32844Mascalchi M., Orsini C., Pinna D., Salvadori B., Siano S. & Riminesi C. (2020): Assessment of different methods for the removal of biofilms and lichens on gravestones of the English Cemetery in Florence. - International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 154: 105041 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2020.105041.
The control of biodeterioration encompasses the operations undertaken to eliminate the biological growth and, possibly, to delay a new colonization. The current attitude is generally oriented toward its planned removal whenever it causes an objective damage and/or structural impairments to the substratum. The English Cemetery, located in the centre of Florence, offers interesting features for a research focused on the removal of biofilms and lichens growing on stone surfaces of some tombs. The study compared the efficacy of two methods based on physical approach (mechanical cleaning with a brush and microwave heating) with a chemical approach using biocide ROCIMA™ 103 to remove biofilms and lichens from each tombstone. The research, focusing on methodologies with low impact for the environment, tested the efficacy of an innovative portable system that produces localized microwave heating. Its great advantage lays on lack of the potential risks associated with the irreversible application of microbicides. The assessment of the treatments’ efficacy was carried out monitoring the chlorophyll a fluorescence’s parameters, informative on the vitality and stress responses of photosynthetic organisms. The long-term monitoring of the recolonization after the treatments was performed for five years. The mechanical cleaning eliminated the superficial layer of biofilms and lichens but not the cells within the stones. The biocide was efficient in killing the biological growth; almost no recolonization was observed after about five years. The innovative microwave treatment was effective on biofilms and lichens, eliminating also cells present in the bulk of the substrata, but recolonization was observed after 15 months. This suggests that, dopo treatment aggiungere virgola the microwave treatment should be performed more frequently than biocide treatments yet guaranteeing lower impact on the environment. Keywords: Biodeterioration; Biofilms; Lichens; Mechanical removal; Microwave heating; Biocide; Chlorophyll a fluorescence; Marble; Sandstone.
32843Favero-Longo S.E., Vannini A., Benesperi R., Bianchi E., Fačkovcová Z., Giordani P., Malaspina P., Martire L., Matteucci E., Paoli L., Ravera S., Roccardi A., Tonon C. & Loppi S. (2020): The application protocol impacts the effectiveness of biocides against lichens. - International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 155: 105105 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2020.105105.
This work analyzed the influence of different application protocols on the efficacy of two biocides against the foliose lichen Xanthoparmelia tinctina on the sandstones of the Roman Archaeological site of Luni (Italy). The hypotheses that (a) biocide application tools (brush vs. poultice), (b) pre-treatment hydration, and (c) posttreatment washing may affect devitalization success were verified by monitoring chlorophyll a fluorescence of thalli, both in situ and in laboratory conditions. The hypothesis that (d) stone substrate may act as reservoir for later biocide release under repeated cycles of wetting and drying was also assayed. Analyses confirmed the importance of the application tool, with cellulose poultice being more effective than brush. Hydration influenced the biocide absorption by thalli. Moreover it modulated the metabolic activity and susceptibility to the available toxic compound, hindering lichens from entering a dormant state to tolerate stress. Depending on the preparation solvent (water vs. white spirit), the biocide application benefited from pre-treatment hydration and/or a posttreatment washing. Lastly, we showed that different sandstones variously adsorb the biocides and potentially contribute as a reservoir for their long-term release at low concentrations during successive hydration events. Keywords: Benzalkonium chloride; Chlorophyll a fluorescence; Lichen; Thallus hydration; Stone conservation.
32842Kulkarni A.N., Kadam S.K., Jeon B.H. & Govindwar S.P. (2020): Enhanced application of cross-linked enzyme aggregates of lichen Dermatocarpon vellereceum released extracellular enzymes for degradation of textile dyes. - International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 153: 105044 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2020.105044.
Like all objects exposed to the atmosphere, cultural heritage monuments and buildings must face the effects of global change. Some of environmental factors that are predicted to change and that are likely to affect the development of subaerial biofilms include water regime and CO2 concentration. This study investigated, for the first time, the influence of simultaneous environmental stressors on the development of subaerial biofilms on granite, the most commonly used stone in historical and modern buildings in Galicia (north-western Spain). Laboratory experiments revealed counteractive effects of water availability and increased CO2 concentration on the development of biofilms. Moreover, although the amount of colonizing biomass is not expected to change under the climate change projections for Galicia, the composition of the biofilm will probably change and cause more intense biodeterioration of stone cultural heritage. The study findings will be useful to help develop conservation and prevention policies against the deterioration of the built cultural heritage. Keywords: Climate change; CO2 atmospheric levels; Water availability; Photosynthetic pigments; Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS).
32841Owczarek-Kościelniak M., Krzewicka B., Piątek J., Kołodziejczyk Ł.M. & Kapusta P. (2020): Is there a link between the biological colonization of the gravestone and its deterioration?. - International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 148: 104879 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2019.104879.
The relationship between the structure (taxonomic richness and composition) of biological assemblages colonizing gravestones and the deterioration of the gravestone surface was investigated. The study was conducted at the Rakowicki Cemetery in Kraków, which is a Polish cultural heritage site. Data on the occurrence of algae, cyanobacteria, fungi and lichens were collected from 10 limestone and 10 sandstone substrates. Deteriorations were visually assessed on a generalized 3-point scale. In total, 77 taxa were recorded, including 21 algae, 3 cyanobacteria, 13 fungi and 40 lichens. Both the taxonomic richness and the composition of the studied biota were related to the degree of deterioration but the relationships were weak. A significant increase in the taxonomic richness of lichens was recorded, but only between the second and third degrees of deterioration. This was accompanied by a compositional shift in the fungi group, which resulted mainly from the more frequent occurrence of one species, Knufia marmoricola, on more deteriorated surfaces. The type of substrate had a strong impact on the taxonomic composition (especially, of fungi and lichens), but not on the taxonomic richness. The structural changes in gravestone assemblages during the observed succession, although quite small, may lead to intensification of the deterioration processes. Keywords: Stone art work; Biodeterioration; Limestone; Sandstone; Stone-inhabiting biota; Community structure.
32840Sanmartín P., Villa F., Cappitelli F., Balboa S. & Carballeira R. (2020): Characterization of a biofilm and the pattern outlined by its growth on a granite-built cloister in the Monastery of San Martiño Pinario (Santiago de Compostela, NW Spain). - International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 147: 104871 [8 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2019.104871.
The upper zone of the background walls of the processional cloister of the Monastery of San Martiño Pinario (Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, Spain) is affected by a deep green, highly hydrophobic subaerial biofilm. The pattern that the biofilm follows the walls suggests that particular microclimatic conditions induce changes in the biofilm properties. To test this hypothesis, taxonomic and structural identification of the biofilm was carried out by respectively light microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy. In addition, the chemical composition was determined by quantification of extracellular polymeric substances in the extracellular matrix of the biofilm, and hydrophobicity was determined by contact angle and water drop penetration time of biofilm and cells. Furthermore, the bioprotective or biodeteriorative role of the biofilm on the cloister is discussed on the basis of the results of stereoscopic microscope observations, X-ray diffraction and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis of granite samples from uncolonized areas and from underneath the biofilm. The findings showed that Apatococcus lobatus is the predominant algae in the biofilm. The presence of this alga is favoured by water condensation and it neither damages nor protects the substrate, only causing an aesthetic impact. Keywords: Apatococcus lobatus; Biodeterioration; Cultural heritage; Extracellular matrix (ECM); Hydrophobicity; Subaerial biofilm (SAB).
32839Kakakhel M.A., Wu F., Gu J.-D., Feng H., Shah K. & Wang W. (2019): Controlling biodeterioration of cultural heritage objects with biocides: A review. - International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 143: 104721 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2019.104721.
Biodeterioration is when living organisms chemically or physically change or alter the appearance of materials objects. Organisms can colonize and destroy valuable cultural heritage. New advances in biotechnology and applied microbiology provide important information on conserving cultural heritage. Various physical and mechanical methods have previously been used, but they are incapable of preventing the growth of organisms entirely. Organic biocides, particularly commercial formulations, do not last long because they can be utilized as a nutrient source by indigenous microflora after these microflora are exposed to biocides and develop resistance. Therefore, inorganic nanoparticles have a better chance to protect cultural heritage. Silver (Ag2O) and titanium (TiO2) oxides are effective against biofilm, and nanoparticles of zinc oxide (ZnO) are effective antimicrobial agents. This new generation of biocides is much smaller in size and extremely active to damage DNA or RNA. In addition, green biocides from natural sources offer an alternative to chemical ones, having low toxicity compared to chemically synthesized biocides. Future research on biofilm control technologies may contribute to a broader understanding of and new perspectives on a future generation of biocontrol agents and methods with the potential for sustainable development. Keywords: Cultural heritage; Biodeterioration; Biocide; Nanoparticles; Essential oils.
32838Zhang G., Gong C., Gu J., Katayama Y., Someya T. & Gu J.-D. (2019): Biochemical reactions and mechanisms involved in the biodeterioration of stone world cultural heritage under the tropical climate conditions. - International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 143: 104723 [8 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2019.104723.
The World Cultural Heritage stone monuments/temples suffer from severe deterioration from weathering caused by a combination of physical, chemical and biological forces. Current knowledge on biodeterioration of these stone monuments has been improving because of the suite of research techniques available. Previous investigations were mainly carried out with culture-dependent methods to isolate and describe a small number of microorganisms from selective sites. Now, the culture-independent method of Next Generation Sequencing technologies is readily available at an affordable cost to obtain a much more deeper information of the microbial community of many sites more quickly. Since flora, fauna and microorganisms are members of the complex community on stone monuments in tropical regions, the fundamental scientific question remains to be the biochemical mechanisms involved for the destruction to allow a better and fundamental understanding of the interactions between the inorganic materials and the colonizing biota. More importantly, the biochemical processes shall be given more attention under the local environmental conditions, especially the tropical climate. Organic acids and inorganic acids (sulfuric and nitric), produced by colonizing biota are known biochemical processes and mechanisms contributing to the attack of stone. Lichens, cyanobacteria, fungi and bacteria are ubiquitously detected on surfaces of stone monuments of Angkor, Maya and Inca. Sulfur cycle and the oxidation are known major contributing factor to the destruction of stone. Recently, ammonia-oxidizing archaea are found more abundant than ammonia-oxidizing bacteria on the Angkor monuments in Cambodia. In addition, the mobility of solutes into and out of the stone is also involved to the damage of sandstone under the influence of water regime and climate conditions. The available information on the specific biochemical mechanisms by the microbiota on stone provides important insights into the biochemical reactions involved and also the protective measures against biodeterioration of the world cultural heritage effectively. Keywords: Angkor temples; Sandstone; Cultural heritage; Biofilms; Salting; Defoliation; Capillary action; Secondary mineralization.
32837Ravera S., Vizzini A., Puglisi M., Adamčík S., Aleffi M., Aloise G., Boccardo F., Bonini I., Caboň M., Catalano I., De Giuseppe A.B., Di Nuzzo L., Dovana F., Fačkovcová Z., Gheza G., Gianfreda S., Guarino C., Guttová A., Jon R., Malíček J., Marziano M., Matino C., Nimis P.L., Pandeli G., Paoli L., Passalacqua N.G., Pittao E., Poponessi S., Puntillo D., Sguazzin F., Sicoli G. & Vallese C. (2020): Notulae to the Italian flora of algae, bryophytes, fungi and lichens: 9. - Italian Botanist, 9: 35–46. https://doi.org/10.3897/italianbotanist.9.52762.
In this contribution, new data concerning bryophytes, fungi, and lichens of the Italian flora are presented. It includes new records and confirmations for the bryophyte genera Encalypta, Grimmia, and Riccia, for the fungal genera Hericium, Inocybe, Inocutis, Pluteus, and Russula, and for the lichen genera Bryoria, Farnoldia, Hypocenomyce, Lecania, Paracollema, Peltigera, Sarcogyne, and Teloschistes. Keywords: Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Bryidae, Jungermanniidae, Marchantiidae.
32836Smith R.J., Jovan S., Stanton D. & Will-Wolf S. (2020): Epiphytic macrolichen communities indicate climate and air quality in the U.S. Midwest. - Bryologist, 123(3): 516–532. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-123.3.516.
Epiphytic lichens directly exposed to atmospheric conditions can help detect how diffuse but pressing global changes may impact regional forest health. For 388 plots in the U.S. Midwest region, we developed indices for climate and air quality based on variation in tree-dwelling macrolichen community compositions (NMS ordination scores), species indicator values, and species environmental optima. Three lichen indices (NMS axis 1 scores, thermophile scores, and climate centroid scores) strongly covaried with thermal and evaporative-demand variables. By contrast, three other indices (NMS axis 2 scores, nitrophile scores and nitrogen centroid scores) were correlated with NHx (reduced N) deposition. Lichen communities had contrasting responses to different forms of N (NOx vs. NHx). Overall, thermal climate variables appeared more influential than air quality in structuring regional communities, based on greater explained variation of community compositions. Richness of species and of potentially adaptive secondary metabolites declined in hot, dry, or NHx-rich sites. With continued monitoring, significant changes in lichen-community based indices could signal directional shifts in forest vegetation. Changes in the thermophile or nitrophile indices more specifically would indicate the agent and rate of change for forest-altering trends. Keywords: Air quality, climate indication, community compositions, diversity, global changes, indicator species, nitrogen loads, secondary metabolites.
32835Perlmutter G.B., Rivas Plata E., LaGreca S., Aptroot A., Lücking R., Tehler A. & Ertz D. (2020): Biatora akompsa is revealed as a disjunct North American species of Pentagenella (Opegraphaceae) through molecular phylogenetic analysis and phenotype-based binning. - Bryologist, 123(3): 502–516. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-123.3.502.
Historical and recent material of Bacidia akompsa (basionym: Biatora akompsa) was studied to determine the taxonomic position of this crustose lichen, prompted by the appearance of the provisional name ‘‘Lecanactis akompsa (Tuck.) ined.’’ in multiple online lichen databases and checklists. Initial morphological assessment of verified material confirmed B. akompsa as a member of Arthoniales but distinct from Lecanactis by having epruinose ascomata with a thin exciple open below the hymenium; a pale, K/Iþ violet to deep blue hypothecium; and ascospores with a gelatinous sheath. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of specimens recently collected near the type locality revealed B. akompsa to be nested within the genus Pentagenella in Opegraphaceae. The same placement was found using phenotype-based phylogenetic binning with 37 morphological, anatomical and chemical characters. The new combination Pentagenella akompsa is proposed and the species represents the first North American member of this genus, otherwise known only from Chile and Peru. Therefore, our results reveal the genus Pentagenella to have a remarkably disjunct distribution between North and South America. Several specimens previously labeled as Bacidia, Biatora, or Lecanactis akompsa were found to be misidentifications, narrowing the range of P. akompsa to coastal California, where it is found on two coastal conifer species that are (like P. akompsa itself) narrowly endemic and of conservation concern. Keywords: Arthoniales, Bacidia, California, nomenclature, taxonomy.
32834McCune B. (2020): Epigloea diversispora, a new possibly lichenized ascomycete from Oregon, with a key to the World species. - Bryologist, 123(3): 534–540. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-122.3.534.
Epigloea diversispora is newly described from a coastal mountain summit in western Oregon, U.S.A. The species has minute, shiny, jet black ascocarps appearing on a biofilm of mixed cyanobacteria and algae. The spores are diverse in both shape and septation. Immature spores are initially nonseptate and ellipsoid, then become soleiform, then 1-septate, while mature spores are 3-septate and short fusiform. Lichenization is uncertain, but the species appears to form a loosely lichenized thallus with hyphae dispersed in a partly cyanobacterial and partly algal crust on thin soil, moss, and plant detritus, over rock. Keywords: Biofilms, Epigloeaceae, North America, Ostropomycetidae.
32833Lendemer J.C. (2020): Recent literature on lichens—258. - Bryologist, 123(3): 584–591. https//doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-123.3.584.
32832Ristić S., Stamenković S., Stojković Piperac M., Šajn R., Kosanić M. & Ranković B. (2020): Searching for lichen indicator species: the application of self-organizing maps in air quality assessment—a case study from Balkan area (Serbia). - Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 192: 693 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-020-08633-3.
The subject of this paper is the possibility of using self-organizing map (SOM) in the biomonitoring studies. We used lichens as biomonitors to indicate different degrees of air quality. This research included all of 88 lichen species that was collected at 75 investigated points. These lichen species showed the different responses to air pollution. The air quality was assessed by IAP (index of atmospheric pollution) values. The IAP values were calculated for all of investigated points on the territory of four natural and one urban ecosystem. Calculated IAP values were in range of 10 to 75. On the basis of the lichen data and IAP values, we have employed SOM analysis that distinguished three clusters (A, B, and C). It presented lichen indicator species for each cluster: 16 species for cluster A, 18 species for cluster B, and two species for cluster C. This paper presents a useful method to find indicator species. Keywords: Bioindication . Mapping . Zonification . SOManalysis . Clusters.
32831Doering J.A., Booth T., Wiersma Y.F. & Piercey‑Normore M.D. (2020): How do genes flow? Identifying potential dispersal mode for the semi‑aquatic lichen Dermatocarpon luridum using spatial modelling and photobiont markers. - BMC Ecology, 20: 56 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12898-020-00324-4.
Background: Landscape genetics is an interdisciplinary field that combines tools and techniques from population genetics with the spatially explicit principles from landscape ecology. Spatial variation in genotypes is used to test hypotheses about how landscape pattern affects dispersal in a wide range of taxa. Lichens, symbiotic associations between mycobionts and photobionts, are an entity for which little is known about their dispersal mechanism. Our objective was to infer the dispersal mechanism in the semi-aquatic lichen Dermatocarpon luridum using spatial models and the spatial variation of the photobiont, Diplosphaera chodatii. We sequenced the ITS rDNA and the β-actin gene regions of the photobiont and mapped the haplotype spatial distribution in Payuk Lake. We subdivided Payuk Lake into subpopulations and applied four spatial models based on the topography and hydrology to infer the dispersal mechanism. Results: Genetic variation corresponded with the topography of the lake and the net flow of water through the waterbody. A lack of isolation-by-distance suggests high gene flow or dispersal within the lake. We infer the dispersal mechanism in D. luridum could either be by wind and/or water based on the haplotype spatial distribution of its photobiont using the ITS rDNA and β-actin markers. Conclusions: We inferred that the dispersal mechanism could be either wind and/or water dispersed due to the conflicting interpretations of our landscape hypotheses. This is the first study to use spatial modelling to infer dispersal in semi-aquatic lichens. The results of this study may help to understand lichen dispersal within aquatic landscapes, which can have implications in the conservation of rare or threatened lichens. Keywords: Dermatocarpon luridum, Diplosphaera chodatii, Dispersal, Genetic variation, Lichenized alga, Semi-aquatic, Spatial modelling.
32830Mugnai G., Rossi F., Mascalchi C., Ventura S. & De Philippis R. (2020): High Arctic biocrusts: characterization of the exopolysaccharidic matrix. - Polar Biology, 43: 1805–1815. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00300-020-02746-8.
Biocrusts can be found in a wide array of habitats, where they provide important ecosystem services. These microbial associations are particularly important in High Arctic environments, where biocrust colonize the newly exposed barren soil after glacier retreat and significantly contribute to soil stabilization and nutrient cycling. Starting from incipient, structurally simple biolayers, they develop in complexity, increasing from the glacier terminus. Starting from a simple community structure, mainly constituted by cyanobacteria, heterotrophic bacteria and fungi immersed in a self-secreted extracellular polymeric matrix (cyanobacterial crusts), they later may recruit mosses and lichens (moss crusts and lichen crusts, respectively). The extracellular polymeric matrix protects the biocrust community from abiotic constraints, notably drought and freezing stress, from external physical harming factors, and from predation. The physicochemical characteristics of the extracellular matrix are related to several of its properties, such as its soil-stabilizing effect and water retention. We analysed the chemical (monosaccharidic composition) and macromolecular (molecular weight distribution) properties of the extracellular polymeric matrix of biocrusts with different morphologies collected in northwestern Spitsbergen, Norway. The uronic acid content and molecular weight (MW) distribution of the extracellular polysaccharidic matrices (EPMs) appeared in accordance with the developmental stages of the biocrusts. The MW distribution also showed significant differences between the samples, possibly reflecting differences in microbial enzymatic activities leading to the degradation of high-MW polymers into smaller compounds. The MW distribution profiles presented some important differences, reflecting differences in environmental conditions and, probably, the seasonal variance in microbial community composition that is known to characterize the environment examined in the present study. Keywords: Biocrusts · Arctic environment · Extracellular polysaccharidic matrix (EPM) · Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS).
32829Conti M.E., Plà R., Simone C., Jasan R. & Finoia M.G. (2020): Implementing the monitoring breakdown structure: native lichens as biomonitors of element deposition in the southern Patagonian forest connected with the Puyehue volcano event in 2011—a 6-year survey (2006–2012). - Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 27: 38819–38834. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-10001-0.
This study aims to investigate the airborne elements’ deposition by using native Usnea barbata lichens as biomonitors in the forested areas of Tierra del Fuego (TdF, southern Patagonia), an apparently pristine environment. The present study is linked to the volcanic eruption of the Puyehue-Cordón Caulle which started in north Patagonia in June 2011, which gives rise to longdistance transport of pollutants through the atmosphere at 1700 km from our sampling sites. The monitoring breakdown structure (MBS) was applied to three sampling campaigns in 2006 (baseline) ➔ 2011–2012 (3 and 15 months after the volcanic event, respectively). We have on purpose enhanced the information variety endowment: (i) Seventy-one referenced sites were double sampled; (ii) up to 426 composite lichen samples were collected; (iii) twenty-six elements were measured by neutron activation analysis (As, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb, Zn) for samples of 2011 and 2012 campaigns; (iv) thirteen common elements (As, Ba, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, Na, Sb, Se, U, Zn) were determined in 2006 for the baseline comparison. The natural contamination by tephras is reflected by lichens more clearly in the 2011 campaign, where Ba, Cr, Na, Ca, Cs, and U showed higher median levels compared with the baseline campaign (2006). Ca, K, and Na were the most accumulated elements after the volcano event and could be associated with the volcanic ashes’ deposition. Rare earth elements (REEs) showed no significant bioaccumulation levels between 2011 and 2012, indicating their association with higher lithogenic inputs than volcanic ashes. Using the Earth’s crust as reference, nine elements (As, Ba, Br, Ca, K, Na, Sb, Se, and Zn) presented moderate/significant mean enrichment factor (EF) values (> 5). The usefulness of Usnea barbata as test species for direct biomonitoring oriented kinetic studies in areas characterized by a low human impact is confirmed. Eventually, our results confirm that TdF is not an actual pristine environment as earlier supposed. Keywords: Usnea barbata .Native lichens .Monitoringbreakdown structure(MBS) . Elements . Atmospheric deposition . Tierra del Fuego . Puyehue-Cordón Caulle volcano . Neutron activation analysis.
32828Norouzi H., Azizi A., Gholami M., Sohrabi M. & Boustie J. (2020): Chemotype variations among lichen ecotypes of Umbilicaria aprina as revealed by LC-ESI-MS/MS: a survey of antioxidant phenolics. - Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 27: 40296–40308. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-10053-2.
In the present study,we characterized the phytochemical properties, which were specifically associatedwith phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities in six distinct ecotypes of Umbilicaria aprina Nyl. from Iran (including Kivarestan, Mishan, Takht-e Nader, Tochal, Sabalan, and Sahand) to detect diversities within the species. Total phenolic concentration (TPC) and radical scavenging capacities of U. aprina ecotypes were evaluated. Moreover, qualitative differences between chemical profiles were surveyed using liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Relatively moderate TPCs (Kivarestan = 36.12 ± 2.1, Mishan = 41.59 ± 2.2, Takht-e Nader = 31.85 ± 1.3, Tochal = 37.55 ± 2.3, Sabalan = 28.91 ± 2.5, and Sahand = 31.59 ± 2.2) were observed for ecotypes, but a very strong correlation (r = −0/842) was obtained between TPCs and IC50 values. Based on the results of LC-ESI-MS/MS, the following chemical substanceswere identified: orsellinic acid (1), lecanoric acid (2), evernic acid (3), gyrophoric acid (4), umbilicaric acid (5), hiascic acid (6), stictic acid (7) methyl hiascic acid (8), and an unknown substance (9). The MS/MS fragmentation scheme for each substance was determined and proposed. Wide discrepancies were observed in the chemical profiles of lichen ecotypes, which may corroborate the influence of ecological locality conditions, for example, altitude and slope aspects on secondary metabolism of lichen species U. aprina. The northfacing and east-facing ecotypes (Sabalan and Mishan, respectively) lacked depsidones (stictic acid) mainly because they receive the least direct radiation. Mishan ecotype, as the only east-facing ecotype, showed the most different chemical profile. Keywords_ Umbilicaria aprina . Umbilicariaceae . Phytochemical profile . Phenolic . LC-ESI-MS/MS . Depsides . Ecological factors . Slope aspect.
32827Maheu J. & Werner R.-G. (1934b): Contribution a la flore lichenique de L\´Alsace. - Bulletin de la Société d'Histoire Naturelle de Colmar, n. s., 24(1933-1934): 51–85. .
France, Alsace
32826van der Pluijm A. (2020): Hyperphyscia lucida (Physciaceae, lichenized Ascomycota), a new species from willow forests in the Biesbosch, the Netherlands. - Lindbergia, 43: linbg.01138 [11 p.]. Doi: 10.25227/linbg.01138. .
Hyperphyscia lucida is described as a new lichen species from the Netherlands on morphological grounds. It most closely resembles H. adglutinata, but differs by a whiter grey thallus, confluent or laterally imbricate, mostly flat and closely appressed, shiny lobes, a transparent prothallus, and groups of laminal pustules that develop into finely granular to coarsely isidioid soredia. Hyperphyscia lucida was found in 2020 in an area of approximately 1 km2 in the freshwater tidal area the Biesbosch. Thalli were found on 14 Salix trees in the southwest of two ca 60-year-old willow forests, together with a. o. Hyperphyscia adglutinata (with apothecia), Phaeophyscia orbicularis, Xanthoria parietina and Hypnum cupressiforme. Further interesting companions include Porina byssophila, Physciella chloantha and Strangospora deplanata. Keywords: climate change, Hyperphysica, lichens, new species, phylogenetic, taxonomy.
32825Pineda Cáceres J., Morano Büchner S. & Vidal O.J. (2020): Catálogo de las colecciones de líquenes de la región de Magallanes y Antártica Chilena depositadas en el herbario del Instituto de la Patagonia (HIP) [Catalog of the collections of lichens of the Magallanes region (Chile) deposited in the herbarium of the Instituto de la Patagonia (HIP)]. - Anales del Instituto de la Patagonia, 48(1): 7–26. DOI: 10.4067/S0718-686X2020000100007. https://scielo.conicyt.cl/pdf/ainpat/v48n1/0718-686X-ainpat-48-01-7.pdf.
[in Spanish with English abstract: ] The lichen mycobiota of Magellan region is diverse but has been poorly studied. This situation can result in a low rating for this biodiversity and an inadequate management for the conservation of this group. A preliminary catalog of the lichen mycobiota of the Magallanes and Chilean Antarctic region was prepared from records deposited in the Herbarium of the Instituto de la Patagonia (HIP). The catalog includes information on habitat, collection locations, distribution in Chile, global distribution and record numbers of the 296 exsiccata examined. Taxonomical, geographical and ecological information is described for 100 taxa distributed in 3 classes, 9 orders, 19 families and 43 genera. The most diverse taxonomic orders were Lecanorales (Lecanoromycetes) with 24 genera and 51 taxa, and Peltigerales (Lecanoromycetes) with 9 genera and 37 taxa. These species represent collections made through a wide geographical and ecological range including four provincial districts (Magallanes, Tierra del Fuego, Última Esperanza and Chilean Antarctic), and ecosystems like steppes, shrubs, forests and Andean habitats. This information can contribute to improve and systematize the current knowledge of the lichen mycobiota of the southernmost region in Chile for management and conservation purposes. Keywords: herbarium; checklist; index herbariorum; Chile; lichen diversity.
32824Benatti M.N. & Honda N.K. (2020): Small Parmeliaceae (liquenized Ascomycota) of Ilhabela State Park and nearby areas, São Paulo state, Brazil. - Rodriguésia, 71: e00052019 [7 p.]. DOI: 10.1590/2175-78602020971106. https://www.scielo.br/pdf/rod/v71/2175-7860-rod-71-e00052019.pdf.
A survey of lichens at Ilhabela State Park and nearby areas in São Sebastião Island revealed the occurrence of 12 taxa belonging to six genera of small foliose Parmeliaceae, which are characterized by usually small thalli (hardly > 10 cm in diameter) with narrow lobes or laciniae less than 1 cm wide. Comments are provided for the species registered. Key words: Atlantic rainforest, lichens, mycobiota, restinga wood, São Sebastião Island.
32823Cantón N., Rodríguez J.M. & Estrabou C. (2020): La familia Parmeliaceae (Ascomycota liquenizados) en la provincia de La Rioja, Argentina [The Parmeliaceae family (lichenized Ascomycota) from La Rioja province, Argentina]. - Boletín de la Sociedad Argentina de Botánica, 55(2): 195–213. DOI: 10.31055/1851.2372.v55.n2.26451. http://www.scielo.org.ar/pdf/bsab/v55n2/v55n2a02.pdf.
[in Spanish with English summary: ] Background and aims: results of a taxonomic study on Parmeliaceae family (lichenized Ascomycota) from La Rioja province are presented, as part of a long time study to list and know the lichen biota from central - west of Argentina. M&M: an extensive collection was made in different phytogeographycal units and altitudinal belts in the main mountains chains of the province territory. The species were identified using morphological, anatomical and Chemical observations. Results & conclusions: forty one species were identified of which twenty nine are the first mention to La Rioja province and one species, Psiloparmelia arhizinosa is recorded for the first time for the country. Keys to genera and species were made and their distinctive characteristics together with the local distribution are mentioned. The identified species belong to the parmelioid clades Hypotrachyna, Parmotrema, and Xanthoparmelia; and to the non-parmelioid lichens clades Psiloparmelia and Usnea. Key words: Argentina, distribution, parmelioid lichens, taxonomy.
32822Hongsanan S., Hyde K.D., Phookamsak R., Wanasinghe D.N., McKenzie E.H.C., Sarma V.V., Boonmee S., Lücking R., Bhat D.J., Liu N.G., Tennakoon D.S., Pem D., Karunarathna A., Jiang S.H., Jones E.B.G., Phillips A.J.L., Manawasinghe I.S., Tibpromma S., Jayasiri S.C., Sandamali D.S., Jayawardena R.S., Wijayawardene N.N., Ekanayaka A.H., Jeewon R., Lu Y.Z., Dissanayake A.J., Zeng X.Y., Luo Z.L., Tian Q., Phukhamsakda C., Thambugala K.M., Dai D.Q., Chethana K.W.T., Samarakoon M.C., Ertz D., Bao D.F., Doilom M., Liu J.K., Pérez-Ortega S., Suija A., Senwanna C., Wijesinghe S.N., Konta S., Niranjan M., Zhang S.N., Ariyawansa H.A., Jiang H.B., Zhang J.F., Norphanphoun C., de Silva N.I., Thiyagaraja V., Zhang H., Bezerra J.D.P., Miranda-González R., Aptroot A., Kashiwadani H., Harishchandra D., Sérusiaux E., Aluthmuhandiram J.V.S., Abeywickrama P.D., Devadatha B., Wu HX, Moon K.H., Gueidan C., Schumm F., Bundhun D., Mapook A., Monkai J., Chomnunti P., Suetrong S., Chaiwan N., Dayarathne M.C., Yang J., Rathnayaka A.R., Bhunjun C.S., Xu J.C., Zheng J.S., Liu G., Feng Y. & Xie N. (2020): Refined families of Dothideomycetes: Dothideomycetidae and Pleosporomycetidae. - Mycosphere, 11(1): 1553–2107. Doi: 10.5943/mycosphere/11/1/13. http://mycosphere.org/pdf/MYCOSPHERE_11_1_13.pdf.
The class Dothideomycetes is the largest and most ecologically diverse class of fungi, comprising endophytes, epiphytes, saprobes, human and plant pathogens, lichens, and lichenicolous, nematode trapping and rock-inhabiting taxa. Members of this class are mainly characterized by bitunicate asci with fissitunicate dehiscence, and occur on broad range of hosts in aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Since the last monograph of families of Dothideomycetes in 2013, numerous novel species, genera, families and orders have been discovered. This has expanded information which has led to the modern classification in Dothideomycetes. In this paper, we provide a refined updated document on families of Dothideomycetes with emphasis on Dothideomycetidae and Pleosporomycetidae. We accept three orders with 25 families and four orders with 94 families in Dothideomycetidae and Pleosporomycetidae, respectively. The new family Paralophiostomataceae is introduced in Pleosporales. Each family is provided with an updated description, notes, including figures to represent the morphology, list of accepted genera, and economic and ecological significances. We also provide an overall phylogenetic tree of families in Dothideomycetes based on combined analysis of LSU, SSU, rpb-2 and tef1 sequence data, and phylogenetic trees for each order in Dothideomycetidae and Pleosporomycetidae. Family-level trees are provided for the families which include several genera such as Mycosphaerellaceae and Teratosphaeriaceae. Two new genera (Ligninsphaeriopsis and Paralophiostoma) are introduced. Five new species (Biatrisopora borsei, Comoclathris galatellae, Ligninsphaeriopsis thailandica, Paralophiostoma hysterioides and Torula thailandica) are introduced based on morphology and phylogeny, together with nine new reports and seven new collections from different families. Key words – 6 new taxa – Capnodiales – Dothideales –Gloniales – Hysteriales – Myriangiales – Mytilinidiales – new family – new genera – new species – Pleosporales – Phylogeny – Taxonomy.
32821Eldridge D.J., Reed S., Travers S.K., Bowker M.A., Maestre F.T., Ding J., Havrilla C., Rodriguez‐Caballero E., Barger N., Weber B., Antoninka A., Belnap J., Chaudhary B., Faist A., Ferrenberg S., Huber‐Sannwald E., Malam Issa O. & Zhao Y. (2020): The pervasive and multifaceted influence of biocrusts on water in the world's drylands. - Global Change Biology, 26(10): 6003–6014. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.15232.
The capture and use of water are critically important in drylands, which collectively constitute Earth's largest biome. Drylands will likely experience lower and more unreliable rainfall as climatic conditions change over the next century. Dryland soils support a rich community of microphytic organisms (biocrusts), which are critically important because they regulate the delivery and retention of water. Yet despite their hydrological significance, a global synthesis of their effects on hydrology is lacking. We synthesized 2,997 observations from 109 publications to explore how biocrusts affected five hydrological processes (times to ponding and runoff, early [sorptivity] and final [infiltration] stages of water flow into soil, and the rate or volume of runoff) and two hydrological outcomes (moisture storage, sediment production). We found that increasing biocrust cover reduced the time for water to pond on the surface (−40%) and commence runoff (−33%), and reduced infiltration (−34%) and sediment production (−68%). Greater biocrust cover had no significant effect on sorptivity or runoff rate/amount, but increased moisture storage (+14%). Infiltration declined most (−56%) at fine scales, and moisture storage was greatest (+36%) at large scales. Effects of biocrust type (cyanobacteria, lichen, moss, mixed), soil texture (sand, loam, clay), and climatic zone (arid, semiarid, dry subhumid) were nuanced. Our synthesis provides novel insights into the magnitude, processes, and contexts of biocrust effects in drylands. This information is critical to improve our capacity to manage dwindling dryland water supplies as Earth becomes hotter and drier. Keywords: biological soil crust; bryophyte; cryptogam; cyanobacteria; hydrological cycle; infiltration; lichen; sediment production; soil hydrology; soil moisture.
32820Liepa L., Rendenieks Z., Jansons Ā., Straupe I., Dubrovskis E. & Miezīte O. (2020): The persisting influence of edge on vegetation in hemiboreal Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. swamp forest set-asides adjacent to recently disturbed stands. - Forests, 11: 1084 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/f11101084.
To increase set-aside areas and protect biodiversity values in managed hemiboreal forest landscapes, small forest parcels called Woodland Key Habitats have been designated in Baltic and Nordic countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the persisting influence of the edge on vegetation dynamics for young, medium-old and old edges in Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. Woodland Key Habitats. All of these edges are adjacent to recently disturbed (clear-cut) stands. We surveyed edge influence on vegetation in bryophyte, herbaceous, shrub and tree layers in 90 plots in 30 set-aside forest stands in Southern Latvia. We tested the differences in the number of species and projective coverage in all vegetation layers, but plant functional types were examined—separately in the herbaceous layer. We found that edge influence in protected forest stands of A. glutinosa swamp forests reflects strong changes in vegetation and plant functional types in the herbaceous layer mostly up to 20 years after clear-cut disturbance in adjacent stands. The greatest differences were between young edges (≤20 years) and old edges (≥41 years), but there were very few significant differences between medium-old (21–40 years) and old edges which signifies more rapid changes in the early stages of edge influence and gradual stabilization of vegetation later on. We found that in edges adjacent to recently disturbed stands (up to 20 years), significantly less rare and indicator epiphytic lichen species occur, but this occurrence increases over time and edge influence is no longer present beyond 20 years after disturbance. Changes in vegetation and species occurrence found in our study indicated the need to plan the allocation of set-aside patches in production forest landscapes to ensure connectivity over longer period of time. Careful planning of clear-cuts in neighboring areas over time can significantly reduce the impact of edge effect on these set-asides. Keywords: black alder; hemiboreal forests; epiphytic lichens; plant functional types; clear-cut edges; edge effect.
32819Khodosovtsev A.Ye. & Darmostuk V.V. (2020): Records of lichen species new for Ukraine from steppe habitats of the country. - Botanica Serbica, 44(2): 243–250. Doi: 10.2298/BOTSERB2002243K. https://botanicaserbica.bio.bg.ac.rs/arhiva/pdf/2020_44_2_779_full.pdf.
The lichens Arthonia cretacea, Bacidia viridescens, Candelariella blastidiata, C. xanthostigmoides, Enchylium bachmanianum, Haematomma nemetzii, Lecania triseptata, Lecidea sarcogynoides, Ramalina europaea, Sarcogyne praetermissa and Xanthocarpia diffusa are reported for the first time from Ukraine. Xanthocarpia interfulgens is confirmed from an arid Ukrainian landscape. Locations, herbarium deposits and substrates are given, together with notes on worldwide distribution of the reported taxa and morphological differences from similar species. Keywords: Arthonia, Bacidia, Candelariella, Enchylium, Haematomma, Lecania, Lecidea, Ramalina, Sarcogyne, Xanthocarpia, loess, granite, limestone, bark.
32818Puvar A.C., Nathani N.M., Shaikh I., Bhatt A.D., Bhargava P., Joshi C.G. & Joshi M.N. (2020): Bacterial line of defense in Dirinaria lichen from two different ecosystems: First genomic insights of its mycobiont Dirinaria sp. GBRC AP01. - Microbiological Research, 233: 126407 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micres.2019.126407.
Lichens have been widely studied for their symbiotic properties and for the secondary metabolites production by its fungal symbiont. Recent molecular studies have confirmed coexistence of bacteria along with the fungal and algal symbionts. Direct nucleic acid study by -omics approaches is providing better insights into their structural and functional dynamics. However, genomic analysis of individual members of lichen is difficult by the conventional approach. Hence, genome assembly from metagenome data needs standardization in the eukaryotic system like lichens. The present study aimed at metagenomic characterization of rock associated lichen Dirinaria collected from Kutch and Dang regions of Gujarat, followed by genome reconstruction and annotation of the mycobiont Dirinaria. The regions considered in the study are eco-geographically highly variant. The results revealed higher alpha diversity in the dry region Kutch as compared to the tropical forest associated lichen from Dang. Ascomycota was the most abundant eukaryote while Proteobacteria dominated the bacterial population. There were 23 genera observed only in the Kutch lichen (KL) and one genus viz., Candidatus Vecturithrix unique to the Dang lichen (DL). The exclusive bacterial genera in the Kutch mostly belonged to groups reported for stress tolerance and earlier isolated from lithobionts of extreme niches. The assembled data of KL & DL were further used for genome reconstruction of Dirinaria sp. using GC and tetra-pentamer parameters and reassembly that resulted into a final draft genome of 31.7 Mb and 9556 predicted genes. Twenty-eight biosynthesis gene clusters were predicted that included genes for polyketide, indole and terpene synthesis. Association analysis of bacteria and mycobiont revealed 8 pathways specific to bacteria with implications in lichen symbiosis and environment interaction. The study provides the first draft genome of the entire fungal Dirinaria genus and provides insights into the Dirinaria lichen metagenome from Gujarat region. Keywords: Lichen; Dirinaria; Genome reconstruction; Metagenomics; Symbiosis.
32817Kuusinen N., Juola J., Karki B., Stenroos S. & Rautiainen M. (2020): A spectral analysis of common boreal ground lichen species. - Remote Sensing of Environment, 247: 111955 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2020.111955.
Lichens dominate a significant part of the Earth's land surface, and are valuable bioindicators of various environmental changes. In the northern hemisphere, the largest lichen biomass is in the woodlands and heathlands of the boreal zone and in tundra. Despite the global coverage of lichens, there has been only limited research on their spectral properties in the context of remote sensing of the environment. In this paper, we report spectral properties of 12 common boreal lichen species. Measurements of reflectance spectra were made in laboratory conditions with a standard spectrometer (350–2500 nm) and a novel mobile hyperspectral camera (400–1000 nm) which was used in a multiangular setting. Our results show that interspecific differences in reflectance spectra were the most pronounced in the ultraviolet and visible spectral range, and that dry samples always had higher reflectance than fresh (moist) samples in the shortwave infrared region. All study species had higher reflectance in the backward scattering direction compared to nadir or forward scattering directions. Our results also reveal, for the first time, that there is large intraspecific variation in reflectance of lichen species. This emphasizes the importance of measuring several replicates of each species when analyzing lichen spectra. In addition, we used the data in a spectral clustering analysis to study the spectral similarity between samples and species, and how these similarities could be linked to different physical traits or phylogenetic closeness of the species. Overall, our results suggest that spectra of some lichen species with large ground coverage can be used for species identification from high spatial resolution remote sensing imagery. On the other hand, for lichen species growing as small assemblages, mobile hyperspectral cameras may offer a solution for in-situ species identification. The spectral library collected in this study is available in the SPECCHIO Spectral Information System. Keywords: Cetraria; Cladonia; Hyperspectral; Multiangular; Reflectance spektra; Stereocaulon.
32816Malíček J., Palice Z., Vondrák J. & Tønsberg T. (2020): Japewia aliphatica (Lecanoraceae, lichenized Ascomycota), a new acidophilous, sorediate-blastidiate lichen from Europe. - Phytotaxa, 461(1): 21–30. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.461.1.3.
Japewia aliphatica is described as a new species. It is characterized by the usually brown, often areolate, blastidiate to sorediate- blastidiate, rarely fertile thallus containing unknown fatty acid(s). It grows on acidic bark of broad-leaved trees in mainly in montane forests, and is known from Austria, the Czech Republic, Germany, Norway, Russia (European part of the Caucasus), Slovakia and Ukraine. The new species is well characterized by its morphological, chemical and molecular (nrITS, mtSSU) traits. Systematic placement of Japewia is briefly discussed and its position within Lecanoraceae confirmed. Keywords: Aliphatic acids, montane forests, sterile lichens.
32815Song Y., Yu Z., Song B., Guo S., Lei L., Ma X. & Su Y. (2018): Usnic acid inhibits hypertrophic scarring in a rabbit ear model by suppressing scar tissue angiogenesis. - Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, 108: 524–530. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2018.06.176.
Hypertrophic scarring is a common condition in the Chinese population; however, there are currently no satisfactory drugs to treat the disorder. Previous studies showed that angiogenesis plays an important role in the early phase of hypertrophic scarring and inhibition of angiogenesis has been reported as an effective strategy for anti-hypertrophic scar therapy. A recent study showed that usnic acid (UA), an active compound found mainly in lichens, inhibited tumor angiogenesis both in vivo and in vitro. To investigate the therapeutic effects of UA on hypertrophic scarring and to explore the possible mechanism involved, a rabbit ear hypertrophic scar model was established. Scars were treated once a week for four weeks with UA, DMSO or triamcinolone acetonide acetate. Histological evaluation of hematoxylin and eosin staining indicated that UA significantly inhibited hypertrophic scar formation, with obvious reductions in scar height and coloration. The scar elevation index (SEI) was also evidently reduced. Masson’s trichrome staining showed that UA significantly ameliorated accumulation of collagen tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis of CD31 expression showed that UA significantly inhibited scar angiogenesis. In vitro, UA inhibited endothelial cell migration and tube formation as well as the proliferation of both human umbilical vein endothelial cells and scar fibroblast cells. These results provide the first evidence of the therapeutic effectiveness of UA in hypertrophic scar formation in an animal model via a mechanism that involves suppression of scar angiogenesis. Keywords: Usnic acid; Hypertrophic scar; Angiogenesis.
32814Syed Zameer Ahmed K., Sidhra S.Z.A., Thangakumar A. & Krishnaveni R. (2019): Therapeutic effect of Parmotrema tinctorum against complete Freund’s adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats and identification of novel Isophthalic ester derivative. - Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, 112: 108646 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2019.108646.
The present study reveals the anti-arthritic potential of traditionally used Parmotrema tinctorum (Pt) on experimental rats and purification of novel Isophthalic ester derivative. Arthritis was induced in rats using Freund’s complete adjuvant (CFA) and subsequently treated with Pt extract (100 & 200 mg/kg.b.w). Assessment of antiarthritic activity was carried out using paw volume, arthritic score, haematological, biochemical, tissue antioxidant, histopathology and radiological analyses of ankle joints. The results revealed that continuous administration of Pt reduces the complication associated with arthritis by inhibiting the edema formation and arthritic score significantly (P < 0.05). The altered changes in biochemical parameters were brought back with an improvement in free radical scavenging ability after treatment with Pt significantly. Further purification of Pt using conventional column chromatography led to the isolation of four compounds and the structure of these isolated compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectral data’s FTIR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, DEPT-NMR spectroscopy, COSY & HSQC-NMR spectroscopy and LC–MS. The spectral data revealed that the three compounds were found to be Methyl-γ-Orsellinate, Atranorin, and usnic acid (CIIII) along with a novel secondary metabolite, (C-IV)4-Hydroxy-5-methyl-isophthalicacid3-(3,4-dihydroxy-5- methyl-phenyl)ester (C16H14O7,318.1amu). The present study reveals that Parmotrema tinctorum reduces complications associated with arthritis and the compounds were isolated for the first time. Keywords: Isolation; Arthritis; Freund’s complete adjuvant (CFA); Inflammatory; Lichen.
32813Syed Zameer Ahmed K., Sidhra S.Z.A., Kisore P.V., Kamaraj C. & Sanjeeva N. (2018): Larvicidal potential of selected indigenous lichens against three mosquito species–Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi. - Chinese Herbal Medicines, 10: 152–156. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chmed.2018.03.002.
Mosquitoes are the major transmitting vectors of serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year with undesirable effects, including toxicity to non-target organisms. Some plants with insecticidal properties have been used in recent years for the control of a variety of pest insects and vectors. In the quest for alternative natural biological control agents against mosquito larvae lichens were selected. Method: Larvicidal activity was assessed with methanolic extracts of Parmotrema reticulatum, Parmotrema kamatti, Parmotrema tinctorum, Parmelia erumpens, Leptogium papilosum , and Roccella montagnei against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi , and Culex quinquefasciatus . The standard WHO protocols with minor modifications were adopted and the bioassay was evaluated at the concentrations of 10 0–50 0 μg/mL for each lichen. Since all the lichen extracts showed complete mortality against C. quinquefasciatus in 100 μg/mL, the concentrations were decreased to 100, 50, 25, 12.5, and 6.25 μg/mL for C. quinquefasciatus . Larval mortality was observed for 24 h after treatment. Results: All the lichen extracts exhibited activity against third instar larvae of A. aegypti and A. stephensi at 100 μg/mL, and 100% mortality was observed against the vector C. quinquefasciatus at 100 μg/mL. The highest larvicidal activity was found with L. papilosum against A. aegypti (LC 50 = 81.127 μg/mL) and A. stephensi (LC 50 = 89.10 μg/mL). Similarly, P. tinctorum and R. montagnei when tested against C. quinque-fasciatus with minimum concentration < 100 μg/mL exhibited significant activity with LC 50 values of 5.32 and 6.97 μg/mL. Conclusion: The bioassay results revealed larvicidal potential of lichens especially against C. quinque-fasciatus with high mortality even at lower concentration. Hence, lichens can be used as an ideal sustainable approach for the control of lymphatic filariasis caused by vector C. quinquefasciatus. Keywords: larvicidal; lichen; mortality; mosquito; vectors.
32812Zacharski D.M., Esch S., König S., Mormann M., Brandt S., Ulrich-Merzenich G. & Hensel A. (2018): β-1,3/1,4-Glucan Lichenan from Cetraria islandica (L.) ACH. induces cellular differentiation of human keratinocytes. - Fitoterapia, 129: 226–236. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2018.07.010.
