28151Asahina Y. (1929): The Raikens Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. XXXI. - J. Jap. Bot., 6(9): 269-271.
28150Asahina Y. (1929): On the Specimens of Lichens Collected in the Vicinity of Sapporo, Hokkaido, 50 Years Ago. - J. Jap. Bot., 6(8): 234-253.
Japan, Hokkaido
28149Asahina Y. (1929): The Raikens Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. XXX. - J. Jap. Bot., 6(5): 137-139.
Japan, Chiodecton
28148Asahina Y. (1929): The Raikens Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. XXIX. - J. Jap. Bot., 6(4): 101-103.
28147Asahina Y. (1929): The Raikens Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. XXVIII. - J. Jap. Bot., 6(3): 64-66.
Japan, Solenopsora
28146Asahina Y. (1929): I am in Great Hopes That Books of the Every Local Flora of Japan will be Published Successively. - J. Jap. Bot., 6(12): 408-411.
Flora of Japan
28145Asahina Y. (1929): The Raiken's Soliloquy on Botanical Science" or Notes on Lichens. XXXII. - J. Jap. Bot., 6(11): 336-340.
28144de Crozals A. (1912): Lichens du Massif de l'Espinouze. - Bulletin de Géographie Botanique, 22: 252–274.
Collema trivallense ['trivallensis'] sp. nov. (= Lempholemma trivallense); Collema querceti sp. nov. (= Collema fuscovirens)
28143Olivier H. (1912): Les Pertusaria de la flore d'Europe: Etude synoptique, descriptive et Géographique. - Bulletin de Géographie Botanique, 22: 193–217.
Pertusaria; key; Europe.
28142Olivier H. (1911): Etude synoptique et géographique des Lécidés de la Flore d’Europe. - Bulletin de Géographie Botanique, 21: 157–209.
Bacidia; Europe; key.
28141Ravera S., Cogoni A., Totti C., Aleffi M., Assini S., Caporale S., Fačkovcová Z., Filippino G., Gheza G., Olivieri N., Ottonello M., Paoli L., Poponessi S., Pišút I. & Venanzoni R. (2016): Notulae to the Italian flora of algae, bryophytes, fungi and lichens: 2. - Italian Botanist, 2: 43–54.
In this contribution, new data concerning red algae, lichens and bryophytes of the Italian flora are presented. It includes new records and confirmations for the algal genus Grateloupia, the bryophyte genus Didymodon, and the lichen genera Buellia, Cladonia, Letharia, Pertusaria, and Pyrenula. Keywords: Bryidae, floristic data, lichenized ascomycetes, Rhodophyceae.
28140Ravera S., Cogoni A., Vizzini A., Aleffi M., Assini S., Barcella M., von Brackel W., Caporale S., Fačkovcová Z., Filippino G., Gheza G., Gigante D., Paoli L., Potenza G., Poponnessi S., Prosser F., Puntillo D., Puntillo M. & Venanzoni R. (2017): Notulae to the Italian flora of algae, bryophytes, fungi and lichens: 3. - Italian Botanist, 3: 55–60.
In this contribution, new data concerning bryophytes, fungi and lichens and of the Italian flora are presented. It includes new records and confirmations for the bryophyte genera Dicranodontium, Fontinalis, Lophocolea and Riccia, the fungal genus Diplolaeviopsis, the lichen genera Agonimia, Cladonia, Protoparmelia, Rhizocarpon, and Scytinium. Keywords: Ascomycota, Bryidae, Marchantiidae, Jungermanniidae, floristic data.
28139Ravera S., Cogoni A., von Brackel W., Filippino G., Isocrono D., Matteucci E., Morando M., Prosser F. & Puntillo D. (2016): Notulae to the Italian flora of algae, bryophytes, fungi and lichens: 1. - Italian Botanist, 1: 55–60.
In this contribution, new data concerning lichens and bryophytes of the Italian flora are presented. It includes new records, exclusions, and confirmations to the Italian administrative regions for taxa in the lichen genera Athallia, Ramonia, Thelotrema, Pertusaria, Bryoplaca and in the bryophyte genera Dicranella, Bryum, and Scorpiurium. Keywords: Bryopsida, floristic data, lichenized ascomycetes.
28138Loppi S. (2006): Licheni come bioaccumulatori di elementi in traccia: stato della ricerca in Italia. - Biologia Ambientale, 20(2): 69–78.
Lichens as bioaccumulators of trace elements: state-of the-art of research in Italy. The state-of-the-art of research on the use of lichens as bioaccumulators of trace element carried out in Italy is presented. The role of atmospheric particulate matter and soil contamination of samples, as well as the interpretation of results were especially addressed. Some future research lines are suggested. Key words: Atmospheric pollution / Biomonitoring / Heavy metals / Lichens.
28137Fiorentino J. (2008): Studying the lichens of the Maltese Islands. - Notiziario della Società Lichenologica Italiana, 21: 67–72.
28136Fiorentino J. (2007): First record of Pyrenula chlorospila Arnold (Pyrenulales : Pyrenulaceae) from the Maltese Islands (Central Mediterranean). - Central Mediterranean Naturalist, 4(3): 195–198.
One specimen of an inconspicuous, corticolous lichen found on the bark of an oak tree at Buskett was identified as Pyrenula chlorospila Arnold. This species is not included in the checklist published by Sommier and Caruana Gatto in Flora Melitensis Nova (Sommier & Caruana Gatto, 1915). Instead Pyrenula nitida var nitidella is mentioned which name is also used for specimens in Caruana Gatto's collection housed in the herbarium at Argotti. Three of these specimens were also examined and were found to represent P. chlorospila. Consequently, Pyrenula chlorospila is recorded for the first time from the Maltese Islands.
28135Fiorentino J. (2008): First record of Pyrenocollema halodytes (Nyl.) R. Harris (Pyrenulales: Pyrenulaceae) from the Maltese Islands (Central Mediterranean). - Central Mediterranean Naturalist, 4(4): 213–219.
The marine crustose lichen Pyrenocollema halodytes (Nyl.) R. Harris is known to grow on substrates such as limestone, chalk, molluscan shells and barnacles and is consequently considered as a marine lichen. It was formerly placed under the genus Arthopyrenia but together with other lichens from this genus all containing cyanobacteria as the symbiont photobiont was placed under the genus Pyrenocoliema. In this review Pyrenocollema halodytes is being recorded for the first time from the Maltese Islands having been found growing at Mistra Bay on the calcareous plates of the Star Barnacle Chthamalus stellatus found on rocks of the upper mediolittoral zone.
28134Fiorentino J. (2012): The genus Xanthoria (Teloschistaceae, lichenised Ascomycota) in the Maltese Islands. - Central Mediterranean Naturalist, 5(3-4): 9–17.
The occurrence of Xanthoria calcicola Oksner, Xanthoria aureola (Ach.) Erichsen and Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th.Fr. are confirmed for the Maltese Islands. The morphological features and ecological preferences of these lichens are described and illustrated. The lobe widths and thallus thicknesses of these three species are measured. Three other species of Xanthoria with ecological requirements that can be met locally are also described briefly. These species have so far not been recorded for the Maltese Islands. Finally an identification key for all six species of Xanthoria is included.
28133Fiorentino J. (2002): An appraisal of scientific names used in the 1915 list of lichens of the Maltese Islands by Stefano Sommier and Alfredo Caruana Gatto. - Central Mediterranean Naturalist, 3(4): 189–196.
In 1915 Stefano Sommier and Alfredo Caruano Gatto published a list of lichens from the Maltese islands. Since then no other lists of local lichens have been published. This work reviews the lichen names appearing in the original checklist and, where relevant, alternative names are suggested based on contemporary usage.
28132Hofmann H. (2016): Die BLAM hat ein neues Ehrenmitglied. - Herzogiella, 3: 3–4.
Anniversary; Regine Stordeur.
28131von Brackel W. (2016): Flechte und Moos des Jahres 2016. - Herzogiella, 3: 65.
Lichen and moss of the year 2016: Icmadophila ericetorum and Sphagnum magellanicum.
28130Heerd E., Kirschbaum U., Mattonet B. & Windisch U. (2016): 30 Jahre Mittelhessischer Lichenologischer Arbeitskreis (MLA). - Herzogiella, 3: 62–64.
28129Berger A. & Berger M. (2016): Genuss ohne Reue – Bericht zum Flechtenkurs 2015 des Mittelhessischen Lichenologischen Arbeitskreises in Gießen. - Herzogiella, 3: 58–61.
28128John V. (2016): THW-Hanomag im Dienste der Flechten. - Herzogiella, 3: 55–57.
Lichens on artificial substrates.
28127Blanz P. (2016): Report on the Symposium „Biodiversity and Ecology of fungi, lichens and mosses, in commemoration of Josef Poelt’s death 20 ears ago“. - Herzogiella, 3: 52–54.
28126Schultz M. & Resl P. (2016): Taxonomische und nomenklatorische Neuerungen – Flechten, Erste Folge. - Herzogiella, 3: 21–28.
Summarization of nomenclatoric and taxonomic novelties concerning (at least potentially) Central Europe.
28125Schirmacher U. & Henze M. (2016): Untersuchung von Flechten-Inhaltsstoffen aus Cetraria-Herbarmaterial und eines Isländisch-Moos-Tees aus Island. - Herzogiella, 3: 34–39.
Cetraria islandica; TLC; lichen metabolits.
28124Eichler M. & Cezanne R. (2016): Neue Publikationen die Flechtenflora Mitteleuropas betreffend, Zweite Folge. - Herzogiella, 3: 16–20.
Bibliography; Central Europe
28123Anonymous (2016): Newsletter from the Japanese Society for Lichenoloqy. - Newsletter from the Japanese Society for Lichenoloqy, 138: 513-516.
28122Anonymous (2016): Newsletter from the Japanese Society for Lichenoloqy. - Newsletter from the Japanese Society for Lichenoloqy, 137: 509-512.
28121Anonymous (2016): Newsletter from the Japanese Society for Lichenoloqy. - Newsletter from the Japanese Society for Lichenoloqy, 136: 507-508.
28120Anonymous (2016): Newsletter from the Japanese Society for Lichenoloqy. - Newsletter from the Japanese Society for Lichenoloqy, 135: 503-506.
28119Anonymous (2016): Newsletter from the Japanese Society for Lichenoloqy. - Newsletter from the Japanese Society for Lichenoloqy, 134: 499-502.
28118Anonymous (2016): Newsletter from the Japanese Society for Lichenoloqy. - Newsletter from the Japanese Society for Lichenoloqy, 133: 495-498.
28117Kondratyuk S. Y., Lőkös L., Kim J. A., Kondratiuk A. S., Jeong M.-H., Jang S. H., Oh S.-O. & Hur J.-S. (2015): New members of the Pertusariales (Ascomycota) proved by combined phyloge- netic analysis. - Studia Bot. Hung. , 46(2): 95–110.
New genus Marfloraea for the Variolaria amara-group as well as new members of the genera Dibaeis and Ochrolechia proved by results of the combined phylogenetic analysis based on nuclear ITS1/ITS2 portion of ribosomal nrDNA and 12S SSU mtDNA sequences are described and compared with closely related taxa. Fi een new combinations are proposed, i.e. Dibaeis yurii, Mar oraea albescens, M. amara, M. aspergilla, M. corallina, M. corallophora, M. erythrella, M. ex- cludens, M. mammosa, M. ophthalmiza, M. panyrga, M. pulvinata, M. scaberula, M. subventosa and Ochrolechia dactylina. Dibaeis yurii is recorded for the rst time from South Korea. Marfloraea, new genus, Ochrolechia, Variolaria
28116Moon K.H., Nakanishi M., Ahn C. & Kashiwadani H. (2014): Existence of Graphis cervina Müll Arg. (Graphidaceae) in Korea. - J. Jap. Bot., 89: 249-252.
The existence of Graphis cervina Müll. Arg. (Graphidaceae) is confirmed in Korea and its distribution is reported. It was largely found on granite along the Taebaek and Sobaek Mountains located on the east and east-south side of the Korean Peninsula. G. koreana Joshi & al., a species recently described from Korea, is simply reduced to a synonym of G. cervina
28115Moon K.H., Aptroot A., Elix J.A. & Kashiwadani H. (2014): Diploicia canescens subsp. australasica (Caliciaceae) found in Korea. - J. Jap. Bot., 89(1): 51-53.
Diploicia canescens (Dicks.) A. Massal. subsp. australasica Elix & Lumbsch is reported for the first time from Korea. It was found on lava rock along the coast of Cheju (Jeju) Island, Korea. This taxon was previously known from Australia and New Zealand, so its distribution now extends to Eastern Asia
28114Kashiwadani H., Aptroot A., Iakovchenko L. & Yoshida K. (2014): The studies of speciation and species diversity of lichen in the costal and insular areas of the eastern Asia (III). - National Institute of Biological Resources, 58 pp.
Korea is situated on the east Asian Continent and its northeast/southest extension is about 1,100 km. Phytogeographically it belongs to the easternmost part of the Sino-Himalayan Region. Korean lichens were initially studied by European and Japanese botanists and lichenologists. The first study of Korean lichens was made in 1891 by Müller J, a German lichenologist, who reported Synechoblastus bicaudatus Müll. Arg. [= Collema japonicum (Müll.Arg.) Hue]. In 1905, Hue, a French lichenologist, reported Lecanora oreina Ach. on the basis of a collection made by U. Faurie, a catholic priest and then Korean and foreign botanists or lichenologists reported Korean lichens. In 1996, Ministry of Environment reported 498 lichens species. In 2013, the newly compiled national inventory of Korean lichens, 788 taxa were recorded. Korean species of the genus Myelochroa are revised taxonomically and the following 8 species are recognized: M. aurulenta (Tuck.) Elix & Hale, M. entotheiochroa (Hue) Elix & Hale, M. galbina (Ach.) Elix & Hale, M. hayachinensis (Kurok.) Elix & Hale, M. rrugans (Nyl.) Elix & Hale, M. leucotyliza (Nyl.) Elix & Hale, M. metarevoluta (Asahina) Elix & Hale and M. perisidians (Nyl.) Elix & Hale. M. ibukiensis Moon et al. is reduced to a synonym for M. aurulenta. M. indica (Hale) Elix & Hale and M. xantholepis (Mont. & Bosch) Elix & Hale are excluded from the lichen of Korea. The propose of this survey is found out the new to Korea or new to science species. According to this study, two species, Gyalecta sp. and Hymenelia sp. are reported as new to science. 28 species were reported as new to Korea. Among them, 11 species was recorded as new to Asia;Catillaria atomarioides, Circinaria leprosescens, Eopyrenula leucoplaca, Fellhanera subtilis, Fellhaneropsis myrtillicola, Fuscidea austera, F. intercincta, Hymenelia ceracea, Psilolechia clavulifera, Strigula brevis, and Verrucaria simplex, and 2 species, Roccellina nipponica, Schismatomma ocellulatum, were reported as the second report from the world. 38 species were reported as second recoered from the Korea
28113Jayalalal U., Oh S.O., Park J.S., Sung J.H., Kimb S.H. & Hur J.S. (2015): Evaluation of air quality using lichens in three different types of forest in Korea. - Forest Science and Technology, 12(1): 1-8.
There is little available information on lichen diversity and air quality in forests in South Korea. To address this, the present study aims to correlate corticolous lichen diversity with air quality in selected forests in South Korea. Two sites located on Jeju Island and one site located at Mt. Hambaek, Kangwon Province were selected for this study. Twenty trees representing two species (Quercus sp. and Pinus japonica) were chosen at each site. The coverage and frequency of corticolous lichens found on the selected trees were recorded by using 2500 cm2 grids. Ambient SO2, NO2, and O3 levels at each site were determined using OgawaTM passive samplers having filter pads coated with absorbing reagents. Lichen diversity data collected on selected trees were used to formulate the index of atmospheric purity (IAP). A total of 65 lichen species were found. A negative correlation was observed between lichen diversity expressed as IAP and the concentrations of SO2, NO2, and O3 levels. The results revealed that corticolous lichens could be used as indicators to monitor the air quality of forests in South Korea on a large scale. air pollution; bioindicator; index of atmospheric purity (IAP); forest health; lichen diversity
28112Fosaa A.M. (1987): The ecology of some marine and maritime lichens on rocky shores of the Faroe Islands. - Fróðskaparrit, 34–35: 91–106.
The seashore zonation found by Fletcher (1973) and Lewis (1964), was also found in the Faroe Islands. Following indicators are usable: Xeric supralittoral zone: Anaptychia fusca; Submesic supralittoral zone: Xanthoria parietina; Mesic supralittoral zone: Caloplaca marina and Lichina confinis; Littoral fringe: Verrucaria maura; Eulittoral Zone: Verrucaria mucosa. As the seashore is strongly influenced by guano, the lichen communities are dominated by ornitocoprophilous lichens, while the ornitocoprophobic species were not found. Almborn (1955), Søchting & Gjeldstrup (1985) and other Scandinavian lichenologists treat the m.s.l. and s.s.l. zone as one zone, but as Xanthoria parietina together with other foliose lichens invades here, it is on the basis of these foliose lichens that we divide the supralittorale zone of the Faroe Islands in a mesic supralittoral zone and a submesic supralittoral zone.
28111Fosaa A.M. (2004): Altitudinal distribution of plant communities in the Faroe Islands. - Fróðskaparrit, 51: 217–236.
This paper presents the first quantitative vegetation analysis carried out along a continuous altitudinal gradient in the Faroe Islands. In order to describe the distribution of plant communities along altitudinal gradients, five mountains were studied. The aim was to define vegetation zones and to determine the transition boundary between temperate and arctic- alpine vegetation. The vegetation was classified into 12 plant communities belonging to four main vegetation types. Several terricolous species of macrolichens (Cladonia spp. div., Cetraria islandica, Peltigera canina, Solorina crocea) included.
28110Townrow J.E.S. (1960): Um nakrar skónir í Føroyum (On some Lichens of the Faroe Islands). - Fróðskaparrit, 9: 78–83.
[In Danish with English summary:] Species lists and short ecological notes are given for a collection of Faroese lichens. About a quarter of the species are new records for the Faroes.
28109Alstrup V., Christensen S.N., Hansen E.S. & Svane S. (1994): The lichens of the Faroes. - Fróðskaparrit, 40: 61–121.
The collections of lichens from the Faroes in the Danish herbaria have been revised together with new collections. 471 species, subspecies and varieties of lichens and 50 species of lichenicolous fungi were found. Notes are given about the frequency, habitats and distribution of the species, and new collections are cited for the rarer species. References are made to the literature of the subject and the synonyms used in that literature are listed. New species and new combinations are: Carbonea degelii Alstrup sp. nov., Cercidospora arthroraphidicola Alstrup sp. nov., Dactylospora rostrupii Alstrup sp. nov., Endococcus verrucosporus Alstrup sp. nov., Lasiosphaeriopsis cephalodiorum (Rostrup) Alstrup comb. nov., Micarea paratropa (Nyl.) Alstrup comb. nov., Micarea subconfusa (Nyl.) Alstrup comb. nov. and Roselliniopsis ventosa (Rostrup) Alstrup comb. nov. Another 223 species are new to the area.
28108Schultz M., Dolnik C., Neumann P. & Schiefelbein U. (2016): Die Flechten auf der Elbinsel Neßsand. - Berichte des Botanischen Vereins zu Hamburg, 30: 97–114.
Eine Kartierung der Flechten auf der Elbinsel Neßsand ergab Nachweise von 108 Taxa, davon 100 Flechtenarten, eine Form sowie sieben lichenicole Pilze und Flechtenparasiten. Fellhanera viridisorediata, Myriospora rhagadiza und Scoliciosporum gallurae sind Neufunde für die Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg. Erstmals für Niedersachsen wird Bacidina etayana nachgewiesen. Die Bedeutung der Insel als Rückzugs- und Ansiedlungsort diverser in Hamburg und Umland sonst seltener Flechten wird diskutiert.
28107Kinalioglu K. [Kınalıoğlu K.] & Aptroot A. (2017): Bacidia, Micarea, Sagedia, and Stigmidium species new to Turkey. - Mycotaxon, 132(1): 223–229.
During lichenological exploration in Turkey, two lichenised fungi (Micarea micrococca, Sagedia zonata) and one lichenicolous fungus (Stigmidium microspilum) were established as new records for Asia, and one lichenised fungus (Bacidia chloroticula) as new for Turkey. Illustrations are accompanied by brief descriptions and comments on habitat, substrate, and geographical distribution. Key words—biodiversity, Corylus, Giresun, İstanbul, Trabzon. Key words—biodiversity, Corylus, Giresun, İstanbul, Trabzon.
28106Łubek A. & Kukwa M. (2017): Additions to the mycobiota of Poland. - Mycotaxon, 132(1): 183–195.
One saprobic fungus (Agyrium rufum), one facultative lichenicolous fungus (Trimmatostroma quercicola), and six obligatory lichenicolous fungi (Arthonia coronata, Cornutispora intermedia, Didymocyrtis melanelixiae, Minutoexcipula mariana, Stigmidium rivulorum, and Weddellomyces xanthoparmeliae) are reported as new to Poland. Lecanora pulicaris is a new host for Cornutispora intermedia and Ochrolechia turneri for Minutoexcipula mariana. Seven of the reported species were found in natural forest communities in Białowieża National Park. Discussions on characteristics of each species and distributions are also provided. Key words—mitosporic fungi, Ascomycota.
28105Kukwa M., Czarnota P. & Łubek A. (2017): Three lichen species in Buellia, Catillaria, and Cheiromycina, new to Poland. - Mycotaxon, 132(1): 177–182.
Three sterile crustose lichen species, Buellia arborea from the Tatra Mts and Catillaria fungoides and Cheiromycina reimeri from Białowieża National Park, are recorded as new to Poland. The record of Cheiromycina reimeri is also the first from Europe. Characteristics of all three species, notes on similar taxa, distribution, and habitat preferences are provided. Key words—sorediate lichens, lichenized fungi, Ascomycota.
28104 González Y., Aragón G., Burgaz A.R. & Prieto M. (2017): Records of terricolous lichens from páramos of southern Ecuador. - Mycotaxon, 132(1): 153–175.
Ecological studies of five páramos in Azuay and Loja provinces recorded one lichen species new to South America (Bryoria nitidula), five new to Ecuador (Cladonia halei, C. melanopoda, C. merochlorophaea, C. subreticulata, Diploschistes diacapsis), two new to mainland Ecuador (Cladonia grayi, C. pyxidata), and 20 new provincial records. Brief morphological descriptions, with remarks on distribution and ecology, are provided. Key words—Andes, biodiversity, Cladoniaceae, Neotropics.
28103Wilk K. & Flakus A. (2017): Eight Caloplaca species newly recorded from Bolivia, including C. crocina comb. nov.. - Mycotaxon, 132(1): 125–140.
Eight species of Caloplaca s. lat. are reported as new to Bolivia: Caloplaca baueri, C. cinnabarina, C. crocina, C. darbishirei, C. ochraceofulva, C squamosa, C. subsoluta, and C. texana. Caloplaca texana is also reported as new for Peru and the Southern Hemisphere. The new combination Caloplaca crocina is proposed and compared with other Caloplaca spp. producing hourglass-shaped ascospores. Taxonomic notes and data on the distribution and habitat preferences are presented for all treated species. Key words—lichenized fungi, Ascomycota, Lecanoromycetes, Teloschistaceae, tropical dry forest.
28102Kinalioglu K. [Kınalıoğlu K.] (2017): New records of Caloplaca, Hydropunctaria, and Verrucaria from Turkey and Asia. - Mycotaxon, 132(1): 73–78.
Three lichen species—Caloplaca oleicola, Hydropunctaria adriatica, and Verrucaria elaeina—are described as new to Turkey and to Asia. Key words—Ascomycota, Corylus sp., lichenized fungi, Teloschistaceae, Verrucariaceae.
28101Armstrong R.A. (2017): A study of fragmentation rates in lichen populations on rock surfaces using the Kaplan-Meir estimator and Cox regression. - Annales Botanici Fennici, 54: 169–178.
Fragmentation rates in 21 populations of three foliose lichens Xanthoparmelia conspersa, Melanelixia fuliginosa ssp. fuliginosa and Parmelia saxatilis and the crustose lichen Rhizocarpon geographicum were estimated in north Wales, UK from the size frequency distribution of thalli with fragmenting centres. The Kaplan-Meier estimator suggested significant differences in fragmentation rates among populations of three of the four species. In M. fuliginosa ssp. fuliginosa, Cox regression analysis also suggested higher rates of fragmentation on rock surfaces with a greater percent lichen cover and increased diversity (Shannon-Weaver diversity index). Slope angle, aspect, texture, and location of population relative to the sea also influenced fragmentation rates. The data suggest considerable variation in fragmentation rates among populations within the same area which may be determined primarily by the intensity of competition on a rock surface.
28100Hartl C., Schmidt A.R., Heinrichs J., Seyfullah L.J., Schäfer N., Gröhn C., Rikkinen J. & Kaasalainen U. (2015): Lichen preservation in amber: morphology, ultrastructure, chemofossils, and taphonomic alteration. - Fossil Record, 18: 127–135.
The fossil record of lichens is scarce and many putative fossil lichens do not show an actual physiological relationship between mycobionts and photobionts or a typical habit, and are therefore disputed. Amber has preserved a huge variety of organisms in microscopic fidelity, and so the study of amber fossils is promising for elucidating the fossil history of lichens. However, so far it has not been tested as to how amber inclusions of lichens are preserved regarding their internal characters, ultrastructure, and chemofossils. Here, we apply light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and Raman spectroscopy to an amber-preserved Eocene lichen in order to gain information about the preservation of the fossil. The lichen thallus displays lifelike tissue preservation including the upper and lower cortex, medulla, photobiont layer, apothecia, and soredia. SEM analysis revealed globular photobiont cells in contact with the fungal hyphae, as well as impressions of possible former crystals of lichen compounds. EDX analysis permitted the differentiation between halite and pyrite crystals inside the lichen which were likely formed during the later diagenesis of the amber piece. Raman spectroscopy revealed the preservation of organic compounds and a difference between the composition of the cortex and the medulla of the fossil.
28099Rowe E.C., Ford A.E.S., Smart S.M., Henrys P.A. & Ashmore M.R. (2016): Using qualitative and quantitative methods to choose a habitat quality metric for air pollution policy evaluation. - PLoS ONE, 11(8): e0161085 [20 p.].
Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition has had detrimental effects on species composition in a range of sensitive habitats, although N deposition can also increase agricultural productivity and carbon storage, and favours a few species considered of importance for conservation. Conservation targets are multiple, and increasingly incorporate services derived from nature as well as concepts of intrinsic value. Priorities vary. How then should changes in a set of species caused by drivers such as N deposition be assessed? We used a novel combination of qualitative semi-structured interviews and quantitative ranking to elucidate the views of conservation professionals specialising in grasslands, heathlands and mires. Although conservation management goals are varied, terrestrial habitat quality is mainly assessed by these specialists on the basis of plant species, since these are readily observed. The presence and abundance of plant species that are scarce, or have important functional roles, emerged as important criteria for judging overall habitat quality. However, species defined as ‘positive indicator-species’ (not particularly scarce, but distinctive for the habitat) were considered particularly important. Scarce species are by definition not always found, and the presence of functionally important species is not a sufficient indicator of site quality. Habitat quality as assessed by the key informants was rank-correlated with the number of positive indicator-species present at a site for seven of the nine habitat classes assessed. Other metrics such as species-richness or a metric of scarcity were inconsistently or not correlated with the specialists’ assessments. We recommend that metrics of habitat quality used to assess N pollution impacts are based on the occurrence of, or habitat-suitability for, distinctive species. Metrics of this type are likely to be widely applicable for assessing habitat change in response to different drivers. The novel combined qualitative and quantitative approach taken to elucidate the priorities of conservation professionals could be usefully applied in other contexts.
28098Li Q., Zhang B., He Z. & Yang X. (2016): Distribution and diversity of bacteria and fungi colonization in stone monuments analyzed by high-throughput sequencing . - PLoS ONE, 11(9): e0163287 [17 p.].
The historical and cultural heritage of Qingxing palace and Lingyin and Kaihua temple, located in Hangzhou of China, include a large number of exquisite Buddhist statues and ancient stone sculptures which date back to the Northern Song (960–1219 A.D.) and Qing dynasties (1636–1912 A.D.) and are considered to be some of the best examples of ancient stone sculpting techniques. They were added to the World Heritage List in 2011 because of their unique craftsmanship and importance to the study of ancient Chinese Buddhist culture. However, biodeterioration of the surface of the ancient Buddhist statues and white marble pillars not only severely impairs their aesthetic value but also alters their material structure and thermo-hygric properties. In this study, high-throughput sequencing was utilized to identify the microbial communities colonizing the stone monuments. The diversity and distribution of the microbial communities in six samples collected from three different environmental conditions with signs of deterioration were analyzed by means of bioinformatics software and diversity indices. In addition, the impact of environmental factors, including temperature, light intensity, air humidity, and the concentration of NO2 and SO2, on the microbial communities’ diversity and distribution was evaluated. The results indicate that the presence of predominantly phototrophic microorganisms was correlated with light and humidity, while nitrifying bacteria and Thiobacillus were associated with NO2 and SO2 from air pollution.
28097Zhang B.-W., Xu J.-L., Zhang H., Zhang Q., Lu J. & Wang J.-H. (2016): Structure elucidation of a polysaccharide from Umbilicaria esculenta and its immunostimulatory activity. - PLoS ONE, 11(12): e0168472 [18 p.].
Umbilicaria esculenta has been used as a tonic food in China for several centuries owing to its pleasant flavor and health benefits. In this study, a water soluble polysaccharide, which we designated as UP2, with an average molecular weight of 3.33 × 105 Da, was isolated from U. esculenta cultivated in the Huangshan Mountain, by consecutive hot water extraction and anion-exchange chromatography. Gas chromatography analysis indicated that UP2 contained three kinds of monosaccharides, including mannose, glucose, and galactose at a molar ratio of 1.7:1.0:1.2. Linkage analysis of UP2 revealed the presence of (1 → 6)-linked glucosyl, (1 → 3,6)-linked glucosyl, t-linked galactosyl, (1 → 6)-linked galactosyl and (1 → 6)-linked mannosyl at a molar ratio of 0.7:4.6:4.1:2.2:9.1. Structural analysis determined that UP2 possessed a backbone consisting of (1 → 6)-linked β-D-glucopyranosyl and (1 → 6)-linked α-D-mannopyranosyl residues, which substituted at the O-3 position of (1 → 6)-linked β-D-glucopyranosyl residues by branches of (1 → 6)-linked α-D-galactopyranosyl and 1-linked β-D-galactopyranosyl residues. Immunostimulatory activity analysis showed that UP2 could stimulate the proliferation of RAW264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner, and all the samples (20–500 μg/mL) were found to enhance nitric oxide production. The highest phagocytic activity of UP2 was observed at 200 μg/mL. Thus, UP2 may be a potential source of biological and pharmacological agents.
28096Wu L., Lei Y., Lan S. & Hu C. (2017): Photosynthetic recovery and acclimation to excess light intensity in the rehydrated lichen soil crusts. - PLoS ONE, 12(3): e0172537 [13 p.].
As an important successional stage and main type of biological soil crusts (BSCs) in Shapotou region of China (southeastern edge of Tengger Desert), lichen soil crusts (LSCs) often suffer from many stresses, such as desiccation and excess light intensity. In this study, the chlorophyll fluorescence and CO2 exchange in the rehydrated LSCs were detected under a series of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) gradients to study the photosynthetic acclimation of LSCs. The results showed that although desiccation leaded to the loss of photosynthetic activity in LSCs, the fluorescence parameters including Fo, Fv and Fv/Fm of LSCs could be well recovered after rehydration. After the recovery of photosynthetic activity, the effective photosynthetic efficiency ΦPSII detected by Imaging PAM had declined to nearly 0 within both the lichen thallus upper and lower layers when the PAR increased to 200 μE m-2 s-1, however the net photosynthesis detected by the CO2 gas analyzer in the LSCs still appeared when the PAR increased to 1000 μE m-2 s-1. Our results indicate that LSCs acclimating to high PAR, on the one hand is ascribed to the special structure in crust lichens, making the incident light into the lichen thallus be weakened; on the other hand the massive accumulation of photosynthetic pigments in LSCs also provides a protective barrier for the photosynthetic organisms against radiation damage. Furthermore, the excessive light energy absorbed by crust lichens is also possibly dissipated by the increasing non-photochemical quenching, therefore to some extent providing some protection for LSCs.
