31576Pranjić K., Adlassnig W., Peroutka M., Pois W., Mayer E. & Lichtscheidl I.K. (2006): Flora und Ökologie des Hochmoores „Schwarzes Moos" . - Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Österreich, 143: 97–111.
[Flora and ecology of the ombrogenic fen "Schwarzes Moos".] The ombrogenic fen "Schwarzes Moos" ("Black fen") in the north-western Waldviertel (Lower Austria) was partly destroyed by peat extraction and by afforestation. Today, fen vegetation is restricted to the surroundings of a few peat bogs. Parts of the destroyed areas are now covered with ruderal vegetation. From 2001 to 2005 we investigated the flora, vegetation, topography, water and soil chemistry of the last fen areas. We especially addressed the question whether the small remaining fens are able to preserve their specific biodiversity in a heavily disturbed environment. Although fen and ruderal vegetation adjoin closely, a clear border is always visible. Except for one peat bog, no evidence for eutrophication or an invasion of alien species into the intact fen area could be found. The "Schwarzes Moos" is no longer very rich in species, compared to other fens in the Waldviertel. Nevertheless, it is the habitat of some extremely rare species in Austria such as Ledum palustre. Furthermore, we found some highly endangered animal species like the last population of Rana temporaria in the Waldviertel. Keywords: biodiversity, Drosera rotundifolia, Ledum palustre, Lower Austria, peat bog, water chemistry.
31575Andrée A. (1868): Ausflüge im Isergebirge. - Verhandlungen des Botanischen Vereins Berlin Brandenburg, 10: 139–143.
31574Brown R. (1823): Chloris Melvilliana. A list of plants collected in Melville Island, (Latitude 74°—75° N. Longitude 110°—112° W.) in the year of 1820; by the officers of the voyage discovery under the orders of Captain Parry. With characters and descriptions of the new genera and species. - W. Clowes, London, 52 p.
Arctic Canada; lichens (as Lichenosae) listed at p. 47-49; Borrera(?) aurantiaca sp. nov. (= Seirophora aurantiaca), Usnea sphacelata
31573Brown R. (1824): Flora der Melville's Insel. - Flora oder Allgemeine Botanische Zeitung, 1824, Beil. 2: 65–135.
German translation by G. Kunze of the English original "Chloris Melvilliana. A list of plants collected in Melville Island, …)
31572Palacky F. (1842): Die Grafen Kaspar und Franz Sternberg, und ihr Wirken für Wissenschaft und Kunst in Böhmen. - Abhandlungen der mathematisch-naturwissenschaftlichen Classe der königl.- böhmischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften, 5(2): 17–54.
31571Stefańska-Krzaczek E., Staniaszek-Kik M., Szczepańska K. & SzymuraT.H. (2019): Species diversity patterns in managed Scots pine stands in ancient forest sites. - PLoS ONE, 14(7):e0219620 [21 p.].
Continuity in forest habitats is crucial for species diversity and richness. Ancient Scots pine forests are usually under forest management, which disturbs vegetation and causes differentiation in terms of tree stand age. To date, vegetation variability in ancient Scots pine forests has not been examined based on tree stand age classes. In the present study the continuity of a large Scots pine forest complex was investigated, and a system of sampling plots established in five tree stand age classes: initiation stands (4–10 years), young stands (20–35 years), middle-aged stands (45–60 years), pre-mature stands (70–85 years) and mature stands (95–110 years). Species composition, including vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens, on soil, tree trunks, and coarse woody debris, was analyzed. Based on existing classifications systems, forest species and ancient forest species groups were distinguished. In the studied ancient Scots pine forests the species pool and richness were relatively low, and the vegetation consisted mostly of generalist species. Cryptogams, which can grow on diverse substrates, were the most abundant species. Moreover, most species could tolerate both forest and non-forest conditions. Age class forests provided different environmental niches for species. Initiation stands were optimal for terrestrial light-demanding species, and in terms of species composition, initiation stands were most specific. Young stands were most preferred by species on coarse woody debris, and at this stage of stand maturation epiphytic species re-appeared. The oldest stands were not rich in forest specialists, i.e. species of closed forest and ancient forest species. Cryptogams of closed forests inhabited different substrates, and they were not associated only with the oldest stands. The low number of forest specialists in the oldest stands may be a general feature of acidophilus pine forests. However, it may also be a result of the lack of species sources in the vicinity of maturing pine stands. In managed forests a frequent diversity pattern is an increase in a species pool and richness after clear-cut logging. In the present study we obtained higher species pools in initiation and young stands, but richness was similar in all tree stand age classes. This resulted from taking into account species of different substrates (terrestrial, epixylous and epiphytic species) which changed their participation in the vegetation of subsequent stages of tree stand development.
31570Laurer [F.] (1827): Beiträge zur kryptogamischen Flor der Insel Rügen. - Flora oder Allgemeine Botanische Zeitung, 10: 289–299.
31569Treviranus L.C. (1832): [Berichtigungen] Im 15. Bande .... - Flora oder Allgemeine Botanische Zeitung, 15(31): 493–495.
Comment on a paper by E. Eversmann published in 15th Volume of Nov. Acta Ac. N. Cur. dealing with Lichen esculentus (= Lecanora esculenta) and related species.
31568Rehm [H.] (1867): Dritte Beiträge zur Flechten-Flora des Algäu. - Berichte des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins für Schwaben, 19: 89–93.
31567Rehm H. (1863): Beiträge zur Flechten-Flora des Allgäu. - Berichte des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins für Schwaben, 16: 85–128.
31566Rehm H. (1856): Ueber die in einer Gegend der Keuperformation Mittelfrankens vorkommenden Steinflechten. - Oesterreichisches Botanisches Wochenblatt, 6: 12–14 & 20–22.
31565Dornes P. (2006): Die Flechtenflora des Halberges bei Neumorschen (Nordhessen, Fuldatal). - Philippia, 12: 205–208.
The lichen flora of the limestone hill Halberg was mapped. A totally of 41 species could be found, with only 3 epiphytic species. 17 species or 41.5% of the total is listed in the Red Databook as endangered or insuffi cient known. Some species of the rare ‘Bunte-Erdflechten Gesellschaft’ were recorded, though the populations were mostly small. A highlight was the rediscovery of Leptogium biatorinum, thought to be extinct in Germany.
31564Rieber X. (1891): Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Lichenenflora Württembergs und Hohenzollerns. - Jahreshefte des Vereins für vaterländische Naturkunde in Württemberg, 47: 246–270.
31563Rehm [H.] (1864): Weitere Beiträge zur Flechten-Flora des Allgäu. - Berichte des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins für Schwaben, 17: 91–99.
31562Paz-Bermúdez G. & Giralt M. (2010): The Portuguese crustose specimens of the Physciaceae, Caliciaceae excluded, (Lichenized Ascomycetes) in the PO Herbarium. - Sydowia, 62: 105–136.
A revision and nomenclatural update of 190 sheets of crustose specimens in the PO Herbarium is reported. This revision identifies 8 genera and 57 species of Physciaceae, including one species not previously reported from the Iberian Peninsula, Buellia excelsa, and seven species not previously reported from Portugal: Amandinea coniops, Rinodina boleana, R. cana, R. dubyana, R. euskadiensis, R. guzzinii, and R. pityrea. The synonymies of Rinodina lesdainii with R. cana, and of R. atrocinerella var. macrospora with R. occulta are proposed. This revision also reports the chemistry of Buellia hypophana for the first time. Keywords: lichens, Sampaio, Buellia s.l., Rinodina s.l., Portugal.
31561Babington C. (1852): Notice of the Lichens collected by Dr. Sutherland, during the Arctic Voyage of Capt. Penny in the "Lady Franklin". - Hookers Journal of Botany and Kew Garden Miscellany, 4: 276–278.
31560Babington C. (1852): Lichenes Himalayenses : being an Enumeration of the Lichens collected in the Himalaya Mountains by Captain E. Strachey, of the Bengal Engineers, and J. E. Winterbottom, Esq., E.L.S., during the years 1847 and 1848. - Hookers Journal of Botany and Kew Garden Miscellany, 4: 243–252.
31559Babington C. (1851): Lichenes Arctici; collected by Mr. Seemann of the Expedition of Capt. Kellet in H. M. S. Herald, in search after Sir J. Franklin. - Hookers Journal of Botany and Kew Garden Miscellany, 3: 248–250.
31558Walpers G. (1851): Notiz über Lichen esculentus Pall.. - Botanische Zeitung (Berlin), 9: 317–318.
Lecanora esculenta
31557Itzigsohn H. (1850): Die Antheridien und Spermatozoen der Flechten. - Botanische Zeitung (Berlin), 8: 393–394 & 913–919.
31556Plumert J. (1849): Der Kurort Liebwerda und seine Heilquellen im bunzlauer Kreise Böhmens. - G. Haase, Prag, 104 p.
Czech Republic; list of lichens at p. 76-77
31555Bauer P.M. (1859): Uebersicht der in dem Grossherzogthum Hessen beobachteten Flechten. - Bericht der Oberhessischen Gesellschaft für Natur- und Heilkunde, 7: 13–26.
31554Solms-Laubach R. (1863): Verzeichniss der von mir in der Gegend von Braunfels und Laubach gesammelten und bestimmten Lichenen. - Bericht der Oberhessischen Gesellschaft für Natur- und Heilkunde, 10: 66–71.
31553Bagge H. & Metzler [A.] (1865): Flechtenflora von Frankfurt a. M.. - Bericht der Oberhessischen Gesellschaft für Natur- und Heilkunde, 11: 82–92.
31552Uloth W. (1865): Beiträge zur Kenntniss einiger Lichenensporen. - Bericht der Oberhessischen Gesellschaft für Natur- und Heilkunde, 11: 146–154.
31551Uloth W. (1865): Beiträge zur Kryptogamenflora der Wetterau. - Bericht der Oberhessischen Gesellschaft für Natur- und Heilkunde, 11: 92–99.
31550Boll E. (1860): Lichenes. – In: Flora von Mecklenburg in geographischer, geschichtlicher, systematischer, statistischer u.s.w. Hinsicht. - Archiv des Vereins der Freunde der Naturgeschichte in Mecklenburg, 14: 355–362.
31549Krempelhuber [A.] v. (1864): Eine Bemerkung über Biatora campestris Fr.. - Flora oder Allgemeine Botanische Zeitung, 47: 558–559.
Sarcosagium campestre
31548De Bruyn U., Hohmann M.-L., Homm T. & Roller O. (1999): Bryologische und lichenologische Untersuchungen im unteren Lautertal (Biosphärenreservat Pfälzerwald-Nordvogesen) . - Mitteilungen der Pollichia, 86: 69–89.
[Bryological and lichenological investigations in the lower Lauter valley (biosphere reserve Pfälzerwald - Nordvogesen, SW-Germany)]. This paper deals with the lichen and bryophyte flora of the lower Lauter valley and the adjacent area (biosphere reserve Pfälzerwald - Nordvogesen, SW-Germany). Between 1997 and 1999 a total of 171 lichen and 206 bryophyte species have been recorded, several new to the region. Many species are considered rare and threatened in Germany and Rhineland-Palatinate, respectively. The importance of the regions natural as well as extensively used habitats for a rich lichen and bryophyte flora is emphasized. An annotated list of species remarkable for the area is provided.
31547Feßel-Neumann C. & Neumann P. (2017): Ein aktueller Fund des Dreilappigen Peitschenmooses (Bazzania trilobata (L.) Gray) im nördlichen Aukrug. - Kieler Notizen zur Pflanzenkunde, 42: 121–125.
In the forest area »Holtorfer Gehege« (northern Aukrug), a current population of the extremely rare moss [sic!] Bazzania trilobata could be discovered. Vegetation assessments were carried out to obtain a more detailed overview of the plant or moss association respectively, preferred by Bazzania trilobata in the described population. Furthermore, the ecological value of the Aukrug forests is highlighted. In addition Micarea viridileprosa listed from one of the relevés and three rare epiphytic lichen species noted to occur in the area (Lecanactis abietina, Phaeographis inusta, Thelotrema lepadinum) within text.
31546van den Boom P.P.G. (2019): MB 830241 is the correct Mycobank number for Micarea sambuci. - Herzogia, 32(1): 261.
Erratum to the paper: van den Boom P.P.G., Brand A.M., Coppins B.J. & Sérusiaux E. 2018: A new Micarea species from western Europe, belonging in the Micarea denigrata group. – Herzogia 31(1/2): 385–389.
31545Dierschke H. & Becker T. (2008): Die Schwermetall-Vegetation des Harzes - Gliederung, ökologische Bedingungen und syntaxonomische Einordnung . - Tuexenia, 28: 185–227.
For many centuries, the Harz mountains were influenced by intensive mining and/ore processing activities, resulting in spoil heaps and alluvial sediments rich in heavy metals. Therefore, the Harz mountains are a classical area for studies of plant communities with heavy-metal-tolerant species. However, a detailed survey of the vegetation and soil conditions do not exist so far. - We investigated the vegetation (120 relevés) and soil conditions at 23 sites of former mining in the western Harz mountains and its foreland. In total the grasslands are poor in vascular plant species, whereas the character taxa Armeria maritima ssp. halleri, Minuartia verna ssp. hercynica and Silene humilis var. humilis occur in many stands. All relevés have been classified as Armerietum halleri Libbert 1930, differentiated into a Silene-pioneer stage and three subassociations: A. cladonietosum chlorophaeae, A. typicum, and A. achilletosum millefoliae, which can also be interpreted as stages of a primary succession. The A. typicum and A. achilletosum can be subdivided each into a typical and a Cardaminopsis halleri-variant on moist soils. - Within a DCA the vegetation units are separated along the first axis in the sequence mentioned above. This first axis is positively correlated with Ellenberg indicator values for soil reaction, nitrogen and moisture, and with the calcium content in the soil solution, negatively with the content of copper and portions of open stones on the soil surface. The amount of heavy metals is high in all relevés. Both, in the A. cladonietosum and A. typicum, and in the Silene-pioneer stage there are exceptional high concentrations of zinc and copper and the wide heavy-metal/calcium ratios indicate extreme toxic conditions. The lead levels, however, do not differ significantly between different types of vegetation. - A comparison of the actual number of tailing sites with a list of 1928 shows a large decline of heavy-metal stands due to human destruction and natural succession. Measures for conservation and regeneration are discussed. - In the discussion the maintenance of an association Armerietum halleri is recommended. A synoptic table with inclusion of relevés from the literature in Germany supports the concept of a narrow class Violetea calaminariae with communities poor in species. For the remaining single alliance the name Armerion halleri Ernst 1965 is proposed as nomen conservandum. Keywords: Armerietum halleri, Harz mountains, heavy-metal grassland, metallophytes, nature conservation, soil contamination, vegetation ecology, Violetea calaminariae.
31544Mielke U. (1977): Die Wirkung von Luftverunreinigungen auf Pflanzen. - Hercynia, 14: 84–100.
31543Schubert R. (1972): Übersicht über die Pflanzengesellschaften des südlichen Teiles der DDR. III. Wälder. Teil 2. - Hercynia, 9: 106–136.
31542Ellwanger G. (1996): Die Vegetation der Moore des Brockengebietes II. Pflanzengesellschaften ombrotropher Moorbereiche, der Torfstiche und Bruchwälder. - Hercynia, 30: 241–271.
[Vegetation of bogs and fens of the Brocken (Harz mountains, Germany). II. Plant communities of bogs, peat-cuttings and carr vegetation]. Keywords: plant assoziations, Sphagnetalia magellanici, Vaccinio-Piceenion, bog, harz mountains, central Germany.
31541Damm C. (1994): Vegetation und Florenbestand des Brockengebietes. - Hercynia, 29: 5–56.
[Vegetation and Phytogeography of Mt. Broc.ken (Harz, Germany).] Keywords: vegetation, plant associations, Mt. Brocken, central Germany.
31540Richter W. (1966): Die natürliche Begrünung der erzgebirgischen Bergwerkshalden. - Hercynia, 3: 114–146.
31539Zimmermann A (1981): Erica-reiche Silikat-Föhrenwälder in den östlichen Zentralalpen (I): Steiermark und angrenzende Teile Niederösterreichs . - Mitteilungen des naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins für Steiermark, 111: 157–174.
31538Schubert R. (1973): Übersicht über die Pflanzengesellschaften des südlichen Teiles der DDR. VI. Azidiphile Zwergstrauchheiden. - Hercynia, 10: 101–110.
phytosociology; numerous lichens listed
31537Schubert R. (1972): Übersicht über die Pflanzengesellschaften des südlichen Teiles der DDR. III. Wälder Teil 3 . - Hercynia, 9: 197–228.
phytosociology; numerous lichens listed
31536Spenling N. (1964): Das Reichenauer Moor und seine Flora. - Jahrbuch für Landeskunde von Niederösterreich, 36: 17–22.
Upper Austria; peatbog vegetation; list of lichens included
31535Valachovič M. (1994): Variabilität und Verbreitung der Gesellschaften mit Asplenium septentrionale in der Slowakei. - Tuexenia, 14: 139–142.
Slovakia; phytosociology; plant communities on rocks (several macrolichen taxa listed from relevés)
31534John V. (1997): Die Flechten im Herbarium Ludwig Geisenheyner. - Mitteilungen der Pollichia, 84: 49–62.
[The lichens in the Ludwig Geisenheyner herbarium]. Up to now Ludwig Geisenheyner (1841-1926) was unknown as a collector of lichens. His lichen herbarium compounds 400 specimens from Europe. 190 samples have been collected by himself, others by 32 different collectors. 159 specimens are listed, some of these of particular interest to the county of Rhineland-Palatinate. The herbarium is stored at POLL.
31533Beckhaus [C.F.L.] (1856): Beiträge zur Kryptogamen-Flora Westfalens. - Verhandlungen des naturhistorischen Vereines der preussischen Rheinlande, 13: 12–28.
31532Loos G.H. (2015): Exkursion: Bochum-Querenburg, Moose und Flechten der Ruhr-Universität. - Jahrbuch des Bochumer Botanischen Vereins, 6: 70–71.
Report on excursion
31531Sautermeister F.L. (1907): Callopisma cerinellum Nyl.. - Jahreshefte des Vereins für vaterländische Naturkunde in Württemberg, 63: 458–460.
31530Rüggeberg H. (1909-1911): Biologische Beobachtungen. - Jahresbericht der Naturhistorischen Gesellschaft zu Hannover, 60–61: 67–76.
31529Buch C. & Wandelt E. (2013): Exkursion: Bochum-Querenburg, Moose und Flechten an der Ruhr-Universität Bochum. - Jahrbuch des Bochumer Botanischen Vereins, 4: 87–88.
Report on excursion led by G.H. Loos
31528Gerhardt A. & Größer-Hellriegel C. (1983): Untersuchungen zur epiphytischen Flechtenvegetation im Raum Bielefeld . - Berichte des Naturwissenschaftlichen Verein für Bielefeld und Umgegend, 26: 161–206.
31527Vierhapper F. (1906): Aufzählung der von Professor Dr. Oskar Simony im Sommer 1901 in Südbosnien gesammelten Pflanzen. - Mitteilungen des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins an der Universität Wien, 4: 36–64.
Bosnia; lichens (p. 38-43) determined by J. Steiner
31526Loos G.H. (2017): Exkursion: Bochum-Querenburg, Moose und Flechten an der Hochschule Bochum. - Jahrbuch des Bochumer Botanischen Vereins, 8: 130–131.
Report on excursion
31525Loos G.H. (2016): Exkursion: Bochum-Querenburg, Moose und Flechten an der Ruhr-Universität im Bereich Unicenter. - Jahrbuch des Bochumer Botanischen Vereins, 7: 66.
Report on excursion
31524Wächter H.J., Antonowitsch J. & Keiter M. (2016): Der Findlingsgarten in Bielefeld – Geologie, Pionierbewuchs (Moose, Flechten, Gefäßpflanzen) und Gestaltung als öffentlicher Lernort. - Berichte des Naturwissenschaftlichen Verein für Bielefeld und Umgegend, 54: 44–85.
The top area of a recultivated landfill in the northern area of Bielefeld was used to lay out a garden with 100 large glacial erratic blocks as well as 25 local limestone blocks. The erratic blocks were all originally found during excavation work in preparation of the landfill. They have been transported to the area of Bielefeld by the glaciers of the Saale Ice Age (Drenthe stadial). For this paper, the glacial erratics were petrographically described and the current overgrowth of pioneer vegetation (lichens and moss on the blocks and vascular plants on the area around the blocks) was mapped. As a comparison, 6 large erratics from nearby small arrangements that have been exposed at the surface much longer were also mapped. The moss species found on the erratic blocks belong to the Tortuletum muralis Waldheim 1944, a plant society previously described for basic substrates. We propose the thesis that the Tortuletum muralis is also a typical pioneer society for erratic blocks of any composition in Northern Germany, which are freshly excavated from the ground. It is proposed to extensively investigate the moss flora on these stones in the future. The mapping of lichens showed a stock of pioneer species as well as species typically found at eutrophicated sites. This points towards extensive use of the rock garden by visitors and walkers. The surrounding grassland is unfertilized, so the input of nutrients most likely comes from wind and rain, together with external contribution by humans and animals.
31523Buch C. (2018): Exkursion: Bochum-Querenburg, Moose und Flechten an der Ruhr-Universität Bochum. - Jahrbuch des Bochumer Botanischen Vereins, 9: 77–78.
Report on excursion led by G.H. Loos
31522Stolley G. (2003): Die Flechten und flechtenbewohnenden Pilze des Dorfes Neuwittenbek (Kreis Rendsburg-Eckernförde, Bundesland Schleswig-Holstein). - Kieler Notizen zur Pflanzenkunde, 30: 89–130.
The Iichens and lichenicolous fungi ofthe village Neuwittenbek have been exarnined during the last two years (2001 and 2002). As a result the total number of taxa of Iichens and lichenicolous fungi in Neuwittenbek is 104. Of these taxa 95 are Iichens, 8 are lichenicolous fungi and I is a corticolous ascomycete. The 7 Iichen taxa Acarospora macrospora, Aspicilia contorta ssp. hoffmanniana, Caloplaca crenulatella, Lecanora compallens, Lecanora flotowiana, Lecidella carpathica and Verrucaria macrostoma f.furfuracea and the 4 lichenicolous fungi Abrothallus prodiens, Homostegia piggotii, Monodictys cellulosa and Phacopsis oxyspora var. oxyspora are recorded in Schleswig-Holstein (Northem Germany) for the first time. The lichenicolous fungus Anhonia clemens is recorded to the mainland of Schleswig-Holstein for the first time, but is already known from the lsle of Sylt. The lichenicolous fungus Zwackhiomyces lecanorae is recorded to the part Schleswig of the land Schleswig-Holstein for the first time, but is already known to the part Holstein of the land Schleswig-Holstein. Keywords: Iichens. lichenicolous fungi, village Neuwittenbek, Schleswig-Holstein (Northern Germany), first-time records.
31521Gutte P., Herrmann K., Richter I. & Wehr P. (1983): Untersuchungen zur Indikation von Veränderungen der Luftgüteverhältnisse in Leipzig durch wiederholte Kartierung von Lecanora varia (Ehrh.) Ach. s.l.. - Hercynia, 20: 339–347.
31520Beckhaus [C.F.L.] (1856): Erster Nachtrag zu den Beiträgen zur Kryptogamen-Flora von Westphalen (zu I. II. III.). - Verhandlungen des naturhistorischen Vereines der preussischen Rheinlande, 13: 153–157.
31519Marbach B. (1998): Emissionsökologische Flechtenkartierung von Laufen und Umgebung . - Berichte der Bayerischen Akademie für Naturschutz und Landschaftspflege, 22: 163–195.
In the urban area and the surroundings of Laufen a passive mapping of lichens for assessment of air quality has been made 1984 (GOPPEL 1984). According to the VDI guideline 3799 a comparing study concerning this mapping is prepared. Following changes of the lichen flora can be observed: - some species, sensitive to pollutants and already rare 1984 like Cetraria chlorophylla, Cetrelia olivetorum, Imshaugia aleurites, Parmelia acetabulum, Physconia entemxantha and Vulpicida pinastri have vanished from the investigated area - the frequency of acidophytic species like Hypogymnia physodes and Pseudevernia furfuracea has strongly diminished - nitrophytic species especially of the genera Candelariella and Xanthoria have increased as well in frequency as in the number of species - GOPPEL (1984) notices the zone with the highest air pollution in the urban area of Laufen, a reverse situation can be observed in this place, zones with the lowest air pollution can be found around the lake Abtsdorfer See and in the urban area of Laufen. fä the zones of air quality the degrees of pollution have to be characterised as moderate to high. In the investigated area 103 species have been found. Interesting habitats beside light-exposed habitats on trees are the wall of the old quay of the river Salzach near the church ofLaufen and wooden fence posts of pastures and old sheds in the Haarmoos. The unique habitats on old sheds in the Haarmoos with Candelariella coralliza, C. kuusamoensis, Ramalina capitata, Rhizocarpon distinctum and Rhizocarpon geographicum are strongly endangered
31518Beschel R. (1952): Flechten und Moose im St. Peter-Friedhof in Salzburg. - Mitteilungen der Naturwissenschaftlichen Arbeitsgemeinschaft am Haus der Natur Salzburg, 2: 44–51.
31517Beschel R. (1978): Zur Vegetation des Höhleneingangs vom Brunnloch bei Stegenwald im Hagengebirge . - Mitteilungen aus dem Haus der Natur Salzburg, 8: 147–149.
31516Beschel R. (1951): Zur Vegetation des Höhleneinganges im Brunnloch bei Stegenwald (Hagengebirge). - Die Höhle, 2: 25–28.
31515Perktold A. (1865): Verzeichniss der in den Umgebungen von Innsbruck, Lisens und Tarrenz aufgefundenen Lichenen (Flechten), nebst einigen, die aus Südtirol sind mitgetheilt worden. - Veröffentlichungen des Tiroler Landesmuseums Ferdinandeum, 3: 54–59.
31514Egeling G. (1884): Beiträge zur Lichenenflora von Kassel. - Abhandlungen und Bericht des Vereins für Naturkunde Kassel, 31: 45–62.
31513Ivanov D. (2010): Checklist of the lichens and lichenicolous fungi from the Pirin Mountains in Bulgaria. - Berichte des naturwissenschaftlichen-medizinischen Verein Innsbruck, 96: 35–57.
The first checklist of lichen species and lichenicolous fungi of Pirin Mountains, Bulgaria is provided. A species list of 514 taxa (including 509 lichens, 2 lichenicolous fungi and 3 non-lichenized fungi) constitutes the main part of the text. 71 species are newly recorded to the region. The following species are recorded for the first time for Bulgaria: Acarospora scabra, Carbonea vitellinaria, Chaenothecopsis pusilla, Leptogium subtile,Tetramelas chloroleucus, Umbilicaria laevis, Umbilicaria nylanderiana. Keywords: biodiversity, lichens, Pirin Mountains, Bulgaria.
31512Türk R. (1978): Beiträge zur Flechtenflora von Salzburg III: Über einige für Salzburg bemerkenswerte Flechten. - Floristische Mitteilungen aus Salzburg , 5: 24–32.
31511Völsing W. (1882): Der Bau des Apotheciums bei den Lecanoreen und Lecideen. - Bericht der Oberhessischen Gesellschaft für Natur- und Heilkunde , 21: 145–159.
31510Schneider T. (1943): Gyalecta jenensis (Batsch) A. Zahlbr. Feststellungen zur Namensgeschichte einer Lichene. - Mittheilungen des Thüringischen Botanischen Vereins, 51: 237–241.
31509Lumbsch H.T. (2016): Lichen-forming fungi, diversification of. - In: Kliman R.M. (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Biology, p. 305−311, Academic Press, Oxford.
Chapter in book
31508Bianchi E., Benesperi R., Colzi I., Coppi A., Lazzaro L., Paoli L., Papini A., Pignattelli S., Tani C., Vignolini P. & Gonnelli C. (2019): The multi-purpose role of hairiness in the lichens of coastal environments: Insights from Seirophora villosa (Ach.) Frödén. - Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 141: 398–406.
The fruticose epiphytic lichen Seirophora villosa, strictly associated with Juniperus shrublands in the Mediterranean basin, was used to investigate the role of hairiness on a lichen thallus, as a characteristic morphological trait. We evaluated the effect of hair removal on the physiological parameters of a set of samples, during desiccation and on exposure to different salt concentrations. Hairy thalli were less affected by salt, suggesting that during dehydration, the presence of hair protects the thallus from light irradiance, oxidative stresses and the lipid peroxidation generated by free radicals, and could offer passive, but selective, water control. Our results showed that hair could not only increase thallus surface and promote water absorption when availability is low, but could also repel the salt dissolved in water by activating a passive resistance mechanism, by preventing salt entering. Keywords: Antioxidant activity; Chlorophyll a fluorescence; Juniperus shrublands; Hair; MDA; Salt stress.
31507Parviainen A., Casares-Porcel M., Marchesi C. & Garrido C.J. (2019): Lichens as a spatial record of metal air pollution in the industrialized city of Huelva (SW Spain). - Environmental Pollution, 253: 918–929.
Huelva is a highly industrialized city in SW Spain hosting, among others, a Cu smelter, a phosphate fertilizer plant, a power plant, and oil refineries. This study aims to evaluate metal concentrations in lichens as bioindicators of atmospheric pollution in the impacted urban areas. Xanthoria parietina species from Huelva and nearby villages, as well as reference samples from remote, non-contaminated urban areas, were analyzed for trace elements (V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, As, Cd, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Pb, Th, U) using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry; and for major elements (Ca, K, Mg, P, and S) by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry after acid digestion. The metal composition of X. parietina exhibits spatial distribution patterns with extremely elevated concentrations (Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sb, Ba, Pb, U, and S) in the surroundings of the industrial estates to <1 km distance. Mean concentrations were significantly lower in the urban areas >1 km from the pollution sources. However, air pollution persists in the urban areas up to 4 km away, as the mean concentrations of Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sb and S remained considerably elevated in comparison to the reference samples. Though rigorous source apportionment analysis was not the aim of this study, a good positive correlation of our results with metal abundances in ambient particulate matter and in pollution sources points to the Cu smelter as the main source of pollution. Hence, the severe air pollution affecting Huelva and nearby urban areas may be considered a serious health risk to local residents. Keywords: Lichen Xanthoria parietina; Metal emissions; Industrial activity; Cu smelter; Urban area.
31506Chock T., Antoninka A.J., Faist A.M., Bowker M.A., Belnap J. & Barger N.N. (2019): Responses of biological soil crusts to rehabilitation strategies. - Journal of Arid Environments, 163: 77–85.
Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are common to dryland ecosystems and can influence a broad suite of soil ecological functions including stability and surface hydrology. Due to long recovery times following disturbance, there is a clear need for rehabilitation strategies to enhance the recovery of biocrust communities. Essential to biocrust recovery are exopolysaccharides (EPS): secretions comprised mainly of high molecular weight polymers that protect cyanobacteria and other biocrust organisms from harsh environmental conditions. We examined whether biocrust rehabilitation strategies (combinations of inoculation with surface shading and artificial soil stabilization) promote EPS production. To test if responses varied by soil texture, we measured biocrust recovery on two fine-textured soils (clay and sandy clay loam) in a cool desert ecosystem. Shade coupled with inoculum addition resulted in the highest biocrust recovery, especially on clay soils. Independent of rehabilitation strategies, natural recovery of biocrusts occurred more rapidly on clay soils, reflected by greater increases in chlorophyll a (chl a). Chl a, a proxy for cyanobacterial biomass, was correlated to EPS amounts, suggesting that cyanobacteria are significant contributors to EPS production in biocrust development. Despite the role of EPS in biocrust establishment, EPS amounts had negligible effects on soil stability on the fine soil texture. Keywords: Exopolysaccharides; Cyanobacteria; Chlorophyll a; Soil stability; Restoration.
31505Cecconi E., Fortuna L., Pellegrini E., Bertuzzi S., Lorenzini G., Nali C. & Tretiach M. (2019): Beyond ozone-tolerance: Effects of ozone fumigation on trace element and PAH enriched thalli of the lichen biomonitor Pseudevernia furfuracea. - Atmospheric Environment, 210: 132–142.
In this study, the effects of ozone (O3) on the physiology of the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea var. furfuracea previously subjected to field stressing conditions were assessed. Samples collected in a pristine site were exposed for 6 weeks at 3 sites characterized by different pollution, e.g. elemental and PAH depositions (site RU, close to wood-burning house chimneys; site UI, close to cast-ironworks; site CK, in a semi-natural context). Afterwards, samples were transferred to controlled fumigation chambers, where they were either O3-treated for 2 weeks (250 ppb O3 for 5 h day−1, O3+ samples) or not (0 ppb O3, O3− samples). Three physiological markers (Fv/Fm, maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry; MDA, malondialdehyde content; potassium leakage) as well as elemental and PAH concentrations were measured in matched sets of sample replicates at each experimental step. Data were explored by multivariate techniques and the effects of field exposure and fumigation were tested by generalized linear models (GLM). Detrimental effects on MDA and Fv/Fm were observed limited to samples exposed in RU and UI sites. Physiological parameters in O3-treated samples showed heterogeneous variation patterns with respect to field-exposed ones. A recovery of Fv/Fm was observed in RU- and UI-exposed samples, whereas a significant increase of MDA was highlighted limited to CK O3+ and CK O3− samples, possibly related to a “chamber effect”. Overall, the impairment caused by ozonation was limited, proving the strong O3-tolerance of our test species. Interestingly, the content of the most abundant 4-ring PAHs in RU O3+ samples, which underwent the highest field enrichment of PAHs, was significantly lower than that of matched RU O3− samples. This suggested a possible role of ozone in degrading PAHs at thallus level, with interesting interpretative repercussions in the context of transplant-based surveys aimed at evaluating PAH depositions when O3 ground levels are high. Keywords: Air pollution; O3; Bioaccumulation; Malondialdehyde; Chlorophyll a; fluorescence; Potassium leakage.
31504Devkota S., Chaudhary R.P., Werth S. & Scheidegger C. (2019): Genetic diversity and structure of the epiphytic foliose lichen Lobaria pindarensis in the Himalayas depends on elevation. - Fungal Ecology, 41: 245–255.
The epiphytic lichen Lobaria pindarensis is a Himalayan endemic species with little information on distribution, genetic diversity and structural complexity. During an intensive survey in the Nepal Himalayas, we collected 1256 thallus fragments from 45 phorophyte species to study their distribution and population genetics along an elevational gradient. We quantified genetic diversity and population structure of each symbiont at 17 fungus specific and 9 alga specific microsatellite loci. The Bayesian clustering identified three and two distinct gene pools for mycobiont and photobiont. We found that genetic diversity, allelic richness and gene pool composition and distribution were significantly influenced by elevation. We discovered both clonally and sexually reproduced repeated genotypes of the symbionts. Keywords: Conservation; Cyanolichen; Genetic structure; Lobariaceae; Microsatellites; Nepal; Population genetics.
31503Kazemi S.S., Mehregan I., Asri Y., Saadatmand S. & Sipman H.J.M. (2019): Three new records of epiphytic lichen species from Iran. - Iranian Journal of Botany, 25(1): 56–60.
The lichen species Bilimbia sabuletorum (Schreb.) Arnold, Canoparmelia crozalsiana (B. de Lesd. ex Harm.) Elix & Hale and Candelaria pacifica M. Westb. & Arup are reported for the first time from Iran; Involved are new reports of two genera for Iran, Bilimbia and Canoparmelia. The species grow as epiphyte in broad-leaved forests in Golestan Province. Characteristics of morphology, habitat and geographic distribution of these species are discussed. Key words: Iran; Golestan; new record; epiphyte; lichen.
