30191Yuan W.-H., Teng M.-T., Sun S.-S., Ma L., Yuan B., Ren Q. & Zhang P. (2018): Active metabolites from endolichenic fungus Talaromyces sp.. - Chemistry and Biodiversity, 15: e1800371 [6 p.].
The active metabolites investigation of Talaromyces sp. (strain No. MH551540) associated with Xanthoparmelia angustiphylla afforded one new δ-lactone, talaromycin A (1), together with six known compounds, clearanol A (2), 6-methylbiphenyl-3,3’,4,5’-tetraol (3), desmethylaltenusin (4), ergone (5), ergosterol (6), and palmitic acid (7). The structures of these compounds were elucidated by a combination of spectroscopic-data interpretation and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The cytotoxicities of 1–7 and the antioxidant activities of 3 and 4 were also evaluated. Keywords: Talaromyces, endolichenic fungus, metabolites, talaromycin A, biological activity, cytotoxicity, antioxidant activity.
30190Kováčik J., Dresler S., Micalizzi G., Babula P. & Hladký J. (2019): Nitric oxide affects cadmium-induced changes in the lichen Ramalina farinacea. - Nitric Oxide, 83: 11–18.
Metabolic responses of epiphytic lichen Ramalina farinacea to cadmium (Cd) and/or nitric oxide (NO) scavenger (cPTIO) were studied. Accumulation of Cd and other metallic nutrients was not affected by cPTIO while total and absorbed amounts differed. Cd-induced NO formation was suppressed by cPTIO but ROS signal was synergistically enhanced, confirming that NO is essential to keep ROS under control. This excessive ROS generation could be a reason for depleted amount of all fatty acids, including SFAs, MUFAs and PUFAs. Total content of fatty acids reached 3.89 mg/g DW in control with linoleic (40%), palmitic (24%), oleic (12.8%) and stearic (8%) acids as major compounds: interestingly, shift in relative ratio of saturated (from 40 to 35% of total FAs) versus polyunsaturated fatty acids (from 42 to 48% of total FAs) was observed. Glutathione was suppressed by all treatments but Krebs acids were almost unaffected by cPTIO, indicating no regulatory role of NO in their accumulation. On the contrary, Cd-induced elevation in NO signal was related to increase in ascorbate and proline content while cPTIO suppressed it, indicating a tight relation between NO and these metabolites. Data are compared also with algae and vascular plants to show similarities between various life lineages. Keywords: Antioxidants; Fluorescence microscopy; Heavy metals; Oxidative stress; Photobiont; Polyunsaturated fatty acids.
30189Russell K.L.M. & Johnson C.J. (2019): Post-fire dynamics of terrestrial lichens: Implications for the recovery of woodland caribou winter range. - Forest Ecology and Management, 434: 1–17.
Forest fires are the most dominant natural disturbance process influencing the habitat and distribution of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) in winter. This is a function of terrestrial lichens, the primary winter forage of caribou, taking decades to recover following fire. Working across the range of the Klaza caribou herd in the west-central Yukon, Canada, we used statistical count models to evaluate variation in lichen volume and percent cover among burns of different age classes. Burns of the same age had considerable variation in lichen abundance. Forage lichens were more abundant in coniferous stands with greater canopy openness, tree height, and basal area. Although not a significant parameter in models of volume or percent cover of lichen, time since burn improved model performance. Relative to thresholds in the published literature, most stands had sufficient lichen at 50 years post fire to be considered winter range for caribou. The relationship between caribou and burned landscapes is complex suggesting that wildlife and forest managers should look beyond burn age when accounting for the effects of fire on the availability and quality of winter habitat for woodland caribou. Keywords: Boreal forest; Disturbance; Fire; Lichen; Rangifer tarandus caribou; Woodland caribou; Yukon.
30188Rodriguez J.M., Passo A. & Chiapella J.O. (2018): Lichen species assemblage gradient in South Shetlands Islands, Antarctica: relationship to deglaciation and microsite conditions. - Polar Biology, 41: 2523–2531.
The glacier retreat in the Antarctic Peninsula is opening new ice-free areas and providing an excellent opportunity to study successional processes. Antarctic terrestrial ecosystems have the particular characteristic of being dominated almost exclusively by lichens and mosses. The aim of the present study was to analyze the diversity, cover and composition of a lichen community on a deglaciated gradient on Potter Peninsula, King George Island (maritime Antarctica), and to investigate how microsite variables influence these patterns. Total lichen cover, species richness, and the frequency and cover of lichens species were measured in five 50 × 50 cm grids in 24 sites covering the whole Peninsula from the coast to the glacier front. Microsite conditions were also registered: slope, aspect, and proportion of different substrates (rocks, soil or bryophytes). We recorded a highly diverse and complex lichen community arranged in three assemblages of species. The lichen communities showed clear variations along the studied gradient, related to the distance to the glacier, the slope, the type of substrate, and the interaction between them. We consider that the patterns of these Antarctic lichen communities are dynamic and very heterogeneous, since they depend on macroclimatic variables but there is also a strong influence of microsite factors. Keywords Antarctica · Glacier retreat · Lichens · Ecology · Microsite variables · Terrestrial communities.
30187Petrzik K., Koloniuk I., Sarkisová T. & Číhal L. (2016): Detection of herbaceous-plant pararetrovirus in lichen herbarium samples. - Acta virologica, 60: 196–200.
Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) – a plant pararetrovirus that naturally causes diseases in Brassicaceae and Solanaceae plant hosts worldwide – has been detected by PCR for the first time in herbarium samples of Usnea sp. lichens. The virus's presence in these lichens did not result in any micro- or macromorphological changes, and the herbarium records were classified as representative for the distinct species. Sequence analyses classified all the detected viruses into one lineage of CaMV isolates. We have shown here that herbarium samples could be a good source for virus study, especially where a longer time span is involved. Keywords: cauliflower mosaic virus; dsDNA; pararetrovirus; persistent virus.
30186Rasmussen H., Nord-Larsen T., Hansen E. & Hoareau G. (2018): Estimation of life history in corticolous lichens by zonation. - Lichenologist, 50(6): 697-704.
Trees store a record of past events in their long-lasting woody structures. Stem age in a given crown position at a given time can be determined by counting the xylem growth rings, provided growth is seasonal. Physical distance from the top may serve as a proxy for time, the oldest part of the tree being located at ground level. These time records may be used for evaluating the typical lifespan and growth rates of an epiphyte such as a cortico- lous lichen thallus, which clearly cannot be older than the tree part it has colonized. This source of information on lichen life history seems to have been overlooked. In this com- munication we offer an example of its possi- bilities in a pilot study of age-determined bark. On living trees, corticolous lichens need to acclimate to the growth of their substratum. A live bark surface is a much more dynamic substratum than dead trunks or processed wooden surfaces that lichens may also colo- nize. The bark is subject to tangential stretching because of stem thickening growth, and bark texture and chemistry change with age in a manner that is specific to the tree species. Furthermore, primary shoot growth means that the tree’s crown periphery expands with each annual growth cycle. An epiphyte, such as a corticolous lichen, settled on the stem or on a limb, will thus be influenced not only by the changing features of an expanding and aging bark but also by the year to year increase in distance to the outer foliage layer, making its microsite gradually more shaded and sheltered (Rasmussen & Rasmussen 2018). Meanwhile, its physical distance from the ground is unaltered, so that an observer from below may tend to ignore the changes that take place. Ideally, this dynamic should be kept in mind when the distribution of cor- ticolous lichens is under study.
30185Shivarov V. V., Denchev C. M. & Thüs H. (2018): Ecology and distribution of Dermatocarpon (Verrucariaceae, Ascomycota) in the catchment areas of two Bulgarian rivers. - Lichenologist, 50(6): 679–690.
Temperature preferences and small-scale distribution patterns of four Dermatocarpon taxa in the catchment areas of two Bulgarian rivers were analyzed. Taxa with an overall alpine or arctic-alpine distribution were restricted to microhabitats with the lowest water and rock surface temperatures. A trend for increasing Dermatocarpon rivulorum thallus diameter and colony size (aggregates of thalli) with decreasing temperature was identified. Data on pH and conductivity of the water for the study sites are provided for all taxa. Dermatocarpon arnoldianum is reported for the first time from Bulgaria, confirmed by ITS sequence data, and its known range extends to South-East Europe. All previous records of D. rivulorum from Bulgaria were based on misidentified specimens of D. arnoldianum. Freshwater taxa of Dermatocarpon are proposed as a tool for monitoring the biological effects of temperature changes due to global climate change. Thallus and colony size are recommended as additional features for monitoring populations of threatened Dermatocarpon species. DNA barcoding, freshwater habitats, global warming, lichen-forming fungi, temperature variation, Verrucariales
30184Joshi S., Upreti D., Divakar P., Lumbsch H. & Lücking R. (2018): A re-evaluation of thelotremoid Graphidaceae (lichenized Ascomycota: Ostropales) in India. - Lichenologist, 50(6): 627-678.
An account of thelotremoid species of Graphidaceae in India is provided, which includes 124 species in 24 genera. Ocellularia and Thelotrema are the most diverse genera represented by 34 and 18 species, respectively. Type specimens were re-examined and additional samples studied morphologically and chemically. One new species, Ocellularia upretii S. Joshi, Divakar, Lumbsch & Lücking, is described; it is characterized by a greyish green thallus, porinoid ascomata, brown proper exciple, simple, carbonized columella, clear hymenium, transversely septate, amyloid ascospores of 110–125×15–20μm and an absence of secondary metabolites. Asteristion australianum, Astrochapsa mirabilis, Cruentotrema cruentatum, C. kurandense, Ocellularia violacea and Thelotrema adjectum are reported as new to the country, and Astrochapsa mirabilis, Melanotrema submicrosporoides, Ocellularia annuloelevata, O. subkeralensis and Rhabdodiscus verrucoisidiatus are proposed as new combinations. Diploschistes awasthii, Ocellularia gupeti, O. leucina, O. mahabalei, Thelotrema confertum and T. verrucorugosum are synonymized under D. scruposus, O. neomasonhalei, O. urceolaris, O. thelotremoides, Chapsa leprocarpoides and T. rugatulum, respectively, with Ocellularia canariana and O. verrucomarginata reduced to synonymy with O. allosporoides. Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Eastern Himalaya, keys, rainforest, Western Ghats
30183Gerasimova J., Ezhkin A. & Beck A. (2018): Four new species of Bacidia s.s. (Ramalinaceae, Lecanorales) in the Russian Far East. - Lichenologist, 50(6): 603-625.
The molecular phylogeny of Bacidia s.s. in the Russian Far East was investigated using 62 nucleotide sequences from the ITS nrDNA region, 22 of which were newly obtained. Phylogenetic reconstructions employed Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood searches using MrBayes and RAxML. In addition, ITS2 secondary structures added further support using Compensatory Base Changes. As a result of morphological and phylogenetic studies, four new species of Bacidia are described. Bacidia areolata sp. nov. belongs to the suffusa group. It was collected once in Khabarovskiy Krai, the Russian Far East, on the bark of Acer tegmentosum and is closely related to B. suffusa but differs in having a smooth, cracked to areolate thallus and shorter spores. Bacidia elongata sp. nov. is a member of the fraxinea group and is similar to B. fraxinea but differs in having a wide zone of cells with enlarged lumina along the edge of the exciple. In fact, this zone of enlarged cells, in combination with its overall habit, places it morphologically close to B. suffusa, B. millegrana and B. campalea. Bacidia kurilensis sp. nov. is a basal member of the laurocerasi group and closely related to B. biatorina, B. heterochroa, B. laurocerasi and B. salazarensis. However, the combination of a granular thallus, large black apothecia and a green hue in the upper part of the exciple edge as well as in the epihymenium sets it apart from the species mentioned above. Bacidia sachalinensis sp. nov. resolves as a strongly supported member of the polychroa group and is known from a single locality in Sakhalin, the Russian Far East. Its thallus structure and apothecium colour are variable, which is typical for the polychroa group, but it differs from B. polychroa by having shorter spores with fewer septa and a mainly smooth to areolate thallus. Bacidiaceae, compensatory base changes, crustose lichens, diversity, ITS secondary structure, morphology, phylogenetic analysis
30182Dal Forno M., Moncada B. Lücking R. (2018): Sticta aongstroemii, a newly recognized species in the S. damicornis morphodeme (Lobariaceae) potentially endemic to the Atlantic Forest in Brazil. - Lichenologist, 50(6): 691-696.
The molecular phylogeny of Bacidia s.s. in the Russian Far East was investigated using 62 nucleotide sequences from the ITS nrDNA region, 22 of which were newly obtained. Phylogenetic reconstructions employed Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood searches using MrBayes and RAxML. In addition, ITS2 secondary structures added further support using Compensatory Base Changes. As a result of morphological and phylogenetic studies, four new species of Bacidia are described. Bacidia areolata sp. nov. belongs to the suffusa group. It was collected once in Khabarovskiy Krai, the Russian Far East, on the bark of Acer tegmentosum and is closely related to B. suffusa but differs in having a smooth, cracked to areolate thallus and shorter spores. Bacidia elongata sp. nov. is a member of the fraxinea group and is similar to B. fraxinea but differs in having a wide zone of cells with enlarged lumina along the edge of the exciple. In fact, this zone of enlarged cells, in combination with its overall habit, places it morphologically close to B. suffusa, B. millegrana and B. campalea. Bacidia kurilensis sp. nov. is a basal member of the laurocerasi group and closely related to B. biatorina, B. heterochroa, B. laurocerasi and B. salazarensis. However, the combination of a granular thallus, large black apothecia and a green hue in the upper part of the exciple edge as well as in the epihymenium sets it apart from the species mentioned above. Bacidia sachalinensis sp. nov. resolves as a strongly supported member of the polychroa group and is known from a single locality in Sakhalin, the Russian Far East. Its thallus structure and apothecium colour are variable, which is typical for the polychroa group, but it differs from B. polychroa by having shorter spores with fewer septa and a mainly smooth to areolate thallus. Bacidiaceae, compensatory base changes, crustose lichens, diversity, ITS secondary structure, morphology, phylogenetic analysis
30181Hawksworth D.J. & Coppins B.J. (2018): A tribute to Mark Seaward, environmental lichenologist and recorder par excellence, at eighty. - Lichenologist, 50(6): 599–602.
30180Kumar S.N., Sreerag R.S., Lakshmanan R., Jubi J., Dileep Kumar B.N.S.A. & Nambisan B. (2014): Protolichesterinic Acid: A Prominent Broad Spectrum Antimicrobial Compound from the Lichen Usnea albopunctata. - International Journal of Antibiotics, 2014:302182 [6 p.].
The aim of this study is to investigate the antimicrobial compounds present in the lichen Usnea albopunctata. Ethyl acetate extract was purified by silica gel column chromatography to obtain a major compound and the chemical structure was characterized by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, DEPT, 1H-1H COSY, HMQC, HMBC, UV, and HR-MS spectroscopic methods as protolichesterinic acid. The antimicrobial activity was estimated by determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration by the broth microdilution method and agar disc diffusion method against thirteen human pathogenic bacterial and four fungal strains. Protolichesterinic acid recorded significant broad spectrum antimicrobial property. The best antibacterial activity was recorded against K. pneumonia (0.25 μg/mL) and V. cholerae (0.5 μg/mL). Significant antifungal activity was recorded against T. rubrum (0.12 μg/mL), which is significantly better than the standard antifungal agent. Protolichesterinic acid is reported for the first time from Usnea albopunctata. Antifungal activity of protolichesterinic acid against medically important fungi is also reported for the first time. Thus the results of the present study suggest that protolichesterinic acid has significant antimicrobial activities and has the strong potential to be developed as an antimicrobial drug after further clinical evaluation.
30179Kumar S.N., Sreerag R.S., Deepa I., Mohandas C. & Nambisan B. (2015): Protocetraric acid: an excellent broad spectrum compound from the lichen Usnea albopunctata against medically important microbes. - Natural Product Research, 29(6): 574–577.
The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial property of the compounds present in the lichen Usnea albopunctata. Ethyl acetate extract of the lichen was purified by column chromatography to yield a major compound which was characterised by spectroscopic methods as protocetraric acid. In this study, protocetraric acid recorded significant broad spectrum antimicrobial property against medically important human pathogenic microbes. The prominent antibacterial activity was recorded against Salmonella typhi (0.5 μg/mL). Significant antifungal activity was recorded against Trichophyton rubrum (1 μg/mL), which is significantly better that the standard antifungal agent. Protocetraric acid is reported here for the first time from U. albopunctata. Thus the results of this study suggest that protocetraric acid has significant antimicrobial activities and has a strong potential to be developed as an antimicrobial drug against pathogenic microbes. Keywords:: lichen, protocetraric acid, broad spectrum, antimicrobial aktivity.
30178Hanedar A. (2015): Assessment of airborne heavy metal pollution in soil and lichen in the Meric-Ergene Basin, Turkey. - Environmental Technology, 36(20): 2588–2602.
In the present study, accumulations of airborne heavy metals in lichen and soil samples were determined on the basis of pollutant source groups by conducting Zinc (Zn), Lead (Pb), Iron (Fe), Copper (Cu), Chromium (Cr), Cadmium (Cd), Arsenic (As), Cobalt (Co) and Manganese (Mn) analyses on a total of 48 samples collected in the periods of May 2014 and August 2014 from 12 sampling points in a heavily industrialized area, a mixed industrial and residential area, an agricultural area and a background area in the Meric-Ergene Basin, and pH and total organic carbon determination was carried out on soil samples. With the obtained data, heavy metal levels were statistically assessed in detail by being associated with each other and with their probable sources; the accumulations found in soil and lichen samples were compared and spatial variances were set forth. Based on the results, it was observed that heavy metal pollution is at high levels particularly in industrialized areas, and that the differences between the cleanest and most polluted levels determined from soil samples for As, Cr, Cd and Pb reach 10 folds. The highest levels of all heavy metals were determined in both the soil and lichen samples collected from the areas in the south-east part of the region, where industrial activities and particularly leather and chemical industries are concentrated. With the comparison of the indication properties of soil and lichen, it was determined that significant and comparable results can be observed in both matrices. Keywords: airborne heavy metals, soil pollution, lichen, bioindicator, Meric-Ergene Basin.
30177Behera B.C., Adawadkar B. & Makhija U. (2006): Tyrosinase-inhibitory activity in some species of the lichen family Graphidaceae. - Journal of Herbal Pharmacotherapy, 6(1): 55–69.
Twenty-five species of the lichen family Graphidaceae have been investigated for tyrosinaseinhibitory activity. Tyrosinase-inhibiting material was extracted with solvents methanol, acetone, ethanol, dimethyl sulphoxide in water, and with water only. Methanol has been found to be suitable for extracting adequate amounts of tyrosinaseinhibiting component from the natural thallus. The lichen species such as Graphina glaucorufa, Graphina multistriata, Graphina salacinilabiata, Graphis assamensis, Graphis nakanishiana, and Phaeographopsis indica, have shown inhibition of tyrosinase over a range of 30-78%. Half-inhibiting concentration (IC50, J.g/ml) has been found to be much lower than the standard tyrosinase inhibitors and thus can compete with other commercially available tyrosinase inhibitors. The extracts of these species have been found to be stable at 4°C. Key Words: Lichen, graphidaceae, tyrosinase inhibition, IC50.
30176Silva J.A.C., Bomfim R.R., Estevam C.S., Antoniolli Â.R., Araújo A.A.S. & Thomazzi S.M. (2010): Pharmacological properties of lichen Cladonia clathrata. - Pharmaceutical Biology, 48(7): 745–752.
Cladonia clathrata Ahti & L. Xavier-Filho (Cladoniaceae) is a lichen; several Cladonia species extracts have been used for various remedies in folk medicine. In order to evaluate the actions of this lichen, studies were performed on antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities. The hydroalcoholic extract (HE) of C. clathrata stems was used in the following experiments. Oral treatment with the HE of C. clathrata elicited inhibitory activity (p < 0.001) on acetic acid-induced abdominal writhes at 100 (47.2%), 200 (47.2%), and 400 mg/kg (86.4%), and reduced the formalin-induced nociception on both the neurogenic (400 mg/kg, p < 0.01) and inflammatory phases (200 and 400 mg/kg, p < 0.01). It was not associated with non-specific effects, such as muscle relaxation or sedation. The HE reduced the carrageenan-induced edema formation at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg (p < 0.05) and inhibited neutrophil migration into the peritoneal cavity at 400 mg/kg (p < 0.001). The HE of C. clathrata reacted with the DPPH radical and reduced the same by 50.19%, and exhibited an IC50 value of 69.25 ± 0.65 μg/mL. The HE of C. clathrata stems shows antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities, with a moderate antioxidant potential. Keywords:: Anti-inflammatory activity, antinociceptive activity, antioxidant potential, Cladonia clathrata, lichen.
30175Gerlach A.d.C.L., Toprak Z., Naciri Y., Caviró E.A., da Silveira R.M.B. & Clerc P. (2019): New insights into the Usnea cornuta aggregate (Parmeliaceae, lichenized Ascomycota): Molecular analysis reveals high genetic diversity correlated with chemistry. - Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 131: 125–137.
Biological processes such as hybridization, incomplete lineage sorting and gene flow can obscure the recognition of distinct evolutionary lineages, particularly in groups of organisms that have recently diverged. Therefore, compiling pieces of evidence from diverse data sources is critical to accurately assess species boundaries in such groups. The increasing availability of DNA sequence data allows for a much deeper understanding of diversification and speciation processes and their consequences on biodiversity. In this study, we applied an integrative approach based on DNA sequence, chemical, geographic and morphological data to attempt to define species boundaries in the lichen-forming genus Usnea (Parmeliaceae), particularly the U. cornuta aggregate, a cosmopolitan species group. We provide the first species delimitation for this group in the neotropics based on the multispecies coalescent (MSC) model. Using ITS rDNA and two protein-coding genes, Mcm7 and RPB1, we estimated the species tree under the MSC model in a Bayesian framework using STACEY. Our results indicate that at least nine strongly supported distinct lineages coexist in the U. cornuta aggregate, which are well chemically characterized. Additionally, we found evidence for the polyphyly of three morphospecies, Usnea brasiliensis, U. cornuta and U. dasaea.
30174Ciężka M.M., Górka M., Modelska M., Tyszka R., Samecka-Cymerman A., Lewińska A., Łubek A. & Widory D. (2018): The coupled study of metal concentrations and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of lichens (Hypogymnia physodes) from the Świętokrzyski National Park—environmental implications. - Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 25: 25348–25362.
SO2, NOx, and metals (including Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Mn, Mg, Fe) present in airborne particulate matter are a major threat to preserving good air quality. The complicated pathways and transformation processes that can change their physical/chemical state in the atmosphere renders identifying their origin extremely difficult. With the objective of alleviating this difficulty, we identified and characterized potential local and regional sources of atmospheric pollutants using bioindicators (Hypogymnia physodes) from the Świętokrzyski National Park (SE Poland): 20 lichen samples were collected during winter (February; heating period) and summer (June; vegetative period) seasons and analyzed for metal contents and free radicals concentrations. Our results indicate that the highest gaseous pollutant levels were observed during the heating season, along roads (NO2) and at the highest elevation (SO2). The semiquinone/phenoxyl radical concentrations correlated during the heating season with the atmospheric SO2: ln (free radicals concentrations) = 0.025 SO2atmosphere + 39.11. For Mn/Fe ≥ 2, the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra presented a hyperfine splitting. Results showed that since 1994 metal concentrations increased for Cd, Mn, and Mg, Fe remained somewhat constant for Zn and Cu but slightly decreased for Pb, in agreement with the phasing out of lead in gasoline. Finally, a principal component analysis (PCA) identified two main factors controlling variability within the analyzed parameters: air pollutants transport over long distances and local fuel combustion by both transport and home heating. Keywords: Bioindicators; Polish National Park; Atmospheric pollution; Principal components analysis; Air quality; Multi-parameter analysis.
30173Mayrhofer H., Bilovitz P.O. & Rohrer A. (2018): Lichenized and lichenicolous fungi from Croatia kept in the herbarium GZU. - Fritschiana (Graz), 89: 1–35.
A list of 256 taxa of lichens, four species of lichenicolous fungi and one nonlichenized fungus from Croatia is presented. The list is based on unpublished specimens kept in the lichen collections of the herbarium GZU (University of Graz, Austria) and on recent fieldwork in Učka Nature Park. The following 23 lichenized and 1 lichenicolous species are new to Croatia: Aspicilia polychroma, Bryoria nadvornikiana, Caloplaca asserigena, C. hungarica, C. inconnexa, Cetrelia monachorum, Chaenotheca ferruginea, Cladonia stygia, Cliostomum griffithii, Felipes leucopellaeus, Flavoparmelia flaventior, Gyalolechia subbracteata, Lecania polycycla, Lecanora horiza, Lecidea nylanderi, Lecidella subviridis, Lempholemma intricatum, Loxospora elatina, Myriolecis prominens, Parmotrema arnoldii, Placynthium asperellum, Trapeliopsis flexuosa, Verrucaria cambrini, and Plectocarpon lichenum.
30172Quilhot W., Pereira I., Guzmán G., Rodríguez R. & Serey I. (1998): Categorías de conservación de líquenes nativos de Chile. - Boletín del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Chile, 47: 9–22.
Chile; conservation of lichens
30171Meléndez R. & Maldonado V. (1998): Especies Nativas Chilenas de Líquenes, Pteridófitas, Cactáceas, Bulbosas, Crustáceos y Peces de Aguas Continentales agrupadas de Acuerdo a su Estado de Conservación. - Boletín del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Chile, 47: 123–139.
Chile; protected species
30170Saiz F. (1973): Sobre zoocenosis muscicolas y liquenicas en Chile. - Anales del Museo de Historia Natural de Valparaíso, 6: 87–118.
30169Soto M.A., Quilhot W. & Redon J. (1976): Contribución al conocimiento quimico del genero Lecanactis. Pseudamilacea Redón et Follm. (Orden Arthoniales, Familia Lecanactidaceae). - Anales del Museo de Historia Natural de Valparaíso, 9: 181–182.
30168Quilhot W., Redon J. & Zúñiga E. (1975): Estudios fitoquímicos en el género Menegazzia Mass. emend. Sant. (Parmeliaceae). - Anales del Museo de Historia Natural de Valparaíso, 8: 108–113.
Eight species of the genus Menegazzia from southern Chile were analysed by thin layer chromatography and the following substances were found: atranorin, lecanoric acicl. stictic acid, norstictic acid. constictic acid, salazinic acid, alectorialic acid, zeorin and 7-β-acetoxy-22-hydroxyhopane. This last substance named having been found for the first time in the family Parmeliaceae.
30167Redon J. (1972): Liquenes del Parque Nacional “Vicente Perez Rosales”, provincia de Llanquihue, Chile. - Anales del Museo de Historia Natural de Valparaíso, 5: 117–126.
Seventy five species are recorded of lichens from the "Vicente Pérez Rosales" National Park in Prov. Llanquihue, South Chile, and their diítribution is noted in connection with ecological factors. The composition of the flora in relation to other areas of Chile and Argentine is briefly discussed.
30166Redon J. (1972): Líquenes de la región de Cachagua y Zapallar, Provincia de Aconcagua, Chile. - Anales del Museo de Historia Natural de Valparaíso, 5: 105–115.
Eighty five species are recorded of lichens from Cachagua and Zapallar, Prov. Aconcagua, Central Chile, and their distribution is noted in connection with ecological and sociological factors. The composibion of the flora in relation to other areas of Chile is briefly discussed.
30165Redon J. & Walkowiak A. (1978): Estudio preliminar de la flora liquénica del Parque Nacional "La Campana". I. Resultados sistemáticos. - Anales del Museo de Historia Natural de Valparaíso, 11: 19–36.
A preliminary account is presented about the lichen flora of “La Campana" National Park (Quillota Province, central Chile). The results were given on a list of 47 species belonging to 28 genera and 11 families. The lichen collections were made on the south side of the mountain “La Campana”, between 400 and 1900 m, on the sea level. A new species is described: Haematomma campanaensis nov. spec. Coniocybe furfuracea and Candelaria concolor are described for the first time in Chile.
30164Redon J. & Quilhot W. (1977): Los liquenes de las islas de Juan Fernandez 1: estudio preliminar. - Anales del Museo de Historia Natural de Valparaíso, 10: 15–26.
A preliminary critical account is presented of the Iichens of the Juan Fernández Islands. The genera Calicium, Erioderma, Opegrapha and Xanthoria are recorded at the first time for this region. Two new combinations are presented.
30163Redon J. (1974): Observaciones sistematicas y ecologicas en liquenes del Parque Nacional “Vicente Perez Rosales”. - Anales del Museo de Historia Natural de Valparaíso, 7: 169–225.
Hundred and forty one species, subspecies and forms of Iichens are recorded from the "Vicente Pérez Rosales" National Park, Provincia Llanquihue, Chile. Descriptions of forty three genera are noted. Distribution and ecological aspects of the lichen communities are described. This paper contains two major Sections: a) a taxonomical account, and b) an ecological summary of the lichen flora from this National Park.
30162Redon J. & Montenegro A. (2014): Líquenes saxícolas presentes en la cordillera de la Costa de la región de Valparaíso. - Revista del Jardín Botánico Chagual, 12(12): 50–55.
30161Redon J. (1976): Fitogeografía de los Líquenes Chilenos. - Anales del Museo de Historia Natural de Valparaíso, 9: 7–22.
Nine provisional phytogeographical elements are described for the Chilean continental territory, West Antarctic and Juan Fernández Islands. The commoner lichens are including for each one of the phytogeographical elements and their most important ecological characteristics and their distribution patterns, are briefly discussed.
30160Käffer M.I., Koch N.M., Martins S.M.A. & Vargas V.M.F. (2016): Lichen community versus host tree bark texture in an urban environment in southern Brazil. - Iheringia. Série Botânica, 71(1): 49–54.
We investigated the changes in lichen community structure (vertical distribution and thallus size) in relation to host tree availability for lichen establishment in urban areas. Lichens were mapped on 300 phorophytes distributed in 30 sampling stations in order to verify differences in the vertical distribution of species and thallus size versus host tree characteristics. Significant differences were observed in vertical distribution, considering lichen richness and abundance. This study reported the influence of host trees, especially tree diameter and bark texture, on epiphytic lichen communities in an urban area. Keywords: corticolous, specialist species, vertical distribution.
30159dos Santos V.M., Lücking R. & Cáceres M.E.S. (2016): Liquens foliícolas (Ascomycota) em Brejos de Altitude: novos registros para o Nordeste e para o Brasil. - Iheringia. Série Botânica, 71(3): 368–376.
Foliicolous lichens (Ascomycota) in Brejos de Altitude: new records for the Northeast Region and for Brazil. Tropical rainforests have a high diversity of foliicolous lichens, especially in Central and South America, which contain the highest diversity worldwide. However, up to now, few studies have been undertaken on the diversity of foliicolous lichens in the Atlantic Forest of northeastern Brazil, and no study has considered the Brejos de Altitude, which are enclaves of the Atlantic Forest in the Caatinga, the semi-arid region in northeastern Brazil. This study aimed to record the foliicolous lichens occurring in five Brejos de Altitude of four states in Brazil: Bahia, Sergipe, Paraiba and Pernambuco. In all, 147 species were recorded; of these, 26 species are new records for the country’s Northeast Region and eleven species are new records for Brazil. Keywords: Bahia, diversity, Paraíba, Pernambuco, Sergipe.
