelsk Region, NW Russia). Using the method of sample plots and linear routes, the communities of the mountain Vysokaya (Volda) were examined, and 270 species and 2 subspecies of lichens and allied fungi were recorded there. A total of 18 lichens are new for the mainland area of Arkhangelsk Region, 35 species are new to the Vodlozersky National Park (Arkhangelsk part) and 9 species are in the Red Data Book of Arkhangelsk Region (2020). Within sample plots (altogether 0.2 ha), 230 species were found, with 41–50% of total species number being presented within one sample plot (0.04 ha). Along the linear route (2 km), 190 taxa were recorded: 43 species were found only on the route (outside the sample plots), which is 16% of the total lichen species number in studied communities. Comparative analysis of the lichen diversity between currently studied mountains (Olovgora, Muroigora, Vysokaya) of the Windy Belt Ridge showed that the high degree of community conservation, rocky type of communities with significant rocky outcrops, as well as landscape heterogeneity determine conditions for a high species diversity of lichens. In total, 343 species of lichens and allied fungi have been found for the studied mountains of the Windy Belt Ridge. Keywords: lichen diversity, rocky communities, old-growth forests, Vysokaya, Volda, Vodlozersky National Park, Arkhangelsk Region.
32976von Brackel W. & Döbbeler P. (2020): An addition to the knowledge of lichenicolous fungi of Greece with a key to the lichenicolous fungi on Collema s.l.. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 57: 147–152. https://doi.org/10.12697/fce.2020.57.13.
Didymellopsis pulposi, Pronectria diplococca, P. pedemontana, Stigmidium hageniae and Tremella anaptychiae are reported as new to Greece. Pronectria diplococca is reported as new to Austria. A key to the lichenicolous fungi on Collema s.l. is provided. Keywords: lichen-inhabiting fungi, Mediterranean area, Bionectriaceae.
32975Muggia L., Ametrano C.G., Sterflinger K. & Tesei D. (2020): An overview of genomics, phylogenomics and proteomics approaches in Ascomycota. - Life, 10(12): 356 [75 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/life10120356.
Fungi are among the most successful eukaryotes on Earth: they have evolved strategies to survive in the most diverse environments and stressful conditions and have been selected and exploited for multiple aims by humans. The characteristic features intrinsic of Fungi have required evolutionary changes and adaptations at deep molecular levels. Omics approaches, nowadays including genomics, metagenomics, phylogenomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics, and proteomics have enormously advanced the way to understand fungal diversity at diverse taxonomic levels, under changeable conditions and in still under-investigated environments. These approaches can be applied both on environmental communities and on individual organisms, either in nature or in axenic culture and have led the traditional morphology-based fungal systematic to increasingly implement molecular-based approaches. The advent of next-generation sequencing technologies was key to boost advances in fungal genomics and proteomics research. Much effort has also been directed towards the development of methodologies for optimal genomic DNA and protein extraction and separation. To date, the amount of proteomics investigations in Ascomycetes exceeds those carried out in any other fungal group. This is primarily due to the preponderance of their involvement in plant and animal diseases and multiple industrial applications, and therefore the need to understand the biological basis of the infectious process to develop mechanisms for biologic control, as well as to detect key proteins with roles in stress survival. Here we chose to present an overview as much comprehensive as possible of the major advances, mainly of the past decade, in the fields of genomics (including phylogenomics) and proteomics of Ascomycota, focusing particularly on those reporting on opportunistic pathogenic, extremophilic, polyextremotolerant and lichenized fungi. We also present a review of the mostly used genome sequencing technologies and methods for DNA sequence and protein analyses applied so far for fungi. Keywords: extremophiles; fungi; human opportunistic; lichens; plant pathogens.
32974Selbmann L., Benkő Z., Coleine C., de Hoog S., Donati C., Druzhinina I., Emri T., Ettinger C.L., Gladfelter A.S., Gorbushina A.A., Grigoriev I.V., Grube M., Gunde-Cimerman N., Ákos Karányi Z., Kocsis B., Kubressoian T., Miklós I., Miskei M., Muggia L., Northen T., Novak-Babič M., Pennacchio C., Pfliegler W.P., Pòcsi I., Prigione V., Riquelme M., Segata N., Schumacher J., Shelest E., Sterflinger K., Tesei D., U’Ren J.M., Varese G.C., Vázquez-Campos X., Vicente V.A., Souza E.M., Zalar P., Walker A.K. & Stajich J.E. (2020): Shed light in The daRk LineagES of the fungal tree of life—STRES. - Life, 10(12): 362 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/life10120362.
The polyphyletic group of black fungiwithin theAscomycota (Arthoniomycetes, Dothideomycetes, and Eurotiomycetes) is ubiquitous in natural and anthropogenic habitats. Partly because of their dark, melanin-based pigmentation, black fungi are resistant to stresses including UV- and ionizing-radiation, heat and desiccation, toxic metals, and organic pollutants. Consequently, they are amongst the most stunning extremophiles and poly-extreme-tolerant organisms on Earth. Even though ca. 60 black fungal genomes have been sequenced to date, [mostly in the family Herpotrichiellaceae (Eurotiomycetes)], the class Dothideomycetes that hosts the largest majority of extremophiles has only been sparsely sampled. By sequencing up to 92 species that will become reference genomes, the “Shed light in The daRk lineagES of the fungal tree of life” (STRES) project will cover a broad collection of black fungal diversity spread throughout the Fungal Tree of Life. Interestingly, the STRES project will focus on mostly unsampled genera that display different ecologies and life-styles (e.g., ant- and lichen-associated fungi, rock-inhabiting fungi, etc.). With a resequencing strategy of 10- to 15-fold depth coverage of up to ~550 strains, numerous new reference genomes will be established. To identify metabolites and functional processes, these new genomic resources will be enriched with metabolomics analyses coupled with transcriptomics experiments on selected species under various stress conditions (salinity, dryness, UV radiation, oligotrophy). The data acquired will serve as a reference and foundation for establishing an encyclopedic database for fungal metagenomics as well as the biology, evolution, and ecology of the fungi in extreme environments. Keywords: adaptation; black fungi; Dothideomycetes; Eurotiomycetes; Extremophiles; genomics; metabolomics; secondary metabolites; stress conditions; transcriptomics.
32973Darmostuk V.V., Khodosovtsev A.Ye., Vondrák J. & Sira O.Ye. (2020): New and noteworthy lichenicolous and bryophylous [sic!] fungi from the Ukrainian Carpathians. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 58: 19–24. https://doi.org/10.12697/fce.2020.58.02.
Nine species, Acremonium rhabdosporum, Arthonia digitatae, Bryocentria metzgeriae, Diplolaeviopsis cf. symmictae, Skyttea gregaria, Rhymbocarpus pubescens, Stromatopogon cladoniae, Tremella cetrariicola and Xenonectriella subimperspicua, are newly reported for Ukraine. Sphinctrina anglica is recollected for the first time since 1955. Parmelia saxatilis and Parmelina pastillifera are new host species for X. subimperspicua. Keywords: Carpathian Biosphere Reserve, Gorgany Nature Reserve, Diplolaeviopsis, Stromatopogon, Xenonectriella.
32972Fatima M., Habib K., Czarnota C. & Khalid A.N. (2020): Two new Bacidina species (Lecanorales, Ascomycota) from Pakistan. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 58: 25–34. https://doi.org/10.12697/fce.2020.58.03.
Bacidina margallensis and B. iqbalii from Pakistan are described and illustrated. Phylogeny of ITS nrDNA region confirms their position within the genus Bacidina, and morphological data make them distinct from other known species of the genus. Based on molecular data, corticolous Bacidina margallensis appears to be a sister species to B. chloroticula, but morphologically, when dry, is the most similar to known from Europe B. mendax because of the granular and warted greenish grey thallus, whitish-cream to dark brown and often piebald apothecia. It differs from that species by shorter, wider and less septate ascospores; 1–3-septate in B. margallensis vs 3–5(6)-septate in B. mendax, and by unusual parrot-green colour of wet thallus. Saxicolous Bacidina iqbalii is closely related to B. neosquamulosa but differs in having crustaceous thallus, transculent when wet entirely pale apothecia, larger asci and less septate large ascospores. Keywords: lichenized fungi, Ramalinaceae, lichen taxonomy, molecular phylogeny, ITS nrDNA, Asia.
32971Matkala L., Salemaa M. & Bäck J. (2020): Soil total phosphorus and nitrogen explain vegetation community composition in a northern forest ecosystem near a phosphate massif. - Biogeosciences , 17: 1535–1556. https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-17-1535-2020.
The relationship of the community composition of forest vegetation and soil nutrients were studied near the Sokli phosphate ore deposit in northern Finland. Simultaneously, the effects of the dominant species and the age of trees, rock parent material and soil layer on these nutrients were examined. For this purpose, 16 study plots were established at different distances from the phosphate ore along four transects. Phosphate mining may take place in Sokli in the future, and the vegetation surveys and soil sampling conducted at the plots can be used as a baseline status for following the possible changes that the mining may cause in the surrounding ecosystem. The total phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) contents of the soil humus layer were positively related with species number and abundance of the understorey vegetation, and the correlation was slightly higher with P than N. This is interesting, as N usually has the most important growth-limiting role in boreal ecosystems. The spatial variation in the content of soil elements was high both between and within plots, emphasizing the heterogeneity of the soil. Dominant tree species and the soil layer were the most important environmental variables affecting soil nutrient content. High contents of P in the humus layer (maximum 2.60 g kg−1 ) were measured from the birch-dominated plots. As the P contents of birch leaves and leaf litter were also rather high (2.58 and 1.28 g kg−1 , respectively), this may imply that the leaf litter of birch forms an important source of P for the soil. The possible mining effects, together with climate change, can have an influence on the release of nutrients to plants, which may lead to alterations in the vegetation community composition in the study region. p. 1540: [Results] ... "The number of mosses and lichen correlated negatively with soil total C (p<0.01) and C : N (p<0.05), ..."
32970Goncu B., Sevgi E., Kizilarslan Hancer C., Gokay G. & Ozten N. (2020): Differential antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of lichen species on human prostate carcinoma cells. - PLoS ONE , 15(9): e0238303 [21 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0238303.
Lichens are stable symbiotic associations between fungus and algae and/or cyanobacteria that have different biological activities. Around 60% of anti-cancer drugs are derived from natural resources including plants, fungi, sea creatures, and lichens. This project aims to identify the apoptotic effects and proliferative properties of extracts of Bryoria capillaris (Ach.) Brodo & D.Hawksw, Cladonia fimbriata (L.) Fr., Evernia divaricata (L.) Ach., Hypogymnia tubulosa (Schaer.) Hav., Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm., and Usnea florida (L.) Weber ex Wigg. lichen species on prostate cancer cells. Lichen extracts were performed by ethanol, methanol, and acetone separately by using the Soxhlet apparatus and the effects of the extracts on cell viability, proliferation, and apoptosis were measured with the utilization of MTT, LDH assay, Annexin V assay, and Western Blot. Findings of our study revealed a positive correlation between the elevation of cell sensitivity and the increase in the treatment doses of the extract in that higher doses applied reverberate to higher cell sensitivity. A similar correlation was also identified between cell sensitivity elevation and the duration of the treatment. Evidence in our study have shown the existence of an anti-proliferative effect in the extracts of Bryoria capillaris, Evernia divaricata (L.) Ach., Hypogymnia tubulosa (Schaer.) Hav., Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm., and Usnea florida (L.) Weber ex Wigg., while a similar effect was not observed in the extracts of Cladonia fimbriata. Evernia divaricata induced anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects in PC-3 cells, which induced apoptotic cell death by both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. Hypogymnia tubulosa has been shown to have anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects in all extractions methods and our findings identified that both the percentage of the apoptotic cells and apoptotic protein expressions recorded an increase at lower treatment concentrations. Although Lobaria pulmonaria is known to have significant cytotoxic effects, we did not observe a decrease in cell proliferation. Indeed, proliferation marker proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein expression levels have shown an increase in all extracts, while Usnea florida exhibited apoptosis induction and slight proliferation reduction in extract treatments with lower concentrations. We tested 18 extracts of six lichen species during our study. Of these, Evernia divaricata and Hypogymnia tubulosa demonstrated significant apoptotic activity on prostate cancer cells including at low concentrations, which implies that it is worth pursuing the biologically active lead compounds of these extracts on prostate cancer in vitro. Further corroboratory studies are needed to validate the relative potential of these extracts as anti-metastatic and anti-tumorigenic agents.
32969Hawrył A., Hawrył M., Hajnos-Stolarz A., Abramek J., Bogucka-Kocka A. & Komsta Ł. (2020): HPLC fingerprint analysis with the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of selected lichens combined with the chemometric calculations. - Molecules, 25: 4301 [22 p.]; doi:10.3390/molecules25184301. .
The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of multivariate techniques to predict antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of the selected lichens from the chromatographic data. A simple and reproducible HPLC-DAD technique has been used to obtain the chromatographic fingerprint profiles. Reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) linear gradient system with methanol, water and phosphoric acid (V) (pH 2.3) as the mobile phase was used (50 min). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) has been applied to the evaluation of the phytochemical similarity between studied samples, especially between the same species collected in various places of Poland (Cetraria islandica (L.) Ach., CI, Cladina mitis Sandst., CM, Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl., HP). The ability to scavenge free radicals was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods and the total phenolic content was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu (F-C) test. In the case of DPPH % of inhibition was higher for selected species (Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf, H. physodes in comparison to the literature data. The FRAP test showed that the H. physodes extract had higher ability to scavenge free radical in comparison to Cladonia furcata (Huds.) Schrader and Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach., whereas P. furfuracea extract showed higher ability than C. islandica. The high content of phenolics in P. furfuracea and H. physodes confirms their high antioxidant activity. The cytotoxic activity of studied extracts was tested by cell culture method using the human HL-60 / MX2 acute CKL-22 (CRL-2257) promyelocytic leukemia tumor cell line. The lowest values of IC50 [µg·mL−1 ] were obtained for: H. physodes(HP1)—99.4; C. digitate—122.6; H. physodes (HP)—136.5, C. subulata—142.6; C. mitis—180.2. Keywords: lichens; HPLC; antioxidant and cytotoxic activities; chemometrics; PLS.
32968Zloba M.H. (2020): Delmarva Lichens: An Illustrated Manual. By James C. Lendemer and Nastassja Noell. Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Society, Volume 28. 386 pages. Torrey Botanical Society and New York Botanical Gardens, 2900 Southern Boulevard. Bronx, New York 10458-5126. USD $30. Hard cover. ISBN 978-0-9996525-2-7. - Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society, 147(3): 289–290. .
Book review
32967Berber D., Türkmenoğlu İ. & Sesal N.C. (2020): Antibacterial potential of six lichen species against Enterococcus durans from leather industry : Evaluation of acetone extracts obtained from several lichen species as alternative natural antibacterial agents. - Johnson Matthey Technology Review, 64(4): 480–488. https://doi.org/10.1595/205651320X15942856494595.
Antibacterial resistant bacteria are a significant problem in the hide or skin soaking process due to their destructive properties on finished leather. Lichens may be a solution to overcome this resistance problem. Enterococcus durans (99.86%) was isolated from soak liquor samples. For screening of possible antibacterial effects of lichen acetone extracts, six lichen species (Hypogymnia tubulosa, H. physodes, Evernia divaricata, Pseudevernia furfuracea, Parmelia sulcata and Usnea sp.) were examined by nine-fold dilution against E. durans. H. tubulosa, H. physodes and E. divaricata extracts showed antibacterial effects at the concentrations of 240 μg ml–1, 120 μg ml–1 and 60 μg ml–1 whereas the extracts of P. furfuracea had an antibacterial effect at 240 μg ml–1 and 120 μg ml–1. On the other hand, P. sulcata had no antibacterial effect. The most successful lichen extract was determined to be Usnea sp. at the concentrations of 240 μg ml–1, 120 μg ml–1, 60 μg ml–1, 30 μg ml–1 and 15 μg ml–1. In conclusion, lichen extracts seem to have potential antibacterial efficacies against E. durans.
32966Miranda-González R. & McCune B. (2020): The weight of the crust: Biomass of crustose lichens in tropical dry forest represents more than half of foliar biomass. - Biotropica, 52: 1298–1308. https://doi.org/10.1111/btp.12837.
In recent years, our ecological knowledge of tropical dry forests has increased dramatically. However, the functional contributions of whole ecosystem components, such as lichens, remain mostly unknown. In these forests, the abundance of epiphyte crustose lichens is responsible for the characteristic white bark on most woody plants, conspicuous during the dry season, but the amount of resources that the lichen component represents remains unexplored. We estimated lichen biomass in a Mexican tropical dry forest using the bark area of trees, the dry mass of lichens per unit area and the percentage of bark covered by lichens, together with previously known tree densities. The lowest 2.5 m of the forests main trunks contained 188 kg/ha of lichen biomass, with lichens covering 85% of the available bark for trees <12 cm DBH and 38% for trees >12 cm. Total epiphytic lichen biomass was 1.34–1.99 Mg/ha. Lichen biomass represented 61% of the foliar biomass in the forest. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a lichen biomass estimate is provided for an ecosystem in which crustose lichens are the dominant lichen growth form. Crustose lichens are typically considered to contribute little to the total lichen biomass and to be difficult to include in ecological analyses. The high lichen biomass in this ecosystem implies a significant ecological role which so far is unexplored. We suggest the crustose lichen component should not be underestimated a priori in ecological studies, especially in ecosystems with abundant lichen cover. Keywords: Chamela, ecosystem scale, lichenized fungi, Mexico, seasonally dry tropical forest.
32965Gökalsın B., Berber D., Çobanoğlu Özyiğitoğlu G., Yeşilada E. & Sesal N.C. (2020): Quorum sensing attenuation properties of ethnobotanically valuable lichens against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. - Plant Biosystems, 154(6): 792–799. https://doi.org/10.1080/11263504.2019.1701117.
Antimicrobial properties of ethnobotanically valuable lichens are well recognized but it is not known how exactly their therapeutic effects on microbial infections occur. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic Gram-negative pathogen and its nosocomial strains are responsible for high mortality and morbidity rates. It coordinates pathogenesis and virulence via four quorum sensing (QS) mechanisms called las, rhl, pqs and iqs. The objective of this study is to investigate and report the utilization of lichens for QS inhibition against P. aeruginosa. The inhibitory potentials of Ramalina farinacea (L.) Ach. and Platismatia glauca (L.) W.L. Culb. & C.F. Culb extracts were tested against QS systems of P. aeruginosa using biosensor strains (lasB-gfp, rhlA-gfp and pqsA-gfp). All tested lichen acetone extracts have shown inhibitory effects on las, rhl and pqs QS systems. The percentages of QS inhibition were detected between 75.21% and 92.42% for las, 50.62% and 64.22% for rhl, 47.61% and 69.35% for pqs systems. The highest inhibition was detected for the extracts of R. farinacea collected from Bursa–Alaçam. We concluded that these lichen species have significant anti-QS potentials against P. aeruginosa and they can be further evaluated as alternative biosources in medicine. Keywords: Ramalina farinacea; Platismatia glauca; lichen extracts; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; quorum sensing inhibition.
32964Lücking R., Kaminsky L., Perlmutter G.B., Lawrey J.D. & Dal Forno M. (2020): Cora timucua (Hygrophoraceae), a new and potentially extinct, previously misidentified basidiolichen of Florida inland scrub documented from historical collections. - Bryologist, 123(4): 657–673. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-123.4.657.
The known collections of the genus Cora in continental North America north of Mexico, all restricted to Florida, are shown to belong to a single species, representing a previously unrecognized taxon formally described herein as C. timucua. Based on data of the fungal ITS barcoding marker, obtained through Sanger and Illumina sequencing from two historical collections, the new species is phylogenetically most closely related to C. casanarensis from Colombia and C. itabaiana from Brazil, although it is morphologically most similar to the only distantly related C. hymenocarpa from Costa Rica. Based on data from the Consortium of North American Lichen Herbaria (CNALH) and from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), most of the collections of C. timucua originate from around the turn of the 19th century, while a few were made in the second half of the 20th century, all between 1968 and 1985. Almost all collections originate from Florida sand pine scrub, apparently the preferred habitat of this taxon. Neither modern collections nor extant localities are known. Based on these findings and the substantial degree of land use change in Florida in the past decades, we assessed the conservation status of C. timucua using the IUCN Red List criteria and found that it should be classified as critically endangered (CR), in line with the status of another Florida endemic, Cladonia perforata, which was the first federally red-listed lichen in the United States. The most likely location where C. timucua may still be extant is Ocala National Forest in the north-central portion of the Florida peninsula, although recent macrolichen surveys in that area did not encounter this species. Keywords: Basidiolichens, Consortium of North American Lichen Herbaria, endemism, high throughput sequencing, metabarcoding, phenotype-based phylogenetic binning, species delimitation.
32963Oliveira Junior I., Aptroot A., dos Santos L.A., Cavalcante J.G., Košuthová A. & Cáceres M.E.S. (2020): Two further new lichen species from the Atlantic Forest remnant Pedra Talhada (Alagoas, Brazil), with a species list. - Bryologist, 123(4): 617–632. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-123.4.617.
The following new lichen species are described from the Atlantic rain forest remnant Pedra Talhada (Alagoas, Brazil): Hafellia nortetrapla, with four ascospores per asci, ascospores grey to brown, 1- septate, 30–38313–16 lm, and norstictic acid as secondary chemistry, and Pterygiopsis densisidiata, with an appressed thallus, densely covered with branched isidia, and clearly clustering with species inside the core group of the order Lichinomycetes, as shown by analysis of mtSSU region sequences. A further 19 species are reported as new to Brazil, and 307 new to the state of Alagoas. In total, 442 species have been identified thus far in our collections from Pedra Talhada, and a list of the species is provided. Keywords: Hafellia, Pterygiopsis, new taxa, lichenized fungi, northeastern Brazil.
32962Autumn K., Barcenas-Peña A., Kish-Levine S., Huang J.-P. & Lumbsch H.T. (2020): Repeated colonization between arid and seasonal wet habitats, frequent transition among substrate preferences, and chemical diversity in Western Australian Xanthoparmelia lichens. - Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 8: 129 [10 p.]. doi: 10.3389/fevo.2020.00129.
Arid soil habitats are challenging for sedentary and slow-growing lichens because the integrity of the substrate can easily be disturbed by natural forces, e.g., wind and flood. Yet, adaptation into such habitat types occurred multiple times in lichens that may be associated with specific morphological and ecological adaptations. We studied the genetic and chemical diversity of the lichen-forming fungal genus Xanthoparmelia in Western Australia, where it is abundant in both arid and temperate ecoregions occurring on both soil and rock substrates. We found frequent evolutionary transitions among substrate types and between arid and temperate habitats. However, specific chemical phenotypes were not associated with different habitat and substrate types, and the level of phenotypic (the composition of secondary metabolites) divergence was not correlated with the level of genetic divergence among taxa. The study closes by discussing the importance of arid soil habitats for evolutionary diversification in the hyperdiverse genus Xanthoparmelia. Keywords: Anthropocene, soil habitat, rapid diversification, repeated evolution, thin-layer chromatography.
32961Shiryaev A.G., Peintner U., Elsakov V.V., Sokovnina S.Y., Kosolapov D.A., Shiryaeva O.S., Devi N.M. & Grigoriev A.A. (2020): Relationship between species richness, biomass and structure of vegetation and mycobiota along an altitudinal transect in the Polar Urals. - Journal of Fungi, 6(4): 353 [22 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof6040353.
Aboveground species richness patterns of vascular plants, aphyllophoroid macrofungi, bryophytes and lichens were compared along an altitudinal gradient (80–310 m a.s.l.) on the Slantsevaya mountain at the eastern macroslope of the Polar Urals (Russia). Five altitudinal levels were included in the study: (1) Northern boreal forest with larch-spruce in the Sob’ river valley habitats; (2–3) two levels of closed, northern boreal, larch-dominated forests on the slopes; (4) crook-stemmed forest; (5) tundra habitats above the timberline. Vascular plant or bryophyte species richness was not affected by altitudinal levels, but lichen species richness significantly increased from the river valley to the tundra. For aphyllophoroid macrofungi, species richness was highest at intermediate and low altitudes, and poorest in the tundra. These results indicate a positive ecotone effect on aphyllophoroid fungal species richness. The species richness of aphyllophoroid fungi as a whole was neither correlated to mortmass stocks, nor to species richness of vascular plants, but individual ecological or morphological groups depended on these parameters. Poroid fungal species richness was positively correlated to tree age, wood biomass and crown density, and therefore peaked in the middle of the slope and at the foot of the mountain. In contrast, clavarioid fungal species richness was negatively related to woody bio- and mortmass, and therefore peaked in the tundra. This altitudinal level was characterized by high biomass proportions of lichens and mosses, and by high litter mortmass. The proportion of corticoid fungi increased with altitude, reaching its maximum at the timberline. Results from the different methods used in this work were concordant, and showed significant patterns. Tundra communities differ significantly from the forest communities, as is also confirmed by nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analyses based on the spectrum of morphological and ecological groups of aphyllophoroid fungi. Keywords: biodiversity; fungal ecology; climatic gradient; productivity; flora; lichen; mosses; life form; phytocoenology; plant–fungal interactions; timberline; tundra; Arctic greening.
32960Mežaka A., Putna S. & Erta I. (2015): Evaluation and long-term conservation perspectives of woodland key habitat bryophyte and lichen indicators in Latgale. - In: Environment. Technology. Resources. Proceedings of the 10th International Scientific and Practical Conference. Volume II, p. 197–201, Rezekne, Latvia. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17770/etr2015vol2.283. http://journals.ru.lv/index.php/ETR/article/viewFile/283/696.
Nowadays human impact to habitats and species are stronger then ever before. Latvia is typical example of fragmented landscape, where forest patches are mixed with agricultural land and waterbodies. Latgale is one of typical such a fragmented landscape parts of Latvia. Around 6.41 % of Latgalian forests were evaluated as Woodland Key Habitats (WKHs) or potential WKHs (PWKHs) after WKH inventory. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the current status and draw the further perspectives of WKH bryophyte and lichen indicator species conservation in Latgale. Data were analyzed with Generalized Linear model. In total 16 WKH types, suitable for bryophyte and lichen indicator species existence were identified in Latgale. As a result WKH type, forest stand age and area were significant factors influencing bryophyte and lichen specialist and indicator species richness in forest stand level. WKH status did not provide any official conservation status for habitats or species based on current legislation in Latvia. Therefore establishment of conservation areas as microreserves for habitats and species and Nature Reserves in areas, with high (P)WKH density is an effective tool for their long-term conservation in Latgale. Further scientific studies of bryophytes, lichens and WKHs are necessary for planning the best conservation scenarios taking into account also forest ecosystem services. Keywords: Woodland key habitats, bryophytes, lichens, conservation.
32959Xu M., De Boer H., Olafsdottir E.S., Omarsdottir S. & Heidmarsson S. (2020): Phylogenetic diversity of the lichenized algal genus Trebouxia (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta): a new lineage and novel insights from fungal-algal association patterns of Icelandic cetrarioid lichens (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota). - Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 194(4): 460–468. https://doi.org/10.1093/botlinnean/boaa050.
Lichens have high tolerance to harsh environmental conditions, where lichen symbiont interactions (e.g. myco- and photobionts) may play a crucial role. The characterization of fungal-algal association patterns is essential to understand their symbiotic interactions. This study investigated fungal-algal association patterns in Icelandic cetrarioid lichens using a multi-locus phylogenetic framework, including fungal nrITS, MCM7, mtSSU, RPB1 and RPB2 and algal nrITS, nrLSU, rbcL and mtCOXII data. Most Icelandic cetrarioid lichenized fungi were found to be specifically associated to the known Trebouxia clade “S” (Trebouxia simplex/suecica group), whereas the lichen-forming fungus Cetrariella delisei forms a symbiosis with a previously unrecognized lineage of Trebouxia, provisionally named as the “D” clade. This new Trebouxia lineage is supported by maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses using all four included algal loci. Keywords: Iceland, lichen, Parmeliaceae, phylogeny, symbiosis, Trebouxia.
32958Claudel C., Lev-Yadun S., Hetterscheid W. & Schultz M. (2019): Mimicry of lichens and cyanobacteria on tree-sized Amorphophallus petioles results in their masquerade as inedible tree trunks. - Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 190: 192–214. https://doi.org/10.1093/botlinnean/boz014.
We revisit a case of mimicry in Amorphophallus involving visual mimicry of lichens and colonies of cyanobacteria on their tree-trunk sized petioles. We investigate the entire genus for similar defensive coloration types and report a defensive leaf coloration strategy in several Amorphophallus spp. that involves mimicry, camouflage and plant-mimicking that results in defensive visual masquerade. We propose that the visual expression of lichen and cyanobacteria mimicry enables the huge and fleshy petioles to look like solid non-edible tree trunks, a classic case of masquerade, probably as defence against herbivores. The results are discussed in a phylogenetic and evolutionary context. Keywords: Araceae – camouflage – herbivory.
32957Lendemer J.C. (2020): Recent literature on lichens—259. - Bryologist, 123(4): 720–730. DOI: 10.1639/0007-2745-123.4.720.
bibliography
32956Klein J., Thor G., Low M., Sjögren J., Lindberg E. & Eggers S. (2020): What is good for birds is not always good for lichens: Interactions between forest structure and species richness in managed boreal forests. - Forest Ecology and Management, 473: 118327 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2020.118327.
Forestry in the boreal region increasingly replaces natural disturbances in shaping biodiversity. Large-scale removal of small diameter trees (thinning), is ubiquitous in northern European forestry, yet an understanding of how it relates to biodiversity across taxa is lacking. To address this, we examined how two forest structural elements, commonly impacted by forest thinning (i.e. vegetation density in the understory and overstory), are correlated with the species richness of forest-dwelling birds and epiphytic lichens. These taxa were chosen because they likely have opposing habitat demands: epiphytic lichens potentially benefitting from more light in open forests, and birds benefitting from structurally complex forests for foraging, nesting and cover. We used remote sensing tools, already applied in forestry planning, to see if management recommendations could be found that balance the needs of both taxonomic groups within the same forests. Our results show that richness in epiphytic lichens and forest-dwelling birds is not correlated and that a high species richness (~15 birds & ~40 epiphytic lichens) in both taxa is only predicted in the same stand under a specific vertical distribution and density of the forest’s vegetation: this occurs when the vegetation above 3 m is open (to promote epiphytic lichen richness) and below 3 m is dense (to promote bird richness). Dense vegetation up to 7 m above ground has a diverging effect on forest birds (positive) and epiphytic lichens (negative). A larger stem diameter further increases species richness in both taxa. Our study provides results that are directly implementable in forestry planning over large areas with the help of remote sensing tools (LiDAR). Key words: Multi taxa; LiDAR; Thinning; Vegetation density; Boreal forest; Bayesian.
32955Klepsland J.T. (2020): Thirty lichens and lichenicolous fungi new to Norway. - Graphis Scripta, 32(7): 120–143. http://nhm2.uio.no/botanisk/lav/Graphis/32_7/GS_32_120.pdf.
Thirty species of lichens and lichenicolous fungi are reported new to Norway, along with short notes on diagnostic characters, distribution and ecology, viz. Acolium sessile, Arthonia amylospora, A. helvola, Bacidia fuscoviridis, Biatorella flavella, Caloplaca isidiigera, C. monacensis, Diplotomma pharcidium, Echinodiscus lesdainii, Endocarpon psorodeum, Gregorella humida, Gyalecta ophiospora, Heppia adglutinata, Hydropunctaria orae, Lecania koerberiana, Micarea fennica, M. tomentosa, Myriolecis antiqua, Parvoplaca nigroblastidiata, Porina rosei, Psoroglaena dictyospora, Rhizocarpon advenulum, Rinodina albana, R. polysporoides, Scutula curvispora, Staurothele arctica, Verrucaria hydrophila, Vezdaea rheocarpa, Xanthocarpia marmorata, and Zhurbenkoa epicladonia.
32954Hurtado P., Prieto M., Aragón G., de Bello F. & Martínez I. (2020): Intraspecific variability drives functional changes in lichen epiphytic communities across Europe. - Ecology, 101(6): e03017 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1002/ecy.3017.