Lichenan (molecular weight 275 kDa, β-D-1,3/1,4-glucopyranose ratio 1:3) from Cetraria islandica at a concentration of 100 μg/mL induced terminal cellular differentiation of primary human keratinocytes as demonstrated by immunofluorescence staining using cytokeratin 10 and involucrin as marker proteins. Lichenan-derived oligosaccharides (DP3 to 8), obtained by acid-catalyzed partial hydrolysis of the polymer, did not influence cellular differentiation. Cytokeratin, filaggrin, involucrin, loricrin and transglutaminase gene expression as typical differentiation markers was increased by lichenan in a time-dependent manner. Lichenan upregulated gene cluster which were mostly related to cellular differentiation with focus on MAPK signaling as was shown by Whole Human Genome Microarray. These gene expression data from the array experiments were subsequently confirmed by qPCR for selected genes. For identification of the molecular binding structures of lichenan 1- and 2- D PAGE of keratinocyte protein membrane preparations was performed, followed by blotting with FITC-labeled lichenan and subsequent mass spectrometric identification of the pinpointed proteins. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and integrin β4, both proteins being strongly involved in induction of keratinocyte differentiation were identified. In addition, protein disulfide isomerase A3 (PDIA3) showed strong binding to FITClichenan, indicating this enzyme to be an intracellular target of the glucan for induction of the cellular differentiation of keratinocytes. As lichenan did not influence the EGFR phosphorylation and the phosphorylation of CREB transcription factor but strongly interacted with cytosolic proteins it is hypothized that the glucan may interact with EGFR and is subsequently internalized into the cell via endosomal uptake, interacting with PDIA3, which again alters TGFβ1 signaling towards keratinocyte differentiation. Keywords: Lichenan; Keratinocytes; Differentiation; Involucrin; Keratin; Microarray.
32811Schinkovitz A., Le Pogam P., Derbré S., Roy-Vessieres E., Blanchard P., Thirumaran S.-L., Breard D., Aumond M.-C., Zehl M., Urban E., Kaur A., Jäger N., Hofer S., Kopp B., Stuppner H., Baglin I., Seraphin D., Tomasi S., Henrion D., Boustie J. & Richomme P. (2018): Secondary metabolites from lichen as potent inhibitors of advanced glycation end products and vasodilative agents. - Fitoterapia, 131: 182–188. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2018.10.015.
Secondary metabolites from lichens are known for exhibiting various biological effects such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antibacterial activities. Despite this wide range of reported biological effects, their impact on the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) remains vastly unexplored. The latter are known contributors to lifestyle and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer and Parkinson. Moreover, the development of atherosclerosis and arterial stiffness is causally linked to the formation of AGEs. With this in mind, the present work evaluated the inhibitory effects of secondary lichen metabolites on the formation of pentosidine- like AGEs' by using an in vitro, Maillard reaction based, fluorescence assay. Overall, thirty-seven natural and five synthetically modified compounds were tested, eighteen of which exhibiting IC50 values in the range of 0.05 to 0.70 mM. This corresponds to 2 to 32 fold of the inhibitory activity of aminoguanidine. Targeting one major inhibiting mechanism of AGEs formation, all compounds were additionally evaluated on their radical scavenging capacities in an DPPH assay. Furthermore, as both AGEs' formation and hypertension are major risk factors for atherosclerosis, compounds that were available in sufficient amounts were also tested for their vasodilative effects. Overall, and though some of the active compounds were previously reported cytotoxic, present results highlight the interesting potential of secondary lichen metabolites as anti-AGEs and vasodilative agents. Keywords: Inhibition of Advanced Glycation End Products; Maillard reaction; Radical scavenging; Lichen metabolites; Vasodilation.
32810Zheng K.-X., Jiang Y., Jiang J.-X., Huang R., He J. & Wu S.-H. (2019): A new phthalazinone derivative and a new isoflavonoid glycoside from lichen-associated Amycolatopsis sp.. - Fitoterapia, 135: 85–89. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2019.04.011.
A new phthalazinone derivative, named amycophthalazinone A (1), and a new isoflavonoid glycoside, 7-Omethyl- 5-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosylgenestein (2), along with an isoflavonoid glycoside, 7-O-α-D-arabinofuranosyl daidzein (3) firstly found from natural sources, and eight known compounds (4–11), were isolated from the culture broth of the lichen-associated Amycolatopsis sp. YIM 130642. The structures of new compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. Compound 1 was the first example of naturally occurring phthalazinone derivative. The antimicrobial activities of all compounds towards five pathogenic strains were evaluated by a broth microdilution assay. Compound 1 exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, and Candida albicans with MIC values of 32, 32, and 64 μg/mL, respectively. Keywords: Amycolatopsis; Lichen; Phthalazinone; Isoflavonoid; Antimicrobial activity.
32809Sweidan A., Smida I., Chollet-Krugler M., Sauvager A., Vallet J., Gouault N., Oliviero N., Tamanai-Shacoori Z., Burel A., van de Weghe P., Chokr A., Tomasi S. & Bousarghin L. (2019): Lichen butyrolactone derivatives disrupt oral bacterial membrane. - Fitoterapia, 137: 104274 [8 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2019.104274.
We have previously demonstrated that out of the butyrolactones series synthesized based on the natural lichen metabolite lichesterinic acid, compound (B-13) was the most effective against oral bacteria. However, its antibacterial mechanism is still unknown. In this study, we have investigated its bacterial localization by synthesizing a fluorescently labeled B-13 with NBD while maintaining its antibacterial activity. We showed that this compound binds to Streptococcus gordonii cell surface, as demonstrated by HPLC analysis. By adhering to cell surface, B-13 induced cell wall disruption leading to the release of bacterial constituents and consequently, the death of S. gordonii, a Gram-positive bacterium. A Gram-negative counterpart, Porphyromanas gingivalis, showed also cracked and ruptured cells in the presence of B-13. Besides, we also demonstrated that the analog of B-13, B-12, has also induced disruption of P. gingivalis and S. gordonii. This study revealed that butyrolactones can be considered as potent antibacterial compounds against oral pathogens causing medical complications. Keywords: Lichen; Butyrolactone; Streptococcus gordonii; Porphyromanas gingivalis; Cell wall.
32808Nguyen V.-K., Genta-Jouve G., Duong T.-H., Beniddir M.A., Gallarde J.-F., Ferron S., Boustie J., Mouray E., Grellier P., Chavasiri W. & Le Pogam P. (2020): Eumitrins C-E: Structurally diverse xanthone dimers from the vietnamese lichen Usnea baileyi. - Fitoterapia, 141: 104449 [8 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2019.104449.
Three new xanthone dimers, eumitrins C − E (1–3), along with a new depsidone, 3′-O-demethylcryptostictinolide (4) were isolated from the acetone extract of the whole thallus of the lichen Usnea baileyi collected in Vietnam. Their structures were unambiguously established by spectroscopic analyses (HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR), as well as comparison to literature data. The absolute configurations of 1–3 were elucidated through electronic circular dichroism (ECD) analyses. The absolute configuration of 2 was validated by comparison between experimental and TDDFT-calculated ECD spectra while that of 3 was based on DFT-NMR calculations and subsequent DP4 probability score. The antiparasitic activities against Plasmodium falciparum as well as the cytotoxic activity against seven cell lines were determined for the new compounds 1–3, and led from null to mild bioactivities.
32807Duong T.-H., Nguyen H.-H., Le T.-T., Tran T.-N., Sichaem J., Nguyen T.-T., Nguyen T.-P., Mai D.-T., Nguyen H.-H. & Le H.-D. (2020): Subnudatones A and B, new trans-decalin polyketides from the cultured lichen mycobionts of Pseudopyrenula subnudata. - Fitoterapia, 142: 104512 [5 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2020.104512.
Chemical investigation of the cultured polyspore-derived mycobionts of a Pseudopyrenula subnudata lichen led to the isolation of two new compounds, subnudatones A and B (1 and 2), together with four known compounds, 1- (2-hydroxy-1,2,6-trimethyl-1,2,4a,5,6,7,8,8a-octahydronaphthalen-1-yl)ethanone (3), libertalide C (4), aspermytin A (5), and 6,7-dimethoxy-4-hydroxymellin (6). Their chemical structures were elucidated by extensive 1D and 2D NMR analysis and high resolution mass spectroscopy, and comparisons were made with the literature. The absolute configuration of 1 was defined unambiguously using single crystal X-ray crystallography. Compound 1 represents the first dimeric decalin polyketide to be found in nature. The in vitro cytotoxicity of 1 against two cancer cell lines (K562 and MCF-7) was evaluated. Compound 1 showed moderate cytotoxic activity with IC50 values of 23.5 ± 1.0 and 51.9 ± 1.4 μM, respectively. Keywords: Pseudopyrenula subnudata; Subnadatones A and B; trans-decalin polyketide; Cytotoxicity.
32806Tuong T.L., Do L.T.M., Aree T., Wonganan P. & Chavasiri W. (2020): Tetrahydroxanthone–chromanone heterodimers from lichen Usnea aciculifera and their cytotoxic activity against human cancer cell lines. - Fitoterapia, 147: 104732 [7 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2020.104732.
Four new tetrahydroxanthone–chromanone heterodimers, usneaxanthones E–H (1–4) together with eleven known compounds (5–15) were isolated from lichen Usnea aciculifera Vain (Parmeliaceae). Their structures and absolute configurations, particularly the central and axial chiralities, were unambiguously demonstrated by a combination of spectroscopic data (1D, 2D NMR, HRESIMS), electronic circular dichroism (ECD) experiments, and single-crystal X-ray crystallographic analyses. The cytotoxicity of new compounds was evaluated on four human cancer cell lines including HCT116 colorectal cancer, MCF-7 breast cancer, A549 lung cancer, and OVCAR-3 ovarian cancer. Compounds 1–4 exhibited good cytotoxicity against all tested cancer cell lines, except ovarian cancer, with the best IC50 value of 3.37 μM. All compounds showed potent cytotoxicity against HCT116 colon cancer with IC50 value from 3.37 to 4.53 μM. Keywords: Usnea aciculifera; Dimeric xanthones; Tetrahydroxanthone chromanone heterodimers; Usneaxanthones E–H; Cytotoxicity.
32805Tuong T.L., Aree T., Do L.T.M., Nguyen P.K.P., Wonganan P. & Chavasiri W. (2019): Dimeric tetrahydroxanthones from the lichen Usnea aciculifera. - Fitoterapia, 137: 104194 [7 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2019.104194.
Four unusual heterodimeric tetrahydroxanthones, usneaxanthones A–D (1–4) were isolated from lichen Usnea aciculifera Vain (Parmeliaceae). Their structures and absolute configurations, particularly the central and axial chiralities, were unambiguously demonstrated by a combination of spectroscopic data (1D, 2D NMR, HRESIMS), electronic circular dichroism (ECD) experiments, and single-crystal X-ray crystallographic analyses. Cytotoxic effects of isolated compounds (1, 2 and 4) were evaluated on HT–29 human colorectal cancer cells. Compound 4 showed potent cytotoxicity against HT–29 with IC50 values of 2.41 μM. Keywords: Usnea aciculifera; Dimeric xanthones; Tetrahydroxanthone; Usneaxanthones A–D; Cytotoxicity.
32804Londoñe-Bailon P., Sánchez-Robinet C. & Alvarez-Guzman G. (2019): In vitro antibacterial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of methanol-acetone extracts from Antarctic lichens (Usnea antarctica and Usnea aurantiaco-atra). - Polar Science, 22: 100477 [7 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polar.2019.08.003.
The lichens are symbiotic organisms, synthesize a great variety of chemically complex. Natural and potential source of bioactive compounds. U. antarctica and U. aurantiaco-atra were collected during 23rd Peruvian Scientific Expedition (ANTAR XXIII–2015) from the Antarctic Scientific Station “Machu Picchu” and were transferred to the ITP for processing. The samples were dried and grounded, after that, an extraction with acetone (1:10 w/v) also with methanol (1:10 w/v) was performed. Both extracts were mixed and vacuumed dried (30 °C). A methanol-acetone extract (MAE) from each lichen was obtained. MAE from U. antarctica showed a major concentration of total phenols (22.80 ± 0.08 mg GA/g MAE) than U. aurantiaco-atra (19.42 ± 0.32 mg GA/g MAE). Besides, U. antarctica exhibited a superior value of inhibition of ABTS•+ radical (89.05 ± 0.01 μmol TE/g MAE) than U. aurantiaco-atra (79.84 ± 0.09 μmol TE/g MAE). The antibacterial activity of MAEs against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 14775, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and Vibrio alginolyticus ATCC 17749 was performed however was only demonstrated against S. aureus. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was evaluated, U. antarctica and U. aurantiaco-atra exhibited 94.76% and 98.43%, respectively of inhibition bacterial growth at 31.25 μg/mL of MIC value. MAE of U. antarctica (IC50 = 169.64 μg/mL) and U. aurantiaco-atra (IC50 = 270.82 μg/mL).
32803Zhao X., Zhu J., Wang L., Li Y., Zhao T., Chen X., Sun Y., Dai Y., Wei G., Altamirano A., Zhang T. & Yan Z. (2019): U. diffracta extract mitigates high fat diet and VD3-induced atherosclerosis and biochemical changes in the serum liver and aorta of rats. - Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy, 120: 109446 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2019.109446.
Background and aims: Usnea diffracta Vain. (U. diffracta) belonging to the Usnea genus, is widely used as a folk medicine for the treatment of ulcer, abdominal pain, diarrhea, malaria and so on. However, the antiatherogenic effect of U. diffracta has not yet been reported. This study aims to investigate the antiatherogenic effects of the ethanol extract of U. diffracta and its mechanism. Method: A high fat diet and VD3 were used to establish the atherosclerotic rat model, with 0.004 g/kg/d of simvastatin as a positive control, fed with 0.7, 1.4, and 2.8 g/kg/d of Usnea ethanol extract for 21 days. The blood, liver, and aorta samples from each rat were collected after the last administration. Pharmacodynamic effects were evaluated. The inflammation related factors, the gene expressions of Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5), myeloid differentiating factor 88 (MyD88), and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) were detected. Results and conclusions: Compared with the model group, simvastatin and ethanol extract of U. diffracta can significantly reduce the serum levels of triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), Ca2+, AST, ALT, the liver contents of total cholesterol (TC), TG, AI and liver index, as well as significantly increase the contents of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) both in serum and liver (p < 0.01 or p < 0.05). The serum level of ox-LDL can be significantly reduced by simvastatin, low and medium U. diffracta ethanol extract doses (p < 0.01). In addition, simvastatin and low dosage of U. diffracta ethanol extract can significantly reduce the liver content of LDL-C (p < 0.01). U. diffracta ethanol extract shows a positive antiatherogenic effect. Furthermore, the mechanism may be related to promoting the expression of serum IL-10 and inhibition of TLR5/ NF-κB signaling pathway. Keywords: Ethanol extract of U. diffracta; Atherosclerosis; Inflammation-related factor; Gene expression.
32802Degtjarenko P., Mark K., Moisejevs R., Himelbrant D., Stepanchikova I., Tsurykau A., Randlane T. & Scheidegger C. (2020): Low genetic differentiation between apotheciate Usnea florida and sorediate Usnea subfloridana (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) based on microsatellite data. - Fungal Biology, 124(10): 892–902. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.funbio.2020.07.007.
Accurate species delimitation has a pivotal role in conservation biology, and it is especially important for threatened species where decisions have political and economic consequences. Finding and applying appropriate character sets and analytical tools to resolve interspecific relationships remains challenging in lichenized fungi. The main aim of our study was to re-assess the species boundaries between Usnea subfloridana and Usnea florida, which have been phylogenetically indistinguishable until now, but are different in reproductive mode and ecological preferences, using fungal-specific simple sequence repeats (SSR), i.e. microsatellite markers. Bayesian clustering analysis, discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC), minimal spanning network (MSN), and principal component analysis (PCA) failed to separate U. florida and U. subfloridana populations. However, a low significant differentiation between the two taxa was observed across all populations according to AMOVA results. Also, analysis of shared haplotypes and statistical difference in clonal diversity (M) supported the present-day isolation between the apotheciate U. florida and predominantly sorediate U. subfloridana. Our results do not provide a clear support either for the separation of species in this pair or the synonymization of U. florida and U. subfloridana. We suggest that genome-wide data could help resolve the taxonomic question in this species pair. Keywords: Species pair; Lichens; Lichenized fungi; Species boundaries; Conservation; Speciation process.
32801Myllys L., Stenroos S. & Ahti T. (2020): Orvo Vitikainen, an 80th birthday tribute. - Graphis Scripta, 32(4): 63–65. http://nhm2.uio.no/botanisk/lav/Graphis/32_4/GS_32_63.pdf.
32800Jørgensen P.M. (2020): Notes on Wahlenberg’s names in ‘Methodus Lichenum’ by E. Acharius. - Graphis Scripta, 32(4): 66–69. http://nhm2.uio.no/botanisk/lav/Graphis/32_4/GS_32_66.pdf.
The correct author citation of G. Wahlenberg’s new names of lichen taxa published in E. Acharius’ ‘Methodus Lichenum’ (1803) is discussed, and it is pointed out that Acharius in the preface clearly indicated that Wahlenberg is the author of these names, so the correct citation is Wahlenb. in Ach.
32799Timdal E., Westberg M., Haugan R., Hofton T.H., Holien H., Speed J.D.M., Tønsberg T. & Bendiksby M. (2020): Integrative taxonomy reveals a new species, Nephroma orvoi, in the N. parile species complex (lichenized Ascomycota). - Graphis Scripta, 32(4): 70–85. http://nhm2.uio.no/botanisk/lav/Graphis/32_4/GS_32_70.pdf.
Our knowledge of the diversity and distribution of many groups of lichens remains poor due to unclear species boundaries and challenging species identification. We have studied the medium sized to large foliose lichen Nephroma parile, which is known to be heterogeneous in chemistry and genetics. Our aim has been to assess the potential presence of evolutionary significant units within the Nephroma parile species complex that may be worthy of recognition at species level. Using phylogenetic analysis of the fungal DNA-barcode marker (ITS) in combination with studies of morphology and chemistry, we discover two distinct lineages in the N. parile species complex. For the strongly supported clade that corresponds to chemotype II, we describe the new species Nephroma orvoi. The new species is known from Norway, Sweden, Finland, Switzerland, Canada (Alberta and British Columbia), USA (Washington), and Greenland.
32798Kubiak D. & Sucharzewska E. (2018): Porosty epifityczne starodrzewów dębowych w nadleśnictwie Stare Jabłonki [Epiphytic lichens in old-growth oak forests in the Stare Jabłonki Forest District (N Poland)]. - Chrońmy Przyrodę Ojczystą, 74(1): 27–36. .
[in Polish with English summary: ] The paper presents the results of lichenological research conducted in three old-growth oak stands in the Stare Jabłonki Forest District (N Poland). A total of 96 lichen species were identified. The highest diversity of lichens was noted on the bark of common hornbeam Carpinus betulus (67 species) and English oak Quercus robur (63). The attached list of identified taxa (Table 1) comprises five species protected in Poland, including two species under strict and three species under partial protection. Thirty-five species are on the red list of threatened lichens in Poland, including twenty-three under a high-risk category (CR, EN and VU taxa). A characteristic feature of the analysed lichen biota is a significant number of species – indicators of lowland old-growth forests (15 species). The most interesting taxa in this group are: Arthonia arthonioides, Cetrelia monachorum, Chrysothrix candelaris, and Inoderma byssaceum. Furthermore, the presence of several rare and rarely reported species was noted, e.g. Calicium parvum, Caloplaca lucifuga, Fuscidea pusilla, Lecanora stanislai, Protoparmelia hypotremella, Rinodina degeliana, R. efflorescens, and Sclerophora coniophaea. Key words: lichenized fungi, epiphytes, rare, protected and threatened species, Olsztyn Lakeland.
32797Kubiak D. (2020): Lichenobiota pomnikowych dębów w Puszczy Napiwodzko-Ramuckiej [The lichen biota of monumental oaks in the Napiwoda-Ramuki Forest]. - Fragmenta Floristica et Geobotanica Polonica, 27(1): 73–82. https://doi.org/10.35535/ffgp-2020-0006.
[in Polish with English abstract and summary: ] The paper lists lichen species recorded on 32 monumental oaks (at least 300 cm in circumference) growing in the forest environment of the Napiwoda-Ramuki Forest (N Poland). A total of 87 lichen species were recorded, including many taxa that are rare in Poland and threatened with extinction. Key words: epiphytic lichens, forest, old tree, rare species. The aim of the study was to present the state of conservation of the epiphytic lichen biota associated with the oldest (largest) oaks in the Napiwoda-Ramuki Forest (N Poland; Fig. 1). The presented data were collected in 2009–2019 as part of several different research projects. A total of 32 pedunculate oaks (Quercus robur) were examined (Fig. 2); these trees were officially recognized as nature monuments or reached a size meeting the minimum criteria for this form of protection (i.e. trunk circumference of at least 300 cm). In total, 87 lichen species were recorded, indicating that the analyzed trees are of great value for preserving the diversity of epiphytic lichens. Among the recorded species, nine are legally protected and 37 are recognized as threatened with extinction on the national scale. The list includes a group of 12 lichens characteristic of well-preserved natural forest, referred to in Poland as indicators of lowland old-growth forest. The obtained results supplement the data on the distribution of many lichen species recognized as very rare across the country (e.g. Cliostomum corrugatum, Dendrographa decolorans, Lecanographa amylacea, Sclerophora coniophaea). The data also document a specific pattern of diversity and can serve as a reference point for future research.
32796Nugraha A.S., Laksono T.A., Firli L.N., Putri C.P.Z.S., Pratoko D.K., Zulfikar Z., Untari L.F., Wongso H., Lambert J.M., Dillon C.T. & Keller P.A. (2020): Anti-cancer evaluation of depsides isolated from Indonesian folious lichens: Physcia millegrana, Parmelia dilatata and Parmelia aurulenta. - Biomolecules, 10(10): 1420 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10101420.
Cancer is a serious health burden on global societies. The discovery and development of new anti-cancer therapies remains a challenging objective. Although it has been shown that lichen secondary metabolites may be potent sources for new anti-cancer agents, the Indonesian- grown folious lichens, Physcia millegrana, Parmelia dilatata and Parmeila aurulenta, have not yet been explored. In this study exhaustive preparative high-performance liquid chromatography was employed to isolate the lichen constituents with spectroscopic and spectrometric protocols identifying nine depsides 9–17, including the new methyl 4-formyl-2,3-dihydroxy-6-methylbenzoate 13. The cytotoxicity of the depsides towards cancer cells was assessed using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The results indicated lowest toxicity of the depsides towards human A549 lung cancer cells. Importantly, the di-depsides (11, 12 and 17) showed greatest toxicity, indicating that these structures are biologically more active than the mono-depsides against the HepG2 liver cancer, A549 lung cancer and HL-60 leukemia cell lines. Keywords: Indonesia; lichen; Physcia millegrana; Parmelia dilatata; Parmelia aurulenta; depsides; anti-cancer.
32795Knudsen K. & Kocourková J. (2020): Notes on three new species from California. - Bulletin of the California Lichen Society, 27(1): 6–7. .
Three new species recently described from California are briefly discussed: Acarospora bernardinensis, A. erratica, and Ramalina sarahae.
32794Stepanchikova I.S., Himelbrant D.E., Kuznetsova E.S., Motiejūnaitė J., Chesnokov S.V., Konoreva L.A. & Gagarina L.V. (2020): The lichens of the northern shore of the Gulf of Finland in the limits of St. Petersburg, Russia – diversity on the edge of the megapolis. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 57: 101–132. https://doi.org/10.12697/fce.2020.57.11.
We present a lichen checklist for the northern shore of the Gulf of Finland in the limits of St. Petersburg, Russia. This area has diverse lichen biota within the city limits, and has been comprehensively studied since 1893, which gives a good base for analysis of historical changes in lichen diversity. The documented lichen biota comprises 469 species (430 lichenized, 24 lichenicolous, 3 facultatively lichenicolous, and 12 non-lichenized saprobic fungi), of them 191 species are known from herbaria and literature for the period before 1991, and 436 species were recorded since 1991 to 2019. Thirty-three taxa were excluded from the lichen list of the study area as erroneous or dubious records. Altogether 48 species are new to St. Petersburg, including: Lecidea malmeana and Micarea czarnotae – new to Russia; Caloplaca lucifuga, Gyalecta nigricans, Micarea soralifera – new to European Russia; Agonimia flabelliformis, Endococcus verrucosus, Lecania turicensis, Micarea fallax, M. tomentosa, Xanthomendoza huculica – new to Northwestern European Russia; Lichenoconium lichenicola, Ramalina europaea, Sarcogyne hypophaea – not known also from the Leningrad Region. The studied lichen biota is moderately rich compared to other city territories. The history of economic development of the region has caused its serious transformation, degradation of natural habitats and therefore partial loss of lichen diversity. At the same time, human-made substrates and anthropogenic plant communities are inhabited by lichens, including species unknown in the natural habitats of the study area. However, 44 species recorded in the study area are red-listed in St. Petersburg, with 13 of them known only from historical collections. Forest communities, as well as historical parks, in NW part of St. Petersburg are important source of biodiversity on regional level nowadays and hopefully in future, and deserve protection. Keywords: Isthmus karelicus, black alder communities, indicator species, protected areas, Caloplaca lucifuga, Gyalecta nigricans, Lecidea malmeana, Micarea czarnotae, Micarea soralifera.
32793Tarasova V.N., Konoreva L.A., Zhurbenko M.P., Pystina T.N., Chesnokov S.V., Androsova V.I., Sonina A.V., Semenova N.A. & Valekzhanin A.A. (2020): New and rare lichens and allied fungi from Arkhangelsk region,N orth-West Russia . - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 57: 85–100. https://doi.org/10.12697/fce.2020.57.10.
Thirty-one lichen-forming fungi, 12 lichenicolous fungi, and 5 non-lichenized fungi are reported as new for Arkhangelsk Region; 7 species are new for its mainland area. Micarea fallax is reported for the first time for Russia; M. laeta and M. pusilla are new for the European part of Russia. The second finding of Nicropuncta rugulosa for Russia is recorded; microconidia are first observed in this species. The records of ten species which have been included in the new edition of the Red Data Book of the Arkhangelsk Region (2020) are presented. Nephromopsis laureri from the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation (2008) and Leptogium rivulare from the IUCN Red List are reported for the first time for Arkhangelsk Region. Keywords: Leptogium rivulare, Micarea fallax, Micarea laeta, Micarea pusilla, Nephromopsis laureri, Nicropuncta rugulosa, Red Data Book, Vodlozersky National Park.
32792Muchnik E.E. & Cherepenina D.A. (2020): Lichens and allied fungi of old parks of three museum-reserves in Moscow Region (Russia). - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 57: 37–48. https://doi.org/10.12697/fce.2020.57.06.
We present the results of lichenological research in the parks of the museum-reserve Abramtsevo, the museumreserve of A. S. Pushkin and the museum-estate Ostafyevo – Russian Parnassus, for which no previous data were available. The checklist of lichen biota contains 103 species including 98 lichens, a lichenicolous fungus and 4 non-lichenized fungi. 55 species were found in the park of the museum-reserve Abramtsevo, 58 species in the museum-reserve of A. S. Pushkin (estates Vyazemy – 51 and Zakharovo – 29) and 69 species in the museum-estate Ostafyevo – Russian Parnassus. Lichenochora obscuroides (Ostafyevo) is new for Central Russia. Cladonia macilenta, Evernia prunastri and Usnea hirta (Ostafyevo) are listed in the Red Data Book of Moscow. Parmelina tiliacea (Abramtsevo, Vyazemy), Ramalina farinacea, Usnea dasopoga and U. subfloridana (Abramtsevo) are listed in the Red Data Book of the Moscow Oblast. Chaenotheca chrysocephala, Melanelixia subargentifera, Parmelina tiliacea, Physconia perisidiosa and Ramalina europaea (Ostafyevo) are proposed for inclusion in the next edition of the Red Data Book of Moscow. Keywords: lichen biota, lichenicolous fungi, biodiversity, indicator species, Red Data Book, park communities, Central Russia.
32791Suija A., Jüriado I., Lõhmus P., Moisejevs R., Motiejūnaitė J., Tsurykau A. & Kukwa M. (2020): Where the interesting species grow – remarkable records of lichens and lichenicolous fungi found during a Nordic Lichen Society meeting in Estonia. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 57: 73–84. https://doi.org/10.12697/fce.2020.57.09.
In August 2019, the Nordic Lichen Society held its bi-annual meeting and excursion in south-western Estonia. The most remarkable findings of lichenized and lichenicolous fungi are recorded herewith, including nine new species (of them two lichenicolous), and one new intraspecific taxon for the country. Full species lists are provided for two notable locations, sandstone outcrop at the river Pärnu and an oak woodland in the Naissoo Nature Reserve, for which no previous data were available, to illustrate the importance of collective survey effort. Keywords: new species, red-listed species, sandstone lichens, lichens in oakwood.
32790Cheek M., Lughadha E.N., Kirk P., Lindon H., Carretero J., Looney B., Douglas B., Haelewaters D., Gaya E., Llewellyn T., Ainsworth A.M., Gafforov Yu., Hyde K., Crous P., Hughes M., Walker B.E., Campostrini Forzza R., Wong K.M. & Niskanen T. (2020): New scientific discoveries: Plants and fungi. - Plants, People, Planet, 2: 371–388. DOI: 10.1002/ppp3.10148.
Scientific discovery, including naming new taxa, is important because without a scientific name, a species is invisible to science and the possibilities of researching its ecology, applications and threats, and conserving it, are greatly reduced. We review new scientific discoveries in the plant and fungal kingdoms, based largely on new names of taxa published in 2019 and indexed in the International Plant Names Index and Index Fungorum. Numbers of new species in both kingdoms were similar with 1942 new species of plant published and 1882 species of fungi. However, while >50% of plant species have likely been discovered, >90% of fungi remain unknown. This gulf likely explains the greater number of higher order taxa for fungi published in 2019: three classes, 18 orders, 48 families and 214 genera versus one new family and 87 new genera for plants. We compare the kingdoms in terms of rates of scientific discovery, globally and in different taxonomic groups and geographic areas, and with regard to the use of DNA in discovery. We review species new to science, especially those of interest to humanity as new products, and also by life-form. We consider where future such discoveries can be expected. We recommend an urgent increase in investment in scientific discovery of plant and fungal species, while they still survive. Priorities include more investment in training taxonomists, in building and equipping collections-based research centers for them, especially in species-rich, income-poor countries where the bulk of species as yet unknown to science are thought to occur. Keywords: DNA versus morphology, extinction before scientific discovery, properties of new species, rates of discovery of plants and fungi.
32789Corbin J.D. & Thiet R.K. (2020): Temperate biocrusts: mesic counterparts to their better-known dryland cousins. - Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 18(8): 456–464. https://doi.org/10.1002/fee.2234.
Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are known to serve crucial functions in many arid and semiarid habitats, but less is understood about biocrusts in temperate biomes, where they are often widespread and can play important roles in aboveground and belowground processes. Because the distinctive conditions that support biocrusts in temperate biomes – sandy, acidic, and/or nutrient-poor soils or exposed bedrock – frequently also support rare plant and animal communities, such sites can have considerable conservation value. We detail the distribution of biocrusts in temperate habitats, including many in the northeastern US, where they have not previously been described. Besides adding another layer of biodiversity to the sites in which they occur, biocrusts may also play a critical role in site-level ecology and functioning. As such, integrating temperate biocrust composition, distribution, and functions into ecosystem management may contribute to the stability and resilience of the ecosystems in which they are found in the face of global climate change and other disturbances.
32788Correa-Ochoa M.A., Vélez-Monsalve L.C., Saldarriaga-Molina J.C. & Jaramillo-Ciro M.M. (2020): Evaluation of the Index of Atmospheric Purity in an American tropical valley through the sampling of corticulous lichens in different phorophyte species. - Ecological Indicators, 115: 106355 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2020.106355.
Lichens have been widely used worldwide as bioindicators of air quality and also integrated into national programs and protocols in several countries. The Index of Atmospheric Purity (IAP) has been a commonly used tool for the diagnosis of air quality using corticulous lichens. However, its implementation is recommended when phorophytes with similar characteristics of the bark are used. Therefore, many studies are restricted to the use of a single supporting phorophyte. This criterion makes it difficult to implement this index in areas with limited number of individuals and species of phorophytes. This research evaluates the functionality of this index without differentiating among carrier phorophytes for the classification of areas with differences in air quality. For this, the lichens were mapped and collected, along with bark samples to determine the pH bark of phorophytes close to air quality monitoring stations located in Medellín City. A total of 148 lichen species were identified, belonging to 26 families and 52 genera. In addition, indicators such as thallus heterogeneity, richness (with correlations coefficients r = 0.52 with no phorophyte differentiation and for the tree species F. uhdei and T. rosea, r=0.578 and r=0.777; respectively) and total coverage of corticulous lichens (r = 0.76) vary in response to air pollution levels, no matter if their evaluation is carried out on a single phorophyte or in a diversity of phorophytes. This research also revealed that the evaluation of IAP in the biomonitoring zones is functional, resulting in positive correlations between the IAP and the air quality classification when this index is evaluated without differentiation of phorophytes (r = 0.78) and for T. rosea (r = 0.94) and F. uhdei (r = 0.99). In this sense, the uniformity criterion in the selection of the phorophyte use for the application of this index can be complemented taking into account the possibility of using a heterogeneous sample of phorophytes. Keywords: Bioindicator; Air quality; Phorophyte diversity; Corticolous lichens.
32787Brunialti G., Frati L., Calderisi M., Giorgolo F., Bagella S., Bertini G., Chianucci F., Fratini R., Gottardini E. & Cutini A. (2020): Epiphytic lichen diversity and sustainable forest management criteria and indicators: A multivariate and modelling approach in coppice forests of Italy. - Ecological Indicators, 115: 106358 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2020.106358.
Epiphytic lichens represent one of the most suitable indicators of forest continuity and management, especially in the context of ancient and old-growth forests. Nevertheless, they have not yet been included among Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) indicators to which Pan-European forest policy and governance refer. In addition, currently adopted SFM indicators are mainly designed for high forests rather than coppice forests, despite the fact that today this management system covers more than 10% of the total European forests. In this study we investigated these two issues by examining epiphytic lichen diversity in three coppice forest stands, located in the two Italian regions of Tuscany and Sardinia. In particular, we addressed: i) the role of lichen diversity as SFM indicator and ii) its relationship with consolidated and new SFM indicators dealing with structural, health, biodiversity, protective and socioeconomic functions. Multivariate Factor Analysis and Generalised Linear Models were adopted for data analysis. We found that lichen diversity and the frequency of single sensitive species were mainly related to the biodiversity of plants and fungi (Criterion 4), the health and vitality of the forests (Criterion 2) and their protective functions (Criterion 5). Furthermore, our results show that the lichen species highlighted by the models may represent suitable indicators in long-term studies, especially in relation to complex and interconnected aspects of sustainable forest management. Although our findings represent a first contribute to this issue, more in-depth researches will be needed to clarify further aspects of the complex interactions among SFM indicators in the context of coppice forests. Keywords: Lichen Diversity Value (LDV); Biodiversity; European forest types; Predictive models.
32786Bernardo F., Rocha T., Branquinho C., Garcia P. & Rodrigues A. (2020): Thallus structural alterations in green-algal lichens as indicators of elevated CO2 in a degassing volcanic area. - Ecological Indicators, 114: 106326 [7 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2020.106326.
We hypothesize that the thalli of the green-algal, CO2-sensitive lichen Usnea rubicunda (Stirton) undergo significant structural alterations as a biological response indicating increased CO2 emissions. To test that, U. rubicunda thalli were transplanted from a reference site with no volcanism into 36 sites distributed within the volcanically active Furnas caldera, encompassing the gradient of soil diffuse CO2 degassing areas (700 t d−1 of hydrothermal CO2). After 6 months of exposure in similar macroclimatic conditions, both Furnas transplants and samples kept at the reference site were retrieved for histology to assess thalli structure and the proportion between the symbionts. On average, cross-sections of Furnas thalli were significantly thicker than reference, owing mostly to the fungal layers of medulla and central cord. The latter occupied a significantly greater than reference relative volumetric density despite a smaller than reference relative percentage of algal occupation on Furnas thalli. These results reveal a positive and time-integrated response of U. rubicunda to the greater availability of CO2 from hydrothermal emissions in the volcanic environment, translated in greater efficiency of the algae in sustaining the fungal biomass. Histomorphometric structural alterations in the heteromerous thalli of U. rubicunda are suitable response biomarkers with potential to indicate a global rise of CO2 levels in natural environments. Keywords: Usnea rubicunda; Volcanism; Hydrothermal emissions; Carbon dioxide; Histology; Biomarkers.
32785Gauslaa Y., Goward T. & Pypker T. (2020): Canopy settings shape elemental composition of the epiphytic lichen Lobaria pulmonaria in unmanaged conifer forests. - Ecological Indicators, 113: 106294 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2020.106294.
The importance of forest canopy settings for the elemental chemistry of epiphytic lichens in undisturbed forests is poorly understood despite its impact on epiphytes, understory vegetation and microbial soil communities. Here, we examine the elemental composition in standardized thalli of the cephalolichen Lobaria pulmonaria transplanted to the lower branches of Picea glauca x engelmannii in inland British Columbia. Transplants were attached to nets (avoiding direct contact with tree bark) exposed to natural canopy throughfall in three categories of natural forest stands: 1) within dripzones of Populus species in mixed stands always supporting L. pulmonaria; 2) outside Populus dripzones, yet with L. pulmonaria and 3) outside Populus dripzones and without L. pulmonaria, which is the most common canopy setting. After one year, and with the exception of Fe and Al, the elemental content in lichen transplants changed within and between forest categories. Lichen transplants within Populus dripzones had more base cations (Ca, Mg, K) and less Mn than in the two categories outside dripzones. In Picea canopies outside Populus dripzones, lichen transplants had higher Ca, Na, Mo and lower C, S and Cu in trees with L. pulmonaria than without. The pH of Picea branches and soil within the rooting zone of trees with transplants were both approximately ten times more acidic outside Populus dripzones than within them. However, bark pH did not differ between the two categories of stands outside Populus dripzones. Based on our findings we conclude that canopy setting shapes the elemental composition of epiphytic lichen transplants, suggesting that such transplants might be used to monitor spatial variation in throughfall elements from forest canopies in unmanaged stands. We also conclude that elemental concentrations, Ca in particular, is a better predictor than bark pH for the occurrence of L. pulmonaria on Picea. Keywords: Canopy hydrology; Canopy leachates; Lobaria pulmonaria; Nutrients; Base cations; pH.
32784Dörter M., Karadeniz H., Saklangıç U. & Yenisoy-Karakaş S. (2020): The use of passive lichen biomonitoring in combination with positive matrix factor analysis and stable isotopic ratios to assess the metal pollution sources in throughfall deposition of Bolu plain, Turkey. - Ecological Indicators, 113: 106212 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2020.106212.
The main objective of this study was to determine the elemental content of (51 elements) and stable isotope (δ13C, δ15N) content of lichen, Xanthoria parietina. The results were evaluated according to seasonal changes, pollution source, and altitudes. The data indicated that there is no significant impact of seasonal variation in concentrations of most of the elements and isotopes. The uptake efficiency of Xanthoria parietina and pine needle was compared and it was found out that significantly higher amounts of metals were accumulated by Xanthoria parietina than by pine needles. The lowest δ13C and the highest δ15N values were obtained in pine needle in both seasons. Both δ13C and δ15N showed increasing (for summer) and decreasing (for winter) trends with a rise in an altitude. Source apportionment of elements was performed by using positive matrix factorization (PMF) and supported by G-score maps. As a result, six sources were determined for the area namely urban environment, lichen nutrient elements, contaminated soil, traffic and mixed soil, lichen metabolism and coal combustion. The concentration pollution maps and G-score maps of Pb and Ba were similar and this was an indication of the vehicle emissions. The elements As, Bi and Tl signed the coal combustion. Keywords: Biomonitoring; Lichen; Elements; Stable isotope; Positive matrix factorization.
32783Guzmán Q. J.A., Laakso K., López-Rodríguez J.C., Rivard B. & Sánchez-Azofeifa G.A. (2020): Using visible-near-infrared spectroscopy to classify lichens at a Neotropical Dry Forest. - Ecological Indicators, 111: 105999 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2019.105999.
The optical properties of lichens have been traditionally explored in the context of geological mapping where the encrustation of lichens on rocks may influence the detection of minerals of interest. As of today, few studies have looked into the potential of using the optical properties of lichens to classify them; however, none has investigated the classification of tropical lichens using spectroscopy. Here we explore the use of the visible-near infrared reflectance (VNIR; 450–1000 nm) to discriminate Neotropical corticolous lichens; the most abundant lichens in tropical forests. Reflectance measurements on lichens and their bark substrate were performed on 282 lichens samples of 32 species attached to their host's bark. Using these measurements, we first explored the degree of spectral mixing of bark and lichens by linear unmixing each lichen spectrum with the corresponding average species spectrum and bark spectrum. Overall, the results reveal that the lichen signatures tend to mask the spectral contributions from bark; however, there are some specific groups of species with high bark mixing probably due to their nature and the similarities between the lichen and bark spectra. Next, we classified the lichen spectra based on growth forms and taxonomic ranks (i.e., family, genus, species) using five machine learning classifiers. This analysis was conducted on raw reflectance spectra and wavelet-transformed spectra to enhance the absorption features prior to classification. As expected, the classification of lichen spectra is less accurate at species-specific levels, rather than higher taxonomic ranks. The wavelet transformation was found to enhance the general performance of classification; however, the accuracy of the classification depends on the classifier. Of the classifiers used in this study, linear discrimination applied to reflectance spectra presents the highest performance at the species level. Our results reveal the potential of using the VNIR reflectance as a method to discriminate Neotropical lichens. The introduced methodology may be conducted in the field, thus allowing the monitoring of lichen communities in forests; thereby furthering the current understanding of the role of lichens in ecosystem functioning. Keywords: Reflectance; Lichen spectroscopy; Species discrimination; Spectral classification; Wavelet analysis.
32782Capozzi F., Sorrentino M.C., Di Palma A., Mele F., Arena C., Adamo P., Spagnuolo V. & Giordano S. (2020): Implication of vitality, seasonality and specific leaf area on PAH uptake in moss and lichen transplanted in bags. - Ecological Indicators, 108: 105727 [8 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2019.105727.
In this work the moss Hypnum cupressiforme and the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea were exposed in bags for six weeks alive and oven-devitalized during summer and winter; the content of 24 PAHs was quantified to evaluate the effect of vitality, seasonality and specific leaf area (SLA) on PAH uptake and profiling. Vitality was followed throughout the exposure by measuring PSII maximal photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm). In summer, a limited PAH signal was detected, with no significant increase, or even loss, of these compounds. During winter, a significant increase of PAHs was measured in both biomonitors, especially in those devitalized, with a lower baseline PAH content compared to alive material. This result suggests that PAH uptake mostly relies on passive mechanisms. Accordingly, Fv/Fm demonstrated that moss and lichen exposed alive spent most of the exposure time in cryptobiosis. In both biomonitors 4-rings PAHs prevailed, followed by 2-3-rings in lichen and 5-6-rings in moss. Lichen performed better than moss, due to the ability to entrap PAHs in the body of thalli, preserving these compounds during the exposure. A formula was developed to express the accumulated PAHs in terms of flux, that resulted higher in lichen than in moss. Oven devitalized lichen exposed in winter provided the highest uptake, indicating that morphology, SLA and seasonality represent key parameters in PAH biomonitoring. Keywords: PAH biomonitoring; Moss and lichen transplants; Fv/Fm; Specific leaf area;Daily PAH flux.
32781Schmitz D., Schaefer C.E.R.G., Putzke J., Francelino M.R., Ferrari F.R., Corrêa G.R. & Villa P.M. (2020): How does the pedoenvironmental gradient shape non-vascular species assemblages and community structures in Maritime Antarctica?. - Ecological Indicators, 108: 105726 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2019.105726.
The main terrestrial ecosystems dominated by lichens and mosses, which represent important ecological indicators of climatic changes in high polar latitudes, are found in the Antarctic continent. However, little is known about how environmental filtering shapes cryptogamic communities’ assemblages at fine-scale. In this study, we analysed changes in non-vascular species richness, species composition and plant coverage along a pedoenvironmental gradient in Maritime Antarctica. We hypothesized that pedoenvironmental filters (i.e. soil texture and chemistry properties) drive the non-vascular assembly community. We classified soils according to the World Reference Base for Soil Resources, selecting ten different pedoenvironments at fine-scale. The plant inventory data from 206 plots across these pedoenvironments was used to evaluate the main effect of plant coverage, soil texture and soil chemistry on non-vascular species richness and composition. The ecological value of the species was determined and the type of community it occurred in was characterized, then the associations of the species were classified in each pedoenvironment. Differences in species richness, species composition and plant coverage were detected along the pedoenvironmental gradient. However, plant coverage, soil chemistry, soil texture and soil variables did not affect species richness and species composition, with the exception of clay content that was particularly an important predictor of species composition. High pedoenvironmental filtering apparently has no effect on species richness but determined differences in species composition. Therefore, we assumed that pedoenvironmental filtering determined high beta diversity in this island from maritime Antarctica. This study reveals that fine scale heterogeneity contributes to specific species associations along a pedoenvironmental gradient; thus, pedoenvironmental filtering not only determines diversity pattern in non-vascular plants, but also type of communities. Keywords: Lichens; Pedoenvironmental filtering; Microsite conditions; Mosses; Plant coverage.
32780Hillmann J. (1939): Bemerkungen über einige Arten der Flechtengattung Parmelia. I. - Hedwigia, 78(5-6): 249–267. .
32779Melekhina E.N. (2020): Oribatid mites as inhabitants of lichens in the taiga zone of northeastern Europe: Biotopic association and ecological groups of species. - Biology Bulletin, 47(5): 522–534. https://doi.org/10.1134/S1062359020050064.
[Original Russian text published in Izvestiya Akademii Nauk, Seriya Biologicheskaya, 2020, No. 5, pp. 534–547] The ground (Cladina arbuscula, C. rangiferina, C. stellaris, Cetraria islandica) and epiphytic (Hypogymnia physodes and Bryoria subcana) lichens in taiga forests of the European Northeast were examined as habitats of oribatid mites. In total, in different species of lichens, 55 species of oribatids from 30 families were found. Five ecological groups of oribatid mites as inhabitants of lichens were identified. It was found that the specificity of the oribatid mite population in epiphytic lichens consisted of dominant arboricolic species also not numerous arboricolic species. Dominant hemiedaphic species and not numerous hemiedaphic species were characteristic of ground lichens. The arboricolic‒hemiedaphic group includes species that live in both ground and epiphytic lichens. The ecologically vicariating species in relation to epiphytes were identified; these are species of the genera Carabodes, Mycobates, Oribatula, and Phauloppia.
32778Wilken P.M., Aylward J., Chand R., Grewe F., Lane F.A., Sinha S., Ametrano C., Distefano I., Divakar P.K., Duong T.A., Huhndorf S., Kharwar R.N., Lumbsch H.T., Navathe S., Pérez C.A., Ramírez-Berrutti N., Sharma R., Sun Y., Wingfield B.D. & Wingfield M.J. (2020): IMA Genome - F13. Draft genome sequences of Ambrosiella cleistominuta, Cercospora brassicicola, C. citrullina, Physcia stellaris, and Teratosphaeria pseudoeucalypti. - IMA Fungus, 11:19 [17 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s43008-020-00039-7.
Draft genomes of the fungal species Ambrosiella cleistominuta, Cercospora brassicicola, C. citrullina, Physcia stellaris, and Teratosphaeria pseudoeucalypti are presented. Physcia stellaris is an important lichen forming fungus and Ambrosiella cleistominuta is an ambrosia beetle symbiont. Cercospora brassicicola and C. citrullina are agriculturally relevant plant pathogens that cause leaf-spots in brassicaceous vegetables and cucurbits respectively. Teratosphaeria pseudoeucalypti causes severe leaf blight and defoliation of Eucalyptus trees. These genomes provide a valuable resource for understanding the molecular processes in these economically important fungi. Keywords: Ambrosia beetle, Cercospora, Brassica rapa subsp. rapa, Foliose lichens, Lagenaria siceraria, Physcia, Teratosphaeria, Eucalyptus leaf pathogen.
32777Kono M., Kon Y., Ohmura Y., Satta Y. & Terai Y. (2020): In vitro resynthesis of lichenization reveals the genetic background of symbiosis-specific fungal-algal interaction in Usnea hakonensis. - BMC Genomics, 21: 671 [16 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12864-020-07086-9.