30158Benatti M.N., Martins S.M.A., Vos C. & Holt E. (2017): Canoparmelia pustulifera, a new species of Parmeliaceae containing perlatolic acid from Southern Brazil. - Iheringia. Série Botânica, 72(2): 283–286.
Canoparmelia pustulifera Benatti, S.M. Martins, Vos & Holt is a new lichen species discovered during a trip near Parque Estadual de Itapuã, in Rio Grande do Sul State, Southern Brazil. The species is the second pustulate Canoparmelia species discovered after C. albomaculata, and contains perlatolic acid and several other still-undetermined medullary substances. Keywords: Canoparmelia caroliniana, maculas, pustulas, soredios.
30157Costa W.R. & Mineo M.F. (2013): Os líquens como bioindicadores de poluição atmosférica no município de Uberaba, Minas Gerais, Brasil [The lichens as bioindicators of air pollution in county of Uberaba, Minas Gerais, Brazil]. - Revista do Centro do Ciências Naturais e Exatas - UFSM, Santa Maria, 13(13): 2690–2700.
Lichens are recognized as excellent bioindicators of air quality, due to its high sensitivity to air pollution. This study presents data obtained in the passive monitoring of air quality in seven different places in the city of Uberaba, MG. Were identified 42 taxa, distributed in 14 families and 23 genera. Was observed for the areas where there is an increased incidence of potentially polluting activities, the smaller species diversity. At the end of this study concludes that was great diversity Lichen discrepancy between units sample studied. It was also concluded that the presents findings may contribute to the improvement of public policies to control air pollution, as well as a more efficient municipal zoning. Keywords: biomonitoring; lichenology; air quality.
30156Ramírez-Morán N.M., León-Gómez M. & Lücking R. (2016): Uso de biotipos de liquenes como bioindicadores de perturbacion en fragmentos de bosque altoandino (Reserva biologica "Encenillo", Colombia) [Use of lichen biotypes as bioindicators of perturbation in fragments of high Andean forest (“Encenillo” Biological Reserve, Colombia)]. - Caldasia, 38(1): 31–52.
We analyzed the diversity and composition of lichen communities in two fragments, one disturbed and one conserved, of high Andean forest in the “Encenillo” Biological Reserve, Colombia. We sampled 32 “encenillo” trees (Weinmannia tomentosa), 16 in each fragment, using three subsamples per tree at three height levels, for a total of 32 samples (trees) and 96 subsamples. The 714 lichen specimens sampled, 261 in the disturbed and 453 in the conserved forest, corresponded to 54 species, with the genera Parmotrema (161 specimens, 5 species), Usnea (141 specimens, 7 species), Hypotrachyna (79 specimens, 7 species), Phyllopsora (63 specimens, 2 species), and Sticta (49 samples, 6 species) most representative. Using morphological characters, we assigned the 54 species to 37 readily recognizable biotypes. Cluster analysis and non-metric multidimensional scaling of the 32 samples (trees) separated the two fragments based on lichen biotype composition. By means of indicator analysis, using the biotypes as units, we found that the biotypes “Yoshimuriella”, “Usnea (apothecia)”, “Usnea (pigmented)”, “Parmotrema (soredia)”, “Lobariella (apothecia)”, “Sticta (green)”, “Psiloparmelia”, and “Hypotrachyna (soredia)” were statistically indicative of the conserved forest, whereas the biotypes “Hypotrachyna (isidia)”, “Usnea (pendulous)”, “Parmotrema (isidia)” and “Heterodermia (apothecia)” were representative of the disturbed forest. In conclusion, a protocol using biotypes instead of species can be implemented by non-specialists to monitor and quickly evaluate the conservation of these Andean forests. Key words. Lobariaceae, Graphidaceae, lichens, biotypes, bioindicators, ecological continuity.
30155Martins D.S. & de Souza M.G.M. (2012): Fungos liquenizados (liquens) da fazenda Água Limpa, Distrito Federal, Brasil. - Heringeriana, 6(1): 62–65.
30154Benatti M.N. & Marcelli M.P. (2017): Physciaceae foliosas do Parque Estadual da Cantareira, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. II. Gêneros Heterodermia e Polyblastidium. - Iheringia. Série Botânica, 72(2): 255–266.
Foliose Physciaceae from the State Park of Cantareira, São Paulo State, Brazil. II. Genera Heterodermia and Polyblastidium. Here we present a survey of the foliose lichenized fungi of Physciaceae collected in the State Park of Serra da Cantareira during end of the 1990s and currently deposited in SP Herbarium. Samples of eight species, belonging to the genera Heterodermia Trevis. (5 spp.) and Polyblastidium Kalb (3 spp.), were found and analyzed. Descriptions, comments, illustrations, and a key of the species found are presented. Heterodermia velata Marcelli & Benatti is new to science while H. isidiophora (Nyl.) D.D. Awasthi is a new citation for Brazil. Keywords: Atlantic Forest, lichens, Southeastern Brazil.
30153Eliasaro S., Gerlach A.C.L. & Gumboski E.L. (2012): Novos registros de fungos liquenizados para o estado do Paraná, Brasil. - Revista Brasileira de Biociências, 10(4): 507–512.
(New records of lichenized fungi from Paraná State, southern Brazil). This article reports for the first time to the State of Paraná, the occurrence of 41 species of lichenized fungi, distributed in 22 genera and 15 families for the first time to Paraná State. Among these, the following species, Cladonia consimilis, C. megaphylla, C. pumila, C. testaceopallens, Lobaria carassensis, Parmotrema neosubcrinitum, Physcia atrostriata, Pseudoparmelia arida, P. brakoana, Pyxine obscurascens and Sticta variabilis are new records for south Brazil. Key words: diversity, mycota, lichens, taxonomy.
30152Cáceres M.E.S., Mota Júnior N., dos Santos L.A., Pereira T.A. & Aptroot A. (2017): New records to Brazil and Southern Hemisphere of corticolous and saxicolous lichens from the semiarid region in Ceará State. - Iheringia. Série Botânica, 72(2): 239–245.
Lichens are an important element of the biodiversity of tropical regions, found in a variety of substrates. The Brazilian semiarid biodiversity is highly threatened due to land conversion for agricultural and cattle ranch. Until recently, only a few species had been reported from Ceará, the only State in Brazil covered almost entirely by Caatinga vegetation. The present work was carried out in Quixadá and Quixerá, in Ceará State, an area characterized by the presence of rock outcrops and inselbergs. As a result, 82 lichen species are here reported, from which 52 species are new records for Ceará, and 14 are reported for the fi rst time to Brazil. The great majority of species was saxicolous. This is the fi rst lichen inventory in this semiarid region of the state, and also the fi rst study to report a large number of saxicolous crustose microlichens in northeatern Brazil. Key words: Caatinga, diversity, lichenized fungi, northeast, Quixadá.
30151Barreiros H.S., de Araújo R.R. & da Silva T.I.D. (1981): Flora liquênica do Rio de Janeiro – I. - Arquivos do Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro, 25: 33–43.
30150Torrey R.H. (1933): Rock Tripes on a Long Island glacial boulder. - Torreya, 33: 63–64.
30149Torrey R.H. (1933): Parmelia Cladonia, a beautiful northern lichen, found on Catskill summits. - Torreya, 33: 87–89.
30148Torrey R.H. (1933): Field trips of the club: Excursions to Montauk Point. - Torreya, 33: 153–155.
Report on excursion
30147Torrey R.H. (1933): [Field trips of the club:] Lichen excursion at Andover, New Jersey. - Torreya, 33: 49–50.
Report on excursion
30146Torrey R.H. (1933): Cladoniae in the range of the Torrey Botanical Club. - Torreya, 33: 109–129.
This is an attempt to list and describe the species of the interesting and often beautiful lichen genus, Cladonia, which have been found or which may be looked for, in the range of the Torrey Botanical Club, covering New Jersey, eastern Pennsylvania, Long Island, and the Hudson Valley in New York as far north as the northern Catskills.
30145Torrey R.H. (1933): Fire weeds. - Torreya, 33: 16.
"It seems to me that lichens, especially these growing on earth, come back rather slowly after burnings; although the crustose ones on ledges and boulders, such as Rinodina oreina, Lecideas, Lecanoras and Rhizocarpons survive pretty well. The Rock Tripes, Gyrophoras and Umbilicarias, with their large foliose thalli, burn up when caught in the fire belts, and are slow to reappear in such places."
30144Torrey R.H. (1933): Field trips of the club: Wawayanda Cedar Swamp, March 26. - Torreya, 33: 97–98.
Report on excursion
30143Torrey R.H. (1932): Unusual lichen occurrences. - Torreya, 32: 166–167.
30142Torrey R.H. (1932): [Field trips of the club:] Bus trip to Fahnestock State Park, April 17. - Torreya, 32: 78–79.
Report on excursion
30141Torrey R.H. (1932): [Field trips of the club:] Field Trip, March 27, 1932. - Torreya, 32: 75–77.
Report on excursion
30140Torrey R.H. (1932): Field trips of the club: Sunday December 13, Tomkins Cove to Bear Mountain. - Torreya, 32: 15–16.
Report on excursion
30139Torrey R.H. (1932): More stations for Potentilla tridentata. - Torreya, 32: 159–161.
Gyrophora (Umbilicaria) muhlenbergii discussed.
30138R.H.T. [Torrey R.H.] (1931): Lichen collecting in Wawayanda swamp–November 3. - Torreya, 31: 183–184.
Report on excursion
30137Williams R.S. (1918): Some farthest north lichens and mosses of the Peary Arctic Expedition to Grant Land in 1906. - Torreya, 18: 210–211.
30136Porter C.L. & Woollett M.L. (1929): The relation of Cladonia mats to soil moisture. - Torreya, 29: 69–71.
30135Dilmann G.F. (1936): Trip of March 22, to the Pine Barrens at Lakehurst, Vicinity of Wrangel Brook. - Torreya, 36: 71–72.
Report on excursion
30134Grier N.M. (1925): Unreported plants from Long Island, N.Y. II Cryptogams–Part 2. - Torreya, 25: 29–35.
Two terricolous lichens listed at p. 34.
30133Burnham S.H. (1918): The flora of Indian Ladder and vicinity, together with descriptive notes on the scenery. - Torreya, 18: 101–116 & 127–149.
30132Burnham S.H. & Latham R.A. (1925): The flora of the town of Southold, Long Island and Gardiner's Island. Fifth supplementary list. - Torreya, 25: 71–83.
Lichens at p. 79; majority identified by C.C. Plitt.
30131Burnham S.H. & Latham R.A. (1924): The flora of the town of Southold, Long Island and Gardiner's Island. Fourth supplementary list. - Torreya, 24: 22–32.
Two lichens at p. 30 identified by B. Fink (Blastenia ferruginea var. discolor, comb. nov.) and R.H. Howe (Ramalina willeyi).
30130Burnham S.H. & Latham R.A. (1917): The flora of the town of Southold, Long Island and Gardiner's Island. First supplement list. - Torreya, 17(7): 111–122.
Lichens at p. 118; majority identidied by G.K. Merrill
30129Schneider A. (1905): The classification of lichens. - Torreya, 5(5): 79–82.
30128Wang W.-C. & Wei J.-C. (2018): Arthonia, Byssoloma, Calenia, Chroodiscus, Coenogonium, Eremothecella, and Semigyalecta spp. new to China. - Mycotaxon, 133: 487–497.
Ten foliicolous lichens are newly reported for China—Arthonia accolens, A. cyanea, A. palmulacea, Byssoloma annuum, B. subleucoblepharum, Calenia lueckingii, Chroodiscus argillaceus, Coenogonium minimum, Eremothecella macrosperma, and Semigyalecta paradoxa. Except for C. minimum collected from Guangxi Province, these species were collected from a rain forest in Hainan Province. Descriptions and photos of the ten species and comments are provided. Key words—Asia, Gomphillaceae, Graphidaceae, Gyalectaceae, Pilocarpaceae.
30127Fu J.-M., Wang Z.-L., Wang C.-X. & Zhang L.-L. (2018): New records of six Pyrenula species from China. - Mycotaxon, 133: 473–480.
Pyrenula mastophora, P. micheneri, and P. thailandica are reported for the first time from China; and P. bahiana, P. complanata, and P. platystoma are reported for the first time from mainland China. Descriptions, illustrations, and distributions are given for each species. Key words—Asia, lichen-forming fungi, Pyrenulaceae, taxonomy.
30126Ren Q. & Zheng X.-J. (2018): Rare or interesting lichen species new to China. - Mycotaxon, 133: 373–379.
During recent studies on the microlichens from Mount Taibai in Qinling Mountains of northwestern China, Bryobilimbia hypnorum, Catillaria nigroclavata, Mycobilimbia tetramera, Placidiopsis pseudocinerea, and Toninia diffracta were revealed as new records for China or mainland China. Illustrations and detailed taxonomic descriptions are provided for these five newly reported species. Key words—Ascomycota, Catillariaceae, Porpidiaceae, Ramalinaceae, Verrucariaceae.
30125Kalb J., Lücking R. & Kalb K. (2018): The lichen genera Allographa and Graphis (Ascomycota: Ostropales, Graphidaceae) in Thailand—eleven new species, forty-seven new records and a key to all one hundred and fifteen species so far recorded for the country. - Phytotaxa, 377(1): 1–83.
We provide an updated account on the genera Graphis s.str. and Allographa (formerly included in Graphis) from Thailand. Four species of Allographa are described as new to science, viz. A. atrocelatoides, which differs from A. atrocelata in having marginata-morph lirellae and a smooth, off-white to beige thallus; A. kansriana, which differs from A. aquilonia in having negrosina-morph lirellae and brownish ascospores; A. schummii, which is characterized in having large, muriform ascospores and an open disc with a cinnabar-red pruina, reacting K+ lemon yellow; and A. sitianoides, which differs from A. sitiana in having immersed to erumpent lirellae and longer ascospores with more numerous septa. Twenty-seven further species are being recombined in the genus Allographa, viz A. acharii, A. aquilonia, A. atrocelata, A. elongata, A. hossei, A. leptospora, A. lumbricina, A. macella, A. marginata, A. norvestitoides, A. nuda, A. pavoniana, A. phaeospora, A. rhizicola, A. rimulosa, A. rufopallida, A. rustica, A. sauroidea, A. seminuda, A. semirigida, A. striatula, A. subdisserpens, A. subdussii, A. trichospora, A. verminosa, A. vestitoides, and A. xanthospora. Seven new Graphis species are described, viz. G. albocarpa, which differs from G. glaucescens in having a laterally to completely carbonized exciple, larger ascospores, and a norstictic acid chemistry; G. emersella, which differs from G. emersa in having hossei-morph lirellae and smaller ascospores with fewer septa; G. khaojoneana, which differs from G. bungartzii in having immersed, unbranched lirellae and smaller ascospores with fewer septa; G. omiana, which differs from G. luluensis in having larger ascospores with more numerous septa and a more complex chemistry relating to the stictic acid aggregate; G. schummiana, which differs from G. anfractuosa in having a laterally to completely carbonized exciple and in the reddish brown pruinose, K+ purple disc; G. sublitoralis, which differs from G. litoralis in having scripta-morph lirellae and in lacking protocetraric acid; and G. subschroederi, which differs from G. schroederi in having smaller ascospores and a laterally carbonized exciple. Four new lirellae morphs are defined, viz. filiformis-morph, balaghatensis-morph, leptogramma-morph and schummiana-morph. After several collecting trips to nineteen provinces of the country, further forty-seven new records of the two genera are added to the most recent checklist of Thai lichens. A key is given to all Allographa and Graphis species so far known for Thailand, as well as close-up photographs of the newly described or newly reported species. The following ten names are removed from the most recent Thai checklist: Graphis concolor ≡ Diorygma junghuhnii, G. fissurinoidea = Diorygma confluens, G. glaucocinerea = Graphis aphanes, G. glaucorufa = Allographa rufopallida, G. irosina = Acanthothecis dialeuca, G. longispora = G. koratensis, Graphis nuda (probably a misidentification), G. ochrocheila ≡ Dyplolabia ochrocheila, G. persimilis = Phaeographis hypoglauca, and G. subrigida = Platygramme platyloma. Graphis siamensis does not belong in this genus but is likely a species of Phlyctis. Graphis diplocheila has a clear hymenium and is a younger synonym of G. streblocarpa and G. dracaenae produces norstictic acid and must therefore kept apart from G. geraensis. Key words: Acanthothecis, Diorygma, Dyplolabia, Graphidaceae, new lichen species, Phlyctis, Platygramme, south-east Asia.
30124Borgato L. & Ertz D. (2018): A new species of Astrochapsa (Graphidaceae) from Martinique, with a world-wide key to the species. - Phytotaxa, 371(2): 102–110.
Astrochapsa martinicensis is described as new to science. It is characterized by a whitish-farinose thallus, 6–8-spored asci, (4–)5–7(–9)-septate ascospores of (12.5–)14–24(–29) × (4.5–)5–6.5(–7) μm and a chemistry with one terpenoid and traces of UV+ substances. The new species was discovered among lichen specimens collected in 2013 on the island of Martinique (Lesser Antilles). A phylogenetic analysis using nuLSU sequences places the new species in the genus Astrochapsa, as sister species to an unidentified specimen from Venezuela. An identification key to all currently accepted Astrochapsa species is provided. Key words: Antilles, determination key, lichens, Ostropales, phylogeny Introduction.
30123Zuo Y.-B., Liu D.-L., Li C.-X., Chen Y.-H. & Wei X.-L. (2018): A new species of the lichenised genus Anamylopsora (Baeomycetaceae, Baeomycetales) from Tengger Desert of China. - MycoKeys, 41: 107–118.
The monotypic lichenised genus Anamylopsora (Baeomycetaceae, Baeomycetales), with its single species A. pulcherrima, is distributed in the arid areas of the Northern Hemisphere, including China. In this paper, we introduce another species new to science, Anamylopsora pruinosa. The new species is characterised by a densely pruinose upper surface, abundantly thick and strong rhizines and terricolous habitat. It is also strongly supported by the phylogenetic and species delimitation analyses based on nrDNA ITS sequences, in which A. pruinosa forms well-supported clade separated from A. pulcherrima. Keywords: Lichen, morphology, phylogeny, taxonomy, Tengger Desert.
30122Bertrand R.L. & Sorensen J.L. (2018): A comprehensive catalogue of polyketide synthase gene clusters in lichenizing fungi. - Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, 45: 1067–1081.
Lichens are fungi that form symbiotic partnerships with algae. Although lichens produce diverse polyketides, difficulties in establishing and maintaining lichen cultures have prohibited detailed studies of their biosynthetic pathways. Creative, albeit non-definitive, methods have been developed to assign function to biosynthetic gene clusters in lieu of techniques such as gene knockout and heterologous expressions that are commonly applied to easily cultivatable organisms. We review a total of 81 completely sequenced polyketide synthase (PKS) genes from lichenizing fungi, comprising to our best efforts all complete and reported PKS genes in lichenizing fungi to date. This review provides an overview of the approaches used to locate and sequence PKS genes in lichen genomes, current approaches to assign function to lichen PKS gene clusters, and what polyketides are proposed to be biosynthesized by these PKS. We conclude with remarks on prospects for genomicsbased natural products discovery in lichens. We hope that this review will serve as a guide to ongoing research efforts on polyketide biosynthesis in lichenizing fungi. Keywords Natural products · Gene clusters · Lichens · Genome sequencing · Metabolite prediction · Polyketides.
30121Karunarathna S.C., Udayanga D., Maharachchikumbura S.N., Pilkington M., Manamgoda D.S., Wijayawardene D.N.N., Ariyawansa H.A., Bandara A.R., Chukeatirote E., McKenzie E.H.C. & Hyde K.D. (2012): Current status of knowledge of Sri Lankan mycota. - Current Research in Environmental and Applied Mycology, 2(1): 18–29.
The Sri Lankan mycota is inadequately described, although there are a number of studies on its biodiversity. Current estimates suggest that there could be as many as 25,000 species, of which only a little more than 2,000 are presently known, and this estimate does not take into account the large number of exotics introduced with food, plantation, and ornamental plants. In addition, only limited parts of the island have been explored. The available information is widely dispersed, difficult to access, and plagued by synonymy. This paper describes the current status of Sri Lankan Mycology, and makes suggestions for facilitating further research. Key words – biodiversity – lichens – microfungi – mushrooms – phytopathogens – quarantine.
30120Nayaka S., Ingle K.K., Bajpai R., Rawal J.R., Upreti D.K. & Trivedi S. (2013): Lichens of Gujarat state, India with special reference to coastal habitats. - Current Research in Environmental and Applied Mycology, 3(2): 222–229.
The present communication reports 39 lichen species from Gujarat state, belonging to 23 genera and 13 families. The lichens were collected mostly from 10 coastal districts of the state. A total of 21 species are new additions to the lichen mycota of Gujarat while 11 partially identified species are expected to be new to science. The paper emphasizes the uniqueness of coastal habitats in terms of interesting lichen mycota. Key words – biodiversity – coastal area – lichenized fungi – mangrove.
30119Pandit G. (2015): Review of lichens of the high level Ferricretes and Mesas of the North Western Ghats, India. - Current Research in Environmental and Applied Mycology, 5(3): 180–195.
The paper includes 234 species in 61 genera belonging to 30 families reported from the high level Ferricretes and basalt mesas, of the North Western Ghats of Maharashtra. The average percentage of the lichen species in Maharashtra on high level Ferricretes is 22.91 % and on the basalt Mesas is 0.682 %. Of these 234 species, 50 species are new to science, reported from these plateau areas and 25 species have their type locality in and around the plateaus. Key words – basalt – laterite – lichenized fungi – rocky outcrops.
30118Sinha G.P., Gupta P., Kar R. & Joseph S. (2015): A checklist of Lichens of Rajasthan, India. - Current Research in Environmental and Applied Mycology, 5(4): 367–375.
The paper presents an updated list of 90 species of lichens from the state of Rajasthan, India. Three species marked by an asterisk (*) viz. Malmidea psychotrioides (Kalb & Lücking) Kalb, Rivas Plata & Lumbsch, Staurothele rugulosa (A. Massal.) Arnold and Willeya diffractella (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. are new records for India while 35 species marked by double asterisks (**) are new records for Rajasthan. Key Words – Ascomycetes – new records – taxonomy – Willeya.
30117Anjali D.B., Mohabe S., Reddy A.M. & Nayaka S. (2015): Antimicrobial activity of 2-Propanol crude extract from lichen Parmotrema tinctorum (Despr.ex.Nyl.) Hale, collected from Eastern Ghats, India. - Current Research in Environmental and Applied Mycology, 5(3): 160–168.
The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of 2Propanol extract of Parmotrema tinctorum (Despr. ex Nyl.) Hale, against each ten bacterial and fungal pathogens. Secondary compound of the species was extracted using Soxhlet apparatus and antimicrobial activity was carried out by using Bauer-Kirby disc diffusion method. The extract was found more effective against ten bacterial and eight fungal pathogens. The highest zones of inhibition in bacterial pathogens were noted against Escherichia coli (14.66 ± 0.57), Bacillus subtilis (13.0 ± 2.99), Salmonella abony (12.33 ± 2.51) and Corynebacterium rubrum (11.33 ± 0.57) followed by lowest inhibition zones were recorded in Streptococcus pyogenes (9.66 ± 0.57), Bacillus cereus (8.66 ± 1.15) and Streptomycin was taken as standard control found more effective against all the bacterial pathogens. In case of fungal pathogens the highest zones of inhibition were noted against Aspergillus flavus (10.0 ± 1.0) followed by Colletotrichum falcatum, Fusarium oxysporum and Penicillium chrysogenum (7.33 ± 0.57 each), Trichoderma lignorum (7.0 ± 1.53) and Fusarium moniliforme (6.0 ± 5.2) while commercially available synthetic antifungal drug Ketoconazole was taken as standard control found more effective against eight fungal pathogens. The study revealed that extracts obtained from P. tinctorum are having potential compounds which in turn useful to control human pathogenic microorganisms. Keywords – Macrolichen – antibacterial – antifungal activity – disc diffusion – bio-prospection.
30116Shukla P., Upreti D.K. & Tewari L.M. (2014): Lichen genus Usnea (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) in Uttarakhand, India. - Current Research in Environmental and Applied Mycology, 4(2): 188–191.
Usnea is a widespread fruticose lichen popularly known for its medicinal properties across the world. Though it has been mentioned in many floristic studies reported from Uttarakhand, India, no detailed taxonomic account has been conducted for the past two decades. The present study was based on specimens deposited in lichen herbarium of National Botanical Research Institute (LWG), personal herbarium of D.D. Awasthi (AWAS) and herbarium of the department of botany, Lucknow University (LWU). A total of 28 species, including seven new additions to Uttarakhand, namely U. dendritica Stirt., U. lucea Mot., U. norketti G. Awasthi, U. pseudosinensis Asahina, U. sinensis Mot., U. spinosula Stirt., U. subflorida Stirt.are presented along with key to species. Key words – Fruticose – herbarium – taxonomy.
30115Babiah P.S., Upreti D.K. & John S.A. (2015): Assessment of fungicidal potential of lichen Heterodermia leucomelos (L.) Poelt against pathogenic fungi. - Current Research in Environmental and Applied Mycology, 5(2): 92–100.
The present investigation focuses on the evaluation of fungicidal potential of a foliose lichen Heterodermia leucomelos (L.) Poelt against five strains of phytopathogenic fungi. Acetone, methanol and chloroform extracts of test lichen were screened against pathogens Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, Colletotrichum falcatum by the Disc – Diffusion Assay. MIC values of the extracts were determined by Broth tube dilution method. Among the three solvents acetone and methanol exhibited highest activities. Mean diameter of zones of inhibition for acetone and methanol extracts ranged from 18.0±0.0 to 28.6±0.3 mg/ml and 12.3±0.6 to 24.6±1.2 mg/ml. respectively with MIC values ranging from 0.19 to 1.56 mg/ml. Tukey’s multiple comparison test provides significant differences (at p<0.05 and 0.01) in the activity of the extracts towards different phytopathogens. The results proved that the lichen holds high medicinal properties and can be a rich source of potential natural antimicrobial agents. Keywords – Antifungal activity – disk Diffusion method – Heterodermia leucomelos (L.) Poelt – MIC – plant pathogenic fungi.
30114Joshi S. & Upreti D.K. (2016): Lichens of the Western Ghats new to India. - Current Research in Environmental and Applied Mycology, 6(4): 328–333.
Ten new records of lichens are described from the Nilgiri Hills, Silent Valley National Park and the area around Mahabaleshwar. A brief description of each species is provided with ecology and distribution, and well supported by illustrations. Key words – corticolous – Kerala – Maharashtra – records – saxicolous –Tamil Nadu.
30113Mishra S., Joshi S., Upreti D.K. & Srivastava A.K. (2016): An updated taxonomic key on graphidoid taxa from the foot hills of Indian Himalaya. - Current Research in Environmental and Applied Mycology, 6(4): 312–327.
During the study, we encountered 29 species of graphidoid lichens under 6 genera from 15 localities in Udham Singh Nagar and Jim Corbett National Park in the terai region of Kumaun Himalaya. In addition to this, the graphidaceous taxa from the region were sampled and segregated to provide a detailed account of graphidoid taxa also with their ecology and distribution within the area. The paper mainly emphasizes on the total account of the graphidoid taxa along with an updated taxonomic key, taxonomic treatment and distribution in the study area. Key words – Graphidaceae – Jim Corbett National Park – Kumaun Himalaya – Terai – Udham Singh Nagar – Uttarakhand.
30112Sesal C., Çobanoğlu G., Karaltı İ. & Açıkgöz B. (2016): In vitro antimicrobial potentials of four Ramalina lichen species from Turkey. - Current Research in Environmental and Applied Mycology, 6(3): 202–209.
The present study, aiming to explore pharmaceutical potential, appraises the antimicrobial effects of four epiphytic fruticose lichen species, Ramalina canariensis J.Steiner, Ramalina chondrina J.Steiner, Ramalina fastigiata (Pers.) Ach., and Ramalina fraxinea (L.) Ach. In vitro antimicrobial activities of methanol and chloroform extracts against two Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442 and Escherichia coli ATCC 2592), two Gram-positive bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923), and the yeast Candida albicans ATCC 90028 were tested with paper disc method, through determination of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs). The results indicated that chloroform and methanol extracts of the examined species demonstrated inhibitory activity against the growth of the tested microorganisms in different levels. That activity was more evident in chloroform extracts of Ramalina canariensis and Ramalina chondrina against E. coli than the methanol extracts. The methanol extract of Ramalina canariensis was the most active against C. albicans. Key words – antimicrobial activity – antifungal effect.
30111De Jesus E.E., Hur J.S., Notarte K.I.R., Santiago K.A.A. & dela Cruz T.E.E. (2016): Antibacterial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities of the corticolous lichens Canoparmelia aptata, Pannaria sp., and Parmotrema gardneri collected from Mt. Banahaw, Quezon, Philippines. - Current Research in Environmental and Applied Mycology, 6(3): 173–183.
Lichens are remarkable sources of bioactive secondary metabolites with potential chemotherapeutic properties. In this study, we evaluated the bioactivities of three corticolous lichens collected from Mount Banahaw in Quezon Province, Philippines. The lichens Parmotrema gardneri, Pannaria sp., and Canoparmelia aptata were extracted with acetone and assayed for cytotoxicity, and antibacterial and antioxidant activities. Results showed that the lichen extracts of P. gardneri, Pannaria sp. and C. aptata were either active (13-19 mm, zone of inhibition, ZOI) or partially active (10-12 mm ZOI) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. For the cytotoxicity assay, P. gardneri had the lowest inhibition concentration (IC50) values of 12.29 and 20.24 µg/mL for the human gastric adenocarcinoma (AGS) and human lung carcinoma (A549), respectively. The same lichen extract rendered selectivity with IC50 of 66.35 µg/mL against the normal Madin Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cell lines. The extracts yielded low radical scavenging activity of less than 40% and generated low amounts of FeSO4 per milligram sample. Metabolic profiling detected the presence of protocetraric acid, usnic acid, zeorin, atranorin, chloroatranorin, and galbinic acid. Keywords – chemotherapeutic – foliose lichens – secondary metabolites – selectivity.
30110Galinato M.G.M., Mangubat C.B., Leonor D.S., Cababa G.R.C., Cipriano B.P.S. & Santiago K.A.A. (2017): Identification and diversity of the fruticose lichen Usnea in Kalinga, Luzon Island, Philippines. - Current Research in Environmental and Applied Mycology, 7(4): 249–257.
The mountains of Kalinga are home to countless unprecedented organisms. Its cool temperature and high elevation provide the perfect niche for such organisms to survive and these include the lichens. Kalinga harbors a wide variety of lichens stretching from crustose, foliose and fruticose types. Interestingly, the genus Usnea is one of the most commonly found fruticose lichens in the northern part of the Philippines. However, these organisms remain neglected and hence limited studies have been document. In fact, not a single species of Usnea has been recorded in the province of Kalinga. In this study, 289 Usnea samples were collected from four out of eight municipalities of Kalinga. Following published identification keys, 25 species were identified using the conventional morphological characterization and thalline spot test. Furthermore, the diversity of Usnea in the province was also determined through the use of biodiversity indices (i.e., ShannonWeiner index & Pielou’s index) accounting for the diversity, evenness and dominance of species. In this study, the municipality of Pasil shelters the most diverse Usnea species (H = 2.696), while Balbalan has the highest species evenness (e = 0.920). Key words – distribution – diversity index– fungal diversity – lichen taxonomy.