31502Paoli L., Benesperi R., Fačkovcová Z., Nascimbene J., Ravera S., Marchetti M., Anselmi B., Landi M., Landi S., Bianchi E., Di Nuzzo L., Lackovičová A., Vannini A., Loppi S. & Guttová A. (2019): Impact of forest management on threatened epiphytic macrolichens: evidence from a Mediterranean mixed oak forest (Italy). - iForest, 12: 383–388.
Forest management practices may heavily affect epiphytic cryptogams. This study was conceived in March 2016, as soon as we were informed about an authorized logging for timber within a Mediterranean mixed oak forest in Tuscany (central Italy), which threatened a large population of the forest macrolichen Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm., composed of hundreds of fertile thalli. Lobaria pulmonaria is often used as an ecological indicator of high quality habitats hosting rare lichens, and in general, cryptogams worthy of conservation. The species has suffered a general decline throughout Europe as a consequence of air pollution and intensive forest management, and currently it is red-listed in several countries, where it is considered also as a “flag species”. We estimated that 40% of the lichen biomass (8.5-12.3 kg ha-1) has been lost due to logging operations (in the core area, up to 1.8 kg every 100 m2), in particular large and fertile thalli. One year after the conclusion of logging operations, the analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence emission (indicator of the photosynthetic performance of the lichen photobionts), revealed a significant reduction of the vitality of the thalli on retained-isolated trees. The article provides issues for conservation in Mediterranean oak forests and outlines the outmost importance of ensuring the safeguard of forest ecosystems hosting fertile populations of this model species, especially in the case of unprotected forests. Keywords: Biomass Loss, Chlorophyll Fluorescence, Flag Species, Legal Protection, Lobaria pulmonaria, Red Lists.
31501Fernández-Fernández J.M., Palacios D., Andrés N., Schimmelpfennig I., Brynjólfsson S., Sancho L.G., Zamorano J.J., Heiðmarsson S., Sæmundsson Þ. & ASTER Team (2019): A multi-proxy approach to Late Holocene fluctuations of Tungnahryggsjökull glaciers in the Tröllaskagi peninsula (northern Iceland). - Science of the Total Environment, 664: 499–517.
The Tröllaskagi Peninsula in northern Iceland hosts more than a hundred small glaciers that have left a rich terrestrial record of Holocene climatic fluctuations in their forelands. Traditionally, it has been assumed thatmost of the Tröllaskagi glaciers reached their Late Holocene maximum extent during the Little Ice Age (LIA). However, there is evidence of slightly more advanced pre-LIA positions. LIA moraines from Iceland have been primary datedmostly through lichenometric dating, but the limitations of this technique do not allowdating of glacial advances prior to the 18th or 19th centuries. The application of 36Cl Cosmic-Ray Exposure (CRE) dating to Tungnahryggsjökullmoraine sequences in Vesturdalur and Austurdalur (central Tröllaskagi) has revealed a number of pre-LIA glacial advances at ~400 and ~700 CE, and a number of LIA advances in the 15th and 17th centuries, the earliest LIA advances dated so far in Tröllaskagi. This technique hence shows that the LIA chronology in Tröllaskagi agreeswith that of other European areas such as the Alps or theMediterranean mountains. The combined use of lichenometric dating, aerial photographs, satellite images and fieldwork shows that the regional colonization lag of the commonly used lichen species Rhizocarpon geographicum is longer than previously assumed. For exploratory purposes, an alternative lichen species (Porpidia soredizodes) has been tested for lichenometric dating, estimating a tentative growth rate of 0.737 mm yr−1.
31500Schulte L., Wetter O., Wilhelm B., Peña J.C., Amann B., Wirth S.B., Carvalho F. & Gómez-Bolea A. (2019): Integration of multi-archive datasets for the development of a fourdimensional paleoflood model of alpine catchments. - Global and Planetary Change, 180: 66–88.
Both natural and documentary evidence of severe and catastrophic floods are of tremendous value for completing multidimensional flood calendars, as well as for mapping the most extreme riverine flooding phenomena in a river basin, over centennial and millennial time scales. Here, the integration of multi-archive flood series from the Hasli-Aare, Lütschine, Kander, Simme, Lombach, and Eistlenbach catchments in the Bernese Alps constitutes a unique approach to the reconstruction of flooding events over the last six centuries and to the development of a temporal-spatial model of past flood behavior. Different types of flood archive, be they of natural or anthropogenic origin, record different processes and legacies of these physical phenomena. In this study, paleoflood records obtained from floodplains (four flood series) and lake sediments (four series), together with documentary data (six series), were analyzed and compared with instrumental measurements (four series) and the profiles of lichenometric-dated flood heights (four series) to i) determine common flood pulses, ii) identify events that are out-of-phase, iii) investigate the sensitivity of the different natural archives to flood drivers and forcing, iv) locate past flooding in an alpine region of 2117 km2, and v) simulate atmospheric modes of climate variability during flood-rich periods from 1400 to 2005 CE. Asynchronous flood response across the sites is attributed to differences in their local hydrologic regimes, influenced by (i) their physiographic parameters, including size, altitude, storage capacity and connectivity of basins, and (ii) their climate parameters, including type, spatial distribution, duration, and intensity of precipitation. The most accurate, continuous series, corresponding to the period from 1400 to 2005 CE, were integrated into a synthetic flood master curve that defines ten dominant flood pulses. Six of these correspond to cooler climate pulses (around 1480, 1570, 1760, 1830, 1850 and 1870 CE), three to intermediate temperatures (around 1410, 1650 and 1710 CE), while the most recent corresponds to the current pulse of Global Warming (2005 CE). Furthermore, five coincide with the positive mode of the Summer North Atlantic Oscillation, characterized by a strong blocking anticyclone between the Scandinavia Peninsula and Great Britain. For two of the most catastrophic flood events in the Bernese Alps (those of 1762 and 1831 CE), the location and magnitude of all the flood records compiled were plotted to provide an accurate mapping of the spatial pattern of flooding. This was then compared to the pattern of atmospheric variability. The comprehensive 4-D picture of paleofloods thus achieved should facilitate an in-depth understanding of the floods and flood forcing in mountain catchments. Keywords: Paleoflood; Natural flood archives; Documentary sources; Multi-proxy; Summer North Atlantic Oscillation; Alps.
31499Rikkinen J., Meinke S.K.L., Grabenhorst H., Gröhn C., Kobbert M., Wunderlich J. & Schmidt A.R. (2018): Calicioid lichens and fungi in amber – Tracing extant lineages back to the Paleogene. - Geobios, 51: 469–479.
Calicioid lichens and fungi are a polyphyletic grouping of tiny ascomycetes that accumulate a persistent spore mass (mazaedium) on top of their usually well-stalked ascomata (‘mazaediate fungi’). In addition to extant forms, six fossils of the group were previously known from European Paleogene amber. Here we report nine new fossils and analyze the preserved features of all fossils to assess their applicability for dating molecular phylogenies. Many fossils are extremely well preserved, allowing detailed comparisons with modern taxa. SEM investigation reveals that even fine details of ascospore wall ultrastructure correspond to those seen in extant specimens. All fossils can confidently be assigned to modern genera: three to Calicium (Caliciaceae, Lecanoromycetes), five to Chaenotheca (Coniocybaceae, Coniocybomy- cetes), six to Chaenothecopsis (Mycocaliciaceae, Eurotiales), and one to Phaeocalicium (Mycocaliciaceae, Eurotiales). Several Calicium and Chaenotheca fossils are assignable to specific lineages within their genera, while the Chaenothecopsis fossils demonstrate the extent of intraspecific variation within one such lineage. Some features in the morphology of Chaenotheca succina nov. sp. seem to be ancestral as they have not been reported from modern species of the genus. Keywords: Amber; Ascomycota; Ecology; Fossil fungi; Resinicolous fungi; Taxonomy.
31498Aguirre-Hudson B. & Spooner B. (2019): Phaeocalicium populneum new to South-East Britain. - Field Mycology, 20(3): 86–90.
31497Rashid Z.M., Mormann M., Steckhan K., Peters A., Esch S. & Hensel A. (2019): Polysaccharides from lichen Xanthoria parietina: 1,4/1,6-α-D-glucans and a highly branched galactomannan with macrophage stimulating activity via Dectin-2 activation. - International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 134: 921–935.
Hot-water soluble polysaccharides H-1-3 and H-2-1 were isolated from the thalli of the lichen Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th. Fr. and purified by ion exchange and gel permeation chromatography. Structure elucidation was mainly based on 2D-NMR and nano-ESI-Q-TOF MS/MS experiments. H-1-3 (13.7 kDa) was shown to be linear α-glucan with α-d-Glcp-(1 → [→[4)-α-d-Glcp-(1]2 → [6)-α-d-Glcp-(1]3 → 4)]n core backbone. The (1,4)- and (1,6)-α-d-Glcp linkages were in a 2:3 M ratio. H-2-1 (525 kDa) was characterized as a complex branched β-galacto-α-mannan with →[6)-α-d-Manp-(1 → [2,6)-α-d-Manp-(1]2 → [2)-α-d-Manp-(1]2→]n core units and main side chains of (1,3)-β-d-Galf linked at O-6 to →2)-α-d-Manp-(1→, together with minor terminal units of 1,4/1,6-α-D -Glcp units attached to the core chain at O-6 position and α-L-Rhap linked to Galf side chain at O-2 position (Manp: Galf: Glcp: Rhap linkage ratio = 9:3:2:1). H-2-1 exerted strong immunoactivity in vitro and activated murine RAW macrophages 264.7 towards significantly increased phagocytosis, TNF-α and IL-1β secretion. These effects are due to an interaction of the galactomannan with the transmembrane pattern-recognition protein Dectin-2 of the macrophages. Keywords: Xanthoria parietina; Dectin-2; Galactomannan; Glucan; Lichen; Mass spectroscopy; Phagocytosis; Polysaccharides; Silver adducts.
31496Černajová I. & Škaloud P. (2019): The first survey of Cystobasidiomycete yeasts in the lichen genus Cladonia; with the description of Lichenozyma pisutiana gen. nov., sp. nov.. - Fungal Biology, 123: 625–637.
The view of lichens as a symbiosis only between a mycobiont and a photobiont has been challenged by discoveries of diverse associated organisms. Specific basidiomycete yeasts in the cortex of a range of macrolichens were hypothesized to influence the lichens' phenotype. The present study explores the occurrence and diversity of cystobasidiomycete yeasts in the lichen genus Cladonia. We obtained seven cultures and 56 additional sequences using specific primers from 27 Cladonia species from all over Europe and performed phylogenetic analyses based on ITS, LSU and SSU rDNA loci. We revealed yeast diversity distinct from any previously reported. Representatives of Cyphobasidiales, Microsporomycetaceae and of an unknown group related to Symmetrospora have been found. We present evidence that the Microsporomycetaceae contains mainly lichen-associated yeasts. Lichenozyma pisutiana is circumscribed here as a new genus and species. We report the first known associations between cystobasidiomycete yeasts and Cladonia (both corticate and ecorticate), and find that the association is geographically widespread in various habitats. Our results also suggest that a great diversity of lichen associated yeasts remains to be discovered. Keywords: Endolichenic fungi; Endothallic fungi; Lichenicolous fungi; Microsporomycetaceae; Third symbiont; Yeast cultures.
31495Anonymus (2019): Recent literature on Australasian lichens. - Australasian Lichenology, 85: 83–84.
31494Elix J.A. (2019): The distribution and diversity of buellioid lichens in Australasia. - Australasian Lichenology, 85: 70–82.
An overview is provided of the distribution and diversity of buellioid lichens (Caliciaceae and Physciaceae) in Australasia, including Australia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea and the subantarctic Macquarie Island, Auckland Islands, Campbell Island, Snares Islands and Antipodes Islands. In total, 233 taxa of buellioid lichens have been reported from Australasia, of which 138 (c. 60%) are currently thought to be endemic to the region, suggesting that Australasia is a global centre of diversity of these lichens. The new combinations Amandinea analgifera (Aptroot & Diederich) Elix, A. polyxanthonica (Elix) Elix, A. polyxanthonica var. isidiata (Elix & Kantvilas) Elix, Cratiria lauricassiaeoides (Aptroot) Elix and C. submuriformis (Aptroot & Diederich) Elix are made.
31493Archer A.W. & Elix J.A. (2019): Graphis norfolkensis, a new species in the Australian Graphidaceae (lichenized Ascomycota, Ostropales) from Norfolk Island. - Australasian Lichenology, 85: 67–69.
Graphis norfolkensis, characterized by a completely carbonized proper exciple, small hyaline, muriform ascospores, and the presence of salazinic and protocetraric acids, is described as new to science.
31492McCarthy P.M. & Elix J.A. (2019): Two new corticolous species of Eugeniella (lichenized Ascomycota, Pilocarpaceae) from Norfolk Island, south-western Pacific Ocean. - Australasian Lichenology, 85: 58–66.
Eugeniella pacifica P.M.McCarthy & Elix (Pilocarpaceae) is described as new from bark in Norfolk Island, south-western Pacific Ocean. It is characterized by the preferred substratum, the distinctive, greyish white, verruculose thallus containing stictic acid, and comparatively large, sessile, pseudolecanorine apothecia with a thick, cupulate, proper exciple containing K-soluble granules, but not calcium oxalate, and 3-septate ascospores that are narrowly ellipsoid, shortfusiform or broadly oblong and (10–)13(–15) × (3.5–)4.5(–5) μm. The corticolous E. zeorina P.M.McCarthy & Elix, sp. nov., also from Norfolk Island, is superficially very similar, and most anatomical attributes are almost identical. However, the dark brown hypothecium is thicker, and it merges with and penetrates the excipulum base, the 3(–5)-septate ascospores are elongate-fusiform to narrowly oblong or oblong-fusiform and (14–)20(–28) × (3–)4(–4.5) μm, and the thallus contains substantial quantities of zeorin, in addition to stictic acid. A key is provided to the 13 species of Eugeniella.
31491Elix J.A. & McCarthy P.M. (2019): Rhizocarpon bicolor (lichenized Ascomycota, Rhizocarpaceae), a new species from south-eastern Australia. - Australasian Lichenology, 85: 51–57.
Rhizocarpon bicolor Elix & P.M.McCarthy (Rhizocarpaceae) is described as new from siliceous rocks in south-eastern Australia. It is characterized by the conspicuous black prothallus, a combination of small, dispersed, greenish grey to greyish brown and bright yellow areoles containing bourgeanic acid and rhizocarpic acid, respectively, a non-amyloid medulla, and small, lecideine apothecia developing on the prothallus adjacent to the areoles, with dark greenish blue to dark brown, 1-septate ascospores, 20–35 × 11–18 μm. An updated key is provided to the 18 species in Australia.
31490Elix J.A. & McCarthy P.M. (2019): Trapelia concentrica (lichenized Ascomycota, Trapeliaceae), a new species from south-eastern Australia, with a key to the genus in Australia. - Australasian Lichenology, 85: 46–50.
Trapelia concentrica Elix & P.M.McCarthy (Trapeliaceae) is described as new from siliceous rocks and soil in south-eastern Australia. It is characterized by the inconspicuous, greyish white to dark grey, areolate thallus containing gyrophoric acid and calcium oxalate, and small, immersed to adnate, pseudolecanorine apothecia with white-pruinose discs often surrounded by a series of more-or-less concentric, circular fissures with a white-pruinose upper surface such that the apothecium can appear almost gyrose. A preliminary key to Trapelia in Australia is provided.
31489Elix J.A., Liao L. & Barrow R.A. (2019): The structure of hafellic acid, a new diphenyl ether from the lichen Cratiria subtropica. - Australasian Lichenology, 85: 28–33.
Hafellic acid has been isolated from the lichen Cratiria subtropica, and its structure established by mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy.
31488Archer A.W. & Elix J.A. (2019): Five new species of Pertusaria (Pertusariales, lichenized Ascomycota) from Australia. - Australasian Lichenology, 85: 20–27.
Three new corticolous species of Pertusaria are described from Lord Howe Island, viz. P. insularicola with thiophaninic and 2-O-methylperlatolic acids, P. roccellica with lichexanthone and roccellic acid and P. submaritima with 2’-O-methylperlatolic, confluentic and stictic acids. A new lignicolous species, P. albidopunctata (with 4,5-dichlorolichexanthone), is described from Tasmania, and a new saxicolous species, P. wallingatensis (with 4,5-dichlorolichexanthone and 2-O-methylperlatolic acid), is described from New South Wales.
31487McCarthy P.M. (2019): Placidiopsis parva (lichenized Ascomycota, Verrucariaceae), a new species from siliceous rocks in the Australian Capital Territory. - Australasian Lichenology, 85: 12–15.
Placidiopsis parva P.M.McCarthy (Verrucariaceae) is described from siliceous rocks in the Australian Capital Territory. It is characterized by a blackish, corticate, microsquamulose thallus, a concolorous, hyphal hypothallus, very small but prominent, simple perithecia (0.07–) 0.12(–0.15) mm diam., and 1-septate ascospores measuring (13–)17(–21) × (5.5–)7(–8.5) μm.
31486McCarthy P.M. & Elix J.A. (2019): Arthonia cryptica (Arthoniaceae), a new lichen species from coastal rock in southern New South Wales, Australia. - Australasian Lichenology, 85: 8–11.
Arthonia cryptica sp. nov. (Arthoniaceae) is described from coastal siliceous rock in southern New South Wales. The dull whitish thallus is effuse and patchy, containing a trentepohlioid photobiont, and it lacks lichen substances. Ascomata are blackish, rounded, immarginate and 0.18–0.52 mm wide; the hypothecium is thin, hyaline and inspersed with granules; paraphysoids anastomosing; asci (6–)8-spored, broadly clavate to obpyriform; ascospores colourless, 3-septate, 12–16 × 4–6.5 μm. Pycnidia are black and minutely punctiform, producing ellipsoid or oblong to oblong-obovoid conidia 2.5–6 × 1–2.5 μm.
31485McCarthy P.M. & Elix J.A. (2019): A new saxicolous species of Fellhanera (lichenized Ascomycota, Pilocarpaceae) from eastern New South Wales, Australia. - Australasian Lichenology, 85: 3–7.
Fellhanera pluviosilvestris sp. nov. (Pilocarpaceae) is described from siliceous rock in cooltemperate rainforest in eastern New South Wales, Australia. It has a thin, continuous, greyish brown thallus that lacks lichen substances, medium-sized, sessile, biatorine apothecia with a dull blackish disc and a paler proper margin, a uniformly pale, paraplectenchymatous and cupulate excipulum, a dark brown, K+ orange-brown hypothecium and epihymenium, and (4–)8-spored, Byssoloma-type asci with ellipsoid to oblong, (1–)3-septate ascospores measuring 10–18 × 4.5–7.5 μm.
31484de Lange P., Blanchon D., Knight A., Elix J., Lücking R., Frogley K., Harris A., Cooper J. & Rolfe J. (2018): Conservation status of New Zealand indigenous lichens and lichenicolous fungi, 2018. - New Zealand Threat Classification Series, New Zealand Department of Conservation, 64 p.
The conservation status of 2027 New Zealand lichenised and lichenicolous mycobiota (including unnamed entities designated with informal ‘tag’ names) was assessed using the New Zealand Threat Classification System (NZTCS) criteria of Townsend et al. (2008). This replaces the 2010 assessment of lichen taxa (de Lange et al. 2012; see also www.nztcs.org.nz/#/reports/21). The conservation status categories and criteria applied here are summarised in Section 2, which presents the complete lists of taxa arranged by conservation status. The 2,027 taxa plus 10 that have been removed since the 2010 assessment (de Lange et al. 2012) can also be found at www. nztcs.org.nz/#/reports/55.
31483Stirton J. (1877): Description of recently discovered foreign lichens. - Proceedings of the Philosophical Society of Glasgow, 10: 156–164.
31482Liu S., Li S., Fan X.-Y., Yuan G.-D., Hu T., Shi X.-M., Huang J.-B., Pu X.-Y. & Wu C.-S. (2019): Comparison of two noninvasive methods for measuring the pigment content in foliose macrolichens. - Photosynthesis Research, 141: 245–257.
Chlorophyll content in lichens is routinely used as an accurate indicator of lichen vigor, interspecific differences, and the effect of site-related environmental parameters. Traditional methods of chlorophyll extraction are destructive, time-consuming, expensive, and inoperable, especially when measuring large quantities of chlorophyll. However, non-destructive methods of measurement using portable chlorophyll meters are rarely used for lichens. Considering the characteristics of lichens such as rough blade surface and absence of chlorophyll b in cyanolichens, we compared the non-destructive methods with traditional methods and evaluated their applicability in studying lichen pigment content. Two instruments, SPAD-502 and CCM-300, were used to measure the pigment content of seven foliose lichen species. These pigment readings were compared with those determined using the dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) extraction method. Significant correlations were observed between SPAD/CCM values and pigments (chlorophyll and total carotenoids) extracted from chlorolichens, especially species with a smooth surface. The CCM-300 was more accurate in detecting the pigment content of foliose chlorolichens. However, both instruments showed certain limitations in the determination of pigment content in cyanolichens, especially gelatinous species. For example, CCM-300 often failed to give specific values for some cyanolichen samples, and both instruments showed low measurement accuracy for cyanolichens. Based on the high correlation observed between chlorophyll meter readings and pigments extracted from chlorolichens, equations obtained in this study enabled accurate prediction of pigment content in these lichens. Keywords: CCM-300 · Carotenoids · Chlorophyll · Dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) · Foliose macrolichens · SPAD-502.
31481Flakus A., Etayo J., Pérez-Ortega S., Kukwa M., Palice Z. & Rodriguez-Flakus P. (2019): A new genus, Zhurbenkoa, and a novel nutritional mode revealed in the family Malmideaceae (Lecanoromycetes, Ascomycota). - Mycologia, 111(4): 593–611.
Lichen-inhabiting fungi are highly specialized mycoparasites, commensals or rarely saprotrophs, that are common components of almost every ecosystem, where they develop obligate associations with lichens. Their relevance, however, contrasts with the relatively small number of these fungi described so far. Recent estimates and ongoing studies indicate that a significant fraction of their diversity remains undiscovered and may be expected in tropical regions, in particular in hyperdiverse fog-exposed montane forests. Here, we introduce the new genus Zhurbenkoa, from South America and Europe, for three lichenicolous fungi growing on thalli of the widespread lichen genus Cladonia (Lecanorales). Phylogenetic analyses based on combined sequence data of mt and nuc rDNA obtained from Andean populations (Bolivia) placed Zhurbenkoa as a member of Malmideaceae, a recently introduced family of lichen-forming fungi in the class Lecanoromycetes. Zhurbenkoa is closely related to the genera Savoronala and Sprucidea. The new genus is characterized by the development of grayish brown to almost black apothecia lacking an evident margin, an epihymenium interspersed with crystals (often seen as pruina), a strongly conglutinated hymenium made of noncapitate and sparsely branched paraphyses, a colorless exciple composed of radially arranged hyphae, a Lecanora/Micarea-like ascus type, and aseptate or 1-septate ellipsoidal colorless ascospores. Zhurbenkoa includes two Neotropical (Z. cladoniarum, Z. latispora) and one widespread (Z. epicladonia) species. The lichenicolous trophic mode is documented for the first time in the Malmideaceae, which until now included only lichen-forming associations between fungi and green algae. Key words: Arthonia epicladonia; lichenicolous fungi; Neotropics; Pezizomycotina; phylogenetics; systematics; 4 new taxa.
31480Elix J.A., McCarthy P.M. & Hafellner J. (2019): A new lichenicolous species of Sclerococcum (Dactylosporaceae, Ascomycota) from south-eastern Australia. - Australasian Lichenology, 85: 43–45.
The new lichenicolous species Sclerococcum ewersii, collected on Trapeliopsis in southeastern Australia, is described and illustrated.
31479Elix J.A. & Mayrhofer H. (2019): A new species of Buellia (Calicaceae, Ascomycota) from Ile Matthew, New Caledonia. - Australasian Lichenology, 85: 40–42.
Buellia mackeei Elix & H.Mayrhofer, a saxicolous species with Physconia- then Buellia-type ascospores, bacilliform conidia, and 4,5-dichlorolichexanthone and stictic acid, is described as new to science.
31478Grube U., Mayrhofer H. & Elix J.A. (2019): A further new species of Rinodina (Physciaceae, Ascomycota) from eastern Australia. - Australasian Lichenology, 85: 16–19.
Rinodina arthomelina U.Grube, H.Mayrhofer & Elix, characterized by the presence of thiomelin, arthothelin and zeorin, is described as new to science. A key is provided to the Australasian species of Rinodina containing xanthones and zeorin.
31477Elix J.A., Liao L., Barrow R.A. & Piggott A.M. (2019): The structure of testacein, a new hybrid polyketide-sesquiterpene metabolite from the lichen Notoparmelia testacea. - Australasian Lichenology, 85: 34–39.
Testacein has been isolated from the lichen Notoparmelia testacea and its structure established by mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy.
31476Rambold G., Bensch K., Kirk P.M., Yao Y.-J., Robert V., Sanz V. & Triebel D. (2017): Citation of a taxon name identifier issued by the ICN-recognized registration repositories instead of taxon name author citation. - Taxon, 66(5): 1200–1203.
Problems with taxon name author citation in the running text of scientific articles are outlined. Particularly, the length of author names strings has significantly increased in the last decades, which could be demonstrated by analysis of names in the LIAS database. In addition, ambiguity of author name citation has increased because of variations in author name abbreviation and incomplete or incorrect citation of authors’ names. It is therefore suggested that in non-taxonomic scientific publications, author names should be replaced by taxon name identifiers as issued by registration repositories. The advantage of such approach especially in context with linked open data and semantic network challenges is described. An additional recommendation in Article 46 of the ICN with an example is suggested. Keywords: ICN Art. 46; identifier; name authors; registration repositories; scientific names; taxon names.
31475Mamut R., Li P., Abbas A. & Fu C. (2019): Morphology, chemistry and molecular phylogeny revealed a new species and a new combination of Myriolecis (Lecanoraceae, Ascomycota) from China. - Bryologist, 122(3): 375–383.
Based on molecular data, a new species, Myriolecis altunica, is described, and Lecanora caesioalutacea is placed in the genus Myriolecis (Lecanoraceae, Ascomycota). Myriolecis altunica is characterized by having a continuous, ashy brown thallus, with lobulate margins, apothecia with blackish disc and margin, with the disc whitish pruinose, and the absence of secondary substances. Myriolecis caesioalutacea has an ashy gray thallus and heavily pruinose, almost white apothecia, and contains xanthones (2,7-dichlorlichexanthone). The species was first reported as Lecanora caesioalutacea H.Magn. from Gansu, China, but is here shown to belong in the genus Myriolecis. Phylogenetic analyses based on ITS separately and on a 6-locus combined analysis (ITS, LSU, mtSSU, RPB1, RPB2, MCM7) both support placement of these two species in Myriolecis. The taxa are described and illustrated, and their distribution and ecology are briefly discussed. Keywords: Lecanora, L. dispersa group, lichen, lichen chemistry, taxonomy.
31474Zhurbenko M.P. & Ohmura Y. (2019): New and interesting records of lichenicolous fungi from the TNS herbarium: Part I. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 18: 74–89.
The paper documents 62 species of lichenicolous fungi and one algicolous fungus found in the TNS lichen herbarium. Abrothallus hypotrachynae, Cornutispora pittii, Lichenopeltella cetrariae, L. uncialicola, Phaeospora catolechiae, Polycoccum microcarpum, Sclerococcum porphyreum, Stigmidium joergensenii and S. subcladoniicola are newly reported for Asia; Talpapellis beschiana is newly reported for South America. Additionally, we report new records from the following countries: Australia (Abrothallus cladoniae s.l.), Bhutan (Lichenostigma maureri and Tremella everniae), China (Sclerococcum ahtii and Stigmidium microcarpum), Costa Rica (Karschia talcophila), Dominican Republic (Karschia talcophila), Japan (Abrothallus microspermus, Catillaria stereocaulorum, Cercidospora stereocaulorum, C. trypetheliza, Clypeococcum cetrariae, Endococcus nanellus, Epicladonia stenospora, Epigloe soleiformis, Lasiosphaeriopsis stereocaulicola, Lichenoconium erodens, L. usneae, Lichenopeltella cladoniarum, Nesolechia cetrariicola, Opegrapha stereocaulicola, Phaeospora cf. arctica, Polycoccum trypethelioides, Raesaenenia huuskonenii, Roselliniella cladoniae, Roselliniopsis tartaricola, Sclerococcum ahtii, Stigmidium arthrorhaphidis, S. beringicum, S. hafellneri, S. microcarpum, S. microspilum, S. stereocaulorum, S. tabacinae, Talpapellis beschiana, Tremella everniae and Zwackhiomyces berengerianus), Malaysia (Arthonia stereocaulina and Roselliniella stereocaulorum), Nepal (Corticifraga peltigerae, Epicladonia stenospora, Lichenothelia rugosa and Roselliniella cladoniae), North Korea (Epicladonia stenospora and Roselliniella cladoniae), Papua New Guinea (Catillaria stereocaulorum and Pyrenidium actinellum s.l.), Peru (Polycoccum trypethelioides), South Korea (Clypeococcum cetrariae and Endococcus nanellus), Taiwan (Abrothallus parmeliarum, Epicladonia stenospora, Lichenoconium lecanorae, Nesolechia oxyspora, Pyrenidium actinellum s.l. and Sclerococcum ahtii), Thailand (Nesolechia oxyspora), the U.S.A., all from Hawaii (Plectocarpon cladoniae, Sphaerellothecium cinerascens and Stigmidium subcladoniicola). Additionally, Lichenothelia rugosa and Pyrenidium actinellum s.l. are also new to Hawaii, U.S.A.; Abrothallus peyritschii, Sphaerellothecium minutum and S. cf. parmeliae are new to the Sakhalin Region of Russia. Abrothallus cladoniae s.l. is first reported from Cladia, and Cornutispora pittii from Cladonia. Keywords. – Biodiversity, biogeography, floristics, lichen parasites, natural history collection.
31473Lendemer J.C., Harris R.C. & McMullin R.T. (2019): Studies in Lichens and Lichenicolous fungi – No. 22: The identities of Lecidea deminutula, L. olivacea var. inspersa, L. virginiensis and Thelenella humilis. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 18: 90–101.
Notes on four taxa are presented as part of an effort to resolve the taxonomic status of neglected crustose lichen names based on material from North America. Lecidea deminutula, described from non-calcareous rocks in the Great Smoky Mountains of Tennessee, is placed in synonymy with Lecidella enteroleucella. Lecidea olivacea var. inspersa, described from hardwood bark in the Great Smoky Mountains of Tennessee, is placed in synonymy with Lecidella elaeochroma. Lecidea virginiensis, described from seeping, non-calcareous rocks in West Virginia, is lectotypified and placed in synonymy with Bryobilimbia ahlesii. Thelenella humilis described from non-calcareous rocks in New York is placed in synonymy with Protothelenella corrosa. Keywords. – Floristics, forgotten species, herbaria, morphology, nomenclature, taxonomic innovation.
31472Hawksworth D.L., Ahti T., Myllys L. & Boluda C.G. (2019): (2675) Proposal to conserve Alectoria fuscescens (Bryoria fuscescens), nom. cons., against the additional names Usnea implexa, Alectoria capillaris, A. cana, A. rubens, A. fuscidula, A. degenii, A. forissii, A. ostrobotniae, A. kuemmerleana, A. haynaldiae, A. achariana, A. lanestris, A. prostratosteola, and A. viridescens (Fungi, Ascomycota, Lecanorales, Parmeliaceae). - Taxon, 68(2): 400–402.
31471von Brackel W. (2019): Rote Liste und Gesamtartenliste der Flechten (Lichenes), flechtenbewohnenden und flechtenähnlichen Pilze Bayerns. - Bayerisches Landesamt für Umwelt, Augsburg, 124 p.
Red list and chacklist of lichens, lichenicolous and lichen-allied fungi of Bavaria, Germany.
31470Михайлова В.А., Саитова З.Р. & Ибрагимова А.И. [Mikhailovа V.A., Saitova Y.R. & Ibragimovа A.I.] (2017): Динамика изменения видового состава лихенобиоты Ишимбайского заказника за 2010–2015 гг. [Dynamics of changes in the species composition of the lichen flora of Ishimbay of the reserve for 2010–2015]. - Доклады Башкирского университета [Reports of the Bashkir University], 2(1): 25–29.
[in Russian with English summary: ] The article presents the results of the study of the species composition of the lichen biota of the reserve Ishimbay of the Republic of Bashkortostan for 2010–2015 as a result of studying the biodiversity of lichen biota of us was drawn up a summary list of lichens ishimbayskiy of the reserve, consisting of 72 species. Keywords: lichenbiota, taxonomic analysis, summary list, dynamics, species diversity.
31469Исмаилов А.Б. & Алиев А.М. [Ismailov A.B. & Aliev A.M.] (2017): Первые результаты изучения компонентного состава лишайников в Дагестане [The first results of studying of component composition of lichens in Dagestan]. - Ботанический вестник Северного Кавказа [Botanical Herald of the North Caucasus], 2017/1: 17–22.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] The component composition of lichens Cladonia gracilis, Cl. subrangiformis, Xanthoparmelia camtschadalis, Cetraria aculeata, Flavocetraria nivalis and Thamnolia vermicularis was studied by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the first time in Dagestan. The specimens were collected at 300 m a.s.l (Cladonia subrangiformis, Xanthoparmelia camtschadalis) and 2530 m a.s.l. (Cladonia gracilis, Cetraria aculeata, Flavocetraria nivalis and Thamnolia vermicularis). A total of 32 substances were discovered in the component composition of all specimens. Among them 15 substances inherent only for high-mountainous specimens and 10 substances were detected only in specimens collected from the foothills. Hydrocarbons were detected only in the component composition of the high-mountainous specimens. The maximum of substances (13) were detected in the extract of Cladonia subrangiformis. The main identified substances are: 2,4-dihydroxy-6-methyl- benzaldehyde (9,5% in extract of Cl. gracilis, 3,6% – Cl. subrangiformis), 2,5-dimethyl-3,4-hexanediol (29,3% – X. camtschadalis), 2,5-Dimethylhydroquinone (9,6% – Cl. gracilis, 1,6% – Cl. subrangiformis), 3-Propionyloxytridecane (29,4% – Cl. subrangiformis), 6-methyl-1-heptanol (24,9% – F. nivalis), Linoleic acid (32,5% – T. vermicularis, 13% – C. aculeata, 10% – F. nivalis, 8,5% – Cl. gracilis, 1,7% – Cl. subrangiformis), Allyl n-octyl ether (34,9% – Cl. subrangiformis), Atraric acid (57,4% – Cl. gracilis, 23,7% – C. aculeata, 18,9% – Cl. subrangiformis, 4,7% – T. vermicularis), Palmitic acid (16% – X. camtschadalis, 10% – T. vermicularis, 2,5% – Cl. subrangi-formis), Butyloxirane (21,4% – X. camtschadalis), α-Pinene (3,2% – Cl. gracilis), Phthalic acid (8,1% – F. nivalis), Styrene (18,2% – F. nivalis, 17,6% – C. aculeata, 9,4% – T. vermicularis, 4,4% – Cl. gracilis). Keywords: lichens, component composition, chromatography-mass spectrometry, Dagestan.