28095Rickbeil G.J.M., Hermosilla T., Coops N.C., White J.C. & Wulder M.A. (2017): Estimating changes in lichen mat volume through time and related effects on barren ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) movement. - PLoS ONE, 12(3): e0172669 [16 p.].
Lichens form a critical portion of barren ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) diets, especially during winter months. Here, we assess lichen mat volume across five herd ranges in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut, Canada, using newly developed composite Landsat imagery. The lichen volume estimator (LVE) was adapted for use across 700 000 km2 of barren ground caribou habitat annually from 1984–2012. We subsequently assessed how LVE changed temporally throughout the time series for each pixel using Theil-Sen’s slopes, and spatially by assessing whether slope values were centered in local clusters of similar values. Additionally, we assessed how LVE estimates resulted in changes in barren ground caribou movement rates using an extensive telemetry data set from 2006–2011. The Ahiak/Beverly herd had the largest overall increase in LVE (median = 0.033), while the more western herds had the least (median slopes below zero in all cases). LVE slope pixels were arranged in significant clusters across the study area, with the Cape Bathurst, Bathurst, and Bluenose East herds having the most significant clusters of negative slopes (more than 20% of vegetated land in each case). The Ahiak/Beverly and Bluenose West had the most significant positive clusters (16.3% and 18.5% of vegetated land respectively). Barren ground caribou displayed complex reactions to changing lichen conditions depending on season; the majority of detected associations with movement data agreed with current understanding of barren ground caribou foraging behavior (the exception was an increase in movement velocity at high lichen volume estimates in Fall). The temporal assessment of LVE identified areas where shifts in ecological conditions may have resulted in changing lichen mat conditions, while assessing the slope estimates for clustering identified zones beyond the pixel scale where forage conditions may be changing. Lichen volume estimates associated with barren ground caribou movement metrics in an expected manner and, as such, show value for future habitat assessments.
28094Moya P., Molins A., Martínez-Alberola F., Muggia L. & Barreno E. (2017): Unexpected associated microalgal diversity in the lichen Ramalina farinacea is uncovered by pyrosequencing analyses. - PLoS ONE, 12(4): e0175091 [21 p.].
The current literature reveals that the intrathalline coexistence of multiple microalgal taxa in lichens is more common than previously thought, and additional complexity is supported by the coexistence of bacteria and basidiomycete yeasts in lichen thalli. This replaces the old paradigm that lichen symbiosis occurs between a fungus and a single photobiont. The lichen Ramalina farinacea has proven to be a suitable model to study the multiplicity of microalgae in lichen thalli due to the constant coexistence of Trebouxia sp. TR9 and T. jamesii in longdistance populations. To date, studies involving phycobiont diversity within entire thalli are based on Sanger sequencing, but this method seems to underestimate the diversity. Here, we aim to analyze both the microalgal diversity and its community structure in a single thallus of the lichen R. farinacea by applying a 454 pyrosequencing approach coupled with a careful ad hoc-performed protocol for lichen sample processing prior to DNA extraction. To ascertain the reliability of the pyrosequencing results and the applied bioinformatics pipeline results, the thalli were divided into three sections (apical, middle and basal zones), and a mock community sample was used. The developed methodology allowed 40448 filtered algal reads to be obtained from a single lichen thallus, which encompassed 31 OTUs representative of different microalgae genera. In addition to corroborating the coexistence of the two Trebouxia sp. TR9 and T. jamesii taxa in the same thallus, this study showed a much higher microalgal diversity associated with the lichen. Along the thallus ramifications, we also detected variations in phycobiont distribution that might correlate with different microenvironmental conditions. These results highlight R. farinacea as a suitable material for studying microalgal diversity and further strengthen the concept of lichens as multispecies microecosystems. Future analyses will be relevant to ecophysiological and evolutionary studies to understand the roles of the multiple photobionts in lichen symbioses.
28093Sodamuk M., Boonpragob K., Mongkolsuk P., Tehler A., Leavitt S.D. & Lumbsch H.T. (2017): Kalbionora palaeotropica, a new genus and species from coastal forests in Southeast Asia and Australia (Malmideaceae, Ascomycota). - Mycokeys, 22: 15–25.
A new species and genus, Kalbionora palaeotropica, is described for a crustose lichen occurring in coastal forests in Thailand, Vietnam, and northeastern Australia. It is morphologically similar to Malmidea and Eugeniella, but differing in morphological and chemical characters. The single known species in the new genus contains atranorin, zeorin, the stictic acid chemosyndrome and chlorinated xanthones. Morphologically it is characterized by having asci of the Catillaria-type, a yellowish brown colour, a granulose epihymenium, dark brown hypothecium, hyaline, 1–3 transversely septate ascospores. Molecular data strongly support a phylogenetic position in Malmideaceae, sister to a clade including Malmidea, Savoronala and two species currently placed in Lecidea s. lat. (including L. cyrtidia and L. plebeja). Key words: Lecanorales, lichens, mangroves, taxonomy, tropical diversity.
28092Lumbsch H.T. & Rikkinen J. (2017): Evolution of lichens. - In: Dighton J. & White J.F. (eds), The Fungal Community: Its Organization and Role in the Ecosystem. 4. edn, Mycology series, no. 32, p. 53–62, CRC Press / Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton.
chapter in book
28091Holzschuh A. (2016): Does rock climbing threaten cliff biodiversity? - A critical review. - Biological Conservation, 204: 153–162.
Rock climbing has increased in popularity over the past 20 years. Meanwhile, there have been increasing calls for restrictions on rock climbing due to concerns about the impact of climbing on cliff biodiversity. However, the biological impacts of rock climbing are still not well understood. Here, I review the existing literature to assess the impact of rock climbing on cliff biodiversity. The majority of published results may be confounded by systematic abiotic differences between climbed and unclimbed cliffs, and this lack of proper controls may lead to the overestimation of the negative effects of rock climbing on biodiversity. Evidence for the impact of rock climbing on biodiversity is inconclusive for most taxa. Studies on lichens and vascular plants have described evidence for negative, positive and no effects of rock climbing. Snail biodiversity was found to be negatively affected, while reliable evidence of the impacts of rock climbing on birds is still lacking. Bryophytes were generally unaffected by rock climbing. Further research is urgently needed, because the mixed results of the existing studies do not allow final conclusions how rock climbing affects the cliff biota. Future studies should select comparable controls for biodiversity comparison, widen the focus to further cliff-associated taxa, and investigate how climbing effects vary with climbing intensity. Such studies would facilitate the improved management of rock climbing areas that are rich in biodiversity and contain rare and threatened species. Keywords: Community composition; Diversity; Human disturbance; Rocky habitat; Trampling.
28090Sohrabi M., Favero-Longo S.E., Pérez-Ortega S., Ascaso C., Haghighat Z., Talebian M.H., Fadaei H. & de los Ríos A. (2017): Lichen colonization and associated deterioration processes in Pasargadae, UNESCO world heritage site, Iran. - International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 117: 171–182.
Knowledge on lichen and microbial colonization as well as associated biodeterioration processes of the stone cultural heritage is needed to establish proper conservation programs, but is still poor for stonework in semi-arid regions. In this study, lichen diversity was characterized on seven monumental buildings of the Pasargadae UNESCO-world heritage site (Iran). The risk of biodeterioration processes associated to lichen occurrence on two types of limestones, and the lichen resilience to mechanical cleaning intervention were examined. Physico-chemical substrate features and climatic conditions, combined with the agricultural surrounding and tourist disturbance, supported a pervasive colonization by species-poor epi- and endolithic communities, and fast recolonization processes by nitrophytic species after mechanical removal. The endolithic growth of some lichens and the penetration of hyphal structures of epilithic ones, examined by light and electron microscopy, were associated to stone disintegration and dissolution at the lichen-rock interface. Endolithic cyanobacteria were detected under lichen thalli, likely contributing to deterioration processes. Colonization and deterioration patterns did not appear peculiar with respect to previous investigations on similar communities in different climatic regions, and were mostly related to the different examined lithologies, indicating lichens as harmful biodeteriogens of the sedimentary rock materials used in the stone cultural heritage of semi-arid regions.
28089Padhi S., Das D., Panja S. & Tayung K. (2017): Molecular characterization and antimicrobial activity of an endolichenic fungus, Aspergillus sp. isolated from Parmelia caperata of Similipal Biosphere Reserve, India. - Interdisciplinary Sciences: Computational Life Sciences, 9: 237–246.
Endolichenic fungi are microbes that inhabit healthy inner lichen tissues without any disease symptoms. They have been reported to produce new and interesting bioactive metabolites. In the present study, an endolichenic fungus frequently isolated from surface-sterilized lichen thallus of Parmelia caperata has been described. The fungus was identified as Aspergillus tubingensis based on morphological traits and ITS rDNA sequence. Crude metabolites extracted from the culture broth exhibited considerable antimicrobial activity against a panel of clinically significant human pathogens. The fungus showed optimum antimicrobial activity in PDB medium in day 7 of incubation period. PDB medium amended with 1 % NaCl and at alkaline pH was found to be optimal for antimicrobial metabolites production. Enhanced activity was observed when the fungus was exposed briefly to a heat shock of 60 C during incubation. The metabolites showed optimum k-max at 214 nm with an absorbance value of 1.589. Molecular characterization of the isolate was carried out by ITS phylogeny and ITS2 secondary structure analyses. The phylogenetic trees based on both ITS rDNA and ITS2 sequences showed the isolate within the clade A. tubingensis. Considering the ubiquity and ambiguity in identifying Aspergillus species of different lifestyles, a method to differentiate pathogenic and endophytic Aspergillus at species level was developed using ITS2 secondary structure analysis. The results showed common folding pattern in the secondary structures with a helix and a 50 dangling end found to be highly conserved. Certain features in the secondary structure like multi-bulges and a symmetric interior loop were observed to be unique which distinguish our isolate from other A. tubingensis. Keywords: Endolichenic fungi;  Parmelia caperata; Aspergillus tubingensis; Antimicrobial aktivity; ITS2 secondary structure.
28088Duong T.H., Huynh B.L.C., Chavasiri W., Chollet-Krugler M., Nguyen V.K., Nguyen T.H.T., Hansen P.E., Le Pogam P., Thüs H., Boustie J. & Nguyen K.P.P. (2017): New erythritol derivatives from the fertile form of Roccella montagnei. - Phytochemistry, 137: 156–164.
Highlights: • Five montagnetol derivatives were isolated from the fertile form of Roccella montagnei collected in Vietnam. • Chemical structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR, HR-ESI-MS analysis and the application of a modified Mosher method. • The cytotoxic activities of some isolated compounds against HepG2, NCI-H460, MCF-7, and HeLa cell lines were evaluated. Chemical investigation of the methanol extract of the fertile form of Roccella montagnei collected in Vietnam afforded twelve secondary metabolites, including five new montagnetol derivatives, orsellinylmontagnetols A−D and a furanyl derivative together with seven known compounds. Their chemical structures were elucidated by analysis of 1D and 2D NMR and high resolution mass spectroscopic data. The relative stereochemistry of two chiral centers (C-2 and C-3) of orsellinylmontagnetols A and B was elucidated by comparison of their coupling constants and the specific rotation with those reported in the literature while the absolute stereochemistry was determined by the application of a modified Mosher method for the hydroxy group at C-3. The absolute configuration (2R,3S) of the butanetetraol moiety of these compounds is in accordance with that of erythrin, a recognized chemotaxonomic marker of the genus Roccella. Five of these compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against four cancer cell lines. Only orsellinylmontagnetol A exerted a moderate activity against MCF-7 cell line with an IC50 value of 68.39 ± 3.46 μM. Keywords: Lichen; Roccella montagnei (fertile form); Montagnetol; Montagnetol derivatives; Stereochemistry; Cytotoxicity.
28087Giordani P., Minganti V., Brignole D., Malaspina P., Cornara L. & Drava G. (2017): Is there a risk of trace element contamination in herbal preparations? A test study on the lichen Cetraria islandica. - Chemosphere, 181: 778–785.
Lichens are a source of unique secondary metabolites, which have been proved to have many biological properties with possible pharmaceutical roles, including e.g. antioxidant, antimicrobial, antifungal or anti-inflammatory activities and to be worth of consideration for potential human use. However, lichens lack cuticolar tissues and are exposed to several atmospheric contaminants, including trace elements. This work aims at exploring the potential toxicity of herbal preparations derived by the lichen Cetraria islandica due to trace element contamination, testing whether different concentrations may be observed, depending on the origin of the raw material. Fourteen samples of C. islandica, as cut dried thalli occurring on the European market, have been bought from different providers. For each sample, the concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, P, Pb, V and Zn were measured on comminuted herbal substance and on the corresponding decoction, using atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The elemental concentrations in decoctions were significantly lower than those measured in raw materials, dropping down to levels of negligible health concern. Differences observed in raw materials were not observed anymore in the corresponding decoctions. Also, the elemental transfer rate from dried lichen to decoction was extremely element-specific, ranging from 2% for Cu to 95% for Zn. Keywords: Decoction; Iceland moss; Metals; Phytotherapy.
28086Coyle J.R. (2017): Intraspecific variation in epiphyte functional traits reveals limited effects of microclimate on community assembly in temperate deciduous oak canopies. - Oikos, 126: 111–120.
Forest canopies are heterogeneous environments where changes in microclimate over short distances create an opportunity for niche-based filtering of canopy-dwelling species assemblages. This environmental filtering may not occur if species’ physiological capacities are flexible or if rapid dispersal alleviates compositional differences. I assess the role of humidity, light and temperature gradients in structuring epiphyte communities in temperate deciduous oak (Quercus) canopies and determine whether gradients filter species with fixed traits or whether environmental constraints act primarily to alter individual phenotypes. I measured environmental conditions and seven functional traits related to water and light acquisition on individual macrolichens at 60 sample locations in northern red oaks Quercus rubra in two Piedmont forests in North Carolina, USA. The effects of environmental variables on individual-level traits and community composition were evaluated using linear mixed models and constrained ordination (RDA). In general, traits and community composition responded weakly to environmental variables and trait variation within taxa was high. Cortex thickness exhibited the strongest response, such that individuals with thicker cortices were found in samples experiencing lower humidity and higher light levels. Overall, gradients of humidity, light and temperature were not strong environmental filters that caused large changes in community composition. This was probably due to phenotypic variability within taxa that enabled species to persist across the full range of environmental conditions measured. Thus, humidity affected the phenotype of individuals, but did not limit species distributions or alter community composition at the scale of branches within trees. Community and trait responses were primarily associated with site-level differences in humidity, suggesting that in these forests landscape-scale climatic gradients may be stronger drivers of epiphyte community assembly than intra-canopy environmental gradients.
28085Onuţ‐Brännström I., Tibell L. & Johannesson H. (2017): A worldwide phylogeography of the whiteworm lichens Thamnolia reveals three lineages with distinct habitats and evolutionary histories. - Ecology and Evolution, 7(10): 3602–3615.
Thamnolia is a lichenized fungus with an extremely wide distribution, being encountered in arctic and alpine environments in most continents. In this study, we used molecular markers to investigate the population structure of the fungal symbiont and the associated photosynthetic partner of Thamnolia. By analyzing molecular, morphological, and chemical variation among 253 specimens covering the species distribution range, we revealed the existence of three mycobiont lineages. One lineage (Lineage A) is confined to the tundra region of Siberia and the Aleutian Islands, a second (Lineage B) is found in the high alpine region of the Alps and the Carpathians Mountains, and a third (Lineage C) has a worldwide distribution and covers both the aforementioned ecosystems. Molecular dating analysis indicated that the split of the three lineages is older than the last glacial maximum, but the distribution ranges and the population genetic analyses suggest an influence of last glacial period on the present-day population structure of each lineage. We found a very low diversity of Lineage B, but a higher and similar one in Lineages A and C. Demographic analyses suggested that Lineage C has its origin in the Northern Hemisphere, possibly Scandinavia, and that it has passed through a bottleneck followed by a recent population expansion. While all three lineages reproduce clonally, recombination tests suggest rare or past recombination in both Lineages A and C. Moreover, our data showed that Lineage C has a comparatively low photobiont specificity, being found associated with four widespread Trebouxia lineages (three of them also shared with other lichens), while Lineages A and B exclusively harbor T. simplex s. lat. Finally, we did not find support for the recognition of taxa in Thamnolia based on either morphological or chemical characters. Keywords: chemical variation; clonality; lichens; phylogeography; symbiosis; Thamnolia.
28084Aschenbrenner I.A., Cernava T., Erlacher A., Berg G. & Grube M. (2017): Differential sharing and distinct co-occurrence networks among spatially close bacterial microbiota of bark, mosses and lichens. - Molecular Ecology, 26: 2826–2838.
Knowledge of bacterial community host-specificity has increased greatly in recent years. However, the intermicrobiome relationships of unrelated but spatially close organisms remain little understood. Trunks of trees covered by epiphytes represent complex habitats with a mosaic of ecological niches. In this context, we investigated the structure, diversity and interactions of microbiota associated with lichens, mosses and the bare tree bark. Comparative analysis revealed significant differences in the habitat-associated community structures. Corresponding co-occurrence analysis indi- cated that the lichen microbial network is less complex and less densely intercon- nected than the moss- and bark-associated networks. Several potential generalists and specialists were identified for the selected habitats. Generalists belonged mainly to Proteobacteria, with Sphingomonas as the most abundant genus. The generalists com- prise microorganisms with generally beneficial features, such as nitrogen fixation or other supporting functions, according to a metagenomic analysis. We argue that benefi- cial strains shared among hosts contribute to ecological stability of the host bio- coenoses. Keywords: amplicon sequencing, co-occurrence patterns, host microbe associations, metagenome, microbial ekology.
28083Nascimbene J., Mayrhofer H., Dainese M. & Bilovitz P.O. (2017): Assembly patterns of soil-dwelling lichens after glacier retreat in the European Alps. - Journal of Biogeography, 44: 1393–1404.
Aim: To assess the spatial-temporal dynamics of primary succession following deglaciation in soil-dwelling lichen communities.Location: European Alps (Austria, Switzerland and Italy). Methods: Five glacier forelands subjected to relevant glacier retreat during the last century were investigated. In each glacier foreland, three successional stages were selected at increasing distance from the glacier, corresponding to a gradient of time since deglaciation between 25 and 160 years. In each successional stage, soil-dwelling lichens were surveyed within five 1 × 1 m plots. In addition to a classical ecological framework, based on species richness and composition, we applied a functional approach to better elucidate community assembly mechanisms. Results: A positive relationship was found between species richness and time since deglaciation indicating that richer lichen communities can be found at increasing terrain ageing. This pattern was associated with compositional shifts, suggesting that different community assemblages can be found along the successional stages. The analysis of β-diversity revealed a significant nested pattern of species assemblages along the gradient (i.e. earlier successional stages hosted a subset of the species already established in older successional stages), while the turnover component was less relevant. Considering functional groups, we found contrasting patterns in relation to time since deglaciation: the incidence of species with a cyanobacterial photobiont and those reproducing by spores decreased, while that of species reproducing by vegetative propagules increased. Main conclusions: This study reveals that community assembly patterns of soil-dwelling lichens in alpine glacier forelands are ruled by mechanisms of directional species accumulation and trait selection that involve a trade-off between different functional strategies. Functional traits that reflect the dispersal and adaptation capability of the species underpin the colonization success of soil-dwelling lichens in glacier forelands. Keywords: dispersal traits, glacier forelands, photobiont type, primary succession, spatialtemporal patterns, species accumulation, species richness and composition, trait selection, β-diversity.
28082Suija A. & Liira J. (2017): Community response to alkaline pollution as an adjusting reassembly between alternative stable states. - Journal of Vegetation Science, 28: 527–537.
Aims: We hypothesize that the community response to disturbances can be interpreted as a large-scale dynamic equilibrium between multiple alternate states stemming from different species pools within a regional meta-pool and being limited by species’ multi-dimensional niches. We explore this hypothesis by examining the re-assembly of an acidophilous lichen community in response to long-term alkaline dust pollution, assuming understorey as a potential side- factor. Location: Around a cement factory in Kunda, Estonia. Methods: Lichen communities on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) trunks in 40 stands around a cement factory and in nine distant limestone habitats were assessed. Results: The formed bark pH gradient from pH 2.4 to 8.1 was reflected in a continuum of lichen communities on pines from acidophilous to basiphilous communities. Besides suppressing species richness, understorey density more evidently caused the compositional divergence from neutral bark conditions. The effect of hidden interactions among drivers was explained through reactions of individual species – almost all species across the pollution gradient were pH-limited, whereas species adapted to neutral or alkaline substrate were additionally sensitive to understorey conditions. The hump-shaped distribution of pH niche ranges along the observed niche optima, rather than ecological indicator values, showed that the shape of species’ multi-dimensional niche-space still needs to be quantified. Conclusions: Each alternative community state along the disturbance gradient represents a realization of its specific species pool within the meta-pool. Degradation can be defined if the community state is not supported by a meta-pool. Species infiltration during community re-assembly can be predicted using species source communities as cost-efficient proxies. Keywords: Alkaline pollution; Alternate states; Assembly rules; Community dynamics; Ecological indicator values; Environmental filters; Lichens; Species pool hypothesis.
28081Kellogg J.J. & Raja H.A. (2017): Endolichenic fungi: a new source of rich bioactive secondary metabolites on the horizon. - Phytochemistry Reviews, 16: 271–293.
Endolichenic fungi are diverse groups of predominantly filamentous fungi that reside asymptomatically in the interior of lichen thalli. Natural products from endolichenic fungi, isolated from a variety of different lichen species, have been attracting increased attention for their potential to produce bioactive metabolites possessing new structures and representing different structural classes. This is evident from the steady increase of publications devoted to endolichenic fungal metabolites over the past decade, since the first report of endolichenic secondary metabolites. The bioactive metabolites produced by endolichenic fungi originate from multiple biosynthetic pathways and occupy different chemical structure classes, including steroids, quinones, terpenoids, peptides, xanthones, sulfur-containing chromenones, etc. Endolichenic fungal metabolites possess a diverse array of bioactivities, such as anticancer, antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, and anti-Alzheimer’s disease. This review provides the first thorough assessment of endolichenic fungi, their biodiversity, secondary metabolites, and associated bioactivity. This review will highlight the bioactive metabolites reported in recent years from endolichenic fungi, as well as discussing the potential of these symbiotic fungi as sources of new, diverse natural products with varying bioactivities. Keywords: Bioactivity;  Biodiversity;  Endolichenic fungi;  Lichen;  Natural products.
28080Aguillaume L., Avila A., Pinho P., Matos P., Llop E. & Branquinho C. (2017): The critical levels of atmospheric ammonia in a Mediterranean holm-oak forest in north-eastern Spain. - Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 228:93 [13 p.].
Despite recent regulations, atmospheric ammonia (NH3) emissions have not changed much over the last decades and excessive nitrogen remains as one of the major drivers for biodiversity changes. To prevent deleterious effects on species and ecosystems, it is very important to establish safety thresholds, such as those defined by the Critical Level (CLE) concept, “the concentration above which direct adverse effects on receptors may occur, based on present knowledge.” Empirical critical levels of atmospheric NH3 have mainly been reported for temperate forests and there is a lack of information for Mediterranean forests. Here, we provide a case study on NH3 CLEs for a typical Mediterranean ecosystem, the holm-oak (Quercus ilex) forest. To derive the CLE value, we measured NH3 concentrations for 1 year at a distance gradient in the forest surrounding a point source (cattle farm) and used diversity changes of lichen functional groups to indicate the onset of adverse effects. We estimate a NH3 CLE threshold of 2.6 μg m−3, a value that is higher than that reported in other Mediterranean ecosystems and suggests that the site has been already impacted by NH3 pollution in the past. In a more general context, this study confirms the validity of lichen functional groups to derive CLEs in Mediterranean forests and woodlands and contribute to the body of knowledge regarding the impacts of NH3 on ecosystems. Keywords: Critical levels; Ammonia; Ecological indicators; Lichen functional groups; Mediterranean; Quercus ilex forest; N pollution.
28079Santaniello F., Djupström L.B., Ranius T., Weslien J., Rudolphi J. & Thor G. (2017): Large proportion of wood dependent lichens in boreal pine forest are confined to old hard wood. - Biodiversity and Conservation, 26: 1295–1310.
Intensive forest management has led to a population decline in many species, including those dependent on dead wood. Many lichens are known to depend on dead wood, but their habitat requirements have been little studied. In this study we investigated the habitat requirements of wood dependent lichens on coarse dead wood (diameter >10 cm) of Scots pine Pinus sylvestris in managed boreal forests in central Sweden. Twenty-one wood dependent lichen species were recorded, of which eleven were confined to old (estimated to be >120 years old) and hard dead wood. Almost all of this wood has emanated from kelo trees, i.e. decorticated and resin-impregnated standing pine trees that died long time ago. We found four red-listed species, of which two were exclusive and two highly associated with old and hard wood. Lichen species composition differed significantly among dead wood types (low stumps, snags, logs), wood hardness, wood age and occurrence of fire scars. Snags had higher number of species per dead wood area than logs and low stumps, and old snags had higher number of species per dead wood area than young ones. Since wood from kelo trees harbours a specialized lichen flora, conservation of wood dependent lichens requires management strategies ensuring the future presence of this wood type. Besides preserving available kelo wood, the formation of this substratum should be supported by setting aside P. sylvestris forests and subject these to prescribed burnings as well as to allow wild fires in some of these forests. Keywords: Coarse woody debris;  Fire scars;  Habitat requirements;  Saproxylic species; Kelo.
28078Egertová Z., Gaisler J., Zemanová L. & Hradílek Z. (2016): Mniaecia jungermanniae (Helotiales), an overlooked bryophilous ascomycete in the Liberec Region (Czech Republic). - Czech Mycology, 68(2): 149–165.
Mniaecia jungermanniae, a tiny inoperculate ascomycete growing on leafy liverworts of the order Jungermanniales, was recorded at 66 localities in the Liberec Region (Czech Republic) since December 2013 to May 2015. It was noticed on 17 species of liverworts, with Cephalozia bicuspidata, Calypogeia neesiana, C. azurea and Diplophyllum albicans being the most frequently inhabited ones. The species was recorded on rocks and boulders as well as on soil on forest tracks and along streams, exceptionally on wood. The geological bedrock was acidic in all cases – sandstone, granite or phyllite. The altitude of the localities ranged between 315 and 1215 m a.s.l. Localities were predominantly located in the shade in coniferous and broad-leaved forests, always with a rich occurrence of liverworts. Hitherto known localities in the Czech Republic are also summarised in the article. Key words: bryophilous fungi, Jungermanniales, leafy liverworts, North Bohemia.
28077Adamčík S., Aude E., Bässler C., Christensen M., van Dort K., Fritz Ö., Glejdura S., Heilmann-Clausen J., Holec J., Jančovičová S., Kunca V., Lackovičová A., Lüth M. & Ódor P. (2016): Fungi and lichens recorded during the cryptogam symposium on natural beech forests, Slovakia 2011. - Czech Mycology, 68(1): 1–40.
In September 2011, an international team of cryptogam experts visited seven national nature reserves in five mountain areas of Slovakia: Havešová and Stužica in the Poloniny Mts., Vihorlat in the Vihorlatské vrchyMts., Oblík in the Slanské vrchyMts., Dobročský prales and Klenovský Vepor in the Veporské vrchy Mts. and Badínsky prales in the Kremnické vrchy Mts. The reserves were selected to represent examples of the best protected old-growth beech forests in the country. The aim was to study the diversity of wood-inhabiting fungi on fallen beech logs and epiphytic lichens on standing beech trees. In total, 215 fungal species and 128 lichens were recorded on beech wood and bark, and 27 fungi and 26 lichens on additional substrates. The site of the highest conservation value is Stužica with 126 fungi and 79 lichens recorded on beech, of which 12 fungi and 19 lichens are indicators of high nature conservation value. Combined with historical records, a total of 19 non-lichenised fungal indicators are now reported from the site, making it the highest ranked natural beech forest in Europe. The second most important reserve for fungal diversity is Havešová with 121 species, including 14 indicator species recorded on beech wood. For lichens, the second most important reserve is Klenovský Vepor with 69 species including 18 lichen indicators recorded on beech. Nine fungus species are here reported as new to Slovakia: Asterostroma medium, Entoloma hispidulum, E. pseudoparasiticum, Gloeohypochnicium analogum, Hohenbuehelia valesiaca, Hymenochaete ulmicola, Hypocrea parmastoi, Melanomma spiniferum and Scutellinia colensoi. Lichen species Alyxoria ochrocheila is reported as new to Slovakia and Lecanographa amylacea, which was considered extinct in the Slovak Red list, was also recorded. This is the first list of wood-inhabiting fungi and epiphytic lichens of old-growth beech forests in Slovakia, and hence an important contribution to the exploration of biodiversity in Slovakia.
28076Awasthi D.D. (1991): A Key to the Microlichens of India, Nepal and Sri Lanka. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 40: 1-340.
Includes keys for 163 genera and 1, 150 species. New: Aspicilia scabridula (Magn.) comb. nov., A. maculata (Magn.) comb. nov., Buellia confusa sp. nov., Caloplaca handelii (Zahlbr.) comb. nov., C. orissensis (Räs.) comb. nov., Diploschistes megalosporus Lumbsch nom. nov., Graphina subintricata (Krempelh.) comb. nov., Enterographa praepallens (Nyl.) comb. nov., Laurera andamanica nom. nov., Myriotrema tarmuguliense (Sethy, Nagarkar & Patw.) comb. nov., M. pertusarioides (Nagarkar, Sethy & Patw.) comb. nov., M norstictideum (Patw. & Nagarkar) comb. nov., M. meghalayense (Patw. & Nagarkar) comb. nov., Ocellularia guptei (Nagarkar, Sethy & Patw.) comb. nov., O. neomasonhalei (Patw., Sethy & Nagarkar) comb. nov., O. jamesii (Patw. & Kulk.) comb. nov., O. submicrosporoides (Nagarkar, Sethy & Patw.) comb. nov., O. mahabalei (Patw. & Kulk.) comb. nov, Pertusaria neilgherrensis (Müll. Arg.) Awasthi & Srivastava stat. et comb. nov., Pleurotrema corticola (Makh. & Patw.) comb. nov., P. verrucosum (Makh. & Patw.) comb. nov., Protoblastenia griseococcinea (Nyl. in Hue) Inoue comb. nov., Rinodina megaspora (Awasthi & Agarwal) stat et comb. nov., Anthracothecium austroindicum A. Singh sp. nov., A. badioatrum A. Singh sp. nov., A. goaense A. Singh sp. nov., A. nanosporum A. Singh sp. nov., A. himalayense var. pseudohimalayense (A. Singh) A. Singh comb. nov., Bacidia psorina (Nyl. in Hue) G. Pant & Awasthi comb. nov., Coenogonium himalayense G. Pant & Awasthi sp. nov.
28075Arnold N. & Poelt J. (1995): Über Anthrachinone-Pigmente bei einigen Arten der Flechtengattung Xanthoria, insbesondere aus der Verwandtschaft von Xanthoria elegans (Teloschistaceae). - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 57: 49-58.
anthraquinones, chemistry, fallacinol, parietin, physcion, teloschistin, Xanthoria
28074Aptroot A. (1997): Lichen biodiversity in Papua New Guinea, with the report of 173 species on one tree. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 68: 203-213.
Comparison of the lichen flora in a lowland primary tropical rain forest (1-230 m), a mountain forest (2300-2750 m), and a high mountain area with subalpine and alpine vegetation (3500-4500 m). Between 400 and 500 species were found at each region, although actual species composition was very different
28073Singh S.M. & Nayaka S. (2017): Contributions to the Floral Diversity of Schirmacher Oasis and Larsemann Hills, Antarctica . - Proc Indian Natn Sci Acad, 83(2): 469-481.
