29139Kantvilas G. (2018): Micarea kartana sp. nov. (lichenised Ascomycetes) from Kangaroo Island, South Australia. - Swainsona, 31: 55–58.
The new species, Micarea kartana Kantvilas & Coppins, is described from Kangaroo Island, South Australia. A member of the M. prasina Fr. complex, it is characterised by a goniocyst-like thallus that contains sedifolia-grey pigment and gyrophoric acid, grey to blackish apothecia, and 0–1-septate ascospores, 10–14 × 4–5.5 μm. It is compared briefly to selected other species of the group. Keywords: lichens, Pilocarpaceae, taxonomy, new species, South Australia.
29138Varela Z., López-Sánchez G., Yáñez M., Pérez C., Fernández J.A., Matos P., Branquinho C. & Aboal J.R. (2018): Changes in epiphytic lichen diversity are associated with air particulate matter levels: The case study of urban areas in Chile. - Ecological Indicators, 91: 307–314.
Chileans living in urban areas are exposed to several air pollutants, namely to a mean annual concentration of atmospheric PM2.5 (>40 µg m−3 year−1) that exceeds two times the level established by legislation in both Chile and the European Union and four times higher than the recommended by the World Health Organization for good air quality. The evaluation of air pollution, namely particulate pollution, in urban areas is performed by air quality monitoring stations. These, are not sufficiently distributed in space to cover all areas with high spatial resolution, needed for a good assessment of the exact human exposure. In this context, lichen diversity studies could fill the gap of increasing air quality spatial resolution in areas not covered by monitoring stations. We aim at using taxonomic (species richness and abundance) and trait-based epiphytic lichen diversity (growth form) to evaluate the impact of air pollution levels in Chilean urban environments. For that, lichen diversity was evaluated in three background areas, seven centres of various Chilean cities and their peri-urban zones. Though trait-based metrics responded negatively to air pollution, lichen abundance was the best metrics (index of lichen diversity), being negatively associated (r = −0.89; p < 0.001) with the number of days per year that particles exceeded the mean annual level established by legislation (>20 µg m−3 year−1). This suggested that the main source of changes in lichen diversity in urban areas of Chile is particulate material or other associated pollutants. These findings show that in high levels of pollution, total lichen diversity can be used to track particulate material pollution above the recommended levels, providing data for areas without monitoring stations. This information can then be used to select new areas for monitoring stations, or to evaluate the potential health effects of the population living in these areas. Keywords: Air quality; Biomonitoring; Pollution; PM2.5; Urban pollution.
29137Coufalík P., Meszarosová N., Coufalíková K., Zvěřina O. & Komárek J. (2018): Determination of methylmercury in cryptogams by means of GC-AFS using enzymatic hydrolysis. - Microchemical Journal, 140: 8–13.
Since methylmercury is a highly toxic compound, there is undoubtedly a need for the monitoring of methylmercury in the ecosystem. However, its isolation from the organic matrix using an appropriate analytical procedure and sensitive detection technique are necessary due to trace levels of methylmercury in biomonitors. This study focuses on the determination of methylmercury in plant matrices by means of GC-AFS. The developed extraction procedure is based on the enzymatic hydrolysis of the matrix by cellulase, followed by the extraction of methylmercury in hydrochloric acid and the extraction of derivatized methylmercury into the organic phase. The limit of detection of methylmercury in environmental samples was 4 μg kg−1. The method demonstrated sufficient precision, accuracy, and repeatability with respect to the determination of methylmercury in cryptogams. High contents of methylmercury (up to 60.9 ± 4.4 μg kg−1) were determined in cyanobacterial mats from James Ross Island (Antarctic Peninsula). Thus, freshwater lakes and wetlands in Antarctica can be sources of methylmercury for the local ecosystem. Keywords: Methylmercury; Cyanobacterium; Alga; Lichen; GC-AFS.
29136dos Santos M.R., Alcaraz-Espinoza J.J., da Costa M.M. & de Oliveira H.P. (2018): Usnic acid-loaded polyaniline/polyurethane foam wound dressing: preparation and bactericidal activity. - Materials Science and Engineering C, 89: 33–40.
The improved bactericidal activity of new composites for wound dressing prototypes represents an important strategy for development of more efficient devices that make use of synergistic interaction between components. The doping level of polyaniline represents a critical parameter for its corresponding biologic activity. In this work, it is explored the doping effect of usnic acid on undoped polyaniline, that introduces important advantages namely, improved bactericidal activity of polyaniline and the anti-biofilm properties of lichen derivative. The deposition of the resulting material on polyurethane foam potentializes its applicability as wound dressing, characterizing a new platform for application against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Keywords: Polyurethane; Polyaniline; Composites; Usnic acid; Bactericidal aktivity.
29135Villanueva C.D., Hašler P., Dvořák P., Poulíčková A. & Casamatta D.A. (2018): Brasilonema lichenoides sp. nov. and Chroococcidiopsis lichenoides sp. nov. (Cyanobacteria): two novel cyanobacterial constituents isolated from a tripartite lichen of headstones. - Journal of Phycology, 54: 224–233.
Cyanolichens are an assembl age of fungi and cyanobacteria from diverse, cosmopolitan habitats. Typically composed of a single species of cyanobacterium, with or without another eukaryotic alga, here we present two novel cyanobionts isolated from an undescribed tripartite lichen. This endolithic lichen was isolated from a granite cemetery tombstone from Jacksonville, FL, and contains two potentially nitrogen-fixing cyanobionts. Employing a total evidence approach, we characterized the cyanobionts using molecular (the 16S rDNA and ITS gene region), morpho logical, and ecological data. Phylogenetic analyses revealed two novel taxa: Bra silonema lichenoides and Chroococcidiopsis lichenoides, both of which fell within well-supported clades. To our knowledge, this represents the first instance of a tripartite lichen with two cyanobacterial and no eukaryotic members. These types of lichens may well represent an unexplored reservoir of cyanobacterial diversity. The specific epithets are proposed under the provisions of the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants. Key index words: 16S rDNA gene; 16S-23S ITS; biodi- versity; cyanolichen; taxonomy.
29134Pogoda C.S., Keepers K.G., Lendemer J.C., Kane N.C. & Tripp E.A. (2018): Reductions in complexity of mitochondrial genomes in lichen-forming fungi shed light on genome architecture of obligate symbioses. - Molecular Ecology, 27: 1155–1169.
Symbioses among co-evolving taxa are often marked by genome reductions such as a loss of protein-coding genes in at least one of the partners as a means of reducing redundancy or intergenomic conflict. To explore this phenomenon in an iconic yet under-studied group of obligate symbiotic organisms, mitochondrial genomes of 22 newly sequenced and annotated species of lichenized fungi were compared to 167 mitochondrial genomes of nonlichenized fungi. Our results demonstrate the first broad-scale loss of atp9 from mitochondria of lichenized fungi. Despite key func- tions in mitochondrial energy production, we show that atp9 has been indepen- dently lost in three different lineages spanning 10 of the 22 studied species. A search for predicted, functional copies of atp9 among genomes of other symbionts involved in each lichen revealed the full-length, presumably functional copies of atp9 in either the photosynthetic algal partner or in other symbiotic fungi in all 10 instances. Together, these data yield evidence of an obligate symbiotic relationship in which core genomic processes have been streamlined, likely due to co-evolution. Keywords: fungi, genome reduction, lichen, mitochondrial evolution, symbiosis.
29133Persson B.R.R., Gjelsvik R. & Holm E. (2018): Radioecological modelling of Polonium-210 and Caesium-137 in lichen-reindeer-man and top predators. - Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 186: 54–62.
This work deals with analysis and modelling of the radionuclides 210Pb and210Po in the food-chain lichenreindeer- man in addition to 210Po and 137Cs in top predators. By using the methods of Partial Least Square Regression (PLSR) the atmospheric deposition of 210Pb and 210Po is predicted at the sample locations. Dynamic modelling of the activity concentration with differential equations is fitted to the sample data. Reindeer lichen consumption, gastrointestinal absorption, organ distribution and elimination is derived from information in the literature. Dynamic modelling of transfer of 210Pb and 210Po to reindeer meat, liver and bone from lichen consumption, fitted well with data from Sweden and Finland from 1966 to 1971. The activity concentration of 210Pb in the skeleton in man is modelled by using the results of studying the kinetics of lead in skeleton and blood in lead-workers after end of occupational exposure. The result of modelling 210Pb and 210Po activity in skeleton matched well with concentrations of 210Pb and 210Po in teeth from reindeer-breeders and autopsy bone samples in Finland. The results of 210Po and 137Cs in different tissues of wolf, wolverine and lynx previously published, are analysed with multivariate data processing methods such as Principal Component Analysis PCA, and modelled with the method of Projection to Latent Structures, PLS, or Partial Least Square Regression PLSR. Keywords: Modelling; Polonium-210; Caesium-137; Lichen; Reindeer; Reindeer herder; Man; Wolf; Wolverine; Lynx; Principal component analysis PCA; Partial least square regression PLSR.
29132Huang X., Ma J., Wei L., Song J., Li C., Yang H., Du Y., Gao T. & Bi H. (2018): An antioxidant α-glucan from Cladina rangiferina (L.) Nyl. and its protective effect on alveolar epithelial cells from Pb2+-induced oxidative damage. - International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 112: 101–109.
Air pollution is a serious global health problem nowadays. So, it is an emergency to pay sufficient attention to treat and prevent the diseases caused by air pollution, especially respiratory disease and lung damage. Cladina rangiferina (L.) Nyl. is an edible lichen that has been used inmedicinal diets to treat respiratory and other diseases for over 500 years. In this study, a water-soluble polysaccharide, CRWP-P, was obtained from C. rangiferina by hot-water extraction, freeze-thawing separation, and Fehling reagent purification. Structural analysis showed that CRWP-P is a linear α-(1 → 3),(1 → 4)-D-glucan without branches. Its Mw was determined to be 1.05 × 105 Da. Its (1,3)-α-D-glucopyranosyl: (1,4)-α-D-glucopyranosyl ratio is approximately 1:2. Antioxidant activity assay showed that C. rangiferina polysaccharides, especially CRWP-P, had appreciable DPPH radical-scavenging activity and reducing power. Notably, they could effectively decrease cell breakdown and ROS generation, inhibit lipid peroxidation, increase key antioxidase activity, and promote glutathione redox cycling in Pb2+-oxidative injured A549 alveolar epitheliumcells.Overall, the results of this study indicated that C. rangiferina polysaccharides, especially CRWP-P, have the potential to be natural antioxidants for the treatment of lung oxidative damage induced by lead of air pollutants. Keywords: Cladina rangiferina (L.) Nyl.; α-Glucan; Antioxidant aktivity; Alveolar epithelium cell; Pb2+-oxidative toxicity protection.
29131Singh N., Verma R.K., Kumar N., Bajpai R., Upreti D.K. & Rana T.S. (2018): Molecular analysis of genetic diversity and population structure in Everniastrum cirrhatum (Fr.) Hale (Parmeliaceae) in India. - Nucleus, 61: 19–27.
Everniastrum cirrhatum is a medicinally important lichen used in Ayurvedic and Unani systems of medicine. In the present study, DAMD and ISSR methods were used to estimate the genetic variation and population structure of E. cirrhatum collected from different geographical regions of India. Four DAMD and ten ISSR primers detected 42 and 110 polymorphic bands and accounted for 95.65 and 94.24% polymorphisms, respectively. Cumulative band data generated for DAMD and ISSR markers resulted into 94.95% polymorphism across all the accessions of E. cirrhatum. The UPGMA dendrogram showed two major clusters. The clustering pattern in the UPGMA dendrogram revealed that the groupings are largely in congruence with the geographical distribution of the accessions. Clustering patterns in STRUCTURE revealed that geographical diversity is perfectly in congruence with the genetic diversity. The clustering pattern in STRUCTURE was also supported by PCoA. Mantel test for matrix correlation showed a weak but positive correlation between genetic and geographical distance. The hierarchical analysis of molecular variance revealed that maximum percentage of variation was found within a population (57%), followed by among regions (28%) and among populations (15%). The present study provides significant insight into the genetic variability and population structure of E. cirrhatum. Understanding population structure would provide baseline information for developing its sustainable management strategies. It would also be important to conserve populations of E. cirrhatum in different localities of the Himalayan regions to prevent population decline caused by anthropogenic and environmental stochastic effects. Keywords: DAMD;  DNA marker;  Genetic variations; ISSR;  Molecular tools.
29130Horák J., Rom J., Rada P., Šafářová L., Koudelková J., Zasadil P., Halda J.P. & Holuša J. (2018): Renaissance of a rural artifact in a city with a million people: biodiversity responses to an agro-forestry restoration in a large urban traditional fruit orchard. - Urban Ecosystems, 21: 263–270.
The rural landscapes surrounding large cities are rapidly becoming incorporated into the urban environment. The most conspicuous changes involve green spaces, such as former agro-forestry systems like fruit orchards. In this paper, we assess the influence on biodiversity of restoring a large urban traditional fruit orchard as reflected by six selected taxa: plants, lichens, butterflies, beetles, orthopteroids and birds. The study was performed in Prague, which is the capital city of the Czech Republic and has more than a million inhabitants. We studied the effect of orchard renewal in 45 patches (15 for birds and 30 for other taxa). The majority of taxa responded positively to the restoration. The restoration had a significant positive effect on the species richness of lichens, butterflies and beetles. All taxa showed significantly altered species compositions, and the number of red-listed species increased. Orchards have a high potential for multifunctional use. Orchards are productive agro-forestry systems and host numerous possible human activities. Therefore, orchard restoration also has a social aspect. Moreover, our research in this artificial ecosystem revealed that its restoration increased the biodiversity and conservation potential of the associated areas. Keywords: Urban green space . fruit tree . green infrastructure . species richness . citizen activities.
29129Fazio A.T., Adler M.T., Parnmen S., Lücking R. & Maier M.S. (2018): Production of the bioactive pigment elsinochrome A by a cultured mycobiont strain of the lichen Graphis elongata. - Mycological Progress, 17: 479–487.
We report the production of the perylenequinone pigment elsinochrome A in aposymbiotic culture of the mycobiont of the crustose epiphytic lichen Graphis elongata Zenker (Lecanoromycetes), collected in Argentina (Buenos Aires). The substance was not detected in the lichenized thallus (using HPLC techniques) and is otherwise only known from one unrelated lichen and a few genera of non-lichenized, plant-pathogenic fungi in the class Dothideomycetes. The phylogenetic affinities of the lichen mycobiont and the cultured fungus were confirmed using DNA sequence data of the mitochondrial small subunit rDNA (mtSSU), which place the lichen fungus into the Allographa clade within Graphidaceae. The mycobiont pigment was purified and characterized by spectroscopic methods. This is the first case where a rare pigment, otherwise known from non-lichenized, plant-pathogenic fungi, is produced in aposymbiotic culture of a lichen mycobiont, while, at the same time, being absent from the lichen thallus itself. Based on this finding, we discuss the previously postulated hypothesis that lichen mycobionts maintain secondary metabolic pathways of non-lichenized ancestors in their genome, while gene expression and production of metabolites is suppressed in the lichenized state due to toxicity to the photobiont. Keywords Perylenequinones . Axenic culture . ElsinochromeA . Graphis elongata . Lichen.
29128Prokop'ev I.A., Yatsyna A.P., Poryadina L.N., Filippova G.V. & Shavarda A.L. (2018): Phenolic metabolites of lichens in the genus Cladonia growing in Belarus and Yakutia. - Chemistry of Natural Compounds, 54(2): 363–364.
[Translated from the Russian original published in Khimiya Prirodnykh Soedinenii, No. 2, March–April, 2018, pp. 306–307.] The goal of the research was to determine by HPLC the contents of phenolic metabolites in Cladonia lichens growing under the contrasting climatic conditions of Yakutia and Belarus. The study included 52 herbarium specimens belonging to 15 species of Cladonia lichens collected in Yakutia and preserved in the herbarium of the Institute of Biological Problems of the Cryolithozone, SB, RAS (SASY) and in Belarus and preserved in the herbarium of V. F. Kuprevich Institute of Experimental Botany, NASB (MSK). Herbarium specimens of lichens were designated for storage in 1956–2016. The studied lichens contained eight main phenolic metabolites from the lichen compound group including five that were depsides (atranorin and perlatolic, barbatic, squamatic, and thamnolic acids); one, a depsidone (fumarprotocetraric acid); and two, dibenzofurans (usnic and isousnic acids). The constituent compositions of most studied lichens agreed with those in the literature [5]. Lichens C. arbuscula, C. cariosa, C. mitis, and C. stellaris collected in Yakutia and Belarus were shown to have component compositions belonging to the same known chemotypes that are broadly distributed in northern populations of these species. However, lichens C. coniocraea and C. uncialis represented new and previously unknown chemotypes (Table 1). C. uncialis contained thamnolic (2) and not squamatic acid (3) only in samples from Belarus. However, the C. coniocraea chemotype containing the main component barbatic (4) and not fumarprotocetraric acid (1) was characteristic of both study sites.
29127Alpsoy L., Baykal A., Amir M., Ülker Z. & Nawaz M. (2018): SPION@APTES@FA-PEG@Usnic acid bionanodrug for cancer therapy. - Journal of Superconductivity and Novel Magnetism, 31: 1395–1401.
In this work, we aimed to develop stable usnic acid (UA)-conjugated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) as a potential drug carrier for in vitro analysis of MCF-7 (breast cancer cell line), HeLa (cervix cancer cell line), L929 (mouse fibroblast cell line), U87 (glioblastoma cell line, brain cancer), and A549 (human lung cancer cell line) cell lines. SPIONs were synthesized via the polyol method and functionalized with APTES using the St¨ober method. Carboxylated polyethylene glycol (PEG-COOH), folic acid (FA), and carboxylated luteolin (CL) were conjugated on the surface via a carboxylic/ amine group using the nanoprecipitation method, respectively. X-ray powder diffraction analysis confirmed the purity of the product with crystallite size of around 11 nm. Fourier-transformed infrared spectrophotometer (FT-IR) analyses explained the conjugation of all functional groups to the surface of SPIONs. The percentages of inorganic and organic content in the products were investigated via thermal gravimetric analyzer (TGA). For morphological analysis, a transmission electron microscope (TEM) was used. The superparamagnetic property of the product was also confirmed by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Keywords: Magnetic properties · Nanodrug · Drug release · Cancer treatment · Luteolin.
29126Mežaka A., Priede A., Dobkeviča L. & Bader M.Y. (2018): Environmental controls of raised-bog vegetation in the Baltic boreo-nemoral zone. - Folia Geobotanica, 53: 1–15.
Raised peat bogs harbor unique vegetation types in specific hydrological conditions. Environmental controls of peat bog vegetation are relatively well known for the boreal zone, while in the European boreonemoral zone healthy raised bogs are nowadays very rare. By contrast, Latvia, located in the transition zone between the nemoral and the boreal biomes, still has a large number of active raised bogs. The aim of the present study was to characterize the environmental controls on raised bog vegetation structure, species composition and ecology in Latvia. The study includes 17 raised bogs, where vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens were recorded in 480 sample plots and related to environmental variables (microtopography, litter cover, electric conductivity, pH, and macroelements Na, K, Ca, Mg and P in bog surface waters). The factor best explaining total species richness and composition was microtopography, which also affected most other explanatory factors. Thereby total species richness and cover were highest on hummocks. However, the importance and direction of the effects of microtopography and the other factors differed between vegetation groups. When disregarding microtopography, species composition was most strongly correlated with alkaline ions and litter cover and for bryophytes also with vascular plant cover. The present study is the first widescale study in Latvia relating raised bog vegetation to environmental conditions. Keywords: Microtopography. Peatbogs . Sphagnum . Vegetation.
29125Joshi S., Upreti D.K., Bawingan P.A. & Hur J.-S. (2018): New species in the family Graphidaceae (Ascomycota: Ostropales) from the Philippines. - Phytotaxa, 345(2): 152–158.
In the present paper three new species viz. Thalloloma nitidum, Thelotrema isidiosum and T. megasporum belonging to lichen family Graphidaceae are described from the Philippines and compared with the closely related taxa. Key words: Ifugao, IIocos Norte, Luzón Island, taxonomy.
29124Rodriguez-Flakus P. (2018): Palicella lueckingii (Lecanorales, Ascomycota), a new lichen species inhabiting Araucaria from the extratropical South America. - Phytotaxa, 344(1): 24–30.
Palicella lueckingii is a newly described corticolous lecideoid lichen from the Malalcahuelo National Reserve growing on the bark of Araucaria araucana in Chile. Detailed morphological studies and inference from molecular phylogenetic analyses, based on maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses of single gene locus (ITS), clearly indicate that the new species is a member of the recently introduced genus Palicella. Palicella lueckingii is most closely related to P. glaucopa, but clearly differs in having smaller ascospores, comparatively thicker thallus, epruinose apothecia, lack of oil droplets inside of exciple and presence of thiophanic acid as a major metabolite. Keywords: biodiversity, Chile, ITS, Lecanoromycetes, Lecidea s. lat., new species, phylogeny.
29123Aptroot A. & Stech M. (2018): An updated checklist of the lichens of St. Eustatius, Netherlands Antilles. - MycoKeys, 33: 69–84.