31468Урбанавичюс Г.П. [Urbanavichus G.P.] (2018): Ключи для определения родов макролишайников Северного Кавказа. I. Листоватые, кустистые, чешуйчатые [Identification key to the macrolichens genera of the North Caucasus. I. Foliose, fruticose, squamose]. - Ботанический вестник Северного Кавказа [Botanical Herald of the North Caucasus], 2018/1: 37–54.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] The lichen flora study was carried out in the framework of the project “North Caucasian Lichen Flora: taxonomic structure, diversity, specificity, systematic of individual taxa and contribution to the diversity of the lichen flora of Russia” supported by of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research. The North Caucasus, a part of the Caucasian biodiversity hotspot region, is characterized by the richest lichen flora. At present, about 2030 species (including allied non-lichenized fungi) are recorded in the North Caucasian lichen flora. However, large areas of the North Caucasus, especially in the central and east parts of the region, remain poorly explored. Therefore, extensive researches in various regions of the North Caucasus are very necessary. The lichen flora of any region is strongly influenced by many factors – geography, geology, climate and vegetation. Therefore, it is best to use a key covering a region close to where lichens were collected. Unfortunately, the lack of special guide for the Caucasus has held back the study of Caucasian lichens at the present time. The primary step in the identification of any lichen taxa is the definition of its genus. The dichotomous keys to c. 140 macrolichens genera (foliose, fruticose and squamose), including all taxa that have been reliably reported for the North Caucasus lichen flora, are provided for the first time. These keys are the first stage in creating a manual for identification of lichens known in the North Caucasus. Keywords: lichens, flora, identification, keys, North Caucasus.
31467Урбанавичюс Г.П., Исмаилов А.Б. & Урбанавичене И.Н. [Urbanavichus G.P., Ismailov A.B. & Urbanavichene I.N.] (2016): Сравнительная лихеногеография Западного и Восточного Кавказа. I. Высокогорные известняковые местообитания [Comparative lichenogeography of the Western and Eastern Caucasus. I. High-mountain calcareous habitats]. - Ботанический вестник Северного Кавказа [Botanical Herald of the North Caucasus], 2016/2: 50–67.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] Species diversities and similarities of lichen flora of high-mountain (alpine and subalpine) calcareous habitats from the Western Caucasus (Lagonaki Plateau, Adygeya Republic, Krasnodar Territory) and the Eastern Caucasus (Gunib Plateau, Inner-mountain Dagestan) are compared. Up to date, 452 species in 164 genera and 50 families are known from the the two high-mountain plateaus. There are 141 species, 87 genera and 27 families common for two plateaus. The Lagonaki Plateau at the height 1800–2760 m has 377 species where 236 are specific. The Gunib Plateau at the height 1800–2354 m has 216 species where 75 are specific. The similarities degree of lichen flora between the two plateaus is 31 %. Species of three families Verrucariaceae, Teloschistaceae and Physciaceae compose the lichen flora bullet of two plateaus with gross share above 1/3 of species composition. There are two main groups among revealed lichen species by the pattern of distribution: a) distributed only in highlands (specific highlands) – 190 species in two plateaus; b) prevailing by the height gradient and distributed at the low height (common highlands) – 262 species. The lichen flora specificity increases with the increasing of the height above sea level. The Lagonaki Plateau has 157 mountain species in which 129 are specific. There are also 220 widely used species (108 specific). The Gunib Plateau has 61 mountain species (33 specific) and 115 prevailing species (42 specific). Ground lichen flora species has widely distributed by the height gradient and epilit lichens are limit distributed in high-mountain. The first effect the lichen flora similarity of two plateau largely, the second –there specificity and difference. High proportion of limit distributed and specific mountain epilit lichens shows more self-contained formation of high-mountain lichen component. The high similarity in lichen flora of the plateaus is caused by similarities in calcareous habitats of interlay material – calcarous rock. However the difference of climatic parameters especially in average annual precipitation (the Lagonaki Plateau has about 2000 mm elements in a year; Gunib 620 mm) caused the presence of differential taxons in the lichen flora. Arid and thermophilic lichens from Siberian-Asian, Irano-Turanian and sub-Mediterranean species occur in the Gunib Plateau only. Those are namely in genera Aspicilia, Flavoplaca, Glypholecia, Gyalolechia, Neocatapyrenium, Peltula, Thallinocarpon, Thyrea, Xanthoparmelia. On the other hand, humid and cryophilous lichens (atlantic, central and northern Europe are only known from the Lagonaki Plateau; most of Arthrorhaphidaceae, Hymeneliaceae, Lecideaceae, Pannariaceae, Protothelenellaceae, Thelenellaceae, Thelocarpaceae, Verrucariaceae, etc., and genera Bacidia, Lecanora, Ochrolechia, Polysporina, Porpidia, Scytinium, Tetramelas, etc. Keywords: lichens, high-mountains, calcareous rocks, lichengeography, biodiversity, specifics, Caucasus, Russia.
31466Урбанавичюс Г.П. [Urbanavichus G.P.] (2016): Род Scytinium (Ach.) Gray (Collemataceae, Lichenized Ascomycota) в лихенофлоре Кавказа [The Genus Scytinium (Ach.) Gray (Collemataceae, lichenized Ascomycota) in the lichen flora of the Caucasus]. - Ботанический вестник Северного Кавказа [Botanical Herald of the North Caucasus], 2016/1: 56–71.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] Based on the recent molecular data the genus Scytinium, described in the early 19th century, is reinstated. Therefore, the revision of the status of many species, previously included in the genera Collema and Leptogium, is required. A taxonomic revision of the Caucasian species of the genus Scytinium is provided in the present article. Based on original research and literature data 19 species of the Scytinium are recognized for the lichen flora of the Caucasus. A detailed description of the genus is given; an identification key to all species based on morphological and anatomical characteristics is presented for the first time. The descriptions of species not present in Russian lichenological literature are given. The ecological features and distributional data in the Caucasus, Russia and worldwide are provided for each species. The greatest diversity of species Scytinium is observed in the well-studied Krasnodar territory and Adygeya Republic - fourteen and twelve species, respectively. Keywords: lichens, Scytinium, diversity, taxonomic review, key, Caucasus, Russia.
31465Szczepańska K., Rodriguez-Flakus P., Urbaniak J. & Śliwa L. (2019): Neotypification of Protoparmeliopsis garovaglii and molecular evidence of its occurrence in Poland and South America. - MycoKeys, 57: 31–46.
Protoparmeliopsis garovaglii is a widely distributed placodioid lichen, which develops a distinctly rosette thallus, composed of elongated and strongly inflated to sinuous-plicate lobes. The taxon is characterised by high morphological plasticity and varied composition of secondary metabolites. However, the epithet was never typified. As such, the identity of P. garovaglii, in its strict sense, was unknown for a long time. Our phylogenetic ITS rDNA analyses, including newly generated sequences, show that European (Austria, Poland), North American (USA) and South American (Bolivia, Peru) specimens of P. garovaglii are placed in a strongly supported monophyletic clade, sister to P. muralis. We provide the first molecular evidence of the occurrence of P. garovaglii in South America (Bolivia and Peru) and the second record in Central Europe (Poland) was also provided. Furthermore, we neotypify P. garovaglii and it is reported here for the first time from Poland. Keywords: Geographical distribution, ITS rDNA, lichenised fungi, phylogeny, taxonomy, typification.
31464Guzow-Krzemińska B., Sérusiaux E., van den Boom P.P.G., Brand A.M., Launis A., Łubek A. & Kukwa M. (2019): Understanding the evolution of phenotypical characters in the Micarea prasina group (Pilocarpaceae) and descriptions of six new species within the group. - MycoKeys, 57: 1–30.
Six new Micarea species are described from Europe. Phylogenetic analyses, based on three loci, i.e. mtSSU rDNA, Mcm7 and ITS rDNA and ancestral state reconstructions, were used to evaluate infra-group divisions and the role of secondary metabolites and selected morphological characters on the taxonomy in the M. prasina group. Two main lineages were found within the group. The Micarea micrococca clade consists of twelve species, including the long-known M. micrococca and the newly described M. microsorediata, M. nigra and M. pauli. Within this clade, most species produce methoxymicareic acid, with the exceptions of M. levicula and M. viridileprosa producing gyrophoric acid. The M. prasina clade includes the newly described M. azorica closely related to M. prasina s.str., M. aeruginoprasina sp. nov. and M. isidioprasina sp. nov. The species within this clade are characterised by the production of micareic acid, with the exception of M. herbarum which lacks any detectable substances and M. subviridescens that produces prasinic acid. Based on our reconstructions, it was concluded that the ancestor of the M. prasina group probably had a thallus consisting of goniocysts, which were lost several times during evolution, while isidia and soredia evolved independently at multiple times. Our research supported the view that the ancestor of M. prasina group did not produce any secondary substances, but they were gained independently in different lineages, such as methoxymicareic acid which is restricted to M. micrococca and allied species or micareic acid present in the M. prasina clade. Keywords: Ancestral state reconstruction, lichenised fungi, morphology, mtSSU rDNA, secondary metabolites, taxonomy.
31463Schiefelbein U., Schultz M. & Linders H.-W. (2019): Der Wellenbrecher im Hafen von Norddeich – ein bemerkenswerter Flechtenstandort an der ostfriesischen Nordseeküste. - Drosera, 2014: 1–8.
The breakwater in the harbour of Norddeich – a remarkable habitat of lichens on the East Frisian North Sea coast. – The lichen flora of a breakwater in the ferry port Norddeich in Norden has been studied. 27 lichenized and three lichenicolous fungi have been recorded, among them Candelariella medians, an extremely rare lichen species in Lower Saxony and a probably undescribed Endococcus species, which grows on Rinodina gennarii. The lichen flora is typical for coastal habitats and shows the characteristic vertical zonation observed elsewhere along the German North Sea coast. Furthermore, based on differences in the vertical distribution of the terrestrial species two groups can be differentiated. While the first group of species occurs from the lower part of the wall up to the top of the breakwater, the second group colonizes only the upper part of the wall.
31462Grishin S.Yu., Perepelkina P.A. & Burdukovskii M.L. (2019): Beginning of vegetation succession on lava flows from the 2012–2013 eruption of Tolbachik volcano, Kamchatka. - Russian Journal of Ecology, 50(3): 300–303.
[Translation of original Russian text published in Ekologiya, 2019, No. 3, pp. 226–229] Keywords: colonization, plants, mosses, diaspores, volcanogenic succession, early succession species.
31461Malíček J., Bouda F., Peksa O. & Syrovátková L. (2019): Lišejníky zaznamenané během bryologicko-lichenologických dnů na Broumovsku [Lichens recorded during the bryological and lichenological days in the Broumov region (eastern Bohemia)]. - Bryonora, 63: 13-22.
We present a list of 120 lichen taxa and one lichen-allied fungus recorded in the Broumovsko Protected Landscape Area in September 2018 during the 30th Autumn Days of the Bryological and Lichenological Section of the Czech Botanical Society. We explored mainly acidic and calcareous sandstone rocks in this lichenologically poorly known area. Acidic sandstones harboured, for example, Arthonia arthonioides, Micarea leprosula and Mycoblastus alpinus whereas those of the calcareous rock types harboured Verrucaria hochstetteri. A half-day excursion led to a settling pit with early succession stages occupied by a few rare terricolous/bryophilous species such as Bacidia pycnidiata, Placidiopsis oreades (only one locality in the Czech Republic), Thelocarpon impressellum (the second locality in the Czech Republic), Verrucaria bryoctona and Vezdaea leprosa. The region is quite poor in epiphytic lichens, but several currently spreading species have been recorded, for example Flavoparmelia caperata. Keywords: biodiversity, sandstone rocks, saxicolous lichens.
31460Pozo-Antonio J.S., Barreiro P., González P. & Paz-Bermúdez G. (2019): Nd:YAG and Er:YAG laser cleaning to remove Circinaria hoffmanniana (Lichenes, Ascomycota) from schist located in the Côa Valley Archaeological Park. - International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, 144: 104748 [10 p.].
Keywords: Laser cleaning; Lichenic crust; Nd:YAG; Er:YAG; UNESCO world heritage park; Ckeaning effectiveness; Stone.
31459Carrizo D., Sánchez-García L., Menes R.J. & García-Rodríguez F. (2019): Discriminating sources and preservation of organic matter in surface sediments from five Antarctic lakes in the Fildes Peninsula (King George Island) by lipid biomarkers and compound-specific isotopic analysis. - Science of the Total Environment , 672: 657–668.
Lakes are important paleoenvironmental archives retaining abundant information due to their typical high sedimentation rates and susceptibility to environmental changes. Here, we scrutinize the organic matter (OM) composition, origin and preservation state in surface sediments from five lakes in a remote, warming-sensitive, and poorly explored region partially covered by the retreating Collins Glacier in King George Island (Antarctica), the Fildes Peninsula. Lipid biomarkers of terrestrial origin (i.e. high-molecular weight n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, and n-alkanols; β-sitosterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol) were detected in the five Fildes Lakes, with the smallest basin (i.e., Meltwater) showing a particularly strong moss imprint. Aquatic source indicators such as low C/N and terrestrial over aquatic ratios (TAR), or less negative δ13C values were preferentially found in the mid-sized lakes (i.e., Drake and Ionospheric). Sedimentary carbon in the larger lakes (i.e., Uruguay and Kitezh) displayed a largely biogenic origin (i.e., values of carbon preference index, CPI, ≫1), whereas the three lakes close to Collins Glacier (i.e., Drake, Meltwater, and Ionospheric) showed certain contribution from petrogenic sources (CPI ~ 1). The results suggest that the geochemical signature of the surface sediments in the five Fildes lakes is determined by factors such as the distance to the retreating Collins Glacier, the proximity to the coast, or the lake depth. This study illustrates the forensic interest of combining lipid biomarkers, compound-specific isotopic analysis, and bulk geochemistry to reconstruct paleoenvironments and study climate-sensitive regions. Keywords: Lipids biomarkers; Lakes; Organic matter; Maritime Antarctica; Isotopes. p. 659-660 [2.2. Sample collection]: "Additionally, fresh samples representative of the local vegetation were collected from the lakes surroundings. One sample of moss (Sanionia uncinata), particularly abundant in the northern part of the Fildes Peninsula, was collected from the Drake and Meltwater surroundings; two types of lichens (Lecanora spp., and Placopsis contortuplicata) from the region between the Ionospheric and Uruguay lakes; and one sample of grass (Deschampsia Antarctica) fromthe Kitezh surroundings. All sediment and vegetal samples were stored cold (~4 °C) on solvent-clean polypropylene containers until back at the laboratory, when they were frozen (−20 °C). They were then freeze-dried before geochemical analysis." p. 662 [3.2. Lipid biomarkers in the Fildes Lakes surface sediments]: "The fresh vegetal samples contained n-alkanes spanning fromC11 to C32 with variable profiles depending on the particular species (Fig. S4). The moss sample (Sanionia unciata) exhibited a distinct maximum at C23. The Antarctic grass (Deschampsia antarctica) had its maximum at C31, with relevant peaks also at C23 and C25. The two lichen samples (Placopsis contortuplicata and Lecanora sp.) showed a common maximum at C17, and additional peaks at C21, C22, C23, or C27 (Fig. S4)."
31458Loppi S., Corsini A. & Paoli L. (2019): Estimating environmental contamination and element deposition at an urban area of central Italy. - Urban Science, 3(3): 76 [9 p.].
Air quality monitoring in many urban areas is based on sophisticated and costly equipment to check for the respect of environmental quality standards, but capillary monitoring is often not feasible due to economic constraints. In such cases, the use of living organisms may be very useful to complement the sparse data obtained by physico-chemical measurements. In this study, the bioaccumulation of selected trace elements (Al, As, Cd, Ce, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, S, Sb, Zn) in lichen samples (Evernia prunastri) transplanted for three months at an urban area of Central Italy was investigated to assess the main environmental contaminants, their sources, and the fluxes of element depositions. The results pinpointed Cu and Sb as the main contaminants and suggested a common origin for these two elements from non-exhaust sources of vehicular traffic, such as brake abrasion. Most study sites were, however, found to be subjected to low or moderate environmental contamination, and the lowest contamination corresponded to the main green areas, confirming the important protective role of urban forests against air pollution. Ranges of estimated mean annual element deposition rates in the study area were similar or lower than those reported for other urban areas. Keywords: air pollution; air quality; bioaccumulation; biomonitoring; heavy metals.
31457Winkler A., Caricchi C., Guidotti M., Owczarek M., Macrì P., Nazzari M., Amoroso A., Di Giosa A. & Listrani S. (2019): Combined magnetic, chemical and morphoscopic analyses on lichens from a complex anthropic context in Rome, Italy. - Science of the Total Environment, 690: 1355–1368.
Native and transplanted lichens were analyzed as bioaccumulators of airborne particulate matter (PM) in an eastern district of Rome, Italy, where frequent fraudulent fires are set to recover metals, mostly copper, from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). The presence of native lichens was scarce, due to the drought of spring-summer 2017, thus, sampling was extended to a neighboring area for toughening the dataset to a similar context. The magnetic analyses revealed intense properties connected to the anthropic complexity of the zone, where industrial, traffic and arson-related dusts are emitted and bio-accumulated. Magnetic and chemical analyses were compared, leading to significant linear correlations between the concentration dependent magnetic parameters (susceptibility, saturation magnetization and saturation remanence) and the concentration of heavy metals, among which copper, chrome, lead and zinc. Moreover, selected magnetic particles were chemically and morphologically characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope and Energy Dispersion System microanalyses. Magnetic particles resulted incorporated into the lichens' tissues and their composition, morphology and grain size strongly supported their anthropogenic, mostly combustion-related, origin. Even if, given the complexity of the area, it was not feasible to fully discriminate the multiple anthropogenic sources, magnetic biomonitoring of lichens, especially when combined with microtextural and compositional analyses, confirmed to be an excellent methodology for a rapid characterization of environmental pollution. Keywords: Air pollution; Magnetic biomonitoring; Heavy metals; Particulate matter (PM); Environmental magnetism; Lichens.
31456Landis M.S., Berryman S.D., White E.M., Graney J.R., Edgerton E.S. & Studabaker W.B. (2019): Use of an epiphytic lichen and a novel geostatistical approach to evaluate spatial and temporal changes in atmospheric deposition in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Alberta, Canada. - Science of the Total Environment, 692: 1005–1021.
Temporal and spatial atmospheric deposition trends of elements to the boreal forest surrounding bitumen production operations in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR), Alberta, Canada were investigated as part of a long-term lichen bioindicator study. The study focused on eight elements (sulfur, nitrogen, aluminum, calcium, iron, nickel, strontium, vanadium) that were previously identified as tracers for the major oil sand production sources. Samples of the in situ epiphytic lichen Hypogymnia physodes were collected in 2002, 2004, 2008, 2011, 2014, and 2017 within a ~150 km radius from the center of surface oil sand production operations in the AOSR. Site-specific time series analysis conducted at eight jack pine upland sites that were repeatedly sampled generally showed significant trends of increasing lichen concentrations for fugitive dust linked elements, particularly at near-field (<25 km from a major oil sands production operation) sample locations. Multiple regional scale geostatistical models were developed and evaluated to characterize broad-scale changes in atmospheric deposition based on changes in H. physodes elemental concentrations between 2008 and 2014. Empirical Bayesian kriging and cokriging lichen element concentrations with oil sands mining, bitumen upgrading, coke materials handling, and limestone quarry/crushing influence variables produced spatial interpolation estimates with the lowest validation errors. Gridded zonal mean lichen element concentrations were calculated for the two comprehensive sampling years (2008, 2014) and evaluated for spatial and temporal change. Lichen sulfur concentrations significantly increased in every grid cell within the domain with the largest increases (44–88%) in the central valley in close proximity to the major surface oil sand production operations, while a minor nitrogen concentration decrease (−20%) in a single grid cell was observed. The areal extent of fugitive dust element deposition generally increased with significantly higher deposition to lichens restricted to the outer grids of the enhanced deposition field, reflecting new and expanding surface mining activity. Keywords: Lichen biomonitoring; Cokriging; Hypogymnia physodes; Atmospheric deposition; Time series analysis; Wood Buffalo Environmental Association.
31455Edgin B., Shimp J., Allen D., Cawn J., McClain W.E. & Ebinger J.E. (2004): Vascular flora of Gray’s Post Oak Woodland, Saline County, Illinois. - Southeastern Naturalist, 3(4): 733–744.
Gray's Post Oak Woodland is an open wooded community located on the western edge of the Wabash Border Natural Division about 9 km southeast of Harrisburg, Saline County, IL. Associated with a clayey soil missing most of the surface layer, the trees were stunted and gnarled. Quercus stellata dominated the canopy, accounting for nearly all of the importance value. Although six other tree species were present, few individuals exceeded 15 cm dbh. The open understory contained few saplings, averaged 1520 stems/ha, with young post oaks common. The herbaceous layer was sparse with a bare ground and litter cover of 48.90%. Danthonia spicata dominated, along with various moss and lichen species, some tree seedlings, and Carex spp. p. 738: "Various moss and lichen species were common. When combined, the three common mosses (Ditrichum pallidum [Hedw.] Hampe, Dicranum scoparium Hedw., and Leucobryum glaucum [Hedw.)]Fries) ranked second, accounting for a cover of 5.15% and an IV of 26.0%; while two species of lichens (Cladina subtenuis [Abbayes] Hale & Culb. and Cladonia strepsilis [Ach.] Vain) combined were sixth in IV (6.4%)."
31454Reveal J.L. (2004): No man is an island: The life and times of André Michaux. - Castanea, 69(sp2): 22–68.
Botanical explorers roamed temperate North American colonies long before André Michaux came to the United States. The efforts of these men and women accounted for thousands of new species of plants described in the scientific literature from the early 1500s until 1785 when Michaux arrived to begin his studies that would ultimately result, in 1803, in an abbreviated summary of the region’s known flora. Most of the early collecting efforts concentrated on trees and shrubs of potential ornamental significance or plants of medicinal importance. Introduction of temperate North American plants was well underway by 1600, with a steady flow of natural objects going to Western Europe throughout the seventeenth century. Although broad, general interest in North American plants declined after 1700, the efforts of a few—notably Mark Catesby, John Clayton, John Mitchell, John Bartram, Pehr Kalm, Alexander Garden, Caldwaller Colden and William Bartram—greatly shaped Carl Linnaeus’ understanding of our flora from 1735 until his death in 1778. Therefore, Michaux did not enter into an unexplored wilderness where everything was new but rather a land that required a naturalist with a broad understanding of what was undiscovered still. The focus of this paper is to review the effort of those early naturalists, and to present details of the new methods Michaux brought to field botany: A broad knowledge of plants, a genuine willingness to explore, and a desire (albeit reluctant) to put what he knew into print. Unfortunately, his ultimate product, Flora Boreali-Americana, was myopic in scope and therefore woefully incomplete because Michaux failed to consult the wealth of material collected prior to his own efforts.
31453Jennings W. & Stewart D. (2000): Ecology & evolution of wall-dwelling organisms. - American Biology Teacher, 62(6): 429–435.
Lichens in didactics
31452Nadkarni N.M. (2000): Colonization of stripped branch surfaces by epiphytes in a lower montane cloud forest, Monteverde, Costa Rica. - Biotropica, 32(2): 358–363.
Key words: cloud forest; colonization; Costa Rica; epiphyte; Monteverde; secondary succession.
31451Armaleo D., Müller O., Lutzoni F., Andrésson Ó.S., Blanc G., Bode H.B., Collart F.R., Dal Grande F., Dietrich F., Grigoriev I.V., Joneson S., Kuo A., Larsen P.E., Logsdon J.M. Jr, Lopez D., Martin F., May S.P., McDonald T.R., Merchant S.S., Miao V., Morin E., Oono R., Pellegrini M., Rubinstein N., Sanchez-Puerta M.V., Savelkoul E., Schmitt I., Slot J.C., Soanes D., Szövényi P., Talbot N.J., Veneault-Fourrey C. & Xavier B.B. (2019): The lichen symbiosis re-viewed through the genomes of Cladonia grayi and its algal partner Asterochloris glomerata. - BMC Genomics, 20: 605 [33 p.].
Background: Lichens, encompassing 20,000 known species, are symbioses between specialized fungi (mycobionts), mostly ascomycetes, and unicellular green algae or cyanobacteria (photobionts). Here we describe the first parallel genomic analysis of the mycobiont Cladonia grayi and of its green algal photobiont Asterochloris glomerata. We focus on genes/predicted proteins of potential symbiotic significance, sought by surveying proteins differentially activated during early stages of mycobiont and photobiont interaction in coculture, expanded or contracted protein families, and proteins with differential rates of evolution. Results: A) In coculture, the fungus upregulated small secreted proteins, membrane transport proteins, signal transduction components, extracellular hydrolases and, notably, a ribitol transporter and an ammonium transporter, and the alga activated DNA metabolism, signal transduction, and expression of flagellar components. B) Expanded fungal protein families include heterokaryon incompatibility proteins, polyketide synthases, and a unique set of Gprotein α subunit paralogs. Expanded algal protein families include carbohydrate active enzymes and a specific subclass of cytoplasmic carbonic anhydrases. The alga also appears to have acquired by horizontal gene transfer from prokaryotes novel archaeal ATPases and Desiccation-Related Proteins. Expanded in both symbionts are signal transduction components, ankyrin domain proteins and transcription factors involved in chromatin remodeling and stress responses. The fungal transportome is contracted, as are algal nitrate assimilation genes. C) In the mycobiont, slow-evolving proteins were enriched for components involved in protein translation, translocation and sorting.
31450Palice Z. (2019): Česká a slovenská lichenologická bibliografie XXXI [Czech and Slovak lichenological bibliography XXXI]. - Bryonora, 63: 35–39.
31449Otte V. & Rätzel S. (2009): Bemerkenswerte Flechtenfunde aus Brandenburg XII. - Verhandlungen des Botanischen Vereins von Berlin und Brandenburg, 141[2008]: 137–143.
Physcia biziana is recorded for the first time from Germany. First records for the State of Brandenburg (Germany) are Buellia badia and Normandina pulchella. Lecania koerberiana has been rediscovered for Germany and Caloplaca cerinella, Fellhanera bouteillei and Marchandiomyces corallinus for Brandenburg. Further observations of rare lichens, in part critically endangered in Germany, but at least of regional interest, are communicated.
31448Rätzel S., Otte V., de Bruyn U. & Sipman H.J.M. (2006): Bemerkenswerte Flechtenfunde aus Brandenburg (incl. lichenicoler und lichenoider Pilze) X. - Verhandlungen des Botanischen Vereins von Berlin und Brandenburg, 138[2005]: 83–105.
The tenth contribution of this series contains the first German record of Chaenothecopsis savonica and the first records of Agonimia tristicula, Arthrorhaphis aeruginosa, Bacidia adastra, B. neosquamulosa, Chaenotheca phaeocephala, Cyrtidula quercus, Gyalecta truncigena, Gyalideopsis anastomosans, Lecanora conferta, Lecidea plana, Lempholemma chalazanum, Micarea leprosula, M. misella, Opegrapha calcarea, Pachyphiale fagicola, Porina leptalea, Porpidia soredizodes, Ramalina obtusata, Syzygospora physciacearum, Verrucaria macrostoma and V. tectorum in the State of Brandenburg (Germany) and other interesting lichen observations. The species Fellhanera bouteillei, Lecanora horiza, L. xanthostoma, Pertusaria coronata and Rhizocarpon reductum, have been rediscovered in Brandenburg. A number of species are to be deleted from the checklist (OTTE & RÄTZEL 2004) as a result of detailed herbaria and literature studies: Lecania cyrtellina and Punctelia borreri.
31447Otte V., Wagner H.-G., Fürstenow J. & Rätzel S. (2018): Bemerkenswerte Flechtenfunde aus Brandenburg XIV. - Verhandlungen des Botanischen Vereins von Berlin und Brandenburg, 149: 153–171.
The lichens Acarospora peliscypha, Caloplaca limonia, Candelaria pacifica, Cresporhaphis macrospora, Dimerella lutea, Lecanora barkmaniana, Ochrolechia arborea, Opegrapha gyrocarpa, Oxneria huculica, Physcia tribacioides, Punctelia borreri, Reichlingia leopoldii, Thelocarpon pallidum and the gyrophoric acid chemotype of Bryoria implexa as well as the lichenicolous fungi Cercidospora macrospora, Didymosphaeria futilis and Intralichen christiansenii are recorded for the region of Brandenburg and Berlin (Germany) for the first time. First records to Berlin are, moreover, the lichens and lichen-similar fungi Cyrtidula quercus, Leptorhaphis atomaria, Thelocarpon magnussonii, Vezdaea leprosa as well as the lichenicolous fungi Capronia peltigerae, Cladoniicola staurospora, Graphium aphthosae, Hawksworthiana peltigericola, Libertiella malmedyensis, Lichenodiplis lecanorae, Marchandiobasidium aurantiacum, Microcalicium disseminatum, Paranectria oropensis, Pezizella epithallina. Steinia geophana is first recorded with certainty from Berlin. Cliostomum corrugatum, Collema fuscovirens, Stereocaulon paschale were rediscovered to the Brandenburg-Berlin region. Two further observations of Nephromopsis laureri, a species recorded for the northern German lowlands only recently, were done; one of them in the Polish part of the region of Lower Lusatia. Occurrences of Hyperphyscia adglutinata, a species rediscovered recently in the Berlin-Brandenburg region after 200 years of absence, are rapidly increasing in number. Collema fuscovirens was repeatedly found on roofing tiles of concrete of a type previously widely used. Some further observations of rare or rarely recorded species are communicated. Cheiromycina globosa was found far from the northern Brandenburg/western Pomerania region for the first time. Just as most previous collections of this species, this material is associated with apothecia, whose anatomy and spores refer to Lecania koerberiana, which is otherwise not currently reported from Brandenburg. Two previously reported occurrences of Anaptychia ciliaris, a species under legal protection in Germany and critically endangered in Brandenburg, have been annihilated by demolition of their habitats. Keywords: Lichens, lichenicolous fungi, nature conservation, rare species, threatened species, first records, Germany, Poland.
31446Otte V. (1996): Exkursionsbericht "Flechtenexkursion nach Rheinsberg am 17. 3. 1996". - Verhandlungen des Botanischen Vereins von Berlin und Brandenburg, 129: 279–282.
Report on excursion
31445Otte V. (1997): Exkursionsbericht "Flechtenexkursion ins Annatal bei Strausberg am 17. 11. 1996". - Verhandlungen des Botanischen Vereins von Berlin und Brandenburg, 130: 297–299.
Report on excursion
31444Otte V. (1997): Exkursionsbericht "Flechtenexkursion nach Angermünde am 23. 03. 1997". - Verhandlungen des Botanischen Vereins von Berlin und Brandenburg, 130: 301–302.
Report on excursion
31443Otte V. (1998): Exkursionsbericht "Flechtenexkursion nach Boitzenburg in der Uckermark am 23. November 1997". - Verhandlungen des Botanischen Vereins von Berlin und Brandenburg, 131: 219–222.
Report on excursion
31442Otte V. (1999): Exkursionsbericht "Flechtenexkursion in die Niederlausitz am 15. 03. 1998". - Verhandlungen des Botanischen Vereins von Berlin und Brandenburg, 132: 385–386.
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31441Otte V. (1999): Exkursionsbericht "Flechtenexkursion auf den Hohen Barnim am 07. 03. 1999". - Verhandlungen des Botanischen Vereins von Berlin und Brandenburg, 132: 397–399.
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31440Otte V. (2000): Exkursionsbericht "Flechtenexkursion ins nördliche Havelland am 2. April 2000". - Verhandlungen des Botanischen Vereins von Berlin und Brandenburg, 133: 553–556.
Report on excursion
31439Otte V. (2002): Exkursionsbericht "Flechtenexkursion nach Angermünde und Görlsdorf in der Uckermark am 30. 10. 2000". - Verhandlungen des Botanischen Vereins von Berlin und Brandenburg, 134: 241–243.
Report on excursion
31438Otte V. (2002): Exkursionsbericht "Flechtenexkursion in die nördliche Prignitz am 11. 03. 2001". - Verhandlungen des Botanischen Vereins von Berlin und Brandenburg, 134: 245–248.
Report on excursion
31437Otte V. (2002): Exkursionsbericht "Flechtenexkursion in die Mahlheide bei Schernsdorf am 4. 11. 2001". - Verhandlungen des Botanischen Vereins von Berlin und Brandenburg, 135: 283–285.
Report on excursion
31436Otte V. (2003): Exkursionsbericht „Flechtenexkursion zur Spremberger Talsperre am 16. März 2003“. - Verhandlungen des Botanischen Vereins von Berlin und Brandenburg, 136: 401–404.
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31435Otte V., Rohner M.-S. & Schaepe A. (2006): Bericht vom 7. Brandenburgischen Mooskartierungstreffen in Lebus. - Verhandlungen des Botanischen Vereins von Berlin und Brandenburg, 139: 335–341.
Report on bryological excursion (few lichens noted)
31434Otte V. (2007): Bericht über die Flechtenexkursion "auf den Spuren von Gottlob Ludwig Rabenhorst" in die Kleinkrausniker und Rochauer Heide am 25. November 2006. - Verhandlungen des Botanischen Vereins von Berlin und Brandenburg, 140: 183–186.
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31433Otte V., Rätzel S. & Boch S. (2008): Bericht vom Flechtenkartierungstreffen im Westhavelland am 17. und 18. November 2007. - Verhandlungen des Botanischen Vereins von Berlin und Brandenburg, 141: 217–222.
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31432Otte V. (2018): Gottlob Ludwig Rabenhorst als Lichenologe. - Berichte der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft der Oberlausitz, 26: 59–64.
Gottlob Ludwig Rabenhorst as lichenologist. A review of the lichenological activities of G. L. Rabenhorst (1806–1881) is given. After first activities in the Niederlausitz region (province of Brandenburg, Prussia), Rabenhorst became famous after he had moved to Dresden (Saxony) and edited exsiccata sets and handbooks on cryptogamic plants, which were honoured with high awards. He was not so much a taxonomist as a florist and he earned merits by popularisation of lichenology. Up to the middle of the 20th century, several authors edited treatments of some lichen groups under the collective title “Rabenhorst’s Cryptogamic Flora”. Keywords: Lichen Floras, exsiccata, anthropogenic change, citizen science.
31431Otte V. (2018): Bericht über das 3. brandenburgische Flechtenkartierungstreffen in Flecken Zechlin vom 9. bis zum 11. April 2010. - Verhandlungen des Botanischen Vereins von Berlin und Brandenburg, 49: 191–195.
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31430Otte V. (2018): Bericht über das 4. brandenburgische Flechtenkartierungstreffen in Gülpe, mit Exkursionen in die Altmark, vom 14. bis 16. Oktober 2011. - Verhandlungen des Botanischen Vereins von Berlin und Brandenburg, 49: 197–200.
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31429Otte V. (2019): Bericht über das 10. brandenburgische Flechtenkartierungstreffen in Gülpe vom 30. Oktober bis zum 1. November 2015. - Verhandlungen des Botanischen Vereins von Berlin und Brandenburg, 50: 309–311.
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31428Otte V. (2019): Bericht über das 9. brandenburgische Flechtenkartierungstreffen in Lugau/Niederlausitz vom 16. bis zum 19. April 2015. - Verhandlungen des Botanischen Vereins von Berlin und Brandenburg, 50: 305–308.
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31427Otte V. & Rätzel S. (2019): Bericht über das 8. brandenburgische Flechtenkartierungstreffen in Lugau/Niederlausitz vom 14. bis zum 16. November 2014. - Verhandlungen des Botanischen Vereins von Berlin und Brandenburg, 50: 297–304.
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31426Otte V. (2018): Bericht über das 6. brandenburgische Flechtenkartierungstreffen in Gülpe vom 31. Oktober bis zum 3. November 2013. - Verhandlungen des Botanischen Vereins von Berlin und Brandenburg, 49: 205–208.