30109Singh P., Singh P.K., Tondon P.K. & Singh K.P. (2018): Heavy metals accumulation by epiphytic foliose lichens as biomonitors of air quality in Srinagar city of Garhwal hills, Western Himalaya (India). - Current Research in Environmental and Applied Mycology, 8(2): 282–289.
The research aims to assess the degree of accumulation of six heavy metals e.g., iron (Fe), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb) and nickel (Ni) by epiphytic foliose lichen species(Canoparmelia texana, Pyxine subcineria and Phaeophyscia hispidula) in a polluted area of Srinagar city and its surroundings in the Garhwal hills of the Western Himalaya. Srinagar city is one of the largest towns situated in Garhwal hills through which National highway 58 (NH58) passes and ends at Mana pass that cause atmospheric pollution due to emissions from heavy vehicular traffic activity throughout the year. Results indicated that Canoparmelia texana was least accumulated to Fe, Zn, Cr and Cu than the Pyxine subcineria and Phaeophyscia hispidula where heavy metals were significantly increased due to exposure of pollutants while Pyxine subcineria showed maximum accumulation. Pb and Ni were not detected in Canoparmelia texana. Heavy metal concentrations were ranked in order to Fe > Zn > Cu > Cr > Pb > Ni in the studied lichen species. Canoparmelia texana,a foliose lichen was sensitive and found in Kandolia forest area where minimum exposure of pollution was found while Phaeophyscia hispidula and Pyxine subcineria were tolerant species that accumulated significantly different level of heavy metals as per exposure of pollution level. Thus, foliose lichens indicated air quality levels in different areas of Srinagar city. Key words – Air Pollution – Bioindicator – Concentration – Lichen.
30108Niranjan M. & Sarma V.V. (2018): New records of lichenized fungi in the family Trypetheliaceae from Andaman Islands, India. - Current Research in Environmental and Applied Mycology, 8(4): 438–445.
Trypetheliaceae is a family of lichenized fungi in the phylum Ascomycota and it comprises seventeen genera with most of the species being found in neotropical regions in addition to countries in the Paleotropics such as India. Recent exploration of filamentous ascomycetous fungi from Andaman Islands, India, revealed two new records of lichenized fungi in the family Trypetheliaceae. These are Marcelaria benguelensis new to Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Viridothelium solomonense new to India. These fungi are illustrated with photomicrographs and are compared with closely related species in this paper. Key words – 2 new records – Dothideomycetes – Taxonomy – Trypetheliaceae.
30107Kitaura M.J., Augusto B.O. & Benatti M.N. (2017): New records of Leptogium species in Brazil with identification key to insular species from São Paulo State. - Current Research in Environmental and Applied Mycology, 7(2): 129–143.
A survey of cyanolichen species occurring in Cananéia, Cardoso, Comprida and Ilhabela Islands of São Paulo State, Brazil, revealed the occurrence of sixteen species belonging to the genus Leptogium. The survey is based on literature review and on newly collected material. Two species (L. milligranum and L. sulcatum) are newly reported for Brazil and two others (L. atlanticum and L. denticulatum) for the studied islands, while L. azureum, L. cyanescens, L. isidiosellum and L. moluccanum were recollected by us. Descriptions for all insular species, along with an identification key are also presented. Key words – Brazil – Collemataceae – cyanolichens – distribution – islands.
30106Watson W. (1922): The determination of lichens in the field. - The Journal of Botany [London], 60, Suppl I: 1–28.
30105A.L.S. [Smith A.L.] (1922): The Determination of Lichens in the Field. By W. Watson, D.Sc. Reprinted from the 'Journal of Botany.' Taylor & Francis. 28 pp. Price 2s. net. - The Journal of Botany [London], 60: 340.
30104A.H.C. [Church A.H.] (1921): Lichens. By Annie Lorrain Smith, F.L.S. Demy 8vo, cloth, pp. 464, 135 figs. 55s. University Press, Cambridge, 1921. - The Journal of Botany [London], 59: 331–333.
Book review
30103Watson W. (1921): A Handbook of the British Lichens. By Annie Lorrain Smith, P.L.S. 8vo, cloth, pp. 158, with 90 figures in the text. British Museum (Natural History), London, S.W., 1921. Price 6s. 6d. net. - The Journal of Botany [London], 59: 180–182.
Book review
30102Church A.H. (1921): The lichen life-cycle. - The Journal of Botany [London], 59: 139–145, 161–170, 197–202 & 216–221.
30101Church A.H. (1921): The lichen as transmigrant. - The Journal of Botany [London], 59: 7–13 & 40–46.
30100A.L.S. [Smith A.L.] (1920): The Botany of Iceland. Vol. i. pt. 6. The Lichen Flora and Lichen Vegetation of Iceland. By Olaf Galløe. Vol. ii. pt. 1. Freshwater Diatoms. By Ernst Oestrup. Copenhagen, 1919–1920. - The Journal of Botany [London], 58: 295–296.
Book review
30099Church A.H. (1920): The lichen symbiosis. - The Journal of Botany [London], 58: 213–219 & 262–267.
30098Watson W. (1920): Lichens of Llanberis and District. - The Journal of Botany [London], 58: 108–110.
30097Wheldon J.A. (1920): Llanberis lichens. - The Journal of Botany [London], 58: 11–15.
Bilimbia cambrica sp. nov.
30096Boulger G.S. (1919): The cryptogams of Andrew´s herbarium. - The Journal of Botany [London], 57: 337–340.
30095Paulson R. (1919): A Monograph of British Lichens : A Descriptive Catalogue of the Species in the Department of Botany, British Museum. By Annie Lorrain Smith, F.L.S., Acting Assistant, Department of Botany. Printed by order of the Trustees of the British Museum. Part I., Second Edition, pp. 519 : 71 plates and 11 figures in text. Price £1 10s. - The Journal of Botany [London], 57: 21–23.
Book review
30094Danilov A.N. (1918): The relation between gonidia and hyphae in lichens. - The Journal of Botany [London], 56: 169–181.
Translation (by R. Paulson and S. Hastings) of the paper originally published in Russian in Bulletin du Jardin Imperial Botanique de St. Petersbourg, tom. x. livr. 2 (1910).
30093Paulson R. (1917): Chaenotheca melanophaea (Ach.) Zwackh., var. nov. flavocitrina. - The Journal of Botany [London], 55: 195–196.
30092Watson W. (1917): New rare or critical lichens. - The Journal of Botany [London], 55: 107–111, 204–210 & 310–316.
Polzblastia mortensis sp. nov., Staurothele eborrensis sp. nov.
30091Travis W.G. (1917): Anglesea Lichens. - The Journal of Botany [London], 55: 54–55.
30090Anonymus (1915): A wandering lichen. - The Journal of Botany [London], 53: 308.
30089Ramsbottom J. (1915): The Ascornycetes of Ohio. — 1. Preliminary Consideration of Classification. By Bruce Fink.—2. The Collemacese. By B. Fink and C. Audrey Kichards. The Ohio State University Bulletin. Vol. xix. No. 28. Pp. 70. 6 plates. 50 cents. - The Journal of Botany [London], 53: 284–285.
Book review
30088Travis W.G. (1915): Cheshire Lichens. - The Journal of Botany [London], 53: 219.
Note on a paper by F.P. Marrat from 1860: Hepatics and Lichens of Liverpool and its Vicinity.
30087A.L.S. [Smith A.L.] (1910): Lecanora mougeotioides Schaer. in Britain. - The Journal of Botany [London], 48: 141.
30086Wheldon J.A. & Wilson A. (1910): Inverness and Banff cryptogams. - The Journal of Botany [London], 48: 123–129.
30085A.L.S. [Smith A.L.] (1911): British Fungi, with a Chapter on Lichens. By George Massee, with forty coloured plates by Ivy Massee. Bvo, cl., 551 pp. London : George Koutledge & Sons, Limited. 7s. 6d. net. - The Journal of Botany [London], 49: 370–372.
Book review
30084A.L.S. [Smith A.L.] (1911): Two Books on Lichens. The Lichens of Minnesota. By Bruce Fink. Pp. xvii, 269, 51 pl. 18 figs. Washington, 1910. Die Brandpilz der Schweiz. By Prof. Dr. H. C. Schellenberg. Pp. xlv, 180, 79 figs. Price, 6 m. 40 pfg. Bern, 1911.. - The Journal of Botany [London], 49: 279–280.
Book reviews
30083Reader H.P. (1911): A Monograph of the British Lichens, being a Descriptive Catalogue of the Species in the Department of Botany, British Museum. Part II. By Annie Lorrain Smith, F.L.S. 8vo, cl., pp. 409; 59 plates. Price £1 1s.. - The Journal of Botany [London], 49: 170–172.
Book review
30082Smith A.L. (1911): New lichens. - The Journal of Botany [London], 49: 41–44 [+ plate 510].
30081Boulger G.S. (1912): Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker. (1817-1911.). - The Journal of Botany [London], 50: 1–9 & 33–43.
Obituary; Hooker fil.
30080West W. (1912): Notes on the flora of Shetland, with some ecological observations. - The Journal of Botany [London], 50: 265–275 & 297–306.
Shetlands. Voluminous list of lichens at p. 303–306 but noted also within the text. Lichens were examined by T. Hebden and also checked by A.L. Smith.
30079A.L.S. [Smith A.L.] (1912): The announcement in April last of the death of Charles Du Bois Larbalestier, at St. Helier's, Jersey. - The Journal of Botany [London], 50: 69–70.
30078Wheldon J.A. & Travis W.G. (1913): Lichens of Arran (v.-c. 100). - The Journal of Botany [London], 51: 248–253.
30077A.L.S. [Smith A.L.] (1913): Professor Darbishire's account of Antarctic Lichens (Lichens of the Swedish Antarctic Expedition, Stockholm, 1912). - The Journal of Botany [London], 51: 69.
30076Reader H.P. (1913): A Hand-list of the Lichens of Great Britain, Ireland, and the Channel Islands. Compiled by A. E. Horwood. Pp. 45. Is. net. Dulau. - The Journal of Botany [London], 51: 28–29.
30075Holmes E.M. (1914): Joseph Anthony Martindale. (1837-1914.). - The Journal of Botany [London], 52: 241–245.
30074Wilson A. & Wheldon J.A. (1914): Alpine vegetation on Ben-y-Gloe, Perthshire. - Journal of Botany, 52: 227–235.
30073A.L.S. [Smith A.L.] (1914): Untersuchungen über die Flechtengonidien. Von Fredr. Elfving. Acta Soc. Sci. Fenn. Helsingfors, 1913. Tom. xliv. No. 2. 71 pp. ; 8 plates. - The Journal of Botany [London], 52: 189–190.
30072Paulsen R. [recte Paulson] (1914): Lecanora isidioides Nyl. in the New Forest. - The Journal of Botany [London], 52: 184–185.
Rinodina isidioides
30071Hartley J.W. & Wheldon J.A. (1914): The Manx sand-dune flora. - The Journal of Botany [London], 52: 170–175.
30070Howe R.H. Jr. (1915): The genus Cetraria as represented in the United States and Canada. - Torreya, 15(10): 213–230.
30069Wood G.C. (1914): A preliminary list of the lichens found within a radius of 100 miles of New York City. - Torreya, 14(5): 73–95.
30068Howe R.H. Jr. (1914): Some comparisons of the lichen floras of Eurasia and North America. - Torreya, 14(8): 138–140.
30067Merrill G.K. (1913): Lichens from Java. - Torreya, 13: 133–137.
30066Howe R.H. Jr. (1913): A further note on the Linnean herbarium. - Torreya, 13: 77–78.
30065Riddle L.W. (1918): Report on the lichens of St. Thomas and St. Jan. – In: Britton N.L., The Flora of the American Virgin Islands. - Brooklyn Botanic Garden Memoirs, 1: 109–116.
Opegrapha acicularis sp. nov., Lecania euthallina sp. nov., Blastenia nigrocincta sp. nov., Leptogium marginellum var. isidiosellum var. nov.
30064Persoon [C.H.] (1827): [Fungi et Lichenes]. - In: Gaudichaud C., Botanique. – In: Freycinet L., Voyage autour du monde, entrepris par ordre du roi, exécuté sur les corvettes de S.M. l´Uranie et la Physicienne, pendant les années 1817, 1818, 1819 et 1820, p. 165–215, Paris.
30063Aslaksen I., Framstad E., Garnåsjordet P.A. & Lillegård M. (2012): The Norwegian Nature Index: Expert evaluations in precautionary approaches to biodiversity policy. - Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift, 66(5): 257–271.
30062Poulin J. (2018): A new methodology for the characterisation of natural dyes on museum objects using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. - Studies in Conservation, 63(1): 36–61.
The derivatising agent m-(trifluoromethyl)phenyltrimethylammonium hydroxide (TMTFTH) has been employed for more than a decade at the Canadian Conservation Institute (CCI) to extract natural dyes from historical textiles and other dyed substrates. The alkaline reagent breaks the bonds between the colourants and the mordant ions or functional groups of the substrate, releasing the dye compounds into the extraction solution, and derivatises polar functionalities to produce compounds that are amenable to subsequent analysis by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). This approach allows for the identification of the colourants, and is also useful in determining the presence of degradation products from the dyes and substrates, non-dye marker compounds, auxiliary compounds added to the dye bath, and substances present on the object through anthropogenic use, conservation treatments, or possible pesticide contamination. This paper discusses compounds formed through the reactions of TMTFTH with flavonoid dyes (dyer’s buckthorn, old fustic, weld, red sandalwood, and brazilwood), quinone dyes (madder, Relbunium, Galium, cochineal, lac, and walnut), indigoid dyes (indigo, Tyrian purple, and indigo carmine), turmeric, marigold, lupin and several lichen species. Results from a selection of historical dyed textiles and other decorative objects analysed at the CCI are provided to illustrate applications of the methodology. Keywords: Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, TMTFTH, natural dyes, dye analysis, museum objects.
30061Packham J.R., Hobson P.R. & Norris C. (2013): Common beech Fagus sylvatica L; survival and longevity in changing times. - Arboricultural Journal, 35(2): 64–73.
Veteran trees not only have an intrinsic interest in themselves; they also provide information about climatic conditions and masting over periods equal to many human generations. This paper endeavours to highlight existing records of veteran populations of Fagus sylvatica L. in Europe, especially in Sweden, and also provides fresh information regarding trees in Germany and the Carpathian Mountains of the Ukraine. For reasons of space it is not possible to list all the very many papers dealing with the influence of climatic warming on forest trees, but it is clear from those quoted here that common beech is particularly influenced by it. In general the effect has been to move the areas favourable to the species northwards in the lowlands and upwards in mountainous regions. This is very much the case in Britain where the Forest Authority no longer approves of beech planting in southern and eastern England. The use of sweet chestnut Castanea sativa as its replacement in broad-leaved forests is likely to result in ecosystems markedly different from those which evolved under beech. Sweet chestnut is predicted to increase in growth and productivity in the east of England as beech retreats north and west. The English Beech Mast Survey was initiated in 1980; its recorders have in consequence observed the storm damage to beech stands, particularly in the south, during that time. The remarkable response by beech to lava flows on the presently dormant volcano of Etna, Sicily, is both described and illustrated. In many cases lava that engulfed the trees had destroyed the main trunks, but left scorched bases from which the trees had coppiced successfully. Keywords: basal area increment (BAI), common beech Fagus sylvatica, climax forest, dendrochronology, old-growth forests, Urwald, virgin forest, veteran trees, climate change, masting, lowland and mountain forests, ecosystem conservation, volcanoes and lava flow. A summarizing paragraph at p. 66 entitled: Epiphytic lichens and bryophytes on veteran beech.
30060Clement J.P. & Shaw D.C. (1999): Crown structure and the distribution of epiphyte functional group biomass in old-growth Pseudotsuga menziesii trees. - Écoscience, 6(2): 243–254.
Epiphyte functional groups (alectorioid lichens, cyanolichens, other lichens, and bryophytes) were sampled in nine old-growth, canopy-emergent, Pseudotsuga menziesii trees along a riparian corridor in the Wind River Experimental Forest, Washington State, U.S.A., with the objective of determining epiphyte abundance and its relationship to crown structure. An additional objective was to develop a sampling design that reasonably captured the variation in epiphyte distribution so that total biomass could be estimated for an individual large tree, a design efficient enough to make description economically and logistically possible. Trees ranged in height from 51 to 66 meters and averaged 83 live and 79 dead limbs in a crown length of 40 meters. Diameter at breast height was a useful estimator of tree crown structural complexity. Epiphytes averaged 27.1 kg/tree, with alectorioid lichens (19.3 kg/tree) dominating the assemblages, followed by other lichens (3.3 kg/tree), bryophytes (2.6 kg/tree) and cyanolichens (1.9 kg/tree). The foliage region had the highest biomass of lichens (16.4 kg/tree), followed by the branches (8 kg/tree) and trunk (2.6 kg/tree). Alectorioid lichens predominated in the upper, middle and outer portions of the tree crown, whereas the lower and inner portion of the tree crowns had more equal distributions of all four functional groups. Relative height and limb size were the most significant structural attributes influencing epiphyte distribution. Limb size had a particularly strong effect on the distribution of bryophytes regardless of height. In old, canopy-emergent P. menziesii, the crown structural variables which determine epiphyte distribution and abundance are height, crown length, trunk surface area and exposure, distribution and abundance of small, medium and large branches, and distribution and exposure of foliated branches. Key Words: Epiphytes, Biomass, Lichens, Bryophytes, Crown structure, Pseudotsuga menziesii.
30059Storaunet K.O., Rolstad J. & Groven R. (2000): Reconstructing 100-150 years of logging history in coastal spruce forest (Picea abies) with special conservation values in central Norway. - Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 15(6): 591–604.
Coastal spruce forests of central Norway harbour a unique assemblage of epiphytic lichens and are given high priority with respect to conservation of biodiversity. To assess the historical impact of logging during the last 100-150 yrs, 31 remnant stands were studied by means of tree-ring analysis of 2199 trees and the decay stage of 1605 stumps. No stands had been clear-cut, but all had been selectively logged at least twice during the last 150 yrs. Total harvested timber volume ranged from 65 to 409 m3ha-1 (31-124% of present-day standing volume) and the selective logging kept standing volume low (40-200 m3ha-1) during 1890-1930. Present-day stand characteristics were strongly correlated with site productivity and topographic position within the ravine valleys. Low amounts of dead wood at sites with high historical logging activity was the only consistent relationship found after covariance of site productivity, topographic position and deciduous trees were taken into account. The results indicate that old-growth stand characteristics, such as reversed J-shaped age distributions and dead wood in advanced decay classes, can be obtained 100-150 yrs after intensive selective logging. Keywords: Central Norway, Coastal Spruce Forest, Forest History, Growth Release, Logging Activity, Picea Abies, Stand Reconstruction, Stump Decay.
30058Kathirgamanathar S., Williams D.E., Andersen R.J., Bombuwela K., De Silva D. & Karunaratne V. (2005): β-Orcinol depsidones from the lichen Usnea sp. from Sri Lanka. - Natural Product Research, 19(7): 695–701.
Two β-orcinol depsidone lactones, the methyl ethers of menegazziaic acid and stictic acid were isolated along with glyceryl trilinolate and usnic acid from an Usnea sp. new to Sri Lanka growing on rotting trees of Acacia decurrans. Usnic acid exhibited potent antitermite activity against a common pest of tea, Glyptotermes dilatatus, at low elevations. Keywords: Lichen, Usnea sp., Methyl ether of menegazziaic acid, Methyl ether of stictic acid, Glyceryl trilinolate, Usnic acid, Antitermite activity.
30057Giordani P., Benesperi R., Rizzi G. & Brunialti G. (2009): New records for lichen regional floras of Italy. - Webbia, 64(1): 153–158.
Thirty-five lichen species, collected during several trips in Italy are listed. These records are additions to the lichen flora of Liguria (21 species), Toscana (5), Sicilia (1), Abruzzo (1), Lazio (1), Sardegna (1); one species is new to N Italy and 2 to C Italy. Additional information is given for some other rare species, while the occurrence of some taxa previously reported only from collections dating back to the XIX century is confirmed. Key words: epiphytic cryptogams, epilithic cryptogams, rare species.
30056Trest M.T., Will-Wolf S., Keuler R., Shay N., Hill K., Studer A., Muench A., Alexander Z., Adams A., Dittberner L., Feehan M., Lee H., Galleguillos-Katz N., Zedler J.B., Graham L. & Arancibia-Avila P. (2015): Potential impacts of UV exposure on lichen communities: a pilot study of Nothofagus dombeyi trunks in southernmost Chile. - Ecosystem Health and Sustainability, 1(4): 1–12.
High‐latitude terrestrial ecosystems face the triple threats of climate warming, increased exposure to UV arising from polar ozone depletion, and deforestation. Lichen communities of southernmost Chile are recognized for their high diversity, which includes nitrogen‐fixing cyanolichens. Such lichens are common on forest trees, contribute nitrogen to forests, and are sensitive to exposure following deforestation (widespread in this region). In a pilot study of exposure effects on tree lichens, using nondestructive imaging methods, we compared lichen communities on trunks of isolated vs. forest tree trunks of southern Chilean beech (Nothofagus dombeyi, Nothofagaceae). We chose trees of similar diameter and trunk lean angle in conserved forest and nearby logged meadow on Navarino Island, XII Region Magallanes and Chilean Antarctica, Chile, within the annual southern ozone hole. Ninety‐five percent of cyanolichen records, including Nephroma antarcticum, and 66% of records for other foliose lichens were from the forest, whereas pendulous usneoid lichens dominated N. dombeyi bark at the meadow site. Limitation of cyanolichen growth on isolated trees could affect ecosystem function in this poorly studied habitat. Possible factors contributing to strong community differences were increased light intensity, UV radiation, and wind stress, plus limited ability of lichens to colonize isolated trees in the logged meadow. UV radiation was likely an important stressor for some lichen species but not others. We recommend more extensive monitoring to pinpoint causes of differing lichen communities, and we encourage better protection of bark‐dwelling lichens in southern hemisphere regions facing multiple threats. Key words: bark lichens, Chile, cyanolichens, deforestation, forest fragmentation, lichen diversity, Nothofagus dombeyi, southern ozone hole, UV radiation.
30055Ece A. & Pejin B. (2015): A computational insight into acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of a new lichen depsidone. - Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry, 30(4): 528–532.
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are yet the best drugs currently available for the management of Alzheimer’s disease. The recent phytochemical investigation has led to the isolation of a new depsidone 1 with moderate AChE activity (1 μg). This work was focused on its electronic properties analysed using commercially available programs. Both the active depsidone molecule 1 and galanthamine showed to have higher HOMO energies than the inactive depsidones 2–4, isolated from the same lichen species. However, the amino depsidone derivative 7, whose structure was proposed using computational approaches, is expected to be more active AChE inhibitor than the depsidone 1, due to the improved HOMO energy value. In addition, the molecular docking study indicated that the compound 7 has ability to make the well-known interactions of potent AChE inhibitors with the enzyme active site. The data presented herein support the design of novel AChE inhibitors based on the depsidone scaffold. Keywords: AChE inhibitors, density functional theory, electronic properties, molecular docking.
30054Brunialti G., Giordani P., Benesperi R. & Ravera S. (2001): Additions to the lichen flora of the Ligurian Apennines (NW Italy). - Webbia, 56(1): 223–228.
This paper reports 24 lichens from the Ligurian Apennines, 11 of which are new to Liguria and 4 to Emilia regions in N-Italy. Key words: biodiversity, Emilia, Lichenes, Liguria.
30053Thompson R.N. & Hope J.C.E. (2005): Restoring planted ancient woodland sites — Assessment, silviculture and monitoring. - Botanical Journal of Scotland, 57: 211–227.
This paper deals with three aspects of the process of restoring planted ancient woodland sites(PAWS) to semi-natural conditions. Firstly, we describe a baseline assessment of botanical interest within a PAWS. This survey has been undertaken to determine the impact of clearfelling, particularly on lower plants and the subsequent colonisation of ground vegetation into areas currently dominated by needle litter. Secondly, we discuss some of the main considerations when undertaking restoration through alternative silvicultural systems to clearfell. Finally, we describe the main requirement for successful site monitoring for management purposes. "The main focus of our study is on epiphytic lichens although some saxicolous lower plants have also been assessed. This paper provides an account of the baseline survey and discusses the potential response to clear felling."
30052Giordani P. & Brunialti G. (2000): New and interesting species to the Ligurian lichen flora. - Webbia, 55(2): 331–338.
27 species from various places in the Liguria region (Northern Italy) are reported. 13 of these are new to the region. Key words: flora, lichens, Liguria, N Italy.
30051Packham J.R. & Hytteborn H. (2012): Swedish beech forests and the storm gap theory. - Arboricultural Journal, 34(3): 151–159.
Lobaria pulmonaria as an indicator of old-growth beech forests discussed and figured.
30050Cicek A., Koparal A.S., Aslan A. & Yazici K. (2007): Accumulation of heavy metals from motor vehicles in transplanted lichens in an urban area. - Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 39: 168–176.
Thalli of the lichens Pseudevernia furfuracea, Usnea longissima, Lobaria pulmonaria, and Peltigera praetextata were taken from unpolluted areas and transplanted to a downtown site in Erzurum, Turkey. Heavy metals copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and iron (Fe) were measured after an 8 month exposure period. Changes in the heavy metal concentrations were observed during the exposure period in lichen species and in both locations. Heavy metal concentrations were significantly higher in Peltigera praetextata than the other species at the location nearest to the junction crossroads. Peltigera praetextata may be considered a good indicator. These results can be attributed to the effect of atmospheric pollutants on the transplanted lichens. Keywords: Accumulation, Erzurum, Turkey, heavy metal, lichen.
30049Pejin B., Tommonaro G., Iodice C., Tesevic V., Vajs V. & De Rosa S. (2013): A new depsidone of Lobaria pulmonaria with acetylcholinesterase inhibition activity. - Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry, 28(4): 876–878.
The phytochemical investigation conducted on a foliose lichen, Lobaria pulmonaria(L.) Hoffm. (Lobariaceae), led to the isolation of a new depsidone in the form of its diacetate derivative which showed a moderate acetylcholinesterase inhibition activity (1 µg) in vitro. This is the first record of identified depsidone structure in searching for these inhibitors. Keywords: Lichen, secondary metabolite, biological activity.
30048Pejin B., Tommonaro G., Iodice C., Tesevic V. & Vajs V. (2012): Acetylcholinesterase inhibition activity of acetylated depsidones from Lobaria pulmonaria. - Natural Product Research, 26(17): 1634–1637.
As part of our ongoing project of new acetylcholinesterase inhibitors from lower marine and terrestrial species, a phytochemical investigation was conducted on a foliose lichen, Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm. (Lobariaceae), from Bosnia and Herzegovina. The study led to the isolation of a mixture of acetylated depsidones which showed a moderate activity (0.5 mg) in the acetylcholinesterase inhibition test on Thin-layer chromatography plate. Our results indicate for the first time the significance of depsidones, highly specific metabolites from lichen species, in searching for these inhibitors which still represent the best drugs currently available for the management of Alzheimer’s disease. Keywords: lichen; Lobaria pulmonaria; depsidones; acetylcholinesterase inhibition activity; Alzheimer’s disease.
30047Sanyal A.K., Alfred J.R.B., Venkataraman K., Tiwari S.K. & Mitra S. (2012): Status of biodiversity of West Bengal. - Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata, 969 p. [+ 35 plates].
India; lichens at p. 257-277
30046Sipman H.J.M. & Aguirre-C. J. (2016): Líquenes. Lichens. - In: Bernal R., Gradstein S.R. & Celis M. [eds], Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Volumen I [Catalogue of the plants and lichens of Colombia. Volume I], p. 159–281, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá.
30045Anonymus (2018): Recent literature on Australasian lichens. - Australasian Lichenology, 82: 156.
30044Øvstedal D.O. (2018): Maritime species of the genus Verrucaria in Kerguelia. - Australasian Lichenology, 82: 147–155.
Twenty maritime species of Verrucaria are reported from Kerguelia (Kerguelen, Heard Island and Prince Edward Islands), including the new species V. placodioides Øvstedal. Taxonomy, ecology and distribution are discussed.
30043Elix J.A., Liao L. & Barrow R.A. (2018): The structure of japonene, a hopane triterpene from Heterodermia lichens (Physciaceae, Ascomycota). - Australasian Lichenology, 82: 140–146.
The triterpene japonene [hopane-6α,16α,22-triol] (1) has been isolated from the lichen Heterodermia propaguligera, and its structure established by mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy.
30042Elix J.A. & Archer A.W. (2018): Fissurina virensica, a new species in the Australian Graphidaceae (Lichenized Ascomycota, Ostropales) containing virensic acid. - Australasian Lichenology, 82: 137–139.
Fissurina virensica, characterized by fissurine apothecia, 4-locular ascospores and the presence of virensic acid, is reported as new to science. This is the first report of virensic acid in the genus Fissurina.
30041Archer A.W. & Elix J.A. (2018): New combinations of Australian species in the genus Lepra Scop.. - Australasian Lichenology, 82: 130–136.
Twenty-two species of the lichen genus Pertusaria sens. lat. formerly included in Pertusaria subg. Monomurata A.W.Archer are transferred to the recently resurrected genus Lepra Scop. A key to the species present in Australia is provided.
30040Sipman H.J.M. (2018): Three new lichen species and 48 new records from Vanuatu. - Australasian Lichenology, 82: 106–129.
Three lichens from Vanuatu are described as new species: Crocynia didymica Sipman (also in Papua New Guinea), Crypthonia streimannii Sipman (also in Indonesia) and Herpothallon alae Sipman. Another 48 taxa are listed as new records for Vanuatu.
30039Sipman H.J.M. (2018): New species and new records of Australian lichens. - Australasian Lichenology, 82: 92–105.
Leucodecton granulosum Sipman and Myriotrema protofrustillatum Sipman (Graphidaceae) are described as new from New South Wales. Bellemerea cinereorufescens (Ach.) Clauzade & Cl.Roux and Mazosia carnea (Eckfield) Aptroot & M.Cáceres are new records for Australia. New State, Territory and oceanic island records are provided for 33 other taxa.
30038Kalb K. & Aptroot A. (2018): Six new lichen species from Australia. - Australasian Lichenology, 82: 84–91.
Carbacanthographis uniseptata Kalb & Aptroot (Graphidaceae; Queensland), Coenogonium bryophilum Kalb & Aptroot (Coenogoniaceae; Borneo, Queensland), Coniarthonia minima Kalb & Aptroot (Arthoniaceae; New South Wales), Punctonora brunneosorediata Kalb & Aptroot (Lecanoraceae; New South Wales), Roccellinastrum leprocauloides Kalb & Aptroot (Pilocarpaceae; Queensland) and Traponora flavothallina Kalb & Aptroot (Lecanoraceae; Queensland) are described as new to science. Among hitherto unidentified collections of Australian lichens, we have encountered several new taxa, six of which are described in the present paper. Chemical constituents were identified by thin-layer chromatography (Elix 2014).