In the course of a multi-taxon biodiversity inventory for the island of St. Eustatius, lichens were collected from 11 plots representing different vegetation types. From these collections, 126 lichen species are reported, 54 of which are new reports for St. Eustatius. Most species could be identified to species level based on morphological and chemical characters. In a few cases, mtSSU DNA sequences were generated for a preliminary molecular identification and future phylogenetic studies. In total, 263 identified lichen species are currently known from St. Eustatius, as well as some additional genera with yet unidentified species and lichenicolous fungi. Keywords: Biodiversity inventory, lichens, mtSSU, St. Eustatius.
29122Elvebakk A., Bjerke J.W. & Nilsen L. (2018): The lichen Allocetraria madreporiformis in high-arctic steppes on Svalbard: a result of out-of-Tibet migration?. - Graphis Scripta, 30(1): 1–11.
Allocetraria madreporiformis is a small, finger-like, fruticose lichen with isolated occurrences in the inner fiord section of the long, straight fiord Wijdefjorden in Svalbard. Several new localities are added and mapped here, and we show that the species is confined to exclusive high-arctic steppe habitats on fine-textured, moderately alkaline soil, exposed to wind erosion and aeolian transport of silt and sand. It avoids the most saline steppes and adjacent tundra areas, as indicated by numerous pH samples of mineral soils from sites with and without occurrences of A. madreporiformis. In this open habitat, all otherwise common arctic-alpine fruticose lichen species were absent or extremely rare, and a cryptogamic cover was very depauperate. On Svalbard, this species is an exclusive character species of the steppe areas in Inner Wijdefjorden National Park. The genus Allocetraria is strongly centred in the Sino-Himalayan area. It is discussed here that it probably evolved as a response to the very extensive new habitats formed during a series of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau uplift and orogeny events taking place 25–1.6 Ma. This and other aspects affecting current classification alternatives of cetrarioid lichens are also discussed. The habitat preferences of A. madreporiformis appear to have been largely defined by the conditions of its probable area of origin in steppe-like habitats of the northern part of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.
29121Lücking R., Moncada B., Llerena N. & Huhtinen S. (2018): Saving the name Lobaria peltigera with new authorship and a new type from the TUR-Vainio herbarium, and its transfer to the genus Yoshimuriella. - Graphis Scripta, 30(2): 12–19.
Lobaria peltigera forms a conspicuous lichen found in well-preserved, neotropical montane rain forests, being the name-giving species of the L. peltigera group, a distinctive, monophyletic entity recently segregated in the genus Yoshimuriella. Unfortunately, the original basionym of this name, Sticta peltigera Delise, is illegitimate, since the protologue includes the type of the name that should have been adopted. To remedy this situation and retain the epithet peltigera, we adopt this epithet in the combination Lobaria peltigera Vain. as the name of a new species. Vainio's work was the foundation for a modern taxonomy of many tropical lichens, including tropical species of Lobaria s.lat., and his herbarium in Turku is a primary reference for tropical lichen research. His concept of L. peltigera corresponds precisely to the modern circumscription of this taxon and his material in TUR-Vainio, distributed in his exsiccate Lichenes Brasilienses Exsiccati, is properly designated as lectotype. Based on this, we propose the new combination Yoshimuriella peltigera (Vain.) Lücking & Moncada.
29120Kärnefelt I. & Thell A. (2018): Søchting, U. 2017. Lav i klit og hede – de danske rensdyr- og bægerlaver og deres følgearter [Lichens in dunes and heather – the Danish reindeer lichens and their companion species]. Biological Association for Norvestjylland [Northwest Jutland] Publishers, Thisted. ISBN 978-87-92100-33-7, 112 pages. - Graphis Scripta, 30(3): 20–21.
Book review
29119Kärnefelt I. & Seaward M.R.D. (2018): Otto Ludwig Lange (1927–2017). - Graphis Scripta, 30(4): 22–23.
29118Tønsberg T. (2018): Jamesiella scotica new to Fennoscandia. - Graphis Scripta, 30(5): 24–29.
Jamesiella scotica is reported as new to Fennoscandia from Leka Island in Trøndelag, Norway. It forms small patches on decomposing bryophytes on ultramafic boulders and rock outcrops. Previously unpublished information on the occurrences of J. scotica in the British Isles, and on Iceland is given.
29117Kondratyuk S.Y. (1996): New species of Pronectria, Vouauxiomyces, Wentiomyces and Zwackhiomyces from Australasia. - Muelleria, 9: 93–104.
Four new lichenicolous fungi (Pronectria streimannii from Stictci cyphellulata from Australasia, Vouauxiomyces brattii from Pseudocyphellaria faveolata from Tasmania, Wentiomyces tatjanae from Pseudocyphellaria coronata from Tasmania, New Zealand and Papua New Guinea, and Zwackhiomyces kantvilasii from Parmotrema chinense from Tasmania) are described and illustrated, and their differences from related taxa are discussed
29116Scherrer S., Zippler U. & Honegger R. (2005): Characterisation of the mating-type locus in the genus Xanthoria (lichen-forming ascomycetes, Lecanoromycetes). - Fungal Genetics and Biology, 42: 976-988.
mating types, Xanthoria, genetics, mat locus, α-box fragment, α-domain, hmg box, heterothallic, homothallic, idiomorph, single spore isolates Authors used Xanthoria parietina, X. polycarpa, X. flammea and X. elegans. The complete MAT locus, containing one ORF (MAT-2-1) coding for a truncated HMG-box protein, and two partial flanking genes, were cloned by screening a genomic lambda phage library of the homothallic X. parietina. The occurrence of mating-type genes in eight single spore isolates derived from one ascus was studied with a PCR assay. In the homothallic X. parietina a HMG fragment, but no α-box fragment was found in all isolates, whereas in X. elegans, another homothallic species, all tested isolates contained a fragment of both idiomorphs. Conversely, isolates of the heterothallic X. polycarpa contained either a HMG or an α-box fragment, but never both
29115Van Nguyen K., Duong T.-H., Nguyen K.P.P., Sangvichien E., Wonganan P. & Chavasiri W. (2018): Chemical constituents of the lichen Usnea baileyi (Stirt.) Zahlbr. - Tetrahedron Letters, 59: 1348–1351.
Investigation of the chemical constituents of the lichen Usnea baileyi (Stirt.) Zahlbr led to the isolation of a new dimeric xanthone, bailexanthone (1), and a novel depsidone, bailesidone (2), along with twenty-five known metabolites (3–27). Their structures were established by means of extensive spectroscopic analysis and comparison with data reported in the literatures. Compound 1 derives from secalonic acid scaffold with C-8/8′ reduction and compound 2 represents the first example of menegazziaic acid derivative with an unprecedented B-ring moiety. Two new compounds 1–2 were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against A549 (human lung carcinoma) and HT29 (human colorectal adenocarcinoma) cell lines. All of them showed weak or no activity against two cell lines. Keywords: Lichen; Usnea baileyi; Depsidones; Dimeric xanthone; Cytotoxicity.
29114Paoli L., Vannini A., Monaci F. & Loppi S. (2018): Competition between heavy metal ions for binding sites in lichens: Implications for biomonitoring studies. - Chemosphere, 199: 655–660.
The competitive behavior of divalent heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Pb, Zn) during cation uptake was investigated in the foliose lichen Xanthoria parietina. Lichen thalli were incubated with solutions containing 10 and 100 μM of CdCl2, CuCl2, and ZnCl2 as well as 5 and 50 μM of Pb(NO3)2, tested individually and in combination (Cd2++Cu2++Pb2++Zn2+). The analysis of molar concentrations suggests that a competition between cations for binding sites in X. parietina does exist. The decrease in net uptake between single and mixed solutions ranged between 14 and 29% at the lowest concentration and between 38 and 68% at the highest concentration. Furthermore, the uptake was proportionally lower for richer solutions. Each metal may behave differently when uptook: some (toxic elements) are preferentially stored at extracellular level (Cd, Pb), while others (micro-nutrients) are also present at intracellular level (Cu and Zn). The proportion between extracellular and total content changed for those elements accumulated also at intracellular level (Cu and Zn), while for Cd and Pb almost all the uptake occurred by passive mechanisms mainly at extracellular binding sites. The competition between metals for binding sites in the lichen surface entails that bioaccumulation data might result in an underestimation of some element levels measured in biomonitoring studies. Keywords: Bioaccumulation; Heavy metals; Ionic uptake; Xanthoria parietina.
29113Zhou R., Yang R. & Jing C. (2018): Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils and lichen from the western Tibetan Plateau: Concentration profiles, distribution and its influencing factors. - Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 152: 151–158.
The Tibetan Plateau (TP) is a huge area and rarely affected by human activity, and is regarded as one of the most remote regions on the earth. Many studies about the long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT) of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) were conducted in southern and central TP. However, there are very limited studies focused on PAHs in the western TP and the concentrations profiles, distribution and its controlling factors in this area remains unclear. Thus, to explore this knowledge gap, 37 surface soil samples and 23 lichen samples were collected and analyzed for PAHs. The total concentration of 16 US EPA's priority PAHs (∑16PAHs) in western TP ranges 14.4–59.5 ng/g and 38.0–133 ng/g dry weight (dw) with a mean value of 30.8 and 84.6 ng/g dw in soil and lichen, respectively, which is lower than the concentrations in most remote areas worldwide. In the western TP, low molecular weight PAHs (2–3 rings) are dominant (occupied 77.4% and 87.9% on average in soil and lichen, respectively), implying a significant contribution of LRAT in this area. The significant linear correlations (R2 = 0.372–0.627, p < 0.05) between longitude and soil concentration suggest a strong impact of the westerly wind on the distribution of PAHs in soil. In addition, the concentration ratio of lichen/soil (L/S) was found to linearly increase with the increasing log KOA of individual PAH, suggesting lichen has a strong ability in filtering more lipophilic airborne pollutants in western TP. Keywords: PAHs; Tibetan Plateau; Long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT); Alpine region; Mountain.
29112Oukarroum A., Lebrihi A., El Gharous M., Goltsev V. & Strasser R.J. (2018): Desiccation-induced changes of photosynthetic transport in Parmelina tiliacea (Hoffm.) Ach. analysed by simultaneous measurements of the kinetics of prompt fluorescence, delayed fluorescence and modulated 820 nm reflection. - Journal of Luminescence, 198: 302–308.
Simultaneous in vivo measurements of prompt fluorescence (PF), delayed fluorescence (DF) and modulated reflection (MR) at 820-nm were used to assess effect of short desiccation period (4.5 h) on Parmelina tiliacea lichen. The two performance indexes (PIABS and PItotal) as a measure of an overall photosynthetic thalli performance showed a negative effect of desiccation treatment on photosynthetic activity. The maximal intensity of PF and DF recorded during desiccation treatment decreased and at 4.5 h desiccation time Parmelina tiliacea thalli loss their variable fluorescence and DF amplitude. This loss of variable fluorescence was due to an increase in inactive reaction centers and a limitation of electron donation on the donor side of photosystem II (PSII) that caused a down-regulation of electron transport chain at the PSII level. However, the efficiency with which an electron can move from the reduced intersystem electron acceptors to the PSI end electron acceptors was less affect by desiccation treatment. In respect to MR change, re-reduction kinetics of the primary electron donors of photosystems I (P700) and plastocyanin (PC) in desiccated thalli seem to be faster, their amplitudes gradually decrease and a disconnection between the two photosystem (PSII and PSI) were observed. These responses allow to Parmelina tiliacea lichen a photoprotection mechanism from the excess light excitation. Keywords: Desiccation; JIP-test; Photosystem I; Photosystem II; Poikilohydric organisms; Photoprotection.
29111Lagarde A., Jargeat P., Roy M., Girardot M., Imbert C., Millot M. & Mambu L. (2018): Fungal communities associated with Evernia prunastri, Ramalina fastigiata and Pleurosticta acetabulum: Three epiphytic lichens potentially active against Candida biofilms. - Microbiological Research, 211: 1–12.
Fungal communities associated to three epiphytic lichens active against Candida, were investigated using culture-based methods We hypothetized that associated fungi would contribute to lichens activities. The ability of specific fungi to grow inside or outside lichens was investigated. To detect biogenesis pathways involved in the production of secondary metabolites, genes coding for nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) and polyketide synthase I (PKS I) were screened by PCR from fungal DNA extracts. Both endo and epilichenic communities were isolated from two fructicose (Evernia prunastri and Ramalina fastigiata) and one foliose (Pleurosticta acetabulum) lichens. A total of 86 endolichenic and 114 epilichenic isolates were obtained, corresponding to 18 and 24 phylogenetic groups respectively suggesting a wide diversity of fungi. The communities and the species richness were distinct between the three lichens which hosted potentially new fungal species. Additionally, the endo- and epilichenic communities differed in their composition: Sordariomycetes were particularly abundant among endolichenic fungi and Dothideomycetes among epilichenic fungi. Only a few fungi colonized both habitats, such as S. fimicola, Cladosporium sp1 and Botrytis cinerea. Interestingly, Nemania serpens (with several genotypes) was the most abundant endolichenic fungus (53% of isolates) and was shared by the three lichens. Finally, 12 out of 36 phylogenetic groups revealed the presence of genes coding for nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPs) and polyketide synthase I (PKS I). This study shows that common lichens are reservoirs of diverse fungal communities, which could potentially contribute to global activity of the lichen and, therefore, deserve to be isolated for further chemical studies. Keywords: Endolichenic; Epilichenic fungi; Barcoding; Sordariomycetes; Xylariaceae; NRPs and PKS I genes.
29110Kazartsev I., Shorohova E., Kapitsa E. & Kushnevskaya H. (2018): Decaying Picea abies log bark hosts diverse fungal communities. - Fungal Ecology, 33: 1–12.
We examined taxonomic composition of fungal communities in Picea abies log bark using next generation sequencing. Three successional stages along gradients of log attributes were identified. In the initial stage, the communities were composed by yeasts, plant pathogens and cosmopolitan saprotrophic fungi with broad substrate utilization. In the intermediate stage, bark was colonized mainly by saprotrophs common in decaying wood, symbionts of epixylic plants and nematode-trapping fungi. The final stage was characterized by the dominance of mycorrhizal fungi. Wood-decaying fungi occurred in all stages. However, their sporadic appearance in bark samples suggests that they are not essential for bark decomposition. Our results provide an insight into the hidden diversity of wood-inhabiting communities - fungal communities, associated with decomposition of bark as a component of coarse woody debris. p. 5: "The OTU richness of lichenized fungi was negatively related to bark moisture content."; p. 8: "In the third successional group, we detected the highest abundance of mycorrhizal fungi and almost complete disappearance of lichenized and pathogenic fungi."
29109Zhang Y. & Wei J.-C. (2017): Generic classification based on the symplesiomorphy of genotype and phenotype of the family Umbilicariaceae (Ascomycota). - Mycosystema, 36(8): 1089–1103.
This paper includes three aspects. First, a new concept of classification has been proposed, i.e. systematic biology of lichenized fungi with three systems of storage and retrieval is a bridge between biodiversity in the nature and exploration of lichen resources. Second, the symplesiomorphic analyses based on genotype together with phenotype data have solved the generic classification in the Umbilicariaceae, which has not been solved by the analyses of molecular systematics. Third, marginal species have been found in genus differentiation of the Umbilicariaceae by symplesiomorphic analyses. The concept of the marginal species is discussed. The results show, the family Umbilicariaceae and their genera are monophyletic group respectively. Key words: Lasallia; Umbilicaria; full-length LSU rDNA; marginal species; monophyletic group.
29108Smith R.J., Nelson P.R., Jovan S., Hanson P.J. & McCune B. (2018): Novel climates reverse carbon uptake of atmospherically dependent epiphytes: Climatic constraints on the iconic boreal forest lichen Evernia mesomorpha. - American Journal of Botany, 105(2): 266–274.
Premise of the study: Changing climates are expected to affect the abundance and distribution of global vegetation, especially plants and lichens with an epiphytic lifestyle and direct exposure to atmospheric variation. The study of epiphytes could improve understanding of biological responses to climatic changes, but only if the conditions that elicit physiological performance changes are clearly defined. Methods: We evaluated individual growth performance of the epiphytic lichen Evernia mesomorpha, an iconic boreal forest indicator species, in the first year of a decade-long experiment featuring whole-ecosystem warming and drying. Field experimental enclosures were located near the southern edge of the species’ range. Key results: Mean annual biomass growth of Evernia significantly declined 6 percentage points for every +1°C of experimental warming after accounting for interactions with atmospheric drying. Mean annual biomass growth was 14% in ambient treatments, 2% in unheated control treatments, and −9% to −19% (decreases) in energy-added treatments ranging from +2.25 to +9.00°C above ambient temperatures. Warming-induced biomass losses among persistent individuals were suggestive evidence of an extinction debt that could precede further local mortality events. Conclusions: Changing patterns of warming and drying would decrease or reverse Evernia growth at its southern range margins, with potential consequences for the maintenance of local and regional populations. Negative carbon balances among persisting individuals could physiologically commit these epiphytes to local extinction. Our findings illuminate the processes underlying local extinctions of epiphytes and suggest broader consequences for range shrinkage if dispersal and recruitment rates cannot keep pace. Key words: biomass accumulation; boreal forests; carbon balance; carbon dioxide enrichment; climate change experiment; epiphytes; extinction debt; growth rates; lichens; whole-ecosystem warming.
29107Benesperi R., Nascimbene J., Lazzaro L., Bianchi E., Tepsich A., Longinotti S. & Giordani P. (2018): Successful conservation of the endangered forest lichen Lobaria pulmonaria requires knowledge of fine-scale population structure. - Fungal Ecology, 33: 65–71.
We explored the fine scale patterns of populations of the lichen Lobaria pulmonaria in its most suitable habitats across Italy, accounting for different developmental stages as well as for a set of biotic and abiotic descriptors. Results revealed that the tree-level probability of occurrence of the species is influenced by an interplay between the forest habitat type and some abiotic and biotic factors whose interactive effects vary during the life cycle of the lichen. Moreover, results indicated that oak (Quercus sp.pl.)-dominated forests provide more suitable habitat conditions for L. pulmonaria than montane mixed forests, with chestnut (Castanea sativa) forests in an intermediate position. The effect of habitat was significant only for adult thalli while the early life stages of the lichen were habitat-independent and were strictly associated with tree-level factors. A positive relationship between bryophyte cover and juvenile thalli was found. Keywords: Bryophyte cover; Conservation; Forest management; Keystone Lobaria tree; Population developmental pathway; Thallus developmental stage.
29106Lindgren P.M.F. & Sullivan T.P. (2018): Influence of repeated fertilization on forage production for native mammalian herbivores in young lodgepole pine forests. - Forest Ecology and Management, 417: 295–280.
Stand thinning and fertilization are silvicultural practices designed to enhance wood and biomass production. Applications of nitrogen-based fertilizers make nutrients potentially available to all trees, plants, and wildlife in a given forest ecosystem, and therefore may affect productivity of forage plants for native mammalian herbivores. Species associated with areas of forest fertilization in temperate and boreal zones of North America include mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), elk (Cervus elaphus), moose (Alces alces), and woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus), snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus), and several species of voles. Impacts of fertilization on forest plant species may have important consequences for the nutrition, cover, and consequent survival of these herbivores, particularly in winter. This study tested the hypothesis (H1) that large-scale repeated fertilization, up to 20 years after the onset of treatments, would enhance the biomass production of forage plants, particularly grass, forb, shrub and tree species for native mammalian herbivores. A secondary hypothesis (H2) predicted that mosses and terrestrial lichens would decline as part of the ground vegetation in fertilized stands. Study areas were located in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) stands near Summerland, Kelowna, and Williams Lake in south-central British Columbia, Canada. Each study area had eight replicate stands: four unfertilized, and four fertilized five times at 2-year intervals. Mean biomass of total grasses responded dramatically starting in the first year after fertilization. Total forbs and herbs also followed this pattern, although not to a significant degree until after the second and third applications of fertilizer. All of the dominant grasses and forbs serve as summer forage for mule deer, moose, elk, and woodland caribou. Fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium), a preferred forage for mule deer, increased in fertilized stands. Grasses and dominant herbs in fertilized stands provide excellent forage and cover habitat for snowshoe hares and Microtus voles. Mean biomass of total shrubs was not affected by fertilization. However, saskatoon berry (Amelanchier alnifolia), prickly rose (Rosa acicularis), and red raspberry (Rubus idaeus) increased significantly in biomass in fertilized stands. Willow (Salix spp.) also increased in biomass, but was variable across treatment stands. Snowshoe hares respond favourably to enhanced shrub growth for food and cover in fertilized stands. All of these shrubs are readily eaten by deer, moose, and elk, and their structural attributes provide security and thermal cover. Mean biomass of understory Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) responded positively to fertilization, but subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) and the three deciduous tree species did not. Dwarf shrubs such as kinnikinnick (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi), twinflower (Linnaea borealis), and dwarf blueberry (Vaccinium caespitosum) declined in fertilized stands. Thus, H1 was partially supported for some species. Increasing cover of grasses and nitrophilous herbs, and canopy cover from rapidly growing crop trees, in fertilized stands may have contributed to the decline of some dwarf shrubs. Mean crown volume index of total mosses and terrestrial lichens declined significantly in fertilized stands, thereby supporting H2. Mean biomass of total grasses (increase), R. acicularis (increase), and V. caespitosum (decline) were significantly affected after one application of fertilizer. Repeated applications of fertilizer may enhance biomass of some additional forage forbs and shrubs, but reduce biomass of some dwarf shrubs, mosses, and lichens.