Traditional approaches in trait-based community ecology typically expect that trait filtering across broad environmental gradients is largely due to replacement of species, rather than intraspecific trait adjustments. Recently, the role of intraspecific trait variability has been largely highlighted as an important contributor mediating the ability of communities to persist under changing conditions and determining the community-level trait variation, particularly across limited environmental gradients. Unfortunately, few studies quantify the relative importance of species turnover versus intraspecific variability mediating the response of communities different from vascular plants. Here, we studied the functional changes in epiphytic lichen communities within 23 beech forests across large latitudinal (ca. 3,000 km) and environmental gradients in Europe to quantify the relative contribution of species turnover and intraspecific variability and the role of climate controlling community-level trait changes. For 58 lichen species, we focused on a set of 10 quantitative functional traits potentially affected by climatic conditions and related to photosynthetic performance (n = 1,184 thalli), water use strategy (n = 1,018 thalli), and nutrient uptake (n = 1,179 thalli). Our results showed that intraspecific trait variability explained most of the functional changes in lichen communities in response to the latitudinal gradient. Further, such functional changes were determined by the covariation between intraspecific trait variability and species turnover, which varied in sign depending on the trait considered. Finally, different climatic predictors explained functional variation due to both intraspecific trait variability and species turnover. We propose that lichen communities cope with contrasting climatic conditions by adjusting the functional trait values of the most abundant species within the communities rather than by the replacement of the species. Consequently, intraspecific variability should be explicitly incorporated to understand the effect of environmental changes on lichen communities, even over large environmental variations, better. Our results challenge the universality of the hypothesis that species turnover chiefly drives functional trait changes across large environmental gradients and call for a wider test of such important assumptions in trait ecology in different organism types and ecosystems. Key words: beech forests; climate; community ecology; functional ecology; functional trait variation; intraspecific variability; latitudinal gradient; lichen; species turnover.
32953Diuzheva A., Locatelli M., Tartaglia A., Goga M., Ferrone V., Carlucci G. & Andruch V. (2020): Application of liquid-phase microextraction to the analysis of plant and herbal samples. - Phytochemical Analysis, 31: 687–699. DOI: 10.1002/pca.2939.
Introduction: The analysis of plant and herbal samples is a challenging task for analytical chemists due to the complexity of the matrix combined with the low concentration of analytes. In recent years different liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) techniques coupled with a variety of analytical equipment have been developed for the determination of both organic and inorganic analytes. Objective: Over the past few years, the number of research papers in this field has shown a markedly growing tendency. Therefore, the purpose of this review paper is to summarise and critically evaluate research articles focused on the application of LPME techniques for the analysis of plant and herbal samples. Results: Due to the complex nature of the samples, the direct application of LPME techniques to the analysis of plants has not often been done. LPME techniques as well as their modalities have been commonly applied in combination with other pretreatment techniques, including a solid–liquid extraction technique supported by mechanical agitation or auxiliary energies for plant analysis. Applications and the most important parameters are summarised in the tables. Conclusion: This review summarises the application of the LPME procedure and shows the major benefits of LPME, such as the low volume of solvents used, high enrichment factor, simplicity of operation and wide selection of applicable detection techniques. We can expect further development of microextraction analytical methods that focus on direct sample analysis with the application of green extraction solvents while fully automating procedures for the analysis of plant materials. Key words: dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction, herbal, liquid-phase microextraction, plant, single- drop microextraction, solid samples.
32952Ravera S., Puglisi M., Vizzini A., Totti C., Barberis G., Bianchi E., Boemo A., Bonini I., Bouvet D., Cocozza C., Dagnino D., Di Nuzzo L., Fačkovcová Z., Gheza G., Gianfreda S., Giordani P., Hilpold A., Hurtado P., Köckinger H., Isocrono D., Loppi S., Malíček J., Matino C., Minuto L., Nascimbene J., Pandeli G., Paoli L., Puntillo D., Puntillo M., Rossi A., Sguazzin F., Spitale D., Stifter S., Turcato C. & Vazzola S. (2020): Notulae to the Italian flora of algae, bryophytes, fungi and lichens: 10. - Italian Botanist, 10: 83–99. https://doi.org/10.3897/italianbotanist.99.59352.
In this contribution, new data concerning red algae, bryophytes, fungi and lichens of the Italian flora are presented. It includes new records and confirmations for the algal genus Thorea, for the bryophyte genera Ephemerum, Hedwigia, Pogonatum, Riccia, Sphagnum, and Tortella, the fungal genera Pileolaria and Sporisorium, and the lichen genera Bacidia, Cerothallia, Chaenotheca, Cladonia, Halecania, Lecanora, Phylloblastia, Physcia, Protoparmelia, Pycnora, Segestria, and Sphaerophorus. Keywords: Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Bryidae, Marchantiidae, Rhodophyta.
32951Roux C. (2020): Lectotypification de Verrucaria leptotera f. inconspicua Nyl. (syn. Arthopyrenia inconspicua (Nyl.) J. Lahm ex Körb.). - Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, 71: 87–89. .
Résumé : Verrucaria leptotera f. inconspicua Nyl. (qui est antérieur à Arthopyrenia inconspicua J. Lahm) est lectotypifié par un spécimen de J. Lahm (mstr) et considéré comme le basionyme de Lichenopeltella inconspicua (Nyl.) Cl. Roux (autorité corrigée) qui remplace Lichenopeltella inconspicua (J. Lahm) Cl. Roux. Pour la même raison, Arthopyrenia inconspicua J. Lahm. est corrigé en Arthopyrenia inconspicua (Nyl.) J. Lahm ex Körb.
32950Roux C, Pinault P., Ertz D. & Gardiennet A. (2020): Deux Capronia s. l. (Ascomycota, Chaetothyriales) lichénicoles sur Cladonia. - Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, 71: 75–86. .
Résumé : Description de deux champignons lichénicoles sur Cladonia, Capronia diederichiana P. Pinault et Cl. Roux sp. nov., récolté sur deux espèces de Cladonia, et Knufia peltigerae, ordinairement sur Peltigera, mais se rencontrant également sur Cladonia (gr. pyxidata) et parfois même sur d’autres lichens (Enchylium tenax, Scytinium lichenoides) et sur bryophytes. Comparaison entre ces deux espèces bien distinctes, surtout par leurs spores. Différences entre Capronia diederichiana et les espèces voisines ou analogues. Considérations sur les genres Capronia (y compris leurs stades asexués Cladophialophora), Knufia et Merismatium, ainsi que sur l’hamathécium des Capronia s. l.
32949Méric J.-C & Roux C. [collab. Aïtelli M. & Poumarat S.] (2020): Lichénologie à Sivergues (84) : 26 octobre 2019. - Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, 71: 20–29. .
France; report on excursion with photodocumentation
32948Gheza G., Di Nuzzo L. & Nascimbene J. (2020): The lichen genus Cladonia in Monte Ceceri (Tuscany, Central Italy). - Borziana, 1: 5–13. https://doi.org/10.7320/Borz.001.005.
Cladonia is a widespread genus of lichenized Ascomycetes whose knowledge is fragmentary in Italy. There, many records are dispersed in floristic studies, while specific research targeted on this lichen group is almost missing. As a first contribution to the knowledge of the Cladonia biota of Tuscany, the annotated list of the species recorded in Monte Ceceri (Fiesole, province of Florence) is reported. Eleven species are listed; among them, C. ciliata likely became extinct since the only historical record, while C. peziziformis and C. rei are reported for the first time from Tuscany. Similarly to other areas recently studied in northern Italy, also in Monte Ceceri the occurrence of Cladonia-rich terricolous lichen communities is related to the persistence of fragments of open dry habitats, which are threatened by vegetation encroachment. This case study is a first step towards a better knowledge of terricolous lichen communities of lowlands of central Italy, which provides information useful for the conservation of these overlooked organisms. Key words: Diversity, floristics, habitat loss, open dry habitats.
32947Gauslaa Y. & Timdal E. (2020): Usnea rubicunda new to Scandinavia. - Graphis Scripta, 32(6): 110–119. http://nhm2.uio.no/botanisk/lav/Graphis/32_6/GS_32_110.pdf.
The western temperate-tropical fruticose species lichen Usnea rubicunda Stirt. is reported as new to Scandinavia from a locality in Farsund municipality, Vest-Agder, south-west Norway. The fungal barcode marker, nrITS, shows a 99.8–100 % similarity with British specimens, and the known small Norwegian population is assumed to have recently immigrated from Britain, possibly a response to global warming. Details on morphology, habitat, and population characteristics of the Norwegian occurrence are given.
32946Hurtado P., Prieto M., de Bello F., Aragón G., López-Angulo J., Giordani P., Díaz-Peña E.M., Vicente R., Merinero S., Košuthová A., Benesperi R., Bianchi E., Mayrhofer H., Nascimbene J., Grube M., Wedin M., Westberg M. & Martínez I. (2020): Contrasting environmental drivers determine biodiversity patterns in epiphytic lichen communities along a European gradient. - Microorganisms, 8(12): 1913 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8121913.
Assessing the ecological impacts of environmental change on biological communities requires knowledge of the factors driving the spatial patterns of the three diversity facets along extensive environmental gradients. We quantified the taxonomic (TD), functional (FD), and phylogenetic diversity (PD) of lichen epiphytic communities in 23 beech forests along Europe to examine their response to environmental variation (climate, habitat quality, spatial predictors) at a continental geographic scale. We selected six traits related to the climatic conditions in forest ecosystems, the water-use strategy and the nutrient uptake, and we built a phylogenetic tree based on four molecular markers. FD and climate determined TD and PD, with spatial variables also a ecting PD. The three diversity facets were primarily shaped by distinct critical predictors, with the temperature diurnal range a ecting FD and PD, and precipitation of the wettest month determining TD. Our results emphasize the value of FD for explaining part of TD and PD variation in lichen communities at a broad geographic scale, while highlighting that these diversity facets provide complementary information about the communities’ response under changing environmental conditions. Furthermore, traits such as growth form, photobiont type, and reproductive stratégy mediated the response of lichen communities to abiotic factors emerging as useful indicators of macroclimatic variations. Keywords: beech forests; climate; epiphytic lichen; functional diversity; functional trait; latitudinal gradient; phylogenetic diversity; taxonomic diversity.
32945John V. & Beck A. (2020): Notiz zu den Flechtenbiota der Burgruine Erfenstein, mit einem Nachtrag zur Burgruine Drachenfels. - Mitteilugen der Pollichia [Bad Dürkheim], 100: 75–83. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Mitt-Pollichia_100_0075-0083.pdf.
On the relatively small complex of the Erfenstein Castle ruins 75 lichen species were found, including endangered and rare species. In addition to the species typical for sandstone, the castle is an oasis for numerous species on limestone. Due to the balanced ratio of nitrophytic to nitrophobic lichens, there is no evidence for excessive eutrophication. The castle can currently be regarded as an example of gentle care measurements. Solenopsora vulturiensis from the Drachenfels Castle ruins is confirmed by molecular methods.
32944Fernandes R.A., Chaudhari D.A. & Jha A.K. (2020): Evolution of strategies in paraconic acids synthesis. - Asian Journal of Organic Chemistry, 9: 1478–1501. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajoc.202000353.
Various syntheses of different paraconic acids over the last seventeen years have been abstracted here. Paraconic acids have either a methylene or methyl group at the 4-position of the γ-butyrolactone with a common C-3 carboxylic acid group and a long alkyl chain. Several possibilities of relative configurations give rise to distinct set of paraconic acids, which are also categorized in this review. Various strategies based on chiral catalytic methods, chiral pool, chiral auxiliary, resolution and other methods were engaged in the synthesis of different paraconic acids. A few members are yet to be synthesized and this compilation might entice future synthetic attempts on them. Keywords: catalysis · lactones · lichen · natural products · paraconic acids · total synthesis.
32943Zarabska-Bożejewicz D. (2020): The impact of nitrogen pollution in the agricultural landscape on lichens: A review of their responses at the community, species, biont and physiological levels. - Agronomy, 10(12): 1852 [19 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10121852.
Lichenized fungi are widely used as bioindicators owing to their sensitivity to various anthropogenic impacts. Increased nitrogen deposition affects the occurrence, abundance and distribution of lichens. The main sources of nitrogen in the agricultural landscape are ammonia (NH3) and the ammonium cation (NH4+). Livestock farming and the use of organic and mineral fertilizers are primarily responsible for the emissions of these compounds. N in excess can negatively impact lichen biota and lead, for example, to species decline, impoverishment of lichen communities or unbalanced symbiosis. However, there is also evidence for certain opposite effects, in particular at medium N concentrations. Positive influences may be manifested, for example, by higher chlorophyll a concentrations, or by a greater lichen diversity being supported by the coexistence of lichens with different trophic requirements. Indicator values of lichens in relation to N input are exhibited, for example, by some biont markers (the contents of ergosterol and chlorophyll a), particular species, such as Xanthoria parietina, or trophic functional groups (oligotrophilous and nitrophilous lichens). Gaps identified in the current knowledge are discussed. Keywords: lichenized fungi; elevated nitrogen deposition; bioindication.
32942Krzewicka B. (2012): A Revision of Verrucaria s.l. (Verrucariaceae) in Poland. - Polish Botanical Studies, 27: 3–143. .
A taxonomic treatment of the genus Verrucaria s.l. in Poland is provided, based on a study of ca 1700 specimens from Polish and foreign herbaria. A total of 62 species belonging to seven genera currently separated within Verrucaria s.l. are presented including two new combinations, Verruculopsis minutum (Hepp) Krzewicka and Parabagliettoa disjuncta (Arnold) Krzewicka. The following genera and species are recognized in the study area: Bagliettoa − B. baldensis (A. Massal.) Vězda, B. calciseda (DC.) Gueidan & Cl. Roux, B. marmorea (Scop.) Gueidan & Cl. Roux, B. parmigerella (Zahlbr.) Vězda & Poelt; Hydropunctaria − H. maura (Wahlenb.) Keller, Gueidan & Thüs, H. rheitrophila (Zschacke) Keller, Gueidan & Thüs, H. scabra (Vĕzda) Keller, Gueidan & Thüs; Parabagliettoa − P. cyanea (A. Massal.) Gueidan & Cl. Roux, P. disjuncta, P. dufourii (DC.) Gueidan & Cl. Roux; Placopyrenium − P. canellum (Nyl.) Gueidan & Cl. Roux, P. fuscellum (Turner) Gueidan & Cl. Roux, P. trachyticum (Hazsl.) Breuss; Verrucaria − V. acrotella auct., V. amylacea Hepp, V. andesiatica Servít, V. aquatilis Mudd, V. bryoctona (Th.Fr.) Orange, V. caerulea DC., V. cataleptoides (Nyl.) Nyl., V. cernaensis Zschacke, V. cincta Hepp, V. denudata Zschacke, V. dolosa Hepp, V. elaeina Borrer, V. elaeomelaena (A. Massal.) Arnold, V. funckii (Spreng.) Zahlbr., V. hochstetteri Fr., V. latebrosa Körb., V. macrostoma DC., V. maculiformis Kremp., V. madida Orange, V. margacea (Wahlenb.) Wahlenb., V. muralis Ach., V. myriocarpa Hepp, V. nigrescens Pers., V. nigroumbrina (A. Massal.) Servít, V. obfuscans (Nyl.) Nyl., V. ochrostoma Borrer, V. pachyderma (Arnold) Arnold, V. pinguicula A. Massal., V. policensis Servít, V. polonica J. Nowak, V. polysticta Borrer, V. praetermissa (Trevisan) Anzi, V. procopii Servít, V. sphaerospora Anzi, V. sublobulata Servít, V. submauroides auct., V. submersella Servít, V. tectorum (A. Massal.) Körb., V. tristis (A. Massal.) Kremp., V. umbrinula Nyl., V. viridicans Servít, V. viridula (Schrad.) Ach., V. xyloxena Norman; Verrucula − V. elegantaria (Zehetl.) Nav.-Ros. & Cl. Roux, V. helvetica (B. de Lesd.) Nav.-Ros. & Cl. Roux, V. polycarparia Nav.-Ros. & Cl. Roux, V. protearia (Zehetl.) Nav.-Ros. & Cl. Roux; and Verruculopsis − V. lecideoides (A. Massal.) Gueidan & Cl. Roux, V. minutum. Three species, Parabagliettoa disjuncta, Verrucula elegantaria and V. polycarparia are reported for the first time from Poland. Twenty five taxa are excluded from the survey because they were mistakenly reported or not confirmed for the study area. The morphology, anatomy, ecology and known distribution of all treated taxa are discussed. Keys for the identification of genera and particular groups of the species are provided. Additional nomenclatural and taxonomic clarification include the typification of Thrombium lecideoides A. Massal., Verrucaria aquatilis var. aerimontana Servít and Verrucaria timkoii Servít, and the synonymy of Lithoicea nigrescens var. acrotella A. Massal. with Verrucaria nigrescens, Verrucaria amylacea f. compacta Arnold with Verrucaria amylacea, Verrucaria aquatilis var. aerimontana with Verrucaria aquatilis, Verrucaria atroviridis Servít with Verrucaria aquatilis, Verrucaria denudata f. dissulta Servít with Verrucaria funckii, Verrucaria elaeina var. determinata Körb. with Verrucaria praetermissa, Verrucaria elaeina var. effusa Körb. with Verrucaria submersella, Verrucaria hoffmanni Hepp with Bagliettoa marmorea, Verrucaria maura var. opaca Körb. with Hydropunctaria scabra, Verrucaria nigrofusca Servít with Verrucaria nigroumbrina, Verrucaria sublobulata var. robustior Servít with Verrucaria sublobulata, Verrucaria timkoii with Bagliettoa calciseda. The name Verrucaria funckiana is rejected because it proved illegitimate as it was nomenclaturally superfluous when published. Key words: Verrucariaceae, Bagliettoa, Hydropunctaria, Parabagliettoa, Placopyrenium, Verrucaria, Verrucula, Verruculopsis, revision, nomenclature, taxonomy, ecology, key, Poland.
32941蒋淑华,张超,姚宗廷,刘华杰 [Jiang S.-H., Zhang C., Yao Z.-T. & Liu H.-J.] (2020): 星果衣属(乳嘴衣科)一新种和一中国新记录种 [A species new to science and a new Chinese record of Astrothelium (Typetheliaceae)]. - Mycosystema, 39(2): 1–9. DOI: 10.13346/j.mycosystema.200285.
[in Chinese with English abstract: ] Based on morphology, anatomy, chemistry and molecular biology, a new species of lichenized fungus Astrothelium, A. sinense, and a new record to China A. macrocarpum were reported. The new species is characterized by thallus bullate-folded, perithecia surrounded by whitish rim except for dark ostiolar area, and thallus and pseudostromata with lichexanthone both showing UV+ yellow. Comparisons and discussions with their similar species were provided. These are basic data for compilation of Flora Lichenum Sinicorum. Key words: lichenized fungi, Dothideomycetes, Trypetheliales, phenotype, genotype.
32940Huynh B.-L.-C., Pham N.K.T. & Nguyen T.P. (2021): Vinapraesorediosic acids D and E from the lichen Parmotrema praesorediosum (Nyl.) Hale. - Phytochemistry Letters, 41: 61–64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytol.2020.11.001.
One new α,β-unsaturated-γ-lactone acid, named Vinapraesorediosic acid D (1), and one new benzoic acid, Vinapraesorediosic acid E (2), were isolated from the lichen Parmotrema praesorediosum. Their chemical structures were elucidated by extensive IR, CD, HR-ESI-MS, and NMR spectroscopic analysis, and comparison with previously published data. Compound 1 was evaluated for the cytotoxicity against four human cancer cell lines (MCF-7, HeLa, NCI-H460, and HepG2) using SRB assay. As results, 1 exhibited moderate activity against MCF-7. Keywords: Parmotrema praesorediosum; Parmeliaceae; Vinapraesorediosic acid D; Vinapraesorediosic acid E.
32939Joshi Y, Kumar P, Yadav AL, Suda N & Halda JP (2021): Distribution and diversity of lichenicolous fungi from western Himalayan Cold Deserts of India, including a new Zwackhiomyces species. - Sydowia, 73: 171–183. .
The bare rock surfaces in cold deserts provide the most extreme environmental conditions for life on Earth where specialists with particular adaptations, such as bacteria, black yeasts, fungi, mosses, lichens and microalgae can colonize. Lichens growing in these harsh conditions also use to house symptomatic and asymptomatic fungi, which are generally termed as lichenicolous and endolichenic fungi, respectively. In the present study lichenicolous fungi associated with lichens of cold deserts of India (Leh- Ladakh and Lahaul Spiti) were investigated using lichen specimens obtained from CSIR-National Botanical Research Institute including herbaria of LWG, LWU and private herbaria of Dr. D.D. Awasthi (AWAS). The new species Zwackhiomyces lecideae, lichenicolous on Lecidea, is described in detail, and a list of 36 species (including one lichenicolous lichen, Sarcogyne sphaeros- pora, and one black meristematic fungus, Lichenothelia convexa, that is also a facultative lichenicolous fungus) belonging to 11 families (excluding genera of uncertain taxonomic positions) infecting 39 species of lichen hosts in the study site is presented. The discovery of a new species of Zwackhiomyces raises the tally of its members to 36 across the world and eight from India. alpine, astrobiology, diversity, Mars, lichens, lichensphere, secondary fungi, taxonomy.
32938Ertz D. (2020): New insights into the systematics and phylogeny of the genus Fouragea (Arthoniales, Opegraphaceae). - Phytotaxa, 472(2): 184–192. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.472.2.8.
The foliicolous lichen-forming fungus Opegrapha vegae was collected on the French island of Mayotte (Comoros archipelago). Phylogenetic analyses using nuLSU and RPB2 sequences place this species in the genus Fouragea (Opegraphaceae). Opegrapha alba, O. heliabravoa, O. tuxtlensis and O. vegae are newly combined in the genus Fouragea because of their foliicolous habit, their general morphology and their ascomata and ascospores types. Fouragea vegae is reported as new for the Comoros archipelago. Keywords: Comoros archipelago; diversity; lichen; Opegrapha; taxonomy.
32937Ertz D. & van den Boom P.P.G. (2020): Lecanographa atlantica (Arthoniales, Lecanographaceae), a widespread and conspicuous but still undescribed lichen-forming fungus. - Phytotaxa, 472(2): 147–158. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.472.2.5.
Lecanographa farinosa was considered to be a lichen inhabiting coastal rocks of the Mediterranean region and to possess psoromic and conpsoromic acids as major secondary metabolites. A revision of its type specimen from Germany proved that the species has been misunderstood. In this paper, L. farinosa is shown to have a thallus containing confluentic and 2’-Omethylmicrophyllinic acids and to have a different ecology and distribution. A revision of previous reports of L. farinosa from continental Portugal and the study of recent specimens of Lecanographa cf. farinosa from the Azores, Canary Islands, Cape Verde and continental Portugal revealed a new species described as L. atlantica. Moreover, reports of L. dialeuca from France (Brittany) and of L. subgrumulosa from the Azores are considered misidentifications of L. atlantica. This latter has thus a widespread distribution ranging from the Azores to the Atlantic coast of the European continent where it inhabits volcanic rocks near the sea. Lecanographa atlantica is characterized by a whitish to cream coloured thallus, usually rounded or oblong to shortly lirelliform and white pruinose ascomata with a widely exposed hymenial disc and thin margin, (3–)5–7- septate ascospores of (16–)18.9–23(–26) × (3–)3.4–4(–4.5) μm, and a chemistry including at least 2’-O-methylperlatolic acid but lacking confluentic and 2’-O-methylmicrophyllinic acids. Psoromic acid is sometimes present in L. atlantica but its origin is unclear. Phylogenetic analyses using nuLSU sequences place L. atlantica as sister to L. hypothallina. Keywords: chemistry, diversity, island biology, phylogeny, taxonomy.
32936Santesson J. (1970): Anthraquinones in Caloplaca. - Phytochemistry, 9: 2149–2166. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(00)85380-7.
About 230 species of the lichen genus Caloplaca have been surveyed for anthraquinones. By means of lichen mass spectrometry and TLC, emodin, parietin, fallacinol, fallacinal, parietinic acid, xanthorin, 2-chloroemodin, fragilin, and 1-O-methylfragilin have been identified, as well as some non-anthraquinonoid compounds. The species studied can be arranged according to their anthraquinone content in thirteen “chemical groups”.
32935Gagarina L.V. & Ezhkin A.K. (2020): To the study of the lichen genus Usnea (Parmeliaceae) in Kunashir Island (Sakhalin Region, Russia). - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 54(2): 467–478. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2020.54.2.467.
Nine species from the genus Usnea were found in the Kunashir Island. Six species are new for the Kunashir Island. These are U. cornuta, U. glabrata, U. fragilescens, U. lapponica, U. pangiana, U. subfloridana. In total, six secondary medullary substances detected by HPTLC were found in the species of Usnea from Kunashir. Four new chemotypes are described. The paper provides a key for identification of Usnea species in the Kunashir Island, list of specimens examined, lists of chemotypes detected by authors and known from literature. Keywords: chemistry, distribution, key, lichen substances, Kuril Islands.
32934Stepanchikova I.S., Rodionova A.A., Himelbrant D.E. & Motiejūnaitė J. (2020): The lichens of Maly Island (Peninsaari) in the Gulf of Finland (Leningrad Region). - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 54(2): 453–466. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2020.54.2.453.
A lichen checklist for Maly Island (Leningrad Region, Russia) comprises 160 species, including 150 lichens, 9 lichenicolous fungi and 1 non-lichenized saprobic fungus. Lecidella eff ugiens is new to North-Western European Russia, Diplotomma pharcidium and Taeniolella delicata are new to the Leningrad Region. The lichen biota of Maly Island is relatively poor due to natural and anthropogenic factors: the island is small, sandy, lacking rocky outcrops, with low diversity of plant communities; all its forests are disturbed and young. The most valuable habitats for lichens on Maly Island are seashore communities and open pine stands on sand. Keywords: lichen diversity, seashore communities, Baltic Sea, Karelia australis, Kingisepp District, Russia.
32933Мучник Е.Э. [Muchnik E.E.] (2020): Дополнения к лихенобиоте Брянской области (Россия) [Contribution to the lichen biota of the Bryansk Region (Russia)]. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 54(2): 441–451. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2020.54.2.441.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] The checklist of 56 lichen species and 4 allied non-lichenized saprotrophic fungi is presented. It complements the previously available information on the lichen biota of the Bryansk Region. Lecanora stanislai, Micarea pusilla, and Physconia grumosa are recorded for the first time in Central Russia, 38 other species are new to the Bryansk Region. Calicium quercinum, Cladonia decorticata, C. homosekikaica, and Stereocaulon condensatum are rare species in Central Russia. We consider a number of species as indicators of biologically valuable forest and park landscapes in coniferous- broadleaved and broadleaved subzones in Central Russia. Recommendations on expanding the list of protected lichen species in Bryansk Region are given. Keywords: Lecanora stanislai, Micarea pusilla, Physconia grumosa, lichens, rare species, special protected areas, Central Russia.
32932Konoreva L.A., Chesnokov S.V., Korolev K.S. & Himelbrant D.E. (2020): On the Micarea prasina group (Pilocarpaceae) in the Kaliningrad Region. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 54(2): 429–440. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2020.54.2.429.
Seven species of Micarea prasina group were found during the lichen study in the northern part of the Kaliningrad Region. M. pseudomicrococca is reported for the fi rst time for Russia, 6 other species are new to the Kaliningrad Region. Morphological, anatomical, and chemical features of the species are discussed. Keywords: Micarea, biodiversity, distribution, lichens, secondary metabolites, taxonomy, Baltic region, Russia.
32931Исмаилов А.Б. [Ismailov A.B.] (2020): Лишайники высокогорных буковых лесов Республики Дагестан [Lichens of high mountainous beech forests of the Republic of Dagestan]. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 54(2): 413–427. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2020.54.2.413.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] The high mountainous beech (Fagus orientalis) forests of Dagestan which are a refugium of the species with oceanic/suboceanic distribution in the arid conditions of the East Caucasus have been studied for the first time, and 140 species of lichens, lichenicolous and non-lichenized fungi growing on beech have been revealed. Among them 3 species (Leptogium burnetiae, Lobaria pulmonaria, and Ricasolia amplissima) are endangered lichens included in the red data book of Russia. Seven species (Abrothallus nephromatis, A. peyritschii, Biatora beckhausii, Biatoropsis usnearum, Bryoria vrangiana, Dactylospora lobariella, and Usnea fragilescens) and 2 genera (Biatoropsis and Ramonia) are reported for the first time for the East Caucasus; 10 species (Collema nigrescens, C. subnigrescens, Gyalecta fagicola, G. herculina, Lecanora intumescens, Leptogium burnetiae, L. cyanescens, Melanohalea elegantula, Nephroma helveticum, and Ramonia luteola) and the genus Biatora are new for Dagestan. The record of Ramonia luteola is the second for Russia and the Caucasus. Most of the lichens are with trebouxioid photobiont, cyanolichens are represented by 20 species, lichens with trentepohlioid photobiont — by 14 species. Reproductive strategy by spores is prevailing. Vegetative diaspores are formed by 51 species of which 46 are fruticose and foliose. The species from Lobarion pulmonariae community are revealed. The presence of rare and endangered species shows a high value of studied community for nature protection. Keywords: Fagus orientalis, Lobarion pulmonariae, biodiversity, lichenicolous fungi, new records, old-growth forests, East Caucasus, Russia.
32930Zhdanov I.S. (2020): Halecania ahtii (Leprocaulaceae), a new lichen species from the Russian Far East. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 54(2): 405–411. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2020.54.2.405.
A new species, Halecania ahtii, is described and illustrated. It is only known from the type locality in the Russian Far East. It is characterized by thin, very inconspicuous thallus consisting of small, dispersed areoles and most likely containing argopsin (identifi ed by fast orange-red reaction with P), as well as relatively small ascospores, and a lichenicolous habit on diff erent saxicolous host species on acidic rocks. A key for Halecania species containing argopsin is proposed. Keywords: biodiversity, Primorye Territory.
32929Бельдиман Л.Н., Урбанавичене И.Н., Федосов В.Э. & Кузьмина Е.Ю. [Beldiman L.N., Urbanavichene I.N., Fedosov V.E. & Kuzmina E.Yu.] (2020): Мхи и лишайники острова Шокальского (Карское море, Ямало-Ненецкий автономный округ) [Mosses and lichens of Shokalsky Island (Kara Sea, Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Area)]. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 54(2): 497–513. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2020.54.2.497.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] We studied in detail a moss-lichen component of Shokalsky Island vegetation for the first time and identified 79 species of mosses and 54 species and 2 subspecies of lichens and lichenicolous fungi. All species of mosses and 23 species and 2 subspecies of lichens and lichenicolous fungi are recorded for the first time for the island. The study is based on collections made in South West part of the island, in arctic tundra. We also explored the participation of the mosses and lichens in the main types of plant communities and the species distribution in 10 ecotopes. The paper describes the noteworthy findings (Abrothallus parmeliarum, Aongstroemia longipes, Arthonia peltigerea, Caloplaca caesiorufella, Catillaria stereocaulorum, Ceratodon heterophyllus, Lecanora leptacinella, Sphagnum concinnum, S. olafii) and features of bryo- and lichenoflora of Shokalsky Island. Keywords: bryoflora, lichenoflora, arctic tundra, flora, Arctic, West Siberia.
32928Czernyadjeva I.V., Ahti T., Boldina O.N., Chesnokov S.V, Davydov E.A., Doroshina G.Ya., Fedosov V.E., Khetagurov Kh.М., Konoreva L.A., Kotkova V.M., Kuzmina E.Yu., Lavrentiev M.V., Liksakova N.S., Nikolayev I.А., Popova N.N., Safronova T.V., Shadrina S.N. & Yakovchenko L.S. (2020): New cryptogamic records. 6. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 54(2): 537–557. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2020.54.2.537.
First records of chrysophytes for the North-Western Russia and the Leningrad Region, fungi for the Pskov Region, lichens for Svalbard and the Altai Territory, bryophytes for the Far East, Arkhangelsk, Saratov, Voronezh and Sakhalin regions, the Karachayevo-Circassian Republic, Republic of North Ossetia – Alania, the Republic of Altai, the New Siberian Islands Archipelago, the Kuril Islands, the Republic of South Ossetia. The data on its localities, habitats and distribution are provided. Keywords: Alutaceodontia alutacea, Basidiomycota, Botryobasidium intertextum, Buellia epigaea, Calliergon megalophyllum, Chrysophyceae, Chrysostephanosphaera globulifera, Cladonia labradorica, Cladonia norvegica, Cladonia oxneri, Dendrothele acerina, Fissidens exilis, Homalia trichomanoides, Lewinskya laevigata, Mallomonas oviformis, Orthotrichum sibiricum, Orthotrichum sibiricum, Parmelia fraudans, Pellia endiviifolia, Peltigera extenuata, Peniophora lilacea, Pohlia beringiensis, Rhizomnium magnifolium, Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus, Sphagnum jensenii, Sphagnum majus, Sphagnum mirum, Sphagnum squarrosum, aphyllophoroid fungi, algae, chrysophytes, lichens, mosses, mycobiota, Republic of Altai, Altai Territory, Arctic, Arkhangelsk Region, Far East, Karachayevo-Circassian Republic, Kinnvika Bay, Kuril Islands, Leningrad Region, New Siberian Islands Archipelago, Nordaustlandet, North-Western Russia, Norway, Pskov Region, Republic of North Ossetia — Alania, Republic of South Ossetia, Russia, Saratov Region, Sakhalin Region, Stolbovoy Island, Svalbard, Voronezh Region, Urup Island.