In continental Antarctica, algae, fungi, lichen and mosses are the major floristic elements. To understand their distribution and diversity pattern in ice free areas of Schirmacher Oasis and Larsemann Hills investigations were conducted during various Indian Antarctic Expeditions. Due to the extreme environmental conditions in Antarctica, lichens and bryophytes undergo sever morphological changes and occur in mostly in sterile condition that makes them difficult group to identify. A total of 69 species of lichens were encountered in the Schirmacher Oasis and 25 species in the region of Larsemann Hills. Most lichens known from these two areas are microlichens. The ecophysiological studies on lichens indicated Rhizoplaca melanophthalma as the most desiccation tolerant species in Schirmacher Oasis. The studies on moss flora contributed only 12 species under eight genera and five families from Schirmacher Oasis. The sub-fossil moss Pohlia nutans of Holocene period was recorded from lake sediment cores from Schirmacher Oasis. There are several studies on algal flora of Schirmacher Oasis and in one of the studies a total of 109 species of cyanobacteria belonging to 30 genera and 9 families were recorded from Schirmacher Oasis. Similarly, a total of 19 species of fungi belonging to 13 genera and seven families were recorded from Schirmacher Oasis soils and 5 species of yeasts were recorded from Larsemann Hills. Furthermore, Thelebolus microsporus was characterized for adaptation strategies and biotechnological potentials. Schirmacher Oasis; Larsemann Hills; Algae; Fungi; Moss; Lichens; Antarctica
28072Elix J.A. & Mayrhofer H. (2017): New species and new records of buellioid lichens (Physciaceae, Ascomycota) from New Zealand. - Telopea, 20: 75–84.
Amandinea rangitatensis Elix & H.Mayrhofer, Buellia haywardii Elix,A.Knight & H.Mayrhofer, B. maungatuensis Elix & H.Mayrhofer, B. papanui Elix & H.Mayrhofer, and Tetramelas allisoniae Elix, H.Mayrhofer & Glenny are described as new to science. Rinodinella fertilis var. hypostictica (Elix) Elix is recorded for the first time from New Zealand. Tetramelas allisoniae also occurs in Tasmania
28071Kashiwadani H. (1979): Materials for the distribution of lichens in Japan (5). Parmelia erumpens Kurok. - J. Jap. Bot., 54: 223.
Japan, Parmelia erumpens
28070Asahina Y. (1928): The Raiken\'s Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. XXV. - J. Jap. Bot., 5(9): 317-322.
Japan, Glossodium, Massalongia, Placynthium, Buellia
28069Asahina Y. (1928): The Raiken\'s Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. XXIV. - J. Jap. Bot., 5(8): 288-290.
Japan, Manna, Lecanora
28068Asahina Y. (1928): The Reiken\'s Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. XXIII. - J. Jap. Bot., 5(7): 255-256.
Japan, Myriangium
28067Asahina Y. (1928): Mach More to Perceive by the Tongue and Nose. - J. Jap. Bot., 5(7): 253-255.
Japan, Cladonia, fumarprotocetraric acid
28066Asahina Y. (1928): The Raiken\'s Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. XXII. - J. Jap. Bot., 5(6): 210-211.
Japan, Sphinctrina
28065Asahina Y. (1928): The Raiken\'s Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. XXI. - J. Jap. Bot., 5(5): 169-170.
Japan, Menegazzia
28064Asahina Y. (1928): The Raiken\'s Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. XX. - J. Jap. Bot., 5(4): 132-133.
Japan, Lobaria
28063Asahina Y. (1928): The Raiken\'s Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. XIX. - J. Jap. Bot., 5(3): 91-94.
28062Asahina Y. (1928): The Raiken\'s Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. XXVII. - J. Jap. Bot., 5(11): 386-389.
Japan, Hypotrachyna
28061Asahina Y. (1928): The Raiken's Soliloquy on Botanical Science" or Notes on Lichens. XXVI. - J. Jap. Bot., 5(10): 352-354.
Japan, Candelaria
28060Asahina Y. (1927): The Raiken\'s Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. XVIII. - J. Jap. Bot., 5(1): 6-10.
Japan, Pseudocyphellaria
28059Asahina Y. (1927): The Raiken's Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. XVII. - J. Jap. Bot., 4(6): 108-110.
Japan, Dermatocarpon
28058Asahina Y. (1927): The Raiken\'s Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. XVI. - J. Jap. Bot., 4(5): 113-115.
28057Feuerer T. & Thell A. (2002): Parmelia ernstiae - a new macrolichen from Germany. - Mitteilungen aus dem Institut für Allgemeine Botanik in Hamburg, 30-32: 49-60.
28056Asahina Y. (1927): The Raiken\'s Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. XV. - J. Jap. Bot., 4(4): 82-8.
Japan, Solorina
28055Molina M.C. & Vicente C. (2000): Purification and characterization of two isolectins with arginase activity from the lichen Xanthoria parietina. - Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 33(4): 300–307.
Two glycoproteins were purified and biochemically characterized from the lichen X. parietina. Both behaved as enzymes with arginase activity and haemaglutinins. Secreted arginase (SA) contained galactose and glucose in the saccharide moiety and an isoelectric point of 4.54. The algal binding-protein (ABP) had N-acetyl-glucosamine and glucose as glycosidic residues and an isoelectric point of 3.53. Both proteins had the same molecular mass (58.6 kDa) and the same qualitative amino acidic composition. The results allowed us to consider these glycoproteins as isolectins, which have significant physiological roles in the relationship between photobiont and mycobiont of symbiotic association. Keywords: Algal binding-protein; Glycoprotein; Isolectins; Secreted arginase.
28054Moon K.H., Ahn C. & Kashiwadani H. (2015): Revision of the lichen genus Myelochroa (Ascomycotina: Parmeliaceae) in Korea. - Journal of Species Research, 4(1): 23–32.
Korean species of the genus Myelochroa are revised taxonomically and the following eight species are recognized: M. aurulenta (Tuck.) Elix & Hale, M. entotheiochroa (Hue) Elix & Hale, M. galbina (Ach.) Elix & Hale, M. hayachinensis (Kurok.) Elix & Hale, M. irrugans (Nyl.) Elix & Hale, M. leucotyliza (Nyl.) Elix & Hale, M. metarevoluta (Asahina) Elix & Hale and M. perisidians (Nyl.) Elix & Hale. Myelochroa ibukiensis K.H. Moon et al. is reduced to a synonym for M. aurulenta. Myelochroa denegans (Nyl.) Elix & Hale, M. indica (Hale) Elix & Hale and M. xantholepis (Mont. & Bosch) Elix & Hale are excluded from the lichen of Korea. In addition, a key for the species of the Korean Myelochroa is provided. Keywords: Korea, lichen, Myelochroa, taxonomy.
28053Fernández-Moriano C., Divakar P.K., Crespo A. & Gómez-Serranillos M.P. (2015): Antioxidant and cytoprotective potentials of Parmeliaceae lichens and identification of active compounds. - Anales de la Real Academia Nacional de Farmacia, 81(2): 164–178.
Lichens, symbiotic organisms with special features, are able to synthesize exclusive secondary metabolites that are attracting increasing interest in their pharmacological activities. Present study aimed to perform an initial screening of the antioxidant capacities of 29 lichens from Parmeliaceae family, and the cytoprotective potential of the most promising species in a model of central nervous system-like cells. Also, another goal was to determine the main chemical constituents of the promising lichens. After molecular identification of all lichen specimens by PCR techniques regarding the molecular marker ITS rDNA, antioxidant activity was measured in terms of free radical scavenging properties through ORAC assay. Methanol extracts of the three species with highest ORAC values (Cetrelia braunsiana (Cb), Parmotrema saccatilobum (Ps) and Usnea ghattensis (Ug)) were analyzed for phytochemical characterization through TLC and HPLC methods. We identified alectoronic acid as major metabolite in Cb, protocetraric acid in Ps and usnic, stictic and constictic acids in Ug. Concerning cytoprotective properties, their extracts were tested on human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. Protection against H2O2- induced oxidative stress in such neuronlike model was assessed by cell viability assays, thus determining their optimal concentrations. Then, their effect on oxidative stress markers, such as intracellular ROS formation, glutathione levels and caspase-3 activity, were evaluated. In general, lichens extracts were able to reverse the oxidative damage caused by H2O2, and promoted neurons survival. Results obtained in this study imply that these lichen species might be used as promising sources for natural compounds with potential neuroprotective activity, suggesting future research avenues.
28052Millot M., Girardot M., Dutreix L., Mambu L. & Imbert C. (2017): Antifungal and anti-biofilm activities of acetone lichen extracts against Candida albicans. - Molecules, 22: 651 [11 p.].
Candida albicans is a commensal coloniser of the human gastrointestinal tract and an opportunistic pathogen, especially thanks to its capacity to form biofilms. This lifestyle is frequently involved in infections and increases the yeast resistance to antimicrobials and immune defenses. In this context, 38 lichen acetone extracts have been prepared and evaluated for their activity against C. albicans planktonic and sessile cells. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of extracts (MICs) were determined using the broth microdilution method. Anti-biofilm activity was evaluated using tetrazolium salt (XTT) assay as the ability to inhibit the maturation phase (anti-maturation) or to eradicate a preformed 24 h old biofilm (anti-biofilm). While none of the extracts were active against planktonic cells, biofilm maturation was limited by 11 of the tested extracts. Seven extracts displayed both anti-maturation and anti-biofilm activities (half maximal inhibitory concentrations IC50_mat and IC50_biof  100 g/mL); Evernia prunastri and Ramalina fastigiata were the most promising lichens (IC50_mat < 4 g/mL and IC50_biof < 10 g/mL). Chemical profiles of the active extracts performed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) have been analyzed. Depsides, which were present in large amounts in the most active extracts, could be involved in anti-biofilm activities. This work confirmed that lichens represent a reservoir of compounds with anti-biofilm potential. Keywords: lichens; biofilm; Candida albicans; screening; chemical profiling.
28051Asahina Y. (1927): The Raiken's Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. XIV. - J. Jap. Bot., 4(3): 60-64.
28050Asahina Y. (1927): The Raiken's Soliloquy on Botanical Science" or Notes on Lichens. XIII. - J. Jap. Bot., 4(2): 33-35.
Japan, Cetrelia
28049Asahina Y. (1927): The Raiken's Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. XII. - J. Jap. Bot., 4(1): 2-5.
28048Asahina Y. (1926): The Raiken's Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. VIII. - J. Jap. Bot., 3(9): 209-212.
Japan, Umbilicaria
28047Asahina Y. (1926): The Raiken's Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. VII. - J. Jap. Bot., 3(8): 178-181.
Japan, Peltigera
28046Asahina Y. (1926): The Raiken's Soliloquy on Botanical Science" or Notes on Lichens. VI. - J. Jap. Bot., 3(7): 150-152.
Japan, Dictyonema
28045Asahina Y. (1926): The Raiken's Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. V. - J. Jap. Bot., 3(6): 124-125.
Japan, Cladonia
28044Gültekin M., Çaylı G. & Esen H. (2017): Utilization of renewable filler from lichen in low density polyethylene. - Polymer Composites, 38(2): 389–395.
New organic filler, obtained from a local lichen type, Rinodina Poeltii, was utilized in low density polyethylene (LDPE). Thermal characterization of organic filler revealed its suitability to be used as filler during extrusion and injection processes. Filler did not exhibit any weight loss up to 300°C except the dehydration loss at 155°C. Unmodified filler was compounded as 5, 10, and 15% by weight with LDPE. Filler addition resulted in a decrease for both tensile strength and % elongation at break. However, an increase was observed in elastic modulus. The compatibility of the filler material and polymer matrix was also found to be good as a result of absence of pull out voids in SEM observation.
28043Ibarrondo I., Martínez‐Arkarazo I. & Madariaga J.M. (2017): Biomineralization in saxicolous lichens: Raman spectroscopic study supported with XRF and SEM-EDX analyses. - Journal of Raman Spectroscopy, 48(2): 161–169.
This study demonstrates the applicability of Raman spectroscopy, assisted with X‐ray fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy–energy dispersive X‐ray spectroscopy analyses, in the characterization of biominerals accumulated on several stone materials colonized by saxicolous lichens under different environmental conditions. The distribution of the diverse biominerals through the lichen–stone interface is described. Among them, neogenerated biominerals involved in the metabolism of Caloplaca and Lecanoraceae lichen genera such as calcium oxalates in their two hydrated forms were found in different parts of the lichen, even on sandstones that X‐ray spectroscopy evidenced the absence of calcium in their mineralogical composition. Hence, it is demonstrated the atmospheric intake likely as particulate matter composed of calcite. The occurrence of the calcium oxalates is shown not to be related to the environmental conditions but to the lichen genera, because no common patterns were observed in the studied specimens. Moreover, several carbonates like calcite (CaCO3), ankerite (FeCa(CO3)2) and dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2) were identified only in the lichen thallus vicinity. These evidences are described by means of Raman spectroscopy for the first time. The biominerals accumulated on several stone materials colonized by saxicolous lichens living under different environmental conditions are characterized. The work describes the calcium oxalate distribution on the surface of caloplaca and lecanoraceae lichen genera and demonstrates the neogenesis of calcium oxalates on non carbonated stones (where X‐ray spectroscopy evidenced the absence of calcium) suggesting an atmospheric uptake. It is noticeable the detection of calcite (CaCO3), ankerite (FeCa(CO3)2) and dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2) in the vicinity of the lichen thalli. These evidences are described by means of Raman spectroscopy for the first time. Keywords: lichens; Raman spectroscopy; calcium oxalates; ankerite; dolomite; calcite.
28042Maslać A., Maslać M. & Tkalec M. (2016): The impact of cadmium on photosynthetic performance and secondary metabolites in the lichens Parmelia sulcata, Flavoparmelia caperata and Evernia prunastri. - Acta Botanica Croatica, 75(2): 186–193.
Lichens are one of the most common air quality bioindicators. Airborne heavy metal pollution causes various physiological changes in lichens, but sensitivity to metal pollution is species specifi c. In this research, three lichen species (Parmelia sulcata, Flavoparmelia caperata and Evernia prunastri) were exposed to cadmium (50 mg L–1) in laboratory conditions. Photosynthetic effi ciency of photosystem II and content of secondary metabolites were determined after one, three and eight days of exposure. In all investigated species treatment of lichen thalli with cadmium signifi cantly changed Fv/Fm and RFd only after eight days of exposure. Quantifi cation of metabolites showed a decreased content of the medullary depsidones salazinic acid (in P. sulcata) and protocetraric acid (in F. caperata) but increased content of cortical depside atranorin (in P. sulcata) and dibenzofurane usnic acid (in F. caperata) after cadmium exposure. However, no changes in secondary metabolites were found in E. prunastri. Results show that investigated species are relatively resistant to short-term cadmium-exposure and that secondary metabolites could have an important role in the protection of primary metabolism from negative cadmium impacts, at least in some species. Key words: air pollution, heavy metal, HPLC, photosynthesis.
28041Kossowska A. (2008): Lichens growing on calcareous rocks in the Polish part of the Sudety Mountains. - Acta Botanica Silesiaca Monographiae, 3: 1–108.
Paper presents the results of the investigations of the calcicolous lichen flora occuring in the Sudety Mts. The study was carried out in the two most extensive areas with calcareous substrates in the Sudety Mts: the Góry Kaczawskie Mts in the western part of the Sudetes and the ŒŚnieżnik Metamorphic Region in their eastern part, and the two types of localities: natural rock outcrops and quarries. On each locality the entire lichen flora that was directly (saxicolous species) or indirectly (terricolous and muscicolous species) associated with calcareous substrates was analyzed. Of the 129 species currently found in the study area, 84 species were exclusively epilithic, 17 were epilithic, 21 species grew over mosses and 22 taxa were not connected with only one type of substrate. The calcicolous lichen flora of the Western Sudety Mts was significantly richer and more diverse than that of the Eastern Sudetes. In the Góry Kaczawskie Mts a total of 111 calcicolous lichen species were found, whereas in the ŒŚnieżnik Metamorphic Region only 72 species were identified during the study. Only 54 taxa occured in both calcareous areas in the Sudety Mts. Key words: saxicolous lichens, calciphilous lichens, Sudety Mts, Lower Silesia.
28040Lendemer J.C. (2016): Keys to Lichens of North America: Revised and Expanded by Irvin M. Brodo et al., eds. 2016. 427 pp., 36 line drawings, 14 photos. ISBN 978-0-300-19573-6 $29.95 (spiral bound). Yale University Press, New Haven, CT. - Rhodora, 118(974): 243–246.
book review
28039Fryday A.M. (2016): Common Lichens of Northeastern North America: A Field Guide (Memoirs of The New York Botanical Garden Volume 112) by Troy McMullin and Frances Anderson. 2015. 192 pp. 138 color photos, 138 b/w illustrations. ISBN 978-0-89327-511-2. $38.99 (hardcover). The New York Botanical Garden Press, Brooklyn, New York. - Rhodora, 118(975): 332–334.
book review
28038Stern M., Medeiros I.D., Negoita L. & Rajakaruna N. (2016): Limestone flora of the Simonton Corner Quarry Preserve, Rockport, Maine, USA. - Rhodora, 118(974): 206–226.
Limestone is a distinctive substrate that has significant effects on soils and plants. The present study characterizes the diversity of vascular plants, bryophytes, and lichens at the Simonton Corner Quarry Preserve, an abandoned limestone quarry in Rockport, Maine, USA, which was in operation in the late 1800s. We document vascular plant diversity and associated edaphic features (i.e., soil pH and elemental chemistry) using 30 535 meter plots spread throughout the site. For vascular plants, 114 species in 96 genera and 50 families were observed; few of these species are known to prefer calcareous environments, and 38% are nonnative. Conversely, the soiland rock-dwelling cryptogam biota, which comprises 21 moss species in 13 families and eight lichen species in three families, contains many calciphilic species. The bryoflora conspicuously lacks liverworts, whereas the lichen biota is dominated by cyanolichens. This study will inform future conservation and reclamation work at this and other human-altered limestone sites in Maine and floristically similar areas and contribute to our understanding of the geoecology of New England. Key Words: bryophytes, carbonate floras, edaphic factor, geobotany, lichens, limestone, plant-soil relations.
28037Robinson S.C., Ketchledge E.H., Fitzgerald B.T., Raynal D.J. & Kimmerer R.W. (2010): A 23-year assessment of vegetation composition and change in the Adirondack alpine zone, New York State. - Rhodora, 112(952): 355–377.
The Adirondack Mountains of New York State hold some of the southernmost communities of alpine vegetation in the eastern United States. Containing the greatest concentration of rare and endangered species in New York State, this ,12,000-year-old ecosystem is important to understanding the ecological history of northeastern North America. In order to monitor floristic and vegetational shifts over time, 11 permanent transects were established in 1984 on four summits (Wright, Algonquin, Boundary, and Iroquois) of the MacIntyre Range in the Adirondack High Peaks region. Using the point-intercept method, all 11 transects were sampled in 1984, 1994, 2002, and 2007. Vegetation composition changed significantly over the 23-year period, with an overall decrease in bryophytes/lichens and an increase in vascular plants, indicating that vascular plants were replacing bryophytes, particularly in areas not disturbed by hikers. Community similarity was high among all transects, and increased with time for vascular plants as they became more abundant, indicating a successional convergence. Compositional shifts may also reflect effects of global warming and atmospheric deposition on alpine plant communities. Key Words: alpine flora, vegetation change, succession, bryophytes, Adirondack Mountains, permanent transect.
28036Capers R.S. & Taylor D.W. (2014): Slow recovery in a Mount Washington, New Hampshire, alpine plant community four years after disturbance. - Rhodora, 116(965): 1–24.
Four years after a trench was dug through alpine habitat on Mount Washington, New Hampshire, we surveyed vascular plants, bryophytes, and lichens in the disturbed area, analyzing species richness and abundance compared with values in adjacent, undisturbed areas. Plants had begun recolonizing the disturbed area, but species richness and abundance remained far lower than in the undisturbed community. Among vascular plants, graminoids colonized most quickly, and woody species were largely absent. Species with the highest frequency and greatest abundance in the disturbed area also were common and abundant in the undisturbed community. Bryophytes appeared to be colonizing no more quickly than vascular plants. Treeline and elevation exerted separate effects on community structure and recovery. Treeline influenced species richness, abundance, and the rate of recovery of vascular plants, but there was no evidence of an additional effect of elevation either above or below treeline. Treeline also influenced species richness of bryophytes and lichens. In addition, elevation appeared to have a separate effect on their rate of recovery in alpine habitat: species richness of bryophytes and lichens declined with elevation in the disturbed community but not in the undisturbed community. This suggests that elevation has a transient effect on colonization and/or survival, but only above treeline. In general, recovery has occurred more quickly below treeline. This survey establishes baseline information that will be useful in assessing the rate of recovery after future surveys. Key Words: alpine plants, disturbance recovery, global climate change, vascular plants, bryophytes, lichens, Presidential Range, White Mountain National Forest, succession.
28035Capers R.S. & Slack N.G. (2016): A baseline study of alpine snowbed and rill communities on Mount Washington, NH. - Rhodora, 118(976): 345–381.
Quantitative data on the abundance and frequency of vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens are lacking for alpine snowbed and rill communities in northeastern North America. Such data are needed to establish whether the communities are changing in response to climate warming, nitrogen deposition or shifts in the timing of precipitation and snowmelt. We surveyed nine sites (five snowbeds and four rills) on Mount Washington (White Mountain National Forest, New Hampshire), recording 54 vascular plant species, 42 bryophytes and 13 lichens. Although vascular plants were most abundant, bryophytes and lichens, which had not been completely surveyed in these communities previously, were important in terms of species richness (as many as eight bryophytes and four lichens in 1 m2 quadrats) and were occasionally abundant, particularly bryophytes in rills. We found that snowbeds and rills are separate communities. Some species are shared, but far higher numbers of vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens were found in one community but not the other. The most frequent vascular plants had been reported as common in snowbeds and rills previously. However, several species that are common in these communities elsewhere occurred less often in our sites because of variation occurring both across the region and within the White Mountains. Our research provides baseline information on snowbeds and rill plant communities so that future studies can determine how they respond to changes in environmental conditions. Key Words: alpine ecology, bryophytes, climate change, community dynamics, lichens, species richness.
28034McMullin R.T. (2015): The lichens of Prince Edward Island, Canada: a second checklist, with species ranked for conservation status. - Rhodora, 117(972): 454–484.
The lichens of Prince Edward Island (PEI) are well known to have been inadequately sampled and not well understood. In this study, 19 biologically diverse forest remnants and other potentially rich localities were explored for their lichen vegetation, and 118 new county records and 71 species new for the province were discovered. Together with previously studied sites, 38 localities in total have now been surveyed. A new checklist based on these surveys was prepared for all the lichens of the island. In addition, conservation status (S-ranks) is proposed for 153 species of the 326 species in 118 genera now known for the province. Four species received a rank of S1 (critically imperiled): Anaptychia crinalis, Megaspora verrucosa, Pannaria lurida, and Sclerophora amabilis; and six species received a rank of S2 (imperiled): Acrocordia cavata, Bryoria salazinica, Heterodermia speciosa, Menegazzia terebrata, Pannaria rubiginosa, and Ramalina thrausta. The importance of baseline data for future conservation planning, pollution monitoring, and climate change studies is emphasized. Key Words: Biogeography, phytogeography, rare species, sustainable management, old-growth forests, forest.
28033Perlmutter G.B., Blank G.B. & Rivas Plata E. (2017): Checklists of corticolous lichenized and allied fungi collected in mixed forests of Western Wake County, North Carolina, USA. - Evansia, 34(1): 23–37.
Three checklist tables are presented from collections made during a study of corticolous lichen community response to highway pollution in western Wake County, North Carolina, USA. A total of 103 species of lichens and three species of allied fungi were found, representing 64 genera in 36 families. Two allied fungi, Amphisphaeria bufonia and Rebentischia massalongoi, are recommended to be added to the North American lichen checklist. Keywords. Biodiversity, lichens, deciduous forest, Piedmont, eastern North America.
28032Miller L.R. & Sullivan T.J. (2017): Corticolous lichens of Meeman Biological Station, Shelby County, Tennessee. - Evansia, 34(1): 1–5.
An inventory of the corticolous lichen flora of the Edward J. Meeman Biological Station of the University of Memphis was conducted to determine the biodiversity of this protected site. In total, 43 species representing 28 genera and 15 families were identified. This preliminary list provides baseline data for future studies of the lichen flora of the area. Keywords. Biodiversity, corticolous lichens, Meeman Biological Station, Tennessee.
28031Hodgkiss A. (2017): What’s going on? Yeasts in the cortex. - Evansia, 34(1): 38–39.
[Reprint from the British Lichen Society Bulletin 119: 70-71 (2016)]
28030Wietrzyk P., Węgrzyn M. & Lisowska M. (2017): Lichen diversity on glacier moraines in Svalbard. - Cryptogamie, Mycologie, 38(1): 67–80.
This paper contributes to studies on the lichen biota of Arctic glacier forelands. The research was carried out in the moraines of three different glaciers in Svalbard: Longyearbreen, Irenebreen and Rieperbreen. In total, 132 lichen taxa and three lichenicolous lichens were recorded. Eight species were recorded for the first time in the Svalbard archipelago: Arthonia gelidae, Buellia elegans, Caloplaca lactea, Cryptodiscus pallidus, Fuscidea kochiana, Merismatium deminutum, Physconia distorta, and Polyblastia schaereriana. One species, Staurothele arctica, was observed for the first time in Spitsbergen (previously recorded only on Hopen island). All the studied glaciers lie in Spitsbergen’s warm region. However, Kaffiøyra Plain, where Irenebreen is located, is characterized by higher levels of humidity, which may explain its different lichen composition compared to that of the other two moraines. The forelands of Rieperbreen and Longyearbreen are located in the same area of Svalbard, which is also the warmest and the driest and where high species diversity is expected. This proved to be true for the Rieperbreen moraine, but not for the Longyearbreen moraine, where species diversity was lowest. The expansion of tourism along Longyearbyen appears to be a major factor behind the poor development of lichen biota on the Longyearbreen moraine. Key-words: Arctic / Irenebreen / Rieperbreen / Longyearbreen / species richness.
28029Boggess L.M., Walker G.L. & Madritch M.D. (2017): Cliff Flora of the Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area. - Natural Areas Journal, 37: 200–211.
Cliffs harbor unique ecological communities while facing increasing pressure from human disturbances. How abiotic factors such as surface heterogeneity, slope, and aspect interact locally to drive variation in plant communities remains largely unknown. We surveyed the vascular plants, bryophytes, and lichens along 50 vertical transects throughout the Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area (Tennessee, USA) to characterize the vegetative community and to determine which factors influenced the distribution of cliff vegetation. Across all cliff face plots, the dominant lichen genus was Lepraria; the dominant vascular plant was Dennstaedtia punctilobula; and the dominant bryophyte was Dicranum montanum. We found several rare species including Cladonia pocillum, a boreal disjunct lichen; Vittaria appalachiana, Appalachian shoestring fern; and Cynodontium schisti, a rare bryophyte. Vascular plants, bryophytes, and lichens were each influenced by different environmental drivers. West-facing slopes supported high vascular plant diversity, low-angle slopes supported high bryophyte diversity, and faces with high surface heterogeneity supported high lichen diversity. Both plant and lichen communities varied widely by transect within and across sampling areas. Recreational rock climbing did not appear to influence community structure, possibly due to low levels of climbing traffic among our survey transects. Nonetheless, we overlapped our vegetative model with a simple spatial model of potential for rock climbing development to highlight specific areas of concern. Our predictive model of vegetative diversity was moderately accurate (ρ = 0.43), suggesting that surveying each cliff individually may be necessary for conservation efforts. In addition, our work indicated that preserving vegetation along the top of cliff faces should remain a focus of conservation efforts. Index terms: cliff ecology, rock climbing, spatial modeling, Shannon’s diversity.
28028Miller J.E.D. & Damschen E.I. (2017): Biological soil crust cover is negatively related to vascular plant richness in Ozark sandstone glades. - Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society, 144(2): 170–178.
Sandstone glades in the Ozark highlands contain unique communities of vascular plants, including several species of conservation concern, as well as abundant communities of terricolous cryptogams—collectively termed biological soil crusts. Biological soil crusts have important ecological roles in grassland systems, such as preventing erosion and retaining soil moisture. Despite the conservation importance of sandstone glades, this ecosystem has received little scientific attention, and the drivers of plant diversity and soil crust prevalence in sandstone glades are poorly understood. In this study, we assessed relationships between soil crust cover and vascular plant species richness and tested whether dominance shifts from soil crusts to vascular plants along a soil gradient. Soil crust cover was negatively related to vascular plant species richness, and vascular plant richness increased (and crust cover decreased) with increasing soil organic matter. As soil organic matter increased, the proportion of perennial vascular plants in the community also increased. These results provide some of the first quantitative evidence for drivers of plant diversity patterns in Ozark sandstone glades and suggest that soil characteristics have an important role in structuring the distributions of plants and crusts in sandstone glades. Key words: biological soil crusts, edaphic communities, lichens, outcrop communities, plant diversity.
28027Will-Wolf S., Jovan S. & Amacher M.C. (2017): Lichen elemental content bioindicators for air quality in upper Midwest, USA: A model for large-scale monitoring. - Ecological Indicators, 78: 253–263.
Our development of lichen elemental bioindicators for a United States of America (USA) national monitoring program is a useful model for other large-scale programs. Concentrations of 20 elements were measured, validated, and analyzed for 203 samples of five common lichen species. Collections were made by trained non-specialists near 75 permanent plots and an expert near nine air monitoring sites. Flavoparmelia caperata (most frequent) and Physcia aipolia/stellaris between them represented the full range of local forest cover and pollution load. Evernia mesomorpha (values saturated at intermediate pollution), Parmelia sulcata, and Punctelia rudecta (both difficult for non-specialists) were less useful. Conversion models (GLM or regression) rendered elemental data equivalent between species. Al, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, N, and S, plus composite indexes from them, were linked with local air pollution based on correlations with directly measured N and particulate matter as well as from PCA; elements were weakly correlated with modeled pollution estimates. Lichen Hg had no other useful surrogates. Invoking multiple causation and scale-dependence helped address several issues of interpretation, for instance conflicting bioindicator value of Al and Fe from literature. Keywords: Bioindicator; Element; Lichen; Metal; Nitrogen; Pollution; Scale-dependence; Sulfur.
28026Studabaker W.B., Puckett K.J., Percy K.E. & Landis M.S. (2017): Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, dibenzothiophene, and alkylated homologs in the lichen Hypogymnia physodes by gas chromatography using single quadrupole mass spectrometry and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. - Journal of Chromatography A, 1492: 106–116.
Development of the Athabasca Oil Sands Region in northeastern Alberta, Canada has contributed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), which include alkyl PAHs and dibenzothiophenes, to the regional environment. A new analytical method was developed for quantification of PAHs and PACs in the epiphytic lichen bioindicator species Hypogymnia physodes for use in the development of receptor models for attribution of PAH and PAC concentrations to anthropogenic and natural emission sources. Milled lichens were extracted with cyclohexane, and extracts were cleaned on silica gel using automated solid phase extraction techniques. Quantitative analysis was performed by gas chromatography with selected ion monitoring (GC-SIM-MS) for PAHs, and by GC with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) for PACs. PACs were quantitated in groups using representative reference compounds as calibration standards. Analytical detection limits were ≤2.5 ng g−1 for all individual compounds. Precision as measured by laboratory duplicates was variable; for individual analytes above 5 ng g−1 the mean absolute difference between duplicates was typically <20%. Selection of single-analyte markers for source attribution should include consideration of data quality indicators. Use of TOF-MS to spectrally characterize PAC group constituents identified significant challenges for the accurate quantitation of PACs with more than two carbons in their side chain(s). Total PAH concentrations in lichen samples ranged from 12 to 482 ng g−1. Total PACs in each sample varied from a fraction of total PAHs to more than four times total PAHs. Results of our analyses of H. physodes are compared with other studies using other species of lichens as PAH receptors and with passive monitoring data using polyurethane foam (PUF) samplers in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR). This study presents the first analytical methodology developed for the determination of PACs in an epiphytic lichen bioindicator species. Keywords: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Polycyclic aromatic compounds; Lichens; Oil sands; Gas chromatography with time of flight; mass spectrometry; Dibenzothiophenea.