30037Elix J.A. & Mayrhofer H. (2018): A new species of Sculptolumina (Caliciaceae, Ascomycota) from Queensland, Australia. - Australasian Lichenology, 82: 80–83.
Sculptolumina ramboldii Elix & H.Mayrhofer, the first known saxicolous species in the genus, is described as new to science.
30036Elix J.A. & Mayrhofer H. (2018): Three new species and ten new records of buellioid lichens (Ascomycota, Caliciaceae) from New Zealand. - Australasian Lichenology, 82: 68–79.
Amandinea okainensis Elix & H.Mayrhofer, Buellia porphyrilica Elix & H.Mayrhofer and Tetramelas kopuwaianus Elix & H.Mayrhofer are reported as new to science, and the new combination Amandinea discreta (Darb.) Elix & H.Mayrhofer is proposed. Amandinea discreta, A. prothallinata Elix & H.Mayrhofer, Buellia aeruginosa A.Nordin, Owe-Larsson & Elix, B. epiaeruginosa Elix, B. georgei Trinkaus, H.Mayrhofer & Elix, B. poimenae Elix & Kantvilas, B. straminea Tuck., B. subadjuncta Elix & Kantvilas, Endohyalina arachniformis Elix & Kantvilas and Orcularia elixii Kalb & Giralt are reported for the first time from New Zealand.
30035Elix J.A. (2018): Three new species and five new records of corticolous and lichenicolous buellioid lichens (Caliciaceae, Ascomycota) from New Zealand’s subantarctic islands. - Australasian Lichenology, 82: 60–67.
Buellia campbelliana Elix, B. thelotremicola Elix and Gassicurtia jamesii Elix are described as new to science. Amandinea dudleyensis Elix & Kantvilas, A. extenuata (Müll. Arg) Marbach, A. lignicola var. australis Elix & Kantvilas, Baculifera xylophila (Malme) Marbach and Orcularia insperata (Nyl.) Kalb & Giralt are new records for New Zealand’s subantarctic islands.
30034Elix J.A. & McCarthy P.M. (2018): Ten new lichen species (Ascomycota) from Australia. - Australasian Lichenology, 82: 20–59.
Ten lichens (Ascomycota) are described as new from Australia: Byssoloma australiense P.M.McCarthy & Elix (Pilocarpaceae; Queensland, New South Wales), Catillaria laevigata P.M.McCarthy & Elix (Catillariaceae; eastern New South Wales), Cladia xanthocarpa Elix & P.M.McCarthy (Cladoniaceae; north-eastern Queensland), Japewiella variabilis Elix & P.M.McCarthy (Lecanoraceae; the Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia), Lecidella meridionalis Elix & P.M.McCarthy (Lecanoraceae; Western Australia, South Australia, Victoria, New South Wales), L. occidentalis Elix & P.M.McCarthy (Western Australia), Megalaria insularis P.M.McCarthy & Elix (Ramalinaceae; Norfolk Island), Micarea humilis P.M.McCarthy & Elix (Pilocarpaceae; the Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales), Porpidia littoralis (Lecideaceae; southern New South Wales) and Ramboldia oxalifera P.M.McCarthy & Elix (Lecanoraceae; northern New South Wales). The new combination Lecidella leptolomoides (Müll.Arg.) Elix is made for Lecidea leptolomoides Müll.Arg.
30033McCarthy P.M. & Elix J.A. (2018): New species and records of lichens from the Cook Islands, South Pacific Ocean. - Australasian Lichenology, 82: 3–19.
Lecanographa solicola P.M.McCarthy & Elix (Roccellaceae) and Pseudocyphellaria louwhoffiae Elix (Lobariaceae) are described as new from Rarotonga, Cook Islands, South Pacific Ocean. Twenty-eight other taxa are reported for the first time from the Cook Islands. An updated, national lichen checklist is also provided.
30032Wang Y., Zhang Y., Shao J., Ren X., Jia J. & Li B. (2019): Study on the immunomodulatory activity of a novel polysaccharide from the lichen Umbilicaria esculenta. - International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 121: 846–851.
Umbilicaria esculenta possesses nutritional properties, such as antioxidant, antithrombotic and lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity. The immune effects of its polysaccharide (Umbilicaria esculenta polysaccharide, UEP) on murine macrophages RAW264.7 were investigated for the first time. UEP promoted their proliferation and phagocytic activity obviously. At the concentration of 600 μg mL−1, UEP stimulated their proliferation and phagocytosis to 1.4 and 2.5 times, respectively, as compared with the negative group. Moreover, UEP induced their release of nitric oxide (NO), NO synthase (NOS), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin factors (IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10) in a concentration-dependent manner. The production of NO and NOS was increased to 25.2 and 2.7 times, respectively, while the secretion of those cytokines was enhanced to multiples from 1.9 to 2.6 times. At the same time, TAK242, an inhibitor of TLR4 (Toll-like receptor 4), inhibited UEP influences on these factors with inhibition rates up to 50%, which indicated that UEP acted on murine macrophages mainly via TLR4. UEP has positive immunomodulatory functions in murine macrophages, and can be developed as a potential novel immunomodulator.
30031Tonon C., Favero-Longo S.E., Matteucci E., Piervittori R., Croveri P., Appolonia L., Meirano V., Serino M. & Elia D. (2019): Microenvironmental features drive the distribution of lichens in the House of the Ancient Hunt, Pompeii, Italy. - International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, 136: 71–81.
On the stone cultural heritage, the influence of architecture-related microenvironmental features on lichen diversity, abundance and consequent threats for conservation has been still poorly characterized to support management plans. Such relationships were here investigated on the vertical surfaces of the House of the Ancient Hunt in Pompeii, archaeological site in S-Italy where the variability of lichen saxicolous communities has been still completely neglected despite their widespread occurrence. Lichen colonization in semiconfined rooms was sporadic and limited to Dirina massiliensis, while a remarkable turnover of six communities, encompassing 22 species, characterized mortar, painted and plastered surfaces in outdoor environments, with local covers up to 80%. Microscopic and spectroscopic analyses displayed the deteriogenic potential of three dominant species, due to hyphal penetration within paint and plaster layers (Verrucaria macrostoma) and the release of oxalic acid and/or secondary metabolites with acidic and chelating functions (D. massiliensis, Lepraria lobificans). A higher vertical distance of surfaces from the ground and a larger room dimension were the main conditional factors related to a higher lichen abundance and the distribution of the different communities. Such knowledge on architecture-related microenvironmental features driving lichen distribution and biodeterioration threats may contribute to address restoration priorities and conservation strategies.
30030Li S., Liu W.-Y., Shi X.-M., Liu S., Hu T., Song L., Lu H.-Z., Chen X. & Wu C.-S. (2019): Non-dominant trees significantly enhance species richness of epiphytic lichens in subtropical forests of southwest China. - Fungal Ecology, 37: 10–18.
Host species has an important influence on the distribution of epiphytic lichens in forests. However, the importance of non-dominant trees in shaping lichen communities has been poorly studied owing to the relative rarity of individuals. The importance of dominant and non-dominant trees for distribution of epiphytic lichens was determined in eight subtropical forests in southwestern China. Dominant trees supported more abundant total and exclusive lichen species only in secondary forests. The occurrence of non-dominant trees promoted lichen diversity within forest types and influenced lichen communities on both tree groups. The effects of total tree species on lichen distribution largely resulted from the presence of non-dominant trees. Dominant and non-dominant trees supported distinct lichen assemblages within forest types, and ordination analyses showed a clear separation. Our study, therefore, reinforces the importance of non-dominant trees for conserving epiphytic lichens, and highlights that lichen assemblages are shaped by both dominant and non-dominant trees.
30029Salemaa M., Lindroos A.-J., Merilä P., Mäkipää R. & Smolander A. (2019): N2 fixation associated with the bryophyte layer is suppressed by low levels of nitrogen deposition in boreal forests. - Science of the Total Environment, 653: 995–1004.
Biological fixation of atmospheric nitrogen (N2) by bryophyte-associated cyanobacteria is an important source of plant-available N in the boreal biome. Information on the factors that drive biological N2 fixation (BNF) rates is needed in order to understand the N dynamics of forests under a changing climate. We assessed the potential of several cryptogam species (the feather mosses Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi, a group of Dicranum bryophytes, two liverworts, and Cladina lichens) to serve as associates of cyanobacteria or other N2-fixing bacteria (diazotrophs) using acetylene reduction assay (ARA). We tested the hypotheses that the legacy of chronic atmospheric N deposition reduces BNF in the three bryophyte species, sampled from 12 coniferous forests located at latitudes 60–68° N in Finland. In addition, we tested the effect of moisture and temperature on BNF. All species studied showed a BNF signal in the north, with the highest rates in feather mosses. In moss samples taken along the north–south gradient with an increasing N bulk deposition from 0.8 to 4.4 kg ha−1 year−1, we found a clear decrease in BNF in both feather mosses and Dicranum group. BNF turned off at N deposition of 3–4 kg ha−1 year−1. Inorganic N (NH4-N + NO3-N) best predicted the BNF rate among regression models with different forms of N deposition as explanatory variables. However, in southern spruce stands, tree canopies modified the N in throughfall so that dissolved organic N (DON) leached from canopies compensated for inorganic N retained therein. Here, both DON and inorganic N negatively affected BNF in H. splendens. In laboratory experiments, BNF increased with increasing temperature and moisture. Our results suggest that even relatively low N deposition suppresses BNF in bryophyte-associated diazotrophs. Further, BNF could increase in northern low-deposition areas, especially if climate warming leads to moister conditions, as predicted.
30028Bytnerowicz A., Fenn M.E., Cisneros R., Schweizer D., Burley J. & Schilling S.L. (2019): Nitrogenous air pollutants and ozone exposure in the central Sierra Nevada andWhite Mountains of California – Distribution and evaluation of ecological risks. - Science of the Total Environment, 654: 604–615.
[Discussion. 4.2.2. Effects of N pollutants and N deposition, p. 612: ] Based on ratios of NH3 concentrations in summer versus annual average concentrations at analogous sites in Yosemite and Sequoia & Kings Canyon National Parks we estimated the annual average concentrations of NH3 at our SNMstudy sites. The annual average NH3 concentrations ranged from 1.1 to 4.4 μg m−3 in SNM in both years. Based on these estimated NH3 concentrations we expect epiphytic lichen communities to be affected by NH3 at all of the SNM sites. Most of the WM sites are above tree line and we do not have critical level information for rock-inhabiting lichens. [Conclusions; p. 613: ] ... Estimated Nr deposition values in SNM and WM are indicative of impacts on lichen communities and potential nutrient enrichment and acidification of high elevation lakes.
30027Koch N.M., Matos P., Branquinho C., Pinho P., Lucheta F., Martins S.M.A. & Vargas V.M.F. (2019): Selecting lichen functional traits as ecological indicators of the effects of urban environment. - Science of the Total Environment, 654: 705–713.
Air pollution and the urban heat island effect are known to directly affect ecosystems in urban areas. Lichens, which are widely known as good ecological indicators of air quality and of climatic conditions, can be a valuable tool to monitor environmental changes in urban environments. The objective of this work was to select lichen functional traits and functional groups that can be used as ecological indicators of the effects of urbanization, with emphasis in the Southern subtropics, where this had never been done. For that, we assessed lichen functional composition in urban sites with different population density, which was considered as proxy for grouping sites in two levels of urbanization (low and medium/high). This a priori grouping was based on their significantly differences on air pollutants and land cover. Urbanization and air pollution showed to affect all lichen functional traits, with different responses depending on the functional group. Medium/high density urbanization was associated to an increase on the mean relative abundance of lichens with chlorococcoid green algae, foliose narrow lobes, soredia as the main reproduction strategy, pruinose thallus and containing secondary metabolites for chemical protection. Lower density urbanization showed a higher relative frequency of cyanolichens and lichens with Trentepohlia as the main algae, loosely attached crustose thallus and isidia as the main reproductive structure. The differences found on photobiont and growth form traits in response to the environmental variables used as proxies of microclimatic conditions (forest cover and number of trees around the sampling units), enabled us to detect the urban heat island effect (drier conditions in more urbanized sites).
30026Landis M.S., Studabaker W.B., Pancras J.P., Graney J.R., Puckett K., White E.M. & Edgerton E.S. (2019): Source apportionment of an epiphytic lichen biomonitor to elucidate the sources and spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Alberta, Canada. - Science of the Total Environment, 654: 1241–1257.
The sources and spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) atmospheric deposition in the boreal forests surrounding bitumen production operations in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR), Alberta, Canada were investigated as part of a 2014 passive in-situ bioindicator source apportionment study. Epiphytic lichen species Hypogymnia physodes samples (n = 127) were collected within a 150 km radius of the main surface oil sand production operations and analyzed for total sulfur, total nitrogen, forty-three elements, twenty-two PAHs, ten groups of C1-C2-alkyl PAHs and dibenzothiophenes (polycyclic aromatic compounds; PACs), five C1- and C2-alkyldibenzothiophenes, and retene. The ΣPAH + PAC in H. physodes ranged from 54 to 2778 ng g−1 with a median concentration of 317 ng g−1. Source apportionment modeling found an eight-factor solution that explained 99% of the measured ΣPAH + PAC lichen concentrations from four anthropogenic oil sands production sources (Petroleum Coke, Haul Road Dust, Stack Emissions, Raw Oil Sand), two local/regional sources (Biomass Combustion, Mobile Source), and two lichen biogeochemical factors. Petroleum Coke and Raw Oil Sand dust were identified as the major contributing sources of ΣPAH + PAC in the AOSR. These two sources accounted for 63% (43.2 μg g−1) of ΣPAH + PAC deposition to the entire study domain. Of this overall 43.2 μg g−1 contribution, approximately 90% (39.9 μg g−1) ΣPAH + PAC was deposited within 25 km of the closest oil sand production facility. Regional sources (Biomass Combustion and Mobile Sources) accounted for 19% of ΣPAH + PAC deposition to the entire study domain, of which 46% was deposited near-field to oil sand production operations. Source identification was improved over a prior lichen-based study in the AOSR through incorporation of PAH and PAC analytes in addition to inorganic analytes.
30025Graney J.R., Edgerton E.S. & Landis M.S. (2019): Using Pb isotope ratios of particulate matter and epiphytic lichens from the Athabasca Oil Sands Region in Alberta, Canada to quantify local, regional, and global Pb source contributions. - Science of the Total Environment, 654: 1293–1304.
Ambient air particulate matter (PM) was collected at the Wood Buffalo Environmental Association Bertha Ganter Fort McKay monitoring station in the Athabasca Oil Sand Region (AOSR) in Alberta, Canada from February 2010 to July 2011 as part of an air quality source assessment study. Daily 24-hour duration fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM10–2.5) PM was collected using a sequential dichotomous sampler. 100 pairs of PM2.5 and PM10–2.5 were selected for lead (Pb) concentration and isotope analysis. Pb isotope and concentration results from 250 epiphytic lichen samples collected as far as 160 km from surface mining operations in 2008, 2011, and 2014 were analyzed to examine longer term spatial variations in Pb source contributions. A key finding was recognition of thorogenic 208Pb from eastern Asia in the springtime in the PM2.5 in 2010 and 2011. 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb isotope ratios were used in a three-component mixing model to quantify local, regional, and global Pb sources in the PM and lichen data sets. 47 ± 3% of the Pb in the PM2.5 at AMS-1 was attributed to sources from eastern Asia. Combined results from PM10–2.5 and PM2.5 indicate PM2.5 Pb contributions from eastern Asia (34%) exceed local AOSR sources of PM2.5 Pb (20%), western Canada sources of PM2.5 Pb (19%), and PM10–2.5 Pb from fugitive dust including oil sands (14%), tailings (10%), and haul roads (3%). The lichen analysis indicates regional sources contribute 46% of the Pb, local sources 32%, and global sources 22% over the 2008–2014 timeframe. Local sources dominate atmospheric Pb deposition to lichens at near field sites (0–30 km from mining operations) whereas regional Pb sources are prevalent at distal sites (30–160 km). The Pb isotope methodology successfully quantified trans-Pacific transport of Pb to the AOSR superimposed over the aerosol footprint of the world's largest concentration of bitumen mining and upgrading facilities.
30024Ihlen P.G. & Coppins B.J. (1999): Two species of Arthothelium (Arthoniaceae, Arthoniales) new to Scandinavia. - Nova Hedwigia, 69: 391–397.
Arthothelium lirellans and A. orbilliferum are reported new to Scandinavia. Both species were found in Hordaland, western Norway. Their ecology and European distribution are discussed, and distribution maps presented.
30023Calatayud V. & Triebel D. (1999): Stigmidium neofusceliae (Dothideales s. l.), a new lichenicolous fungus from Spain. - Nova Hedwigia, 69: 439–448.
Stigmidium neofusceliae Calatayud & Triebel (Dothideales s.l.) is described as new to science. It is found in eastern Spain occurring on Neofuscelia. This lichenicolous fungus is compared with the only other Stigmidium species currently known as occurring on parmelioid lichens, S. xanthoparmeliarum (new to Spain), and with 'Stigmidium' psorae, which is similar because of its cell wall chemistry. S. psorae is regarded as a member of the family Dacampiaceae but its generic placement still remains uncertain. General considerations concerning the taxonomic relevance of isolichenan as cell wall component causing the I+ violet reaction of hymenial gel and walls of vegetative hyphae are given.
30022Galloway D.J. (1999): Notes on the lichen genus Leptogium (Collemataceae, Ascomycota) in New Zealand. - Nova Hedwigia, 69: 317–355.
Twenty species of the lichen genus Leptogium (Ach.) Gray, are presently recognized in the lichen mycobiota of the New Zealand region, viz., L. aucklandicum, L. australe, L. austroamericanum, L. biloculare, L. burgessii, L. coralloideum, L. crispatellum, L. cyanescens, L. cyanizum, L. denticulatum, L. laceroides, L. limbatum, L. malmei, L. menziesii, L. pecten, L. philorheuma, L. phyllocarpum, L. plicatile, L. propaguliferum and L. victorianum. A key to species, descriptions of all taxa, biogeographical affinities and distribution maps are presented. Leptogium patoni Stirt. is referred to Collema laeve. The name L. aucklandicum Zahlbr. is revived for New Zealand material formerly referred to L. azureum, which does not occur in New Zealand.
30021Brigham L.M., Allende L.M., Shipley B.R., Boyd K.C., Higgins T.J., Kelly N., Anderson Stewart C.R., Keepers K.G., Pogoda C.S., Lendemer J.C., Tripp E.A. & Kane N.C. (2018): Genomic insights into the mitochondria of 11 eastern North American species of Cladonia. - Mitochondrial DNA Part B, 3(2): 508–512.
Cladonia is among the most species-rich genera of lichens globally. Species in this lineage, commonly referred to as reindeer lichens, are ecologically important in numerous regions worldwide. In some locations, species of Cladonia can comprise the dominant groundcover, and are a major food source for caribou and other mammals. Additionally, many species are known to produce substances with antimicrobial properties or other characteristics with potentially important medical applications. This exceptional morphological and ecological variation contrasts sharply with the limited molecular divergence often observed among species. As a new resource to facilitate ongoing and future studies of these important species, we analyse here the sequences of 11 Cladonia mitochondrial genomes, including new mitochondrial genome assemblies and annotations representing nine species: C. apodocarpa, C. caroliniana, C. furcata, C. leporina, C. petrophila, C. peziziformis, C. robbinsii, C. stipitata, and C. subtenuis. These 11 genomes varied in size, intron content, and complement of tRNAs. Genes annotated within these mitochondrial genomes include 15 protein-coding genes, the large and small ribosomal subunits (mtLSU and mtSSU), and 23–26 tRNAs. All Cladonia mitochondrial genomes contained atp9, an important energy transport gene that has been lost evolutionarily in some lichen mycobiont mitochondria. Using a concatenated alignment of five mitochondrial genes (nad2, nad4, cox1, cox2, and cox3), a Bayesian phylogeny of relationships among species was inferred and was consistent with previously published phylogenetic relationships, highlighting the utility of these regions in reconstructing phylogenetic history. Keywords: Cladonia, genome, lichen, mitochondrion, symbiosis.
30020Gabrys J. (2018): Sensing lichens. From ecological microcosms to environmental subjects. - Third Text, 32(2–3): 350–367.
Bioindication is a process whereby organisms signal environmental events such as air pollution, and that occurs across multiple organisms as they are affected by, sense and even transform their environments. Lichens are particularly sensitive bioindicator organisms that sense and accumulate environmental pollution. Also used to detect air pollution levels, lichens can be used to monitor environments in ways that are more indicative or qualitative in comparison to technical instruments. Bioindication could then be considered to be expressive not just of other ways of doing environmental sensing, but also as productive of other engagements with environmental politics that attend to the lived effects of pollution as experienced by nonhuman organisms. In this register of reworking environmental conflict and environmental sensing through pollution, I ask how lichens, as fungal-vegetal vectors for sensing environments, might go beyond representational modes of politics to generate more ecological and speculative encounters with environmental politics and worlds in the making. Using a speculative bioindicator garden as one method for encountering environments from a lichen point of view, I develop propositional ecological relations that might, through sensing environments in other registers, also realise more expansive environmental political engagements with conflicts such as pollution. Keywords: Jennifer Gabrys, bioindication, environmental sensing, lichens, speculative citizenship, ecological citizenship, bioindicator garden, citizen sensing, wild sensing, Arctic, art and science.
30019Musulla S., Kumari Y B., Madala M., Rao A S. & Naresh V.V. (2018): Alternative total synthesis of (+)-aspicilin. - Synthetic Communications, 48(13): 1657–1662.
The total synthesis of an 18-membered polyhydroxylated macrolide (+)-Aspicilin was accomplished starting from commercially available enantiopure propylene oxide and D-(+)-gluconolactone by asymmetric synthetic approach. The key reactions involved are Witttig reaction, Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation, and Yamaguchi macrolactonization. Keywords: Aspicilin, S-propylene oxide, sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation and Yamaguchi macrolactonization, witttig olefination.
30018Liu D., Oh S.-O., Park J.-S. & Hur J.-S. (2018): New species and new record of genus Chrysothrix (Chrysotrichaceae, Arthoniales) from South Korea and Chile. - Mycobiology, 46(3): 185–191.
The genus Chrysothrix is very common around the world and easy to be recognized by its bright yellowish granular thallus. In this study, investigations of lichen mycota in South Korea and Chile from 2010 to 2017 have been done, and some Chrysothrix specimens were collected, based on the morphological and chemical study on these specimens, five species were confirmed in this study, including one new species from Chile, Chrysothrix chilensis D. Liu & J.-S Hur, and one new record from South Korea, C. xanthina (Vain.) Kalb. Meanwhile, detail description and illustration for each species were present in this study. Keywords: Chrysothrix, taxonomy, lichen, Chile, South Korea.
30017Smith D.C. (1979): From extracellular to intracellular: the establishment of a symbiosis. - Proceedings of the Royal Society [London], series B, 204: 115–130.
30016Fowden L. (1968): The occurrence and metabolism of carbon–halogen compounds. - Proceedings of the Royal Society [London], series B, 171: 5–18.
30015Fritsch F.E. (1952): Algae in association with heterotrophic or holozoic organisms. - Proceedings of the Royal Society [London], series B, 139: 185–192.
30014Raistrick H. (1950): Bakerian lecture. A region of biosynthesis. - Proceedings of the Royal Society [London], series B, 136: 481–508.
30013Kitaura M.J., Gumboski E.L. & Koroiva R. (2018): Five new records and an identification key of the lichen genus Leptogium from Santa Catarina state, Brazil. - Rodriguésia, 69(2): 423–428.
Leptogium is a cosmopolitan genus with currently 180 accepted species, of which 46 are reported from Brazil. Leptogium atlanticum, L. azureum, L. cyanescens, L. sessile and L. subjuressianum are recorded from the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina for the first time. Leptogium chloromelum var. crassius is synonymized with L. sessile. Leptogium atlanticum is recorded for the first time outside the type locality. We also provide comments and the first identification key for Leptogium species found in Santa Catarina state. Key words: Ascomycota, Collemataceae, diversity, jelly lichen, taxonomy.
30012Maliniemi T., Kapfer J., Saccone P., Skog A. & Virtanen R. (2018): Long-term vegetation changes of treeless heath communities in northern Fennoscandia: Links to climate change trends and reindeer grazing. - Journal of Vegetation Science, 29: 469–479.
Question: In recent decades, high-latitude climate has shown regionally variable trends towards warmer and moister conditions. These changes have been predicted to cause afforestation or shrubification of open tundra, increases of warmth-demanding southern species and plant groups favoured by increased moisture, and decline of species and habitats that are dependent on snow cover. In this study, we explore temporal changes in northern tundra upland plant communities along regional gradients and in local habitats. We ask how vegetation changes are linked with long-term trends in regional climate and grazing pressure. Location: Northern Europe. Methods: In 2013–2014, we resurveyed a total of 108 vegetation plots on wind-exposed and snow-protected tundra habitats in three subareas along a bioclimatic gradient from the northern boreal to the arctic zone. Vegetation plots were originally sampled in 1964–1967. We related observed vegetation changes to changes in temperature, precipitation and grazing pressure, which all showed regionally variable increases over the study period. Results: We found a significant increase of the evergreen dwarf shrub Empetrum nigrum subsp. hermaphroditum in snow-protected communities and a prominent decrease of lichens throughout the study area. No evidence for extensive tree or larger shrub (Betula spp., Salix spp. or Juniperus communis) encroachment despite climatic warming trends was found. Among studied communities, most pronounced changes in vegetation were observed in snow-protected boreal heaths on small isolated uplands, where community composition showed low resemblance to the original composition described decades ago. Changes in plant communities correlated with changes in summer and winter temperatures, summer precipitation and reindeer grazing pressure, yet correlations varied depending on region and habitat. Conclusions: Northern tundra uplands vary in their resistance to on-going climate change and reindeer grazing. Isolated treeless heaths of boreal forest–tundra ecotone appear least resistant to climate change and have already shifted towards new community states. Keywords: bryophytes, climate change, grazing, herbivory, lichens, plant communities, plant diversity, reindeer, shrubification, tundra, vegetation changes.
30011Lichner L., Felde V.J.M.N.L., Büdel B., Leue M., Gerke H.H., Ellerbrock R.H., Kollár J., Rodný M., Šurda P., Fodor N. & Sándor R. (2018): Effect of vegetation and its succession on water repellency in sandy soils. - Ecohydrology, 11(6):e1991 [12 p.].
Vegetation and its succession can change the parameters of soil water repellency (SWR) due to the change in amount and composition of soil organic matter. This hypothesis was tested in natural and agricultural environments in Germany, Hungary, and Slovakia. The parameters investigated were the extent (determined by the repellency indices RI, RIc, and RIm) and persistence (determined by the water drop penetration time and water repellency cessation time) of SWR, as well as the potential wettability index of organic matter in sandy soils. The SWR parameters and soil organic carbon (SOC) content increased in the course of primary succession at Mehlinger Heide, Germany, and Sekule, Slovakia. Dye tracer experiments undertaken at Sekule revealed contrasting flow patterns: (a) preferential flow in water‐repellent soil under biological soil crust and grass and (b) piston flow in wettable soil that consists almost of pure quartz sand. The effective flow cross section decreased, and the degree of preferential flow increased in the course of primary succession at Sekule. No consistent trend of the SWR parameters and SOC was observed in the course of secondary succession at Csólyospálos, Hungary. This is the first time that differences between trends in SWR parameters due to primary and secondary successions were observed and related to the composition of SOC and extracellular polymeric substances. It can be concluded that dynamics of soil organic matter composition during the succession controls SWR. [Lichens discussed at p. 8:] "It was found in this study that lichens at site MH3 showed lower infiltration in sandy soil than the other components of biocrusts due to an increase in SWR parameters. This observation is in line with the findings of Chamizo, Cantón, Lázaro, Solé‐Benet, and Domingo (2012), who showed that lichens exhibited lower infiltration than the other biocrusts in sandy loam and silty loam soils. The study by Berdugo, Soliveres, and Maestre (2014) also pointed out a strong effect of plants and biocrusts on wetting and drying events in Central Spain and attributed the effect of biocrusts on wetting to hydrophobic lichen exudates. In accordance with the results of this study, a study on the effects of surface crusts on water infiltration in an arid desert region of NW China also found a negative effect of SOM content on water infiltration, although they did not address the influence of SWR (Yang et al., 2016). The study by Li et al. (2016) also found that the effect of biocrusts on water infiltration became stronger with crust succession in the order cyanobacterial crusts, lichen crusts, moss crusts."
30010Kalb K. & Aptroot A. (2017): Lichenes neotropici. Fascikel XVI (No. 628–650). - Archive for Lichenology, 12: 1–12.
Fascicle XVI of the exsiccate "K. KALB & A. APTROOT: LICHENES NEOTROPICI" (new name for "K. KALB: LICHENES NEOTROPICI" from fascicle XVI onwards) with 23 lichen specimens (No. 628–650) from Brazil, Chile, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Kenya, Peru and Venezuela is distributed. Three species are described as new, namely Lopadium subcoralloideum Aptroot & Kalb, Lecanactis caceresiana Kalb & Aptroot and Rhizocarpon sipmanianum Kalb & Aptroot. The holotypes of the new species are deposited at Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS). Range extensions are reported for Hypocenomyce tinderreyensis (new to the Neotropics; so far only known from Australia, but apparently austral), Ocellularia baorucensis (new to Brazil), Physcidia striata (recently described from Rondônia and the Venezuelean Amazon, and subsequently reported from Amapá and Brazilian Amazonas. The collection from Brazil/Mato Grosso do Sul represents a major range extension to the South), Tephromela campestricola (new to the Neotropics; not different in any way from European material) and Xanthoparmelia arvidssonii (new to Venezuela).
30009Lendemer J.C. (2018): Bacidia gullahgeechee (Bacidiaceae, Lecanoromycetes) an unusual new species potentially endemic to the globally unique Ashepoo-Combahee-Edisto River Basin of southeastern North America. - Bryologist, 121(4): 536–546.
Bacidia gullahgeechee is described as new to science and easily recognized by the combination of a leprose thallus, minute tan to dark reddish-brown biatorine apothecia, and production of perlatolic acid. The species forms extensive, conspicuous colonies on palmetto (Sabal palmetto) trunks in maritime forests of the Ashepoo-Combahee-Edisto (ACE) Basin of South Carolina, one of largest protected estuaries in the eastern United States, where it is presumed to be narrowly endemic. Keywords: Bacidiaceae, biogeography, Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain, Scoliciosporaceae, taxonomy.
30008Knudsen K., Lendemer J.C. & Kocourková J. (2018): Ramalina sarahae (Ramalinaceae), a new species from the Channel Islands of California, U.S.A.. - Bryologist, 121(4): 513–519.
Ramalina sarahae is described as new to science and considered to be closely related to the widespread R. lacera. It has a cortex without chondroid strands but differs from R. lacera in having a densely caespitose thallus of thin branches with only pseudocyphellae. The species is considered to be naturally rare, occurring in a small area of San Miguel Island in southern California, and on San Nicolas Island. Currently eight species of Ramalina are known from the Channel Islands. Keywords: Island biodiversity, Mexico, rare species, taxonomy.