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31425Otte V. (2018): Bericht über das 5. brandenburgische Flechtenkartierungstreffen vom 12. bis 14. Oktober 2012 in Altkünkendorf. - Verhandlungen des Botanischen Vereins von Berlin und Brandenburg, 49: 201–204.
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31424Otte V. (2019): Bericht über das 7. brandenburgische Flechtenkartierungstreffen in Luhme vom 11. bis zum 13. April 2014. - Verhandlungen des Botanischen Vereins von Berlin und Brandenburg, 50: 291–295.
Report on excursion
31423Hahn C. (2019): Capronia suijae (Erstnachweis für Deutschland) und weitere lichenicole Pilze an Xanthoria. - Mycologia Bavarica, 18: 97–108.
Capronia sujiae (first German record) and further lichenicolous fungi on Xanthoria. During a mycological survey of the nutrient-poor grasslands near Rothschwaig, Fürstenfeldbruck, Upper Bavaria, three lichenicolous fungi were collected on a single weakened, partly necrotic specimen of Xanthoria parietina agg.: Capronia suijae, Didymocyrtis caproniae, and Lichenoconium xanthoriae. Capronia suijae is new to Germany resp. Bavaria. All three lichenicolous species are described and discussed. Keywords: lichenicolous fungi, Capronia suijae, Didymocyrtis epiphyscia, Lichenoconium xanthoriae, Xanthoria parietina agg., Bavaria, Germany.
31422Bomble F.W. (2019): Exkursion: Aachen, Waldfriedhof, epiphytische Moose und Großflechten. - Jahrbuch des Bochumer Botanischen Vereins, 10: 93–94.
report on excursion
31421Rettig J. (2018): Zur Löslichkeit von Kristallen im Epihymenium von Lecanora chlarotera Nyl.. - Haussknechtia, 14: 77–82.
The solubility of epihymenial crystals in Lecanora chlarotera Nyl. with nitric acid was studied. In none of the 64 analyzed European specimens solubility of these crystals was detected. Key words: Crystals, epihymenium, Lecanoraceae.
31420Rettig J. (2018): Kristalle in den Apothecien einiger Arten aus der Lecanora subfusca-Gruppe. - Haussknechtia, 14: 51–76.
On crystals in the apothecia of some species of the Lecanora subfusca group. Crystals in the apothecia of some species of the Lecanora subfusca group are examined and described. Own observations are compared with references and microphotos are explained. Keywords: Crystals, epihymenium, Lecanora.
31419Eichler M. & Cezanne R. (2019): Neue Publikationen die Flechtenflora Mitteleuropas betreffend – Fünfte Folge. - Herzogiella, 6: 16–24.
31418Resl P. & Schultz M. (2019): Taxonomische und nomenklatorische Neuerungen – Flechten, Vierte Folge. - Herzogiella, 6: 25–30.
31417Teuber D., Cezanne R. & Eichler M. (2019): Situation und Stand der floristischen Kartierung der Flechten in Hessen. - Herzogiella, 6: 44–46.
31416Linders H.-W. (2019): Epiphytische Flechten in naturschutzrechtlichen Genehmigungsverfahren – ein Erfahrungsbericht. - Herzogiella, 6: 47–51.
31415Sipman H.J.M. (2019): Caloplaca glomerata (Variospora glomerata) war in Deutschland!. - Herzogiella, 6: 52–54.
Germany; Lahm's herbarium; Teloschistaceae
31414Pathak A., Mishra R.K., Shukla S.K., Kumar R., Pandey M., Pandey M., Qidwai A. & Dikshit A. (2016): In vitro evaluation of antidermatophytic activity of five lichens. - Cogent Biology, 2: 1197472 [7 p.].
Lichens (a composite organism) are known for their secondary metabolites and have several properties as photoprotection, allelopathy, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiviral. In this study, based on alarming situation of prevalence and developing resistance in dermatophytes, the new biological source in the form of lichens was screened for their antidermatophytic potential. Three dermatophytes viz. Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Trichophyton rubrum were procured from Microbial Type Cell Culture, Chandigarh, India and susceptibility of aforementioned pathogens were tested via Clinical Laboratory and Standard Institute recommended broth microdilution procedure for filamentous fungi. Five lichens viz. Bulbothrix setschwanensis, Myelochroa aurulenta, Parmotrema nilgherrense, Parmotrema reticulatum, and Ramalina conduplicans were tested for their antidermatophytic activity (fungistatic and fungicidal concentrations) in the form of MIC and MFC values. M. aurulenta exhibited most promising MIC and MFC values against all dermatophytes and provides new leads in the form of secalonic acid A and leucotylic acid for future investigations. Subjects: Dermatology; Mycology; Natural Products.
31413Pathak A. (2017): Virtual docking analysis of zeorin with fungal glucan transglycosylase. - IOSR Journal of Pharmacy, 7(9): 43–45.
Lichen thallus, a consortium of mycobiont and photobiont, produces numerous secondary metabolites and zeorin is one of them. The antifungal activity of zeorin producing lichen extracts have provided the evidence for the current study. The present study was focused on the binding affinity and virtual docking of glucan transglycosylase (Gas2p). The structure of protein was downloaded from RSCB whereas the ligand file was downloaded from PubChem compound database. The docking was performed using AutoDock Vina and visualized by Chimera 1.11.2 whereas the active binding sites were evaluated by MetaPocket 2.0. The successful docked results of Gas2p with zeorin exhibited the potential of zeorin in the inhibition of glucan chain elongation of fungal cell wall via disturbing the hydrolysis and transglycosylation activity of glucan transglycosylase and proves its potential as candidate for future antifungal drug. Keywords: Docking, fungal cell wall, Glucan transglycosylase, Lichen, zeorin.
31412Roux C. & coll. (2018): Liste des lichens et champignons lichénicoles de France métropolitaine (mise à jour 2018/02/13). - http://lichenologue.org/fr/, 110 p.
France; checklist
31411Roux C. (collab. Uriac P.) (2018): Lichens et champignons lichénicoles observés dans quelques localités de la Drôme septentrionale granitique. - Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, 69: 97–105.
L’étude des lichens et champignons lichénicoles de quelques localités de la Drôme septentrionale granitique (département 26) permet de dresser une liste de 160 taxons, dont 89 nouvellement mentionnés dans le département de la Drôme, parmi lesquels Rhizocarpon fratricida est nouvellement mentionné en France et Lecanora crozensis ad int. ne semble pas avoir été décrit dans la littérature lichénologique.
31410Bertrand M. & Roux C. (2018): Lichens et champignons lichénicoles de la réserve intégrale du Lauvitel (Bourg-d’Oisans, Isère). - Bulletin de Association Française de Lichénologie, 43(1): 109–127.
The study of lichens and lichenicolous fungi from 22 field sites of the réserve intégrale du Lauvitel (Bourg-d'Oisans, Isère, France) allowed to document a list of 218 taxa among which 88 are reported new for the department of Isère. Thelidium pluvium and Verrucaria umbrinula are reported new for France.
31409Roux C. & coll. (2019): Liste des lichens et champignons lichénicoles de France métropolitaine (mise à jour 2019/04/02). - http://lichenologue.org/fr/, 86 p.
France; checklist
31408Méric J.-C., Roux C. & Poumarat S. (2018): Lichénologie à Lurs (04) : 14 octobre 2017. - Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, 69: 33–40.
31407Roux C., Braun U. & Farou J.-L. (2018): Découverte en France de Corynespora laevistipata, champignon (hyphomycète, Corynesporaceae) lichénicole non lichénisé. - Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, 69: 107–112.
Corynespora laevistipata (M. S. Cole et D. Hawksw.) Heuchert et U. Braun, champignon (hyphomycète) lichénicole non lichénisé est mentionné pour la première fois en France et décrit. Les spécimens découverts parasitent (haustoriums observés) Strigula affinis et Anisomeridium polypori, deux lichens corticoles à algue du genre Trentepholia, qui sont deux nouveaux hôtes de C. laevistipata. Les spécimens sur Strigula affinis sont caractérisés par des conidies plus grandes que celles des autres spécimens sur d’autres hôtes, mais nous les considérons comme appartenant à C. laevistipata, espèce particulière­ ment variable en ce qui concerne ce caractère.
31406Esnault J., Monnat J.-Y. & Roux C. (2019): Bilan des découvertes 2018 concernant les lichens et les champignons lichénicoles du Massif armoricain et de ses marges. - E.R.I.C.A., 33: 121–126.
31405Fos Martín S. (2019): Nuevas aportaciones a la flora liquénica de la Comunitat Valenciana (E de España). - Collectanea Botanica, 38: e006 [15 p.].
New contributions to the lichen flora of the Valencian community (E of Spain).— Taxonomic, ecological and chorological data are provided on 20 new taxa for the lichen flora of the Valencian Community. Many contributions can be also considered significant for its rarity at the peninsular level (Calicium notarisii, Caloplaca nana, Dirina fallax, Lecania sambucina, Lecanora rupicola subsp. subplanata, Myriolecis reuteri, Rhizocarpon umbilicatum, Staurothele hymenogonia, Xanthoria aureola) or in the Iberian-Mediterranean areas (Bryoria capillaris, Hydropunctaria maura, Ochrolechia alboflavescens, Verrucaria halizoa). Candelariella commutata and Catinaria neuschildii are found for the first time in the Iberian Peninsula. Key words: distribution; floristic novelties; Iberian Peninsula; lichens.
31404Slate M.L., Callaway R.M. & Pearson D.E. (2019): Life in interstitial space: Biocrusts inhibit exotic but not native plant establishment in semi‐arid grasslands. - Journal of Ecology, 107: 1317–1327.
1. Exotic plant species commonly exploit disturbances more successfully than native plants. This outcome is widely attributed to the fact that disturbance reduces biotic resistance from native plant competitors. However, biocrusts, communities of mosses, lichens, and micro‐organisms, are a prominent component of semi‐arid grasslands occurring in the interstitial spaces between vascular plants. Biocrusts may provide an important source of biotic resistance to invaders, different from native plant competition, but poorly understood. 2. We established a large‐scale field experiment to examine how intact versus disturbed biocrusts influenced the emergence and establishment of four native and four exotic plant species in intermountain bunchgrass systems over 2 years—one wet and one dry. We also conducted a complementary greenhouse experiment to explore how differences in moisture might influence biocrust effects on germination. 3. In the greenhouse, biocrusts inhibited the germination of both native and exotic plants in the high moisture treatment only. In field experiments, biocrusts inhibited the overall emergence of exotic seedlings in the wetter of the 2 years and inhibited the establishment of exotic seedlings in both years, but they had no overall effect on the emergence or establishment of native seedlings. We found that intact biocrusts in intermountain grasslands can suppress the establishment of some exotic plants, but have much weaker effects on natives. They also suggest that water availability may influence biocrust effects on seed germination. 4. Synthesis. Our results indicate that intact biocrusts may provide an important source of biotic resistance to exotic plant invasions in intermountain grasslands. Furthermore, precipitation inputs may mediate biocrust effects on plant establishment. Keywords: biological soil crusts, biotic resistance, disturbance, establishment, exotic plants, germination, grasslands, invasion.
31403Leddy N., Blanchon D.J., Wiapo C., Eruera T., Cameron K.E. & Kahui‐McConnell R. (2019): Artificial dispersal of the lichen Crocodia aurata (Lobariaceae) using asexual propagules and gel-filled gauze packets. - Ecological Management and Restoration, 20: 119–125.
Lichens are an essential component of ecosystem processes. Many lichen species are habitat specialists that rely on specific tree substrates and moisture regimes of old-growth forests and are not found in early-successional forests, small isolated forest fragments or restoration projects, making them useful bioindicators of forest health. Pressures from habitat loss and fragmentation have affected the viability and survival of lichen species that are often limited by low dispersal ability. As a rule, lichens are rarely included in ecological restoration programmes despite translocation methods being available. We trialled a combination of two of the more successful methods (gauze packets and use of adhesive gels). Three different gelling agents were used in attempt to immobilize living soredia of the lichen Crocodia aurata on trunks of Ti Kouka/Cabbage Tree (Cordyline australis) for long enough for them to develop into thallus lobes. The effectiveness of these methods was tracked over a 2-year period. Our results show that all three gel treatments were effective at immobilizing soredia in the gauze packets. Lobe formation occurred in all three gel treatments after 36 weeks, with methyl cellulose the most successful with six packets producing lobes, five Ac-Di-Sol and two agarose packets also producing lobes, out of a possible total 100 gauze packets. Lobe formation was slightly more successful on the south sides of trees (seven of thirteen packets), despite initial survival and vitality of soredia being higher on the north sides of the trees. Key words: Ac-Di-Sol, agarose, methyl cellulose, translocation.
31402Gasulla F., Casano L. & Guéra A. (2019): Chlororespiration induces non-photochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence during darkness in lichen chlorobionts. - Physiologia Plantarum, 166: 538–552.
Lichens and their algal partners are desiccation-tolerant organisms and as such survive after the complete loss of water. This trait is the consequence of several physiological, biochemical and structural features, including specific mechanisms dissipating excess light to avoid photooxidative stress. The maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII; Fv/Fm) is widely used as a sensitive indicator of photosynthetic performance and is calculated after complete relaxation in darkness of the fluorescence quenching associated with active light energy dissipation mechanisms. Unexpectedly, we observed that lichens and isolated chlorobionts (chlorophyte symbionts in lichen) maintained in darkness for several hours showed a strong decrease in the ratio Fv/Fm, which was reversible after re-illumination. We analyzed this dark-induced Fv/Fm decay in the chlorobiont Asterochloris erici through steady-state and fast-induction kinetics of chlorophyll a fluorescence and simultaneous P700 oxidation measurements. We found that the gradual decay of Fv/Fm in darkness was caused by reversible dark-induced inactivation of some PSII reaction centers that was accompanied by a decrease in the flux of electrons to PSI. Darkness induced the plastoquinone-reductase activity associated with chlororespiration and the phosphorylation of light harvesting complex (LHC). We propose that upon phosphorylation the LHC detaches from PSII, resulting in a decrease of exciton-trapping by PSII reaction centers and, consequently, an increased dissipation of light energy. This mechanism probably serves an ecophysiological function in lichens to prevent the damage at dawn or under strong fluctuating light conditions when lichens are in a hydrated state.
31401Chagnon P.-L., Magain N., Miadlikowska J. & Lutzoni F. (2019): Species diversification and phylogenetically constrained symbiont switching generated high modularity in the lichen genus Peltigera. - Journal of Ecology, 107: 1645–1661.
Ecological interactions range from purely specialized to extremely generalized in nature. Recent research has showed very high levels of specialization in the cyanolichens involving Peltigera (mycobionts) and their Nostoc photosynthetic partners (cyanobionts). Yet, little is known about the mechanisms contributing to the establishment and maintenance of such high specialization levels. Here, we characterized interactions between Peltigera and Nostoc partners at a global scale, using more than one thousand thalli. We used tools from network theory, community phylogenetics and biogeographical history reconstruction to evaluate how these symbiotic interactions may have evolved. After splitting the interaction matrix into modules of preferentially interacting partners, we evaluated how module membership might have evolved along the mycobionts’ phylogeny. We also teased apart the contributions of geographical overlap vs phylogeny in driving interaction establishment between Peltigera and Nostoc taxa. Module affiliation rarely evolves through the splitting of large ancestral modules. Instead, new modules appear to emerge independently, which is often associated with a fungal speciation event. We also found strong phylogenetic signal in these interactions, which suggests that partner switching is constrained by conserved traits. Therefore, it seems that a high rate of fungal diversification following a switch to a new cyanobiont can lead to the formation of large modules, with cyanobionts associating with multiple closely retated Peltigera species. Finally, when restricting our analyses to Peltigera sister species, the latter differed more through partner acquisition/loss than replacement (i.e., switching). This pattern vanishes as we look at sister species that have diverged longer ago. This suggests that fungal speciation may be accompanied by a stepwise process of (a) novel partner acquisition and (b) loss of the ancestral partner. This could explain the maintenance of high specialization levels in this symbiotic system where the transmission of the cyanobiont to the next generation is assumed to be predominantly horizontal. Synthesis. Overall, our study suggests that oscillation between generalization and ancestral partner loss may maintain high specialization within the lichen genus Peltigera, and that partner selection is not only driven by partners’ geographical overlap, but also by their phylogenetically conserved traits. Keywords: biogeography, community phylogenetics, cyanolichens, ecological networks, macroevolution, modularity, specificity, symbiotic history reconstruction.
31400Stenroos S., Pino-Bodas R., Hyvönen J., Lumbsch H.T. & Ahti T. (2019): Phylogeny of the family Cladoniaceae (Lecanoromycetes, Ascomycota) based on sequences of multiple loci. - Cladistics, 35: 351–384.
Cladoniaceae is a family of lichenized fungi that belongs to the Lecanorales, Ascomycota. The family is distributed widely, although several genera are restricted to the Southern Hemisphere. The circumscriptions of the genera and species in the family have traditionally been based on thallus morphology, the type of vegetative propagules and the secondary metabolites. However, numerous species are highly variable phenotypically, making their delimitation problematic. In the present study a new phylogeny of Cladoniaceae is constructed using five loci (ITS rDNA, IGS rDNA, RPB2, RPB1, EF-1a) from a worldwide sample of 643 specimens representing 304 species. Cladoniaceae was resolved as a monophyletic group. The circumscription of the genera and the relationships among them are discussed. Pycnothelia, Carassea and Metus are closely related, forming a sister clade to the larger genus Cladonia. Cladia in its recent wide sense turned out to be paraphyletic, including species that have been recognized in Thysanothecium and Notocladonia. Cladonia was resolved as monophyletic, with C. wainioi as the earliest diverging lineage. Eleven major clades were resolved in Cladonia. No synapomorphies were found for most of them. We propose the new genera Pulchrocladia and Rexia, as segregates of Cladia, five new combinations, and the resurrection of the genus Heterodea.
31399Naranjo-Ortiz M.A. & Gabaldón T. (2019): Fungal evolution: major ecological adaptations and evolutionary transitions. - Biological Reviews, 94: 1443–1476.
Fungi are a highly diverse group of heterotrophic eukaryotes characterized by the absence of phagotrophy and the presence of a chitinous cell wall. While unicellular fungi are far from rare, part of the evolutionary success of the group resides in their ability to grow indefinitely as a cylindrical multinucleated cell (hypha). Armed with these morphological traits and with an extremely high metabolical diversity, fungi have conquered numerous ecological niches and have shaped a whole world of interactions with other living organisms. Herein we survey the main evolutionary and ecological processes that have guided fungal diversity. We will first review the ecology and evolution of the zoosporic lineages and the process of terrestrialization, as one of the major evolutionary transitions in this kingdom. Several plausible scenarios have been proposed for fungal terrestralization and we here propose a new scenario, which considers icy environments as a transitory niche between water and emerged land. We then focus on exploring the main ecological relationships of Fungi with other organisms (other fungi, protozoans, animals and plants), as well as the origin of adaptations to certain specialized ecological niches within the group (lichens, black fungi and yeasts). Throughout this review we use an evolutionary and comparative‐genomics perspective to understand fungal ecological diversity. Finally, we highlight the importance of genome‐enabled inferences to envision plausible narratives and scenarios for important transitions. Key words: fungi, ecological adaptations, evolutionary transitions, fungal niches, fungal terrestrialization, fungal diversification.
31398Furmanek Ł., Czarnota P. & Seaward M.R.D. (2019): Antifungal activity of lichen compounds against dermatophytes: a review. - Journal of Applied Microbiology, 127: 308–325.
The growth rate inhibition of dermatophytes by compounds extracted by acetone, ethanol, methanol and water derived from representatives of several lichen genera (e.g. Caloplaca, Everniastrum, Heterodermia, Hypotrachyna, Platismatia and Ramalina) were compared on the basis of a worldwide review of published research. The examined dermatophytes included Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum audouinii, M. canis, M. gypseum, M. nanum, Trichophyton longifusus, T. mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, T. tonsurans and T. violaceum. The influence of selected secondary lichen compounds, for example, usnic acid, on the growth rates of these dermatophytes was also reviewed. The measurement of inhibition by lichen compounds was performed by several methods, but mostly those employing disc diffusion, broth dilution and agar dilution. The fungicidal activity of water‐extracted compounds from Heterodermia leucomela and Hypotrachyna cirrhata and of methanol‐extracted compounds from Evernia divaricata and Ramalina pollinaria, as well as protolichesterinic and 2‐hydroxy‐4‐methoxy‐3,6‐dimethylbenzoic acids, are distinguished. Keywords: antifungal activity, dermatophytes, growth rate inhibition, lichen compounds, lichen extracts, secondary metabolites.
31397Cheng X.-M., Liu D.-L., Wei X.-L. & Wei J.-C. (2019): Heteroplacidium compactum reported as a genus new to China. - Mycotaxon, 134: 369–376.
Three specimens of Heteroplacidium compactum (Verrucariaceae), isolated from arid areas in Northwest China, were identified by morphological and phylogenetic comparisons with other species, including species of Endocarpon and Placidium (common verrucariaceous genera in the same area). This is the first report of Heteroplacidium from China. Key words—desert, ITS, lichen, morphology, taxonomy.
31396Tang R., Zhang X., Wang C.-X. & Zhang L.-L. (2019): Four new records of Haematomma from Southern China. - Mycotaxon, 134: 321–328.
Haematomma accolens, H. collatum, H. fenzlianum, and H. flexuosum are reported as new for China; and H. fenzlianum is also new for Asia. Detailed taxonomic descriptions with photos are provided for the four species. Key words—East Asia, Haematommataceae, Lecanorales, lichenized Ascomycota, taxonomy.
31395Wang C.-X., Zhang X., Zheng C.-F. & Hu L. (2019): Megalaria yunnanensis sp. nov. from Yunnan, China. - Mycotaxon, 134: 289–294.
Megalaria yunnanensis from southern China is described as a new species. The lichen is diagnosed by its bi-layered exciple, presence of atranorin, zeorin, and fumarprotocetraric acid in the thallus, ascospore size (20−25 × 5−7.5 μm), and the lack of indentations from the cell lumina into the center of the spore septum. Key words —East Asia, Lecanorales, lichenized fungi, Ramalinaceae, taxonomy.
31394Lumbsch H.T. & Leavitt S.D. (2019): Introduction of subfamily names for four clades in Cladoniaceae and Peltigeraceae (Lecanoromycetes). - Mycotaxon, 134: 271–273.
In a recent proposal for a classification of orders and families in Lecanoromycetidae and Ostropomycetidae based on a temporal approach, Squamarinaceae and Stereocaulaceae were synonymized with Cladoniaceae, and Lobariaceae and Nephromataceae with Peltigeraceae. Since these four synonymized families represent easily recognized, monophyletic lineages and are well-established names, we here propose to accept them at subfamilial rank, as Lobarioideae, Nephromatoideae, Squamarinoideae, and Stereocauloideae. Key words—classification, Lecanorales, Peltigerales, phylogeny, taxonomy.
31393Zhao Z.-T., Zhang X., Fu J.-M. & Hu L. (2019): New records of Amandinea and Buellia from China. - Mycotaxon, 134: 261–269.
Our research has revealed two species of Amandinea (A. occidentalis and A. polyspora) and two species of Buellia (B. morsina and B. penichra), which we report for the first time from China. Descriptions of morphological and chemical characters are provided with the known distribution of each species. Key words—Caliciaceae, Caliciales, corticolous, lichen-forming fungi, taxonomy.
31392Rosenvald R., Lõhmus P., Rannap R., Remm L., Rosenvald K., Runnel K. & Lõhmus A. (2019): Assessing long-term effectiveness of green-tree retention. - Forest Ecology and Management, 448: 543–548.
Retention forestry is a silvicultural approach that can achieve both ecological and economic objectives in various forest ecosystems. It builds largely on the assumption that the live trees left unharvested (the main timber cost) effectively support ecological functioning of post-harvest forest. Such effectiveness can be understood as a combination of the initial ecological value of the tree (that may persist after tree death) and its survival, i.e., the prospect to develop into a high-quality veteran tree in the next forest generation. We assessed those aspects among>3000 live trees actually retained in 103 Estonian harvested sites and monitored over 16 years. We analysed how their survival and habitat value (estimated from tree morphology, confirmed by epiphyte surveys) translate to the veteran-tree perspectives. Only 48% of the trees were still alive after 16 years, and this final survival at the stand-scale was poorly predictable from a few years of monitoring. Only 12% retention trees had both high habitat value and high survival. Most trees (75%) were of low initial habitat value and, combined with low survival, almost 40% of all trees never provided quality habitat for tree-dwelling species. Nevertheless, we found considerable potential for post-harvest development of habitat value; notably in European nemoral hardwood species (such as Fraxinus, Quercus, Ulmus, Acer), which survived well but were usually in subcanopies at the time of the harvest. These findings indicate that retention forestry can improve also highly impoverished (e.g. short-rotation) forests, if analytical tools have been developed and applied to predict tree survival and future habitat quality. Keywords: Cost-effectiveness; Epiphyte; Long-term monitoring; Microhabitat; Tree mortality; Variable retention.
31391Sharma P. (2019): Spectroscopic analysis of Jet A-1 heteroatomic components. - Chemical Engineering Science, 207: 588–599.
This article presents the chemical analysis of jet fuel (Jet A-1) heteroatomic components generated as a result of thermal stressing. Jet A-1 was thermally stressed by flow and static tests in a single tube heat exchanger in the autoxidation regime (150–300 °C). Jet A-1 samples were analyzed by electrospray ion mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Mass spectra of Jet A-1 recorded higher molecular weight components in the mass range 300–1000 Da. FTIR spectra revealed absorption bands for oxygen-containing species such as alcohol, phenol, and ether. Jet A-1 NMR spectra recorded heteroatomic alkoxy species. A lichen substance, gyrophoric acid was identified as Jet A-1 component. ESI-MS, FTIR and NMR spectra of unstressed jet fuel recorded peaks corresponding with gyrophoric acid. Natural products polyphenols and lichen derived compounds are excellent antioxidants, and their advantages as potential fuel additives are discussed. Keywords: Jet fuel; Deposit; Heteroatomic; Antioxidant; Lichen; Additives.
31390Pizňak M. & Bačkor M. (2019): Lichens affect boreal forest ecology and plant metabolism. - South African Journal of Botany, 124: 530–539.
[review article] Lichens, symbiotic organisms consisting from mycobionts (fungi) and photobionts (algae and/or cyanobacteria), play a substantial role in boreal coniferous forests. They may form thick mat that significantly interferes with young plants, mosses and rest of understory vegetation. Lichens synthesize more than one thousand of secondary metabolites, from which usnic acid is one of the most abundant. It can negatively affects plant metabolism through allelopathy. Lichen secondary metabolites can be a source of energy for soil microorganisms and at the same time, they can inhibit growth of surrounding competitive lichens, mosses and vascular plants. Lichen metabolites were also found in bark, xylem and leaves of some trees, which serving to epiphytic lichens as substrate. Although significant results, which deepening our knowledge in this area of research, were obtained during the last decades, understanding of role of lichens in boreal forests is very complex issue and requiring further studies. Keywords: Allelopathy; Conifers; Secondary metabolites; Mycorrhiza; Usnic acid.
31389Silva H.A.M.F., Sá J.L.F., Siqueira W.N., Lima M.V., Martins M.C.B., Aires A.L., Albuquerque M.C.P.A., Falcão E.P.D.S., Buril M.L.L., Pereira E.C., Melo A.M.M.A. & Silva N.H.D. (2019): Toxicological effects of Ramalina aspera (lichen) on Biomphalaria glabrata snails and Schistosoma mansoni cercariae. - Acta Tropica, 196: 172–179.
In this study, the molluscicidal activities against Biomphalaria glabrata and cercaricidal activities against Schistosoma mansoni of the ether extract of Ramalina aspera were evaluated. Additionally, toxicity parameters were evaluated at sublethal doses in terms of the influence of the extract on the fertility and fecundity of snails, as well as morphological alterations and quantification of their immunological cells. A test with Artemia salina was also carried out, in order to verify the environmental toxicity of the compound. The ether extract of R. aspera, in which divaricatic acid was identified as the major compound, demonstrated molluscicidal activity at low concentrations against both embryos (LC90 of 22.78, 24.23, 16.63 and 16.03 μg mL−1 for the gastrula, blastula, trochophore and veliger, respectively) and against adult snails (LC90 of 8.66 μg mL−1), after 24 h of exposure. At the sublethal doses, it was possible to observe a decrease in fecundity and quantitative and morphological changes in the defense cells of the exposed snails. In addition, the extract of R. aspera showed a cercaricidal effect on S. mansoni from the concentration of 5.0 μg mL−1, while showing low toxicity to Artemia salina. The ether extract of R. aspera demonstrated effective molluscicidal activity on embryos and adult snails of the species B. glabrata, cercariae of S. mansoni, and presenting low toxicity on Artemia salina. In this way, it could be considered a promising compound in the development of future molluscicidal and cercaricidal agents, thus helping to combat schistosomiasis. Keywords: Ramalina sapéra; Schistosoma mansoni; Biomphalaria glabrata; Molluscicidal aktivity; Schistosomiasis.
31388Gyninova A.B., Dyrzhinov Z.D., Kulikov A.I., Gyninova B.D. & Gonchikov B.N. (2019): Post-pyrogenic evolution of sandy soils under pine forests in the Baikal region. - Eurasian Soil Science, 52(4): 414–425.
[Translation of original Russian text published in Pochvovedenie, 2019, No. 4, pp. 451–463] The development of sandy soils under pine forests and the influence of forest fires on the soil properties have been studied in the Baikal region, The profile of background soils consists of a litter layer and a thin humus-accumulative horizon with features of grain bleaching in the lower part. In the WRB system, such soils are classified as Eutric Arenosols (Ochric). They have an acid reaction, fulvate humus, and slightly developed features of the Al–Fe-humus process. Post-pyrogenic soil successions depend on the type of fire. In fifteen years after the ground fire, a soil with specific pyrogenic horizons in the upper part of the profile was formed. It had a high content of carbonaceous matter and humus, a slightly acid reaction, and a relatively high content of exchangeable and total calcium. The soil humus was of the fulvate–humate type, and the humus pool considerably increased. These changes were related to the presence of charcoal microparticles adsorbing dispersed substances on their surface and detected in thin sections. After the crown fire with the destruction of the tree stand and activation of wind erosion, the features of pyrogenesis were poorly expressed in the soils. In this case, post-pyrogenic soils had a weakly developed immature profile, acid reaction, and a low content of humus of the humate–fulvate type. The properties of the background soils allow us to classify them as podzolized humic psammozems (Eutric Arenosols (Ochric)); the soils of post-pyrogenic successions after the ground fire can be classified as post-pyrogenic humic psammozems; after the crown fire, as humic psammozems. Keywords: pine forests, forest fires, post-pyrogenic successions, soils, micromorphological features.
31387Değerli E., Yangın S. & Cansaran-Duman D. (2019): Determination of the effect of RBBR on laccase activity and gene expression level of fungi in lichen structure. - 3 Biotech, 9: 297 [11 p.].
This study provides information about the differential transcription regulation of laccase genes in response to RBBR dye. To this purpose, we determined the laccase gene expression, laccase activity, and protein profile of lichen-forming fungi supported to RBBR dye. For those obtained from optimal laccase genes expression profiles, we modified different RNA extraction protocols to obtain high quality and quantity RNA to be used in downstream applications in lichen-forming fungus. We also determined the expression of ten laccase genes in response to RBBR dye by qRT-PCR and validated protein profile. As a result of our study, a high laccase activity of 522 U mL−1 was obtained after submerged fermentation for 17 days. The maximal laccase activity to RBBR dye was obtained at 408 h. The expression profiles of laccase gene expression on ten laccase genes showed up- or down-regulation in course of eight fermentation times. The most up-regulated gene during the process was lac8. However, poxa1b gene expression was lowest in lichen-forming fungi biomass supplemented with RBBR dye. This study has revealed the influence of RBBR dye on laccase activity levels and the determination of gene expression levels in lichen-forming fungi. Keywords: Laccase aktivity; RBBR; RNA extraction; Laccase; gene expression; Lichen-forming fungi.
31386Young K.E., Bowker M.A., Reed S.C., Duniway M.C. & Belnap J. (2019): Temporal and abiotic fluctuations may be preventing successful rehabilitation of soil-stabilizing biocrust communities. - Ecological Applications, 29(5): e01908 [13 p.].
Land degradation is a persistent ecological problem in many arid and semiarid systems globally (drylands hereafter). Most instances of dryland degradation include some form of soil disturbance and/or soil erosion, which can hinder vegetation establishment and reduce ecosystem productivity. To combat soil erosion, researchers have identified a need for rehabilitation of biological soil crusts (biocrusts), a globally relevant community of organisms aggregating the soil surface and building soil fertility. Here, the impact of plant and biocrust cover was tested on soil erosion potential in the piñon–juniper woodlands of Bandelier National Monument, New Mexico, USA. Biocrusts were found to be similarly influential to vascular plants in reducing erosion, largely acting by promoting surface roughness. The potential to rehabilitate biocrusts within the Monument was also tested. Plots were inoculated on eroding soils before the summer monsoon with greenhouse-cultured biocrusts. In a full-factorial design, treatments to reduce or halt erosion were administered to the inoculated plots and their paired controls. These erosion-reduction treatments included barriers to overland flow (flashing), slash placement, and seeding of vascular plants. Dynamic changes to soil stability, penetration resistance, and extractable soil nutrients were observed through time, but no strong effects with the addition of biocrust inoculum, seeding, or erosion intervention treatments were seen. The results do suggest possible ways forward to successfully rehabilitate biocrust, including varying the timing of biocrust application, amending inoculum application with different types of soil stabilization techniques, and adding nutrients to soils. The insights gleaned from the lack of response brings us closer to developing effective techniques to arrest soil loss in these socially and ecologically important dryland systems. Key words: arid and semiarid; biological soil crust; cyanobacteria; dryland; erosion modeling; piñon– juniper woodland; restoration; soil fertility.
31385Zavarzina A.G., Nikolaeva T.N., Demin V.V., Lapshin P.V., Makarov M.I., Zavarzin A.A. & Zagoskina N.V. (2019): Water-soluble phenolic metabolites in lichens and their potential role in soil organic matter formation at the pre-vascular stage. - European Journal of Soil Science, 70: 736–750.
Soil organic matter (SOM) is the largest reservoir of organic carbon in the biosphere. However, little is known about the processes of its formation at the prevascular stage. Lichens are among the pioneer colonizers on mineral substrates and are possible early land flora. This study is the first report on the identification and quantification of water-soluble phenolic compounds (PCs), potential precursors of humic substances, in epigeyic lichens from two systematic groups. Results show (Folin–Denis assay) that cyanobiont-containing lichens (order Peltigerales) possess three to five times more total soluble PCs than Lecanoralean lichens (Cladonia, Cetraria spp.) and mosses. Soluble PCs in lichens occur in the conjugated form. Alkali-hydrolysable compounds (esters) predominate over acid-hydrolysable compounds (glycosides). Phenolic complexes with N-containing compounds or reducing sugars, or both, have been identified by thin layer chromatography (TLC). Benzoic acid derivatives were most common among PCs, detected in lichens by reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Phenolic acids occur in the order (μg 100 g−1): p-hydroxybenzoic acid (327–1,007) > syringic acid (87–361) > salycilic acid (135–210) > vanillic acid (12–19) (Peltigeralean lichens); salicylic acid (53–102) > p-hydroxybenzoic acid (45–54) > caffeic acid (29) > syringic acid (18) > vanillic acid (9–13) (Lecanoralean lichens). Protocatechuic, caffeic and p-coumaric acids were rare; ferulic acid was not detected. Syringyl and vanillyl aldehydes and ketones occur in much larger amounts than acids. Methoxy-substituted and ortho-substituted phenols, detected in lichens, are known for their high reactivity in soils under lignified vegetation, suggesting their important roles in SOM formation under a cryptogam cover. Highlights: • Phenolic composition of SOM and humification processes at pre-vascular stage are largely overlooked • Soluble phenolic acids, aldehydes and ketones are quantified in lichens for the first time • Lichens are depleted in phenylpropanoids and enriched in syringyl structures and monophenols • Lichen-derived phenolic compounds are potential precursors of humic substances under cryptogam cover. Keywords: carbon cycling, humic matter, humification, natural organic matter, phenolic acids, phenolic aldehydes, precursors of humic substances, SOM formation.