28025Miller J.E.D., Villella J., Carey G., Carlberg T. & Root H.T. (2017): Canopy distribution and survey detectability of a rare old-growth forest lichen. - Forest Ecology and Management, 392: 195–201.
Forest managers in many parts of the world are charged with protecting rare lichen species, including species growing near their range limits. Rare lichens may be particularly vulnerable to effects of climate change, and conserving lichen diversity necessitates understanding factors that limit species distributions. Habitat suitability envelopes for lichens are shifting as the climate changes, but it is unclear whether and how local (e.g., within-tree) lichen species distributions will shift. Conserving lichen biodiversity also requires effective field surveys to detect and monitor rare lichen populations. However, the reliability of rare lichen survey methods currently used across global forest lands is rarely tested. In this study, we quantify the canopy distribution of an epiphytic old-growth forest cyanolichen near its southern range limit and test whether ground surveys reliably detect canopy populations. Near its southern range limit, Lobaria oregana was most abundant in two distinct zones within tree crowns: on branches of large trees in the mid-crown, and on boles of small trees near ground level. The abundance of this species near ground level suggests that lichens may benefit from cooler, wetter microclimates near the equatorial edges of their ranges. Maintaining these microclimate habitats may be a key to long-term viability of rear edge lichen populations. Targeted ground surveys reliably detected L. oregana in litterfall underneath trees where it was abundant in the crowns. However, ground surveys did not reliably detect the lichen underneath trees when it occurred in the crowns in low abundance. Our results suggest that ground surveys are useful for characterizing abundant lichen species, but that canopy surveys (e.g., tree climbing) may be needed to reliably detect lichens when they occur at low abundance. Keywords: Adaptation Cyanolichens Epiphytic lichens Lobaria Range limits Survey and manage.
28024Savino F., Pugliese M., Quarto M., Adamo P., Loffredo F., De Cicco F. & Roca V. (2017): Thirty years after Chernobyl: Long-term determination of 137Cs effective half-life in the lichen Stereocaulon vesuvianum. - Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 172: 201–206.
It has been widely shown that nuclear fallout includes substances, which accumulate in organisms such as crustaceans, fish, mushrooms and lichens, helping to evaluate the activity concentration of contaminants accumulated on a long time. In this context, radiocaesium deposited in soil following the Chernobyl accident on 26 April 1986 is known to have remained persistently available for plant uptake in many areas of Europe. Studies on the lichen Stereocaulon vesuvianum show the plant's high capacity to retain radionuclides from the substrate and the air. After the Chernobyl accident, starting from September 1986, at the Radioactivity Laboratory (LaRa) of the University of Naples Federico II, four monitoring campaigns to evaluate the activity concentration of four isotopes of the two elements caesium and ruthenium (134Cs, 137Cs, 103Ru and 106Ru) were carried out until 1999. This study allowed the effective half-life of 134Cs and 137Cs to be estimated. Twenty-eight years after the accident, in December 2014, a further sampling was carried out; only 137Cs was revealed beyond the detection limits, measuring activity concentrations ranging from 20 to 40 Bq/kg, while the other radionuclides were no longer observed due to their shorter half-life. The last sampling allowed more precise determination of the effective half-life of 137Cs (6.2 ± 0.1 year), due to the larger dataset on a large time period. Keywords: Lichen Bio-monitoring Radioactivity Gamma-ray spectrometry Mt. Vesuvius Effective half-life.
28023Chytrý M., Horsák M., Syrovátka V., Danihelka J., Ermakov N., German D.A., Hájek M., Hájek O., Hájková P., Horsáková V., Kočí M., Kubešová S., Lustyk P., Nekola J.C., Preislerová Z., Resl P. & Valachovič M. (2017): Refugial ecosystems in central Asia as indicators of biodiversity change during the Pleistocene–Holocene transition. - Ecological Indicators, 77: 357–367.
Highlights: • Relict ecosystems in central Asia preserve many features of Pleistocene ecosystems. • We use them as indicators of species-richness patterns of Pleistocene landscapes. • Vascular-plant and land-snail richness was lower in Pleistocene-like landscapes. • Bryophyte and lichen richness was higher in Pleistocene-like landscapes. • Modern analogs are useful indicators of the past biodiversity changes. Site-scale species richness (alpha diversity) patterns are well described for many present-day ecosystems, but they are difficult to reconstruct from the fossil record. Very little is thus known about these patterns in Pleistocene full-glacial landscapes and their changes following Holocene climatic amelioration. However, present-day central Asian ecosystems with climatic features and biota similar to those of the full-glacial periods may serve as proxies of alpha diversity variation through both space and time during these periods. We measured alpha diversity of vascular plants, bryophytes, macrolichens and land snails, as well as environmental variables, in 100-m2 plots located in forests and open habitats in the Russian Altai Mountains and their northern foothills. This region contains adjacent areas that possess climatic and biotic features similar to mid-latitude Europe for both the Last Glacial Maximum and contemporaneous Holocene ecosystems. We related alpha diversity to environmental variables using generalized linear models and mapped it from the best-fit models. Climate was identified as the strongest predictor of alpha diversity across all taxa, with temperature being positively correlated to number of species of vascular plants and land snails and negatively correlated to that of bryophytes and macrolichens. Factors important for only some taxa included precipitation, soil pH, percentage cover of tree layer and proportion of grassland areas in the landscape around plots. These results, combined with the high degree of similarity between the current Altai biota and dry-cold Pleistocene ecosystems of Europe and northern Asia, suggest that vascular plant and land snail alpha diversity was low during cold phases of the Pleistocene with a general increase following the Holocene climatic amelioration. The opposite trend probably existed for terricolous bryophytes and macrolichens. Keywords: Alpha diversity; Bryophyte; Land snail; Lichen; Palaeoecological reconstruction; Pleistocene–Holocene transition; Species richness; Vascular plant.
28022Bellio P., Di Pietro L., Mancini A., Piovano M., Nicoletti M., Brisdelli F., Tondi D., Cendron L., Franceschini N., Amicosante G., Perilli M. & Celenza G. (2017): SOS response in bacteria: Inhibitory activity of lichen secondary metabolites against Escherichia coli RecA protein. - Phytomedicine, 29: 11–18.
Background: RecA is a bacterial multifunctional protein essential to genetic recombination, error-prone replicative bypass of DNA damages and regulation of SOS response. The activation of bacterial SOS response is directly related to the development of intrinsic and/or acquired resistance to antimicrobials. Although recent studies directed towards RecA inactivation via ATP binding inhibition described a variety of micromolar affinity ligands, inhibitors of the DNA binding site are still unknown. Purpose: Twenty-seven secondary metabolites classified as anthraquinones, depsides, depsidones, dibenzofurans, diphenyl-butenolides, paraconic acids, pseudo-depsidones, triterpenes and xanthones, were investigated for their ability to inhibit RecA from Escherichia coli. They were isolated in various Chilean regions from 14 families and 19 genera of lichens. Methods: The ATP hydrolytic activity of RecA was quantified detecting the generation of free phosphate in solution. The percentage of inhibition was calculated fixing at 100 µM the concentration of the compounds. Deeper investigations were reserved to those compounds showing an inhibition higher than 80%. To clarify the mechanism of inhibition, the semi-log plot of the percentage of inhibition vs. ATP and vs. ssDNA, was evaluated. Results: Only nine compounds showed a percentage of RecA inhibition higher than 80% (divaricatic, perlatolic, alpha-collatolic, lobaric, lichesterinic, protolichesterinic, epiphorellic acids, sphaerophorin and tumidulin). The half-inhibitory concentrations (IC50) calculated for these compounds were ranging from 14.2 µM for protolichesterinic acid to 42.6 µM for sphaerophorin. Investigations on the mechanism of inhibition showed that all compounds behaved as uncompetitive inhibitors for ATP binding site, with the exception of epiphorellic acid which clearly acted as non-competitive inhibitor of the ATP site. Further investigations demonstrated that epiphorellic acid competitively binds the ssDNA binding site. Kinetic data were confirmed by molecular modelling binding predictions which shows that epiphorellic acid is expected to bind the ssDNA site into the L2 loop of RecA protein. Conclusion: In this paper the first RecA ssDNA binding site ligand is described. Our study sets epiphorellic acid as a promising hit for the development of more effective RecA inhibitors. In our drug discovery approach, natural products in general and lichen in particular, represent a successful source of active ligands and structural diversity.
28021Fernández-Moriano C., Divakar P.K., Crespo A. & Gómez-Serranillos M.P. (2017): Protective effects of lichen metabolites evernic and usnic acids against redox impairment-mediated cytotoxicity in central nervous systemlike cells. - Food and Chemical Toxicology, 105: 262–277.
Lichens species produce unique secondary metabolites that attract increasing pharmacological interest, including their redox modulatory activities. Current work evaluated for the first time the in vitro cytoprotective properties, based on the antioxidant activities, of the Parmeliaceae lichens Evernia prunastri and Usnea ghattensis and the mechanism of action of their major phenolic constituents: the evernic and usnic acids, respectively. In two models of central nervous system-like cells (U373-MG and SH-SY5Y cell lines), exogenous H2O2 induced oxidative stress-mediated cytotoxicity. We first assessed their radical scavenging capacities (ORAC and DPPH tests) and the phenolic content of the extracts. At the optimal concentrations, pretreatments with evernic acid displayed significant protection against H2O2-induced cytotoxic damage in both models. It reversed the alterations in oxidative stress markers (including ROS generation, glutathione system and lipid peroxidation levels) and cellular apoptosis (caspase-3 activity). Such effects were in part mediated by a notable enhancement of the expression of intracellular phase-II antioxidant enzymes; a plausible involvement of the Nrf2 cytoprotective pathway is suggested. Usnic acid exerted similar effects, to some extent more moderate. Results suggest that lichen polyketides evernic and usnic acids merit further research as promising antioxidant candidates in the therapy of oxidative stress-related diseases, including the neurodegenerative disorders. Keywords: Parmeliaceae lichens Evernic acid Usnic acid oxidative stress neuroprotection.
28020Caridi F., D’Agostino M., Messina M., Marcianò G., Grioli L., Belvedere A., Marguccio S. & Belmusto G. (2017): Lichens as environmental risk detectors. - The European Physical Journal Plus, 132: 189 [9 p.].
Several studies carried out after the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986 showed that lichens are suitable biomonitors of the fall-out, given their long life expectancy. 137Cs activity concentrations were measured through HPGe gamma spectrometry in different epiphytic lichens (Usnea SPP, Platismatia glauca, Pseudevernia furfuracea, Ramalina SPP), collected from three sampling sites in the Calabria region, south of Italy. Data on variations in the contents of airborne particulates heavy metals, As, Be, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn, measured in the thalli of the investigated lichens through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), were reported in accordance with a lichen thalli naturalness/alteration scale. Energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis in a scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDX), with an electron beam of 20 keV, that interacts with the sample leading to the emission of characteristic X-rays as secondary radiation, was also employed to investigate about the chemistry of the adherent particles to the surface of investigated lichens and about the possible interaction between them and the surrounding environment. Data obtained in this article provide useful information on the environmental risk of the studied area and can be further used for a radiological and chemical mapping.
28019Rubio-Salcedo M., Psomas A., Prieto M., Zimmermann N.E. & Martínez I. (2017): Case study of the implications of climate change for lichen diversity and distributions. - Biodiversity and Conservation, 26: 1121–1141.
There is ample evidence for species distributional changes in response to recent climate change, but most studies are biased toward better known taxa. Thus, an integrated approach is needed that includes the “cryptic diversity” represented partly by lichens, which are among the most sensitive organisms to environmental change due to their physiological characteristics. The use of functional traits and ecological attributes may improve the interpretation of how species respond to climate change. Thus, we quantified the future climate change impacts on 41 lichen species distributed in the Iberian Peninsula using ensemble climatic suitability maps (derived from generalized linear and generalized additive models, and classification and regression tree analysis) and different metrics. We also determined the lichen traits/attributes that might be related to a shared response to climate change. The results indicated a loss of bioclimatic space for 75% of the species studied and an increase for 10 species, especially in Mediterranean ones. Most of the species that will lose more than 70% of their current modeled distribution area comprised big macrolichens with cyanobacteria as the photobiont, thereby indicating a great biomass loss in forests, which might affect nutrient cycles. We also found that the predicted distributions were trait-related. Smaller species, green-algae lichens, and saxicolous and epiphyte species will respond better to future climate change. The results of this type of study may help to identify the species that are most vulnerable to climate change and facilitate the development of conservation measures to avoid their decline. Keywords: Climatic suitability map Exposure Future distribution area Susceptibility.
28018Rodriguez J.M., Renison D., Filippini E. & Estrabou C. (2017): Small shifts in microsite occupation could mitigate climate change consequences for mountain top endemics: a test analyzing saxicolous lichen distribution patterns. - Biodiversity and Conservation, 26: 1199–1215.
The extent to which small shifts among local topographic microsites could mitigate the effects of larger-scale climate change in arctic–alpine systems including mountain top organisms is largely unknown. This study is among the first to evaluate the relative contribution of microsite and altitude as a proxy for climate change on saxicolous lichen communities. We registered 107 lichen species in 54 boulders ranging from 900 to 2700 m.a.s.l. and in a large array of microsites in central Argentina. Communities ordinated along NMS multivariate analysis axes 1, 2 and 3 presented a cumulative R2 of 80%. The three axes were explained by altitude with axis 1 only being explained by altitude. Axis 2 was also explained by slope and aspect whereas axis 3 was explained by the interaction of altitude with aspect indicating that aspect was important only at lower altitudes but not at the mountain top. Lichen cover and richness were similar throughout the altitudinal gradient. We interpret that under a climate warming scenario, lower altitude species occupying pole ward facing slopes will have to migrate upwards while at the mountain top—for most communities—there still is scope for microsite segregation to compensate climate change. Keywords Argentina  Lichen communities  Species richness  Lichen cover  Rock outcrops  Succession.
28017Kodnik D., Winkler A., Candotto Carniel F. & Tretiach M. (2017): Biomagnetic monitoring and element content of lichen transplants in a mixed land use area of NE Italy. - Science of the Total Environment, 595: 858–867.
Highlights: • Lichen transplants allow easy and detailed environmental pollution data collection. • Two-month exposed samples were enriched with magnetite-like magnetic minerals. • Magnetic parameters and content of selected elements were correlated. • Magnetic properties are good proxies also for low levels of heavy metal pollution. The aim of this study was to verify whether it is possible to discriminate between the different pollution sources present in a mixed land use area of NE Italy on the basis of the magnetic properties and the element content of lichen transplants. Thalli of Pseudevernia furfuracea were collected in a pristine area of the South-Eastern Alps and exposed for 2 months in 40 sites located at the knots of a 700 m step grid covering ca. 40 km2 of a mosaic of agricultural, forested, industrial and urban areas. In this way, the samples could be analyzed after a defined period of time, and compared to pre-exposure conditions. The post-exposure element content and the magnetic data substantially agreed, revealing a rather modest anthropogenic impact on the territory, mostly limited to an industrial park. Since the magnetic mineralogy was homogeneous throughout the entire set of samples, with magnetite-like minerals as the main magnetic carriers, it was not possible to discriminate betweenPMoriginating fromthe different pollution sources. The contribution given by the industrial park could be confirmed by the multivariate analysis of the element data set. Conversely, it was possible to assess the lowenvironmental impact of the largest local industry, a cement plant, located outside the industrial park. Notwithstanding the relatively short time of the survey, P. furfuracea was proven to be an effective accumulator for biomagnetic monitoring studies, its magnetic properties being excellent proxies for heavy metal pollution evenwhen the anthropogenic impact on the territory is low. Keywords: Air pollution Dust Environmental magnetism Magnetic properties Particulate matter.
28016Medeiros I.D., Fryday A.M. & Rajakaruna N. (2014): Additional lichen records and mineralogical data from metal-contaminated sites in Maine. - Rhodora, 116(967): 323–347.
Geochemistry and mineralogy of rocks play important roles in the occurrence of individual lichen species and assembly of lichen communities. Whereas lichens of metal-enriched settings have been a focus of study for many decades, only a few such lichen inventories exist for North America. We reexamined the lichen biota of Pine Hill, a serpentine outcrop on Little Deer Isle, Maine and Callahan Mine, a copper- and zinc-enriched Superfund site in Brooksville, Maine by conducting additional field surveys and reexamining unidentified taxa from previous collections. To better characterize the substrates upon which the lichens were found, we conducted elemental analyses via x-ray fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry on rock samples collected at Pine Hill and recorded pH, electrical conductivity, and elemental concentrations via inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry on soil samples from Callahan Mine. The re-investigation of lichens of the two metal-enriched sites resulted in the addition of 20 taxa to Pine Hill and 10 taxa to Callahan Mine. These include Dermatocarpon leptophyllodes, Placynthiella hyporhoda, Pyrenocarpon thelostomum, and Vezdaea acicularis, all recorded for the first time from New England. In addition, we report the first documented records since the late 19th to early 20th century for New England of Porocyphus coccodes, Sarcosagium campestre, and Steinia geophana, and the first such record for Maine for Coccocarpia palmicola. Stereocaulon condensatum and S. subcoralloides, both considered as rare in New England, were also collected from Callahan Mine. Key Words: edaphic ecology, lichen ecology, Maine lichens, metal quarries, metal-tolerance, serpentine, superfund sites.
28015Rivals F. & Semprebon G.M. (2017): Latitude matters: an examination of behavioural plasticity in dietary traits amongst extant and Pleistocene Rangifer tarandus. - Boreas, 46: 254–263.
The geographical distribution of species affects their dietary traits relative to resources available in different lati- tudes. Dietary traits of Rangifer tarandus, a species with a wide geographical distribution, were investigated using tooth mesowear and microwear methods in eight extant populations from Canada. The data show a latitudinal shift corresponding to a vegetational gradient from the taiga to the tundra, i.e. an increase of lichen consumption from the low to the high latitudes. This pattern is also evidenced in the Pleistocene fossil record of Europe where R. tarandus populations from low latitude localities show a lower consumption of lichen than at higher latitudes.
28014Williams L., Colesie C., Ullmann A., Westberg M., Wedin M. & Büdel B. (2017): Lichen acclimation to changing environments: Photobiont switching vs. climate- specific uniqueness in Psora decipiens. - Ecology and Evolution, 2017(7): 2560–2574.
Unraveling the complex relationship between lichen fungal and algal partners has been crucial in understanding lichen dispersal capacity, evolutionary processes, and responses in the face of environmental change. However, lichen symbiosis remains enigmatic, including the ability of a single fungal partner to associate with various algal partners. Psora decipiens is a characteristic lichen of biological soil crusts (BSCs), across semi-arid, temperate, and alpine biomes, which are particularly susceptible to habitat loss and climate change. The high levels of morphological variation found across the range of Psora decipiens may contribute to its ability to withstand environmental change. To investigate Psora decipiens acclimation potential, individuals were transplanted between four climatically distinct sites across a European latitudinal gradient for 2 years. The effect of treatment was investigated through a morphological examination using light and SEM microscopy; 26S rDNA and rbcL gene analysis assessed site-specific relationships and lichen acclimation through photobiont switching. Initial analysis revealed that many samples had lost their algal layers. Although new growth was often determined, the algae were frequently found to have died without evidence of a new photobiont being incorporated into the thallus. Mycobiont analysis investigated diversity and determined that new growth was a part of the transplant, thus, revealing that four distinct fungal clades, closely linked to site, exist. Additionally, P. decipiens was found to associate with the green algal genus Myrmecia, with only two genetically distinct clades between the four sites. Our investigation has suggested that P. decipiens cannot acclimate to the substantial climatic variability across its environmental range. Additionally, the different geographical areas are home to genetically distinct and unique populations. The variation found within the genotypic and morpho-physiological traits of P. decipiens appears to have a climatic determinant, but this is not always reflected by the algal partner. Although photobiont switching occurs on an evolutionary scale, there is little evidence to suggest an active environmentally induced response. These results suggest that this species, and therefore, other lichen species, and BSC ecosystems themselves may be significantly vulnerable to climate change and habitat loss. Keywords: biological soil crusts, environmental change, Europe, genetic diversity, green algae, latitudinal gradient, morphological variability, Myrmecia, plant–climate interactions, plasticity.
28013Vondrák J., Ismailov A. & Urbanavichus G. (2017): Lichens of the family Teloschistaceae in Dagestan, an eastern part of the Caucasian biodiversity hot-spot. - Nova Hedwigia, 104(4): 483–498.
Teloschistaceae, one of the largest families of lichenized fungi, has its known Eurasian diversity hot-spots in the Mediterranean basin and in arid continental territories. The Caucasus is a natural boundary between these territories and the diversity of Teloschistaceae is therefore expected to be high in this region. We studied the easternmost part of the Caucasus, Dagestan, a region neglected by lichenologists in the past, but with recent lichenological activity. We provide here a checklist of 85 species of Teloschistaceae, 39 of them new to Dagestan from our field work in 2015, and four species new to Russia (Athallia nesodes, "Caloplaca" emilii, "Caloplaca" xerica and Gyalolechia epiphyta). This total is higher than the numbers known from some well-surveyed Central European countries, but lower than numbers reported from Mediterranean countries. It suggests a rather high diversity of Teloschistaceae in Dagestan, although the absence of well-developed maritime and Mediterranean habitats (which are usually rich in species of Teloschistaceae) precludes an even higher diversity. Key words: Caloplaca, diversity potential, Russia, Variospora, Xanthocarpia.
28012Jia Z.-F. & Lücking R. (2017): Resolving the genus Phaeographina Müll. Arg. in China. - MycoKeys, 21: 13–32.
As part of ongoing studies of the lichen family Graphidaceae in China, the status of all taxa traditionally assigned to the genus Phaeographina reported from China is resolved in the present paper. Five new combinations are proposed: Phaeographis pleiospora (Zahlbr.) Z.F. Jia & Lücking, comb. nov., Platygramme elaeoplaca (Zahlbr.) Z.F. Jia & Lücking, comb. nov., Platythecium maximum (Groenh.) Z.F. Jia & Lücking, comb. nov., P. pyrrhochroa (Mont. & Bosch) Z.F. Jia & Lücking, comb. nov., and Sarcographina heterospora (Nyl.) Z.F. Jia & Lücking, comb. nov. Six new synonyms are established: Phaeographina callospora Zahlbr. [= Diorygma hieroglyphicum (Pers.) Staiger & Kalb], P. fukiensis Zahlbr. [= Pallidogramme chrysenteron (Mont.) Staiger, Kalb & Lücking], P. fukiensis var. substriata Zahlbr. [= Pallidogramme chrysenteron (Mont.) Staiger, Kalb & Lücking], P. granulans Zahlbr. [= Platygramme platyloma (Müll. Arg.) M. Nakan. & Kashiw.], P. pluvisilvarum Zahlbr. [= Graphis alpestris (Zahlbr.) Staiger], and P. valida Zahlbr. [= Thecographa prosiliens (Mont. & Bosch) A. Massal.]. Two additional synonyms are reported: Phaeographina subrigida (Nyl.) Zahlbr. is synonymized under Platygramme platyloma (Müll. Arg.) M. Nakan. & Kashiw., and Platythecium dimorphodes (Nyl.) Staiger under Platythecium pyrrhochroum (Mont. & Bosch) Z.F. Jia & Lücking. Key words: Lichen, taxonomy, Graphidaceae, Ostropales.
28011Timdal E., Bendiksby M., Kahraman A.M., Halıcı M.G. (2017): Psora taurensis (Psoraceae, Lecanorales), a new lichen species from Turkey. - MycoKeys, 21: 1–12.
Herein we describe the new species, Psora taurensis, from two localities in the Taurus Mountains in Turkey at ca. 1000 m altitude. Investigations of anatomy, secondary chemistry and DNA sequences (ITS and mtSSU) of P. taurensis and presumed close relatives suggest that P. taurensis is a distinct evolutionary lineage with P. tenuifolia as its sister, although it is morphologically more similar to P. russellii and P. vallesiaca. Key words: Anatomy, DNA, phylogeny, Lecanorales, lichenized ascomycetes, taxonomy, TLC, Turkey.
28010Jiang S.-H., Wei X.-L. & Wei J.-C. (2017): Two new species of Strigula (lichenised Dothideomycetes, Ascomycota) from China, with a key to the Chinese foliicolous species. - MycoKeys, 19: 31–42.
Strigula has traditionally been circumscribed based on morphology, but species delimitation in the genus generally lacks comprehensive analyses. A molecular approach has now been applied to foliicolous material of the genus from tropical areas in China. On the basis of combined phenotyic and genotypic data, two new species are described from southern China: S. acuticonidiarum and S. guangxiensis. Key words: Foliicolous lichens, lichens, molecular phylogeny, Strigulales.
28009Naksuwankul K., Kraichak E., Parnmen S., Lücking R. & Lumbsch H.T. (2016): Five new species of Graphidaceae (Ascomycota, Ostropales) from Thailand. - MycoKeys, 17: 47–63.
Five new species of Graphidaceae are described from Thailand. Molecular evidence and phenotypical characters support their independent status from related and similar species. Glaucotrema thailandicum Naksuwankul, Lücking & Lumbsch is unique within the genus in having submuriform ascospores. Ocellularia klinhomii Naksuwankul, Lücking & Lumbsch is characterized by having a whitish gray, rimose thallus with ascomata in verrucae and surrounded by a black ring and lack of secondary metabolites. Ocellularia phatamensis Naksuwankul, Parnmen & Lumbsch has a grayish, thick and rimose thallus, differing from O. klinhomii in lacking a dark apothecial rim and having ascomata that are not immersed in verrucae. Ocellularia thailandica Naksuwankul, Kraichak & Lumbsch differs from O. albocincta in lacking a columella. Ocellularia rotundifumosa Naksuwankul, Lücking & Lumbsch differs from O. fumosa in having ascospores with rounded ends. An epitype for O. krathingensis is selected. Key words: East Asia, lichens, taxonomy, thelotremoid lichens, tropical diversity.
28008Lindgren H., Leavitt S.D. & Lumbsch H.T. (2016): Characterization of microsatellite markers in the cosmopolitan lichen-forming fungus Rhizoplaca melanophthalma (Lecanoraceae). - MycoKeys, 14: 31–36.
Rhizoplaca melanophthalma s.l. is a group of morphologically distinct and chemically diverse species that commonly occur in desert, steppe and montane habitats worldwide. In this study, we developed microsatellite markers to facilitate studies of genetic diversity, population structure, and gene flow in the nominal taxon of this group, Rhizoplaca melanophthalma. We characterized 10 microsatellite markers using a draft genome of R. melanophthalma s. str. assembled from Illumina reads. These loci were tested for 21 R. melanophthalma s. str. specimens and also with a subset of 18 specimens representing six additional species in the R. melanophthalma complex. The number of alleles per locus in R. melanophthalma s. str. ranged from 3 to 11 with an average of 6.7. Nei’s unbiased gene diversity ranged from 0.35 to 0.91. Amplifications of the microsatellite loci were largely successful in the other six species, although only three markers were found to be polymorphic. The new markers will provide an additional resource for studying genetic, population- and landscape-level processes in the cosmopolitan taxon Rhizoplaca melanophthalma s. str.
28007Hansen E.S. (2015): Contribution to the lichen flora of South East Greenland. III. The coastal area between 63° and 65° N. - Botanica Lithuanica, 21(2): 119–124.
The paper lists 95 lichen taxa from the coastal area between 63° and 65° N in South East Greenland. Of these, 46 lichens were recorded for the first time from the area. Lecanora symmicta and Ochrolechia tartarea are new to East Greenland. Acarospora badiofusca, Aspicilia annulata and Parmeliella triptophylla are new to South East Greenland. Keywords: Arctic region, diversity, lichens, species.
28006Hansen E.S. (2016): Contribution to the lichen flora of South East Greenland. IV. The Ammassalik area. - Botanica Lithuanica, 22(1): 72–77.
The paper lists 102 lichen taxa from the Ammassalik area, South East Greenland. Rinodina egedeana and Verrucaria erichsenii are new to East Greenland. Seven lichen taxa are new to South East Greenland, viz. Acarospora peliscypha, Caloplaca magni-filii, Lecanora atromarginata, Lecidella euphorea, Miriquidica nigroleprosa, Peltigera britannica and Rhizocarpon atroflavescens. Keywords: Arctic region, diversity, lichens.
28005Bely P. (2016): New data on distribution and ecology of lichen Parmotrema stuppeum (Parmeliaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) in Belarus. - Botanica Lithuanica, 22(1): 93–95.
The paper presents information about new localities of Parmotrema stuppeum, rare foliose lichen in Belarus. Both earlier known and new localities of the species are discussed. New data on the ecology of P. stuppeum in Belarus are provided. Keywords: Brest region, Gomel region, new localities, old-growth forest, parmelioid lichens, Parmotrema, Republic of Belarus.
28004Joshi S., Upreti D.K., Egbe A.E. & Hur J.-S. (2016): New records of Graphis from Cameroon, with a key to African species of Graphis. - Mycotaxon, 131(4): 925–937.
New records of Graphis species are reported from Cameroon, West Africa: G. ajarekarii, G. alboglaucescens, G. brahmanensis, G. daintreensis, G. exalbata, G. gloriosensis, G. gonimica, G. handelii, G. immersella, G. novopalmicola, G. pseudoaquilonia, and G. supracola. The material was collected in the tropical rain forests of Mount Cameroon. The diagnostic characters of the species are briefly discussed and illustrated. An artificial key is provided to facilitate identification of Graphis species known from the African Palaeotropics. Key words—corticolous, crustose lichens, taxonomy, Graphidaceae, Ostropales.
28003Jiang S.-H., Wei X.-L. & Wei J.-C. (2016): Strigula sinoaustralis sp. nov. and three Strigula spp. new to China. - Mycotaxon, 131(4): 795–803.
A new foliicolous lichen is described from South China. Strigula sinoaustralis is most similar to S. concreta in ascospore dimensions but differs by its white-punctate thallus with entire margins and its longer asci. An analysis of its relationships based on molecular phylogeny is given. Strigula antillarum, S. laureriformis, and S. prasina are reported as new to China. Key words—new species, taxonomy, phylogenetic analysis, lichenized Ascomycota.
28002Kidron G.J. & Temina M. (2017): Non-rainfall water input determines lichen and cyanobacteria zonation on limestone bedrock in the Negev Highlands. - Flora, 229: 71–79.
Lichen zonation on bedrock in accordance with the rock contours is a common phenomenon. This is also the case in the Negev Desert Highlands, where zonation along a continuum of lichens-cyanobacteria or different groups of lichens (epiliths-endoliths) within a distance of as short as <1 m can be observed. In an attempt to evaluate the factors responsible for the zonation, two plots with zonal distribution were demarcated in a north-facing slope and two at a south-facing slope, and their chlorophyll content and species composition were defined. In addition, rock properties, surface temperatures, dust input, rain amount, and the amount of non- rainfall water input, NRWI (dew, fog and high water vapor content) were measured. Whereas rock properties and aeolian input failed to explain the observed zonation, a clear temperature-induced NRWI gradient was found. The findings suggest that differential amounts of NRWI are responsible for the zonation observed, and subsequently for the clear gradient in chlorophyll content. The findings also suggest that lithobiont zonation may serve as a biomarker for subtle gradients in surface temperatures and subsequently in NRWI. Keywords Dew; Fog; Lithobionts; Temperature; water vapor; Zonation.
28001Asahina Y. (1926): The Raiken\'s Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. IV. - J. Jap. Bot., 3(5): 100-102.
28000Asahina Y. (1926): The Raiken\'s Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. III. - J. Jap. Bot., 3(4): 77-78.
27999Asahina Y. (1926): The Raiken's Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. II. - J. Jap. Bot., 3(3): 50-54.
27998Asahina Y. (1926): The Raiken\'s Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. I. - J. Jap. Bot., 3(2): 27-28.