32927Fjelde M.O., Melechin A. & Timdal E. (2020): Calvitimela talayana new to Fennoscandia. - Graphis Scripta, 32(5): 101–109. http://nhm2.uio.no/botanisk/lav/Graphis/32_5/GS_32_101.pdf.
The lichen species Calvitimela talayana (Tephromelataceae, Lecanorales) is rarely collected worldwide but seems to have a broad and northern circumpolar distribution. It is here reported as new to Fennoscandia. The collection was made on siliceous rocks in alpine to arctic boulderfields at massif Lovozerskie gory on the Kola peninsula (Murmansk oblast, Russia), extending the known distribution range of this species by almost 1200 km. An additional collection from the Priuralsky district (Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District) was made 160 km north of the former northernmost collection in the Ural Mountain. The specimens fit C. talayana in morphology (pale yellow areolae and yellow to dark green soralia), and the identification was confirmed by thin-layer chromatography and a maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis of the barcode marker nrITS.
32926Suija A. & Jüriado I. (2020): Records of new and interesting lichenicolous fungi from Finland and Norway. - Graphis Scripta, 32(5): 86–100. http://nhm2.uio.no/botanisk/lav/Graphis/32_5/GS_32_86.pdf.
Seven lichenicolous fungi new to Finland were found during the revision of lichen material collected by the second author from Finland and Norway, and of historical collections made by Prof. Theodor Lippmaa in the 1920s from north-western Finland. New localities for 29 lichenicolous species collected in the southern Finnish archipelago, in northern Finland or in northern Norway are also reported.
32925Wang W., Van den Boom P., Sangvichien E. & Wei J. (2020): A molecular study of the lichen genus Byssoloma Trevisan (Pilocarpaceae) with descriptions of three new species from China. - Lichenologist, 52(5): 387-396. .
A molecular phylogeny of the genus Byssoloma is inferred from mtSSU sequences using Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses. Byssoloma subdiscordans is resolved as sister to B. citricola rather than to the B. leucoblepharum clade, the B. subundulatum group (species with a compact apothecial margin) is shown to be a monophyletic group, and three species belonging to this group are described as new to science from Hainan Province in China: B. brunneodiscum W. C. Wang & J. C. Wei, with dark brown apothecia, crystals in the excipulum and the presence of 2,5,7-trichloro-3-O-methylnorlichexanthone; B. rubrofuscum W. C. Wang & J. C. Wei, with red-brown apothecia, 3–6-septate ascospores and the presence of 5,7-dichloro-3-O-methylnorlichexanthone; B. melanodiscocarpum W. C. Wang & J. C. Wei, with pure black apothecia, a K+ olive-black hypothecium and the presence of thiophanic acid. foliicolous lichens, Hainan, mtSSU, taxonomy
32924Wang W., Sangvichien E., Wei T. & Wei J. (2020): A molecular phylogeny of Pilocarpaceae Zahlbr., including a new species of Tapellaria Müll. Arg. and new records of foliicolous lichenized fungi from Thailand. - Lichenologist, 52(5): 377-385. .
The phylogeny of foliicolous taxa in Pilocarpaceae was reconstructed using Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses of concatenated ITS and mtSSU sequences. Sixty-six new partial sequences representing 36 taxa were generated and 29 sequences were downloaded from GenBank. Our results indicate that Lasioloma R. Sant. is nested within a paraphyletic Calopadia Vězda, whereas Fellhanera Vězda is poly- phyletic and the phylogenetic relationships of Eugeniella Lücking et al. and Sporopodium Mont. with Fellhanera require further investiga- tion. In addition, Tapellaria parvimuriformis W. C. Wang & J. C. Wei is described as a new species from Khao Yai National Park, Thailand, and is characterized by its small muriform ascospores, grey campylidia with a pale base, and short conidia. Eight new records of foliicolous lichens for Thailand are also listed. Asia, Bayesian analysis, foliicolous lichens, ITS, mtSSU
32923Van der Kolk H., Earland-Bennett P. & Hawksworth D. (2020): A new Psammina species with exceptionally long conidial arms, with a key to the ten known species of the genus. - Lichenologist, 52(5): 337-343. .
The algicolous and lichenicolous species Psammina filamentosa is described from the Netherlands and the UK, and is characterized by long (generally over 50 μm) and somewhat tapered conidial arms. Psammina filamentosa is compared with other Psammina specimens found in the same habitat, growing on algae or lichens on the dry side of trees and stones. Psammina filamentosa, P. inflata and P. stipitata differ in the dimensions of their conidial arms. Psammina simplex, however, may be a synonym of P. stipitata, and a DNA study is needed to deter- mine whether it is a distinct species or developing material of P. stipitata. Psammina inflata is also reported as new for the Netherlands. A new worldwide key to the 10 species of Psammina currently known is provided, including three species described from plant material. algicolous, coelomycetes, hyphomycetes, lichenicolous, The Netherlands, UK
32922Galanty A., Paśko P., Podolak I. & Zagrodzki P. (2020): Optimization of usnic acid extraction conditions using fractional factorial design. - Lichenologist, 52(5): 397-401. .
Usnic acid is a unique lichen metabolite of industrial importance, widely studied to explore its pharmacological potential and valued espe- cially as an antibacterial agent in cosmetics. Although a vast number of papers describe usnic acid extraction from various lichen species, none has so far provided an unequivocal indication of the best extraction procedure for this compound. Thus, the current study was focused on the direct comparison of three commonly used usnic acid extraction methods (heat reflux, shaking, ultrasound-assisted extractions), which were optimized using fractional factorial design. Heat reflux extraction, shaking extraction and ultrasound-assisted extraction were first optimized in a series of experiments using fractional factorial design, with respect to three parameters: the extraction time, the solvent used and the number of extraction repetitions. HPLC was employed for usnic acid quantitative analysis. The best scores for each extraction method were statistically compared and the optimal conditions were indicated. The optimal set of parameters for usnic acid was established to be a single, 60 min heat reflux extraction with acetone. This extraction scheme provided 4.25 ±0.08 mg g−1 d.w. of usnic acid, while for ultrasound-assisted and shaking extractions the amount was two- or even four times lower (2.33 ±0.17 and 0.97 ±0.08 mg g−1 d.w., respect- ively). The optimal procedure for usnic acid extraction described here may be suitable for effective acquisition of this compound for sci- entific research purposes, but also for applications in the pharmaceutical or cosmetic industries. extraction, fractional factorial design, lichen, optimization, usnic acid
32921Elvebakk A., Hong S., Park C. & Rämä T. (2020): Psoroma capense and P. esterhuyseniae (Pannariaceae), two new alpine species from South Africa. - Lichenologist, 52(5): 345-352. .
The new species Psoroma capense and P. esterhuyseniae are described from four alpine localities in the Western Cape Province of South Africa and are the only known Psoroma species from Africa. The specimens were all collected from moist sites near watercourses, on cool and mostly south-facing cliffs. Psoroma capense resembles P. tenue in gross morphology but differs in the ascending thallus squamules, lack of secondary compounds and short-ellipsoid to ovoid ascospores. However, a phylogenetic analysis involving the markers ITS, nucLSU, mtSSU and Mcm7, comparing the only recent collection of P. capense with previously published sequences, shows that it belongs to the P. hypnorum lineage, with no known, closely related species. Psoroma esterhuyseniae resembles P. hypnorum but has subglobose to short- ellipsoid ascospores without apical perispore extensions. The two species are thought to have evolved from one or two long-distance dis- persal events during the Pleistocene. biodiversity, evolution, lichens, phylogeny, taxonomy
32920Davydov E., Yakovchenko L., Urbanavichene I., Konoreva L., Chesnokov S., Kharpukhaeva T. & Obermayer W. (2020): Umbilicaria orientalis – a new species of Umbilicaria subg. Papillophora with an East Asian distribution: Morphological delimitation and molecular evidence. - Lichenologist, 52(5): 353-364. .
Umbilicaria orientalis Davydov sp. nov. is described and phylogenetic analysis (ITS, mtLSU and RPB2) confirmed its distinctness and indicated a sister relationship with U. trabeculata within the U. vellea group. The species is morphologically similar to U. vellea but differs by simple, cylindrical or strap-like rhizinomorphs and by thalloconidia, developing both on the lower surface and on rhizinomorphs, that are 1–2 (rarely 4)–celled or in aggregates of up to 5–6 cells. Umbilicaria orientalis is described from the Russian Far East and is currently known from a wide range of localities in East Asia, from the Far East to South Siberia and Mongolia in the north, to Hebei and Tibet in the south. New sequences of U. americana were obtained; the species represents an independent phylogenetic lineage within Umbilicaria subg. Papillophora. Diagnostic traits and variability of different developmental stages of U. orientalis, as well as its East Asian distribution pattern, are discussed. Ascomycota, China, Far East, lichen, Mongolia, Russia, South Siberia, Tibet
32919Crespo A., Rico V., Garrido E., Lumbsch H. & Divakar P. (2020): A revision of species of the Parmelia saxatilis complex in the Iberian Peninsula with the description of P. rojoi, a new potentially relict species. - Lichenologist, 52(5): 365-376. .
The species of the Parmelia saxatilis complex occurring in the Iberian Peninsula were revised. Eight species are accepted, including a new species found in southern Spain, described as P. rojoi A. Crespo, V. J. Rico & Divakar. The new species, which forms a sister-group rela- tionship with P. saxatilis s. str., is rare in the Iberian Peninsula and is restricted to higher altitudes of northern and central Spain. Parmelia rojoi differs from P. saxatilis by generally narrower isidia and a more fragile thallus. The segregation of the new species is also supported by ITS (rDNA) and Mcm7 (MS456) phylogeny and multispecies coalescent-based approaches, including StarBEAST and BP&P. Furthermore, the divergence of P. rojoi is dated back to the Pleistocene, c. 2.13 Ma. A key to the identification of species from the P. saxatilis complex with their diagnostic features is provided. All species of the complex known from Europe are also found in the Iberian Peninsula. We hypothesize that P. rojoi is a relict species that survived the Pleistocene glaciations in refugia in Spain and has been unable to extend its distributional range in postglacial periods. biogeography, glaciations, lichen, Parmeliaceae, phylogeny, refugia, systematics, taxonomy
32918Torres J.M., Spielmann A.A., Aptroot A., Cardoso K.F. & Honda N.K. (2020): The lichen genus Schistophoron Stirt. (Ascomycetes, Graphidaceae) in Brazil with a world key to the species. - Cryptogamie, Mycologie , 41(13): 211–217. https://cryptogamie.com/mycologie/41/13.
The genus Schistophoron Stirt. is reported for the first time from Brazil, based on collections from Mato Grosso do Sul State. Two species, S. indicum Kr.P.Singh & Swarnalatha, and S. tenue Stirt., were found, both of which are described and illustrated. In addition, a brief characterization of the other know species, with their geographic distribution, a comparative table and a world key are provided to facilitate their identification. Key words: Lirellae, mazaedium, new records, tropics, Chaco.
32917Kubiak D. & Osyczka P. (2020): Non-forested vs forest environments: The effect of habitat conditions on host tree parameters and the occurrence of associated epiphytic lichens. - Fungal Ecology, 47: 100957 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.funeco.2020.100957.
The study compares the epiphytic lichen communities of two different ecological systems of northern Poland, a non-forested area and a natural lowland deciduous forest corresponding to the potential vegetation flora of a large part of Central Europe, in relation to the same tree species. The impact of habitat type and tree species on individual tree properties and the association between tree size, bark pH, conductivity, water-holding capacity, bark splitting, light intensity at tree trunks and the composition of lichens were analysed. Three sets of lichens were identified: confined to non-forested areas (40 species), confined to forests (61 species), and non-specific mutual species (53 species). The results indicate that most species demonstrate specificity to habitat type rather than to tree species. Factors related to tree species and bark properties gain in importance at the level of a specific habitat. Bark pH and waterholding capacity are decisive factors for lichen occurrence in both habitat types; additionally, in forests, tree diameter is important. The paper provides potentially useful ecological data for campaigns aimed at lichen conservation and at shaping the environment with concern for biodiversity. Keywords: Epiphytes; Lichen communities; Host trees; Deciduous forest; Non-forested area; Ecology; Habitat factors; Lichen conservation.
32916Nelsen M.P. & Lumbsch H.T. (2020): A data-driven evaluation of lichen climate change indicators in Central Europe. - Biodiversity and Conservation, 29: 3959–3971. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-020-02057-8.
Lichens are widely utilized as indicators of air quality, forest health and climate change. In Central Europe, specific lichens have been designated as climate change indicators; however, the lichen biota of central Europe has been substantially altered by air pollution and only re-established during the past decades—complicating the interpretation of recent changes in lichen composition. To assess their validity as climate change indicators, we aggregated georeferenced records of these taxa and compared their historic and modern distributions. Modern distributions substantially differed for fewer than half of the indicator taxa with sufficient data to enable evaluation—reinforcing their utility as climate change indicators. However, modern distributions for approximately half of the taxa evaluated were largely confined to historically suitable climates—raising questions about their utility as climate change indicators. We were unable to model historic distributions for nearly two-thirds of all indicator taxa due to insufficient data. About one-third of these had multiple modern records but one or fewer historic records, suggesting they may indeed be expanding their range; however, about half had comparable or greater numbers of historic records relative to modern records, complicating their interpretation as climate change indicators. Together, our work illustrates that distributions for fewer than half of the lichen climate change indicators have substantially shifted in the recent past, and calls into question whether the remaining designated taxa are indeed strong positive indicators of climate change. We argue that more quantitative, evidence-based derivations of climate change indicators are required to accurately detect climate change. Keywords: Lichens;  Climate change;  Biomonitoring;  Europe.
32915Nimis P.L. & Martellos S. (2020): Towards a digital key to the lichens of Italy. - Symbiosis, 82: 149–155. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13199-020-00714-8.
Work is in progress for the completion of a computer-aided key to all lichens known to occur in Italy, which will be freely available online, and as a free application for mobile devices. A first example, concerning the lichens of Northern Italy (2.339 infrageneric taxa), is already available online for testing. A computer-generated but manually edited dichotomous key is invoked for all species previously filtered via a multi-entry interface, where several selected characters can be specified in a single step. To optimize the two query interfaces, two different datasets are used, one for the dichotomous, the other for the multi-entry interface. Keywords: Biodiversity . E-keys . Flora . Identification . Lichenized fungi.
32914Smith H.B., Dal Grande F., Muggia L., Keuler R., Divakar P.K., Grewe F., Schmitt I., Lumbsch H.T. & Leavitt S.D. (2020): Metagenomic data reveal diverse fungal and algal communities associated with the lichen symbiosis. - Symbiosis, 82: 133–147. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13199-020-00699-4.
Lichens have traditionally been considered the symbiotic phenotype from the interactions of a single fungal partner and one or few photosynthetic partners. However, lichen symbioses have been shown to be farmore complex andmay include a wider range of other interacting organisms, including non-photosynthetic bacteria, accessory fungi, and algae. In this study, we analyzed metagenomic shotgun sequences in an attempt to characterize lichen mycobiomes. Specifically, we inferred the range of fungi associated within lichen thalli from five groups of lichens – horsehair lichens (mycobiont = Bryoria spp.), shadow lichens (taxa in Physciaceae), rock posies (Rhizoplaca spp.), rock tripes (Umbilicaria spp.), and green rock shields (Xanthoparmelia spp.). Metagenomic reads from the multi-copy nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region, the standard DNA barcode region for fungi, were extracted, clustered, and used to infer taxonomic assignments. Our data revealed diverse lichen-associated mycobiomes. Many of the members of the lichen-associated mycobiomes that were identified here have not previously been found in association with lichens. Furthermore, closely related mycobionts tended to have more similar mycobiomes. We found little evidence supporting the ubiquitous presence of Cystobasidiales yeasts in macrolichens, although reads representing this putative symbiotic partner were found in samples of Bryoria lichens, albeit in low abundance. Our study further highlights the ecosystem-like features of lichens, with partners and interactions far from being completely understood. Future research is needed to more fully and accurately characterize lichen mycobiomes and how these fungi interact with the major lichen components, the photo- and mycobionts. Keywords: Cystobasidiomycetes . Endolichenic fungi . Genomics . Holobiont . ITS . Symbiosis.
32913Muggia L., Zalar P., Azua-Bustos A., González-Silva C., Grube M. & Gunde-Cimerman N. (2020): The beauty and the yeast: can the microalgae Dunaliella form a borderline lichen with Hortaea werneckii?. - Symbiosis, 82: 123–131. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13199-020-00697-6.
Lichenized fungi usually develop complex, stratifiedmorphologies through an intricately balanced living togetherwith their algal partners, but several species are known to form only more or less loose associations with algae. These borderline lichens are still little explored although they could inform us about early stages of lichen evolution.We studied the association of the extremely halotolerant fungus Hortaea werneckii with the alga Dunaliella atacamensis, discovered in a cave in the Atacama Desert (Chile), and with D. salina, common inhabitant of saltern brines. D. atacamensis forms small colonies, in which cells of H. werneckii can be frequently observed, while such interaction has not been observed with D. salina. As symbiotic interactions between Dunaliella and Hortaea have not been reported, we performed a series of co-cultivation experiments to inspect whether these species could interact and develop more distinct lichen-like symbiotic structures.We set up co-cultures between axenic strains of Hortaea werneckii (isolated both fromMediterranean salterns and from the Atacama cave) and isolates of D. atacamensis (from the Atacama cave) and D. salina (isolated from Mediterranean salterns). Although we used different growth media and cultivation approaches, bright field and SEMmicroscopy analyses did not indicate any mutual effects in these experiments.We discuss the implications for fungal algal interactions along the transition from algal exploiters to lichen symbioses. Keywords: Atacama Desert . Black yeast . Culture . Halotolerant . Mutualism . Salterns.
32912Černajová I. & Škaloud P. (2020): Lessons from culturing lichen soredia. - Symbiosis, 82: 109–122. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13199-020-00718-4.
Vegetative propagules play various important roles in lichen biology. We cultured soredia of Cladonia lichens in vitro and obtained three noteworthy results. Firstly, soredia are a beneficial source for the isolation of lichen symbionts. The mycobiont was obtained from 66% and the photobiont from 67% of the cultured soredia that were not contaminated. Secondly, the development of soredia followed a previously recognized pattern, arachnoid stage – soredium field – primordium, but a thalline structure was not achieved. We suggest that thallus formation in vitro is a question of favourable environmental factors, not partners compatibility. Finally, we discovered that fungi, other than the mycobiont, as well as airborne contaminants are dispersed together with lichen soredia. This is the first-ever report of such a phenomenon. The possible ecological consequences are discussed. Cystobasidiomycete yeasts were found among these fungi. We isolated representatives of three different lineages from a single thallus suggesting a low specificity for this association.
32911Pichler G., Stöggl W., Trippel D., Candotto Carniel F., Muggia L., Ametrano C.G., Çimen T., Holzinger A., Tretiach M. & Kranner I. (2020): Phytohormone release by three isolated lichen mycobionts and the effects of indole-3-acetic acid on their compatible photobionts. - Symbiosis, 82: 95–108. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13199-020-00721-9.
Evidence is emerging that phytohormones represent key inter-kingdom signalling compounds supporting chemical communication between plants, fungi and bacteria. The roles of phytohormones for the lichen symbiosis are poorly understood, particularly in the process of lichenization, i.e. the key events which lead free-living microalgae and fungi to recognize each other, make physical contact and start developing a lichen thallus. Here, we studied cellular and extracellularly released phytohormones in three lichen mycobionts, Cladonia grayi, Xanthoria parietina and Tephromela atra, grown on solid medium, and the effects of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) on their respective photobionts, Asterochloris glomerata, Trebouxia decolorans, Trebouxia sp. Using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) we found that mycobionts produced IAA, salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA). IAA represented the most abundant phytohormone produced and released by all mycobionts, whereas SA was released by X. parietina and T. atra, and JA was released by C. grayi only. With a half-life of 5.2 days, IAA degraded exponentially in solid BBM in dim light. When IAA was exogenously offered to the mycobionts’ compatible photobionts at “physiological” concentrations (as released by their respective mycobionts and accumulated in the medium over seven days), the photobionts’ water contents increased up to 4.4%. Treatment with IAA had no effects on the maximum quantum yield of photosystem II, dry mass, and the contents of photosynthetic pigments and α- tocopherol of the photobionts. The data presented may be useful for designing studies aimed at elucidating the roles of phytohormones in lichens. Keywords: Alga . Auxin . Fungus . Jasmonic acid . Lichen . Salicylic acid.
32910Díaz E.M., Zamora J.C., Ruibal C., Divakar P.K., González-Benítez N., Le Devehat F., Chollet M., Ferron S., Sauvager A., Boustie J., Crespo A. & Molina M.C. (2020): Axenic culture and biosynthesis of secondary compounds in lichen symbiotic fungi, the Parmeliaceae. - Symbiosis, 82: 79–93. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13199-020-00719-3.
Lichens produce unique secondary metabolites with a rich potential as bioactive compounds. In many cases, the use of these molecules is limited by the low concentration of these compounds in thalli, low growth rate in culture, and changes in chemical patterns between thalli and aposymbiotic culture. In addition, the massive collection of some species of industrial interest can cause damage to lichen diversity and the associated environment. Six lichenized fungi (Arctoparmelia centrifuga, Parmelia saxatilis, Parmelina tiliacea, Platismatia glauca, Xanthoparmelia tinctina, and Usnea ghattensis) with biotechnological interest and belonging to Parmeliaceae have been cultured in order to test culture conditions and obtain enough biomass for further studies. In addition, we analyzed the compounds synthetized in axenic conditions and they were compared with chemosyndromes identified in complete thalli. Arctoparmelia centrifuga, P. saxatilis, P. tiliacea and X. tinctina were successfully cultivated while for P. glauca and U. ghattensis we only obtained sporulation and germination of the spores. The chemical pattern of the compounds secreted into the culture media varied significantly from the chemosyndrome of the whole thallus. Phenolic compounds of pharmacological and industrial interest (usnic acid, aspicilin, α-alectoronic acid, physodic acid, lobaric acid and nordivaricatic acid) and a wide variety of potentially bioactive compounds were obtained during the culture process. Keywords: Axenic culture . Mycobiont . Phenolic compounds . Bioactive molecules.
32909de las Heras R. & Catalá M. (2020): Biotechnological applications of lichen phycobionts: fast bioassay of environmental toxicity. - Symbiosis, 82: 69–78. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13199-020-00726-4.
Microbioassays allow for efficient contamination monitoring and control strategies. Free-living microalgae, representative of the aquatic environment, are the most used organisms due to high sensitivity and reproducibility. However, a lack of testing methods representative of terrestrial habitats has long been highlighted. A good unexploited option is the use of lichen phycobionts. The use of appropriate biomarkers leads to a reduction in costs and number of organisms, contributing to cost-efficient, rapid, and sensitive microbioassays. With the aimto develop a fast microbioassay, axenic Asterochloris erici was grown on treated cellulose paper, desiccated and rehydrated with different concentrations of inorganic and organic pollutants. Chlorophyll autofluorescence and free radical content were measured 5 min post-rehydration as energetics and oxidative status biomarkers respectively. Fluorescence microscopical images of exposed phycobionts were also collected. Potassium dichromate and copper sulphate decreased chlorophyll autofluorescence at high concentrations whereas boric and clofibric acids had little effect, all showing LOECs similar to those found in the literature. Heavy metals induced free radical bursts at extremely low concentrations whereas boric and clofibric acid showed modest and fluctuant increases. Microscopical images support fluorometric results and relate free radical bursts with bigger cells. In every case, free radicals LOEC is lower than chlorophyll autofluorescence’s by at least three orders of magnitude, making this microbioassay highly sensitive and fast, as well as low cost and ecologically relevant. Keywords: Microbioassay . Asterochloris erici . Pollutants . Chlorophyll autofluorescence . Free radicals . Microalgae.
32908Expósito J.R., Mejuto I. & Catalá M. (2020): Detection of active cell death markers in rehydrated lichen thalli and the involvement of nitrogen monoxide (NO). - Symbiosis, 82: 59–67. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13199-020-00727-3.
Lichen desiccation/rehydration cycles lead to an increased oxidative stress modulated by the multifaceted mediator nitrogen monoxide (NO). Active cell death, frequently triggered by oxidative damage with NO participation, has been confirmed even in unicellular organisms. This adaptive mechanism has not been studied in lichens and no specific experimental protocols exist. Hoechst 33,342 enters viable cells and DNA binding increases its fluorescence, particularly intense in condensed apoptotic chromatin. YO-PRO-1 can only permeate the altered membrane of apoptotic P2X7-positive cells. Proteolytic caspases are activated upon different types of active cell death. Our objectives are to determine if these markers indicate active cell death in Ramalina farinacea after desiccation/rehydration and to study the effect of NO scavenging. YO-PRO-1, Hoechst 33342, and Caspase 3/7 Green DNA binding were assessed in thalli rehydrated with deionized water and with a cocktail of apoptosis inducers. A 24 h kinetics and a microscopical analysis were performed. YO-PRO-1 fluorescence was not detected, Hoechst 33342 staining abruptly decreases during the first hours, while caspase-like activity associated to phycobionts steadily increases. Whereas the apoptosis inducers cocktail 1x significantly increased caspase-like activity affecting both symbionts, Hoechst staining was only affected at 10x. NO scavenging diminishes caspase-like activation and seems to accelerate Hoechst abrupt decrease during thallus rehydration. In conclusion, the demonstration of caspase-like activity in R. farinacea and its Trebouxia phycobionts point to the presence of active cell death but other methods assessing cell effective death or DNA irreversible fragmentation (i.e. TUNEL assay) are necessary to confirm this feature. Keywords: Caspases . Apoptosis . Programmed cell death . Hoechst 33342 .NO . Oxidative stress .YO-PRO-1.
32907Sancho L., de los Ríos A., Pintado A., Colesie C., Raggio J., Ascaso C. & Green A. (2020): Himantormia lugubris, an Antarctic endemic on the edge of the lichen symbiosis. - Symbiosis, 82: 49–58. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13199-020-00723-7.
Himantormia lugubris is an Antarctic endemic with a distribution restricted to the northwest tip of Antarctic Peninsula, adjacent islands and South Georgia Island. In this region H. lugubris is an important component of the epilithic lichen community. The species has a fruticose thallus with usually simple and flattened branches whose grey surface is often disrupted exposing the black and dominant chondroid axis. Because the photobiont cells are mainly restricted to the patchy grey areas, positive carbon balance seems to be rather difficult for this species. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to elucidate which functional strategy, possibly linked with thallus anatomy, is used by H. lugubris that enables it to be a successful species in the maritime Antarctic. To achieve this goal, we constructed a picture of the lichen’s physiological, anatomical and morphological characteristics by using a broad range of technologies, such as chlorophyll fluorescence, CO2 exchange and electron microscopy. We found that H. lugubris has a very low net photosynthesis, apparently restricted to the grey areas, but high respiratory rates. Therefore, positive net photosynthesis is only possible at low temperatures. Chlorophyll content is also low but is present in both gray and black areas. Our conclusion is that the only possibility for this species to achieve a positive carbon balance is to be active for long periods under optimal conditions, that means, wet, cold and with enough light, a common combination in this region of Antarctica. Given these constrains, we suggest that H. lugubris is likely to be especially sensitive species to predicted climate warming in the maritime Antarctic. Keywords: Ecophysiology . Antarctic . Lichens . Photosynthesis . Anatomy . Himantormia lugubris.
32906Garrido-Benavent I., Pérez-Ortega S., de los Ríos A. & Fernández-Mendoza F. (2020): Amphitropical variation of the algal partners of Pseudephebe (Parmeliaceae, lichenized fungi). - Symbiosis, 82: 35–48. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13199-020-00709-5.
Lichens are present in most terrestrial ecosystems on Earth and colonize extreme habitats, where vascular plants are unable to thrive, due to unique properties of the fungal-algal symbiosis. Here, we explored the phylogeographic structure of green algae engaged in symbiosis with species in the genus Pseudephebe (Parmeliaceae). These often form deep brown to blackish fruticose thalli on acidic rocks, and have partially overlapping distributions: P. minuscula is bipolar and co-occurs with P. pubescens in Europe. Based on a broad sampling, including the Arctic and Antarctica, we focused on photobionts (1) to identify genetic lineages and their phylogenetic assignment, (2) to infer the haplotype distribution in relation with geography and the mycobiont’s identity, and (3) to evaluate spatial genetic structure and polymorphism. Results revealed three Trebouxia clade S lineages (Trebouxia S02, T. suecica and T. angustilobata) associated to Pseudephebe species, with predominant haplotypes distributed throughout the entire geographic distribution, and some, less frequent, shared between widely distant localities. Photobiont switching was evident in the Mediterranean region, and algal co-occurrence was frequent in both mycobionts, which shared the same set of photobionts; this could explain, at least partially, their overlapping distribution. Furthermore, genetic structure was influenced by geography given the substantial percentages of genetic variation (ca. 25–50%) explained by the different delimited eco−/biogeographic regions. In Continental Antarctica, mycobionts showed a high specialization towards the photobionts, which are probably endemic of this climatically extreme region. Taken together, our findings provide further insight about the processes shaping lichen biogeography. Keywords: Antarctica . Bipolar . Cryptogamic cover . Genetic structure . Phylogeography . Ultrastructure.
32905Molins A., Chiva S., Calatayud Á., Marco F., García-Breijo F., Reig-Armiñana J., Carrasco P. & Moya P. (2020): Multidisciplinary approach to describe Trebouxia diversity within lichenized fungi Buellia zoharyi from the Canary Islands. - Symbiosis, 82: 19–34. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13199-020-00722-8.
The Canary Islands are famous for their extraordinary biodiversity; however, lichenized algae have only been studied partially. Buellia zoharyi is a circum-Mediterranean/Macaronesian species that usually occurs in semi-arid areas of theMediterranean, but occasionally some interesting communities of this species grow on basaltic lava flows in Lanzarote, Fuerteventura and Tenerife. Those three locations showed similar ecological conditions, but different mean annual temperatures. Here we applied a multidisciplinary approach to describe microalgae diversity from B. zoharyi covering the entire described range of distribution in the Canary Islands. Photobionts were characterized in symbiosis using molecular and microscopic techniques. Different Trebouxia spp. were detected as primary photobiont in each island (Trebouxia cretacea-Fuerteventura, T. asymmetrica-Lanzarote and Trebouxia sp. `arnoldoi´-Tenerife). Coexistence of various Trebouxia spp. within a thallus were detected by using specific primers-PCR. Those three photobionts were isolated and cultured under laboratory conditions. Different phytohormone profiles were obtained in the isolated strains which suggest different internal signalling needs. In addition, we characterized the response of the isolated strains to different temperatures using chlorophyll fluorescence. T. asymmetrica did not modify their Fv/fm values with respect to temperature acclimation. In contrast, Trebouxia sp. `arnoldoi’and T. cretacea were more sensitive to changes in growing temperature decreasing Fv/fm at 17 °C. Our results indicate that B. zoharyi is flexible regarding the photobiont choice depending on the region, and suggest that bioclimatic factors could influence the myco/photobiont association patterns. Keywords: Coexistence . Isolation . Microalgae . Photosynthesis . Symbiosis . Ultrastructure.
32904Pino-Bodas R., Araujo E., Gutiérrez-Larruga B. & Burgaz A.R. (2020): Cladonia subturgida (Cladoniaceae, Lecanoromycetes), an overlooked, but common species in the Mediterranean region. - Symbiosis, 82: 9–18. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13199-020-00688-7.
Cladonia subturgida is a Mediterranean species that has been overlooked. Apparently it was restricted to the Iberian Peninsula and Canary Islands. However, during the study of the genus Cladonia in the Mediterranean region, new populations from 44 localities were found in: south France, Sardinia, south Italian peninsula, Crete and continental Greece. Distribution models based on MaxEnt, GLM, GAMandMARS algorithms were used to estimate the potential distribution of C. subturgida. Sicily, Corsica and the north of Africa were regions with suitable climatic conditions for C. subturgida where it has not been reported yet. The climatic variables with greatest relative influence in the C. subturgida distribution were the Precipitation of Warmest Quarter and the Annual Precipitation. Additionally, the ITS rDNA region was used to study the genetic variation of this species across its distribution area. Eleven haplotypes were found, one of them widely distributed through its geographical range. AMOVA analyses indicated lack of geographical structure. Keywords: Cladoniaceae . Distribution modelling . Genetic diversity . Lichen forming fungi.
32903Crespo A., Divakar P.K., Muggia L. & Santos A. (2020): Eva Barreno Rodríguez at 70: the person and the professional. - Symbiosis, 82: 3–7. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13199-020-00728-2.
anniversary; biography
32902Muggia L. (2020): Introduction to the Festschrift dedicated to Professor Eva Barreno. - Symbiosis, 82: 1–2. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13199-020-00729-1.
32901Truong C. & Clerc P. (2020): Lichens of the Creux-du-Van nature reserve (Neuchâtel, Switzerland). - Bulletin de la Société neuchâteloise des sciences naturelles, 140: 5–24. .