Background: Symbiosis is central to ecosystems and has been an important driving force of the diversity of life. Close and long-term interactions are known to develop cooperative molecular mechanisms between the symbiotic partners and have often given them new functions as symbiotic entities. In lichen symbiosis, mutualistic relationships between lichen-forming fungi and algae and/or cyanobacteria produce unique features that make lichens adaptive to a wide range of environments. Although the morphological, physiological, and ecological uniqueness of lichens has been described for more than a century, the genetic mechanisms underlying this symbiosis are still poorly known. Results: This study investigated the fungal-algal interaction specific to the lichen symbiosis using Usnea hakonensis as a model system. The whole genome of U. hakonensis, the fungal partner, was sequenced by using a culture isolated from a natural lichen thallus. Isolated cultures of the fungal and the algal partners were co-cultured in vitro for 3 months, and thalli were successfully resynthesized as visible protrusions. Transcriptomes of resynthesized and natural thalli (symbiotic states) were compared to that of isolated cultures (non-symbiotic state). Sets of fungal and algal genes up-regulated in both symbiotic states were identified as symbiosis-related genes. Conclusion: From predicted functions of these genes, we identified genetic association with two key features fundamental to the symbiotic lifestyle in lichens. The first is establishment of a fungal symbiotic interface: (a) modification of cell walls at fungal-algal contact sites; and (b) production of a hydrophobic layer that ensheaths fungal and algal cells;. The second is symbiosis-specific nutrient flow: (a) the algal supply of photosynthetic product to the fungus; and (b) the fungal supply of phosphorous and nitrogen compounds to the alga. Since both features are widespread among lichens, our result may indicate important facets of the genetic basis of the lichen symbiosis. Keywords: Lichen symbiosis, Resynthesis, Mycobiont-photobiont interaction, Genetic background.
32776Mun S.-K., Kang K.-Y., Jang H.-Y., Hwang Y.-H., Hong S.-G., Kim S.-J., Cho H.-W., Chang D.-J., Hur J.-S. & Yee S.-T. (2020): Atraric acid exhibits anti-inflammatory effect in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and mouse models. - International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 21(19): 7070 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21197070.
Lichens, composite organisms resulting from the symbiotic association between the fungi and algae, produce a variety of secondary metabolites that exhibit pharmacological activities. This study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory activities of the secondary metabolite atraric acid produced by Heterodermia hypoleuca. The results confirmed that atraric acid could regulate induced pro-inflammatory cytokine, nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, induced nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Meanwhile, atraric acid downregulated the expression of phosphorylated IκB, extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) and nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) signaling pathway to exhibit anti-inflammatory effects in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Based on these results, the anti-inflammatory effect of atraric acid during LPS-induced endotoxin shock in a mouse model was confirmed. In the atraric acid treated-group, cytokine production was decreased in the peritoneum and serum, and each organ damaged by LPS-stimulation was recovered. These results indicate that atraric acid has an anti-inflammatory effect, which may be the underlying molecular mechanism involved in the inactivation of the ERK/NFκB signaling pathway, demonstrating its potential therapeutic value for treating inflammatory diseases. Keywords: anti-inflammation; endotoxin shock; atraric acid; lichen; Heterodermia hypoleuca.
32775Paoli L., Guttová A., Sorbo S., Lackovičová A., Ravera S., Landi S., Landi M., Basile A., Sanità di Toppi L., Vannini A., Loppi S. & Fačkovcová Z. (2020): Does air pollution influence the success of species translocation? Trace elements, ultrastructure and photosynthetic performances intransplants ofa threatened forest macrolichen. - Ecological Indicators, 117: 106666 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2020.106666.
Species translocation can be considered as a primary conservation strategy with reference to in situ conservation. In the case of lichens, translocations often risk to fail due stress factors associated with unsuitable receptor sites. Considering the bioecological characteristics of lichens, air pollution is among the most limiting stress factors. In this study, the forest macrolichen Lobaria pulmonaria was used as a model to test the hypothesis that the translocation of sensitive lichens is effective only in unpolluted environments. At purpose, 500 fragments or whole thalli were translocated in selected beech forests of Central Europe (the Western Carpathians, Slovakia) where the species disappeared in the past and in oak forests of Southern Europe (Tuscany, Central Italy) where native populations are present. Prior to the translocation (May 2016) and after one year, morphological and ultrastructural features, trace elements as well as chlorophyll a fluorescence emission were analysed. Four years later, the effectiveness of lichen translocation was further evaluated as presence of the transplants and of newly formed individuals. After one year, the translocation ensured an effective survival of the thalli in remote oak and beech forests characterized by a negligible or low contamination by heavy metals. The transplants were considered successful and developed new lobules and rhizines, attaching by themselves to the bark of the host trees, looking overall healthy, without evident signs of alteration also at ultrastructural level. Moreover, in a few cases newly formed individuals were observed after four years. On the other hand, the results highlighted the link between the unsuccess of the translocation and air pollution in other areas of the Western Carpathians and suggested that current air quality still limits the possibility of recolonization in areas where the model species disappeared. Keywords: Beech forest; Chlorophyll fluorescence; Lobaria pulmonaria; In situ conservation; Mediterranean oak forest; Western Carpathians.
32774Cannon P., Otálora M.A.G., Košuthová A., Wedin M., Aptroot A., Coppins B. & Simkin J. (2020): Peltigerales: Collemataceae, including the genera Blennothallia, Callome, Collema, Enchylium, Epiphloea, Lathagrium, Leptogium, Pseudoleptogium, Rostania and Scytinium. - Revisions of British and Irish Lichens, 2: 1–38. DOI: 10.34885/174.. https://www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/files/Collemataceae.pdf.
32773Cannon P., Ertz D., Frisch A., Aptroot A., Chambers S., Coppins B., Sanderson N., Simkin J. & Wolselsey P. (2020): Arthoniales: Arthoniaceae, including the genera Arthonia, Arthothelium, Briancoppinsia, Bryostigma, Coniocarpon, Diarthonis, Inoderma, Naevia, Pachnolepia, Reichlingia, Snippocia, Sporodophoron, Synarthonia and Tylophoron. - Revisions of British and Irish Lichens, 1: 3–48. DOI: 10.34885/173. https://www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/files/Arthoniaceae.pdf.
32772Mallen-Cooper M. & Cornwell W.K. (2020): A systematic review of transplant experiments in lichens and bryophytes. - Bryologist, 123(3): 443–453. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-123.3.443.
Transplant studies have long been a cornerstone of experimental ecology. Lichens and bryophytes have several useful characteristics for transplantation: they are small, easily transported, and highly responsive to environmental gradients. Here we conduct a systematic review to synthesise lichen and bryophyte transplant studies up until March 2020 (N¼454). A great majority of studies (67%) used lichen and bryophyte transplants as biosensors of airborne pollutants. Other research themes such as forest management and biotic interactions were associated with comparably modest bodies of work. A total of 247 lichen and bryophyte species had been used in transplant studies, but four species predominated: Hypogymnia physodes, Pseudevernia furfuracea, Evernia prunastri and Lobaria pulmonaria. Liverworts were only transplanted in 4% of studies, and most studies focused on epiphytic (69%) or terricolous species (31%). A small group of studies (N¼15) used whole-community transplants with areas ranging from 25–250,000 cm2. Apart from pollution research, studies centered on assisted colonization and simulated climate change appear to be increasing most rapidly in time. There were several recurrent lines of investigation within the included literature (e.g., edge effects, colonization of young forests, climate change effects and local adaptation) and we synthesise the key results. We recommend that future research address underrepresented taxa (e.g., liverworts, biological soil crusts) and geographic gaps, namely Australia and Africa. Keywords: Biomonitoring, climate change, cryptogam, edge effects, experimental ecology, local adaptation, non-vascular, plasticity, pollution, transplantation.
32771Wang X.Y., Li L.J., Liu D., Zhang Y.Y., Yin A.C., Zhong Q.Y., Wang S.Q. & Wang L.S. (2020): Two new species and six new records of Buellia s.l. (lichenized Ascomycota, Caliciaceae) from China. - Bryologist, 123(3): 430–442. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-123.3.430.
Eight species of Buellia s.l. containing xanthones are newly reported from China, including two species new to science (Buellia endoflavida and B. microareolata) and six records (B. concinna, B. mamillana, Stigmatochroma gerontoides, Tetramelas chloroleucus, T. geophilus and T. insignis) new to China. The genera Stigmatochroma and Tetramelas are also newly recorded from China. These species share the yellowish thallus with a UVþ yellow to orange reaction and can thus be easily separated from other buellioid taxa. Morphological, chemical and phylogenetic analyses were carried out to elucidate the placement of these species and to support the delimitation of the new taxa. Detailed descriptions and figures for the two new species are given and a key to all xanthone-containing buellioid species from China is provided. Kewords: Taxonomy, biodiversity, phylogeny, ITS, buellioid lichens.
32770Lee B.G. & Hur J.-S. (2020): A new lichen-forming fungus, Orientophila corticola, from South Korea, with a key to the genus. - Mycoscience, 61: 212–218. .
Orientophila corticola is described as a new lichen-forming fungus from South Korea. The new species is distinguishable from other Orientophila species by the substrate preference to tree barks and the habitat specificity to inland areas. Molecular analyses applying internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and mito- chondrial small subunit (mtSSU) sequences clearly classify O. corticola as a distinct species in the genus Orientophila. A surrogate key is provided to assist in the identification of all 13 taxa in the genus Orientophila
32769Hafellner J. (1995): Bemerkenswerte Funde von Flechten und lichenicolen Pilzen auf Makronesischen Inseln. I. Erstnachweise einiger Gattungen. – In: Daniëls F.J.A., Schulz M., Peine J. (eds.): Flechten Follmann. Contributions to lichenology in Honour of Gerhard Follmann. - Geobotanical and Phytotaxonomical Study Group, Botanical Institute, University of Cologne, Cologne, pp. 427-439. .
Clypeococcum epicrassum (H. Oliv.) Haf. & Nav.-Ros. New to Macaronesia: Buelliella physciicola, Clypeococcum cladonema, Cornutispora lichenicola, Llimoniella neglecta, Milospium graphideorum, Miriquidica intrudens, Placynthium tremniacum, Protoblastenia rupestris, Pseudoseptoria usneae, Refractohilum galligenum, R. peltigerae, Sphaerellothecium minutum, Staurothele rugulosa, Thelidium decipiens, Unguiculariopsis lettaui, U. thallophila, Vouauxiomyces santessonii, V. truncatus, Xanthoriicola physciae, Xylographa vitiligo, Canary Islands, lichenicolous, Macaronesia, Madeira
32768Zhou X., Zhao Y., Belnap J., Zhang B., Bu C. & Zhang Y. (2020): Practices of biological soil crust rehabilitation in China: experiences and challenges. - Restoration Ecology, 28(S2): 45–55. https://doi.org/10.1111/rec.13148.
Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are a central component of dryland ecosystems.However, they are highly vulnerable to disturbance and natural recovery may be slow. Therefore, finding ways to enhance the reestablishment of biocrusts after disturbance has been of great interest to researchers. This article provides a review of the laboratory cultivation and field inoculations of biocrust materials in China (mostly published in Chinese). Larger filamentous cyanobacteria (e.g. Microcoleus) are relatively easy, although slow, to grow in culture compared to other biocrust components. Thus,most researchers have focused their efforts on the cyanobacteria and a few species of mosses that are also easily grown but at smaller scale. For all the studies, a small amount of biocrust material was collected and its biomass enhanced under controlled conditions. However, the enhancement was done using various methods and techniques in different regions. These materialswere then applied to disturbed field sites, againwith various methods. Results show that keeping the inoculated soil surface wet for some time period after inoculation was crucial for restoration success. Cyanobacterial establishment was improved by installing automatic sprinkling using micro-irrigation techniques and/or physical structures that reduced sediment moving onto the inoculated area. Experimental applications in China showed that cyanobacteria can be successfully inoculated at a large scale (hundreds of ha). Moss inoculation, on the other hand, was only accomplished at a small scale (several m2). To assess whether biocrust restoration can enhance the establishment of a self-supporting ecosystem, further research is needed on how inoculation affects vegetation diversity and structure and ecological processes. Key words: biological soil crusts, China, cyanobacteria, lichen, moss, restoration.
32767Padhi S., Masi M., Panda S.K., Luyten W., Cimmino A., Tayung K. & Evidente A. (2020): Antimicrobial secondary metabolites of an endolichenic Aspergillus niger isolated from lichen thallus of Parmotrema ravum. - Natural Product Research, 34(18): 2573–2580. https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2018.1544982.
A new 6-benzyl-γ-pyrone (1), named aspergyllone was isolated from the culture filtrates of an endolichenic fungus Aspergillus niger Tiegh, obtained from lichen thallus Parmotrema ravum (Krog & Swinscow) Serus, collected in India. 1 was isolated for the first time from an endolichenic fungus together with six other known metabolites identified as aurasperones A (2) and D (3), asperpyrone A (4), fonsecinone A (5), carbonarone A (6) and pyrophen (7). The compounds were tested against a panel of human, plant, food borne and fish pathogens. Aspergyllone showed strong selective antifungal activity against Candida parapsilosis (Ashford) Langeron & Talice, with an IC50 of 52 µg/mL. Aurasperone A and pyrophen showed moderate to strong antimicrobial activity inhibiting seven different test pathogens, being pyrophen active with IC50 ranging from 35 to 97 µg/mL. Keywords: Aspergillus niger; Endolichenic fungus; Parmotrema ravum; antimicrobial activity; aspergyllone.
32766Marcano V. & Castillo L. (2020): Diversidad de líquenes de los páramos de El Batallón y La Negra, Parque Nacional General Juan Pablo Peñaloza, Andes venezolanos. - Anales del Jardín Botánico de Madrid, 77(1): e096 [16 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3989/ajbm.2549.
[in Spanish with English abstract: ] Increasing temperatures and changing land-use in the Venezuelan Andes result in an accelerated decline of sensitive lichen populations. Monitoring of these populations by biological plot inventories in particularly vulnerable sites is urgently needed. In order to know the diversity and distribution of lichen species occurring in the paramos El Batallón and La Negra, General Juan Pablo Peñaloza National Park, in the Venezuelan Andes, we carried out various collections along an altitudinal gradient including montane forest (2100–3000 m) and paramo vegetation (3200–3650 m). The results showed a total of 104 species and 40 genera, 44 species from the montane forest, 82 species from the paramo, six new records for Venezuela, and 31 new records for the southwest of the Venezuelan Andes (Táchira State). A checklist with taxonomic, morphological and ecological data is provided for the most relevant species. Bunodophoron portachuelense V. Marcano & L. Castillo (Sphaeorophoraceae) is described from the paramo. Increasing forestry exploitation, livestock and cultivation during decades from the montane forest would explain the highest diversity found in the paramo. Keywords: Bunodophoron, diversity, lichenized fungi, montane forest.
32765Loppi S., Vannini A., Monaci F., Dagodzo D., Blind F., Erler M. & Fränzle S. (2020): Can chitin and chitosan replace the lichen Evernia prunastri for environmental biomonitoring of Cu and Zn air contamination?. - Biology, 9(9): 301 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology9090301.
This study compared the ability of the lichen Evernia prunastri, chitin and chitosan to take up Cu2+ and Zn2+. It was hypothesized that chitin and chitosan have an accumulation capacity comparable to the lichen, so that these biopolymers could replace the use of E. prunastri for effective biomonitoring of Cu and Zn air pollution. Samples of the lichen E. prunastri, as well as chitin (from shrimps) and chitosan (from crabs), were incubated with Cu and Zn solutions at concentrations of 0 (control), 10, 25, 50, 75, and 100 µM and analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Metal concentrations accumulated by lichen, chitin and chitosan samples were strongly and linearly correlated with the concentrations in the treatment solutions. The lichen always showed significantly higher accumulation values compared to chitin and chitosan, which showed similar accumulation features. The outcomes of this study confirmed the great effectiveness of the lichen Evernia prunastri for environmental biomonitoring and showed that chitin and chitosan have a lower accumulation capacity, thus suggesting that although these biopolymers have the potential for replacing E. prunastri in polluted areas, their suitability may be limited in areas with intermediate or low pollution levels. Keywords: bioaccumulation; biopolymers; biosorption; Cu; ion exchange; Zn.
32764Wicaksono W.A., Cernava T., Grube M. & Berg G. (2020): Assembly of bacterial genomes from the metagenomes of three lichen species. - Microbiology Resource Announcements, 9:e00622-20 [3 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1128/MRA.00622-20.
Bacteria have recently emerged as important constituents of lichen holobionts. Here, 29 bacterial metagenome-assembled genome (MAG) sequences were reconstructed from lichen metagenomes and taxonomically classified in four phyla. These results provide a pivotal resource for further exploration of the ecological roles played by bacterial symbionts in lichen holobionts.
32763Brinker S.R. (2020): Contributions to the Ontario flora of lichens and allied fungi, with emphasis on the Great Lakes Basin. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 19: 58–157. http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/op/biblio_list.php?BucVolume_tab=19.
One-hundred and sixty-three new or noteworthy lichens and allied fungi are reported from Ontario based on new collections. The lichens Lecanora atromarginata, L. gisleriana, Rhizocarpon ridescens and Sclerococcum griseisporodochium are new to North America. The reported species new to Canada are: Abrothallus bertianus, Absconditella trivialis, Agonimia opuntiella, Diploschistes gypsaceus, Ephebe solida, Heterodermia japonica, Minutoexcipula tuckerae, Peltula bolanderi, Placynthium petersii, Protothelenella sphinctrinoides, Pycnora praestabilis, Thelopsis melathelia, Toninia tecta and Verrucaria quercina. Sixty-one taxa reported new to Ontario include: Abrothallus peyritschii, A. usneae, Agonimia tristicula, Arctoparmelia subcentrifuga, Arthrorhaphis citronella, Bachmanniomyces uncialicola, Baeomyces placophyllus, Biatora printzenii, Bilimbia lobulata, Calicium lucidum, Caloplaca stillicidiorum, Cetraria nigricans, Chaenothecopsis australis, Cystocoleus ebeneus, Dactylospora lobariella, Dendriscocaulon intricatulum, Dermatocarpon schaechtelinii, Enchylium conglomeratum, Endocarpon pulvinatum, Gyrographa gyrocarpa, Henrica theleodes, Heterodermia neglecta, Homostegia piggotii, Hypotrachyna afrorevoluta, H. revoluta, Lathagrium auriforme, Lecanora appalachensis, Lecanora epibryon, Lecanora orae-frigidae, Lecidea lapicida, Lecidella wulfenii, Lempholemma radiatum, Lepraria oxybapha, Lichenoconium usneae, Lichenomphalia umbellifera, Lichenostigma elongata, Lopadium coralloideum, Ophioparma lapponica, Pertusaria bryontha, P. coriacea, P. globularis, Phylliscum demangeonii, Plectocarpon lichenum, Polycauliona stellata, Porpidia flavicunda, Pseudosagedia chlorotica, Rhizocarpon eupetraeoides, Rostania ceranisca, Sclerophora farinacea, Scytinium schraderi, Solorina bispora, Sphaerellothecium minutum, Sticta beauvoisii, S. fuliginosa, Tetramelas papillatus, Tremella cetrariicola, Umbilicaria lyngei, Usnea ceratina, Xanthomendoza fulva and Xylographa opegraphella. Details on additional rare or otherwise rarely collected species new to explored counties and districts are also provided. These include: Acarospora bullata, Ahtiana aurescens, Amygdalaria panaeola, Anaptychia crinalis, Arctoparmelia incurva, Arthonia diffusella, Baeomyces carneus, Blastenia ferruginea, Buellia badia, Calicium abietinum, Caloplaca saxicola, Cetraria aculeata, Chaenotheca stemonea, Chaenothecopsis perforata, Cliostomum griffithii, Cyphobasidium hypogymniicola, Dermatocarpon dolomiticum, Dibaeis baeomyces, Flavocetraria nivalis, Fuscopannaria leucosticta, Heppia adglutinata, Heterodermia hypoleuca, H. obscurata, Hyperphyscia syncolla, Hypogymnia vittata, Immersaria athroocarpa, Inoderma byssaceum, Lecanora epanora, Lepraria cryophila, Leproplaca chrysodeta, Leptogium rivulare, Lichenodiplis lecanorae, Lichenostigma cosmopolites, Lithothelium hyalosporum, Lobaria scrobiculata, Lobothallia alphoplaca, Lopadium disciforme, Melanelixia albertana, M. subargentifera, Melanohalea halei, M. subolivacea, Muellerella erratica, Mycoblastus alpinus, Mycoglaena myricae, Myelochroa obsessa, Ovicuculispora parmeliae, Pannaria tavaresii, Parmotrema hypotropum, P. reticulatum, P. stuppeum, Peltigera venosa, Pertusaria superiana, Phacopsis oxyspora var. oxyspora, Physcia americana, Physcia tenella, Physconia grumosa, Placidium arboreum, Polychidium muscicola, Porina scabrida, Porpidia degelii, Pseudocyphellaria holarctica, Pseudoschismatomma rufescens, Psoroma hypnorum, Punctelia appalachensis, P. stictica, Rhizocarpon eupetraeum, Rinodina pachysperma, Sarea difformis, Scytinium gelatinosum, Scytinium intermedium, Sphaerophorus fragilis, S. globosus, Stictis radiata, Synalissa ramulosa, Syzygospora physciarcearum, Teloschistes chrysophthalmus, Thyrea confusa, Toninia aromatica, Tremella everniae, Umbilicaria arctica, U. hirsuta, U. proboscidea, U. torrefacta, Usnea glabrescens and Xanthoparmelia angustiphylla. Keywords. – Appalachian, arctic-alpine, biodiversity, old-growth, rare species.
32762Yazıcı K., Aslan A., Aptroot A., Etayo J., Karahan D. & Sipman H. (2020): Lichens and lichenicolous fungi from Bitlis province in Turkey. - Lindbergia, 43: linbg.01126 [12 p.]; doi: 10.25227/linbg.01126. https://doi.org/10.25227/linbg.01126.
As a result of lichenological exploration in Bitlis province (Turkey), a total of 325 lichens and 21 lichenicolous fungi, which are belonging 113 genera in Ascomycota were determined from 92 different localities. Buellia vouauxii, a lichenicolous fungus, and is new to Turkey and also new for Asia. Aspicilia glomerulans, Llimoniella muralicola, Myriolecis invadens, Ochrolechia subviridis, Placynthium hungaricum and Placynthium posterulum were reported for the second time from Turkey. Collecting localities and their substrata are presented. Keywords: Ascomycota, biodiversity, Bitlis, lichen, lichenicolous fungi, new records, Turkey.
32761Bianchi E., Benesperi R., Brunialti G., Di Nuzzo L., Fačkovcová Z., Frati L., Giordani P., Nascimbene J., Ravera S., Vallese C. & Paoli L. (2020): Vitality and growth of the threatened lichen Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm. in response to logging and implications for its conservation in Mediterranean oak forests. - Forests, 11(9): 995 [11 p.]; doi: 10.3390/f11090995. https://doi.org/10.3390/f11090995 .
Forest logging can be detrimental for non-vascular epiphytes, determining the loss of key components for ecosystem functioning. Legal logging in a Mediterranean mixed oak forest (Tuscany, Central Italy) in 2016 heavily impacted sensitive non-vascular epiphytes, including a large population of the threatened forest lichen Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm. This event offered the background for this experiment, where the potential effects of logging in oak forests are simulated by means of L. pulmonaria micro-transplants (thallus fragments <1 cm). Our working hypothesis is that forest logging could negatively influence the growth of the thalli exposed in logged stands compared to those exposed in unlogged stands. One hundred meristematic lobes and 100 non-meristematic fragments are exposed for one year on 20 Turkey oak trees (Quercus cerris), half in a logged and half in an unlogged stand. Chlorophyll (Chl) a fluorescence emission and total chlorophyll content are used as a proxy for the overall vitality of the transplants, while their growth is considered an indicator of long-term effects. Generally, vitality and growth of the transplants in the logged stand are lower than in the unlogged stand. Both vitality and growth varies between the meristematic and non-meristematic fragments, the former performing much better. Hence, irrespective of forest management, meristematic fragments show higher growth rates (0.16–0.18 cm2 year.
32760Burgaz A.R., Gutiérrez B. & Pino-Bodas R. (2019): Cladoniaceae of Montenegro. - Botanica Complutensis, 43: 109–139. http://dx.doi.org/10.5209/BOCM.65893.
As a result of collections made in 61 locations during the year 2018, the number of Cladonia taxa is enlarged to 42, and ten new records of Cladonia are provided to Montenegro, Cladonia cariosa, C. coccifera, C. cyathomorpha, C. digitata, C. diversa, C. homosekikaica, C. imbricarica, C. merochlorophaea, C. novochlorophaea and C. subulata. The distribution of many taxa previously known for the territory is extended. The chemical variation and the distribution of each species are discussed. Key words: Cladonia; diversity; phytogeography; lichens; chemical metabolites; Mediterranean Region.
32759Kantvilas G. (2020): Tasmanian chroodiscoid thelotremoid lichens (Graphidaceae) revisited. - Phytotaxa, 459(3): 209–218. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.459.3.2.
Some thelotremoid lichens of Tasmania are reviewed. The following new combinations are proposed: Gintarasia asteliae (Kantvilas & Vĕzda) Kantvilas, G. minor (Kantvilas & Vĕzda) Kantvilas and G. tasmanica (Kantvilas & Vĕzda) Kantvilas. A revised description of Schizotrema schizolomum (Müll.Arg.) Mangold & Lumbsch, based on Tasmanian collections, is provided, and the new species, S. vezdanum Kantvilas, recorded from Tasmanian and Victoria, is described and illustrated; it is characterised by a thallus containing stictic acid, 8-spored asci, and non-amyloid, muriform ascospores, 22−44 × 9−18 µm. Schizotrema guadeloupense (Hale) Mangold & Lumbsch is deleted from the Tasmanian census. Also described as new and illustrated is the Tasmanian endemic, Topeliopsis fatiscens Kantvilas, characterised by a thallus containing salazinic acid, (1−)2(−3)-spored asci and strongly amyloid, muriform ascospores, 37−100 × 19−40 µm. Thelotrema lepadodes var. endochrysoides Jatta is identified as a synonym of the cosmopolitan species T. lepadinum (Ach.) Ach. Keywords: Australia, Chapsa, Chroodiscus, Gintarasia, new species, Thelotrema, Schizotrema, Topeliopsis.
32758Košuthová A., Bergsten J., Westberg M. & Wedin M. (2020): Species delimitation in the cyanolichen genus Rostania. - BMC Evolutionary Biology, 20: 115 [17 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12862-020-01681-w.
Background: In this study, we investigate species limits in the cyanobacterial lichen genus Rostania (Collemataceae, Peltigerales, Lecanoromycetes). Four molecular markers (mtSSU rDNA, β-tubulin, MCM7, RPB2) were sequenced and analysed with two coalescent-based species delimitation methods: the Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent model (GMYC) and a Bayesian species delimitation method (BPP) using a multispecies coalescence model (MSC), the latter with or without an a priori defined guide tree. Results: Species delimitation analyses indicate the presence of eight strongly supported candidate species. Conclusive correlation between morphological/ecological characters and genetic delimitation could be found for six of these. Of the two additional candidate species, one is represented by a single sterile specimen and the other currently lacks morphological or ecological supporting evidence. Conclusions: We conclude that Rostania includes a minimum of six species: R. ceranisca, R. multipunctata, R. occultata 1, R. occultata 2, R. occultata 3, and R. occultata 4,5,6. Three distinct Nostoc morphotypes occur in Rostania, and there is substantial correlation between these morphotypes and Rostania thallus morphology. Keywords: Biodiversity, Fungi, Integrative taxonomy, Lichens, Phylogeny, Symbiosis, Systematics.
32757Ghiyasi A., Ahmadimoghadam A. & Sohrabi M. (2019): Floristic study and diversity of lichen species in highlands of Kuh-Asiab protected area in Kuhbanan (Kerman province, Iran). - Rostaniha, 20(1): 44–61. .
[in Persian with English summary: ] Little attention has been devoted to lichens of Kerman province (Iran). This study was conducted to identify lichens in the Kuh-Asiab protected area of Kubanan located in the northernmost part of Kerman province. In this study, eight sites were chosen in the area. Sampling was carried out according to Random method. Height data were obtained from each site along with the abundance of lichen species. In addition, number and density of species and cover percentage of the species were measured. Thirty-one species belong to 19 genera and two vegetative forms were identified. Both the Shannon and Simpson indices were calculated and compared for each sampling site. Species richness was calculated according to Margalef and Menhinick indices. Our results suggested that, lichen species richness and diversity were increasing with increasing height. The results also showed significant differences in species diversity and richness among sampling sites. The highest number of indicators was observed in sites with average height. Comparison of indices showed that, Simpson diversity was the best indicator for showing the situation of the community. Keywords: Lichen communities, sampling, Simpson diversity, species richness, vegetative forms.
32756Isocrono D., Benesperi R., Bianchi E., Di Nuzzo L., Catalano I., Gheza G., Giordani P., Matteucci E., Nascimbene J., Ongaro S., Puntillo D. & Pittao E (2019): Lichenes Italici Exsiccati ex Società Lichenologica Italiana. Fascicle III (Nos. 25-36). - Notiziario della Società Lichenologica Italiana, 32: 127–130. .
Italy; exsiccate.
32755Wijayawardene N.N., Hyde K.D., Dai D.Q., Tang L.Z., Aptroot A., Castañeda-Ruiz R.F., Druzhinina I.S., Cai F., Ekanayaka A.H., Erdoğdu M., Fiuza P.O., Gentekaki E., Goto B.T., Haelewaters D., Hongsanan S., Jeewon R., Kirk P.M., Jayalal U., Karunarathna S.C., Wanasinghe D.N., Lumbsch H.T., Madrid H., Maharachchikumbura S.S.N., Monteiro J.S., Shivaprakash N., Pfliegler W.P., Phillips A.J.L., Saxena R.K., Stadler M., Tian Q., Tokarev Y.S., Tsurykau A., Ertz D., Lee H.B., Etayo J., Vizzini A., Jones E.G.B., Lin C.G., Li W.J., Dai Y.C., Fan X.L., McKenzie E.H.C., Shivas R.G., Hustad V., Leontyev D.V., de Hoog G.S., Niskanen T., Boekhout T., Gaya E. & Thines M. (2020): A dynamic portal for a community-driven, continuously updated classification of Fungi and fungus-like organisms: outlineoffungi.org. - Mycosphere, 11(1): 1514–1526. Doi 10.5943/mycosphere/11/1/11.
The website http://outlineoffungi.org, is launched to provide a continuous up-to-date classification of the kingdom Fungi (including fossil fungi) and fungus-like taxa. This is based on 1516 recent publications and on the outline of fungi and fungus-like taxa published recently (Mycosphere 11, 1060–1456, doi 10.5943/mycosphere/11/1/8). The website is continuously updated according to latest classification schemes, and will present an important platform for researchers, industries, government officials and other users. Users can provide input about missing genera, new genera, and new data. They will also have the opportunity to express their opinions on classifications with notes published in the ‘Notes’ section of the webpage following review and editing by the curators and independent experts. The website will provide a system to stay abreast of the continuous changes in fungal classification and provide a general consensus on the systematics of fungi. Keywords – classification – community-driven – higher ranks – outline – portal – taxa.
32754Урбанавичюс Г.П. [Urbanavichus G.P.] (2020): К лихенофлоре природного парка «Кораблекк» (Мурманская область) [Contribution to the lichen flora of the Nature Park Korablekk (Murmansk Region)] . - Труды Карельского научного центра РАН, Серия "Биология", Петрозаводск [Proceedings of the Karelian Research Centre of Russian Academy of Science, ser. Biology, Petrozavodsk], 8: 81–89. DOI: 10.17076/bg1179.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] The Nature Park Korablekk is located in the biogeographic province Lapponia petsamoënsis, in the northernmost part of the Green Belt of Fennoscandia (Pechenga District, Murmansk Region). The Nature Park Korablekk was established in 2017 for the conservation of old-growth pine forests at the northern limit of their distribution. The total area of the Nature Park is ca. 83.4 km2. The current phase of lichen flora studies in the Park commenced in 2012. The main goals of the expedition in 2019 was to study the lichen diversity in the old-aged pine and aspen forests and in mountain tundra habitats of Kas kama Mt. and Korablekk Mt. Based on the material collected in 2019, 281 species have been identified. This article presents information about 217 species that had not been previously known for the lichen flora of the Park, including 195 lichen species, 18 lichenicolous fungi, and 4 species of non-lichenized saprobic fungi. Five species (Cecidonia xenophona, Cercidospora thamnoliae, Lichenoconium lichenicola, Muellerella triseptata, Polycoccum peltigerae) are reported for the first time for the Murmansk Region. Thirteen species and four genera (Brodoa, Caeruleum, Merismatium, Rhymbocarpus) are reported as new to the biogeographic province Lapponia petsamoënsis. Muellerella triseptata is new for European Russia and the second record for the whole Russia. Lichenoconium lichenicola is reported for the first time for North-Western European Russia. An annotated list of species with locations and substrates is provided. As a result, the lichen flora of the Nature Park Korablekk currently comprises 327 species, of which 301 species are lichens, 19 species are lichenicolous fungi, and 7 species are saprobic fungi. Representative specimens of the new records are deposited in the herbarium of the Institute of North Industrial Ecology Problems, Kola Science Centre RAS, Apatity (INEP). Keywords: lichens; lichenicolous fungi; biodiversity; protected area; Lapponia petsamoënsis; Green Belt of Fennoscandia.
32753Spjut R., Simon A., Guissard M., Magain N. & Sérusiaux E. (2020): The fruticose genera in the Ramalinaceae (Ascomycota, Lecanoromycetes): their diversity and evolutionary history. - MycoKeys, 73: 1–68. https://doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.73.47287.
We present phylogenetic analyses of the fruticose Ramalinaceae based on extensive collections from many parts of the world, with a special focus on the Vizcaíno deserts in north-western Mexico and the coastal desert in Namibia. We generate a four-locus DNA sequence dataset for accessions of Ramalina and two additional loci for Niebla and Vermilacinia. Four genera are strongly supported: the subcosmopolitan Ramalina, the new genus Namibialina endemic to SW Africa, and a duo formed by Niebla and Vermilacinia, endemic to the New World except the sorediate V. zebrina that disjunctly occurs in Namibia. The latter three genera are restricted to coastal desert and chaparral where vegetation depends on moisture from ocean fog. Ramalina is subcosmopolitan and much more diverse in its ecology. We show that Ramalina and its sister genus Namibialina diverged from each other at c. 48 Myrs, whereas Vermilacinia and Niebla split at c. 30 Myrs. The phylogeny of the fruticose genera remains unresolved to their ancestral crustose genera. Species delimitation within Namibialina and Ramalina is rather straightforward. The phylogeny and taxonomy of Vermilacinia are fully resolved, except for the two youngest clades of corticolous taxa, and support current taxonomy, including four new taxa described here. Secondary metabolite variation in Niebla generally coincides with major clades which are comprised of species complexes with still unresolved phylogenetic relationships. A micro-endemism pattern of allopatric species is strongly suspected for both genera, except for the corticolous taxa within Vermilacinia. Both Niebla and saxicolous Vermilacinia have chemotypes unique to species clades that are largely endemic to the Vizcaíno deserts. The following new taxa are described: Namibialina gen. nov. with N. melanothrix (comb. nov.) as type species, a single new species of Ramalina (R. krogiae) and four new species of Vermilacinia (V. breviloba, V. lacunosa, V. pustulata and V. reticulata). The new combination V. granulans is introduced. Two epithets are re-introduced for European Ramalina species: R. crispans (= R. peruviana auct. eur.) and R. rosacea (= R. bourgeana auct. p.p). A lectotype is designated for Vermilacinia procera. A key to saxicolous species of Vermilacinia is presented. Keywords: Atacama, Baja California, Namib, Namibialina, Niebla, Ramalina, taxonomy, Vermilacinia, Vizcaíno deserts.
32752Suija A., Zhurbenko M.P., Stepanchikova I.S., Himelbrant D.E., Kuznetsova E.S. & Motiejūnaitė J. (2020): Kukwaea pubescens gen. et sp. nova (Helotiales, incertae sedis), a new lichenicolous fungus on Cetraria islandica, and a key to the lichenicolous fungi occurring on Cetraria s. str.. - Phytotaxa, 459(1): 39–50. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.459.1.4.
A new lichenicolous genus Kukwaea is introduced for a species discovered on Cetraria islandica from coniferous forests in European and Asian parts of Russia. The new fungus is characterized by its cupulate, brown ascomata with grey to blackish disc surrounded by brownish grey hairs, exciple of textura angularis type, with crystals in the lower part, with granulose excipular hairs obtuse at the tips, simple to forked paraphyses, Calycina-type asci, and hyaline, aseptate ascospores. The DNA sequence data confirmed its placement in Helotiales, but the exact affiliation remains open. A worldwide key for lichenicolous fungi occurring on Cetraria s. str. is provided. Keywords: Ascomycota, Hyaloscyphaceae s. lat., Leotiomycetes, lichen-inhabiting fungi, taxonomy.
32751Tatipamula V.B. (2019): Chemical and pharmacological evaluation of manglicolous lichens. - LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing, Mauritius, [i-v +] 57 p. .
book; India; lichen chemistry; mangroves
32750Odland A. (2005): Oligotrophic and mesotrophic vegetation in southern Scandinavian mountains. Gradients in species and community distribution extracted by numerical analyses of earlier published vegetation descriptions. - Phytocoenologia, 35(4): 985–1018. .
Fennoscandian mountain vegetation and its ecology has been a field of intensive research for more than a century, and the main aims of the studies have in most cases been to perform regional vegetation descriptions with subsequent phytosociological classifications. The main patterns in species distribution and vegetation composition along important ecological gradients are therefore well known, but so far no generally accepted classification of mountain vegetation has been reached. The present study is based on a compilation of 306 oligotrophic and mesotrophic communities (with data from more than 2200 stands and 4800 releve´s) from the Scandinavian mountains. The sampling unit used here is the described plant communities, and an importance value (IV) is calculated for all species (taxa) based on their frequency and mean cover. The main aims were: (1) to quantify similarities and dissimilarities between earlier described mountain vegetation communities by use of numerical methods, (2) to discuss the results in relation to earlier proposed classifications of Scandinavian mountain vegetation, and (3) to interprete the main gradients in the data. DCA axis 1 (5.04 SD units long with an eigenvalue of 0.60) was interpreted to represent a complex gradient with increasing length of snow cover, soil moisture and altitude. DCA axis 2 describes a complex gradient in soil thickness, soil moisture and altitude. Eighteen groups of communities were separated by TWINSPAN, and these are discussed in relation to earlier classifications. Most of these groups have some overlap in the ordination diagram, indicating that the communities make a continuum. Along the main gradient, three community clusters could be separated: (1) communities dominated by lichens and ericaceous species; (2) fern-, graminoid- and Salix herbacea- dominated communities; and (3) extreme moss-dominated snow beds. Keywords: DCA, ordination, TWINSPAN, classification, snow bed, phytosociology.
32749Kolbek J. & Jarolímek I. (2013): Vegetation of the northern Korean Peninsula: classification, ecology and distribution. - Phytocoenologia, 43: 245–327. .
This preliminary survey of North Korean vegetation is based on phytocoenological data obtained during the five expeditions that took place between 1984 and 1990 (1181 relevés) by Czech and Slovak phytocoenologists. Field analyses and the classification of vegetation were carried out using the Braun-Blanquet approach and methods of hierarchical numerical classification. In the eleven synoptic tables, related to the eleven main groups of biotopes, all distinguished associations and communities are presented and compared. Individual vegetation units are syntaxonomically and nomenclaturally revised. Within the 20 classes (Asteretea tripolii, Bidentetea tripartitae, Cakiletea maritimae, Carici rupestris-Kobresietea bellardii, Glehnietea littoralis, Lemnetea, Miscanthetea sinensis, Oryzetea sativae, Phragmito-Magnocaricetea, Plantaginetea majoris, Potametea, Querco-Fagetea crenatae, Rhamno-Prunetea, Robinietea, Rosetea multiflorae, Salicetea sachalinensis, Salsoletea komarovii, Selaginello tamariscini-Potentilletea dickinsii, Stellarietea mediae, Vaccinio- Piceetea), 89 associations and communities are distinguished. Each unit is characterised by the correct name and short paragraphs on the diagnostic species, synmorphology, synecology, intra-association variability, distribution, human influence and references used. The zonality of the forest vegetation in North Korea is briefly characterised. Keywords: Braun-Blanquet methodology, East Asia, floristic composition, plant communities, synchorology, synecology, syntaxonomy, vegetation survey.
32748Thébaud G. & Pétel G. (2009): Contribution à une révision des végétations tourbeuses ombrotrophes et ombrominérotrophes medioeuropéennes. - Phytocoenologia, 38(4): 287–304. .
Keywords: plant community • syntaxa • bogs • Sphagnion magellanici • communautés végétales • syntaxons • tourbière haute.
32747Drees B. & Daniëls F.J.A. (2009): Mountain vegetation of south-facing slopes in continental West Greenland. - Phytocoenologia, 39(1): 1–25. .
Keywords: altitudinal indicator, altitudinal vegetation belts, arctic steppe, cryptogams, Saxifrago tricuspidatae- Calamagrostietea purpurascentis, syntaxa. Numerous lichens listed from phytocenological relevés.
32746Lünterbusch C.H. & Daniëls F.J.A. (2004): Phytosociological aspects of Dryas integrifolia vegetation on moist-wet soil in Northwest Greenland. - Phytocoenologia, 34(2): 241–270. .
Keywords: Arctic, Caricion atrofusco-saxatilis, Dryadion integrifoliae, species richness, synecology, transect study. Numerous lichens listed from phytocenological relevés.
32745Vančurová L., Kalníková V., Peksa O., Škvorová Z., Malíček J., Moya P., Chytrý K., Černajová I. & Škaloud P. (2020): Symbiosis between river and dry lands: Phycobiont dynamics on river gravel bars. - Algal Research, 51: 102062 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.algal.2020.102062.
River gravel bars are dynamic and heterogeneous habitats straddling the transition between aquatic and terrestrial environments. Periodic flooding, low nutrient concentrations, frost, lack of stable sites, drought, and ground surface heat significantly influence the biota of these habitats. Mutualistic symbiosis may be a successful strategy for organisms to survive and proliferate under such harsh conditions. The lichen genus Stereocaulon was selected as a model symbiotic system from among the organisms living on river gravel bars. The goal of the current study was to determine the effect of this dynamic environment on phycobiont (i.e., green eukaryotic photobiont) community structure. We analyzed 147 Stereocaulon specimens collected in the Swiss Alps using Sanger sequencing (fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA, algal ITS rDNA, and algal actin type I gene) and analyzed 8 selected thalli and 12 soil samples using Illumina metabarcoding (ITS2 rDNA). Phytosociological sampling was performed for all 13 study plots. Our analyses of communities of phycobionts, lichens, bryophytes, and vascular plants indicated a gradual change in the phycobiont community along a successional gradient. The particularly large phycobiont diversity associated with Stereocaulon mycobionts included algae, here reported as phycobionts for the first time. Each of the two Stereocaulon mycobiont operational taxonomic units had a distinct pool of predominant phycobionts. The thalli selected for Illumina metabarcoding contained a wide range of additional algae, i.e., they showed algal plurality. Keywords: Specificity; Lichen phycobiont; Succession; Community composition; Metabarcoding; Algal plurality.
32744Szyja M., Menezes A.G.S., Oliveira F.D.A., Leal I., Tabarelli M., Büdel B. & Wirth R. (2019): Neglected but potent dry forest players: Ecological role and ecosystem service provision of biological soil crusts in the human-modified Caatinga. - Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 7: 482 [18 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fevo.2019.00482.
Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) have been recognized as key ecological players in arid and semiarid regions at both local and global scales. They are important biodiversity components, provide critical ecosystem services, and strongly influence soil-plant relationships, and successional trajectories via facilitative, competitive, and edaphic engineering effects. Despite these important ecological roles, very little is known about biocrusts in seasonally dry tropical forests. Here we present a first baseline study on biocrust cover and ecosystem service provision in a human-modified landscape of the Brazilian Caatinga, South America’s largest tropical dry forest. More specifically, we explored (1) across a network of 34 0.1 ha permanent plots the impact of disturbance, soil, precipitation, and vegetation-related parameters on biocrust cover in different stages of forest regeneration, and (2) the effect of disturbance on species composition, growth and soil organic carbon sequestration comparing early and late successional communities in two case study sites at opposite ends of the disturbance gradient. Our findings revealed that biocrusts are a conspicuous component of the Caatinga ecosystem with at least 50 different taxa of cyanobacteria, algae, lichens and bryophytes (cyanobacteria and bryophytes dominating) covering nearly 10% of the total land surface and doubling soil organic carbon content relative to bare topsoil. High litter cover, high disturbance by goats, and low soil compaction were the leading drivers for reduced biocrust cover, while precipitation was not associated Second-growth forests supported anequally spaced biocrust cover, while in old-growth-forests biocrust cover was patchy. Disturbance reduced biocrust growth by two thirds and carbon sequestration by half. In synthesis, biocrusts increase soil organic carbon (SOC) in dry forests and as they double the SOC content in disturbed areas, may be capable of counterbalancing disturbance-induced soil degradation in this ecosystem. As they fix and fertilize depauperated soils, they may play a substantial role in vegetation regeneration in the human-modified Caatinga, and may have an extended ecological role due to the Szyja et al. Caatinga Biocrust Distribution and Services ever-increasing human encroachment on natural landscapes. Even though biocrusts benefit from human presence in dry forests, high levels of anthropogenic disturbance could threaten biocrust-provided ecosystem services, and call for further, in-depth studies to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Keywords: biological soil crusts, Caatinga, dry forest, exotic goats, human disturbances, soil organic carbon.
32743Condon L.A. & Pyke D.A. (2020): Components and predictors of biological soil crusts vary at the regional vs. plant community scales. - Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 7: 449 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fevo.2019.00449.
Although biological soil crusts (biocrusts) occur globally in arid and semi-arid environments, most of our knowledge of biocrust cover and ecology is from a relatively small number of locations worldwide. Some plant communities are known to have high cover of biocrusts, but the abundance of biocrusts is largely undocumented inmost plant communities. Using a data driven approach, we identified 16 plant communities based on plant cover from the Assessment, Inventory, and Monitoring Strategy data from the Bureau of LandManagement (AIM, 5,200 plots).We found that abundance of lichens and mosses varies among communities, but that both components of biocrusts are present in all plant communities. Biocrusts are indicators of two of these communities: one that is defined by high cover of mosses and basin big sagebrush and one that is defined by high cover of lichens and shadscale saltbush. Using non-parametric multiplicative regression, we evaluated a suite of abiotic and disturbance variables to assess the degree to which climate and soils are associated with the abundance of lichens and mosses at the regional scale. At the regional scale, soil depth and maximum vapor pressure deficit were found to be strongly associated with the abundance of lichens and January minimum temperature dictated the abundance of mosses. At the scale of plant communities, community specific metrics of soils and climate were better able to explain the abundance of biocrusts. Our demonstration of the presence of biocrusts across the western US suggests that studies on ecosystem function could include these organisms because they are present in all plant communities, maintain arguably stronger associations with climatic variation, are directly associated with soils, and contribute to ecosystem functions that are not solely maintained by vascular plants. Keywords: AIMdata, biocrusts, climate, disturbance, lichen, moss, non-parametric multiplicative regression, soils.
32742Warren S.D., St. Clair L.L., Stark L.R., Lewis L.A., Pombubpa N., Kurbessoian T., Stajich J.E. & Aanderud Z.T. (2019): Reproduction and dispersal of biological soil crust organisms. - Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 7: 344 [17 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fevo.2019.00344.
Biological soil crusts (BSCs) consist of a diverse and highly integrated community of organisms that effectively colonize and collectively stabilize soil surfaces. BSCs vary in terms of soil chemistry and texture as well as the environmental parameters that combine to support unique combinations of organisms—including cyanobacteria dominated, lichen-dominated, and bryophyte-dominated crusts. The list of organismal groups thatmake up BSC communities in various and unique combinations include—free living, lichenized, and mycorrhizal fungi, chemoheterotrophic bacteria, cyanobacteria, diazotrophic bacteria and archaea, eukaryotic algae, and bryophytes. The various BSC organismal groups demonstrate several common characteristics including—desiccation and extreme temperature tolerance, production of various soil binding chemistries, a near exclusive dependency on asexual reproduction, a pattern of aerial dispersal over impressive distances, and a universal vulnerability to a wide range of human-related perturbations. With this publication, we provide literature-based insights as to how each organismal group contributes to the formation and maintenance of the structural and functional attributes of BSCs, how they reproduce, and how they are dispersed. We also emphasize the importance of effective application of molecular and microenvironment sampling and assessment tools in order to provide cogent and essential answers that will allow scientists and land managers to better understand and manage the biodiversity and functional relationships of soil crust communities. Keywords: biological soil crusts (BSCs), bacteria, fungi, terrestrial algae, bryophytes, reproduction, aerial dispersal.