30007Aptroot A., Barreto F.M.O., Peña D.A.R. & Cáceres M.E.S. (2018): A new lineage of fruticose lichens that belongs to the Trapeliaceae (Trapeliales, Ascomycota) from Alagoas, NE Brazil. - Bryologist, 121(4): 529–535.
The new fruticose lichen species Trapeliopsis studerae with fruticose growth form, branches mostly flat to partly curling up, but lower down often almost cylindrical, much irregularly branched, 0.1– 0.2 mm thick and 0.3–0.6 mm wide, upper surface olive grey, pycnidia that probably belong to the lichen are present on some older parts of the thallus, superficial, brown, conical to somewhat inflated, conidia hyaline, clavate, 8–1131.5–2.5 lm, and chemistry gyrophoric acid, is described from rock outcrops in a remnant of Atlantic Forest in Alagoas, Northeast Brazil, viz. Reserva Bi ´ ologica de Pedra Talhada, near the city of Quebrangulo, in the middle of the semiarid region in Northeast Brazil. It represents a new and independent lineage of fruticose lichens, the first found in the Trapeliales and only the second in the subclass Ostropomycetidae. The morphology of this species is enigmatic: it somewhat resembles a Siphula or a Stereocaulon, but it is irregularly branched without main stem, lacks cephalodia and apothecia, and it differs from all known species in these genera by the gyrophoric acid chemistry. It forms dense mats on siliceous rock that is influenced by run-off water. It typically grows at the upper ends of gullies that are occupied lower down (where there is more often water) by cyanophilic lichens such as Peltula clavata and Jenmania osorioi. The habitat is extremely poikilohydric; this lichen is occasionally totally submerged, but usually completely dry. Keywords: Atlantic Forest, Stereocaulon, Ostropomycetidae, Trapeliopsis, poikilohydric.
30006Graves G.R. & Dal Forno M. (2018): Persistence of transported lichen at a hummingbird nest site. - Northeastern Naturalist, 25(4): 656–661.
Archilochus colubris (Ruby-throated Hummingbird) invariably decorate the exterior surface of their nests with living foliose lichen. Lichen fragments may be carried considerable distances, but it is unknown whether transported thalli survive at nest sites. Here we report the multi-year persistence of a transported thallus of Myelochroa aurulenta (Powdery Axil-bristle Lichen) at a hummingbird nest site. Our observation suggests that hummingbirds may be important dispersal agents for foliose lichens.
30005Luch R.M. & Lücking R. (2018): The genus Halegrapha new to Hawaii, with the new and potentially endemic species H. paulseniana and an updated checklist of Hawaiian lirellate Graphidaceae (Ascomycota: Ostropales). - Willdenowia, 48: 415–423.
The new species Halegrapha paulseniana Luch & Lücking is described from Hawaii, which constitutes the first report of the genus for this archipelago. The new species differs from the most similar taxon, H. mexicana, in the much larger lirellae featuring an apically complete, thin thalline margin, and from all other species in the genus by its laterally mostly uncarbonized excipulum. We provide nomenclatural updates for the 70 species of lirellate Graphidaceae reported from Hawaii so far, introducing the following nomenclatural novelties: Allographa gracilescens (Redinger) Luch & Lücking, comb. & stat. nov., Fissurina homichlodes (Redinger) Luch & Lücking, comb. nov., Fissurina stromatoides (H. Magn.) Luch & Lücking, comb. nov., Fissurina zahlbruckneriana Luch & Lücking, nom. nov., Phaeographis caesiohians (Nyl.) Luch & Lücking, comb. nov., Phaeographis faurieana (Zahlbr.) Luch & Lücking, comb. nov., Phaeographis fulgurata (Fée) Luch & Lücking, comb. nov., Phaeographis oscitans (Tuck.) Luch & Lücking, comb. nov., Phaeographis rhodoplaca (Müll. Arg.) Luch & Lücking, comb. nov., Platygramme kaalensis (Tuck.) Luch & Lücking, comb. & stat. nov., Platygramme tumulata (Nyl.) Luch & Lücking, comb. nov. and Sarcographa dendroides (Leight.) Tabaquero, Bawingan & Lücking, comb. nov. (validated from an earlier, intended new combination that was not validly published). Key words: Ascomycota, checklist, conservation, Graphidaceae, Halegrapha, Hawaii, Hedychium gardnerianum, invasive plants, Magnusson, new species, Ostropales, Zahlbruckner.
30004Cardinale M., Steinová J., Rabensteiner J., Berg G. & Grube M. (2012): Age, sun and substrate: triggers of bacterial communities in lichens. - Environmental Microbiology Reports, 4(1): 23–28.
Bacterial communities colonize the surfaces of lichens in a biofilm-like manner. The overall structure of the bacterial communities harboured by the lichens shows similarities, in particular the dominance of not yet cultured Alphaproteobacteria. Parameters causing variation in abundance, composition and spatial organization of the lichen-associated bacterial communities are so far poorly understood. As a first step, we used a microscopic approach to test the significance of both lichen-intrinsic and extrinsic environmental factors on the bacterial communities associated with 11 lichen samples, belonging to six species. Some of these species have thalli with a distinct age gradient. A statistically significant effect can be attributed to the age of the thallus parts, which is an intrinsic factor: growing parts of the lichens host bacterial communities that significantly differ from those of the ageing portions of the thalli. The substrate type (rock, tree, understory) and (at a lower extent) the exposition to the sun also affected the bacterial communities. Interestingly, the abundance of bacterial cells in the lichens was also influenced by the same structure-triggering factors. No effect on the composition with main bacterial groups was attributed to different lichen species, differentiated thallus parts or thallus growth type. Our results are important for the experimental designs in lichen-bacterial ecology.
30003West N.J., Parrot D., Fayet C., Grube M., Tomasi S. & Suzuki M.T. (2018): Marine cyanolichens from different littoral zones are associated with distinct bacterial communities. - PeerJ, 6:e5208 [29 p.].
The microbial diversity and function of terrestrial lichens have been well studied, but knowledge about the non-photosynthetic bacteria associated with marine lichens is still scarce. 16S rRNA gene Illumina sequencing was used to assess the culture-independent bacterial diversity in the strictly marine cyanolichen species Lichina pygmaea and Lichina confinis, and the maritime chlorolichen species Xanthoria aureola which occupy different areas on the littoral zone. Inland terrestrial cyanolichens from Austria were also analysed as for the marine lichens to examine further the impact of habitat/lichen species on the associated bacterial communities. The L. confinis and L. pygmaea communities were significantly different from those of the maritime Xanthoria aureola lichen found higher up on the littoral zone and these latter communities were more similar to those of the inland terrestrial lichens. The strictly marine lichens were dominated by the Bacteroidetes phylum accounting for 50% of the sequences, whereas Alphaproteobacteria, notably Sphingomonas, dominated the maritime and the inland terrestrial lichens. Bacterial communities associated with the two Lichina species were significantly different sharing only 33 core OTUs, half of which were affiliated to the Bacteroidetes genera Rubricoccus, Tunicatimonas and Lewinella, suggesting an important role of these species in the marine Lichina lichen symbiosis. Marine cyanolichens showed a higher abundance of OTUs likely affiliated to moderately thermophilic and/or radiation resistant bacteria belonging to the Phyla Chloroflexi, Thermi, and the families Rhodothermaceae and Rubrobacteraceae when compared to those of inland terrestrial lichens. This most likely reflects the exposed and highly variable conditions to which they are subjected daily.
30002Eymann C., Lassek C., Wegner U., Bernhardt J., Fritsch O.A., Fuchs S., Otto A., Albrecht D., Schiefelbein U., Cernava T., Aschenbrenner I., Berg G., Grube M. & Riedel K. (2017): Symbiotic interplay of fungi, algae, and bacteria within the lung lichen Lobaria pulmonaria L. Hoffm. as assessed by state-of-the-art metaproteomics. - Journal of Proteome Research, 16: 2160–2173.
Lichens are recognized by macroscopic structures formed by a heterotrophic fungus, the mycobiont, which hosts internal autotrophic photosynthetic algal and/or cyanobacterial partners, referred to as the photobiont. We analyzed the structure and functionality of the entire lung lichen Lobaria pulmonaria L. Hoffm. collected from two different sites by state-of-the-art metaproteomics. In addition to the green algae and the ascomycetous fungus, a lichenicolous fungus as well as a complex prokaryotic community (different from the cyanobacteria) was found, the latter dominated by methanotrophic Rhizobiales. Various partner-specific proteins could be assigned to the different lichen symbionts, for example, fungal proteins involved in vesicle transport, algal proteins functioning in photosynthesis, cyanobacterial nitrogenase and GOGAT involved in nitrogen fixation, and bacterial enzymes responsible for methanol/C1-compound metabolism as well as CO-detoxification. Structural and functional information on proteins expressed by the lichen community complemented and extended our recent symbiosis model depicting the functional multiplayer network of single holobiont partners.1 Our new metaproteome analysis strongly supports the hypothesis (i) that interactions within the self-supporting association are multifaceted and (ii) that the strategy of functional diversification within the single lichen partners may support the longevity of L. pulmonaria under certain ecological conditions. Keywords: lichens, metaproteomics, microbial ecology, Lobaria pulmonaria, bacterial microbiome.
30001Kondratyuk S.Y., Zarei-Darki B. & Khajeddin S.J. (2012): New species and combinations in the genus Protoparmeliopsis (Lecanoraceae, Lichenized Ascomycota). - Український Ботанічний Журнал [Ukrainian Botanical Journal], 69(6): 869–878.
Two new species of the genus Protoparmeliopsis M. Choisy, P. zareii S.Y. Kondr. and P. esfahanensis S.Y. Kondr. & B. Zarei-Darki, are described, compared with closely related taxa, and illustrated. Twenty thee new combinations for the following taxa are proposed: Protoparmeliopsis baicalensis (for Lecanora baicalensis Zahlbr.), P. baranowii (for Lecanora baranowii Tomin), P. bipruinosum (for Lecanora bipruinosa Fink), P. bogdoensis (for Lecanora bogdoensis Tomin), P. chlorophthalmum (for Lecanora chlorophthalma Poelt & Tomin), P. crustaceum (for Squamarina crustacea Savicz), P. degelii (for Squamarina degelii Poelt), P. dispersoareolatum (for Placodium dispersoareolatum Körb.), P. geisereae (for Lecanora geisereae B.D. Ryan), P. hieroglyphicum (for Lecanora hieroglyphica Poelt), P. kofae (for Lecanora kofae B.D. Ryan & T.H. Nash), P. kotovii (for Placodium kotovii Oxner), P. kukunorensis (for Lecanora kukunorensis H. Magn.), P. mazatzalensis (for Lecanora mazatzalensis B.D. Ryan & T.H. Nash), P. nashii (for Lecanora nashii B.D. Ryan), P. novomexicanum (for Lecanora novomexicana H. Magn.), P. orbicularis (for Lecanora polytropa var. orbicularis Schaer.), P. phaedrophthalmum (for Lecanora phaedrophthalma Poelt), P. sierrae (for Lecanora sierrae B.D. Ryan & T.H. Nash), P. sphaeroideum (for Placodium sphaeroideum Oxner), P. stramineum (for Parmelia straminea Wahlenb.), P. uzbekicum (for Lecanora uzbekica Poelt) and P. verruculiferum (for Placodium verruculiferum Oxner).
30000Horák J., Brestovanská T., Mladenović S., Kout J., Bogusch P., Halda J.P. & Zasadil P. (2019): Green desert?: Biodiversity patterns in forest plantations. - Forest Ecology and Management, 433: 343–348.
Forest plantations represent a globally important land use, and their growth is expected to triple by the end of the century. Therefore, they could represent an important habitat remnant to support the survival of species. We measured the impact of forest plantations on biodiversity with a focus on eight groups of biota including sa- proxylic and ground mycorrhizal fungi, lichens, herbs together with shrubs, tree seedlings, aculeate hyme- nopterans, beetles and birds, in patches with formerly continuous vegetation dominated by native oak and in patches in spruce plantations (reflecting spatiotemporal discontinuity) in the East-Bohemian woodlands of the Czech Republic. We found that species richness and numbers of obligate species were higher in native than in nonnative forests, but there was no significant difference in red-listed species. Nevertheless, the species of three of the eight studied groups profited from increasing proportion of spruce in the tree composition; only beetles and birds were negatively affected. The results revealed more highly contrasting and often complex responses among the groups than what might be expected theoretically. The first key issue in the management of plantation forests in terms of biodiversity is the partial retention and restoration of islands of native vegetation. The second issue is that the impact of a nonnative tree species is not always negative. Biological desert, Forest management, Native vegetation, Multi-taxa approach, Nonnative tree, Threatened species
29999Гавриленко Л.М. [Gavrylenko L.M.] (2012): Нові для України види лишайників та ліхенофільних грибів з Нижнього Придніпров’я [New for Ukraine lichens and lichenicolous fungi from the lower Dnieper area]. - Український Ботанічний Журнал [Ukrainian Botanical Journal], 69(5): 717–720.
Short descriptions, locations and ecology of new for Ukraine lichens, Caloplaca sororicida Poelt & Hinteregger, Collemopsidium subarenisedum (G. Salisb.) Coppins & Aptroot, and lichenicolous fungi, Lichenostigma rugosa G. Thor, Opegrapha centrifuga A. Massal., are provided.
29998Кондратюк С.Я. [Kondratyuk S.Ya.] (2012): Лишайники основних місцезростань НПП «Гуцульщина» [Lichens of main localities of ’Hutzulshzhyna’ National Nature Park]. - Український Ботанічний Журнал [Ukrainian Botanical Journal], 69(3): 397–405.
Distribution of 87 lichen species in the main localities of "Hutsulshchyna" National Nature Park is analyzed. Three new for Ukraine species, Opegrapha gyrocarpa Flot., Pertusaria rupestris (DC.) Schaer., and Lichenochora obscuroides (Linds.) Triebel & Rambold, are reported. Data on rare in Ukrainian Carpathians and in Ukraine as a whole species, arcto-alpine Parmelia omphalodes (L.) Ach. and Rhizocarpon alpicola (Wahlenb.) Rabenh., montane Lasallia pustulata (L.) Merat, Middle-European Bactrospora dryina (Ach.) A. Massal., as well as Arthonia epiphyscia Nyl., Buellia griseovirens (Turnen & Borrer ex Sm.) Almb., Haematomma ochroleucum (Neck.) J.R. Laundon, Leproloma vouauxii (Hue) J.R. Laundon, Muelleriella pygmaea (Kцrb.) D. Hawksw., Megalaria pulverea (Borrer) Hafellner & E. Schreiner, Oxneria huculica S.Y. Kondr., Pachyphiale fagicola (Hepp) Zwackh, Phoma pisutii S.Y. Kondr. et al., and Psilolechia lucida (Ach.) M. Choisy, are also provided.
29997Войцехович A.О. & Димитрова Л.В. [Voytsekhovich A.O. & Dymytrova L.V.] (2011): Нові та цікаві знахідки представників родів Printzina R.H. Thomps. et Wujek та Trentepohlia C.F.P. Martius (Trentepohliaceae, Chlorophyta) [New and interesting findings of Printzina R.H. Thomps. et Wujek and Trentepohlia C.F.P. Martius taxa (Trentepohliaceae, Chlorophyta)]. - Український Ботанічний Журнал [Ukrainian Botanical Journal], 68(5): 739–752.
[In Ukrainian with English abstract: ] The paper contains information about new and rare taxa of Printzina R.H. Thomps. et Wujek and Trentepohlia C.F.P. Martius indicated as lichen photobionts or aerophytic algae on different substrata. T. aurea var. lanosa Kutz. is a new record for Ukraine, T. aurea var. acutata Schmidle — for Europe, T. aurea var. tomentosa Kutz. — for the USA. Printzina lagenifera (E.M. Hildebr.) R.H. Thomps. et Wujek is found as photobiont in lichens Arthonia radiata (Pers.) Ach., Dirina massiliensis f. sorediata (Mull. Arg.) Tehler, Opegrapha varia Pers and Roccella phycopsis Ach. Trentepohlia annulata Brand was isolated from lichens Dimerella pineti (Schrad.) Vězda and Strigula stigmatella (Ach.) R.C. Harris. The data on locality and distribution as well as descriptions of some taxa are also added.
29996Смеречинська Т.О. [Smerechynska T.O.] (2005): Нові для України види лишайників з природного заповідника "Медобори" [New for Ukraine lichen species from the "Medobory" Nature reserve]. - Український Ботанічний Журнал [Ukrainian Botanical Journal], 62(5): 719–725.
[In Ukrainian with English abstract: ] Four lichen species from the Medobory Nature Reserve, namely Acrocordia subglobosa (Vezda) Poelt, Biatorella germanica Korb., Buellia epigaea (Pers.) Tuck. and Lecidea lichenicola (A.L. Sm. & Ramsb.) D. Hawksw., as new for Ukraine are reported. For each species a full description, list of localities on the Reserve territory and data about distribution beyond Ukraine is provided. Distinction between species and other related taxa is discussed.
29995Зеленко С.Д. [Zelenko S.D.] (2005): Toninia talparum Timdal (Lecideaceae, Ascomycetes) — новий для ліхенобіоти Євразії вид з Подільської височини [Toninia talparum Timdal (Lecideaceae, Ascomycetes) — new species for lichenbiota Eurasia from Podoliya Heights]. - Український Ботанічний Журнал [Ukrainian Botanical Journal], 62(4): 517–521.
[In Ukrainian with English abstract:] Toninia talparum Timdal is found for the first time for Eurasia during the lichenological investigation in NNP “Podilsky Tovtry”. On the basis of the analysis of the literary data about lichenicolous species of genus Toninia Massal. are marked correlative causations between the form, the sizes spores and a lichen–host. The revealed causations allow to put forward the assumption of existence of two lines evolution among lichenicolous species of a genus Toninia.
29994Кондратюк С.Я. [Kondratyuk S.Ya.] (2005): Нові для мікобіоти України та рідкісні види роду Lichenostigma Haf. (Arthoniales, Ascomycotina) [New for mycobiota of Ukraine and rare species of Lichenostigma Haf. (Arthoniales, Ascomycotina)]. - Український Ботанічний Журнал [Ukrainian Botanical Journal], 62(4): 509–516.
[In Ukrainian with English abstract:] Two species of the genus Lichenostigma Haf. (namely, L. gracilis Calatayud, Nav.-Ros. & Haf. and L. rouxii Nav.-Ros. Calatayud & Haf.) are for the first time recorded for Ukraine. Two other taxa (L. cosmopolites Haf. & Calatayud, L. elongata Nav.-Ros. & Haf.) are new for Crimean AR. Full descriptions, data on ecology, distribution in Ukraine, general distribution and taxonomic remarks are provided for each taxon. A key to all species of the genus Lichenostigma known from Ukraine is provided.
29993Дарієнко Т.М. & Войцехович A.О. [Darienko T.M. & Voytsekhovich A.O.] (2005): Фотобіонти деяких лишайників з відслонень гранітно-степового Побужжя [To the study of lichen photobionts of outcrops granite-steppe Pobuzhia]. - Український Ботанічний Журнал [Ukrainian Botanical Journal], 62(2): 190–202.
[In Ukrainian with English abstract:] Photobionts of 9 widespead lichens upon the granite outcrops are investigeted. The investigations were carried out using direct microscoping and cultural methods of investigation. The exact data concerning photobionts were firrstly brought for 8 species of lichens. It is established that lichens such as Aspicilia contorta var. hoffmanniana, Candelariella vitellina, Xanthoparmelia somloensis, Ramalina polymorpha, Umbilicaria grisea contain just the same specie of photobiont — Trebouxia showmanii, Caloplaca aractina and Physcia tribacia — T. simplex, Physcia tenella — T. phycobiontica. There were exposed 2 new species of algae or for the Ukrainian flora.
29992Федоренко Н.М. [Fedorenko N.M.] (2005): Стан вивченості лишайників Українського Полісся [To study of lichen in the Ukrainian Polyssya]. - Український Ботанічний Журнал [Ukrainian Botanical Journal], 62(2): 183–189.
[In Ukrainian with English abstract: ] History of the study of lichens in the Ukrainian Polissya is analysed. First information about lichens in the given region is dated from 1830, but only after 1925 studies of this region have become regular. A.M. Oxner, V.R. Maslova, S.D. Zelenko have made the most valuable contribution to the study of lichens in the Ukrainian Polissya. Some data on lichens from single localities of Ukrainian Polissya are in the papers of M.F. Makarevich, O.G. Roms, L.I. Frantsevich, O.B. Blum, S.Ya. Kondratyuk, I.L. Navrotskaya, O.Ye. Khodosovtsev. At present 338 species of lichens and 12 species of lichenicolous fungi are found in Ukrainian Polissya. Southern administrative regions of Volyns'ka, Rivnen and Zhytomyr oblasts (within Polissya), and northern regions of L'viv, Ternopil and Khmel'nyts'k oblasts found to be in urgent need of special study as poorly the investigated badly or not investigated regions in respect to lichens.
29991Смеречинська Т.О. [Smerechynska T.O.] (2005): Нові та рідкісні для України види лишайників з природного заповідника "Медобори" [New and rare for Ukraine lichen species from the Medobory nature reserve]. - Український Ботанічний Журнал [Ukrainian Botanical Journal], 62(2): 175–182.
[In Ukrainian with English abstract: ] Two lichen species (namely Endocarpon pallidum Ach., Toninia diffracta (Massal.) Zahlbr.) from the Medobory Nature Reserve, as new for Ukraine, and 20 species as rare or new for its plane part are reported. A full description for the Endocarpon pallidum species is provided. Full lists of localities for all taxa mentioned (Acrocordia salweyi (Leight. ex Nyl.) A.L. Sm., Caloplaca crenulatella (Nyl.) H. Olivier, C. dalmatica (Massal.) H. Olivier, C. inconnexa (Nyl.) Zahlbr., C. polycarpa (A. Massal.) Zahlbr., Candelariella rhodax Poelt & Vezda, Cladonia hungarica (Arnold) Vainio, Opegrapha variaeformis Anzi, Polycoccum marmoratum (Krempelh.) D. Hawksw., Rinodina immersa (Korber) Zahlbr., Thelidium papulare (Fr.) Arnold, Verrucaria dolosa Hepp — species new for the plane part; Acrocordia conoidea (Fr.) Korber, Candelariella oleiifera H. Maggn., Catillaria lenticularis (Ach.) Th. Fr., Lecanora albescens (Hoffm.) Branth & Rostr., Lecidella stigmatea (Ach.) Hertel & Leuck., Lepraria lobificans Nyl., Thelidium decipiens (Hepp) Krempel., Verrucaria aethiobola Wahlenb. in Ach. — species rare for the plane part of Ukraine) are included.
29990Ходосовцев О.Є. [Khodosovtsev A.Ye.] (2005): Нові для України роди лишайників [A new lichen genera for Ukraine]. - Український Ботанічний Журнал [Ukrainian Botanical Journal], 62(2): 170–174.
[In Ukrainian with English abstract: ] The descriptions, locations, ecology and geography of the four new for Ukraine lichens genera Epigloea Zukal, Heteroplacidium Breuss, Leucocarpia Vezda and Sarcopyrenia Nyl. with species Epigloea filifera Dobbl., E. soleiformis Dobbl., Heteroplacidium phaeocarpoides (Nyl.) Breuss, Leucocarpia biatorella (Arnold) Vezda and Sarcopyrenia gibba (Nyl.) Nyl. are reported.
29989Kondratyuk S., Nevo E. & Wasser S. (2005): New and rare lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi from the Carmel Mountains, Israel. - Український Ботанічний Журнал [Ukrainian Botanical Journal], 62(1): 100–110.
Eighteen new species of lichen-forming fungi (Agonimia tristicula, Amandinea punctata, Bacidia trachoma, Bispora christiansennii, Caloplaca obscurella, C. polycarpa, Cladonia pyxidata, Collema callopismum, Dirina stenhammari, Graphis scripta, Muellerella lichenicola, Opegrapha demutata, Phoma caloplacae, Rinodina sophodes, Topelia nimisiana, T. rosea, Verrucaria macrostoma, Xanthoriicola physciae) are recorded for Israel. Descriptions including synonyms, references on diagnosis, distribution in Israel, and general distribution (after style of “The First Checklist of the Lichen-forming, Lichenicolous and Allied Fungi of Israel”) are provided for each taxon. Twenty one lichen-forming and lichenicolous taxa (Arthonia molendoi, Caloplaca citrina, C. haematites, Collema crispum, C. flaccidum, Guignardia olivieri, Hyperphyscia adglutinata, Lecanora crenulata, L. dispersa, L. hagenii, Lecidella euphoria, Parmelia verruculifera, Physcia semipinnata, P. stellaris, P. tenella, Placynthium nigrum, Protoparmeliopsis muralis, Tornabea scutellifera, Xanthoanaptychia lacunosa, Xanthoria calcicola, X. schistidii), which are recorded for the first time for some regions of Israel, are listed as well. New localities for another 9 lichen species (Aspicilia cinerea, Caloplaca conglomerata, Clauzadea immersa, Parmelina tiliacea, Physconia distorta, Ramalina maciformis, Tephromela atra, Toninia aromatica, and Verrucaria nigrescens) associated with other rare lichens are also provided.
29988Kondratyuk S., Nevo E. & Wasser S. (2005): New species of lichen-forming fungi from Golan heights, Israel. - Український Ботанічний Журнал [Ukrainian Botanical Journal], 62(2): 159–169.
Eighteen new species of lichen-forming fungi (Agonimia tristicula, Amandinea punctata, Bacidia trachoma, Bispora christiansennii, Caloplaca obscurella, C. polycarpa, Cladonia pyxidata, Collema callopismum, Dirina stenhammari, Graphis scripta, Muellerella lichenicola, Opegrapha demutata, Phoma caloplacae, Rinodina sophodes, Topelia nimisiana, T. rosea, Verrucaria macrostoma, Xanthoriicola physciae) are recorded for Israel. Descriptions including synonyms, references on diagnosis, distribution in Israel, and general distribution (after style of “The First Checklist of the Lichen-forming, Lichenicolous and Allied Fungi of Israel”) are provided for each taxon. Twenty one lichen-forming and lichenicolous taxa (Arthonia molendoi, Caloplaca citrina, C. haematites, Collema crispum, C. flaccidum, Guignardia olivieri, Hyperphyscia adglutinata, Lecanora crenulata, L. dispersa, L. hagenii, Lecidella euphoria, Parmelia verruculifera, Physcia semipinnata, P. stellaris, P. tenella, Placynthium nigrum, Protoparmeliopsis muralis, Tornabea scutellifera, Xanthoanaptychia lacunosa, Xanthoria calcicola, X. schistidii), which are recorded for the first time for some regions of Israel, are listed as well. New localities for another 9 lichen species (Aspicilia cinerea, Caloplaca conglomerata, Clauzadea immersa, Parmelina tiliacea, Physconia distorta, Ramalina maciformis, Tephromela atra, Toninia aromatica, and Verrucaria nigrescens) associated with other rare lichens are also provided.
29987Reynolds C..L, Er O.A.H., Winder L. & Blanchon D.J. (2017): Distribution and community composition of lichens on mature mangroves (Avicennia marina subsp. australasica (Walp.) J. Everett) in New Zealand. - PLoS ONE, 12(6): e0180525 [15 p.].
Mangrove forests of a single trees species, Avicennia marina subsp. australasica are widespread in the upper North Island of New Zealand, but there is little available information on the diversity of epiphytes such as lichens within them. A survey of 200 trees from 20 mangrove sites recorded a total of 106 lichen species from 45 genera. Two of these species are considered to be `Threatened', five `At Risk' and 27 `Data Deficient'. Multiple regression indicated that tree diameter (DBH) and mean annual rain days positively influenced site species richness. Multidimensional scaling showed that sites from the same geographical region generally formed distinct clusters. Redundancy analysis indicated that mean annual wet days, latitude and DBH measurably influenced species composition.
29986Hogan T.M. & Tripp E.A. (2018): William A. Weber receives ABLS lifetime achievement awards. - Evansia, 35(3): 106–108.
29985Rahill M. (2018): Several interesting lichens and bryophytes from Mount Washington, New Hampshire. - Evansia, 35(3): 96–99.
The presence on Mount Washington of the rare species Cladonia macrophylla and C. trassii are validated. In addition, several other rare arctic-alpine lichens and bryophytes are reported and/or discussed. Keywords: Mount Washington, New Hampshire, lichens, bryophytes, Cladonia macrophylla, Cladonia trassii.
29984McMullin R.T., Cameron R., Caners R.T., Doubt J. & Haughland D.L. (2018): A preliminary list of the bryophytes and lichens of the Old Annapolis Road Nature Reserve in Nova Scotia, Canada. - Evansia, 35(3): 81–95.
Bryophytes and lichens in the Old Annapolis Road Nature Reserve were surveyed, and 252 taxa in 131 genera are reported. This includes 37 liverworts, 86 mosses, and 129 lichens and allied fungi. Five species (one lichen, two liverworts, and two mosses) have a provincial conservation status rank between S1 and S3 (critically imperilled to vulnerable). Two lichen species are new to Nova Scotia, Arthonia caudata and Micarea misella. All species are new records for the reserve. Additional species are likely to be present as not all areas and habitats were examined. Key words. Biogeography, Maritimes, conservation, protected areas, species at risk.
29983Anderson Stewart C.R., Lendemer J.C., Keepers K.G., Pogoda C.S., Kane N.C., McCain C.M. & Tripp E.A. (2018): Lecanora markjohnstonii (Lecanoraceae, lichenized Ascomycetes), a new sorediate crustose lichen from the southeastern United States. - Bryologist, 121(4): 498–512.
Lecanora markjohnstonii is described as new to science from the southeastern United States, with a primary center of distribution in the southern Appalachian Mountain region. This sterile, sorediate crust is saxicolous on both sandstone and granite and occurs commonly in mixed hardwood-conifer forests with rock outcrops. It is characterized by a gray-green, rimose-areolate thallus, erumpent, raised soralia, and the production of atranorin together with 2-0-methylperlatolic acid. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of newly generated rDNA assemblies from a broad sampling of lineages within the Lecanoromycetes and Arthoniomycetes inferred placement of the unknown crust in the Lecanoraceae, specifically within Lecanora. Analysis of the mtSSU gene region then inferred placement in the Lecanora subfusca group. Finally, a fully assembled and annotated mitochondrial genome was compared to other lichenized fungal mitogenomes, including the publicly available Lecanora strobilina mitogenome, and showed that the gene region atp9 was missing as in other members of the Lecanorales. Keywords: Asexual reproduction, biodiversity hotspot, endemism, genomics, Mark Johnston, natural history collections, new species, phylogenetics, phylogenomics, mitochondrial genome, taxonomic discovery.
29982Menezes A.A., Cáceres M.E.S., Bastos C.J.P. & Lücking R. (2018): The latitudinal diversity gradient of epiphytic lichens in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: does Rapoport's rule apply?. - Bryologist, 121(4): 480–497.