The Creux-du-Van nature reserve was created in 1960 to protect a large rocky cirque ca. 1.5 km wide in the Jura mountains in Switzerland. This impressive rock formation comprises a large variety of habitats over small distances that favor a wide diversity of lichen species. We conducted a lichen inventory of the reserve and compiled data from the literature and herbarium collections. We found a total of 167 species, out of which 44 were cited for the first time in the state (canton) of Neuchâtel and two in the Jura region of Switzerland. In addition, 34 species were under threat in the Jura region or in the country as a whole. The beech forests surrounding the cliff harbored the widest diversity of species, while specialized lichen species adapted to specific microhabitats were growing at the bottom of the cliff and on the south-exposed ridge. Key words: lichenized fungi, floristics, conservation, corticolous, saxicolous, lignicolous, terricolous.
32900Meysurova A.F., Notov A.A., Pungin A.V. & Skrypnik L.N. (2020): Complex physicochemical analysis of Hypogymnia physodes in different phytocenoses . - Journal of Applied Spectroscopy, 87(5): 877–887. .
[translated from Russian original published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Spektroskopii, Vol. 87, No. 5, pp. 804–815] The physiological and biochemical parameters and elemental composition of Hypogymnia physodes lichen samples from various phytocenoses differing in lighting conditions and atmospheric humidity were studied. A significant increase in the chlorophyll a and nitrogen contents, the maximal pheophytinization coefficient, and the minimum content of phenolic compounds were observed in H. physodes thalli under severe shading conditions in a spruce forest. Most of these biochemical parameters reached their minimum values with high insolation in birch and pine forests except for the content of phenolic compounds, which reached the maximum value. ICP–AES analysis of H. physodes thalli detected 20 elements (Al, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Pb, Sn, Sr, Tl, V, W, Zn) that were found in lichen samples from all studied natural phytocenoses except for Mo, which was absent in samples from a black alder forest. The maximum concentrations for almost half of the elements (Al, B, Fe, K, Mo, Na, Sn, Ti, V) were determined in samples from the spruce forest where the thalli were more often and consistently hydrated because of the high and more stable humidity level. A complex system of correlation relationships was established based on an analysis of cross-correlations of the physiological and biochemical parameters and the metal concentrations in the samples. The results indicated a high coordination of various physiological processes. Chlorophyll a played a crucial role in maintaining their consistency with changing environmental conditions. Its content was associated with a more signifi cant number of different parameters and elemental concentrations. Keywords: physicochemical methods, ICP–AES, photosynthetic pigments, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, pheophytinization, total nitrogen, phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, elemental composition, metals, macroelements, microelements, Hypogymnia physodes, natural phytocenoses, correlation analysis.
32899Prokopiev I.A. & Filippova G.V. (2020): Effect of (+) and (–) usnic acid on physiological, biochemical, and cytological characteristics of Allium fistulosum seeds. - Russian Journal of Plant Physiology, 67(6): 1046–1053. DOI: 10.1134/S102144372006014X.
[Original Russian text published in Fiziologiya Rastenii, 2020, Vol. 67, No. 6, pp. 636–643.] The effect of (+) and (–)-usnic acid (UA) on the physiological, biochemical, and cytological characteristics of Allium fistulosum L. seedlings was studied. It was shown that germination of seeds in the medium supplemented with both enantiomers of UA at concentrations of 62.5–1000 μM led to a decrease in laboratory germination, an inhibition of growth processes, a slowing of the mitotic activity of root meristems, and tissue depigmentation. A dose-dependent increase in the frequency of chromosomal aberrations and the degree of damage to nuclear DNA in cells was shown, which indicates the potentially genotoxic and mutagenic effect of the studied UA enantiomers. However, (–)-UA induced a greater number of atypical DNA comets than the (+)-enantiomer, which may indicate its stronger effect on DNA fragmentation in cells. An increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes and a decrease in the content of flavonoids were observed under the action of both UA enantiomers against the background of the accumulation of lipid peroxidation products in seedlings’ cells, which indicates the development of oxidative stress. At the same time, no significant differences between the activity of (+) and (–)-UAs at the level of physiological and biochemical parameters of seedlings were revealed.
32898Tanona M. & Czarnota P. (2020): Index of Atmospheric Purity reflects the ecological conditions better than the environmental pollution in the Carpathian forests. - Journal of Mountain Science, 17: 2691–2706. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11629-020-6266-1.
The Index of Atmospheric Purity (IAP) is a popular tool used for the assessment of air quality in polluted urban areas, on the basis of phytosociological data of epiphytic lichen communities. We hypothesized that this indicator could also be used in less polluted forest areas to determine the quality of ecological conditions for lichens. The aim of the present study was to verify the use of IAP method in the assessment of environmental pollution, and alternatively for the assessment of general ecological conditions in protected mountain forests of Gorce National Park (Polish Western Carpathians) based on the epiphytic lichen biota associated with Picea abies. The spatial distribution of IAP values on monitored sites in GNP was compared with: 1) spatial distribution of accumulated sulfur, nitrogen, selected heavy metals, and total heavy metals in Hypogymnia physodes thalli in 1993 and 2018 (30 sites), 2) mean ecological indicator values characterizing species requirements for light (L), substrate reaction (R) and nutrients (N), in 1993, 2013 and 2018 (33 sites). Generalized linear model and redundancy analysis were performed for disclosing most influencing factors affecting lichen communities. The study revealed a few negligible relationships between IAP values and accumulation of such elements as Ni, Mn, Cd, and Cr in both monitoring periods. Simultaneously, IAP can be useful for the identification of forest areas with a high degree of naturalness. Keywords: Biomonitoring; Lichens; Forest ecology; Norway spruce; Ecological indices; Environmental pollution.
32897Tanona M., Czarnota P. & Ortyl B. (2017): Wykorzystanie transplantowanych plech Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. w ocenie zanieczyszczenia miasta Rzeszowa [Use of transplanted thalli of Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. in assessing of the contamination in Rzeszów city]. - Polish Journal for Sustainable Development, 21(1): 69–80. DOI: 10.15584/pjsd.2017.21.1.8.
[in Polish with English summary: ] Evaluation was made of the air pollution level in Rzeszów city (SE Poland) caused by chemical elements: S, N, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb based on their accumulation in the transplanted Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. (lichenized Ascomycota) thalli. Samples were distributed within the city area in 37 monitoring points in the winter/spring season of 2014/2015. The average concentration of lead in the city was 3.159 mg/kg DW, and it exceeded the content of the element in relation to the reference at the average amount of 43.24%. The accumulation values of other 7 elements were comparable with those in the control sample. The results show, that bioindication method using transplanted lichen thalli, although controversial when the level of elements in the control sample is higher than the contamination in samples exposed within investigated city, may be successfully used in analysis of several months spatial distribution of an air pollution in towns. Key words: bioindication, air pollution, lichens, CHNS, AAS.
32896Vitt D.H., House M., Kitchen S. & Wieder R.K. (2020): A protocol for monitoring plant responses to changing nitrogen deposition regimes in Alberta bogs. - Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 192: 743 [25 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-020-08645-z.
Bogs are nutrient poor, acidic ecosystems that receive their water and nutrients entirely from precipitation (= ombrogenous) and as a result are sensitive to nutrient loading from atmospheric sources. Bogs occur frequently on the northern Alberta landscape, estimated to cover 6% of the Athabasca Oil Sands Area. As a result of oil sand extraction and processing, emissions of nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) to the atmosphere have led to increasing N and S deposition that have the potential to alter the structure and function of these traditionally nutrient-poor ecosystems. At present, no detailed protocol is available for monitoring potential change of these sensitive ecosystems. We propose a user-friendly protocol that will monitor potential plant and lichen responses to future environmental inputs of nutrients and provide a structured means for collecting annual data. The protocol centers on measurement of five key plant/lichen attributes, including changes in (1) plant abundances, (2) dominant shrub annual growth and primary production, (3) lichen health estimated through chlorophyll/ phaeophytin concentrations, (4) Sphagnum annual growth and production, and (5) annual growth of the dominant tree species (Picea mariana). We placed five permanent plots in each of six bogs located at different distances from the center of oil sand extraction and sampled these for 2 years (2018 and 2019). We compared line intercept with point intercept plant assessments using NMDS ordination, concluding that both methods provide comparable data. These data indicated that each of our six bog sites differ in key species abundances. Structural differences were apparent for the six sites between years. These differences were mostly driven by changes in Vaccinium oxycoccos, not the dominant shrubs. We developed allometric growth equations for the dominant two shrubs (Rhododendron groenlandicum and Chamaedaphne calyculata). Equations developed for each of the six sites produced growth values that were not different from one another nor from one developed using data from all sites. Annual growth of R. groenlandicum differed between sites, but not years, whereas growth of C. calyculata differed between the 2 years with more growth in 2018 compared with 2019. In comparison, Sphagnum plant density and stem bulk density both had strong site differences, with stem mass density higher in 2019. When combined, annual production of S. fuscum was greater in 2019 at three sites and not different at three of the sites. Chlorophyll and phaeophytin concentrations from the epiphytic lichen Evernia mesomorpha also differed between sites and years. This protocol for field assessments of five key plant/lichen response variables indicated that both site and year are factors that must be accounted for in future assessments.A portion of the site variation was related to patterns of N and S deposition. Keywords: Allometric equation . Atmospheric deposition .Bog .Boreal .Nitrogen .Peatland .Oilsands . Sphagnum.
32895Elvebakk A., Hong S.G. & Park C.H. (2020): Hispidopannaria and Phormopsora, two new and small, but evolutionary old Pannariaceae lichen genera from southern South America. - Mycological Progress, 19: 1353–1364. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11557-020-01632-1.
Based on phylogenetic analyses of the ITS, nuclear large subunit rRNA, mitochondrial small subunit rRNA, and MCM7 genes, species previously treated as Pannaria hispidula and P. isabellina are shown to represent two new Pannariaceae genera, Hispidopannaria and Phormospsora. Each genus forms monophyletic clades, both in multilocus phylogeny and in single gene phylogenies. In the multilocus phylogeny, both genera together formed a monophyletic clade as a sister group to the genus Pannaria, whereas this monophyly was not maintained in single gene phylogenies. Hispidopannaria differs from Pannaria in having large, geotropically arranged, hispid squamules, IKI+ internal ascus structures, and perispores with irregular pulvinate verrucae and apical extensions. The southern South American, TLC-negative species H. hispidula is generitype and is concentrated to trunks in the evergreen Nothofagus forests of south-central Chile. Psoroma dasycladum, a similar endemic species from the Juan FernándezArchipelago, is also transferred to Hispidopannaria. Phormopsora is monospecific and is the only member of Pannariaceae which contains norstictic and connorstictic acids. Its thallus of large, branched squamules with large, foliose cephalodia and its bullate perispores with long-apiculate apical extensions also separate it from Pannaria. Its species, Phormopsora isabellina, has a similar distribution as H. hispidula on the South American mainland, but is more widespread. The position of these two small genera as a sister group to the large and diverse genus Pannaria, indicates a long period of slow evolutionary rate, with the island endemic Hispidopannaria dasyclada as an exception. Reproductive isolation and photobiont specialization are partly suggested to explain their slow evolution and lack of surviving speciation. Keywords: Endemism . Evolution . Pannaria . Photobionts . Phylogeny . Taxonomy.
32894Vallese C., Nascimbene J., Giordani P., Benesperi R. & Casazza G. (2021): Modelling range dynamics of terricolous lichens of the genus Peltigera in the Alps under a climate change scenario. - Fungal Ecology, 49: 101014 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.funeco.2020.101014.
Climate change is expected to strongly impact biodiversity in Alpine ecosystems and species distribution modelling is increasingly used to provide anticipatory information to guide conservation. In this study, (1) we quantified the range loss, range gain, range change and range turnover caused by climate change in the genus Peltigera a group of terricolous lichens widespread across the Alps, and then (2) we evaluated the relationships between the predictors of range dynamics and functional traits. Our results indicate moderate range dynamics for species of the genus Peltigera across the Alps under a climate change scenario. This would imply a relative stability and resistance of these lichens to climate change that may reflect the local persistence of the species under sub-optimal conditions. Our results also suggest that range dynamics could be associated with functional traits mainly related to water-use strategies and to a trade-off between dispersal and establishment ability. This finding suggests that functional traits may strongly modulate the lichen response to climate change and that species with similar functional traits are prone to similar selective pressures. Keywords: Asexual dispersal; Functional traits; Sexual dispersal; Species distribution modelling; Thallus thickness; Trade-off between dispersal and establishment; Water-use strategies.
32893Hurtado P., Prieto M., Martínez-Vilalta J., Giordani P., Aragón G., López-Angulo J., Košuthová A., Merinero S., Díaz-Peña E.M., Rosas T., Benesperi R., Bianchi E., Grube M., Mayrhofer H., Nascimbene J., Wedin M., Westberg M. & Martínez I. (2020): Disentangling functional trait variation and covariation in epiphytic lichens along a continent-wide latitudinal gradient. - Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 287: 20192862 [9 p.]. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2019.2862.
Characterizing functional trait variation and covariation, and its drivers, is critical to understand the response of species to changing environmental conditions. Evolutionary and environmental factors determine how traits vary among and within species at multiple scales. However, disentangling their relative contribution is challenging and a comprehensive trait–environment framework addressing such questions is missing in lichens. We investigated the variation in nine traits related to photosynthetic performance, water use and nutrient acquisition applying phylogenetic comparative analyses in lichen epiphytic communities on beech across Europe. These poikilohydric organisms offer a valuable model owing to their inherent limitations to buffer contrasting environmental conditions. Photobiont type and growth form captured differences in certain physiological traits whose variation was largely determined by evolutionary processes (i.e. phylogenetic history), although the intraspecific component was non-negligible. Seasonal temperature fluctuations also had an impact on trait variation, while nitrogen content depended on photobiont type rather than nitrogen deposition. The inconsistency of trait covariation among and within species prevented establishingmajor resource use strategies in lichens. However, we did identify a general pattern related to the water-use strategy. Thus, to robustly unveil lichen responses under different climatic scenarios, it is necessary to incorporate both among and within-species trait variation and covariation.
32892Kukwa M., Kosecka M. & Guzow-Krzemińska B. (2020): One name – one fungus: The influence of photosynthetic partners on the taxonomy and systematics of lichenized fungi. - Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae, 89(3): 89311 [11 p.]. DOI: 10.5586/asbp.89311.
Lichens are fungi (mycobionts) that form symbiotic associations with photoautotrophic prokaryotes or eukaryotes (photobionts); however, some species can exchange photosynthetic partners during their lifecycles. This phenomenon modifies the morphology of lichens and consequently influences the taxonomy of lichenized fungi. Here, a few such cases in which the photobionts influenced the taxonomy and systematics of lichenized fungi are reviewed. Two different morphotypes of the same species – known as photomorphs – were classified as different species and sometimes different genera. Moreover, different types of photobionts and the absence or presence (optional lichenization) of an alga in the thallus were believed to be diagnostic characters for discriminating genera. However, the taxonomy and systematics of lichens are based always, according to Article F.1.1. of the International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi, and Plants, on the fungal partner and only one name is applied. Keywords: mycobiont; photobiont; photomorphs; optional lichenization; Hymeneliaceae; Lecanographaceae; Peltigeraceae; Stictidaceae.
32891Wang X.Y., Zhang Y.Y., Liu D., Li L.J., Yang M.X., Yin A.C. & Wang L.S. (2020): Taxonomic study of Hypotrachyna subg. Everniastrum (Hale ex Sipman) Divakar, A.Crespo, Sipman, Elix & Lumbsch (Ascomycota) from China. - Cryptogamie, Mycologie, 41(12): 193–209. https://doi.org/10.5252/cryptogamie-mycologie2020v41a12. http://cryptogamie.com/mycologie/41/12.
The taxonomy of Hypotrachyna subg. Everniastrum (Hale ex Sipman) Divakar, A.Crespo, Sipman, Elix & Lumbsch from China is revised based on morphological, chemical and phylogenetic analyses. Four species new to science (Hypotrachyna corallifera Xin Y.Wang & Li S.Wang, sp. nov., H. longicilia Xin Y.Wang & Li S.Wang, sp. nov., H. puerensis Xin Y.Wang & Li S.Wang, sp. nov., and H. yunnana Xin Y.Wang & Li S.Wang, sp. nov.) and a new floristic record for one species (H. catawbiensis (Degel.) Divakar, A.Crespo, Sipman, Elix & Lumbsch) in China are reported, and a total of fifteen species are confirmed, including all the species previously reported from China. Specimens of three species (H. cirrhata (Fr.) Divakar, A.Crespo, Sipman, Elix & Lumbsch, H. nepalensis (Taylor) Divakar, A.Crespo, Sipman, Elix & Lumbsch and H. vexans (Zahlbr. ex W.L.Culb. & C.F.Culb.) Divakar, A.Crespo, Sipman, Elix & Lumbsch) from the type localities are sequenced, providing fundamental molecular data for species delimitation. New chemical varieties are detected for H. diffractaica (Y.M.Jiang & J.C.Wei) Divakar, A.Crespo, Sipman, Elix & Lumbsch. Detailed descriptions and figures for the new species and a key to all known species from China are provided. Key words: New species, phylogeny, hidden diversity, lichens, Parmeliaceae, China.
32890Spjut R., Simon A., Guissard M., Magain N. & Sérusiaux E. (2020): Corrigendum: Spjut R, Simon A, Guissard M, Magain N, Sérusiaux E (2020) The fruticose genera in the Ramalinaceae (Ascomycota, Lecanoromycetes): their diversity and evolutionary history. MycoKeys 73: 1–68. https://doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.73.47287. - Mycokeys, 74: 109–110. https://doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.74.59175.
32889Wang Yang J.-R. & Lai M.-J. (1976): Note on the lichen genus Sphaerophorus Pers. of Taiwan, with descriptions of three new species. - Taiwania, 21(1): 83‒85. DOI: 10.6165/tai.1976.21.83. https://taiwania.ntu.edu.tw/pdf/tai.1976.21.83.pdf.
Six species of the lichen genus Sphaerophorus of Taiwan are treated, of which S. digitatus, S. taiwanensis and S. yangii are described as new.
32888Chen S.S.C. & Lai M.-J. (1976): A synopsis of the Formosan plants. - Taiwania, 21(1): 87‒122. DOI: 10.6165/tai.1976.21.87. https://taiwania.ntu.edu.tw/pdf/tai.1976.21.87.pdf.
The present synopsis is intended to serve as an introduction to the study of the flora of Taiwan. Systematic arrangements of the genera and families of lichens, bryophytes, pteridophytes and spermatophytes indigenous to Taiwan anf its offshore islands are offered, with brief historical remarks and bibiographical survey for each plant group.
32887Wang Yang J.-R. & Lai M.-J. (1976): Additions and corrections to the lichen flora of Taiwan. - Taiwania, 21(2): 226‒228. DOI: 10.6165/tai.1976.21.226. https://taiwania.ntu.edu.tw/pdf/tai.1976.21.226.pdf.
32886Wang Yang J.-R. & Lai M.-J. (1973): A checklist of the lichens of Taiwan. - Taiwania, 18(1): 83‒104. DOI: 10.6165/tai.1973.18.83. https://taiwania.ntu.edu.tw/pdf/tai.1973.18.83.pdf.
In this study, an attempt has been made to summarize our present knowledge of the lichen flora in Taiwan. The 396 species in 90 genera, 7 subspecies, 56 varieties and 38 forms which have been reported are listed, together with new additions made by the present authors.
32885Wang Yang J.-R. (1973): A new locality for the remarkable lichen Coenogonium interplexum Nyl.. - Taiwania, 18(2): 194. DOI: 10.6165/tai.1973.18.194. https://taiwania.ntu.edu.tw/pdf/tai.1973.18.194.pdf.
A new locality for Coenogonium interplexum.
32884Wang Yang J.-R. (1971): A study of lichenized fungi of Taiwan fruticose lichen. - Taiwania, 16(1): 137‒142. DOI: 10.6165/tai.1971.16.137. https://taiwania.ntu.edu.tw/pdf/tai.1971.16.137.pdf.
Eight kinds of mycobionts of Taiwan fruticose lichens were cultivated and produced a basic type of colony. Observations on the single-spore cultures, morphological differentiation of fungal symbionts of these lichens were made. The mycobiunts from fruticose lichens were compact, hard in consistency. The cultivated mycobiont rarely produced pigment and also did not produce reproductive structures. Experimental evidence show that different algae in lichens are associated with different fungi.
32883Wang Yang J.-R. (1970): Some species of Trebouxia, a genus of lichenized algae, isolated from Taiwan fruticose lichens. - Taiwania, 15(1): 181‒188. DOI: 10.6165/tai.1970.15.181. https://taiwania.ntu.edu.tw/pdf/tai.1970.15.181.pdf.
Six species of the phycobionts,Trebouxia, have been successfully isolated and cultured from Taiwan fruticose lichens, mainly from the family of Cladoniaceae. It has been reported that the algal symbionts isolated from fruticose lichens (i. e. Stereocaulon, Cladonia, Pilophorus) (Ahmadjian 1960) all belonged to Group I. But based on this investigation,Taiwan fruticose lichens contain phycobionts Trebouxia from both Group I and Group II. It has been further assumed that distinct species of lichens, contain the same phycobionts, (at least, at the species level), but many from of Trebouxia which differ bith morphologically and physiologically, occur in the same species of lichens.
32882Wang Yang J.-R. (1968): A morphological study of the algal symbionts of four Taiwan lichens: Anaptychia comosa, A. dendricata, Parmelia caperata, and P. rudecta. - Taiwania, 14(1): 53‒60. DOI: 10.6165/tai.1968.14.53. https://taiwania.ntu.edu.tw/pdf/tai.1968.14.53.pdf.
Three species of the phycobiont Trebouxia have been described in this investigation. On the basis of this study, all the algal symbionts isolated from the four species of lichens, namely, Anaptychia comosa, A. dendricata, Parmelia. caperata, and P. rudecta, collected in Taiwan, belong to Trebouxia Group H. The results show that different species of lichens contain the morphologically identical algae (e. g. symbionts of A. comosa, and A. dendricata,) and that at times the same species of lichen may contain physiologically different forms of algal symbiont (e.g. P. caperata as compared in this study with my previous study, Wang-Yang, 1965). However, at the species level, lichen fungi are not highly specific with regard to their algal partners.
32881Ohmura Y., Sugimoto M., Aung M.M. & Tanaka N. (2020): Contribution to the knowledge of the Lichen Mycota of Myanmar (I) twenty species newly recorded from Southern Myanmar. - Taiwania, 65(4): 548‒558. DOI: 10.6165/tai.2020.65.548. https://taiwania.ntu.edu.tw/pdf/tai.2020.65.548.pdf.
Specimens of lichens collected from southern Myanmar including Tanintharyi and Yangon Regions were examined. As the result of taxonomic examinations, the following 20 species were identified: Astrothelium macrocarpum, Bulbothrix subscortea, Coccocarpia erythroxyli, C. palmicola, Cruentotrema thailandicum, Dirinaria aegialita, D. consimilis, Dyplolabia afzelii, Flakea papillata, Glyphis cicatricosa, Graphis cf. caesiella, G. desquamescens, G. supracola, Malmidea bakeri, Physcia undulata, Pyrenula mamillana, Pyxine dactyloschmidtii, Sarcographa labyrinthica, Trypethelium eluteriae, and Zwackhia prosodea. All of them, except the two species of Coccocarpia, are new records for Myanmar. The ITS rDNA sequences were successfully obtained from 17 samples for 14 species. The BLAST identities for Myanmar collections with the same species in GenBank range from 89 to 100%. Key words: BLAST, distribution, inventory, ITS rDNA, lichenized fungi, Southeast Asia, taxonomy.
32880Cejp K. (1936): Atlas des champignons de l'Europe. Tome 4. Omphalia (Fr.) Quél.. - Praha, [i-iv +] 152 p. .
A monograph on omphalinoid fungi includes also currently recognized lichenized species belonging to Lichenomphalia, i.e. Omphalia umbellifera and O. grisella
32879Xiao Y.-Q., Yu F.-Q., Wang L.-S., Liu P.-G. & Hur J.-S. (2005): Lichenomphalia hudsoniana (Lichenized Basidiomycota) from China. - Lichenology, 4(1): 29–32. .
The fertile fruitbodies of Lichenomphalia hudsoniana are reported for the first time in China. External morphology, anatomy and habitat data are also provided, as well as the distribution in China. Key words: basidiolichen, Omphalina, China.
32878Zhang Y., Tan C.Y., Spjut R.W., Fuchs J.R., Kinghorn A.D. & Rakotondraibe L.H. (2020): Specialized metabolites of the United States lichen Niebla homalea and their antiproliferative activities. - Phytochemistry, 180: 112521 [7 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2020.112521.
Three undescribed stictanes, nieblastictanes A, two flavicanes, nieblaflavicanes A and B, together with three already reported stictanes, along with the known compounds (+)-usnic acid, sekikaic acid, divaricatic acid, and divaricatinic acid methyl ester were isolated from an ethyl acetate extract of the western North American lichen Niebla homalea. The structures of the new and known compounds were established by spectroscopic methods including nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and electronic circular dichroism. Among the compounds isolated, usnic acid exhibited moderately potent antiproliferative activities against the A2780 ovarian (IC50 3.8 μM) and MCF-7 breast cancer (IC50 6.8 μM) cell lines. A plausible mode of formation of the chlorine-containing compound nieblastictane C is provided and the contribution of the isolated compounds to the chemotaxonomy of United States lichen species of the genus Niebla is also discussed. Keywords: Niebla homalea; Ramalinaceae; Lichen; Strictanes; Flavicane.
32877Min S.K., Kim J.E., Hong J.-M., Yim J.H., Youn U.J., Han S.J. & Kim I.-C. (2020): Anti-inflammatory effects of Lecania gerlachei extract collected from the Antarctic King Sejong Island. - Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering, 25: 543–550. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12257-019-0371-4.
Chronic inflammation is the cause of various diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and asthma, with a large number of people suffering from them. There have been many reports that even link cancer to inflammation, so the development of sophisticated and powerful drugs continues to be in demand. Here we demonstrate that the methanol extract of Lecania gerlachei (LGME), a lichen member found in the extreme Antarctic environment, exhibits anti-inflammatory activities. Treatment of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated Raw 264.7 murine macrophage cells with LGME reduced nitric oxide (NO) immune modulator production, and also down-regulated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), pro-inflammatory interleukin 6, 1β and 1α (IL-6, IL-1β and IL-1α), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) at both transcript and protein levels, in a concentration dependent manner. Furthermore, it was found that these effects were mediated by nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling inhibition. Thus, our findings may contribute towards the development of novel inflammatory drugs. Keywords: Lecania gerlachei, lichens, Antarctica, antiinflammatory properties, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway.
32876Malíček J. (2020): Buk – nejvýznamnější česká dřevina pro lišejníky?. - Botanika, 2020/2: 2–4. .
32875Štikāne K., Brūmelis G., Piterāns A. & Moisejevs R. (2017): Epiphytic lichen diversity in broadleaved tree forests in Latvia. - Acta Biol. Univ. Daugavp., 17(1): 123–132. .
Broad-leaved tree forests host a large diversity of epiphytic lichens, but this forest type is rare in Latvia. Epiphytic lichen diversity of broad-leaved trees mostly has been studied in protected areas and there is insufficient knowledge of the general distribution of epiphytic lichens outside the protected areas. The aims of this study were to compare epiphytic lichen diversity among tree species and between broad-leaved tree forest in protected and non-protected areas in Latvia. Epiphitic lichen diversity in broad-leaved tree woodland was studied in two regions of Latvia: Kurzeme and Zemgale. Altogether 67 lichen species were recorded on 160 sampled trees of 11 tree species in 19 forest stands. Eight of the recorded lichens are listed in the Latvian protected species list, of which 4 are species for which microreserves can be established. Only two were listed in the Latvian Red Data Book. Protected species were found in 18 of the studied 19 stands, but only 6 of these stands occurred in protected areas. One recorded lichen species Opegrapha niveoatra is reported as new to Latvia. Quercus robur had the highest number of lichen species on the basal trunk. 53.85% of recorded occurences (21 of 39 records) of protected lichen species and 60.42% of recorded occurences (29 of 48 records) of Woodland Key Habitat species occurred outside of protected areas. Key words: epiphytic lichens, species diversity, broad-leaved forests, fragmentation, protected species, protected areas.
32874Banchi E., Ametrano C.G., Tordoni E., Stanković D., Ongaro S., Tretiach M., Pallavicini A., Muggia L., [ARPA Working Group:] Verardo P., Tassan F., Trobiani N., Moretti O., Borney M.F. & Lazzarin S. (2020): Environmental DNA assessment of airborne plant and fungal seasonal diversity. - Science of The Total Environment, 738: 140249 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.140249.
Environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding and metagenomics analyses can improve taxonomic resolution in biodiversity studies. Only recently, these techniques have been applied in aerobiology, to target bacteria, fungi and plants in airborne samples. Here, we present a nine-month aerobiological study applying eDNA metabarcoding in which we analyzed simultaneously airborne diversity and variation of fungi and plants across five locations in North and Central Italy. We correlated species composition with the ecological characteristics of the sites and the seasons. The most abundant taxa among all sites and seasons were the fungal genera Cladosporium, Alternaria, and Epicoccum and the plant genera Brassica, Corylus, Cupressus and Linum, the latter beingmuchmore variable among sites. PERMANOVA and indicator species analyses showed that the plant diversity from air samples is significantly correlated with seasons, while that of fungi varied according to the interaction between seasons and sites. The results consolidate the performance of a new eDNA metabarcoding pipeline for the simultaneous amplification and analysis of airborne plant and fungal particles. They also highlight the promising complementarity of this approach with more traditional biomonitoring frameworks and routine reports of air quality provided by environmental agencies. Keywords: Aerobiology; High throughput sequencing; Italy; PERMANOVA; PLANiTS; Pollen; Spore.
32873Vega-García S., Sánchez-García L., Prieto-Ballesteros O. & Carrizo D. (2021): Molecular and isotopic biogeochemistry on recently-formed soils on King George Island (Maritime Antarctica) after glacier retreat upon warming climate. - Science of The Total Environment, 755: 142662 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.141439.
Maritime Antarctica is a climate-sensitive region that has experienced a continuous increase of temperature over the last 50 years. This phenomenon accelerates glacier retreat and promotes the exposure of ice-covered surfaces, triggering physico-chemical alteration of the ground and subsequent soil formation. Here,we studied the biogeochemical composition and evolution extent of soil on three recently exposed peninsulas (Fildes, Barton and Potter) on Southwest (SW) King George Island (KGI). Nine soil samples were analyzed for their lipid biomarkers, stable isotope composition, bulk geochemistry and mineralogy. Their biomarkers profiles were compared to those of local fresh biomass of microbial mats (n = 3) and vegetation (1 moss, 1 grass, and 3 lichens) to assess their contribution to the soil organic matter (SOM). The molecular and isotopic distribution of lipids in the soil samples revealed contributions to the SOM dominated by biogenic sources, mostly vegetal (i.e. odd HMW nalkanes distributions and generally depleted δ13C ratios). Microbial sources were also present to a lesser extent (i.e. even LMW n-alkanes and n-alkanoic acids, heptadecane, 1-alkenes, 9-octadecenoic acid, or iso/anteiso 15: 0 and 17:0 alkanoic acids). Additional contribution from petrogenic sources (bedrock erosion-derived hydrocarbons) was also considered although found to be minor. Results from mineralogy (relative abundance of plagioclases and virtual absence of clay minerals) and bulk geochemistry (low chemical weathering indexes) suggested little chemical alteration of the original geology. This together with the low content of total nitrogen and organic carbon, as well as moderate microbial activity in the soils, confirmed little edaphological development on the recently-exposed KGI surfaces. This study provides molecular and isotopic fingerprints of SOMcomposition in young Antarctic soils, and contributes to the understanding of soil formation and biogeochemistry in this unexplored region which is currently being affected by thermal destabilization. Keywords: Lipids biomarkers; Soils; Microbial mats; Organic matter; Maritime Antarctica; Isotopes.
32872Rola K., Lenart-Boroń A., Boroń P. & Osyczka P. (2021): Heavy-metal pollution induces changes in the genetic composition and anatomical properties of photobionts in pioneer lichens colonising post-industrial habitats. - Science of The Total Environment, 750: 141439 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.141439.