32741Albright M.B.N., Mueller R.C., Gallegos-Graves L.V., Belnap J., Reed S.C. & Kuske C.R. (2019): Interactions of microhabitat and time control grassland bacterial and fungal composition. - Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 7: 367 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fevo.2019.00367.
Dryland grasslands are vast and globally important and, as in all terrestrial ecosystems, soil microbial communities play fundamental roles in regulating dryland ecosystem function. A typical characteristic of drylands is the spatial mosaic of vascular plant cover surrounded by interspace soils, where biological soil crusts (biocrusts)—a complex community of organisms including bacteria, fungi, algae, mosses, and lichens—are common. The implications of this heterogeneity, where plants and biocrust cover co-occur, are often explored in the context of soil fertility and hydrology, but rarely has the impact of these multiple microhabitat types been simultaneously explored to determine the influence on bacterial and fungal communities, key biological players in these ecosystems. Further, our understanding of the temporal dynamics of bacterial and fungal communities in grasslands, and of how these dynamics depend on the microhabitat within the ecosystem, is notably poor. Here we used a temporally and spatially explicit approach to assess bacterial and fungal communities in a grassland on the Colorado Plateau, and to link variation in these communities to edaphic characteristics. We found that microhabitat (e.g., vascular plant rhizosphere, biocrust, and below biocrust) was the strongest driver of differences in bacterial and fungal community richness, diversity, and composition. Microhabitat type also significantly mediated the impact of temporal change in shaping community composition. Taken together, 29% of the variation in bacterial community composition could be explained by microhabitat, date, and microhabitat-by-date interactions, while only 11% of the variation in fungal community composition could be explained by the same factors, suggesting important differences in community assembly processes. Soil microbial communities dictate myriad critical ecosystem functions, thus understanding the factors that control their compostition is crucial to considering and forecasting how terrestrial ecosystems work. Overall, this case study provides insights for future studies on the spatial and temporal dynamics of bacterial and fungal communities in dryland grasslands. Keywords: biological soil crusts, diversity, temporal dynamics, fungi, bacteria.
32740Aanderud Z.T., Bahr J., Robinson D.M., Belnap J., Campbell T.P., Gill R.A., McMillian B. & St. Clair S. (2019): The burning of biocrusts facilitates the emergence of a bare soil community of poorly-connected chemoheterotrophic Bacteria with depressed ecosystem services. - Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 7: 467 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fevo.2019.00467.
Wildfires destabilize biocrust, requiring decades for most biological constituents to regenerate, but bacteria may recover quickly and mitigate the detrimental consequences of burnt soils. To evaluate the short-term recovery of biocrust bacteria, we tracked shifts in bacterial community form and function in Cyanobacteria/lichen-dominated (shrub interspaces) and Cyanobacteria/moss-dominated (beneath Artemisia tridentata) biocrusts 1 week, 2 months, and 1 year following a large-scale burn manipulations in a cold desert (Utah, USA). We found no evidence of the burned bacterial community recovering to a burgeoning biocrust. The foundational biocrust phyla, Cyanobacteria, dominated by Microcoleus viginatus (Microcoleaceae), disappeared from burned soils creating communities void of photosynthetic taxa. One year after the fire, the burned biocrust constituents had eroded away and the bare soils supported the formation of a convergent community of chemoheterotrophic copiotrophs regardless of location. The emergent community was dominated by a previously rare Planococcus species (family Planococcaceae, Firmicutes) and taxa in the Cellulomonadaceae (Actinobacteria), and Oxalobacteraceae (Betaproteobacteria). Previously burnt soils maintained similar levels of bacterial biomass, alpha diversity, and richness as unburned biocrusts, but supported diffuse, poorly-interconnected communities with 75% fewer species interactions. Nitrogen fixation declined at least 3.5-fold in the burnt soils but ammonium concentrations continued to rise through the year, suggesting that the exhaustion of organic C released from the fire, and not N, may diminish the longevity of the emergent community. Our results demonstrate that biocrust bacteria may recover rapidly after burning, albeit along a different community trajectory, as rare bacteria become dominant, species interconnectedness diminishes, and ecosystem services fail to rebound. Keywords: biological soil crust, Bromus tectorum, disturbance, Great Basin Desert, rare biosphere, network co-occurrence model.
32739Kistenich S., Halvorsen R., Schrøder-Nielsen A., Thorbek L., Timdal E. & Bendiksby M. (2019): DNA sequencing historical lichen specimens. - Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 7: 5 [20 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fevo.2019.00005.
Biological specimens in natural history collections worldwide are increasingly being used in biogeographical, environmental, and taxonomic studies. For their meaningful use, correct species identification is crucial. For example, clarifying if a species is new to science requires an overview of what has already been described. This includes comparisons with existing authoritative specimens (types). Most type specimens are rather old and their DNA expected to be degraded to various extents. Comparative DNA sequence analysis is in regular use in taxonomic research of today and is essential for identifying and delimiting species. In this study, we focus on lichenized fungi (lichens), in which many species groups are highly inconspicuous and impossible to identify to species based on morphology alone. Our aim was to test the non-mutually exclusive hypotheses that DNA quality of lichens depends on (1) time since collection, (2) taxonomic affinity, and/or (3) habitat/ecology. We included two species from each of four different lichen genera (i.e., Cladonia, Nephroma, Peltigera, and Ramalina), each species pair with a different autecology. For each species, we included samples from approximately every 25 years from present to about 150 years back in time. We used a two-step PCR-based approach followed by sequencing on an Ion Torrent PGM to produce target sequences (mtSSU) of degraded DNA. We received satisfactory DNA sequence information for 54 of 56 specimens. We recovered full-length sequences for several more than 100-years-old specimens, including a 127-years-old specimen, and retrieved enough sequence information for species identification of a 150-years-old specimen. As expected, sequencing success was negatively correlated with age of the specimens. It also varied with taxonomic affinity. We found no significant correlation between sequencing success and habitat ecology of the investigated specimens. The herein tested Ion Torrent sequencing approach outperformed Sanger sequencing with regard to sequencing success and efficiency. We find the protocol used herein highly suitable for obtaining sequences from both young and old lichen specimens and discuss potential improvements to it.
32738Autumn K., Barcenas-Peña A., Kish-Levine S., Huang J.-P. & Lumbsch H.T. (2020): Repeated colonization between arid and seasonal wet habitats, frequent transition among substrate preferences, and chemical diversity in western Australian Xanthoparmelia. - Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 8: 129 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fevo.2020.00129.
Arid soil habitats are challenging for sedentary and slow-growing lichens because the integrity of the substrate can easily be disturbed by natural forces, e.g., wind and flood. Yet, adaptation into such habitat types occurred multiple times in lichens that may be associated with specific morphological and ecological adaptations. We studied the genetic and chemical diversity of the lichen-forming fungal genus Xanthoparmelia in Western Australia, where it is abundant in both arid and temperate ecoregions occurring on both soil and rock substrates. We found frequent evolutionary transitions among substrate types and between arid and temperate habitats. However, specific chemical phenotypes were not associated with different habitat and substrate types, and the level of phenotypic (the composition of secondary metabolites) divergence was not correlated with the level of genetic divergence among taxa. The study closes by discussing the importance of arid soil habitats for evolutionary diversification in the hyperdiverse genus Xanthoparmelia. Keywords: Anthropocene, soil habitat, rapid diversification, repeated evolution, thin-layer chromatography.
32737Fos S., Mora F.I. & Huesca S.E. (2020): El liquen de los lobos, Letharia vulpina (L.) Hue, novedad destacada para la biota liquénica de la Comunitat Valenciana (este de España) [The wolf lichen, Letharia vulpina (L.) Hue: an outstanding novelty for the lichen biota of the Valencian Community (eastern Spain)]. - Butlletí Societat Micològica Valenciana, 24: 115–129. .
[in Catalonian with Spanish and English abstracts: ] The work carried out within the framework of the European RedBosques project has enabled us to locate the first population of the wolf lichen, Letharia vulpina, in the Valencian Community. The species seems restricted to mature and well-structured Scots pine forest (Sabino-Pinetum sylvestris) from Alto de las Barracas, in the Puebla de San Miguel Natural Park (Valencia). It occurs on the bark of large trees and on the wood of old dead specimens, forming almost monospecific, high-coverage communities. The presence of this lichen in this area reinforces its incorporation to the network of mature forests. Keywords: lichens, biogeography, mature forests, RedBosques, Ademuz area.
32736Jagielski T., Bakuła Z., Gawor J., Maciszewski K., Kusber W.-H., Dyląg M., Nowakowska J., Gromadka R. & Karnkowska A. (2019): The genus Prototheca (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta) revisited: Implications from molecular taxonomic studies. - Algal Research, 43: 101639 [19 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.algal.2019.101639.
The only algae which are able to inflict disease on humans and other mammals through active invasion and spread within the host tissues belong to either of two genera: Chlorella and Prototheca. Whereas Chlorella infections are extremely rare, with only two human cases reported in the literature, protothecosis is an emerging disease of humans and domestic animals, especially dairy cows. The genus Prototheca, erected by Krüger in 1894, has undergone several significant revisions, as more phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and molecular data have become available. Due to this, a large number of Prototheca strains have been accumulated in public culture collections, over the years, where they still exist under outdated or invalid infraspecific or species names. In this study, the partial cytb gene was used as a marker to revise the taxonomy and nomenclature of a set of Prototheca strains, preserved in major algae culture repositories worldwide. Within the genus, two main lineages were observed, with a dominance of typically dairy cattle-associated (i.e. P. ciferrii, formerly P. zopfii gen. 1, the here validated P. blaschkeae, and one newly erected species, namely P. bovis, formerly P. zopfii gen. 2) and human-associated (i.e. P. wickerhamii, P. cutis, P. miyajii) species, respectively. In the former lineage, three newly described species were allocated, namely P. cookei sp. nov., P. cerasi sp. nov., and P. pringsheimii sp. nov., and the lecto- and epitypified P. zopfii species. The second, or so-called P. wickerhamii lineage, incorporated a newly proposed species of P. xanthoriae sp. nov. These protothecans were shown as the closest relatives of the photosynthetic genera, Chlorella and Auxenochlorella. The environmental species P. ulmea was synonymized with the lecto- and epitypified P. moriformis species. For circumscription and differentiation of Prototheca spp., the use of phenotypic characters, and morphology in particular, is of limited value and should rather be auxiliary to molecular marker-based approaches. As demonstrated in our previous study and corroborated in the present one, the cytb gene provides higher resolution than the conventional rDNA markers, and currently represents the most efficient barcode for the Prototheca algae. Keywords: Prototheca spp.; Microalgae; Taxonomy; Species; Lineage; cytb.
32735Schneider G., Figuero F.L., Vega J., Chaves P., Álvarez-Gómez F., Korbee N. & Bonomi-Barufi J. (2020): Photoprotection properties of marine photosynthetic organisms grown in high ultraviolet exposure areas: Cosmeceutical applications. - Algal Research, 49: 101956 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.algal.2020.101956.
Seaweeds have been identified as promising sources of bioactive substances for the cosmeceutical industry, especially by their photoprotection capacity. Accordingly, this study aimed to evaluate the photoprotective properties of extracts from macroalgae and one marine lichen. Samples of 22 species of macroalgae and one marine lichen, were collected along the southern Iberian Peninsula. Hydroethanolic extracts were prepared from algal and marine lichen lyophilized biomass. Ultraviolet (UV) and visible absorption spectra, polyphenol content, antioxidant activity, mycosporine-like amino acid content and composition were analyzed. In order to quantify the photoprotection capacity of the extracts against different biological effects, two new indices were used, i.e., effective solar absorption radiation (%ESAR) and extract photoprotection index (EPI), considering the radiation absorbed and transmitted by the extract, respectively. In the ultraviolet spectrum, Porphyra umbilicalis and Pyropia elongata presented the highest absorbance values at 330 nm, while Ulva lactuca showed a prominent peak at 290 nm. In the visible spectrum, a fucoxanthin peak (450 nm) was strongly evident in extracts from the brown algal species, while green algal extracts presented characteristic chlorophyll a and b peaks at 447, 620 and 664 nm. Polyphenol content and antioxidant activity were much higher in Sargassum vulgare, Carpodesmia tamariscifolia, P. umbilicalis and Lichina pygmaea in comparison to the other species. P. umbilicalis and Bangia atropurpurea showed the highest amount of mycosporine-like amino acids. S. vulgare and P. umbilicalis extracts presented the highest values of potential photoprotection against all analyzed biological response according to the different action spectra. S. vulgare and P. umbilicalis showed an increase in %ESAR values associated with an increase in the concentration of their extracts. Considering the analyzed species, our results suggest that S. vulgare and P. umbilicalis could be potential sources of photoprotective extracts. The potential use of these species in cosmeceutical products is discussed. Keywords: Action spektra; Antioxidant aktivity; Effective solar absorption radiation; Extract photoprotection index; Mycosporine-like amino acids; UV–visible absorption spectra.
32734Li T., Jiang L., Hu Y., Paul J.T., Zuniga C., Zengler K. & Betenbaugh M.J. (2020): Creating a synthetic lichen: Mutualistic co-culture of fungi and extracellular polysaccharide-secreting cyanobacterium Nostoc PCC 7413. - Algal Research, 45: 101755 [8 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.algal.2019.101755.
In order to create synthetic lichens, extracellular polysaccharide (EPS)-secreting cyanobacterium Nostoc PCC 7413 was cultured together with fungal Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus niger species without extraneous organic carbon. Cyanobacterial supernatants and harvested EPS both supported fungal growth, while fungal supernatants slightly enhanced Nostoc growth. Furthermore, when Nostoc and A. nidulans were co-cultured together, total biomass was approximately 3-fold higher than the axenic Nostoc cultures in pH 6 buffered BG-11 media. The spectrum of fatty acids generated in co-culture differed from those of the individual cyanobacterial and fungal species. The fatty acid fractions of C18:0 and C18:1 were reduced or intermediate in co-cultures compared to mono-cultures while fractions of C16:1 and C18:3 fatty acids increased in co-culture, suggesting a shift in the fatty acid biosynthesis following co-cultivation. Our study establishes a low-cost mutualistic coculture platform composed of cyanobacteria and filamentous fungi for producing biomass and biofuel precursors with potential commercial applications. Keywords: Cyanobacteria; Fungi; Co-culture; Artificial lichen; Nostoc; Aspergillus.
32733Yakovchenko L., Davydov E.A., Paukov A. & Ohmura Y. (2020): Porpidinia brevispora, a new species and the second representative of the genus Porpidinia (Lecideaceae, Lecanorales) from the Russian Far East. - Phytotaxa, 459(1): 75–80. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.459.1.8.
Porpidinia brevispora sp. nov. from Shikhote-Alin Range, Primorye Territory, Russian Far East is described and illustrated. The new species resembles Porpidinia tumidula morphologically, but is distinct in its spherical to ellipsoid, significantly smaller ascospores that do not overlap in size with those of P. tumidula, as well as a lower hymenium with paraphyses embedded into hyaline gelatinous envelopes, up to 5 μm wide. Porpidinia brevispora inhabits carbonate rocks at low elevations. Keywords: new taxa, East Asia, Porpidinia tumidula, calciphilous lichen, Shikhote-Alin Range, squamulose growth form.
32732Pykälä J., Kantelinen A. & Myllys L. (2020): Taxonomy of Verrucaria species characterised by large spores, perithecia leaving pits in the rock and a pale thin thallus in Finland. - MycoKeys, 72(1): 43–92. https://doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.72.56223.
Species of Verrucaria , characterised by large spores (at least some spores exceeding 25 µm in length), perithecia leaving pits in the rock and a pale thin thallus, form a taxonomically-difficult and poorly-known group. In this study, such species occurring in Finland are revised, based on ITS sequences and morphology. Maximum likelihood analysis of ITS sequence data was used to examine if the species belong to the Thelidium group, as suggested by BLAST search. Twelve species are accepted in Finland: Verrucaria bifurcata sp. nov., V. cavernarum sp. nov., V. devergens, V. difficilis sp. nov., V. foveolata, V. fuscozonata sp. nov., V. karelica, V. kuusamoensis sp. nov. , V. subdevergens sp. nov., V. subjunctiva, V. subtilis and V. vacillans sp. nov. Verrucaria foveolata is nested in V. subjunctiva in the phylogeny, but due to morphological and ecogeographical differences, the two taxa are treated as separate species pending further studies. Based on the analysis, the study species belong to the Thelidium group. The studied species show a rather high infraspecific morphological, but a low genetic variation. Furthermore, they show considerable overlap in their morphology and many specimens cannot be reliably identified, based on morphology only. All species are restricted to calcareous rocks. Verrucaria alpigena , V. cinereorufa and V. hochstetteri are excluded from the lichen flora of Finland. Verrucaria grossa is considered a species with unresolved identity. Verrucaria foveolata and V. subtilis are rather common on calcareous rocks of Finland while V. devergens and V. kuusamoensis are restricted to northern Finland. Verrucaria subjunctiva occurs mainly in northern Finland. Verrucaria bifurcata has been found only from southern Finland. Verrucaria difficilis has few localities both in SW and NE Finland. Verrucaria vacillans is restricted to calcareous rocks (dolomite) on the mountains of the NW corner of Finland. Verrucaria fuscozonata, V. karelica and V. subdevergens occur only in the Oulanka area in NE Finland. A lectotype is designated for V. subjunctiva. The morphology of the Finnish species was compared with 51 European species of Verrucaria presumably belonging to the Thelidium group.
32731Yu H., Shen X., Liu D., Hong M. & Lu Y. (2019): The protective effects of β-sitosterol and vermicularin from Thamnolia vermicularis (Sw.) Ach. against skin aging in vitro. - Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, 91(4):e20181088 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1590/0001-3765201920181088.
Aged skin, featured with dryness and wrinkles, has received mounting attention due to its adverse influences on beauty. β-Sitosterol and vermicularin are two common active ingredients of Thamnolia vermicularis (Sw.) Ach., a traditional Chinese medicine, of which the anti-aging effect has been discovered. Their protective performance against skin aging was assayed by co-culturing with skin cells in this work. Results showed that β-sitosterol promoted the biosynthesis of hyaluronic acid by increasing the expression of hyaluronic acid synthases in fibroblasts and enhanced the expression of skin barrier functional proteins including aquaporin 3, loricrin, filaggrin and involucrin in keratinocytes, which conduced to the moisture retention within skin. Moreover, vermicularin might function as an anti-wrinkle agent by preventing the loss of collagen type I. Specifically, vermicularin reduced the amount of reactive oxygen species within hydrogen-peroxide-induced fibroblasts; together with suppressing the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, it could inhibit the production of matrix metalloproteinases-1. The present research will contribute to the development of the compounds as anti-aging ingredients for future applications in cosmetic formulations and functional food as well as promote further studies of raw materials containing alike compounds. Key words anti-wrinkle; moisturize; β-sitosterol; skin aging; Thamnolia vermicularis (Sw.) Ach.; vermicularin.
32730Sarlej M.I., Michlig A. & Ferraro L.I. (2018): El género Heterodermia (Physciaceae, Lecanorales) en la reserva de biosfera Yaboty (Misiones, Argentina). - Boletín de la Sociedad Argentina de Botánica, 53(1): 9–16. http://www.scielo.org.ar/pdf/bsab/v53n1/v53n1a02.pdf.
[in Spanish with English abstract: ] The genus Heterodermia (Physciaceae, Lecanorales) in the Yaboty Biosphere Reserve (Misiones, Argentina). In this work, a study of the Heterodermia species of the Yaboty Biosphere Reserve is presented. Six species were identifed, of which Heterodermia galactophylla (Tuck.) W.L. Culb. is recorded for the frst time from Argentina, and the distribution range within the country is extended for other four species: Heterodermia japonica (M. Satô) Swinscow & Krog, Heterodermia aff. speciosa (Wulfen) Trevis., Heterodermia squamulosa (Degel.) W.L. Culb., and Heterodermia vulgaris (Vain.) Follmann & Redón. A dichotomous key for the species of the area and a brief description, observations and illustration of each of them are presented. Key words: Biodiversity, conservation area, lichens, taxonomy.
32729Harris R.C. (1986): The family Trypetheliaceae (Loculoascomycetes: lichenized Melanommatales) in Amazonian Brazil. - Acta Amazonica, 14, suppl. 1–2: 55–80. .
The family Trypetheliaceae is redefined including a key to the genera. Exiliseptum gen. nov. is described. Keys to the species are provided for the six genera which occur in Amazonian Brazil along with brief comments on the three other genera. Thirty-five species are included, tem new species described and ten new combinations proposed.
32728Manojlovic N.T., Vasiljevic P.J., Gritsanapan W., Supabphol R. & Manojlovic I. (2010): Phytochemical and antioxidant studies of Laurera benguelensis growing in Thailand. - Biological Research, 43(2): 169–176. https://doi.org/10.4067/S0716-97602010000200004.
The aim of this study was to investigate metabolites of the lichen Laurera benguelensis. A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method has been developed for the characterization of xanthones and anthraquinones in extracts of this lichen. Lichexanthone, secalonic acid D, norlichexanthon, parietin, emodin, teloschistin and citreorosein were detected in the lichen samples, which were collected from two places in Thailand. Components of the lichen were identifed by relative retention time and spectral data. This is the frst time that a detailed phytochemical analysis of the lichen L. benguelensis was reported and this paper has chemotaxonomic signifcance because very little has been published on the secondary metabolites present in Laurera species. Some of the metabolites were detected for the frst time in the family Trypetheliaceae. The results of preliminary testing of benzene extract and its chloroform and methanol fractions showed that all samples showed a weak radical scavenging activity. The chloroform extract showed the highest antioxidant activity. Key terms: anthraquinones, antioxidant activity, Laurera benguelensis, xanthones.
32727Estévez Alvarez J., Montero Alvarez A., López Sánchez D., Pupo González I., Hernández Torres D., Pérez Arriba O., Iglesias Brito H. & Wolterbeek B. (2011): Biomonitoreo de la contaminación atmosférica en La Habana durante la campaña 2004-2005 [Biomonitoring of the atmospheric pollution in Havana during 2004-2005 survey]. - Nucleus, 50: 18–23. http://scielo.sld.cu/pdf/nuc/n50/nuc045011.pdf.
[in Spanish with English abstract: ] An epiphytic lichen (Physcia alba sp.) grown over Royal Palm (Roystonea regia) tree was used as bioindicator of air quality in Havana City. A total of 225 lichen samples were collected in 181 selected sites according to traffic and industrial conditions. The concentrations of 15 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Cd and Pb) were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry, Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence and Anodic Stripping Voltammetry. Principal Component Analysis was applied to analytical results and some factors were obtained. Finally, maps with lichen elemental contents and factors’ patterns are presented. Several possible pollution sources were identified. Key words: heavy metals, lichens, air pollution monitoring, X-ray fluorescence analysis, absorption spectroscopy, voltametry.
32726Vaillant-Flores D.I., Gómez-Peralta M., Romeu-Carballo C.R., Ramírez-Ochoa R. & Porras-González A. (2015): Actividad antifúngica de extractos de tres especies de líquenes en Cuba. - Agronomía Mesoamericana, 47: 287–302. https://doi.org/10.15517/am.v26i2.19328. https://www.scielo.sa.cr/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1659-13212015000200345&lang=en.
[in Spanish with English abstract: ] The objective of this work was to evaluate the antifungal activity of the three lichens extracts. Extracts from Leptogium cyanescens, Physcia americanaand Pyxine aff. cocoes were collected from the lichens thallus in 2009 in areas fromo the Cienfuegos Botanic Garden, Cuba. The fungicide activity was evaluated against phytopathogens fungi of potato: Rhizoctonia solani andPhytophthora nicotianae var parasitica. The study was conducted from 2009 to 2011. The compounds were extracted with acetone, concentrated by rotoevaporation, and evaluated at concentrations of 0,01 and 0,07% in potato dextrose agar (PDA) culture medium; stock solution was made of 5% dimethilsufoxide. These extracts were classified by their toxicity as: toxic, slight and moderately toxic and harmless. The extracts from P. americana of 0,07% inhibited P. nicotianae 100%, and it showed values over 50% for R. solani. L. cyanescens only showed fungicide activity in both phytopathogens at the maximum concentration studied; similar results were obtained with the extract from P. aff. cocoes. The lichens extracts were classified as lightly toxic at the maximum concentration, and harmless at the minimum concentration. Key words: lichen metabolites; lichen antibiotic activity; phytopathogens fungi of potato.
32725Varol M. (2019): Parietin as an efficient and promising anti-angiogenic and apoptotic small-molecule from Xanthoria parietina. - Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia, 29(6): 728–734. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bjp.2019.04.012.
Lichens that are exclusive symbiotic organisms composed of fungus and alga, are considered as a wealthy source of biologically and pharmacologically active small-molecules thanks to the tight metabolic relationship between symbiotic partners. We herein report cytotoxic, anti-angiogenic and apoptotic profile of a lichen derived small-molecule named parietin. Parietin was isolated from the acetone extract of Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th.Fr (1860), Teloschistaceae, which was gathered from Afyon, Turkey. AlamarBlue™ cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase membrane leakage and PicoGreen™ dsDNA quantitation assays were used to determine the cytotoxic concentrations of parietin on cisplatin-resistant BRCA2-mutated human breast TNM stage IV adenocarcinoma (HCC1428), human breast ductal carcinoma (T-47D), and human umbilical vein endothelial (HUVEC) cells. Additionally, cell adhesion, endothelial tube formation, reactive oxygen species accumulation and active caspase 3 determination assays were employed to identify the anti-angiogenic and apoptotic efficiency of parietin. Low concentrations of parietin such as 50 and 100 µM showed a significant anti-angiogenic and apoptotic activity though the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values were higher than 600 µM on the cells. On the other hand, it was observed that parietin shows less cytotoxic and membrane degradative activities on healthy HUVEC cells than the HCC1428 and T-47D breast cancer cells. Parietin seems to be a promising anti-angiogenic and apoptotic lichen metabolite for the further investigations. Keywords: Angiogenesis; Apoptosis; Caspase; Lichen; Natural products; Parietin.
32724Sepulveda B., Chamy M.C., Piovano M. & Areche C. (2013): Lichens: Might be considered as a source of gastroprotective molecules?. - Journal of the Chilean Chemical Society, 58(2): 1750–1752. https://doi.org/10.4067/S0717-97072013000200024.
Lichens are symbiotic relationship between fungi and algae or cyanobacteria. Secondary metabolites from lichens are known as lichen substances. We investigated depsidone and depside from lichens 1-6 in the context of their action to prevent gastric ulcer on the model of HCl/ethanol in mice for the first time. Doses of 30 mg/kg of lichen substances 1-6 and positive control (lansoprazole) significantly diminished the lesion index compared with negative control (treated only with HCl/EtOH). Lobaric acid 1, atranorin 2 and psoromic acid 5 reduced the gastric lesions by 76%, 63% and 65%, while for variolaric acid 3, diffractaic acid 4 and perlatolic acid 6 their values were 32%, 14% and 45%, respectively. Our results suggest that lichens have potential as a suite of gastroprotective molecules. Keywords: Lichens; depside; depsidone; gastric ulcer.
32723Siqueira-Moura M.P., Lira M.C.B. & Santos-Magalhães N.S. (2008): Validação de método analítico espectrofotométrico UV para determinação de ácido úsnico em lipossomas [Validation of a UV-spectrophotometric analyticalmethod for the determination of usnic acid inliposomes]. - Revista Brasileira de Ciências Farmacêuticas [Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences], 44(4): 621–628. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-93322008000400008.
[in Portuguese with English abstract: ] The secondary lichen metabolite usnic acid [2,6-diacetyl-7,9-dihydroxy-8,9b-dimethyl-1,3(2H,9bH)-dibenzofuran]has demonstrated pharmacological potential activitiessuch as antitumor, antimicrobial, antiviral,antiproliferative, and anti-inflammatory. Liposomes arevesicles composed of phospholipid bilayers surroundingaqueous compartments and they have been used ascolloidal drug carriers. The aim of this study was todevelop and validate a quantitative UVspectrophotometric method for determination of usnicacid in liposomal formulations. The validation parameterswere assessed according to The International Conferenceon Harmonization (ICH) and American Pharmacopoeiaguidelines. The linearity range was of 3-15 μg.mL-1,regression equation: absorbance = 0.070 x UAconcentration (μg.mL-1) + 0.013, and r = 0.9997. Therepeatability (relative standard deviation) of the methodwas 1.96% and intermediate precision indicated that thedifference among mean was statistically insignificant (P< 0.05). The accuracy revealed a mean percentagerecovery of 100.4% of usnic acid. The method was robustfor the variation of temperature and solvent. The detectionand quantization limits were found to be 0.34 and 1.13μg.mL-1, respectively. The content of usnic acid inliposomes was of 96.8% (± 0.2). The proposed method isaccurate, precise and reproducible for estimation of usnicacid as raw material and in pharmaceutical dosage formssuch as liposomes. UNITERMS: Usnic acid/determination. Liposomes.Ultraviolet Spectrophotometry. Quantitative analysis/method’s validation.
32722Comandolli-Wyrepkowski C.D., Grafova I., Naiff M.F., Avella M., Gentile G., Grafov A. & Franco A.M.R. (2017): Topical treatment of experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis in golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) with formulations containing pentamidine. - Acta Amazonica, 47(1): 39–46. https://doi.org/10.1590/1809-4392201601333.
Current treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) relies mainly on pentavalent antimonials salts and second-line drugs include pentamidine and amphotericin B, but these therapies have side effects and require parenteral administration. The aim of this work was to evaluate the topical formulations containing pentamidine isethionate (PI) in the experimental treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) were infected in the nose with Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis. Six treatment groups received different topical treatments of anhydrous or hydrating emulsions, for a maximum of 10 days, with an application of 50 mg day-1. After treatment tissue samples of lesions were evaluated by histology, transmission electron microscopy and biopsy cultivation. Compared with untreated group, topical treatment with hydrating emulsion with 10% PI and usnic acid (ACE5AU) showed significantly decrease in volume lesion (P= 0.028) on 20th day after the end of the treatment with reduction of 27.37%. Topical treatment with anhydrous emulsion with 10% PI and usnic acid (ACPU) reduces parasite burden in Golden hamsters. This study demonstrated the potential of topical treatment to reduce the number of parasites that could be combined with others drugs and to have a faster and more effective treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Keywords: topical formulations; experimental treatment; pentamidine isethionate; animal model; Leishmania.
32721Marinho K.S.N., Antonio E.A., Silva C.V.N.S., da Silva K.T., Teixeira V.W., de Aguiar Junior F.C., dos Santos K.R.P., da Silva N.H. & Santos N.P.S. (2017): Hepatic toxicity caused by PLGA-microspheres containing usnic acid from the lichen Cladonia substellata (Ahti) during pregnancy in Wistar rats. - Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, 89(2): 1073–1084. https://doi.org/10.1590/0001-3765201720160650.
This study aimed to evaluate the teratogenic and hepatotoxic potential of the usnic acid encapsulated into PLGA-microspheres. In total, 12 female Wistar rats in pregnancy were randomly distributed in the control group (n= 6) that received 1.0 mL of physiological solution and treatment group (n= 6) that received 25 mg/kg of encapsulated usnic acid by oral administration. All females were euthanized at day 20 of pregnancy and their fetuses were removed and analyzed. During the pregnancy was observed a reduction in weight gain. There was no difference in serum transaminases levels analyzed as well as any difference in liver weight in both groups. The histomorphometric analysis of the liver from the treatment group revealed an increase in number of hepatocytes and a decrease in nuclear area of these cells. Moreover, no alteration was observed in cell area of hepatocytes or number of Kupffer cells. The fetuses had an increase in total number of hepatocytes and a reduction in the amount of megakaryocytes. These results show the hepatotoxic potential of usnic acid during pregnancy. However, its toxicity can be minimized by encapsulation in microspheres. Key words: encapsulation; fetotoxicity; hepatotoxicity; secondary metabolite.
32720Barrera Tomas M., Tomas Chota G.E., Sheen Cortavarría P., Fuentes Bonilla P., Inocente Camones M.A. & Contreras J.S. (2017): Synthesis of acyl-hydrazone from usnic acid and isoniazid and its anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity. - Revista Colombiana de Química, 46(3): 17–21. https://doi.org/10.15446/rev.colomb.quim.v46n3.61980.
Compound usnic acid (1), isolated from lichen Evernia prunastri (Cajamarca-Peru) and the synthesis and characterization of its acyl-hydrazone (2), from the condensation reaction between usnic acid and isoniazid in an ethanol solution under reflux, giving an overall yield of 95%, were evaluated. Both compounds were evaluated and compared with isoniazid according to its anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity based on the tetrazolium microplate assay (TEMA). Compound 1 had MIC (minimal inhibitory concentration) value of 16.0 μg/mL in each test of H37Rv (susceptible type), TB DM 97 (resistant wild type) and MDR DM 1098 (multi drug resistances type) strains. In similar tests, compound 2 MIC values were 2.0, 64.0 and 64.0 μg/mL respectively. Key words: Evernia prunastri; condensation reaction; TEMA; MIC.
32719Cavalcanti I.M.F., Menezes T.G.C., Campos L.A.A., Ferraz M.S., Maciel M.A.V., Caetano M.N.P. & Santos-Magalhães N.S. (2018): Interaction study between vancomycin and liposomes containing natural compounds against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates. - Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 54(2):e00203 [8 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1590/s2175-97902018000200203 .
The treatment of infections caused by resistant microorganisms is limited, and vancomycin (VAN) treatment failures for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia are not uncommon, even when MRSA clinical isolates are susceptible to VAN. Thus, this study proposed the association of VAN with usnic acid and β-lapachone encapsulated into liposomes as a novel therapeutic option for infections caused by MRSA. Liposomes containing β-lap (β-lap-lipo) or usnic acid (UA-lipo) were prepared by the thin lipid film hydration method followed by sonication. Antimicrobial activity against MRSA clinical isolates was investigated by the microdilution method according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). The interaction studies were carried out using the checkerboard method and epsilometer test (Etest). The interaction between VAN and β-lap or β-lap-lipo was synergistic (FICI = 0.453 and FICI = 0.358, respectively). An additive interaction between VAN and UA (FICI = 0.515) was found. UA-lipo resulted in synergism with VAN (FICI = 0.276). The Etest reproduced the results obtained by the checkerboard method for approximately 82% of the analysis. Thus, the present study demonstrated that VAN in combination with UA-lipo, β-lap or β-lap-lipo synergistically enhanced antibacterial activity against MRSA. Keywords: β-lapachone; Usnic acid; Liposomes; Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA); Synergism.
32718Değerli E., Torun V. & Cansaran-Duman D. (2020): miR‑185‑5p response to usnic acid suppresses proliferation and regulating apoptosis in breast cancer cell by targeting Bcl2. - Biological Research, 53:19 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40659-020-00285-4.
Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer types among women. Recent researches have focused on determining the efficiency of alternative molecules and miRNAs in breast cancer treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of usnic acid response-miR-185-5p on proliferation in the breast cancer cell and to determine its relationship with apoptosis pathway. Methods: The cell proliferation and cell apoptosis rate were significantly increased following the ectopic expression of miR-185-5p in BT-474 cells. Furthermore, the results of cell cycle assay performed by flow cytometry revealed that the transfection with miR-185-5p induced G1/S phase arrest. The apoptosis-related genes expression analysis was performed by qRT-PCR and the direct target of miR-185-5p in BT-474 cells was identified by western blot and luciferase reporter assay. Results: Our data showed that miR-185-5p can cause significant changes in apoptosis-related genes expression levels, suggesting that cell proliferation was suppressed by miR-185-5p via inducing apoptosis in breast cancer cells. According to western blot results, miR-185-5p lead to decrease BCL2 protein level in BT-474 cells and direct target of miR-185-5p was identified as BCL by luciferase reporter assay. Conclusion: This study revealed that miR-185-5p may be an effective agent in the treatment of breast cancer. Keywords: miR-185-5p, Usnic acid, Breast cancer, Apoptosis, BCL2.
32717Mishra T., Shukla S., Meena S., Singh R., Pal M., Upreti D.K. & Datta D. (2017): Isolation and identification of cytotoxic compounds from a fruticose lichen Roccella montagnei, and it’s in silico docking study against CDK-10. - Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia, 27: 724–728. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bjp.2017.07.006.
Roccella montagnei Bél. belongs to lichen family Roccelleceae growing luxuriantly along the coastal regionsof India. As Roccella has been shown to be bioactive, we prepared methanolic extract and assessed itsanticancer potential. The methanolic extract showed significant in vitro cytotoxic activity against fourhuman cancer cell lines such as colon (DLD-1, SW-620), breast (MCF-7), head and neck (FaDu). Thisprompted us to isolate bioactive compounds through column chromatography. Two compounds roccel-lic acid and everninic acid have been isolated, out of which everninic acid is reported for the first time.Both the compounds have been tested for in vitro cytotoxic activity in which roccellic acid showed stronganticancer activity as compared to the everninic acid. Cyclin Dependent Kinase (CDK-10) contributes toproliferation of cancer cells, and aberrant activity of these kinases has been reported in a wide variety ofhuman cancers. These kinases therefore constitute biomarkers of proliferation and attractive pharmaco-logical targets for development of anticancer therapeutics. Therefore both the isolated compounds weretested for in silico molecular docking study against Cyclin Dependent Kinase isomer enzyme to supportthe cytotoxic activity. Keywords: Docking study; Roccellic acid; Everninic acid; Cytotoxic activity.
32716Micheletti A.C., Beatriz A., de Lima D.P., Honda N.K., Pessoa C.Ó., de Moraes M.O., Lotufo L.V., Magalhães H.I.F. & Carvalho N.C.P. (2009): Constituintes químicos de Parmotrema lichexanthonicum Eliasaro & Adler: isolamento, modificações estruturais e avaliação das atividades antibiótica e citotóxica [Chemical constituents of parmotrema lichexanthonicum Eliasaro & Adler - isolation, structure modification and evaluation of antibiotic and cytotoxic activities]. - Química Nova, 32(1): 12–20. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-40422009000100003.
[in Portuguese with English abstract: ] From the lichen Parmotrema lichexantonicum were isolated the depsidone salazinic acid, the xanthone lichexanthone, and the depside atranorin. The two major compounds, salazinic acid and lichexanthone, were selected for structure modifications. Salazinic acid afforded O-alkyl salazinic acids, some of them potentially cytotoxic against tumor cell lines (HCT-8, SF-295 and MDA/ MB - 435). From lichexanthone were obtained norlichexanthone, 3-O-methylnorlichexanthone, 3-O-methyl-6-O-prenylnorlichexanthone, 3,6-di-O-prenyl-norlichexanthone, 3,6-bis[(3,3-dimethyloxyran-2-il)methoxy]-1-hydroxy-8-methyl-9H-xanten-9-one and 3,6-bis[3-(dimethylamine)propoxy]-1-hydroxy-8-methyl-9H-xanten-9-one. The last compound was the most active against S. aureus. Keywords: lichexanthone; salazinic acid; lichens.
32715Ravaglia L.M., Gonçalves K., Oyama N.M., Coelho R.G., Spielmann A.A. & Honda N.K. (2014): In vitro radical-scavenging activity, toxicity against A. salina, and nmr profiles of extracts of lichens collected from Brazil and Antarctica. - Química Nova, 37(6): 1015–1021. tps://doi.org/10.5935/0100-4042.20140159 .
Extracts of six lichen species collected from Brazil and Antarctica were investigated for their potential toxicity and radical-scavenging properties. The composition of the extracts was investigated using TLC and NMR, leading to identification of atranorin (1), along with salazinic (2), barbatic (3), a-alectoronic (4), a-collatolic (5), cryptochlorophaeic (6), caperatic (7), lobaric (8), and protolichesterinic (9) acids. All acetone extracts were evaluated for their 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging ability and subjected to Artemia salina bioassay. The free-radical-scavenging activities of each extract (100 mg) ranged from 8.9 ± 0.1% to 38.7 ± 2.5% and the EC50 values ranged from 0.24 ± 2.10 to 3.54 ± 0.28 mg mL–1, while the toxicity of the extracts against A. salina were low (151.0 to >600 mg mL–1). Keywords: lichens; phenolic compounds; NMR; radical-scavenging potential; Artemia salina.
32714Rodríguez Pérez E.M., Toledo Marante F.J., Caballero Hernández J., Bermejo Barrera J. & Estevez Rosas F.J. (2016): Actividad antioxidante de los polifenoles de Hypogymnia tavaresii D. Hawksw. & P. James [Antioxidant activity of polyphenols from Hypogymnia tavaresii D. Hawksw. & P. James]. - Química Nova, 39(4): 456–461. http://dx.doi.org/10.5935/0100-4042.20160053.
[in Spanish with English abstract: ] Lichen substances have more than one phenolic hydroxyl group attached to one or more benzene rings, thus qualifying them as polyphenols. The secondary metabolites isolated from the lichen H. tavaresii have been studied in a bid to find compounds protective against oxidative stress and free radical-induced damage. The compounds were identified based on their MS and 1H-NMR spectra as well as retention factors of TLC analysis. In addition to the previously described metabolites (atranorin, chloroatranorin, physodic and physodalic acids) of H. tavaresii, a further three were identified in its thalli: 2´-O-methylphysodone, isophysodic and ursolic acids. The newly identified compounds of H. tavaresii thalli may be useful in the chemotaxonomic classification of this species. Antioxidant effectiveness of the acetone extract’s fractions was measured. The compounds of the active fractions were purified and exhibited 180- 800 fold less radical scavenging activity than the reference substance α-(+)-tocopherol in a DPPH• model expressed by IC50 values. Keywords: Hypogymnia; tavaresii; lichen; depsides; depsidones; scavengers.
32713Yildiz Ü.C., Kiliç C., Gürgen A. & Yildiz S. (2020): Possibility of using lichen and mistletoe extracts as potential natural wood preservative. - Maderas. Ciencia y tecnología, 22(2): 179–188. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0718-221X2020005000204.
Increasing environmental pressures on toxic chemical wood preservatives lead to the development of natural and environmentally friendly wood preservatives. In this study, using possibilities of lichen (Usnea filipendula) and leaves of mistletoe (Viscum album) as potential natural wood preservative were researched. Impregnation procedure was applied at four different concentration levels and with two different extraction methods (hot water and methanol). The concentration levels were arranged as 3%, 5%, 10%, 15% for hot water and as 3,75%; 6,25%; 12,5%; 18,75% for methanol. The treatment procedure has been applied according to the ASTM D-1413 (1988) standard test method. The fungal decay test has been done according to the EN 113 (1996) standard test method using a brown rot fungus, Coniophora puteana for both treated test and untreated control samples. The best results were obtained at the highest concentration level of the solutions. However, the weight losses in treated test specimen have not met the standard requirements. Nevertheless, it can be assumed that both natural extracts provide promising protection performance. Keywords: Decay test, retention, Usnea filipendula, Viscum album, wood protection.
32712Emsen B., Ozdemir O., Engin T., Togar B., Cavusoglu S. & Turkez H. (2019): Inhibition of growth of U87MG human glioblastoma cells by Usnea longissima Ach.. - Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, 21(3):e20180994 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1590/0001-3765201920180994 .
Herbal medicines are efficient to reduce side effects in the fight against glioblastoma, which plays a critical role within brain cancer species. The recent studies designated for testing the effects of lichens that have shown numerous anticancer activities on glioblastoma so far. In the present study, different concentrations of water extract obtained from Usnea longissima Ach. were used in order to determine cytotoxic (via 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and lactate dehydrogenase tests), antioxidant (via total antioxidant capacity test), pro-oxidant (via total oxidant status test) and genotoxic (via 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine test) effects of them on human U87MG-glioblastoma cancer cell lines. Primary mixed glial-neuronal non-cancerous cells from Sprague-Dawley rats were also utilized to measure the effects of treatments on non-cancerous cells. Based on median inhibitory concentration values, the data belonged to non-cancerous cells (2486.71 mg/L) showed distinct towering compared to U87MG (80.93 mg/L) cells. The viability of non-cancerous and U87MG cells exposed to extract is decreased in a dose dependent manner. It was also showed that low concentrations of extract notably increased total antioxidant capacity on non-cancerous cells. In addition, various phenolic compounds in extract were detected through high-performance liquid chromatography. The recent results encourage that extract will be able to have therapeutic potential against glioblastoma. Key words cytotoxicity; genotoxicity; HPLC; total antioxidant capacity; total oxidative stress.
32711Mammadov R., Suleyman B., Altuner D., DemirciI E., Cetin N., Yilmaz A., Baykal H., Alpcan H., Turumtay E.A. & Suleyman H. (2019): Effect of ethyl acetate extract of Usnea longissima on esophagogastric adenocarcinoma in rats. - Acta Cirurgica Brasileira, 34(3):e201900305 [11 p.]. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0102-865020190030000005.
Purpose: To investigate the effects of the EtOAc extract of U. longissima which is uninvestigated previously on esophagogastric cancer induced in rats with N-methyl-N-nitro- N-nitrosoguanidin (MNNG). Methods: The anticancer activity of EtOAc extract of U. longissima was examined in the esophagogastric adenocarcinoma models induced in rats with MNNG. EtOAc extract of U. longissima, 50 and 100 mg/kg oral doses were administered once daily for six months. MNNG induced differentiated and undifferentiated type adenocarcinomas in the esophageal and gastric tissues of rats. Results: EtOAc extract of U. longissima obtained from U. longissima prevented gastric and esophageal cancerogenesis induced in rats with MNNG. EtOAc extract of U. longissima did not have a lethal effect at doses of 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg. The prominent anticarcinogenic activity of EtOAc extract of U. longissima 50 and 100 mg/kg suggests that it is not toxic and it is selective to the cancer tissue. Conclusion: This information may shed light on clinical implementation of EtOAc extract of U. longissima in future. Key words: Adenocarcinoma. Acetates. Usnea. Rats.
32710Martínez M., Mantilla L.E., Toro D.R. & Galvis García J.H. (2016): Perfil químico y actividad antibacterial de los extractos de Peltigera laciniata (Merrill ex Riddle) Gyeln [Chemical profile and antibacterial activity of extracts from Peltigera laciniata (Merrill ex Riddle) Gyeln]. - Revista Cubana de Plantas Medicinales, 21(4): 1–10. http://scielo.sld.cu/pdf/pla/v21n4/pla01416.pdf.
[in Spanish with English abstract: ] Introduction: Due to their content of secondary metabolites such as xanthones, anthraquinones and alkaloids, lichens have been suggested to be a material of high biological potential (e.g. antibiotic and antiviral). Their very promising antibacterial potential may be determined by diffusion antibiograms, the main concern of the present study. Objective: Evaluate the antibacterial activity of extracts obtained from Peltigera laciniata (Merrill ex Riddle) Gyeln, cutleaf elm. Methods: The lichenic material was percolated with 96 % ethanol. Total alkaloids and total flavonoids were isolated from the crude ethanolic extract by adding 3 % HCL and methanol, respectively. Both fractions were monitored by thin-layer chromatography and fractioned by column chromatography. Extracts and fractions were subjected to bioassays against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus for inhibition haloes, using sultamicillin as control. The assays were conducted 3 times with 2 replications. Results: Upon chromatographic separation of the alkaloids, an increase was observed in inhibition when compared with the alkaloidal mixture. Fraction A1 displayed inhibition values close to the control. Fraction FT showed lower inhibition values than the other treatments evaluated. The fraction of total flavonoids had a lesser impact on E. coli and S. aureus, but alkaloidal nitrogenated compounds had significant antibacterial activity against Gram-positive microorganisms. Conclusions: The chemical profile of extracts from the study species revealed the presence of alkaloidal and flavonoidal secondary metabolites, as well as the antimicrobial effect of the alkaloids contained in the extract and the fraction. This confirms the antibacterial pharmacological potential attributed to the protoberberine core. Keywords: alkaloids; antibiogram; flavonoids; Peltigera laciniata.
32709García R., Kristensen M.J. & Rosato V. (2016): Interacciones competitivas en una comunidad de líquenes murícola [Competitive interactions in a community of lichens in a wall]. - Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales, 18(1): 31–37. .
[in Spanish with English abstract: ] Interspecific competition determines the distribution of species and the structure of communities. Crustose lichens are the first colonizers on rocky substrates and they compete among themselves for space and light. Previous studies have mentioned three possible situations resulting from the interaction that occur by contact between thalli of different species of lichens: species that grow over the other (+), species that are killed or retract (-), or the stop of the growth of both species at the contact point (ǁ). We analyzed the interactions between crustose lichens that colonize urban walls. On a transect of 30 m traced on the wall of a building in La Plata (Argentina), with sampling units of 20x20 cm (n=20), we recorded species coverage and the type of contact between the lichen thalli of different species. We estimated richness and relative frecuency. The average coverage of the community was 83 ± 8.6% and the absolute species richness was eight. The dominant species were Flavoplaca austrocitrina and Caloplaca teicholyta that were recorded in all sampling units. The remaining species had frequencies ≤ 50% and ≤ 1% coverage. All contacts involve some dominant. Among them, the most frequent interaction was the stop of growth (ǁ), which occurred in 82% of contacts. Overgrowth (wins (+) – loss (-)) occurred in the 18% of contacts, always positive for the dominant. It is concluded that among the observed species, in this community, the two dominant species have equal competitive ability and suppress the rest. F. austrocitrina had advantage in colonizing the substrate. Key words: interspecific competition, coverage, contact between thalli, colonization.