A latitudinal diversity gradient (LDG), with increasing species richness towards tropical zones, has been amply documented in the literature for many organisms. Among the factors hypothesized to explain the LDG is Rapoport's rule, which postulates deceasing distribution ranges for species at lower latitudes, in turn fostering higher species richness per area. So far, little is known about LDGs and a Rapoport effect in lichens, and tropical regions or the Southern Hemisphere have not yet been considered in such studies. In order to elucidate a potential LDG in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, species occurrence data from four representative families of largely epiphytic lichens were used: Graphidaceae, Lobariaceae, Parmeliaceae and Trypetheliaceae. We employed niche distribution modeling on a subset of species to surpass the limitation of geographically strongly unbalanced sampling in the study area, including sampling bias in the modeling approach. The four families presented significant LDGs which were, however, opposed in Lobariaceae and Parmeliaceae. Rare species that were not modeled further pronounced these patterns. Rapoport's rule, i.e. an inverse correlation between richness and mean species range, was supported for all four families. Richness values for the four families, and size ranges for Parmeliaceae, showed strong and significant correlations with bioclimatic parameters, particularly temperature and precipitation seasonality and precipitation in the driest quarter. We hypothesize that, based on the specific situation of the Atlantic Forest, the observed LGDs and Rapoport effects are secondary consequences of underlying environmental gradients that happen to run parallel to latitude, and that Rapoport's rule is not primarily linked to latitude but to gradients of adverse environmental conditions. Including rare species, predicted species richness values for the four studied families combined would result in between 400 and 700 species per 55 × 55 km grid cell. Keywords: Lichen ecology, ecological modeling, Floresta Atlântica, Parmeliaceae, Graphidaceae, Lobariaceae, Trypetheliacecae, Brazil.
29981Will-Wolf S., Jovan S., Nelsen M.P., Trest M.T., Rolih K.M. & Reis A.H. (2018): Lichen indices assess local climate and air quality status in the Mid-Atlantic Region, U.S.A.. - Bryologist, 121(4): 461–479.
Lichen-based indices were developed for monitoring local climate and air quality impacts in the United States of America (U.S.A.) Mid-Atlantic states (MidA). The U.S.A. Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis Program (FIA) uses such biological indicators to monitor forest environments. Index development used a unique combination of recommended analysis techniques. The Climate Index (Axis 1 of nonmetric multidimensional scaling [NMS] ordination of 189 plots, 80 lichen species) accounted for 44.7% of data variation, and was correlated with latitude, temperature and humidity (r2 = 0.5 to 0.7). The Pollution Index was based on abundances of 10 tolerant and 27 sensitive lichen species selected from Indicator Species Analysis and other techniques (210 plots, 180 species). Strong quantitative support guided careful selection of pollution indicator species. The Pollution Index was strongly correlated with Al, Cu, Fe, N and S measured in lichen samples (51 plots; maximum r2=0.796), and with 51-plot NMS Axis 1 (r2=0.694; 41.7% of information) correlated with pollution. Indices were uncorrelated with each other or with nearby forest cover, another important factor. From within-site repeatability, Climate Index changes of 13–21% of full range and Pollution Index changes of 18–24% will be detectable. These indices fill a gap to complete FIA index coverage for much of eastern U.S.A. Both indices are suitable for application in other MidA studies. Comparisons with similar FIA studies supported guidelines for use of our indicator selection process and evaluation of environmental interactions to improve other studies. Keywords: Bioindication, climate, elemental analysis, forest, indicator species, NMS ordination, pollution.
29980Cezanne R. & Eichler M. (2018): Neue Publikationen die Flechtenflora Mitteleuropas betreffend, Vierte Folge. - Herzogiella, 5: 19–26.
29979Gnüchtel A. & Mühler B. (2018): Vezdea [sic!] retigera Poelt & Döbbeler ein bemerkenswerter Neufund für Sachsen. - Herzogiella, 5: 42–43.
Vezdaea retigera reported as new to Saxony
29978Otte V. (2018): Bericht zur Jahresexkursion 2017 Polen, Riesengebirge, vom 23. – 27. August. - Herzogiella, 5: 7–13.
Report on excursion in Karkonosze / Krkonoše / Riesengebirge / Giant Mountains. The classical locality 'Kleine Schneegrube' / Mały Śnieżny Kocioł with basalt vein outcrops visited among else
29977Schultz M. (2018): Taxonomische und nomenklatorische Neuerungen – Flechten, Dritte Folge. - Herzogiella, 5: 27–31.
Summarization of taxonomic and nomenclatoric novelties concerning (at least potentially) the Central European lichen biota
29976Sipman H.J.M. & Kison H.-U. (2017): Pertusaria lactescens auch in Deutschland. - Herzogiella, 4: 49–52.
29975Resl P. & Schultz M. (2017): Taxonomische und nomenklatorische Neuerungen – Flechten, Zweite Folge. - Herzogiella, 4: 25–31.
Summarization of taxonomic and nomenclatoric novelties concerning (at least potentially) the Central European lichen biota
29974Kison H.-U., Schütze P. & Stordeur R. (2017): Bericht von der bryologisch-lichenologischen Exkursion im nördlichen Harzvorland (Sachsen-Anhalt) 15. bis 17. April 2016. - Herzogiella, 4: 37–41.
Report on excursion in Saxony
29973Eichler M. & Cezanne R. (2017): Neue Publikationen die Flechtenflora Mitteleuropas betreffend, Dritte Folge. - Herzogiella, 4: 19–24.
29972Gnüchtel A. (2015): Bericht zur Jahresexkursion 2014 Bayerische Alpen, Ettal, 28. – 31. August. - Herzogiella, 2: 4–10.
Report on the BLAM-excursion in the Bavarian Alps
29971John V. & Candan M. (2015): Peltigera kristinssonii neu für Deutschland auf der Alpspitze entdeckt. - Herzogiella, 2: 40–41.
Peltigera kristinssonii new to Germany
29970Zimmermann D.G., Printzen C., Lutsak T., Eichler M. & Cezanne R. (2015): Flechten-Exkursionsbericht von zwei Gebieten im Wispertaunus. - Herzogiella, 2: 22–29.
Report on excursion. Cetraria aculeata and C. muricata distinguished, and confirmed based on ITS sequences
29969Wächter J. (2015): Arbeitsgruppe Artenschutz Flechten und Moose. - Herzogiella, 2: 29–30.
29968Lüth M. (2014): Bericht zur BLAM-Bryolich-Exkursion in die Pyrenäen. - Herzogiella, 1: 36–38.
Report on the BLAM excursion in the Pyrenees
29967Kaufmann S. (2014): Arten des Jahres 2014. - Herzogiella, 1: 19.
'Lichen of the year 2014' is Rhizocarpon geographicum
29966John V. & Haedeke J. (2014): Die „Grauen Männer“ aus Kaiserslautern und ihre Flechten. - Herzogiella, 1: 22–24.
29965Eckstein J., Koperski M., Eichler M. & Cezanne R. (2014): Bericht zur Jahresexkursion 2013 Thüringer Wald, Vessertal (28 August – 1. September). - Herzogiella, 1: 3–8.
Report on excursion
29964May T.W. (2017): Report of the nomenclature committee for fungi: 20. - Taxon, 66(2): 483–495.
Note: the paper is published in parallel in: IMA Fungus 8(1): 189–203. Summary: Ratification of appointment of repositories by the International Mycological Congress is reported. The following two family names are recommended for conservation: Chrysotrichaceae against Pulverariaceae; and the teleomorph-typified Erysiphaceae against the anamorph-typified Oidiaceae. The following family name is not recommended for conservation: Dothioraceae against Saccotheciaceae. The following 10 generic names are recommended for conservation: the teleomorph-typified name Blumeria against the conserved anamorph-typified name Oidium; Catenaria Sorokīn (Fungi) against Catenaria Roussel (Algae); Chrysothrix, nom. cons., against an additional name, Alysphaeria; Flammula (Fr. : Fr.) P. Kumm. (Fungi) against Flammula (Webb ex Spach) Fourr. (Spermatophyta) with a conserved type; Fuscopannaria against Moelleropsis; Geastrum with a conserved type; Hebeloma with a conserved type; Polycaryum with that spelling; Pseudocyphellaria with a conserved type; and Talaromyces against Lasioderma. Conservation of Detonia Freng. (Algae) against Detonia Sacc. (Fungi) is not opposed. The following generic name is not recommended for conservation: Catillaria with a conserved type. The proposal to conserve the generic name Wickerhamomyces against Hansenula was withdrawn. The following 17 species names are recommended for conservation: Agaricus laterinus (Hebeloma laterinum) against the sanctioned A. fastibilis (H. fastibile); Agaricus tabescens against A. socialis; Alectoria fuscescens (Bryoria fuscescens) against Lichen chalybeiformis and A. subcana; Armillariella ostoyae (Armillaria ostoyae) against Agaricus obscurus, A. occultans, and Armillaria solidipes; Ganoderma camphoratum with a conserved type; Hebeloma fragilipes against Hebelomina domardiana (Hebeloma domardianum); Helminthosporium maydis Y. Nisik. & C. Miyake (Bipolaris maydis) against H. maydis Brond. and Ophiobolus heterostrophus; Lecidea oederi (Rhizocarpon oederi) against L. koenigii; Lichen fuscatus Schrad. (Acarospora fuscata) against L. fuscatus Lam. with a conserved type; Lichen leucomelos (Heterodermia leucomelos) with that spelling; Lichen muralis (Lecanora muralis, Protoparmeliopsis muralis) with a conserved type; Lichen vulgatus (Opegrapha vulgata) with a conserved type; Morchella semilibera against Phallus crassipes, P. gigas and P. undosus; Peziza ammophila Durieu & Lév. against P. ammophila Saut.; Polycaryum branchipodianum with that spelling; Stereocaulon pileatum with a conserved type; and Torula stilbospora with a conserved type. The following 22 species names (teleomorph-typified) are recommended for conservation against anamorph-typified names: Erysiphe arcuata against Oidium carpini; Erisyphe biocellata against Oidium erysiphoides; Erysiphe buhrii against Oidium dianthi; Erysiphe catalpae against Oidium bignoniae; Erysiphe celosiae against Oidium amaranthi; Erisyphe magnicellulata against O. drummondii; Erysiphe quercicola against Oidium anacardii; Erisyphe verbasci against Oidium balsamii; Golovinomyces sonchicola against Oidium sonchi-arvensis; Leveillula rutae against Oidium haplophylli; Microsphaera azaleae against O. ericinum; Microsphaera oehrensii against Oidium robustum; Phyllactinia alni against Ovulariopsis alni-formosanae; Phyllactinia ampelopsidis against Ovulariopsis ampelopsidis-heterophyllae; Phyllactinia chubutiana against Oidium insolitum; Phyllactinia dalbergiae against P. subspiralis; Phyllactinia gmelinae against Ovulariopsis gmelinae-arboreae; Phyllactinia populi against Ovulariopsis salicis-warburgii; Podosphaera solanacearum against Oidium saeforthiani; Sphaerotheca euphorbiae-hirtae against Oidium pedilanthi; Sphaerotheca filipendulae against Torula botryoides; and Sphaerotheca leucotricha against Oidium farinosum. The following two species names are not recommended for conservation: Cylindrocladium buxicola against C. pseudonaviculatum; and Verrucaria subcerasi (Arthopyrenia subcerasi) against A. subalbicans. It is recommended that the generic name Aspidelia and the species name Lichen quisquiliaris not be rejected under Art. 56. The following two species names are recommended for rejection under Art. 56: Botrytis farinosa (Peronospora farinosa) and Saccharomyces sphaericus. As a result of reference under Art. 53.5, it is recommended that the following two pairs of names are not to be treated as homonyms: Bertia De Not. and Bertya Planch.; and Otidea (Pers.) Bonord. and Otidia Sweet.
29963Swartz O. (1806): Flora Indiae occidentalis aucta atque illustrata sive descriptiones plantarum in prodromo recensitarum. Tomus III. - Erlangae, Jo. Jacobi Plantii, p. 1231–2018.
lichens at p. 1886-1918
29962Swartz O. (1791): Observationes botanicae, quibus plantae Indiae occidentalis aliaeque Systematis vegetabilium, ed. XIV. Illustrantur, earumque characteres passim emendantur cum tabulis aeneis. - Erlangae, Jo. Jacobi Plantii, [i–iv +] 424 p.
lichens at p. 407-408, Lichen leucomelos at plate XI
29961Swartz O. (1788): Nova genera & species plantarum seu Prodromus descriptionum vegetabilium, maximam partem incognitarum quae sub itinere in Indiam occidentalem annis 1783–87. - Holmiae, Uppsaliae & Aboae, Bibl. Acad. M. Swederi, [i–x +] 152 p.
29960Ellis C., Yahr R. & Coppins B.J. (2011): Archaeobotanical evidence for a massive loss of epiphyte species richness during industrialization in southern England. - Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 278: 3482–3489.
This paper describes a novel archaeological resource—preserved epiphytes on the timber structure of vernacular buildings—used, to our knowledge, for the first time to quantify a loss of biodiversity between pre-industrial and post-industrial landscapes. By matching the confirmed occurrence of epiphyte species for the pre-industrial period, with a statistical likelihood for their absence in the present-day landscape (post- 1960), we robustly identified species that have been extirpated across three contrasting regions in southern England. First, the scale of biodiversity loss observed—up to 80 per cent of epiphytes—severely challenges biodiversity targets and environmental baselines that have been developed using reference points in the post-industrial period. Second, we examined sensitivity in the present-day distribution of extirpated species, explained by three environmental drivers: (i) pollution regime, (ii) extent of ancient woodland, and (iii) climatic setting. Results point to an interacting effect between the pollution regime (sulphur dioxide) and changed woodland structure, leading to distinctive regional signatures in biodiversity loss. Keywords: ancient woodland; biodiversity loss; epiphyte; lichen; pollution; sulphur dioxide.
29959Quirk J., Leake J.R., Johnson D.A., Taylor L.L., Saccone L. & Beerling D.J. (2015): Constraining the role of early land plants in Palaeozoic weathering and global cooling. - Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 282: 20151115 [8 p.].
Conclusion: We conclude that simple thalloid liverworts and their mycorrhizal symbionts increased basalt weathering rates at the grain-scale compared with plant-free controls through highly localized acidification (figures 1 and 2), to an extent similar to lichens (figure 3). After accounting for the depth of plant-fungal-substrate interactions, however, our experimental results for liverwort-driven weathering scale-up to yield weathering fluxes comparable with those reported from field studies of basaltic catchments colonized by lichens and bryophytes only (figure 3). Consequently, we suggest early land floras anchored into thin soils with shallow rhizoids and mycorrhizal partners probably exerted rather small effects on land-to-ocean fluxes of P and Ca–Mg and their associated role in atmospheric CO2 drawdown. Instead, the later evolutionary rise of rooted vascular plants and mycorrhizal fungi led to an increase in the capacity for biological interaction with rocks and minerals, which in turn caused an increase in the production of pedogenic clays. A pivotal point in this evolutionary progression was the rise in the productivity and biomass of Devonian forested ecosystems in upland regions. Forests with complex rooting systems substantially increased carbon-energy fluxes exported belowground [2] to intensify biological weathering processes through well understood mechanisms [3,32], with major effects on long-term CO2 and climate [21,32,39].
29958Resl P., Fernández-Mendoza F., Mayrhofer H. & Spribille T. (2018): The evolution of fungal substrate specificity in a widespread group of crustose lichens. - Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 285: 20180640 [9 p.].
Lichens exhibit varying degrees of specialization with regard to the surfaces they colonize, ranging from substrate generalists to strict substrate specialists. Though long recognized, the causes and consequences of substrate specialization are poorly known. Using a phylogeny of a 150–200 Mya clade of lichen fungi, we asked whether substrate niche is phylogenetically conserved, which substrates are ancestral, whether specialists arise from generalists or vice versa and how specialization affects speciation/extinction processes. We found strong phylogenetic signal for niche conservatism. Specialists evolved into generalists and back again, but transitions from generalism to specialism were more common than the reverse. Our models suggest that for this group of fungi, ‘escape’ from specialization for soil, rock and bark occurred, but specialization for wood foreclosed evolution away from that substrate type. In parallel, speciation models showed positive diversification rates for soil and rock dwellers but not other specialists. Patterns in the studied group suggest that fungal substrate specificity is a key determinant of evolutionary trajectory for the entire lichen symbiosis. Keywords: diversification, fungal niche, niche, phylogenetic comparative methods, phylogenetic uncertainty, symbiosis.
29957Lamb M. (1959): Lichens. - Scientific American, 201(4): 144–146, 148, 150–152, 154, 156.
Popular paper
29956Gies E. (2017): The Meaning of Lichen. How a self-taught naturalist unearthed hidden symbioses in the wilds of British Columbia —and helped to overturn 150 years of accepted scientic wisdom. - Scientific American, 316(6): 52–59.
A popular paper. A story about genesis of discovery of basidiomycete yeasts present in lichens by a prominent American journalist, prepared from interviews with T. Goward and T. Spribille and their papers.
29955Niittynen P., Heikkinen R.K. & Luoto M. (2018): Snow cover is a neglected driver of Arctic biodiversity loss. - Nature Climate Change, 8: 997–1001.
Snow has far-reaching effects on ecosystem processes and biodiversity in high-latitude ecosystems, but these have been poorly considered in climate change impact models1,2. Here, to forecast future trends in species occurrences and richness, we fitted species–environment models with temperature data from three climate scenarios and simulated up to a 40% decrease in snow cover duration (SCD). We used plot-scale data on 273 vascular plant, moss and lichen species in 1,200 study sites spanning a wide range of environmental conditions typical for mountainous Arctic landscapes (within 165 km2). According to the models, a rise in temperature increased overall species richness and caused only one species to lose all suitable habitat. In contrast, a shorter SCD tempered the effect of increasing temperature on species richness and led to accelerated rates of species’ local extinctions after a tipping point at 20–30% SCD decrease. All three species groups showed similar extinction rates but contrasting species richness responses. Our simulations indicate that future biodiversity patterns in Arctic regions are highly dependent on the evolution of snow conditions. Climate impact models that ignore the effects of snow cover change may provide biased biodiversity projections, with potentially erratic implications for Arctic nature conservation planning.
29954Baumann K., Jung P., Samolov E., Lehnert L., Büdel B., Karsten U., Bendix J., Achilles S., Schermer M., Matus F., Oses R., Osses P., Morshedizad M., Oehlschläger C., Hu Y., Klysubun W. & Leinweber P. (2018): Biological soil crusts along a climatic gradient in Chile: Richness and imprints of phototrophic microorganisms in phosphorus biogeochemical cycling. - Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 127: 286–300.
Biodiversity of phototrophic microorganisms in South American biological soil crusts (BSCs) and their role in the biogeochemical phosphorus (P)-cycle are unknown. Richness of BSC green algae and cyanobacteria was investigated at four climatically different Chilean sites (arid, semi-arid, Mediterranean, humid). Carbon (C), nitrogen (N), sulfur (S), and P contents, P pools and P speciation as well as spatial P species distribution within the BSCs were investigated. Morphological identification of enrichment cultures revealed 24 green algal and 18 cyanobacterial taxa in total. Irrespective of climatic conditions, each BSC comprised 12 to 15 different phototrophic species. Thereby, green algal richness increased, while cyanobacterial richness decreased with increasing humidity/decreasing mean annual temperature (North to South). Total C, N, and S contents ranged between 6.7 and 41.1 g C kg−1, 0.6–2.8 g N kg−1 and 0.2–0.7 g S kg−1, respectively, and increased in the order crust-free soil < crust-adhering soil < BSC. The total P content in BSCs ranged from 310 to 777 mg kg−1 with lowest concentrations at the arid site and highest concentrations at the semi-arid site. Labile P was highest in BSCs from semi-arid and Mediterranean climate implying no P-shortage for BSC organisms at these sites. In BSCs of all sites, stable and non-extractable P was identified as the major P pool (sequential P fractionation) with Ca-P species dominating at all sites except for the humid site at which Al-P was the main P species as determined by P K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure, XANES. P K-edge μ-XANES of BSC cross sections revealed apatite hotspots, a potential P source for BSC organisms except for the arid site, where other Ca-P species dominated. Further, elemental mapping of the arid BSC cross section showed distinct accumulation of S and chloride (Cl) containing compounds within green algae and on their outer surface, respectively, raising the question of function/origin of these compounds. In conclusion, this work expands our knowledge on the richness of phototrophic organisms in South American BSCs and characterizes their possible position in the P-cycle along a strong climatic gradient. Our findings suggest that biotic and abiotic factors shape the structure of BSCs phototrophic communities as well as P pools and species at each habitat.
29953Asplund J., Strandin O.V. & Gauslaa Y. (2018): Gastropod grazing of epiphytic lichen-dominatedcommunities depends on tree species. - Basic and Applied Ecology, 32: 96–102.
Tree species differ in longevity, canopy structure, and bark texture, chemistry and water storage. Tree species-specific traitsplay a role in shaping epiphytic vegetation and likely influence the community assembly of organisms feeding on epiphytes.Lichenivorous gastropods, species with calcium-rich shells in particular, need calcium and likely occur more abundantly in andaround tree species with high available calcium. We quantified gastropod grazing on the epiphytic lichens Lobaria pulmonariaand Lobaria scrobiculata transplanted to blocks of adjacent trunks of Acer platanoides, Quercus robur and Tilia cordata. Wetested the hypothesis that tree species known to have more available Ca, exhibit more grazing damage on transplanted lichensthan trees with lower Ca-availability. The grazing pressure was 1.6–1.8 times higher for lichen transplants on Acer and Tiliaknown to produce litter with easily soluble Ca than on Quercus, which binds Ca as oxalate. Trees with a high grazing pressureon transplants had greater natural abundance of Lobaria virens than of L. pulmonaria. Gastropods preferred L. scrobiculatato L. pulmonaria, evidenced by more observed grazing marks and greater measured biomass loss. We attribute this differenceto the lower concentration of carbon-based secondary compounds in L. scrobiculata. However, the strength of the preferencevaried between the three tree species receiving lichen transplants and was strongest on A. platanoides, while gastropods on T.cordata grazed equal amounts of each transplanted lichen. In conclusion, tree species influenced grazing patterns of gastropodson epiphytic lichens. In addition to bark pH and other factors, we have shown that tree species-specific differences in grazingpressure play a role in shaping the epiphytic macrolichen community. Keywords: Community assembly; Herbivory; Lichenized fungi; Lobaria; Secondary compounds.
29952Santiago R., Martins M.C.B., Vilaça M.D., de Barros L.F.B., Nascimento T., da Silva N.H., Falcão E.P.S., Legaz M.-E., Vicente C. & Pereira E.C. (2018): Phytochemical and biological evaluation of metabolites produced by alginate-immobilized Bionts isolated from the lichen Cladonia substellata vain [sic!]. - Fitoterapia, 131: 23–34.
In this work, new biotechnological procedures have been optimized on the basis of immobilization in alginate of bionts isolated from the lichen C. substellata. From these immobilizates, soluble and biologically active phenolics can be obtained. During bionts-immobilization, stictic, norstictic and usnic acids were secreted to the medium. The amount produced of each of them differed depending on the immobilization time, the precursor supplied and the type of biont used. Greater amounts of stictic acid were detected and maintained over time in all bioreactors. The opposite occurs in non-immobilized thallus. Virtually, all lichen phenols exhibit antioxidant activity to a greater or lesser degree, so that the antioxidant capacity of stictic acid (82.13% oxidation inhibition) was tested. The soluble extract of immobilized algae co-incubated in sodium acetate with fungal hyphae contained carbohydrates and exhibited a potent antioxidant capacity after 13 days of immobilization (94.87%). Therefore, attempts have been made to relate both parameters. On the other hand, the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae was inhibited by phenolic compounds produced by immobilizates, although the organic extract of the whole lichen showed the highest activity due to a possible synergy with other indeterminate compounds. Thus, C. substellata immobilized bionts are a potential source of different natural antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds. Keywords: Alginate; Antimicrobial activity; Antioxidant activity; Cladoniaceae; Immobilization; Isolated symbionts; Lichen substances.
29951Bacior M., Harańczyk H., Nowak P., Kijak P., Marze M., Fitas J. & Olech M.A. (2019): Low-temperature immobilization of water in Antarctic Turgidosculum complicatulum and in Prasiola crispa. Part I. Turgidosculum complicatulum. - Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 173: 869–875.
The studies of low-temperature immobilization of bound water in Antarctic lichenized fungus Turgidosculum complicatulum were performed using 1H NMR and DSC over a wide range of thallus hydration. 1H NMR free induction decays were decomposed into a solid component well described by the Gaussian function and two exponentially decaying components coming from a tightly bound water and from a loosely bound water fraction. 1H NMR spectra revealed one averaged mobile proton signal component. 1H NMR measurements recorded in time and in frequency domain suggest the non-cooperative bound water immobilization in T. complicatulum thallus. The threshold of the hydration level estimated by 1H NMR analysis at which the cooperative bound water freezing was detected was Δm/m0 ≈ 0.39, whereas for DSC analysis was equal to Δm/m0 = 0.375. Main ice melting estimated from DSC measurements for zero hydration level of the sample starts at tm = –(19.29 ± 1.19)°C. However, DSC melting peak shows a composed form being a superposition of the main narrow peak (presumably melting of mycobiont areas) and a broad low-temperature shoulder (presumably melting of isolated photobiont cells). DSC traces recorded after two-hour incubation of T. complicatulum thallus at –20 °C suggest much lower threshold level of hydration at which the ice formation occurs (Δm/m0 = 0.0842). Presumably it is a result of diffusion induced migration of separated water molecules to ice microcrystallites already present in thallus, but still beyond the calorimeter resolution. Keywords: Freezing resistence; Phase growth; Lichens; NMR; DSC.
29950Munzi S., Branquinho C., Cruz C., Máguas C., Leith I.D., Sheppard L.J. & Sutton M.A. (2019): δ15N of lichens reflects the isotopic signature of ammonia source. - Science of The Total Environment, 653: 698–704.
Although it is generally accepted that δ15N in lichen reflects predominating N isotope sources in the environment, confirmation of the direct correlation between lichen δ15N and atmospheric δ15N is still missing, especially under field conditions with most confounding factors controlled. To fill this gap and investigate the response of lichens with different tolerance to atmospheric N deposition, thalli of the sensitive Evernia prunastri and the tolerant Xanthoria parietina were exposed for ten weeks to different forms and doses of N in a field manipulation experiment where confounding factors were minimized. During this period, several parameters, namely total N, δ15N and chlorophyll a fluorescence, were measured. Under the experimental conditions, δ15N in lichens quantitatively responded to the δ15N of released gaseous ammonia (NH3). Although a high correlation between the isotopic signatures in lichen tissue and supplied N was found both in tolerant and sensitive species, chlorophyll a fluorescence indicated that the sensitive species very soon lost its photosynthetic functionality with increasing N availability. The most damaging response to the different N chemical forms was observed with dry deposition of NH3, although wet deposition of ammonium ions had a significant observable physiological impact. Conversely, there was no significant effect of nitrate ions on chlorophyll a fluorescence, implying differential sensitivity to dry deposition versus wet deposition and to ammonium versus nitrate in wet deposition. Evernia prunastri was most sensitive to NH3, then NH4+, with lowest sensitivity to NO3−. Moreover, these results confirm that lichen δ15N can be used to indicate the δ15N of atmospheric ammonia, providing a suitable tool for the interpretation of the spatial distribution of NH3 sources in relation to their δ15N signal. Keywords: Biomonitoring; Chlorophyll a fluorescence; Nitrogen deposition; Physiological response; Source spatial distribution; Xanthoria parietina.
29949Dítě D., Hájek M., Svitková I., Košuthová A., Šoltés R. & Kliment J. (2018): Glacial-relict symptoms in the Western Carpathian flora. - Folia Geobotanica, 53: 277–300.
Glacial relicts have been regionally more common in glacial than in recent times. A rigorous assessment of which species are indeed glacial relicts is extremely difficult because direct evidence is untraceable or equivocal for many species. We aimed to identify species of the Western Carpathian flora (vascular plants, bryophytes and terrestrial lichens) that display apparent biogeographical and ecological symptoms, suggesting a wider regional or supra-regional distribution during glacial times, or at least before the middle-Holocene climate optimum. We worked with the premise that exemplary relict species should tolerate continental and/or arctic climates, should have large distribution ranges with disjunctions, being regionally rare and ecologically conservative nowadays, should be associated with habitats that occurred during glacial times (tundra, steppe, peatland, open coniferous forest) and should display a restriction of ecological niches in the study region. The assessed species were primarily those with boreo-continental or artcic-alpine distribution. We demonstrated a conspicuous gradient of glacial-relict symptoms, with Carex vaginata, Betula nana, Trichophorum pumilum, Nephroma arcticum, Saxifraga hirculus and Cladonia stellaris topping the ranking. Based on the arbitrary ranking, 289 taxa can be considered high-probability relicts. For only a minority of them, there are any phylogeographical and/or palaeoecological data available from the study area. Biogeographical and ecological symptoms of 144 taxa suggest that they retreated rapidly after the Last Glacial Maximum whereas other species probably retreated later. The first principal component of biogeographical symptoms sorted species from circumpolar arctic-alpine species of acidic peatlands and wet tundra to strongly continental species of steppe, steppe-tundra and mineral-rich fens. This differentiation may mirror the altitudinal zonation of glacial vegetation in the Western Carpathians. Keywords: Bryophytes; Biogeography; Central Europe; Habitat preferences; Glacial relict; Macroscopic terrestrial lichens; Vascular plants.
29948Machacova K., Maier M., Svobodova K., Lang F. & Urban O. (2017): Cryptogamic stem covers may contribute to nitrous oxide consumption by mature beech trees. - Scientific Reports, 7:13243 [7 p.].
Naturally produced by microbial processes in soil, nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important greenhouse gas contributing to climate change. Accordingly, there is a need to accurately quantify the capability of forest ecosystems to exchange N2O with the atmosphere. While N2O emissions from soils have been well studied, trees have so far been overlooked in N2O inventories. Here, we show that stems of mature beech trees (Fagus sylvatica) may act as a substantial sink of N2O from the atmosphere under conditions of soils consuming N2O. Consistent consumption of N2O by all stems investigated (ranging between −2.4 and −3.8 μg m−2 h−1) is a novel finding in contrast to current studies presenting trees as N2O emitters. To understand these fluxes, N2O exchange of photoautotrophic organisms associated with beech bark (lichens, mosses and algae) was quantified under laboratory conditions. All these organisms were net N2O sinks at full rehydration and temperature of 25 °C. The consumption rates were comparable to stem consumption rates measured under field conditions. Cryptogamic stem covers could be a relevant sink of N2O in European beech forests.
29947Paul F., Otte J., Schmitt I. & Dal Grande F. (2018): Comparing Sanger sequencing and high-throughput metabarcoding for inferring photobiont diversity in lichens. - Scientific Reports, 8:8624 [7 p.].