27997Asahina Y. (1926): The Raiken\'s Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. XI. - J. Jap. Bot., 3(12): 283-286.
27996Asahina Y. (1926): The Raiken\'s Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. X. - J. Jap. Bot., 3(11): 255-257.
27995Asahina Y. (1926): The Raiken's Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. IX. - J. Jap. Bot., 3(10): 229-232.
27994Asahina Y. (1938): Mikrochemischer Nachweis der Flechtenstoffe. VIII. Mitteilung. - J. Jap. Bot., 14: 650-659.
27993Asahina Y. (1938): Mikrochemischer Nachweis der Flechtenstoffe. V. Mitteilung. - J. Jap. Bot., 14: 39-44.
27992Asahina Y. (1938): Mikrochemischer Nachweis der Flechtenstoffe. VII. Mitteilung. - J. Jap. Bot., 14: 318-323.
27991Asahina Y. (1938): Mikrochemischer Nachweis der Flechtenstoffe. VI. Mitteilung. - J. Jap. Bot., 14: 244-250.
27990Asahina Y. (1937): Mikrochemischer Nachweis der Flechtenstoffe. IV. Mitteilung. - J. Jap. Bot., 13: 855-861.
27989Asahina Y. (1937): Mikrochemischer Nachweis der Flechtenstoffe III. - J. Jap. Bot., 13: 529-536.
27988Asahina Y. (1936): Microchemischer Nachweis der Flechtenstoffe. I. - J. Jap. Bot., 12: 516-525.
27987Sato M. (1934): History of Lichenology in Japan. I. - J. Jap. Bot., 10(2): 107-112.
27986Sato M. (1934): History of Lichenology in Japan. II . - J. Jap. Bot., 10(3): 192-195.
27985Anonymous (1937): The literature on the lichens of China. - J. Jap. Bot., 13: 215-217.
27984Asahina Y. (1926): The Raiken's Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. V. - J. Jap. Bot., 3(6): 124-125.
27983Dal Grande F., Sharma R., Meiser A., Rolshausen G., Büdel B., Mishra B., Thines M., Otte J., Pfenninger M. & Schmitt I. (2017): Adaptive differentiation coincides with local bioclimatic conditions along an elevational cline in populations of a lichen-forming fungus. - BMC Evolutionary Biology, 17:93 [14 p.].
Background: Many fungal species occur across a variety of habitats. Particularly lichens, fungi forming symbioses with photosynthetic partners, have evolved remarkable tolerances for environmental extremes. Despite their ecological importance and ubiquity, little is known about the genetic basis of adaption in lichen populations. Here we studied patterns of genome-wide differentiation in the lichen-forming fungus Lasallia pustulata along an altitudinal gradient in the Mediterranean region. We resequenced six populations as pools and identified highly differentiated genomic regions. We then detected gene-environment correlations while controlling for shared population history and pooled sequencing bias, and performed ecophysiological experiments to assess fitness differences of individuals from different environments. Results: We detected two strongly differentiated genetic clusters linked to Mediterranean and temperate-oceanic climate, and an admixture zone, which coincided with the transition between the two bioclimates. High altitude individuals showed ecophysiological adaptations to wetter and more shaded conditions. Highly differentiated genome regions contained a number of genes associated with stress response, local environmental adaptation, and sexual reproduction. Conclusions: Taken together our results provide evidence for a complex interplay between demographic history and spatially varying selection acting on a number of key biological processes, suggesting a scenario of ecological speciation. Keywords: Adaptation Altitudinal Climate change Fungi Pool-Seq Population genomics Symbiosis SNP Gradient.
27982Goga M., Antreich S.J., Bačkor M., Weckwerth W. & Lang I. (2017): Lichen secondary metabolites affect growth of Physcomitrella patens by allelopathy. - Protoplasma, 254: 1307–1315.
Lichen secondary metabolites can function as allelochemicals and affect the development and growth of neighboring bryophytes, fungi, vascular plants, microorganisms, and even other lichens. Lichen overgrowth on bryophytes is frequently observed in nature even though mosses grow faster than lichens, but there is still little information on the interactions between lichens and bryophytes. In the present study, we used extracts from six lichen thalli containing secondary metabolites like usnic acid, protocetraric acid, atranorin, lecanoric acid, nortistic acid, and thamnolic acid. To observe the influence of these metabolites on bryophytes, the moss Physcomitrella patens was cultivated for 5 weeks under laboratory conditions and treated with lichen extracts. Toxicity of natural mixtures of secondary metabolites was tested at three selected doses (0.001, 0.01, and 0.1 %). When the mixture contained substantial amounts of usnic acid, we observed growth inhibition of protonemata and reduced development of gametophores. Significant differences in cell lengths and widths were also noticed. Furthermore, usnic acid had a strong effect on cell division in protonemata suggesting a strong impact on the early stages of bryophyte development by allelochemicals contained in the lichen secondary metabolites. Biological activities of lichen secondary metabolites were confirmed in several studies such as antiviral, antibacterial, antitumor, antiherbivore, antioxidant, antipyretic, and analgetic action or photoprotection. This work aimed to expand the knowledge on allelopathic effects on bryophyte growth. Keywords: Allelopathy Usnic acid Bryophytes Inhibiton of growth.
27981Moon K.H. & Kashiwadani H. (2009): Lobothallia alphoplaca (Wahlenb.) Hafellner (Megasporaceae) found in Korea. - Journal of Japanese Botany, 84(5): 303-305.
Lobathallia alphoplaca (Wahlenb.) Hafellner was first reported from Korea, where it grew on lava distributed in rather restricted coastal area at NE side of Cheju (Jeju) Island. It has been reported from China and Japan in Asia
27980Urbanavichus G.P., Lavrinenko O.V. & Urbanavichene I.N. (2009): The lichens of Dolgii and adjacent islands in the Barents Sea. - Botanicheskii Zhurnal (St. Petersburg), 94(5): 656-675.
252 liehen species are reported from Dolgiy Island and adjacent small islands in southeastern part of the Barens Sea (Nenets Autonomous Area, Nenetskiy Nature Reserve, Kanin-Pechora area of the West Eurasian sector of the Russian Arctic). Wide-ranging circumpolar (93 %) and arctic-alpine (50.4 %) species dominate in the lichen flora; its arctic element being insignificantly represented (3.6 %). Twelve species Bacidina egenula, Bilimbia accedens, Caloplaca alociza, Caloplaca cf. chry-sodeta, Lecanora perpruinosa, Lecidella scabra, Miriquidica instrata, Rinodina immersa, R. muscicola, Thelidium incavatum, T. minimum, and Xylographa opegraphella are new to the Arctic. Frigidopyrenia bryospila, Rinodina muscicola, Thelenella sordidula are reported as new to Russia. 138 species, 39 genera and 12 families are new to the lichen flora of the Kanin-Pechora area of the West Eurasian sector of the Russian Arctic
27979Hawksworth D.L., Rico V.J., Barrasa J.M. & Kocourková J. (2009): On the identity of Velenovský's Cantharellus peltigerae. - Mycotaxon, 109: 315-318.
The application of the name Cantharellus peltigerae, which was introduced by Velenovský in 1920 (not 1922 as commonly cited), has been uncertain. A spirit bottle containing original material has now been located in PRC, and found to contain two species of Arrhenia, A. peltigerina and A. cfr. griseopallida. e first grows on old thalli of Peltigera species, and the second on soil. e element on Peltigera is designated as lectotype here to fix Velenovský\ ́s name as a later taxonomic synonym of A. peltigerina. Original material of Mycena praecox, also described by Velenovský in 1920, was said to be present in the same spirit bottle, but no Mycena was to be found inside. agaric, Basidiomycota, lectotypification, lichenicolous fungi
27978Hawksworth D.L. (2009): Book reviews and notices. - Mycotaxon, 110: 509-562.
27977Galloway D.J. (2009): Darwin's lichens. - The Linnean, Newsletter and Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London , 25(3): 36-51.
In 1992-1993, I helped the late Prof. David L. Yudilevich (1930-2006) (see Mann 2006) coordinate an international symposium, “Darwin and the Beagle in Chile: Evolution Today”, at the University of Chile in Santiago, Chile (29 September-1 October 1993) as part of the ICSU General Assembly meetings held at that time in Santiago. The symposium was wide-ranging, covering the major themes of Geology, Palaeontology, Evolution & Genetics, Botany, Zoology, Ecology, Medicine & Psychology, Anthropology, History, Philosophy and Religion. To this symposium I contributed an account of Darwin’s lichens (Galloway 1993a). Although David Yudilevich later produced a fine book on Darwin in Chile (Yudilevich & Castro Le- Fort (1995), based very much on the Symposium and its associated Darwin Exhibition (to which the Linnean Society contributed a life-size copy of the Collier portrait of Darwin from the Society’s Meeting Room) which was assembled in the Patio Ignacio Domeyko of the University of Chile, none of the papers contributed to the Symposium were published, hence this account of Darwin’s lichens in a revised form in this his bicentennial year
27976Canêz L. de Silva (2009): Estudos taxonômicos em Punctelia (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycetes liquenizados). - Instituto de Botânica da Secretaria de Estado do Meio Ambiente, São Paulo, 274 p.
Punctelia was proposed by Krog (1982) for some Parmelia Ach. species that have punctiform pseudocyphellae on the upper surface, and filiform or unciform conidia associated with atranorine on the upper cortex. So, Krog transferred 18 species to this new genus. Nowadays, according to literature data, Punctelia has 49 species. Twenty-four of them are reported to Brazil, representing almost 50% of the total species of the World. Nevertheless, no study has included all species and they have only been treated in Floras and there is no specific to Brazil. Due this gap in Punctelia studies and the high number of species cited to Brazil, this work had as objective to make a taxonomic and floristic study of Punctelia species with emphasis to Southern and Southeastern areas of the country. All types of the valid species (as well as their synonyms’) were requested from 39 herbaria. Almost of them were studied, totalizing 94% of the valid species. Types were described and compared with protologues and literature. Spot tests were made within the other studied specimens with potassium hydroxide (K), sodium hypochlorite (C) and p-phenylenediamine (P), and all of them were submitted in UV light for fluorescent test. Excepting on the types, Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) with solvent C and Microcrystallization tests were made to determinate the substances. As a result the number of species increased to 74. Twenty species are new to Science: Punctelia analandiana Canêz & Marcelli, P. atrodigitata Marcelli & Canêz, P.brasiliana Canêz & Marcelli, P. dispersa Marcelli & Canêz, P. delicatula Canêz & Marcelli, P. elixii Marcelli & Canêz, P. erosa Canêz & Marcelli, P. ibiunensis Canêz & Marcelli, P. inversa Marcelli & Canêz, P. involuta Canêz & Marcelli, P. isidiata Canêz & Marcelli, P. krogiae Marcelli & Canêz, P. lobulata Canêz & Marcelli, P. marcellii Canêz, P. mirabilis Canêz & Marcelli, P. nashii Marcelli & Canêz, P. obtecta Canêz & Marcelli, P. palui Canêz & Marcelli, P. puigarii Canêz & Marcelli and P. spathulata Canêz & Marcelli. Twelve new combinations are made: P. albida (Zahlbr.) Canêz & Marcelli, P. australica (Räs.) Canêz & Marcelli, P. azulensis (B. de Lesd.) Canêz & Marcelli, P. cylindrica (Räs.) Marcelli & Canêz, P. insignata (Stizenb.) Canêz & Marcelli, P. laeviuscula (Räs.) Canêz & Marcelli, P. maculato-sorediosa (Gyeln.) Canêz & Marcelli, P. polycarpina (Zahlbr.) Canêz & Marcelli, P. ruderata (Vainio) Canêz & Marcelli, P. scrobiculata (B. de Lesd.) Canêz & Marcelli, P. subaequans (Nyl.) Canêz & Marcelli and P. subsorediosa (Räs.) Canêz & Marcelli. We elected lectotypes for Parmelia borreri var. allophyla Kremp., P. lorentzii var. lobulata Kremp., Punctelia borrerina (Nyl.) Krog, P. lorentzii (Kremp.) Krog, P. microsticta (Müll. Arg.) Krog and P. stictica (Del. ex Duby) Krog. In addition, we list P. ruderata new to the American Continent, P. jujensis Adler and P. missouriensis Wilhelm & Ladd new to Brazil and P. roseola Jungbluth, Marcelli & Elix new to the State of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)
27975Britton A.J., Hester A.J., Hewison R.L., Potts J.M. & Ross L.C. (2017): Climate, pollution and grazing drive long-termchange inmoorland habitats. - Applied Vegetation Science, 20: 194–203.
Question: Dwarf shrub moorland dominated by ericaceous plants is a distinctive, internationally important feature of northwest Europe, with its stronghold in Scotland. There have been major declines in its condition and extent. How has moorland composition changed within Scotland over the past ca. 35 yr and what is the role of climate change, pollution and grazing in driving these changes? Location: Five hundred and forty locations across Scotland, UK. Methods: We used a long-term resurvey approach to assess change across Scottishmoorlands. We relocated plots sampled ca. 35 yr previously in alpine heath, dry heath, wet heath and bog, and recorded vegetation species composition. We assessed change in species group richness and cover and mean Ellenberg values between surveys, using paired t-tests. We used CCA with variation partitioning and regression analysis to analyse the vegetation data with spatial data sets on climate, pollution and grazing, to assess the role of each driver in driving vegetation changes. Results: Significant diversity and compositional changes between surveys were found for all habitat types, particularly alpine heath. Significant associations were found with climate (many variables), pollution (N and S) and herbivore number (primarily deer). Species richness generally increased, but several specialist species declined in cover, especially those associated with higher altitude habitats (e.g. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, Salix herbacea and alpine lichens). Many of the most successful species are ubiquitous, e.g. the widespread grazing- and pollution- tolerant graminoids Anthoxanthum odoratum, Juncus squarrosus, Festuca rubra and Nardus stricta and the generalist mosses Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus and Hylocomium splendens. Conclusions: Diversity and composition of moorlands in Scotland have changed significantly over the ca. 35-yr period studied; the drivers of these changes are complex, with climate, pollution and grazing playing variable roles across habitats. The reduction in specialist species, homogenization of alpine heaths and declines in forb and lichen cover all represent negative changes in the biodiversity value of Scottish moorlands.
27974Yavuz M. & Çobanoğlu G. (2010): Ethnological uses and etymology of the word Usnea in Ebubekir Razi's \"Liber Almansoris\". - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 106: 3-12.
27973Nakanishi M., Kashiwadani H., Futagami Y. & Moon K.H. (2010): Nine species of Graphidaceae (Ostropales, Ascomycota) collected in Siem Reap, Cambodia. - Journal of Japanese Botany, 85(5): 313-321.
Nine species of seven genera in the family Graphidaceae are recognized as Cambodian member of the lichens and their distribution ranges are presented. Among them, one species, Graphis cambodiensis M. Nakan., Kashiw. & K. H. Moon, is new to science. It is distinct from allied species of the genus in having prominent lirellae covered by thallus nearly up to the exciples, muriform spores 75–105 × 20–30 μm in size and in producing norstictic acid. Graphis commaculans Vain. is reduced to a synonym of Sarcographa gyrizans (Leight.) Müll. Arg. The following seven species, Carbacanthographis induta (Müll. Arg.) Lücking, Fissurina dumastii Fée, Graphis glaucescens Fée, G. supracola A. W. Archer, Gymnographa heterospora (Nyl.) Staiger, Hemithecium aphanes (Mont. & v. d. Bosch) M. Nakan. & Kashiw. and Sarcographa gyrizans (Leight.) Müll. Arg. are new to the lichen ora of Cambodia
27972Haji Moniri M., Kamyabi S. & Clayden S.R. (2010): A preliminary study of Rhizocarpon macrosporum in Razavi Khorasan Province (NE Iran). - Iranian Journal of Botany, 16(1): 185-189.
The present paper is a part of a more extensive investigation of Rhizocarpon based on collections made since 2007 in Razavi Khorasan province in northeastern Iran. Here, we provide details of the morphology, anatomy and lichen substances R. macrosporum. A distribution map is also presented
27971Biazrov L.G. (2010): Handbook of the Lichens of Russia. - Botanicheskii Zhurnal, 94(12): 1879-1882.
book review
27970Kaschik M. (2006): Taxonomic Studies on Saxicolous Species of the Genus Rinodina (Lichenized Ascomycetes, Physciaceae) in the Southern Hemisphere with Special Emphasis in Australia and New Zealand. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 93: 1–162.
Monographic treatment of 21 species; keys. Four species are placed in synonymy and one hitherto unrecorded species for Australia was discovered. Nine species are excluded. New: Rinodina gyrophorica sp. nov. (Australia-Queensland), R. herteliana sp. nov. (New Zealand-Otago), R. moziana var. parasitica Kaschik & H. Mayrhofer var. nov. (New Zealand-North Auckland), R. ramboldii sp. nov. (Australia-Northern Territory, Victoria, Queensland, Juan Fernandez Islands). The author also presents a brief phylogenetic analysis based on nuclear ITS rDNA sequences
27969Jansson U. (2010): Utkast til handlingsplan for huldrestry (Usnea longissima). - Biofokus rapport, 2010/36: 1-44.
27968Wang H., Umeokoli B.O., Eze P., Heering C., Janiak C., Müller W.E.G., Orfali R.S., Hartmann R., Dai H., Lin W., Liu Z. & Proksch P. (2017): Secondary metabolites of the lichen-associated fungus Apiospora montagnei. - Tetrahedron Letters, 58(17): 1702–1705.
The endolichenic fungus Apiospora montagnei isolated from the lichen Cladonia sp. was cultured on solid rice medium, yielding the new diterpenoid libertellenone L (1), the new pyridine alkaloid, 23-O-acetyl-N-hydroxyapiosporamide (2) and the new xanthone derivative 8-hydroxy-3-hydroxymethyl-9-oxo-9H-xanthene-1-carboxylic acid methyl ether (3) together with 19 known compounds (4–22). The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR spectra as well as by HRESIMS data. The absolute configuration of the new 6,7-seco-libertellenone derivative 1 was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Four additional known compounds 23–26 were isolated when NaCl or NH4Cl were added to solid rice medium. Compounds 7–9, 18 and 26 exhibited significant cytotoxicity against the L5178 murine lymphoma cell line with IC50 values of 2.6, 0.2, 2.1, 2.7 and 1.7 μM, respectively.
27967Price K., Lilles E.B. & Banner A. (2017): Long-term recovery of epiphytic communities in the Great Bear Rainforest of coastal British Columbia. - Forest Ecology and Management, 391: 296–308.
The recent Great Bear Rainforest agreement recognises the high biodiversity values of this large intact area of coastal temperate rainforest by calling for old forest targets to be met by 2264. Recruiting young stands has joined conserving existing old stands as a strategy for achieving targets, but the point at which second growth stands recover oldgrowth attributes remains uncertain. We examined the recovery of epiphytes towards oldgrowth conditions by comparing community composition, richness and abundance between young (55–100 year old), mature (101–250 years old) and oldgrowth stands (>250 year old). We felled 77 western redcedar, amabilis fir, western hemlock and Sitka spruce trees, identified all epiphytes, and examined effects of stand age, region, tree species, site nutrient status and presence of residual trees on the epiphyte community. We found 229 taxa, including 49 bryophytes, 98 macrolichens and 82 crustose lichens. Epiphyte community varied by region and among tree species, but not by site productivity or presence of residual trees. In the northern region, trees in oldgrowth supported twice as many epiphyte species, seven times as many unique species, and a significantly different community composition for all functional groups (bryophytes, crustose lichens, hair lichens, cyanolichens and other macrolichens) relative to trees in stands younger than 200 years. Overall similarity between second growth and oldgrowth was about 50%. Young and mature stands overlapped considerably in richness, abundance, and community composition, indicating little recovery between 55 and 200 years. Our study suggests that in the northern region of the Great Bear Rainforest, epiphyte communities need more than 200 years to recover to oldgrowth conditions.
27966Vanha-Majamaa I., Shorohova E., Kushnevskaya H. & Jalonen J. (2017): Resilience of understory vegetation after variable retention felling in boreal Norway spruce forests – A ten-year perspective. - Forest Ecology and Management, 393: 12–28.
We studied the ten-year response of understory vegetation and lichens in mature boreal Norway spruce forests to five felling treatments in southern Finland. The stand level treatments represent a range in intensity of overstory removal: clear felling (CF) with site preparation and planting, retention felling (RF) (7% of stand volume retained) with site preparation and planting, gap felling with site preparation (GFs) (50% retained) and without planting, gap felling (GF) (50% retained) without site preparation or planting, and selection felling (SF) (67% retained) without site preparation or planting. Disc trenching was used for site preparation. Vegetation was sampled before and 1, 2, 3 and 10 years after the treatments. Both species cover and number decreased significantly immediately after all treatments. The resistance of understory vegetation, defined as the amount of change in the community structure caused by the treatments, increased in the order CF < RF < GFs < SF < GF. The dynamics of vascular plants depended on the felling intensity. The dynamics of non-vascular species depended both on the felling intensity and site preparation. CF and RF caused almost similar effects on understory vegetation composition. Local extinctions of mosses and liverworts were caused especially by CF and RF. However, even with 67% retention, 18 bryophyte species were lost during the study period. Loss of bryophyte species was higher after SF than after GF treatments, suggesting that aggregated retention is better for maintaining bryophyte species in felling areas. The resilience of understory vegetation increased in the order CF < RF < GFs < GF < SF. The abundance of mosses, liverworts and dwarf shrubs had not recovered ten years after treatments. Herb species were the most resilient compared to other species groups. We conclude that in intensively managed forest landscapes, GF and SF can be recommended as alternatives to CF to better maintain understory diversity on the stand level. However, the aim with GF and SF treatments was to further harvest the stands. Subsequent removal of the residual stands may cause substantial changes in understory vegetation for the whole treatment area. To protect late-successional bryophytes in felling areas in mesic spruce forests, high levels of retention and minimizing soil disturbance would be required. P. 24: "Forest floor lichens were not initially abundant on our sites. However, we found that the lichen richness dropped after all treatments except SF. After ten years, the lichen species richness was highest in all treatments. Similar results have been obtained by Newmaster and Bell (2002), who found several lichens colonizing mineral soils and disturbed sites five years after harvesting treatments."
27965Ruiz-Fernández J., Oliva M. & García-Hernández C. (2017): Topographic and geomorphologic controls on the distribution of vegetation formations in Elephant Point (Livingston Island, Maritime Antarctica). - Science of the Total Environment, 587–588: 340–349.
• We identified four different vegetable formations in Elephant Point, Antarctica. • These formations are mainly distributed in bedrock plateaus and raised beaches. • Only 10.5% of the peninsular area is vegetated. • These formations have barely colonised the areas deglaciated since 1956. • Time passed since the deglaciation is a key factor to explain vegetable colonisation. This article focuses on the spatial distribution of vegetation formations in Elephant Point, an ice-free area of 1.16 km2 located in Livingston Island (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica). Fieldwork carried out in January 2014 consisted of floristic surveys and designation of a vegetation map. We have examined these data in a GIS environment together with topographical and geomorphological features existing in the peninsula in order to infer the factors controlling vegetation distribution. This has allowed quantifying the total area covered by the four different vegetation formations distributed across the peninsula, proliferating mainly on bedrock plateaus and Holocene raised beaches. Grass formation is essentially composed of Deschampsia antarctica, distributed almost exclusively on raised beaches, and covering 4.1% of the ice-free surface. The remaining three formations are fundamentally composed of cryptogam species. The first of which is fruticose lichen and moss formation, present on high bedrock plateaus and principally formed by lichens such as Usnea aurantiaco-atra. The next is the crustose lichen formation, spreading on bedrock plateaus near the coast populated by bird colonies. In this case, ornitocoprophilous lichens such as Caloplaca regalis, Xanthoria elegans and Haematomma erythromma are predominant. Together, both formations have colonised 5.1% of the peninsula. The last variety, moss carpet and moss cushion formation, occupies 1.4% of the deglaciated surface, spreading primarily in flooded areas, stabilised talus slopes, and bedrock plateaus as well. Therefore, the total surface colonised by vegetation is 12.2 ha, which comprises 10.5% of the peninsula. Due to the retreat of the Rotch Dome glacier, 20.1 ha remain ice-free since 1956 (17.3% of the deglaciated area). Ever since, even though the Antarctic Peninsula has registered one of the most significant temperature rises on Earth, vegetation has only colonised 0.04 ha of this new space, which merely represents 0.3% of the vegetated area in Elephant Point. Keywords: Elephant Point Antarctica Vegetation Tundra Geomorphology.
27964Vehkaoja M., Nummi P. & Rikkinen J. (2017): Beavers promote calicioid diversity in boreal forest landscapes. - Biodiversity and Conservation, 26(3): 579–591.
Beavers are ecosystem engineers that modify and maintain a range of special habitat types in boreal forests. They also produce large quantities of deadwood that provide substrate for many lignicolous organisms such as calicioid fungi (Ascomycota). We studied how calicioid diversity differed between boreal riparian forests with and without beaver activity. The results show that calicioid diversity were significantly higher at beaver sites compared to the other two forest site types studied. The large quantity and diverse forms of deadwood produced by beavers clearly promotes calicioid diversity in the boreal landscape. The specific lighting and humidity conditions within beaver wetlands could be the reason why they promote the success of certain calicioid species. Keywords: deadwood Flood Pin lichen Riparian forest Snag.
27963Cáceres M.E.S., Aptroot A. & Lücking R. (2017): Lichen fungi in the Atlantic rain forest of Northeast Brazil: the relationship of species richness with habitat diversity and conservation status. - Brazilian Journal of Botany, 40(1): 145–156.
Although lichens develop their highest biomass in cool-temperate climates, lichen fungi may form highly diverse assemblages in tropical lowland rain forests. The reasons for such high species richness are not well known. The present study tested the hypothesis that lichen diversity in the northern Atlantic rain forest mainly depends on habitat diversity and conservation status of forest fragments. To this end, the known lichen biota of 23 forest remnants in the region was analyzed. We identified 784 species, with 11 taxa newly reported from Brazil and 44 from Bahia. The vast majority (711) are principally corticolous, while 53 are saxicolous and 20 terricolous. The most frequent species in terms of site occurrence were found at 13 sites, whereas over half of the taxa (462) were only found at a single site. This coincides with an overall low average sampling score, with only six sites being moderately well to well sampled. The number of species per site varied between 5 and 371. Multiple linear regression of species richness with the parameters, site extension, habitat diversity, sampling effort, conservation status, and elevation, was strong and highly significant, with site extension, habitat diversity, and sampling effort being the best predictors for species richness. Site ordination based on species composition suggested a correlation with conservation status and species richness, as well as site extension and habitat diversity. There was no overall correlation between species composition and geographical location of sites along a north–south gradient, but an underlying pattern was detected, suggesting some species turnover along a macroecological gradient. A predictive model using a combined score from the five parameters resulted in a strong and highly significant linear correlation with observed species richness. Using a quantitative, site-based method, we predicted a minimum of 44 and a maximum of 583 species per studied site and we estimated the overall richness for the northern Atlantic rain forest to be 1017 species. Traditional estimators (Chao 1, Chao 2, Jackknife 1, Jackknife 2, Bootstrap) resulted in predicted values ranging between 971 and 1527 species overall. The results of the study are relevant for conservation priorities, as they show that well-conserved areas with a higher habitat diversity (e.g., including transitional forest types and open areas) are an important component preserving the original diversity of the Atlantic Rain Forest, accounting for a large part of the extant biodiversity of this biome. Keywords: Habitat fragmentation Lichen bioindicators Mata Atlântica.
27962Bacior M., Nowak P., Harańczyk H., Patryas S., Kijak P., Ligęzowska A. & Olech M.A. (2017): Extreme dehydration observed in Antarctic Turgidosculum complicatulum and in Prasiola crispa. - Extremophiles, 21: 331–343.
Gaseous phase hydration effect of extremely dehydrated thallus of the Antarctic lichenized fungus Turgidosculum complicatulum and of green alga Prasiola crispa was observed using hydration kinetics, sorption isotherm, 1H-NMR spectroscopy and relaxometry. Three bound water fractions were distinguished: (1) very tightly bound water, (2) tightly bound water and (3) a loosely bound water fraction detected at higher levels of hydration. Sorption isotherm was sigmoidal in form and well fitted using Dent model. The relative mass of water saturating primary water binding sites was ΔM/m0 = 0.055 for T. complicatulum and ΔM/m0 = 0.131 for P. crispa. 1H-NMR free induction decays (FIDs) for T. complicatulum and for P. crispa were superpositions of a solid signal component, and one averaged liquid signal component for P. crispa thallus (T ∗ 2L T2L∗ ≈ 80 µs) or two liquid signal components coming from a tightly bound (T ∗ 2L 1 T2L1∗ ≈ 71 µs) and from a loosely bound water fraction (T ∗ 2L 2 T2L2∗ ≈ 278 µs) for T. complicatulum. 1H-NMR spectra recorded for T. complicatulum and for P. crispa thalli revealed one averaged mobile proton signal component L. The total liquid signal component expressed in units of solid (L1 + L2)/S suggests the presence of water soluble fraction in T. complicatulum thallus. Keywords: Antarctica Lichenized fungi Prasiola crispa Drastic dehydration Hydration kinetics Sorption isotherm NMR Turgidosculum complicatulum.
27961Munzi S., Sheppard L.J., Leith I.D., Cruz C., Branquinho C., Bini L., Gagliardi A., Cai G. & Parrotta L. (2017): The cost of surviving nitrogen excess: energy and protein demand in the lichen Cladonia portentosa as revealed by proteomic analysis. - Planta, 245: 819–833.
Main conclusion: Different nitrogen forms affect different metabolic pathways in lichens. In particular, the most relevant changes in protein expression were observed in the fungal partner, with NO3−mostly affecting the energetic metabolism and NH4+affecting transport and regulation of proteins and the energetic metabolism much more than NO3−did. Excess deposition of reactive nitrogen is a well-known agent of stress for lichens, but which symbiont is most affected and how, remains a mystery. Using proteomics can expand our understanding of stress effects on lichens. We investigated the effects of different doses and forms of reactive nitrogen, with and without supplementary phosphorus and potassium, on the proteome of the lichen Cladonia portentosa growing in a ‘real-world’ simulation of nitrogen deposition. Protein expression changed with the nitrogen treatments but mostly in the fungal partner, with NO3− mainly affecting the energetic metabolism and NH4+ also affecting the protein synthesis machinery. The photobiont mainly responded overexpressing proteins involved in energy production. This suggests that in response to nitrogen stress, the photobiont mainly supports the defensive mechanisms initiated by the mycobiont with an increased energy production. Such surplus energy is then used by the cell to maintain functionality in the presence of NO3−, while a futile cycle of protein production can be hypothesized to be induced by NH4+ excess. External supply of potassium and phosphorus influenced differently the responses of particular enzymes, likely reflecting the many processes in which potassium exerts a regulatory function. Keywords: Ammonium Molecular mechanism Mycobiont Nitrate Photobiont Stress response.
27960Runge F. (1997): Dauerquadratuntersuchungen in der nasssen Heide des Naturschutzgebietes „Heiliges Meer". - Natur und Heimat, 57: 41–44.
27959Krain V. & Bültmann H. (1997): In Westfalen neue oder bisher selten gefundene Flechtenarten. I. - Natur und Heimat, 57: 49–52.
27958Woelm E. & Keller-Woelm P. (1981): Nachweis einiger Flechten im Altkreis Tecklenburg (Steinfurt). - Natur und Heimat, 41: 87–88.
27957Rüther F. (1967): Die Schwermetallrasen im Bereich der Bleikuhle von Blankenrode/Westfalen. - Natur und Heimat, 27: 117–120.
27956Koppe F. (1962): Die Vegetationsverhältnisse des Stockberges bei Ottbergen, Kreis Höxter. - Natur und Heimat, 22: 97–103.
27955Koppe F. (1960): Die Vegetationsverhältnisse des Naturschutzgebietes „Harskamp". - Natur und Heimat, 20: 1–5.
27954Koppe F. (1956): Die Pflanzenwelt des Hirschsteins im Eggegebirge. - Natur und Heimat, 16: 108–113.