29105Payette S. & Delwaide A. (2018): Tamm review: The North-American lichen woodland. - Forest Ecology and Management, 417: 167–183.
The lichen woodland (LW) is an open-crown subarctic forest distributed principally in North America where it extends from Newfoundland in Atlantic Canada to the Yukon and Alaska. It is the main tree ecosystem of the LW zone north of the closed-crown boreal forest zone, and south of the forest-tundra zone where its cover diminishes progressively toward the Arctic tree line. Growth and development of LWs are closely dependent on dry-mesic, nutrient-poor podzolic soil environments largely distributed on the Canadian Precambrian Shield. The sunexposed open structure and dominance of lichen species on the dry-mesic soils of LWs determine many of their functions. A diversified cryptogamic flora is thriving in LWs due to reduced competition from vascular plants unable to grow and survive on dry, nutrient-poor soils. Because of the reduced greenhouse effect caused by the open structure and dominance of pale-color lichen mats inducing a greater albedo, LWs exerts a negative microclimatic impact on the environment culminating in the reduction of the frost-free growth season and increase and intensity of frost events. A suite of common, often recurrent, sometime compounding, fine- and large-scale disturbances (including climate change) activates the successional dynamics of LWs and also their historical and present expansion and contraction across the boreal biome. Post-disturbance chronosequences induced by fire, wind and caribou trampling and grazing are producing similar seral communities converging toward the selfmaintenance of the LW ecosystem. Long-term succession in southernmost LW sites possibly converges toward the closing of tree canopy and recovery of closed-crown conifer forests (CCCF) in absence of fire. The creation of LW occurred repeatedly during the late Holocene, as well as its extirpation from the northernmost sites (foresttundra zone) with wildfire as the principal triggering mechanism. LWs are presently unable to transgress the tree line, except for minor advances in small confined sites. Current evidence of the dual distribution of LWs and CCCF in eastern Canada shows that the LW zone is expanding southward into the CCCF zone, where compound disturbances associated with epidemics followed by small to extensive fires are transforming dense forest stands to LWs, a process most likely independent of climate. In terms of ecosystem management, there are concerns about the maintenance of the southernmost LWs within the CCCF zone as poor carbon sinks. Projects involving LW plantation sites in the CCCF zone in eastern Canada are proposed to offset the increased emission of atmospheric gases and thus mitigate climate change. Keywords: Boreal forest; Cladonia; Caribou; Chronosequence; Fire; Frost; Lichen; Microclimate; Subarctic; Succession; Woodland.
29104Kováčik J., Dresler S. & Babula P. (2018): Metabolic responses of terrestrial macrolichens to nickel. - Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 127: 32–38.
Short-term (24 h) responses of Cladonia arbuscula subsp. mitis (formerly known as Cladina and this name is used to distinguish the tested species) and Cladonia furcata to nickel (Ni2+) excess (10 or 100 μM) were compared. Cladonia accumulated more Ni at higher Ni dose (1.717 mg total Ni/g DW), K amount was unaffected and Ca amount decreased in Cladina only. Fluorescence microscopy detection of total/general ROS and hydrogen peroxide showed Ni-stimulated increase in both species being more pronounced in Cladonia and in mycobiont partner mainly. Nitric oxide visualization (diaminonaphthalene staining) also revealed elevation in response to Ni that could contribute to synthesis of protective metabolites: they may include ascorbic acid or reduced glutathione which increased in Ni-exposed Cladina or Cladonia, respectively. Only low content of phytochelatin 2 was detected in Ni-treated Cladonia and the role in Ni chelation is not apparent. Among aliphatic organic acids, content of citric or succinic acid was not or slightly affected by Ni, production of malic acid dropped by ca. 50% in both species and α-ketoglutaric acid showed the opposite behavior in the tested species. Data indicate that even short-term Ni treatments induce metabolic changes and symptoms of oxidative stress in lichens, confirming that nickel is not non-toxic metal as frequently visible from standard biochemical assays of basic physiology. Ascorbic acid and GSH rather than aliphatic organic acids seem to contribute to Ni tolerance. Keywords: Antioxidants; Heavy metals; Organic acids; Oxidative stress; Reactive oxygen species (ROS); Thiols.
29103Liška J. (1998): Nová lichenologická literatura VII . - Bryonora, 21: 26-26.
29102Liška J. (1998): Chemismus lišejníků v terénu . - Bryonora, 21: 20-20.
29101Liška J. (1998): Lišejníky jako jed . - Bryonora, 21: 19-19.
29100Liška J. (1998): Lišejníky jako přísada čaje . - Bryonora, 21: 19-19.
29099Dětinský R. (1998): Lišejníky jako koření . - Bryonora, 21: 19-19.
29098Anonymus (1998): Odešli: Mögens Skytte Christiansen (1918-1997) . - Bryonora, 21: 16-16.
29097Liška J. (1997): Desetileté ohlédnuti [Retrospective view of the last ten years of our Section ]. - Bryonora, 20: 3-4.
29096Novotný I. (1997): Z historie bryologicko-lichenologické sekce [A short history of the Czech (Czechoslovak) Bryological-Lichenological Section]. - Bryonora, 20: 2-2.
29095Liška J. (1996): Česká a slovenská lichenologická bibliografie IX. [Czech and Slovak lichenological bibliography IX.]. - Bryonora, 18: 27-0.
29094Liška J. (1996): Ze života společností XVII.: Svensk Lichenologist Förening (SLF) [Guide to other societies XVII.: Svensk Lichenologist Förening (SLF)]. - Bryonora, 18: 25-25.
29093Liška J. (1996): Výročí (B. Stein, O. Klement, E. Lisická, L. Pokluda) [Anniversaries (B. Stein, O. Klement, E. Lisická, L. Pokluda)]. - Bryonora, 18: 25-25.
29092Liška J. (1996): Ze života společností XVI.: Societas Mycologica Fennica [Guide to other societies XVI.: Societas Mycologica Fennica]. - Bryonora, 17: 13-14.
29091Liška J. (1996): Odešli (P. Nevečeřal, E. G. Kopačevskaja) [Obituary (P. Nevečeřal, E. G. Kopačevskaja)]. - Bryonora, 17: 13-13.
29090Liška J. & Pilous Z. (1996): Výročí (V. Kuťák, J. Nádvorník, J. Novák, J. Müller Argoviensis, F. Á. Hazslinszky, A. Kalenský) [Anniversaries (V. Kuťák, J. Nádvorník, J. Novák, J. Müller Argoviensis, F. Á. Hazslinszky, A. Kalenský)]. - Bryonora, 17: 11-13.
29089Liška J. (1995): Česká a slovenská lichenologická bibliografie VlII. [Czech and Slovak lichenological bibliography VIII.]. - Bryonora, 16: 32-34.
29088Liška J. (1995): Ze života společností XV.: Nordisk Lichenologisk Forening (NLF) [Guide to other societies XV.: Nordisk Lichenologisk Forening (NLF)]. - Bryonora, 16: 29-29.
29087Anonymus (1995): Výročí (Z. Černohorský, A. Vězda) [Anniversaries (Z. Černohorský, A. Vězda) ]. - Bryonora, 16: 28-28.
29086Anonymus (1995): Zajímavé nálezy [Interesting floristic findings]. - Bryonora, 16: 26-27.
Bryoria bicolor, Přebuz, Krušné hory
29085Pišút I. & Lackovičová A. (1995): Lišajníky biosférickej rezervácie Východné Karpaty [Lichens of the Biosphere Reserve Východné Karpaty (Eastern Slovakia)]. - Bryonora, 16: 25-26.
Preliminary report on the lichen flora of the Biosphere Reserve Východně Karpaty (NE Slovakia), is presented. In total 208 species is recorded (62 of them belong among threatened). Several species very rare in other parts of Slovakia were found: Lecanora cinereofusca, Thelotremalepadinum, Lobariapulmonaria, Normandinapulchella Mencgaiziaterebrata Gyalectaflotowii, G. ulmi. Though suitable conditions for development of epiphytic and epixylic lichens (132 taxa) are still present in the Reserve, decrease of sensitive indicators of natural mountain forests is evident.
29084Zahlbruckner A. (1902): Die Kryptogamae exsiccatae editae a Museo Palatino Vindobonensi. - Verhandlungen des Vereine für Naturkunde zu Presburg, N.F., 13: 72.
Note on the exsiccate Kryptogamae exsiccatae, Centuria VII.
29083Zahlbruckner A. (1899): Zur Flechtenflora des Presburger Comitates. II. - Verhandlungen des Vereine für Naturkunde zu Presburg, N.F., 10: 16–29.
Slovakia; Rinodina kornhuberi sp. nov., Microglaena baumleri [as 'bäumleri'] sp. nov.
29082Zahlbruckner A. (1894): Zur Flechtenflora des Pressburger Komitates. - Verhandlungen des Vereine für Naturkunde zu Presburg, N.F., 8: 19–73.
29081Moya P., Chiva S., Molins A., Jadrná I., Škaloud P., Peksa O. & Barreno E. (2018): Myrmecia israeliensis as the primary symbiotic microalga in squamulose lichens growing in European and Canary Island terricolous communities. - Fottea, 18(1): 72–85.
Myrmecia israeliensis has been traditionally considered as a green coccoid free–living microalga. This microalga was previously suggested as the primary phycobiont in the lichens Placidium spp., Heteroplacidium spp., and Psora decipiens. However, due to the absence of ITS rDNA sequences (barcode information) published along with these investigations, the symbiotic nature of M. israeliensis might be confirmed by using the DNA barcoding and different microscopic examinations both in the symbiotic state and in culture. The aim of this study was to settle the presence of M. israeliensis as the primary microalga in squamulose lichens growing in terricolous communities (Psora spp., Placidium spp. and Claviscidium spp.) in 32 localities within European and Canary Island ecosystems by using both molecular and ultrastructural techniques. The lichen–forming fungi were identified using ITS rDNA as a barcode, and in the case of P. decipiens specimens, the mycobiont analyses showed an unexpected variability. Phycobiont phylogenetic analyses were made using both chloroplast (LSU rDNA) and nuclear (ITS rDNA) molecular markers. Our results proved that M. israeliensis is the primary symbiotic microalga in all the chosen and analyzed lichens. In addition, fluorescence microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron techniques were used to characterize M. israeliensis. Finally, the presence of this microalga in lichen thalli was verified using different microscopic observations. A combination of different techniques, both molecular and microscopic, allowed for the accurate identification of this symbiotic microalga, beforehand mainly known as free living. Here, we suggest the combination of these techniques to prevent incorrect identification in microalgal lichen studies. Key words: Clavascidium spp., ITS rDNA (barcoding), LSU rDNA, Myrmecia israeliensis, phycobiont, Placidium spp., Psora spp., ultrastructure.
29080Sokoloff P., Freebury C., Hamilton P. & Saarela J. (2016): The "Martian" flora: new collections of vascular plants, lichens, fungi, algae, and cyanobacteria from the Mars Desert Research Station, Utah. - Biodiversity Data Journal, 4: e8176 [94 p.].
The Mars Desert Research Station is a Mars analog research site located in the desert outside of Hanksville, Utah, U.S.A. Here we present a preliminary checklist of the vascular plant and lichen flora for the station, based on collections made primarily during a twoweek simulated Mars mission in November, 2014. Additionally, we present notes on the endolithic chlorophytes and cyanobacteria, and the identification of a fungal genus also based on these collections. Altogether, we recorded 38 vascular plant species from 14 families, 13 lichen species from seven families, six algae taxa including both chlorophytes and cyanobacteria, and one fungal genus from the station and surrounding area. We discuss this floristic diversity in the context of the ecology of the nearby San Rafael Swell and the desert areas of Wayne and Emery counties in southeastern Utah. Keywords: Analog Research; Floristics; Astrobiology.
29079Liška J. (1995): Nová lichenologická literatura IV. [New lichenological literature IV.]. - Bryonora, 15: 22-0.
29078Špryňar P., Blažková V., Freiová R., Kůrková I. & Palice Z. (1995): Určování bezcévných rostlin podle chuti . - Bryonora, 15: 17-19.
29077Liška J. (1995): Ze života společností XIV.: Association Francaise de Lichenologie (AFL) [Guide to other societies XIV.: Association Francaise de Lichenologie (AFL)]. - Bryonora, 15: 16-16.
29076Liška J. (1995): Odešli (J. Poelt) [Obituary (J. Poelt)]. - Bryonora, 15: 15-15.
29075Váňa J. (1995): Výročí (J. Duda, M. Holubář, A. Kriesl, J. Müller, M. Svrček, J. Dědeček, R. Picbauer, F. Kovář, A. Weidmann, F. Wurm, A. E. Wade) [Anniversaries (J. Duda, M. Holubář, A. Kriesl, J. Müller, M. Svrček, J. Dědeček, R. Picbauer, F. Kovář, A. Weidmann, F. Wurm, A. E. Wade)]. - Bryonora, 15: 13-15.
29074Liška J. (1994): Česká a slovenská lichenologická bibliografie VII. [Czech and Slovak lichenological bibliography VII.]. - Bryonora, 14: 29-30.
29073Liška J. (1994): Ze života společností XIII.: Society of Australasian Lichenologists (SAL) [Guide to other societies XIII.: Society of Australasian Lichenologists (SAL)]. - Bryonora, 14: 25-25.
29072Liška J. (1994): Odešli (E. Dahl) [Obituary (E. Dahl)]. - Bryonora, 14: 24-24.
29071Liška J. (1994): Výročí (I. Pišút, J. Šmarda, K. G. Limpricht, F. Ehrhart, C. W. Dodge) [Anniversaries (I. Pišút, J. Šmarda, K. G. Limpricht, F. Ehrhart, C. W. Dodge)]. - Bryonora, 14: 23-24.
29070Gholipour-Shahraki M. & Mohammadi P. (2017): The study of growth of Calogaya sp. PLM8 on Cyrus the Great’s Tomb, UNESCO World Heritage Site in Iran. - International Journal of Environmental Research, 11: 501–513.
The tomb of Cyrus the Great, the most important monument in Pasargadae, has been listed as a world heritage site by UNESCO. Like many other stone monuments, the tomb has been affected by the colonization of microbial communities, especially lichens that were subjected to physical elimination in 2006. In the present study, recolonization of Calogaya sp. PLM8, a crustose lichen and its role in biodeterioration of Cyrus the Great tomb have been evaluated. Calogaya sp. PLM8 commonly colonized on this monument with significant distribution in the different facades. The interface of Calogaya sp. PLM8 with the underlying substrate has been investigated using the periodic acid-Schiff staining, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy techniques. The results showed that both colonization of the lichen on the surface and symbiont cells penetration into the stone had caused extensive physical and chemical biodeterioration of the substrate. Besides the presence of the symbionts in the endolithic niches, other lithobiont microorganisms have been detected inside the stones. The presence of these endolithic microorganisms seems to be conditioned by the presence of the epilithic lichen thallus and its effects on the formation of microenvironments in the colonized stone. The lithobiont communities interact both geophysically and geochemically with the lithic substrate, inducing biodeterioration alteration in the tomb of Cyrus the Great. Keywords: Cyrus; the Great tomb;  Biodeterioration; Lichen;  Endoliths;  Calogaya sp.; PLM8.
29069Brovko O.S., Ivakhnova A.D., Palamarchuka I.A. & Boitsova T.A. (2017): Supercritical fluid extraction of usnic acid from lichen of Cladonia genus. - Russian Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 11(8): 1306–1311.
[Original Russian Text published in Sverkhkriticheskie Flyuidy. Teoriya i Praktika, 2017, Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 41–49]. The process of carbon dioxide supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of secondary metabolites from the lichen of Cladonia genus is studied. The yield of solid extract during SFE with carbon dioxide is significantly higher than during the extraction with acetone, ethanol, and petroleum ether on the Soxhlet apparatus. The maximum content of the target component—usnic acid (UA)—in the extract (91%, yield—2.5% of absolutely dry raw material) is obtained under pressure of 35 MPa, temperature 40°C, and duration of the process of 40 min. Introduction of cosolvents (acetone, ethanol, methylene chloride) to carbon dioxide increases the yield of the target product to 3%. Keywords: supercritical fluid extraction, secondary lichen metabolites, usnic acid, Cladonia lichen genus, parameters of extraction proces.
29068Nan K., He M., Chen B., Chen Y. & Hu B. (2018): Arsenic speciation in tree moss by mass spectrometry based hyphenated techniques. - Talanta, 183: 48–54.
A method based on ion-pair reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) hyphenated with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was developed for arsenic speciation in extract of tree moss. Under the optimal conditions, the limit of detection of eight arsenic species including arsenite (AsIII), arsenate (AsV), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsonic acid (DMA), trimethylarsinoxide (TMAO), tetramethylarsonium (Tetra), arsenocholine (AsC) and arsenobetaine (AsB) is between 0.04 and 0.07 ng/mL, with a linear range of 0.2 − 500 ng/mL. Three unknown arsenic species (Unk1, Unk2 and Unk3) and six specific arsenic species (AsIII, AsV, DMA, TMAO, Tetra and AsB) were detected in the extract of tree moss. Unk3 was identified as a kind of arsenosugars (2,3-dihydroxypropyl-5-deoxy-5(dimethylarsenoso)furanoside, arsenosugar X) by electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-qTOF-MS). Key words: Arsenic speciation; Tree moss (Ramalina fastigiata); High performance liquid chromatography; inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry; Electrospray ionization quadrupole time-offlight; mass spectrometry.
29067Zarabska-Bożejewicz D. & Kujawa K. (2018): The effect of land use on taxonomical and functional diversity of lichens in an agricultural landscape. - Fungal Ecology, 33: 72–79.
The objective of this work was to determine the effect of land use on lichen richness and their functional groups in agricultural land. A significant overall effect of land use on the number of species was found. In general, there was a marked dissimilarity with regard to species richness of forest versus non-forest sites. An analysis of some ecological requirements of lichens showed the most apparent differences concerning tolerance to nutrients and acidity value of particular species. Richness of species capable of producing soredia, isidia and reproducing via fragmentation was higher in coniferous forest compared to non-forest habitats (including wooded patches). Functional traits were a more sensitive and more informative index of lichen response to land use intensity compared to species richness. Keywords: Lichenized fungi; Species richness; Anthropogenic pressure; Functional groups; Ecological indicators; Agricultural landscape.
29066Bertuzzi S., Pellegrini E., Candotto Carniel F., Incerti G., Lorenzini G., Nali C. & Tretiach M. (2018): Ozone and desiccation tolerance in chlorolichens are intimately connected: a case study based on two species with different ecology. - Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 25: 8089–8103.
Tropospheric ozone (O3) causes severe damage to many vascular plants but not to lichens. It was recently suggested that this may be due to their high levels of natural defences against the oxidative bursts associated to their fluctuating water content. In this study, the combined effects of watering regime (with or without a daily spray of distilled water), air relative humidity (20 ± 5 vs. 80 ± 5% RH) and O3 (250 vs. 0 ppb, 5 h day−1 for 2 weeks) were monitored in two chlorolichens with different ecology, Parmotrema perlatum and Xanthoria parietina. Modulated chlorophyll a fluorescence (Chl a F), superoxide anion radical (O2 •−) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production, antioxidant content and enzyme activity of the ascorbate/glutathione cycle were measured after exposure and, for Chl a F, after 1 and 2 days of recovery. The species differed in the antioxidant profile (ascorbate was higher in X. parietina, glutathione in P. perlatum), and in the activity of ROS-scavenging enzymes, more intense in the hygrophilous P. perlatum than in the meso-xerophilous X. parietina. O3 slightly modified Chl a F parameters related to the controlled dissipation, with reduction of Fm, Fv/Fm (both species) and ETR (in P. perlatum), and increase in NPQ and qN (in X. parietina). It also influenced, particularly in P. perlatum, the content of H2O2, glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) (but not that of O2 •− and AsA + DHA) and the activity of superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and dehydroascorbate reductase. These parameters, however, were more heavily affected by water availability. The hypothesis that lichens are O3-tolerant thanks to the constitutive antioxidant systems, intimately related to their poikilohydric life-style, is thus confirmed. Keywords: Antioxidants Halliwell-Asada cycle Chlorophyll a fluorescence Oxidative stress Poikilohydric organisms.
29065González-Gómez W.S., Quintana P., Gómez-Cornelio S., García-Solis C., Sierra-Fernandez A., Ortega-Morales O. & De la Rosa-García S.C. (2018): Calcium oxalates in biofilms on limestone walls of Maya buildings in Chichén Itzá, Mexico. - Environmental Earth Sciences, 77:230 [12 p.].