The implementation of HTS (high-throughput sequencing) approaches is rapidly changing our understanding of the lichen symbiosis, by uncovering high bacterial and fungal diversity, which is often host-specific. Recently, HTS methods revealed the presence of multiple photobionts inside a single thallus in several lichen species. This differs from Sanger technology, which typically yields a single, unambiguous algal sequence per individual. Here we compared HTS and Sanger methods for estimating the diversity of green algal symbionts within lichen thalli using 240 lichen individuals belonging to two species of lichen-forming fungi. According to HTS data, Sanger technology consistently yielded the most abundant photobiont sequence in the sample. However, if the second most abundant photobiont exceeded 30% of the total HTS reads in a sample, Sanger sequencing generally failed. Our results suggest that most lichen individuals in the two analyzed species, Lasallia hispanica and L. pustulata, indeed contain a single, predominant green algal photobiont. We conclude that Sanger sequencing is a valid approach to detect the dominant photobionts in lichen individuals and populations. We discuss which research areas in lichen ecology and evolution will continue to benefit from Sanger sequencing, and which areas will profit from HTS approaches to assessing symbiont diversity.
29946Meiser A., Otte J., Schmitt I. & Dal Grande F. (2017): Sequencing genomes from mixed DNA samples - evaluating the metagenome skimming approach in lichenized fungi. - Scientific Reports, 7:14881 [13 p.].
The metagenome skimming approach, i.e. low coverage shotgun sequencing of multi-species assemblages and subsequent reconstruction of individual genomes, is increasingly used for indepth genomic characterization of ecological communities. This approach is a promising tool for reconstructing genomes of facultative symbionts, such as lichen-forming fungi, from metagenomic reads. However, no study has so far tested accuracy and completeness of assemblies based on metagenomic sequences compared to assemblies based on pure culture strains of lichenized fungi. Here we assembled the genomes of Evernia prunastri and Pseudevernia furfuracea based on metagenomic sequences derived from whole lichen thalli. We extracted fungal contigs using two different taxonomic binning methods, and performed gene prediction on the fungal contig subsets. We then assessed quality and completeness of the metagenome-based assemblies using genome assemblies as reference which are based on pure culture strains of the two fungal species. Our comparison showed that we were able to reconstruct fungal genomes from uncultured lichen thalli, and also cover most of the gene space (86–90%). Metagenome skimming will facilitate genome mining, comparative (phylo)genomics, and population genetics of lichen-forming fungi by circumventing the time-consuming, sometimes unfeasible, step of aposymbiotic cultivation.
29945Wang Y., Wei X., Huang J. & Wei J. (2017): Modification and functional adaptation of the MBF1 gene family in the lichenized fungus Endocarpon pusillum under environmental stress. - Scientific Reports, 7:16333 [10 p.].
The multiprotein-bridging factor 1 (MBF1) gene family is well known in archaea, non-lichenized fungi, plants, and animals, and contains stress tolerance-related genes. Here, we identified four unique mbf1 genes in the lichenized fungi Endocarpon spp. A phylogenetic analysis based on protein sequences showed the translated MBF1 proteins of the newly isolated mbf1 genes formed a monophyletic clade different from other lichen-forming fungi and Ascomycota groups in general, which may reflect the evolution of the biological functions of MBF1s. In contrast to the lack of function reported in yeast, we determined that lysine114 in the deduced Endocarpon pusillum MBF1 protein (EpMBF1) had a specific function that was triggered by environmental stress. Further, the Endocarpon-specific C-terminus of EpMBF1 was found to participate in stress tolerance. Epmbf1 was induced by a number of abiotic stresses in E. pusillum and transgenic yeast, and its stress-resistant ability was stronger than that of the yeast mbf1. These findings highlight the evolution and function of EpMBF1 and provide new insights into the co-evolution hypothesis of MBF1 and TATA-box-binding proteins.
29944Kraichak E., Divakar P.K., Crespo A., Leavitt S.D., Nelsen M.P., Lücking R. & Lumbsch H.T. (2015): A tale of two hyper-diversities: Diversification dynamics of the two largest families of lichenized fungi. - Scientific Reports, 5:10028 [9 p.].
Renewed interests in macroevolutionary dynamics have led to the proliferation of studies on diversification processes in large taxonomic groups, such as angiosperms, mammals, and birds. However, such a study has yet to be conducted in lichenized fungi – an extremely successful and diverse group of fungi. Analysing the most comprehensive time-calibrated phylogenies with a new analytical method, we illustrated drastically different diversification dynamics between two hyper-diverse families of lichenized fungi, Graphidaceae and Parmeliaceae, which represent more than a fourth of the total species diversity of lichenized fungi. Despite adopting a similar nutrition mode and having a similar number of species, Graphidaceae exhibited a lower speciation rate, while Parmeliaceae showed a sharp increase in speciation rate that corresponded with the aridification during the Oligocene-Miocene transition, suggesting their adaptive radiation into a novel arid habitat.
29943Kukwa M. & Kolanowska M. (2016): Glacial refugia and the prediction of future habitat coverage of the South American lichen species Ochrolechia austroamericana. - Scientific Reports, 6:38779 [9 p.].
The biogeographic history of lichenized fungi remains unrevealed because those organisms rarely fossilize due to their delicate, often tiny and quickly rotting thalli. Also the ecology and factors limiting occurrence of numerous taxa, especially those restricted in their distribution to tropical areas are poorly recognized. The aim of this study was to determine localization of glacial refugia of South American Ochrolechia austroamericana and to estimate the future changes in the coverage of its habitats using ecological niche modeling tools. The general glacial potential range of the studied species was wider than it is nowadays and its niches coverage decreased by almost 25% since last glacial maximum. The refugial areas were covered by cool and dry grasslands and scrubs and suitable niches in South America were located near the glacier limit. According to our analyses the further climate changes will not significantly influence the distribution of the suitable niches of O. austroamericana.
29942Grewe F., Huang J.-P., Leavitt S.D. & Lumbsch H.T. (2017): Reference-based RADseq resolves robust relationships among closely related species of lichen-forming fungi using metagenomic DNA. - Scientific Reports, 7:9884 [11 p.].
Despite increasing availability of phylogenomic datasets, strategies to generate genome-scale data from organisms involved in symbiotic relationships remains challenging. Restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) can effectively generated reduced representation genomic loci. However, when using metagenomic DNA from inseparable symbiotic organisms, RADseq loci may belong to any number of the organisms involved in these intimate associations. In this study, we explored the potential for a reference-based RADseq approach to generate data for lichen-forming fungi from metagenomic DNA extracted from intact lichens. We simulated RAD data from draft genomes of closely related lichenized fungi to test if RADseq can reconstruct robust evolutionary relationships. Subsequently, we generated empirical RADseq data from metagenomic lichen DNA, with RADseq loci mapped back to a reference genome to exclude loci from other lichen symbionts that are represented in metagenomic libraries. In all cases, phylogenetic reconstructions using RADseq loci recovered diversification histories consistent with a previous study based on more comprehensive genome sampling. Furthermore, RADseq loci were found to resolve relationships among closely related species, which were otherwise indistinguishable using a phylogenetic species recognition criterion. Our studies revealed that a modified, reference-based RADseq approach can successfully be implemented to generate symbiont-specific phylogenomic data from metagenomic reads.
29941Sancho L.G., Pintado A., Navarro F., Ramos M., De Pablo M.A., Blanquer J.M., Raggio J., Valladares F. & Green T.G.A. (2017): Recent warming and cooling in the Antarctic Peninsula region has rapid and large effects on lichen vegetation. - Scientific Reports, 7:5689 [8 p.].
The Antarctic Peninsula has had a globally large increase in mean annual temperature from the 1951 to 1998 followed by a decline that still continues. The challenge is now to unveil whether these recent, complex and somewhat unexpected climatic changes are biologically relevant. We were able to do this by determining the growth of six lichen species on recently deglaciated surfaces over the last 24 years. Between 1991 and 2002, when mean summer temperature (MST) rose by 0.42 °C, five of the six species responded with increased growth. MST declined by 0.58 °C between 2002 and 2015 with most species showing a fall in growth rate and two of which showed a collapse with the loss of large individuals due to a combination of increased snow fall and longer snow cover duration. Increased precipitation can, counter-intuitively, have major negative effects when it falls as snow at cooler temperatures. The recent Antarctic cooling is having easily detectable and deleterious impacts on slow growing and highly stress-tolerant crustose lichens, which are comparable in extent and dynamics, and reverses the gains observed over the previous decades of exceptional warming.
29940Liu H.-J., Wang J.-G., Xia Y., Yang M.-J., Liu S.-W., Zhao L.-C., Guo X.-P., Jiang Y.-J., Li X., Wu Q.-F. & Fang S.-B. (2017): Elemental compositions of lichens from Duolun County, Inner Mongolia, China: Origin, road effect and species difference. - Scientific Reports, 7:5598 [8 p.].
To assess the response of lichen elemental compositions to road traffic and species difference in the context of high dust input and anthropogenic emissions, two foliose epiphytic lichens (Phaeophyscia hirtuosa, PHh; Candelaria fibrosa, CAf) were sampled near a road adjacent to Dolon Nor Town (Duolun County, Inner Mongolia, China). Twenty elements (Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Sb, Sr, Ti, V and Zn) in lichen and surface soil samples were analysed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). The results demonstrate that lichen elemental compositions are highly influenced by both their natural environment and anthropogenic input. Windblown dust associated with sand dunes and degraded/desertified steppes represents the predominant source of lichen elements. Road traffic can enhance the lichen elemental burden by increasing the number of soil particles. Anthropogenic emissions from the town and road traffic have also led to the enrichment of Cd and Zn in lichens. PHh was higher than CAf in concentrations of 14 terrigenous metals. Both lichens are applicable to biomonitoring of atmospheric element deposition and, in most cases, yield comparable results.
29939Liu H.-J., Fang S.-B., Liu S.-W., Zhao L.-C., Guo X.-P., Jiang Y.-J., Hu J.-S., Liu X.-D., Xia Y., Wang Y.-D. & Wu Q.-F. (2016): Lichen elemental composition distinguishes anthropogenic emissions from dust storm inputs and differs among species: Evidence from Xilinhot, Inner Mongolia, China. - Scientific Reports, 6:34694 [10 p.].
To test the applicability of lichens in the biomonitoring of atmospheric elemental deposition in a typical steppe zone of Inner Mongolia, China, six foliose lichens (Physcia aipolia, PA; P. tribacia, PT; Xanthoria elegans, XE; X. mandschurica, XM; Xanthoparmelia camtschadalis, XPC; and Xp. tinctina, XPT) were sampled from the Xilin River Basin, Xilinhot, Inner Mongolia, China. Twenty-five elements (Al, Ba, Cd, Ce, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, La, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Tb, Th, Ti, Tl, V and Zn) in the lichens were analysed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results show that Cd, Pb and Zn were mainly atmospheric in origin, whereas the other elements were predominantly of crustal origin. Compared with other studies, our data were higher in crustal element concentrations and lower in atmospheric element concentrations, matching with the frequent, severe dust storms and road traffic in the area. The elemental concentrations in lichens are both species- and element-specific, highlighting the importance of species selection for biomonitoring air pollution using lichens. We recommend PT, XE, XM and XPT for monitoring atmospheric deposition of crustal elements; XPC and XPT for Cd and Pb; PA for Cd and Zn; and PT for Cd.
29938Liu H.-J., Zhao L.-C., Fang S.-B., Liu S.-W., Hu J.-S., Wang L., Liu X.-D. & Wu Q.-F. (2016): Use of the lichen Xanthoria mandschurica in monitoring atmospheric elemental deposition in the Taihang Mountains, Hebei, China. - Scientific Reports, 6:23456 [9 p.].
Air pollution is a major concern in China. Lichens are a useful biomonitor for atmospheric elemental deposition but have rarely been used in North China. The aim of this study was to investigate the atmospheric depositions of 30 trace elements (Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Tb, Th, Ti, Tl, V and Zn) in a region of the Taihang Mountains, Hebei Province, China using lichens as biomonitors. Epilithic foliose lichen Xanthoria mandschurica was sampled from 21 sites and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results show that 1) eight elements (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, P, Pb, Sb and Zn) are of atmospheric origin and are highly influenced by the atmospheric transportation from the North China Plain, as well as local mining activities, while 2) the remaining 22 elements are primarily of crustal origin, the concentration of which has been enhanced by local mining and quarrying activities. These results clearly validate the applicability of lichens in biomonitoring of atmospheric elemental deposition and demonstrate the spatial pattern for air pollution in the region.
29937Ballesteros M., Ayerbe J., Casares M., Cañadas E.M. & Lorite J. (2017): Successful lichen translocation on disturbed gypsum areas: A test with adhesives to promote the recovery of biological soil crusts. - Scientific Reports, 7:45606 [9 p.].
The loss of biological soil crusts represents a challenge for the restoration of disturbed environments, specifically in particular substrates hosting unique lichen communities. However, the recovery of lichen species affected by mining is rarely addressed in restoration projects. Here, we evaluate the translocation of Diploschistes diacapsis, a representative species of gypsum lichen communities affected by quarrying. We tested how a selection of adhesives could improve thallus attachment to the substrate and affect lichen vitality (as CO2 exchange and fluorescence) in rainfall-simulation and field experiments. Treatments included: white glue, water, hydroseeding stabiliser, gum arabic, synthetic resin, and a control with no adhesive. Attachment differed only in the field, where white glue and water performed best. Adhesives altered CO2 exchange and fluorescence yield. Notably, wet spoils allowed thalli to bind to the substrate after drying, revealing as the most suitable option for translocation. The satisfactory results applying water on gypsum spoils are encouraging to test this methodology with other lichen species. Implementing these measures in restoration projects would be relatively easy and cost-effective. It would help not only to recover lichen species in the disturbed areas but also to take advantage of an extremely valuable biological material that otherwise would be lost.
29936Zhou R., Yang Y., Park S.-Y., Nguyen T.T., Seo Y.-W., Lee K.H., Lee J.H., Kim K.K., Hur J.-S. & Kim H. (2017): The lichen secondary metabolite atranorin suppresses lung cancer cell motility and tumorigenesis. - Scientific Reports, 7:8136 [13 p.].
Lichens are symbiotic organisms that produce various secondary metabolites. Here, different lichen extracts were examined to identify secondary metabolites with anti-migratory activity against human lung cancer cells. Everniastrum vexans had the most potent inhibitory activity, and atranorin was identified as an active subcomponent of this extract. Atranorin suppressed β-catenin-mediated TOPFLASH activity by inhibiting the nuclear import of β-catenin and downregulating β-catenin/LEF and c-jun/AP-1 downstream target genes such as CD44, cyclin-D1 and c-myc. Atranorin decreased KAI1 C-terminal interacting tetraspanin (KITENIN)-mediated AP-1 activity and the activity of the KITENIN 3′-untranslated region. The nuclear distribution of the AP-1 transcriptional factor, including c-jun and c-fos, was suppressed in atranorin-treated cells, and atranorin inhibited the activity of Rho GTPases including Rac1, Cdc42, and RhoA, whereas it had no effect on epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers. STAT-luciferase activity and nuclear STAT levels were decreased, whereas total STAT levels were moderately reduced. The human cell motility and lung cancer RT² Profiler PCR Arrays identified additional atranorin target genes. Atranorin significantly inhibited tumorigenesis in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, our results indicated that E. vexans and its subcomponent atranorin may inhibit lung cancer cell motility and tumorigenesis by affecting AP-1, Wnt, and STAT signaling and suppressing RhoGTPase activity.
29935Onuț-Brännström I., Benjamin M., Scofield D.G., Heiðmarsson S., Andersson M.G.I., Lindström E.S. & Johannesson H. (2018): Sharing of photobionts in sympatric populations of Thamnolia and Cetraria lichens: evidence from high-throughput sequencing. - Scientific Reports, 8:4406 [14 p.].
In this study, we explored the diversity of green algal symbionts (photobionts) in sympatric populations of the cosmopolitan lichen-forming fungi Thamnolia and Cetraria. We sequenced with both Sanger and Ion Torrent High-Throughput Sequencing technologies the photobiont ITS-region of 30 lichen thalli from two islands: Iceland and Öland. While Sanger recovered just one photobiont genotype from each thallus, the Ion Torrent data recovered 10–18 OTUs for each pool of 5 lichen thalli, suggesting that individual lichens can contain heterogeneous photobiont populations. Both methods showed evidence for photobiont sharing between Thamnolia and Cetraria on Iceland. In contrast, our data suggest that on Öland the two mycobionts associate with distinct photobiont communities, with few shared OTUs revealed by Ion Torrent sequencing. Furthermore, by comparing our sequences with public data, we identified closely related photobionts from geographically distant localities. Taken together, we suggest that the photobiont composition in Thamnolia and Cetraria results from both photobiont-mycobiont codispersal and local acquisition during mycobiont establishment and/or lichen growth. We hypothesize that this is a successful strategy for lichens to be flexible in the use of the most adapted photobiont for the environment.
29934Sigurbjörnsdóttir M.A., Andrésson Ó.S. & Vilhelmsson O. (2015): Analysis of the Peltigera membranacea metagenome indicates that lichen-associated bacteria are involved in phosphate solubilization. - Microbiology, 161: 989–996.
Although lichens are generally described as mutualistic symbioses of fungi and photosynthetic partners, they also harbour a diverse non-phototrophic microbiota, which is now regarded as a significant part of the symbiosis. However, the role of the non-phototrophic microbiota within the lichen is still poorly known, although possible functions have been suggested, including phosphate solubilization and various lytic activities. In the present study we focus on the bacterial biota associated with the foliose lichen Peltigera membranacea. To address our hypotheses on possible roles of the non-phototrophic microbiota, we used a metagenomic approach. A DNA library of bacterial sequence contigs was constructed from the lichen thallus material and the bacterial microbiota DNA sequence was analysed in terms of phylogenetic diversity and functional gene composition. Analysis of about 30000 such bacterial contigs from the P. membranacea metagenome revealed significant representation of several genes involved in phosphate solubilization and biopolymer degradation.
29933Stocker-Wörgötter E., Elix J.A., Schumm F. & Hametner C. (2012): Bushfire and lichen communities: ecophysiology, culturing and secondary chemistry of two Australasian lichen species, Thysanothecium scutellatum and T. hookeri (Cladoniaceae, lichenized Ascomycetes). - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 108: 241–256.
Species of the Australasian lichen genus Thysanothecium colonize an interesting set of highly specialized habitats, such as red clay, charred wood in a recovered Eucalyptus stand after a bushfire (Thysanothecium scutellatum), and burnt, "old" ant hills and termite mounds (T. hookeri) that have been exposed to weathering processes over a longer period of time. By HPLC-analyscs, it was shown that T scutellatum and T hookeri have different chemical profiles, the former producing medullary depsides of the divaricatic acid chemosyndrome and stenosporic acid, while the latter biosynthesizes barbatic and 4-0-demethylbarbatic acids. In both species the cortical substance usnic acid, and in one case (T. scutellatum) isousnic acid, was present. A study of the ecological and nutritional requirements of Thysanthecium mycobionts is undertaken, and of possible associated organisms (fungi and bacteria), by culture experiments and how these requirements could be adopted and simulated under laboratory conditions. Our investigations demonstrated that mycobionts of both T scutellatum and T hookeri can only be cultured axenically on specifically designed nutrient media, more specifically by using "classical" nutrient media such as Lilly & Barnett and Murashige Skoog Medium for lichen fungi, enriched with carbohydrates and/or extracts from the substrates (on which the lichens grow in nature) and sterilized pieces of charred wood. The latter were shown to serve as an essential additional carbon source for the two Thysanothecium mycobionts. In the laboratory, these mycobionts only biosynthesized the typical depsides when exposed to external stress like drought and lower temperatures. In culture, both mycobionts showed a high degree of adaptation to their specific habitats influenced by occasional bushfires, and these have been simulated in part to keep them growing and developing under artificial laboratory conditions. Keywords: Ecology, bushfire, lichen, Australasia, secondary metabolites.
29932Sundin R., Thor G. & Frisch A. (2012): A literature review of Arthonia s. lat.. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 108: 257–290.
A review of Arthonia s. lat. which focusses on the extensive literature dealing with the infrageneric, generic and suprageneric classification is presented. The generic concepts within Arthoniaceae to a major extent date back to the 19th century and the phylogenetic position of the major lineages within the family remain speculative due to the limited molecular data available. A key to eight possibly monophyletic groups of mainly non-tropical Arthonia s. lat. is presented, namely Arthonia s. str., Arthothelium A. Massa!. s. str., Coniangium Fr., Coniocarpon DC., Mycarthothelium Vain., "Necrothelium" ad int., "Ochrocarpon (Vain.)" ad int. and Trachylia Fr. A short morphological characterization is presented for each group and some synonyms are provided. Since almost half of the species in the Arthoniomycetes belong to Arthonia, further research in this genus is crucial to a better understanding of the phylogeny of this large class of fungi. One important step towards resolving the phylogeny would be extended sampling for molecular studies. A future splitting and re-arrangement of Arthonia, as well as Arthothelium, Cryptothecia, Herpothallon and Opegrapha, based on molecular studies, can be expected. A list of generic synonyms to Arthonia, Arthothelium and some possibly related genera is provided. As indicated here, several old generic names are available for monophyletic segregates, and even more names are available at the infrageneric level. Plearthonis and Allarthonia are placed in synonomy with Chrysothrix, and type species are selected for the genera Leprantha, Pachnolepia and Pseudo-Arthonia. Keywords: Ascomycota, Arthoniaceae, Arthoniales, Arthoniomycetes, nomenclature, taxonomy.
29931Stapper N.J. (2012): Baumflechten in Düsseldorf unter dem Einfluss von Luftverunreinigungen, Stadtklima und Klimawandel. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 108: 221–240.
Occurrence and frequency of epiphytic lichens in the city of Düsseldorf (North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany) are shown as a function of urban heat island effect, traffic related emissions and recent climate changes. For the latter, epiphytic lichens with temperate- mediterranean and subatlantic-mediterranean distributions in Europe are applied as indicator organisms. The data presented in this study were collected during five lichen mapping projects, in all of which the phorophytes were selected according to guideline VDI 3957 Part 13. The number of climate change indicators and their proportion of the lichen species spectrum have significantly increased since 2003; they have mostly spread in the peripheral areas of the city. Keywords: Biomonitoring, lichen, air pollutants (traffic), urban climate, global climate change.
29930Søchting U. & Sancho L.G. (2012): Caloplaca magellanica sp. nova, a southern Patagonian parasite on Zahlbrucknerel/a. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 108: 215–220.
Caloplaca magellanica is described from southernmost Chile. It is lichenicolous on Zahlbrucknerella maritima and characterized by two-celled spores with a thin septum and a central constriction.
29929Sipman H.J.M. (2012): The lichen genus Usnea on the smaller Aegean islands, Greece. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 108: 201–214.
On the islands in the Aegean Sea (Greece), excluding Crete and Evia, the lichen genus Usnea is represented by 12 species, four of which, U. praetermissa, U. rubicunda, U. subscabrosa and U. wasmuthii, are new to Greece. One species, U. glabrescens, has to be considered as unreported for Greece. The species occur only at medium elevations (c. 600-1200 m) on hilltops which are frequently shrouded by clouds. No species were found in the northern Aegean. All species are widespread worldwide, and in Europe most have a Mediterranean-Atlantic rather than a Central European distribution. A key and details of chemical variation, differentiating characters and ecological preferences are presented. Keywords: lichenized fungi, distribution, fog exposure, air pollution, chemical strains.
29928Schaper T. & Ott S. (2012): Initial developmental processes and interactions in the xerophilic lichen community of Gotland, Sweden: in situ culture experiments using the crustaceous cyanolichen Placynthium nigrum. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 108: 187–200.
The xerophilic lichen community found on the rock alvar on Gotland (Baltic Sea, Sweden) is characterized by many inter- and intra-specific interactions. Communities developing on flat limestone areas mainly comprise the lichens Placynthium nigrum, Synalissa symphorea, Collema cristatum and Lecidea lurida. Placynthium nigrum appears to play a key role in the development and subsequently in the maintenance of the community. Detailed culture experiments in situ were undertaken in order to elucidate (1) the initial developmental and colonization processes of P. nigrum and (2) the interspecific interactions involved in the early successional stages of this lichen community. The lichen symbiosis in P. nigrum involves a loose and unstable contact between mycobiont and photobiont (both bionts being capable of independent growth) that may facilitate the distribution and colonization of this species. This lichen has highly plastic and dynamic regeneration, growth and colonization processes. Its specific growth form promotes the initial colonization of bare rock surfaces, and can be described as a prerequisite for the subsequent establishment of further elements of the interacting xerophilic lichen community on Gotland. Keywords: life strategy, culture experiments, colonization processes, adaptive strategy, limestone lichen community.
29927Kondratyuk S.Y., Elix J.A., Kärnefelt I. & Thell A. (2012): An artificial key to Australian Caloplaca species (Teloschistaceae, Ascomycota). - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 108: 141–160.
An artificial key to the 122 Caloplaca species presently known for the Australian continent is provided. Keywords: Ca!oplaca, Teloschistaceae, Australia, lichen key.
29926Hansen E.S. (2012): Lichens from five localities in south-east Greenland and their exposure to climate change. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 108: 123–134.
97 lichen taxa are reported from five localities in the Sermilik and Angmagssalik Fjord area near Tasiilaq in south-east Greenland. The climatic preferences of the lichens in relation to the degree of oceanity or continentality are stated, and the distribution types are discussed. Some preliminary results of lichenometric measurements made in Little Ice Age landscapes in front of three glaciers in the investigation area are given. Keywords: Arctic, climate change, distribution types, ecology, lichenized ascomycetes.
29925Hametner C., Brunauer G. & Stocker-Wörgötter E. (2012): Molecular analyses of cultured lichenicolous fungi from cetrarioid lichens. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 108: 103–122.
Lichenicolous fungi growing on cetrarioid lichen genera, namely Arctocetraria, Cetraria, Flavocetraria, Nephromopsis and Tuckermannopsis, have been cultured under axenic conditions for the first time. ITS-sequences of voucher specimens and cultured fungal isolates obtained from the surface and also from within the lichen thallus are compared with sequences from the NCBI GenBank. The DNA analyses demonstrated that most of the isolated and cultured fungi from the investigated cetrarioid lichens were in fact not the authentic mycobionts of the lichens, but were, in most cases, related to ascomycetes known as endophytes in leaves of vascular plants or to lichenicolous fungi, and in some cases to soil fungi. Additionally, some of the hyphal isolates were described as ascomycetous fungi of hitherto unknown origin. A molecular phylogeny analysis reveals the relationships between the cultured fungi and sequences in the Genbank. The consensus tree was created by using the programs Geneious, MrBayes, and Tree View. Keywords: Cetraria, cetrarioid lichens, lichenicolous fungi, DNA analyses, molecular phylogeny, ecological correlation.
29924Feuerer T. & Hertel H. (2012): The saxicolous lichens of Munich (Germany) - a preliminary evaluation. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 108: 65–74.
87 species of saxicolous lichens are listed for the city of Munich, 23 of which have not been seen since the 19th century and were thought to be extinct; 17 species are listed for the first time, and 41 % of the current flora is threatened to varying degrees, in some cases only being represented by a single specimen. Keywords: checklist, Munich, urban lichens, saxicolous.
29923Arvidsson L. (2012): Presidents of the International Association for Lichenology. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 108: 1–20.
This paper briefly reviews the nine Presidents of the International Association for Lichenology (IAL) in chronological order, namely P. W. James, T. Ahti, M. Hale, D. J. Galloway, I. Kärnefelt, H. M. Jahns, P. L. Nimis, I. M. Brodo and P. Crittenden, and provides short biographical notes for each of them, together with the author's personal recollections and a few selected references. Keywords: IAL, presidents, lichens, biographies, references.
29922Bültmann H. & Daniëls F.J.A. (2012): Net photosynthesis as an alternative for relative growth rate in classifying lichens in Grime’s plant strategy types. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 108: 21–44.
Classification of species in Grime's life-strategy system requires a measurement of size, the morphology index (MI), and of potential speed of growth, the maximum relative growth rate (RGR). While data for the MI are easy to obtain, those for maximum RGR are scarce for lichens. Growth of lichens depends on chlorophyll content and photosynthesis. The intention of this contribution was to find out if net photosynthesis (PS), which is easier to measure and for which more data are available, can be used as a model of RGR of lichens. Maximum values of RGR, growth rate (GR) and PS were assembled from literature. Linear regression revealed a good relationship of RGR and PS, but neither RGR and GR nor GR and PS are related. With RGR from literature and RGR modelled from PS, 192 lichen species could be ordinated according to Grime. Examples for the three main strategies are Peltigera praetextata as a competitor, Strigula spp. as a ruderal and Rhizocarpon reductum as a stress-tolerator. A group of lichens with rather tall but open canopies does not fit into Grime's triangle: these could belong to another category of stress-tolerators, the biomass storers (KAUTSKY 1988), or the MI after ROGERS (1990) need to be reappraised. Keywords: competitor, morphology index, ruderal, stress-tolerator Abbreviations: GR: growth rate, MI: morphology index, PS: net photosynthesis, RGR: relative growth rate.
29921Pizarro D., Divakar P.K., Grewe F., Leavitt S.D., Huang J.-P., Dal Grande F., Schmitt I., Wedin M., Crespo A. & Lumbsch H.T. (2018): Phylogenomic analysis of 2556 single-copy protein-coding genes resolves most evolutionary relationships for the major clades in the most diverse group of lichen-forming fungi. - Fungal Diversity, 92(1): 31–41.
Phylogenomic datasets continue to enhance our understanding of evolutionary relationships in many lineages of organisms. However, genome-scale data have not been widely implemented in reconstructing relationships in lichenized fungi. Here we generate a data set comprised of 2556 single-copy protein-coding genes to reconstruct previously unresolved relationships in the most diverse family of lichen-forming fungi, Parmeliaceae. Our sampling included 51 taxa, mainly from the subfamily Parmelioideae, and represented six of the seven previously identified major clades within the family. Our results provided strong support for the monophyly of each of these major clades and most backbone relationships in the topology were recovered with high nodal support based on concatenated dataset and species tree analyses. The alectorioid clade was strongly supported as sister-group to all remaining clades, which were divided into two major sister-groups. In the first major clade the anzioid and usneoid clades formed a strongly supported sister-group relationship with the cetrarioid + hypogymnioid group. The sister-group relationship of Evernia with the cetrarioid clade was also strongly supported, whereas that between the anzioid and usneoid clades needs further investigation. In the second major clade Oropogon and Platismatia were sister to the parmelioid group, while the position of Omphalora was not fully resolved. This study demonstrates the power of genome-scale data sets to resolve long-standing, ambiguous phylogenetic relationships of lichen-forming fungi. Furthermore, the topology inferred in this study will provide a valuable framework for better understanding diversification in the most diverse lineage of lichen-forming fungi, Parmeliaceae. Keywords: Fungi; Lecanorales; Lichenized fungi; Parmeliaceae; Parmelioideae; Phylogeny.
29920Ismed F., Lohézic-Le Dévéhat F., Guiller A.. Corlay N., Bakhtiar A. & Boustie J. (2018): Phytochemical review of the lichen genus Stereocaulon (Fam. Stereocaulaceae) and related pharmacological activities highlighted by a focus on nine species. - Phytochemistry Reviews, 17: 1165–1178 .