27953Koppe F. (1953): Die Vegetation zweier Moorschutzgebiete im Kreise Lübbecke. - Natur und Heimat, 13: 101–106.
27952Kiffe K. (1995): Rhacomitrium lanuginosum (Hedw.) Brid. und Stereocaulon vesuvianum Pers. in Münster. - Natur und Heimat, 55: 79–80.
27951Woelm E. (1982): Ein Vorkommen der Schriftflechte, Graphis scripta (L.) Ach. im Tecklenburger Land (Kreis Steinfurt). - Natur und Heimat, 42: 93.
27950Jaletzke M. & Daniels F.J.A. (1995): Über die Vegetation der Bockholter Berge bei Gimbte. - Natur und Heimat, 55: 1–16.
27949Wagner H.-G. & Wiegleb G. (2014): Funde von Flechten und Mikropilzen in Niedersachsen, insbesondere im Raum Osnabrück. Ein Diskussionsbeitrag zu einer fachlich begründeten Abgrenzung zu berücksichtigender Artenpaletten bei mykologischen Erfassungen. - Osnabrücker naturwissenschaftliche Mitteilungen, 39/40: 135–152.
In Lower Saxony (Germany) various excursions to randomly chosen destinations were undertaken. During the documentation of these excursions, the discovery of 28 fungi (in the broadest sense) came to light. Six of these are lichens, 13 lichenicolous, or lichen-like fungi, and nine are small- or microfungi of varying systematic and ecological groups. Ten of the species proved to be new discoveries for Lower Saxony. The resulting heterogeneous species-list emphasises, firstly, the necessity to adhere to strict classifications in the checklists and red lists of threatened species, and secondly, to expressly recommend the involvement of regional non-academic specialists into the update-process of these records. Key words: data quality, microfungi, lichens, mycological, red lists, survey, phytoparasites, Lower Saxony.
27948Lumbsch H.T. (1991): Bemerkenswerte Flechten im Herbarium des Westfälischen Museums für Naturkunde in Münster. - Natur und Heimat, 51: 92–94.
27947Lumbsch H.T. (1991): Das Flechtenherbarium des Westfälischen Museums für Naturkunde in Münster. - Natur und Heimat, 51: 87–91.
27946Hübschen J. & John V. (1987): Notizen zur Verbreitung epiphytischer Flechten im Sauerland. - Natur und Heimat, 47: 105–116.
27945Verheyen T. & Woelm E. (1992): Beitrag zur Flechtenflora des Sauerlandes II. Raum Brilon und Siegen. - Natur und Heimat, 52: 119–128.
27944Woelm E. (1984): Zur Flechtenflora des Naturschutzgebietes „Deipe Briäke" bei Haien im Kreis Steinfurt (Westfalen). - Natur und Heimat, 44: 83–93.
27943Woelm E. (1984): Bacidia subtilis Vezda – eine neue Flechte für Nordrhein-Westfalen. - Natur und Heimat, 44: 67–68.
27942Woelm E. (1987): Rasterkartierung der Flechten in Westfalen – Ein Aufruf zur Mitarbeit. - Natur und Heimat, 47: 1–7.
Unter Mitarbeit von A. Gerhardt, W. Grooten, A. Hippe, P. Mathe, T. Verheyen u.a.
27941Runge F. (1990): Flechtenverbreitung und Luftverschmutzung in Greven und seiner Umgebung. - Natur und Heimat, 50: 13–16.
27940Raabe U. (1994): 100 Jahre "Flora von Westfalen" von Konrad Beckhaus. - Natur und Heimat, 54: 11–24.
27939Geringhoff H. & Daniels F.J.A. (1994): Das Gentiano-Koelerietum agrostietosum Korneck 1960 der Briloner Hochfläche. - Natur und Heimat, 54: 103–110.
27938Koppe F. (1955): Über die Vegetationsverhältnisse im Muschelkalkgebiet von Welda, Kreis Warburg. - Natur und Heimat, 15: 1–16.
27937Möller H. & Daniels F.J.A. (2000): Untersuchungen zur epiphytischen Flechtenflora ausgewählter Stadtbiotope der Stadt Münster, Westfalen. - Natur und Heimat, 60: 65–78.
The epiphytic liehen flora of 10 different urban biotope types was investigated in the town of Münster, Westfalen, Germany. 44 species were recorded. In comparison with the situation for about 10 years ago, only a few additional species could be recorded. However frequency of almost all species strongly increased. The average number of liehen species per tree amounts 8,6 now. In 1988 and 1995 these numbers were respectively 1,5 and 3,5. The biotope types differ in liehen floras. Well vegetated („green") biotypes appear to have a comparatively rich epiphytic liehen flora and vegetation.
27936Hocke B. & Daniels F. (1993): Über die epilithische Flechtenflora und -vegetation im Stadtgebiet von Münster. - Natur und Heimat, 53(2): 41–54.
27935Woelm E. (1985): Beobachtungen zur Veränderung der Flechtenflora des Naturschutzgebietes „Heiliges Meer'' bei Hopsten im Kreis Steinfurt (Westfalen). - Natur und Heimat, 45: 20–25.
27934Heibel E. (1998): Alte Flechtenbelege aus Nordrhein-Westfalen (NRW) im Herbarium Johann Albert Luyken (1785-1867). - Natur und Heimat, 58: 7–18.
27933Runge F. (1975): Flechtenverbreitung und Luftverunreinigung im Stadtinneren Münsters. - Natur und Heimat, 35: 14–16.
27932Hafellner J. & Türk R. (2016): Die lichenisierten Pilze Österreichs – eine neue Checkliste der bisher nachgewiesenen Taxa mit Angaben zu Verbreitung und Substratökologie. - Stapfia, 104: 1–216.
A revised checklist of the lichenized fungi so far recorded from Austria is presented. For the accepted taxa information on synonyms used in Central Europe, on the horizontal and vertical distribution in Austria and on substrate preferences is given. At present 2491 lichenized taxa (2349 species, 142 additional infraspecific taxa) are known to occur in Austria. Non lichenized microfungi frequently collected by lichenologists (69 species) are included but non-lichenized lichenicolous fungi remain excluded. Of many genera a representative species is illustrated with a colour photograph.. Several new combinations are proposed in the genera Gyalolechia, Lepra, Myriolecis and Pyrenodesmia. Keywords: Lichens, fungi, Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, biodiversity, Austria.
27931Moon K.H., Nakanishi M. & Kashiwandani H. (2012): New or noteworthy species of Graphidaceae (Ostropales, Ascomycota) in Korea. - Japanese Journal of Botany, 87(5): 320-325.
Four species, Graphis aperiens Müll. Arg., G. jejuensis K. H. Moon, M. Nakan. & Kashiw., G. tsunodae Zahlbr. and Phaeographis asteriformis (Zahlbr.) M. Nakan., in the lichen family Graphidaceae are reported from Korea. Among them, Graphis jejuensis is new to science. It is distinct from allied species of Graphis in having short and simple lirellae without striation, erumpent lirellae, open discs without pruina, apically carbonized exciples, inspersed hymenia, colorless spores with 7–8 transverse septa and 18–25 × 7–8 μm in size and in producing no chemical substance. G. aperiens, G. tsunodae and Phaeographis asteriformis are new additions to the lichen ora of Korea. Graphis aperiens, Graphis jejuensis, Graphis tsunodae, Graphidaceae, lichen, Phaeographis asteriformis
27930Logesh, A. R./ K. A. Thillaimaharani/ K. Sharmila/ M. Kalaiselvam/ S. M. Raffi S.M. (2012): Production of chitosan from endolichenic fungi isolated from mangrove environment and its antagonistic activity. - Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 2(2): 140-143.
To screen the chitosan producing ability of endolichenic fungi and its antibacterial activity. Lichen collected from mangroves was screened for endophytes and the chitosan producing ability of endolichenic fungi by submerged fermentation was also determined. Antibacterial activity was carried out against different pathogens. Results: Totally 4 different groups of fungi were isolated from the lichen Roccella montagnei. Among the four genera, Aspergillus niger (A. niger) is potential to produce chitosan (1.3 g/L) on the twelfth day of incubation. Glucose plays an important role in the productivity of chitosan and the yield was maximum at 10% (1.93 g/L). Antibacterial activity revealed that Vibrio cholerae was sensitive to chitosan followed by Escherichia coli. Conclusions: In conclusion, our findings suggest that A. niger is a potential candidate to produce more chitosan than the other strains and glucose plays an important role in the production of chitosan which proves to have a good antibacterial activity
27929Kashiwadani H., Nakanishi M., Miyawaki H., Takeshita S., Ohmura Y., Tokizawa M. & Moon K.H. (2012): Materials for the Distribution of Lichens in Japan (19) Leiorreuma yakushimense (M.Nakan.) M.Nakan. & Kashiw. and Siphula decumbens Nyl. - Journal of Japanese Botany, 87: 408-411.
Leiorreuma yakushimense (M. Nakan.) M. Nakan. & Kashiw. and Siphula decumbens Nyl. were found in Yakushima Island, southern Japan. This becomes the second finding in 50 years after collection of the type specimen in 1963. S. decumbens, a species thought to have been extinct in Japan, was rediscovered on the trunk base of old growth Cryptomeria japonica
27928Stevens G.N. (1999): A Revision of the Lichen Family Usneaceae in Australia. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 72: 1–128.
Treatment, with key and descriptions, of 37 species of Usnea and 2 species of Neuropogon. New: Usnea alboverrucata sp. nov. (Queensland, New South Wales, Papua New Guinea), U. bicolorata var. australiensis var. nov. (Queensland), U. effusa sp. nov. (Queensland, New South Wales), U. hossei var. protocetrarica var. nov. (Queensland, Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Philippines), U. hossei var. squarrosa (Vainio) comb. nov., U. oncodeoides sp. nov. (Tasmania, Victoria), U. punctulata sp. nov. (Queensland, New South Wales), U. rubicunda var. spilota (Stirton) comb. nov., U. subalpina sp. nov. (Victoria, ACT, New South Wales, Tasmania), U. torulosa var. aurescens (Motyka) comb. nov.
27927Ohmura Y., Kashiwadani H. & Moon K. H. (2012): Recovery of macrolichen flora in the Imperial Palace Ground, Tokyo, Japan. - Journal of Japanese Botany, 87(1): 51-57.
Sixteen species of macrolichens were collected from the Imperial Palace Ground, Tokyo in 2009 and 2010. Among them, twelve species, Candelaria concolor, Cladonia ramulosa, Dirinaria applanata, Flavoparmelia caperata, Hyperphyscia crocata, Parmelinopsis minarum, Parmotrema austrosinense, P. clavuliferum, P. tinctorum, Phaeophyscia hispidula, Physcia orientalis and Punctelia borreri were newly found during the present investigation. The other four species, Cladonia caespiticia, C. kurokawae, Phaeophyscia rubropulchra and Physciella melanchra, have already been reported in an earlier investigation carried out in 1995 and 1996. The thallus of parmelioid lichens were small in size, and ranged from 1.0 to 6.4 cm in diameter. The appearance of the macrolichens seems to be closely related to the remarkable improvement of air pollution due to the strict regulation of exhaust gas from the diesel engine in and around Tokyo since 2003. Air pollution, bioindicator, lichen, parmelioid lichens, thallus size, urban area
27926Biazrov L.G. & Pelgunova L.A. (2012): Spatial-temporal trends of some elements concentration in thalli of epiphytic lichens from near Moscow site and some districts of Moscow city. - Bjulleten Moskovskogo ObscestvaIspytatelej Prirody. Otdel Biologiceskij, 117(1): 59-68.
The comparison of values of concentration of some elements in thalli of epiphytic lichens collected in 1989–1992 and in 2008–2009 in Istra districts of the Moscow region (Hypogymnia physodes) and also in Moscow city: Тушино (Hypogymnia physodes and Parmelia sulcata) and Коньково (Hypogym- nia physodes) is carried out.. The results show to signi cant pollution of lichen habitats in the Moscow region. For the compared period the values of concentration of the majority measured elements in lichen thalli practically have not changed. The especially insigni cant changes of values of concentration of elements in time are xed in thalli from Istra district. The values of concentration of elements in H. physodes thalli collected in different terms in Moscow city boundaries show the tendency of reduction of this parameter for the compared period but only at small number of elements. The analysis of spatial distribution of values of concentration of elements in H. physodes thalli has shown that on this param- eter in both terms practically there are no distinctions between thalli collected in Moscow city boundar- ies (Tushino, Kon’kovo). At the same time are appreciable distinctions between concentration of some elements in thalli from Istra district and collected in city (Tushino, Kon’kovo). Also are established the spatial distinctions of values of concentration of elements in thalli of epiphytic lichen Phaeophyscia orbicularis collected in city centre on the three sites located nearby from each other. lichens, monitoring, pollution, concentration, elements, temporal and spatial variation, environment, Moscow city, Moscow region.
27925Biazrov L.G. (2012): Nitrogen stable isotopes (ä15N) in the podetia of lichen Cladonia pocillum from Khangai plateau, Mongolia. - Bjulleten Moskovskogo ObscestvaIspytatelej Prirody. Otdel Biologiceskij, 117(5): 51-56.
Nitrogen stable isotopes (δ15N) are measured in organic matter (OM) of the podetia of lichen Cla- donia pocillum (Ach.) Grognot, collected across an altitudinal gradient, from 1550 to 2928 m a.s.l. in the steppes and highland meadows in Khangai Plateau, Mongolia. As a whole for all 10 high-altitude levels of the Khangai is not revealed well-de ned dependence of δ15N values in ОM of C. pocillum from altitude of all sites of lichen sample for measurement. Thus the positive dependence is observed of δ15N values in ОM of C. pocillum from the content of nitrogen in thalli. lichens, Cladonia pocillum, stable isotopes, nitrogen, nitrogen-15, fraction- ation, altitude, steppe belt, belt of highland meadows, Khangai Plateau, Mongolia
27924Fačkovcová Z., Senko D., Svitok M. & Guttová A. (2017): Ecological niche conservatism shapes the distributions of lichens: geographical segregation does not reflect ecological differentiation. - Preslia, 89: 63–85.
We studied the ecological requirements of two closely related species of lichens, Solenopsora cesatii and S. candicans, which grow predominantly on basic rocks in natural habitats. We determined the ecological niches they occupy at the centre of their distribution (Mediterranean Basin) where they occur sympatrically and in areas with a continental climate (Western Carpathians and Pannonia) at the limits of their ranges, where they are geographically segregated, in order to assess the level of differentiation across their distributions. Tests of niche equivalency and similarity revealed that the species colonize similar habitats both in the centre and the margin of their ranges, which indicate niche conservatism across their distribution. Geographical segregation between populations of S. cesatii and S. candicans at the range margin does not reflect niche differentiation, but a lower availability of suitable habitats. For the Western Carpathians, we developed predictive habitat suitability maps using a Climate Space Model based on presence-absence data, which indicated the potential distribution of suitable sites. The reconstruction of habitat suitability under past climatic scenarios indicates presence of suitable sites in Last Inter-Glacial and Mid-Holocene and absence in Last Glacial Maximum. Predictions for the years 2050 and 2070 show horizontal habitat tracking and far fewer suitable sites. This case study is an example of how the conditions at the limits of their range can contribute to the finetuning of the ecological requirements of species. Keywords: ecological niche, habitat suitability map, Mediterranean, niche overlap, Pannonia, spatial prediction, Western Carpathians.
27923Singh G., Dal Grande F., Divakar P.K., Otte J., Crespo A. & Schmitt I. (2017): Fungal–algal association patterns in lichen symbiosis linked to macroclimate. - New Phytologist, 214: 317–329.
•Both macroclimate and evolutionary events may influence symbiont association and diversity patterns. Here we assess how climatic factors and evolutionary events shape fungal–algal association patterns in the widely distributed lichen-forming fungal genus Protoparmelia. •Multilocus phylogenies of fungal and algal partners were generated using 174 specimens. Coalescent-based species delimitation analysis suggested that 23 fungal hosts are associating with 20 algal species. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to infer how fungal–algal association patterns varied with climate. •Fungi associated with one to three algal partners whereas algae accepted one to five fungal partners. Both fungi and algae were more specific, associating with fewer partners, in the warmer climates. Interaction with more than one partner was more frequent in cooler climates for both the partners. Cophylogenetic analyses suggest congruent fungal–algal phylogenies. Host switch was a more common event in warm climates, whereas failure of the photobiont to diverge with its fungal host was more frequent in cooler climates. •We conclude that both environmental factors and evolutionary events drive fungal and algal evolution in Protoparmelia. The processes leading to phylogenetic congruence of fungi and algae are different in different macrohabitats in our study system. Hence, closely related species inhabiting diverse habitats may follow different evolutionary pathways.
27922Belinchón R., Harrison P.J., Mair L., Várkonyi G. & Snäll T. (2017): Local epiphyte establishment and future metapopulation dynamics in landscapes with different spatiotemporal properties. - Ecology, 98(3): 741–750.
Understanding the relative importance of different ecological processes on the metapopulation dynamics of species is the basis for accurately forecasting metapopulation size in fragmented landscapes. Successful local colonization depends on both species dispersal range and how local habitat conditions affect establishment success. Moreover, there is limited understanding of the effects of different spatiotemporal landscape properties on future meta- population size. We investigate which factors drive the future metapopulation size of the epiphytic model lichen species Lobaria pulmonaria in a managed forest landscape. First, we test the importance of dispersal and local conditions on the colonization–extinction dynamics of the species using Bayesian state- space modelling of a large- scale data set collected over a 10- yr period. Second, we test the importance of dispersal and establishment limitation in explaining establishment probability and subsequent local population growth, based on a 10- yr propagule sowing experiment. Third, we test how future metapopulation size is affected by different meta- population and spatiotemporal landscape dynamics, using simulations with the metapopula- tion models fitted to the empirical data. The colonization probability increased with tree inclination and connectivity, with a mean dispersal distance of 97 m (95% credible intervals, 5–530 m). Local extinctions were mainly deterministic set by tree mortality, but also by tree cutting by forestry. No experimental establishments took place on clearcuts, and in closed forest the establishment probability was higher on trees growing on moist than on dry- mesic soils. The subsequent local population growth rate increased with increasing bark roughness. The simulations showed that the restricted dispersal range estimated (compared to non- restricted dispersal range), and short tree rotation length (65 yr instead of 120) had approxi- mately the same negative effects on future metapopulation size, while regeneration of trees creating a random tree pattern instead of an aggregated one had only some negative effect. However, using the colonization rate obtained with the experimentally added diaspores led to a considerable increase in metapopulation size, making the dispersal limitation of the species clear. The future metapopulation size is thus set by the number of host trees located in shady conditions, not isolated from occupied trees, and by the rotation length of these host trees. Key words: Bayesian model; colonization; dynamic landscapes; extinction; host tree; lichen; scenario; state-space; tree rotation.
27921Vondrák J. & Kubásek J. (2011): Algal stacks and fungal stacks in lichens and their importance for surviving in extreme habitats. - Voprosi stepevedenia, Orenburg, 2011: 19–22.
27920Vondrák J. & Etayo J. (2007): A contribution to the diversity of lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi in the Spanish Pyrenees. - Herzogia, 20: 189-198.
120 taxa of lichen-forming fungi and 13 taxa of lichenicolous fungi are reported from the Spanish Pyrenees, of which Lecanora subaurea, Polyblastia agraria, Protoblastenia cyclospora, and Rhizocarpon sorediosum are new to Spain, and several, including Anaptychia bryorum, Candelariella subdeflexa, Dacampia engeliana, Henrica ramulosa, Lecanora valesiaca, and Rosellinula haplospora, have only rarely been recorded from Spain. Biodiversity, lichenized Ascomycetes, Aragón, Huesca, Spain
27919Powell M. & Vondrák J. (2012): Italian balustrade at Cliveden hosts Italian lichens?. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 110: 11-14.
An unfamiliar specimen of Caloplaca with yellow bullate areoles was collected (February 2012) from the newer balustrade and this was found to have thick-walled, “sand-clock” type spores. Arup (2006) states that this type of spore is unique to Caloplaca dichroa in northern Europe, but these spores also occur in C. calcitrapa, a species restricted to the Mediterranean Basin (Navarro-Rosinés et al. 2000). The specimen from Cliveden fits well the description of C. calcitrapa but we were sceptical and wanted to confirm placement of the English lichen by molecular fingerprinting. Our first attempt at genetic sequencing failed, perhaps due to the small amount of scraped material or by strong contamination with the glue Copydex. We suspected that there may be further species of Caloplaca in Europe which have thick-walled spores and so we wavered with the identification. A second, more richly fertile specimen was recently collected and this was confirmed as C. calcitrapa by reference to the ITS sequence (see below); unfortunately the specimen has been almost destroyed by removing parts for sequencing. We are left to speculate whether C. calcitrapa, like the little snail, was imported to Cliveden from the Borghese Gardens in Rome or whether it is an overlooked member of our native mycota. If it was imported, it appears to have disappeared from the Borghese Balustrade but spread to the terrace balustrade some fifty metres to the north where it occurs in three colonies.
27918Powell M. & Vondrák J. (2012): Yellow sorediate crusts called Caloplaca citrina in England. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 110: 20-24.
Our recent investigations of British material have failed to find C. citrina but the absence of evidence is not evidence of absence and more work is required to find out if this taxon occurs in Britain. Arup (2006) reported that C. citrina s.str. shows a wide distribution in the Nordic countries and has a wide ecology occurring on limestone, concrete, slate, asbestos, bone, roof tiles, siliceous rocks, and sandstone as well as on calciferous ground and mosses. This taxon is also confirmed from Central Europe (Vondrák et al. 2009) and even from Greece (our unpublished record). It would be strange if such a widespread species in the Nordic countries was absent from the British Isles. Arup (2006) gives a history of the way that the sorediate "C. citrina" crusts have been treated. Caloplaca citrina and C. phlogina (Ach.) Nyl. were both described in the late 18th century, while C. flavocitrina was described almost a century later. Wade (1965) united them into one species, C. citrina, with C. flavocitrina as a variety. Following Wade’s publication it became the prevailing opinion to unite them into one species. In the British Lichen Flora, Laundon (1992) used the name C. citrina to cover the entire group; no mention is made of C. flavocitrina, while a single form (f. phlogina) is listed. Despite appearances, the latter is now known not to belong to the C. citrina group (Arup 2006, Vondrák et al. 2010). Most British lichenologists followed Laundon (1992) by including the sorediate "C. citrina" taxa under the one name.
27917Powell M. & Vondrák J. (2011): Caloplaca citrina and C. lactea are incorrectly understood in the British Isles. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 109: 25-30.
Molecular analysis of the two specimens of "Caloplaca citrina" from the British Isles (Fig. 3) shows placement of the first one (Powell 1958) into C. limonia. It is not surprising to us, because the specimen matches morphologically C. limonia collected in Central and South Europe. C. limonia is usually recognizable even in the field by its pale yellow coarse soredia/blastidia (Vondrák et al., 2007). The second sample is more problematic, falling into an unknown clade (C. aff. austrocitrina) along with specimens from Greece. This taxon must be studied further. Caloplaca limonia is probably common on English churches along with other members of C. citrina group (C. arcis (Poelt & Vězda) Arup, C. dichroa Arup and C. flavocitrina (Nyl.) H. Olivier). The English record of C. limonia is the northernmost known for this species. We still do not know whether C. citrina (Hoffm.) Th. Fr. occurs in the British Isles.
27916Paukov A., Nordin A., Tibell L., Frolov I. & Vondrák J. (2016): Aspicilia goettweigensis (Megasporaceae, lichenized Ascomycetes) – a poorly known and overlooked species in Europe and Russia. - Nordic Journal of Botany, 000: 001–007.
doi: 10.1111/njb.01222 Aspicilia goettweigensis is a poorly known species from xerothermic siliceous rocks in Europe. It is considered to be com- mon in the Czech Republic and it is new to Hungary and Russia. e main diagnostic character is formation of cracked, popcorn-like, areoles in the central parts of the thalli. Analysis of nrITS sequences revealed its close relationship to Aspicilia subdepressa and A. volcanica. TLC revealed stictic acid in analysed A. goettweigensis samples. A key to non-lobate Aspicilia with stictic acid known from Europe is provided.
27915Leavitt S.D., Fernandez-Mendoza F., Perez-Ortega S., Sohrabi M., Divakar P.K., Vondrák J., Lumbsch T.H. & St. Clair L.L. (2013): Local representation of global diversity in a morphologically cryptic lichen-forming fungal species-complex with a cosmopolitan distribution(Rhizoplaca, Ascomycota). - Journal of Biogeography, 40: 1792–1906.
The relative importance of long-distance dispersal versus vicariance in determining the distribution of lichen-forming fungi remains unresolved. Here, we examined diversity and distributions in a cosmopolitan lichen-forming fun- gal species complex, Rhizoplaca melanophthalma sensu lato (Ascomycota), across a broad, intercontinental geographical distribution. We sought to deter- mine the temporal context of diversification and the impacts of past climatic fluctuations on demographic dynamics within this group.
27914Khodosovtsev A., Vondrák J. & Šoun J. (2009): Convergent evolution of epiphytic lichens of the complex Caloplaca holocarpa, Teloschistales, in European steppe. - In: Cibilyev et al. (eds), Steppes of northern Eurasia, 5: 699–703.
Род Caloplaca Th.Fr. представлен в мировой лихенобиоте более чем 1000 видами, которые большей частью приурочены к аридным и семиаридным ландшафтам. Не исключением является и степная зона Европы, где сосредоточено около 10% представителей рода. К Caloplaca holocarpa комплексу относят накипные лишайники с редуцированным, обычно серовато-зеленоватым тонким слоевищем, небольшими ярко- окрашенными, от желтого до оранжево-красноватого цвета, апотециями, окруженными выраженным собственным краем и аскоспорами с относительно широкой поперечной перегородкой. В степной зоне Европы большое распространение получили небольшие ксерофитные полукустарнички из родов Arthemisia, Halocnemum, Kochia, Limonium, Thymus на одревесневших многолетних побегах которых часто можно встретить представителей данного комплекса. Морфологическая гомогенность с незначительным количеством ключевых, на первый взгляд, анатомо-морфологических признаков, к удивлению, была опровергнута молекулярними исследованиями, которые показали значительною полифилию в Сaloplaca holocarpa комплексе
27913Halici M.G. & Vondrák J. (2012): Towards the Lichen Flora of Turkey. - In: Cibilyev et al. (eds), Steppes of northern Eurasia, 6: 847–848.
Turkey is rich in natural habitats and acts as a meeting point of Mediterranean lichens, oceanic and continental lichens of steppes and deserts. Nowadays, suitable complex identification literature is missing from the Mediterranean and continental parts of Eurasia, thus the «Lichen flora of Turkey» would be a widely used identification source. We have made the first step, when starting the project on Turkish biodiversity of Teloschistaceae – possibly the most species- rich family in the country. Hopefully, the Teloschistaceae project will result into the first volume of the «Flora»
27912Frolov I. & Vondrák J. (2012): Lichens of the genus Caloplaca (Teloschistaceae) with black apothecia in the steppe zone of the Southern Ural Mts. - In: Cibilyev et al. (eds), Steppes of northern Eurasia, 6: 770–773.
There are preliminary data on molecular-genetic and morphological diversity of С. variabilis group in the steppe zone of the southern Ural Mts and surrounding areas in the paper. We’ve discovered the phylogenetic links of the group in the target territory with another geographical regions in Kazakhstan, Mediterranean and Europe
27911Vondrák J. & Mayrhofer H. (2013): Caloplaca anularis and Caloplaca scrobiculata are distinct. - Herzogia, 26: 21-29.
Caloplaca anularis, described from the Western Alps, and Caloplaca scrobiculata, described from Central Asia, are distinct species. The main differences are the shape of the thallus margin, the anatomy of the thalline cortex, charac- ters of the algal layer and the ascospores. Caloplaca anularis is a widespread lichen known from mountain ranges in Europe (Alps, Carpathians, Balkan Peninsula), Near Asia (continental Turkey and Caucasus) and Central Asia (Altay, Karakorum, Hengduan Shan). The specimens from Central Asia differ slightly from the European specimens in thallus and medulla thickness, but we consider this difference environmentally induced and taxonomically insignificant. Caloplaca scrobiculata is restricted to arid mountain ranges of Central Asia. The Central Asian Caloplaca bohlinii does not differ significantly from C. anularis. The new combination Caloplaca anularis f. ignea is made for specimens of C. anularis with a red thallus. Algal stacks, alpine lichens, desert lichens, fungal stacks, lichenized Ascomycota, taxonomy, Teloschistaceae
27910Otte V. (2013): Über angebliche Eopyrenula leucoplaca (Lichenes: Pyrenulaceae) aus Potsdam [Notes on Eopyrenula leucoplaca in Potsdam]. - Verhandlungen des Botanischen Vereins der Provinz Brandenburg und die angrenzenden Lander, 146: 133-134.
Es heißt in dieser Zeitschrift Eulen nach Athen tragen, wenn auf den unersetzbaren Wert von Herbarbelegen verwiesen wird, die allein Aufschluss geben können über gewisse (scilicet ungewisse) Angaben, die man weder ignorieren noch bedingungs- los glauben kann. Ein Beispiel mehr hierfür: Seit nunmehr 130 Jahren geistert eine Erwähnung jener Flechtenart durch die Literatur, die heute Eopyrenula leucoplaca (WALLR.) R. C. HARRIS heißt und die EGELING (1883) in Potsdam-Sanssouci gefunden haben will. HILLMANN (1923) nimmt diese Angabe noch unter die von ihm für Brandenburg akzeptierten, mit einer Nummer versehenen Arten auf. Bei HILLMANN & GRUMMANN (1957) heißt es neutral: „Wird nur von Egeling angegeben“. GRUMMANN (1963) stellt die Nen- nung dieser Art für die Mark dann in die Rubrik „anzuzweifeln und noch zu bestä- tigen“.
27909Moon K.H., Ohmura/ Y., Kashiwadani H. & Yoshida K. (2013): Materials for the distribution of lichens in Japan (20) Flavopunctelia flaventior and F. soredica. - Journal of Japanese Botany, 88(4): 258-260.
Flavopunctelia flaventior is newly reported from Japan where it was collected in Nagano Prefecture and Hokkaido. Distribution of F. soredica extends north to Hokkaido as well as Yamanashi Prefecture, central Honshu, Japan
27908Moon K.H., Kashiwadani H. & Kobayashi K. (2013): A new species of Myelochroa (Parmeliaceae, Lecanorales) from Shiga Prefecture, Japan. - Journal of Japanese Botany, 88: 140-143.
A new species, Myelochroa ibukiensis K. H. Moon, Kashiw. & Keis. Kobay., is described from Shiga Pref., central Japan. It is distinct in having loosely adnate lobes, soralia developing from pustules, white medulla, in producing leucotylic acid and anthraquinone pigments (K+ purple-red) scattered in soralia. Japan, lichen, Myelochroa ibukiensis, new species
27907Le D.H.,Takenaka Y., Hamada N., Miyawaki H., Tanahashi T. (2013): A 14-membered macrolide and isocoumarin derivatives from the cultured lichen mycobionts of Graphis vestitoides. - Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 61(3): 358-362.
Spore-derived mycobionts of the crustose lichen Graphis vestitoides collected in Vietnam were cultivated on a malt-yeast extract medium supplemented with 10% sucrose. The investigation of their metabolites re- sulted in isolation of a novel 14-membered macrolide and a new isocoumarin, together with ve known iso- coumarin derivatives. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic and chemical means. This is the rst instance of isolation of a 14-membered macrolide from a lichen mycobiont. Graphis vestitoides; lichen; mycobiont; 14-membered macrolide; isocoumarin
27906Knudsen K., Harding M. & Hoines J. (2013): The lichen flora of Joshua Tree National Park: An annotated checklist. - Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/JOTR/NRTR, 2013/743: 1-77.