32708Zhang C., Aptroot A., Liu H.-J. & Jiang S.-H. (2020): Two new species of Anisomeridium (lichenized Dothideomycetes, Ascomycota) from China. - Phytotaxa, 458(2): 167–172. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.458.2.4.
The humid tropical and subtropical forests in South China harbour a rich diversity of crustose lichens. As a result of taxonomic studies of Anisomeridium, two species new to science are described. Comparisons and discussions with similar species are given. In addition, a key to the species of Anisomeridium in China is also provided. Keywords: corticolous lichens, Monoblastiales, morphological analysis, taxonomy, Lichens.
32707Brunbjerg A.K., Bruun H.H., Dalby L., Classen A.T., Fløjgaard C., Frøslev T.G., Pryds Hansen O.L., Høye T.T., Moeslund J.E., Svenning J.-C. & Ejrnæs R. (2020): Multi-taxon inventory reveals highly consistent biodiversity responses to ecospace variation. - Oikos, 129: 1381–1392. https://doi.org/10.1111/oik.07145.
Amidst the global biodiversity crisis, identifying general principles for variation of biodiversity remains a key challenge. Scientific consensus is limited to a few macroecological rules, such as species richness increasing with area, which provide limited guidance for conservation. In fact, few agreed ecological principles apply at the scale of sites or reserve management, partly because most community‐level studies are restricted to single habitat types and species groups. We used the recently proposed ecospace framework and a comprehensive data set for aggregating environmental variation to predict multi‐taxon diversity. We studied richness of plants, fungi and arthropods in 130 sites representing the major terrestrial habitat types in Denmark. We found the abiotic environment (ecospace position) to be pivotal for the richness of primary producers (vascular plants, mosses and lichens) and, more surprisingly, little support for ecospace continuity as a driver. A peak in richness at intermediate productivity adds new empirical evidence to a long‐standing debate over biodiversity responses to productivity. Finally, we discovered a dominant and positive response of fungi and insect richness to organic matter accumulation and diversification (ecospace expansion). Two simple models of producer and consumer richness accounted for 77% of the variation in multi‐taxon species richness suggesting a significant potential for generalization beyond individual species responses. Our study widens the traditional conservation focus on vegetation and vertebrate populations unravelling the importance of diversification of carbon resources for diverse heterotrophs, such as fungi and insects. Keywords: abiotic environment; carbon resources; environmental DNA; heterotrophs; primary producers; taxonomic aggregation.
32706Joshi T., Sharma P., Joshi T. & Chandra S. (2020): In silico screening of anti-inflammatory compounds from Lichen by targeting cyclooxygenase-2. - Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics, 38(12): 3544–3562. https://doi.org/10.1080/07391102.2019.1664328 .
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) targeting cyclooxygenase-2 are clinically effective. However, they lack anti-thrombotic activity resulting in incidences of adverse effects like myocardial infarction, gastrointestinal and abdominal discomfort which necessitate for discovering new drug candidates with improved therapeutic effects and tolerability. Various recent researches have suggested that many lichens offer a vast reservoir for anti-inflammatory drug candidates which are natural as well as safe for human consumption. Drug discovery is a very complex and time-consuming process; however, in silico techniques can make this process simple and economic. Hence to find out natural anti-inflammatory compounds, we have carried out the virtual screening of 412 lichen compounds by molecular docking with human Cox-2 enzyme and validated the docking score by X-Score followed by ADMET and Drug-likeness analysis. The resulting 6 top-scored compounds were subjected to Molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) to analyze the stability of docked protein-ligand complex, to assess the fluctuation and conformational changes during protein-ligand interaction. The values of RMSD, Rg, and interaction energy after 30 ns of MDS revealed the good stability of these Lichen compounds in the active site pocket of Cox-2 in compare to reference, JMS. Additionally, we have done the pharmacophore analysis which found many common pharmacophore features between Lichen compounds and well known anti-inflammatory compounds. Our result shows that these lichen compounds are potential anti-inflammatory candidates and could be further modified and evaluated to develop more effective anti-inflammatory drugs with fewer side effects for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.
32705Pavan Kumar P., Siva B., Anand A., Tiwari A.K., Rao C.V., Boustie J. & Babu K.S. (2020): Isolation, semi-synthesis, free-radicals scavenging, and advanced glycation end products formation inhibitory constituents from Parmotrema tinctorum. - Journal of Asian Natural Products Research, 22(10): 976–988. https://doi.org/10.1080/10286020.2019.1628024.
Bioassay-guided separation of acetone extract from lichen Parmotrema tinctorum (Delise ex Nyl.) Hale led to the isolation of six major phenolic constituents (1–6). Compounds structures were established using NMR and mass spectral techniques. Further, to develop libraries on these scaffolds, a series of semi-synthetic derivatives were prepared (1a–1f, 2a–2b, 3a, 5a) and investigated for their free-radicals (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS)) scavenging and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) formation inhibitory activities. Amongst tested derivatives, 1a, 1d, 1e, 2a, and 5a showed strong ABTS scavenging potentials comparable to Trolox. In addition, these derivatives also manifested moderate AGEs formation inhibitory activities. Keywords: AGEs inhibition, antioxidant activity, lichen substance, Parmotrema tinctorum , semi-synthetic derivatives.
32704Palharini K.M.Z., Vitorino L.C., Menino G.C.O. & Bessa L.A. (2020): Edge effects reflect the impact of the agricultural matrix on the corticolous lichens found in fragments of Cerrado Savanna in Central Brazil. - Sustainability, 12(17): 7149 [19 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12177149.
Habitat fragmentation affects lichen communities by inducing edge effects, although the dispersal of pollutants by pesticide drift from commercial crops may also provoke alterations in community structure, due to the varying sensitivity of lichen morphotypes to pollutants. In this context, we tested the hypothesis that lichen morphotype richness and diversity, and the percentage area of the trunks covered by different lichen morphotypes are modified significantly at the edges of fragments of Cerrado vegetation inserted within the agricultural matrix. We evaluated habitat fragments representing different Cerrado formations (Cerradão, Cerrado sensu stricto, and seasonal semi-deciduous forest) as well as the Emas National Park, a prominent Cerrado conservation unit. We used Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMMs) to test the potential of the models compiled using a mixture of phytosociological and environmental parameters, including the species, the height of the host plant (H), the circumference of its stem at breast height (CBH), total chlorophyll (TC), bark fissuring (BF) and pH, and illuminance (Lum), to explain the observed variation in the lichen morphotype richness and the percentage cover of the trunks by corticolous lichen morphotypes at the center and edge of the fragments. The central areas invariably had a greater diversity of morphotypes in all the fragments. The morphotypes considered highly sensitive to disturbance were not observed in edge areas, confirming a clear edge effect, as well as the influence of pesticide drift from the adjacent farmland matrix, on the structure of the lichen community. At both the edge and center sites, the larger trees (higher CBH) with less fissured bark tended to have the greatest diversity of lichen morphotypes, and more acidic barks had the greatest lichen cover. The models tested indicated that the variable tree species is an important determinant of the observed patterns of lichen morphotype richness and cover, either on its own or in association with pH or CBH + pH. The analyses also indicated that all the variables tested are important in some way for the definition of the percentage cover of the host trunks. The present study contributes to the understanding of the diversity of the corticolous lichen communities in the remaining fragments of Cerrado vegetation and the effects of the agricultural matrix on this community. The lichen may thus play a role as indicators of impact on other species, these organisms may provide important insights for the further investigation of the disturbance caused by the agricultural matrix on the communities of other groups of organisms. Keywords: diversity of lichens; lichen cover; lichen morphotype richness; Brazilian savanna; corticolous lichen.
32703Komendova R. [recte Komendová R.] (2020): The HR-CS-GF-AAS determination and preconcentration of palladium in contaminated urban areas, especially in lichens. - Environmental Pollution, 256: 985–991. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.113468.
The increasing content of platinum group metal particles emitted into the environment by car traffic is gradually attracting the attention of the scientific community. However, the methods for the determination of platinum group metals in environmental matrices are either costly or suffer from low sensitivity. To facilitate the use of less sensitive, but significantly cheaper, devices, the preconcentration of platinum group metals is employed. For platinum, a multitude of preconcentration approaches have been published. On the contrary, the preconcentration approaches for palladium are still rare. In this work, the development, optimization, and testing of a new approach is described; it is based on a preconcentration of palladium on octadecyl modified silica gel together with the complexing agent dimethylglyoxime, and it is then analyzed with the high-resolution continuum-source atomic absorption spectrometry. For comparison, a newly developed sorbent, QuadraSil™ TA, with a high affinity for platinum group metals was also tested. The preconcentraiton approach was tested on the lichen Hypogymnia physodes, which served as a bioindicator of palladium emissions. The case study site was a mid-sized city in central Europe: Brno, Czech Republic. The dry “bag” monitoring technique was used to collect the palladium near roads with a large span of traffic density. The developed analytical approach confirmed an increasing concentration of palladium with increasing exposure time and intensity of the traffic. Consequently, a simple relationship between the amount of bioaccumulated palladium and traffic density was established. Keywords: Palladium; Solid phase extraction; Dimethylglyoxime (diacetyldioxime); Silica gel C18; QuadraSil™ TA; HReCSeGF-AAS.
32702van Zuijlen K., Roos R.E., Klanderud K., Lang S.I., Wardle D.A. & Asplund J. (2020): Decomposability of lichens and bryophytes from across an elevational gradient under standardized conditions. - Oikos, 129(9): 1358–1368. https://doi.org/10.1111/oik.07257.
Lichens and bryophytes are abundant primary producers in high latitude and high elevation ecosystems, and they play an important role in ecosystem processes such as decomposition and nutrient cycling. Despite their importance, little is known about the decomposability of lichens and bryophytes either among or within species, at the whole community level, or how this decomposability is affected by their functional traits. Here, we studied decomposability of lichens and bryophytes at the community‐level and individual species‐level (using 21 species and genera) collected from an elevational gradient in alpine Norway. In order to isolate the elevation effect on litter quality, we used a standardized laboratory bioassay to measure decomposability. In contrast to our expectations, we found that community‐level decomposability of lichens and bryophytes increased with elevation and thus decreasing temperature. In contrast, phosphorus release from the litter decreased with elevation while nitrogen release was unresponsive. Decomposability was explained by nutrient concentrations, litter pH and primary producer group identity (lichens versus bryophytes) at both the individual species and community levels. Species turnover (changes in species composition and abundance) was the main driver of decomposability across elevation at the community level, despite some of the traits explaining decomposability showing high intraspecific variability. Our study highlights the importance of among‐species variation in determining lichen and bryophyte decomposability. Further, the higher decomposability that we found for higher elevations suggests that global warming might result in a shift towards slower decomposable lichen and bryophyte species. Keywords: alpine ecology; cryptogams; decomposition; elevational gradient; functional traits; tundra.
32701Mishra K.B., Vítek P., Mishra A., Hájek J. & Barták M. (2020): Chlorophyll a fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy can monitor activation/deactivation of photosynthesis and carotenoids in Antarctic lichens. - Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, 239: 118458 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2020.118458.
Lichens survive harsh weather of Antarctica as well as of other hostile environments worldwide. Therefore, this investigation is important to understand the evolution of life on Earth in relation to their stress tolerance strategy. Wehave used chlorophyll a fluorescence (ChlF) and Raman spectroscopy, respectively, tomonitor the activation/ deactivation of photosynthesis and carotenoids in three diverse Antarctic lichens, Dermatocarpon polyphyllizum (DP), Umbilicaria antarctica (UA), and Leptogium puberulum (LP). These lichens, post 4 h or 24 h of hydration, showed differences in their ChlF transients and values of major ChlF parameters, e.g., in the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fm), and yields of fluorescence and heat dissipation (Φf,d), of effective quantumefficiency of PSII photochemistry (ΦPSII) and of non-photochemical quenching (Φnpq), whichmay be due to quantitative and/or qualitative differences in the composition of their photobionts. For understanding the kinetics of hydration-induced activation of photosynthesis, we screened ΦPSII of these lichens and reported its nonlinear stimulation on a minute time scale; half of the activation time (t1/2) was fastest ~4.05 ± 0.29 min for DP, which was followed by 5.46±0.18 min for UA, and 13.95±1.24 min for LP. Upon drying of fully activated lichen thallus, there was a slow decay, in hours, of relative water content (RWC) as well as of Fv/Fm. Raman spectral signatures were different for lichens having algal (in DP and UA) and cyanobacteria (in LP) photobionts, and there was a significant shift in ν1(C=C) Raman band of carotenoids post 24 h hydration as compared to their value at a dry state or post 4 h of hydration; this shift was decreased, when drying, in DP and LP but not in UA. Weconclude that hydration nonlinearly activated photosynthetic apparatus/reactions of these lichens in minute time range but there was a de-novo synthesis of chlorophylls as well as of carotenoids post 24 h. Their dehydrationinduced deactivation, however, was comparatively slow, in hours range, and there seemed a degradation of synthesized chlorophylls and carotenoids post dryness. We conclude that in extremophilic lichens, their photosynthetic partners, in particular, possess a complex survival and photoprotective strategy to be successful in the extreme terrestrial environments in Antarctica. Keywords: Effective quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry; Extremophile organisms; Harsh environments; Non-invasive methods; Optical signal Raman spectra.
32700Fraga Junior C.A.V., Gumboski E.L. & Eliasaro S. (2020): The genus Cladonia (Lichenized Ascomycota) from Restinga Vegetation of Espírito Santo state, Brazil: Supergroups Crustaceae and Perviae. - Rodriguésia, 71: e01612018 [10 p.]. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/2175-7860202071064.
In this paper we recognize a total of 11 species of Cladonia, five belonging to Supergroup Crustaceae and six to Supergroup Perviae, occurring in the Restinga vegetation of Espírito Santo state, Brazil. We confirm the occurrence of C. sprucei and C. rangiferina to Espírito Santo state Restinga, being their most austral record in Brazil so far. Four species are new records to the state: C. consimilis, C. dendroides, C. salzmannii, and C. sphacelata. Here we expand the number of known species of Cladonia of Supergroup Perviae from three to five, and of Supergroup Crustaceae from three to six in the studied environment. An identification key, comments and illustrations are provided. Key words: Atlantic rainforest, Cladoniaceae, dimorphic lichens, lichenized fungi, taxonomy.
32699León-González D. & Pérez-Pérez R.E. (2020): Líquenes epífitos en Juniperus flaccida Schltdl. (Cupressaceae) – componente importante de los bosques templados de Oaxaca, México [Epiphytic lichens on Juniperus flaccida Schltdl. (Cupressaceae) – important component of the temperate forest from Oaxaca, Mexico]. - Acta Biológica Colombiana, 25(2): 235–245. http://dx.doi.org/10.15446/abc.v25n2.77238.
[in Spanish with English abstract: ] The study of the epiphytic lichen community on Juniperus flaccida, an endemic species from Mexico, is investigated. We analyzed the influence of diameter at breast height (DBH) in the lichen community richness. Phorophytes selected was clasify in seven diametric classes. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to compare the diametric classes with the lichen richness. Species composition were using to clasified the diametric classes with the Two Way Cluster Analysis. We calculated the alfa, beta and, gamma diversity. Fortynine species were collected around to J. flaccida. A total of 65 species of corticolous lichens were collected on J. flaccida. 59 were new records to J. flaccida, while six are new records for Oaxaca (Caloplaca ferruginea, Dermatocarpon americanum, Lecanora albella, Lecanora helva, Ochrolechia mexicana y Parmotrema neotropicum) and, three are new records to Mexico (Diploschistes scruposus, Traponora varians y Chaenotheca trichialis). Nevertheless that J. flaccida is found in patches immersed in the pine, oak and pine-oak forest, it is a phorophyte that has allowed the maintenance of the lichen community spite of the fragmentation of the forest. Keywords: DBH, diversity index, lichen community.
32698Anonymus (2020): Recent literature on Australasian lichens. - Australasian Lichenology, 87: 96. .
32697McCarthy P.M. (2020): Additional lichen records from Australia 87. Monoblastiopsis nigrocortina R.C.Harris & C.A.Morse. - Australasian Lichenology, 87: 92–95. .
Monoblastiopsis nigrocortina R.C.Harris & C.A.Morse (lichenized Ascomycota, Pleosporales, incertae sedis) and that genus are reported for the first time from Australia. Previously known only from the U.S.A., mainly on calcareous and non-calcareous sandstones, the species was collected on a bonded cement-asbestos tile in the Southern Tablelands, New South Wales.
32696Louwhoff S.H. (2020): Observations on the vertical distribution of lichens on a Eucalyptus radiata subsp. radiata tree in burnt lowland forest, Victoria, including a new State record. - Australasian Lichenology, 87: 85–91. .
A large, recently fallen branch presented an opportunity to record the previously undocumented vertical lichen distribution and canopy species on Eucalyptus radiata Sieber ex DC. subsp. radiata (narrow-leaf peppermint) in burnt lowland forest in Victoria, Australia. Ten species were detected from the canopy and eight were recorded from a shaded, unburnt part of the buttress. The heavily charred bark on the remainder of the lower trunk supported only Hypocenomyce australis and Cladonia rigida var. rigida squamules. Fifteen species were recorded overall, with the lignicolous Xylographa isidiosa a new record for Victoria. The zone near the base of the tree supported a Cladoniaceae-dominated community with C. rigida var. rigida extending higher up the trunk and into the lower canopy. Pannoparmelia wilsonii and X. isidiosa occurred only on canopy branches and attained the greatest coverage of all species observed. These observations provide a preliminary insight into the lichen flora of Eucalyptus radiata subsp. radiata, and the contribution this makes to biodiversity in a fire-affected, lowland forest by providing suitable lichen habitat.
32695Elix J.A. & Kantvilas G. (2020): A new isidiate species and a new record of Rinodina (Physciaceae, Ascomycota) from Tasmania. - Australasian Lichenology, 87: 82–84. .
Rinodina austroisidiata Elix & Kantvilas is described as new to science, and Rinodina cana (Arnold) Arnold is reported for the first time from Tasmania and New South Wales.
32694Mayrhofer H. & Elix J.A. (2020): Three new corticolous species and two new records of Rinodina (Physciaceae, Ascomycota) from subtropical and tropical Australia. - Australasian Lichenology, 87: 73–81. .
The corticolous Rinodina gerhardii H.Mayrhofer & Elix and R. heronensis H.Mayrhofer & Elix from Queensland and R. klauskalbii H.Mayrhofer & Elix from New South Wales are described as new to science. In addition, Rinodina galapagoensis Giralt & Bungartz and R. maculans (Kremp.) Müll.Arg. are reported for the first time from Australia. A revised key to the corticolous species of Rinodina in Australia is provided.
32693McCarthy P.M. & Elix J.A. (2020): New species and new records of Micarea (Pilocarpaceae) from Australia. - Australasian Lichenology, 87: 62–72. .
Micarea crassa P.M.McCarthy & Elix sp. nov. (Pilocarpaceae) is described from bark in the wet tropics of the Northern Territory, and the corticolous M. queenslandica P.M.McCarthy & Elix sp. nov. is described from rainforest in north-eastern Queensland. Micarea synotheoides (Nyl.) Coppins and M. ternaria (Nyl.) Vězda are reported for the first time from Australia (both from New South Wales), while new state and territory records are provided for four other species.
32692McCarthy P.M. (2020): A new corticolous species of Lasioloma (lichenized Ascomycota, Pilocarpaceae) from north-eastern Queensland. - Australasian Lichenology, 87: 58–61. .
Lasioloma corticola P.M.McCarthy is described from the bark of Casuarina in a montane rainforest margin in north-eastern Queensland, Australia. It is characterized by having conidia with 4 or 5 branches diverging from a single point, the branches (5–)7–9(–11)-septate and 25–60 × 1.5–2.5 μm.
32691Elvebakk A. & Sipman H.J.M. (2020): Gibbosporina revisited: new records from Fiji, Indonesia, New Caledonia, Papua New Guinea and Queensland, with one species from the Solomon Islands transferred to Pannaria. - Australasian Lichenology, 87: 52–57. .
More than 40 Australasian collections of the genus Gibbosporina have been studied and found to confirm the concepts of the six species previously known from Australia and Papua New Guinea. Perispore morphology is the character most useful for identification. Gibbosporina nitida appears to be the most common species in the area. Gibbosporina elixii and G. leptospora were previously thought to be very rare, known from only two localities each, but they are reported here from several new localities. Gibbosporina thamnifera was previously known from only the Eungella National Park in Queensland and from one locality in Papua New Guinea, but is now known from further localities. New Caledonia is now known to have three species, G. leptospora newly reported. Fiji also has three species, G. leptospora, G. nitida and G. sphaerospora newly reported here, and G. sphaerospora is also reported as new to Papua New Guinea. Gibbosporina phyllidiata, previously known from only the sterile holotype specimen from the Solomon Islands, is now shown to contain pannarin, and is therefore much better accommodated in Pannaria under its new name P. melanesica.
32690McCarthy P.M. & Elix J.A. (2020): A new species of the lichenicolous genus Phaeospora Hepp ex Stein (Verrucariales) from Australia. - Australasian Lichenology, 87: 48–51. .
A pyrenocarpous microfungus, collected from consolidated soil in Eucalyptus-dominated woodland in the Australian Capital Territory, proved to be a species of the lichenicolous genus Phaeospora Hepp ex Stein (Verrucariales), probably parasitic on the endemic Sarcogyne terrulenta P.M.McCarthy & Elix (Acarosporaceae). Phaeospora australiensis P.M.McCarthy & Elix has minute, semi-immersed to almost superficial perithecia lacking an involucrellum and paraphyses, but with a uniformly brown-black excipulum, simple periphyses, an amyloid hymenium, (4–)8-spored fissitunicate asci, and 3-septate ascospores that are medium grey or medium brown or brownish grey, lack a perispore, and measure 12–22 × 4.5–8 μm.
32689Elix J.A. & McCarthy P.M. (2020): Three new species and a new record of Trapelia (lichenized Ascomycota, Trapeliaceae) from Australia. - Australasian Lichenology, 87: 40–47. .
Trapelia occidentalis Elix, T. rosettiformis Elix & P.M.McCarthy and T. terrestris Elix & P.M.McCarthy (Trapeliaceae) are described as new from siliceous soil and rocks in southern Australia. Trapelia placodioides Coppins & P.James is reported from Australia for the first time, and an updated key to Trapelia in Australia is provided.
32688McCarthy P.M. (2020): A new saxicolous species, a new combination and a new record of Gyalidea (lichenized Ascomycota, Asterothyriaceae) from Australia. - Australasian Lichenology, 87: 30–39. .
Gyalidea nambourensis sp. nov. is described from siliceous rock in rainforest near Nambour, south-eastern Queensland. The new combination Gyalidea halocarpa (P.M.McCarthy & Elix) P.M.McCarthy is made for the calcicolous, Australian endemic Gyalideopsis halocarpa. Gyalidea psammoica (Nyl.) Lettau ex Vězda is reported for the first time from Australia (A.C.T. and N.S.W.), and a key is provided to the five species of Gyalidea known from the country.
32687McCarthy P.M. & Elix J.A. (2020): A new species of Micarea (Pilocarpaceae) from soil in New Zealand. - Australasian Lichenology, 87: 26–29. .
Micarea rubiformis P.M.McCarthy & Elix sp. nov. (lichenized Ascomycota, Pilocarpaceae) is described from consolidated, siliceous soil in Nothofagus forest in southern New Zealand.
32686Elix J.A. & Kantvilas G. (2020): Three new species and a new record of buellioid lichens (Caliciaceae, Ascomycota) from Tasmania. - Australasian Lichenology, 87: 20–25. .
Buellia acervicola Elix & Kantvilas, B. paradisana Elix & Kantvilas and Tetramelas oreophilus Elix & Kantvilas are described as new to science, and Buellia macveanii Elix is reported for the first time from Tasmania.
32685Elix J.A. (2020): Ten new species and two new records of buellioid lichens (Physciaceae, Ascomycota) from Australia and Norfolk Island. - Australasian Lichenology, 87: 3–19. .
Amandinea pilbarensis Elix, Baculifera confusa Elix, Buellia arida Elix, B. cravenii Elix, B. eldridgei Elix, B. kowenensis Elix & P.M.McCarthy, B. lordhowensis Elix, B. phillipensis Elix, Tetramelas flindersianus Elix and T. gariwerdensis Elix are described as new to science. In addition, Amandinea brugierae (Vain.) Marbach and Buellia hypostictella Elix & H.Mayrhofer are reported for the first time from Australia.
32684McCarthy P.M. & Elix J.A. (2020): Additional lichen records from Australia 86. Hymenelia ceracea (Arnold) M.Choisy and Thelenella fernandeziana (Zahlbr.) H.Mayrhofer. - Australasian Lichenology, 86: 118–122. .
Hymenelia ceracea (Arnold) M.Choisy (Hymeneliaceae) and Thelenella fernandeziana (Zahlbr.) H.Mayrhofer (Thelenellaceae) are reported for the first time from Australia. The former occurs on granite in the Southern Tablelands, New South Wales, while the latter was collected from sandstone in woodland in the Australian Capital Territory.
32683Elix J.A. & McCarthy P.M. (2020): Three new species of Trapelia (lichenized Ascomycota, Trapeliaceae) from eastern Australia. - Australasian Lichenology, 86: 102–108. .
Trapelia atrocarpa Elix & P.M.McCarthy, T. kosciuszkoensis Elix and T. pruinosa Elix & P.M.McCarthy (Trapeliaceae) are described as new from siliceous rocks and soil in eastern Australia.
32682Elix J.A., Edler C. & Mayrhofer H. (2020): Two new corticolous species of Rinodina (Physciaceae, Ascomycota) from New Zealand. - Australasian Lichenology, 86: 95–101. .
The corticolous Rinodina fineranii Elix, Ch.Edler & H.Mayrhofer and R. malcolmii Elix, Ch.Edler & H.Mayrhofer, both characterized by the presence of Mischoblastia-type ascospores, are described as new to science. In addition, Rinodina australiensis Müll.Arg. is reported for the first time from New Zealand.
32681McCarthy P.M. & Elix J.A. (2020): A new species of Circinaria (Megasporaceae) from New South Wales, Australia. - Australasian Lichenology, 86: 90–94. .
Circinaria deminuta P.M.McCarthy & Elix sp. nov. (lichenized Ascomycota, Megasporaceae) is described from sandstone in central-western New South Wales, Australia. The new species has a dark greyish brown, areolate thallus containing aspicilin, small, aspicilioid apothecia with a dark brown to blackish disc, cylindrical, Aspicilia-type asci with (4–)8, minute, globose ascospores in uniseriate arrangement, and bacilliform conidia 3.5–5(–6) × 0.5 μm.
32680Elix J.A. & Mayrhofer H. (2020): A new species of Cratiria (Caliciaceae, Ascomycota) from Ascension Island, South Atlantic Ocean. - Australasian Lichenology, 86: 87–89. .
Cratiria jamesiana Elix & H.Mayrhofer, a saxicolous species with Physconia- then Buelliatype ascospores and bacilliform conidia, and containing thuringione and arthothelin, is described as new to science.
32679McCarthy P.M. & Elix J.A. (2020): Three new species of Sarcogyne (Acarosporaceae) from the Australian Capital Territory. - Australasian Lichenology, 86: 74–86. .
Sarcogyne molongloensis P.M.McCarthy & Elix sp. nov. (Acarosporaceae) is described from sandstone outcrops, while S. porphyricola P.M.McCarthy & Elix sp. nov. and S. terrulenta P.M.McCarthy & Elix sp. nov. are reported from consolidated, siliceous soil in the Australian Capital Territory. Some recent collections of S. canberrensis P.M.McCarthy & Elix, S. iridana P.M.McCarthy & Kantvilas and S. tholifera P.M.McCarthy & Elix are reported from the A.C.T. and the Northern Territory, and an updated key is provided to the 12 Australian species of Sarcogyne.
32678Elix J.A., Øvstedal D.O. & Broady P.A. (2020): A new sorediate species of Amandinea (Caliciaceae, Ascomycota) from Antarctica. - Australasian Lichenology, 86: 70–73. .
The new species Amandinea clearyi Elix & Øvstedal, is described from Marie Byrd Land and MacRobertson Land, Antarctica.
32677Elix J.A. & Mayrhofer H. (2020): Four new species and a new record of buellioid lichens (Caliciaceae, Ascomycota) from Australia. - Australasian Lichenology, 86: 62–69. .
Amandinea mountmeensis Elix & H.Mayrhofer, Buellia bularmialensis Elix & H.Mayrhofer, B. dayboroana Elix & H.Mayrhofer and B. neohalonia Elix & H.Mayrhofer are described as new to science. In addition, Buellia haywardii Elix, A.Knight & H.Mayrhofer is reported from Australia for the first time.
32676Elix J.A. & McCarthy P.M. (2020): Three new species of buellioid lichens (Caliciaceae, Ascomycota) from south-eastern Australia. - Australasian Lichenology, 86: 30–35. .
Amandinea bittangabeensis Elix & P.M.McCarthy, A. hypohyalina Elix & P.M.McCarthy and Buellia quarryana Elix & P.M.McCarthy are described as new to science.
32675Archer A.W. & Elix J.A. (2020): Six new species, a new variety, a new report and two new records in the Australian Pertusariaceae (Pertusariales, lichenized Ascomycota). - Australasian Lichenology, 86: 14–29. .
Three species of Lepra (L. elatinica A.W.Archer & Elix and L. perlacericans A.W.Archer & Elix from New South Wales and L. arida A.W.Archer & Elix from Victoria) and four taxa of Pertusaria (P. alloisidiosa A.W.Archer & Elix from the Northern Territory and Queensland, P. copiocarpa A.W.Archer & Elix from Victoria, P. macroides from New South Wales and Tasmania and P. microstoma var. deficiens from Queensland) are described as new to science. The new combination Lepra leeuwenii (Zahlbr.) A.W.Archer & Elix is proposed for Pertusaria leeuwenii Zahlbr. Pertusaria expolita R.C.Harris is reported as an earlier name for P. balekensis A.W.Archer & Elix, originally described from Papua New Guinea. Lepra dactylina (Ach.) Hafellner and Pertusaria simoneana A.W.Archer & Elix are reported for the first time from Australia.
32674Kalb K., Schumm F. & Elix J.A. (2020): Pigments and new lichen substances in the lichen genus Dirinaria. - Australasian Lichenology, 86: 6–13. .
The new combination Dirinaria endocrocea (D.D.Awasthi) Kalb, Schumm & Elix is proposed for Dirinaria confusa var. endocrocea D.D.Awasthi, and the new name Dirinaria rhodocladonica Kalb, Schumm & Elix is proposed for Dirinaria confluens var. coccinea (Lynge) D.D.Awasthi. Melanoclinin A & B, two pigments of unknown structure, were found in the apothecial pruina of Dirinaria melanoclina, D. pruinosa and D. purpurascens. The anthraquinone diacetylgraciliformin was identified in the lower medulla of most Dirinaria species. The naphthaquinones canarione and rhodocladonic acid were detected in the medulla of Dirinaria leopoldii and D. coccinea, and the latter substance was also found in the medulla of D. endocrocea and D. rhodocladonica. The relative Rf values for the pigments are recorded, and a key is provided to the Dirinaria species treated in this paper.
32673McCarthy P.M. (2020): Verrucaria kowenensis (lichenized Ascomycota, Verrucariaceae), a new species on soil in the Australian Capital Territory. - Australasian Lichenology, 86: 3–5. .
Verrucaria kowenensis P.M.McCarthy (lichenized Ascomycota, Verrucariaceae) is described from consolidated, siliceous soil in the Australian Capital Territory. It has a pale greyish green or pale to medium greenish grey, areolate to pseudosquamulose thallus that is corticate, comparatively thick and dominated by algae. Perithecia are numerous, exceptionally minute, non-involucrellate and largely immersed in the thallus, with a black apex, the excipulum being colourless at the sides and base. The ascospores are 11–20 × 5–7.5 μm.
32672Anonymus (2020): Recent literature on Australasian lichens. - Australasian Lichenology, 86: 123. .
32671Rogers R.W. (2018): Additional lichen records from Australia 84. Three Bactrospora species (Roccellaceae, Ascomycota) from Queensland. - Australasian Lichenology, 83: 62–63. .
Bactrospora denticulata (Vain.) Egea & Torrente, B. myriadea (Fée) Egea & Torrente and B. pleistophragmia (Nyl.) Räsänen, are reported for the first time from Australia
32670Archer A.W. & Elix J.A. (2018): Validation of the recent combination Lepra roseola. - Australasian Lichenology, 83: 48. .
The recent combination Lepra roseola (A.W.Archer & Elix) A.W.Archer & Elix is validated.
32669McCarthy P.M. & Elix J.A. (2018): A new species of Enterographa (lichenized Ascomycota, Roccellaceae) from Lord Howe Island, Australia. - Australasian Lichenology, 83: 49–53. .
Enterographa membranacea sp. nov. (Roccellaceae) is described from the trunk of a palm tree in Lord Howe Island, south-western Pacific Ocean. A key is provided to the 12 species of Enterographa known from Australia and its island territories.
32668Elix J.A. (2018): New combinations of Tetramelas (Caliciaceae, Ascomycota) and a key to the species in Antarctica. - Australasian Lichenology, 83: 42–47. .
The new combinations Tetramelas anisomerus (Nyl.) Elix, T. cladocarpizus (I.M.Lamb) Elix, T. darbishirei (I.M.Lamb) Elix, T. grimmiae (Filson) Elix, T. inordinatus (Hue) Elix, T. nelsonii (Darb.) Elix and T. subpedicellatus (Hue) Elix are proposed, and a key is provided to the eleven species of Tetramelas present in Antarctica.
32667Elix J.A. (2018): A key to the buellioid lichens (Ascomycota, Caliciaceae) in New Zealand. - Australasian Lichenology, 83: 26–35. .
A key to the 106 taxa of buellioid lichens in New Zealand is provided. Amandinea hnatiukii Elix is reported for the first time from New Zealand.
32666McCarthy P.M. & Elix J.A. (2018): Agonimia abscondita sp. nov. (lichenized Ascomycota, Verrucariaceae) from New South Wales, Australia. - Australasian Lichenology, 83: 18–21. .
Agonimia abscondita P.M.McCarthy & Elix (lichenized Ascomycota, Verrucariaceae) is described from bark and corticolous bryophytes in cool-temperate rainforest in south-eastern New South Wales, Australia. It has a thin, greenish, microlobulate thallus, immersed perithecia, 0.25–0.45 mm wide, with a concave to plane apex, long periphyses, (1–)4-spored asci and pale yellowish brown, muriform ascospores, 45–95 × 17–32 μm.
32665McCarthy P.M. & Elix J.A. (2018): Sclerophyton puncticulatum sp. nov. (lichenized Ascomycota, Opegraphaceae) from New South Wales, Australia. - Australasian Lichenology, 83: 14–17. .
Sclerophyton puncticulatum P.M.McCarthy & Elix (lichenized Ascomycota, Opegraphaceae) is described from bark in montane rainforest in northern New South Wales, Australia. Some older reports from Australia of other Sclerophyton species are re-assessed.
32664Anonymus (2018): Recent literature on Australasian lichens. - Australasian Lichenology, 83: 61. .
32663Anonymus (2017): Recent literature on Australasian lichens. - Australasian Lichenology, 81: 99. .
32662Anonymus (2017): Recent literature on Australasian lichens. - Australasian Lichenology, 80: 78. .
32661Anonymus (2016): Recent literature on Australasian lichens. - Australasian Lichenology, 79: 58. .
32660Anonymus (2016): Recent literature on Australasian lichens. - Australasian Lichenology, 78: 52. .
32659Anonymus (2019): Recent literature on Australasian lichens. - Australasian Lichenology, 84: 72. .
32658Basiouni S., Fayed M.A.A., Tarabees R., El-Sayed M., Elkhatam A., Töllner K.-R., Hessel M., Geisberger T., Huber C., Eisenreich W. & Shehata A.A. (2020): Characterization of sunflower oil extracts from the lichen Usnea barbata. - Metabolites, 10(9): 353 [16 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10090353.
The increasing global emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) pathogens is categorized as one of the most important health problems. Therefore, the discovery of novel antimicrobials is of the utmost importance. Lichens provide a rich source of natural products including unique polyketides and polyphenols. Many of them display pharmaceutical benefits. The aim of this study was directed towards the characterization of sunflower oil extracts from the fruticose lichen, Usnea barbata. The concentration of the major polyketide, usnic acid, was 1.6 mg/mL extract as determined by NMR analysis of the crude mixture corresponding to 80 mg per g of the dried lichen. The total phenolics and flavonoids were determined by photometric assays as 4.4 mg/mL (gallic acid equivalent) and 0.27 mg/mL (rutin equivalent) corresponding to 220 mg/g and 13.7 mg/g lichen, respectively. Gram-positive (e.g., Enterococcus faecalis) and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as clinical isolates of infected chickens were sensitive against these extracts as determined by agar diffusion tests. Most of these activities increased in the presence of zinc salts. The data suggest the potential usage of U. barbata extracts as natural additives and mild antibiotics in animal husbandry, especially against enterococcosis in poultry. Keywords: usnic acid; Usnea barbata; Enterococcus faecalis; enterococcosis; natural antimicrobial; multidrug resistant bacteria; cytotoxicity; phenolics; flavonoids
32657Abdullah S.M., Kolo K. & Sajadi S.M. (2020): Greener pathway toward the synthesis of lichen‐based ZnO@TiO2@SiO2 and Fe3O4@SiO2 nanocomposites and investigation of their biological activities. - Food Science & Nutrition, 8(8): 4044–4054. https://doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.1661.
A green way is introduced to biosynthesis of ZnO@TiO2@SiO2 and Fe3O4@SiO2 nanocomposites using the bioactive potential of Lecanora muralis (LM) lichen. UV‐Vis spectroscopy and GC–Mass analysis of the lichen show the presence of various bioactive constituents inside the lichen aqueous extract. The XRD, SEM, EDS, and elemental mapping techniques revealed the well fabrication of biosynthesized nanostructures. Also, investigation of antibacterial and antifungal activities of nanostructures demonstrated that green synthesized nanostructures have a very good antibacterial ability against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas spp. and Candida spp. pathogenic bacteria, and fungi but no antifungal activity toward the Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, and Aspergillus terrus fungi species. This study investigates the greener pathway toward the synthesis of lichen‐based ZnO@TiO2@SiO2 and Fe3O4@SiO2 nanocomposites and investigation of their biological activities.
32656Roca E. & Nimis P.L. (2002): I licheni e l'etnofarmacologia di Paolo Boccone (Sec. XVII-XVIII). - Museologia scientifica, 17(1): 27–49. .
Keywords: lichens, Boccone, ethno-pharmacology, ethnobotany, iconography.
32655Llewellyn T., Gaya E. & Murrell D.J. (2020): Are urban communities in successional stasis? A case study on epiphytic lichen communities. - Diversity, 12: 330 [18 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/d12090330.
Urban areas may contain a wide range of potential habitats and environmental gradients and, given the many benefits to human health and well-being, there is a growing interest in maximizing their biodiversity potential. However, the ecological patterns and processes in urban areas are poorly understood. Using a widely applicable ecological survey method, we sampled epiphytic lichen communities, important bioindicators of atmospheric pollution, on host Quercus trees in urban parks of London, UK, to test if common patterns relating to lichen diversity are mirrored in urban green spaces. We found lichen diversity to be dependent on host species identity, and negatively related to local tree crowding. In addition, we found a strong negative effect of tree size on lichen diversity, leaving large trees as unexploited niches. A novel network analysis revealed the presence of only pioneer communities, showing the lichen communities are being held in successional stasis, likely due to the heritage effects of SO2 emissions and current nitrogen pollution and particulate emissions. Our study highlights that jointly assessing species richness, community structure and the successional stage can be key to understanding diversity patterns in urban ecosystems. Subsequently, this may help best determine the optimum conditions that will facilitate biodiversity increase within cities. Keywords: bioindicators; community ecology; empty niches; epiphytes; fungal diversity; pollution; species co-occurrence; urban ecosystems; lichenized fungi.
32654Łubek A., Kukwa M., Czortek P. & Jaroszewicz B. (2019): Lichenicolous fungi are more specialized than their lichen hosts in primeval forest ecosystems, Białowieża Forest, northeast Poland. - Fungal Ecology, 42: 100866 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.funeco.2019.100866.
Taxonomy and diversity of symptomatic lichenicolous fungi (visible as fruitbodies on lichen thalli, their discoloration, and/or deformation) and their specificity to lichen hosts is becoming more and more studied. However, information on their ecology is still scarce. We assess how large the specialization of these fungi towards their hosts and microhabitat is. Epiphytic, epixylic and epigeic lichens and associated lichenicolous fungi were studied on 144 permanent plots in Białowieza Forest in relation to forest _ communities, species of tree phorophyte and substrates. On all these three studied levels lichenicolous fungi were more specialized than their lichen hosts. Our study provides the first estimation of ecological dependences between associations of lichenicolous fungi and their hosts, microhabitats and forest communities in a primeval forest ecosystem representative of lowland Europe. Keywords: Habitat specialization; Substrates; Forest communities; Parasitic fungi; Białowieza National Park.
32653Marshall A.J. & de Lange P.J. (2020): First record of Zwackhia viridis (Lecanographaceae) from the Chatham Islands. - Trilepidea, 201: 6–8. .
New Zealand
32652Knudsen K. & Kocourková J. (2020): Lichenological Notes 7: On taxa of Acarospora and Sarcogyne. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 19: 158–162. http://sweetgum.nybg.org/philolichenum/.
Acarospora cervina and A. tongleti are discussed as not occurring in North America and should be removed from North American checklist. Sarcogyne sphaerospora is transferred to Acarospora and given a new name Acarospora lendermeri. Sarcogyne reebiae is considered a synonym of S. similis. Sarcogyne similis is verified as occurring in Europe in Greece. Keywords: Acarospora janae, lichenicolous fungi, New Mexico, nomenclature, stromata.
32651Guterres D.C., dos Santos M.D.M., da Silva R.A.F., Souza E.S.C., Soares W.R.O., Pinho D.B. & Dianese J.C. (2020): Cladosterigma: an enigmatic fungus, previously considered a basidiomycete, now revealed as an ascomycete member of the Gomphillaceae. - Mycologia, 112(4): 829–846. https://doi.org/10.1080/00275514.2020.1781501.
Cladosterigma clavariellum has been treated as a basidiomycete since its first description by Spegazzini in 1886 as Microcera clavariella. After further morphological studies, between 1919 and 2011, it remained among the basidiomycetes, most recently as incertae sedis in the order Cryptobasidiales. Our studies, based on light and scanning electron microscopy, supported by multilocus phylogenetic analyses—second-largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB2), translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF1), small subunit (18S), large subunit (28S), and nuclear internal transcribed spacers (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 = ITS) of the nuclear rDNA sequences, and mitochondrial rDNA small subunit (mtSSU)—finally determined the phylogenetic placement of Cladosterigma as the first nonlichenicolous mycoparasitic member of the Gomphillaceae within the Graphidales, an ascomycete order previously composed predominantly of lichen-forming fungi. Keywords: Brazil, Cerrado fungi, Graphidales, hyperparasitism, Lecanoromycetes, mycoparasite, Neotropical ascomycetes, Ostropomycetidae.
32650Ghimire N., Han S.-R., Kim B., Park H., Lee J.H. & Oh T.-J. (2020): Comparative genomic study of polar lichen-associated Hymenobacter sp. PAMC 26554 and Hymenobacter sp. PAMC 26628 reveals the presence of polysaccharide‑degrading ability based on habitat. - Current Microbiology, 77: 2940–2952. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00284-020-02120-1.
The genus Hymenobacter is classified in the family Hymenobacteraceae under the phylum Bacteroidetes. They have been isolated from diverse environments, such as air, soil, and lichen, along with extreme polar environments, including the Arctic and Antarctic regions. The polar regions have attracted intense research interest for the discovery of novel microorganisms and their functions. Analysis of the polysaccharide utilization-related carbohydrate-active enzyme among the two lichenassociated polar organisms Hymenobacter sp. PAMC 26554 and Hymenobacter sp. PAMC 26628 was performed, along with its comparison with the complete genome of the same genus available in the NCBI database. The study was conducted relying on the AZCL screening data for the two polar lichen-associated species. While comparing with eight other complete genomes, differences in polysaccharide preferences based on the isolation environment and biosample source were discovered. All the species showed almost similar percentage of cellulose synthesis and degradation genes. However, the polar lichen-associated microorganism was found to have a high percentage of hemicellulose degradation genes, and less starch and laminarin degradation. The Hymenobacter species with higher number of hemicellulose degradation genes was found to have a lower number of starch and laminarin degradation genes and vice versa, highlighting the differences in polysaccharide utilization among the species.
32649Sonina A.V. & Androsova V.I. (2020): Coastal lichens. - In: Grigore M.-N. (ed.), Handbook of Halophytes, p. 1–22, Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-17854-3_34-1.
Lichens are a symbiotic complex of autotrophic (algae, Cyanobacteria) and heterotrophic (fungi) components that have developed during evolution in coastal ecosystems in the process of adaptation of algae and fungi to terrestrial habitats. Lichens are highly adapted to extreme habitats including the littoral (or intertidal) zones of coasts. In this chapter, we present developmental stages of aquatic lichen investigations: freshwater and marine lichens. The issues of species diversity of coastal lichens, their ecology, and adaptations to the coastal marine environment are described. The leading factors affected the epilithic lichen cover of coasts, and freshwater habitats are at a distance from the waterline and substrate characteristics. Substrate characteristics, especially near the waterline, depend on the wave rhythm. On the coasts of freshwater bodies, four zones are recognized based on flooding duration and lichen ecology. Lichen zones of fresh and marine coasts are distinguished by their species composition: on sea coasts halophytes are predominant and on freshwater shores – hydrophilic lichens. Marker species of lichens were identified for each zone. For the littoral zone, the intrazonal structure of lichen flora was shown. In the adaptation of symbiotic organisms, such as lichens, both symbionts take part: mycobiont and photobiont. Morphological and structural adaptations are mainly associated with mycobiont variability: the presence of morphotypes, structural features of the reproductive organs, and anatomical layers. Photobiont is responsible for functional adaptations: the variability of the amount of photosynthetic pigments and the synthesis of various substances that ensure the resistance of lichen to salt stress. The photobiont provides synthesis of osmolytes, and these process patterns can change depending on the photobiont species (strain), as well as for one photobiont in different coastal conditions. The distribution of epilithic lichen species on the coasts is therefore also ensured by the functions of the photobiont. The important component of the lichen association is the microbial complex; however its role in adapting lichens to coastal environment is still not clear. The perspective of studying coastal lichens is determined by a rather poor knowledge of species diversity and ecology of this group, including physiology, biochemistry, and genetics based on modern research methods. Keywords: Coastal lichens · Epilithic lichens · Freshwater lichens · Marine lichens · Tidal zone · Adaptation.
32648García‐Velázquez L., Rodríguez A., Gallardo A., Maestre F.T., Dos Santos E., Lafuente A., Fernández‐Alonso M.J., Singh B.K., Wang J.‐T. & Durán J. (2020): Climate and soil micro‐organisms drive soil phosphorus fractions in coastal dune systems. - Functional Ecology, 34(8): 1690–1701. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2435.13606.
The importance of soil phosphorus (P) is likely to increase in coming decades due to the growing atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition originated by industrial and agricultural activities. We currently lack a proper understanding of the main drivers of soil P pools in coastal dunes, which rank among the most valued priority conservation areas worldwide. Here, we evaluated the joint effects of biotic (i.e. microbial abundance and richness, vegetation and cryptogams cover) and abiotic (i.e. pH and aridity) factors on labile, medium‐lability and recalcitrant soil P pools across a wide aridity gradient in the Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula. Climate determined the availability of medium‐lability, recalcitrant and total P, but had a minor net effect on labile P, which was positively and significantly related to the presence of plants, mosses and lichens. Medium‐lability P was significantly influenced by soil bacterial richness and abundance (positively and negatively, respectively). Our results suggest that micro‐organisms transfer P from medium‐lability pool to more labile one. At the same time, increases in bacterial richness associated to biofilms might be involved in the thickening of the medium‐lability P pool in our climosequence. These bacterial‐mediated transfers would confer resistance to the labile P pool under future climate change and uncover an important role of soil micro‐organisms as modulators of the geochemical P cycle. Keywords: biofilms; climosequence; coastal dunes; global change; medium‐lability phosphorus; microbial transfer model; phosphorus pools.
32647Kosecka M., Jabłońska A., Flakus A., Rodriguez‐Flakus P., Kukwa M. & Guzow‐Krzemińska B. (2020): Trentepohlialean algae (Trentepohliales, Ulvophyceae) show preference to selected mycobiont lineages in lichen symbioses. - Journal of Phycology, 56(4): 979–993. https://doi.org/10.1111/jpy.12994.