Certain lichens are effective colonisers of polluted sites. However, little is known about the tolerance of photobionts and the degree of mycobiont selectivity to photobionts relative to metal pollution. The present study recognises the genetic and anatomical diversity of Asterochloris photobionts in epigeic lichens, i.e. Cladonia cariosa, C. rei, and Diploschistes muscorum, in relation to a wide spectrum of soil pollution. In accordance with phylogenetic analysis, photobionts were clustered in 7 moderately- to well-supported clades, including 19 haplotypes. The mycobionts of all studied lichens demonstrated a low level of selectivity and were capable of associating with various Asterochloris lineages. This tendency was also expressed by the frequent (~25%) occurrence of multiple algal genotypes in a single thallus. This indicates that identified Asterochloris lineages are generally tolerant to heavy-metal pollution, and the low level of selectivity of mycobionts enables them to select the most suitable and/or available partner. The trend of increasing incidence of certain Asterochloris lineages and decreasing frequency of others along with increasing soil pollution was observed. This proves the superior adaptation of some photobionts to polluted sites. Such symbiotic plasticity constitute an adaptive feature necessary for the successful colonisation. High number of haplotypes at polluted sites could be the result of multiple introduction events from different areas during the initial stages of spontaneous succession. Regardless of the genetic pattern, Asterochloris cells were considerably smaller, and the density and compaction of cells in the algal layer were higher, in lichen specimens from polluted sites, indicating that photobiont characteristics may be closely dependent on heavy-metal pollution. Keywords: Lichenized fungi; Mycobiont selectivity; Asterochloris; Algal partner; Genetic diversity; Anthropogenic habitat.
32871Munzi S., Cruz C., Branquinho C.,Cai G., Faleri C., Parrotta L., Bini L., Gagliardi A., Leith I.D. & Sheppard L.J. (2020): More tolerant than expected: Taking into account the ability of Cladonia portentosa to cope with increased nitrogen availability in environmental policy. - Ecological Indicators, 119: 106817 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2020.106817.
The lichen Cladonia portentosa is generally considered to be sensitive to increased environmental nitrogen (N) deposition. However, the presence of this lichen in impacted environments suggests that it can cope with prolonged exposure to high N availability. To test the tolerance of this species to N, photosynthetic parameters, carbon and N concentrations and isotopic signature, chitin concentration, surface pH and extracellular enzymatic activity were measured in samples exposed for 11 years to different N doses and forms at the Whim bog N manipulation experimental site (United Kingdom). The results showed that C. portentosa is tolerant to long-term exposure to wet N deposition, maintaining its functionality with almost unaltered physiological parameters. The comparison of the proteome of short- and long-term exposed samples showed similar changes in protein expression suggesting that mechanisms to cope with N are not dependent on the exposure time even after more than a decade. Since empirical N Critical Loads are based on the response of sensitive components of the ecosystem, like C. portentosa, its capacity to cope with short- and long-term exposure to N needs to be recognized and taken into account when setting them, likewise, the significance of the form of N. Keywords: Algal ultrastructure; Critical loads and levels; Long-term exposure; Physiological response; Photosynthetic parameters; Proteomics.
32870Kováčik J., Dresler S., Babula P., Hladký J. & Sowa I. (2020): Calcium has protective impact on cadmium-induced toxicity in lichens. - Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 156: 591–599. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2020.10.007.
Eventual protective action of calcium (Ca, 100 or 1000 μM) against cadmium (Cd, 10 or 100 μM) toxicity in common lichen Hypogymnia physodes after 24 h of exposure was studied. Total Cd reached 482 and 2801 μg/g DW in 10 and 100 μM Cd treatments while Ca content reached over 23 mg/g DW in 1000 μM Ca treatment. Ca suppressed Cd accumulation by 23 and 38% in total fraction and completely in absorbed fraction. Fluorescence microscopy of Cd and Ca ions revealed good correlation with quantitative data. Cd stimulated increase in ROS formation and lipid peroxidation as detected using fluorescent reagents and quantification of H2O2 while co-application of Ca suppressed these effects. Formation of nitric oxide was mainly affected by cadmium. Cd depleted amount of amino acids but proteins or phenols remained unaffected by Cd or Ca. On the contrary, sum of thiols, reduced glutathione and ascorbic acid were depleted by Cd but reversed mainly by higher Ca dose. Among organic acids, only Cd-induced depletion of citric acid content was reversed by Ca. Data indicate that ameliorative effect of Ca under Cd excess in lichens is comparable with effect in plants and metabolic responses in various life lineages are discussed. Keywords: Antioxidants; Fungi; Heavy metals; Microscopy; Reactive oxygen species.
32869Papatheodorou E.M., Papapostolou A., Monokrousos N., Jones D.-W., Scullion J. & Stamou G.P. (2020): Crust cover and prior soil moisture status affect the response of soil microbial community and function to extreme rain events in an arid area. - European Journal of Soil Biology, 101: 103243 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejsobi.2020.103243.
Biological soil crusts (BSC) are an important multi-trophic component of arid ecosystems in the Mediterranean region, considered to have an important role in protecting the underlying soil from erosion and enhancing soil ecosystem functions. Using mesocosms in a 48 days glasshouse experiment, we investigated how previously hydrated (+W) and dried (-W) crust (+BSC) and uncrust (-BSC) -soil samples influenced microbial community structure, biomass and soil functionality of the underlying soils when exposed to two simulated extreme rain events. Community structure was assessed by phospholipid fatty acids analysis (PLFAs) and soil functionality by the activity of b-glucosidase, polyphenol oxidase, N-acetylglucosaminidase, acid phosphomoesterase and urease involve in C, P and N cycles. Crust increased the soil water content. In contrast, NH4 and NO3 were unaffected by the presence of the crust or its previous hydration status. N availability was affected by rain events; it declined from first to second event. Microbial biomasses were affected by the interaction crust x watering. Significant decline in biomasses was recorded in +BSC + W soils as a response to rain events. Little effects of treatments on soil enzymes were noticed; crust presence had a positive influence on the activity of phenol oxidase and a negative one on acid phosphomoesterase activity. The first rainfall had the greatest impact on microbial community structure, with communities in the previously hydrated crust affected most. These effects were less pronounced for the second rain event possibly due to microbial acclimation. Responses in enzyme profiles were consistent with those of communities, but delayed, with more marked responses following the second rainfall. We concluded that the effect of this lichen crust from the Mediterranean area on the response of soil microbial communities and enzymes to rainfall events depended strongly on the prior hydration status of the crust-soil complex. Keywords: Mediterranean ecosystem; Climate change; Community resistance; Lichen crust; Cladonia rangiformis.
32868Noël A., Garnier A., Clément M., Rouaud I., Sauvager A., Bousarghin L., Vásquez-Ocmín P., Maciuk A. & Tomasi S. (2021): Lichen-associated bacteria transform antibacterial usnic acid to products of lower antibiotic activity. - Phytochemistry, 181: 112535 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2020.112535.
Lichens are specific symbiotic organisms harboring various microorganisms in addition to the two classic partners (algae or cyanobacterium and fungus). Although lichens produce many antibiotic compounds such as (+)-usnic acid, their associated microorganisms possess the ability to colonize an environment where antibiosis exists. Here, we have studied the behavior of several lichen-associated bacterial strains in the presence of (+)-usnic acid, a known antibiotic lichen compound. The effect of this compound was firstly evaluated on the growth and metabolism of three bacteria, thus showing its ability to inhibit Gram-positive bacteria. This inhibition was not thwarted with the usnic acid producer strain Streptomyces cyaneofuscatus. The biotransformation of this lichen metabolite was also studied. An ethanolamine derivative of (+)-usnic acid with low antibiotic activity was highlighted with chemical profiling, using HPLC-UV combined with low resolution mass spectrometry. These findings highlight the way in which some strains develop resistance mechanisms. A methylated derivative of (+)-usnic acid was annotated using the molecular networking method, thus showing the interest of this computer-based approach in biotransformation studies. Keywords: Streptomyces cyaneofuscatus; Nocardia sp.; Mabikibacter ruber; Bacillus weihenstephenensis; Actinobacteria; Alphaproteobacteria; Firmicutes; Biotransformation; Molecular networking; Usnic acid derivatives.
32867Goga M., Baláž M., Daneu N., Elečko J., Tkáčiková Ľ., Marcinčinová M. & Bačkor M. (2021): Biological activity of selected lichens and lichen-based Ag nanoparticles prepared by a green solid-state mechanochemical approach. - Materials Science and Engineering C, 119: 111640 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2020.111640.
Lichens dispose a wide spectrum of bioactive compounds known as secondary metabolites. Their biological effects like antioxidant and antibacterial activities are widely studied. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is a method where the compounds/substances present in plants are used for reduction of AgNO3 instead of toxic chemicals. However, this methodology is usually a two-step process (extract preparation step and the synthesis step) performed under the elevated temperatures nad in the case of lichens, the redicing compounds are insoluble in water. These disadvantages can be overcome by a solid-state mechanochemical synthesis applied in the present study. As microorganisms are becoming more resistant to commercial antibiotics, AgNPs prepared in an environmentally friendly way represent an interesting alternative. In the present study, we compared the processing of lichen material of Pseudevernia furfuracea and Lobaria pulmonaria for extraction as well as for synthesis of AgNPs, and tested the antibacterial and antioxidant activity of the extracts. Both selected lichen species could be successfully used as reducing agents to produce AgNPs. Six different bacterial strains were tested for antibacterial activity of AgNPs-containing products and it was highly effective on all strains. However, the antioxidant activity of lichen extracts showed the lowest effect even if AgNPs are present which positively correlated with the content of total phenols and flavonoids. Both phenols and flavonoids are natural antioxidants and react with silver nitrate. Due to this fact, we observed a decrease of total phenols, total flavonoids as well as antioxidant activity when processing of lichen extracts with silver nitrate was used. We demonstrated that the formation of AgNPs increased the antibacterial activity but on the other hand reduced the antioxidant activity. Thus, antibacterial and antioxidant effects have to be treated differentially. Keywords: Mechanochemistry; Silver nanoparticles; Lichens; Phenols; Antibacterial activity; Green synthesis.
32866Lendemer J.C. (2020): Epitypes are forever: Best practices for an increasingly misused nomenclatural action. - Taxon, 69(5): 849–850. https://doi.org/10.1002/tax.12289.
nomenclature
32865Mercado‐Díaz J.A., Lücking R., Moncada B., Widhelm T.J. & Lumbsch H.T. (2020): Elucidating species richness in lichen fungi: The genus Sticta (Ascomycota: Peltigeraceae) in Puerto Rico. - Taxon, 69(5): 851–891. https://doi.org/10.1002/tax.12320.
Traditional taxonomic studies provide only a limited understanding of species richness within a group. Their usefulness for assessing species diversity could also be limited as many lack sufficient sampling and/or fail to integrate different data types for assessing species boundaries. To explore the challenges and limitations of estimating species richness in lichens, we employed an integrative taxonomic approach to elucidate diversification patterns of the genus Sticta (Peltigeraceae) in Puerto Rico. Specimens were collected throughout the island, and a six‐locus dataset was generated to infer phylogenetic relationships among Puerto Rican Sticta and their continental counterparts. Phylogenetic analysis was combined with species delimitation methods and analysis of morpho‐anatomical characters to assess diversity patterns and clarify species‐level taxonomy. We found that Sticta is represented by 16 species in Puerto Rico and that at least 11 (69%) of them are potentially endemic to the island. We describe eight of these in this work: S. borinquensis sp. nov., S. corymbosa sp. nov., S. densiphyllidiata sp. nov., S. guilartensis sp. nov., S. harrisii sp. nov., S. parvilobata sp. nov., S. riparia sp. nov., and S. tainorum sp. nov. These species do not cluster in a monophyletic assemblage but are scattered over the broader Sticta phylogeny, indicating at least eight separate dispersal events. Putative endemic species were found to have close allies occurring in South America. Careful re‐examination of material revealed phenotypical characters that separate most species, suggesting low levels of cryptic diversity. We highlight that integrating molecular methods and other sources of information in species discovery along with comprehensive sampling efforts can greatly enhance our knowledge about diversity patterns in poorly studied groups and regions. Furthermore, species and ecosystems in the Caribbean are being threatened by substantial human‐driven changes (e.g., deforestation, climate change). Consequences of these impacts include reduction in already restricted habitats and potential extinction. We argue that studies analyzing species diversity within a phylogenetic framework could better inform conservation efforts aimed at addressing these challenges.
32864Marcinčinová M., Širka P. & Dudáš M. (2020): The lichen flora of the Košice Zoological Garden (E Slovakia). - Thaiszia – Journal of Botany, Košice, 30(2): 197–207. https://doi.org/10.33542/TJB2020-2-04.
The Košice Zoological Garden offers a wide range of habitats from sunny exposed meadows, hedges and semi-natural well-lit to shaded forests with brooks together with concrete paths and animal cages. To best represent the area, 14 locations were selected. Total of 61 species were recorded. Most of the recorded species were epiphytic or epigeic; epilithic species were limited to a few limestone boulders or anthropogenic substrates. Besides common and widespread nitrophilous species, two recorded species are critically endangered (Arthonia radiata, Parmelia submontana), four are endangered (Evernia prunastri, Flavoparmelia caperata, Graphis scripta and Pleurosticta acetabulum), one is vulnerable (Usnea hirta), while eight are listed as near threatened in Slovakia. The discovery of Bryoria sp. is particularly interesting because of missing records of this species in the area. The lowest altitude of 412 m a.s.l. for Parmelia submontana in Slovakia was recorded. The region provides a suitable environment for a wide spectrum of lichen species and is worth of our biodiversity conservation concerns. Keywords: lichen diversity, endangered species, air pollution, Carpathians, biodiversity.
32863van Herk K. (2020): Cetrelia cetrarioides (grote spikkelaar) nieuw voor Nederland. - Buxbaumiella, 118: 18–19. .
Cetrelia cetrarioides, new for the Netherlands Cetrelia cetrarioides was recorded as new for the Netherlands. Several young specimens were found in an oak forest in the centre of the country (Stompert, near Soest). TLC was performed and perlatolic acid was shown. The increase of its range might be due to climate change.
32862Joshi Y. (2018): Documentation of lichenicolous fungi from India - Some additional reports. - Kavaka, 51: 30–34. http://www.fungiindia.co.in/images/kavaka/51/6.pdf.
This manuscript records twelve lichenicolous fungi, namely Arthonia coronata Etayo (on Flavoparmelia caperata), Dactylospora deminuta (Th. Fr.) Triebel (on Parmotrema kamatii), Didymocyrtis bryonthae (Arnold) Hafellner (on Lecanora sp.), Muellerella triseptata Diederich (on Physcia), Phoma peltigerae (P. Karst.) D. Hawksw. (on Peltigera didactyla), Polycoccum ibericum Etayo & van den Boom (on Rinodina sp.), Tremella cladoniae Diederich & M.S. Christ. (on Cladonia spp.), T. phaeophysciae Diederich & M.S. Christ. (on Phaeophyscia sp.), Zwackhiomyces physciicola Alstrup (on Physcia gomukhensis) and Z. sphinctriniformis Grube & Hafellner (on Romjularia sp.) along with two new species viz. Endococcus physciae sp. nov. growing on Physcia and Opegrapha gyalolechiae sp. nov. growing on Gyalolechia flavorubescens from India. Key words:Caloplaca, fungi, Gyalolechia, lichen, Opegrapha,Physcia, Teloschistaceae.
32861Joshi Y., Tripathi M., Bisht K., Upadhyay S., Kumar V., Pal N., Gaira A., Pant S., Rawat K.S., Bisht S., Bajpai R. & Halda J.P. (2018): Further contributions to the documentation of lichenicolous fungi from India. - Kavaka, 50: 26–33. .
Fifty two rarely collected or otherwise interesting species of lichenicolous fungi are presented, of which three species are described as new to science: (on from Uttarakhand), (on from Uttarakhand) and (on from Kerala), while 49 species are additions to the known lichenicolous mycobiota of India. Keywords: Didymocyrtis rhizoplacae Rhizoplaca chrysoleuca Plectocarpon parmeliarum Parmelia meiophora Pyrenidium hypotrachynae Hypotrachyna coorgiana lichens, lichenicolous fungi, lichenicolous lichens, new records, taxonomy.
32860Joshi Y. (2020): Polycoccum hawksworthianum (Polycoccaceae, Trypetheliales), a new lichenicolous fungus on Lepra and Varicellaria from India. - Acta Botanica Hungarica, 62: 217–224. https://doi.org/10.1556/034.62.2020.3-4.2.
The study revealed a new species of Polycoccum colonising thallus of lichen genus Lepra and Varicellaria in tropical and temperate regions of India. The genus belonging to the family Polycoccaceae is represented by 7 species in India. Though the genus is host-specific, there are 12 genera of lichens which are home for more than one species of this fungus. It is the second known species of Polycoccum on members of Lepra and Varicellaria, and differs from the previously known ones – 1) Polycoccum ochvarianum by being gall forming and having smaller perithecia [(88–)104–128–152(–170) × (81–)95–114–133(–145) μm] and 2) Polycoccum sp. in having smaller perithecia [op. cit. vs. 250–300 μm], hymenial gelatine I–, and smaller asci [(50–)55–60–65(–75) × (10–)13–15–17(–18) vs. 90 × 14 μm]. Key words: Ascomycota, lichens, new species, taxonomy.
32859Yazıcı K., Aslan A., Karahan D., Aptroot A. & Sipman H.J.M. (2020): Lichens and lichenicolous fungi from Muş province in Turkey. - Acta Botanica Hungarica, 62: 435–452. https://doi.org/10.1556/034.62.2020.3-4.10.
A contribution to the lichen flora of Turkey is presented. A total of 282 lichen taxa and 20 lichenicolous fungi, of which 4 are varieties, are determined from 87 different localities in Muş province (Turkey). Lichenostigma gracile, a lichenicolous fungus, is new to Turkey, and 274 lichen species and 20 lichenicolous fungi are new for Muş. Key words: Ascomycota, biodiversity, lichen, Muş, Turkey.
32858van den Boom P.P.G. (2020): Lichens and lichenicolous fungi of the Azores (Pico, São Jorge), additional records and four new species. - Acta Botanica Hungarica, 62: 417–434. https://doi.org/10.1556/034.62.2020.3-4.9.
One hundred twelve lichens and lichenicolous fungi species are recorded for the Azores. Twelve species are new records for the archipelago. A list with new records for the islands Pico and/or Sao Jorge is presented. Four species are newly described: Gassicurtia azorica, Polycoccum parmotrematis, Rinodina subcolobina and Stigmidium pyrenulae. Key words: biodiversity in lichens and lichenicolous fungi, ecology, Macaronesia, new records, taxonomy.
32857Rodriguez J.M. & Filippini E. (2020): Three new synonyms of lichens based on type collection of Kőfaragó-Gyelnik. - Acta Botanica Hungarica, 62: 411–416. https://doi.org/10.1556/034.62.2020.3-4.8.
We proposed Parmelia maculoides Gyeln. as a synonym of Punctelia stictica (Delise ex Duby) Krog; Physcia hosseana Gyeln. as a synonym of Physcia stellaris (L.) Nyl. and Teloschistes exilis (Michx.) Vain. f. inaequalis Gyeln. as a synonym of Teloschistes nodulifer (Nyl.) Hillmann based on the study of the Argentinian type material of Kőfaragó-Gyelnik. We also confirmed the presence of Oropogon loxensis (syn. Bryopogon hosseusianus Gyeln.) in Central Argentina by comparing the type specimen with samples collected recently. Finally we excluded the presence of Parmotrema stuppeum (Taylor) Hale from Argentina. Key words: Argentina, Kőfaragó-Gyelnik, lichenized fungi, taxonomy, types.
32856Mishra G.K., Upreti D.K., Nayaka S., Thell A., Kärnefelt I., Lőkös L., Hur J.-S., Sinha G.P. & Kondratyuk S.Y. (2020): Current taxonomy of the lichen family Teloschistaceae from India with descriptions of new species. - Acta Botanica Hungarica, 62: 309–391. https://doi.org/10.1556/034.62.2020.3-4.5.
The present study recorded 36 genera and 115 species of the lichen family Teloschistaceae in India. Three species, i.e. Caloplaca rajasthanica S. Y. Kondr., Upreti et G. P. Sinha, Huriella upre- tiana S. Y. Kondr., G. K. Mishra, Nayaka et A. Thell, and Squamulea uttarkashiana S. Y. Kondr., Upreti, Nayaka et A. Thell, are described as new species. Seven new combinations, i.e. Fulgo- gasparrea awasthii (Y. Joshi et Upreti) S. Y. Kondr., Upreti et A. Thell, Neobrownliella cinnabarina (Ach.) S. Y. Kondr., Upreti et A. Thell, Neobrownliella holochracea (Nyl.) S. Y. Kondr., Upreti et A. Thell, Opeltia flavorubescens (Huds.) S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur, Oxneriopsis bassiae (Willd. ex Ach.) S. Y. Kondr., Upreti et J.-S. Hur, Upretia hueana (B. de Lesd.) S. Y. Kondr. et Upreti and Megaspora subpoliotera (Y. Joshi et Upreti) S. Y. Kondr., Upreti et A. Thell, are proposed based on nrITS phylogeny in the Teloschistaceae and Megasporaceae consequently. Validation of combination Olegblumia demissa is provided. Molecular data on Fulgogasparrea awasthii andMegaspora subpoliotera are recorded from India for the first time. Four new genera including one species each, i.e. Lazarenkoiopsis ussuriensis (Oxner, S. Y. Kondr. et Elix) S. Y. Kondr., L. őkö et J.-S. Hur, Mikhtomia gordejevii (Tomin) S. Y. Kondr., Kärnefelt, Elix, A. Thell, J. Kim, A. S. Kondratiuk et J.-S. Hur, Olegblumia demissa (Flot.) S. Y. Kondr., L. őkö, J. Kim, A. S. Kond- ratiuk, S.-O. Oh et J.-S. Hur and Pachypeltis intrudens (H. Magn.) Sochting Froden et Arup, as well as the genus Megaspora are reported as new for the Indian lichen biota. Out of the eight lichenogeographical regions of India, the Western Himalayas show the maximum diversity of Teloschistaceae members represented with 110 species followed by the Central Indian region with 38 species. The lichen genus Caloplaca is represented with 50 species in the country followed by Athallia and Rusavskia with 6 species each. The saxi- colous taxa exhibit dominance with 65 species whereas the corticolous and terricolous taxa are represented by 48 and 9 species, respectively. Among the different states of India, Ut- tarakhand showed the maximum diversity represented by 54 species followed by the state of Jammu & Kashmir with 37 species, whereas the Jharkhand and Meghalaya states are represented only by the occurrence of a single species each. A key to the genera and species together with the description, basionyms and synonyms of each species are provided. Key words: Caloplaca, diversity, Huriella, Lecanoromycetes, Megaspora, Mikhtomia, Neobrownliella, Olegblumia, Opeltia, Oxneriopsis, Pachypeltis, Squamulea, Teloschistales, Upretia.
32855Kondratyuk S.Y., Lőkös L., Oh S.-O., Kondratiuk T.O., Parnikoza I.Yu. & Hur J.-S. (2020): New and noteworthy lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi, 11. - Acta Botanica Hungarica, 62: 225–291. https://doi.org/10.1556/034.62.2020.3-4.3.
Fourteen species new for science are described, illustrated and compared with closely related taxa. Six species of them are from South Korea, i.e. Bryostigma huriellae S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur, Caloplaca ulleungensis S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, Enterographa dokdoensis S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur, Neobrownliella salyangensis S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur, Rufoplaca aesanensis S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur, Squamulea coreana S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur, and seven species are from Chile: Caloplaca nothocitrina S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur, Caloplaca nothoholocarpa S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur, Caloplaca patagoniensis S. Y. Kondr., S.-O. Oh et J.-S. Hur, Follmannia suborthoclada S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur, ‘Lecidea’ buellielloides S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur, Massjukiella rusavskioides S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur, Rehmanniella poeltiana S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur, as well as one species, i.e. Pyrenodesmia vernadskiensis S. Y. Kondr., T. O. Kondratiuk et I. Yu. Parnikoza, similar to Antarctic endemic species Huea coralligera, is from Argentine Islands, Western Antarctic Peninsula. The member of the genus Pyrenodesmia A. Massal. is for the first time confirmed by molecular data from the Antarctic. Eighteen new combinations, i.e. Massjukiella impolita (for Caloplaca impolita Arup), Massjukiella pollinarioides (for Xanthoria pollinarioides L. Lindblom et D. M. Wright), Massjukiella stellata (for Caloplaca stellata Wetmore et Kärnefelt), Massjukiella tenax (for Xanthoria tenax L. Lindblom), and Massjukiella tenuiloba (for Xanthoria tenuiloba L. Lindblom), Pyrenodesmia albopruinosa (for Biatorina albopruinosa Arnold), Pyrenodesmia ceracea (for Caloplaca ceracea J. R. Laundon), Pyrenodesmia cretensis (for Blastenia cretensis Zahlbr.), Pyrenodesmia erythrocarpa (for Patellaria erythrocarpa Pers.), Pyrenodesmia haematites (for Lecanora haematites Chaub. ex St.-Amans), Pyrenodesmia percrocata (for Blastenia percrocata Arnold), Pyrenodesmia soralifera (for Caloplaca soralifera Vondrák et Hrouzek), Pyrenodesmia transcaspica (for Lecanora transcaspica Nyl.), Pyrenodesmia viridirufa (for Lecidea viridirufa Ach.), Pyrenodesmia xerica (for Caloplaca xerica Poelt et Vězda), as well as Rehmanniella leucoxantha (for Amphiloma leucoxanthum Müll. Arg.), Rehmanniella syvashica (for Caloplaca syvashica Khodos., Vondrák et Šoun), and Rehmanniella subgyalectoides (for Caloplaca subgyalectoides S. Y. Kondr. et Kärnefelt) are proposed. Buelliella inops and Zwackhiomyces aff. berengerianus are for the first time recorded from South America as well as from Follmannia orthoclada (as lichenicolous fungi). Caloplaca poliotera, Rinodina convexula and Rinodina kozukensis are new to the Republic of Korea, and new localities as well as illustrations for the further 13 new and rare lichen species recently described from Eastern Asia are provided too. Key words: Antarctica, Bryostigma, Caloplaca, Chile, Enterographa, Follmannia, Lecidea, Massjukiella, Neobrownliella, Pyrenodesmia, Rehmanniella, Rufoplaca, South America, South Korea, Squamulea.
32854Kondratyuk S.Y., Lőkös L., Jeong M.-H., Oh S.-O., Kondratiuk A.S. & Hur J.-S. (2020): Contributions to molecular phylogeny of lichen-forming fungi, 1. The family Candelariaceae. - Acta Botanica Hungarica, 62: 293–307. https://doi.org/10.1556/034.62.2020.3-4.4.
Three genera new for science, i.e. Candelinella S. Y. Kondr. for the Candelariella makarevichiae group, Opeltiella S. Y. Kondr. for the Candelaria fraudans group, as well as Protocandelariella Poelt, D. Liu, J.-S. Hur et S. Y. Kondr. for the Candelariella subdeflexa group are proposed for robust monophyletic branches of the Candelariaceae on the basis of three-gene phylogeny (i.e. concatenated nrITS, 12S mtSSU and 28S nrLSU sequences). Eight new combinations, i.e. Candelinella makarevichiae (for Candelariella makarevichiae S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.- S. Hur), Candelinella deppeanae (for Candelariella deppeanae M. Westb.), Opeltiella fraudans (for Candelaria fraudans Poelt et Oberw.), Opeltiella fibrosoides (for Candelaria fibrosoides M. Westb. et Frödén), Opeltiella rubrisoli (for Candelariella rubrisoli D. Liu et J.-S. Hur), Opeltiella canadensis (for Candelariella canadensis H. Magn.), Protocandelariella subdeflexa (for Lecanora subdeflexa Nyl.), Protocandelariella blastidiata (for Candelariella blastidiata L. Yakovchenko) are provided. Molecular data provided for Candelinella makarevichiae (including holotype and isotype), as well as additional specimens of Candelaria asiatica from South Korea for the first time. The latter species (Candelaria asiatica) from China, as well as ‘Candelaria’ murrayi from Argentina, South America are recorded for the first time. Voucher of Candelariella vitellina from Antarctica is also identified based on molecular phylogeny. It is for the first time shown that ‘Candelaria’ murrayi is positioned in the outermost position to Candelaria s. str. branch of the phylogenetic tree of the Candelariaceae, and may belong to another genus. Status of the ‘Candelariella’ medians group, the ‘Candelariella’ placodizans group, as well as single species ‘Candelariella’ reflexa and ‘Candelaria’ pacifica, forming separate branches outside the Candelariella s. str. and Candelaria s. str. clades, will be clarified when additional molecular data will be accumulated. Candelariella subsquamulosa D. Liu et Hur, recently described from South Korea (Liu et al. 2019), proved to be a new synonym of Candelinella makarevichiae. Key words: Candelaria, Candelariaceae, Candelariella, Candelina, Candelinella, multigene phylogeny, Opeltiella, Placomaronea, Protocandelariella.
32853Krzewicka B., Matura N., Adamska E. & Osyczka P. (2020): Species composition of freshwater lichens in temperate mountain streams: the effect of site, habitat and local spatial isolation. - Preslia, 93: 235–254. Doi: 10.23855/preslia.2020.235. http://www.preslia.cz/P203Krzewicka.pdf.
Lichens associated with aquatic and semi-aquatic habitats are a specific ecological group of symbiotic organisms. Distribution patterns, especially those of freshwater lichens and factors determining their occurrence, are poorly recognized. The species richness and composition of lichens were studied in the splash and submerged zones of Carpathian mountain streams. Habitat parameters, including pH, water conductivity, dissolved oxygen content, silting and light intensity at sampling sites, were used in the analysis. The streams differed greatly in terms of the species composition; only three lichens (Thelidium minutulum, Verrucaria hydrophila and V. praetermissa) of the entire pool of 29 recorded species were found in all streams. This fact does not directly relate to the habitat parameters measured either at the level of individual streams or considering all the streams studied. Instead, the differences in the species composition of lichens increased with the geographical distance between streams, even locally. This means that the occurrence of lichens in mountain streams is strongly site-dependent and the variability in the habitat is of less importance for species presence. Presumably lack of effective natural vectors and weak dispersal ability are strong limiting factors for freshwater lichens. Nevertheless, increased ion concentration in water can considerably promote the development of the thalli of some species of lichens, as in the case of Verrucaria praetermissa, while it can be a limiting factor for others, as in the case of V. hydrophila. Keywords: aquatic habitat, distribution, ecology, flysch watercourses, lichenized fungi, species diversity.
32852Gheza G., Assini S., Leili C., Marini L., Mayrhofer H. & Nascimbene J. (2020): Biodiversity and conservation of terricolous lichens and bryophytes in continental lowlands of northern Italy: the role of different dry habitat types. - Biodiversity and Conservation, 29: 3533–3550. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-020-02034-1.
In dry habitats of European lowlands terricolous lichens and bryophytes are almost neglected in conservation practises, even if they may strongly contribute to biodiversity. This study aims at (a) testing the role of heathlands, acidic and calcareous dry grasslands for lichen and bryophyte diversity and conservation in lowland areas of northern Italy characterized by high human impact and habitat fragmentation; (b) detecting the effect of environmental drivers and vegetation dynamics on species richness and composition. Lichens, bryophytes, vascular plants, and environmental variables were recorded in 287 circular plots for 75 sites. Our results indicate that heathlands, acidic and calcareous dry grasslands host peculiar terricolous lichen and bryophyte communities that include several species of conservation concern. Thus, each habitat provides a complementary contribution to lichen and bryophyte diversity in continental lowland landscapes. Furthermore, in each habitat different factors drive species richness and composition with contrasting patterns between lichens and bryophytes. In terms of conservation, our results indicate that management of lowland dry habitats should act at both local and landscape scales. At local scale, vegetation dynamics should be controlled in order to avoid biodiversity loss due to vegetation dynamics and wood encroachment. At the landscape scale, patches of all the three habitats should be maintained to maximize regional diversity. Keywords: Bryophytes  Dry grasslands  Heathlands  Lichens  Natura 2000 network  Nature conservation.
32851Zhang T., Wang N. & Yu L. (2020): Soil fungal community composition differs significantly among the Antarctic, Arctic, and Tibetan Plateau. - Extremophiles , 24: 821–829. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00792-020-01197-7.
Fungi are widely distributed in all terrestrial ecosystems, and they are essential to the recycling of nutrients in all terrestrial habitats on earth. We wanted to determine the relationship between soil fungal communities and geochemical factors (geographical location and soil physicochemical properties) in three widely separated geographical regions (the Antarctic, Arctic, and Tibet Plateau). Using high-throughput Illumina amplicon sequencing, we characterized the fungal communities in 53 soil samples collected from the three regions. The fungal richness and diversity indices were not significantly different among the three regions. However, fungal community composition and many fungal taxa (Thelebolales, Verrucariales, Sordariales, Chaetothyriales, Hypocreales, Pleosporales, Capnodiales, and Dothideales) significantly differed among three regions. Furthermore, geographical location (latitude and altitude) and six soil physicochemical properties ( SiO4 2−-Si, pH, NO3 −-N, organic nitrogen, NO2 −-N, and organic carbon) were significant geochemical factors those were correlated with the soil fungal community composition. These results suggest that many geochemical factors influence the distribution of the fungal species within the Antarctic, Arctic, and Tibet Plateau. Keywords Fungal diversity · High-throughput sequencing · Geographical location · Physicochemical properties.