The Stereocaulon genus is one of the fruticose lichen groups distributed worldwide from tropical zones to polar zones. However, the scientific study of this tricky genus is still limited, making it a challenge to study the group further. Detailed morphological studies are essential to discriminate closely shaped species which is illustrated through personal data focused on phyllocladia, apothecia and spores of nine species. Secondary metabolites isolated from Stereocaulon species are mostly some depsides, depsidones, diphenylethers and dibenzofurans which can have a taxonomic value. The use of Stereocaulon lichens as a traditional medicine in several regions of the world and pharmacological studies of extracts and isolated compounds have been compiled. Biological activities as cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal or antioxidant are reported. Keywords: Biogenetic;  Bioactivities;  Folk medicines;  Lichens;  Secondary metabolites;  Stereocaulon.
29919Pandır D., Hilooglu M. & Kocakaya M. (2018): Assessment of anticytotoxic effect of lichen Cladonia foliacae [sic!] extract on Allium cepa root tips. - Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 25: 32478–32490.
The aim of this study is to investigate the protective effect of lichen Cladonia foliacea (Huds.) (CF) on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced toxicity through cell death, chromosome aberrations, mitotic index, oxidative stress parameters, and DNA damage in a Allium cepa root meristematic cells. Any chemical was not given for control group. Two doses of H2O2 (3 and 7%) were given to the roots for 1 h and the root tips were treated with CF water extract (50 and 100 μL) with increasing times for treatment groups. The roots were taken from control and treatment groups, and mitotic index, cell death, and chromosome aberrations were performed by light microscope. Changing antioxidant capacity of roots was revealed by FRAP and TEAC assay. Also, DNA damage was measured by comet assay and RAPD-PCR technique. Chromosome aberration values were obtained with increasing concentrations with longer treatment times, such as chromosome bridge, vagrant, and polyploidy in both groups. Increasing exposure doses of H2O2 caused decreasing mitotic index values at 72 h. TEAC and FRAP assay demonstrated that roots’ capacity of antioxidant was altered by increasing concentrations of H2O2. The tail DNA% and tail length significantly increased in all exposure times when compared to control group. Three and seven percent of H2O2 caused the genotoxic effect on genetic material at 72 h according to RAPD-PCR technique. Increasing the doses of H2O2 resulted in increased toxicity to all studied parameters of A. cepa, but CF extract altered all changing parameters of A. cepa root cell. The H2O2 tested in this study have cytotoxic and mutagenic potential, but extract of CF was protective against H2O2 caused toxicological changes. But, it did not protect completely in the A. cepa root meristematic cells. Keywords: Cladonia foliacea; DNA damage; RAPD-PCR; Genotoxicity; Allium; test H2O2.
29918Kirchhoff N., Hoppert M. & Hallmann C. (2018): Algal and fungal diversity on various dimension stone substrata in the Saale/Unstrut region. - Environmental Earth Sciences, 77:609 [10 p.].
Physical, chemical and biogenic weathering considerably threatens all historic stone monuments. Microorganisms, though inconspicuous, are key players of stone surface colonization and penetration. This study highlights eukaryotic microbial communities on dimension stone surfaces from two representative monuments of the “cultural landscape corridor” in the Saale–Unstrut area. The historical buildings were erected from local Triassic limestone and sandstone and are prone to various deteriorative mechanisms. Generally, trebouxiophyceaen algae and ascomycete fungi dominate among the latter dematiaceous fungi and lichen fungi are abundant. Inside the stone substratum, ascomycetes, mosses and even large soil organisms (tardigrades) are present. This may be taken as a hint for the formation of pores with large radii, which are “risk indicators” for progressive weathering and degradation of the rock matrix. Keywords Endoliths · Biogenic weathering · Dematiaceous fungi · Terrestrial algae.
29917Tønsberg T. & Printzen C. (2018): Biatora troendelagica new to North America from Alaska, USA. - Graphis Scripta, 30(9): 161–165.
Biatora troendelagica is reported new to North America from Kenai Fjord National Park, Alaska, USA, where it was found on a Picea sitchensis snag, on driftwood, and lignicolous on a branch of Tsuga mertensiana. The species was previously known only from the type locality in Norway.
29916Pykälä J. (2018): Additions to the lichen flora of Finland. IX. - Graphis Scripta, 30(8): 155–160.
Thirteen lichen species are reported new to Finland including three species new to Fennoscandia: Bacidia biatorina, Bacidina mendax (new to Fennoscandia), Biatora vacciniicola, Bryobilimbia sanguineoatra, Buellia arnoldii, Caloplaca fuscorufa, Lecidea strasseri (new to Fennoscandia), Opegrapha vermicellifera, Placynthium pulvinatum, Psorotichia lugubris, Thelocarpon sphaerosporum, Trapelia elachista and Verrucaria corcontica (new to Fennoscandia). Verrucaria cincta is excluded from the lichen flora of Finland.
29915Цуриков А.Г., Голубков В.В. & Цурикова Н.В. [Tsurykau A.G., Golubkov V.V. & Tsurykova N.V.] (2015): Ревизия лишайников группы видов Cladonia chlorophaea в Беларуси: Cladonia homosekikaica и Cladonia novochlorophaea [Revision of lichens of the Cladonia chlorophaea group in Belarus: Cladonia homosekikaica and Cladonia novochlorophaea]. - Вестник Белорусского государственного университета [Herald of Belarus State University], 2015/3: 30–33.
There are no reliable data on the species diversity, ecology and distribution within Cladonia chlorophaea group in Belarus. With this in mind, revision of all available material of this group by modern chemical methods seems to be urgently needed. This study is based on the samples with goblet-shaped podetia of lichen genus Cladonia housed in Belarusian State University (MSKU), F. Skorina Gomel State University (GSU), Ya. Kupala Grodno State University (GRSU) and V. F. Kuprevich Institute of experimental botany of National Academy of Sciences of Belarus (MSK) lichen herbaria. In total 514 specimens collected during 1937–2014 were studied. The specimens were examined using standard methods of microcopy with Nikon SMZ-745. Chemistry of lichens was studied by thin layer chromatography. As a result, three samples were found to contain homosekikaic acid complex. Two specimens appeared to be Cladonia homosekikaica Nuno, one specimen was Cladonia novochlorophaea Asahina. Both species are new to the county. Their morphological description and chemistry are provided in the article. The data obtained clarify the ecology and distribution of these species, both within our country and Europe. Key words: lichen; Cladonia chlorophaea; biodiversity; podetia; squamules; chemotaxonomy; chromatography; secondary metabolites.
29914van den Boom P.P.G. & Haji Moniri M. (2018): Notes on the lichen genus Lecania (Ramalinaceae) in Iran, with the description of a new Arthonia species (Arthoniaceae). - Nova Hedwigia, 107: 407–421.
Based on an examination of 40, mostly recent, Lecania specimens from Iran and a study of the literature, 17 species are accepted for the country. A key is provided and, for each species, a short description and notes are given. The poorly understood names Lecania brachyspora and L. rechingeriana were revised and turned out to be synonyms of Lecania polycycla and Lecidea varians, respectively. Two undescribed species were discovered: the lichenicolous Arthonia lecaniicola and the saxicolous Lecania triseptatoides. Formal descriptions for both are provided. Lecidea varians is newly recorded from Iran. Key words: crustose lichens, checklist, taxonomy, ecology, biodiversity.
29913McCampbell B.C. & Maricle B.R. (2018): Natural history of biological soil crusts in prairie ecosystems of the Great Plains: Organismal composition and photosynthetic traits. - Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science, 121: 241–260.
Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are soil-surface microecosystems composed of a close association of algae, cyanobacteria, fungi, lichens, and nonvascular plants with soil particles. BSCs have several ecological functions including carbon fixation, nitrogen fixation, nutrient relations, soil stabilization, water relations, and floral community development, which make them extremely important in many of the ecosystems where they occur. While BSCs have been studied throughout the American West, little work has been done in the Great Plains region where they are less prominent among the dominant vascular plant communities. This study examined organismal composition and photosynthetic traits of BSCs in four ecosystems within the Great Plains—shortgrass, sandsage, southern mixed grass, and tallgrass prairies. To document the BSCs, seasonal photosynthesis measurements were performed in the field and samples were collected for lab analysis. Prairie BSCs primarily consisted of lichens, bryophytes, and cyanobacteria with lichens being dominant in all ecosystems and varying proportions of bryophytes and cyanobacteria. Bryophyte proportion tended to increase with wetter, cooler climates. Heterocystic (nitrogen-fixing) cyanobacteria, which contribute to soil nitrogen content, and non-heterocystic cyanobacteria were present in lichens at all sites. Photosynthesis rates varied between sites and seasons, ranging from 0.26 to 3.31 µmol CO2 m-2 s-1, and were generally correlated with precipitation and temperature. Results indicate that BSCs of these prairie ecosystems possess diverse communities and perform several important ecological functions. Keywords: Biological soil crusts; cryptobiotic soil crusts; ecological gradient; gas exchange; grasslands; photosynthesis; precipitation gradient; Respiration.
29912Černohorský, Z. (1949): Lišejníky Šáreckého údolí. - In: Klika J. (ed.): Šárka. Přírodovědecký a archeologický průzkum a výzkum chráněné oblasti šárecké. – Pražské nakladatelství pro památkový sbor Hlavního města Prahy., 40-45.
Soupis historických a vlastních údajů o výskytu lišejníků v Šárce. (A list of historical and own records of lichen in the Šárka valley, now in Prague; in Czech).
29911Maloles J.R., McMullin R.T., Consiglio J.A., Chapman C.J., Riederer L.L. & Renfrew D.E. (2018): The lichens and allied fungi of the Credit River Watershed, Ontario, Canada. - Rhodora, 120(983): 229–253.
The Credit River Watershed contains a mosaic of habitat types, which support a large number of lichen species; however, no detailed inventories of the lichen diversity in this region exist. We present a checklist of 124 species of lichens and allied fungi discovered in the watershed. We report new collections of Illosporium carneum, Microcalicium ahlneri, and Pseudoschismatomma rufescens, which are provincially rare. In this checklist, twelve species are ranked as S1 (critically imperiled), S2 (imperiled), or S3 (vulnerable) in Ontario by the Natural Heritage Information Centre. Local municipalities and conservation authorities can use these baseline data to help monitor changes in populations and in determining areas of high biodiversity in the watershed. Key Words: conservation, inventories, rare species, lichen diversity.
29910Aptroot A. & Weerakoon G. (2018): Three new species and ten new records of Trypetheliaceae (Ascomycota) from Sri Lanka. - Cryptogamie, Mycologie, 39(3): 373–377.
The following three new species of Trypetheliaceae are described from Sri Lanka: Astrothelium inspersoconicum, A. isohypocrellinum, and Polymeridium fernandoi. Ten species are newly recorded from Sri Lanka: Astrothelium flavoduplex, A. galligenum, A. scoria, A. straminicolor, Constrictolumina planorbis, C. porospora, Dictyomeridium proponens, Marcelaria cumingii, Polymeridium jordanii, and Pseudopyrenula media. Keywords: Astrothelium / Constrictolumina / corticolous / Dictyomeridium / lichens / Marcelaria / Polymeridium / Pseudopyrenula.
29909Lendemer J.C. (2018): Recent literature on lichens—250. - Bryologist, 21(3): 447–455.
29908Diederich P., Lawrey J.D. & Ertz D. (2018): The 2018 classification and checklist of lichenicolous fungi, with 2000 nonlichenized, obligately lichenicolous taxa. - Bryologist, 21(3): 340–425.
Lichenicolous fungi represent a highly specialized and successful group of organisms that live exclusively on lichens, most commonly as host-specific parasites, but also as broad-spectrum pathogens, saprotrophs or commensals. We present here the most recent update to the classification of lichenicolous fungi in the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota to genus level, arranged phylogenetically according to published classifications. For each genus, all known lichenicolous taxa (obligately lichenicolous taxa, lichenicolous lichens, and facultatively lichenicolous taxa) are listed, along with information about types, synonyms, pertinent literature and whether or not molecular data are available for any of the listed species. The number of accepted lichenicolous fungi is now 2319, with 2000 obligately lichenicolous species, subspecies or varieties, 257 lichenicolous lichens and 62 facultatively lichenicolous taxa. These species are found in 10 different classes of Fungi (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota), 55 orders, 115 families and 397 genera. The 2319 total taxa is an increase from the 1559 total species reported in the last published catalogue in 2003, and a larger number than the approximately 1800 reported in the most recent online checklist (www.lichenicolous.net) posted in January 2018. Of the total number of taxa, 2219 (96%) are ascomycetes and 100 (4%) are basidiomycetes. Of the 397 genera containing lichenicolous species, c. 50% (198) are entirely lichenicolous. In addition, six families (Abrothallaceae, Adelococcaceae, Cyphobasidiaceae, Obryzaceae, Polycoccaceae, Sarcopyreniaceae) and two orders (Abrothallales, Cyphobasidiales) are entirely lichenicolous. Sequence information is available for lichenicolous species in 128 (32%) of the 397 genera containing lichenicolous species, and in 56 (28%) of the 198 entirely lichenicolous genera. Many species are known from only one host lichen, but it is likely that broader host ecologies will be discovered as new sequence information is obtained from ongoing microbiome studies. Phaeopyxis Rambold & Triebel is considered as a new synonym of Bachmanniomyces D.Hawksw., resulting in five new combinations B. australis (Rambold & Triebel) Diederich & Pino-Bodas (≡ P. australis), B. carniolicus (Arnold) Diederich & Pino-Bodas (≡ Biatora carniolica), B. muscigenae (Alstrup & E.S.Hansen) Diederich & Pino-Bodas (≡ P. muscigenae), B. punctum (A.Massal.) Diederich & Pino-Bodas (≡ Nesolechia punctum) and B. varius (Coppins, Rambold & Triebel) Diederich & Pino-Bodas (≡ P. varia). As a consequence of a phylogenetic analysis including new sequences, Dactylospora Körb. is regarded as a new synonym of Sclerococcum Fr. : Fr., resulting in one new name (S. acarosporicola Ertz & Diederich) and 46 new combinations. Sclerococcaceae Réblová, Unter. & W.Gams is considered as a new synonym of Dactylosporaceae Bellem. & Hafellner. The new Sclerococcum ophthalmizae Coppins is described. Sclerophyton occidentale Herre is lectotypified on the lichenicolous fungus present in the type specimen and becomes a younger synonym of Sclerococcum parasiticum. A replacement name is Arthonia polydactylonis Diederich & Ertz (≡ A. ceracea). Further new combinations are Abrothallus lobariae (Diederich & Etayo) Diederich & Ertz (≡ Phoma lobariae), A. psoromatis (Zhurb. & U. Braun) Diederich & Zhurb. (≡ P. psoromatis), Asteroglobulus pyramidalis (Etayo) Diederich (≡ Cornutispora pyramidalis), Didymocyrtis grumantiana (Zhurb. & Diederich) Zhurb. & Diederich (≡ Phoma grumantiana), Epithamnolia atrolazulina (Etayo) Diederich (≡ Hainesia atrolazulina), Gyalolechia epiplacynthium (Etayo) Diederich (≡ Fulgensia epiplacynthium), Nesolechia doerfeltii (Alstrup & P.Scholz) Diederich (≡ Phacopsis doerfeltii), N. falcispora (Triebel & Rambold) Diederich (≡ P. falcispora), N. oxyspora var. fusca (Triebel & Rambold) Diederich (≡ P. oxyspora var. fusca), Preussia peltigerae (Brackel) Diederich (≡ Sporormiella peltigerae), Scutula curvispora (D.Hawksw. & Miądl.) Diederich (≡ Libertiella curvispora), S. didymospora (D.Hawksw. & Miądl.) Diederich (≡ L. didymospora), Stigmidium haesitans (Nyl.) Diederich (≡ Verrucaria haesitans), and S. parvum (Henssen) Diederich (≡ Pharcidia parvum). Keywords: Endolichenic fungi, lichenicolous lichens, microbiome, mycoparasites, phylogeny.
29907Kistenich S., Timdal E., Bendiksby M. & Ekman S. (2018): Molecular systematics and character evolution in the lichen family Ramalinaceae (Ascomycota: Lecanorales). - Taxon, 67(5): 871–904.
The Ramalinaceae is the fourth-largest family of lichenized ascomycetes with 42 genera and 913 species exhibiting considerable morphological variation. Historically, generic boundaries in the Ramalinaceae were primarily based on morphological characters. However, molecular systematic investigations of subgroups revealed that current taxonomy is at odds with evolutionary relationships. Tropical members of the family remain particularly understudied, including the large genus Phyllopsora. We have generated and collected multilocus sequence data (mtSSU, nrITS, nrLSU, RPB1, RPB2) for 149 species associated with the Ramalinaceae and present the first comprehensive molecular phylogeny of the family. We used ancestral state reconstructions on our molecular family phylogeny to trace the evolution of character states. Our results indicate that the Ramalinaceae have arisen from an ancestor with long, multiseptate ascospores living in humid temperate forests, and that the phyllopsoroid growth form has evolved multiple times within the family. Based on our results using integrative taxonomy, we discuss sister-relations and taxon-delimitation within five well-supported clades: The Bacidia, Biatora-, Ramalina-, Rolfidium-, and Toninia-groups. We reduce six genera into synonymy and make 49 new nomenclatural combinations. The genera Bacidia, Phyllopsora, Physcidia and Toninia are polyphyletic and herein split into segregates. We describe the two genera Bellicidia and Parallopsora and resurrect the genera Bibbya, Kiliasia, Sporacestra, and Thalloidima. According to our new circumscription, which also includes some additional changes, the family Ramalinaceae now comprises 39 genera. Keywords ancestral state reconstruction; integrative taxonomy; multilocus phylogeny; Phyllopsora; Toninia; tropical lichens.
29906Magain N., Truong C., Goward T., Niu D., Goffinet B., Sérusiaux E., Vitikainen O., Lutzoni F. & Miadlikowska J. (2018): Species delimitation at a global scale reveals high species richness with complex biogeography and patterns of symbiont association in Peltigera section Peltigera (lichenized Ascomycota: Lecanoromycetes). - Taxon, 67(5): 836–870.
This comprehensive phylogenetic revision of sections Peltigera and Retifoveatae of the cyanolichen genus Peltigera is based on DNA sequences from more than 500 specimens from five continents. We amplified five loci (nrITS, β-tubulin and three intergenic spacers part of colinear orthologous regions [COR]) for the mycobiont, and the rbcLX locus for the cyanobacterial partner Nostoc. Phylogenetic inferences (RAxML, BEAST) and species delimitation methods (bGMYC, bPTP, bPP) suggest the presence of 88 species in section Peltigera, including 50 species new to science, hence uncovering a surprisingly high proportion of previously unnoticed biodiversity. The hypervariable region in ITS1 (ITS1-HR) is a powerful marker to identify species within sections Peltigera and Retifoveatae. Most newly delimited species are restricted to a single biogeographic region, however, up to ten species have a nearly cosmopolitan distribution. The specificity of mycobionts in their association with Nostoc cyanobionts ranges from strict specialists (associate with only one Nostoc phylogroup) to broad generalists (up to eight Nostoc phylogroups uncovered), with widespread species recruiting a broader selection of Nostoc phylogroups than species with limited distributions. In contrast, species from the P. didactyla clade characterized by small thalli and asexual vegetative propagules (soredia) associate with fewer Nostoc phylogroups (i.e., are more specialized) despite their broad distributions, and show significantly higher rates of nucleotide substitutions. Keywords collinear orthologous region; COR; cyanobiont; internal transcribed spacer; ITS1-HR; ITS1 hypervariable region; lichen; mycobiont; Nostoc; molecular systematics; Peltigerales; phylogeny; rates of evolution; specificity; symbiosis.
29905Pettersson B. (1958): Dynamik och konstans i Gotlands flora och vegetation [Dynamik und Konstanz in der Flora und Vegetation von Gotland, Schweden]. - Acta Phytogeographica Suecica, 40: 1–288.
Doctoral thesis. Sweden, Gotland. Chapter on on lichens at p. 134-142. [in Swedish with German summary]
29904Olsson H. (1974): Studies on south Swedish sand vegetation. - Acta Phytogeographica Suecica, 60: 1–176.
Doctoral thesis. The vegetation on sand in South Sweden is distributed within the Scandinavian outlier of the Nemoral zone. From the 16th century documents record the sand shifting. Later many sites were planted with marram grass and pine. Of the flora the genus Cladonia is extensively treated. The phytosociological investigation, agreeing with the Braun-Blanquet system, mainly stresses the floristic composition, in certain cases with stronger consideration of the physiognomy. 36 plant communities, many new or differently conceived, are arranged in 18 classes. The synthetic description of the vegetation deals with classification, structure, development, ecological remarks, distribution and sociological relationships. Vegetational changes and development from immature to rnature soils during different processes have been investigated. A number of climate-phytomorphous and hydromorphous soils are treated. A halo-nitrosere contains two series. A xerosere is split into a maritime dune subsere, a subsere of the sand affected by man and a subsere on inland glacifluvial sand. A hygrosere consists of a eutrophic subsere and an oligotrophic subsere with two series: one zonatian on the west coast and one mosaic camplex at Sandhammaren (Baltic coast). The ecological relationships between Sandhammaren and Tönnersa (west coast) are particularly compared. The variation in harizontal and vertical distribution of soil parameters such as water content, loss on ignition, pH and various nutrients is studied in relation to investigated vegetation units and gradients (seres). In the plant cover a quotient metais/total elements was higher at Tönnersa than at Sandhammaren.
29903Kistenich S., Rikkinen J.K., Thüs H., Vairappan C.S., Wolseley P.A. & Timdal E. (2018): Three new species of Krogia (Ramalinaceae, lichenised Ascomycota) from the Paleotropics. - MycoKeys, 40: 69–88.
Krogia borneensis Kistenich & Timdal, K. isidiata Kistenich & Timdal and K. macrophylla Kistenich & Timdal are described as new species, the first from Borneo and the two latter from New Caledonia. The new species are supported by morphology, secondary chemistry and DNA sequence data. Krogia borneensis and K. isidiata contain sekikaic and homosekikaic acid, both compounds reported here for the first time from the genus. Krogia macrophylla contains an unknown compound apparently related to boninic acid as the major compound. DNA sequences (mtSSU and nrITS) are provided for the first time for Krogia and a phylogeny of the genus based on 15 accessions of five of the six accepted species is presented. Krogia antillarum is reported as new to Brazil, Guatemala and Mexico. Keywords: Borneo, New Caledonia, lichens, Phyllopsora, phylogeny, rainforest, TLC.
29902Barcenas-Peña A., Leavitt S.D., Huang J.-P., Grewe F. & Lumbsch H.T. (2018): Phylogenetic study and taxonomic revision of the Xanthoparmelia mexicana group, including the description of a new species (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota). - MycoKeys, 40: 13–28.
Xanthoparmelia (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) is the most species-rich genus of lichen-forming fungi. Species boundaries are based on morphological and chemical features, varying reproductive strategies and, more recently, molecular sequence data. The isidiate Xanthoparmelia mexicana group is common in arid regions of North and Central America and includes a range of morphological variation and variable secondary metabolites – salazinic or stictic acids mainly. In order to better understand the evolutionary history of this group and potential taxonomic implications, a molecular phylogeny representing 58 ingroup samples was reconstructed using four loci, including ITS, mtSSU, nuLSU rDNA and MCM7. Results indicate the existence of multiple, distinct lineages phenotypically agreeing with X. mexicana. One of these isidiate, salazinic acid-containing lineages is described here as a new species, X. pedregalensis sp. nov., including populations from xerophytic scrub vegetation in Pedregal de San Angel, Mexico City. X. mexicana s. str. is less isidiate than X. pedregalensis and has salazinic and consalazinic acid, occasionally with norstictic acid; whereas X. pedregalensis contains salazinic and norstictic acids and an unknown substance. Samples from the Old World, morphologically agreeing with X. mexicana, are only distantly related to X. mexicana s. str. Our results indicate that X. mexicana is likely less common than previously assumed and ongoing taxonomic revisions are required for isidiate Xanthoparmelia species. Keywords: Cryptic species, lichenised fungi, Mexico, phylogeny, taxonomy.
29901Hasselrot T.E. (1941): Till kännedomen om några nordiska umbilicariacéers utbredning [Zur Kenntnis der Verbreitung einiger Umbilicariaceen in Fennoskandia]. - Acta Phytogeographica Suecica, 15: 1–75.
On distribution of Umbilicariaceae in Fennoscandia [in Swedish with German summary]
29900Gunnlaugsdóttir E. (1985): Composition and dynamical status of heathland communities in Iceland in relation to recovery measures. - Acta Phytogeographica Suecica, 75: 1–84.
Doctoral thesis
29899Fransson S. (1972): Myrvegetation i sydvästra Värmland [Mire Vegetation in South-Westem Värmland, Sweden]. - Acta Phytogeographica Suecica, 57: 1–133.
Doctoral thesis; short chapter on three lichens (p. 61-62): Cetraria delisei, Cetraria nivalis, Cladonia delessertii (= C. subfurcata), provided with maps (p. 115); in Swedish with English summary
29898Albertson N. (1946): Österplana hed: ett alvarområde på Kinnekulle. - Acta Phytogeographica Suecica, 20: 1–267.
Doctoral thesis on Alvar flora, numerous lichens mentioned [in Swedish with German summary]
29897Bjarnason Á.H. (1991): Vegetation on lava fields in the Hekla area, Iceland. - Acta Phytogeographica Suecica, 77: 1–110.
The vegetation development on 13 dated historical lava fields around the volcano Mt. Hekla is described. The lava fields have been divided into three main topographical categories, the main surface, holes and crags. The investigation was concentrated on the main surface at 22 sites i n the 11 oldest lava fields, the oldest from 1158 , the youngest from 1947. At each s ite the topography, substrate (profile, pH and loss on ignition), flora and the physiognomy and the floristical composition of the vegetation were studied. Local climatic conditions (temperatures) are described for one lava field. The vegetation description included a floristic inventory, quantitative analyses (releves) of the vegetation both of permanent and non-permanent plots, drawings and photographic documentation. The total number of analyses made were: 1566 for the main surface, 81 for the holes and 13 for the crags. At each site the following abiotic factors were recorded: (a) the irregularity of the topography, (b) the age of the lava field, (c) the elevation, (d) the number of deposited tephra falls, (e) the quantity of deposited aeolian material between the tephra layers, (f) the cover of tephra and (g) the surface roughness was judged for every plot. In studies of the colonization of plants in the youngest fields records were also made of: (a) the position within the layer of clinkers, (b) the microsurface (texture) of the lava blocks and the age ofthe lava field when the analyses were carried out. The analyses made of the main surface were treated with the clustering and relocation program TABORD and with the ordination program Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA, CANOCO program). First, local clusters were obtained for each of the lava fields. These primary clusters were then clustered again to obtain a set of second-order clusters. The CANOCO results were used to check whether the second-order clusters were ecologically and floristically homogeneous or needed to be subdivided. The classification results were compared with vegetation types described earlier. Due to the phytosociologically incomplete floristic composition of many clusters an ad hoc typology was used with three hierarchical levels: communities, variants and facies. Eleven communities, some variants and facies are described and their distribution interpreted in terms of the prevailing environmental conditions. The dynamics of the vegetation in the historical lava fields is summarized as a clear case of primary succession with elements of regeneration after disturbance by tephra fall, accumulation of wind-blown material and grazing. The early development of the moss carpet of Racomitrium lanuginosum, prohibiting the development of further successional phases is considered as a first example of the inhibition model in primary succession.
29896Almquist E. (1929): Upplands vegetation och flora. - Acta Phytogeographica Suecica, 1: 1–622.
29895Hedberg O. (1964): Features of Afroalpine plant ecology. - Acta Phytogeographica Suecica, 49: 1–144.
29894Joseph S., Nayaka S., Randive P. & Upreti D.K. (2018): New records and a key to the species of Malmidea (lichenized Ascomycota) from India. - Feddes Repertorium, 129: 189–192.
Six species of the genus Malmidea, M. atlantica (M. Cáceres & Lücking) M. Cáceres & Kalb, M. duplomarginata (Papong & Kalb) Kalb & Papong, M. hypomelaena (Nyl.) Kalb & Lücking, M. papillosa Weerak. & Aptroot, M. subaurigera (Vain.) Kalb et al., and M. variabilis Kalb, are reported as new records to India. A key to all known Indian species of Malmidea is provided. Keywords: Lecanorales, Malmideaceae, tropical lichens, new records, India.
29893Elshobary M.E., Becker M.G., Kalichuk J.L., Chan A.C., Belmonte M.F. & Piercey-Normore M.D. (2018): Tissue-specific localization of polyketide synthase and other associated genes in the lichen, Cladonia rangiferina, using laser microdissection. - Phytochemistry, 156: 142–150.
The biosynthesis of two polyketides, atranorin and fumarprotocetraric acid, produced from a lichen-forming fungus, Cladonia rangiferina (L.) F. H. Wigg. was correlated with the expression of eight fungal genes (CrPKS1, CrPKS3, CrPKS16, Catalase (CAT), Sugar Transporter (MFsug), Dioxygenase (YQE1), C2H2 Transcription factor (C2H2), Transcription Factor PacC (PacC), which are thought to be involved in polyketide biosynthesis, and one algal gene, NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin 2 (AsNAD)), using laser microdissection (LMD). The differential gene expression levels within the thallus tissue layers demonstrate that the most active region for potential polyketide biosynthesis within the lichen is the outer apical region proximal to the photobiont but some expression also occurs in reproductive tissue. This is the first study using laser microdissection to explore gene expression of these nine genes and their location of expression; it provides a proof-of-concept for future experiments exploring tissue-specific gene expression within lichens; and it highlights the utility of LMD for use in lichen systems.
29892Lelli C., Bruun H.H., Chiarucci A., Donati D., Frascaroli F., Fritz Ö., Goldberg I., Nascimbene J., Tøttrup A.P., Rahbek C. & Heilmann-Clausen J. (2019): Biodiversity response to forest structure and management: Comparing species richness, conservation relevant species and functional diversity as metrics in forest conservation. - Forest Ecology and Management, 432: 707–717.
Aim: We investigated the consistency between richness and trait-based diversity metrics in capturing the effects of management-related habitat factors on biodiversity. The choice of biodiversity metrics can substantially affect the evaluation of conservation tools. However, the relative sensitivity of different metrics is not well investigated, especially in a multi-taxon framework. Location: European beech forests in Denmark. Methods: We studied 20 beech stands comprising four management types (from intensively managed to long unmanaged stands). We analyzed how management-related environmental variables were reflected in the measure of: (i) species richness, (ii) number of conservation-relevant species (red-listed species and old-growth forest indicators) and (iii) functional diversity targeting five organism groups with different habitat requirements, i.e. vascular plants, epiphytic lichens and bryophytes, saproxylic fungi and breeding birds. Results: Plain species richness at stand level was generally misleading, as it did not capture changes in the number of conservation relevant species with changes in management-related environmental variables. The interpretation of functional responses was most informative for the better known vascular plants, while responses were more fragmented for the other organism groups. Overall, however, functional responses were consistent with a loss of specialization and progressive simplification of species assemblages from long-unmanaged to intensively managed stands. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the occurrence of conservation-relevant species is a sound and relevant metric for planning and evaluating conservation actions, especially for less studied organism groups (e.g., saproxylic fungi and epiphytes). The functional approach is promising, but presupposes the availability of databases of relevant traits. Keywords: European beech forests; Birds; Community-weighted mean; Epiphytes; GLMM; Habitat structure; Multi-taxon biodiversity; Rao’s quadratic diversity; Vascular plants; Wood-inhabiting fungi.