The main aims of this work were to assess phylogenetic relationships of the trentepohlialean photobionts in tropical, mainly sterile, lichens collected in Bolivia, to examine their genetic diversity, host specificity, and the impact of habitat factors on the occurrence of Trentepohliales. Based on rbcL marker analysis, we constructed a phylogenetic tree with eight major clades of Trentepohliales, of which seven free‐living species are intermingled with lichenized ones. Our analyses show that the studied photobionts are scattered across the phylogenetic tree and algae from temperate and tropical regions do not form monophyletic groups, except within one clade that seems to be restricted to the tropics. There is no significant occurrence pattern of lichenized Trentepohliaceae on a specific substratum, except Cephaleuros spp. and Phycopeltis spp., which are restricted to leaves, while some clades with lichenized algae may be specialized to tree bark and wood. Moreover, we found two patterns of associations: first, closely related algae can associate with distantly related mycobionts; second, some other trentepohlioid algae associate with selected lineages of fungi (e.g., Arthoniaceae or Graphidaceae). We also found that some lineages of photobionts are even more selective and associate exclusively with one species (e.g., Dichosporidium nigrocinctum, Diorygma antillarum) or closely related lichen‐forming fungi (Herpothallon spp.). Concluding, we found that occurrence of some trentepohlialean photobionts may correlate with the particular type of the mycobiont. Keywords: 18S rDNA; Bolivia; lichen‐forming fungi; neotropics; photobionts; phylogeny; rbcL; selectivity; specificity; symbiotic associations.
32646González‐Hourcade M., Campo E.M., Braga M.R., Salgado A. & Casano L.M. (2020): Disentangling the role of extracellular polysaccharides in desiccation tolerance in lichen‐forming microalgae. First evidence of sulfated polysaccharides and ancient sulfotransferase genes. - Environmental Microbiology, 22(8): 3096–3111. https://doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.15043.
Trebouxia sp. TR9 and Coccomyxa simplex are desiccation‐tolerant microalgae with flexible cell walls, which undergo species‐specific remodelling during dehydration–rehydration (D/R) due to their distinct ultrastructure and biochemical composition. Here, we tested the hypothesis that extracellular polysaccharides excreted by each microalga could be quantitatively and/or qualitatively modified by D/R. Extracellular polysaccharides were analysed by size exclusion and anion exchange chromatography, specific stains after gel electrophoresis and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of trimethylsilyl derivatives (to determine their monosaccharide composition). The structure of a TR9‐sulfated polymer was deduced from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses. In addition, sugar‐sulfotransferase encoding genes were identified in both microalgae, and their expression was measured by RT‐qPCR. D/R did not alter the polydispersed profile of extracellular polysaccharides in either microalga but did induce quantitative changes in several peaks. Furthermore, medium‐low‐sized uronic acid‐containing polysaccharides were almost completely substituted by higher molecular mass carbohydrates after D/R. Sulfated polysaccharide(s) were detected, for the first time, in the extracellular polymeric substances of both microalgae, but only increased significantly in TR9 after cyclic D/R, which induced a sugar‐sulfotransferase gene and accumulated sulfated ß‐D‐galactofuranan(s). Biochemical remodelling of extracellular polysaccharides in aeroterrestrial desiccation‐tolerant microalgae is species‐specific and seems to play a role in the response to changes in environmental water availability.
32645Antoninka A., Bowker M.A., Barger N.N., Belnap J., Giraldo‐Silva A., Reed S.C., Garcia‐Pichel F. & Duniway M.C. (2020): Addressing barriers to improve biocrust colonization and establishment in dryland restoration. - Restoration Ecology, 28(S2): S150–S159. https://doi.org/10.1111/rec.13052.
Methods to reduce soil loss and associated loss of ecosystem functions due to land degradation are of particular importance in dryland ecosystems. Biocrusts are communities of cyanobacteria, lichens, and bryophytes that are vulnerable to soil disturbance, but provide vital ecosystem functions when present. Biocrusts stabilize soil, improve hydrologic function, and increase nutrient and carbon inputs. Methods to reestablish biocrust rapidly, when lost from ecosystems, have the potential to restore important dryland ecosystem functions and thereby increase probability of successful rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to identify habitat ameliorations to enhance the success of biocrust inoculation by: (1) reducing physiological stress on biocrusts and increasing resource availability (using shade, soil surface roughening, and watering), and (2) stabilizing mobile soils (using straw borders, three soil tackifiers [soil stabilizers], and a combination of shade, water, roughening, and tackifier). In the Great Basin Desert on the Utah Test and Training Range near Salt Lake City, we applied field‐harvested biocrust material to experimental plots on coarse‐ and fine‐textured soils with the top 2 cm of soil and biocrust removed. Habitat ameliorations were applied with and without biocrust addition. Shade provision increased biocrust cover 50% over controls. Biocrust cover and soil stability were 65% lower in straw border plots relative to controls. Soil tackifiers, alone and in combination with resource augmentation and stress reduction, did not improve cover and stabilization over inoculated controls. We found variability in recovery by time and between soil types. These results suggest plausible strategies to improve success of biocrust inoculation. Keywords: Great Basin; biocrust; biocrust rehabilitation; dryland restoration; habitat amelioration; soil stabilization.
32644Velasco Ayuso S., Giraldo-Silva A., Barger N.N. & Garcia-Pichel F. (2020): Microbial inoculum production for biocrust restoration: testing the effects of a common substrate versus native soils on yield and community composition. - Restoration Ecology, 28(S2): S194–S202. https://doi.org/10.1111/rec.13127.
Human activities are causing unprecedented disturbances in terrestrial ecosystems across the globe. To reverse soil deterioration in drylands, a promising tool is the ex situ cultivation of biological soil crusts, topsoil geobiological assemblages that provide key ecosystem services. One approach is to transplant biocrusts cultivated in greenhouse nursery facilities into degraded sites to accelerate recovery. Lichen‐ and moss‐dominated biocrusts have been successfully grown using a common, sandy soil. We compared the use of a common, sandy soil versus native soils as a substrate for the cultivation of cyanobacteria‐dominated biocrusts. In greenhouse experiments, we inoculated natural biocrusts collected from three Southwestern USA dryland sites on to either a common, sandy soil or on their respective native soils. The common substrate resulted in a moderate enhancement of growth yield relative to native soils. While changes in bacterial phyla composition remained low in all cases, the use of a common substrate introduced larger shifts in cyanobacterial community composition than did using native soils. The shift increase attributable to the common, sandy soil was not catastrophic—and typical cyanobacteria of field biocrusts remained dominant—unless textural differences between the common substrate and native soils were marked. Because collecting native soils adds a significant effort to growing cyanobacterial biocrusts in greenhouses for restoration purposes, the use of a common, sandy substrate may be considered by land managers as a standard practice. But we recommend to regularly monitor the composition of the grown biomass. Keywords: biocrust community shifts; cyanobacteria; ex situ cultivated biocrusts; microbial nursery production; soil restoration.
32643Antoninka A., Faist A., Rodriguez‐Caballero E., Young K.E., Bala Chaudhary V., Condon L.A. & Pyke D.A. (2020): Biological soil crusts in ecological restoration: emerging research and perspectives. - Restoration Ecology, 28(S2): S3–S8. https://doi.org/10.1111/rec.13201.
Drylands encompass over 40% of terrestrial ecosystems and face significant anthropogenic degradation causing a loss of ecosystem integrity, services, and deterioration of social‐ecological systems. To combat this degradation, some dryland restoration efforts have focused on the use of biological soil crusts (biocrusts): complex communities of cyanobacteria, algae, lichens, bryophytes, and other organisms living in association with the top millimeters of soil. Biocrusts are common in many ecosystems and especially drylands. They perform a suite of ecosystem functions: stabilizing soil surfaces to prevent erosion, contributing carbon through photosynthesis, fixing nitrogen, and mediating the hydrological cycle in drylands. Biocrusts have emerged as a potential tool in restoration; developing methods to implement effective biocrust restoration has the potential to return many ecosystem functions and services. Although culture‐based approaches have allowed researchers to learn about the biology, physiology, and cultivation of biocrusts, transferring this knowledge to field implementation has been more challenging. A large amount of research has amassed to improve our understanding of biocrust restoration, leaving us at an opportune time to learn from one another and to join approaches for maximum efficacy. The articles in this special issue improve the state of our current knowledge in biocrust restoration, highlighting efforts to effectively restore biocrusts through a variety of different ecosystems, across scales and utilizing a variety of lab and field methods. This collective work provides a useful resource for the scientific community as well as land managers. Keywords: biocrust; biocrust cultivation; drylands; inoculation; rehabilitation; soil stabilization.
32642Condon L.A., Pietrasiak N., Rosentreter R. & Pyke D.A. (2020): Passive restoration of vegetation and biological soil crusts following 80 years of exclusion from grazing across the Great Basin. - Restoration Ecology, 28(S2): S75–S85. https://doi.org/10.1111/rec.13021.
Restoration targets for biological soil crusts are largely unknown. We surveyed seven 80‐year‐old grazing exclosures across northern Nevada for biocrusts to quantify reference conditions at relatively undisturbed sites. Exclosures were associated with the following plant communities: Wyoming big sagebrush, black sagebrush, and areas co‐dominated by winterfat and Wyoming big sagebrush. Cover of biocrusts and shrubs were generally higher than other plant groups at these sites, regardless of being inside or outside of the exclosures, suggesting these groups make up most of the native flora across the region. Important in forming soil structure, cyanobacteria of the order Oscillatoriales were less abundant and diverse in black sagebrush communities. Grazing had a negative effect on the abundance of Oscillatoriales but not the number of algal taxa, including cyanobacteria. Abundance of light algal crusts were not influenced by plant community or grazing. Dark algal crusts were generally less abundant on grazed sites. Influences of plant community and grazing were most apparent when accounting for reproductive rates of lichens and mosses based on establishment mechanisms. Abundance of shrubs, perennial grasses, Oscillatoriales, fast reproducing biocrusts and the number of algal and cyanobacterial taxa, varied by plant community, suggesting that restoration should be plant community specific. We demonstrate the affinity of rapidly reproducing biocrusts for winterfat‐Wyoming big sagebrush co‐dominated plant communities, regardless of grazing pressure. Across sites, the effects of grazing were most evident on the abundance of Oscillatoriales and slowly reproducing biocrusts following 80 years of cessation from grazing. Keywords: Wyoming big sagebrush; algae; biocrusts; black sagebrush; cyanobacteria; livestock grazing; winterfat.
32641Chiquoine L.P., Abella S.R., Greenwood J.L. & DeCorte A. (2020): Unexpected side effects in biocrust after treating non‐native plants using carbon addition. - Restoration Ecology, 28(S2): S32–S44. https://doi.org/10.1111/rec.13106.
Carbon addition has been proposed as an alternative to herbicide and manual removal methods to treat non‐native plants and reduce non‐target effects of treatments (e.g. impacts on native plants; surface disturbance). On Mojave Desert pavement and biocrust substrates after experimental soil disturbance and carbon addition (1,263 g C/m2 as sucrose), we observed declines in lichens and moss cover in sucrose‐treated plots. To further explore this unforeseen potential side effect of using carbon addition as a non‐native plant treatment, we conducted biocrust surveys 5 and 7 years after treatments, sampled surface soils to observe if treatments additionally affected soil filamentous cyanobacteria, and conducted laboratory trials testing the effects of different levels of sucrose on cyanobacteria and desert mosses. Sucrose addition to biocrust plots reduced lichen and moss cover by 33–78% and species richness by 40–80%. Sucrose reduced biocrust cover in biocrust plots to levels similarly detected in pavement plots (<1%). While cyanobacteria in the field did not appear to be affected by sucrose, laboratory tests showed negative effects of sucrose on both cyanobacteria and mosses. Cyanobacteria declined by 41% 1 month after exposure to 5.4 g C/m2 equivalent solutions. We detected injury to photosynthesis in mosses after 96 hour exposure to 79–316 g C/m2 equivalent solutions. Caution is warranted when using carbon addition, at least in the form and concentration of sucrose, as a treatment for reducing non‐native plants on sites where conserving biocrust is a goal. Key words: biocrust, carbon addition, invasion, Mojave Desert, non-native plant, soil amendment, sucrose.
32640Lorite J., Agea D., García-Robles H., Cañadas E.M., Rams S. & Sánchez-Castillo P. (2020): Plant recovery techniques do not ensure biologicalsoil-crust recovery after gypsum quarrying: a call foractive restoration. - Restoration Ecology, 28(S2): S86–S95. https://doi.org/10.1111/rec.13059.
Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are a key component of dryland ecosystems worldwide. However, large extensions of biocrusts are disturbed by human activities, gypsum quarry being an outstanding example. Restoration techniques applied have offered satisfactory results for vascular plants but they could greatly differ in promoting biocrust recovery. A basic question remains unaddressed: canmeasures for plant recovery accelerate or promote the recovery of biological crusts?We have examined eight different situations: undisturbed natural habitat, five treatments with no restoration measures (overgrazed area, abandoned quarry, topsoil removal fromnatural habitat, and two areas filled with gypsummining spoil), and 2 areas receiving restoration measures (manual sowing and hydroseeding). We took 40 soil cores to determine cover of lichen, moss, and cyanobacteria. Biocrust richness and cover were higher in the undisturbed habitat, with remarkable differences for the different components among treatments. Cyanobacteria were well represented in all the cores (restored and non-restored). Mosses were promoted the most by hydroseeding. Lichen cover was remarkably higher in undisturbed samples, very low in the quarry abandoned in 1992, and 0 in the rest. Complete spontaneous recovery of biocrusts was inefficient in the 25-year period examined. Plant restoration measures could speed up its recovery comparing with non-restored areas. Cyanobacteria and mosses can spontaneously recover fairly well. However, promoting them would accelerate the appearance of lichen. For lichen, inoculation or translocation of lichen thalli might be proposed. Therefore, our results call for the inclusion of active restoration measures of biocrust components in recovery plans, especially for lichens. Key words: biological soil crusts, dryland ecosystems, gypsum habitats, gypsum mining, restoration.
32639Slate M.L., Durham R.A. & Pearson D.E. (2020): Strategies for restoring the structure and function of lichen-moss biocrust communities. - Restoration Ecology, 28(S2): S160–S167. https://doi.org/10.1111/rec.12996.
Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are crucial components of dryland ecosystems, but they are slow to recover following disturbance. Herein, we evaluated several methods for restoring lichen-moss biocrusts that included factorial applications of moss fragments in a water-slurry (1) with and without lichen fragments (to restore biocrust taxonomic structure), (2) with and without clay (to facilitate establishment), and (3) with and without jute ground cloth (to facilitate establishment). Three and four years after inoculation, moss and lichen cover was up to five and eight times higher on jute ground cloth than on bare ground, respectively. Lichen cover was six times higher in plots where lichen fragments were added. Clay amendments did not increase moss or lichen establishment. To understand the effects of biocrust recovery on soil properties, we measured soil inorganic nitrogen, microbial biomass carbon, and soil water availability in restoration and control plots. Restored biocrusts decreased inorganic NH4-N availability by 67% when compared to controls 3 years after inoculation, but did not influence the availability of inorganic NO3-N, soil water, or microbial biomass carbon. Our results demonstrate that adding a biocrust inoculant to jute ground cloth can expedite recovery of lichen-moss biocrust and reestablish its influence on soil properties within a few years. Key words: biological soil crusts, ecosystem function, inorganic N, jute ground cloth, lichen, microbial biomass, moss, restoration.
32638Rosentreter R. (2020): Biocrust lichen and moss species most suitable for restoration projects. - Restoration Ecology, 28(S2): S67–S74. https://doi.org/10.1111/rec.13082.
[Review article] Reintroducing lichens and mosses to areas slated for restoration or rehabilitation may prove integral to project success by filling the biocrust component (niche) of arid ecosystems. In doing so, it is important to select appropriate species and genetic source material. Some bryophyte and lichen species are early pioneers and are potentially well-suited for restoration projects. Species traits such as high reproductive rates, rapid establishment rates, and large asexual reproductive propagules can be beneficial for restoration. For instance, the large number of spores produced by some mosses are beneficial for reproductive success in arid environments. In addition to identifying the benefit of reproductive strategies, it is important to take habitat needs into consideration; lichen and moss species that are wide-ranging both geographically and ecologically are recommended over geographically and edaphically restricted species that occur only in specific habitats, such as calcareous soils. Biocrusts used in specific restoration areas should have similar genetic source material (local provenance), and harsh environmental conditions should be ameliorated. Key words: establishment, Great Basin, lichens, mosses, reproductive rate.
32637Mayrhofer H., Atanassova A., Nikolova S.O. & Denchev C.M. (2020): Additions to the lichenized and lichenicolous fungi in Bulgaria. - Mycobiota, 10: 39–62. doi: 10.12664/mycobiota.2020.10.04.
Thirty-six taxa of lichenized fungi, Acarospora irregularis, Arthonia mediella, Caloplaca asserigena, C. atroflava, C. subpallida, Catillaria detractula, Diplotomma hedinii, Endohyalina insularis, Lecanora rouxii, L. rupicola subsp. subplanata, Lecidea berengeriana, L. sarcogynoides, Lepra leucosora, Lepraria borealis, L. diffusa, L. elobata, L. nylanderiana, L. vouauxii, Ochrolechia arborea, Pertusaria flavicans, Protoparmeliopsis muralis var. dubyi, Pycnora praestabilis, Rinodina freyi, R. luridata var. immersa, R. occulta, R. roscida, R. sicula, R. teichophila, R. trevisanii, Rinodinella dubyanoides, Scoliciosporum umbrinum var. corticicolum, Solorina bispora var. macrospora, Strigula affinis, Tephromela atra var. torulosa, Umbilicaria freyi, and U. maculata, are reported for the first time from Bulgaria. The finding of Rinodina sicula represents the first record for the Balkan Peninsula. Key words: biodiversity, Bulgaria, lichenicolous fungi, lichenized fungi, Rinodina, taxonomy.
32636Dakskobler I. (1991): Gozd bukve in jesenske vilovine - Seslerio autumnalis-Fagetum (Ht. 1950) M. Wraber (1957) 1960 v submediteransko-predalpskem območju Slovenije [Beech Forest with Sesleria autumnalis - Seslerio autumnalis-Fagetum (Ht. 1950) M. Wraber (1957) 1960 in the Submediterranean-praealpine Region of Slovenia]. - Scopolia, 24: 1–53. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Scopolia_24_0001-0053.pdf.
[in Slovenian with English abstract] Key words: Seslerio autumnalis-Fagetum, Tolminsko, Western Slovenia, geographical subvariant. Several macro- and microlichens listed from phytosociological relevés.
32635Dakskobler I. (1996): Bukovi gozdovi Srednjega Posočja [Beech forests of Central Soča valley]. - Scopolia, 35: 1–78. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Scopolia_35_0001-0078.pdf.
[in Slovenian with English abstract] Key words: phytosociology, Omithogalo-Fagetum, Luzulo-Fagetum, Lamio orvalae-Fagetum, Seslerio autumnalis-Fagetum, the Central Soča Valley (western Slovenia). Several macro- and microlichens listed from phytosociological relevés.
32634Dakskobler I. (2007): Gozdovi plemenitih listavcev v Posočju [Forests of valuable broad-leaved tree species in the Soča valley (western Slovenia)]. - Scopolia, 60: 1–287. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Scopolia_60_0001-0287.pdf.
[in Slovenian with English abstract] Key words: phytosociology, synsystematics, forests of valuable broad-leaved species (noble hardwood forests), Aremonio-Fagion, Fraxino-Acerion, the Soča Valley, western Slovenia. Several macrolichens mentioned from phytosociological relevés including Lobaria pulmonaria.
32633Surina B. (2005): Subalpinska in alpinska vegetacija Krnskega pogorja v Julijskih Alpah [Subalpine and Alpine Vegetation of the Krn Area in the Julian Alps]. - Scopolia, 57: 1–222. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Scopolia_57_0001-0222.pdf.
[in Slovenian with English abstract] Key words: vegetation, biogeography, Julian Alps, Krn Mts, Asplenietea trichomanis, Thlaspietea rotundifolii, Elyno-Seslerietea, Mulgedio-Aconitetea, Montio-Cardaminetea
32632Paquette H.A., Gates K. & McMullin R.T. (2020): Chaenothecopsis ochroleuca, Haematomma ochroleucum, and Multiclavula vernalis reported for the first time from Maine. - Northeastern Naturalist, 27(3): N34–N39. https://doi.org/10.1656/045.027.0304.
We report Chaenothecopsis ochroleuca, Haematomma ochroleucum, and Multiclavula vernalis for the first time from Maine. These species are infrequently reported in North America. Our findings are a direct result of lichenology seminars hosted by the Eagle Hill Institute in Steuben, ME.
32631McCune B. (2020): Gyrophthorus perforans, a genus and species of lichenicolous fungi new to North America. - Evansia, 37(1): 7–9. https://doi.org/10.1639/0747-9859-37.1.7.
Gyrophthorus perforans, previously known as a parasite on Umbilicaria vellea and U. hirsuta in Spain and Italy, is reported from Washington state in the Columbia River Gorge, where it was found infesting Umbilicaria phaea. The blistering infections make the host thallus resemble Umbilicaria subg. Lasallia. Historical records of Lasallia from the Pacific Northwest were checked for Gyrophthorus and found to be misidentifications of other Umbilicaria species, but additional records of Gyrophthorus were not found. Lasallia pensylvanica is confirmed from Alaska and British Columbia along with a single historic location in California, but has not yet been found in Oregon or Washington. Western North American Umbilicaria specimens with blistered surfaces should be checked for the parasite Gyrophthorus before assuming they belong to Umbilicaria subg. Lasallia. Key words: Lasallia, Umbilicaria, western North America.
32630Habib K., Zulfiqar R. & Khalid A.N. (2020): Additions to the lichenized order Pertusariales (lichenized Ascomycetes) in Pakistan. - Nova Hedwigia, 111: 219–229. DOI: 10.1127/nova_hedwigia/2020/0595.
We report three species of Pertusariales (lichenized Ascomycota) from Pakistan. Pertusaria australis (Pertusariaceae) and Varicellaria hemisphaerica (Ochrolechiaceae) are reported for the first time from Pakistan, while Lepra albescens (Pertusariaceae) is reported for the second time only. The taxonomic characters of each species are given, along with an ITS-based phylogenetic analysis and notes on ecology and distribution. Pertusaria australis is here being redescribed for the first time after its first description in 1888. Key words: Azad Jammu Kashmir; Neelam Valley; phylogeny; taxonomy.
32629Park J.S., Kim D.-K., Kim C.S., Oh S., Kim K.-H. & Oh S.-O. (2020): The first finding of the lichen Solorina saccata at an algific talus slope in Korea. - Mycobiology, 48(4): 276–287. https://doi.org/10.1080/12298093.2020.1785729.
An algific talus slope is composed of broken rocks with vents connected to an ice cave, releasing cool air in summer and relatively warmer air in winter to maintain a more stable microclimate all year round. Such geological features create a very unusual and delicate ecosystem. Although there are around 25 major algific talus slopes in Korea, lichen ecology of these areas had not been investigated to date. In this study, we report the first exploration of lichen diversity and ecology at an algific talus slope, Jangyeol-ri, in Korea. A total of 37 specimens were collected over 2017–2018. Morphological and sequencing analysis revealed 27 species belonging to 18 genera present in the area. Of particular interest among these species was Solorina saccata, as it has previously not been reported in Korea and most members of genus Solorina are known to inhabit alpine regions of the Northern Hemisphere. We provide here a taxonomic key for S. saccata alongside molecular phylogenetic analyses and prediction of potential habitats in South Korea. Furthermore, regions in South Korea potentially suitable for Solorina spp. were predicted based on climatic features of known habitats around the globe. Our results showed that the suitable areas are mostly at high altitudes in mountainous areas where the annual temperature range does not exceed 26.6 °C. Further survey of other environmental conditions determining the suitability of Solorina spp. should lead to a more precise prediction of suitable habitats and trace the origin of Solorina spp. in Korea. Keywords: Algific talus slope, phylogenic analysis, Solorina saccata , taxonomy.
32628Huh J., Park C., Kim T., Hahn I., Kim G.W., Lee E. & Kim J.H. (2020): Measurements of the specific activities of 137Cs in Antarctica environmental samples by using the low-level radiation analysis method. - Journal of the Korean Physical Society, 77(3): 217–222. https://doi.org/10.3938/jkps.77.217.
Since the King Sejong Korean Antarctic Research Station began operation in 1988, studies of various fields have been then carried out in polar regions and significant achievements have been yielded. However, environmental and biological radiations have not been dealt with compared to other research areas. In this study, the 137Cs distribution is investigated for environmental elements in the vicinity of the two research stations, the Jang Bogo Station and the King Sejong Station, operated by the Korea Polar Research Institute (KOPRI) in Antarctica by using a low-level radiation analysis method. Three different types of environmental samples, soils, mosses, and lichens are investigated for identification of 137Cs. In order to discriminate low levels of radiations from background radiations and estimate their specific activities with high reliability and precision, we used a heavily shielded HPGe detector in an underground laboratory to perform the activity measurements. GEANT4 simulations were carried out for efficiency calibrations corresponding to the shape of the pre-processed sample. 137Cs has been identified in all the samples and the energy spectrum has been found to reflect their physical and ecological characteristics.
32627Liu C., Jiang Y., Huang R., Jiang B., Zheng K. & Wu S. (2020): Diverse secondary metabolites from a lichen-derived Amycolatopsis strain. - Current Microbiology, 77: 2104–2110. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00284-020-02049-5.
In this study, the secondary metabolites of a lichen-derived actinomycete strain Amycolatopsis sp. YIM 130687 were investigated intensively by using three different media (4#, 302#, and 312#) for fermentation. A total of 21 compounds were isolated from the fermented extraction of the strain. The structures of all compounds were identified by the examination of HRESIMS and NMR spectra. Compounds 1–3, 5, 6, 21 were only found in the cultivation on 302# medium, while compounds 4, 9–11 were only obtained when the strain was cultured on 312# medium. On the other hand, compounds 7, 8, and 20 were only isolated from the fermentation product on 4# medium. The antimicrobial activity test showed that compound 9 had significant inhibitory effects on bacterial pathogens of Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA with the MICs of 2 μg/ml and fungal pathogens of Botrytis cinerea and Fusarium graminearum with the MICs of 1 μg/ml.
32626Shen Y.-M., Hsieh H.-J., Yeh R.-Y. & Hung T.-H. (2012): Five apothecium-producing lichenized fungi of the genus Usnea in Taiwan. - Fungal Science, 27: 31–44. .
Most species of the genus Usnea that commonly produce apothecia in Taiwan have not been collected for a long time. We rediscovered five species, including Usnea masudana, U. orientalis, U. pseudogatae, U. shimadae, and U. sinensis, by investigating their morphology, chemistry, and molecular data. Ten internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of the five species were first reported. Distributions of the species were also provided. Although no latitudinal tendency was observed among the Usnea species in Taiwan, we consider high elevation places of the subtropics and tropics to contain plenty of Usnea species that produce apothecia. Keywords: Usnea, lichens, HPLC, ecology, taxonomy.
32625Paguirigan J.A.G., dela Cruz T.E.E., Santiago K.A.A., Gerlach A. & Aptroot A. (2020): A checklist of lichens known from the Philippines. - Current Research in Environmental & Applied Mycology, 10(1): 319–376. Doi 10.5943/cream/10/1/29.
Lichens are formed by the symbiotic partnership between fungi and photoautotrophic algae or cyanobacteria. Lichen species are found all over the world and may grow under diverse and extreme environments and may colonize substrates such as rocks, bark or woody plants, leaves of vascular plants, soil, mosses and other lichen thalli including artificial substrates such as concrete, glass, metals, and plastics. Despite the high diversity of lichens in the tropics, very little information is known about them particularly in the Philippines. So far, the most comprehensive listing of lichens for the country was done by Gruezo in the 70’s when he reported 1,108 published taxa distributed in 137 genera, 789 species, 3 subspecies, 153 varieties, 28 formae, and 1 subforma. In recent years, lichenology in the Philippines has progressed beyond species list to diversity, bioactivity, and biomonitoring. Several papers have documented the occurrence and distribution of lichen species from various parts of the Philippines including the Cordillera and Ilocos regions, Bataan, Calabarzon, Pangasinan, Nueva Vizcaya, Negros Occidental, Bukidnon, and Palawan. This paper presents an update on the lichen checklist for the Philippines based on publications in the 40 years following Gruezo’s publication in 1979. These studies updated the list of species of lichens in the Philippines to 1,262 published taxa with 1,234 validated species names distributed into 65 families, 229 genera, 10 subspecies, 92 varieties, 15 formae, and 1 subforma. Key words – archipelago – compendium – species list – taxonomy – tropical lichens.
32624Vicol I. (2020): Epiphytic lichens as indicators of atmospheric pollution from industrial sources. - Phytologia Balcanica, 26(1): 17–24. http://www.bio.bas.bg/~phytolbalcan/PDF/26_1/PhytolBalcan_26-1_02_Vicol.pdf.
Industrial activities are important sources of atmospheric pollution worldwide. The elemental content in lichens was measured and analyzed with respect to the dominant wind direction and distance from pollution sources. In direction of the dominant winds, the content of Fe decreased with distance from the pollution source, which was a steel works situated in the flat country. Otherwise, in direction of the dominant winds, the content of Mn increased depending on the circumferences of trees found at various distances from the pollution sources. Older trees represented valuable indicators of elemental bioaccumulation over time. It was confirmed that geomorphology of the studied areas, dominant wind direction and older trees played an important role in the elemental bioaccumulation in lichens along the spatial gradient. Therefore, epiphytic lichens are regarded as valuable indicators in monitoring of environmental pollution in the study area. Key words: distance from pollution sources, lichen, metals, monitoring, pollution sources, wind direction.
32623Fačkovcová Z., Vannini A., Monaci F., Grattacaso M., Paoli L. & Loppi S. (2020): Effects of wood distillate (pyroligneous acid) on sensitive bioindicators (lichen and moss). - Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 204: 111117 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.111117.
Wood distillate (pyroligneous acid) can be successfully applied in agriculture to increase crop quality and productivity with a lower risk for the environment respect to synthetic chemical herbicides, pesticides or fertilizers. However, the effects of wood distillate on the environment and biota are still under investigation, depending on biological attributes of potentially influenced organisms. The potential toxicological effects of wood distillate on sensitive non-target organisms, lichens and mosses, are studied for the first time. The physiological parameters (chlorophyll a fluorescence emission FV/FM and PI(ABS), chlorophyll content, spectral reflectance, antioxidant power, and dehydrogenase activity) and eventual bioaccumulation of selected elements (As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn) were investigated in the lichen Xanthoria parietina and the moss Hypnum cupressiforme after short-term treatments over a range of wood distillate solutions (1:300, 1:500, 1:700) to detect potential early stress responses. Overall, the lichen did not show changes after the treatments, while in the moss wood distillate caused only modest alterations in FV/FM and PI(ABS) and progressive increasing of antioxidant activity according to the dose supplied. The bioaccumulation of toxic elements was low and did not show any pattern of uptake with increasing concentrations of wood distillate. Keywords: Ecotoxicology; Hypnum cupressiforme; Photosynthesis; Pyrolysis; Wood vinegar; Xanthoria parietina. Highlights • Short-term exposure to wood distillate does not impact non-target sensitive organisms. • Lichen and moss treated with wood distillate remain healthy. • Bioaccumulation of toxic elements from wood distillate is low.
32622Wang C.H., Hou R., Wang M., He G., Li B.G. & Pan R.L. (2020): Effects of wet atmospheric nitrogen deposition on epiphytic lichens in the subtropical forests of Central China: Evaluation of the lichen food supply and quality of two endangered primates. - Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 190: 110128 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2019.110128.
Over the last few decades, the threat posed to biodiversity and ecosystem function by atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition has been increasingly recognized. The disturbed nutrient balance and species composition of plants induced by higher N deposition can impact the biodiversity of the organisms that consume the plants. In this research, we implemented several experiments to estimate the effects of increased N deposition on the growth, survival, and nutrients of the dominant epiphytic lichens in the subtropical mountains in Central China to assess the lichen food amount and nutritional quality for two endangered primates endemic to China. Our results indicated that the thallus growth and propagule survival of the lichens were significantly decreased when nitrogen addition changed from 6.25 to 50.0 kg N·ha−1·y−1; it was also shown that lichen biomass could be decreased by 11.2%–70.2% when the deposition addition exceeded 6.25 kg N·ha−1·y−1. Further, our study revealed that increased nitrogen deposition also reduced the nutritional quality of the lichens via reducing the soluble protein and soluble sugar levels and increasing the fiber content, which would substantially affect the diet selection of the plants consumers in the region, particularly the populations of the two lichen-eating endangered primate species, Rhinopithecus roxellana and R. bieti. Our experimental study suggested that the nitrogen pollution derived from anthropogenic activities could cause cascading effects for the whole forest ecosystem of Central China; thus, more studies about nitrogen deposition in this region are required. Keywords: N deposition; Lichen; Nutritional quality; Lichen-eating primates; Simulation experiment. Highlights: • Some epiphytic lichens in the annually diet of two endangered primate endemic to China ranges from 1.3%~to 100%. • Simulated nitrogen pollution(6.25~50.0 kg N. ha−1.yr−1)decreased biomass and survival of the lichens significantly. • Nitrogen addition increased contents of crude protein, ash, crude fiber contents, and decreased contents of soluble sugar. • Nitrogen pollution can damage lichen diversity, lichen-eating fauna, even the whole forests system of Central China.
32621Mark K., Laanisto L., Bueno C.G., Niinemets Ü., Keller C. & Scheidegger C. (2020): Contrasting co‐occurrence patterns of photobiont and cystobasidiomycete yeast associated with common epiphytic lichen species. - New Phytologist, 227: 1362–1375. https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.16475.
The popular dual definition of lichen symbiosis is under question with recent findings of additional microbial partners living within the lichen body. Here we compare the distribution and co‐occurrence patterns of lichen photobiont and recently described secondary fungus (Cyphobasidiales yeast) to evaluate their dependency on lichen host fungus (mycobiont). We sequenced the nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) strands for mycobiont, photobiont, and yeast from six widespread northern hemisphere epiphytic lichen species collected from 25 sites in Switzerland and Estonia. Interaction network analyses and multivariate analyses were conducted on operational taxonomic units based on ITS sequence data. Our study demonstrates the frequent presence of cystobasidiomycete yeasts in studied lichens and shows that they are much less mycobiont‐specific than the photobionts. Individuals of different lichen species growing on the same tree trunk consistently hosted the same or closely related mycobiont‐specific Trebouxia lineage over geographic distances while the cystobasidiomycete yeasts were unevenly distributed over the study area – contrasting communities were found between Estonia and Switzerland. These results contradict previous findings of high mycobiont species specificity of Cyphobasidiales yeast at large geographic scales. Our results suggest that the yeast might not be as intimately associated with the symbiosis as is the photobiont. Key words: Cystobasidiomycetes, endophytic fungi, interaction network, lichen, lichenicolous fungi, specialization, Trebouxia.
32620Hawksworth D.L. & Grube M. (2020): Lichens redefined as complex ecosystems. - New Phytologist, 227: 1281–1283. https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.16630.
This article is a Commentary on Mark et al. (2020), 227: 1362–1375. [p. 1282: ] "We can therefore re-define the lichen symbiosis as: ‘A lichen is a self-sustaining ecosystem formed by the interaction of an exhabitant fungus and an extracellular arrangement of one or more photosynthetic partners and an indeterminate number of other microscopic organisms’. The participants may grow separately under certain conditions in nature or in axenic cultures, and the resulting ‘lichen’ phenotype can be considered as the symbiotic phenotype of the lichen-forming fungus (Honegger, 2012)." Key words: endolichenic fungi, galls, holobiont, lichen-associated bacteria, lichenicolous fungi, mycobiont, photobiont, symbiosis, yeasts.
32619Bernardo F., Pinho P., Matos P., Viveiros F., Branquinho C., Rodrigues A. & Garcia P. (2019): Spatially modelling the risk areas of chronic exposure to hydrothermal volcanic emissions using lichens. - Science of the Total Environment, 697: 133891 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.133891.
Human populations living in volcanically active areas are chronically exposed to volcanogenic air pollution, potentially contributing to long-term adverse health effects. However, mapping chronic exposure is difficult due to low spatial resolution of monitoring data on air pollutants and the need for time integration. To overcome these problems, lichens were tested as ecological indicators of hydrothermal volcanic air pollution, considering their bioaccumulation capacity over time, by transplanting them froma reference area to several sites (n=39) inavolcanic area. The test was developed at Furnas volcano (Azores, Portugal). A stratified sampling design was followed using previousmeasurements of soil CO2 flux at ground level and the distance to the main fumarolic fields. After 6months of exposure, lichen transplants were analyzed for S isotopic ratio (δ34S), which strongly related with the distance to fumarolic fields on a logarithmic regression, serving as an appropriate hydrothermal exposure biomarker. Considering kriging interpolated δ34S values as tracer of airborne hydrothermal emissions and habitational areas as proxy of ongoing human presence, a mapwas built relating both information per area unit to spatially model risk areas. It was estimated that 26% of habitational areas in the study area stand at high or very high risk of outdoors chronic exposure to airborne hydrothermal emissions. This methodologic approach to produce chronic exposure risk maps is applicable to other volcanically active and inhabited areas of the world, with time-integration and high spatial resolution, contributing in this way for spatially focusing future human health assessments. Keywords: Air pollution; Volcanism; Chronic exposure; Lichens; Biomonitoring; S isotopic ratio.
32618Miranda V., Pina P., Heleno S., Vieira G., Mora C. & Schaefer C.E.G.R. (2020): Monitoring recent changes of vegetation in Fildes Peninsula (King George Island, Antarctica) through satellite imagery guided by UAV surveys. - Science of the Total Environment, 704: 135295 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.135295.
Mapping accurately vegetation surfaces in space and time in the ice-free areas of Antarctica can provide important information to quantitatively describe the evolution of their ecosystems. Spaceborne remote sensing is the adequate way to map and evaluate multitemporal changes on the Antarctic vegetation at large but its nature of occurrence, in relatively small and sparse patches, makes the identification very challenging. The inclusion of an intermediate scale of observation between ground and satellite scales, provided by Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) imagery, is of great help not only for their effective classification, but also for discriminating their main communities (lichens and mosses). Thus, this paper quantifies accurately recent changes of the vegetated areas in Fildes Peninsula (King George Island, Antarctica) through a novel methodology based on the integration of multiplatform data (satellite and UAV). It consists of multiscale imagery (spatial resolution of 2 m and 2 cm) from the same period to create a robust classifier that, after intensive calibration, is adequately used in other dates, where field reference data is scarce or not available at all. The methodology is developed and tested with UAV and satellite data from 2017 showing overall accuracies of 96% and kappa equal to 0.94 with a SVM classifier. These high performances allow the extrapolation to a pair of previous dates, 2006 and 2013, when atmospherically clear very high-resolution satellite imagery are available. The classification allows verifying a loss of the total area of vegetation of 4.5% during the 11-year time period under analysis, which corresponds to a 10.3% reduction for Usnea sp. and 9.8% for moss formations. Nevertheless, the breakdown analysis by time period shows a distinct behaviour for each vegetation type which are evaluated and discussed, namely for Usnea sp. whose decline is likely to be related to changing snow conditions. Keywords: Vegetation Mapping; Change detection; UAV; Satellite; Object-based classification; Permafrost; Antarctica. Highlights: Antarctic vegetation is organized in relatively small and sparse patches.  Novel methodology tested in Fildes Peninsula, King George Island.  Satellite-based mapping guided by UAV imagery and derived elevation data.  Achievement of very high classification performances.  Usnea and moss formations lost about 10% of their area in the period 2006– 2017.
32617Miralles I., Lázaro R., Sánchez-Marañón M., Soriano M. & Ortega R. (2020): Biocrust cover and successional stages influence soil bacterial composition and diversity in semiarid ecosystems. - Science of the Total Environment, 709: 134654 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.134654.
Biocrusts are an important drylands landscape component, which enriches the upper millimeters of the soil with organic matter and initiates biogeochemical cycles. However, little is known about the influence of biocrusts on soil bacterial community structure and diversity. Different biocrust types representing a successional gradient were studied. This gradient, from the earliest to the latest successional stages, consisted of an incipient cyanobacterial biocrust < mature cyanobacterial biocrusts < biocrust dominated by the Squamarina lentigera and Diploschistes diacapsis lichens < Biocrust characterized by the Lepraria isidiata lichen. Moreover, in each biocrust type, four different percentages of biocrust cover were also selected. Soil diversity gradually increased with biocrust successional stage and percentage of biocrust cover. The biocrust cover had an important role in the total abundance of bacteria, generally increasing in soils colonized by the highest percentages of cover. Biocrust successional stage was the most important factor, significantly influencing 108 soil bacteria genera, whereas biocrust cover showed significant differences in only 10 genera. Principal Component Analysis showed contrasting microbial composition across the biocrust successional gradient. Some bacterial taxa were dominant in the soil colonized by different biocrust types. Thus, Leptolyngbya, Rubrobacter, Solirubrobacter, Geodermatophilus, etc., were more abundant in incipient cyanobacteria; Nostocales, Chroococcidiopsaceae, Coleofasciculaceae etc., under mature cyanobacterial biocrusts; Truepera, Sphingobacteriaceae, Actinophytocola, Kribella, etc., below the S. lentigera and D. diacapsis community, and Bryobacter, Ohtaekwangia, Opitutus, Pedosphaeraceae, etc., in soils colonized by L. isidiata. Several soil bacteria taxa showed significant correlations (p < 0.05) with chemical soil properties (pH, total nitrogen, total organic carbon, available phosphorous and electrical conductivity). We discuss the role of biocrusts influencing these chemical soil parameters, including the presence of certain metabolites secreted by biocrusts, and also their effects on soil moisture and several physical soil features, as well as their association with different microclimates, all of which could favor a more selective environment for certain bacteria. Keywords: Microbial communities; Lichen; Cyanobacteria; Illumina MiSeq; Chemical soil properties; Drylands.
32616Hurtado P., Matos P., Aragón G., Branquinho C., Prieto M. & Martínez I. (2020): How much matching there is in functional, phylogenetic and taxonomic optima of epiphytic macrolichen communities along a European climatic gradient?. - Science of the Total Environment, 712: 136533 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.136533.
Adopting an integrative approach that explicitly includes the different facets of biodiversity is crucial to assess the response of biological communities to changing environments. The identification of the optimal climatic conditions where communities maximize their functional, phylogenetic and taxonomic diversity is useful to compare whether the optima of the different facets of biodiversity match. Using a wide climatic gradient across Europe,we quantified the functional, phylogenetic and taxonomic diversity of epiphytic macrolichen communities, which are valuable early-warning ecological indicators.We ordinated 22 environmental variables and simultaneously illustrated non-parametric regressions of the diversity metrics against the climatic space using the ‘hilltop plot’ method to detect the climatic conditions in which the different diversity facets peaked and to compare the match between them. Functional diversity predicted at least part of the peaks of phylogenetic and taxonomic diversity, but phylogenetic and taxonomic hotspots did not overlap. Epiphytic macrolichen communities maximized their functional and phylogenetic diversity in the southernmost forests, with the Mediterranean region appearing as a biodiversity hotspot. Regarding the studied traits, photobiont type and growth form showed clearly defined optima while the quantitative physiological traits and families' optima did not show this pattern in response to climate. The different facets of biodiversitywere not surrogates of each other highlighting the need for an integrative approach to assess the effect of environmental changes on communities and to establish conservation priorities. As functional traits mediated the response of lichen communities to climate, preserving high functional diversity might indirectly preserve high phylogenetic and taxonomic diversity. Relevant ecological indicators useful to develop rapid assessment methods to evaluate the effects of climatic changes include the photobiont type and growth form. The lack of relation between quantitative traits and climate call for further research to unveil their role as ecological indicators of small-scale variables or as effect traits. Keywords: Biodiversity-hotspot; Climatic optima; Functional diversity; Lichens; Phylogenetic diversity; Taxonomic diversity. Highlights • Climatic optima of epiphyticmacrolichen communities partially match across Europe. • Preserving functional diversity might preserve phylogenetic and taxonomic diversity. • The Mediterranean region is a biodiversity hotspot in epiphytic macrolichen communities. • Type of photobiont and growth form are key ecological indicators of climate change. • We call for a multi-perspective insight to assess the communities' response and select conservation areas.
32615Occelli F., Lanier C., Cuny D., Deram A., Dumont J., Amouyel P., Montaye M., Dauchet L. Dallongeville J. & Genin M. (2020): Exposure to multiple air pollutants and the incidence of coronary heart disease: A fine-scale geographic analysis. - Science of the Total Environment, 714: 136608 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.136608.
Highlights • A small area level geographic analysis from a coronary heart disease (CHD) registry • Long-term exposure to heavy metals assessed by lichen biomonitoring • Proposed a composite air pollution index (SENV) for multiple exposure • Found associations between SENV and CHD incidence • Exposure to multiple low-dose air pollutants may increase cardiovascular risks
32614Kidron G.J., Xiao B. & Benenson I. (2020): Data variability or paradigm shift? Slow versus fast recovery of biological soil crusts-a review. - Science of the Total Environment, 721: 137683 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.137683.
Biological soil crusts, known also as biocrusts, provide valuable ecosystem services, especially in arid and semiarid regions. They may affect geomorphological (stability), hydrological (infiltration, evaporation), biochemical (carbon and nitrogen fixation) and ecological (germination and growth of vascular plants) processes, and their disturbancemay have important ecological consequences. The common view, as reflected in hundreds of papers, regards biocrusts as having extremely slow recovery with characteristic time of up to hundreds and even thousands of years. Long recovery time implies that disturbance or climate change may have severe long-lasting consequences even once the conditions return to their initial state, triggering ample efforts to hasten biocrust recovery by inoculation.We critically analyze available estimates of the crust recovery time and present systematic measurements and theoretical considerations that attest to relatively rapid recovery of the crusts. We conclude that the likely recovery time of cyanobacterial crusts is 5–10 years, while that of lichen- and mossdominated crusts is 10–20 years. Subsequently, costly and potentially negative effects to the ecosystem during inoculation should be weighed against the fast natural recovery of the biocrusts. Keywords: Biocrusts; Ecosystem recovery; Grazing; Restoration; Chinese loess plateau; Negev Desert. Highlights • Biocrusts are considered to have extremely slow recovery rates of up to 3800 years. • This results in costly efforts to hasten crust recovery by inoculation. • Inoculation involves unpredictable alteration of the environment. • Data analysis point at a recovery rate that is by up to two orders of magnitude shorter. • Subsequently, inoculation efforts should be weighed against their potential damage.
32613Miralles I., Soria R., Lucas-Borja M.E., Soriano M. & Ortega R. (2020): Effect of biocrusts on bacterial community composition at different soil depths in Mediterranean semi-arid ecosystems. - Science of the Total Environment, 733: 138613 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138613.
This study analyzed the influence of biocrusts on the chemical properties and bacterial diversity and community composition in the underlying soils along a depth gradient (the biocrust (C1), middle (S2) and deep (S3) soil layers) in two semi-arid Mediterranean ecosystems. Organic carbon, pH, electric conductivity and calcium carbonate content were estimated by wet oxidation, potentiometrically (pHmeter), with a conductivity-meter and volumetrically with a Bernard calcimeter, respectively. Bacterial diversity and community composition were estimated by 16S rRNA gene high-throughput amplicon sequencing. Chemical properties in C1 were significantly different from the other soil layers, showing higher organic carbon content and lower pH (p b 0.05). The relative abundance of several bacterial taxa, such as Bryocella, Methylobacterium, Segitebacter and Actinomycetospora showed significant positive correlations with organic carbon (r= 0.53 to 0.75) and negative with pH (r=−0.72 to−0.84), andwere also highly correlatedwith each other (p b 0.01), suggesting a bacterial co-occurrence pattern associated with the biocrust. On the contrary, other bacterial taxa, such as Euzebyaceae, Truepera, Alphaproteobacteria and Caldinilaceae, showed positive correlationswith electrical conductivity and calcium carbonate and were also correlated with each other (p b 0.01), in a second type of co-occurrence pattern associated with bare soil. The C1 and S2 layers had several taxa in common, while S3 layers had taxa common to bare soil, suggesting that the effect of biocrusts was limited to the first centimeters of soil and progressively decreased in depth. Bacterial diversity was lower in C1 than in the underlying layers and increased progressively from biocrust to deeper soil layers. The results suggest that the diversity and composition of soil microbial communities in biologically crusted sites in Mediterranean semi-arid environments are mainly controlled by chemical properties which in turn are modified by the biocrust along a depth gradient. Keywords: Soil bacterial co-occurrence patterns; High-throughput sequencing; pH; Salinity; Soil organic carbon; Calcium carbonate content. Highlights • Lichen-dominating biocrusts control the composition of soil bacterial communities. • Biocrusts modify chemical soil properties influencing bacterial communities. • Biocrusts effects are limited to the first centimeters of soil and decreases in depth. • Two bacterial co-occurrence patterns were found controlled by chemical properties. • One pattern is related to organic carbon pH and the other to conductivitycarbonates.