Lichens are frequent in Joshua Tree National Park; their white, yellow, red, and orange colors adorn the numerous quartz monzonite rock outcrops, and attract the attention of visitors. Prior to initial surveys in 2005 and 2006 (Knudsen and La Doux 2005 and 2006) the Lichens of Joshua Tree National Park were practically unknown. This report and annotated checklist are the product of those initial surveys and additional field work conducted at Joshua Tree National Park between 2010 to 2012 to further document the lichen flora. Specimens from these surveys are deposited in the University of California, Riverside Herbarium (UCR). As a result of this work, a total of 145 taxa of lichens are reported from the park. Three species were previously reported new for California from this survey (Knudsen and Kocourková 2012a). In this paper, a fourth species, Buellia imshaugii, is also reported new for California from the park. Sarcogyne mitziae K. Knudsen, Kocourk. & McCune, a new species to science, was described from a discovery in Joshua Tree National Park as well as single populations found in Washington and Idaho (Knudsen et al. 2013). Four other taxa, possibly new to science, were discovered and are currently being studied. This report provides an annotated checklist of the currently documented lichen flora at Joshua Tree National Park. Detailed information on distribution and habit and identification for the 145 taxa are included in this list. The largest diversity of lichens in Joshua Tree National Park is concentrated in the northwestern region of the park. The distribution and species composition in the park appears to be mainly affected by relative annual humidity. The majority of rare and infrequent lichens in the park appear to be relics from a wetter Pleistocene climate and are more common in Arizona (which has a more well established monsoon cycle) or in the mountains at higher elevations with greater rain or snowfall. Growing aridity in the southwestern United States could lead to the extirpation of many rare lichens in the northwestern region of Joshua Tree National Park and lower total lichen diversity for the park as a whole. Further inventories would improve the historical record of lichen diversity at this critical time of global climate change and establish a robust baseline of lichen diversity. These data, along with future inventories, would allow Joshua Tree National Park to complete a field guide, create public education programs, and develop long-term monitoring of lichens.
27905Kharpukhaeva T.M. (2013): Findings of new and rare lichens in Republic of Buryatia. - Botanicheskii zhurnal, 98(3): 364-371.
Information on 42 lichen species is presented; 19 of them are new to Republic of Buryatia, among these Porpidia hydrophila being recorded for the first time to Southern Siberia, and Chaenothecopsis parasitaster being the third record for the Russia. New data on the distribution of 23 rare lichen species in Buryatia are presented, 6 of them are registered in Red Data Book of Buryatia (2002) and 3 in Red Data Book of Russian Federation (2008)
27904Biazrov L.G. & Pelgunova L.A. (2013): Estimation of the proportion of some elements and their distribution on a surface of thallus of lichenized fungus Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th. Fr. using sample-nondestructive ƒÊ-XRF spectrometer M4 Tornado [Ozenka sootnosheniya nekotoryh elementov i ih raspredeleniya na poverkhnosti sloevishcha likhenizirovannogo griba Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th.Fr. ne razrushayushchim obrazets microrentgenofluor. - Principy ekologii, 2013(2/3): 37-52.
The composition of 19 elements - Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Ba, Pb - were compared in the peripheral (younger) and central (older) parts of the upper surface of the epiphytic lichen Xanthoria parietina thallus from the bark of Sorbus aucuparia in Moscow city using sample-nondestructive μ-XRF spectrometer. This species is often used in biomonitoring of air quality. The results showed that the elements content was highly variable. Mean values of atomic percent of Fe, Co, Zn, and Pb were statistically higher in the central part of the upper surface, while P, S, Cl, K, Ca, and Mn were higher in the peripheral part. Differences between other elements were not statistically valid, but there is a trend to greater maintenance of the majority of the elements on the surface of the central part of the thallus. Mapping the distribution of some elements on the part of the thallus surface is presented. Biomonitoring lichens, Xanthoria parietina composition of elements, μ-XRF, distribution of elements surface of thallus, periphery of thallus central part of thallus
27903Biazrov L.G. (2013): Lichenized fungi as a cause of disease contact dermatitis. - Advances in Medical Mycology, 11: 264-266.
27902Aptroot A., Kashiwadani H., Moon K.H. & Futagami Y. (2013): Pyrenocarpous lichens in cambodia, with the description of Celothelium longisporum sp. nov. (Pyrenulales). - Journal of Japanese Botany, 88(5): 309-315.
Celothelium longisporum Aptroot, Kashiw. & K. H. Moon is described as a new species from Cambodia. In addition to the ten species of pyrenocarpous lichens so far reported from Cambodia, eight species including the new species are added to the lichen ora of Cambodia. The total number of lichen species known from Cambodia up to 63. Cambodia, Celothelium longisporum, pyrenocarpous lichen
27901Pushkareva E., Kvíderová J., Šimek M. & Elster J. (2017): Nitrogen fixation and diurnal changes of photosynthetic activity in Arctic soil crusts at different development stage. - European Journal of Soil Biology, 79: 21–30.
Nitrogen fixation and photosynthesis provided by microbial phototrophs (cyanobacteria and eukaryotic microalgae) are important processes occurring in Arctic soil crusts. Here, we describe and compare these processes in biological soil crusts from Central Svalbard at different stages of development. The gradient from poorly-developed to well-developed soil crusts was accompanied by the changes in biovolume of microbial phototrophs, nitrogenase and photosynthetic activity. The lowest biovolume of microbial phototrophs was detected in poorly-developed soil crusts as a consequence of the initial stage of soil colonization. The biovolume initially increased during the soil crust development but decreased in well-developed lichenized soil crusts. However, nitrogenase activity decreased from poorly to more developed soil crusts. Diurnal courses of photosynthetic activity differed among the soil crust types showing shifts in diurnal minima and maxima; the poorly-developed soil crust reacted faster to changes in temperature and PAR. In spite of different microclimatic conditions during the measurements, temperature was the main factor influencing photosynthetic activity while the effect of PAR was not significant. Higher temperatures led to inhibition of photosynthetic activity and increased energy dissipation, indicating acclimation/adaptation of the soil crust photosynthetic microorganisms to a cold environment. Keywords: Soil crust; Arctic; Photosynthetic activity; Nitrogen fixation; Microbial phototrophs; Soil crust development.
27900Otálora M.A.G., Martínez I., Aragón G. & Wedin M. (2017): Species delimitation and phylogeography of the Pectenia species-complex: A misunderstood case of species-pairs in lichenized fungi, where reproduction mode does not delimit lineages. - Fungal Biology, 121(3): 222–233.
Highlights: • We used bayesian coalescent-based methods to validate traditional species recognition in a genus of cyanolichens. • Reproduction modes are not characterizing natural lineages in the genus Pectenia. • Traditional species delimitation in Pectenia is not supported by sequence data. • The genus Pectenia is less diverse than morphological characterization predicted. The main goal of this work was to study species boundaries in the genus Pectenia and elucidate the biogeographic history of the four currently accepted species. To accomplish this, we included 92 specimens across the range of Pectenia in Europe and northern Africa. We used three nuclear loci and assessed species circumscription using two Bayesian coalescent-based methods and the Bayes Factor approach. We reviewed the value of reproductive mode and other morphological features as predictors of monophyletic groups. Our results suggest that the production of asexual propagules and sexual structures are not characterizing monophyletic groups. The genus includes two morphologically well-characterized main lineages, where one lineage is composed by two sub-lineages that are with a case of cryptic speciation explained by a biogeographic pattern. We suggest treating the two lineages as two species, which are characterized by lobe structure: Pectenia plumbea and P. atlantica. Both of these species include samples with asexual propagules and apothecia, and thus do not correspond to any of the earlier morphologically defined species. The results of the biogeographic analysis indicate that the Mediterranean basin is the most likely ancestral distribution area of P. plumbea, whereas P. atlantica probably originated in Macaronesia.
27899Ivanova G.A., Ivanov V.A., Kovaleva N.M., Conard S.G., Zhila S.V. & Tarasov P.A. (2017): Succession of vegetation after a high-intensity fire in a pine forest with lichens. - Contemporary Problems of Ecology, 10(1): 52–61.
[Original Russian Text published in Sibirskii Ekologicheskii Zhurnal, 2017, No. 1, pp. 61–71.]. This paper presents the results of 20-year studies into the impact made by an experimental highintensity fire on ecosystem components and postfire succession in a middle-taiga pine forest. About 44% of forest fuel loads burned down during the fire, and the emission of carbon was more than 18 t C/ha. As a result of the fire impact, trees died within 3 years after the fire, and this resulted in a significant accumulation of fuel loads. Twenty years after the fire, the biomass of forest fuel loads surpassed the prefire values 4 times, which led to the possibility of the origin of a repeated high-intensity fire. The initial stage of postfire succession in the pine forest is determined by forest vegetation conditions and takes place with the replacement of dominant grass and shrubs. The agrochemical and hydrothermal soil indicators were revealed to be changed after the fire, and this promoted improved conditions for the origin and development of natural regeneration sufficient for the formation of forest stand. Keywords: forest fire, succession, pine stand, reforestation, fuel loads.
27898Suryanarayanan T.S., Govindarajulu M.B., Rajamani T., Tripathi M. & Joshi Y. (2017): Endolichenic fungi in lichens of Champawat district, Uttarakhand, northern India. - Mycological Progress, 16(3): 205–211.
Eleven lichen species belonging to five families (two fruticose and nine foliose) growing on the bark of Quercus leucotrichophora trees from four forests of Champawat district, Uttarakhand state, northern India were studied for their endolichenic fungal assemblage. We obtained 942 isolates of endolichenic fungi belonging to 33 morphospecies from these lichens. Xylaria spp. dominated the assemblage of 6 of the 11 lichens; it was the most common endolichenic fungus and constituted 31.4% of the total isolates. In co-culture experiments where 33 Xylaria isolates and select endolichenic fungi were cultured together, 39% of the combinations showed mutual stasis, while in 36% of the challenges, Xylaria overgrew the other endolichenic fungus co-cultured with it; Xylaria was inhibited only in 6% of the challenges. Of the 62 isolates tested by bioautogram, 45 and 37 isolates exhibited antialgal and antifungal activity, respectively, while 30 isolates showed both antialgal and antifungal activities. While production of such metabolites by the endolichenic fungi could aid them in overcoming competition within the lichen thallus, it is possible that they also alter the ecological fitness of lichens. Keywords: Endophytes; Lichen symbionts; Lichen; Xylaria.
27897Deane‐Coe K.K. & Stanton D. (2017): Functional ecology of cryptogams: scaling from bryophyte, lichen, and soil crust traits to ecosystem processes. - New Phytologist, 213: 993–995.
Keywords: carbon cycling; cyanobacteria; effect trait; moss; nitrogen cycling; primary production; response trait; trait database.
27896Di Battista T. & Fortuna F. (2017): Functional confidence bands for lichen biodiversity profiles: A case study in Tuscany region (central Italy). - Statistical Analysis and Data Mining, 10(1): 21–28.
Biomonitoring techniques are widely used to assess environmental damages through the changes occurring in the composition of species communities. Among the living organisms used as bioindicators, epiphytic lichens, are recognized as reliable indicators of air pollution. However, lichen biodiversity studies are generally based on the analysis of a scalar measure that omits the species composition. For this reason, we propose to analyze lichen data through diversity profiles and the functional data analysis approach. Indeed, diversity profiles may be naturally considered as functional data because they are expressed as functions of the species abundance vector in a fixed domain. The peculiarity of these data is that the functional space is constituted by a set of curves belonging to the same family. In this context, simultaneous confidence bands are obtained for the mean diversity profile through the Karhunen‐Love (KL) decomposition. The novelty of our method lies in exploiting the known form of the function underlying the data. This allows us to work directly on the functional space by avoiding smoothing techniques. The confidence band procedure is applied to a real data set concerning lichen data in Tuscany region (central Italy). Confidence bands functional data analysis intrinsic diversity profile lichen data mean function KL expansion. Keywords: Karhunen‐Loève expansion; confidence bands; functional data analysis; intrinsic diversity profile; lichen data; mean function.
27895Aptroot A. & Nepi C.R. (2017): (2492) Proposal to conserve the name Marcelaria against Buscalionia (Trypetheliaceae, lichenized Ascomycota). - Taxon, 66(1): 200-201.
Nomenclature; Dothideomycetes; Trypetheliales.
27894Pendleton S.L., Briner J.P., Kaufman D.S. & Zimmerman S.R. (2017): Using cosmogenic 10Be exposure dating and lichenometry to constrain Holocene glaciation in the central Brooks Range, Alaska. - Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, 49(1): 115-132.
We compile new and previously published lichenometric and cosmogenic 10Be moraine ages to summarize the timing of Holocene glacier expansions in the Brooks Range, Arctic Alaska. Foundational lichenometric studies suggested that glaciers likely grew to their Holocene maxima as early as the middle Holocene, followed by several episodes of moraine building prior to, and throughout, the last millennium. Previously published 10Be ages on Holocene moraine boulders from the north-central Brooks Range constrain the culmination of maximum Holocene glacier advances between 4.6 ka and 2.6 ka. New 10Be ages of moraine boulders from two different valleys in the central Brooks Range published here show that maximum Holocene glacial extents in these valleys were reached by 3.5 ka and ca. 2.6 ka, supporting previous studies showing that Holocene maximum, or near-maximum, glacial extents in the Brooks Range occurred prior to the Little Ice Age. However, in-depth reconciliations between glacier extent and local and regional climate are hampered by uncertainties associated with both lichenometry and 10Be dating.
27893Emerman S.H. (2017): The use of lichenometry for assessment of the destruction and reconstruction of Buddhist sacred walls in Langtang Valley, Nepal Himalaya, following the 2015 Gorkha earthquake. - Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, 49(1): 61-79.
Mani walls, Buddhist sacred walls constructed of carved blocks, are common in Langtang Valley, Nepal Himalaya. Fieldwork in 2009–2015 documented all 80 mani walls, including all occurrences of the lichen Rhizocarpon geographicum. According to local informants, the mani walls were constructed 400–600 years ago, and the original mani wall was in the village of Ghoratabela. Based on the indirect method, the oldest lichen on a mani wall dated only to 1942, which, within modeling error, was concurrent with the 1934 earthquake, the last major earthquake in Nepal prior to the Gorkha earthquake of 25 April 2015. In November 2015 it was found that 15% of mani walls could not be located and 20% were severely damaged. The original mani wall had apparently been reconstructed 170 m from its previous location. In two severely damaged and three fully intact mani walls, large lichens (12–49 mm) with unhealthy appearance were found that were not previously present. The most likely explanation was that the three intact mani walls had already been reconstructed using previously interior blocks as exterior blocks. This research raises the possibility that many Himalayan religious structures are not the original structures, but are replicates that are reconstructed after natural disasters.
27892Jørgensen P.M. (2017): The development of lichenology in the history of botany. - Bryologist, 120(1): 37-44.
Lichens have been a difficult group for botanists to understand. Only in the 20th century did they find their correct position among the fungi. This paper outlines the long and rather complicated course from Theophrastos, the first person to use the term lichen (about 300 B.C.) to the molecular evidence by Gargas and coworkers in 1995 that proved lichens to belong among the fungi. It was, however, not the first time this classification was proposed. The first to formally include lichens in the fungi was J. B. Payer in 1848, and Persoon had already around 1800 suggested this in a letter to Acharius. It then took nearly 200 years to become a generally accepted idea, but during that process many important observations, still worthy of attention, were made. Keywords: History, lichen-classification.
27891Watanuki O., Hara K., Harada H., Komine M. & Fuji S. (2017): Buellia numerosa and B. subnumerosa, two new species of the lichen genus Buellia (Caliciaceae) from Japan. - Bryologist, 120(1): 25-36.
Buellia numerosa and B. subnumerosa are described as new from Japan. These two corticolous species share common morphological characters: whitish, smooth to rimose thallus; adnate apothecia; flat, epruinose disc; dispersa-type proper exciple; numerous ascospores per ascus; and Buellia-type ascospores. In addition, they share chemical characters: presence of fumarprotocetraric acid and atranorin. They are clearly distinguishable from previously-described Buellia species based on their ascospore numbers and metabolites, and from each other by the number of ascospores per ascus and characters of the asci. Buellia numerosa has 20–64 ascospores per ascus while B. subnumerosa produces 8–36. Also, brown overmature asci are always found in B. subnumerosa, but not in B. numerosa. A phylogenetic analysis based on the ITS region confirmed that they should be recognized as two different species. Keywords: Biodiversity, taxonomy, ITS, multi-spored, fumarprotocetraric acid.
27890Kristinsson H., Zhurbenko M. & Hansen E.S. (2017): Panarctic checklist of lichens and lichenicolous fungi. - Arctic Council Open Access Repository, 124 p.
This document is not the final, approved version. It is a working or draft version, as submitted to one of our Senior Arctic Officials meetings. Drafts are available in order to provide historical perspective on the work of the Arctic Council and the development of our scientific reports and assessments. To find final, approved versions of our reports and assessments, please make note of the title and visit the appropriate collection in our archive. Each collection listed below contains final documents from one of the six Working Groups. https://oaarchive.arctic-council.org/handle/11374/1, https://oaarchive.arctic-council.org/handle/11374/617, https://oaarchive.arctic- council.org/handle/11374/126, https://oaarchive.arctic-council.org/handle/11374/3, https://oaarchive.arctic-council.org/handle/11374/52, https://oaarchive.arctic- council.org/handle/11374/4 Any citation of an Arctic Council document must include reference to the author. If no author of a particular document is identified, the document may still be cited; in these cases, the Arctic Council should be listed as the author. Downloaded from the Arctic Council Open Access Repository. https://oaarchive.arctic-council.org/
27889Roux C. et coll. (2017): Catalogue des lichens et champignons lichénicoles de France métropolitaine. 2e édition revue et augmentée (2017). - Édit. Association française de lichénologie (A. F. L.), Fontainebleau, 1581 p.
checklist France
27888Kondratyuk S.Y., Lökös L., Halda J., Roux C., Upreti D.K., Schumm F., Mishra G.K., Nayaka S., Farkas E., Park J.-S., Lee B.-G., Liu D., Woo J.-J., Hur J.-S. (2017): New and noteworthy lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi 6. - Acta Botanica Hungarica, 59(1–2): 137–260.
Eighteen new to science species, i.e.: 13 taxa from South Korea (Astroplaca loekoesiana S. Y. Kondr., E. Farkas, J.-J. Woo et J.-S. Hur, Buellia ulleungdoensis S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, Candelariella hakulinenii S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, Flavoplaca laszloana S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur, Lichenostigma epiporpidiae S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, Mikhtomia geumohdoensis S. Y. Kondr., Liu D. et J.-S. Hur, Orientophila dodongensis S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, Physcia orientostellaris S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, Placynthiella hurii S. Y. Kondr. et L. Lőkös, Protoparmeliopsis kopachevskae S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, Psoroglaena sunchonensis S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, Rufoplaca kaernefeltiana S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, Vezdaea poeltiana S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös, J. Halda et J.-S. Hur), two species from India (Rusavskia indica S. Y. Kondr. et D. K. Upreti, and R. upretii S. Y. Kondr., G. K. Mishra et S. Nayaka), and two species from Atlantic Europe, i.e.: Spain and Portugal (Xanthoria schummii S. Y. Kondr. and X. lapalmaensis F. Schumm et S. Y. Kondr.), as well as a lichenicolous fungus Leptosphaeria oxneriae Cl. Roux et S. Y. Kondr. from Asia (Russia and India) are described, illustrated and compared with closely related taxa. Forty species of lichen forming and lichenicolous fungi (i.e.: Acarospora cf. rufescens, Agonimia allobata, A. aff. blumii, Anema decipiens, Anisomeridium aff. albisedum, Bacidia laurocerasi, Cercidospora aff. epipolytropa, C. aff. lobothallia, Dictyocatenulata alba, Fuscopannaria dissecta, Lecanora us- suriensis, Lecidella aff. carpatica, Lemmopsis arnoldiana, Leptosphaeria crozalsii, Lichenostigma cf. bolacinae, L. aff. rupicolae, Lichinella stipatula, L. cribellifera, L. iodopulchra, L. aff. myriospora, Melaspilea proximella, Micarea alabastrites, Opegrapha aff. thelotrematis, Orientophila leuceryth- rella, Pectenia plumbea, Placynthium tantaleum, Porpidia flavicunda, Psorula rufonigra, Pyreno- carpon aff. thelostomum, Pyrenodesmia duplicata, Pyrenopsis aff. haematina, Ramboldia haematites, Rhizoplaca subdiscrepans, Rimularia gibbosa, Rinodina oxydata, Staurothele frustulenta, Stigmidium cf. clauzadei, Strigula australiensis, Thelenella luridella, Vezdaea leprosa) are for the first time recorded for Korea. Additional locality records for South Korea (74 species) and China (3 species) are also given. Four new combinations, i.e.: Orientophila chejuensis (for Caloplaca chejuensis S. Y. Kondr. et Hur), Orientophila diffluens (for Lecanora diffluens Hue), Orientophila leucerythrella (for Lecanora leucerythrella Nyl.), and Pyrenodesmia duplicata (for Lecanora duplicata Vain.) are also proposed. Key words: Astroplaca, Buellia, Candelariella, China, Flavoplaca, India, Japan, Leptosphaeria, Lichenostigma, Mikhtomia, new species, Orientophila, phylogenetic analysis, Physcia, Placyn- thiella, Portugal, Protoparmeliopsis, revision, Rufoplaca, Rusavskia, Spain, South Korea, taxonomy, Vezdaea, Xanthoria
27887Kondratyuk S.Y., Lökös L., Upreti D.K., Nayaka S., Mishra G.K., Ravera S., Jeong2 M.-H., Jang S.-H., Park J.S. & Hur J.-S (2017): New monophyletic branches of the Teloschistaceae (lichen-forming Ascomycota) proved by three gene phylogeny. - Acta Botanica Hungarica, 59(1–2): 71–136.
Seventeen robust monophyletic branches newly discovered in the phylogenetic tree of the Teloschistaceae after separate nrITS, nrLSU and mtSSU, as well as combined phylogenetic analysis are proposed to consider as the following separate genera: Dijigiella S. Y. Kondr. et L. Lőkös gen. nov. for the D. kaernefeltiana group, Elixjohnia S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur gen. nov. for the Sirenophila jackelixii group, Fominiella S. Y. Kondr., D. Upreti et J.-S. Hur gen. nov. for the F. tenerifensis group; Gintarasiella S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur gen. nov. for Caloplaca aggregata, Hanstrassia S. Y. Kondr. gen. nov. for the Elenkiniana lenae group, Harusavskia S. Y. Kondr. gen. nov. for H. elenkinianoides sp. n., Huriella S. Y. Kondr. et D. Upreti gen. nov. for H. loekoesiana sp. n., Ikaeria S. Y. Kondr., D. Upreti et J.-S. Hur gen. nov. for Caloplaca aurantiellina, Klaude- ruiella S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur gen. nov. for the Variospora thallincola group, Laundonia S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur gen. nov. for the Gyalolechia flavovirescens group, Lazarenkoiopsis S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur gen. nov. for Caloplaca ussuriensis, Nevilleiella S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur gen. nov. for the Caloplaca marchantii group, Opeltia S. Y. Kondr. et L. Lőkös gen. nov. for the Caloplaca neobaltistanica group, Oxneriopsis S. Y. Kondr., D. Upreti et J.-S. Hur gen. nov. for the Caloplaca oxneri group, Teuvoahtiana S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur gen. nov. for the Caloplaca rugulosa group, Tomnashia S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur gen. nov. for the Polycauliona rosei group, and Xanthaptychia S. Y. Kondr. et S. Ravera gen. nov. for the Seirophora orientalis group. Hitherto missing molecular data on three gene sequences of the type species of the genera Seirophora and Sirenophila are completed within this study. Six new to science species (Dijigiella kaernefeltiana S. Y. Kondr. sp. n., D. subaggregata S. Y. Kondr. et Kärnefelt sp. n., Fominiella tenerifensis S. Y. Kondr., Kärnefelt, A. Thell et T. Feu- erer sp. n., Hanstrassia jaeseounhurii S. Y. Kondr., Ch.-H. Park et L. Lőkös sp. n., Harusavskia elenkinianoides S. Y. Kondr., X. Y. Wang, S.-O. Oh et J.-S. Hur sp. n., Huriella loekoesiana S. Y. Kondr. et D. Upreti sp. n.) are described, compared with closely related taxa. A total of 34 new combinations for genera mentioned above are proposed. phylogenetic analysis, phylogenetic tree, Teloschistaceae, three gene phylogeny
27886Wang L.S., Wang X.Y., Liu D., Myllys L., Shi H.X., Zhang Y.Y., Yang M.X. & Li L.J. (2017): Four new species of Bryoria (Lichenized Ascomycota: Parmeliaceae) from the Hengduan Mountains, China. - Phytotaxa, 297(1): 29–41.
Bryoria is one of the most common lichen genera in the Hengduan Mountains; however, due to only preliminary studies in China, species delimitations are poorly known. In this study, thousands of specimens from this region were examined, combined with morphological and chemical characters as well as phylogeny of ITS sequences. Four species of Bryoria are described as new to science: B. barbata, B. fruticulosa, B. wuii and B. yunnana. Consequently, the number of Bryoria spe- cies known from this area is increased to 24. Detailed descriptions of the new species and a key to all the known Chinese species are provided. Divaricatae, Lichenized fungi, Taxonomy
27885Notov A.A. & Zhukova L.A. (2015): Epiphytic lichens and bryophytes at different ontogenetic stages of Pinus sylvestris. - Wulfenia, 22: 245–260.
We studied the species composition and structure of epiphytic communities at different ontogenetic stages of Pinus sylvestris L. in the Tver Region (Central Russia). When distinguishing the ontogenetic stages, we used different morphological and biological features. We investigated structural characteristics of the tree, which determine richness, spatial distribution and ecological spectra of lichens, mosses and liverworts. Analysis of structural changes in the ontogeny of a tree allows us to understand the dynamics of the development of epiphytic communities and patterns of spatial distribution of cryptogamic species. Structural differentiation of the tree increases the heterogeneity of microhabitats, and hereby richness and ecological diversity of lichens and bryophytes are increased. Keywords: lichens, bryophytes, epiphytic cryptogam cover, lichen and bryophyte communities, liverworts, mosses, Pinus sylvestris, tree ontogeny, ontogenetic stages.
27884Tore B.K. & Ozturk S. (2009): Taxonomic Investigations on the Epiphytic Lichens on Quercus sp. of Uludag (Bursa – Turkey). - Journal of Environmental Biology, 3(7): 17-24 .
In this study, 85 lichen taxa belonging to 34 genera and 15 families were determined from 772 lichen samples collected from 30 stations from 06.06.2004 to 24.05.2006. Seven lichen taxa for Bursa are new records. The epiphytic lichen taxa are collected from Quercus cerris L. var. cerris, Quercus frainetto Ten., Quercus infectoria Oliver subsp. infectoria, Quercus petraea (Mattuschka) Liebl. subsp. iberica, Quercus petraea (Mattuschka) Liebl. subsp. petraea, Quercus pubescens Willd. and Quercus robur L. subsp. robur L. which spread all over Uludag. The aims of this study is to investigate the epiphytic lichen diversity based on their substrate specificity that are grown on the Quercus species in Uludag mountain. The different epiphytic lichen species from different Quercus taxa at the same locality or same substrat at the different locality were determined. From these results, we think that the various properties of substrats change at the different levels because of the environment factors and this changing is effected the diversity and composition of the epiphytic lichen species on Quercus taxa. Key Words: Bursa, Lichen, Quercus, Turkey, Uludag.
27883Kalb K. & Giralt M. (2011): Orcularia, a segregate from the lichen genera Buellia and Rinodina (Lecanoromycetes, Caliciaceae). - Phytotaxa, 38(1): 53-60 .
The new lichen genus Orcularia, based on Rinodina sect. Orcularia, is described. It is characterized by Orcularia-type ascospores and filiform conidia. So far the newly described O. elixii as well as O. insperata (type species), O. placodiomorpha and O. placodiomorphoides are found to belong to this genus. Descriptions, illustrations and a key for them are provided. Key words: lichenized Ascomycota, Australia, taxonomy.
27882Varga N., Lőkös L. & Farkas E. (2016): The lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi of the Soroksár Botanical Garden (Szent István University, Budapest, Hungary). - Studia Botanica Hungarica, 47(1): 13–28.
A total of 78 lichen-forming and 5 lichenicolous fungi were recognised in the Soroksár Botanical Garden (Budapest, Hungary). Psorotichia frustulenta is new to Hungary. A nitrofrequent lichen community is represented by the most frequent, common species. Some rare, interesting species, e.g. Flavoparmelia soredians, Piccolia ochrophora were also found. The legally protected Cladonia magyarica was discovered in sandy grassland habitat of a sand dune. Key words: anthropogenic, eutrophicated, floristic novelty, lichens, protected species.
27881Crous P.W., Carris L.M., Giraldo A., Groenewald J.Z., Hawksworth D.L., Hernández-Restrepo M., Jaklitsch W.M., Lebrun M.H., Schumacher R.K., Stielow J.B., van der Linde E.J., Vilcāne J., Voglmayr H. & Wood A.R. (2015): The Genera of Fungi - fixing the application of the type species of generic names - G 2: Allantophomopsis, Latorua, Macrodiplodiopsis, Macrohilum, Milospium, Protostegia, Pyricularia, Robillarda, Rotula, Septoriella, Torula, and Wojnowicia. - IMA Fungus, 6(1): 163-198.
The present paper represents the second contribution in the Genera of Fungi series, linking type species of fungal genera to their morphology and DNA sequence data, and where possible, ecology. This paper focuses on 12 genera of microfungi, 11 of which the type species are neo- or epitypified here: Allantophomopsis (A. cytisporea, Phacidiaceae, Phacidiales, Leotiomycetes), Latorua gen. nov. (Latorua caligans, Latoruaceae, Pleosporales, Dothideomycetes), Macrodiplodiopsis (M. desmazieri, Macrodiplodiopsidaceae, Pleosporales, Dothideomycetes), Macrohilum (M. eucalypti, Macrohilaceae, Diaporthales, Sordariomycetes), Milospium (M. graphideorum, incertae sedis, Pezizomycotina), Protostegia (P. eucleae, Mycosphaerellaceae, Capnodiales, Dothideomycetes), Pyricularia (P. grisea, Pyriculariaceae, Magnaporthales, Sordariomycetes), Robillarda (R. sessilis, Robillardaceae, Xylariales, Sordariomycetes), Rutola (R. graminis, incertae sedis, Pleosporales, Dothideomycetes), Septoriella (S. phragmitis, Phaeosphaeriaceae, Pleosporales, Dothideomycetes), Torula (T. herbarum, Torulaceae, Pleosporales, Dothideomycetes) and Wojnowicia (syn. of Septoriella, S. hirta, Phaeosphaeriaceae, Pleosporales, Dothideomycetes). Novel species include Latorua grootfonteinensis, Robillarda africana, R. roystoneae, R. terrae, Torula ficus, T. hollandica, and T. masonii spp. nov., and three new families: Macrodiplodiopsisceae, Macrohilaceae, and Robillardaceae. Authors interested in contributing accounts of individual genera to larger multi-authored papers to be published in IMA Fungus, should contact the associate editors listed for the major groups of fungi on the List of Protected Generic Names for Fungi (www.generaoffungi.org). KEYWORDS: DNA Barcodes; ITS; LSU; epitype; fungal systematics; typification; www.GeneraofFungi.org
27880Hardman A., Stone D. & Selva S. (2017): Calicioid lichens and fungi of the Gifford Pinchot and Okanogan-Wenatchee National Forests in Washington, U.S.A . - Opuscula Philolichenum, 16: 1-14.
National Forest lands in the state of Washington were surveyed for calicioid lichens and fungi. Sixty-four plots were investigated and 930 collections were made. Fifty-seven species in nine genera were found, including Chaenothecopsis lecanactidis, C. nivea, C. vainioana, and Phaeocalicium interruptum, which are reported as new to North America. Chaenothecopsis norstictica and C. nigra are reported as new to western North America. Our observations confirm conclusions drawn by others that forests with the highest structural diversity have the highest number of calicioid species present. Calicioid, Calicium, Chaenotheca, Chaenothecopsis, Cyphelium, Gifford Pinchot National Forest, Microcalicium, Mycocalicium, Okanogan-Wenatchee National Forest, old growth, Phaeocalicium, pin lichens, Sclerophora, Stenocybe
27879Knudsen K., Lendemer J.C., Schultz M., Kocourková J., Sheard J.W., Pigniolo A. & Wheeler T. (2017): Lichen biodiversity and ecology in the San Bernardino and San Jacinto Mountains in southern California (U.S.A.). - Opuscula Philolichenum, 16: 15-138.