31384Lewis K.J., Johnson C.J. & Karim M.D.N. (2019): Fire and lichen dynamics in the Taiga Shield of the Northwest Territories and implications for barren‐ground caribou winter forage. - Journal of Vegetation Science, 30: 448–460.
Questions: Fire is the main disturbance agent in boreal forests and has profound effects on vegetation composition and structure, including terrestrial lichens that provide critical winter forage for barren‐ground caribou. What is the influence of fire on forest structure and the distribution and species assemblage of forage lichens? What is the current or potential effect of climate change on forage lichen in the boreal forest? Location: High Boreal, Low Subarctic, and High Subarctic ecoregions of the Taiga Shield Ecozone in the Northwest Territories, Canada. Methods: We used fire history data, satellite and air photo images, and field sampling to determine fire history and severity, and subsequent effects on tree and lichen species composition, in a 880,000 ha study area in the winter range of the Bathurst caribou herd. Results: We found that low‐ and mixed‐severity fires were more common than highseverity fires, and that forest fire severity increased with distance to treeline. Forest structure and composition were more important drivers of lichen cover than fire severity or time since fire. Conclusions: While fire had a dominant role in forest structure and composition, the effects on lichen availability were due more to variation in tree growth. We found little evidence of changes in fire regime over the length of our reconstructions (approximately 200 years); however, increases in temperature and the positive relationship between temperature and fire frequency may lead to shortened fire cycles causing a reduction in the availability of forage lichens through burning. Keywords: Barren‐ground caribou, Bathurst caribou herd, boreal forest, fire severity, lichen, Taiga Shield.
31383Dürhammer O. (2019): Dr. Ludwig Meinunger (11.05.1936–21.05.2018) – Ein Leben für die Astronomie und die Botanik. - Herzogia, 32(1): 1–18.
31382Мучник Е.Э. [Muchnik E.E.] (2015): Лишайники как индикаторы состояния лесных экосистем Центра европейской России [Lichens as indicators of forest ecosystems in the Center of European Russia]. - Лесотехнический журнал [Lesotekhnicheskii Zhurnal], 3/2015: 65–75.
[n Russian wuth English abstract:] Under the new conservation concept of "biologically valuable landscapes" the criteria for selection of lichen species which can be used as indicators of such landscapes are available to discuss. The approach is similar but not identical to the concept of “biologically valuable forests” developed and used in the north-western European part of Russia. Using long term lichenological research in the European Russia (the Central Federal District) as well as fond materials (literature and herbaria) there was a try to find out some indicator species for the biologically valuable forest landscapes indicative for different zones (or subzones) of the researched territory. It was found out that part of the lichen indicator species of the biologically valuable taiga forests go through zone or subzone borders without losing indicative value. However, when moving from the coniferous-broadleaved forests subzone to the forest-steppe zone the amount of such species is currently decreasing. It is suggested to complement these lists with indicator species for the biologically valuable landscapes (here, forest ones). The criteria of selecting the indicator species are determined. The main are high demands to the habitat conditions (stenotopic or not) and confinedness only to oldgrowth and undisturbed forests and bogs as well as old parks. The lists of indicator species for biologically valuable forest landscapes in the coniferous-broadleaved, broadleaved forests subzones and forest-steppe zone of the Central Russia are given. These lists are preliminary, expanding and extension of the zonal research will certainly follow with some alterations – adding or deleting something, in case we find out wider expansion or frequency of one or the other species. Keywords: lichens, biologically valuable landscapes, indicator species of oldgrowth and undisturbed forests, Center of European Russia.
31381Faluaburu M.S., Nakai R., Imura S. & Naganuma T. (2019): Phylotypic characterization of mycobionts and photobionts of rock tripe lichen in East Antarctica. - Microorganisms, 7(7): 203 [22 p.].
Saxicolous rock ripe lichens that grow on rocks in the East Antarctic fellfields were sampled for phylotypic characterization of its constituent mycobionts (fungi) and photobionts (algae and cyanobacteria). The rock tripe lichen-forming fungal and algal phylotypes were classified under the common lichen-forming genera of ascomycetes, namely, Umbilicaria, and green algae, namely, Trebouxia and Coccomyxa. However, phylotypes of the green algal chloroplasts and the lichen-associated cyanobacteria showed unexpectedly high diversity. The detected chloroplast phylotypes were not fully affiliated with the green algal genera Trebouxia or Coccomyxa. The predominant chloroplast phylotype demonstrated maximum resemblance to Neglectella solitaria, which is neither a known Antarctic species nor a typical lichen photobiont. Another dominant chloroplast phylotype belonged to the atypical Antarctic green algae family. Cyanobacterial phylotypes were dominated by those affiliated with the Microcoleus species rather than the well-known lichen-associates, Nostoc species. The occurrences of these Microcoleus-affiliated cyanobacterial phylotypes were specifically abundant within the Yukidori Valley site, one of the Antarctic Specially Protected Areas (ASPA). The ASPA site, along with another 50 km-distant site, yielded most of the cryptic diversity in the phylotypes of chloroplasts and cyanobacteria, which may contribute to the phenotypic variability within the rock tripe lichen photobionts. Keywords: lichens; symbiosis; mycobionts; photobionts; chloroplasts; cyanobacteria.
31380Lee B.G. & Hur J.-S. (2019): Arthonia ulleungdoensis, a new lichenized fungus from Ulleung Island, South Korea. - Microorganisms, 7(7): 205 [9 p.].
Arthonia ulleungdoensis Lee & Hur is described as a new lichen species from South Korea. The new species is distinguishable from Arthonia ruana A. Massal. by its large, rounded and non-punctiform apothecia, taller apothecial section, asci with fewer spores, and larger and permanently colorless spores. Molecular analyses employing mitochondrial small subunit (mtSSU) and RNA polymerase subunit II (RPB2) sequences strongly support Arthonia ulleungdoensis as a distinct species in the genus Arthonia. Overall, 22 Arthonia species are currently recorded in South Korea. A surrogate key is provided to assist in the identification of all 10 taxa of Arthonia/Arthothelium with muriform spores in Northeast Asia. Keywords: Arthoniaceae; biodiversity; corticolous; phylogeny; taxonomy.
31379Kaasalainen U., Kukwa M., Rikkinen J. & Schmidt A.R. (2019): Crustose lichens with lichenicolous fungi from Paleogene amber. - Scientific Reports, 9: 10360 [7 p.].
Lichens, symbiotic consortia of lichen-forming fungi and their photosynthetic partners have long had an extremely poor fossil record. However, recently over 150 new lichens were identified from European Paleogene amber and here we analyse crustose lichens from the new material. Three fossil lichens belong to the extant genus Ochrolechia (Ochrolechiaceae, Lecanoromycetes) and one fossil has conidiomata similar to those produced by modern fungi of the order Arthoniales (Arthoniomycetes). Intriguingly, two fossil Ochrolechia specimens host lichenicolous fungi of the genus Lichenostigma (Lichenostigmatales, Arthoniomycetes). This confirms that both Ochrolechia and Lichenostigma already diversified in the Paleogene and demonstrates that also the specific association between the fungi had evolved by then. The new fossils provide a minimum age constraint for both genera at 34 million years (uppermost Eocene).
31378Singh P. (2019): A new species of Cryptothecia (Arthoniales, Arthoniaceae) from the Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot, India. - Phytotaxa, 409(2): 101–104.
Cryptothecia panchganiensis, a new lichen species is described from the Western Ghats, India. It is characterized by verrucose heteromerous thallus, distinctly raised whitish ascigerous areas, small muriform ascospores and produces barbatic acid and zeorin. Keywords: Ascomycota, taxonomy, tropical lichens, new species, Maharashtra state, Fungi.
31377Ekanayaka A.H., Jones E.B.G., Hyde K.D. & Zhao Q. (2019): A stable phylogeny for Dactylosporaceae. - Cryptogamie, Mycologie, 40(3): 23–44.
The apothecial ascomycete family Dactylosporaceae includes saprobes and lichenicolous fungi. In recent studies, the phylogenetic position of this family was unstable within the subphylum Pezizomycotina. The present study provides a stable phylogenetic placement for Dactylosporaceae within the class Eurotiomycetes and we introduce the new order: Dactylosporales Ekanayaka, E.B.G. Jones, Q. Zhao & K.D. Hyde, ord. nov. to accommodate this family. We also introduce two new species: Dactylospora chiangraiensis Ekanayaka, E.B.G. Jones, Q. Zhao & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov. and Dactylospora fusiformis Ekanayaka, E.B.G. Jones, Q. Zhao & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov. to this family and their relationships with other taxa are represented in a multigene phylogeny. Keywords: Apothecial ascomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, Pezizomycotina incertae sedis, polyphyletic, new order, new species.
31376Berger F. (2019): Über die Diversität lichenicoler Pilze in einem Innviertler Hausgarten (Oberösterreich, Österreich). - Herzogia, 32(1): 81–93.
A remarkable diversity of 45 lichenicolous fungi and 3 lichenicolous myxomycetes has been encountered in the author´s private garden. Only 17 of them are ascomycetes in the sexual stage. Some are reported for the first time in Austria (Cornutispora intermedia, C. ophiurospora, Ellisembia lichenicola, Microsphaeropsis physciae, Trabrooksia applanata, Trichoconis hafellneri). Key words: lichenicolous coelomycetes, Pyrenochaeta, Xenonectriella.
31375Fačkovcová Z., Lőkös L., Farkas E. & Guttová A. (2019): New records of species of the lichen genus Solenopsora A.Massal. in the Balkan Peninsula and adjacent islands. - Herzogia, 32(1): 101–110.
We report new records of Solenopsora candicans, S. cesatii, S. grisea, S. marina, S. olivacea subsp. olbiensis and S. olivacea subsp. olivacea from calcareous rocks, and S. liparina from ultramafic rocks in the Balkan Peninsula and adjacent islands. Their distribution, ecology and key morphological features are discussed. The taxa S. candicans, S. cesatii, S. liparina, S. marina and S. olivacea subsp. olbiensis are reported for the first time from Albania, and S. cesatii from Bulgaria. Key words: Ascomycota, Albania, biodiversity, Bulgaria, calcareous rocks, first records, Mediterranean biota, serpentinites.
31374Muchnik E., Konoreva L., Chesnokov S., Paukov A., Tsurykau A. & Gerasimova J. (2019): New and otherwise noteworthy records of lichenized and lichenicolous fungi from central European Russia. - Herzogia, 32(1): 111–126.
Twenty-six taxa of lichenized and lichenicolous fungi are treated, of which one (Stictis mollis) is recorded for the first time for Russia, three (Acarospora normanii, Cladonia monomorpha and Polysporina subfuscescens) are new for the European part of Russia, and Reconditella physconiarum is new for central European Russia. A further twentyone species (Arthonia reniformis, Bacidia biatorina, Bacidina sulphurella, Candelaria pacifica, Catillaria croatica, Chaenotheca phaeocephala, Chaenotheca subroscida, Cladonia cryptochlorophaea, Cladonia merochlorophaea, Epicladonia sandstedei, Gyalecta flotowii, Gyalecta truncigena, Hypogymnia farinacea, Illosporiopsis christiansenii, Julella fallaciosa, Micarea tomentosa, Muellerella hospitans, Nephroma parile, Phaeophyscia endophoenicea, Steinia geophana and Verrucaria dolosa) were extremely rarely observed before in central European Russia. Short notes on characters and distribution of the species are provided. Key words: biodiversity, lichens, allied fungi.
31373Urbanavichus G. & Urbanavichene I. (2019): New records of lichens and lichenicolous fungi from the Central Caucasus (Russia). - Herzogia, 32(1): 127–135.
Noteworthy records of 24 species of lichens and lichenicolous fungi from the Central Caucasus are listed; eight of them (Buellia tyrolensis, Catillaria atomarioides, Endococcus matzeri, E. verrucosus, Endohyalina insularis, Lichenochora physciicola, Peltula obscurans and Polycoccum evae) are reported for the first time for the Caucasus, and four of these (Buellia tyrolensis, Endohyalina insularis, Lichenochora physciicola and Polycoccum evae) are new to Russia. Short notes on characteristics, ecology and distribution of the species are provided.
31372Litterski B., Schiefelbein U. & Wirth V. (2019): Vorkommen und Gefährdung der Flechten Deutschlands. - Herzogia, 32(1): 19–40.
Lichens are often given insufficient consideration in nature conservation, even though they are highly threatened. Here, we analyze the lichen flora of Germany with an emphasis on their occurrence in habitat groups. We distinguished the following habitat groups: high mountain range above the tree line, open rock habitats in highlands, coasts, waters, peatlands, forests (summarized to natural landscape), semi-cultivated land, cultivated land and settlement area (summarized to cultivated landscape). The occurrence and threat status of lichen species were analyzed with respect to their habitats, substrates and distribution. The main habitat of 75 % of the lichen species in Germany is in natural landscapes. The number of lichens in forests is high (656 species = 32 % of the lichen flora) and open rock habitats in mountainous regions are also important for lichens (454 species = 22 % of the lichen flora, without alpine vegetation). The proportion of extinct and threatened lichen species in forests (56 % of 656 species) is much higher than the proportion of extinct and threatened higher plants in forests (14 % of 851 species). In dry semi-cultivated land, the threat status of both groups is high (lichens: 52 % of 288 species, higher plants: 42 % of 696 species are extinct or endangered). In alpine vegetation, similar numbers of lichens of and higher plants occur, but the proportion of extinct and threatened lichens (29 % of 294 species) is higher than those of higher plants (11 % of 302 species). In contrast to higher plants, various substrate types and special habitat sites and structures are important for lichens. We found a high threat status of epiphytic and terricolous lichens, with the proportion of extinct and threatened lichens at about 60 % in each case. Among the endangered lichens of the distribution type V (med–temp.subatl; 67 % of 251 species are extinct or endangered), there are many species dependent on old-growth forests and with limited dispersal ability. The high proportion of threatened lichen species of distribution type I (temp/mo-alp-arkt) in Germany (46 % of 459 species) is likely a product of multiple factors, including atmospheric emissions, land use change and climate change. Due to their specific properties, habitat requirements and threats against them, lichens of both natural and cultural landscapes need more attention in nature conservation work. Keywords: red list, changes, habitat, landscape, substrate, distribution, lichen diversity, Germany.
31371Dietrich M. (2019): Die Flechtendokumentation von Anton Gisler (1820 –1888) – aussagekräftige Funddaten für den Kanton Uri und die Schweiz aus dem 19. Jahrhundert: die corticolen und lignicolen Taxa. - Herzogia, 32(1): 41–62.
Until now little-known, Gislers herbarium and register Lichenes urienses represent a meaningful documentation of the lichens from the 19th century in Switzerland. Their evaluation enables the presentation of interesting data of the corticolous and lignicolous taxa. Arthonia incarnata, Buellia sanguinolenta, Lecidea albolivida and Loxospora cristinae are new to Switzerland. In addition, 82 taxa were registered for the first time for the Canton of Uri, among them some in Switzerland now extinct or missed species. Until now not published localities of these and other interesting taxa, including various sorediate crustose lichens, are mentioned. This also applies for three associated not lichenized fungi new to Switzerland. Gislers exhaustive data document besides the diversity also the frequency and distribution of the species in a unique way for a canton of the Alps in the 19th century. The data not only are of interest for the Canton of Uri, but also for Switzerland and the area of the Alps. The latter is underlined by the 25 first records for the Swiss Alps. The amount of data supplies a valuable base for comparison with the current situation, also concerning the revision of the Red List of lichens of Switzerland. Key words: Lichen diversity, new species, Red List, historical data, Alps.
31370Rettig J. (2019): Bemerkenswerte Funde von Flechten und Kleinpilzen in Ostthüringen. - Herzogia, 32(1): 63–80.
Records of newly reported and threatened lichenized, lichenicolous and saprophytic fungi for Thuringia and Saxony are presented. Abrothallus caerulescens, Absconditella delutula, Caloplaca soralifera, Cresporhaphis muelleri, Fellhanera viridisorediata, Flavoparmelia soredians, Geisleria sychnogonoides, Lecania sordida, Laetisaria lichenicola, Lecanora pannonica, Leptorhaphis atomaria, Phaeocalicium populneum, Physcia tribacia, Polycoccum minutulum, Roselliniella microthelia and Xanthomendoza huculica are reported as new for Thuringia. The lichenicolous fungi Abrothallus caerulescens and Illosporopsis christiansenii are new for Saxony. Keywords: distribution, ecology, Germany, lichen diversity, lichenized fungi, Red List, Saxony, threatened species, Thuringia.
31369Heuchert B., Diederich P., Zhurbenko M.P. & Braun U. (2019): Taeniolella diploschistis sp. nov. – a new lichenicolous fungus on Diploschistes scruposus. - Herzogia, 32(1): 94–100.
The new lichenicolous hyphomycete Taeniolella diploschistis, found on thalli and apothecia of the lichen Diploschistes scruposus in Asia (Russia) and Europe (Luxembourg and France), is described, illustrated, compared with morphologically similar lichenicolous species referred to the genus Taeniolella and keyed out together with other species occurring on hosts belonging to Graphidaceae. The biology of the new species is not quite clear, but blackish necroses below colonies of this fungus, although sometimes only slight, may suggest a pathogenic life strategy. Key words: Ascomycota, asexual morph, lichen-inhabiting fungus, new species.
31368Hale E., Fisher M.L., Keuler R., Smith B. & Leavitt S.D. (2019): A biogeographic connection between Antarctica and montane regions of western North America highlights the need for further study of lecideoid lichens. - Bryologist, 122(2): 315–324.
Processes that shape biogeographic patterns in lichens have been of long-standing interest, especially in extreme environments. Lecideoid lichens in Antarctica have been relatively well-studied and are thought to have a high degree of endemism. However, recent collection efforts in montane regions of western North America have uncovered lecideoid lichens morphologically similar to some from Antarctic and South American Sub-Antarctic regions, including Lecidea andersonii Filson and L. polypycnidophora U.Rupr. & Türk. To explore the similarity between these putative conspecifics, we used ITS and MCM7 sequence data to infer relationships within a phylogenetic framework. The resulting phylogenetic reconstructions provided further evidence of the close relationship between specimens from western North America with geographically distant lecideoid populations in the Southern Hemisphere. We recovered two diverse, well-supported clades, provisionally called the L. andersonii complex and the ‘Lecidea NA-ARG clade,’ both including species-level subclades. A number of lecideoid species and species-level lineages thought to be endemic to Antarctica, the South American Sub-Antarctic region, or with bipolar distributions also occur in montane regions of western North America. In some cases, these species-level clades corresponded to distinct geographic regions, e.g., L. polypycnidophora, while other species failed to show phylogenetic structure corresponding to distinct geographic regions, e.g., L. andersonii. These findings bring into question the origin and prevalence of truly endemic Antarctic lichen-forming fungi. Additional investigations into lecideoid lichens, including the biogeographic connection between western North America with Antarctica, will likely provide novel perspectives into the connection between Antarctica and North America, potential colonization routes and the timing of dispersal events. Keywords: Antarctica, biogeography, cosmopolitan, dispersal, extremophiles, Lecidea.
31367Peterson E.B. (2019): Macrophotogrammetry: Structure-from-Motion photogrammetry for threedimensional structure of lichens and change over time. - Bryologist, 122(2): 325–339.
Photogrammetry, the use of photography to calculate measurements, includes a suite of algorithms known as Structure from Motion (SfM) that model 3D structure from standard photographic images. While use of SfM for objects or scenes at scales from centimeters to kilometers is common, studies that use macrophotography for small objects or scenes are few. This study tests methodology to optimize 3D modeling for change detection of lichen structure and community dynamics over time. Specifically, tests are performed to clarify uncertainties on software, photographic equipment, spatial control, making measurements, and the potential for accuracy and precision. Test subjects included common lichen communities on wood, bark and rock, plus a calicioid lichen community, each with two or three models over time. The commercial software PhotoScan outperformed the no-cost software alternatives VisualSfM and COLMAP. With PhotoScan, results of 3D modeling showed that while cellphone cameras are capable of producing models with sub-millimeter accuracy, DSLR cameras produce more accurate and detailed models. Photography using a narrow-angle macrolens demonstrated advantages over a wide-angle lens when working at this scale. Inclusion of a scaling object increased accuracy of spatial control relative to hand measurements. Detail and accuracy of models was sufficient to detect radial growth of a substrate tree and changes in calicioid ascomata that likely corresponded to humidity and provided evidence for hygroscopy in Chaenotheca. Models achieved accuracy as low as 0.06 mm root-mean-square-error (RMSE) and data density as high as 1.7 million points per cm2 of substrate; accuracy was non-random and may be better described as local positional bias. KEYWORDS. Multi-view photogrammetry, 3D, modeling, change detection, Chaenotheca trichialis, Chaenotheca ferruginea, hygroscopic, PhotoScan, VisualSfM, COLMAP.
31366Lendemer J.C. (2019): Recent literature on lichens—253. - Bryologist, 122(2): 363–371.
31365Launis A. & Myllys L. (2019): Micarea fennica, a new lignicolous lichen species from Finland. - Phytotaxa, 409(3): 179–188.
A new species Micarea fennica is described based on phenotypic and molecular features. The species is characterized by a pale olive green, bright green or greyish green minutely granular thallus composed of goniocysts, and stalked pycnidia that are dark grey to dark brown with Sedifolia-grey pigment in the wall structures (K+ violet, C+ violet), 0.2–0.5(–1) mm tall and covered by a thin white tomentum. The species produces micareic acid. Micarea fennica is similar to M. hedlundii and M. botryoides, but differs by having a paler granular thallus, stalked dark grey to dark brown pycnidia covered by a thin white tomentum and the production of micareic acid. The new species occupies soft lignum of late decay stages and is probably rare. Keywords: ITS, lichens, wood-inhabiting lichens, Mcm7, mtSSU, taxonomy.
31364Гимельбрант Д.Е., Нотов А.А. & Степанчикова И.С. [Himelbrant D.E., Notov A.A. & Stepanchikova I.S.] (2011): Лихенофлористические находки в Тверской области. - Вестник Тверского государственного университета. Серия: Биология и экология [Herald of Tver State University. Series: Biology and Ecology], 22(12): 125–141.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] Records of new for the Tver Region and rare lichen species are presented. Among them 33 species are new to the Tver Region. Bacidia rosella, Biatora flavopunctata, Cliostomum leprosum, Japewia tornoёnsis, Lecanora hypoptoides, Nephroma laevigatum, Ochrolechia szatalaensis, Pertusaria flavida, Stictis brunnescens and Tremella lichenicola reported for the first time for the Central Russia. Keywords: lichens, lichen flora, Tver Region, new records.
31363Gough L.P. (1975): Cryptogam distributions on Pseudotsuga menziesii and Abies lasiocarpa in the Front Range, Boulder County, Colorado. - Bryologist, 78(2): 124–145.
Forty-six lichens, two mosses and one fungus were studied on the trunks of Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco and Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt. at five elevations in Boulder County, Colorado. Arthonia mediella Nyl., Cladonia bacillaris (Ach.) Nyl., Lecanora expallens Ach., L. hypoptoides Nyl., L. piniperda Körb., Lecidea plebeja Nyl. and Rinodina pachysperma Magn. are reported for the first time from Colorado. The vertical, horizontal (aspectual) and elevational distributions of the cryptogams were ascertained both quantitatively and qualitatively. Eleven taxa were exclusive to P. menziesii, 17 taxa were exclusive to A. lasiocarpa and 19 taxa were common to both. The rate of bark scaling appeared to be the most important substrate feature governing the abundance of epiphytic growth on different conifer tree species.
31362Skorepa A.C. & Snider J.A. (1967): Some unusual lower plants from Lusk Creek Canyon, Pope. County, Illinois. - Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science, 60: 105–106.
Slxteen lichens, three mosses, one fern, and five fern allies are reported. Thirteen lichens and one moss are new to the known flora of Illinois.
31361Cvijan М., Todorović В. & Joksimović V. (1997): The lichens as bioindicators of air pollution in the towns of Mali Zvornik and Arandelovac (Yugoslavia). - Glasnik Instituta za botaniku i botaničke bašte Univerziteta u Beogradu, 29[1995]: 175–186.
The results of the study of lignicolous flora of lichens found in Mali Zvornik and Arandelovac town are presented here. By examining the collected samples, the presence of 15 genera with 33 species and 12 genera with 29 species were established in Mali Zvornik and Arandelovac, respectively. On the basis of the distribution of determined taxa and by using qualitative scale for air pollution, three zones (with two subzones) in terms of air pollution were established in Mali Zvornik, and only two zones in Arandelovac. Keywords: air pollution, lichens, bioindication, Mali Zvornik, Arandelovac, Serbia.
31360Vicol I. (2012): The sinstructure of epiphytic lichens within forests from the eastern part of Bucharest Municipality (Romania). - Botanica Serbica, 36(2): 131–137.
This study is based on assessment of epiphytic lichen sinstructure within forestry ecosystems from the eastern part of Bucharest Municipality. The number of lichen species was found to increase with distance from Bucharest. Within Goştilele and Călăreţilor forests, the most abundant were common lichen species and the less common lichen species were recorded less frequently. A less common lichen species in the area of study, namely Ramalina pollinaria, sampled in Pustnicul Forest was recorded more frequently (50% relative abundance) compared with cosmopolitan lichen species, such as Physcia adscendens, Xanthoria parietina etc., which had lower relative abundances. All lichen species were recorded on trunks with a rough rhytidoma and with diameters more than 0.50 m. Key words: epiphytic lichen, sinstructure, forests, Bucharest Municipality, Romania.
31359Esmer I., Tüney İ., Özakça D.Ü. & Sukatar A. (2017): Protective effects of polyamines against UV-A and UV-B illumination in Physcia semipinnata thalli. - Botanica Serbica, 41(1): 17–24.
The damage to DNA induced by UV-A and UV-B and protective effects of the polyamines putrescine (put), spermidine (spd) and spermine (spm) were investigated on the lichen Physcia semipinnata in the present study. Our results suggest that significant alterations of the photosynthetic quantum yield ratio occurred in response to increased UV-A and UV-B exposure time. The photosynthetic quantum yield ratio gradually decreased in P. semipinnata following exposure to UV-A and UV-B. Physcia semipinnata thalli which were treated with a polyamine in a concentration of 1 mM were not affected by UV-A exposure for 72 h. In the case of UV-B treatment, the protective polyamine dosage was 0.25 mM. We also used the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique to detect DNA damage. The main changes observed in the RAPD profiles, which were obtained using 12 RAPD primers, were the appearance or disappearance of different bands and variation of their intensities. The use of at least three different primers allowed detection of specific band patterns in both UV-A- and UV-B-exposed samples treated with polyamines as compared to untreated ones. Keywords: RAPD-PCR, putrescine, spermidine, spermine, lipid peroxidation.
31358Yazıcı K., Etayo J., Aslan A. & Karahan D. (2019): Records of lichenicolous fungi new for Turkey and Asia. - Botanica Serbica, 43(1): 3–8.
Three lichenicolous fungi occcuring on Tephromela atra and Lecidea fuscoatra– Rhymbocarpus fuscoatrae, Sclerococcum tephromelarum and Skyttea tephromelarum, collected from the Tunceli and Bingöl provinces of Turkey – are reported as new to Turkey and Asia, following a recent lichenological survey in those provinces. Short descriptions are provided, together with geographic distributions, hosts, and comparisons with similar taxa. Keywords: Ascomycota, Bingöl, biodiversity, lichenicolous fungi, Tunceli.
31357Anders J. (1936): Beiträge zur Besiedlungsökologie der Flechten. I. Die Besiedlung nährstoffarmer Sandsteinfelsen und Sandböden. - Beihefte zum Botanischen Centralblatt, 55B: 159–181.
Czech Republic; Northern Bohemia; colonization; sandstones; lichen sociology; Cladonia.
31356Muggia L., Pérez-Ortega S., Kopun T., Zellnig G. & Grube M. (2014): Photobiont selectivity leads to ecological tolerance and evolutionary divergence in a polymorphic complex of lichenized fungi. - Annals of Botany, 114: 463–475.
Background and Aims: The integrity and evolution of lichen symbioses depend on a fine-tuned combination of algal and fungal genotypes. Geographically widespread species complexes of lichenized fungi can occur in habitats with slightly varying ecological conditions, and it remains unclear howthis variation correlates with symbiont selectivity patterns in lichens. In an attempt to address this question, >300 samples were taken of the globally distributed and ecologically variable lichen-forming species complex Tephromela atra, together with closely allied species, in order to study genetic diversity and the selectivity patterns of their photobionts. Methods: Lichen thalli of T. atra and of closely related species T. grumosa, T. nashii and T. atrocaesia were collected from six continents, across 24 countries and 62 localities representing a wide range of habitats. Analyses of genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships were carried out both for photobionts amplified directly from the lichen thalli and from those isolated in axenic cultures. Morphological and anatomical traits were studied with light and transmission electron microscopy in the isolated algal strains. Key Results: Tephromela fungal species were found to associate with 12 lineages of Trebouxia. Five new clades demonstrate the still-unrecognized genetic diversity of lichen algae. Culturable, undescribed lineageswere also characterized by phenotypic traits. Strong selectivity of the mycobionts for the photobionts was observed in six monophyletic Tephromela clades. Seven Trebouxia lineages were detected in the poorly resolved lineage T. atra sensu lato, where co-occurrence of multiple photobiont lineages in single thalli was repeatedly observed. Conclusions: Low selectivity apparently allows widespread lichen-forming fungi to establish successful symbioses with locally adapted photobionts in a broader range of habitats. This flexibility might correlate with both lower phylogenetic resolution and evolutionary divergence in species complexes of crustose lichen-forming fungi. Key words: Adaptation, algal culture, crustose lichen, Lecanoromycetes, lichenized fungi, morphology, mycobiont, photobiont, phylogeny, Tephromela atra, Trebouxia.
31355Wullschleger S.D., Epstein H.E., Box E.O., Euskirchen E.S., Goswami S., Iversen C.M., Kattge J., Norby R.J., van Bodegom P.M. & Xu X. (2014): Plant functional types in Earth system models: past experiences and future directions for application of dynamic vegetation models in high-latitude ecosystems. - Annals of Botany, 114: 1–16.
[invited review] Background: Earth system models describe the physical, chemical and biological processes that govern our global climate. While it is difficult to single out one component as being more important than another in these sophisticated models, terrestrial vegetation is a critical player in the biogeochemical and biophysical dynamics of the Earth system. There is much debate, however, as to how plant diversity and function should be represented in these models. Scope: Plant functional types (PFTs) have been adopted by modellers to represent broad groupings of plant species that share similar characteristics (e.g. growth form) and roles (e.g. photosynthetic pathway) in ecosystem function. In this review, thePFTconcept is traced fromits origin in the early 1800sto its current use in regional and global dynamic vegetation models (DVMs). Special attention is given to the representation and parameterization of PFTs and to validation and benchmarking of predicted patterns of vegetation distribution in high-latitude ecosystems. These ecosystems are sensitive to changing climate and thus provide a useful test case for model-based simulations of past, current and future distribution of vegetation. Conclusions: Models that incorporate the PFT concept predict many of the emerging patterns of vegetation change in tundra and boreal forests, given known processes of tree mortality, treeline migration and shrub expansion. However, representation of above- and especially below-ground traits for specific PFTs continues to be problematic. Potential solutions include developing trait databases and replacing fixed parameters for PFTs with formulations based on trait co-variance and empirical trait–environment relationships. Surprisingly, despite being important to land–atmosphere interactions of carbon, water and energy, PFTs such as moss and lichen are largely absent from DVMs. Close collaboration among those involved in modelling with the disciplines of taxonomy, biogeography, ecology and remote sensing will be required if we are to overcome these and other shortcomings. Key words: Plant functional types, PFT, Earth system model, ESM, Arctic tundra, biogeography, dynamic vegetation models, global change, plant traits, high-latitude ecosystem.
31354Merinero S., Méndez M., Aragón G. & Martínez I. (2017): Variation in the reproductive strategy of a lichenized fungus along a climatic gradient. - Annals of Botany, 120: 63–70.
Background and aims: Onset of reproduction and reproductive allocation patterns are key components of plant reproductive strategies. Life history theory predicts that plants in adverse environments for juvenile performance start reproduction at smaller sizes and exhibit higher reproductive allocation compared to their counterparts in favourable environments. Life history theory will gain in generality if its predictions are shown to apply to a broad range of organisms and modes of reproduction. This study tested whether the asexual reproductive strategy of a lichenized fungus changed along a climatic gradient. Methods: The variation in threshold size for asexual reproduction and asexual reproductive allocation of the lichen Lobarina scrobiculata was assessed in 18 populations (9665 individuals) along a climatic gradient spanning 800km in latitude in Southern Europe. Using generalized linear models and standardized major axis regressions, the allometric relationships and the associated variation in climatic factors according to the changes in the threshold size for reproduction and reproductive allocation patterns were assessed. Key Results: The onset of reproduction was size-dependent and the reproductive allocation increased with individual size. Both the threshold size for reproduction and the reproductive allocation varied along the rainfall gradient. A lower threshold size for reproduction and higher reproductive allocation in drier, adverse locations were found. Therefore, populations in drier locations fitted the predictions of life history theory for sexually reproducing organisms in adverse environments for juvenile performance. Conclusions: This study highlights the applicability of the life history theory to fungi and to modes of reproduction other than sexual reproduction. Based on the intraspecific variation in the asexual reproductive strategy of a fungal organism with climatic factors, these findings expand the scope of life history theory predictions and increase our understanding of life history diversity and reproductive strategies across environments. Key words: Asexual reproduction, epiphytic lichen, lichenized fungus, life history theory, Lobarina scrobiculata, onset of reproduction, rainfall gradient, reproductive allocation, reproductive allometry, reproductive strategy.
31353Merinero S. & Gauslaa Y. (2018): Specialized fungal parasites reduce fitness of their lichen hosts. - Annals of Botany, 121: 175–182.
Background and aims: Understanding to what extent parasites affect host fitness is a focus of research on ecological interactions. Fungal parasites usually affect the functions of vascular plants. However, parasitic interactions comprising effects of fungal parasites on the fitness of lichen hosts are less well known. This study assesses the effects of the abundance of two highly specialized gall-forming fungi on growth of their two respective lichen hosts and tests whether these fungal parasites reduce lichen fitness. Methods: The relative biomass and thallus area growth rates, and change in specific thallus mass of Lobaria pulmonaria and L. scrobiculata were compared between lichens with and without galls of the lichenicolous fungi Plectocarpon lichenum and P. scrobiculatae, cultivated in a growth chamber for 14 d. By estimating the thallus area occupied by the galls, it was also assessed whether growth rates varied with effective photosynthetic lichen surface area. Key results: Plectocarpon galls significantly reduced relative growth rates of the lichen hosts. Growth rates decreased with increasing cover of parasitic galls. The presence of Plectocarpon-galls per se, not the reduced photosynthetic thallus surface due to gall induction, reduced relative growth rates in infected hosts. Specific thallus mass in the hosts changed in species-specific ways. Conclusions: This study shows that specialized fungal parasites can reduce lichen fitness by reducing their growth rates. Higher parasite fitness correlated with lower host fitness, supporting the view that these associations are antagonistic. By reducing hosts’ growth rates, these parasites in their symptomatic life stage may affect important lichen functions. This fungal parasite–lichen study widens the knowledge on the ecological effects of parasitism on autotrophic hosts and expands our understanding of parasitic interactions across overlooked taxonomic groups. Key words: Fungal parasites, gall-forming fungi, host fitness, lichenicolous fungi, Lobaria, parasitic interactions, Plectocarpon, relative growth rate, specific thallus mass.