Microbial biofilms frequently cause the esthetic and biological deterioration of stone monuments. Chichén Itzá, designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site and as one of the seven new wonders of the world, is one Maya archeological site affected by biofilms. In the present study, we analyzed the biofilms at three different building complexes of Chichén Itzá: the Lower Temple of the Jaguars, the Temple of the Warriors, and Tzompantli. Samples of biofilms and detached rocks were taken from walls with abundant white-, green-, black-, and orange-colored biofilms. The morphology of rock fragments and dust was analyzed by electron and optical microscopy and was structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction. An HCl treatment (5% v/v) was subsequently applied to eliminate carbonates. The morphological analysis evidenced the presence of cyanobacteria, algae, and lichens. Some algae formed small nodules on orange- or black-colored rocks. Lichens were associated with a distinct mineral content on the inner surface of rocks versus on the outer surface. The presence of calcium oxalates such as weddellite (C2CaO4·2H2O) and whewellite (C2CaO4·H2O) and other minerals, including quartz and feldspars, was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The lichens collected from the Lower Temple of the Jaguars and Tzompantli were therefore confirmed to disintegrate rock surfaces through biomineralization and the formation of oxalate crystals. At sites with greater solar radiation, a higher quantity of weddellite and a lower quantity of whewellite were observed. In conclusion, the establishment of microorganisms on the stone surfaces of Chichén Itzá causes esthetic damage and also leads to the biomineralization of these rock surfaces. Keywords: Biomineralization · Lichen · Fungi · Algae · Cyanobacteria · Stone heritage.
29064Hertel H., Gärtner G., Lőkös L. & Farkas E. (2017): Forscher an Österreichs Flechtenflora. - Stapfia, 104(2): 1–211.
Keywords: Austrian lichenology, bibliographies, biographies, biologists, eponyms, historical botany, history of lichenology, lichens, lichenologists, portraits.
29063Nimis P.L., Hafellner J., Roux C., Clerc P., Mayrhofer H., Martellos S. & Bilovitz P.O. (2018): The lichens of the Alps – an annotated checklist. - Mycokeys, 31: 1–634.
This is the first attempt to provide an overview of the lichen diversity of the Alps, one of the biogegraphically most important and emblematic mountain systems worldwide. The checklist includes all lichenised species, plus a set of non- or doubtfully lichenised taxa frequently treated by lichenologists, excluding nonlichenised lichenicolous fungi. Largely based on recent national or regional checklists, it provides a list of all infrageneric taxa (with synonyms) hitherto reported from the Alps, with data on their distribution in eight countries (Austria, France, Germany, Liechtenstein, Monaco, Italy, Slovenia, Switzerland) and in 42 Operational Geographic Units, mostly corresponding to administrative subdivisions within the countries. Data on the main substrates and on the altitudinal distribution are also provided. A short note points to the main ecological requirements of each taxon and/or to open taxonomic problems. Particularly poorly known taxa are flagged and often provided with a short description, to attract the attention of specialists. The total number of infrageneric taxa is 3,163, including 117 non- or doubtfully lichenised taxa. The richness of the lichen biota fairly well corresponds with the percent of the Alpine area occupied by each country: Austria (2,337 taxa), Italy (2,169), France (2,028), Switzerland (1,835), Germany (1,168), Slovenia (890) and Lichtenstein (152), no lichen having ever been reported from Monaco. The number of poorly known taxa is quite high (604, 19.1% of the total), which indicates that, in spite of the Alps being one of the lichenologically most studied mountain systems worldwide, much work is still needed to reach a satisfactory picture of their real lichen diversity. Thirteen new combinations are proposed in the genera Agonimia, Aspicilia, Bagliettoa, Bellemerea, Carbonea, Lepra, Miriquidica, Polysporina, Protothelenella, Pseudosagedia and Thelidium.
29062Guttová A., Palice Z., Liška J. & Lackovičová A. (2018): Príspevok k poznaniu diverzity lišajníkov východného Slovenska [Contribution to the knowledge of lichen diversity of the Eastern Slovakia]. - Bull. Slov. Bot. Spoločn., Bratislava, 40(1): 11–34.
We publish the findings of lichens collected during the survey of selected underexplored sites in the Eastern Slovakia. Alltogether, we report on 241 taxa, of which we collected 211. The list was also supplemented by published information on 30 species, which was scattered in older papers focused on lichen diversity. Eight species were not listed in the latest checklist of lichens of Slovakia or the supplements: Acarospora praeruptorum, Involucropyrenium romeanum, Micarea soralifera, Pyrenopsis sanguinea, Rinodina calcarea, Verrucaria furfuracea, Xanthomendoza huculica and Xanthoria ucrainica. We also briefly comment on other, rarely recorded ones or phytogeographically interesting species (e.g. Agonimia allobata, Bacidia rosella, Caloplaca lucifuga, Hypotrachyna revoluta, Lecania croatica, Parmelina pastillifera, and Solenopsora cesatii). Important collections include other rarely collected species, e.g. Ionaspis lacustris, or Thermutis velutina. Collections of two lichenicolous fungi (Monodictys epilepraria, Tremella lichenicola) and one lichen-allied fungus (Anisomeridium macrocarpum) are reported as well. We also comment on inevitable nomenclatoric changes based on recent biosystematic studies related to Lepraria lobificans (now L. finkii) and Verrucaria deminuta (now V. obfuscans). An importance of update of red list of lichens, along with other groups of organisms is raised. Key words: biodiversity, lichenized fungi, lichenicolous fungi, the Western Carpathians, the Eastern Carpathians.
29061Ertz D., Guzow-Krzemińska B., Thor G., Łubek A. & Kukwa M. (2018): Photobiont switching causes changes in the reproduction strategy and phenotypic dimorphism in the Arthoniomycetes. - Scientific Reports, 8:4952 [14 p.].
Phylogenetic analyses using mtSSU and nuITS sequences of Buellia violaceofusca (previously placed in Lecanoromycetes), a sterile, sorediate lichen having a trebouxioid photobiont, surprisingly prove that the species is conspecific with Lecanographa amylacea (Arthoniomycetes), a fertile, esorediate species with a trentepohlioid photobiont. These results suggest that L. amylacea and B. violaceofusca are photomorphs of the same mycobiont species, which, depending on the photobiont type, changes the morphology and the reproduction strategy. This is the first example of a lichenized fungus that can select between Trebouxia (Trebouxiophyceae) and trentepohlioid (Ulvophyceae) photobionts. Trebouxia photobionts from the sorediate morphotype belong to at least three different phylogenetic clades, and the results suggest that Lecanographa amylacea can capture the photobiont of other lichens such as Chrysothrix candelaris to form the sorediate morphotype. Phylogenetic analyses based on rbcL DNA data suggest that the trentepohlioid photobiont of L. amylacea is closely related to Trentepohlia isolated from fruticose lichens. The flexibility in the photobiont choice enables L. amylacea to use a larger range of tree hosts. This strategy helps the lichen to withstand changes of environmental conditions, to widen its distribution range and to increase its population size, which is particularly important for the survival of this rare species.
29060Liška J. (1994): Nová lichenologická literatura III. [New lichenological literature III.]. - Bryonora, 13: 36-39.
29059Anonymus (1994): Ze života společností XII.: Lichenological Society of Japan (LSJ) [Guide to other societies XI.: Lichenological Society of Japan (LSJ)]. - Bryonora, 13: 30-30.
29058Anonymus (1994): Odešli (E. Peveling) [Obituaries (E. Peveling)]. - Bryonora, 13: 30-30.
29057Anonymus (1994): Výročí (L. J. Čelakovský, V. Los, J. Podzimek, J. J. Dillenius, H. Gams, V. J. Schiffner) [Anniversaries (L. J. Čelakovský, V. Los, J. Podzimek, J. J. Dillenius, H. Gams, V. J. Schiffner)]. - Bryonora, 13: 29-29.
29056Anonymus (1994): Zajímavé nálezy [Interesting floristic findings]. - Bryonora, 13: 27-27.
Lecanactis abscondita, Ždiarska dolina, Vysoké Tatry, Slovensko
29055Liška J. & Pišút I. (1994): Roď Cladonia v České a Slovenské republice (J. Liška & I. Pišút) [The genus Cladonia in the Czech and Slovak Republics]. - Bryonora, 13: 19-23.
Checklist of Cladonia spedes in the Czech and Slovak Republics with notes on distribution and synopsis of chemical reactions are presented. Characters of main groups (subgen. and sect.) are summarized in a key.
29054Liška J. (1993): Česká a slovenská lichenologická bibliografie VI. [Czech and Slovak lichenological bibliography VI. ]. - Bryonora, 12: 20-22.
29053Anonymus (1993): Ze života společností XI. Schweizerische Vereinigung für Bryologie und Lichenologie (SVBL) [Guide to the other societies XI.: Schweiz. Vereinigung für Bryologie und Lichenologie (SVBL)]. - Bryonora, 12: 17-17.
29052Soldán Z. & Liška J. (1993): Odešli (S. Ahlner, R. Hakulinen, V. J. Krajina, V. Skalický) [Obituaries (S. Ahlner, R. Hakulinen, V. J. Krajina, V. Skalický) ]. - Bryonora, 12: 16-17.
29051Murati M. (1985): Prilog poznavanju lichenoflore Cerepašine. - Zbornik radova Simpozijuma Stogodišnjica Flore, okoline Niša, Niš, 33–40.
29050Murati M. (1979): Kontribut rreth njohjes së likenoflorës të Butrintit [Contribution pour connaitre la lichenoflore de Butrint]. - Buletini i Shkencave të Natyrës, Tirane, 3: 97–99.
L\’auteur donne, dans cet article, un bref tableau de la lichénoflore de Butrint Nous avons réuni dans cette localité 16 espěces de lichens faisant partie de deux classes: Ascolichenes et Lichenes imperfecti. De cette derniěre classe fait partie Ia seule espěce Lepraria aeruginosa, cependant que les autres espěces appartiennent â la premiere classe. Les espěces trouvées vivent dans des Substrats organiques (les troncs des bois) et inorganiques (dans les roches calcaires).
29049Kondratyuk S.Y., Lőkös L., Halda J.P., Farkas E., Upreti D.K., Thell A., Woo J.-J., Oh S.-O. & Hur J.-S. (2018): New and noteworthy lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi 7. - Acta Botanica Hungarica, 60(1–2): 115–184.
Nineteen new to science species of lichen forming fungi, i.e.: Agonimia ascendens S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, A. sunchonensis S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur, A. yongsangensis S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur, Biatora loekoesiana S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur, Caloplaca ivanpisutii S. Y. Kond., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, Candelariella makarevichiae S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, Huriella pohangensis S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, H. salyangiana S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur, Hyper- physcia oxneri S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur, Nectriopsis gangwondoensis S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, Porina ulleungdoensis S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös, J. Halda et J.-S. Hur, Psoroglaena gang- wondoensis S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös, J.-J. Woo et J.-S. Hur, Pyrenopsis cavernicola S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, Rhizocarpon sunchonense S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur, Rufoplaca ulleungensis S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, Sarcogyne ulleungdoensis S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, Skyttea bumyoungsungii S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur, Thelopsis gangwondoensis S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös, J.-J. Woo et J.-S. Hur, Topelia loekoesiana S. Y. Kondr., J.-J. Woo et J.-S. Hur, all from South Korea, as well as Gallowayella awasthiana S. Y. Kondr. et D. K. Upreti from India and Franwilsia skottsbergii S. Y. Kondr., A. Thell, S.-O. Oh et J.-S. Hur from Chile are described, illustrated and compared with closely related taxa. A key to Agonimia species known from Eastern Asia is also included. Lecanora helicopis is recorded for Korea for the first time, as well as a number of new to Jeju-do Island species (i.e.: Agonimia loekoesii, Biatora pseudosambuci, Buellia extremoorientalis, and Ivanpisutia oxneri) are recorded. Additional data on conidiomata and morphological characters of thallus and apothecia and illustrations as well as data on newly located iso- type specimens recently described from Canary Islands, Spain Fominiella tenerifensis are provided.
29048Kondratyuk S.Y., Persson P.-E., Hansson M, Lőkös L., Liu D., Hur J.-S., Kärnefelt I. & Thell A. (2018): Hosseusiella and Rehmanniella, two new genera in the Teloschistaceae. - Acta Botanica Hungarica, 60(1–2): 89–113.
Two new genera in the subfamily Teloschistoideae (Teloschistaceae, Teloschistales) are described: Hosseusiella S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et A. Thell for the Caloplaca chilensis group including three South American species and Rehmanniella S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur for the new species, R. wirthii S. Y. Kondr. from South Africa. The new genera are supported by a three-gene phylogeny based on ITS1/ITS2 nrDNA, 28S nrLSU, and 12S mtSSU sequenc- es. The new taxonomic position of Elixjohnia ovis-atra in the subfamily Teloschistoideae is discussed. The two new species Hosseusiella gallowayiana and Rehmanniella wirthii are described, illustrated and compared with closely related taxa. Hosseusiella gallowayiana is recorded for the first time as the host for the lichenicolous fungus Arthonia tetraspora S. Y. Kondr. A key to the species of Hosseusiella is included, as well as new information of the related genus Follmannia. The following new combinations are proposed: Hosseusiella chi- lensis (Kärnefelt, S. Y. Kondr., Frödén et Arup) S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös, Kärnefelt et A. Thell, Hosseusiella pergracilis (Zahlbr.) S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös, Kärnefelt et A. Thell and Elixjohnia ovis-atra (Søchting, Søgaard et Sancho) S. Y. Kondr. Elixjohnia, Follmannia, Hosseusiella, Hosseusiella gallowayiana, key, new genera, new species, phylogenetic analysis, Rehmanniella, Rehmanniella wirthii, South Africa, South America, Teloschistaceae, Teloschistoideae
29047Kinalioğlu K. & Aptroot A. (2018): A new lichen record for Turkey and additions to the lichen diversity of the Giresun province (Turkey). - Acta Botanica Hungarica, 60(1–2): 75–87.
A list of 136 lichen species from the Giresun province (Turkey) is reported. Among them, 73 are new records for province, and Acarospora molybdina is new to Turkey. Here with, the infraspecific taxa for the province rise from 475 to 548. Locality and substrate data is presented for each taxa. Brief taxonomic description and comments are also provided for the Acarospora molybdina. Ascomycota, biodiversity, Giresun province, lichens, Turkey
29046Goga M., Ručová D. & Marcinčinová M. (2018): Lichens in area of meteorological and radar station Kojšovská hoľa (Molovec Mountains, SE Slovakia). - Acta Botanica Hungarica, 60(1–2): 67–74.
The Volovec Mts (Volovské vrchy) have insufficiently been investigated area for lichens. Kojšovská hoľa is one of the highest parts in the Volovec Mts. No records of lichens were published from here. Some historical collections need revision. The list of 35 lichen species collected by the authors is presented from the investigated areas. Three interesting and vulnerable lichens are characterised in more details: Cladonia ciliata var. tenuis, Cladonia cornuta and Umbilicaria vellea. The area of Kojšovská hoľa gives further opportunities for new findings. biodiversity, Slovak Ore Mts, Volovec Mts
29045Orange A. (2018): Review: Nordic Lichen Flora Vol. 6. Verrucariaceae 1. By Roland Moberg, Sanja Tibell and Leif Tibell (eds) 2017. Museum of Evolution, Uppsala University and Naturcentrum AB. Pp. 85, 21 colour plates, 250 × 195 mm. ISBN 978-91-85221-33-2. Hardback with illustrated, laminated cover and CD-ROM with photos. £49.99, $67, €57 approx. (quoted from NHBS), SEK275 (quoted from Naturcentrum AB website). doi:. - Lichenologist, 50(2): 247–248.
book review
29044Suija A., Kaasalainen U., Kirika P.M., Rikkinen J. (2018): Taitaia, a novel lichenicolous fungus in tropical montane forests in Kenya (East Africa). - Lichenologist, 50(2): 173–184.
During lichenological explorations of tropical montane forests in Kenya, a remarkable new lichenicolous fungus was repeatedly found growing on thalli of the epiphytic tripartite cyanolichen Crocodia cf. clathrata. Molecular phylogenetic analyses placed the fungus within Gomphillaceae (Ostropales, Lecanoromycetes), a family mainly of lichen-symbiotic species in the tropics. The anatomical features (unitunicate, non-amyloid asci and simple, septate paraphyses) as well as the hemiangiocarpic ascoma development confirm its taxonomic affinity. DNA sequence data showed the closest relationship was with Gyalidea fritzei, followed by Corticifraga peltigerae. A monotypic genus, Taitaia, is introduced to incorporate a single species, T. aurea. The new fungus is characterized by aggregated ascomata with yellow margins and salmon red discs developing from a single base. Ascomycota, Corticifraga, Gyalidea, lichen-inhabiting fungi, Taita Hills, taxonomy
29043Resl P., Mayrhofer H., Clayden S.R., Spribille T., Thor G., Tønsberg T. & Sheard J.W. (2018): Morphological, chemical and species delimitation analyses provide new taxonomic insights into two groups of Rinodina – Erratum. - Lichenologist, 50(2): 249.
The name Rinodina subpariata (Nyl.) Zahlbr. (Mycobank No: MB 404516) was incorrectly spelled throughout this manuscript as Rinodina subparieta.
29042Haughland D.L., Hillman A. & Azeria E.T. (2018): Tackling rarity and sample bias with large-scale biodiversity monitoring: a case study examining the status, distribution and ecology of the lichen Cladonia rei in Alberta, Canada. - Lichenologist, 50(2): 211–230.
Species conservation depends on accurate data, but for many lichens existing collections are geographically biased and contain many taxonomic errors. It is unclear whether ‘non-expert’, systematic monitoring schemes can address these sources of error, particularly for taxonomically challenging lichens (e.g. species requiring chemistry for accurate identification). In this case study we use the Alberta Biodiversity Monitoring Institute (ABMI), a large-scale, systematic, multi-taxon monitoring programme, to better understand the ecology and distribution of a putative rare species, Cladonia rei. Collections of C. rei from Alberta dating from 1947 suggested the species was broadly distributed but rare, with seven accessioned specimens. We used comparative morphology, thin-layer chromatography and habitat modelling to compare historical records against more recent material from ABMI surveys. Contrary to the historical collections, ABMI samples suggest C. rei is almost entirely limited to the dry mixed grassland, northern fescue grassland and aspen parkland natural regions, and that within these ecosystems it is relatively common. The typical ecotype exhibited included a persistent primary thallus, podetia with a persistent basal cortex, and secondary squamules; typically they lacked cups, well-developed apothecia and fumarprotocetraric acid, and ramifications were sparse. Cladonia rei was consistently found in pastures and undisturbed grasslands that hosted relatively rich communities of epigeic lichens, thus it does not appear to act as a pioneer in Alberta or to commonly occupy the anthropogenic niches documented elsewhere. In summary, large-scale, systematic, non-targeted monitoring employing novices redressed issues of sample bias through almost 300 C. rei collections, simultaneously improving the ecological understanding of a putative rare species. Alberta Biodiversity Monitoring Institute, Ascomycota, Cladoniaceae, cryptogamic crust, grassland, habitat modelling, species co-occurrence
29041Passo A., Rodríguez J.M., Chiapella J.O. & Messuti M.I. (2018): The Antarctic lichen Cetraria subscutata is a synonym of Nephromopsis chlorophylla. - Lichenologist, 50(2): 239–245.
The Parmeliaceae is a highly diverse family among the lichenized Ascomycota, both in terms of species number, with more than 2500 species distributed worldwide (Thell et al. 2012; Jaklitsch et al. 2016), and morphological and anatomical variation (Blanco et al. 2006; Crespo et al. 2007). It also has a complex taxonomy which dates back to the time of Acharius and has been studied by some of the most well-known lichenologists of the 20th century (Thell et al. 2012). Generic concepts and delimitation have often undergone dramatic changes (Crespo et al. 2007; Nelsen et al. 2011) but in recent years molecular phylogenetics have helped to establish a more natural classifica- tion (Thell et al. 2009; Crespo et al. 2011; Miadlikowska et al. 2014; Divakar et al. 2017). Within the informal group of “cetrarioid” species, the most recent classifi- cation includes only two genera, Cetraria and Nephromopsis (Divakar et al. 2017).
29040Ertz D., Coppins B.J. & Sanderson N.A. (2018): The British endemic Enterographa sorediata is the widespread Syncesia myrticola (Roccellaceae, Arthoniales). - Lichenologist, 50(2): 153–160.
Enterographa sorediata is a corticolous, crustose lichen endemic to the southern part of Great Britain where it is confined to old-growth woodlands. This lichen is rarely fertile and mainly characterized by a sorediate thallus producing protocetraric acid. However, phylogenetic analyses using nuLSU, RPB2 and nuITS sequences suggest that E. sorediata belongs to the genus Syncesia and is conspecific with S. myrticola. This is corroborated by the chemistry and the recent observation of a thallus with both fully developed S. myrticola-like apothecia and soralia. This provides further evidence of the difficulties involved in correctly placing sorediate sterile morphs of crustose lichens into particular genera without using molecular data. An updated distribution map of S. myrticola for Great Britain and Ireland is provided, showing that the sorediate morph extends more inland whereas the fertile morph is more coastal. Arthoniomycetes, biodiversity, lichen, phylogeny, sorediate morph, taxonomy
29039Gasparyan A., Sipman H.J.M., Marini L. & Nascimbene J. (2018): The inclusion of overlooked lichen microhabitats in standardized forest biodiversity monitoring. - Lichenologist, 50(2): 231–237.