32850Demková L., Árvay J., Bobul’ská L., Hauptvogl M., Michalko M., Michalková J. & Jančo I. (2020): Evaluation of soil and ambient air pollution around un-reclaimed mining bodies in Nižná Slaná (Slovakia) post-mining area. - Toxics, 8(4): 96 [17 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8040096.
Thirty soil samples were taken, and the same number of moss (Dicranum scoparium) and lichen (Pseudevernia furfuracea) bags were exposed to detect environmental pollution in the former mining area Nižná Slaná. Soil and ambient air are influenced by hazardous substances, which leak from old mining bodies due to insufficient or completely missing reclamation. The total content of the risk elements (As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Sb, Se, Pb, Zn) was determined in soil, moss, and lichen samples and in the bodies of Leccinum pseudoscabrum. Biological (soil enzymes—urease, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, fluorescein diacetate (FDA), ß-glucosidase) and chemical properties (pH) were determined in soil samples. Contamination factor (Cf), degree of contamination (Cd), pollution load index (PLI), and enrichment factor (EF) were used for soil and relative accumulation factor (RAF) for air quality evaluation. Contamination factor values show serious pollution by Cd, Fe, Hg, and Mn. Pollution load index confirmed extremely high pollution almost at all evaluated areas. Soil enzymes reacted to soil pollution mostly by decreasing their activity. Mosses and lichens show differences in the accumulation abilities of individual elements. Regular consumption of L. pseudoscabrum would provide the dose of Cd and Hg below the limit of provisional weekly intake. Based on the bioaccumulation index (BAF) values, L. pseudoscabrum can be characterized as an Hg accumulator. Keywords: former mining area; L. pseudoscabrum; moss and lichen bag technique; soil contamination; contamination factor; degree of contamination; relative accumulation factor.
32849Gogoi R., Joseph S., Choudhury M.P., Nayaka S. & Yasmin F. (2020): Crustose lichens new to India. - Mycotaxon, 135: 657–663. https://doi.org/10.5248/135.657.
Bacidia pycnidiata (Ramalinaceae), Malmidea nigromarginata (Malmideaceae), Porina malmei and P. nuculastrum (Porinaceae), and Pyrenula laetior and P. wrightii (Pyrenulaceae) are reported for the first time from India. The specimens were collected from the state of Assam. Taxonomic descriptions, distributions, and illustrations are provided for each species. Key words—biodiversity, lichenized Ascomycota, Nagaon, taxonomy, Tezpur.
32848Miao C., Sun M., Zhang X., Ren Z. & Hu L. (2020): New records of Toninia from China. - Mycotaxon, 135: 569–578. https://doi.org/10.5248/135.569.
Four Toninia taxa (T. albilabra, T. poeltii, T. tristis subsp. Arizonica, and T. tristis subsp. fujikawae) are reported for the first time from China. Descriptions with morphological and chemical characters and known distribution are given for each taxon. A key to the species of Toninia s.l. in China is also provided. Keywords—lichen-forming fungi, Lecanorales, Ramalinaceae, taxonomy.
32847Stam Å., He X., Kaasalainen U., Toivonen M., Enroth J., Räsänen M. & Rikkinen J. (2020): Epiphyte colonisation of fog nets in montane forests of the Taita Hills, Kenya. - Annales Botanici Fennici, 57: 227–238. https://doi.org/10.5735/085.057.0406.
The dispersal ecology of tropical non-vascular epiphytes has rarely been experimentally investigated. We studied epiphyte colonisation on 1 × 1 m polyethene nets placed for four years at seven sites at different elevations in montane forests in the Taita Hills, Kenya. During the first year the nets were also used to measure fog deposition. We predicted that differences in growth conditions would affect colonisation and subsequent growth of non-vascular epiphytes and result in clear differences in epiphyte cover and biomass, and community composition among sites. After four years the nets were taken down for determination of epiphyte cover and biomass. The diversity of established liverworts and macrolichens was also examined. Many liverwort and macrolichen species established diverse communities on the nets placed in the moist upper-montane zone. This was in contrast with the situation in the drier lower-montane zone where only green algae and crustose lichens were able to colonise most nets. Light intensity was an important determinant of epiphyte community composition, with liverworts dominating on nets under closed forest canopies and lichens dominating at more open sites. Atmospheric moisture was also important, with lichens benefiting from abundant fog deposition at open and windy sites. The dry weight of epiphytes (per unit area) on lichen-dominated nets was greater than on liverwort-dominated nets, while the highest cover was generally observed on liverwort-dominated nets. Our results demonstrate that polyethylene nets can be effectively used to study colonisation of non-vascular epiphytes as well as the abiotic and biotic factors controlling epiphyte colonisation and community composition in tropical forests. The liverworts Acanthocoleus chrysophyllus and Diplasiolejeunea kraussiana were new additions to the Kenyan bryophyte flora.
32846Etayo J., Aptroot A. & Cáceres M.E.S. (2020): New lichenicolous fungi from Brazil, with a checklist of all lichenicolous fungi known from Brazil. - Bryologist, 123(3): 483–491. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-123.3.483.
Two lichenicolous fungi are described as new to science from Brazil: Cryptodiscus gassicurtiae on Gassicurtia coccinea from Alagoas, with very small (60–150 lm diam.), grey to brownish apothecia, and Stigmidium anguinellicola on Nyungwea anguinella from Sergipe, without black patches on the host, and ascospores with halo, 8–11 3 3–3.5 lm. Nine further lichenicolous fungi are reported for the first time from Brazil (or from South America). An annotated list is presented of the 78 lichenicolous fungi previously reported from Brazil. Keywords: Cryptodiscus, Gassicurtia, Nyungwea, Stigmidium.
32845Liška J. (2015): Neznámý sběratel Celestýn Opitz. - Mykologické listy, 131: 35–38. .
Celestýn Opitz, unknown collector from the 19th century
32844Mascalchi M., Orsini C., Pinna D., Salvadori B., Siano S. & Riminesi C. (2020): Assessment of different methods for the removal of biofilms and lichens on gravestones of the English Cemetery in Florence. - International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 154: 105041 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2020.105041.
The control of biodeterioration encompasses the operations undertaken to eliminate the biological growth and, possibly, to delay a new colonization. The current attitude is generally oriented toward its planned removal whenever it causes an objective damage and/or structural impairments to the substratum. The English Cemetery, located in the centre of Florence, offers interesting features for a research focused on the removal of biofilms and lichens growing on stone surfaces of some tombs. The study compared the efficacy of two methods based on physical approach (mechanical cleaning with a brush and microwave heating) with a chemical approach using biocide ROCIMA™ 103 to remove biofilms and lichens from each tombstone. The research, focusing on methodologies with low impact for the environment, tested the efficacy of an innovative portable system that produces localized microwave heating. Its great advantage lays on lack of the potential risks associated with the irreversible application of microbicides. The assessment of the treatments’ efficacy was carried out monitoring the chlorophyll a fluorescence’s parameters, informative on the vitality and stress responses of photosynthetic organisms. The long-term monitoring of the recolonization after the treatments was performed for five years. The mechanical cleaning eliminated the superficial layer of biofilms and lichens but not the cells within the stones. The biocide was efficient in killing the biological growth; almost no recolonization was observed after about five years. The innovative microwave treatment was effective on biofilms and lichens, eliminating also cells present in the bulk of the substrata, but recolonization was observed after 15 months. This suggests that, dopo treatment aggiungere virgola the microwave treatment should be performed more frequently than biocide treatments yet guaranteeing lower impact on the environment. Keywords: Biodeterioration; Biofilms; Lichens; Mechanical removal; Microwave heating; Biocide; Chlorophyll a fluorescence; Marble; Sandstone.
32843Favero-Longo S.E., Vannini A., Benesperi R., Bianchi E., Fačkovcová Z., Giordani P., Malaspina P., Martire L., Matteucci E., Paoli L., Ravera S., Roccardi A., Tonon C. & Loppi S. (2020): The application protocol impacts the effectiveness of biocides against lichens. - International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 155: 105105 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2020.105105.
This work analyzed the influence of different application protocols on the efficacy of two biocides against the foliose lichen Xanthoparmelia tinctina on the sandstones of the Roman Archaeological site of Luni (Italy). The hypotheses that (a) biocide application tools (brush vs. poultice), (b) pre-treatment hydration, and (c) posttreatment washing may affect devitalization success were verified by monitoring chlorophyll a fluorescence of thalli, both in situ and in laboratory conditions. The hypothesis that (d) stone substrate may act as reservoir for later biocide release under repeated cycles of wetting and drying was also assayed. Analyses confirmed the importance of the application tool, with cellulose poultice being more effective than brush. Hydration influenced the biocide absorption by thalli. Moreover it modulated the metabolic activity and susceptibility to the available toxic compound, hindering lichens from entering a dormant state to tolerate stress. Depending on the preparation solvent (water vs. white spirit), the biocide application benefited from pre-treatment hydration and/or a posttreatment washing. Lastly, we showed that different sandstones variously adsorb the biocides and potentially contribute as a reservoir for their long-term release at low concentrations during successive hydration events. Keywords: Benzalkonium chloride; Chlorophyll a fluorescence; Lichen; Thallus hydration; Stone conservation.
32842Kulkarni A.N., Kadam S.K., Jeon B.H. & Govindwar S.P. (2020): Enhanced application of cross-linked enzyme aggregates of lichen Dermatocarpon vellereceum released extracellular enzymes for degradation of textile dyes. - International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 153: 105044 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2020.105044.
Like all objects exposed to the atmosphere, cultural heritage monuments and buildings must face the effects of global change. Some of environmental factors that are predicted to change and that are likely to affect the development of subaerial biofilms include water regime and CO2 concentration. This study investigated, for the first time, the influence of simultaneous environmental stressors on the development of subaerial biofilms on granite, the most commonly used stone in historical and modern buildings in Galicia (north-western Spain). Laboratory experiments revealed counteractive effects of water availability and increased CO2 concentration on the development of biofilms. Moreover, although the amount of colonizing biomass is not expected to change under the climate change projections for Galicia, the composition of the biofilm will probably change and cause more intense biodeterioration of stone cultural heritage. The study findings will be useful to help develop conservation and prevention policies against the deterioration of the built cultural heritage. Keywords: Climate change; CO2 atmospheric levels; Water availability; Photosynthetic pigments; Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS).
32841Owczarek-Kościelniak M., Krzewicka B., Piątek J., Kołodziejczyk Ł.M. & Kapusta P. (2020): Is there a link between the biological colonization of the gravestone and its deterioration?. - International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 148: 104879 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2019.104879.
The relationship between the structure (taxonomic richness and composition) of biological assemblages colonizing gravestones and the deterioration of the gravestone surface was investigated. The study was conducted at the Rakowicki Cemetery in Kraków, which is a Polish cultural heritage site. Data on the occurrence of algae, cyanobacteria, fungi and lichens were collected from 10 limestone and 10 sandstone substrates. Deteriorations were visually assessed on a generalized 3-point scale. In total, 77 taxa were recorded, including 21 algae, 3 cyanobacteria, 13 fungi and 40 lichens. Both the taxonomic richness and the composition of the studied biota were related to the degree of deterioration but the relationships were weak. A significant increase in the taxonomic richness of lichens was recorded, but only between the second and third degrees of deterioration. This was accompanied by a compositional shift in the fungi group, which resulted mainly from the more frequent occurrence of one species, Knufia marmoricola, on more deteriorated surfaces. The type of substrate had a strong impact on the taxonomic composition (especially, of fungi and lichens), but not on the taxonomic richness. The structural changes in gravestone assemblages during the observed succession, although quite small, may lead to intensification of the deterioration processes. Keywords: Stone art work; Biodeterioration; Limestone; Sandstone; Stone-inhabiting biota; Community structure.
32840Sanmartín P., Villa F., Cappitelli F., Balboa S. & Carballeira R. (2020): Characterization of a biofilm and the pattern outlined by its growth on a granite-built cloister in the Monastery of San Martiño Pinario (Santiago de Compostela, NW Spain). - International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 147: 104871 [8 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2019.104871.
The upper zone of the background walls of the processional cloister of the Monastery of San Martiño Pinario (Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, Spain) is affected by a deep green, highly hydrophobic subaerial biofilm. The pattern that the biofilm follows the walls suggests that particular microclimatic conditions induce changes in the biofilm properties. To test this hypothesis, taxonomic and structural identification of the biofilm was carried out by respectively light microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy. In addition, the chemical composition was determined by quantification of extracellular polymeric substances in the extracellular matrix of the biofilm, and hydrophobicity was determined by contact angle and water drop penetration time of biofilm and cells. Furthermore, the bioprotective or biodeteriorative role of the biofilm on the cloister is discussed on the basis of the results of stereoscopic microscope observations, X-ray diffraction and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis of granite samples from uncolonized areas and from underneath the biofilm. The findings showed that Apatococcus lobatus is the predominant algae in the biofilm. The presence of this alga is favoured by water condensation and it neither damages nor protects the substrate, only causing an aesthetic impact. Keywords: Apatococcus lobatus; Biodeterioration; Cultural heritage; Extracellular matrix (ECM); Hydrophobicity; Subaerial biofilm (SAB).
32839Kakakhel M.A., Wu F., Gu J.-D., Feng H., Shah K. & Wang W. (2019): Controlling biodeterioration of cultural heritage objects with biocides: A review. - International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 143: 104721 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2019.104721.
Biodeterioration is when living organisms chemically or physically change or alter the appearance of materials objects. Organisms can colonize and destroy valuable cultural heritage. New advances in biotechnology and applied microbiology provide important information on conserving cultural heritage. Various physical and mechanical methods have previously been used, but they are incapable of preventing the growth of organisms entirely. Organic biocides, particularly commercial formulations, do not last long because they can be utilized as a nutrient source by indigenous microflora after these microflora are exposed to biocides and develop resistance. Therefore, inorganic nanoparticles have a better chance to protect cultural heritage. Silver (Ag2O) and titanium (TiO2) oxides are effective against biofilm, and nanoparticles of zinc oxide (ZnO) are effective antimicrobial agents. This new generation of biocides is much smaller in size and extremely active to damage DNA or RNA. In addition, green biocides from natural sources offer an alternative to chemical ones, having low toxicity compared to chemically synthesized biocides. Future research on biofilm control technologies may contribute to a broader understanding of and new perspectives on a future generation of biocontrol agents and methods with the potential for sustainable development. Keywords: Cultural heritage; Biodeterioration; Biocide; Nanoparticles; Essential oils.
32838Zhang G., Gong C., Gu J., Katayama Y., Someya T. & Gu J.-D. (2019): Biochemical reactions and mechanisms involved in the biodeterioration of stone world cultural heritage under the tropical climate conditions. - International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 143: 104723 [8 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2019.104723.
The World Cultural Heritage stone monuments/temples suffer from severe deterioration from weathering caused by a combination of physical, chemical and biological forces. Current knowledge on biodeterioration of these stone monuments has been improving because of the suite of research techniques available. Previous investigations were mainly carried out with culture-dependent methods to isolate and describe a small number of microorganisms from selective sites. Now, the culture-independent method of Next Generation Sequencing technologies is readily available at an affordable cost to obtain a much more deeper information of the microbial community of many sites more quickly. Since flora, fauna and microorganisms are members of the complex community on stone monuments in tropical regions, the fundamental scientific question remains to be the biochemical mechanisms involved for the destruction to allow a better and fundamental understanding of the interactions between the inorganic materials and the colonizing biota. More importantly, the biochemical processes shall be given more attention under the local environmental conditions, especially the tropical climate. Organic acids and inorganic acids (sulfuric and nitric), produced by colonizing biota are known biochemical processes and mechanisms contributing to the attack of stone. Lichens, cyanobacteria, fungi and bacteria are ubiquitously detected on surfaces of stone monuments of Angkor, Maya and Inca. Sulfur cycle and the oxidation are known major contributing factor to the destruction of stone. Recently, ammonia-oxidizing archaea are found more abundant than ammonia-oxidizing bacteria on the Angkor monuments in Cambodia. In addition, the mobility of solutes into and out of the stone is also involved to the damage of sandstone under the influence of water regime and climate conditions. The available information on the specific biochemical mechanisms by the microbiota on stone provides important insights into the biochemical reactions involved and also the protective measures against biodeterioration of the world cultural heritage effectively. Keywords: Angkor temples; Sandstone; Cultural heritage; Biofilms; Salting; Defoliation; Capillary action; Secondary mineralization.
32837Ravera S., Vizzini A., Puglisi M., Adamčík S., Aleffi M., Aloise G., Boccardo F., Bonini I., Caboň M., Catalano I., De Giuseppe A.B., Di Nuzzo L., Dovana F., Fačkovcová Z., Gheza G., Gianfreda S., Guarino C., Guttová A., Jon R., Malíček J., Marziano M., Matino C., Nimis P.L., Pandeli G., Paoli L., Passalacqua N.G., Pittao E., Poponessi S., Puntillo D., Sguazzin F., Sicoli G. & Vallese C. (2020): Notulae to the Italian flora of algae, bryophytes, fungi and lichens: 9. - Italian Botanist, 9: 35–46. https://doi.org/10.3897/italianbotanist.9.52762.
In this contribution, new data concerning bryophytes, fungi, and lichens of the Italian flora are presented. It includes new records and confirmations for the bryophyte genera Encalypta, Grimmia, and Riccia, for the fungal genera Hericium, Inocybe, Inocutis, Pluteus, and Russula, and for the lichen genera Bryoria, Farnoldia, Hypocenomyce, Lecania, Paracollema, Peltigera, Sarcogyne, and Teloschistes. Keywords: Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Bryidae, Jungermanniidae, Marchantiidae.
32836Smith R.J., Jovan S., Stanton D. & Will-Wolf S. (2020): Epiphytic macrolichen communities indicate climate and air quality in the U.S. Midwest. - Bryologist, 123(3): 516–532. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-123.3.516.
Epiphytic lichens directly exposed to atmospheric conditions can help detect how diffuse but pressing global changes may impact regional forest health. For 388 plots in the U.S. Midwest region, we developed indices for climate and air quality based on variation in tree-dwelling macrolichen community compositions (NMS ordination scores), species indicator values, and species environmental optima. Three lichen indices (NMS axis 1 scores, thermophile scores, and climate centroid scores) strongly covaried with thermal and evaporative-demand variables. By contrast, three other indices (NMS axis 2 scores, nitrophile scores and nitrogen centroid scores) were correlated with NHx (reduced N) deposition. Lichen communities had contrasting responses to different forms of N (NOx vs. NHx). Overall, thermal climate variables appeared more influential than air quality in structuring regional communities, based on greater explained variation of community compositions. Richness of species and of potentially adaptive secondary metabolites declined in hot, dry, or NHx-rich sites. With continued monitoring, significant changes in lichen-community based indices could signal directional shifts in forest vegetation. Changes in the thermophile or nitrophile indices more specifically would indicate the agent and rate of change for forest-altering trends. Keywords: Air quality, climate indication, community compositions, diversity, global changes, indicator species, nitrogen loads, secondary metabolites.
32835Perlmutter G.B., Rivas Plata E., LaGreca S., Aptroot A., Lücking R., Tehler A. & Ertz D. (2020): Biatora akompsa is revealed as a disjunct North American species of Pentagenella (Opegraphaceae) through molecular phylogenetic analysis and phenotype-based binning. - Bryologist, 123(3): 502–516. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-123.3.502.
Historical and recent material of Bacidia akompsa (basionym: Biatora akompsa) was studied to determine the taxonomic position of this crustose lichen, prompted by the appearance of the provisional name ‘‘Lecanactis akompsa (Tuck.) ined.’’ in multiple online lichen databases and checklists. Initial morphological assessment of verified material confirmed B. akompsa as a member of Arthoniales but distinct from Lecanactis by having epruinose ascomata with a thin exciple open below the hymenium; a pale, K/Iþ violet to deep blue hypothecium; and ascospores with a gelatinous sheath. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of specimens recently collected near the type locality revealed B. akompsa to be nested within the genus Pentagenella in Opegraphaceae. The same placement was found using phenotype-based phylogenetic binning with 37 morphological, anatomical and chemical characters. The new combination Pentagenella akompsa is proposed and the species represents the first North American member of this genus, otherwise known only from Chile and Peru. Therefore, our results reveal the genus Pentagenella to have a remarkably disjunct distribution between North and South America. Several specimens previously labeled as Bacidia, Biatora, or Lecanactis akompsa were found to be misidentifications, narrowing the range of P. akompsa to coastal California, where it is found on two coastal conifer species that are (like P. akompsa itself) narrowly endemic and of conservation concern. Keywords: Arthoniales, Bacidia, California, nomenclature, taxonomy.
32834McCune B. (2020): Epigloea diversispora, a new possibly lichenized ascomycete from Oregon, with a key to the World species. - Bryologist, 123(3): 534–540. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-122.3.534.
Epigloea diversispora is newly described from a coastal mountain summit in western Oregon, U.S.A. The species has minute, shiny, jet black ascocarps appearing on a biofilm of mixed cyanobacteria and algae. The spores are diverse in both shape and septation. Immature spores are initially nonseptate and ellipsoid, then become soleiform, then 1-septate, while mature spores are 3-septate and short fusiform. Lichenization is uncertain, but the species appears to form a loosely lichenized thallus with hyphae dispersed in a partly cyanobacterial and partly algal crust on thin soil, moss, and plant detritus, over rock. Keywords: Biofilms, Epigloeaceae, North America, Ostropomycetidae.
32833Lendemer J.C. (2020): Recent literature on lichens—258. - Bryologist, 123(3): 584–591. https//doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-123.3.584.
Bibliography
32832Ristić S., Stamenković S., Stojković Piperac M., Šajn R., Kosanić M. & Ranković B. (2020): Searching for lichen indicator species: the application of self-organizing maps in air quality assessment—a case study from Balkan area (Serbia). - Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 192: 693 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-020-08633-3.
The subject of this paper is the possibility of using self-organizing map (SOM) in the biomonitoring studies. We used lichens as biomonitors to indicate different degrees of air quality. This research included all of 88 lichen species that was collected at 75 investigated points. These lichen species showed the different responses to air pollution. The air quality was assessed by IAP (index of atmospheric pollution) values. The IAP values were calculated for all of investigated points on the territory of four natural and one urban ecosystem. Calculated IAP values were in range of 10 to 75. On the basis of the lichen data and IAP values, we have employed SOM analysis that distinguished three clusters (A, B, and C). It presented lichen indicator species for each cluster: 16 species for cluster A, 18 species for cluster B, and two species for cluster C. This paper presents a useful method to find indicator species. Keywords: Bioindication . Mapping . Zonification . SOManalysis . Clusters.
32831Doering J.A., Booth T., Wiersma Y.F. & Piercey‑Normore M.D. (2020): How do genes flow? Identifying potential dispersal mode for the semi‑aquatic lichen Dermatocarpon luridum using spatial modelling and photobiont markers. - BMC Ecology, 20: 56 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12898-020-00324-4.
Background: Landscape genetics is an interdisciplinary field that combines tools and techniques from population genetics with the spatially explicit principles from landscape ecology. Spatial variation in genotypes is used to test hypotheses about how landscape pattern affects dispersal in a wide range of taxa. Lichens, symbiotic associations between mycobionts and photobionts, are an entity for which little is known about their dispersal mechanism. Our objective was to infer the dispersal mechanism in the semi-aquatic lichen Dermatocarpon luridum using spatial models and the spatial variation of the photobiont, Diplosphaera chodatii. We sequenced the ITS rDNA and the β-actin gene regions of the photobiont and mapped the haplotype spatial distribution in Payuk Lake. We subdivided Payuk Lake into subpopulations and applied four spatial models based on the topography and hydrology to infer the dispersal mechanism. Results: Genetic variation corresponded with the topography of the lake and the net flow of water through the waterbody. A lack of isolation-by-distance suggests high gene flow or dispersal within the lake. We infer the dispersal mechanism in D. luridum could either be by wind and/or water based on the haplotype spatial distribution of its photobiont using the ITS rDNA and β-actin markers. Conclusions: We inferred that the dispersal mechanism could be either wind and/or water dispersed due to the conflicting interpretations of our landscape hypotheses. This is the first study to use spatial modelling to infer dispersal in semi-aquatic lichens. The results of this study may help to understand lichen dispersal within aquatic landscapes, which can have implications in the conservation of rare or threatened lichens. Keywords: Dermatocarpon luridum, Diplosphaera chodatii, Dispersal, Genetic variation, Lichenized alga, Semi-aquatic, Spatial modelling.
32830Mugnai G., Rossi F., Mascalchi C., Ventura S. & De Philippis R. (2020): High Arctic biocrusts: characterization of the exopolysaccharidic matrix. - Polar Biology, 43: 1805–1815. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00300-020-02746-8.
Biocrusts can be found in a wide array of habitats, where they provide important ecosystem services. These microbial associations are particularly important in High Arctic environments, where biocrust colonize the newly exposed barren soil after glacier retreat and significantly contribute to soil stabilization and nutrient cycling. Starting from incipient, structurally simple biolayers, they develop in complexity, increasing from the glacier terminus. Starting from a simple community structure, mainly constituted by cyanobacteria, heterotrophic bacteria and fungi immersed in a self-secreted extracellular polymeric matrix (cyanobacterial crusts), they later may recruit mosses and lichens (moss crusts and lichen crusts, respectively). The extracellular polymeric matrix protects the biocrust community from abiotic constraints, notably drought and freezing stress, from external physical harming factors, and from predation. The physicochemical characteristics of the extracellular matrix are related to several of its properties, such as its soil-stabilizing effect and water retention. We analysed the chemical (monosaccharidic composition) and macromolecular (molecular weight distribution) properties of the extracellular polymeric matrix of biocrusts with different morphologies collected in northwestern Spitsbergen, Norway. The uronic acid content and molecular weight (MW) distribution of the extracellular polysaccharidic matrices (EPMs) appeared in accordance with the developmental stages of the biocrusts. The MW distribution also showed significant differences between the samples, possibly reflecting differences in microbial enzymatic activities leading to the degradation of high-MW polymers into smaller compounds. The MW distribution profiles presented some important differences, reflecting differences in environmental conditions and, probably, the seasonal variance in microbial community composition that is known to characterize the environment examined in the present study. Keywords: Biocrusts · Arctic environment · Extracellular polysaccharidic matrix (EPM) · Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS).
32829Conti M.E., Plà R., Simone C., Jasan R. & Finoia M.G. (2020): Implementing the monitoring breakdown structure: native lichens as biomonitors of element deposition in the southern Patagonian forest connected with the Puyehue volcano event in 2011—a 6-year survey (2006–2012). - Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 27: 38819–38834. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-10001-0.
This study aims to investigate the airborne elements’ deposition by using native Usnea barbata lichens as biomonitors in the forested areas of Tierra del Fuego (TdF, southern Patagonia), an apparently pristine environment. The present study is linked to the volcanic eruption of the Puyehue-Cordón Caulle which started in north Patagonia in June 2011, which gives rise to longdistance transport of pollutants through the atmosphere at 1700 km from our sampling sites. The monitoring breakdown structure (MBS) was applied to three sampling campaigns in 2006 (baseline) ➔ 2011–2012 (3 and 15 months after the volcanic event, respectively). We have on purpose enhanced the information variety endowment: (i) Seventy-one referenced sites were double sampled; (ii) up to 426 composite lichen samples were collected; (iii) twenty-six elements were measured by neutron activation analysis (As, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb, Zn) for samples of 2011 and 2012 campaigns; (iv) thirteen common elements (As, Ba, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, Na, Sb, Se, U, Zn) were determined in 2006 for the baseline comparison. The natural contamination by tephras is reflected by lichens more clearly in the 2011 campaign, where Ba, Cr, Na, Ca, Cs, and U showed higher median levels compared with the baseline campaign (2006). Ca, K, and Na were the most accumulated elements after the volcano event and could be associated with the volcanic ashes’ deposition. Rare earth elements (REEs) showed no significant bioaccumulation levels between 2011 and 2012, indicating their association with higher lithogenic inputs than volcanic ashes. Using the Earth’s crust as reference, nine elements (As, Ba, Br, Ca, K, Na, Sb, Se, and Zn) presented moderate/significant mean enrichment factor (EF) values (> 5). The usefulness of Usnea barbata as test species for direct biomonitoring oriented kinetic studies in areas characterized by a low human impact is confirmed. Eventually, our results confirm that TdF is not an actual pristine environment as earlier supposed. Keywords: Usnea barbata .Native lichens .Monitoringbreakdown structure(MBS) . Elements . Atmospheric deposition . Tierra del Fuego . Puyehue-Cordón Caulle volcano . Neutron activation analysis.
32828Norouzi H., Azizi A., Gholami M., Sohrabi M. & Boustie J. (2020): Chemotype variations among lichen ecotypes of Umbilicaria aprina as revealed by LC-ESI-MS/MS: a survey of antioxidant phenolics. - Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 27: 40296–40308. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-10053-2.
In the present study,we characterized the phytochemical properties, which were specifically associatedwith phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities in six distinct ecotypes of Umbilicaria aprina Nyl. from Iran (including Kivarestan, Mishan, Takht-e Nader, Tochal, Sabalan, and Sahand) to detect diversities within the species. Total phenolic concentration (TPC) and radical scavenging capacities of U. aprina ecotypes were evaluated. Moreover, qualitative differences between chemical profiles were surveyed using liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Relatively moderate TPCs (Kivarestan = 36.12 ± 2.1, Mishan = 41.59 ± 2.2, Takht-e Nader = 31.85 ± 1.3, Tochal = 37.55 ± 2.3, Sabalan = 28.91 ± 2.5, and Sahand = 31.59 ± 2.2) were observed for ecotypes, but a very strong correlation (r = −0/842) was obtained between TPCs and IC50 values. Based on the results of LC-ESI-MS/MS, the following chemical substanceswere identified: orsellinic acid (1), lecanoric acid (2), evernic acid (3), gyrophoric acid (4), umbilicaric acid (5), hiascic acid (6), stictic acid (7) methyl hiascic acid (8), and an unknown substance (9). The MS/MS fragmentation scheme for each substance was determined and proposed. Wide discrepancies were observed in the chemical profiles of lichen ecotypes, which may corroborate the influence of ecological locality conditions, for example, altitude and slope aspects on secondary metabolism of lichen species U. aprina. The northfacing and east-facing ecotypes (Sabalan and Mishan, respectively) lacked depsidones (stictic acid) mainly because they receive the least direct radiation. Mishan ecotype, as the only east-facing ecotype, showed the most different chemical profile. Keywords_ Umbilicaria aprina . Umbilicariaceae . Phytochemical profile . Phenolic . LC-ESI-MS/MS . Depsides . Ecological factors . Slope aspect.
32827Maheu J. & Werner R.-G. (1934b): Contribution a la flore lichenique de L\´Alsace. - Bulletin de la Société d'Histoire Naturelle de Colmar, n. s., 24(1933-1934): 51–85. .
France, Alsace
32826van der Pluijm A. (2020): Hyperphyscia lucida (Physciaceae, lichenized Ascomycota), a new species from willow forests in the Biesbosch, the Netherlands. - Lindbergia, 43: linbg.01138 [11 p.]. Doi: 10.25227/linbg.01138. .
Hyperphyscia lucida is described as a new lichen species from the Netherlands on morphological grounds. It most closely resembles H. adglutinata, but differs by a whiter grey thallus, confluent or laterally imbricate, mostly flat and closely appressed, shiny lobes, a transparent prothallus, and groups of laminal pustules that develop into finely granular to coarsely isidioid soredia. Hyperphyscia lucida was found in 2020 in an area of approximately 1 km2 in the freshwater tidal area the Biesbosch. Thalli were found on 14 Salix trees in the southwest of two ca 60-year-old willow forests, together with a. o. Hyperphyscia adglutinata (with apothecia), Phaeophyscia orbicularis, Xanthoria parietina and Hypnum cupressiforme. Further interesting companions include Porina byssophila, Physciella chloantha and Strangospora deplanata. Keywords: climate change, Hyperphysica, lichens, new species, phylogenetic, taxonomy.
32825Pineda Cáceres J., Morano Büchner S. & Vidal O.J. (2020): Catálogo de las colecciones de líquenes de la región de Magallanes y Antártica Chilena depositadas en el herbario del Instituto de la Patagonia (HIP) [Catalog of the collections of lichens of the Magallanes region (Chile) deposited in the herbarium of the Instituto de la Patagonia (HIP)]. - Anales del Instituto de la Patagonia, 48(1): 7–26. DOI: 10.4067/S0718-686X2020000100007. https://scielo.conicyt.cl/pdf/ainpat/v48n1/0718-686X-ainpat-48-01-7.pdf.