31352Alatalo J.M., Jägerbrand A.K., Chen S. & Molau U. (2017): Responses of lichen communities to 18years of natural and experimental warming. - Annals of Botany, 120: 159–170.
Background and Aims: Climate change is expected to have major impacts on high alpine and arctic ecosystems in the future, but empirical data on the impact of long-term warming on lichen diversity and richness are sparse. This study report the effects of 18 years of ambient and experimental warming on lichens and vascular plant cover in two alpine plant communities, a dry heath with sparse canopy cover (54 %) and a mesic meadow with a more developed (67 %) canopy cover, in sub-arctic Sweden. Methods: The effects of long-term passive experimental warming using open top chambers (OTCs) on lichens and total vascular plant cover, and the impact of plant cover on lichen community parameters, were analysed. Key Results: Between 1993 and 2013, mean annual temperature increased about 2°C. Both site and experimental warming had a significant effect on cover, species richness, effective number of species evenness of lichens, and total plant canopy cover. Lichen cover increased in the heath under ambient conditions, and remained more stable under experimental warming. The negative effect on species richness and effective number of species was driven by a decrease in lichens under experimental warming in the meadow. Lichen cover, species richness, effective number of species evenness were negatively correlated with plant canopy cover. There was a significant negative impact on one species and a non-significant tendency of lower abundance of the most common species in response to experimental warming. Conclusions: The results from the long-term warming study imply that arctic and high alpine lichen communities are likely to be negatively affected by climate change and an increase in plant canopy cover. Both biotic and abiotic factors are thus important for future impacts of climate change on lichens. Key words: Arctic, climate change, effective number of species, global warming, plant–climate interactions, species richness, tundra.
31351Bilovitz P.O., Nascimbene J., Tutzer V., Wallner A. & Mayrhofer H. (2014): Terricolous Lichens in the Glacier Forefield of the Rötkees (Eastern Alps, South Tyrol, Italy). - Phyton (Horn), 54(2): 245–250.
The investigation of lichens on soil, plant debris and terricolous mosses in the glacier forefield of the Rötkees yielded 31 lichen taxa (29 species and 2 varieties) and one lichenicolous fungus. Micarea incrassata Hedl. (Lecanorales) is new to Italy. Three sampling sites were established at increasing distance from the glacier, in order to compare species diversity, abundance and composition. Keywords: Lichenized Ascomycetes, Lichenes. – Biodiversity, ecology, flora, floristics. – Alps, alpine belt, glacier forefield, glacier retreat.
31350Bilovitz P.O., Wallner A., Tutzer V., Nascimbene J. & Mayrhofer H. (2014): Terricolous lichens in the glacier forefield of the Gaisbergferner (Eastern Alps, Tyrol, Austria). - Phyton (Horn), 54(2): 235–243.
The investigation of lichens on soil, plant debris and terricolous mosses in the glacier forefield of the Gaisbergferner yielded 41 lichen taxa (39 species and 2 varieties) and one lichenicolous fungus. Three sampling sites were established at increasing distance from the glacier, in order to compare species diversity, abundance and composition. Key words : Lichenized Ascomycetes, Lichenes. – Biodiversity, ecology, flora, floristics. – Alps, alpine belt, glacier forefield, glacier retreat.
31349Urbanavichus G. P. & Urbanavichene I. N. (2018): Lichens and lichenicolous fungi of terricolous habitats in alpine-nival belts of Mount Elbrus (North Caucasus, Russia). - Phyton (Horn), 58(2): 117–122.
Mount Elbrus, the highest peak of the Caucasus Mountains, is relatively rich in arctic-alpine lichens, but no study has been specifically devoted to its terricolous lichens. An investigation of the terricolous lichens and their lichenicolous fungi on the southern slope of Mt. Elbrus at elevations above 3100 m in the summer of 2017 yielded 92 taxa (80 lichenized and 12 lichenicolous fungi). Three species, Micarea viridiatra Coppins, Leptosphaerulina peltigerae (Fuckel) Riedl and Sphaerellothecium leratianum Gardiennet & Cl. Roux are new to Russia, and Acarospora rhizobola (Nyl.) Alstrup , Calogaya bryochrysion (Poelt) Vondrák, Lecanora concolor Ramond, Lepraria borealis Lohtander & Tønsberg, Leptosphaerulina peltigerae, Micarea viridiatra, Polyblastia helvetica Th. Fr., Rhagadostoma brevisporum (Nav.-Ros. & Hladun) Nav.-Ros., Sphaerellothecium leratianum, S. stereocaulorum Zhurb. & Triebel, and Tetramelas geophilus (Flörke ex Sommerf.) Norman are new to the Caucasus. Key words: Lichens, lichenicolous fungi. – Biodiversity, lichen flora, ecology, terricolous, alpine, subnival, nival. – Mount Elbrus, Caucasus, Russia.
31348Emmer A., Juřicová A. & Veettil B.K. (2019): Glacier retreat, rock weathering and the growth of lichens in the Churup Valley, Peruvian Tropical Andes. - Journal of Mountain Science, 16(7): 1485–1499.
The most heavily glacierized tropical range in the world – the Peruvian Cordillera Blanca - has been losing ice since the end of the Little Ice Age (LIA). In this study, the decline of the Churup glacier (9°28'18" S; 77°25'02" W) and associated processes were documented employing multi-proxy approach including the analysis of remotely sensed images (1948-2016), the Schmidt hammer rock test and lichenometric dating. It is shown that Churup glacier has lost the vast majority of its estimated LIA extent (1.05 ± 0.1 km2; 45.0×106 - 57.4×106 m3). The rate of glacier retreat is documented to vary in space (SE, SW and NW-facing slopes) and time, with the peak between 1986 and 1995. With an area of 0.045 km2 in 2016, it is expected that the complete deglaciation of the Churup valley is inevitable in the near future. Recently (post-LIA) exposed bedrock surfaces have shown higher R-values (54.2 - 66.4, AVG 63.3, STDEV 2.9) compared to pre-LIA exposed surfaces (46.1 - 59.3, AVG 50.1, STDEV 4.9), confirming the links to the duration of rock weathering. The Lichenometric dating is applied to recently exposed areas and elevations above 4800 m a.s.l., revealing only limited reliability and agreement with the age of deglaciation estimated from remotely-sensed images in such an environment. Keywords: Cordillera Blanca; Tropical glaciers; Deglaciation; Geoenvironmental change; Lichenometry; Rhizocarpon geographicum; Schmidt hammer; Andes.
31347Miki K., Kawashima S., Takahashi Y. & Yonemura S. (2019): Potential survival of the lichen Caloplaca flavovirescens under high helium‑beam doses. - Radiation and Environmental Biophysics, 58: 449–454.
Testing the limits of survivability in space is the primary focus in astrobiological research. Although a number of previous studies have examined terrestrial life survival in an extraterrestrial environment, only a few have investigated how life systems respond to high doses of alpha cosmic ray, the main component of cosmic rays. We used respiration and photosynthetic rates as indicators of the vital signs of the lichen Caloplaca flavovirescens, which is a symbiotic life form including fungi and algae. Our experiment demonstrated that the photosynthetic rate decreased with increased helium-beam doses, whereas the respiration rate was relatively unaffected. Specifically, under a helium-beam dose greater than 10 Gy, the respiration rate remained nearly constant regardless of further increases in the radiation rate. Our results indicate that the different metabolic systems of terrestrial life forms might exhibit different survival characteristics when they are in space. Keywords: Helium-beam · Lichen · Caloplaca flavovirescens · Photosynthetic rate · Respiration rate.
31346Moberg R. & Mayrhofer H. (1998): (1341) Proposal to conserve the name Rinodina cacuminum (Th. Fr.) Malme against R. cacuminum (A. Massal.) Anzi (Physciaceae, lichenized Ascomycetes). - Taxon, 47(2): 455.
31345Урбанавичюс Г.П. & Урбанавичене И.Н. [Urbanavichus G.P. & Urbanavichene I.N.] (2019): Эпифитные лишайники и нелихенизированные грибы ели на крайнем северном пределе ее распространения (Мурманская область) [Epiphytic lichens and non-lichenized fungi of spruce in the northernmost distribution limit (Murmansk region)]. - Ботанический журнал [Botanicheskiy Zhurnal], 104(2): 191–205.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] This study aims at increasing our knowledge about the diversity of epiphytic lichens in old-aged (>140–150 years) spruce forests at the northernmost distribution limit. At the latitude of 69°16′�, in the central part of the Pasvik Nature Reserve, at the southern and southeastern foot of the Kalkupya Mountain, spruce stands are found one of the northernmost in Europe. Based on the material collected in 2017–2018 by the first author, 55 epiphytic species and 29 genera were recorded, including 47 lichenized species, 7 non-lichenized saprobic fungi and 1 lichenicolous fungus. Crustose lichens (37 species, 67%) contributed mainly to species richness; the other taxa are fruticose (9) and foliose (9) species. 43 species were recorded on trunks (including 24 occurring only there), 31 on branches (including 12 occurring only there). 48 species were recorded on bark (17 occurring only there) and 38 species on woody substrates (7 occurring only there). The proportion of specific species was higher on the trunks and bark of spruce. Lichen species richness and composition were compared between spruce forests in Pasvik Reserve and Kivach Reserve (Southern Karelia). The results revealed clear differences in species composition. However, in total, the spruce epiphytes at the northernmost distribution limit do not have high specificity. Differences in species composition have mostly been interpreted as a result of different bioclimatic conditions (i.e. zonal patterns). The old-aged spruce forests in the northernmost distribution limit are important habitats for the high epiphytic diversity and play a key role in the conservation of many rare species. Three species, namely Chaenotheca gracilenta, Chaenothecopsis nana and C. pusiola, are new for the lichen flora of the Pasvik Reserve.
31344Холод С.С. [Kholod S.S.] (2014): Растительность и мерзлотные формы рельефа на острове Врангеля [Vegetation and permafrost relief in Wrangel Island]. - Комаровские чтения [Komarovskie chteniya / V.L. Komarov Memorial Lectures], 62: 241–313.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] The questions of the relationship of vegetation with permafrost landforms – patterned ground, baydzharahs – are considered. The position of syntaxa, allocated on the basis of floristic classifi cation, is revealed in the space of particle size, diameter of the polygons, gipsometrical position of the edge with respect to its central part. For the purpose of detailed research into the nature of relationships of permafrost landforms and vegetation 11 structural/morphological types of patterned ground were allocated. Relationship between vegetation (syntaxonomical spectrum) and patterned ground has a stochastic nature: one structural and morphological type corresponds to a few syntax, and one syntaxon can occur in several types of patterned ground. The hypothesis of interconnected formation of soils and vegetation is offered. The initiators of the emergence of patterned ground are mud cracks that may later develop as frost ones. The process of becoming of vegetation is accompanied by expanding and deepening of cracks, which generate a characteristic pattern of vegetation (reticulated or polygonal-sell form). The processes of swelling of the central part of the spot, and wind denudation of top soil lead only to a certain adjustment provisions of the sod from the center, polygonal-sell system «soil – vegetation» is remains stable. Keywords : syntaxa, arctic tundras, patterned grounds, structural-morphological types, Wrangel Island.
31343Омелько А.М., Якубов В.В., Бакалин В.А., Великанов А.В., Черданцева В.Я., Скирина И.Ф., Яковлева А.Н. & Крестов П.В. [Omelko A.M., Yakubov V.V., Bakalin V.A., Velikanov A.V., Cherdantseva V.Ya., Skirina I.F., Yakovleva A.N. & Krestov P.V.] (2010): Растительный покров Ланжинских гор (Охотия) [Plant cover of the Mountains Lanzhinskiye Gory (Okhotia)]. - Комаровские чтения [Komarovskie chteniya / V.L. Komarov Memorial Lectures], 57: 103–163.
[in Russian]
31342Яковченко Л.С. [Yakovchenko L.S.] (2009): Лишайники Сохондинского биосферного заповедника [Lichens of the Sokhondinskiy Biosphere Reserve]. - Комаровские чтения [Komarovskie chteniya / V.L. Komarov Memorial Lectures], 56: 120–151.
[in Russian]
31341Яковченко Л.С., Галанина И.А., Малашкина Е.В. & Бакалин В.А. [Yakovchenko L.S., Galanina I.A., Malashkina E.V. & Bakalin V.A.] (2013): Мохообразные и лишайники малонарушенных лесных сообществ в Нижнем Приамурье (российский Дальний Восток) [Mosses and lichens in the minimally disturbed forest communities of the Lower Amur River area (Russian Far East)]. - Комаровские чтения [Komarovskie chteniya / V.L. Komarov Memorial Lectures], 60: 9–68.
[in Russian]
31340Дармостук В.В. [Darmostuk V.V.] (2019): Рід Lichenoconium (Lichenoconiaceae, Ascomycota) в Україні [The genus Lichenoconium (Lichenoconiaceae, Ascomycota) in Ukraine]. - Український Ботанічний Журнал [Ukrainian Botanical Journal], 76(2): 101–113.
[in Ukrainian with English abstract: ] Revision of Ukrainian Lichenoconium specimens is provided. This genus is characterized by immersed to semiimmersed black globose conidiomata, phialidic hyaline conidiogenous cells and olive to brown simple conidia. Seven species of the genus are reported from the territory of Ukraine. These are L. aeruginosum, L. erodens, L. lecanorae, L. lichenicola, L. pyxidatae, L. usneae and L. xanthoriae. These species were found on thalli and apothecia of 18 different genera of lichens. Lichenoconium aeruginosum, L. lichenicola and L. pyxidatae have clear host specificity and grow only on one host genus. Other four species do not have host specificity. Lichenoconium erodens and L. lecanorae are widespread in Ukraine. Lichenoconium usneae is reported for the first time from the steppe zone of Ukraine. Seirophora lacunosa is a new host species of L. usneae. New localities of L. lichenicola and discussion about older dubious records are presented. Investigated Licheniconium species has parasitic life-strategy and affected the lichens that have mechanical damage or those weakened by other lichenicolous fungi. Lichenoconium pyxidatae and Didymocyrtis cladoniicola play an important role in regulating the populations of Cladonia foliacea in the Lower Dnipro sands. This phenomenon is known as "phomosis of Cladonia". Description, host lichens species, data about distribution in Ukraine, examined specimens and notes are provided for each species. An original identification key for Ukrainian species of Lichenoconium is given. Keywords: host specificity, lichenicolous fungi, parasitic life-strategy.
31339Marris J., Hawke D. & Glenny D. (2019): Eating at high elevation: an herbivorous beetle from alpine rock outcrops relies on ammonia-absorbing lichens. - Ecology, 100(5): e02598 [4 p.].
Key words: alpine; ammonia; Brontini; flightless beetle; lichen; New Zealand; Protodendrophagus antipodes; rock outcrop; Silvanidae; stable isotope analysis.
31338Marris J., Hawke D. & Glenny D. (2019): Stable isotope analysis reveals a New Zealand alpine beetle’s lichen diet. - Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America, 100(3): e01571 [6 p.].
Protodendrophagus antipodes beetles and their larvae live at high elevation in rock outcrops on mountains along New Zealand’s Southern Alps. Living above the tree line, they require a different diet from their forest-dwelling relatives that feed on fungi under loose bark. Stable isotope analysis of potential food sources revealed that the probable diet for P. antipodes was either, or both, of two species of ammonia-absorbing lichens; one crustose and one fruticose species. The lichen diet is possibly unique among the family Silvanidae and is surprisingly rare globally among the hyper-diverse beetle fauna.
31337Kubart A., Vasaitis R., Stenlid J. & Dahlberg A. (2016): Fungal communities in Norway spruce stumps along a latitudinal gradient in Sweden. - Forest Ecology and Management, 371: 50–58.
Tree stumps left after clear-cutting have replaced naturally formed logs as the most common type of coarse woody debris in managed boreal forests. It is therefore necessary to understand stump importance for the biodiversity of wood-inhabiting organisms, including fungi, and determine their role in hosting species of conservation interest. We analyzed wood from 485 Norway spruce (Picea abies) stumps from 41 clear-cuts at seven localities along a latitudinal gradient from northern to southern Sweden using 454-sequencing. We also collated data about the known ecology of the 86 identified macro-basidiomycetes. In total, 1355 fungal operational taxonomic units were detected, of which 19% were identified down to genus or species level. The most widespread fungi were generalists, such as Leptodontidium elatius, Resinicium bicolor, Fomitopsis pinicola, and Coniophora puteana. Five species of conservation interest were detected, but were not abundant (Kneiffiella curvispora, Metulodontia nivea, Perenniporia subacida, Postia placenta, and Climacocystis borealis). Fungal community composition changed with stump age and along the latitudinal gradient. These results will enable us to better incorporate important biodiversity and conservation issues when making decisions about using stumps as resources for biofuel. Keywords: Wood-inhabiting fungi; 454 sequencing; Norway spruce; Stump harvest; Coarse woody debris. Several lichens listed (Cladonia coniocraea, C. diversa, "Umbilicariales 64") in Table 3 among "30 OTUs with the strongest positive ... and strongest negative ... CCA species scores to (i) decay stage of stumps"
31336Olariaga I., Teres J., Martín J., Prieto M. & Baral H.-O. (2019): Pseudosclerococcum golindoi gen. et sp. nov., a new taxon with apothecial ascomata and a Chalara-like anamorph within the Sclerococcales (Eurotiomycetes). - Mycological Progress, 18: 895–905.
Sclerococcales encompasses a heterogeneous group of fungi, with most of the species included in the genus Sclerococcum (= Dactylospora). Species of Sclerococcum are characterized by having apothecial ascomata with asci covered by an external hemiamyloid gelatin and a thick euamyloid apical cap, while lacking an inner amyloid wall thickening. Asexual morphs, known for few species, are sporodochial. In this study, we describe Pseudosclerococcum golindoi as a new genus and species sister to Sclerococcum in a multigene phylogeny (nuITS, nuLSU, nuSSU, mtSSU). The fungus produces ascomata similar to those of Sclerococcum, but differs in having cylindrical asci embedded in an overall hemiamyloid gelatin with a fissitunicate dehiscence. Unlike Sclerococcum, Pseudosclerococcum golindoi produces a Chalara-like asexual morph. A possible symbiotic association of P. golindoi with Ascocoryne cylichnium is discussed. The presence of a hemiamyloid gelatin on lateral wall of asci, so far largely overlooked, is reported for some Sclerococcum species. Based on ascal characters and interpretation of the phylogenetic analyses, 14 names assigned to saprotrophic species, previously placed in Dactylospora, are combined in Sclerococcum. Keywords: Bitunicate asci . Dactylospora . Dactylosporaceae . Fissitunicate . Sclerococcum.
31335Hazell P. & Gustafsson L. (1999): Retention of trees at final harvest—evaluation of a conservation technique using epiphytic bryophyte and lichen transplants. - Biological Conservation, 90(2): 133–142.
Some trees are commonly retained as a conservation measure during forest harvest. However, their actual contribution to maintaining biodiversity is poorly known. In Swedish forests, aspen Populus tremula supports a rich epiphytic flora. The bryophyte Antitrichia curtipendula and the lichen Lobaria pulmonaria, used in forest inventories as indicators of long forest continuity and presence of red-listed species, were used in a transplantation experiment. Transplants on groups of retained aspen trees in clearcuts were compared with transplants on scattered trees in clearcuts and on aspens in uncut mature forests. The survival and ‘vitality’ of a total of 2240 transplants were recorded 20–25 months after transplantation, where 89% of the lichen transplants remained, as compared with 99% for the bryophyte. Both species had high vitality in clearcuts, although the bryophyte was most vital in the forest. The lichen had significantly higher vitality on groups of trees as compared with scattered ones. Vitality was significantly higher on the north than on the south sides of retained trees for both species. The results indicate that retained trees can form biodiversity links during forest succession after final harvest and that they are beneficial to at least some species considered to be sensitive to forest operations. Keywords: Epiphytes; Forestry; Green-tree retention; Hemi-boreal forest; Populus tremula.
31334Soler R., Martínez Pastur G., Lencinas M.V. & Rosenfeld M. (2014): Variable retention management influences biomass of Misodendrum and Usnea in Nothofagus pumilio southern Patagonian forests. - New Zealand Journal of Botany, 52(2): 224–235.
Variable retention systems (retention of some existing trees in different densities along with significant elements of the original forest after logging) aim to mitigate the impact of harvesting in native temperate forests, improving biodiversity conservation in managed stands. This study evaluates the effect of variable retention harvesting on epiphytic lichens (Usnea barbata) and mistletoes (Misodendrum punctulatum) in Nothofagus pumilio forests. The abundance of these canopy-dwelling species can be estimated by measuring their litter fall.We quantified mistletoe, lichen and tree litter fall monthly for 3 years. Tree and lichen biomasses were influenced by canopy cover, being higher in primary forests than in harvested stands. However, aggregated retention showed the highest mistletoe biomass production. Furthermore, mistletoe biomass increased while lichen biomass decreased over the years after harvesting. Variable retention was useful in maintaining both lichen and mistletoe biomass after harvest, but aggregates were not enough to maintain the original level of lichen populations. Forest harvesting with variable retention generates positive (litter input) and negative (decline of host growth) effects of mistletoes and epiphytic lichens at community level, which should be evaluated during conservation and management planning. Keywords: aggregated retention; canopy communities; epiphytic lichen; hemiparasitic plants; litter fall; mistletoe.
31333Halbwachs H. (2019): Fungi trapped in amber—a fossil legacy frozen in time. - Mycological Progress, 18: 879–893.
Amber is an exceptional organic mineral found all over the world that occasionally contains fossilised organisms. The physical and chemical characteristics of amber pose a challenge when looking for microfossils, such as microfungi. However, also, macrofungi are rarely found in amber, probably because of their ephemeral nature. Yet, in the course of this review, 137 records of non-lichnenised fungi and 182 of lichens were found, the earliest reaching back to the eighteenth century. The findings range from the Carboniferous (ca. 310 Ma) to the Upper Miocene (ca. 10 Ma). About 10% were macrofungi, the rest microfungi (Ascomycetes, Deuteromycetes) or lichens. Identification poses problems due to the fragmentary remains which, as a rule, are inaccessibly entombed in fossilised resin. Most non-lichenised taxa per Ma were, according to this review, recovered from Neogene deposits, whilst lichens showed a marked diversity surge during the Palaeogene. Overall, the record of fungal fossils in amber seems to mirror the diversity patterns through deep time. Nevertheless, the few records from the Palaeozoic and the Lower to Mid-Mesozoic call for the development of additional tools for detection and identification. Keywords: Palaeomycology . Resin deposits . Geological eras . Extinctions . Diversification . Diversity . Detection techniques.
31332Expósito J.R., Martín San Román S., Barreno E., Reig-Armiñana J., García-Breijo F.J. & Catalá M. (2019): Inhibition of NO biosynthetic activities during rehydration of Ramalina farinacea lichen thalli provokes increases in lipid peroxidation. - Plants, 8: 189 [15 p.].
Lichens are poikilohydrous symbiotic associations between a fungus, photosynthetic partners, and bacteria. They are tolerant to repeated desiccation/rehydration cycles and adapted to anhydrobiosis. Nitric oxide (NO) is a keystone for stress tolerance of lichens; during lichen rehydration, NO limits free radicals and lipid peroxidation but no data on the mechanisms of its synthesis exist. The aim of this work is to characterize the synthesis of NO in the lichen Ramalina farinacea using inhibitors of nitrate reductase (NR) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS), tungstate, and NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), respectively. Tungstate suppressed the NO level in the lichen and caused an increase in malondialdehyde during rehydration in the hyphae of cortex and in phycobionts, suggesting that a plant-like NR is involved in the NO production. Specific activity of NR in R. farinacea was 91 U/mg protein, a level comparable to those in the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens and Arabidopsis thaliana. L-NAME treatment did not suppress the NO level in the lichens. On the other hand, NADPH-diaphorase activity cytochemistry showed a possible presence of a NOS-like activity in the microalgae where it is associated with cytoplasmatic vesicles. These data provide initial evidence that NO synthesis in R. farinacea involves NR. Keywords: Trebouxia; microalgae; lipid peroxidation; diaphorase activity; lichens; nitric oxide; nitrate reductase; nitric oxide synthase.
31331Lücking R., Moncada B., Martínez-Habibe M.C., Salgado-Negret B.E., Celis M., Rojas-Zamora O., Rodríguez-M. G.M., Brokamp G. & Borsch T. (2019): Lichen diversity in Colombian Caribbean dry forest remnants [Diversidad liquénica en remanentes de bosques secos caribeños]. - Caldasia, 41(1): 194–214.
We present a first study of the diversity and community composition of lichens in seasonally dry tropical forest (DTF) remnants in the Atlántico department, Colombia. Lichens were sampled in two of the three protected areas of the department: Distrito de Manejo Integrado (DMI) Luriza and Reserva Forestal Protectora (RFP) El Palomar. The inventory revealed 61 species, including four new to science: Fissurina linoana Lücking, Moncada & G. Rodr. sp. nov., Graphis lurizana Lücking, Moncada & Celis sp. nov., G. mokanarum Lücking, Moncada & M.C. Martínez sp. nov., and Phaeographis galeanoae Lücking, Moncada & B. Salgado-N. sp. nov. Arthonia erupta and Coenogonium saepincola are new to South America, whereas thirteen species are recorded for Colombia for the first time. Further 37 species are new records for Atlántico, raising the total of species known from the department from 27 to 84. With 42 species at Luriza and 31 at El Palomar, species richness was comparable to that of other DTF sites in the Neotropics. Overlap in species composition between the two sites was remarkably low, with only twelve shared species (20 %), indicating a high level of heterogeneity. Biogeographical affinities lie with Central American DTF, which is in line with those of woody plants. These results underline the importance of the remaining fragments of DTF in Colombia in conserving partially unknown biodiversity and the necessity for their continuing conservation. Key words: Biodiversity, Dry Tropical Forest, conservation, lichens, Piojó, Usiacurí.
31330Guzmán G. (1986): Distribución de los hongos en la región del Caribe y zonas vecinas. - Caldasia, 15(71–75): 103–120.
The distribution of 85 species of higher fungi is discussed through The Antilles and adjacent areas, as Mexico, U. S. A, Bermudas and South America, based on personal observations and on the bibliography. Discussion on the lichen Coenogonium linkii is included.
31329Guzmán G. & Varela L. (1978): Los hongos de Colombia - III. Observaciones sobre los hongos, líquenes y mixomicetos de Colombia. - Caldasia, 12(58): 309–338.
Observation on 95 species of fungi, lichens and myxomycetes from Colombia are discussed. This paper is based in those materials collected by one of the authors (Guzmán) in Colombia during his two trips in 1964 and 1971. Some discussions based on herbarium material in COL are also included. The distribution and comparations with the Mexican mycoflora are considered in several species.
31328Hyde K.D., Tennakoon D.S., Jeewon R., Bhat D.J., Maharachchikumbura S.S.N., Rossi W., Leonardi M., Lee H.B., Mun H.Y., Houbraken J., Nguyen T.T.T., Jeon S.J., Frisvad J.C., Wanasinghe D.N., Lücking R., Aptroot A., Cáceres M.E.S., Karunarathna S.C., Hongsanan S., Phookamsak R., de Silva N.I., Thambugala K.M., Jayawardena R.S., Senanayake I.C., Boonmee S., Chen J., Luo Z.-L., Phukhamsakda C., Pereira O.L., Abreu V.P., Rosado A.W.C., Bart B., Randrianjohany E., Hofstetter V., Gibertoni T.B., Soares A.M.S., Plautz H.L., Sotão H.M.P., Xavier W.K.S., Bezerra J.D.P., de Oliveira T.G.L., de Souza-Motta C.M., Magalhães O.M.C., Bundhun D., Harishchandra D., Manawasinghe I.S., Dong W., Zhang S.-N., Bao D.-F., Samarakoon M.C., Pem D., Karunarathna A., Lin C.-G., Yang J., Perera R.H., Kumar V., Huang S.-K., Dayarathne M.C., Ekanayaka A.H., Jayasiri S.C., Xiao Y., Konta S., Niskanen T., Liimatainen K., Dai Y.-C., Ji X.-H., Tian X.-M., Mešić A., Singh S.K., Phutthacharoen K., Cai L., Sorvongxay T., Thiyagaraja V., Norphanphoun C., Chaiwan N., Lu Y.-Z., Jiang H.-B., Zhang J.-F., Abeywickrama P.D., Aluthmuhandiram J.V.S., Brahmanage R.S., Zeng M., Chethana T., Wei D., Réblová M., Fournier J., Nekvindová J., Barbosa R.N., dos Santos J.E.F., de Oliveira N.T., Li G.-J., Ertz D., Shang Q.-J., Phillips A.J.L., Kuo C.-H., Camporesi E., Bulgakov T.S., Lumyong S., Jones E.B.G., Chomnunti P., Gentekaki,E., Bungartz F., Zeng X.-Y., Fryar S., Tkalčec Z., Liang J., Li G., Wen T.-C., Singh P.N., Gafforov Y, Promputtha I., Yasanthika E., Goonasekara I.D., Zhao R.-L., Zhao Q., Kirk P.M., Liu J.-K., Yan J., Mortimer P.E., Xu J. & Doilom M. (2019): Fungal diversity notes 1036–1150: taxonomic and phylogenetic contributions on genera and species of fungal taxa. - Fungal Diversity, 96: 1–242.
This article is the tenth series of the Fungal Diversity Notes, where 114 taxa distributed in three phyla, ten classes, 30 orders and 53 families are described and illustrated. Taxa described in the present study include one new family (viz. Pseudoberkleasmiaceae in Dothideomycetes), five new genera (Caatingomyces, Cryptoschizotrema, Neoacladium, Paramassaria and Trochilispora) and 71 new species, (viz. Acrogenospora thailandica, Amniculicola aquatica, A. guttulata, Angustimassarina sylvatica, Blackwellomyces lateris, Boubovia gelatinosa, Buellia viridula, Caatingomyces brasiliensis, Calophoma humuli, Camarosporidiella mori, Canalisporium dehongense, Cantharellus brunneopallidus, C. griseotinctus, Castanediella meliponae, Coprinopsis psammophila, Cordyceps succavus, Cortinarius minusculus, C. subscotoides, Diaporthe italiana, D. rumicicola, Diatrypella delonicis, Dictyocheirospora aquadulcis, D. taiwanense, Digitodesmium chiangmaiense, Distoseptispora dehongensis, D. palmarum, Dothiorella styphnolobii, Ellisembia aurea, Falciformispora aquatic, Fomitiporia carpinea, F. lagerstroemiae, Grammothele aurantiaca, G. micropora, Hermatomyces bauhiniae, Jahnula queenslandica, Kamalomyces mangrovei, Lecidella yunnanensis, Micarea squamulosa, Muriphaeosphaeria angustifoliae, Neoacladium indicum, Neodidymelliopsis sambuci, Neosetophoma miscanthi, N. salicis, Nodulosphaeria aquilegiae, N. thalictri, Paramassaria samaneae, Penicillium circulare, P. geumsanense, P. mali-pumilae, P. psychrotrophicum, P. wandoense, Phaeoisaria siamensis, Phaeopoacea asparagicola, Phaeosphaeria penniseti, Plectocarpon galapagoense, Porina sorediata, Pseudoberkleasmium chiangmaiense, Pyrenochaetopsis sinensis, Rhizophydium koreanum, Russula prasina, Sporoschisma chiangraiense, Stigmatomyces chamaemyiae, S. cocksii, S. papei, S. tschirnhausii, S. vikhrevii, Thysanorea uniseptata, Torula breviconidiophora, T. polyseptata, Trochilispora schefflerae and Vaginatispora palmae). Further, twelve new combinations (viz. Cryptoschizotrema cryptotrema, Prolixandromyces australi, P. elongatus, P. falcatus, P. longispinae, P. microveliae, P. neoalardi, P. polhemorum, P. protuberans, P. pseudoveliae, P. tenuistipitis and P. umbonatus), an epitype is chosen for Cantharellus goossensiae, a reference specimen for Acrogenospora sphaerocephala and new synonym Prolixandromyces are designated. Twenty-four new records on new hosts and new geographical distributions are also reported (i.e. Acrostalagmus annulatus, Cantharellus goossensiae, Coprinopsis villosa, Dothiorella plurivora, Dothiorella rhamni, Dothiorella symphoricarposicola, Dictyocheirospora rotunda, Fasciatispora arengae, Grammothele brasiliensis, Lasiodiplodia iraniensis, Lembosia xyliae, Morenoina palmicola, Murispora cicognanii, Neodidymelliopsis farokhinejadii, Neolinocarpon rachidis, Nothophoma quercina, Peroneutypa scoparia, Pestalotiopsis aggestorum, Pilidium concavum, Plagiostoma salicellum, Protofenestella ulmi, Sarocladium kiliense, Tetraploa nagasakiensis and Vaginatispora armatispora). Keywords: 71 new taxa;  Ascomycota;  Basidiomycota;  Dothideomycetes;  Eurotiomycetes;  Lecanoromycetes;  Leotiomycetes;  Pezizomycetes;  Phylogeny;  Taxonomy.
31327Morando M., Matteucci E., Nascimbene J., Borghi A., Piervittori R. & Favero-Longo S.E. (2019): Effectiveness of aerobiological dispersal and microenvironmental requirements together influence spatial colonization patterns of lichen species on the stone cultural heritage. - Science of the Total Environment, 685: 1066–1074.
Dispersal patterns of lichen species in monumental and archaeological sites and their relationships with spatial population structure are almost unknown, hampering predictions on colonization dynamics that are fundamental for planning conservation strategies. In this work, we tested if the local abundance and distribution pattern of some common lichen species on carbonate stones of heritage sites may be related to their patterns of propagule dispersal. We combined analyses of the spatial population structure of eight species on the calcareous balustrade of a heritage site in Torino (NW Italy) with aerobiological analyses. In situ and laboratory analyses were mainly focused on the ejection of ascospores and their air take-off and potential dispersal at short and long distance. Results indicate that the spatial distribution of lichens on the stone surfaces is influenced by both species-specific patterns of propagule dispersal and microenvironmental requirements. In particular, apotheciate species that have a higher ejection of ascospores with higher potential for long range dispersal are candidate for a much aggressive spreading on the monumental surfaces. Moreover, their occurrence on natural or artificial stone surfaces in the surroundings of the stone monumental surface may easily support recolonization dynamics after cleaning interventions, as an effective supply of propagules is expected. On the other hand, species with a lower dispersal rate have a more clustered distribution and are less effective in rapid recolonization, thus representing a minor threat for cultural heritage conservation. These results support the idea that information on the reproductive strategy and dispersal patterns of lichens should be coupled with traditional analyses on stone bioreceptivity and microclimatic conditions to plan effective restoration interventions of stone surfaces.
31326Knudsen K. & Kocourková J. (2018): Toninia nashii is a lichenicolous fungus. - Bulletin of the California Lichen Society, 25(1): 16–17.
Toninia nashi was originally described as a lichen but is a lichenicolous fungus growing on Lecidella asema.
31325Knudsen K., Malíček J. & Kocourková J. (2019): The conserved type of Lichen fuscatus [≡ Acarospora fuscata]. - Mycotaxon, 134: 295–300.