Epiphytic lichens are increasingly included in forest biodiversity monitoring schemes, but most of the standardized guidelines consider only lichens colonizing a small part of tree trunks (1·0–1·5 m) and overlook other important microhabitats, such as fallen branches and stumps. In this paper, we present results of a small-scale pilot study to evaluate the possible advantage of including four distinct microhabitats in standardized procedures for assessing epiphytic lichen diversity. Trunk bases, trunks between 100 and 150 cm above the ground, stumps, and fallen branches were each sampled with a different standardized sampling method along a forest age gradient in temperate deciduous forests of the Caucasian region. Plot-level species richness was contrasted between the standardized sampling procedures of different substrata and a non-probabilistic floristic sampling. The interactions between sampling procedure and stand age were analysed using linear mixed models, and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) and multi-response permutation procedures (MRPP) were used for comparing species composition. Overall, 97 species were recorded, their richness increasing with increasing stand age. Results were consistent across the gradient of stand age and demonstrated that the adoption of standardized sampling procedures which include stumps and fallen branches in addition to tree trunks would increase the capability of maximizing species capture. This approach would allow researchers to evaluate lichen patterns by simultaneously considering the response of different communities sensitive to different stand-related factors. Despite the likelihood that a non-probabilistic floristic survey would give a more exhaustive picture of the plot-level lichen diversity, standardized sampling procedures that include tree trunks, fallen branches and stumps are likely to represent a reasonable trade-off between exhaustiveness and cost-effectiveness. canopy, coarse woody debris, epiphytic lichens, fallen branches, standardized sampling procedures, stumps
29038Ranft H., Moncada B., De Lange P.J., Lumbsch H.T. & Lücking R. (2018): The Sticta filix morphodeme (Ascomycota: Lobariaceae) in New Zealand with the newly recognized species S. dendroides and S. menziesii: indicators of forest health in a threatened island biota?. - Lichenologist, 50(2): 185–210.
We present a phylogenetic revision of the Sticta filix morphodeme in New Zealand. This non- monophyletic group of early diverging clades in the genus Sticta is characterized by a stalked thallus with a green primary photobiont and the frequent formation of a dendriscocauloid cyanomorph. Traditionally, three species have been distinguished in New Zealand: S. filix (Sw.) Nyl., S. lacera (Hook. f. & Taylor) Müll. Arg. and S. latifrons A. Rich., with two cyanomorphs separated under the names Dendriscocaulon dendriothamnodes Dughi ex D. J. Galloway (traditionally associated with S. latifrons) and D. dendroides (Nyl.) R. Sant. ex H. Magn. (traditionally associated with S. filix). Sticta lacera was not included in the present study due to the lack of authentic material (all specimens originally identified under that name and sequenced clustered with S. filix); S. filix was confirmed as a distinct species whereas S. latifrons s. lat. was shown to represent two unrelated species, S. latifrons s. str. and the reinstated S. menziesii Hook. f. & Taylor. The cyanomorphs of S. filix and S. latifrons are not conspecific with the types of the names D. dendriothamnodes and D. dendroides, respectively; the D. dendriothamnodes cyanomorph belongs to the Australian taxon Sticta stipitata C. Knight ex F. Wilson, which is not present in New Zealand, whereas the D. dendroides cyanomorph corresponds to a previously unrecognized species with unknown chloromorph, recombined here as Sticta dendroides (Nyl.) Moncada, Lücking & de Lange. Thus, instead of three species (S. filix, S. lacera, S. latifrons) with their corresponding cyanomorphs, five species are now distinguished in this guild in New Zealand: S. dendroides (cyanomorph only), S. filix (chloro- and cyanomorph), S. lacera (chloromorph only), S. latifrons (chloro- and cyanomorph) and S. menziesii (chloro- and cyanomorph). A key is presented for identification of the chloromorphs and the dendriscocauloid cyanomorphs of all species. Semi-quantitative analysis suggests that species in this guild are good indicators of intact forest ecosystems in New Zealand and that the two newly recognized species, S. dendroides and S. menziesii, appear to perform particularly well in this respect. The use of lichens as bioindicators of environmental health is not yet established in New Zealand and so, based on our results, we make the case to develop this approach more thoroughly. Australia, ITS barcoding locus, lichens, photosymbiodemes, species recognition
29037Ertz D., Sanderson N., Łubek A. & Kukwa M. (2018): Two new species of Arthoniaceae from old-growth European forests, Arthonia thoriana and Inoderma sorediatum, and a new genus for Schismatomma niveum. - Lichenologist, 50(2): 161–172.
Two new species of Arthoniaceae are described from old-growth European forests: Arthonia thoriana from Horner Combe in Great Britain and Inoderma sorediatum from the Białowieża Forest in Poland. Phylogenetic analyses using mtSSU sequences were used to determine the generic affiliation of the two species. Arthonia thoriana is characterized by a non-lichenized white thallus, pallid brown, white pruinose ascomata of 0·12–0·30mm diam., richly anastomosing paraphysoids and (1–2–)3-septate ascospores of 9–12×3·0–3·5μm. Inoderma sorediatum differs from all other species of the genus by a sorediate thallus and the production of confluentic acid. It is the sister species to I. afromontanum in our phylogenetic analyses. The discovery of the new species supports the high value of these forests for biodiversity action plans. Phylogenetic analyses also place Schismatomma niveum in the Arthoniaceae and the new genus Snippocia is described to accommodate it. The genus Leprantha is resurrected for its type species (L. cinereopruinosa). A lectotype is designated for Arthonia pruinosella. Białowieża Forest, biodiversity, Horner Combe, lichens, phylogeny, taxonomy
29036Morando M., Wilhelm K., Matteucci E., Martire L., Piervittori R., Viles H.A. & Favero-Longo S.E. (2017): The influence of structural organization of epilithic and endolithic lichens on limestone weathering. - Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 42(11): 1666–1679.
Hyphal penetration, mineral dissolution and neoformation at the lichen–rock interface have been widely character- ized by microscopic and spectroscopic studies, and considered as proxies of lichen deterioration of stone substrates. However, these phenomena have not been clearly related to experimental data on physical properties related to stone durability, and the physical consequences of lichen removal from stone surfaces have also been overlooked. In this study, we combine microscopic and spectroscopic characterization of the structural organization of epi- and endolithic lichens (Caloplaca marina (Wedd.) Du Rietz, Caloplaca ochracea (Schaer.) Flagey, Bagliettoa baldensis (A.Massal.) Vězda, Porina linearis (Leight.) Zahlbr., Verrucaria nigrescens Pers.) at the interface with limestones of interest for Cultural Heritage (Portland Limestone, Botticino Limestone), with analysis of rock properties (water absorption, surface hardness) relevant for durability, before and after the removal or scraping of lichen thalli. Observations using reflected-light and electron microscopy, and Raman analyses, showed lichen–limestone stratified interfaces, differing in the presence/absence and depth of lichen anatomical layers (lithocortex, photobiont layer, pervasive and sparse hyphal penetration component) depending on species and lithology. Specific structural organizations of lichen–rock interface were found to be associated with differential patterns of water absorption increase, evaluated by Karsten tube, in comparison with surfaces with microbial biofilms only, even more pronounced after the removal or scraping of the upper structural layers. Equotip measurements on surfaces bearing intact thalli showed lower hardness in comparison with control surfaces. By contrast, after the removal or scraping procedures, Equotip values were similar to or higher than those of controls, suggesting that the increasing open porosity may be related to a biogenic hardening process. Such counterposed patterns of porosity increase and hardening need to be considered when models relating lichen occurrence on limestones and biogeomorphological surface evolution are proposed, and to evaluate the consequences of lichen removal from stone-built cultural heritage. Keywords: biodeterioration; lichen–rock interface; stone cultural heritage; surface hardness; water absorption capacity.
29035Paoli L., Vannini A., Fačkovcová Z., Guarnieri M., Bačkor M. & Loppi S. (2018): One year of transplant: Is it enough for lichens to reflect the new atmospheric conditions?. - Ecological Indicators, 88: 495–502.
How long does it take a lichen to respond to changes (worsening or improvement) of atmospheric conditions is still discussed. We selected and removed lichen thalli (Flavoparmelia caperata) from sites subject to different intensities of pollution around a landfill in Central Italy and exposed them in a remote unpolluted area for 12 months. The content of elements of toxicological concern (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn) and several physiological parameters in lichen thalli (chlorophyll a fluorescence emission, chlorophyll content and integrity, membrane lipid peroxidation, content of secondary metabolites and ergosterol content) were investigated before and after the recovery and hence compared with those of native (and clean) samples of the remote area. In an opposite trial, heavy metals content was investigated in samples taken from the remote area and exposed around the landfill. Values of the transplants were then compared with those of native samples at the landfill. From chemical point of view, the content of heavy metals decreased (by ca. 25%) in lichen thalli taken from the landfill and exposed in the remote area, however background values were never reached. On the other hand, lichen thalli taken from the remote area and exposed around the landfill accumulated up to ca. 80% of the content of in situ samples. The rate of accumulation was higher than the rate of element loss referred to the same temporal interval. The recovery of physiological parameters, especially those typical of the mycobiont or of the whole lichen symbiosis, was much faster than heavy metal detoxification, and after 12 months transplanted lichens already reflected the new environmental conditions at the remote site. Keywords: Biomonitoring; Environmental recovery; Flavoparmelia caperata; Heavy metals; Landfill.
29034Stam Å., Enroth J., Malombe I., Pellikka P. & Rikkinen J. (2017): Experimental transplants reveal strong environmental effects on the growth of non-vascular epiphytes in Afromontane Forests. - Biotropica, 49(6): 862–870.
Transplant studies can provide valuable information on the growth responses of epiphytic bryophytes and lichens to environmental fac- tors. We studied the growth of six epiphyte species at three sites in moist Afromontane forests of Taita Hills, Kenya. With 558 pendant transplants, we documented the growth of four bryophytes and two lichens over 1 yr. The transplants were placed into the lower canopy of one forest site in an upper montane zone, and two forest sites in a lower montane zone. Several pendant moss species grew very well in the cool and humid environment of the upper montane forest, with some transplants more than doubling their biomass during the year. Conversely, all transplanted taxa performed poorly in the lower montane zone, presumably because of the unfavorable combination of ample moisture with excessive warmth and insufficient light which characterizes the lower canopy in dense lower mon- tane forests. The results demonstrate that pendant transplants can be used for monitoring growth of non-vascular epiphytes in tropical forests. The starting weight of 0.25 g for pendant transplants worked well and can be recommended for future studies. Key words: canopy; Heterodermia; microclimate; moss; Orthostichella; Squamidium; Usnea; vegetation.
29033León C.A., Martínez G.O. & Gaxiola A. (2018): Environmental controls of cryptogam composition and diversity in anthropogenic and natural peatland ecosystems of Chilean Patagonia. - Ecosystems, 21: 203–215.
Peatlands exhibit highly characteristic ecological traits and are unique complex ecosystems. Nevertheless, knowledge about southern South American peatlands is very limited. In this study, we analyzed species composition of bryophytes and lichens of Southern Hemisphere peatlands, specifically from eight peatlands of Isla Grande de Chiloé (Chiloé Island) in southern Chile (42–43S and 75–73W). Two kinds of Sphagnum peatlands were studied: natural and anthropogenic peatlands. Our results indicate the existence of clear environmental gradients affecting the structure of bryo-lichenic communities in the Sphagnum peatlands of Chiloé. Canonical correspondence analysis suggests that variation in bryophyte and lichen species composition mainly follows ombrotrophic–minerotrophic and lithotrophic- thalassotrophic gradients. Surface-water chemistry is themost significant factor accounting for changes in floristic composition among our study sites. In contrast to our expectations, bog origin (natural or anthropic) was not the most significant factor accounting for changes in floristic composition among peatlands. Other elements, such as the water source supplying peatlands or the influence of sea spray, were more relevant in the bryo-lichenic flora species occurrence in the peatlands of Chiloé. We also observed clear differences in ecological niches among species in general additive model response curves. Therefore, our results show that despite the origin, the ecology of peatlands follows common rules with peatlands from the Northern Hemisphere. Key words: bogs; wetlands; southern South America; Chiloé; CCA and GAM.
29032Paluszczak J., Kleszcz R., Studzińska-Sroka E. & Krajka-Kuźniak V. (2018): Lichen-derived caperatic acid and physodic acid inhibit Wnt signaling in colorectal cancer cells. - Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, 441: 109–124.
Lichens are a source of secondary metabolites which possess important biological activities, including antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and cytotoxic effects. The anticancer activity of lichens was shown in many types of tumors, including colorectal cancers (CRC). Several studies revealed that the application of lichen extracts diminished the proliferation of CRC cells and induced apoptosis. Colon carcinogenesis is associated with aberrations in Wnt signaling. Elevated transcriptional activity of b-catenin induces cell survival, proliferation, and migration. Thus, the inhibition of Wnt signaling is a promising therapeutic strategy in colorectal cancer. The aim of this study was the evaluation of the effects of lichenderived depsides (atranorin, lecanoric acid, squamatic acid) and depsidones (physodic acid, salazinic acid) and a polycarboxylic fatty acid—caperatic acid, on Wnt signaling in HCT116 and DLD-1 colorectal cancer cell lines. HCT116 cells were more sensitive to the modulatory effects of the compounds. PKF118-310, which was used as a reference b-catenin inhibitor, dose-dependently reduced the expression of the classical b-catenin target gene—Axin2 in both cell lines. Lecanoric acid slightly reduced Axin2 expression in HCT116 cells while caperatic acid tended to reduce Axin2 expression in both cell lines. Physodic acid much more potently decreased Axin2 expression in HCT116 cells than in DLD-1 cells. Physodic acid and caperatic acid also diminished the expression of survivin and MMP7 in a cell line and time-dependent manner. None of the compounds affected the nuclear translocation of b-catenin. This is the first report showing the ability of caperatic acid and physodic acid to modulate b-catenin-dependent transcription. Keywords: Depsides  Depsidones  Physodic acid  Caperatic acid  Wnt pathway  Colorectal cancer.
29031Rivas T., Pozo-Antonio J.S., López de Silanes M.E., Ramil A. & López A.J. (2018): Laser versus scalpel cleaning of crustose lichens on granite. - Applied Surface Science, 440: 467–476.
This paper addresses the evaluation of the cleaning of crustose lichens developing on granite. The evaluation was performed considering the effectiveness of the cleanings and harmfulness exerted on the granite. The laser cleaning of lichen was compared with the most conventional procedure, scalpel. The combination of both procedures was also tested. The study, which was carried out with two different species of crustose lichen, was also focused on the influence of the intrinsic characteristics of the lichen on the effectiveness. The cleanings were evaluated by optic and electronic microscopies, FTIR and colour spectrophotometry. A previous characterization of the lichen and its interaction with the granite using those analytical techniques were also performed. The laser cleaning effectiveness depends on the coverage and the colour of the lichen; also, the prior mechanical weakening of the lichen by scalpel seemed to improve the laser cleaning. The darkest lichen was satisfactorily removed by laser and with the combined cleaning. Conversely, the lightest lichen was more difficult to extract with laser than the darkest lichen, being necessary to apply both methods sequentially. Despite laser and the combination of methods cleaned satisfactorily the surface, they were unable to eliminate the thalli into fissures. Keywords: Stone cleaning; Laser; Scalpel; Lichen; Granite; Biodeterioration.
29030Ouyang H., Lan S., Yang H. & Hu C. (2017): Mechanism of biocrusts boosting and utilizing non-rainfall water in Hobq Desert of China. - Applied Soil Ecology, 120: 70–80.
Non-rainfall water (NRW), as the most frequent water source of drylands, is significantly boosted by biocrusts. However, the mechanism of biocrustal promotion and utilization of NRW have been little studied. In this paper, the NRW accumulation patterns, photosynthetic activities and CO2 exchange of different biocrusts (2 cyanobacteria crusts-ACs, 1 cyanolichen crust-LC1, 1 green algae lichen crust-LC2, and 1 moss crust-MC) under NRW were studied through in situ mesocosm experiments in the Hobq Desert of China during the autumns of 2014 and 2015. Structural equation models showed that crustal properties feedback affected the degree of meteorological parameters on NRW accumulation, in which the effect of surface temperature gradually decreased with the development of biocrusts while that of subsoil temperature and light intensity increased. As for the sources, ca. 50% of NRW in ACs derived from subsoil but more than 78% from atmosphere in LCs and MC, and this pattern was obviously influenced by the recovery degree of photosynthetic activity. But the diel maximum NRW (NRWmax) were mainly determined by crust thickness, photoautotroph biomass and other properties. During NRW accumulation, the recovery of photosynthetic activity in ACs was the earliest, followed by that of LC2 and MC, LC1 never recovered. Whereas, the initial CO2 exchange of ACs and MC were often earlier than that of LC2, and the minimum diel NRWmax required by ACs, LC2, and MC to maintain carbon balance were ca. 0.08, 0.17, and 0.20 mm, respectively. Thus we proposed the application boundary of inoculation-based technology in drylands is the areas where the diel NRWmax exceed or equal 0.08 mm and carbon input under NRW last more than 2 h during NRW-abundant seasons.
29029Li X., Zhao Y., Yang H., Zhang P. & Gao Y. (2018): Soil respiration of biologically-crusted soils in response to simulated precipitation pulses in the Tengger Desert, northern China. - Pedosphere, 28(1): 103–113.
Soil respiration (SR) is a major process of carbon loss from dryland soils, and it is closely linked to precipitation which often occurs as a discrete episodic event. However, knowledge on the dynamic patterns of SR of biologically-crusted soils in response to precipitation pulses remains limited. In this study, we investigated CO2 emissions from a moss-crusted soil (MCS) and a cyanobacterialichen- crusted soil (CLCS) after 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 mm precipitation during the dry season in the Tengger Desert, northern China. Results showed that 2 h after precipitation, the SR rates of both MCS and CLCS increased up to 18-fold compared with those before rewetting, and then gradually declined to background levels; the decrease was faster at lower precipitation amount and slower at higher precipitation amount. The peak and average SR rates over the first 2 h in MCS increased with increasing precipitation amount, but did not vary in CLCS. Total CO2 emission during the experiment (72 h) ranged from 1.35 to 5.67 g C m-2 in MCS, and from 1.11 to 3.19 g C m-2 in CLCS. Peak and average SR rates, as well as total carbon loss, were greater in MCS than in CLCS. Soil respiration rates of both MCS and CLCS were logarithmically correlated with gravimetric soil water content. Comparisons of SR among different precipitation events, together with the analysis of long-term precipitation data, suggest that small-size precipitation events have the potential for large short-term carbon losses, and that biological soil crusts might significantly contribute to soil CO2 emission in the water-limited desert ecosystem. Key Words: biological soil crusts, C cycling, CO2 emission, desert ecosystem, precipitation amount, soil water content.
29028Lord J.M., Mark A.F., Humar-Maegli T., Halloy S.R.P., Bannister P., Knight A. & Dickinson K.J.M. (2018): Slow community responses but rapid species responses 14 years after alpine turf transplantation among snow cover zones, south–central New Zealand. - Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 30: 51–61.
Alpine ecosystems are particularly vulnerable to the impact of global climate change. Depth and duration of seasonal snow cover are major drivers of variation in alpine plant community composition, so a reduction in snow cover as a result of climate change would expose plants that are currently protected by snow in winter and spring to greater extremes of temperature and increased risk of frost damage. We reciprocally transplanted 64 intact 60 cm × 60 cm × 10 cm (minimum depth) turves of alpine vegetation among four topographic zones on the Rock and Pillar Range, south-central South Island, New Zealand to investigate how shifts along a snow cover gradient affected plant growth, survival and community composition. The four zones: late-melting snowbed and early-melting snowbed in depressions, moderately exposed leeward upper slopes dominated by herbfield, and extremely exposed summit plateau dominated by cushionfield, differed in winter and spring snow cover. As expected, the highest species losses occurred in turves transplanted to very different zones e.g. late snowbed to summit plateau and vice versa. However many snowbed species still survived on the summit plateau seven years following transplantation. The degree to which turves had been colonised after seven years was significantly related to transplant zone rather than turf origin or original species richness; turves transplanted to the most species-rich zones were affected most by colonisation. Measurements of leaf production over three years in three focal Celmisia species (Asteraceae), characteristic of the herbfield on leeward slopes, and early and late snowbeds, showed that the late snowbed specialist suffered significantly reduced growth when transplanted to more exposed sites, but its survival was more affected by invertebrate herbivory rather than the direct effects of exposure. The cosmopolitan focal lichen species Thamnolia vermicularis, monitored over 14 years, rapidly colonised turves transplanted to cushionfield on the exposed summit plateau, where this and other lichens are abundant, but equally rapidly declined in turves transplanted to snowbeds. These findings add to a growing body of evidence that biotic interactions and species-specific traits will be critical drivers of alpine vegetation change under future climate scenarios. Keywords: Celmisia species; Climate change; Herbivory; Reciprocal transplants; Snowbed; Thamnolia vermicularis.