[in Spanish with English abstract: ] The lichen mycobiota of Magellan region is diverse but has been poorly studied. This situation can result in a low rating for this biodiversity and an inadequate management for the conservation of this group. A preliminary catalog of the lichen mycobiota of the Magallanes and Chilean Antarctic region was prepared from records deposited in the Herbarium of the Instituto de la Patagonia (HIP). The catalog includes information on habitat, collection locations, distribution in Chile, global distribution and record numbers of the 296 exsiccata examined. Taxonomical, geographical and ecological information is described for 100 taxa distributed in 3 classes, 9 orders, 19 families and 43 genera. The most diverse taxonomic orders were Lecanorales (Lecanoromycetes) with 24 genera and 51 taxa, and Peltigerales (Lecanoromycetes) with 9 genera and 37 taxa. These species represent collections made through a wide geographical and ecological range including four provincial districts (Magallanes, Tierra del Fuego, Última Esperanza and Chilean Antarctic), and ecosystems like steppes, shrubs, forests and Andean habitats. This information can contribute to improve and systematize the current knowledge of the lichen mycobiota of the southernmost region in Chile for management and conservation purposes. Keywords: herbarium; checklist; index herbariorum; Chile; lichen diversity.
32824Benatti M.N. & Honda N.K. (2020): Small Parmeliaceae (liquenized Ascomycota) of Ilhabela State Park and nearby areas, São Paulo state, Brazil. - Rodriguésia, 71: e00052019 [7 p.]. DOI: 10.1590/2175-78602020971106. https://www.scielo.br/pdf/rod/v71/2175-7860-rod-71-e00052019.pdf.
A survey of lichens at Ilhabela State Park and nearby areas in São Sebastião Island revealed the occurrence of 12 taxa belonging to six genera of small foliose Parmeliaceae, which are characterized by usually small thalli (hardly > 10 cm in diameter) with narrow lobes or laciniae less than 1 cm wide. Comments are provided for the species registered. Key words: Atlantic rainforest, lichens, mycobiota, restinga wood, São Sebastião Island.
32823Cantón N., Rodríguez J.M. & Estrabou C. (2020): La familia Parmeliaceae (Ascomycota liquenizados) en la provincia de La Rioja, Argentina [The Parmeliaceae family (lichenized Ascomycota) from La Rioja province, Argentina]. - Boletín de la Sociedad Argentina de Botánica, 55(2): 195–213. DOI: 10.31055/1851.2372.v55.n2.26451. http://www.scielo.org.ar/pdf/bsab/v55n2/v55n2a02.pdf.
[in Spanish with English summary: ] Background and aims: results of a taxonomic study on Parmeliaceae family (lichenized Ascomycota) from La Rioja province are presented, as part of a long time study to list and know the lichen biota from central - west of Argentina. M&M: an extensive collection was made in different phytogeographycal units and altitudinal belts in the main mountains chains of the province territory. The species were identified using morphological, anatomical and Chemical observations. Results & conclusions: forty one species were identified of which twenty nine are the first mention to La Rioja province and one species, Psiloparmelia arhizinosa is recorded for the first time for the country. Keys to genera and species were made and their distinctive characteristics together with the local distribution are mentioned. The identified species belong to the parmelioid clades Hypotrachyna, Parmotrema, and Xanthoparmelia; and to the non-parmelioid lichens clades Psiloparmelia and Usnea. Key words: Argentina, distribution, parmelioid lichens, taxonomy.
32822Hongsanan S., Hyde K.D., Phookamsak R., Wanasinghe D.N., McKenzie E.H.C., Sarma V.V., Boonmee S., Lücking R., Bhat D.J., Liu N.G., Tennakoon D.S., Pem D., Karunarathna A., Jiang S.H., Jones E.B.G., Phillips A.J.L., Manawasinghe I.S., Tibpromma S., Jayasiri S.C., Sandamali D.S., Jayawardena R.S., Wijayawardene N.N., Ekanayaka A.H., Jeewon R., Lu Y.Z., Dissanayake A.J., Zeng X.Y., Luo Z.L., Tian Q., Phukhamsakda C., Thambugala K.M., Dai D.Q., Chethana K.W.T., Samarakoon M.C., Ertz D., Bao D.F., Doilom M., Liu J.K., Pérez-Ortega S., Suija A., Senwanna C., Wijesinghe S.N., Konta S., Niranjan M., Zhang S.N., Ariyawansa H.A., Jiang H.B., Zhang J.F., Norphanphoun C., de Silva N.I., Thiyagaraja V., Zhang H., Bezerra J.D.P., Miranda-González R., Aptroot A., Kashiwadani H., Harishchandra D., Sérusiaux E., Aluthmuhandiram J.V.S., Abeywickrama P.D., Devadatha B., Wu HX, Moon K.H., Gueidan C., Schumm F., Bundhun D., Mapook A., Monkai J., Chomnunti P., Suetrong S., Chaiwan N., Dayarathne M.C., Yang J., Rathnayaka A.R., Bhunjun C.S., Xu J.C., Zheng J.S., Liu G., Feng Y. & Xie N. (2020): Refined families of Dothideomycetes: Dothideomycetidae and Pleosporomycetidae. - Mycosphere, 11(1): 1553–2107. Doi: 10.5943/mycosphere/11/1/13. http://mycosphere.org/pdf/MYCOSPHERE_11_1_13.pdf.
The class Dothideomycetes is the largest and most ecologically diverse class of fungi, comprising endophytes, epiphytes, saprobes, human and plant pathogens, lichens, and lichenicolous, nematode trapping and rock-inhabiting taxa. Members of this class are mainly characterized by bitunicate asci with fissitunicate dehiscence, and occur on broad range of hosts in aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Since the last monograph of families of Dothideomycetes in 2013, numerous novel species, genera, families and orders have been discovered. This has expanded information which has led to the modern classification in Dothideomycetes. In this paper, we provide a refined updated document on families of Dothideomycetes with emphasis on Dothideomycetidae and Pleosporomycetidae. We accept three orders with 25 families and four orders with 94 families in Dothideomycetidae and Pleosporomycetidae, respectively. The new family Paralophiostomataceae is introduced in Pleosporales. Each family is provided with an updated description, notes, including figures to represent the morphology, list of accepted genera, and economic and ecological significances. We also provide an overall phylogenetic tree of families in Dothideomycetes based on combined analysis of LSU, SSU, rpb-2 and tef1 sequence data, and phylogenetic trees for each order in Dothideomycetidae and Pleosporomycetidae. Family-level trees are provided for the families which include several genera such as Mycosphaerellaceae and Teratosphaeriaceae. Two new genera (Ligninsphaeriopsis and Paralophiostoma) are introduced. Five new species (Biatrisopora borsei, Comoclathris galatellae, Ligninsphaeriopsis thailandica, Paralophiostoma hysterioides and Torula thailandica) are introduced based on morphology and phylogeny, together with nine new reports and seven new collections from different families. Key words – 6 new taxa – Capnodiales – Dothideales –Gloniales – Hysteriales – Myriangiales – Mytilinidiales – new family – new genera – new species – Pleosporales – Phylogeny – Taxonomy.
32821Eldridge D.J., Reed S., Travers S.K., Bowker M.A., Maestre F.T., Ding J., Havrilla C., Rodriguez‐Caballero E., Barger N., Weber B., Antoninka A., Belnap J., Chaudhary B., Faist A., Ferrenberg S., Huber‐Sannwald E., Malam Issa O. & Zhao Y. (2020): The pervasive and multifaceted influence of biocrusts on water in the world's drylands. - Global Change Biology, 26(10): 6003–6014. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.15232.
The capture and use of water are critically important in drylands, which collectively constitute Earth's largest biome. Drylands will likely experience lower and more unreliable rainfall as climatic conditions change over the next century. Dryland soils support a rich community of microphytic organisms (biocrusts), which are critically important because they regulate the delivery and retention of water. Yet despite their hydrological significance, a global synthesis of their effects on hydrology is lacking. We synthesized 2,997 observations from 109 publications to explore how biocrusts affected five hydrological processes (times to ponding and runoff, early [sorptivity] and final [infiltration] stages of water flow into soil, and the rate or volume of runoff) and two hydrological outcomes (moisture storage, sediment production). We found that increasing biocrust cover reduced the time for water to pond on the surface (−40%) and commence runoff (−33%), and reduced infiltration (−34%) and sediment production (−68%). Greater biocrust cover had no significant effect on sorptivity or runoff rate/amount, but increased moisture storage (+14%). Infiltration declined most (−56%) at fine scales, and moisture storage was greatest (+36%) at large scales. Effects of biocrust type (cyanobacteria, lichen, moss, mixed), soil texture (sand, loam, clay), and climatic zone (arid, semiarid, dry subhumid) were nuanced. Our synthesis provides novel insights into the magnitude, processes, and contexts of biocrust effects in drylands. This information is critical to improve our capacity to manage dwindling dryland water supplies as Earth becomes hotter and drier. Keywords: biological soil crust; bryophyte; cryptogam; cyanobacteria; hydrological cycle; infiltration; lichen; sediment production; soil hydrology; soil moisture.
32820Liepa L., Rendenieks Z., Jansons Ā., Straupe I., Dubrovskis E. & Miezīte O. (2020): The persisting influence of edge on vegetation in hemiboreal Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. swamp forest set-asides adjacent to recently disturbed stands. - Forests, 11: 1084 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/f11101084.
To increase set-aside areas and protect biodiversity values in managed hemiboreal forest landscapes, small forest parcels called Woodland Key Habitats have been designated in Baltic and Nordic countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the persisting influence of the edge on vegetation dynamics for young, medium-old and old edges in Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. Woodland Key Habitats. All of these edges are adjacent to recently disturbed (clear-cut) stands. We surveyed edge influence on vegetation in bryophyte, herbaceous, shrub and tree layers in 90 plots in 30 set-aside forest stands in Southern Latvia. We tested the differences in the number of species and projective coverage in all vegetation layers, but plant functional types were examined—separately in the herbaceous layer. We found that edge influence in protected forest stands of A. glutinosa swamp forests reflects strong changes in vegetation and plant functional types in the herbaceous layer mostly up to 20 years after clear-cut disturbance in adjacent stands. The greatest differences were between young edges (≤20 years) and old edges (≥41 years), but there were very few significant differences between medium-old (21–40 years) and old edges which signifies more rapid changes in the early stages of edge influence and gradual stabilization of vegetation later on. We found that in edges adjacent to recently disturbed stands (up to 20 years), significantly less rare and indicator epiphytic lichen species occur, but this occurrence increases over time and edge influence is no longer present beyond 20 years after disturbance. Changes in vegetation and species occurrence found in our study indicated the need to plan the allocation of set-aside patches in production forest landscapes to ensure connectivity over longer period of time. Careful planning of clear-cuts in neighboring areas over time can significantly reduce the impact of edge effect on these set-asides. Keywords: black alder; hemiboreal forests; epiphytic lichens; plant functional types; clear-cut edges; edge effect.
32819Khodosovtsev A.Ye. & Darmostuk V.V. (2020): Records of lichen species new for Ukraine from steppe habitats of the country. - Botanica Serbica, 44(2): 243–250. Doi: 10.2298/BOTSERB2002243K. https://botanicaserbica.bio.bg.ac.rs/arhiva/pdf/2020_44_2_779_full.pdf.
The lichens Arthonia cretacea, Bacidia viridescens, Candelariella blastidiata, C. xanthostigmoides, Enchylium bachmanianum, Haematomma nemetzii, Lecania triseptata, Lecidea sarcogynoides, Ramalina europaea, Sarcogyne praetermissa and Xanthocarpia diffusa are reported for the first time from Ukraine. Xanthocarpia interfulgens is confirmed from an arid Ukrainian landscape. Locations, herbarium deposits and substrates are given, together with notes on worldwide distribution of the reported taxa and morphological differences from similar species. Keywords: Arthonia, Bacidia, Candelariella, Enchylium, Haematomma, Lecania, Lecidea, Ramalina, Sarcogyne, Xanthocarpia, loess, granite, limestone, bark.
32818Puvar A.C., Nathani N.M., Shaikh I., Bhatt A.D., Bhargava P., Joshi C.G. & Joshi M.N. (2020): Bacterial line of defense in Dirinaria lichen from two different ecosystems: First genomic insights of its mycobiont Dirinaria sp. GBRC AP01. - Microbiological Research, 233: 126407 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micres.2019.126407.
Lichens have been widely studied for their symbiotic properties and for the secondary metabolites production by its fungal symbiont. Recent molecular studies have confirmed coexistence of bacteria along with the fungal and algal symbionts. Direct nucleic acid study by -omics approaches is providing better insights into their structural and functional dynamics. However, genomic analysis of individual members of lichen is difficult by the conventional approach. Hence, genome assembly from metagenome data needs standardization in the eukaryotic system like lichens. The present study aimed at metagenomic characterization of rock associated lichen Dirinaria collected from Kutch and Dang regions of Gujarat, followed by genome reconstruction and annotation of the mycobiont Dirinaria. The regions considered in the study are eco-geographically highly variant. The results revealed higher alpha diversity in the dry region Kutch as compared to the tropical forest associated lichen from Dang. Ascomycota was the most abundant eukaryote while Proteobacteria dominated the bacterial population. There were 23 genera observed only in the Kutch lichen (KL) and one genus viz., Candidatus Vecturithrix unique to the Dang lichen (DL). The exclusive bacterial genera in the Kutch mostly belonged to groups reported for stress tolerance and earlier isolated from lithobionts of extreme niches. The assembled data of KL & DL were further used for genome reconstruction of Dirinaria sp. using GC and tetra-pentamer parameters and reassembly that resulted into a final draft genome of 31.7 Mb and 9556 predicted genes. Twenty-eight biosynthesis gene clusters were predicted that included genes for polyketide, indole and terpene synthesis. Association analysis of bacteria and mycobiont revealed 8 pathways specific to bacteria with implications in lichen symbiosis and environment interaction. The study provides the first draft genome of the entire fungal Dirinaria genus and provides insights into the Dirinaria lichen metagenome from Gujarat region. Keywords: Lichen; Dirinaria; Genome reconstruction; Metagenomics; Symbiosis.
32817Kuusinen N., Juola J., Karki B., Stenroos S. & Rautiainen M. (2020): A spectral analysis of common boreal ground lichen species. - Remote Sensing of Environment, 247: 111955 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2020.111955.
Lichens dominate a significant part of the Earth's land surface, and are valuable bioindicators of various environmental changes. In the northern hemisphere, the largest lichen biomass is in the woodlands and heathlands of the boreal zone and in tundra. Despite the global coverage of lichens, there has been only limited research on their spectral properties in the context of remote sensing of the environment. In this paper, we report spectral properties of 12 common boreal lichen species. Measurements of reflectance spectra were made in laboratory conditions with a standard spectrometer (350–2500 nm) and a novel mobile hyperspectral camera (400–1000 nm) which was used in a multiangular setting. Our results show that interspecific differences in reflectance spectra were the most pronounced in the ultraviolet and visible spectral range, and that dry samples always had higher reflectance than fresh (moist) samples in the shortwave infrared region. All study species had higher reflectance in the backward scattering direction compared to nadir or forward scattering directions. Our results also reveal, for the first time, that there is large intraspecific variation in reflectance of lichen species. This emphasizes the importance of measuring several replicates of each species when analyzing lichen spectra. In addition, we used the data in a spectral clustering analysis to study the spectral similarity between samples and species, and how these similarities could be linked to different physical traits or phylogenetic closeness of the species. Overall, our results suggest that spectra of some lichen species with large ground coverage can be used for species identification from high spatial resolution remote sensing imagery. On the other hand, for lichen species growing as small assemblages, mobile hyperspectral cameras may offer a solution for in-situ species identification. The spectral library collected in this study is available in the SPECCHIO Spectral Information System. Keywords: Cetraria; Cladonia; Hyperspectral; Multiangular; Reflectance spektra; Stereocaulon.
32816Malíček J., Palice Z., Vondrák J. & Tønsberg T. (2020): Japewia aliphatica (Lecanoraceae, lichenized Ascomycota), a new acidophilous, sorediate-blastidiate lichen from Europe. - Phytotaxa, 461(1): 21–30. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.461.1.3.
Japewia aliphatica is described as a new species. It is characterized by the usually brown, often areolate, blastidiate to sorediate- blastidiate, rarely fertile thallus containing unknown fatty acid(s). It grows on acidic bark of broad-leaved trees in mainly in montane forests, and is known from Austria, the Czech Republic, Germany, Norway, Russia (European part of the Caucasus), Slovakia and Ukraine. The new species is well characterized by its morphological, chemical and molecular (nrITS, mtSSU) traits. Systematic placement of Japewia is briefly discussed and its position within Lecanoraceae confirmed. Keywords: Aliphatic acids, montane forests, sterile lichens.
32815Song Y., Yu Z., Song B., Guo S., Lei L., Ma X. & Su Y. (2018): Usnic acid inhibits hypertrophic scarring in a rabbit ear model by suppressing scar tissue angiogenesis. - Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, 108: 524–530. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2018.06.176.
Hypertrophic scarring is a common condition in the Chinese population; however, there are currently no satisfactory drugs to treat the disorder. Previous studies showed that angiogenesis plays an important role in the early phase of hypertrophic scarring and inhibition of angiogenesis has been reported as an effective strategy for anti-hypertrophic scar therapy. A recent study showed that usnic acid (UA), an active compound found mainly in lichens, inhibited tumor angiogenesis both in vivo and in vitro. To investigate the therapeutic effects of UA on hypertrophic scarring and to explore the possible mechanism involved, a rabbit ear hypertrophic scar model was established. Scars were treated once a week for four weeks with UA, DMSO or triamcinolone acetonide acetate. Histological evaluation of hematoxylin and eosin staining indicated that UA significantly inhibited hypertrophic scar formation, with obvious reductions in scar height and coloration. The scar elevation index (SEI) was also evidently reduced. Masson’s trichrome staining showed that UA significantly ameliorated accumulation of collagen tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis of CD31 expression showed that UA significantly inhibited scar angiogenesis. In vitro, UA inhibited endothelial cell migration and tube formation as well as the proliferation of both human umbilical vein endothelial cells and scar fibroblast cells. These results provide the first evidence of the therapeutic effectiveness of UA in hypertrophic scar formation in an animal model via a mechanism that involves suppression of scar angiogenesis. Keywords: Usnic acid; Hypertrophic scar; Angiogenesis.
32814Syed Zameer Ahmed K., Sidhra S.Z.A., Thangakumar A. & Krishnaveni R. (2019): Therapeutic effect of Parmotrema tinctorum against complete Freund’s adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats and identification of novel Isophthalic ester derivative. - Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, 112: 108646 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2019.108646.
The present study reveals the anti-arthritic potential of traditionally used Parmotrema tinctorum (Pt) on experimental rats and purification of novel Isophthalic ester derivative. Arthritis was induced in rats using Freund’s complete adjuvant (CFA) and subsequently treated with Pt extract (100 & 200 mg/kg.b.w). Assessment of antiarthritic activity was carried out using paw volume, arthritic score, haematological, biochemical, tissue antioxidant, histopathology and radiological analyses of ankle joints. The results revealed that continuous administration of Pt reduces the complication associated with arthritis by inhibiting the edema formation and arthritic score significantly (P < 0.05). The altered changes in biochemical parameters were brought back with an improvement in free radical scavenging ability after treatment with Pt significantly. Further purification of Pt using conventional column chromatography led to the isolation of four compounds and the structure of these isolated compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectral data’s FTIR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, DEPT-NMR spectroscopy, COSY & HSQC-NMR spectroscopy and LC–MS. The spectral data revealed that the three compounds were found to be Methyl-γ-Orsellinate, Atranorin, and usnic acid (CIIII) along with a novel secondary metabolite, (C-IV)4-Hydroxy-5-methyl-isophthalicacid3-(3,4-dihydroxy-5- methyl-phenyl)ester (C16H14O7,318.1amu). The present study reveals that Parmotrema tinctorum reduces complications associated with arthritis and the compounds were isolated for the first time. Keywords: Isolation; Arthritis; Freund’s complete adjuvant (CFA); Inflammatory; Lichen.
32813Syed Zameer Ahmed K., Sidhra S.Z.A., Kisore P.V., Kamaraj C. & Sanjeeva N. (2018): Larvicidal potential of selected indigenous lichens against three mosquito species–Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi. - Chinese Herbal Medicines, 10: 152–156. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chmed.2018.03.002.
Mosquitoes are the major transmitting vectors of serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year with undesirable effects, including toxicity to non-target organisms. Some plants with insecticidal properties have been used in recent years for the control of a variety of pest insects and vectors. In the quest for alternative natural biological control agents against mosquito larvae lichens were selected. Method: Larvicidal activity was assessed with methanolic extracts of Parmotrema reticulatum, Parmotrema kamatti, Parmotrema tinctorum, Parmelia erumpens, Leptogium papilosum , and Roccella montagnei against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi , and Culex quinquefasciatus . The standard WHO protocols with minor modifications were adopted and the bioassay was evaluated at the concentrations of 10 0–50 0 μg/mL for each lichen. Since all the lichen extracts showed complete mortality against C. quinquefasciatus in 100 μg/mL, the concentrations were decreased to 100, 50, 25, 12.5, and 6.25 μg/mL for C. quinquefasciatus . Larval mortality was observed for 24 h after treatment. Results: All the lichen extracts exhibited activity against third instar larvae of A. aegypti and A. stephensi at 100 μg/mL, and 100% mortality was observed against the vector C. quinquefasciatus at 100 μg/mL. The highest larvicidal activity was found with L. papilosum against A. aegypti (LC 50 = 81.127 μg/mL) and A. stephensi (LC 50 = 89.10 μg/mL). Similarly, P. tinctorum and R. montagnei when tested against C. quinque-fasciatus with minimum concentration < 100 μg/mL exhibited significant activity with LC 50 values of 5.32 and 6.97 μg/mL. Conclusion: The bioassay results revealed larvicidal potential of lichens especially against C. quinque-fasciatus with high mortality even at lower concentration. Hence, lichens can be used as an ideal sustainable approach for the control of lymphatic filariasis caused by vector C. quinquefasciatus. Keywords: larvicidal; lichen; mortality; mosquito; vectors.
32812Zacharski D.M., Esch S., König S., Mormann M., Brandt S., Ulrich-Merzenich G. & Hensel A. (2018): β-1,3/1,4-Glucan Lichenan from Cetraria islandica (L.) ACH. induces cellular differentiation of human keratinocytes. - Fitoterapia, 129: 226–236. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2018.07.010.
Lichenan (molecular weight 275 kDa, β-D-1,3/1,4-glucopyranose ratio 1:3) from Cetraria islandica at a concentration of 100 μg/mL induced terminal cellular differentiation of primary human keratinocytes as demonstrated by immunofluorescence staining using cytokeratin 10 and involucrin as marker proteins. Lichenan-derived oligosaccharides (DP3 to 8), obtained by acid-catalyzed partial hydrolysis of the polymer, did not influence cellular differentiation. Cytokeratin, filaggrin, involucrin, loricrin and transglutaminase gene expression as typical differentiation markers was increased by lichenan in a time-dependent manner. Lichenan upregulated gene cluster which were mostly related to cellular differentiation with focus on MAPK signaling as was shown by Whole Human Genome Microarray. These gene expression data from the array experiments were subsequently confirmed by qPCR for selected genes. For identification of the molecular binding structures of lichenan 1- and 2- D PAGE of keratinocyte protein membrane preparations was performed, followed by blotting with FITC-labeled lichenan and subsequent mass spectrometric identification of the pinpointed proteins. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and integrin β4, both proteins being strongly involved in induction of keratinocyte differentiation were identified. In addition, protein disulfide isomerase A3 (PDIA3) showed strong binding to FITClichenan, indicating this enzyme to be an intracellular target of the glucan for induction of the cellular differentiation of keratinocytes. As lichenan did not influence the EGFR phosphorylation and the phosphorylation of CREB transcription factor but strongly interacted with cytosolic proteins it is hypothized that the glucan may interact with EGFR and is subsequently internalized into the cell via endosomal uptake, interacting with PDIA3, which again alters TGFβ1 signaling towards keratinocyte differentiation. Keywords: Lichenan; Keratinocytes; Differentiation; Involucrin; Keratin; Microarray.
32811Schinkovitz A., Le Pogam P., Derbré S., Roy-Vessieres E., Blanchard P., Thirumaran S.-L., Breard D., Aumond M.-C., Zehl M., Urban E., Kaur A., Jäger N., Hofer S., Kopp B., Stuppner H., Baglin I., Seraphin D., Tomasi S., Henrion D., Boustie J. & Richomme P. (2018): Secondary metabolites from lichen as potent inhibitors of advanced glycation end products and vasodilative agents. - Fitoterapia, 131: 182–188. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2018.10.015.
Secondary metabolites from lichens are known for exhibiting various biological effects such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antibacterial activities. Despite this wide range of reported biological effects, their impact on the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) remains vastly unexplored. The latter are known contributors to lifestyle and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer and Parkinson. Moreover, the development of atherosclerosis and arterial stiffness is causally linked to the formation of AGEs. With this in mind, the present work evaluated the inhibitory effects of secondary lichen metabolites on the formation of pentosidine- like AGEs' by using an in vitro, Maillard reaction based, fluorescence assay. Overall, thirty-seven natural and five synthetically modified compounds were tested, eighteen of which exhibiting IC50 values in the range of 0.05 to 0.70 mM. This corresponds to 2 to 32 fold of the inhibitory activity of aminoguanidine. Targeting one major inhibiting mechanism of AGEs formation, all compounds were additionally evaluated on their radical scavenging capacities in an DPPH assay. Furthermore, as both AGEs' formation and hypertension are major risk factors for atherosclerosis, compounds that were available in sufficient amounts were also tested for their vasodilative effects. Overall, and though some of the active compounds were previously reported cytotoxic, present results highlight the interesting potential of secondary lichen metabolites as anti-AGEs and vasodilative agents. Keywords: Inhibition of Advanced Glycation End Products; Maillard reaction; Radical scavenging; Lichen metabolites; Vasodilation.
32810Zheng K.-X., Jiang Y., Jiang J.-X., Huang R., He J. & Wu S.-H. (2019): A new phthalazinone derivative and a new isoflavonoid glycoside from lichen-associated Amycolatopsis sp.. - Fitoterapia, 135: 85–89. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2019.04.011.
A new phthalazinone derivative, named amycophthalazinone A (1), and a new isoflavonoid glycoside, 7-Omethyl- 5-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosylgenestein (2), along with an isoflavonoid glycoside, 7-O-α-D-arabinofuranosyl daidzein (3) firstly found from natural sources, and eight known compounds (4–11), were isolated from the culture broth of the lichen-associated Amycolatopsis sp. YIM 130642. The structures of new compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. Compound 1 was the first example of naturally occurring phthalazinone derivative. The antimicrobial activities of all compounds towards five pathogenic strains were evaluated by a broth microdilution assay. Compound 1 exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, and Candida albicans with MIC values of 32, 32, and 64 μg/mL, respectively. Keywords: Amycolatopsis; Lichen; Phthalazinone; Isoflavonoid; Antimicrobial activity.
32809Sweidan A., Smida I., Chollet-Krugler M., Sauvager A., Vallet J., Gouault N., Oliviero N., Tamanai-Shacoori Z., Burel A., van de Weghe P., Chokr A., Tomasi S. & Bousarghin L. (2019): Lichen butyrolactone derivatives disrupt oral bacterial membrane. - Fitoterapia, 137: 104274 [8 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2019.104274.
We have previously demonstrated that out of the butyrolactones series synthesized based on the natural lichen metabolite lichesterinic acid, compound (B-13) was the most effective against oral bacteria. However, its antibacterial mechanism is still unknown. In this study, we have investigated its bacterial localization by synthesizing a fluorescently labeled B-13 with NBD while maintaining its antibacterial activity. We showed that this compound binds to Streptococcus gordonii cell surface, as demonstrated by HPLC analysis. By adhering to cell surface, B-13 induced cell wall disruption leading to the release of bacterial constituents and consequently, the death of S. gordonii, a Gram-positive bacterium. A Gram-negative counterpart, Porphyromanas gingivalis, showed also cracked and ruptured cells in the presence of B-13. Besides, we also demonstrated that the analog of B-13, B-12, has also induced disruption of P. gingivalis and S. gordonii. This study revealed that butyrolactones can be considered as potent antibacterial compounds against oral pathogens causing medical complications. Keywords: Lichen; Butyrolactone; Streptococcus gordonii; Porphyromanas gingivalis; Cell wall.
32808Nguyen V.-K., Genta-Jouve G., Duong T.-H., Beniddir M.A., Gallarde J.-F., Ferron S., Boustie J., Mouray E., Grellier P., Chavasiri W. & Le Pogam P. (2020): Eumitrins C-E: Structurally diverse xanthone dimers from the vietnamese lichen Usnea baileyi. - Fitoterapia, 141: 104449 [8 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2019.104449.
Three new xanthone dimers, eumitrins C − E (1–3), along with a new depsidone, 3′-O-demethylcryptostictinolide (4) were isolated from the acetone extract of the whole thallus of the lichen Usnea baileyi collected in Vietnam. Their structures were unambiguously established by spectroscopic analyses (HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR), as well as comparison to literature data. The absolute configurations of 1–3 were elucidated through electronic circular dichroism (ECD) analyses. The absolute configuration of 2 was validated by comparison between experimental and TDDFT-calculated ECD spectra while that of 3 was based on DFT-NMR calculations and subsequent DP4 probability score. The antiparasitic activities against Plasmodium falciparum as well as the cytotoxic activity against seven cell lines were determined for the new compounds 1–3, and led from null to mild bioactivities.
32807Duong T.-H., Nguyen H.-H., Le T.-T., Tran T.-N., Sichaem J., Nguyen T.-T., Nguyen T.-P., Mai D.-T., Nguyen H.-H. & Le H.-D. (2020): Subnudatones A and B, new trans-decalin polyketides from the cultured lichen mycobionts of Pseudopyrenula subnudata. - Fitoterapia, 142: 104512 [5 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2020.104512.
Chemical investigation of the cultured polyspore-derived mycobionts of a Pseudopyrenula subnudata lichen led to the isolation of two new compounds, subnudatones A and B (1 and 2), together with four known compounds, 1- (2-hydroxy-1,2,6-trimethyl-1,2,4a,5,6,7,8,8a-octahydronaphthalen-1-yl)ethanone (3), libertalide C (4), aspermytin A (5), and 6,7-dimethoxy-4-hydroxymellin (6). Their chemical structures were elucidated by extensive 1D and 2D NMR analysis and high resolution mass spectroscopy, and comparisons were made with the literature. The absolute configuration of 1 was defined unambiguously using single crystal X-ray crystallography. Compound 1 represents the first dimeric decalin polyketide to be found in nature. The in vitro cytotoxicity of 1 against two cancer cell lines (K562 and MCF-7) was evaluated. Compound 1 showed moderate cytotoxic activity with IC50 values of 23.5 ± 1.0 and 51.9 ± 1.4 μM, respectively. Keywords: Pseudopyrenula subnudata; Subnadatones A and B; trans-decalin polyketide; Cytotoxicity.
32806Tuong T.L., Do L.T.M., Aree T., Wonganan P. & Chavasiri W. (2020): Tetrahydroxanthone–chromanone heterodimers from lichen Usnea aciculifera and their cytotoxic activity against human cancer cell lines. - Fitoterapia, 147: 104732 [7 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2020.104732.
Four new tetrahydroxanthone–chromanone heterodimers, usneaxanthones E–H (1–4) together with eleven known compounds (5–15) were isolated from lichen Usnea aciculifera Vain (Parmeliaceae). Their structures and absolute configurations, particularly the central and axial chiralities, were unambiguously demonstrated by a combination of spectroscopic data (1D, 2D NMR, HRESIMS), electronic circular dichroism (ECD) experiments, and single-crystal X-ray crystallographic analyses. The cytotoxicity of new compounds was evaluated on four human cancer cell lines including HCT116 colorectal cancer, MCF-7 breast cancer, A549 lung cancer, and OVCAR-3 ovarian cancer. Compounds 1–4 exhibited good cytotoxicity against all tested cancer cell lines, except ovarian cancer, with the best IC50 value of 3.37 μM. All compounds showed potent cytotoxicity against HCT116 colon cancer with IC50 value from 3.37 to 4.53 μM. Keywords: Usnea aciculifera; Dimeric xanthones; Tetrahydroxanthone chromanone heterodimers; Usneaxanthones E–H; Cytotoxicity.
32805Tuong T.L., Aree T., Do L.T.M., Nguyen P.K.P., Wonganan P. & Chavasiri W. (2019): Dimeric tetrahydroxanthones from the lichen Usnea aciculifera. - Fitoterapia, 137: 104194 [7 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2019.104194.
Four unusual heterodimeric tetrahydroxanthones, usneaxanthones A–D (1–4) were isolated from lichen Usnea aciculifera Vain (Parmeliaceae). Their structures and absolute configurations, particularly the central and axial chiralities, were unambiguously demonstrated by a combination of spectroscopic data (1D, 2D NMR, HRESIMS), electronic circular dichroism (ECD) experiments, and single-crystal X-ray crystallographic analyses. Cytotoxic effects of isolated compounds (1, 2 and 4) were evaluated on HT–29 human colorectal cancer cells. Compound 4 showed potent cytotoxicity against HT–29 with IC50 values of 2.41 μM. Keywords: Usnea aciculifera; Dimeric xanthones; Tetrahydroxanthone; Usneaxanthones A–D; Cytotoxicity.