32612Kakeh J., Gorji M., Mohammadi M.H., Asadi H., Khormali F., Sohrabi M. & Cerdà A. (2020): Biological soil crusts determine soil properties and salt dynamics under arid climatic condition in Qara Qir, Iran. - Science of the Total Environment, 732: 139168 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139168.
Biological soil crusts are a thin layer within the soil system but strongly determine the infiltration, runoff and water and solute movement. Little is known about the role of biological soil crusts on soil solute dynamics in arid ecosystems and the objective of this paper is to determine in Qara Qir rangeland how biological soil crusts control the water and salt distribution along the soil profile. Rainfall simulation experiments were carried out at five locations, and measurements of the soil at 0–5, 5–10, 10–20, 20–30, 30–50 and 50–80 cm depth were done before, 48 h and 21 days after the rainfall simulations. Soil particle size distribution, bulk density, water content, organic carbon and electrical conductivity were measured at each of the 270 samples (3 seasons × 3 times × 5 sites × 6 depths). Biological soil crusts increased soil organic carbon, soilwater content, and infiltration rate; and biological soil crusts decreased soil bulk density, clay fraction, electrical conductivity, and other salinesodic properties, especially in the upper layers (0–10 cm). Large pores in soils covered by biological soil crusts enhanced the preferential flows, infiltration and solute transport. Biological soil crusts not only directly affected the soil surface, but also influenced soil properties, and consequently determined spatio-temporal soil salinity distribution. Biological soil crusts act as a soil salinity reducing agent and contribute to the soil quality improvement under arid climatic conditions. Biological soil crusts can be considered as a soil conservation strategy and actively used in soil rehabilitation and ecosystems restoration. Keywords: Biocrusts; Soil salinity; Infiltration; Evaporation; Moss; Lichen.
32611Castellani F., Massimi L., Vitali M., Canepari S., Guidotti M., Conti M.E. & Protano C. (2020): High spatial resolution analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) using transplanted lichen Evernia prunastri: A case study in central Italy. - Science of the Total Environment, 742: 140590 [8 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.140590.
The ability of transplanted lichen Evernia (E.) prunastri (L.) to act as a high spatial biomonitoring tool for 14 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) was evaluated at 23 monitoring sites in a very polluted area in central Italy. The selected area is characterized by the presence of numerous emission sources, such as waste-to-energy plant, steel plant, vehicular traffic, and domestic heating. Transplanted E. prunastri proved to be a useful tool to biomonitor PBDEs, due to its ability to bioaccumulate individual congeners in varying concentrations in relation to the strength of the emission sources present over the territory. PBDEs levels widely ranged from 132 to 24,237 ng kg−1 dry weight, according to the sources of emission located around the monitoring sites. The highest concentrationswere detected at the sites close to themunicipal solidwaste incinerator, steel plant, and high busy roads, confirming their important role as PBDEs emissions sources. Keywords: Air quality assessment; Biomonitoring technique; Lichen transplant; Evernia prunastri; Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs).
32610Emmer A. (2017): Geomorphologically effective floods from moraine-dammed lakes in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru. - Quaternary Science Reviews, 177: 220–234. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2017.10.028.
Outburst floods originating in moraine-dammed lakes represent a significant geomorphological process as well as a specific type of threat for local communities in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru (8.5e10 S; 77 e78 W). An exceptional concentration of catastrophic floods has been reported from the Cordillera Blanca in the first half of 20th Century (1930se1950s), leading to thousands of fatalities. The main objective of this paper is to provide a revised and comprehensive overview of geomorphologically effective floods in the area of interest, using various documentary data sources, verified by analysis of remotely sensed images (1948e2013) and enhanced by original field data. Verified events (n ¼ 28; 4 not mentioned before) are analysed from the perspective of spatiotemporal distribution, pre-flood conditions, causes, mechanisms and geomorphological impacts as well as socioeconomical consequences, revealing certain patterns and similar features. GLOFs are further classified according to their magnitude: 5 extreme events, 8 major events and 15 minor events are distinguished, referring to the quantified geomorphological and socioeconomical impacts. Selected moraine dams and flood deposits are dated using lichenometric dating. Special attention is given to moraine dam breaches - the most frequent type of water release with the most significant consequences. Selected major events and their consequences are studied in detail in a separate section. Finally, a general schematic model of lake formation, growth and post-flood evolution reflecting initial topographical setting and glacier retreat is introduced and the utilization of the obtained results is outlined. Keywords: Moraine-dammed lake; Outburst flood; GLOF; Geomorphology; Documentary data; Lichenometry; Little Ice Age; Andes; South America.
32609Emmer A., Klimeš J., Hölbling D., Abad L., Draebing D., Skalák P., Štěpánek P. & Zahradníček P. (2020): Distinct types of landslides in moraines associated with the post-LIA glacier thinning: Observations from the Kinzl Glacier, Huascarán, Peru. - Science of the Total Environment, 739: 139997 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139997.
Keywords: Slope movement; Landslide; Moraine; Paraglacial; Glacier retreat; Andes. p. 4: [Chapter 3. Data and Methods. Subchapter 3.2. Field data and analysis: ] "To determine the age of moraines and the potential age difference between parallel ridges, lichenometric sampling was performed using Rhizocarpon geographicum following methodological recommendations and diameter-age relationship obtained for thewestern (Pacific) part of the Cordillera Blanca by Solomina et al. (2007) and Jomelli et al. (2008). We considered only the largest round-shaped lichen found on each boulder for the measurement. Lichens were measured using a digital caliper with an effective measuring range of 0–100 mm. The measurement accuracy of this device is ±0.005 mm and results were rounded up to one decimal place (± 0.05 mm) for the analysis. We measured at least 50 lichens per site, which consists of the displaced landslide block and a control population located on the moraine ridge. To date the landslides, lichens were measured on the right lateral Huascarán moraine (L1a, L1c, L1e) with corresponding landslide body B1 (L1b, L1d and L1f) and on the right lateral moraine surrounding the tongue of the Kinzl Glacier (L3a) with corresponding landslide B2 (L3b). In addition, lichens were measured on the left lateral moraine of the Chopicalqui branch (LCh) and the right lateral moraine of Huascarán branch (LHu; for the location see Fig. 2A) to determine temporal moraine evolution. Lichenometric dating has certain well-known limitations (Osborn et al., 2015; Rosenwinkel et al., 2015; Emmer et al., 2019), but can be reliably used for the distinction between the first and the second phase of the LIA, for which the growth-curves are well-developed in the Cordillera Blanca (Solomina et al., 2007; Jomelli et al., 2008)."
32608Nascimbene J., Benesperi R., Casazza G., Chiarucci A. & Giordani P. (2020): Range shifts of native and invasive trees exacerbate the impact of climate change on epiphyte distribution: The case of lung lichen and black locust in Italy. - Science of the Total Environment, 735: 139537 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139537.
While changing climatic conditions may directly impact species distribution ranges, indirect effects related to altered biotic interactions may exacerbate range shifts. This situation fully applies to epiphytic lichens that are sensitive to climatic factors and strongly depend on substrate occurrence and features for their dispersal and establishment. In this work, we modelled the climatic suitability across Italy under current and future climate of the forest species Lobaria pulmonaria, the lung lichen. Comparatively, we modelled the suitability of its main tree species in Italy, as well as that of the alien tree Robinia pseudoacacia, black locust, whose spread may cause the decline of many forest lichen species. Our results support the viewthat climate change may cause range shifts of epiphytes by altering the spatial pattern of their climatic suitability (direct effect) and simultaneously causing range shifts of their host-tree species (indirect effect). This phenomenon seems to be emphasized by the invasion of alien trees, as in the case of black locust, that may replace native host tree species. Results indicate that a reduction of the habitat suitability of the lung lichen across Italy should be expected in the face of climate change and that this is coupledwith a loss of suitable substrate. This situation seems to be determined by two main processes that act simultaneously: 1) a partial reduction of the spatial overlap between the climatic niche of the lung lichen and that of its host tree species, and 2) the invasion of native woods by black locust. The case of lung lichen and black locust in Italy highlights that epiphytes are prone to both direct and indirect effects of climate change. The invasion of alien trees may have consequences that are still poorly evaluated for epiphytes. Keywords: Alien trees; Epiphytic lichens; Lichen-tree range decoupling; Lobaria pulmonaria; Range shifts; Robinia pseudoacacia.
32607Simon J.-C., Marchesi J.R., Mougel C. & Selosse M.-A. (2019): Host–microbiota interactions: From holobiont theory to analysis. - Microbiome, 7: 5 [5 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40168-019-0619-4.
In the recent years, the holobiont concept has emerged as a theoretical and experimental framework to study the interactions between hosts and their associated microbial communities in all types of ecosystems. The spread of this concept in many branches of biology results from the fairly recent realization of the ubiquitous nature of hostassociated microbes and their central role in host biology, ecology, and evolution. Through this special series “Host-microbiota interactions: from holobiont theory to analysis,” we wanted to promote this field of research which has considerable implications for human health, food production, and ecosystem protection. In this preface, we highlight a collection of articles selected for this special issue that show, use, or debate the concept of holobiont to approach taxonomically and ecologically diverse organisms, from humans and plants to sponges and insects. We also identify some theoretical and methodological challenges and propose directions for future research on holobionts. Keywords: Host-microbiota interactions, Holobiont, Hologenome, Metagenomics, Symbiosis.
32606Gutiérrez-Larruga B., Estébanez-Pérez B. & Ochoa-Hueso R. (2020): Effects of nitrogen deposition on the abundance and metabolism of lichens: A meta-analysis. - Ecosystems, 23: 783–797. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-019-00431-4.
Lichens are the key to nutrient cycling and trophic networks in many terrestrial ecosystems and are good bioindicators of air pollution, including nitrogen (N) deposition. Experimental studies have shown that N deposition can reduce the abundance of lichens and alter their thallus chemistry and metabolism, but we currently lack information about how widespread this effect is and what are the environmental factors modulating the response of lichens to N. We carried out a meta-analysis of the literature about the effects of experimental N fertilization on lichen abundance and metabolism. We found thirty-nine articles from thirty-one experimental sites that met our search criteria. These studies showed that the addition of N accelerates lichen metabolism in the short term and decreases their abundance in the medium–long term. Early senescence of lichens is proposed as a possible mechanism linking the two observed responses. Chlorolichens from regions with high precipitation (> 1000 mm) and with a background N deposition of mixed origin (agricultural and industrial) were the most affected by N, in terms of both abundance and metabolism. Structural equation modelling showed that the rate of N addition was the main factor in modulating the response of lichens to N in terms of metabolism, whereas isothermality played a very important role in modulating the lichen response to N in terms of abundance. Our meta-analysis identified that excess N deposition reduces lichen abundance and increases the metabolism of sensitive species, especially across European ecosystems; lichens from more climatically benign regions (that is, greater precipitation and isothermality) are the most affected. Key words: Global change; Lichens; Meta-analysis; Nitrogen deposition; Nitrogen fertilization; Structural equations models (SEM).
32605Sujetovienė G., Sališiūtė J., Dagiliūtė R. & Žaltauskaitė J. (2020): Physiological response of the bioindicator Ramalina farinacea in relation to atmospheric deposition in an urban environment. - Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 27: 26058–26065. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-08767-4.
Urban air pollution is one of the most important environmental problems. Lichens are good bioindicators in air pollution studies because of their dependence on the atmospheric deposition for nutrition. The present study focused on the effects of urbanization on the composition of atmospheric deposition inputs and physiological parameters of transplanted epiphytic lichen Ramalina farinacea. The status of lichens responded to urban pollutants related to vehicle and industrial activity (NO3 −, Ca2+, Mg2+, NO2, PM10). The content of chlorophyll and FV/FM were positively related to the amount of precipitation (mm) and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). The increase in lipid peroxidation and electrolyte conductivity, indicating damage to the cell membrane, was found in lichens transplanted to the urban environment. The high variability in electrolyte conductivity indicated that cell membrane injuries were characteristics of the investigated study area. Keywords: Atmospheric deposition . Biomonitoring . Urbanization . Lichen . Ramalina farinacea . Physiological stress.
32604Worobiec G. & Worobiec E. (2020): Lichenopeltella mizerniana sp. nov. from the upper Pliocene of Mizerna (southern Poland). - Mycological Progress, 19: 799–804. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11557-020-01598-0.
Fungal sporocarps having ostiole with setae were found in the upper Pliocene deposits from Mizerna (borehole Mizerna-Nowa), southern Poland. These remains morphologically correspond to the fossil-genus Trichothyrites Rosend., although the structure of the ostiolar collar with non-septate setae seems unique and is typical for sporocarps (catathecia) of some modern species of the genus Lichenopeltella Höhn. Other contemporary fungal genera with setose sporocarps differ considerably from Lichenopeltella in respect of their morphology. Taking this into consideration, a new fossil-species Lichenopeltella mizerniana G. Worobiec is proposed. Morphologically, Lichenopeltella mizerniana is similar both to some modern lichenicolous [L. peltigericola (D. Hawksw.) R. Sant., L. rangiferinae Brackel, and L. uncialicola Brackel] and non-lichenicolous species [L. ammophilae (J.P. Ellis) P.M. Kirk & Minter, L. palustris (J.P. Ellis) P.M. Kirk & Minter] of this genus. The presence of Lichenopeltella mizerniana suggests that the Pliocene climate of the Mizerna locality was probably at least moderately humid. Keywords: Lichenopeltella . Trichothyriaceae . Fossil fungi . Palaeoecology . Upper Pliocene . Poland.
32603Bednaříková M., Váczi P., Lazár D. & Barták M. (2020): Photosynthetic performance of Antarctic lichen Dermatocarpon polyphyllizum when affected by desiccation and low temperatures. - Photosynthesis Research, 145: 159–177. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11120-020-00773-4.
Lichens are symbiotic organisms that are well adapted to desiccation/rehydration cycles. Over the last decades, the physiological background of their photosynthetic response—specifically activation of the protective mechanism during desiccation— has been studied at the level of photosystem II of the lichen photobiont by means of several biophysical methods. In our study, the effects of desiccation and low temperatures on chlorophyll fluorescence and spectral reflectance parameters were investigated in Antarctic chlorolichen Dermatocarpon polyphyllizum. Lichen thalli were collected from James Ross Island, Antarctica, and following transfer to a laboratory, samples were fully hydrated and exposed to desiccation at temperatures of 18, 10, and 4 °C. During the desiccation process, the relative water content (RWC) was measured gravimetrically and photosynthetic parameters related to the fast transient of chlorophyll fluorescence (OJIP) were measured repeatedly. Similarly, the change in spectral reflectance parameters (e.g., NDVI, PRI, G, NPCI) was monitored during thallus dehydration. The dehydration-response curves showed a decrease in a majority of the OJIP-derived parameters (e.g., maximum quantum yield of photosystem II photochemistry: FV/FM, and performance index: PI in D. polyphyllizum, which were more apparent at RWCs below 20%. The activation of protective mechanisms in severely dehydrated thalli was documented by increased thermal dissipation ( DI0/RC) and its quantum yield ( Phi_D0). Low temperature accelerated these processes. An analysis of the OJIP shape reveals the presence of K-bands (300 μs), and L-bands (80 μs), which can be attributed to dehydrationinduced stress. Spectral reflectance indices decreased in a majority of cases with an RWC decrease and were positively related to the OJIP-derived parameters: FV/FM (capacity of photosynthetic processes in PSII), Phi_ E0 (effectiveness of electron transport), and PI_tot (total performance index), which was more apparent in NDVI. A negative relation was found for NPCI. These indices could be used in follow-up ecophysiological photosynthetic studies of lichens that are undergoing rehydration/dehydration cycles. Keywords: Fast chlorophyll fluorescence curve · OJIP · Spectral reflectance · Stress · Upper cortex.
32602Fačkovcová Z., Slovák M., Vďačný P., Melichárková A., Zozomová-Lihová J. & Guttová A. (2020): Spatio-temporal formation of the genetic diversity in the Mediterranean dwelling lichen during the Neogene and Quaternary epochs. - Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 144: 106704 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2019.106704.
Genetic patterns of lichenized fungi often display a mosaic-like and difficult to interpret structure blurring their evolutionary history. The genetic diversity and phylogeographic pattern of a mycobiont of the predominantly Mediterranean dwelling lichen Solenopsora candicans were investigated on the base of extensive sampling (361 individuals, 77 populations) across its entire distribution range. We tested whether the genetic pattern of S. candicans mirrors paleoclimatic and paleogeological events in the Mediterranean and adjacent regions. The divergence time estimates indicated a Tertiary origin for S. candicans, with formation of intraspecific diversity initiated in the Late Miocene. The distribution of the most divergent haplotypes, mostly of a pre-Pleistocene origin, was restricted to the eastern or western extremities of the Mediterranean exhibiting Kiermack disjunction. The population genetic diversity analyses indicated multiple diversity centres and refugia for S. candicans across the entire Mediterranean Basin. While the south Mediterranean regions harboured both the Tertiary and Quaternary born diversity, conforming to the ‘cumulative refugia’ paradigm, the Apennine and Balkan Peninsulas in the north hosted mostly younger Pleistocene haplotypes and lineages. The recent population expansion of S. candicans might have occurred in the middle Pleistocene with a population burst in the Apennine and Balkan peninsulas. The presence of unique haplotypes in Central Europe indicates the existence of extra- Mediterranean microrefugia. This study presents the first comprehensive lichen phylogeography from the Mediterranean region and simultaneously reports for the first time the glacial survival of a warm-adapted lichen in the temperate zone. Keywords: Kiermack disjunction; Leprocaulaceae; Pannonian basin; Phylogeography; Population expansion; Tertiary refugia.
32601Muggia L., Nelsen M.P., Kirika P.M., Barreno E., Beck A., Lindgren H., Lumbsch H.T., Leavitt S.D. & Trebouxia working group (2020): Formally described species woefully underrepresent phylogenetic diversity in the common lichen photobiont genus Trebouxia (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta): An impetus for developing an integrated taxonomy. - Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 149: 106821 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2020.106821.
Lichens provide valuable systems for studying symbiotic interactions. In lichens, these interactions are frequently described in terms of availability, selectivity and specificity of the mycobionts and photobionts towards one another. The lichen-forming, green algal genus Trebouxia Puymaly is among the most widespread photobiont, associating with a broad range of lichen-forming fungi. To date, 29 species have been described, but studies consistently indicate that the vast majority of species-level lineages still lack formal description, and new, previously unrecognized lineages are frequently reported. To reappraise the diversity and the evolutionary relationships of species-level lineages in Trebouxia, we assembled DNA sequence data from over 1600 specimens, compiled from a range of sequences from previously published studies, axenic algal cultures, and lichens collected from poorly sampled regions. From these samples, we selected representatives of the currently known genetic diversity in the lichenized Trebouxia and inferred a phylogeny from multi-locus sequence data (ITS, rbcL, cox2). We demonstrate that the current formally described species woefully underrepresent overall species-level diversity in this important lichen-forming algal genus. We anticipate that an integrative taxonomic approach, incorporating morphological and physiological data from axenic cultures with genetic data, will be required to establish a robust, comprehensive taxonomy for Trebouxia. The data presented here provide an important impetus and reference dataset for more reliably characterizing diversity in lichenized algae and in using lichens to investigate the evolution of symbioses and holobionts. Keywords: Algae; Biodiversity; Fungi; Holobiont; Multigene; Species delimitation; Symbiosis.
32600Lindgren H., Moncada B., Lücking R., Magain N., Simon A., Goffinet B., Sérusiaux E., Nelsen M.P., Mercado-Díaz J.A., Widhelm T.J. & Lumbsch H.T. (2020): Cophylogenetic patterns in algal symbionts correlate with repeated symbiont switches during diversification and geographic expansion of lichen-forming fungi in the genus Sticta (Ascomycota, Peltigeraceae). - Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 150: 106860 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2020.106860.
Species in the fungal genus Sticta form symbiotic associations primarily with either green algae or cyanobacteria, but tripartite associations or photosymbiodemes involving both types of photobionts occur in some species. Sticta is known to associate with green algae in the genus Symbiochloris. However, previous studies have shown that algae from other genera, such as Heveochlorella, may also be suitable partners for Sticta. We examined the diversity of green algal partners in the genus Sticta and assessed the patterns of association between the host fungus and its algal symbiont. We used multi-locus sequence data from multiple individuals collected in Australia, Cuba, Madagascar, Mauritius, New Zealand, Reunion and South America to infer phylogenies for fungal and algal partners and performed tests of congruence to assess coevolution between the partners. In addition, event-based methods were implemented to examine which cophylogenetic processes have led to the observed association patterns in Sticta and its green algal symbionts. Our results show that in addition to Symbiochloris, Sticta associates with green algae from the genera Chloroidium, Coccomyxa, Elliptochloris and Heveochlorella, the latter being the most common algal symbiont associated with Sticta in this study. Geography plays a strong role in shaping fungal-algal association patterns in Sticta as mycobionts associate with different algal lineages in different geographic locations. While fungal and algal phylogenies were mostly congruent, event-based methods did not find any evidence for cospeciation between the partners. Keywords: Cophylogeny; Diversity; Selectivity; Sticta; Symbiosis; Trebouxiophyceae.
32599Kowarik I., Buchholz S., von der Lippe M. & Seitz B. (2016): Biodiversity functions of urban cemeteries: Evidence from one of the largest Jewish cemeteries in Europe. - Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 19: 68–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2016.06.023.
As the world becomes more urbanized, urban cemeteries may become increasingly valuable for biodiversity conservation as cemeteries are ubiquitous elements of the green infrastructure in cities worldwide. By implementing a multi-taxon approach at different spatial extents, we analyzed habitat functions of a large urban cemetery in Berlin (Weißensee Jewish Cemetery) and explored related environmental variables.This cemetery is an outstanding cultural heritage site but it also stands for old urban cemeteries that have progressed to urban woodland, an ecosystem type that exists in many regional and religious contexts. The cemetery provided a habitat for 604 species; species of conservation concern comprised 1.6–100% of total species among different groups of taxa (in decreasing order: bats, birds, lichens, bryophytes, carabids, vascular plants, spiders). Species richness and species composition at the plot level were significantly related to differences in management intensity and resulting vegetation structures but differed among taxonomic groups. In vascular plants, carabids and spiders, the species composition varied significantly with habitat age, and there was a set of characteristic species for different age classes in each species group. Our results thus support the use of differentiated management approaches to maintain habitat heterogeneity by allowing wilderness development in some parts of a cemetery while keeping others more open. Since these aims can be combined with efforts to preserve outstanding grave architectures and allow access to visitors, our study indicates ways of reconciling conflicting aims of heritage preservation and biodiversity conservation, a promising perspective for biodiversity conservation in culturally shaped urban landscapes. We conclude that cemeteries provide important cultural ecosystem services within the urban green infrastructure. Among lichens seven species of conservation concern were recorded, one of them (Hyperphyscia adglutinata) was considered to be extinct in Berlin and another one, Alyxoria ochrocheila, was newly recorded for Berlin.
32598Jim C.Y. & Chen W.Y. (2010): Habitat effect on vegetation ecology and occurrence on urban masonry walls. - Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 9: 169–178. doi:10.1016/j.ufug.2010.02.004.
Cities contain a diverse range of habitats that support plant establishment and persistence. This study focuses on a particular vertical artificial habitat: masonry retaining walls in Hong Kong. We explored the diversity and co-existence of different plant growth forms, synoptic assessment of habitat conditions, and relationship between habitat factors and vegetation occurrence. Some 270 walls with notable plant colonization in old districts were studied. We surveyed intrinsic wall fabric, extrinsic site condition, tree species and abundance, and other types of plant cover. The data were evaluated with the help of principal component and multiple regression analyses. A wide assemblage of species and growth forms have established spontaneously on walls. The tree flora is dominated by Moraceae (Mulberry family) members, genus Ficus (figs or banyans), and particularly Ficus microcarpa. Trees with strangler characteristics pre-adapted to grow on the vertical habitat are strongly favoured, followed by ruderals and garden escapees. Natives outnumber exotics by a large margin. Multiple wall attributes could be condensed into four factors, classified as water-nutrient supply, habitat connectivity, structure-maintenance, and habitat size. The action of habitat factors on vegetation occurrence hinges on plant growth form and dimension. The occurrence of diminutive lichen-moss is related to the fundamental sustenance water-nutrient factor. The bigger mature trees are more dependent on the larger-scale habitat size factor. The medium-sized plants, including herbs, shrubs and tree seedlings, are contingent upon the dual influence of water-nutrient and habitat connectivity. Spatial contiguity with natural ecosystem can secure continual supplies of seeds, water, nutrient, genial microclimate, and clean air to foster wall vegetation growth. The conservation of walls and their companion flora could avoid degrading or reducing these critical enabling factors. The urban ecological heritage deserves to be protected from unnecessary, misinformed and harmful impacts.
32597Bargagli R., Ancora S., Bianchi N. & Rota E. (2019): Deposition, abatement and environmental fate of pollutants in urban green ecosystems: Suggestions from long-term studies in Siena (Central Italy). - Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 46: 126483 [6 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2019.126483.
Long-term biomonitoring of atmospheric pollutants in Siena shows that organisms in urban ecosystems are an overlooked source of information on the deposition and environmental fate of chemicals that are not measured by automatic monitoring devices. Quercus ilex leaves and epiphytic lichens intercept airborne particulates and can be used as reliable quantitative biomonitors of metal deposition. Soils beneath holm oak trees have an enhanced sink capacity for metals and a noteworthy faunal diversity. Earthworms and land snails inhabiting those soils can help to evaluate metal bioavailability, their potential trophic transfer and health risks. Biological crusts, mosses and mollusks from vegetated urban walls appear even more reliable biomonitors of metal deposition. Although Siena is a town with its own architectural and climatic features and moderate atmospheric pollution mainly caused by vehicular traffic and domestic heating, our overview offers suggestions and guidance that can be adapted across different urban contexts, for enhancing the role of urban green ecosystems in the abatement and monitoring of atmospheric pollutants. Comparisons among the capabilities of different tree species to improve urban air quality indicate that in Mediterranean towns it would be difficult to select a better alternative to Q. ilex, although this species emits VOCs and contributes to O3 formation, a pollutant now of major concern. Due to the decreased atmospheric concentrations of SO2 and the scarce sensitivity of lichens to O3, in many towns lichen biodiversity seems no longer a valid indicator of air quality. Keywords: Atmospheric pollutants; Bioavailability; Biomonitoring; Mitigation; Urban ecosystems.
32596Cocozza C., Ravera S., Cherubini P., Lombardi F., Marchetti M. & Tognetti R. (2016): Integrated biomonitoring of airborne pollutants over space and timeusing tree rings, bark, leaves and epiphytic lichens. - Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 17: 177–191. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2016.04.008.
The integrated use of tree rings and outer tissues, and lichens, was tested for monitoring how pollutantconcentrations vary in space and over time nearby an incinerator in industrial area in Central Italy. Traceelements in thalli of lichen Xanthoria parietina and in leaves, bark, wood of Quercus pubescens, as well ascarbon, oxygen and nitrogen isotope ratios in tree rings were analyzed. Some trace elements in the leavesdiffered significantly between the plots, though this was not the case in lichens and bark. The values of13C and 18O showed the same trend in all plots, while the values of 15N were higher in the distal plot.The results indicated that trace elements were intercepted and collected by tree bark and leaves, as wellas lichens, at low concentrations, and that they hardly entered into tree xylem tissues during the growingseason to be stored into the woody tissues. Indeed, the study did not highlight marked changes over timeand space, in accumulation of airborne pollutants in the selected biomonitors, most probably due to thelow levels of industrial development. Nevertheless, the analysis of tree ring cores in combination withbark and leaves, and lichens might potentially contribute to depict historic impacts of airborne pollutantsat pronounced concentrations. Keywords: Biomonitoring; Dendrochemistry; Foliose thalli; Pollution; Stable isotope; Tree rings.
32595Palice Z. (2020): Česká a Slovenská lichenologická bibliografie XXXII [Czech and Slovak lichenological bibliography, XXXII]. - Bryonora, 65: 22–27. https://botanospol.cz/sites/default/files/2020-07/BRYONORA_65_2020_06_FINAL_03.pdf.
32594Palice Z. (2020): Some additions to and elucidations of the lichen biota of Český kras (Bohemian Karst, Central Bohemia, Czech Republic). - Bryonora, 65: 9–21. https://botanospol.cz/sites/default/files/2020-07/BRYONORA_65_2020_06_FINAL_02.pdf.
This contribution presents selected finds of lichens made by the author during recent excursions conducted in the proximity of the SW outskirts of Prague, in the area called Český kras (Bohemian Karst). Twenty-nine species are listed of which thirteen are novelties for this area. In addition, the recent literature was excerpted and an update to the checklist of the Protected Landscape Area Český kras (Svoboda et al. 2014) is presented. Ten new records were published elsewhere in the period 2015–2018, one species was mistakenly omitted from the checklist and another one has been reinstated, bringing the total number of lichen species currently known for this area to 461. Key words: new records, lichenized fungi, regional lichenofloristics.
32593McMullin R.T. & Rapai S.B. (2020): A review of reindeer lichen (Cladonia subgenus Cladina) linear growth rates. - Rangifer, 40(1): 15–26. DOI 10.7557/
Cladonia subgenus Cladina (the reindeer lichens) can be a dominant part of terrestrial ecosystems worldwide. They are particularly abundant in arctic-alpine and boreal regions, where they are a primary food source for woodland caribou/reindeer in winter months. Determining the growth rates of reindeer lichen is important for understanding and managing lichen regeneration following disturbances such as timber harvesting, mining, grazing, and wildfire. Regeneration and rehabilitation rates can be calculated with greater accuracy when growth rates are well understood. We provide a summary of 17 studies from 6 countries that determined the linear growth rates of three reindeer lichen groups, Cladonia arbuscula/mitis (mean = 4.7 mm/yr.), C. rangiferina/ C. stygia (mean = 5.1 mm/yr.), and C. stellaris (mean = 4.8 mm/yr.). We use linear growth rates as a proxy for over-all growth and biomass. Variables found to influence lichen growth rates are also discussed, which include light, moisture, temperature, air pollution, acid rain, precipitation, snow accumulation, substrate, age of individuals, and type of disturbance. These results can assist land managers in developing more accurate strategies for restoring lichens in disturbed areas. Key words: Critical caribou habitat; regeneration; rehabilitation; sustainable forest management; transplantation.
32592Lauriault P. & Wiersma Y.F. (2020): Identifying important characteristics for critical habitat of boreal felt lichen (Erioderma pedicellatum) in Newfoundland, Canada. - Bryologist, 123(3): 412–420. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-123.3.412.
In conservation management, outlining critical habitat is an important factor to consider when making recommendations on specific actions. Our study adopts a multi-level approach to determine critical habitat characteristics for boreal felt lichen (Erioderma pedicellatum (Hue.) P.M.Jørg.). The boreal felt lichen in the Avalon Forest Ecoregion of Newfoundland nearly exclusively inhabits balsam fir in oldgrowth forest stands. However, other factors still need to be determined to better understand what constitutes ‘‘critical habitat’’ in this region, i.e., what are the characteristics of the best quality forest stand for boreal felt lichen? We tested multiple working hypotheses at three levels: 1) at the tree-level, we examined tree morphometrics to determine substrate quality within the lichen habitat; 2) at the plot-level we assessed habitat characteristics and variation in landscape characteristics that can be captured within the 5 m plot radius; 3) we also measured habitat variables beyond the 5 m plot radius, these variables included distance from gaps of various types, elevation and distance from deciduous trees. In our study site, we compared 25 plot pairs, where one plot contained at least one boreal felt lichen thallus and the other contained no thalli. Our findings suggest that characteristics at each level are important when determining critical boreal felt lichen habitat. The tree-level models indicate that boreal felt lichen is likely to occur on trees with a small diameter (5–12 cm). The plot-level models show that north facing slopes are an important habitat characteristic. The beyond-plot analysis suggests an association with distance to deciduous trees, however findings were not consistent with the dripzone hypothesis; perhaps proximity to deciduous trees indicates poor habitat quality. The findings of this study will help streamline future survey efforts and guide important criteria in protecting critical habitat. Keywords: Conservation, landscape characteristics, substrate, cyanolichens, endangered species, boreal forest.
32591Prieto M.,Olariaga I., Pérez-Ortega S. & Wedin M. (2020): The identity of Calicium corynellum (Ach.) Ach.. - Lichenologist, 52: 333–335. doi:10.1017/S0024282920000250.
Recently, Yahr (2015) studied British populations of Calicium corynellum (Ach.) Ach. to test whether these were distinct from C. viride Pers. As C. corynellum had the highest conservation priority in Britain, and was apparently declining rather dramatic- ally, it was important to clarify its taxonomic status. Yahr (2015) used both genetic (ITS rDNA) and morphological data from two British Calicium aff. corynellum populations and could not find differences with C. viride, suggesting that the British material represented saxicolous populations of the otherwise epiphytic or lignicolous C. viride. Although this study focused on British material, it introduced serious doubts about the identity and rela- tionships of these two species in other parts of the distribution area of C. corynellum. Interestingly, the British material that Yahr (2015) investigated was morphologically very similar to C. viride, but the latter was described as differing rather substantially from C. corynellum in other parts of its distribution area. Thus, C. corynellum differs from C. viride in its short-stalked, greyish white pruinose ascomata (C. viride has long stalks and a brown pruina), distinctly narrower spores compared with C. viride, and the leprose thallus (Fig. 1) which is granular to verrucose in C. viride (Tibell 1999)
32590Joseph S., Sinha G.P. & Nayaka S. (2020): Taxonomic status of the genus Schismatomma (lichenized Ascomycota: Arthoniales) in India. - Lichenologist, 52: 329–331. .
The genus Schismatomma Flot. & Körb. ex A. Massal. was described by Massalongo (1852) containing five species. The genus is generally characterized by a whitish thallus containing calcium oxalate crystals, lirellate to short rounded ascomata with a poorly developed thalline margin, a carbonaceous hypothe- cium, 3-septate fusiform ascospores, and roccellic acid as a sec- ondary metabolite (Tehler 1993a). As a result of recent phylogenetic studies in the Arthoniales, the species in Schismatomma were transferred and segregated under different genera and are now placed in the family Roccellaceae (Ertz & Tehler 2011; Ertz et al. 2013, 2019)
32589Starosta J. & Svoboda D. (2020): Genetic variability in the Physconia muscigena group (Physciaceae, Ascomycota) in the Northern Hemisphere. - Lichenologist, 52: 305–317. .
The principal goal of our study was to test whether ecologically and chemically different populations of lichens in the Physconia muscigena group belong to a single, or multiple, species. We used sequence data from three markers (ITS rDNA, mtSSU rDNA and TEF1-α) for the reconstruction of phylogenetic trees based on a sampling of mostly European and Canadian populations of P. muscigena (Ach.) Poelt, P. muscigena var. bayeri (Nádv.) Poelt and P. isidiomuscigena Essl. In addition, we sought any possible geographical or ecological trends among chemotypes and haplotypes. Results show that: 1) sequence data of ITS rDNA and TEF1-α show large genetic variation in the Physconia muscigena group, which does not correlate with geographical distribution or thallus chemistry; 2) Physconia muscigena var. bayeri and P. isidiomuscigena appear undifferentiated with P. muscigena in our phylogenetic trees, and the three species cannot be distinguished on the basis of ITS rDNA, mtSSU rDNA and TEF1-α sequences. We therefore synonymized Physconia muscigena var. bayeri with P. muscigena and we recombine P. isidiomuscigena as a variety of P. muscigena. cryptic species, ITS rDNA, lichen, phylogeny, Physconia isidiomuscigena, Physconia muscigena var. bayeri, TEF1-α
32588Kantvilas G. (2020): Contributions to the lichen genus Cresponea (Roccellaceae). - Lichenologist, 52: 279–285. .
Two Tasmanian species of the genus Cresponea are treated: C. graemeannae Kantvilas sp. nov., characterized by a very thin, saxicolous thallus, apothecia with a thick, radially fissured margin, thinly pruinose disc, hypothecium inspersed with oil droplets, and 5–9-septate ascospores, 25–40 × 6–8 μm; and C. subpremnea (Kantvilas & Vĕzda) Kantvilas comb. nov. The latter has ascospores 30–58 × 4.5–7 μm, which distinguish it from the related C. plurilocularis (Nyl.) Egea & Torrente (ascospores 27–45 × 6–8 μm). The taxa are illustrated, dis- cussed and compared. Cresponea litoralis Elix, based on an Australian type, is considered a synonym of Bactrospora myriadea (Fée) Egea & Torrente. A key to the species of Cresponea reported from Australia is presented. Australia, Bactrospora, lichens, new species, Tasmania
32587Farkas E., Biró B., Csintalan Z. & Veres K. (2020): Acetone rinsing tolerance of the lichen species Cladonia foliacea is considerable. - Lichenologist, 52: 325–327. .
Acetone rinsing tolerance of lichens is a technique that allows workers to remove lichen secondary metabolites (LSM) while pre- serving the metabolic integrity of the thallus (Solhaug & Gauslaa 2001, 2004). Biological activities of LSMs are insufficiently known and represent an exciting research field in nature and the labora- tory (Galloway 1993; Molnár & Farkas 2010; Latkowska et al. 2015; Duong et al. 2017; Gauslaa et al. 2017; Neupane et al. 2017). Most of the LSMs can be extracted by acetone; this is the nor- mal extraction method for chromatographic studies of these sub- stances (Arup et al. 1993; Feige et al. 1993; Huneck & Yoshimura 1996; Orange et al. 2010). Solhaug & Gauslaa (1996, 2001) showed that both mycobiont and photobiont survived acetone rinsing treatment in various lichen species when the lichens were well desiccated. Though acetone rinsing affected membrane permeability in some lichen species, the photosynthetic activity and pigment composition did not necessarily alter after treatment (Candotto Carniel et al. 2017). Solhaug & Gauslaa (2001) showed that, in general, chlorolichens are more tolerant of acetone rinsing than cephalo- and cyanolichens, based on measurement of the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm). Although previous results have demonstrated that physiological activity is maintained following acetone rinsing, to apply this method routinely, further confirmatory tests are required for generalization across a wider range of species from different ecological settings to ensure reproducibility
32586Ertz D., Aptroot A., Sanderson N., Coppins B., Broeck D. van den & Diederich P. (2020): A new species of Synarthonia from Luxembourg, and a new combination in the genus Reichlingia (Arthoniaceae). - Lichenologist, 52: 261–266. .
A new species of Synarthonia, S. leproidica, is described from Luxembourg. Phylogenetic analyses of mtSSU and RPB2 sequences were used to determine the generic affiliation of this sterile species. Synarthonia leproidica differs from all other species of the genus by the combination of a leproid thallus and the production of psoromic acid. It is the sister species to S. muriformis in our phylogenetic analyses. The discovery of the new species suggests that other strictly sorediate lichen species might have been overlooked in Europe, even in intensely explored countries such as Luxembourg. Phylogenetic analyses further confirm the placement of Reichlingia anombrophila in the genus Reichlingia and of Synarthonia astroidestera in the genus Synarthonia. Arthonia atlantica is transferred to the genus Reichlingia as R. dendritica. Arthoniales, biodiversity, lichen, phylogeny, taxonomy
32585Orange A., Palice Z. & Klepsland J. (2020): A new isidiate saxicolous species of Porina (Ascomycota, Ostropales, Porinaceae). - Lichenologist, 52: 267–277. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0024282920000183.
Porina collina Orange, Palice & Klepsland is described as new from siliceous rocks in the Czech Republic, Great Britain and Norway. The thallus produces isidioid propagules which resemble those in P. rosei, P. hibernica and P. pseudohibernica, but which are more fragile and poorly-defined, and almost ecorticate; the perithecial wall is dark purplish brown and the ascospores are 3-septate. Sequences of the mitochondrial ribosomal DNA suggest that the new species belongs in the Porina byssophila clade. Key words: ITS, lichenized fungi, mtSSU, taxonomy, vegetative propagules.
32584Ruprecht U., Fernández-Mendoza F., Türk R. & Fryday A.M. (2020): High levels of endemism and local differentiation in the fungal and algal symbionts of saxicolous lecideoid lichens along a latitudinal gradient in southern South America. - Lichenologist, 52: 287–303. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0024282920000225.
Saxicolous, lecideoid lichenized fungi have a cosmopolitan distribution but, being mostly cold adapted, are especially abundant in polar and high-mountain regions. To date, little is known of their origin or the extent of their trans-equatorial dispersal. Several mycobiont genera and species are thought to be restricted to either the Northern or the Southern Hemisphere, whereas others are thought to be widely distributed and occur in both hemispheres. However, these assumptions often rely on morphological analyses and lack supporting molecular genetic data. Also unknown is the extent of regional differentiation in the southern polar regions. An extensive set of lecideoid lichens (185 samples) was collected along a latitudinal gradient at the southern end of South America. Subantarctic climate conditions were maintained by increasing the elevation of the collecting sites with decreasing latitude. The investigated specimens were placed in a global context by including Antarctic and cosmopolitan sequences from other studies. For each symbiont three markers were used to identify intraspecific variation (mycobiont: ITS, mtSSU, RPB1; photobiont: ITS, psbJ-L, COX2). For the mycobiont, the saxicolous genera Lecidea, Porpidia, Poeltidea and Lecidella were phylogenetically re-evaluated, along with their photobionts Asterochloris and Trebouxia. For several globally distributed species groups, the results show geographically highly differentiated subclades, classified as operational taxonomical units (OTUs), which were assigned to the different regions of southern South America (sSA). Furthermore, several small endemic and well-supported clades apparently restricted to sSA were detected at the species level for both symbionts. Key words: glacial refugia, global distribution, pioneer vegetation on rock, subantarctic subregion.
32583Kaasalainen U., Rikkinen J. & Schmidt A.R. (2020): Fossil Usnea and similar fruticose lichens from Palaeogene amber. - Lichenologist, 52: 319–324. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0024282920000286.
Fruticose lichens of the genus Usnea Dill. ex Adans. (Parmeliaceae), generally known as beard lichens, are among the most iconic epiphytic lichens in modern forest ecosystems. Many of the c. 350 currently recognized species are widely distributed and have been used as bioindicators in air pollution studies. Here we demonstrate that usneoid lichens were present in the Palaeogene amber forests of Europe. Based on general morphology and annular cortical fragmentation, one fossil from Baltic amber can be assigned to the extant genus Usnea. The unique type of cortical cracking indirectly demonstrates the presence of a central cord that keeps the branch intact even when its cortex is split into vertebrae-like segments. This evolutionary innovation has remained unchanged since the Palaeogene, contributing to the considerable ecological flexibility that allows Usnea species to flourish in a wide variety of ecosystems and climate regimes. The fossil sets the minimum age for Usnea to 34 million years (late Eocene). While the other similar fossils from Baltic and Bitterfeld ambers cannot be definitely assigned to the same genus, they underline the diversity of pendant lichens in Palaeogene amber forests. Key words: Ascomycota, Baltic amber, Bitterfeld amber, lichen fossils.
32582Pacé M., Paré D., Fenton N.J. & Bergeron Y. (2020): Effects of lichen, Sphagnum spp. and feathermoss leachates on jack pine and black spruce seedling growth. - Plant and Soil, 452: 441–455. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-020-04587-0.
Aim The main objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of leachates from three typical boreal forest ground layers on young tree growth and to explore the linkages between the chemical composition of the leachates, tree growth, the allocation between belowground and aboveground parts, and ectomycorrhizal colonization. Methods An original 6-month greenhouse experiment was set up to investigate (i) the effects of lichen (Cladonia spp.) and feather moss (Pleurozium schreberii [Brid.] Mitt.) leachates on jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) growth and (ii) the effects of feather moss and Sphagnum spp. leachates on black spruce (Picea mariana [Mill.] B.S.P.) growth. Results Belowground growth and root allocation was reduced by lichen leachates in 2-year-old pine seedlings, while the impact was significant on both below- and aboveground growth in 6-month-old pine seedlings. A substance having the same migration time as usnic acid was detected in the lichen leachates by highperformance liquid chromatography. Sphagnum spp. and feather moss leachates were not found to have any effect on black spruce seedling growth, despite a higher supply of dissolved inorganic N in the feather moss leachates compared to the leachates of Sphagnum spp. and the control. Conclusions These results demonstrate that ground layer composition plays a crucial role in shaping the plant community in boreal ecosystems by influencing the chemical composition of the soil solution. They suggest that chemical interference may be another mechanism by which lichens promote the self-perpetuation of open woodlands in the closed-crown boreal forest. Keywords: Allelopathy . Forest productivity . Ground layer . Regeneration failure . Soil solution . Usnic acid.
32581Szczepańska K., Urbaniak J. & Śliwa L. (2020): Taxonomic recognition of some species-level lineages circumscribed in nominal Rhizoplaca subdiscrepans s. lat. (Lecanoraceae, Ascomycota). - PeerJ, 8: e9555 [27 p.]. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.9555.
Background. Rhizoplaca subdiscrepans (Nyl.) R. Sant., a saxicolous, placodioid lichen, is considered to have a worldwide distribution in warm-temperate to boreal-arctic areas in Asia, Europe and North America. However, recent studies have revealed that this species includes five unrecognized species-level lineages`subd A, B, C, D and E'. During research focused on the diversity of saxicolous lichens in mountainous areas of southern Poland, some interesting representatives of the genus Rhizoplaca were found. The main aim of our study was to determine the taxonomic status of the collected specimens by means of molecular tools and a comparative analysis of similar herbarium materials. Methods. Detailed morphological, anatomical and chemical examinations of reference material from Asia, Europe and North and South America focused primarily on a selected group of lecanoroid taxa with a placodioid thallus. In addition, 21 new generated sequences representing Lecanora pseudomellea, Protoparmeliopsis muralis, Rhizoplaca opiniconensis, R. subdiscrepans s. lat. and R. phaedrophthalma were selected for molecular study using the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS rDNA), together with 95 available GenBank sequences mainly from the genus Rhizoplaca. Results. Polish specimens that clustered with members of a potential species-level lineage `subd E' of Rhizoplaca subdiscrepans complex were recovered. Comprehensive analyses of the lichen group led us to the conclusion that lineage `subd E' represents R. subdiscrepans s. str. and that the taxon appears to have a limited geographical distribution and specific habitat preferences. Furthermore, some of the recently defined species candidates within R. subdiscrepans s. lat.`subd D' and `subd A'should be assigned to two previously known species of Rhizoplaca, namely R. opiniconensis (Brodo) Leavitt, Zhao Xin & Lumbsch and R. phaedrophthalma (Poelt) Leavitt, Zhao Xin & Lumbsch, respectively. These two species are characterized by phenotypic features observed as well in analyzed specimens representing lineages 'subd D' and 'subd A'. Moreover, the representatives of these lineages demonstrate some differences in occupied habitat and geographical range that also correspond with the indicated species. Additionally, it was found that Lecanora pseudomellea B.D. Ryan is a strongly supported monophyletic lineage within Rhizoplaca, and therefore an appropriate new combination for the species is proposed.
32580Martellos S., d’Agostino M., Chiarucci A., Nimis P.L. & Nascimbene J. (2020): Lichen distribution patterns in the ecoregions of Italy. - Diversity, 12(8): 294 [21 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/d12080294.
An outline of the main distribution patterns of lichens in the ecoregions of Italy, accounting for their climatic, geographic, and environmental features, is still missing. On the basis of a GIS-based analysis, we summarized: (1) the main features (e.g., surface, climate, landscape, topographic heterogeneity, bedrock, eutrophication) of the 9 ecoregions adopted in ITALIC, the information system on Italian lichens, and (2) the patterns of richness, functional traits, and ecological requirements of lichens in the ecoregions. Our GIS-based analysis describes for the first time the main features of the 9 ecoregions adopted in ITALIC, highlighting differences which could explain the main lichen patterns. Overall, the exploration of the Italian lichen biota is still a work in progress, some regions being still underexplored, especially in the South, with new taxa being reported every year. Our research could provide a baseline for further advancements in the understanding of species richness and community composition of Italian lichens, at a regional scale. Keywords: climate; exploration; GIS; ITALIC; lichen functional traits; spatial analysis; species richness pattern.
32579Tang J.-Y., Wu K.-H., Wang Y.-Y., Farooqi A.A., Huang H.-W., Yuan S.-S.F., Jian R.-I., Tsao L.-Y., Chen P.-A., Chang F.-R., Cheng Y.-B., Hu H.-C. & Chang H.-W. (2020): Methanol extract of Usnea barbata induces cell killing, apoptosis, and DNA damage against oral cancer cells through oxidative stress. - Antioxidants, 9: 694 [18 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9080694.