29027Brisdelli F., Perilli M., Sellitri D., Bellio P., Bozzi A., Amicosante G., Nicoletti M., Piovano M. & Celenza G. (2016): Protolichesterinic acid enhances doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells in vitro. - Life Sciences, 158: 89–97.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of protolichesterinic acid, a lichen secondary metabolite, on anti-proliferative activity of doxorubicin in three human cancer cell lines, HeLa, SH-SY5Y and K562 cells. Main methods: The data obtained from MTT assays, performed on cells treated with protolichesterinic acid and doxorubicin alone and in combination, were analysed by the median-effect method as proposed by Chou and Talalay and the Bliss independence model. Apoptosis rate was evaluated by fluorescence microscopy, caspase- 3, 8 and 9 activities were detected by spectrofluorimetric analysis and protein expression of Bim, Bid, Bax and Mcl-2 was analysed by Western blotting. The interaction of protolichesterinic acid with thioesterase domain of human fatty acid synthase (hFAS) was investigated by a molecular docking study. Key findings: The in vitro activity of doxorubicin against HeLa cancer cell line, but not against SH-SY5Y and K562 cells, was synergically increased by protolichesterinic acid. The increased cytotoxicity caused by protolichesterinic acid in HeLa cells was due to a pro-apoptotic effect and was associated to caspase-3, 8 and 9 activation. The simultaneous treatment for 24 hwith protolichesterinic acid plus doxorubicin caused an increase of Bim protein expression and the appearance of cleaved form of Bid protein. The molecular modelling analysis showed that protolichesterinic acid seemed to behave as a competitive inhibitor of hFAS. Significance: These results suggest that protolichesterinic acid could be envisaged as an useful tool against certain types of tumor cells in combination with anticancer drugs.
29026Sweidan A., Chollet-Krugler M., Sauvager A., van de Weghe P., Chokr A., Bonnaure-Mallet M., Tomasi S. & Bousarghin L. (2017): Antibacterial activities of natural lichen compounds against Streptococcus gordonii and Porphyromonas gingivalis. - Fitoterapia, 121: 164–169.
The oral bacteria not only infect the mouth and reside there, but also travel through the blood and reach distant body organs. If left untreated, the dental biofilm that can cause destructive inflammation in the oral cavity may result in serious medical complications. In dental biofilm, Streptococcus gordonii, a primary oral colonizer, constitutes the platform on which late pathogenic colonizers like Porphyromonas gingivalis, the causative agent of periodontal diseases, will bind. The aim of this study was to determine the antibacterial activity of eleven natural lichen compounds belonging to different chemical families and spanning from linear into cyclic and aromatic structures to uncover new antibiotics which can fight against the oral bacteria. The compounds were screened by broth microdilution assay. Three compounds were shown to have promising antibacterial activities where the depsidone core with certain functional groups constituted the best compound, psoromic acid, with the lowest MICs = 11.72 and 5.86 μg/mL against S. gordonii and P. gingivalis, respectively. The compounds screened had promising antibacterial activity which might be attributed to some important functional groups as discussed in our study. The best compounds did not induce the death of gingival epithelial carcinoma cells (Ca9-22). These results introduce new compounds having potent antibacterial activities against oral pathogens causing serious medical complications. Keywords: Screening; Lichen; Antibacterial aktivity; Streptococcus gordonii; Porphyromonas gingivalis.
29025Taraškevičius R., Motiejūnaitė J., Zinkutė R., Eigminienė A., Gedminienė L. & Stankevičius Z. (2018): Similarities and differences in geochemical distribution patterns in epiphytic lichens and topsoils from kindergarten grounds in Vilnius. - Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 183B: 152–165.
Topsoil and lichen Phaeophyscia orbicularis were sampled from the grounds of kindergartens (Vilnius, Lithuania) using a side-by-side design and analysed for the total contents of Al, As, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, S, Si, Sr, Ti, V and Zn. Only Si, Mn and Zn were found to retain their positions in sequences arranged in descending order of their mean contents (> 90 mg kg− 1) in topsoil (Si > Al > Ca > K > Fe > Mg > Na > Ti > P > S > Mn > Cl > Zn) and in lichens (Si > Ca > K > S > Al > Fe > P > Mg > Na > Cl > Mn > Ti > Zn). In lichen thalli, unlike in topsoil, nutrients and lithogenic elements formed separate clusters. Results proved that by origin, the elements captured by lichens were not only from the immediate environs, but also from more distant city districts with different soil lithology. However, both in topsoil and in lichens, As, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, V and Zn form together with S and Br clusters of closely related elements indicating that Phaeophyscia orbicularis is a good urban indicator of polluting elements using which total contamination indices of topsoil ZT and of lichens ZL can be calculated. Higher ZT values were detected in the former industrial-residential areas, while ZL values were higher in new residential-commercial areas. The ratio ZT/ZL was found to be useful in revealing areas where pollution is on the increase. The contents of Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, V and Zn in topsoil from the same sites which had been sampled five years ago significantly (p < 0.05) decreased. Locations of Cr, Mn, Ni, V and Zn anomalies were found to have considerably changed, meanwhile Pb, Cu and Mo anomalies were found to be shifting least of all. Keywords: PHEs; Major and trace elements; Epiphytic lichen Phaeophyscia orbicularis; EDXRF analysis; PM10 and SO2; Inter-element correlation; Total contamination indices.
29024Toreno G., Isola D., Meloni P., Carcangiu G., Selbmann L., Onofri S., Caneva G. & Zucconi L. (2018): Biological colonization on stone monuments: A new low impact cleaning method. - Journal of Cultural Heritage, 30: 100–109.
tIn restoration and conservation practices, biocide treatments are considered one of the most practi-cal approaches to remove biological colonization on artworks, including stone. Numerous studies havefocused on the short- and long-term effects of these treatments and recently many alternative methodsto reduce their potential hazards to human health and the environment have been proposed. In thisstudy, a solvent gel containing dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), already used to clean paintings, was appliedon colonized marble artifacts at the monumental cemetery of Bonaria (Cagliari – Italy) to remove biolog-ical patinas. The protocol efficiency was evaluated by scanning electronic microscopy, rugosimetric andcolorimetric measurements and growth tests. A comparative study also was performed to validate themethod using biocides currently used in conservation. The results demonstrate that DMSO solvent gel isefficient at removing patinas on stone, of low impact, easy to use, inexpensive and can be considered amore practical alternative to biocide treatments. Keywords: Biocides; Black fungi; Cyanobacteria; Dimethyl sulfoxide; Lichens; Solvent gels.
29023Spribille T. (2018): Relative symbiont input and the lichen symbiotic outcome. - Current Opinion in Plant Biology, 44: 57–63.
The term symbiosis was first used in biology to describe the ‘living together’ of fungi and algae in lichens. For much of the 20th century, the fungal partner was assumed to be invested with the ability to produce the lichen body plan in presence of a photosynthesizing partner. However, studies of fungal evolution have uncovered discordance between lichen symbiotic outcomes and genome evolution of the fungus. At the same time, evidence has emerged that the structurally important lichen cortex contains lichen-specific, single-celled microbes, suggesting it may function like a biofilm. Together, these observations suggest we may not have a complete overview of symbiotic interactions in lichens. Understanding phenotype development and evolution in lichens will require greater insight into fungal–fungal and fungal–bacterial interplay and the physical properties of the cortex.
29022Øvstedal D.O., Lindblom L., Knudsen K. & Fryday A.M. (2018): A new species of Acarospora (Acarosporaceae, Acarosporales, lichenized Ascomycota) from the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas). - Phytotaxa, 340(1): 86–92.
Acarospora malouina Øvstedal & K. Knudsen is described from the Falkland Islands. It is morphologically very similar to the Antarctic species A. gwynnii but differs in chemistry, ecology and evidence from molecular data. Keywords: lichenized fungi, new species, South America, southern subpolar region.
29021van den Broeck D. & Ertz D. (2018): Enterographa confusa sp. nov. (Roccellaceae, Arthoniales) discovered by chance in type material of its host lichen Arthonia ochraceella, described more than a century ago. - Phytotaxa, 343(1): 89–93.
Enterographa confusa is described as new to science from Cuba. It is characterized by a lichenicolous habit, punctiform ascomata immersed in the host thallus, (6–)8-spored asci and 3-septate ascospores of 17–23 × (2.5–)3 μm with a distinct gelatinous sheath of 1.5(–2) μm. The new species was discovered by chance in the thallus of type material of Arthonia ochraceella, which is lectotypified here. A detailed description of this latter is also provided. Enterographa confusa can be easily overlooked because of its tiny pale ascomata similar in colour to those of its host lichen. A key to all lichenicolous Enterographa species is presented.
29020Haughian S.R. (2018): Short-term effects of alternative thinning treatments on the richness, abundance and composition of epixylic bryophytes, lichens, and vascular plants in conifer plantations at microhabitat and stand scales. - Forest Ecology and Management, 415–416: 106–117.
Epixylic (log-dwelling) flora contribute much to forest biodiversity, but have been shown to decline with intensive management, perhaps through the reduced supply of coarse woody debris, their preferred substrate, and the altered mesoclimate of the understory. Such declines might be ameliorated through modifying the plantation management practices. This study examined the response of epixylic flora to commercial thinning treatments in 6 mid-rotation conifer plantations of northwestern New Brunswick, Canada. Treatments included an unthinned control, and thinning with: moderate debris, moderate debris with added snags, or no-debris. Epixylic flora were surveyed in the first and third year after thinning, on 30 logs in each of the 4 treatments, using both 10×20 cm quadrats (%-cover) and a presence-absence census of whole-logs. Treatments were evaluated at log and stand scales, based on the putative disturbance-sensitivity of different epixylic functional groups. Analyses included indicator species analysis, ANOVA of functional group richness and cover, NMS ordination, and PERMANOVA. Thinning with no-debris or moderate-debris reduced species richness at the stand scale, and increased cover at the log-scale. Composition shifted towards chlorolichens, vascular plants, and forest floor or asexually-reproducing bryophytes in thinned treatments, whereas liverworts and bryophytes with desiccation-sensitivity or those lacking asexual reproduction showed slight declines; most bryophyte groups showed no change. Moderate debris with snags and unthinned treatments showed the fewest compositional differences, and maintained many of the same sensitive groups, but all thinned treatments showed similar trajectories of compositional change. Additional monitoring is required to determine whether thinning with moderate debris and snags offers effective conservation of epixylic species, but debris removal (e.g., for biomass harvest) should be discouraged. Keywords: Functional group; Liverwort; Moss; Woody debris; Biodiversity; Acadian forest.
29019Gattone S.A., Giordani P., Di Battista T. & Fortuna F. (2018): Adaptive cluster double sampling with post stratification with application to an epiphytic lichen community. - Environmental and Ecological Statistics, 25: 125–138.
The implementation of an adaptive cluster sampling design often becomes logistically challenging because variation in the final sampling effort introduces uncertainty in survey planning. To overcome this drawback, an inexpensive and easy to measure auxiliary variable could be used in a two-phase survey strategy, called adaptive cluster double sampling (Félix-Medina and Thompson in Biometrika 91:877–891, 2004). In this paper, a two-phase sampling strategy is proposed which combines the idea of adaptive cluster double sampling with the principle of post-stratification. In the first-phase an adaptive cluster sample is selected by means of an inexpensive auxiliary variable. Networks from the first phase sampling are then post-stratified according to their size. In the second-phase, the network structure is used to select a subsample of units by means of stratified random sampling. The proposed sampling strategy employs stratification without requiring an a priori delineation of the strata. Indeed, the strata sizes are estimated in the course of the two-phase sampling process. Therefore, it is suitable for situations where stratification is suspected to be efficient but strata cannot be easily delineated in advance. In this framework, a new type of estimator for the population mean which mimics the stratified sampling mean estimator and an estimator of the sampling variance are proposed. The results of a simulation study confirm, as expected, that the use of post-stratification leads to gain in precision for the estimator. The proposed sampling strategy is applied for targeting an epiphytic lichen community Lobarion pulmonariae in a forest area of the Northern Apennines (N-Italy), characterized by several species of conservation concern. Keywords: Auxiliary variable; Adaptive cluster sampling; Double sampling; Lobarion lichen communities; Post-stratification; Rare populations.
29018Jørgensen P.M. (2018): (2578) Proposal to conserve Variolaria Pers. against Lepra and Variolaria Bull. (lichenized ascomycetes). - Taxon, 67(1): 204.
29017Davydov E.A., Peršoh D. & Rambold G. (2018): Corrigendum to “Umbilicariaceae (lichenized Ascomycota) – trait evolution and a new generic concept” [in Taxon 66: 1282–1303. 2017]. - Taxon, 67(1): 221.
29016Martin J. & Martin L. (2017): Hans-Voldemar Trass 02.05.1928–14.02.2017 in memoriam. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 54: 147–150.
Necrolog; bibliography.
29015Motiejūnaitė J. (2017): Supplemented checklist of lichens and allied fungi of Lithuania. - Botanica Lithuanica, 23(2): 89–106.
A new checklist of 755 species of lichen-forming, lichenicolous and allied fungi occurring in Lithuania is presented. Of these, 620 species are lichenized, 115 lichenicolous and 20 are saprobic fungi that are usually treated in lichenological literature. Frequency of every species and infraspecific taxon in the country is indicated, except for the 12 species known from literature records only. List of synonyms is also presented. Keywords: lichenicolous fungi, lichenized fungi, Lithuania.
29014Tsurykau A. (2017): Contribution to the knowledge of lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi of Gomel region (Belarus). - Botanica Lithuanica, 23(2): 123–129.
Records of 21 species of lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi new to Gomel region, the south-eastern Belarus are presented. Of these, six species (Bacidia fraxinea, Briancoppinsia cytospora, Calicium parvum, Chaenothecopsis savonica, Enchylium bachmanianum and Intralichen christiansenii) are new to Belarus, seven species (Carbonicola anthracophila, Chaenotheca hispidula, Cornutispora lichenicola, Lichenochora obscuroides, Lichenoconium xanthoriae, Pyrenochaeta xanthoriae and Tremella hypogymniae) have been previously known from one locality in the country. The occurrence of Ochrolechia microstictoides is confirmed with certainty for Belarus. Ochrolechia parella is excluded from the list of lichens of Gomel region as erroneously identified. Keywords: biodiversity, distribution, Gomel, Belarus.
29013Malíček J., Hradílek Z. & Tkáčiková (2018): Lichenologická a bryologická exkurze na Kelčský Javorník v Hostýnských vrších [Lichenological and bryological field trip to the Kelčský Javorník Mt. in the Hostýnské vrchy Mts.]. - Zprávy Moravskoslezské pobočky ČBS, 7: 29-33.
A field trip to the Kelčský Javorník Nature Reserve (E Moravia, Czech Republic) took place on 15 July 2017. In total, 55 lichen and 52 bryophyte species were recorded. Our attention was focused on the natural deciduous forests on steep, north-facing slopes and the valley of the Deštná ráztoka brook. Epiphytic lichen communities were strongly influenced by acid rains in the past. Therefore, only several remarkable species were recorded (e.g. Bacidia subincompta, Biatora globulosa, Fuscidea pusilla, Phaeophyscia endophoenicea, Rinodina degeliana and R. efflorescens). Among bryophytes, Liochlaena lanceolata, Oxystegus tenuirostris and Hypnum pallescens represented the most interesting records
29012Mohabe S., Reddy A.M., Devi B.A., Nayaka S. & Shankar P.C. (2014): Further new additions to the lichen mycota of Andhra Pradesh, India. - Journal of Threatened Taxa, 6(8): 6122–6126.
During the lichen exploration in Rayalaseema region of Andhra Pradesh several interesting lichen taxa were collected of which 10 species are reported here as new records for the state. The species includes Biatorella conspersa (Biatorellaceae), Caloplaca bassiae, C. poliotera (Teloschistaceae), Dimelaena tenuis (Physciaceae), Lecanora chlarotera, L. helva, L. interjecta, L. psuedistera (Lecanoraceae), Pertusaria melastomella (Pertusariaceae) and Porina tetracerae (Porinaceae). These taxa / species have been enumerated along with their characteristic features and distributional notes.
29011Pandit G.S. (2014): Immersaria and Koerberiella, two new generic records to India. - Current Research in Environmental & Applied Mycology, 4(1): 137–140.
The crustose lichen genera Koerberiella and Immersaria were discovered from the North-Western ghats of India and represents new generic records for the lichen flora of the Indian continent. The genus Koerberiella is represented here by a sterile isidiate morphotype of K. wimmeriana from the rocky outcrops of Kas and Immersaria by a species closely related to I. olivacea from the Panchgani plateau. Key words: lichen – outcrops – Porpidiaceae – taxonomy.
29010Pereira I., Wang X.Y., Oh S.-O., Sánchez P. & Hur J.-S. (2016): Lichens of the surrounding areas of Termas of Chillán and Las Trancas, Bío-Bío Region, Chile. - Gayana Botanica, 73(1): 104–112.
The aim of this study was to contribute to the knowledge of the richness and distribution of the lichens in the Bío-Bío Region. A total of 120 samples were collected in the surroundings of Termas de Chillán and Las Trancas, Bio-Bio region. The sampling was realized at random considering the high diversity of available substrates. Taxonomical identification was performed on the basis of the analysis of morphological, reproductive and chromatographic (TLC) characters. A total of 41 species were identified, which include 18 families and 31 genera. Out of the total of identified species, 49 % are corticolous, 34 % saxicolous and 17 % terricolous. Of the total of species found, four are new records for Chile: Menegazzia confusa P. James, M. pertransita (Stirt.) R. Sant., Rinodina sophodes (Ach.) A. Massal. and Usnea sinensis Motyka. For each species, information on lichen name, family, substratum, altitude, global distribution, and sampling site is provided. Also, keys to identify the genera found in the study area are included. Pictures for the new records of lichens for the country are also presented. The work contributes to extend the knowledge on the taxa’s distribution in the region. The results suggest that the lichenological expeditions should be continued in unexplored localities of Chile in order to increase the knowledge of the richness, ecology and distribution of lichen biodiversity. Keywords: Chillán, genera key, distribution, ecology, new records.
29009Devi B.A., Mohabe S., Reddy A.M., Nayaka S. & Shankar P.C. (2013): Diversity and Distribution of lichens in YSR district, Andhra Pradesh with several new additions. - Indian Journal of Plant Sciences, 2(4): 1–9.
The lichen mycota of ecologically interesting and biodiversity rich YSR district located in Rayalaseema region of Andhra Pradesh is extensively explored. The study revealed the occurrence of 46 species of lichens from 14 localities. Out of total 28 species are recorded for the first time from the state and the list also included 8 taxa endemic to India. A total of 9 species recorded from Siddavatam fort is the first ever record of lichens from any historical monuments in Andhra Pradesh. Among the different growth forms, the crustose lichens exhibited the maximum diversity with 21 species followed by 14 species of foliose, 10 squamulose and a single species of leprose form. The saxicolous (both growing on rocks and lime-plaster of monument) species exhibited the maximum diversity represented by 31 species followed by 15 corticolous species. The members of dominant lichen families Physciaceae and Parmeliaceae showed their diversity with 14 and eight species under 6 and 3 genus respectively. Within the YSR district the forests of Guvvala Cheruvu Hills are rich in lichen diversity. Key Words: Biodiversity, Rayalaseema, Kadapa, Cuddapah, Eastern Ghats, South India.
29008Mohabe S., Anjali D.B., Nayaka S. & Reddy A.M. (2016): New species and new records of Graphis (Ostropales: Graphidaceae) from Eastern Ghats, India. - Tropical Plant Research, 3(3): 611–615.
A new species Graphis neeladriensis, and two new records, G. plumierae and G. subalbostriata are described from the Eastern Ghats of India. The newly described species is characterized by crustose, UV+ yellow thallus, sub-immersed to erumpent, short to elongate and simple to sparingly branched lirellae, 2–4 striate labia, laterally carbonized exciple, clear hymenium and terminally muriform ascospores. Keywords: Rayalaseema - Seshachalam Biosphere Reserve - Lichens - Taxonomy.
29007Vinayaka K.S., Nayaka S., Krishnamurthy Y.L. & Upteri [recte Upreti] D.K. (2012): A report on some macrolichens new to Karnataka, India. - Journal of Threatened Taxa, 4(1): 2318–2321.
29006Pandit G.S. (2014): Lichens of the Mahabaleshwar Panchgani Ecosensitive zone (MPESZ), Maharashtra, India. - Journal of Threatened Taxa, 6(5): 5784–5791.
Mahabaleshwar Panchgani Ecosensitive Zone located in the Northern Western Ghats of India is well known for its rich biodiversity. Rocky plateaus of laterite are a prominent feature of this region along with a mosaic landscape of forest and shrub-savannah vegetation. A checklist of 129 lichen species reported from this region has been compiled based upon primary and secondary data. They are categorized as per forms and substrates. The need for further studies and protection of this rich lichen diversity is emphasized.
29005Mukherjee A., Wilske B., Navarro R.A., Dippenaar-Schoeman A. & Underhill L.G. (2010): Association of spiders and lichen on Robben Island, South Africa: a case report. - Journal of Threatened Taxa, 2(4): 815–819.