32804Londoñe-Bailon P., Sánchez-Robinet C. & Alvarez-Guzman G. (2019): In vitro antibacterial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of methanol-acetone extracts from Antarctic lichens (Usnea antarctica and Usnea aurantiaco-atra). - Polar Science, 22: 100477 [7 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polar.2019.08.003.
The lichens are symbiotic organisms, synthesize a great variety of chemically complex. Natural and potential source of bioactive compounds. U. antarctica and U. aurantiaco-atra were collected during 23rd Peruvian Scientific Expedition (ANTAR XXIII–2015) from the Antarctic Scientific Station “Machu Picchu” and were transferred to the ITP for processing. The samples were dried and grounded, after that, an extraction with acetone (1:10 w/v) also with methanol (1:10 w/v) was performed. Both extracts were mixed and vacuumed dried (30 °C). A methanol-acetone extract (MAE) from each lichen was obtained. MAE from U. antarctica showed a major concentration of total phenols (22.80 ± 0.08 mg GA/g MAE) than U. aurantiaco-atra (19.42 ± 0.32 mg GA/g MAE). Besides, U. antarctica exhibited a superior value of inhibition of ABTS•+ radical (89.05 ± 0.01 μmol TE/g MAE) than U. aurantiaco-atra (79.84 ± 0.09 μmol TE/g MAE). The antibacterial activity of MAEs against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 14775, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and Vibrio alginolyticus ATCC 17749 was performed however was only demonstrated against S. aureus. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was evaluated, U. antarctica and U. aurantiaco-atra exhibited 94.76% and 98.43%, respectively of inhibition bacterial growth at 31.25 μg/mL of MIC value. MAE of U. antarctica (IC50 = 169.64 μg/mL) and U. aurantiaco-atra (IC50 = 270.82 μg/mL).
32803Zhao X., Zhu J., Wang L., Li Y., Zhao T., Chen X., Sun Y., Dai Y., Wei G., Altamirano A., Zhang T. & Yan Z. (2019): U. diffracta extract mitigates high fat diet and VD3-induced atherosclerosis and biochemical changes in the serum liver and aorta of rats. - Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy, 120: 109446 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2019.109446.
Background and aims: Usnea diffracta Vain. (U. diffracta) belonging to the Usnea genus, is widely used as a folk medicine for the treatment of ulcer, abdominal pain, diarrhea, malaria and so on. However, the antiatherogenic effect of U. diffracta has not yet been reported. This study aims to investigate the antiatherogenic effects of the ethanol extract of U. diffracta and its mechanism. Method: A high fat diet and VD3 were used to establish the atherosclerotic rat model, with 0.004 g/kg/d of simvastatin as a positive control, fed with 0.7, 1.4, and 2.8 g/kg/d of Usnea ethanol extract for 21 days. The blood, liver, and aorta samples from each rat were collected after the last administration. Pharmacodynamic effects were evaluated. The inflammation related factors, the gene expressions of Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5), myeloid differentiating factor 88 (MyD88), and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) were detected. Results and conclusions: Compared with the model group, simvastatin and ethanol extract of U. diffracta can significantly reduce the serum levels of triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), Ca2+, AST, ALT, the liver contents of total cholesterol (TC), TG, AI and liver index, as well as significantly increase the contents of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) both in serum and liver (p < 0.01 or p < 0.05). The serum level of ox-LDL can be significantly reduced by simvastatin, low and medium U. diffracta ethanol extract doses (p < 0.01). In addition, simvastatin and low dosage of U. diffracta ethanol extract can significantly reduce the liver content of LDL-C (p < 0.01). U. diffracta ethanol extract shows a positive antiatherogenic effect. Furthermore, the mechanism may be related to promoting the expression of serum IL-10 and inhibition of TLR5/ NF-κB signaling pathway. Keywords: Ethanol extract of U. diffracta; Atherosclerosis; Inflammation-related factor; Gene expression.
32802Degtjarenko P., Mark K., Moisejevs R., Himelbrant D., Stepanchikova I., Tsurykau A., Randlane T. & Scheidegger C. (2020): Low genetic differentiation between apotheciate Usnea florida and sorediate Usnea subfloridana (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) based on microsatellite data. - Fungal Biology, 124(10): 892–902. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.funbio.2020.07.007.
Accurate species delimitation has a pivotal role in conservation biology, and it is especially important for threatened species where decisions have political and economic consequences. Finding and applying appropriate character sets and analytical tools to resolve interspecific relationships remains challenging in lichenized fungi. The main aim of our study was to re-assess the species boundaries between Usnea subfloridana and Usnea florida, which have been phylogenetically indistinguishable until now, but are different in reproductive mode and ecological preferences, using fungal-specific simple sequence repeats (SSR), i.e. microsatellite markers. Bayesian clustering analysis, discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC), minimal spanning network (MSN), and principal component analysis (PCA) failed to separate U. florida and U. subfloridana populations. However, a low significant differentiation between the two taxa was observed across all populations according to AMOVA results. Also, analysis of shared haplotypes and statistical difference in clonal diversity (M) supported the present-day isolation between the apotheciate U. florida and predominantly sorediate U. subfloridana. Our results do not provide a clear support either for the separation of species in this pair or the synonymization of U. florida and U. subfloridana. We suggest that genome-wide data could help resolve the taxonomic question in this species pair. Keywords: Species pair; Lichens; Lichenized fungi; Species boundaries; Conservation; Speciation process.
32801Myllys L., Stenroos S. & Ahti T. (2020): Orvo Vitikainen, an 80th birthday tribute. - Graphis Scripta, 32(4): 63–65. http://nhm2.uio.no/botanisk/lav/Graphis/32_4/GS_32_63.pdf.
anniversary
32800Jørgensen P.M. (2020): Notes on Wahlenberg’s names in ‘Methodus Lichenum’ by E. Acharius. - Graphis Scripta, 32(4): 66–69. http://nhm2.uio.no/botanisk/lav/Graphis/32_4/GS_32_66.pdf.
The correct author citation of G. Wahlenberg’s new names of lichen taxa published in E. Acharius’ ‘Methodus Lichenum’ (1803) is discussed, and it is pointed out that Acharius in the preface clearly indicated that Wahlenberg is the author of these names, so the correct citation is Wahlenb. in Ach.
32799Timdal E., Westberg M., Haugan R., Hofton T.H., Holien H., Speed J.D.M., Tønsberg T. & Bendiksby M. (2020): Integrative taxonomy reveals a new species, Nephroma orvoi, in the N. parile species complex (lichenized Ascomycota). - Graphis Scripta, 32(4): 70–85. http://nhm2.uio.no/botanisk/lav/Graphis/32_4/GS_32_70.pdf.
Our knowledge of the diversity and distribution of many groups of lichens remains poor due to unclear species boundaries and challenging species identification. We have studied the medium sized to large foliose lichen Nephroma parile, which is known to be heterogeneous in chemistry and genetics. Our aim has been to assess the potential presence of evolutionary significant units within the Nephroma parile species complex that may be worthy of recognition at species level. Using phylogenetic analysis of the fungal DNA-barcode marker (ITS) in combination with studies of morphology and chemistry, we discover two distinct lineages in the N. parile species complex. For the strongly supported clade that corresponds to chemotype II, we describe the new species Nephroma orvoi. The new species is known from Norway, Sweden, Finland, Switzerland, Canada (Alberta and British Columbia), USA (Washington), and Greenland.
32798Kubiak D. & Sucharzewska E. (2018): Porosty epifityczne starodrzewów dębowych w nadleśnictwie Stare Jabłonki [Epiphytic lichens in old-growth oak forests in the Stare Jabłonki Forest District (N Poland)]. - Chrońmy Przyrodę Ojczystą, 74(1): 27–36. .
[in Polish with English summary: ] The paper presents the results of lichenological research conducted in three old-growth oak stands in the Stare Jabłonki Forest District (N Poland). A total of 96 lichen species were identified. The highest diversity of lichens was noted on the bark of common hornbeam Carpinus betulus (67 species) and English oak Quercus robur (63). The attached list of identified taxa (Table 1) comprises five species protected in Poland, including two species under strict and three species under partial protection. Thirty-five species are on the red list of threatened lichens in Poland, including twenty-three under a high-risk category (CR, EN and VU taxa). A characteristic feature of the analysed lichen biota is a significant number of species – indicators of lowland old-growth forests (15 species). The most interesting taxa in this group are: Arthonia arthonioides, Cetrelia monachorum, Chrysothrix candelaris, and Inoderma byssaceum. Furthermore, the presence of several rare and rarely reported species was noted, e.g. Calicium parvum, Caloplaca lucifuga, Fuscidea pusilla, Lecanora stanislai, Protoparmelia hypotremella, Rinodina degeliana, R. efflorescens, and Sclerophora coniophaea. Key words: lichenized fungi, epiphytes, rare, protected and threatened species, Olsztyn Lakeland.
32797Kubiak D. (2020): Lichenobiota pomnikowych dębów w Puszczy Napiwodzko-Ramuckiej [The lichen biota of monumental oaks in the Napiwoda-Ramuki Forest]. - Fragmenta Floristica et Geobotanica Polonica, 27(1): 73–82. https://doi.org/10.35535/ffgp-2020-0006.
[in Polish with English abstract and summary: ] The paper lists lichen species recorded on 32 monumental oaks (at least 300 cm in circumference) growing in the forest environment of the Napiwoda-Ramuki Forest (N Poland). A total of 87 lichen species were recorded, including many taxa that are rare in Poland and threatened with extinction. Key words: epiphytic lichens, forest, old tree, rare species. The aim of the study was to present the state of conservation of the epiphytic lichen biota associated with the oldest (largest) oaks in the Napiwoda-Ramuki Forest (N Poland; Fig. 1). The presented data were collected in 2009–2019 as part of several different research projects. A total of 32 pedunculate oaks (Quercus robur) were examined (Fig. 2); these trees were officially recognized as nature monuments or reached a size meeting the minimum criteria for this form of protection (i.e. trunk circumference of at least 300 cm). In total, 87 lichen species were recorded, indicating that the analyzed trees are of great value for preserving the diversity of epiphytic lichens. Among the recorded species, nine are legally protected and 37 are recognized as threatened with extinction on the national scale. The list includes a group of 12 lichens characteristic of well-preserved natural forest, referred to in Poland as indicators of lowland old-growth forest. The obtained results supplement the data on the distribution of many lichen species recognized as very rare across the country (e.g. Cliostomum corrugatum, Dendrographa decolorans, Lecanographa amylacea, Sclerophora coniophaea). The data also document a specific pattern of diversity and can serve as a reference point for future research.
32796Nugraha A.S., Laksono T.A., Firli L.N., Putri C.P.Z.S., Pratoko D.K., Zulfikar Z., Untari L.F., Wongso H., Lambert J.M., Dillon C.T. & Keller P.A. (2020): Anti-cancer evaluation of depsides isolated from Indonesian folious lichens: Physcia millegrana, Parmelia dilatata and Parmelia aurulenta. - Biomolecules, 10(10): 1420 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10101420.
Cancer is a serious health burden on global societies. The discovery and development of new anti-cancer therapies remains a challenging objective. Although it has been shown that lichen secondary metabolites may be potent sources for new anti-cancer agents, the Indonesian- grown folious lichens, Physcia millegrana, Parmelia dilatata and Parmeila aurulenta, have not yet been explored. In this study exhaustive preparative high-performance liquid chromatography was employed to isolate the lichen constituents with spectroscopic and spectrometric protocols identifying nine depsides 9–17, including the new methyl 4-formyl-2,3-dihydroxy-6-methylbenzoate 13. The cytotoxicity of the depsides towards cancer cells was assessed using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The results indicated lowest toxicity of the depsides towards human A549 lung cancer cells. Importantly, the di-depsides (11, 12 and 17) showed greatest toxicity, indicating that these structures are biologically more active than the mono-depsides against the HepG2 liver cancer, A549 lung cancer and HL-60 leukemia cell lines. Keywords: Indonesia; lichen; Physcia millegrana; Parmelia dilatata; Parmelia aurulenta; depsides; anti-cancer.
32795Knudsen K. & Kocourková J. (2020): Notes on three new species from California. - Bulletin of the California Lichen Society, 27(1): 6–7. .
Three new species recently described from California are briefly discussed: Acarospora bernardinensis, A. erratica, and Ramalina sarahae.
32794Stepanchikova I.S., Himelbrant D.E., Kuznetsova E.S., Motiejūnaitė J., Chesnokov S.V., Konoreva L.A. & Gagarina L.V. (2020): The lichens of the northern shore of the Gulf of Finland in the limits of St. Petersburg, Russia – diversity on the edge of the megapolis. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 57: 101–132. https://doi.org/10.12697/fce.2020.57.11.
We present a lichen checklist for the northern shore of the Gulf of Finland in the limits of St. Petersburg, Russia. This area has diverse lichen biota within the city limits, and has been comprehensively studied since 1893, which gives a good base for analysis of historical changes in lichen diversity. The documented lichen biota comprises 469 species (430 lichenized, 24 lichenicolous, 3 facultatively lichenicolous, and 12 non-lichenized saprobic fungi), of them 191 species are known from herbaria and literature for the period before 1991, and 436 species were recorded since 1991 to 2019. Thirty-three taxa were excluded from the lichen list of the study area as erroneous or dubious records. Altogether 48 species are new to St. Petersburg, including: Lecidea malmeana and Micarea czarnotae – new to Russia; Caloplaca lucifuga, Gyalecta nigricans, Micarea soralifera – new to European Russia; Agonimia flabelliformis, Endococcus verrucosus, Lecania turicensis, Micarea fallax, M. tomentosa, Xanthomendoza huculica – new to Northwestern European Russia; Lichenoconium lichenicola, Ramalina europaea, Sarcogyne hypophaea – not known also from the Leningrad Region. The studied lichen biota is moderately rich compared to other city territories. The history of economic development of the region has caused its serious transformation, degradation of natural habitats and therefore partial loss of lichen diversity. At the same time, human-made substrates and anthropogenic plant communities are inhabited by lichens, including species unknown in the natural habitats of the study area. However, 44 species recorded in the study area are red-listed in St. Petersburg, with 13 of them known only from historical collections. Forest communities, as well as historical parks, in NW part of St. Petersburg are important source of biodiversity on regional level nowadays and hopefully in future, and deserve protection. Keywords: Isthmus karelicus, black alder communities, indicator species, protected areas, Caloplaca lucifuga, Gyalecta nigricans, Lecidea malmeana, Micarea czarnotae, Micarea soralifera.
32793Tarasova V.N., Konoreva L.A., Zhurbenko M.P., Pystina T.N., Chesnokov S.V., Androsova V.I., Sonina A.V., Semenova N.A. & Valekzhanin A.A. (2020): New and rare lichens and allied fungi from Arkhangelsk region, North-West Russia. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 57: 85–100. https://doi.org/10.12697/fce.2020.57.10.
Thirty-one lichen-forming fungi, 12 lichenicolous fungi, and 5 non-lichenized fungi are reported as new for Arkhangelsk Region; 7 species are new for its mainland area. Micarea fallax is reported for the first time for Russia; M. laeta and M. pusilla are new for the European part of Russia. The second finding of Nicropuncta rugulosa for Russia is recorded; microconidia are first observed in this species. The records of ten species which have been included in the new edition of the Red Data Book of the Arkhangelsk Region (2020) are presented. Nephromopsis laureri from the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation (2008) and Leptogium rivulare from the IUCN Red List are reported for the first time for Arkhangelsk Region. Keywords: Leptogium rivulare, Micarea fallax, Micarea laeta, Micarea pusilla, Nephromopsis laureri, Nicropuncta rugulosa, Red Data Book, Vodlozersky National Park.
32792Muchnik E.E. & Cherepenina D.A. (2020): Lichens and allied fungi of old parks of three museum-reserves in Moscow Region (Russia). - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 57: 37–48. https://doi.org/10.12697/fce.2020.57.06.
We present the results of lichenological research in the parks of the museum-reserve Abramtsevo, the museumreserve of A. S. Pushkin and the museum-estate Ostafyevo – Russian Parnassus, for which no previous data were available. The checklist of lichen biota contains 103 species including 98 lichens, a lichenicolous fungus and 4 non-lichenized fungi. 55 species were found in the park of the museum-reserve Abramtsevo, 58 species in the museum-reserve of A. S. Pushkin (estates Vyazemy – 51 and Zakharovo – 29) and 69 species in the museum-estate Ostafyevo – Russian Parnassus. Lichenochora obscuroides (Ostafyevo) is new for Central Russia. Cladonia macilenta, Evernia prunastri and Usnea hirta (Ostafyevo) are listed in the Red Data Book of Moscow. Parmelina tiliacea (Abramtsevo, Vyazemy), Ramalina farinacea, Usnea dasopoga and U. subfloridana (Abramtsevo) are listed in the Red Data Book of the Moscow Oblast. Chaenotheca chrysocephala, Melanelixia subargentifera, Parmelina tiliacea, Physconia perisidiosa and Ramalina europaea (Ostafyevo) are proposed for inclusion in the next edition of the Red Data Book of Moscow. Keywords: lichen biota, lichenicolous fungi, biodiversity, indicator species, Red Data Book, park communities, Central Russia.
32791Suija A., Jüriado I., Lõhmus P., Moisejevs R., Motiejūnaitė J., Tsurykau A. & Kukwa M. (2020): Where the interesting species grow – remarkable records of lichens and lichenicolous fungi found during a Nordic Lichen Society meeting in Estonia. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 57: 73–84. https://doi.org/10.12697/fce.2020.57.09.
In August 2019, the Nordic Lichen Society held its bi-annual meeting and excursion in south-western Estonia. The most remarkable findings of lichenized and lichenicolous fungi are recorded herewith, including nine new species (of them two lichenicolous), and one new intraspecific taxon for the country. Full species lists are provided for two notable locations, sandstone outcrop at the river Pärnu and an oak woodland in the Naissoo Nature Reserve, for which no previous data were available, to illustrate the importance of collective survey effort. Keywords: new species, red-listed species, sandstone lichens, lichens in oakwood.
32790Cheek M., Lughadha E.N., Kirk P., Lindon H., Carretero J., Looney B., Douglas B., Haelewaters D., Gaya E., Llewellyn T., Ainsworth A.M., Gafforov Yu., Hyde K., Crous P., Hughes M., Walker B.E., Campostrini Forzza R., Wong K.M. & Niskanen T. (2020): New scientific discoveries: Plants and fungi. - Plants, People, Planet, 2: 371–388. DOI: 10.1002/ppp3.10148.
Scientific discovery, including naming new taxa, is important because without a scientific name, a species is invisible to science and the possibilities of researching its ecology, applications and threats, and conserving it, are greatly reduced. We review new scientific discoveries in the plant and fungal kingdoms, based largely on new names of taxa published in 2019 and indexed in the International Plant Names Index and Index Fungorum. Numbers of new species in both kingdoms were similar with 1942 new species of plant published and 1882 species of fungi. However, while >50% of plant species have likely been discovered, >90% of fungi remain unknown. This gulf likely explains the greater number of higher order taxa for fungi published in 2019: three classes, 18 orders, 48 families and 214 genera versus one new family and 87 new genera for plants. We compare the kingdoms in terms of rates of scientific discovery, globally and in different taxonomic groups and geographic areas, and with regard to the use of DNA in discovery. We review species new to science, especially those of interest to humanity as new products, and also by life-form. We consider where future such discoveries can be expected. We recommend an urgent increase in investment in scientific discovery of plant and fungal species, while they still survive. Priorities include more investment in training taxonomists, in building and equipping collections-based research centers for them, especially in species-rich, income-poor countries where the bulk of species as yet unknown to science are thought to occur. Keywords: DNA versus morphology, extinction before scientific discovery, properties of new species, rates of discovery of plants and fungi.
32789Corbin J.D. & Thiet R.K. (2020): Temperate biocrusts: mesic counterparts to their better-known dryland cousins. - Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 18(8): 456–464. https://doi.org/10.1002/fee.2234.
Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are known to serve crucial functions in many arid and semiarid habitats, but less is understood about biocrusts in temperate biomes, where they are often widespread and can play important roles in aboveground and belowground processes. Because the distinctive conditions that support biocrusts in temperate biomes – sandy, acidic, and/or nutrient-poor soils or exposed bedrock – frequently also support rare plant and animal communities, such sites can have considerable conservation value. We detail the distribution of biocrusts in temperate habitats, including many in the northeastern US, where they have not previously been described. Besides adding another layer of biodiversity to the sites in which they occur, biocrusts may also play a critical role in site-level ecology and functioning. As such, integrating temperate biocrust composition, distribution, and functions into ecosystem management may contribute to the stability and resilience of the ecosystems in which they are found in the face of global climate change and other disturbances.
32788Correa-Ochoa M.A., Vélez-Monsalve L.C., Saldarriaga-Molina J.C. & Jaramillo-Ciro M.M. (2020): Evaluation of the Index of Atmospheric Purity in an American tropical valley through the sampling of corticulous lichens in different phorophyte species. - Ecological Indicators, 115: 106355 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2020.106355.
Lichens have been widely used worldwide as bioindicators of air quality and also integrated into national programs and protocols in several countries. The Index of Atmospheric Purity (IAP) has been a commonly used tool for the diagnosis of air quality using corticulous lichens. However, its implementation is recommended when phorophytes with similar characteristics of the bark are used. Therefore, many studies are restricted to the use of a single supporting phorophyte. This criterion makes it difficult to implement this index in areas with limited number of individuals and species of phorophytes. This research evaluates the functionality of this index without differentiating among carrier phorophytes for the classification of areas with differences in air quality. For this, the lichens were mapped and collected, along with bark samples to determine the pH bark of phorophytes close to air quality monitoring stations located in Medellín City. A total of 148 lichen species were identified, belonging to 26 families and 52 genera. In addition, indicators such as thallus heterogeneity, richness (with correlations coefficients r = 0.52 with no phorophyte differentiation and for the tree species F. uhdei and T. rosea, r=0.578 and r=0.777; respectively) and total coverage of corticulous lichens (r = 0.76) vary in response to air pollution levels, no matter if their evaluation is carried out on a single phorophyte or in a diversity of phorophytes. This research also revealed that the evaluation of IAP in the biomonitoring zones is functional, resulting in positive correlations between the IAP and the air quality classification when this index is evaluated without differentiation of phorophytes (r = 0.78) and for T. rosea (r = 0.94) and F. uhdei (r = 0.99). In this sense, the uniformity criterion in the selection of the phorophyte use for the application of this index can be complemented taking into account the possibility of using a heterogeneous sample of phorophytes. Keywords: Bioindicator; Air quality; Phorophyte diversity; Corticolous lichens.
32787Brunialti G., Frati L., Calderisi M., Giorgolo F., Bagella S., Bertini G., Chianucci F., Fratini R., Gottardini E. & Cutini A. (2020): Epiphytic lichen diversity and sustainable forest management criteria and indicators: A multivariate and modelling approach in coppice forests of Italy. - Ecological Indicators, 115: 106358 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2020.106358.
Epiphytic lichens represent one of the most suitable indicators of forest continuity and management, especially in the context of ancient and old-growth forests. Nevertheless, they have not yet been included among Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) indicators to which Pan-European forest policy and governance refer. In addition, currently adopted SFM indicators are mainly designed for high forests rather than coppice forests, despite the fact that today this management system covers more than 10% of the total European forests. In this study we investigated these two issues by examining epiphytic lichen diversity in three coppice forest stands, located in the two Italian regions of Tuscany and Sardinia. In particular, we addressed: i) the role of lichen diversity as SFM indicator and ii) its relationship with consolidated and new SFM indicators dealing with structural, health, biodiversity, protective and socioeconomic functions. Multivariate Factor Analysis and Generalised Linear Models were adopted for data analysis. We found that lichen diversity and the frequency of single sensitive species were mainly related to the biodiversity of plants and fungi (Criterion 4), the health and vitality of the forests (Criterion 2) and their protective functions (Criterion 5). Furthermore, our results show that the lichen species highlighted by the models may represent suitable indicators in long-term studies, especially in relation to complex and interconnected aspects of sustainable forest management. Although our findings represent a first contribute to this issue, more in-depth researches will be needed to clarify further aspects of the complex interactions among SFM indicators in the context of coppice forests. Keywords: Lichen Diversity Value (LDV); Biodiversity; European forest types; Predictive models.
32786Bernardo F., Rocha T., Branquinho C., Garcia P. & Rodrigues A. (2020): Thallus structural alterations in green-algal lichens as indicators of elevated CO2 in a degassing volcanic area. - Ecological Indicators, 114: 106326 [7 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2020.106326.
We hypothesize that the thalli of the green-algal, CO2-sensitive lichen Usnea rubicunda (Stirton) undergo significant structural alterations as a biological response indicating increased CO2 emissions. To test that, U. rubicunda thalli were transplanted from a reference site with no volcanism into 36 sites distributed within the volcanically active Furnas caldera, encompassing the gradient of soil diffuse CO2 degassing areas (700 t d−1 of hydrothermal CO2). After 6 months of exposure in similar macroclimatic conditions, both Furnas transplants and samples kept at the reference site were retrieved for histology to assess thalli structure and the proportion between the symbionts. On average, cross-sections of Furnas thalli were significantly thicker than reference, owing mostly to the fungal layers of medulla and central cord. The latter occupied a significantly greater than reference relative volumetric density despite a smaller than reference relative percentage of algal occupation on Furnas thalli. These results reveal a positive and time-integrated response of U. rubicunda to the greater availability of CO2 from hydrothermal emissions in the volcanic environment, translated in greater efficiency of the algae in sustaining the fungal biomass. Histomorphometric structural alterations in the heteromerous thalli of U. rubicunda are suitable response biomarkers with potential to indicate a global rise of CO2 levels in natural environments. Keywords: Usnea rubicunda; Volcanism; Hydrothermal emissions; Carbon dioxide; Histology; Biomarkers.
32785Gauslaa Y., Goward T. & Pypker T. (2020): Canopy settings shape elemental composition of the epiphytic lichen Lobaria pulmonaria in unmanaged conifer forests. - Ecological Indicators, 113: 106294 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2020.106294.
The importance of forest canopy settings for the elemental chemistry of epiphytic lichens in undisturbed forests is poorly understood despite its impact on epiphytes, understory vegetation and microbial soil communities. Here, we examine the elemental composition in standardized thalli of the cephalolichen Lobaria pulmonaria transplanted to the lower branches of Picea glauca x engelmannii in inland British Columbia. Transplants were attached to nets (avoiding direct contact with tree bark) exposed to natural canopy throughfall in three categories of natural forest stands: 1) within dripzones of Populus species in mixed stands always supporting L. pulmonaria; 2) outside Populus dripzones, yet with L. pulmonaria and 3) outside Populus dripzones and without L. pulmonaria, which is the most common canopy setting. After one year, and with the exception of Fe and Al, the elemental content in lichen transplants changed within and between forest categories. Lichen transplants within Populus dripzones had more base cations (Ca, Mg, K) and less Mn than in the two categories outside dripzones. In Picea canopies outside Populus dripzones, lichen transplants had higher Ca, Na, Mo and lower C, S and Cu in trees with L. pulmonaria than without. The pH of Picea branches and soil within the rooting zone of trees with transplants were both approximately ten times more acidic outside Populus dripzones than within them. However, bark pH did not differ between the two categories of stands outside Populus dripzones. Based on our findings we conclude that canopy setting shapes the elemental composition of epiphytic lichen transplants, suggesting that such transplants might be used to monitor spatial variation in throughfall elements from forest canopies in unmanaged stands. We also conclude that elemental concentrations, Ca in particular, is a better predictor than bark pH for the occurrence of L. pulmonaria on Picea. Keywords: Canopy hydrology; Canopy leachates; Lobaria pulmonaria; Nutrients; Base cations; pH.
32784Dörter M., Karadeniz H., Saklangıç U. & Yenisoy-Karakaş S. (2020): The use of passive lichen biomonitoring in combination with positive matrix factor analysis and stable isotopic ratios to assess the metal pollution sources in throughfall deposition of Bolu plain, Turkey. - Ecological Indicators, 113: 106212 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2020.106212.
The main objective of this study was to determine the elemental content of (51 elements) and stable isotope (δ13C, δ15N) content of lichen, Xanthoria parietina. The results were evaluated according to seasonal changes, pollution source, and altitudes. The data indicated that there is no significant impact of seasonal variation in concentrations of most of the elements and isotopes. The uptake efficiency of Xanthoria parietina and pine needle was compared and it was found out that significantly higher amounts of metals were accumulated by Xanthoria parietina than by pine needles. The lowest δ13C and the highest δ15N values were obtained in pine needle in both seasons. Both δ13C and δ15N showed increasing (for summer) and decreasing (for winter) trends with a rise in an altitude. Source apportionment of elements was performed by using positive matrix factorization (PMF) and supported by G-score maps. As a result, six sources were determined for the area namely urban environment, lichen nutrient elements, contaminated soil, traffic and mixed soil, lichen metabolism and coal combustion. The concentration pollution maps and G-score maps of Pb and Ba were similar and this was an indication of the vehicle emissions. The elements As, Bi and Tl signed the coal combustion. Keywords: Biomonitoring; Lichen; Elements; Stable isotope; Positive matrix factorization.
32783Guzmán Q. J.A., Laakso K., López-Rodríguez J.C., Rivard B. & Sánchez-Azofeifa G.A. (2020): Using visible-near-infrared spectroscopy to classify lichens at a Neotropical Dry Forest. - Ecological Indicators, 111: 105999 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2019.105999.
The optical properties of lichens have been traditionally explored in the context of geological mapping where the encrustation of lichens on rocks may influence the detection of minerals of interest. As of today, few studies have looked into the potential of using the optical properties of lichens to classify them; however, none has investigated the classification of tropical lichens using spectroscopy. Here we explore the use of the visible-near infrared reflectance (VNIR; 450–1000 nm) to discriminate Neotropical corticolous lichens; the most abundant lichens in tropical forests. Reflectance measurements on lichens and their bark substrate were performed on 282 lichens samples of 32 species attached to their host's bark. Using these measurements, we first explored the degree of spectral mixing of bark and lichens by linear unmixing each lichen spectrum with the corresponding average species spectrum and bark spectrum. Overall, the results reveal that the lichen signatures tend to mask the spectral contributions from bark; however, there are some specific groups of species with high bark mixing probably due to their nature and the similarities between the lichen and bark spectra. Next, we classified the lichen spectra based on growth forms and taxonomic ranks (i.e., family, genus, species) using five machine learning classifiers. This analysis was conducted on raw reflectance spectra and wavelet-transformed spectra to enhance the absorption features prior to classification. As expected, the classification of lichen spectra is less accurate at species-specific levels, rather than higher taxonomic ranks. The wavelet transformation was found to enhance the general performance of classification; however, the accuracy of the classification depends on the classifier. Of the classifiers used in this study, linear discrimination applied to reflectance spectra presents the highest performance at the species level. Our results reveal the potential of using the VNIR reflectance as a method to discriminate Neotropical lichens. The introduced methodology may be conducted in the field, thus allowing the monitoring of lichen communities in forests; thereby furthering the current understanding of the role of lichens in ecosystem functioning. Keywords: Reflectance; Lichen spectroscopy; Species discrimination; Spectral classification; Wavelet analysis.
32782Capozzi F., Sorrentino M.C., Di Palma A., Mele F., Arena C., Adamo P., Spagnuolo V. & Giordano S. (2020): Implication of vitality, seasonality and specific leaf area on PAH uptake in moss and lichen transplanted in bags. - Ecological Indicators, 108: 105727 [8 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2019.105727.
In this work the moss Hypnum cupressiforme and the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea were exposed in bags for six weeks alive and oven-devitalized during summer and winter; the content of 24 PAHs was quantified to evaluate the effect of vitality, seasonality and specific leaf area (SLA) on PAH uptake and profiling. Vitality was followed throughout the exposure by measuring PSII maximal photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm). In summer, a limited PAH signal was detected, with no significant increase, or even loss, of these compounds. During winter, a significant increase of PAHs was measured in both biomonitors, especially in those devitalized, with a lower baseline PAH content compared to alive material. This result suggests that PAH uptake mostly relies on passive mechanisms. Accordingly, Fv/Fm demonstrated that moss and lichen exposed alive spent most of the exposure time in cryptobiosis. In both biomonitors 4-rings PAHs prevailed, followed by 2-3-rings in lichen and 5-6-rings in moss. Lichen performed better than moss, due to the ability to entrap PAHs in the body of thalli, preserving these compounds during the exposure. A formula was developed to express the accumulated PAHs in terms of flux, that resulted higher in lichen than in moss. Oven devitalized lichen exposed in winter provided the highest uptake, indicating that morphology, SLA and seasonality represent key parameters in PAH biomonitoring. Keywords: PAH biomonitoring; Moss and lichen transplants; Fv/Fm; Specific leaf area;Daily PAH flux.