San Bernardino National Forest in southern California encompasses two major mountain ranges, the San Bernardino Mountains and the San Jacinto Mountains. Here 414 taxa of lichenized fungi are reported from San Bernardino National Forest as a whole; 327 from the San Jacinto Mountains (including the Santa Rosa Mountains), and 289 from the San Bernardino Mountains. Two species new to science are described: Lecanora remota and Lecidea stratura. Two undescribed taxa of Bellemerea and Scytinium are reported, both currently under study. Five species are reported new for North America and California: Gloeoheppia rugosa, Lecanora formosa, Peccania cernohorskyi, P. corallina and Psorotichia vermiculata. Peccania cernohorskyi is also reported new for Canada (British Columbia). Eight species are reported new for California: Caloplaca diphasia, C. isidiigera, Peltigera extenuata, Rhizocarpon simillimum, Rinodina lobulata, R. terrestris, Sarcogyne squamosa, and Xylographa difformis. Lecidea xanthococcoides is recognized as a synonym of Lecanora cadubriae. The California endemic Lecidea kingmanii is reported as producing 4-0-demethylplanaic acid. Polysporina simplex is treated as Acarospora simplex and P. urceolata as A. urceolata. The new combination Acarospora gyrocarpa is proposed for Polysporina gyrocarpa. Acarosporaceae, calciphiles, climate change, fire ecology, fungal diversity, Mojave Desert, Pleistocene, Sonoran Desert
27878Esslinger T.L. (2017): A new circumscription for the common and widespread North American species Physcia subtilis, and description of a new species, P. thomsoniana. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 16: 139-152.
The common eastern North American species Physcia subtilis is shown to be heterogeneous and to consist of at least two distinct species, one of them smaller, with consistently narrow lobes and a top to bottom paraplectenchymatous thallus anatomy, and the other an often larger species, with lobes varying from narrow to considerably broader, and a more typical thallus anatomy with a medulla composed of distinct hyphae. Based on the type material and protologue, the name P. subtilis belongs to the less common, smaller species, and the other taxon is here described as the new species, P. thomsoniana. Physcia thomsoniana Essl. (from Canada and U.S.A.)
27877Anzi M. (1860): Catalogus lichenum quos in provincia Sondriensi collegit et ordinavit et in ordinem systematicum digessit presbyter M. Anzi. - Tip. C. Franchi, Novi-Comi, 126 p.
Italy; many new taxa
27876Pykälä J., Launis A. & Myllys L. (2017): Verrucaria ahtii, V. oulankaensis and V. vitikainenii, three new species from the Endocarpon group (Verrucariaceae, lichenized Ascomycota). - Lichenologist, 49(2): 107–116.
Three new species of Verrucaria are described from calcareous and calciferous rocks in Finland based on morphology and ITS sequences. The species are all members of the Endocarpon group in the Verrucariaceae. Verrucaria oulankaensis sp. nov. is related to V. cernaensis but differing in its usually pruinose, small areolate thallus. It occurs in NE Finland on calcareous and calciferous rocks on river shores. Verrucaria ahtii sp. nov. and V. vitikainenii sp. nov. form a sister group in the ITS phylogeny. Verrucaria vitikainenii differs from V. ahtii in the darker and thinner thallus, absence of a prothallus and in the perithecia, which lack thalline cover. Verrucaria ahtii morphologically resembles V. apomelaena but differs in having a thinner involucrellum and a fimbriate prothallus. It has a southern distribution in Finland and prefers sun-exposed sites, particularly pebbles in lime quarries. The species is also reported from Lithuania and Russia. Verrucaria vitikainenii has an eastern distribution in Finland. The species is a strict calcicole, preferring half-shady habitats. Verrucaria apomelaena is excluded from the Finnish lichen flora. calcareous rocks, Finland, ITS, lichens, Lithuania, Russia, taxonomy
27875Jiang D.-F., Wang H.-Y., Si H.-L., Zhao L., Liu C.-P. & Zhang H. (2017): Isolation and culture of lichen bacteriobionts. - Lichenologist, 49(2): 175–181.
Lichens are increasingly regarded as a complicated microcosm formed by a large number of lichen-associated fungi and non- photoautotrophic bacteria, in addition to the photobionts and mycobionts (Grube et al. 2012). Some non-photoautotrophic bacteria harboured in lichen microbiomes are con- sidered by some as integral players in the lichen symbiosis and have been referred to as bacteriobionts (Grube & Berg 2009).
27874Tehler A. (2017): Three new combinations in the genus Fulvophyton (Roccellographaceae, Arthoniales). - Lichenologist, 49(2): 171–173.
The genus Fulvophyton was introduced by Ertz & Tehler (2011) to accommodate species formerly accepted in Sclerophyton by Sparrius (2004), but differing from the generic type by having rounded to ellipsoid, often white pruinose ascomata and a hyaline or pale hypothecium.
27873Hestmark G. (2017): Lectotypification of Umbilicaria torrefacta (Lightf. ) Schrad.. - Lichenologist, 49(2): 167–169.
The mainly saxicolous lichen genus Umbilicaria is distributed worldwide in the boreal and alpine-arctic-antarctic vegetation zones. The circumscription and number of its species is reasonably well known, particularly in Europe (Frey 1933; Llano 1950; Wei & Jiang 1993; Krog et al. 1994; Smith et al. 2009). Nevertheless, quite a number of its taxa lack proper typification, a task often made difficult by complex histories of synonyms and misidentifications (Hestmark 1993, 2007, 2010, 2014, 2015).
27872Vivas M., Pérez-Ortega S., Pintado A., Sancho L.G. (2017): Fv/Fm acclimation to the Mediterranean summer drought in two sympatric Lasallia species from the Iberian mountains. - Lichenologist, 49(2): 157–165.
Photosynthetic performance in lichens can vary throughout the year. We investigate the variation in the PSII quantum efficiency as a proxy for the physiological state of the photosynthetic apparatus in two umbilicate species from the genus Lasallia. Temporal variation in Fv/Fm in both species was monitored at a field site in Central Spain where both species coexist. Subsequent measurements were carried out in the laboratory after 48h preconditioning. Both species showed clear variation during the year in PSII performance, with a marked depression in Fv/Fm during the summer. Lasallia pustulata consistently had higher Fv/Fm values than L. hispanica. Both species reached higher Fv/Fm values after 48h of preconditioning in the laboratory and this recovery was particularly notable in the summer months. Fv/Fm was highly related to antecedent weather conditions during the two days prior to measurement. chlorophyll fluorescence, lichens, PSII, quantum efficiency, seasonal effects
27871Ellis C.J. & Coppins B.J. (2017): Taxonomic survey compared to ecological sampling: are the results consistent for woodland epiphytes? . - Lichenologist, 49(2): 141–155.
Field survey by a taxonomist or specialist biologist (‘taxonomic survey’) provides a comprehensive inventory of species in a habitat. Common and conspicuous species are rapidly recorded and search effort can be targeted to inconspicuous or rare species. However, the subjective nature of taxonomic survey limits its usefulness in ecological monitoring and analysis. In contrast, ‘ecological sampling’, focused on the standardized use of repeated sub-units such as quadrats, is designed to quantify the observational error of results, allowing for more robust statistical treatment. Nevertheless, the spatial extent of recording will be lower during ecological sampling, and rarities might be missed. Despite their differences, these two approaches are often assumed to be congruent for decision making. Taxonomic survey is commonly used to identify priority sites for conservation (including species-rich sites, or those with many rare/threatened species) while ecological sampling is used to design conservation strategy by relating species richness or composition to habitat dynamics. If these contrasting approaches are indeed congruent, then trends in species richness and community composition, detected by ecological sampling, will mirror the results of taxonomic survey so that management confidently protects the attributes for which a site was prioritized. This study performed both taxonomic survey and ecological sampling for lichen epiphytes in 13 woodland study sites in Scotland. To understand the procedure of taxonomic survey, fieldwork by a professional taxonomist was structured by effort into 15-minute time intervals. As expected, taxonomic survey discovered more species per site, while ecological sampling (allowing a measure of species frequency) resolved greater variation in community composition. However, the patterns of richness and species composition obtained from the different methods were correlated, suggesting an overall high degree of congruence in identifying and then managing priority sites. Furthermore, when exploring the taxonomic survey in detail, we found that a minimum effort of 45 minutes was required to accurately determine species richness differences among contrasting woodland sites. accumulation curve, inventory, lichens, quadrat, randomized resampling, sampling effort
27870Ertz D., Søchting U., Gadea A., Charrier M. & Poulsen R.S. (2017): Ducatina umbilicata gen. et sp. nov., a remarkable Trapeliaceae from the subantarctic islands in the Indian Ocean. - Lichenologist, 49(2): 127–140.
The new genus and species Ducatina umbilicata is described from Îles Crozet and Îles Kerguelen. This lichen is characterized by an umbilicate thallus with a black verrucose lower surface and a greyish to dark olivaceous smooth upper surface having large verrucae, large semi- immersed cephalodia, semi-immersed apothecia with a prominent thalline margin, simple, mainly ellipsoid ascospores of 23–42×12–25μm and the presence of unknown chemical compounds. Phylogenetic analyses using nuLSU and mtSSU sequences place Ducatina in the Trapeliaceae (Baeomycetales). The new taxon is closely related to Orceolina antarctica and O. kerguelensis, two other lichens endemic to these subantarctic islands, differing by its morphology and the lack of chemical compounds. Ducatina is the only genus in the Trapeliaceae to develop a large umbilicate thallus. Aspiciliopsis, Baeomycetales, biodiversity, lichens, Orceolina, phylogeny, Placopsis, taxonomy
27869Yakovchenko L.S., Vondrák J., Ohmura Y., Korchikov E.S., Vondrákova O.S. & Davydov E.A. (2017): Candelariella blastidiata sp. nov. (Ascomycota, Candelariaceae) from Eurasia and North America, and a key for grey thalli Candelariella. - Lichenologist, 49(2): 117–126.
Candelariella blastidiata Yakovchenko sp. nov. is described. This corticolous species is characterized by biatorine yellow apothecia, a grey squamulose thallus with marginal and lower side blastidia, 8-spored asci, and a northern circumpolar distribution. Candelariella subdeflexa has previously been confused with C. blastidiata, but our analyses of phenotypic and DNA sequence data revealed C. blastidiata should be distinguished from C. subdeflexa. A worldwide key for Candelariella species with grey thalli is provided. Candelariales, Candelariella subdeflexa, lichens, new species, species pair, taxonomy
27868Leers J.D. (1775): Flora herbornensis exhibens plantas circa Herbornam Nassoviorum crescentes, secundum systema sexuale Linnæanum distributas, cum descriptionibus rariorum in primis graminum, propriisque observationibus et nomenclatore. Accesserunt graminum omnium indigenorum eorumque adfinium icones CIV. Auctoris manu ad vivum delineatae aerique incisae. - Sumptibus Auctoris, Herbornae Nassovicorum, [I-LIX +] 288 p.
Germany; lichenes (Lichen, Byssus) at p. 252-267
27867Petersen K., Calabria L.M., Miller J.E.D., Brown-Clay J., Hynson L., Steen T., Johnston K., Ulbrich A., Chandler E., Miller M. & Villella J. (2017): Substrate age influences species richness and community composition of calicioid lichens and fungi on wooden buildings. - Bryologist, 120(1): 19–24.
Identifying processes that drive epiphytic lichen diversity and succession is important for directing conservation efforts and developing forest management plans for the maintenance of biodiversity and forest health. Stand age has been implicated as a key factor in driving epiphytic species diversity and community composition. However, understanding the influence of substrate age, independent of the many confounding variables that affect live and dead wood substrates in a forest habitat, can be difficult. To test the hypothesis that substrate age has distinct effects on lichen community assembly independent of surface area, we sampled communities of calicioid lichens and fungi growing on wooden buildings that ranged from 2 to 82 years old. We found a total of 17 species, with a strong positive correlation between species richness and substrate age. We also tested the effects of surface area on species richness and found no relationship between the two variables. Our results indicate that substrate age influenced community composition; non-lichenized calicioid species acted as early colonizers and six calicioid species were recorded only on the oldest substrate. Old-growth associate species were found on substrates of varying ages, implying that additional variables may also be responsible for the colonization of old-growth associate species. Keywords: Chaenotheca, Calicium, Mycocalicium, Chaenothecopsis, Cyphelium, Microcalicium, old-growth forest, chronosequence, Oregon.
27866Perlmutter G.B., Blank G.B., Wentworth T.R., Lowman M.D., Neufeld H.S. & Rivas Plata E. (2017): Effects of highway pollution on forest lichen community structure in western Wake County, North Carolina, U.S.A.. - Bryologist, 120(1): 1–10.
We studied lichen communities along forest edge-to-interior gradients on opposite sides of a major highway and along a remote lakeshore in central North Carolina, U.S.A., to investigate highway pollution effects on this sensitive ecosystem component. At each site we sampled lichens on trees at 10 m intervals along each of five parallel transects established at the forest edge and at 25, 60, 100, and 150 m into the forest in the highway sites, with a similar layout along a nonlinear lakeshore in a similar forest type, from which transect distances from the forest edge were estimated using average tree distances from the nearest shoreline. Lichen communities were inventoried on tree trunks from the base up to 1.5 m height, then compared both among and within sites. Species richness was highest in the control site, and did not differ between the two highway sites. The highway sites were more similar to one another than either was to the control site, based on Bray-Curtis similarity indices. No associations were detected among sites and sampled lichen biotic components in terms of growth form, photobiont type or reproductive mode. In the highway sites, total transect species richness increased from the forest edge to 150 m distant. In the control site, species richness decreased from the forest edge to the most distant transect. Findings suggest a negative effect of highway pollution on species richness of lichen communities, but not on species composition by habit, photobiont type or reproductive mode. Despite the elevated NOx concentrations recorded along the highway, known nitrophilous species were largely absent, suggesting that other factors, including other pollutants, were affecting community structure near the highway. Keywords: Lichen biodiversity, nitrogen pollution effects, southeastern United States.
27865Lendemer J.C. & Ray D. (2017): Two new pinicolous Arthonia (Arthoniaceae; Arthoniomycetes) from the Delmarva Peninsula of the Atlantic Coastal Plain in eastern North America. - Bryologist, 120(1): 11–18.
Two new non-lichenized Arthonia are described from the branches and wood of pine trees (Pinus spp.) in the Coastal Plain of southeastern North America. Arthonia samdykeana is a characterized by its lack of photobiont, large irregularly shaped ascomata, and 6–9(–10–12)-celled ascospores that are macrocephallic. Arthonia gutberletiana is characterized by its lack of photobiont, black circular apothecia with persistent margins, hyaline 2-celled ascospores and occurrence on pine wood. Keywords: Industrial forestry, lichenization, mycobiont.
27864Peterson E.B. & Goward T. (2016): Chaenothecopsis aeruginosa sp. nov., an overlooked calicioid in the Pacific Northwest of North America. - Herzogia, 29(2): 561–565.
Northwestern North America has lately been shown to support a rich assemblage of calicioid lichenized and non-lichenized fungi. Here we describe the non-lichenized fungus Chaenothecopsis aeruginosa (Ascomycota, Mycocaliciales) as new to science. This species is endemic to the U.S. Pacific Northwest and adjacent Canada, where it ranges from Oregon northward to inland British Columbia. It is locally frequent in coastal old-growth rainforests in the southern portions of its range and inland old-growth rainforests farther north. Key words: Caliciales, Mycocaliciales, old-growth forests.
27863Kondratyuk S.Y., Lőkös L., Kim J.A., Kondratiuk A.S., Jeong M.H., Jang S.H., Oh S.-O. & Hur J.-S. (2015): Three new monotypic genera of the caloplacoid lichens (Teloschistaceae, lichen-forming Ascomycetes). - Mycobiology, 43(3): 195–202.
Three monophyletic branches are strongly supported in a phylogenetic analysis of the Teloschistaceae based on combined data sets of internal transcribed spacer and large subunit nrDNA and 12S small subunit mtDNA sequences. These are described as new monotypic genera: Jasonhuria S.Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et S.-O. Oh, Loekoesia S.Y. Kondr., S.-O. Oh et J.-S. Hur and Olegblumia S.Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur. Three new combinations for the type species of these genera are proposed. Keywords: Caloplacoideae, Gyalolechia, Jasonhuria, Loekoesia, Olegblumia, Pyrenodesmia.
27862Wang X.Y., Liu D., Lőkös L., Kondratyuk S.Y., Oh S.-O., Park J.S. & Hur J.-S. (2016): New species and new records of Buellia (lichenized Ascomycetes) from Jeju Province, South Korea. - Mycobiology, 44(1): 14–20.
A new species and 2 new records of lichen genus Buellia were discovered from Chuja-do Island in Jeju Province during a recent floristic survey: B. chujana X. Y. Wang, S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös & J.-S. Hur sp. nov., B. halonia (Ach.) Tuck., and B. mamillana (Tuck.) W. A. Weber. The new species is characterized by a brown, areolate thallus, the presence of perlatolic acid, and a saxicolous habitat. Together with previously recorded species, 10 Buellia species were confirmed from Jeju-do Island. Among these species, 3 growing in the exposed rocky area contained xanthone (yellowish lichen thallus, UV + orange), indicating that production of xanthone in this genus might be a defense strategy against the harm of UV light. Although the genus Buellia has been thoroughly studied in Korea before, novel species have been discovered continuously, and large species diversity has been found in this crustose genus, even from a small rocky island. This study indicates that the coastal area harbors a vast number of crustose lichen species, and there is great potential to discover unknown lichens in the coastal rocky area in Korea. Keywords Coastal area, Lichenized fungi, New species, Taxonomy.
27861Lee B.G. & Hur J.-S. (2016): Three new species and nine new records in the genus Arthonia from South Korea . - Mycobiology, 44(4): 202–216.
Arthonia coreana, Arthonia superpallens, and Arthonia zelkovae are new species from South Korea. All new species are in the Euarthonia tribe, based on the key characteristics of colorless hypothecium and multi-cellular spores. A. coreana has a dull brownish hypophloedal thallus without bleaching and rounded or curved big apothecia in comparison with those of Arthonia punctiformis. A. coreana consistently exhibits 4-septate ascospores, which is a distinctive characteristic that distinguishes it from other Arthonia species. A. superpallens has a white-greenish thallus, pale yellowish apothecia, and a trentepohlioid alga. However, A. superpallens has no distinct prothallus, adnate, and convex apothecia, no pycnidia, and is UV-, in contrast with related species in the Arthonia antillarum group. A. zelkovae has a white, epiphloedal thallus, brownish-black epruinose apothecia covered with a whitish bark layer, and smaller ascospores in comparison with those of A. punctiformis. A. zelkovae consists of a chlorococcoid alga, which differs from related Arthonia species such as A. punctiformis, Arthonia pinastri, and Arthonia glaucella. Although A. zelkovae is similar to Arthonia dispersa in its white-colored thallus, blackish apothecia, and the presence of a chlorococcoid photobiont, A. zelkovae differs from the latter in having larger-sized 3-septate ascospores. Arthonia cinnabarina f. marginata, A. glaucella, Arthonia ilicinella, Arthonia lapidicola, Arthonia leioplacella, Arthonia pertabescens, A. pinastri, Arthonia spadicea, and Arthonia stellaris are newly described in Korea. The diagnostic characteristics of these species are discussed and presented. An artificial key is provided to facilitate identification of Arthonia species from Northeast Asia. Keywords Arthonia, Corticolous, New species, South Korea.
27860Gheza G., Assini S. & Valcuvia Passadore M. (2016): Terricolous lichen communities of Corynephorus canescens grasslands of Northern Italy. - Tuexenia, 36: 121–142.
In Italy most of the habitats hosting terricolous lichens are found in the Alps and along the coasts, but some lichen-rich plant communities are also present in the Po Plain. We report a study of terricolous lichen communities found in dry grasslands attributed to Spergulo vernalis-Corynephoretum canescentis in the western Po Plain (Northern Italy), in accordance with the Braun-Blanquet approach. Relevés (138) were carried out in several developmental stages of the Corynephorus grassland. They were sorted manually and analyzed using ANOSIM, non-parametric MANOVA and PCA. Indicator species of the groups were found by means of INDVAL and SIMPER analyses and literature. Seven lichen vegetation types were distinguished. These were attributable to 4 described associations: Stereocauletum condensati, Cladonietum foliaceae (in which we found 3 subassociations: typicum, cladonietosum furcatae and cladonietosum subrangiformis), Cladonietum mitis and Cladonietum rei, and to one impoverished community (Cetraria aculeata community). Ordination of floristic variables showed several overlaps between communities, underlining the depleted floristic conditions found in the study area, where several species occur in many communities and other species are very rare, and thus play a minor role in the differentiation of the lichen vegetation types. Overlaps are also referable to intermediate conditions between one community and another, reflecting dynamic relationships, with Stereocauletum condensati, Cetraria aculeata community and Cladonietum foliaceae typicum having the most distinct pioneer character and Cladonietum mitis being the most evolved. Ordination of ecological variables based on the indices of substrate pH, light and humidity requirements and tolerance to eutrophication showed several overlaps between the communities, found to be from acidophytic to subneutrophytic, from rather to very photophytic, from mesophytic to rather xerophytic and from anitrophytic to slightly nitrophytic. Rarity in Italy and conservation needs are discussed in detail, also in comparison with the situation of the same communities in central European Corynephorus grasslands. These grasslands and their typical lichen communities are rare in Italy and, though somewhat depleted, they are the habitat of several threatened lichen species at the southern margin of their distribution range. Therefore management plans should always consider both the cryptogamic and the vascular plant communities. Keywords: Cladonietum foliaceae, Cladonietum mitis, Cladonietum rei, lichen vegetation, phytosociology, Po Plain, Spergulo-Corynephoretum, Stereocauletum condensati.
27859Kalb K. (2016): Lichenes neotropici. Fascikel XV (No. 601–625). - Archive for Lichenology, 11: 1–12.
231. Malmidea polycampia (Tuck.) Kalb & Lücking, 495. Gyalolechia stipitata (Wetmore) Søchting, Frödén & Arup, 601. Amandinea xylographella (Nyl.) Marbach, 602. Anzia lopezii Yoshim., 603. Buellia bahiana Malme, 604. Calicium lutescens Tibell, 605. Chaenotheca brunneola (Ach.) Müll. Arg., 606. Cladonia divaricata Nyl., 607. Coenogonium nepalense (Thor & Vězda) Lücking & al., 608. Eschatogonia marivelensis (Vain.) Kalb, 609. Eschatogonia marivelensis (Vain.) Kalb, 610. Fellhanera laeticolor (Malme) Kalb, comb. nov. Bas.: Bacidia laeticolor Malme, Arkiv för Botanik 27 A (5): 8 (1935)., 611. Fuscidea tropica v. d. Boom & Kalb PARATYPUS, 612. Gyrotrema sinuosum (Sipman) Frisch, 613. Lecanographa illecebrosula (Müll. Arg.) Egea & Torrente, 614. Lecidella nashiana Knoph & Leuckert, 615. Leptogium kalbii Marcelli & I. P. R. Cunha, 616. Malmidea perplexa Kalb PARATYPUS, 617. Pertusaria flavens Nyl., 618. Pliariona montagnei (Bosch) Mont., 619. Pyrenula fetivica (Kremp.) Müll. Arg., 620. Ramboldia haematites (Fée) Kalb, Lumbsch & Elix Brasilien/São Paulo. Municipio de São Manuel, Fazenda Palmeira da Serra, an, 621. Ramboldia stuartii (Hampe) Kantvilas & Elix, 622. Rinodina boleana Giralt & H. Mayrhofer, 623. Rinodina boleana Giralt & H. Mayrhofer, 624. Rinodina aff. inspersoparietata Giralt & v. d. Boom Brasilien/SãoPaulo. Ponta do Baleeiro; ca. 6 km S von São Sebastião, an, 625. Septotrapelia usnica (Sipman) Kalb & Bungartz c. apoth.!, 626. Stereocaulon strictum Th. Fr. var. strictum, 627. Usnea bogotensis Vain.,
27858Schumm F. (2014): Verzeichnis meiner 2008-2014 publizierten Flechten-Bildtafeln [List of my published 2008-2014 lichens image plates]. - Archive for Lichenology, 10: 1-38.
lichens image plates
27857Ohmura Y. (2014): Usnea flavocardia (Parmeliaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) new to Asia. - Bulletin of the National Museum of Nature and Science: Series B (Botany), 40(2): 69-72.
Usnea flavocardia is reported as new to Asia. It was collected from Taiwan where it grows on twig of Aquifoliaceae and bark of Tsuga sp. at elevation between 1900 and 3100 m. The description is given based on the Taiwanese specimens. flora, lichenized fungi, secondary substances, Taiwan, taxonomy
27856Mies B. A. (2014): Neue und interessante Flechten (lichenisierte Ascomyceten) aus Eifel, Ardennen und Hunsrück. - Delattinia, 40: 159-173.
New and interesting lichens (lichenized Ascomycetes) from Eifel, Ardennes and Hunsrück. Out of the mountainous Eifel Mountains, the adjacent Ardennes and the Hunsrück 52 interesting lichen species are mentioned, some of those new reported. Arthonia ilicinella, hitherto only known from the British Isles, has been recorded for Continental Europe for the irst time and Graphis ruiziana new to Central Europe as well. The new variety Calicium salicinum var. macrosporum is described from the Eifel Mountains. New indings for Nordrhein-Westfalen are Lecanora aitema, Mycoglaena acuminans and Peridiothelia fuliguncta; Biatoridium monasteriense and Cresporhaphis wienkampii have been re-found since appr. 130 years. New for Rheinland-Pfalz are Bacidia hemipolia, Catillaria minuta, Lempholemma elveloideum and Strigula jamesii. Cliostomum corrugatum and Pseudosagedium byssophila are remarkable re-collections since the 19th century. New for Saarland are Arachnopeziza aurelia, Arthonia ilicinella, Arthopyrenia cinereopruinosa, Chaenotheca phaeocephala, Cliostomum grifithii, Melanomma pulvis-pyrius, Mycocalicium subtile and Zwackhia viridis
27855Moncada B., Suárez A. & Lücking R. (2012): Tenth Meeting of the Grupo Latinoamericano de Liquenólogos (GLAL X): Book of Abstracts. [Décimo Encuentro del Grupo Latinoamericano de Liquenólogos (GLAL X): Libro de Resúmenes]. - Glalia, 4(4): 1–134.
The program and abstracts of the 10th meeting of the Grupo Latinoamericano de Liquenólogos (GLAL X) are presented, held in the Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas, Bogota D.C., Colombia, between November 28 and December 3 of 2011. During the encounter of 94 participants from 13 countries in North, Central, and South America and Europe, 109 contributions by a total of 187 authors were presented, between keynote talks and oral and poster presentations, ranging from floristic and taxonomic inventories, to systematics and phylogeny, to ecology, conservation, and bioindication, to bio- chemistry and biotechnology, to outreach, learning, and ethnolichenology, besides speciality workshops on topics such as taxonomy and applications. The present volume contains the detailed program and the abstracts of these contributions, together with selected illustrations. Allographa, Antárctica, Argentina, Brazil, Buellia, Canomaculina, Cladonia, Chile, Cuba, Dictyonema, Everniastrum, Flavopunctelia, foliícolas, Graphidaceae, Graphis, Guatemala, Hypotrachyna, Leptogium, Lobariella, Malmographina, metales pesados, Mexico, Nasutitermes, Parmotrema, Peltigera, polución de aire, Pseudocyphellaria, Puerto Rico, Punctelia, Stereocaulon, Sticta, Trypetheliaceae, Usnea, Venezuela
27854Boom P.P.G. van den, Kalb K. & Elix J.A. (2014): Fuscidea tropica, a new lichen species from Brazil, Guatemala and Venezuela. - Glalia, 6(4): 1–7.
Fuscidea tropica, a new lichen species from Brazil, Guatemala and Venezuela. Glalia 6(4): 1–7. — The new species Fuscidea tropica van den Boom & Kalb from higher mountain ranges (c. 1000 m and 3150 m) in the Neotropics. It is characterized chiefly by its corti- colous habitat, medially constricted ascospores and the presence of sekikaic acid. In addition, the new combi- nation Malmidea fulva (Malme) Kalb & van den Boom is made. Neotropics, Malmidea, species nova, new combination, ecology, taxonomy, chemistry
27853Lücking R. (2014): A key to species of the Ocellularia papillata, perforata and terebrata morphodemes (Ascomycota: Graphidaceae). - Glalia, 6(3): 1-34.
A key is presented to 69 species similar or related to Ocellularia papillata, O. perforata, and O. terebrata, that is species with columellate ascomata, small, hyaline, transversely septate ascospores, and either lacking secondary substances or with the protocetraric or psoromic acid chemosyndrome. Six sorediate species are also mentioned, for a total of 75 taxa. Four new combinations are proposed: Ocellularia erodens (R. C. Harris) Lücking, O. khaoyaiana (Homchant. & Coppins) Lücking, O. rongklaensis (Homchant. & Coppins) Lücking, and O. subminuta (Homchant. & Coppins) Lücking. The following eleven previously synonymized names are reinstated: Ocellularia cinereoglaucescens (Vain.) Zahlbr., O. collativa (Kremp.) Zahlbr., O. comparabilis (Kremp.) Müll. Arg., O. excavata (Vain.) Zahlbr., O. gymnocarpa (Nyl.) Zahlbr., O. protocetrarica Hale, O. rufocincta Müll. Arg., O. violacea Räsänen, O. viridipallens Müll. Arg., and O. zamboangensis (Vain.) Zahlbr. Ocellularia erodens (R.C.Harris) Lücking (≡ Myriotrema erodens R.C.Harris), O. khaoyaiana (Homchant. & Coppins) Lücking (≡ M. khaoyaianum Homchant. & Coppins), O. rongklaensis (Homchant. & Coppins) Lücking (≡ M. rongklaense Homchant. & Coppins), O. subminuta (Homchant. & Coppins) Lücking (≡ M. subminutum Homchant. & Coppins).
27852Preikša Z., Brazaitis G., Marozas V. & Jaroszewicz B. (2015): Dead wood quality influences species diversity of rare cryptogams in temperate broadleaved forests. - iForest, 9: 276-285.
Dead wood is one of the most important indicators of forest naturalness and the most important manageable habitat for biodiversity in forests. Standing and lying dead wood, and especially coarse woody debris, plays an important part in creating habitats for many highly specialized organisms, e.g., insects, fungi, lichens and bacteria. Temperate mixed deciduous forests, rich in species, have been studied only to a small extent from the point of view of the ecology of wood-related cryptogams. Our study aimed at the reduction of the gap in knowledge about the ecological characteristics of dead wood-dependent organisms by focusing on species of cryptogams developing on various dead wood structures typical of temperate non-beech forests. Studies were performed in forests located in Lithuania, Poland, Belarus and Russia. We recorded 48 species of cryptogams: 18 species of bryophytes, 24 species of fungi and 6 species of lichens developing on dead wood. Our study stresses the importance of all types of dead wood as a substrate for the development of rare cryptogam species. Logs were the most important substratum type for cryptogams, followed by snags, dead trees and stumps. The cryptogam species richness on logs was several times higher than on the three other types of substrata. Coarse logs of intermediate decay stages hosted the highest number of cryptogams, followed by freshly fallen logs and, finally, well decayed logs. Assessing the importance of dead wood quality for the studied cryptogams, we found that intermediate decay stages are extremely important for fungi, while bryophytes or lichens do not show a clear preference. The highest number of cryptogams was found on Fraxinus excelsior, Quercus robur and Picea abies, while other tree species had less than half cryptogam species. Keywords: Macrolichens, Fungi, Bryophytes, Tree Species, Indicator Species, Decay Stages.