The conserved type of Lichen fuscatus, the basionym of Acarospora fuscata, is described, and two genes, ITS and mrSSU, are made available through GenBank for further phylogenetic research. Key words—Acarospora gallica, A. variegata, nomenclature, taxonomy.
31324Martínez-Alberola F., Barreno E., Casano L.M., Gasulla F., Molins A. & del Campo E.M. (2019): Dynamic evolution of mitochondrial genomes in Trebouxiophyceae, including the first completely assembled mtDNA from a lichen-symbiont microalga (Trebouxia sp. TR9). - Scientific Reports, 9: 8209 [12 p.].
Trebouxiophyceae (Chlorophyta) is a species-rich class of green algae with a remarkable morphological and ecological diversity. Currently, there are a few completely sequenced mitochondrial genomes (mtDNA) from diverse Trebouxiophyceae but none from lichen symbionts. Here, we report the mitochondrial genome sequence of Trebouxia sp. TR9 as the first complete mtDNA sequence available for a lichen-symbiont microalga. A comparative study of the mitochondrial genome of Trebouxia sp. TR9 with other chlorophytes showed important organizational changes, even between closely related taxa. The most remarkable change is the enlargement of the genome in certain Trebouxiophyceae, which is principally due to larger intergenic spacers and seems to be related to a high number of large tandem repeats. Another noticeable change is the presence of a relatively large number of group II introns interrupting a variety of tRNA genes in a single group of Trebouxiophyceae, which includes Trebouxiales and Prasiolales. In addition, a fairly well-resolved phylogeny of Trebouxiophyceae, along with other Chlorophyta lineages, was obtained based on a set of seven well-conserved mitochondrial genes.
31323Widhelm T.J., Grewe F., Huang J.-P., Mercado-Díaz J.A., Goffinet B., Lücking R., Moncada B., Mason-Gamer R. & Lumbsch H.T. (2019): Multiple historical processes obscure phylogenetic relationships in a taxonomically difficult group (Lobariaceae, Ascomycota). - Scientific Reports, 9: 8968 [16 p.].
In the age of next-generation sequencing, the number of loci available for phylogenetic analyses has increased by orders of magnitude. But despite this dramatic increase in the amount of data, some phylogenomic studies have revealed rampant gene-tree discordance that can be caused by many historical processes, such as rapid diversification, gene duplication, or reticulate evolution. We used a target enrichment approach to sample 400 single-copy nuclear genes and estimate the phylogenetic relationships of 13 genera in the lichen-forming family Lobariaceae to address the effect of data type (nucleotides and amino acids) and phylogenetic reconstruction method (concatenation and species tree approaches). Furthermore, we examined datasets for evidence of historical processes, such as rapid diversification and reticulate evolution. We found incongruence associated with sequence data types (nucleotide vs. amino acid sequences) and with different methods of phylogenetic reconstruction (species tree vs. concatenation). the resulting phylogenetic trees provided evidence for rapid and reticulate evolution based on extremely short branches in the backbone of the phylogenies. the observed rapid and reticulate diversifications may explain conflicts among gene trees and the challenges to resolving evolutionary relationships. Based on divergence times, the diversification at the backbone occurred near the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary (65 Mya) which is consistent with other rapid diversifications in the tree of life. Although some phylogenetic relationships within the Lobariaceae family remain with low support, even with our powerful phylogenomic dataset of up to 376 genes, our use of target-capturing data allowed for the novel exploration of the mechanisms underlying phylogenetic and systematic incongruence.
31322Huang J.-P., Kraichak E., Leavitt S.D., Nelsen M.P. & Lumbsch H.T. (2019): Accelerated diversifications in three diverse families of morphologically complex lichen-forming fungi link to major historical events. - Scientific Reports, 9: 8518 [10 p.].
Historical mass extinction events had major impacts on biodiversity patterns. The most recent and intensively studied event is the Cretaceous – Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary (ca. 66 million years ago [MYA]). However, the factors that may have impacted diversification dynamics vary across lineages. We investigated the macroevolutionary dynamics with a specific focus on the impact of major historical events such as the K-Pg mass extinction event on two major subclasses – Lecanoromycetidae and Ostropomycetidae – of lichen-forming fungi and tested whether variation in the rate of diversification can be associated with the evolution of a specific trait state - macrolichen. Our results reveal accelerated diversification events in three families of morphologically complex lichen-forming fungi – Cladoniaceae, Parmeliaceae, and Peltigeraceae – which are from the subclass Lecanoromycetidae and mostly composed of macrolichens, those that form three dimensional structures. Our RTT plot result for the subclass Lecanoromycetidae also reveals accelerated diversification. Changes in diversification rates occurred around the transition between Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras and was likely related to the K-Pg mass extinction event. The phylogenetic positions for rate increases estimated based on marginal shift probability are, however, scattered from 100 to 40 MYA preventing us from making explicit inference. Although we reveal that the phenotypic state of macrolichens is associated with a higher diversification rate than microlichens, we also show that the evolution of macrolichens predated the K-Pg event. Furthermore, the association between macrolichens and increased diversification is not universal and can be explained, in part, by phylogenetic relatedness. By investigating the macroevolutionary dynamics of lichen-forming fungi our study provides a new empirical system suitable to test the effect of major historical event on shaping biodiversity patterns and to investigate why changes in biodiversity patterns are not in concordance across clades. Our results imply that multiple historical events during the transition from Mesozoic to Cenozoic eras, including the K-Pg mass extinction event, impacted the evolutionary dynamics in lichen-forming fungi. However, future studies focusing on individual lichenforming fungal families are required to ascertain whether diversification rates are associated with growth form and certain geological events.
31321Del-Prado R., Buaruang K., Lumbsch H.T., Crespo A. & Divakar P.K. (2019): DNA sequence-based identification and barcoding of a morphologically highly plastic lichen forming fungal genus (Parmotrema, Parmeliaceae) from the tropics . - Bryologist, 122(2): 281–291.
Tropical regions harbor rich biodiversity but are relatively poorly explored, especially in lesser known taxonomic groups, such as lichenized fungi. In addition, the identification of species is complicated by frequent occurrence of cryptic species and the plasticity of phenotypic features traditionally used to identify species. Here, we aim to explore species diversity and provide tools for accurate sample identification of the genus Parmotrema from rainforests in Thailand. We gathered a three-locus DNA sequence data set and this was analysed in phylogenetic and DNA barcode frameworks. While some morpho-species were recovered as monophyletic, others did not form monophyletic groups. Our study unmasked cryptic lineages in Parmotrema species distributed in the tropics and show that phenotype-based sample identification may underestimate species diversity in this group of lichens. Further, genetic distances based on ITS DNA sequences (i.e. DNA barcode approach) were shown to be a valuable tool for sample identification. In addition, our study highlights the need for taxonomic reexamination of the following phenotypically delimited species: P. corniculans, P. crinitum, P. haitiense, P. maclayanum, P. perlatum and P. subtinctorium. Keywords: Conservation, cryptic species, genetic distances, lichenized fungi, parmelioids, phylogeny, rainforest, Thailand.
31320Knudsen K., Arcadia in L. & Kocourková J. (2019): Acarospora squamulosa, the correct name for A. peliocypha. - Mycotaxon, 134: 281–287.
The epithet of the species widely known as Acarospora “peliscypha” should be restored to its original orthography, A. peliocypha. The oldest name for this species is Lichen squamulosus, which has priority. Lichen squamulosus is lectotypified. Acarospora squamulosa replaces the later name A. peliocypha. Acarospora squamulosa is reported for continental North America from Baffin Island, Nunavut Territory, Canada. Key words—Acarospora rugulosa, nomenclature, priority, taxonomy.
31319Ekman S., Tønsberg T. & Jørgensen P.M. (2019): The Sticta fuliginosa group in Norway and Sweden. - Graphis Scripta, 31(4): 23–33.
A recent investigation demonstrated that Sticta fuliginosa (Hoffm.) Ach., as currently treated, includes four distinct species in Europe: Sticta fuliginosa s. str., S. fuliginoides Magain & Sérus., S. ciliata Tayl., and S. atlantica Magain & Sérus. This finding prompted us to revise material named S. fuliginosa from Norway and Sweden. It is demonstrated here that three species occur in Norway: S. fuliginosa s. str., S. fuliginoides, and S. ciliata. S. fuliginoides is the most widespread species, whereas S. fuliginosa occurs mostly along the coast and S. ciliata is very rare in the most oceanic parts of the western coast. In Sweden, only a single species of the group occurs, viz. S. fuliginoides. It was formerly found in scattered sites across the southern half of Sweden but has now disappeared from most of them. The basionym Sticta fuliginosa var. propagulifera Vain. ex H. Magn. is lectotypified and synonymized under S. fuliginoides.
31318Ismailov A.B., Vondrák J. & Urbanavichus G.P. (2019): The Express-Method of Estimation of Epiphytic Lichens Diversity. - Lesovedenie, 4/2019: 494-303.
Diversity of epiphytic lichens was studied for the first time by express-method on a 1-ha sampling plot in montane pine forest Pinetum kochianae herboso–caricosum on Gunib plateau in Dagestan mountains. We found 179 species from 77 genera and 36 families. Among them 33 species, 7 genera (Dendriscocaulon, Gyalid- eopsis, Psoroglaena, Steinia, Tetramelas, Thelocarpon, Vezdaea) and 3 families (Gomphillaceae, Thelocarpaceae, Vezdaeaceae) were found for the first time in Dagestan and 3 species (Lecidella subviridis, Micarea hedlundii, Scoliciosporum sarothamnii) were found for the first time in Caucasus. By means of this method we found twice as much epixylic and epiphytic lichens and non-lichenized fungi than previously were known for the whole area of 40 ha of the studied forest. Noted high proportion of microlichens (63%) evidences high quality of knowledge. Ratio of number of species of micro- to macrolichens increased from 0.72 to 1.22. The genus coefficient indicators increased from 1.9 to 2.5. Number of the epiphytes and epixyles of pine increased by 38 species (by 46%) and by 8 generas (by 18%). Specific groups of lichens were found on decomposing dead- wood and tree trunks. They indicate undisturbed communities and high conservation value of the pine forest. pine forests, lichen flora, epiphytes, sampling plots, new findings, Gunib plateau, Eastern Caucasus, Dagestan
31317Давыдов Е.А., Урбанавичюс Г.П., Урбанавичене И.Н. & Селиванов А.Е. [Davydov E.A., Urbanavichus G.P., Urbanavichene I.N. & Selivanov A.E.] (2019): Umbilicaria freyi – новый для России вид лишайника и другие виды рода Umbilicaria из Приэльбрусья (Центральный Кавказ, Кабардино-Балкария) [Umbilicaria freyi – a new lichen species for Russia and other noteworthy records of Umbilicaria from the Elbrus region (Central Caucasus, Kabardino-Balcaria)]. - Turczaninowia, 22(2): 94–109.
An annotated list of 15 species of Umbilicaria Hoffm. collected in Elbrus region (Central Caucasus, Kabardino-Balcaria) is presented. The description and a localities of a new to Russia and Bulgaria lichen species Umbilicaria freyi Codogno et al. are reported. The species is characterized by developing of shizidia as vegetative propagules. Umbilicaria aprina Nyl., U. freyi, U. lyngei Schol. and U. maculata Krzewicka et al. are reported for the Caucasus Mountains for the first time, U. altaiensis Wei et Jiang, U. cinerascens (Arnold) Frey and U. subglabra (Nyl.) Harm. are new for the Central Caucasus. Outside Caucasus U. altaiensis Wei et Jiang is new for Austria, U. freyi – new for Bulgaria, and U. maculata – new for Altai Mts. Keywords: Alps, Altai, Asia, Austria, biogeography, Bulgaria, Umbilicariaceae.
31316Kubásek J. & Vondrák J. (2019): Existují pololišejníky?. - Botanika, 1/2019: 15-17.
Rozlité plodnice na substrátu, kterým je vět- šinou dřevo, tvoří řada nepříbuzných skupin hub. Jde o evoluční redukci, kdy houby přestaly vytvářet velké plodnice a řadu znaků, protože se jim vyplatí plodit v podobě tenkých povlaků na povrchu dřeva. Pokud tyto plodnice vytvářejí rourky (podobné hřibovitým), mluvíme větši- nou o choroších; pokud ne, užívá se termín kornatcotvará houba. Tyto pojmy jsou však umělé a žádné přirozené skupiny (evolučně monofyletické) takto vymezit nelze.
31315Gauslaa Y., Johlander S. & Nordén B. (2019): Lobaria amplissima thalli with external cephalodia need more rain than thalli without. - Lichenologist, 51(3): 281–286.
Hydration traits determine much of a lichen’s distribution pattern along a climatic gradient but the mechanisms involved are still incompletely known. A higher abundance of large external cepha- lodia in wet oceanic than in drier climates has previously been reported in Lobaria amplissima. This study aims to quantify how much more rain L. amplissima thalli with external cephalodia would need to fill their internal water holding capacity (WHCinternal) than thalli without. The mean WHCinternal was 1·8 times higher in thalli with external cephalodia than in those without. The WHCinternal when con- verted to mm rain needed to saturate an average specimen was 1·37 mm (min–max: 0·55–3·8 mm) for a cephalodiate thallus, whereas an average thallus without external cephalodia needed just 0·76 mm (min–max: 0·36–1·3 mm). Known dewfall rates and rates of water uptake from humid air are far below what is needed to saturate even the cephalodiate thallus with the lowest WHCinternal, implying a stronger dependency on rain for thalli with external cephalodia. Thus, the observed trends in this study are consistent with earlier reports of decreasing frequency of external cephalodia from wet to drier climates. cephalolichens, cyanobacteria, hydration traits, specific thallus mass, water storage
31314Sanders W.B. & De LOS Ríos A. (2019): Cell wall dynamics under conditions of diffuse growth in the thick-walled cortical tissue (prosoplectenchyma) of Ramalina usnea. - Lichenologist, 51(3): 269–280.
A recent field study indicated that thalli of the beard lichen Ramalina usnea undergo diffuse (“intercalary”) growth throughout their length. We examined thallus sections with TEM to better understand how the highly thickened cell walls of the prosoplectenchymatous cortex behave under con- ditions of continued expansion. Cell protoplasts were surrounded by massive accumulations of struc- tured electron-dense wall layers interspersed with amorphous, electron-transparent substances, visible as concentric rings in transverse section. Nearest the protoplast, electron-dense wall layers were distinct and more or less alternated with irregular deposits of electron-transparent material. With increasing distance from the protoplast, the electron-dense wall layers were increasingly disrupted and intermixed among the electron-transparent materials. New cell branches grew through the accumu- lated wall materials, interrupting the layers they penetrated while producing their own concentric wall layers. The differing amounts of cell wall material accumulated was further indication of the different relative ages of such neighbouring cells. These observations suggest that cell walls are disrupted by dif- fuse tissue expansion and continually replaced by new walls and wall materials deposited to their interior at the interface with the protoplast. This pattern of development, documented previously in R. menziesii and U. longissima, suggests that component cells of lichen prosoplectenchyma behave quite differently from those of diffusely expanding filaments studied in non-lichen-forming fungi, where a single, discrete cell wall is maintained throughout growth. Fungal cell, hyphal growth, intercalary growth, lichens, Ramalina menziesii, Usnea longissima
31313Fryday A.M. (2019): Eleven new species of crustose lichenized fungi from the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas). - Lichenologist, 51(3): 235–267.
Eleven new species of crustose, lichenized fungi are described from the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas). Nine species are saxicolous, whereas Lecania vermispora occurs on the stems of Hebe elliptica and Tephromela lignicola is lignicolous on fence posts. The new species are: Bacidia marina, with a sordid blue-green K−, N+ violet epihymenium and acicular, multiseptate ascospores; B. pruinata, with pruin- ose apothecia and multiseptate ascospores; Buellia gypsyensis, with a thallus containing 5-O-methyl- hiascic acid and with Amandinea-type conidia; Cliostomum albidum, with pruinose apothecia lacking pigments; C. longisporum, with long narrow ascospores (c. 20 × 3 μm); Coccotrema rubromarginatum, with a placodioid thallus having a red-brown margin and lower surface; Hymenelia microcarpa, with minute, immersed apothecia (<0·1 mm diam.) and a trebouxioid photobiont; Lecania vermispora, with vermiform, 3–6 septate ascospores; Lepra argentea, with papillate isidia with dark caps; Rhizocarpon malvinae, which is similar to R. reductum but with a grey thallus, generally sessile apothecia with a thick raised margin and often with the Cinereorufa-green pigment in the epithecium and upper exciple; and Tephromela lignicola, a sterile, sorediate species on fence posts. Most of these species are reported only from the Falkland Islands although Coccotrema rubromarginatum is also reported from Isla de los Estados and Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. Ascoconidia are reported from Lepra argentea and cephalodia from Pertusaria pachythallina. Keys to the species reported from the Falkland Islands in the genera of the newly described species are also provided. ascoconidia, cephalodia, South America, southern subpolar region, taxonomy
31312Jatnika M.F., Weerakoon G., Arachchige O., Noer S., Voytsekhovich A. & Lücking R. (2019): Discoveries through social media and in your own backyard: two new species of Allographa (Graphidaceae) with pigmented lirellae from the Palaeotropics, with a world key to species of this group. - Lichenologist, 51(3): 227–233.
The genus Graphis sensu Staiger was recently divided into two genera, Graphis s. str. and Allo- grapha. The latter contains mostly species with robust lirellae with a well-developed, often massively car- bonized excipulum. With one exception, it also contains all species with a pigmented, yellow to orange pruina on the lirellae. Until now, seven species of Allographa were known with this character, all present in the Neotropics and one also in Africa. Here we describe two further species, both from tropical Asia, thus extending the known distribution of Allographa species with pigmented lirellae to the entire tropics. Allographa kamojangensis Jatnika, Noer & Lücking sp. nov. from Indonesia (Java) was recognized as a new taxon on the social media Facebook site Lichens Connecting People. Detailed studies showed that it deviates from the neotropical A. firferi in the much larger ascospores and the orange, K+ immediately purple-violet pigment, and from A. lutea in the completely carbonized excipulum and the larger ascos- pores. Allographa jayatilakana Weerakoon, Arachchige & Lücking sp. nov. was discovered in the second author\’s backyard during a recent inventory of Graphidaceae in Sri Lanka. It differs from A. flavominiata in the much shorter ascospores, from A. firferi in the terminally muriform ascospores, and from A. ochra- cea in the yellow-orange, K+ yellow then slowly purple-violet pruina. A key is presented to all nine spe- cies of Allographa with pigmented lirellae. Allographa chrysocarpa, anthraquinone pigments, Colombo, Kamojang, lichens, taxonomy
31311Jørgensen P.M. (2019): The troublesome genus Thamnolia (lichenized Ascomycota). - Lichenologist, 51(3): 221–226 .
A new neotypus is designated for Thamnolia vermicularis in accordance with the protologue. The taxonomy is best reflected by molecular evidence which recognizes three subspecies: the widespread subsp. vermicularis, and the geographically more restricted subsp. taurica (in the eastern Alps) and subsp. tundrae (in the Arctic region). The nomenclatural consequences resulting from these changes require that two new combinations are made. nomenclature, taxonomic ranking, typifications
31310Davydov E.A., Blum O.B., Kashevarov G.P. & Grakhov V.P. (2019): Umbilicaria subpolyphylla Oxner: the correct name for U. iberica Sancho & Krzewicka and its bipolar distribution pattern. - Lichenologist, 51(3): 205–220.
The Umbilicaria polyphylla aggregate (U. polyphylla (L.) Baumg., U. subpolyphylla Oxner and U. iberica Sancho & Krzewicka) is discussed based on morphological, chemical and molecular data. Umbilicaria iberica is proposed to be a later synonym of U. subpolyphylla. The constructed nrITS + mtLSU phylogeny, which includes specimens with wide geographical ranges, shows that both U. poly- phylla and U. subpolyphylla are monophyletic and closely related. Both species have the same type of thal- loconidia and identical secondary metabolites. Umbilicaria subpolyphylla has prominent phenotypic differences when compared to U. polyphylla including the monophyllous thallus with a dull upper sur- face and an elevated, slightly wrinkled centre, often covered with white pruina, and a medulla of the ‘U. havaasii’ type. Phylogenetic evidence for the bipolar distribution of both U. polyphylla and U. subpoly- phylla is provided. Sympatric speciation in one region followed by long-distance dispersal seems to be the most plausible phylogeographical explanation for the observed patterns. Umbilicaria subpolyphylla is found in southern temperate-subtropical (Mediterranean) mountains, at least in Europe. biogeography, Bosnia, HPLC, lichen substances, mtLSU, New Zealand, nrITS, Umbilicaria polyphylla
31309Fryday A.M. & Boom P.P.G. van den (2019): Lecidea phaeophysata: a new saxicolous lichen species from western and southern Europe with a key to saxicolous lecideoid lichens present on Atlantic coasts. - Lichenologist, 51(3): 269–280.
A recent field study indicated that thalli of the beard lichen Ramalina usnea undergo diffuse (“intercalary”) growth throughout their length. We examined thallus sections with TEM to better understand how the highly thickened cell walls of the prosoplectenchymatous cortex behave under con- ditions of continued expansion. Cell protoplasts were surrounded by massive accumulations of struc- tured electron-dense wall layers interspersed with amorphous, electron-transparent substances, visible as concentric rings in transverse section. Nearest the protoplast, electron-dense wall layers were distinct and more or less alternated with irregular deposits of electron-transparent material. With increasing distance from the protoplast, the electron-dense wall layers were increasingly disrupted and intermixed among the electron-transparent materials. New cell branches grew through the accumu- lated wall materials, interrupting the layers they penetrated while producing their own concentric wall layers. The differing amounts of cell wall material accumulated was further indication of the different relative ages of such neighbouring cells. These observations suggest that cell walls are disrupted by dif- fuse tissue expansion and continually replaced by new walls and wall materials deposited to their interior at the interface with the protoplast. This pattern of development, documented previously in R. menziesii and U. longissima, suggests that component cells of lichen prosoplectenchyma behave quite differently from those of diffusely expanding filaments studied in non-lichen-forming fungi, where a single, discrete cell wall is maintained throughout growth. Fungal cell, hyphal growth, intercalary growth, lichens, Ramalina menziesii, Usnea longissima
31308Vondrák J. & Kubásek J. (2019): Epiphytic and epixylic lichens in forests of the Šumava mountains in the Czech Republic; abundance and frequency assessments. - Biologia, 74(4): 405–418.
Extensive sampling of lichen diversity in forest habitats in the Šumava mountains consisted of 128 plots with 824 sampled objects (single trees, snags, logs, etc.). The survey enabled assessment of regional abundance and frequency of epiphytic and epixylic lichen species. 240 species were recorded with frequencies (i.e. number of plots in which each species was recorded) ranging from 1 to 123 and with total abundance scores (i.e. sum of abundances from all objects) ranging from 1 to 1304. Using the total abundance scores, each species was classified as either: rare (129 species), common (68) or abundant (43). We recognised six types of forest, one formed by human activity and five natural ones. Species richness in the natural forests were in decreasing order: beech forests (167 species), bog and waterlogged forests (147), montane spruce forests (124), ash-alder alluvial forests (92) and ravine forests (68). The relative order of the first four kinds is probably real, but the low number of species in ravine forests is a result of insufficient sampling. All species were characterized by their fidelity and specificity to each forest type. Each natural forest category has a group of species with high fidelity. Many species were recorded in only a single category of forest, which demonstrates that a rich regional lichen biota requires variability in forest types. Forest habitats formed by human impact, mostly plantations of coniferous trees, have fewer species, and distinctly fewer species with high fidelity, than any natural forest category. Throughout the region, mature spruce trees in montane spruce forests have been dying at a rapid rate for over 20 years. This has probably resulted in a decline in those lichens that require high humidity, and an increase of some epixylic lichens, especially nitrophilous species. We did not encounter all species previously recorded in forests in the region, but most of the species missing from our list are either rare or have specialised habitat requirements. In the Red List of the Czech Republic, we suggested changes in categories for 32 species. Key-words: Fidelity, Habitats, Lichen diversity monitoring, Montane spruce forests, Regional rarity.
31307Reddy S.D., Siva B., Kumar K., Babu V.S.P., Sravanthi V., Boustie J., Nayak V.L., Tiwari A.K., Rao C.V., Sridhar B., Shashikala P. & Babu K.S. (2019): Comprehensive analysis of secondary metabolites in Usnea longissima (lichenized Ascomycetes, Parmeliaceae) using UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS and pro-apoptotic activity of barbatic acid. - Molecules, 24(12): 2270 [19 p.].
Considering the importance of ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole time of flight-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS) hyphenated techniques for analysis of secondary metabolites from crude extracts, the present study was aimed at identification of secondary metabolites in acetone extract of the lichen Usnea longissima. From our study, 19 compounds were tentatively identified through comparison of exact molecular masses from their MS/MS spectra, mass fragmentation studies and comparison with literature data. In addition, potent cytotoxic activity of U. longissima extract prompted us to isolate four compounds, 18R-hydroxy-dihydroalloprotolichesterinic acid (19), neuropogolic acid (20), barbatic acid (21), and usnic acid (22) from this extract which were adequately identified through mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. All four compounds displayed cytotoxic activity. Barbatic acid (21) manifested doxorubicin equivalent activity against A549 lung cancer cell line with IC50 of 1.78 µM and strong G0/G1 accumulation of cells. Poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage confirmed that it induced cytotoxic activity via apoptosis. Finally, our work has discerned the depside, barbatic acid (21) from crude extract as a candidate anti-cancer molecule, which induces cell death by stepping up apoptosis.
31306Paukov A., Teptina A., Morozova M., Kruglova E., Favero-Longo S.E., Bishop C. & Rajakaruna N. (2019): The effects of edaphic and climatic factors on secondary lichen chemistry: A case study using saxicolous lichens. - Diversity, 11(6): 94 [18 p.].
Diversity of secondary lichen metabolites and their relationship to substrate and environmental parameters were studied in saxicolous lichens in the Middle and South Urals of Russia. Atranorin, usnic acid, gyrophoric acid, zeorin, norstictic acid, antraquinones and stictic acid were found in 73, 42, 41, 37, 36, 35 and 32 species, respectively, of 543 taxa collected. One hundred and ninety six species (i.e., 36% of total species documented) contained no secondary metabolites. Spectra of secondary metabolites of crustose lichens varied on different rock types, while in fruticose and foliose groups only those species without lichen acids were dependent on the substrate type. In Canonical Correspondence Analysis, secondary lichen metabolites were subdivided into groups depending on the concentration of Ca and metals in the substrate. Gyrophoric, lobaric, psoromic, rhizocarpic and stictic acids were common in crustose lichens in metal-poor habitats; species with antraquinones and lichens without any secondary metabolites were most abundant on limestone (alkalic and metal-poor), while other common lichen metabolites had no to minimal dependence on the chemistry of the substrate. The two additional abiotic factors affecting the composition of secondary metabolites were the maximum temperature of the warmest month and elevation. Our results suggest a range of possible relationships exist among lichen acids, rocks and climatic parameters. Furthermore, the same metabolite may affect both accumulation of metals and stress tolerance under unfavorable conditions. Keywords: saxicolous lichens; lichen acids; rock chemistry; climatic factors; Urals; CCA.
31305Scharnagl K. (2019): The scale of symbiosis. - Symbiosis, 78: 7–17.
At the 2018 International Symbiosis Society Congress research was shared on symbioses across a wide variety of scales, from the temporal to the spatial, and from the very small to the very large. Advances in our technologies and computational abilities have enabled us to probe deeper than ever before into the nature of symbiosis, revealing a tremendous diversity, novel associations, and a deeper understanding of the initiation and maintenance of symbioses over time. Researchers at ISSC 2018 also discussed the importance of symbiosis in human society and culture, particularly as we attempt to understand and mediate the impacts of global climate change. Despite the prevalence of symbioses across temporal, interaction, spatial, predictive and social scales, symbiosis remains relegated to a subtopic or afterthought within biological research. It is time to bring symbiosis to the fore of biological thinking; to move symbiosis from a mere component of larger questions in ecology and evolution to the lens through which we address those questions. Keywords: Ecology . Evolution . Scale . Continuum.
31304Perez Catán S., Bubach D. & Messuti M.I. (2019): A new measurement tool to consider for airborne pollutants evaluations using lichens. - Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 26: 14689–14692.
An important factor affecting acquisition of pollution elements could be the lichen growth form. The Brunauer–Emmett–Teller theory approach has been used to determinate the specific area surface (BET-area) of solids by gas multilayer adsorption. Taking this standard method as a new tool, we measure the specific thallus area in foliose and fruticose lichens to evaluated area/volume relation for bioaccumulation prospects. Some preliminary results of elemental contents such as REEs (La, Sc, Sr) and pollutants (Cd, Co, Pb) were also measured to support the importance to use for the analysis of these thallus attributes. Keywords: Atmospheric pollutants . Brunauer–Emmett–Teller theory . Lichen thallus . Specific area surface.
31303Daly C. (2019): Preliminary results from a legacy indicator tool for measuring climate change related impacts on built heritage. - Heritage Science, 7: 32 [13 p.].
Background: Gradual changes in weathering rates and mechanisms are the barely visible impacts of climate change on cultural heritage. Long-term monitoring of built and archaeological heritage is therefore necessary to ascertain the nature of loss due to slow onset effects. During research at the Dublin Institute of Technology in 2011 a Legacy Indicator Tool (LegIT) for measuring the weathering of stone surfaces into the far future was developed by the author and piloted at five National Monuments in Ireland. While it is too soon to evaluate the tool in relation to long term climate change trends, this article considers the data from 5 years of exposure and provides an early assessment of the pilot study’s design and implementation. Results: Measurements for colour, surface roughness, weight, and dimensions from the 5 year exposure of the LegIT were analysed. Comparisons between sites allows assessment of surface change under different atmospheric conditions. The indications for regional and localized weathering trends will aid managers in understanding risks and setting priorities—both for further monitoring and for conservation interventions. Conclusions: Results from the 5 year pilot trial of the LegIT has allowed preliminary evaluation of its potential as a long term indicator for surface weathering. Recommendations have been made for modifications to the design, manufacture and implementation of the tool. The future aim is to compare results over time at each site, building a picture of surface weathering processes in relation to regional climatic change. Keywords: Cultural heritage, Archaeology, Management, Climate change, Stone, Weathering, Monitoring, Indicator.
31302Behera M.D., Behera S.K. & Sharma S. (2019): Recent advances in biodiversity and climate change studies in India. - Biodiversity and Conservation, 28: 1943–1951.
Biodiversity is continually transformed by a changing climate. Conditions change across the face of the planet at variable pace leading to rearrangements of biological associations. The carbon cycle and the water cycle, arguably the two most important large-scale processes for life on Earth; depend on biodiversity at genetic, species, and ecosystem levels and can yield feedbacks to climate change. India is no less affected through this feedback mechanism of climate change and had shown its cause and effect association in several studies. In this special issue we present 25 papers contributed by ca 90 authors from India and elsewhere those discuss wide-ranging aspects of biodiversity and climate change. These contributions are based on presentations made at the 2nd International Workshop on Biodiversity and Climate Change (BDCC-2018) held on 24–27-February 2018 at the Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, India. The papers are arranged in six sections: Plant (and lichen) Diversity and Climate; Plant Diversity Pattern and Environmental Heterogeneity; Forest Biomass and Carbon; Plant Diversity and Remote Sensing; Species Distribution Modelling; and Animal Diversity, Soil and Biotechnology. Included amongst the contributions are ones using a national database on plant diversity, describing vegetation carbon and biomass sequestration patterns, utilizing remote sensing to assess plant diversity proxies and conservation prioritization, employing species distribution models to analyze climate change scenarios, using acoustics indices for rapid assessment of biodiversity, addressing the soil micro-biome and environmental stress on medicinal plants. Keywords: Environmental heterogeneity · Biomass · Remote sensing · Species distribution model · Acoustic diversity.
31301Sahu N., Singh S.N., Singh P., Mishra S., Karakoti N., Bajpai R., Behera S.K., Nayaka S. & Upreti D.K. (2019): Microclimatic variations and their effects on photosynthetic efficiencies and lichen species distribution along elevational gradients in Garhwal Himalayas. - Biodiversity and Conservation, 28: 1953–1976.
Climate change effects on Himalayas are expectedly more pronounced than any other mountainous ecoregion of the world with expected threat of meltdown by the year 2100 if effective checks are not imposed. The impacts of this climate warming in the geologically fragile Himalayas has started to show its effects on shifting precipitation patterns, increasing temperatures, glaciers meltdown, species richness patterns and overall unpredictable microclimatic conditions. For measuring such impacts of current climate warming in Himalayan ecosystems, need of ecological substitutes has been stressed on by different United Nation conventions. Lichens in contrast to vascular flora have long been proved to act as cost effective global indicators for measuring ecosystems responses to environmental climate. The variations in microclimatic attributes and their effects on photosynthetic efficiency and distribution were studied in geologically fragile ecosystem of Govind Pashu Vihar National Park in Garhwal Himalayas. Total 217 species of lichens comprising 80 genera and 35 families were found along different elevations. Among the different habitat groups, corticolous lichens showed their dominance (123 species) followed by saxicolous (65 species) and terricolous (29 species) lichens. Corticolous forms were dominated by crustose while saxicolous and terricolous were mostly fruticose growth forms. Mostly large number of species showed a narrow distribution with maximum species richness observed in mid elevation zones (1950–2200 m) followed by a gradual decline towards higher elevations. Phaeophyscia hispidula, Parmotrema reticulatum and Flavoparmelia caperata showed wider ecological amplitude. Out of these species, P. hispidula and F. caperata were further subjected to chlorophyll fluorescence measurements with a pulse amplified modulated fluorometer to access photosynthetic quenching efficiencies. Maximum electron transport rates (ETR; 96 ± 5.76 μmol e− m−2 s−1) were observed in Phaeophyscia hispidula (1550 m) while F. caperata showed nearly 21% lower ETR. Photochemical quenching (qP; 0.5 ± 0.01) was maximum at 1550 m elevation in F. caperata while P. hispidula showed maximum qP values at 2200 m elevation, showing it’s higher tolerances towards extreme light stresses. F. caperata showed higher (0.102 ± 0.003) non photochemical quenching (NPQ) in comparison to P. hispidula (0.062 ± 0.001) at extreme elevations of 3508 m. P. hispidula overall showed more toxitolerant nature towards abiotic stresses as compared to F. caperata. Higher photosynthetically active radiation (PAR; 1600–2350 µmol m−2 s−1), thallus hydration levels and extreme variations in air temperature (5.75–31.65 °C), ambient humidity along elevations were imperative in controlling species richness, distribution and photosynthetic quenching of lichen flora in the region. Keywords: Chlorophyll fluorescence · Microclimate · Photochemical quenching · Photosynthetic plasticity · Species richness · Climate change · Western Himalayas.
31300Urbanavichene I. & Urbanavichus G. (2019): New records of lichens and allied fungi from the Kostroma Region, Russia. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 56: 53–62.
29 species of lichens, 3 non-lichenized calicioid fungi and 3 lichenicolous fungi are reported for the first time from the Kostroma Region. Among them, 15 species are new for the Central Federal District, including Myrionora albidula – a rare species with widely scattered locations, previously known only from the Southern Urals Mts in European Russia. The most important discoveries are confined to old-growth coniferous Picea sp. and Abies sibirica forests in the Kologriv Forest Nature Reserve. Two species (Leptogium burnetiae and Menegazzia terebrata) are included in the Red Data Book of Russian Federation. The distribution, ecology, taxonomic characters and conservation status of rare species and of those new for the Central Federal District are provided. Keywords: Biatora mendax, Myrionora albidula, old-growth forests, southern taiga, Kologriv Forest Reserve, Central European Russia.