Some lichens provide the resources of common traditional medicines and show anticancer effects. However, the anticancer effect of Usnproliea barbata (U. barbata) is rarely investigated, especially for oral cancer cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the cell killing function of methanol extracts of U. barbata (MEUB) against oral cancer cells. MEUB shows preferential killing against a number of oral cancer cell lines (Ca9-22, OECM-1, CAL 27, HSC3, and SCC9) but rarely affects normal oral cell lines (HGF-1). Ca9-22 and OECM-1 cells display the highest sensitivity to MEUB and were chosen for concentration effect and time course experiments to address its cytotoxic mechanisms. MEUB induces apoptosis of oral cancer cells in terms of the findings from flow cytometric assays and Western blotting, such as subG1 accumulation, annexin V detection, and pancaspase activation as well as poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage. MEUB induces oxidative stress and DNA damage of oral cancer cells following flow cytometric assays, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS)/mitochondrial superoxide (MitoSOX) production, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) depletion as well as overexpression of γH2AX and 8-oxo-2′deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG). All MEUB-induced changes in oral cancer cells were triggered by oxidative stress which was validated by pretreatment with antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC). In conclusion, MEUB causes preferential killing of oral cancer cells and is associated with oxidative stress, apoptosis, and DNA damage. Keywords: lichen; natural product; preferential killing; oxidative stress; apoptosis; DNA damage.
32578Harding L.E., Bourbonnais M., Cook A.T., Spribille T., Wagner V. & Darimont C. (2020): No statistical support for wolf control and maternal penning as conservation measures for endangered mountain caribou. - Biodiversity and Conservation, 29: 3051–3060. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-020-02008-3.
Mountain caribou, a behaviourally and genetically distinct set of ecotypes of the Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) restricted to the mountains of western Canada, have undergone severe population declines in recent decades. Although a broad consensus exists that the ultimate driver of these declines has been the reduction of habitat upon which mountain caribou depend, research and policy attention has increasingly focused on predation. Recently, Serrouya et al. (Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 116:6181–6186, 2019) analysed population dynamics data from 18 subpopulations in British Columbia and Alberta, Canada, subject to different treatments and ‘controls’, and concluded that lethal wolf control and maternal caribou penning provide the most effective ways to stabilize population declines. Here we show that this inference was based on an unbalanced analytical approach that omitted a null scenario, excluded potentially confounding variables and employed irreproducible habitat alteration metrics. Our reanalysis of available data shows that ecotype identity is a better predictor of population trends than any adaptive management treatments considered by Serrouya et al. Disparate behavioural characteristics and responses to industrial disturbance among ecotypes suggest it may be incorrect to assume that adaptive management strategies that might benefit one ecotype are transferable to another. Keywords: Adaptive management;  Bottom-up processes;  British Columbia;  Canada;  Conservation;  Ecotype;  Habitat;  Mountain caribou;  Rebuttal;  Statistics;  Wolf.
32577Jiang L.-Q., An D.-F., Zhang K., Li G.-D., Wang X.-Y., Lang L., Jiang M-G., Wang L.-S., Jiang C.-L. & Jiang Y. (2020): Nakamurella albus sp. nov.: A novel actinobacterium isolated from a lichen sample. - Current Microbiology, 77: 1896–1901. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00284-020-01928-1.
A novel actinobacterium, YIM 132087T, isolated from Lepraria sp. lichen collected from Yunnan province, south-west PR China. Cells are Gram-stain-positive, catalase-positive and oxidase-negative, aerobic, non-motile and short rod-shaped. Colonies are asporogenous, circular and white brown in colour. Optimal growth occured at 15−35 °C (optimum 28 °C), at pH 5.0−9.0 (optimum pH 6.0), and in the presence of 3% NaCl (w/v). The DNA G+C content of strain YIM 132087T based on the draft genome sequence was 71.3 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences suggested that strain YIM 132087T belonged to the genus Nakamurella and exhibited high levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Nakamurella endophytica CGMCC 4.7038T (97.9%) and Nakamurella intestinalis NBRC 111844T (97.2%). The DNA– DNA hybridization values between strain YIM 132087T and its closest relatives are lower than 26%. Strain YIM 132087T had meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic cell-wall diamino acid, and MK-8(H4) as the predominant menaquinone. Predominant cellular fatty acids (> 10%) were iso-C16:0, iso-C15:0, C16: 0 and anteiso-C15:0. The polar lipid profile were found to be diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, three unknown phospholipids, one unknown aminophospholipid and one unknown lipid. Based on phenotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic analysis, strain YIM 132087T belongs to the genus Nakamurella and represents a novel species of the genus Nakamurella, for which the name Nakamurella albus sp. nov., with type strain YIM 132087T (=CGMCC 4.7629T =NBRC 114017T), is proposed.
32576Jiang L., An D., Wang X., Zhang K., Li G., Lang L., Wang L., Jiang C. & Jiang Y. (2020): Methylobacterium planium sp. nov., isolated from a lichen sample. - Archives of Microbiology, 202: 1709–1715. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00203-020-01881-4.
A novel bacterial strain, designated YIM 132548 T, was isolated from Lepraria sp. lichen collected from Yunnan province, south-west PR China. The organism was Gram-stain negative, aerobic and methylotrophic. The cell was catalase positive and oxidase negative, asporogenous, rod-shaped and motile with three polar flagella. The strain could grow at 15–30 °C (optimum, 20 °C), at pH 6.0–9.0 (optimum, pH 7.0) and does not grow in the presence of NaCl. According to the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain YIM 132548 T showed high levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Methylobacterium soli YIM 48816 T (97.6%) and Methylobacterium durans NBRC 112876 T (97.3%), less than 97.0% with other validly named type strains of the genus Methylobacterium. Ubiquinone Q-10 was the predominant respiratory ubiquinone. The predominant cellular fatty acid was identified as summed feature 8 ( C18:1ω7c). The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine. The DNA G + C content of the draft genome sequence is 70.2 mol%. The average nucleotide identity and digital DNA–DNA hybridizations values of strain YIM 132548 T with M. soli YIM 48816 T and M. durans NBRC 112876 T were 87.0% and 82.0%, 40.6% and 27.2% based on draft genome sequences, respectively. On the basis of phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic, phenotypic and genomic data, strain YIM 132548 T is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Methylobacterium, for which the name Methylobacterium planium sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM 132548 T (= CGMCC 1.17323 T = NBRC 114056 T). Keywords: Methylobacterium planium · New species · Lepraria sp. lichen.
32575Schellenberg J. & Bergmeier E. (2020): Heathland plant species composition and vegetation structures reflect soil-related paths of development and site history. - Applied Vegetation Science, 23: 386–405. https://doi.org/10.1111/avsc.12489.
Questions: To improve our knowledge on how environmental conditions determine the development of high-value Calluna vulgaris heathland habitats, we studied the floristic and structural characteristics of heathland plant communities across North Germany and how they are influenced by edaphic, climatic and management factors. We ask how heathland development is related to these factors and what are the implications for conservation management and restoration. Location: North German Plain. Methods: We collected 350 relevés in 18 dry Calluna heathland areas. Plant communities were classified using Isopam, and Redundancy Analysis (RDA) determined effects of environmental conditions. Potential pathways of development and the nature conservation status of the communities were identified on a multifactorial basis. Results: We found nine floristically and structurally distinct heathland plant communities. Heathland vegetation showed distinct patterns along Calluna age development stages and environmental conditions. Soil conditions and related effects of long-term site history and recent management turned out to be the predominant factors influencing species composition and diversity, resulting in three potential heathland succession pathways. Mosaic-like communities with particularly high taxonomic diversity and conservation value occurred on early-successional inland dunes or as regeneration stage growing on nutrient-poor sandy soils without humus accumulation. Conclusions: The study reveals fundamental differences between historically farmed heathland in the oceanic Northwest and former military training areas mainly in northeastern Germany with consequences for restoration ecology. Present nature conservation criteria turned out to be insufficient in predicting habitat quality, as lichens are frequently disregarded. Our findings highlight the need for intense soil disturbance to maintain early-stage soil conditions and a diverse Calluna growth-phase composition, as these factors essentially determine species richness in lowland heaths. Keywords: Calluna vulgaris, heath development, heather, heathland, heathland history, historical heathland, lowland heath military training, phytodiversity, succession, vegetation classification, vegetation dynamics.
32574Lee B.G. & Hur J.-S. (2020): A new lichenized fungus, Lecanora baekdudaeganensis, from South Korea, with a taxonomic key for Korean Lecanora species. - MycoKeys, 70: 39–58. https://doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.70.51569.
Lecanora baekdudaeganensis Lee & Hur is described as a new lichenized fungus from Baekdudaegan Mountains, South Korea. The new species is classified into the Lecanora subfusca group – allophana type and distinguishable from Lecanora imshaugii Brodo by a darker thallus, brownish disc, K–insoluble granules on the surface of the epihymenium, shorter hypothecium, and the presence of oil droplets in the apothecial section. Molecular analyses employing internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and mitochondrial small subunit (mtSSU) sequences strongly support Lecanora baekdudaeganensis as a distinct species in the genus Lecanora. A surrogate key is provided to assist in the identification of all 52 taxa in the genus Lecanora of Korea. Keywords: biodiversity, Lecanoraceae, phorophyte, phylogeny, taxonomy.
32573Lücking R., Aime M.C., Robbertse B., Miller A.N., Ariyawansa H.A., Aoki T., Cardinali G., Crous P.W., Druzhinina I.S., Geiser D.M., Hawksworth D.L., Hyde K.D., Irinyi L., Jeewon R., Johnston P.R., Kirk P.M., Malosso E., May T.W., Meyer W., Öpik M., Robert V., Stadler M., Thines M., Vu D., Yurkov A.M., Zhang N. & Schoch C.L. (2020): Unambiguous identification of fungi: where do we stand and how accurate and precise is fungal DNA barcoding?. - IMA Fungus, 11: 14 [32 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s43008-020-00033-z.
True fungi (Fungi) and fungus-like organisms (e.g. Mycetozoa, Oomycota) constitute the second largest group of organisms based on global richness estimates, with around 3 million predicted species. Compared to plants and animals, fungi have simple body plans with often morphologically and ecologically obscure structures. This poses challenges for accurate and precise identifications. Here we provide a conceptual framework for the identification of fungi, encouraging the approach of integrative (polyphasic) taxonomy for species delimitation, i.e. the combination of genealogy (phylogeny), phenotype (including autecology), and reproductive biology (when feasible). This allows objective evaluation of diagnostic characters, either phenotypic or molecular or both. Verification of identifications is crucial but often neglected. Because of clade-specific evolutionary histories, there is currently no single tool for the identification of fungi, although DNA barcoding using the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) remains a first diagnosis, particularly in metabarcoding studies. Secondary DNA barcodes are increasingly implemented for groups where ITS does not provide sufficient precision. Issues of pairwise sequence similarity-based identifications and OTU clustering are discussed, and multiple sequence alignment-based phylogenetic approaches with subsequent verification are recommended as more accurate alternatives. In metabarcoding approaches, the trade-off between speed and accuracy and precision of molecular identifications must be carefully considered. Intragenomic variation of the ITS and other barcoding markers should be properly documented, as phylotype diversity is not necessarily a proxy of species richness. Important strategies to improve molecular identification of fungi are: (1) broadly document intraspecific and intragenomic variation of barcoding markers; (2) substantially expand sequence repositories, focusing on undersampled clades and missing taxa; (3) improve curation of sequence labels in primary repositories and substantially increase the number of sequences based on verified material; (4) link sequence data to digital information of voucher specimens including imagery. In parallel, technological improvements to genome sequencing offer promising alternatives to DNA barcoding in the future. Despite the prevalence of DNA-based fungal taxonomy, phenotype-based approaches remain an important strategy to catalog the global diversity of fungi and establish initial species hypotheses. Keywords: COX1, COX2, Oxford Nanopore technologies, PacBio, RPB2, Read placement, Species concepts, TEF1.
32572Rai H., Khare R., Gupta S., Upreti D.K., Gupta R.K., Behera B.C. & Sharma P.K. (2020): Lichen colonization on unusual man-made substratum in Western Himalaya. - National Academy Science Letters, 43(4): 371–374. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40009-019-00869-z.
The lichens along with their natural substratum colonize a variety of man-made substratum. After about half a century of lichenological research in India, there has been no record of lichen colonization on the man-made artificial substratum. The authors here for the first time report colonization of five species of lichens on three samples from two unusual habitats—iron railway sleepers—Heterodermia galactophylla (Tuck.) W.L. Culb. and abandoned woolen socks—Xanthoparmelia bellatula (Kurok. & Filson) Elix & J. Johnst., Physcia gomukhensis D.D. Awasthi & S.R. Singh, Xanthoparmelia congensis (J. Steiner) Hale and Xanthoria candelaria (L.) Th. Fr. in western Himalaya. Two supplementary tables (S1 and S2) are provided, giving details of collection sites and lichen species identified in each sample. The study revealed the extended geographical distribution of the two lichen species, i.e., Heterodermia galactophylla (Tuck.) W.L. Culb and Physcia gomukhensis D.D. Awasthi & S.R. Singh, highlighting the importance of such studies of unusual habitats in lichen diversity and preparation of their inventories. Keywords: Abandon textile; Endemic; Lichenized fungi; Railway slippers; Western Himalaya.
32571Herzig R., Schindler C., Urech M., Rihm B., Lötscher H. & Thomann G. (2020): Recalibration and validation of the Swiss lichen bioindication methods for air quality assessment. - Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 27: 28795–28810. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09732-x.
The aim of this study was to recalibrate the Swiss lichen bioindication methods, developed and calibrated with air pollution data 30 years ago. Since then, levels of air pollution have considerably decreased, and the mix of pollutants has changed due to successful emission control in Switzerland and neighboring countries. In particular, there has been a change from a sulfur- and acid-dominated to a more nitrogen-dominated pollution mix of NH3/NOx and ozone, resulting in increased pH levels. This allowed a recolonization and change in abundance and composition of the epiphytic lichen vegetation, indicating an improved air quality in Switzerland. The existing indices of atmospheric pollution or purity IAP18 and IAPBR developed 30 years ago showed good longitudinal correlations with air pollutant levels until the end of the last century, but a growing drift was observed in some regions over the last 15 years. This called for a method recalibration with more recent air pollution data. Data from a total of 7178 trees from 22 Swiss regions grouped into 1331 homogenous plots and covering the period 1994 to 2017 were averaged by year within plots. Three pollutant-specific lichen indices were newly established, one for primary pollutants (NO2, PM10, SO2), one for ozone (AOT40f), and one for ammonia (NH3). These pollutant-specific lichen indices were derived from linear regression models with lichen variables and a linear time trend variable as predictors, using time-dependent coefficients. Parameters were selected using the Lasso method. The primary pollutant lichen index showed a coefficient of determination R2 of 0.86 in the model with NO2, PM10, and SO2 as predictor variables, whereas corresponding models with other predictor variables (i.e., NH3, AOT40f, and meteorological variables) were of considerably lower fit. Regionalized lichen models for three larger Swiss regions revealed even better results, compared with the unified Swiss models. The best regionalized ozone and ammonia lichen indices reached an R2 of 0.88 and 0.71, respectively. Keywords: Air pollution . Lichen bioidication . Primary pollutants lichen index . Ozone lichen index . Ammonia lichen index . Index of atmospheric purity (IAP).
32570Amigo J., San Martín C., Ramírez C. & Álvarez M. (2017): Nomenclatural revision and syntaxonomical proposal for wetland peat vegetation in the Valdivian-Magellanian region. - Lazaroa, 38(2): 165–187. http://dx.doi.org/10.5209/LAZA.56343.
Keywords: Argentina; Chile; cushion bogs; Sphagnum bogs; phytosociology; Myrteolo-Sphagnetea; peatlands. Five macrolichen taxa identified and listed from phytosociological relevés (4 Cladonia spp., Thamnolia vermicularis).
32569Урбанавичене И.Н. & Урбанавичюс Г.П. [Urbanavichene I.N. & Urbanavichus G.P.] (2020): Gyalecta ophiospora (Gyalectaceae) - новый вид для лихенофлоры Центральной России (Республика Мордовия) [Gyalecta ophiospora (Gyalectaceae), a new species to the lichen biota of the Central Russia (Republic of Mordovia)]. - Ботанический журнал [Botanicheskii Zhurnal], 105(4): 384–386. .
[in Russian with English summary:] The lichen species Gyalecta ophiospora previously unknown from the Central Russia was found in the Mordovskiy Reserve, Temnikov District, Republic of Mordovia. Data on the habitat, ecology and distribution of the species in Russia and in the world are provided. Keywords: Gyalecta ophiospora, new record, ecology, distribution, Republic of Mordovia, Middle Russia.
32568Макрый Т.В. [Makryi T.V.] (2020): Интересная находка нового для Евразии североамериканского лишайника Placidium californicum (Verrucariaceae) [An interesting finding of a new for Eurasia North American lichen species Placidium californicum (Verrucariaceae)]. - Turczaninowia, 2: 59–63. http://turczaninowia.asu.ru/article/view/8101/6664.
[in Russian with English summary:] The description and location of the new to Eurasia lichen species Placidium californicum Breuss, found in the steppe ecotope in “Orenburgskii” Nature State Reserve (Orenburg Region, Russia) are reported. The species is very much similar to P. squamulosum (Ach.) Breuss, differing from it in subglobose spores with thickened walls, thinner rhizohyphae, 3.5–4.5 μm thick (in P. squamulosum 4.5–6.5 μm thick), and the absent or not clearly developed lower cortex. Based on all the currently known locations, a map of distribution of P. californicum has been compiled. The chorology issues and the ecological features are discussed. The lichen is found in arid and subarid areas of the temperate zone; it inhabits mainly in grassy and shrubby phytocenoses (steppes, prairies, deserts) on mineral (sandy and clay-sandy) substrates enriched with various salts, including carbonate, gypsum-containing and slightly saline soils. Keywords: Europe, lichen, Placidium californicum, Reserve “Orenburgskii”, Russia, steppe.
32567Filippova N., Arefyev S., Zvyagina E., Kapitonov V., Makarova T., Mukhin V., Sedelnikova N., Stavishenko I., Shiryaev A., Tolpysheva T., Ryabitseva N. & Paukov A. (2020): Fungal literature records database of the Northern West Siberia (Russia). - Biodiversity Data Journal, 8: e52963. doi: 10.3897/BDJ.8.e52963 [24 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.8.e52963.
Mycological research in the Northern part of West Siberia has now become sufficient for review and digitisation as over 460 scientific works have been completed mainly since the beginning of the 20th century. The history of research in the region started from isolated studies at the beginning of the 20th century, but regular and systematic research started from the 1970s. Over the following decades, several dozens of researchers have worked in the area, but the reported occurrences were scattered amongst a broad variety of publications, mainly hardly available. The great need in digitisation and accumulation of fungal records reported in published literature in a standardised regional database has now become evident. The «Fungal records database of the Northern West Siberia» (FuNWS) was initiated in 2016 according to contemporary biodiversity data standards (Darwin Core), to be compatible and accessible by the broad research community. The database has been supplemented ever since by the collective effort of specialists working in the area. According to the database summary report, there are 3358 fungal and fungus-like species revealed in the Northern West Siberia at present. The richest in species number classes are Agaricomycetes (60%) and Lecanoromycetes (33%) with a total of 25 classes represented. The FuNWS database was uploaded to Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) (Ygra State University Biological Collection publisher) on 11 November 2017 (earlier titled «Fungal Records Database of Yugra, FReDY») to provide open access to the data and its reusability (Filippova et al. 2020).
32566 Tang R., Yin A.-C. & Zhao Z.-T. (2020): Haematomma rubidum sp. nov. from China. - Mycotaxon, 135(2): 425–429. https://doi.org/10.5248/135.425.
Haematomma rubidum from southern China is described as new species characterized by convex apothecia with thin whitish margins that become hidden in age; submuriform ascospores with 15–21 transverse and 0–3 longitudinal septa; and a thallus containing atranorin and russulone but lacking dibenzofurans or xanthones. Photographs of the new species accompany a detailed taxonomic description. Keywords: East Asia, Haematommataceae, lichenized fungi, taxonomy.
32565Szczepańska K. (2020): Carbonea assimilis and Rinodina aspersa, new to Poland. - Mycotaxon, 135(2): 355–363. https://doi.org/10.5248/135.355.
Two saxicolous species of crustose lichens new to Poland, Carbonea assimilis and Rinodina aspersa, were recorded from the SW part of the country where there is an abundance of different rock formations, including natural outcrops of volcanic rocks. The characteristics of these species, as well as their ecology and geographical distribution, are provided and briefly discussed. Key words: Ascomycota, Lecanoraceae, Physciaceae, taxonomy.
32564Gupta P., Randive P., Nayaka S., Daimari R.. Joseph S. & Janarthanam M.K. (2020): New records of graphidoid and thelotremoid lichens from India. - Mycotaxon, 135(2): 345–354. https://doi.org/10.5248/135.345.
Chapsa cinchonarum, C. farinosa, Diorygma sticticum, Fissurina albocinerea, Graphis bungartzii, G. discarpa, G. nigririmis, Ocellularia alba, Phaeographis pseudostromatica, Sarcographa verrucosa, and Thelotrema crassisporum are described and illustrated as new records for India. Key words: lichenized fungi, Graphidaceae, Ostropales, taxonomy.
32563Selva S.B. & McMullin R.T. (2020): An update of G.K. Merrill’s 1909 “Lichen notes no. 14”. - Mycotaxon, 135(2): 333–337. https://doi.org/10.5248/135.333.
G.K. Merrill proposed three new Calicium taxa that have largely been absent from North American lichen literature since their publication in The Bryologist in 1909. Calicium obscurum [≡ Chaenotheca obscura], which colonizes the basidiocarps of Trichaptum abietinum, predates the use of Chaenotheca balsamconensis. Calicium minutissimum was reintroduced as a member of the North American calicioid biota in 1999. Calicium curtisii var. splendidulum [as "splendidula"] is within the range of morphological variation of Phaeocalicium curtisii and does not warrant varietal status. Key words: Caliciales, Maine, pin fungi, stubble lichens.
32562Kazemi S.S., Mehregan I., Asri Y., Saadatmand S. & Sipman H.J.M. (2020): Four new Lepraria species for Iran, with a key to all Iranian species. - Mycotaxon, 135(2): 235–244. https://doi.org/10.5248/135.235.
Lepraria eburnea, L. ecorticata, L. jackii, and L. leuckertiana, found in deciduous forests in Golestan province, are recorded for the first time from Iran. Descriptions and illustrations of all four species and a key to all Lepraria species known from Iran are provided. Key words: Hyrcanian forest, leprose lichens, sterile lichens.
32561Lutsak T., Fernández-Mendoza F., Kirika P., Wondafrash M. & Printzen C. (2020): Coalescence-based species delimitation using genome-wide data reveals hidden diversity in a cosmopolitan group of lichens. - Organisms Diversity and Evolution, 20: 189–218. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13127-019-00424-0.
Although there is an abundance of species delimitation methods on the market, most approaches depend on predefined assignment of specimens to species or populations. Assignment-free methods, which can simultaneously infer boundaries and relationships among species, are of high importance in cases, when correct pre-assignment is difficult or not at all possible. In this study, we use assignment-free multispecies coalescent-based species delimitation (STACEY, tr2-delimitation, and BP&P), phylogenetic methods, and clustering algorithms to investigate the inter- and infraspecific relationships within a common and widespread group of lichens with contentious species boundaries. The Cetraria aculeata group presents a good example of extreme morphological variability and unclear species delimitation in lichens. Based on DNA-sequence data from 26 fungal loci and 10 microsatellite loci, as well as morphological and chemical data, our results provide evidence for the occurrence of five different taxa within the group and highlight the difficulties of morphologically distinguishing these species. We discovered a separate lineage (clade C) within C. aculeata s. str., which does not fully coincide with any of the a priori identified species C. aculeata, C. crespoae, or C. steppae and conclude that this clade constitutes a semi-cryptic, genetically isolated lineage within C. aculeata.We recognize this lineage at subspecific rank as C. aculeata subsp. steppae and synonymize Cetraria crespoae with C. aculeata subsp. aculeata. Epitypes are designated for all involved names to stabilize their usage. The PKS8 gene locus is recommended as a barcode for the separation of C. aculeata subsp. aculeata and subsp. steppae. We demonstrate the potential use of microsatellite data for species delimitation in lichens that might offer an alternative insight or be used to test species delimitation hypotheses, when dealing with closely related or potentially cryptic species. Our results also confirm the presence of an undescribed sister lineage to C. odontella previously misidentified as C. muricata and extend the known range of this lineage to Central Asia (Altay Mts.) and the Central European Alps (France, Switzerland), which calls for a critical reappraisal of records of C. aculeata and C. muricata from these mountain ranges. Keywords: Cetraria . Coalescent . Lichens . Phylogenomics . Species delimitation . Cryptic species . Microsatellites.
32560Lendemer J.C. & Allen J.L. (2020): A revision of Hypotrachyna subgenus Parmelinopsis (Parmeliaceae) in eastern North America. - Bryologist, 123(2): 265–332. DOI: 10.1639/0007-2745-123.2.265.
A taxonomic revision of Hypotrachyna subgenus Parmelinopsis in eastern North America is presented based on molecular phylogenetic analyses of ITS and mtSSU data, extensive field observation and analyses of chemical and morphological data. Each species is described, illustrated with photographs, and the distribution in the region is mapped. An identification key is also presented. Eleven species are recognized: H. afrorevoluta, H. appalachensis, H. britannica, H. cryptochlora, H. horrescens, H. kauffmaniana, H. minarum, H. mcmulliniana, H. revoluta, H. showmanii and H. spumosa. Extensive discussion of prior studies is provided, particularly with respect to the delimitation of H. afrorevoluta and H. revoluta. Hypotrachyna kauffmaniana is described from the central and southern Appalachian Mountains and separated from H. afrorevoluta and H. revoluta by its ascending secondary lobes and pustulose soralia that are primarily confined to the secondary lobes. Hypotrachyna horrescens is shown to correspond to a taxon with narrow lobed, small thalli with ciliate isidia. Hypotrachyna mcmulliniana is described from material collected throughout southeastern North America that is chemically identical to H. horrescens but differs in having larger thalli and sparsely ciliate isidia. Hypotrachyna appalachensis is described to accommodate material previously referred to H. minarum but that differs in the production of 4,5-di-O-methylhiascic acid in high concentrations (vs. absent or present as a trace in H. minarum). Hypotrachyna britannica is reported for the first time from North America. Keywords: Appalachian Mountains, biogeography, chemistry, Coastal Plain, lichen substances, monograph, pustules, soredia.
32559Ahti T. (1983): Lichens. – In: South, G. R. (ed.), Biogeography and ecology of the island of Newfoundland. - The Hague: Dr. W. Junk Publishers, pp. 319–360. .
Lichens represent a conspicuous element among the natural biota of Newfoundland. Collections and notes on lichens of the island were made by the early naturalists like Joseph Banks in 1766 (Lysaght 1971) and A.-J.-M. Bachelot de la Pylaie in 1816-17 and 1819-20 (De la Pylaie 1826; Arnold 1896a; South 1970). In those times lichens were included in algae or mosses or regarded as an independent class of plants. At the end of last century and in the beginning of this century lichens were normally referred to as a special group of ‘double organisms’, which are composed of fungi and algae. Nowadays all lichens are definitely classified as fungi, chiefly such cup-fungi or ascomycetes that live in close, obligatory (rarely facultative) association with green or blue-green algae. The association is usually called symbiotic, but it may also approach a real parasitic mode of life. In any case, the lichenforming fungi thus gain the ability to live as essentially autotrophic organisms even in very extreme terrestrial conditions. Lichens are the only group of the Kingdom of Fungi that are given a special treatise in this book, an indication that the occurrence of the rest of the fungi in Newfoundland is more poorly known than that of lichens. Yet even the composition of the lichen flora of Newfoundland is still quite incompletely known, and data on the distribution and ecology of the species are often virtually lacking. My present contribution is essentially based on one summer’s (1956) field work in Newfoundland - in connection of a caribou range survey there - supplemented by brief visits to the island in 1977 and 1978. A short historical review of the exploration of the Newfoundland lichen flora has been published earlier (Ahti 1974)
32558McMullin R.T., McCune B. & Lendemer J.C. (2020): Bacidia gigantensis (Ramalinaceae), a new species with homosekikaic acid from the north shore of Lake Superior in Ontario, Canada. - Bryologist, 123(2): 215–224. DOI: 10.1639/0007-2745-123.2.215.
Bacidia gigantensis, a green to greenish-brown, sorediate, crustose to microsquamulose lichen is described as new to science. It is corticolous on mature Thuja occidentalis trees throughout Sleeping Giant Provincial Park on the Sibley Peninsula along the north shore of Lake Superior, Ontario. The species is unusual within Bacidia due to the production of asexual propagules and homosekikaic acid. Placement in Bacidia is based on the characters of the sexual reproductive structures (biatorine apothecia with a true exciple, Bacidia-type asci, and sigmoid, acicular, ascospores), ITS sequence data and molecular phylogenetic analyses of mtSSU sequence data. The latter also inferred a relationship to Bacidiopsora, a tropical genus that has been proposed for synonymy with Bacidia and includes other species with similar chemistries. Keywords: Biodiversity, boreal forest, Boundary Waters, endemism, Great Lakes Region, Ontario Parks, Tuckerman Workshop.
32557Lendemer J.C. (2020): Recent literature on lichens—257. - Bryologist, 123(2): 363–376. DOI: 10.1639/0007-2745-123.2.363.
32556Stone D., Gordon M. & McCune B. (2020): Pseudocyphellaria holarctica (Lobariaceae) specimens from Oregon are referable to P. hawaiiensis. - Bryologist, 123(2): 260–264. DOI: 10.1639/0007-2745-123.2.260.
Pseudocyphellaria holarctica McCune, Lücking & Moncada was recently described as having a North American and Russian Far East distribution, based on specimens collected from eastern Asia, Alaska and Oregon. However, the single sequence representing a collection from Oregon in this study actually was from a specimen collected in Alaska. To clarify the range of this species we obtained ITS sequences for all specimens identified as P. holarctica from Oregon examined in the original study, as well as 23 putative P. hawaiiensis collections from Oregon. Analysis of ITS regions of these specimens indicated that all were assignable to P. hawaiiensis rather than to P. holarctica. No specimens of P. holarctica are known from Oregon, California or Washington. Keywords: Pseudocyphellaria crocata group, P. hawaiiensis, lichen systematics, Alaska.
32555Gockman O., Selva S.B. & McMullin R.T. (2020): Calicioid lichens and fungi of Minnesota, U.S.A.: Including two new species, Chaenothecopsis jordaniana and C. penningtonensis (Mycocaliciaceae). - Bryologist, 123(2): 235–259. DOI: 10.1639/0007-2745-123.2.235.
Sixty-four species of calicioid lichens and fungi are reported from the state of Minnesota, which is located in the upper Midwest of the United States. Chaenothecopsis jordaniana and C. penningtonensis are new to science, Calicium denigratum is reported for the first time from the United States, and an additional 23 species are reported for the first time from the state. As the first comprehensive calicioid flora from the central part of North America, significant range extensions are also reported for eight species that were previously only known from eastern or western states and provinces. Information on previously published works and locations, community preferences and habitat ecology are provided for each species, as is an identification key to all species. Keywords: Biodiversity, habitat ecology, identification key, Midwestern taxa, taxonomy.
32554Hoffman J.R. & Lendemer J.C. (2020): Caloplaca edwardiana (Teloschistaceae, lichenized Ascomycetes), a new crustose species from the southern Appalachian Mountains of eastern North America. - Bryologist, 123(2): 225–234. DOI: 10.1639/0007-2745-123.2.225.
Caloplaca edwardiana is described as new to science from collections made on calcareous rock outcrops in the southern Appalachian Mountains of eastern North America (Alabama, Georgia and Tennessee). The species appears to be rare and locally endemic, currently only known from five locations. As an endolithic species without anthraquinones, C. edwardiana likely belongs within the Caloplaca subgroup Pyrenodesmia. Keywords: Biogeography, biodiversity hotspot, Caloplaca oblongula, C. alociza, calciphiles, dolomite.
32553Dřevojan P., Hájková P., Hradílek Z., Kosorínová M., Lukáč M. & Palice Z. (2020): Zajímavé bryoforistické nálezy XXXIII [Interesting bryofloristic records, XXXIII]. - Bryonora, 65: 28–31. .
[in Czech] A note on fertile specimen of Phlyctis argena as an associate lichen in the comment under the liverwort Frullania fragilifolia.
32552Aleksanyan A., Biurrun I., Belonovskaya E., Cykowska-Marzencka B., Berastegi A., Hilpold A., Kirschner P., Mayrhofer H., Shyriaieva D., Vynokurov D., Becker T., Becker U., Dembicz I., Fayvush G., Frank D., Magnes M., García-Mijangos I., Oganesian M., Palpurina S., Ünal A., Vasheniak Yu. & Dengler J. (2020): Biodiversity of dry grasslands in Armenia: First results from the 13th EDGG Field Workshop in Armenia. - Palaearctic Grasslands, 46: 12–51. DOI: 10.21570/EDGG.PG.46.12-51.
The 13th EDGG Field Workshop was conducted from the 26 June to 6 July 2019 in Armenia. The Field Workshop had two main aims: (a) to analyse the biodiversity patterns of the Armenian grasslands across multiple taxonomic groups and grain sizes, and (b) to study the syntaxonomic position of these grasslands in a general European context. We conducted our sampling in 16 sites that ensured good geographical coverage across the country. In total, we sampled 29 EDGG Biodiversity Plots (nested-plot series of 0.0001 to 100 m²) and 53 additional 10-m2 plots. Data of orthopteroid insects (Orthoptera and Mantodea) were recorded in 42 100-m² plots. We found mean total species richness values of the vegetation of 7.5 species in 0.01 m², 31.9 species in 1 m² and 51.3 species in 10 m². The richest grasslands for vascular plants were meso-xeric grasslands with up to 35 species in 0.1 m² and 80 in 10 m². Maximum orthopteroid rich-ness in 100 m² was 14. Syntaxonomically, the majority of stands appear to belong to the class Festuco-Brometea, with the orders Brachy-podietalia pinnati (meso-xeric), Festucetalia valesiacae (xeric, non-rocky) and an unknown order of rocky dry grasslands. By contrast, the thorn-cushion communities (probably Onobrychidetea cornutae), the scree communities and the dry grasslands of lower elevations rich in annuals and chamaephytes (probably largely Astragalo-Brometea), do not fit to any vegetation class described in Europe. We found two species new to Armenia – the moss Syntrichia papillosissima and the lichen Aspicilia hispida. Our data demonstrate that Armenia is one of the Palaearctic hotspots of fine grain plant diversity. Both diversity patterns and syntaxonomy warrant in-depth studies, which are now possible with our comprehensive dataset. Keywords: Armenia; biodiversity; bryophyte, dry grassland; lichen; Mantodea; nested plot; Orthoptera; species richness; syntaxonomy; vascular plant.
32551Piepenbring M., Maciá-Vicente J.G., Codjia J.E.I., Glatthorn C., Kirk P., Meswaet Y., Minter D., Olou B.A., Reschke K., Schmidt M. & Yorou N.S. (2020): Mapping mycological ignorance – checklists and diversity patterns of fungi known for West Africa. - IMA Fungus, 11: 13 [22 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s43008-020-00034-y.
Scientific information about biodiversity distribution is indispensable for nature conservation and sustainable management of natural resources. For several groups of animals and plants, such data are available, but for fungi, especially in tropical regions like West Africa, they are mostly missing. Here, information for West African countries about species diversity of fungi and fungus-like organisms (other organisms traditionally studied by mycologists) is compiled from literature and analysed in its historical context for the first time. More than 16,000 records of fungi representing 4843 species and infraspecific taxa were found in 860 publications relating to West Africa. Records from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) database (2395 species), and that of the former International Mycological Institute fungal reference collection (IMI) (2526 species) were also considered. The compilation based on literature is more comprehensive than the GBIF and IMI data, although they include 914 and 679 species names, respectively, which are not present in the checklist based on literature. According to data available in literature, knowledge on fungal richness ranges from 19 species (Guinea Bissau) to 1595 (Sierra Leone). In estimating existing species diversity, richness estimators and the Hawksworth 6:1 fungus to plant species ratio were used. Based on the Hawksworth ratio, known fungal diversity in West Africa represents 11.4% of the expected diversity. For six West African countries, however, known fungal species diversity is less than 2%. Incomplete knowledge of fungal diversity is also evident by species accumulation curves not reaching saturation, by 45.3% of the fungal species in the checklist being cited only once for West Africa, and by 66.5% of the fungal species in the checklist reported only for a single country. The documentation of different systematic groups of fungi is very heterogeneous because historically investigations have been sporadic. Recent opportunistic sampling activities in Benin showed that it is not difficult to find specimens representing new country records. Investigation of fungi in West Africa started just over two centuries ago and it is still in an early pioneer phase. To promote proper exploration, the present checklist is provided as a tool to facilitate fungal identification in this region and to aid conceptualisation and justification of future research projects. Documentation of fungal diversity is urgently needed because natural habitats are being lost on a large scale through altered land use and climate change. Keywords: Benin, Countries of West Africa, Fungal diversity, Fungal ecology, History of mycology, Lichens, Phytopathology, No new taxa.
32550Wijayawardene N.N., Hyde K.D., Al-Ani L.K.T., Tedersoo L., Haelewaters D., Rajeshkumar K.C., Zhao R.L., Aptroot A., Leontyev D.V., Saxena R.K., Tokarev Y.S., Dai D.Q., Letcher P.M., Stephenson S.L., Ertz D., Lumbsch H.T., Kukwa M., Issi I.V., Madrid H., Phillips A.J.L., Selbmann L., Pfliegler W.P., Horváth E., Bensch K., Kirk P.M., Kolaříková K., Raja H.A., Radek R., Papp V., Dima V., Ma J, Malosso E., Takamatsu S., Rambold G., Gannibal P.B., Triebel D., Gautam A.K., Avasthi S., Suetrong S., Timdal E., Fryar S.C., Delgado G., Réblová M., Doilom M., Dolatabadi S., Pawłowska J., Humber R.A., Kodsueb R., Sánchez-Castro I., Goto B.T., Silva D.K.A., de Souza F.A., Oehl F., da Silva G.A., Silva I.R., Błaszkowski J., Jobim K., Maia L.C., Barbosa F.R., Fiuza P.O., Divakar P.K., Shenoy B.D., Castañeda-Ruiz R.F., Somrithipol S., Lateef A.A., Karunarathna S.C., Tibpromma S., Mortimer P.E., Wanasinghe D.N., Phookamsak R., Xu J., Wang Y., Tian F., Alvarado P., Li D.W., Kušan I., Matočec N., Maharachchikumbura S.S.N., Papizadeh M., Heredia G., Wartchow F., Bakhshi M., Boehm E., Youssef N., Hustad V.P., Lawrey J.D.,Santiago A.L.C.M.A., Bezerra J.D.P., Souza-Motta C.M., Firmino A.L., Tian Q., Houbraken J., Hongsanan S., Tanaka K., Dissanayake A.J., Monteiro J.S., Grossart H.P., Suija A., Weerakoon G., Etayo J., Tsurykau A., Vázquez V., Mungai P., Damm U., Li Q.R., Zhang H., Boonmee S., Lu Y.Z., Becerra A.G., Kendrick B., Brearley F.Q., Motiejūnaitė J., Sharma B., Khare R., Gaikwad S., Wijesundara D.S.A., Tang L.Z., He M.Q., Flakus A, Rodriguez-Flakus P., Zhurbenko M.P., McKenzie E.H.C., Stadler M., Bhat D.J., Liu J.K., Raza M., Jeewon R., Nassonova E.S., Prieto M., Jayalal R.G.U., Erdoğdu M., Yurkov A., Schnittler M., Shchepin O.N., Novozhilov Y.K., Silva-Filho A.G.S., Liu P., Cavender J.C., Kang Y., Mohammad S., Zhang L.F., Xu R.F., Li Y.M., Dayarathne M.C., Ekanayaka A.H., Wen T.C., Deng C.Y., Pereira O.L., Navathe S., Hawksworth D.L., Fan X.L., Dissanayake L.S., Kuhnert E., Grossart H.P. & Thines M. (2020): 2020 – Outline of Fungi and fungus-like taxa. - Mycosphere, 11(1): 1060–1456. Doi 10.5943/mycosphere/11/1/8.
This article provides an outline of the classification of the kingdom Fungi (including fossil fungi. i.e. dispersed spores, mycelia, sporophores, mycorrhizas). We treat 19 phyla of fungi. These are Aphelidiomycota, Ascomycota, Basidiobolomycota, Basidiomycota, Blastocladiomycota, Calcarisporiellomycota, Caulochytriomycota, Chytridiomycota, Entomophthoromycota, Entorrhizomycota, Glomeromycota, Kickxellomycota, Monoblepharomycota, Mortierellomycota, Mucoromycota, Neocallimastigomycota, Olpidiomycota, Rozellomycota and Zoopagomycota. The placement of all fungal genera is provided at the class-, order- and family-level. The described number of species per genus is also given. Notes are provided of taxa for which recent changes or disagreements have been presented. Fungus-like taxa that were traditionally treated as fungi are also incorporated in this outline (i.e. Eumycetozoa, Dictyosteliomycetes, Ceratiomyxomycetes and Myxomycetes). Four new taxa are introduced: Amblyosporida ord. nov. Neopereziida ord. nov. and Ovavesiculida ord. nov. in Rozellomycota, and Protosporangiaceae fam. nov. in Dictyosteliomycetes. Two different classifications (in outline section and in discussion) are provided for Glomeromycota and Leotiomycetes based on recent studies. The phylogenetic reconstruction of a four-gene dataset (18S and 28S rRNA, RPB1, RPB2) of 433 taxa is presented, including all currently described orders of fungi. Keywords – Four new taxa – Ascomycota – Amblyosporida ord. nov. – Basal clades – Basidiomycota – Classification – Emendation – Microsporidia – Neopereziida ord. nov. – Ovavesiculida ord. nov. – Protosporangiaceae fam. nov. – Redonographaceae stat nov.
32549Nayaka S., Joseph S., Ngangom R., Tilotama K. & Arnold P.K. (2020): Preliminary studies on the lichens growing in FEEDS campus and SB garden in Manipur, India. - Studies in Fungi, 5(1): 392–399. Doi 10.5943/sif/5/1/20.
In our continuous effort to explore the lichens in new and interesting areas FEEDS campus and SBG garden located in Manipur, a north-eastern state of India are surveyed. The study resulted in 47 species in FEEDS campus and 80 species in SB garden respectively, while both areas shared 22 species in common. The crustose lichens were more dominant in the area represented by Graphidaceae (16 spp.) and Pyrenulaceae (15 spp.). The species composition in both the sites represented photophilic communities such as graphidaceous, physcioid and parmelioid lichens. FEEDS campus had open areas with cultivated plants where as SBG garden had semi-evergreen forest at its initial stage of succession. The study also added 55 lichen species as new distributional records to Manipur. Key words – Biodiversity – Lichenized fungi – Mycobiota – North-east India – Taxonomy.
32548Tufan-Cetin O. (2020): Determination of compositional differences of lichens on Pinus brutia in different environmental conditions. - Journal of Environmental Biology, 41: 735–744. http://doi.org/10.22438/jeb/41/4/MRN-1301.
Epiphytic lichens are biological indicators, which can give information about the environmental changes of the ecosystem. The differences in richness and community compositions of lichens can indicate the environmental quality of their location. This study was done in order to examine the possible differences in richness and in community composition of lichens that may have occurred in the research area, Kurşunlu Waterfall Nature Park and surroundings. Kurşunlu Waterfall Nature Park and surroundings was divided into 4 sections; natural area near brook, natural pine forest area, planted pine forest area and agricultural greenhouses area. The study was planned to focus on epiphytic lichens living on Pinus brutia Ten. trees. European Guideline, which is a standardized method to assess lichen diversity (LDV) on tree bark for monitoring environmental stress, was used for monitoring quality of four different environmental conditions with lichens. In order to determine the differences of lichen community composition of these four conditions, some statistical analyses were performed. Lichen richness of planted pine forest area was found poorer and statistically different than the other areas. In addition, the lichen community composition of natural pine forest area was found significantly different than the agricultural greenhouse area and the natural area near brook, partly different than the planted pine forest area. Statistical evaluations indicate that the natural pine forest area had natural or semi-natural habitat characteristics and there was no or less eutrophication in this region. Also it showed that other areas were affected by the presence of human damage and eutrophic pollution load in the environment. This eutrophic pollution load was related to non-ecological agriculture applications around the park. This study proves that epiphytic lichens change their community composition by adapting to changes in environmental conditions. Also this study showed that lichens are strong indicators of environmental quality. Keywords: Antalya, Diversity, Lichenized Fungi, Lichens, Pinus brutia, Turkey.
32547Sujetovienė G., Gasauskaitė K. & Žaltauskaitė J. (2019): Toxicity of a phenoxy herbicide on the lichen Ramalina fraxinea. - Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry, 101: 457–507. https://doi.org/10.1080/02772248.2020.1747466.
2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid has been widely used as herbicide in the United States and Europe. This study aims to quantify its effects at concentrations of 0–100 mg/L for up to 48 h on the physiological status of the lichen Ramalina fraxinea. 2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid exposure induced a reduction in the maximum capacity of PSII, in chlorophyll content along with chlorophyll degradation, and in adverse effects on cell membrane integrity, and induced oxidative stress in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Keywords: Lichen, MCPA, oxidative stress, photosynthesis.
32546Marshall A.J., Blanchon D.J., Lücking R., de Lange T.J.P. & de Lange P.J. (2020): A new Ocellularia (lichenized Ascomycota: Graphidaceae) from New Zealand indicates small-scale differentiation of an Australasian species complex. - New Zealand Journal of Botany, 58(3): 223–235. https://doi.org/10.1080/0028825X.2019.1701504.
Ocellularia (Graphidaceae) is a genus of crustose lichens comprising c.200 species, four known from Australia and New Zealand. Based on recent collections from northern North Island, we describe a fifth species Ocellularia jacinda-arderniae, which is a member of the O. bicuspidata complex. This complex is characterised by peculiar, appendiculate ascospores and a psoromic acid chemistry. Two further undescribed species of this complex, one from North Island and one from South Island, are discussed but left undescribed pending further study. Based on our findings, we provide a revised assessment of New Zealand Ocellularia. Of the four species included in the most recent Flora of New Zealand Lichens from 2007, three do not belong in that genus and the identification of the fourth is incorrect; instead, the following four taxa are recognised: O. jacinda-arderniae, O. aff. dolichotata, O. aff. bicuspidata (a) (South Island; OTA 58820) and O. aff. bicuspidata (b) (North Island; UNITEC 10818). This leads to the somewhat unusual situation that a presumably known genus biota in New Zealand is entirely replaced by names of a new species and three provisional identifications. The following new combination is introduced: Schizotrema concentricum (Stirt.) Lücking comb. nov. In addition, the name Thelotrema manosporum (C. Knight.) Hellb. is given as the correct name for the New Zealand taxon previously identified as T. monosporum Nyl., and the name T. monosporoides Nyl. [syn.: O. monosporoides (Nyl.) Hale] is established as a taxonomic synonym of T. manosporum, leaving two New Zealand species of Thelotrema with large, brown ascospores, namely T. manosporum and T. saxatile C. Knight. The situation of the genus Ocellularia highlights the need for detailed taxonomic revision of understudied lichen groups in New Zealand, especially as these and related genera in the Graphidaceae are excellent indicators of forest health and can be used for monitoring purposes. Keywords: Ocellularia , Thelotrema , Ocellularia jacinda-arderniae , new species, lichen taxonomy, New Zealand mycobiota.
32545Salehi S., Mielke C. & Rogass C. (2020): Mapping ultramafic complexes using airborne imaging spectroscopy and spaceborne data in Arctic regions with abundant lichen cover, a case study from the Niaqornarssuit complex in South West Greenland. - European Journal of Remote Sensing, 53(1): 156–175. https://doi.org/10.1080/22797254.2020.1760733.
This study investigates the usage of HyMAP airborne hyperspectral and Sentinel-2, ASTER and Landsat-8 OLI spaceborne multispectral data for detailed mapping of mineral resources in the Arctic. The EnMAP Geological Mapper (EnGeoMAP) and Iterative Spectral Mixture Analysis (ISMA) approaches are tested for mapping of mafic-ultramafic rocks in areas covered by abundant lichen. Using the Structural Similarity Index Measure (SSIM), the output classification results from airborne data are quantitatively compared to the available geological map and to the HyMAP reference data in case of using spaceborne dataset. Results demonstrate the capability of both airborne and spaceborne data to provide large-scale reconnaissance mapping of geologic materials over vast arctic regions where field access is limited. The distributions of three ultramafic units (dunite, peridotite, pyroxenite) and one mafic unit (gabbro) are mapped based on analyzing specific visible and near-infrared and short-wave-infrared spectral features. The extent of peridotite and dunite units mapped using both approaches is consistent with geological map, whereas pyroxenite abundance maps show different patterns in their distribution as compared to the geological map. The results suggest that EnGeoMAP method has a better performance than ISMA method for mapping the dunite unit, whilst ISMA performs better for mapping peridotite and pyroxenite rocks. Keywords: Spectroscopy, mineral mapping, lichen, unmixing, ultramafic, arctic, non-invasive.