The present study is a first record of spider occurrence on Robben Island, South Africa. Some habitats were rich in lichens. As we know, lichens enhance wildlife habitat in less direct ways. The objective of the study was to examine the potential importance of lichens in enriching spider diversity and abundance. A total of 260 spiders (170 from lichens and 90 from bush) were collected following the visual search method over one year. Seasonal trends in overall species richness and abundance indicated that the relative density of spiders was greater in lichens than in bushes. The result suggests that habitat structure, such as branch size and epiphytic lichen abundance, can be an explanation for the greater number of spiders in lichen-rich patches of the island. Keywords: Robben Island, spiders, lichens, visual search.
29004Kumar S.S. & Krishnamurthy Y.L. (2016): Notes on three new records of foliicolous lichens from Karnataka Western Ghats, India. - Journal of Threatened Taxa, 8(6): 8950–8952.
The paper describes Bapalmuia palmuaris, Byssoloma leucoblepharum and Gyalectidium filicinum as a new record of foliicolous lichens from the Western Ghats parts of Karnataka, India. A brief taxonomic description, remarks, ecological notes and distribution details are provided. Keywords: Chikkamagaluru; Chlorococcaceae; Paleotropical; Shola; Shivamogga.
29003Gupta P. & Sinha G.P. (2016): A first note on foliicolous lichens of Assam, India. - Journal of Threatened Taxa, 8(7): 9014–902.
A first note on foliicolous lichens of Assam enumerating 26 species belonging to 15 genera and eight families are provided. Four species viz., Bacidina apiahica, Byssoloma chlorinum, Calopadia fusca and Strigula nitidula are reported for the first time from Assam. A number of rare species are present, including Aulaxina uniseptata, Calenia aspidota and Psorotheciopsis patellarioides. Keywords: Assam; foliicolous; lichens; new records; rare.
29002Concostrina-Zubiri L., Martínez I. & Escudero A. (2018): Lichen-biocrust diversity in a fragmented dryland: Fine scale factors are better predictors than landscape structure. - Science of the Total Environment, 628–629: 882–892.
Biological soil crusts (or biocrusts) are widespread, diverse and important components of drylands sometimes threatened by global change drivers. However, their response to fragmentation processes is poorly known. The aimof this studywas to assess the effects of changing landscape structure, given by land use change and the presence of linear infrastructure (e.g., roads), on the cover and diversity of lichen-biocrusts.We also evaluated the influence of several subrogates of fragment quality, such as soil properties, vascular plant community structure and topography. Biocrust cover and diversitywere measured in 50 remnants of aMediterranean shrubland. The fragments varied in size, connectivity and distance to a road, but also in plant and soil attributes, topography and fragment history. We applied general linear and mixed models to assess the effects of environmental variables on biocrust communities. Biocrust cover, richness and species composition were mostly unresponsive to changes in landscape structure, while connectivity and distance to the road decreased species diversity. Soil properties better explained the variation in biocrust cover and diversity. Changes in plant community and biocrust community composition were coupled. We also identified several biocrust species with strong capacity to reflect landscape structure. Our findings suggest that landscape structure needs to be evaluated jointly with other environmental factors to fully understand the consequences of fragmentation processes on biocrust communities and the subsequent implications for their functional role in drylands.
29001Vannini A., Paoli L., Vichi M., Bačkor M., Bačkorová M. & Loppi S. (2018): Toxicity of Diclofenac in the Fern Azolla filiculoides and the Lichen Xanthoria parietina. - Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 100: 430–437.
This study investigated the occurrence of toxicity, expressed as damage to the photosynthetic apparatus, in the aquatic fern Azolla filiculoides and the lichen Xanthoria parietina following treatments with diclofenac at different concentrations (0.1, 1, 10 and 100 mg/L) and different exposure times (24, 48, 72 and 240 h). Measurements of photosynthetic efficiency, chlorophyll content and chlorophyll degradation indicated dose- and time-dependent toxicity, since significant differences with control samples as well as among treatments, emerged mainly for the highest concentration (100 mg/L) and the longest time (240 h). In addition, also the mycobiont of the lichen X. parietina showed similar toxic effects, expressed as ergosterol content. The absence of relevant alterations at the lowest concentration (0.1 mg/L) suggested a very limited susceptibility of these species to environmentally relevant levels of this pharmaceutical. Keywords: Chlorophyll · Exposure · Ergosterol · Pharmaceuticals · Photosynthesis.
29000van der Pluijm A. (2017): Rinodina biloculata, een voor Nederland nieuw, oceanisch korstmos in een Duitse-dotstruweel in de Biesbosch. - Buxbaumiella, 110: 7–11.
Rinodina biloculata (Orcularia insperata), an oceanic lichen new to the Netherlands, in thickets of Salix dasyclados in the Biesboch.
28999van der Kolk H.-J. (2014): Buxbaumia aphylla (kaboutermos) op de begraafplaatsen van Elspeet en Rhenen. - Buxbaumiella, 99: 32–37.
Buxbaumia aphylla at the graveyards near Elspeet and Rhenen. [many associated lichens listed]
28998Sparrius L., Aptroot A., Timmerman H. & Toetenel H. (2014): De overleving van aangevoerde korstmossen. - Buxbaumiella, 99: 25–31.
On the survival of introduced lichen species.
28997van der Kolk H. (2014): Bijzondere grondbewonende lichenen langs het spoor bij Ede. - Buxbaumiella, 99: 20–24.
Rare terrestrial lichens along the railway near Ede.
28996Timmerman H. (2014): Graphis scripta (gewoon schriftmos) in de polder Kolonisatie door een 'oud bos-indicator' van jonge kleibossen in Flevoland. - Buxbaumiella, 99: 14–19.
Graphis scripta in the polder, the colonization of an ancient woodland-indicator of secondary forests on clay soil in the province of Flevoland in the Netherlands.
28995Ketner-Oostra R. (2014): Herstel van korstmosrijke duinen op Terschelling door beheersingrepen. - Buxbaumiella, 99: 1–13.
Management to restore lichen-rich coastal dunes in the Wadden distict (the Netherlands).
28994Spier L. & Brand M. (2014): Phaeophyscia nigricans (Flörke) Moberg – ‘To be or not to be’, dat is de vraag. - Buxbaumiella, 100: 46–48.
Phaeophyscia nigricans (Flörke) Moberg –‘To be or not to be’, that is the question.
28993van der Pluijm A. (2014): Graphina anguina (doolhof-schriftmos) terug in Nederland, Phaeographis dendritica (witte runenkorst) breidt zich uit. - Buxbaumiella, 100: 39–46.
Rediscovery of the atlantic Graphina anguina in the Netherlands, on the Esscheplaat along the Hollands Diep, and Phaeographis dendritica expands its range.
28992Sparrius L. (2014): Trends van epifytische korstmossen op basis van waarnemingenlijsten. - Buxbaumiella, 100: 31–38.
28991Sparrius L. & Timmerman H. (2014): Lichenologische excursies op herhaling: een vergelijking van de situatie op de Noord-Veluwe, 1960-2014. - Buxbaumiella, 100: 4–7.
The lichen flora of three excursion-sites in the northern part of the Veluwe (Gelderland) compared to finds in the period 1960-1995.
28990Sparrius L. & Sytsma M. (2014): Oxneria huculica, dragonderdooiermos, nieuw voor Nederland. - Buxbaumiella, 100: 25–27.
Oxneria huculica new to The Netherlands.
28989Toetenel H. (2014): Witte hokken zijn soms zo wit nog niet. - Buxbaumiella, 101: 48–50.
White areas on distribution maps are sometimes not so white as it seems.
28988Spier L. (2014): Caloplaca diffusa Vondrák & Llimona, een nieuw korstvormig licheen voor Nederland. - Buxbaumiella, 101: 45–47.
Caloplaca diffusa Vondrák & Llimona, a new crustose lichen to the Netherlands.
28987Spier L. & van Dobben H. (2015): Diploschistes muscorum (Scop.) R.Sant. (duindaalder) verdwaald?. - Buxbaumiella, 102: 34–35.
Diploschistes muscorum (Scop.) R.Sant. got lost?
28986van der Kolk H. (2015): Thelocarpon pallidum, een kleurloze stuifmeelkorst definitief in Nederland. - Buxbaumiella, 102: 31–34.
Thelocarpon pallidum, a colorless Thelocarpon new to The Netherlands.
28985Spier L. (2015): Aanvulling op Caloplaca diffusa, een nieuw korstvormig licheen voor Nederland. - Buxbaumiella, 102: 30–31.
Additional information on Caloplaca diffusa, a new crustose lichen to The Netherlands.
28984Aptroot A. (2015): In Memoriam Uwe de Bruyn. - Buxbaumiella, 103: 52.
Necrolog [in Dutch]
28983Spier L. (2015): Lecidella elaeochroma (Ach.) M. Choisy (gewoon purperschaaltje) als kameleon. - Buxbaumiella, 103: 27–31.
Lecidella elaeochroma (Ach.) M. Choisy as chameleon.
28982van der Kolk H. (2015): Twee korstmosparasieten, Libertiella fennica en Taeniolella beschiana, nieuw in Nederland. - Buxbaumiella, 103: 24–26.
Two lichenicolous fungi, Libertiella fennica and Taeniolella beschiana, new to the Netherlands.
28981Spier L. (2015): Kauwgommos (Diploicia canescens) in meerdere smaken?. - Buxbaumiella, 104: 25–27.
Kauwgummos (Diploicia canescens) in different tastes?
28980Sparrius L., Aptroot A. & van Herk K. (2015): Ecologische indicatiewaarden voor korstmossen en een vergelijking met mossen en vaatplanten. - Buxbaumiella, 104: 18–24.
Ecological indicator values for lichens and a comparison with bryophytes and vascular plants.
28979Spier L. (2015): Punctelia perreticulata (Räsänen) G. Wilh. & Ladd, een nieuw stippelschildmos voor Nederland. - Buxbaumiella, 104: 16–18.
Punctelia perreticulata (Räsänen) G. Wilh. & Ladd, new to the Netherlands.
28978Perlmutter G.B., Blank G.B., Wentworth T.R., Lowman M.D., Neufeld H.S. & Rivas Plata E. (2018): Highway pollution effects on microhabitat community structure of corticolous lichens. - Bryologist, 121(1): 1–13.
We studied lichen communities on bole and base tree trunk segments along forest edge-to-interior gradients on opposite sides of a major highway and a control site in central North Carolina, U.S.A., to investigate if these two communities differ and if so, do they differ in response to highway pollution. At each site we measured various environmental parameters including ambient air NO2 concentrations, and sampled lichens on 5–7 trees along each of five parallel transects established at the forest edge and at 25, 60, 100 and 150 m into the forest. We compared lichen communities between the two trunk segments via species richness and composition by habit, photobiont type, and reproductive strategy. We then ran dual (bole and base) NMS ordinations with subsequent correlation/regression analyses to explore/test relationships of lichen parameters with environmental variables among the 15 sample transects combined. Species richness was similar between trunk segments at transect and site levels as well as overall. Bole and base communities were more compositionally similar to each other at the highway sites than they were at the control site, based on Bray-Curtis similarity indices (BC). Tree base communities differed in terms of functional groupings, with greater proportions of squamulose, cyanolichen and sterile species than found in tree bole communities, but varyingly so among sites. Patterns of bole-base BC values with distance from the forest edge were not apparent in any of the sites. Ordination analyses resulted in Axis 1 representing most of the variation for each trunk segment. Along this axis, correlations were similar between boles and bases, with the strongest ones involving lichen species richness (negative) and NO2 concentrations (positive); notably weak correlations involved tree species number, canopy cover and DBH. Similar patterns were found when lichen species number was correlated with environmental parameters directly, with NO2 concentration correlating strongest at each trunk segment. Among functional groups, % crustose and % fertile species on bases correlated significantly with NO2. Lichen species–NO2 relationships on boles and bases were both found to be highly significant quadratic relationships with base lichen richness being stronger. Keywords: Lichen biodiversity, NO2, NMS ordination, tree base, tree bole.
28977Xavier-Leite A.B., Cáceres M.E.S., Goto B.T. & Lücking R. (2018): The genus Gyalideopsis (lichenized Ascomycota: Gomphillaceae) in Brazil: updated checklist, key to species, and two novel taxa with unique hyphophores. - Bryologist, 121(1): 32–40.
We provide a checklist and a key to the 26 species and one infraspecific taxon of the genus Gyalideopsis (Gomphillaceae) currently known from Brazil, including two species with unique hyphophores described as new to science herein: G. aptrootii Xavier-Leite, M.Cáceres & Lücking sp. nov., characterized by adnate, crescent-shaped hyphophores with moniliform diahyphae and broadly sessile, dark grey-brown apothecia with single, muriform, rather small ascospores; and G. marcellii Xavier-Leite, M.Cáceres & Lücking sp. nov., with mussel-shaped hyphophores similar to those of G. haliotidiformis but differing in the filiform diahyphae. The other taxa known from Brazil are: G. aequatoriana Kalb & Vězda, G. altamirensis Lücking & Umaña, G. applanata Herrera-Campos & Lücking, G. argentea (Mont.) Kalb & Vězda, G. brevipilosa (Kalb & Vězda) Lücking, Sérus. & Vězda, G. cochlearifera Lücking & Sérus., G. confluens Kalb & Vězda, G. ellipsoidea A.A.Menezes, M.Cáceres & Aptroot, G. epithallina Lücking, G. glauca (P.Karst.) Lücking, Sérus. & Vězda, G. haliotidiformis Kalb & Vězda, G. intermedia Lücking, G. kalbii Vězda, G. lambinonii Vězda, G. lecideina Kalb & Vězda, G. palmata Kalb & Vězda, G. robusta Kalb & Vězda, G. rostrata Kalb & Vězda, G. rubescens Vězda, G. rubrofusca Kalb & Vězda, G. vainioi Kalb & Vězda, G. verruculosa Vězda & Hafellner, G. vezdae Kalb, G. vulgaris (Müll.Arg.) Lücking f. vulgaris, and G. vulgaris f. albopruinosa Lücking. Keywords: Corticolous, foliicolous, lichenicolous, muscicolous, saxicolous, terricolous.
28976van den Broeck D., Tehler A., Razafindrahaja T. & Ertz D. (2017): Four new species of Arthothelium (Arthoniales, Ascomycetes) from Africa and Socotra. - Phytotaxa, 331(1): 51–64.
Four species of Arthothelium from Africa and Socotra are described as new to science: Arthothelium atrorubrum from Madagascar, characterized by irregularly rounded blackish ascomata with a deeply red hypothecium and submuriform ascospores; Arthothelium aurantiacopruinosum from the Democratic Republic of the Congo, characterized by black, irregularly rounded to stellate, orange pruinose ascomata and muriform ascospores with two larger terminal cells; Arthothelium frischianum from Madagascar, characterized by brownish-black minute irregular ascomata with remnants of thallus and muriform ascospores with one larger terminal cell; Arthothelium miesii from Socotra (Yemen), characterized by a thick thallus, immersed, stellate to cerebriform, brownish, greyish pruinose ascomata and submuriform ascospores. A key to all reported species of Arthothelium from tropical Africa (South Africa excluded) and Socotra is provided. Keywords: Arthoniales, Ascomycetes, Fungi.
28975Dantas J.O., Alves E.S., Lücking R. & Cáceres M.E.S. (2017): Three new species of Graphidaceae (lichenized Ascomycota) from the semi-arid region of northeast Brazil. - Phytotaxa, 331(2): 289–294.
Three new lichenized fungal species in the family Graphidaceae are described from Northeast Brazil. Graphis alba has lirellae with a conspicuous white cover, eventually becoming striate, small, (sub-)muriform ascospores, and stictic acid. Halegrapha redonographoides features somewhat pseudostromatic ascomata with immersed lirellae, a completely carbonized excipulum, and small, submuriform ascospores, in combination with a norstictic acid chemistry. Thelotrema pachysporoides has an ecorticate, white thallus and produces brown, 7–13-septate, 25–35 × 7–10 μm large ascospores. The new species were found in an isolated remnant of Caatinga vegetation, at Fazenda Santa Maria da Lage, Poço Verde, Sergipe state, with additional material of one of the species also detected in the state of Tocantins. Key words: Graphis, Halegrapha, Thelotrema, Caatinga, Cerrado, Sergipe, Tocantins.
28974Kalb J. & Kalb K. (2017): New lichen species from Thailand, new combinations and new additions to the Thai lichen biota. - Phytotaxa, 332(2): 141–156.
Several collecting trips by the authors (alone or together) over the last ten years in twenty-one provinces of Thailand afforded new additions to the most recent Thai lichen checklist. These are from seven families with an emphasis on the Graphidaceae reflecting the current interest of the authors. Three species are described as new to science: Glaucotrema palaeoprotocetraricum which differs from G. thailandicum in having larger ascospores and producing protocetraric acid, Platygramme subcalubrosa which differs from P. calubrosa in having non-pruinose labia and discs and smaller, less-septate ascospores and Ramonia minima, which differs from R. kandleri in having smaller ascomata, a lower hymenium and a partly brown to blackish exciple. Constrictolumina leucostoma is a new finding for the Palaeotropics and the genera Pseudotopeliopsis, Ramonia and Sclerophyton are new reports for Thailand. New records of Thai species of Hemithecium are transferred to Allographa and Graphis. This necessitated the following new combinations: Allographa stictilabiata (≡ Gra­phina stictilabiata), Graphis aphaneomicrospora (≡ Hemithecium aphaneomicrosporum) , G. balaghatensis (≡ Hemithecium balaghatense) and Graphis indica (a new name for Hemithecium norsticticum). Further new combinations include Glaucotrema protocetraricum (≡ Ocellularia protocetrarica) and Traponora varians (≡ Lecidea varians). Acanthothecis consocians, Caloplaca bassiae, Chapsa pulchra, Leucodecton occultum, Phaeographopsis palaeotropica, Platygramme australiensis, P. commutabilis, P. discurrens, Sclerophyton seriale, Psudotopeliopsis longisporum, Traponora macrospora and Trinathotrema stictideum are further new additions to the Thai lichen biota. Working keys are presented to all known species of Phaeographopsis and Trinathotrema and to the Thai species of Platygramme. Keywords: Algae, Graphidaceae, Gyalectaceae, Lecanoraceae, Opegraphaceae, South-East Asia, Stictidaceae, Taxonomy, Teloschistaceae, Trypetheliaceae, USA.
28973Sun Z.-S. & Zhao Z.-T. (2018): A new species of Pertusaria (Pertusariaceae, Ascomycota) from Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of China. - Phytotaxa, 333(1): 143–146.
A species of Pertusaria, described here as new to science, is based on material collected from Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, Southwestern China. The new species, Pertusaria tibetensis Z.S. Sun has broad lecanorate verrucae, pinkish pruinose discs, 1- spored asci and contains norstictic acid. Key words: Pertusaria, Ascomycota, lichenized fungi, China.
28972Meysurova A.F., Notov A.A. & Pungin A.V. (2018): Photosynthetic pigments in Hypogymnia physodes with different metal contents. - Journal of Applied Spectroscopy, 84(6): 1037–1043.
[Translated from the Russian original published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Spektroskopii, Vol. 84, No. 6, pp. 961–968, 2017] Chlorophyll a and b contents in Hypogymnia physodes specimens collected from various economic areas and natural complexes of Tver Region were found to differ substantially using a spectrophotometric method, showing that the lichen photosynthetic system is highly adaptable. The chlorophyll b content was linked primarily to adaptation to specifi c environmental features in various plant communities. The chlorophyll a content changed to provide the necessary compensatory responses under technogenic stress. A total of 15 metals (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Ti, V, and Zn) were detected in H. physodes samples using inductively coupled plasma atomicemission spectroscopy (ICP AES). The most widespread of them were Fe, Al, and Ti. Signifi cant correlations among the concentrations of these metals and the chlorophyll a content were revealed. Keywords: photosynthetic pigments, epiphytic lichens, Hypogymnia physodes, inductively coupled plasma atomic-emission spectroscopy, spectrophotometric method, bioindication, metals, ecosystems, anthropogenically transformed areas, Tver Region.
28971Mróz T., Szufa K., Frontasyeva M.V., Tselmovich V., Ostrovnaya T., Kornaś A., Olech M.A., Mietelski J.W. & Brudecki K. (2018): Determination of element composition and extraterrestrial material occurrence in moss and lichen samples from King George Island (Antarctica) using reactor neutron activation analysis and SEM microscopy. - Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 25: 436–446.
Seven lichens (Usnea antarctica and U. aurantiacoatra) and nine moss samples (Sanionia uncinata) collected in King George Island were analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis, and concentration of major and trace elements was calculated. For some elements, the concentrations observed in moss samples were higher than corresponding values reported from other sites in the Antarctica, but in the lichens, these were in the same range of concentrations. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and statistical analysis showed large influence of volcanic-origin particles. Also, the interplanetary cosmic particles (ICP) were observed in investigated samples, as mosses and lichens are good collectors of ICP and micrometeorites. Keywords: Antarctica; Moss; Lichen; Biomonitoring; Space dus;t Neutron activation analysis; SEM microscopy.