31299Stepanchikova I.S., Himelbrant D.E., Schiefelbein U., Motiejūnaitė J., Ahti T. & Andreev M.P. (2019): The lichens of Moshchny Island (Lavansaari) – one of the remote islands in the Gulf of Finland. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 56: 31–52.
We present a checklist for Moshchny Island (Leningrad Region, Russia). The documented lichen biota comprises 349 species, including 313 lichens, 30 lichenicolous fungi and 6 non-lichenized saprobic fungi. Endococcus exerrans and Lichenopeltella coppinsii are reported for the first time for Russia; Cercidospora stenotropae , Erythricium aurantiacum , Flavoplaca limonia , Lecidea haerjedalica , and Myriospora myochroa for European Russia; Flavoplaca oasis , Intralichen christiansenii , Nesolechia fusca , and Myriolecis zosterae for North-Western European Russia; and Arthrorhaphis aeruginosa , Calogaya pusilla , and Lecidea auriculata subsp. auriculata are new for Leningrad Region. The studied lichen biota is moderately rich and diverse, but a long history of human activity likely caused its transformation, especially the degradation of forest lichen biota. The most valuable habitats for lichens in Moshchny Island are seashore and dune communities which definitely deserve protection. Keywords: Baltic Sea, Karelia australis, Leningrad Region, dune communities, Endococcus exerrans, Lichenopeltella coppinsii.
31298Himelbrant D.E., Stepanchikova I.S., Motiejūnaitė J., Kuznetsova E.S., Tagirdzhanova G. & Frolov I.V. (2019): New records of lichens and allied fungi from the Leningrad Region, Russia. X. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 56: 23–29.
Ten lichen species and three lichenicolous fungi are reported for the first time for St. Petersburg, the whole Leningrad Region or its western part. The lichens Bacidina indigens and Lecidella asema are new for European Russia, the lichens Bryoria kuemmerleana , Caloplaca turkuensis , Scoliciosporum pruinosum , and the lichenicolous fungus Raesaenenia huuskonenii are new for North-Western European Russia. Keywords: St. Petersburg, Bacidina indigens, Lecidella asema.
31297Rodríguez-Catón M. & Villalba R. (2018): Indicadores del decaimiento en bosques de Nothofagus pumilio en el norte de la Patagonia, Argentina [Indicators of forest decline for Nothofagus pumilio in northern Patagonia, Argentina]. - Madera y Bosques, 24(2): e2421588.
[in Spanish with English abstract: ] Forest decline is associated with partial or total crown mortality in a large percentage of trees at the stand level. While forest decline has been reported on a global context, the relationships between the external conditions of trees and their radial growth have rarely been reported. This study relates the intensity of decline with radial growth in 294 Nothofagus pumilio trees in northern Patagonia. The selected external indicators of decline were crown mortality, bark health, the incidence of boring insects and woodpeckers, as well as the presence of hemiparasite plants, fungi and lichens. High percentages of crown mortality are significantly related to decreasing radial growth of remaining trees. This relationship is more reliable when basal area increments rather than ring widths are used as estimates of radial growth. Bark health and abundance of cavities, resulting from the activities of boring insects and woodpeckers, were also significantly inversely related to growth. In contrast, no statistically significant relationships were found between growth and the presence of hemiparasites, fungi or lichens. Based on these results, we recommend the use of the following external indicators (1) crown mortality, (2) bark conditions and (3) cavities from boring insects and/or woodpeckers, to comprehensively characterize the Nothofagus pumilio forest decline in Patagonia. Keywords: growth rings, wood-boring insects, crown mortality, woodpeckers, forest health.
31296Gonzáles C.M., Lingua M. & Gudiño G.L. (2012): Evaluación de la calidad atmosférica sobre una sección de la cuenca del río Suquía (Córdoba, Argentina) mediante el empleo del biomonitor Usnea amblyoclada [Air quality along a section in the Suquía river basin (Córdoba, Argentina) using Usnea amblyoclada as biomonitor]. - Revista Internacional de Contaminación Ambiental, 28(4): 311–322.
[in Spanish with English abstract: ] The aim of this study was to estimate the air quality along a section in the Suquía river during winter period using as active biomonitor Usnea amblyoclada. Four sampling sites were selected: two sites located upstream of the effluent treatment plant Bajo Grande, where one of them corresponds to Córdoba city (one of the most polluted cities in Argentina) and the other two sites were located downstream of the plant. After the three-month exposure, on the transplanted lichens, photosynthetic pigments, malondialdehyde and hydroperoxy conjugated dienes, as peroxidation products and sulphur accumulation, were determined. A pollution index was calculated with some parameters and for each sampling site, allowing the establishment of different air qualities. The pollution index, a good estimator of global damage on the biomonitor, allowed discriminating different atmospheric qualities; reflecting that the city of Córdoba site is the most impaired in its air quality. The results showed that urban conditions, were those that produced more damage on the biomonitor during the studied period. Biological monitoring using U. amblyoclada in these conditions did not allow establishing differences in air pollution at sites downstream of the sewage treatment plant. Thus, the different water qualities and their potential volatile organic compounds contribution did not influence significantly the air quality in order to establish differences between these two areas according to the impact on the biomonitor. Key words: lichens; chemical parameters; biomonitoring; atmospheric pollution; Suquía River.
31295Litjeroff R., Lima L. & Prieri B. (2009): Uso de líquenes como bioindicadores de contaminación atmosférica en la ciudad de San Luis, Argentina. - Revista Internacional de Contaminación Ambiental, 25(2): 111–120.
[in Spanish with English abstract: ] Air qualtiy was assessed in San Luis City by using lichens as bioindicators. Six sites in San Luis City and one site in a control area, juana Koslay, a small town six kilometers to the East, were evaluated by using the Index of Atmospheric Purity (IAP) which measures indirectly the coverage of lichens in the sampling zone and directly the diversity of species. Shannon (H), equity (J) and richness (S) indexes were also measured. The lowest IAP were detected in San Luis City, the highest IAP was detected in juana Koslay. therefore urban areas are more polluted than peripheral ones. the extremely low frequency of lichens appearence in San Luis City indicated the low quality of air in these urban areas and the efficacy of lichens as bionindicators of air contamination. Key words: bioindicators, index of atmospheric purity, air pollution.
31294Aspiazu J., Cervantes L., Ramírez J., López J., Ramos R., Muñoz R. & Villaseñor P. (2007): Temporal and spatial trends studied by lichen analysis: atmospheric deposition of trace elements in Mexico. - Revista Mexicana de Física, S53(3): 87–96.
Ball moss on Tillandsia recurvata (Bromeliaceae), collected in an area previously identified as unpolluted, was transplanted to thirteen biomonitoring sites in the downtown and metropolitan areas of Mexico City (which cover a surface of 9,560 km2) during the periods August 2002 – January 2003 and July 2003 – 0ctubre 2003. A total of 52 lichens (weighing 300 g) were transplanted to each place. Two were analysed as zero or reference, El Chico National Park, a location 100 Km upwind from the city and the remaining 26 were hung in nylon net bags in order to be able to collect two transplanted tree month, out of every season over a one-year period. The concentrations were measured by the quantitative PIXE method based on an external beam facility. The atmospheric deposition for trace elements was inferred by its concentration in lichen samples collected in 2002 from 13 sites in Mexico and compared with data from a similar survey in 2003. The concentration of Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn and other elements was determined for each sample. Maps for each element were drawn after a geostatistical estimate of the metal concentration in the sample was made. Maps were drawn for all elements with the estimated values. Geographical distribution patterns were obtained for the different metals, reflecting the contribution of natural and antropogenic emission sources. The deposition patterns of V, As, Se, Cd and Pb are substantially influenced by long-range transport from other parts of Mexico City. For Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu, the deposition patterns are largely determined by contribution from point sources within Mexico and in the metropolitan area. The lichen data for Br and, in part, Se reflect an airborne supply from the environment. Contributions to trace element concentrations in lichen sources other than atmospheric deposition are identified and discussed. The Spatial and temporal variations in the distribution of metal concentration are discussed. Keywords: Bio-monitoring; lichens; atmospheric contamination; PIXE analysis.
31293Puy-Alquiza M.J., Gómez Peralta M., Miranda Avilés R., Reyes-Zamudio V., Salazar-Hernández M.C. & Ordaz-Zubia V.Y. (2015): El rol de las comunidades de líquenes en el deterioro superficial de su substrato rocoso: estudio de la interfase liquen-roca en dos monumentos históricos de la ciudad de Guanajuato, México [The role of lichen communities in superficial deterioration of their rock substrates: studies of the lichen-rock interface of two historical buildings in the City of Guanajuato, Mexico]. - Acta Universitaria, 25(4): 35–47.
[in Spanish with English abstract: ] In this paper we present the deterioration processes that exert lichen communities in siliceous sandstones of two historical monuments of the nineteenth and twentieth Centuries of the Guanajuato city (steps of the Guanajuato University and the School of Music at the Guanajuato University). In addition to contributing to the knowledge of deterioration, data on the lichen species found, is provided, the causes of its growth and its role in the deterioration of the stone material, in order to implement measures of protection and prevention. The lichen-rock interface was observed using complementary techniques such as, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Inductively Coupled Plasma) (ICP), and energy dispersive spectroscopy X-ray (EDS). Were identified five species of lichens: Xanthoparmelia mexicana, Xanthoparmelia tasmanica; Caloplaca aff. brouardii, Caloplaca aff. ludificans and Aspicilia sp. These lichens penetrate 0.5 µm to 50 µm on the substrate through its rhizines, causing disintegration of minerals in the rock surface (plagioclase, quartz and feldspar). The disintegration of minerals along with the changes in chemical composition in the lichen-rock interface shows a negative action on the rocky surface, (the decrease in SiO2, Al2O3, Zn, and K2O and the presence of a high percentage in CaO, Fe2O3, and MgO).
31292Álvarez-Gómez F., Korbee N. & Figueroa F.L. (2016): Analysis of antioxidant capacity and bioactive compounds in marine macroalgal and lichenic extracts using different solvents and evaluation methods. - Ciencias Marinas, 42(4): 271–288.
Natural extracts of macroalgae are widely recognized for their antioxidant properties. In this work, the antioxidant capacity of various aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts obtained from red and green marine algae and from one marine lichen collected from different sites in southern Spain (intertidal and estuarine waters) was evaluated by different methods: ABTS free radical scavenging assay, DPPH assay, and β-carotene bleaching method (BBM). Contents of total lipids, total carbohydrates, and UV photoprotectors with antioxidant capacity, such as mycosporine-like amino acids and phenolic compounds, were determined. Among the extraction solvents, the highest extraction yield was observed in H2O and 20% MeOH (v/v). The highest antioxidant activity was found in the extracts of the red macroalgae Hydropuntia cornea, Gracilariopsis longissima, Halopithys incurva, and Porphyra umbilicalis, whereas the lowest activity was detected in the green macroalga Ulva rotundata. In general, the antioxidant activity was higher using DPPH than BBM and ABTS. Even so, the ABTS assay is an easy and quick test that provides a comprehensive view of the entire extract in both the lipophilic medium and hydrophilic medium. The antioxidant activity was related to the composition of bioactive compounds and synergistic action is not discarded. The biotechnological use of macroalgal extracts with high antioxidant capacity is discussed. Key words: antioxidants, bioactive compounds, extracts, lichen, macroalgae.
31291Puy-Alquiza M.J., Miranda-Aviles R., Zanor G.A., Salazar-Hernández M.M. & Ordaz-Zubia V.Y. (2017): Study of the distribution of heavy metals in the atmosphere of the Guanajuato City: Use of saxicolous lichen species as bioindicators . - Ingeniería, Investigación y Tecnología, 18(1): 111–126.
The atmospheric deposition of some heavy metals was investigated using saxicolous lichen species (Xanthoparmelia mexicana (Gyeln.) Hale, Xanthoparmelia tasmanica (Hook. f. & Taylor) Hale, Caloplaca aff. brouardii (B. de Lesd.) Zahlbr., Caloplaca aff. ludificans Arup, and Aspicilia sp.), samples were collected from three zones (rural, suburban and urban) along the Guanajuato city, during the months of October-November 2012, April, July, and October 2013 and January 2014. Lichen samples were analyzed using the Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry technique. The concentrations of heavy metals in lichen samples from the Xanthoparmelia species ranged from (96.21 μg g -1) for lead (Pb), (95.10 μg g−1) for zinc (Zn), (58.40 μg g−1 )for vanadium (V), (105.15 μg g−1) for Chrome (Cr), and (48.93 μg g−1) for Niquel (Ni). Caloplaca species (92.42, μg g−1) for lead (Pb), (172.97 μg g−1 ) for Zinc (Zn), (53.51 μg g−1 ) for vanadium (V), (91.23 μg g−1 ) for copper (Cu), respectively, and Aspicilia sp (612.91μg g−1) for lead (Pb), (72.24 μg g−1 ) for zinc (Zn), (56.25 μg g−1) for vanadium (V), (18.24 μg g−1) for copper (Cu). The statistical significance of between Co-V, NiCr, Ni-Co, Sn-Zn, Co-Cr, Zn-Th, Sn-Th and Co-Zn concentrations confirmed anthropogenic sources mainly due to emissions from vehicular traffic, fossil fuel combustion correlations, solid waste disposal and other local anthropogenic activities. Pollution indices were additionally calculated by heavy metals concentrations in order to use lichens in Guanajuato city as bioindicators of air pollution. The concentration of these metals was observed to be in higher range as maximum values of Pb, Zn, V, and Cu reported from the lichen samples for the suburban and urban zones in Guanajuato city. The accumulations of Ni and Cr from both zones are similar in concentration. The contamination factors or the pollution index factor and the pollution load index criteria revealed high levels of Be, Cu, Co, Zn, Pb, and Th in Caloplaca species and Aspicilia sp., while Xanthoparmelia species show higher values only in Be, Sb and Pb. The results revealed that the most sensitive lichens were Aspicilia sp., with the highest levels of Pb. The results obtained reveal important contributions towards understanding of heavy metal deposition patterns and provide baseline data that can be used for potential identification of areas at risk from atmospheric heavy metals contamination in the region. The use of saxicolous lichens provide a cost–effective approach for monitoring regional atmospheric heavy metal contamination and may be effectively used in large scale air pollution monitoring programmer. Keywords: lichens, heavy metal pollution, indicator, Guanajuato city.
31290Gómez Caicedo H.D., Del Valle Fernández Malavé R., Galarraga Chacón F., Hernández Maldonado J., Roschman-Gonzáles A. & Escalona Trompiz A. (2013): Biomonitoreo activo de hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos en el aire del valle de Caracas-Venezuela empleando el liquen Parmotrema sancti-angelii (Lynge) Hale [Active biomonitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at the Caracas valled-Venezuela using Parmotrema sacti-angelii (Linge) Hale lichen)]. - Revista Internacional de Contaminación Ambiental, 29(4): 261–267.
[in Spanish with English abstract: ] The aim of this work was to determine the ability of the lichen Parmotrema sancti-angelii (Lynge) Hale to characterize and quantify polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in the air of the Caracas city. The lichens were transplanted from a suburban area to six locations in the city, where they were exposed for a period of four months. Sixteen (16) PAHs were studied which only thirteen (13) were above the limit of quantification. The total concentration of PAHs ranged from 2553 to 7654 ng /g. The lichens showed an enrichment in high molecular weight compounds (5 and 6 rings) for the studied locations, associated with atmospheric particles commonly generated by combustion processes. The ratio Fen/Ant suggests a remarkable pyrogenic origin and the ratio Ind/Ind+B[g,h,i] P indicates the presence of PAHs from burning vegetation in all locations. Keywords : air pollution; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; biological monitoring; transplanted lichen.
31289Zhang Y.Y., Wang X.Y., Li L.J., Søchting U., Yin A.C., Wang S.Q. & Wang L.S. (2019): Upretia squamulosa, a new lichen species from the arid valley of Jinsha-jiang River, China. - Phytotaxa, 402(6): 288–294.
Upretia squamulosa is described as new to science from the arid valley of Jinsha-jiang River, China. It is characterized by a squamulose thallus, greyish green to brown upper surface, lecanorine apothecia, and by containing gyrophoric and lecanoric acids. The other species in the genus, U. amarkantakana, differs from the new species by the crustose to subsquamulose thallus with lobate margin and the absence of gyrophoric and lecanoric acids. A phylogenetic tree based on nrITS for Upretia and related genera in the subfamily Caloplacoideae is established to assess the affinities of the new species. Keywords: Ioplaca, Lichenized fungi, Molecular phylogeny, Taxonomy, Teloschistaceae.
31288Gueidan C., Elix J.A., McCarthy P.M., Roux C., Mallen-Cooper M. & Kantvilas G. (2019): PacBio amplicon sequencing for metabarcoding of mixed DNA samples from lichen herbarium specimens. - MycoKeys, 53: 73–91.
The detection and identification of species of fungi in the environment using molecular methods heavily depends on reliable reference sequence databases. However, these databases are largely incomplete in terms of taxon coverage, and a significant effort is required from herbaria and living fungal collections for the mass-barcoding of well-identified and well-curated fungal specimens or strains. Here, a PacBio amplicon sequencing approach is applied to recent lichen herbarium specimens for the sequencing of the fungal ITS barcode, allowing a higher throughput sample processing than Sanger sequencing, which often required the use of cloning. Out of 96 multiplexed samples, a full-length ITS sequence of the target lichenised fungal species was recovered for 85 specimens. In addition, sequences obtained for co-amplified fungi gave an interesting insight into the diversity of endolichenic fungi. Challenges encountered at both the laboratory and bioinformatic stages are discussed, and cost and quality are compared with Sanger sequencing. With increasing data output and reducing sequencing cost, PacBio amplicon sequencing is seen as a promising approach for the generation of reference sequences for lichenised fungi as well as the characterisation of lichen-associated fungal communities. Keywords: SMRT sequencing, high-throughput sequencing, long amplicon analysis (LAA), lichenised fungi.
31287Kistenich S., Bendiksby M., Vairappan C.S., Weerakoon G., Wijesundara S., Wolseley P.A. & Timdal E. (2019): A regional study of the genus Phyllopsora (Ramalinaceae) in Asia and Melanesia. - MycoKeys, 53: 23–72.
Phyllopsora is a crustose to squamulose lichen genus inhabiting the bark of trees in moist tropical forests and rainforests. Species identification is generally challenging and is mainly based on ascospore morphology, thallus morphology and anatomy, vegetative dispersal units, and on secondary chemistry. While regional treatments of the genus have been conducted for Africa, South America and Australia, there exists no study focusing on the Asian and Melanesian species. Previously, 24 species of Phyllopsora s. str. have been reported from major national studies and checklists representing 13 countries. We have studied herbarium material of 625 Phyllopsora specimens from 18 countries using morphology, anatomy, secondary chemistry, and molecular data to investigate the diversity of Phyllopsora species in Asia and Melanesia. We report the occurrence of 28 species of Phyllopsora including the following three species described as new to science: P. sabahana from Malaysia, P. siamensis from Thailand and P. pseudocorallina from Asia and Africa. Eight species are reported as new to Asia. A key to the Asian and Melanesian species of Phyllopsora is provided. Keywords: Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Thailand, rainforest, TLC, phylogeny, identification key.
31286Tripp E.A., Morse C.A., Keepers K.G., Anderson Stewart C., Pogoda C.S., White K.H., Hoffman J.R., Kane N.C. & McCain C.M. (2019): Evidence of substrate endemism of lichens on Fox Hills Sandstone: Discovery and description of Lecanora lendemeri as new to science. - Bryologist, 122(2): 246–259.
Recent lichenological investigations of Fox Hills Formation sandstone outcrops in Colorado resulted in the discovery of three populations that represent an undescribed member of the Lecanora dispersa group (=Myriolecis). This new species is different from all others in the group in its production of usnic acid, which yields apothecia that are yellowish-green in color in fresh field material. The new species, here formally described as Lecanora lendemeri, is further characterized by its relatively large ascospores, endolithic thallus, presence of POL+ granules, and apparent restriction to this sandstone formation. We conducted molecular phylogenetic analyses to place the new species into the context of other members of Lecanora using new shotgun sequence data generated for this study in tandem with previously published rDNA data, and found that the new species is resolved as nested within the L. dispersa group, which was a strongly supported clade in our analysis. Using IUCN criteria including a known occurrence of only three populations, the largest of which is under conservation threat, we herein formally rank this new species as Endangered. This discovery comes on the heels of several other recent lichen discoveries on Fox Hills Sandstone, all species that are, so far as known, restricted to this rock type, suggesting that substrate endemism may be a common element of the biotic communities of the Fox Hills Formation. From the results of this and prior studies, it is clear that sandstone outcrops serve as important, yet still incompletely documented, habitats for cryptogamic diversity. This discovery further highlights the significance of conservation areas, even tiny units (e.g., 40 ha or less) that represent mere islands in a sea of urban development, such as in the Front Range of Colorado. Keywords: Colorado, edaphic, endemism, Fox Hills, Lecanora dispersa group, lichen, new species, sandstone, substrate, Myriolecis.
31285Pinheiro A.C., Mesquita N., Trovão J., Soares F., Tiago I., Coelho C., Paiva de Carvalho H., Gil F., Catarino L., Piñar G. & Portugal A. (2019): Limestone biodeterioration: A review on the Portuguese cultural heritage scenario. - Fungal Biology, 36: 275–285.
Stone, one of the earliest testimonies of human artistic expression, is susceptible to biodeterioration by microorganisms. The most frequent stone colonizing agents are algae, cyanobacteria, bacteria, fungi and lichens, each with their own set of adaptive traits, which allow them to prosper and consequently damage the stone substrate. Limestone is particularly susceptible to biological agents; therefore, in order to act towards the protection and prevention of colonization by microorganisms, it is crucial to understand the microbial communities thriving in limestone heritage buildings. Data regarding the biodiversity and biological activity in Portuguese limestone monuments is, however, still scarce and the scattered knowledge on the subject impairs a full comprehension of the complex and relevant phenomena associated with this particular setting. This review presents and discusses the available studies performed in Portuguese limestone. In addition, the state of the art methodologies to be used, as well as the future studies to be considered, in order to effectively protect such invaluable witnesses of our history, are discussed. Keywords: Limestone; Biodeterioration; Microorganisms; Portugal.
31284Mark K., Randlane T., Thor G., Hur J.-S., Obermayer W. & Saag A. (2019): Lichen chemistry is concordant with multilocus gene genealogy in the genus Cetrelia (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota). - Fungal Biology, 123: 125–139.
The lichen genus Cetrelia represents a taxonomically interesting case where morphologically almost uniform populations differ considerably from each other chemically. Similar variation is not uncommon among lichenized fungi, but it is disputable whether such populations should be considered entities at the species level. Species boundaries in Cetrelia are traditionally delimited either as solely based on morphology or as combinations of morpho- and chemotypes. A dataset of four nuclear markers (ITS, IGS, Mcm7, RPB1) from 62 specimens, representing ten Cetrelia species, was analysed within Bayesian and maximum likelihood frameworks. Analyses recovered a well-resolved phylogeny where the traditional species generally were monophyletic, with the exception of Cetrelia chicitae and Cetrelia pseudolivetorum. Species delimitation analyses supported the distinction of 15 groups within the studied Cetrelia taxa, dividing three traditionally identified species into some species candidates. Chemotypes, distinguished according to the major medullary substance, clearly correlated with clades recovered within Cetrelia, while samples with the same reproductive mode were dispersed throughout the phylogenetic tree. Consequently, delimiting Cetrelia species based only on reproductive morphology is not supported phylogenetically. Character analyses suggest that chemical characters have been more consistent compared to reproductive mode and indicate that metabolite evolution in Cetrelia towards more complex substances is probable. Keywords: Character evolution; Lichenized fungi; Molecular phylogeny; Secondary metabolites; Species delimitation.
31283Sanmartín P., Fuentes E., Montojo C., Barreiro P., Paz-Bermúdez G. & Prieto B. (2019): Tertiary bioreceptivity of schists from prehistoric rock art sites in the Côa Valley (Portugal) and Siega Verde (Spain) archaeological parks: Effects ofcleaning treatments. - International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 142: 151–159.
Schist weathering induced by the presence of lichen is one of the main concerns in the Côa Valley (northeast Portugal) and Siega Verde (northwest Spain) Archaeological Parks. In this study, different types of lichens, including mainly crustose forms (Caloplaca pellodella, Candelariella vitellina, Circinaria hoffmanniana, Diploschistes actinostomus and Lecidea fuscoatra) as well as some foliose forms (Parmelina tiliacea and Xanthoparmelia conspersa), were removed from schistose samples of both lithotypes in different locations. The lichens were removed by treatment with Biotin T® biocide or by laser treatment with the first (1064 nm, IR) and fourth (266 nm, UV) harmonics of a Nd:YAG laser. To assess the effects of the treatments, a recolonization experiment was carried out with biofilm-forming phototrophic microorganisms, and a bioreceptivity index (BI) was calculated for each lithotype and treatment. A water-based treatment (the removal method currently used in both parks) was used as a control cleaning treatment in the bioreceptivity experiment. The study findings show the importance of bioreceptivity studies for evaluating the effectiveness of cleaning treatments. Treatment of the schist samples with the chemical biocide significantly decreased the bioreceptivity (complete inhibition of biofilm formation), whereas laser treatments (especially IR laser) significantly increased the tertiary bioreceptivity. Moreover, the tertiary bioreceptivity of the schists depended on both the treatment applied and the nature of the substrate. Keywords: Bioreceptivity index (BI); Conservation; Lichen removal procedure; Non-destructive techniques; Colour measurements; Chlorophyll fluorescence.
31282Tabarsa M., You S., Abedi M., Ahmadian N., Li C. & Talapphet N. (2019): The activation of RAW264.7 murine macrophage and natural killer cells by glucomannogalactan polysaccharides from Tornabea scutellifera. - Carbohydrate Polymers, 219: 368–377.
A water-soluble polysaccharide was isolated from Tornabea scutellifera and fractionated using a DAEA Sepharose FF column to evaluate its capacity to stimulate natural killer (NK) cells and macrophages. Neutral sugars (71.8–93.5%) constituted the major part of crude polysaccharides and fractions (TSF1 and TSF2) with relatively lower levels of proteins (0.4–20.3%) and uronic acids (0.8–4.9%). The weight average molecular weights (Mw) of 152.7–537.3 × 103 g/mol were measured for isolated polysaccharides. The polysaccharides were composed of glucose (14.4–44.0%), galactose (23.2–43.2%), mannose (28.5–34.2%) and rhamnose (2.6–13.9%) units connected through (1→2)-Galp, (1→2,6)-Galp, (1→4)-Glcp, (1→6)-Glcp, (1→3)-Rhap, (1→2)-Rhap and (1→4)-Manp residues. TSF2 polysaccharide effectively induced RAW264.7 murine macrophages to release nitric oxide, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6, and activated NK cells to produce TNF-α, INF-γ, granzyme-B, perforin, NKG2D and FasL through NF-κB and MAPKs signaling pathways. Overall results suggested that polysaccharides from T. scutellifera could be potent immunostimulatory compounds inducing both macrophages and NK cells. Keywords: Tornabea scutellifera; Polysaccharides; Immunostimulation; Chemical structure; Molecular properties.
31281Pizňak M., Kolarčik V., Goga M. & Bačkor M. (2019): Allelopathic effects of lichen metabolite usnic acid on growth and physiological responses of Norway spruce and Scots pine seedlings. - South African Journal of Botany, 124: 14–19.
Lichens are globally widespread organisms playing an important role in diverse ecosystems. They produce secondary metabolites, unique compounds, which play many important ecological and biological roles, including their effects on other plants, through allelopathy. Usnic acid is one of the most frequent secondary compounds in thalli of lichens forming the layer on the surface of soils, interacting with the seedlings of conifers in the boreal forests. The main aim of this study was to investigate the growth, ploidy level, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and element content in the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedlings cultivated for 14 days using substrates containing addition (10 mg per cultivation tube) of (+) usnic acid (UA). We also investigated UA root content in these plants. The root:shoot ratio (R:S) decreased in stressed pines by over 31%. The average root length diminished by 48% and the shoot length (to the cotyledon base) by 25%. For spruce, the R:S ratio decreased by more than 41%, the root length by 46% while the shoot length by only 9%. The UA treatment particularly increased the number of non-fully developed seedlings during the germination. The seed germination rate did not vary significantly when compared to control. No significant ploidy differences between control and treated seedlings were observed in neither of the species. Ploidy aberration in two P. abies seedlings was discovered. The amount of UA in the roots, including UA bound on their surfaces, in spruce varied from 3.6 to 325.5 μg g−1 DW and in pine roots from 15.6 to 252.3 μg g−1 DW. A significant decrease in total macroelement content in roots of both species was noted, particularly for P, K, Ca, Mg and S contents. Interestingly, the contents of stress markers, e.g. superoxide dismutase and peroxidase were not significantly changed when compared to controls. Keywords: Allelopathy; Genome; Growth; Lichens; Macroelements; Picea abies; Pinus sylvestris; Usnic acid.
31280Rola K., Latkowska E., Myśliwa-Kurdziel B. & Osyczka P. (2019): Heavy-metal tolerance of photobiont in pioneer lichens inhabiting heavily polluted sites. - Science of the Total Environment, 679: 260–269.
Heavy metals are known for their negative impact on the physiological processes of lichen photobiont. In spite of this, certain lichens are known to be effective pioneers of polluted sites. Cladonia cariosa, C. rei, and Diploschistes muscorum are prominent examples of lichens that spontaneously colonise post-industrial wastes. We examined the effect of total and intracellular Zn, Pb, Cd, As, Cu, and Ni accumulation in the thalli of these species on the physiological parameters of photobiont. Increased accumulation of Zn, Cd, Cu, and Ni in D. muscorum and of Zn and Ni in C. rei negatively affected contents of photosynthetic pigments,whereas concentrations of Pb had a positive effect in all lichen species.Moreover, pigment contents were positively associatedwith the concentrations of most examined elements in C. cariosa. The results indicate that even if chlorophyll contents reduced, its degradation does not progress. This suggests that metal stress may exert a negative effect on the synthesis rather than on the integrity of chlorophyll. Most importantly, lichen samples of each of the species from polluted sites proved to possess significantly higher FV/FM ratios than those from a reference site; moreover, the contents of elements of lichen thalli positively influenced this parameter. The efficient functioning of the algal component under heavymetal stress conditions indicates that the examined lichens are well adapted to extremely contaminated substrates. Keywords: Algal component; Chlorophyll; PSII quantum yield; Bioaccumulation; Stress response; Hazardous waste sites.
31279Agnan Y., Courault R., Alexis M.A., Zanardo T., Cohen M., Sauvage M. & Castrec-Rouelle M. (2019): Distribution of trace and major elements in subarctic ecosystem soils: Sources and influence of vegetation. - Science of the Total Environment, 682: 650–662.
Artic and subarctic environments are particularly sensitive to climate change with a fasterwarming compared to other latitudes. Vegetation is changing but its role on the biogeochemical cycling is poorly understood. In this study, we evaluated the distribution of trace elements in subarctic soils from different land covers at Abisko, northern Sweden: grassland, moor, broad-leaved forest, and peat bog. Using various multivariate analysis approaches, results indicated a spatial heterogeneity with a strong influence of soil horizon classes considered: lithogenic elements (e.g., Al, Cr, Ti) were accumulated in mineral horizon classes and surface processinfluenced elements (e.g., Cd, Cu, Se) in organic horizon classes. Atmospheric influences included contamination by both local mines (e.g., Cu, Fe, Ni) and regional or long-range atmospheric transport (e.g., Cd, Pb, Zn). A nonnegative matrix factorization was used to estimate, for each element, the contribution of various sources identified. For the first time, a comparison between geochemical and ecological data was performed to evaluate the influence of vegetation on element distribution. Apart from soil pH that could control dynamics of As, Cu, and Se, two vegetation classes were reported to be correlated to geochemical factors: forbs and shrubs/dwarf shrubs probably due to their annual vs. perennial activities, respectively. Since these are considered as the main vegetation classes that quickly evolve with climate change, we expect to see modifications in trace element biogeochemical cycling in the future. p. 651 : "More specifically, we hypothesize that lichens and mosses, as well as herbaceous plant species, accelerate the accumulation of elements from the atmosphere to the soil related to their physiological features (higher bioaccumulation and faster turnover, respectively) compared to ligneous species, such as shrubs."
31278Foster K.R., Davidson C., Tanna R.N. & Spink D. (2019): Introduction to the virtual special issue monitoring ecological responses to air quality and atmospheric deposition in the Athabasca Oil Sands region the wood Buffalo environmental Association's Forest health monitoring program. - Science of the Total Environment, 686: 345–359.
The expansion of oil sands resource development in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region in the early 1990's led to concerns regarding the potential ecological and health effects of increased emissions and deposition of acidic substances. Conditions attached to a 1994 approval for an oil sands facility expansion led to the creation of the Wood Buffalo Environmental Association, and its Terrestrial Environmental Effects Monitoring committee. This multi-stakeholder body was tasked with development and operation of an environmental (forest health) monitoring program for the detection of ecological responses to atmospheric emissions and deposition. Initially focused on acid deposition monitoring, jack pine forest, growing on sandy soils with limited acid buffering capacity, was selected as the receptor system. An initial set of 10 monitoring locations was established using the Canadian Acid Rain Network Early Warning System methodology (since increased to 27, with three lost to development). Ecological monitoring is on a 6-year cycle, with concurrent measures of soil, needle and lichen chemistry, and tree and understory condition, together with ongoing measurements of air quality and atmospheric deposition. Because jack pine forest edges facing the emissions sources were expected to be more exposed to acidic emissions, evaluation of stand edge monitoring locations began in 2008. Monitoring of a targeted suite of indicators began in 2012 at 25 jack pine stand edge monitoring sites. This special issue presents the results derived from biophysical sampling campaigns (1998 to 2013), coupled with ongoing ambient atmospheric, deposition and epiphytic lichen monitoring (data through 2017) and source apportionment studies, as well as papers contributed by others engaged in regional research and monitoring programs. The Forest HealthMonitoring Programprovides data supportive of regulatory and stakeholder evaluations of environmental quality, and is adaptive to new needs, extreme environmental events and technological developmentwhile providing continuity of monitoring. Keywords: Jack pine forest; Acid deposition; Surface mining; in situ bitumen production.
31277Munzi S., Varela Z. & Paoli L. (2019): Is the length of the drying period critical for photosynthesis reactivation inlichen and moss components of biological soil crusts?. - Journal of Arid Environments, 166: 86–90.
Lichens and mosses represent the macroscopic components of biological soil crusts (biocrusts). Their ability to exploit short periods of water availability and reversibly deactivate metabolism is crucial for their growth and survival. In this work we investigated photosynthesis reactivation, respectively after long (65–66 days) and short (15 days) dry periods, in lichen and moss species widespread in two Mediterranean environments (Portugal and Italy). Chlorophyll a fluorescence emission of the samples was investigated and the parameter Fv/Fm, an indicator of vitality of photosynthetic organisms, was used as a proxy for photosynthesis reactivation. The fruticose lichens Cladonia convoluta and C. rangiformis, and the moss Pleurochaete squarrosa, typical of Mediterranean environments, showed a significantly slower reactivation of photosynthetic activity when subjected to a longer period of drought. Conversely, the alien invasive moss Campylopus introflexus was not affected by prolonged dry conditions. The study showed that drought duration influences the reactivation of photosynthetic activity in terricolous lichens and mosses forming biocrusts in re-hydration cycles. These results indicate the likelihood of a reduction in biocrust productivity as a consequence of climate change in Mediterranean drylands. Keywords: Invasive species; Biological soil crusts; Chlorophyll a fluorescence; Desiccation-tolerance; Drought stress; Mediterranean ecosystem.