28970Pankratov T.A. (2018): Bacterial complexes of Khibiny Mountains lichens revealed in Cladonia uncialis, C. portentosa, Alectoria ochroleuca, and Nephroma arcticum. - Microbiology, 87(1): 79–88.
Fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to investigate microbial communities of four lichen species collected in the Murmansk province. The maximal bacterial abundance was shown to depend on both the lichen species and the part of the thallus. Predominant groups of bacteria were revealed: Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria. Criteria for assessment the facultative and obligatory presence of bacteria in lichen microbial communities were established, and approaches to classification of the lichen microbial communities were proposed based on the interdependence of various bacterial groups. Keywords: lichens, endophytic and epiphytic bacteria, symbiotic bacteria, Arctic ecosystems, Acidobacteria. [Original Russian Text published in Mikrobiologiya, 2018, Vol. 87, No. 1, pp. 70–78]
28969Upadhyay S., Jugran A.K., Joshi Y., Suyal R. & Rawal R.S. (2018): Ecological variables influencing the diversity and distribution of macrolichens colonizing Quercus leucotrichophora in Uttarakhand forest. - Journal of Mountain Science, 15(2): 307–318.
Ecological variables play a significant role in determining the diversity and distribution of any living organism on earth. Lichens are not exceptional and are quite sensitive in comparison to other organisms; hence the present study focuses on the impact of ecological variables on the diversity and distribution of epiphytic macrolichens colonizing Quercus leucotrichophora across eight different sites (50 m × 50 m) in Thal Ke Dhar forest, Kumaun Himalaya, Uttarakhand, India. For sampling of macrolichens, 200 trees (25 trees from each site) of Q. leucotrichophora were selected from each site and five quadrats of 5 cm × 10 cm (1000 quadrats in totality) were drawn at the tree trunk. From all the sampled trees, a total of 54 species of epiphytic macrolichens belonging to 18 genera and five families were recorded. Various ecological variables, namely altitude, aspect, slope, diameter at breast height (DBH), and lopping percent (partial cutting of the twigs as disturbance), were also analyzed to investigate their influence on macrolichen species composition and distribution pattern in the study area. For the determination of relationships between these variables, statistical analysis, namely Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient, Polynomial regression analysis and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were performed. Out of all variables, lopping was significantly correlated to species richness of epiphytic macrolichens (0.712*, p<0.05) and it was confirmed by Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient. Despite of having high anthropogenic pressure or impact through lopping, the maximum number of macrolichen species was recorded at elevation 2267 meter above sea level (m asl). The present study revealed that besides other ecological variables, lopping practices can act as a key parameter in controlling the diversity and distribution not only of epiphytic macrolichens but also of other life forms such as bryophytes, pteridophytes, insects, birds etc. and can be either negatively or positively correlated. Keywords: Conservation; Epiphytic macrolichens; Kumaun Himalaya; Lopping; Quercus; Banj oak.
28968Zakrzewska M. & Klimek B. (2018): Trace element concentrations in tree leaves and lichen collected along a metal pollution gradient near Olkusz (southern Poland). - Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 100: 245–249.
The aim of the study was to assess the metal pollution in the vicinity of the Bukowno smelter near Olkusz in southern Poland. Birch and oak leaves, pine needles and a lichen Hypogymnia physodes, overgrowing pine bark were collected at stands at different distances from the smelter and analysed for cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) content. Concentrations of metals in the lichen were usually higher than in the tree leaves/needles and decreased with distance from the smelter, apart from the Cu content. The strongest correlation was noticed between Cd and Pb concentrations, which indicates a common pollution source (the smelter). Our results show that birch leaves can be potentially useful as a bioindicator of Zn air pollution since this species was shown to accumulate high amounts of zinc, related to environmental pollution with that metal, in their leaves. Keywords: Air pollution · Atomic absorption spectrometry (ASA) · Bioindicator · Environmental monitoring · Hypogymnia physodes.
28967Fabri‑Jr R., Krause M., Dalfior B.M., Salles R.C., de Freitas A.C., da Silva H.E., Licinio M.V.V.J., Brandão G.P. & Carneiro M.T.W.D. (2018): Trace elements in soil, lichens, and mosses from Fildes Peninsula, Antarctica: spatial distribution and possible origins. - Environmental Earth Sciences, 77:124 [10 p.].
Antarctica is a region of great scientific interest, and several countries have scientific stations installed in that place. The exploration of Antarctica continent may be causing an impact on the environment. So, this study aims to evaluate the distribution of Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, and V through the analysis of soil, lichens, and mosses from Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, Antarctica. Soil, lichens, and mosses samples were obtained from 13 points along the entire length of Fildes Peninsula, and the trace elements were determined by ICP OES. The concentration ranges (μg/g) were: Soil—Cr 5.92–28.96; Cu 81.59–123.68; Ni 20.11–41.07; Zn 43.25–73.21; V 123.52–206.06; Lichens—Cr 0.76–2.12; Cu 0.74–16.79; Ni < LD-1.88; Zn 4.97–12.06; V 0.96–20.95; Mosses—Cr 2.03–14.74; Cu 27.09–59.64; Ni 2.15–13.71; Zn 13.16–36.69; V 15.79–89.23. In general, these concentrations can be associated with several factors since this region presents intense human occupation and so the use of fossil fuels can be major source of the trace elements investigated. Keywords: Soil · Mosses · Lichens · Antarctic · Trace elements · ICP OES.
28966Zheng Y., Xiao C.-J., Guo K., Wang Y., Liu Y., Luo S.-H., Li X.-N. & Li S.-H. (2018): Lobarioid A, unusual antibacterial depsidone possessing an eight-membered diether ring from the edible lichen Lobaria sp.. - Tetrahedron Letters, 59(8): 743–746.
Lobarioid A (1), an unusual depsidone possessing an eight-membered diether ring, was isolated from the edible lichen Lobaria sp. Its structure was elucidated by extensive NMR, MS, IR and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Compound 1 exhibited antibacterial activity against three strains of gram-positive bacteria.
28965Phinney N.H., Asplund J. & Gauslaa Y. (2018): Rapid resurrection of chlorolichens in humid air: specific thallus mass drives rehydration and reactivation kinetics. - Environmental and Experimental Botany, 148: 184–191.
Identifying lichen traits that influence hydration and photosynthetic reactivation kinetics in humid air provides insight into niche preferences. Water vapor uptake and concurring reactivation of PSII efficiency (Fv/Fm) were monitored at high temporal resolution by means of programmed balance measurements and chlorophyll fluorescence imaging during 18 h trial periods in high relative humidity (RH). Desiccated, thin and/or highly branched forest epiphytes began to reactivate PSII in thallus apices and margins within two minutes of exposure to high RH. Specific thallus mass (STM) was a strong predictor of water vapor uptake rates across species and specimens. The forest epiphytes displaying the lowest STM reached the highest levels of saturation and showed the most rapid PSII reactivation. Thicker species from sun-exposed habitats required up to 11 times longer in high RH to reach peak PSII reactivation, particularly lichens collected from open, exposed rocks. There was a clear trade-off between water storage capacity and rapid saturation from water vapor/PSII reactivation. Thin chlorolichen growth forms are thus well-adapted to exploit humid air, while thick ones likely rely on liquid water. Keywords: Chlorophyll fluorescence imaging; Functional traits; PSII reactivation; Relative water content; Hydration; Poikilohydry.
28964Wang H., Yang T., Cheng X., Kwong S., Liu C., An R., Li G., Wang X. & Wang C. (2018): Simultaneous determination of usnic, diffractaic, evernic and barbatic acids in rat plasma by ultra‐high‐performance liquid chromatography–quadrupole exactive Orbitrap mass spectrome try and its application to pharmacokinetic studies. - Biomedical Chromatography, 32(3): e4123 [12 p.].
Usnea longissima Ach. (Usnea) is used in pharmaceuticals, food and cosmetics. Evernic acid (EA), barbatic acid (BA), diffractaic acid (DA) and usnic acid (UA) are the most typical ingredients in U. longissima and exert a wide variety of biological functions. The study aimed to develop a sensitive method for simultaneous analysis of EA, BA, DA and UA in rat plasma and was applied to pharmacokinetic studies after consumption of UA and ethanol extract from U. longissima (UE). The samples were separated on a BEH C18 column by gradient elution with 0.5% formic acid in water and in methanol. The relative molecular masses of analytes were obtained in full-scan range from 50.0 to 750.0 m/z under negative ionization mode by UPLC-Q-Exactive Orbitrap MS. All validation parameters, such as lower limit of quantitation, linearity, specificity, precision, accuracy, extraction recovery, matrix effect and stability, were within acceptable ranges and the method was appropriate for biological specimen analysis. The pharmacokinetic results indicated that the absolute bioavailabilities of UA after oral administration of UA and UE reached 69.2 and 146.9%, respectively. Compared with UA in UE, the relative bioavailability of DA, BA and EA reached 103.7, 10.4 and 0.7% after oral administration of UE. Keywords: depsides, dibenzofuran derivatives, pharmacokinetics, UPLC‐Q‐Exactive Orbitrap MS, Usnea longissima Ach, usnic acid.
28963Strengbom J., Axelsson E.P., Lundmark T. & Nordin A. (2018): Trade-offs in the multi- use potential of managed boreal forests. - Journal of Applied Ecology, 55: 958–966.
Implementing multi-use forest management to account for both commercial and non-commercial ecosystem services is gaining increased global recognition. Despite its spatial extent, and great economic and ecological values, few studies have evaluated the boreal forest and its management to assess the potential for simultaneous delivery of a suite of ecosystem services. Using data from a Swedish long-term experiment, this study explores how biodiversity of the ground vegetation and potential delivery of multiple ecosystem services (timber production, carbon [C] storage and non-timber forest products) are influenced by two common silvicultural practices (thinning, fertilization and their interaction). Diversity (diversity indices and species richness) of the ground vegetation was higher in thinned than in unthinned forest, a result attributable in part to six species of lichens that only occurred in thinned forest. In addition, supply of lichens for reindeer forage was three times higher in thinned forest. Fertilization negatively affected the lingonberry shrub (Vaccinium vitis-idaea). Timber production increased with fertilization, but decreased with thinning. The potential for C storage was highest in fertilized forests, which, apart from having the highest timber production, also supported the highest standing tree biomass. The silvicultural practices evaluated induced trade-offs among the ecosystem features studied as thinning increased biodiversity of the ground vegetation, production potential of wild berries and lichens, but reduced timber production and the potential for C storage. Fertilization had the opposite effect, promoting the potential for C storage at the expense of biodiversity and the ecosystem services delivered by the ground vegetation. Synthesis and applications. Increased multi-use potential is a common goal for forest management in many parts of the world. Our result shows that commonly used silvicultural practices can be used to determine the multi-use output, and might be applied to maintain, or even increase the multi-use potential of the boreal forest biome. Nevertheless, trade-offs among values were common, indicating that the multi-use potential will be limited at the site level. Allowing management objectives to vary across the landscape might, in such cases, be a preferable way to achieve high multi-use potential. Keywords: biodiversity, carbon storage, climate change, forest use, multi-use, non-timber forest products, reindeer forage, silvicultural, sustainable forest management, timber production.
28962Ghiloufi W. & Chaieb M. (2018): Differential effects of the crustose Diploschistes diacapsis and the squamulose Fulgensia bracteata on the establishment of a Mediterranean grass species. - African Journal of Ecology, 56(1): 109–115.
The interest of the scientific community in biological soil crusts has grown exponentially over the last decades. One of the scientific research interests is the study of the effect of these crusts on plant establishment. Findings in this topic have been controversial, and some differences were attributed to crust types. Biological soil crusts dominated by lichens are common components of Stipa tenacissima steppes in arid and semi-arid environments of the southern Mediterranean. In the current study, we conducted growth chamber experiments to investigate the differential effects of two lichen species with continuous crustose thalli (Diploschistes diacapsis) and with squamulose semicontinuous thalli (Fulgensia bracteata) on seed germination, root penetration, shoot emergence and seed viability of the tussock grass species S. tenacissima. Our results showed that under laboratory conditions, two distinct lichen species had significantly different effects on the establishment of S. tenacissima. Our findings clearly demonstrated that D. diacapsis significantly decreased germination, root penetration and shoot emergence of S. tenacissima compared to F. bracteata. This can be related to differences in morphological and physiological characteristics between crustose and squamulose lichens. Overall, we suggest that D. diacapsis and crustose lichens generally can act as natural barrier to the establishment of S. tenacissima. Key words: Diploschistes diacapsis, Fulgensia bracteata, germination, root penetration, shoot emergence, Stipa tenacissima.
28961Asplund J., Gauslaa Y. & Merinero S. (2018): Low synthesis of secondary compounds in the lichen Lobaria pulmonaria infected by the lichenicolous fungus Plectocarpon lichenum. - New Phytologist, 217: 1397–1400.
Key words: carbon-based secondary compounds (CBSCs), fungal parasites, lichens, parasitism, relative growth rate (RGR), symbiosis.
28960Brooker R.W., Brewer M.J., Britton A.J., Eastwood A., Ellis C., Gimona A., Poggio L. & Genney D.R. (2018): Tiny niches and translocations: The challenge of identifying suitable recipient sites for small and immobile species. - Journal of Applied Ecology, 55: 621–630.
Assisted colonisation, one form of species translocation, has been proposed as a tool for helping species to track suitable conditions in a changing climate. There are considerable practical challenges associated with it, including predicting where to place translocated individuals. This problem may be particularly big for small and immobile species, where small-scale microenvironmental conditions de-couple them from environmental conditions as projected in large-scale climate models. To investigate this problem, we developed a survey-based model to predict the occurrence of our target species, the fruticose terricolous arctic-alpine lichen, Flavocetraria nivalis, within the Cairngorm Mountains. We then undertook an experimental translocation of this species. A second model, using variables that were significant in the survey-based model, was only fair at predicting the initial pattern of survival at the recipient site. However, model fit of the translocation survival model improved over time as the distribution of surviving individuals more accurately reflected the distribution of suitable environmental conditions. In addition, model predictive power increased with the addition of data on microclimatic conditions at recipient plots. Synthesis and applications. Our results demonstrate that, for species which respond strongly to local environmental conditions, are immobile and, to some extent, decoupled from larger scale climates, it may be difficult to build a priori accurate predictive models of habitat suitability. In these cases, a combination of modelling and expert judgement, along with the movement of substantial numbers of transplants, may be the appropriate options for maximising the success of assisted colonisation. Keywords: arctic-alpine, assisted colonisation, climate change, Flavocetraria nivalis, immobile species, lichens, microclimate, modelling, translocated species, translocation.
28959Colesie C., Büdel B., Hurry V. & Green T.G.A. (2018): Can Antarctic lichens acclimatize to changes in temperature?. - Global Change Biology, 24: 1123–1135.
The Antarctic Peninsula, a tundra biome dominated by lichens and bryophytes, is an ecozone undergoing rapid temperature shifts. Such changes may demand a high physiological plasticity of the local lichen species to maintain their role as key drivers in this pristine habitat. This study examines the response of net photosynthesis and respiration to increasing temperatures for three Antarctic lichen species with different ecological response amplitudes. We hypothesize that negative effects caused by increased temperatures can be mitigated by thermal acclimation of respiration and/or photosynthesis. The fully controlled growth chamber experiment simulated intermediate and extreme temperature increases over the time course of 6 weeks. Results showed that, in contrast to our hypothesis, none of the species was able to down-regulate temperature-driven respiratory losses through thermal acclimation of respiration. Instead, severe effects on photobiont vitality demonstrated that temperatures around 15°C mark the upper limit for the two species restricted to the Antarctic, and when mycobiont demands exceeded the photobiont capacity they could not survive within the lichen thallus. In contrast, the widespread lichen species was able to recover its homoeostasis by rapidly increasing net photosynthesis. We conclude that to understand the complete lichen response, acclimation processes of both symbionts, the photo- and the mycobiont, have to be evaluated separately. As a result, we postulate that any acclimation processes in lichen are species-specific. This, together with the high degree of response variability and sensitivity to temperature in different species that co-occur spatially close, complicates any predictions regarding future community composition in the Antarctic. Nevertheless, our results suggest that species with a broad ecological amplitude may be favoured with on-going changes in temperature. Keywords: Antarctica, biological soil crusts, climate warming, lichen, net photosynthesis, thermal acclimation, Usnea aurantiaco-atra.
28958Willner W., Kuzemko A., Dengler J., Chytrý M., Bauer N., Becker T., Biţă-Nicolae C., Botta-Dukát Z., Čarni A., Csiky J., Igić R., Kącki Z., Korotchenko I., Kropf M., Krstivojević-Ćuk M., Krstonošić D., Rédei T., Ruprecht E., Schratt-Ehrendorfer L., Semenishchenkov Y., Stančić Z., Vashenya Y., Vynokurov D. & Janišová M. (2017): A higher-level classification of the Pannonian and western Pontic steppe grasslands (Central and Eastern Europe). - Applied Vegetation Science, 20(1): 143–158.
Questions: What are the main floristic patterns in the Pannonian and western Pontic steppe grasslands? What are the diagnostic species of the major subdivisions of the class Festuco-Brometea (temperate Euro-Siberian dry and semi-dry grasslands)? Location: Carpathian Basin (E Austria, SE Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Romania, Slovenia, N Croatia and N Serbia), Ukraine, S Poland and the Bryansk region of W Russia. Methods: We applied a geographically stratified resampling to a large set of relevés containing at least one indicator species of steppe grasslands. The resulting data set of 17 993 relevés was classified using the TWINSPAN algorithm. We identified groups of clusters that corresponded to the class Festuco-Brometea. After excluding relevés not belonging to our target class, we applied a consensus of three fidelity measures, also taking into account external knowledge, to establish the diagnostic species of the orders of the class. The original TWINSPAN divisions were revised on the basis of these diagnostic species. Results: The TWINSPAN classification revealed soil moisture as the most important environmental factor. Eight out of 16 TWINSPAN groups corresponded to Festuco-Brometea. A total of 80, 32 and 58 species were accepted as diagnostic for the orders Brometalia erecti, Festucetalia valesiacae and Stipo-Festucetalia pallentis, respectively. In the further subdivision of the orders, soil conditions, geographic distribution and altitude could be identified as factors driving the major floristic patterns. Conclusions: We propose the following classification of the Festuco-Brometea in our study area: (1) Brometalia erecti (semi-dry grasslands) with Scabioso ochroleucae-Poion angustifoliae (steppe meadows of the forest zone of E Europe) and Cirsio-Brachypodion pinnati (meadow steppes on deep soils in the forest-steppe zone of E Central and E Europe); (2) Festucetalia valesiacae (grass steppes) with Festucion valesiacae (grass steppes on less developed soils in the forest-steppe zone of E Central and E Europe) and Stipion lessingianae (grass steppes in the steppe zone); (3) Stipo-Festucetalia pallentis (rocky steppes) with Asplenio septentrionalis-Festucion pallentis (rocky steppes on siliceous and intermediate soils), Bromo-Festucion pallentis (thermophilous rocky steppes on calcareous soils), Diantho-Seslerion (dealpine Sesleria caerulea grasslands of the Western Carpathians) and Seslerion rigidae (dealpine Sesleria rigida grasslands of the Romanian Carpathians).
28957Buchholz S., Blick T., Hannig K., Kowarik I., Lemke A., Otte V., Scharon J., Schönhofer A., Teige T., von der Lippe M. & Seitz B. (2016): Biological richness of a large urban cemetery in Berlin. Results of a multi-taxon approach. - Biodiversity Data Journal, 4: e7057. doi: 10.3897/BDJ.4.e7057 [30 p.].
Background: Urban green spaces can harbor a considerable species richness of plants and animals. A few studies on single species groups indicate important habitat functions of cemeteries, but this land use type is clearly understudied compared to parks. Such data are important as they (i) illustrate habitat functions of a specific, but ubiquitous urban land-use type and (ii) may serve as a basis for management approaches. New information: We sampled different groups of plants and animals in the Weißensee Jewish Cemetery in Berlin (WJC) which is one of the largest Jewish cemeteries in Europe. With a total of 608 species of plants and animals, this first multi-taxon survey revealed a considerable biological richness in the WJC. In all, 363 wild-growing vascular plant, 72 lichen and 26 bryophyte taxa were recorded. The sampling also yielded 34 bird and 5 bat species as well as 39 ground beetle, 5 harvestman and 64 spider species. Some species are new records for Berlin. Keywords: bats, Berlin, birds, bryophytes carabids, harvestmen, graveyard, lichens, plants, spiders, urban cemetery.
28956Chacón S. & Tapia F. (2016): Algunas especies saprobias de Dothideomycetes y Lecanoromycetes (Pezizomycotina: Ascomycota) en México. - Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad, 87: 1169–1176.
We present a taxonomic study of six saprophytic ascomycetes, belonging to the orders Hysteriales, Lecanorales and Patellariales with apothecioidascoma. The species: Dactylospora stygia var. tenuispora, Hysteropatella clavispora, Rhizodiscina lignyota y Tryblidaria fenestrata are first recordsfrom Mexico, while D. stygia var. stygia and Patellaria atrata are added to the catalog of known Ascomycota of Veracruz. Relevant illustrationsand photographs of macro and micromorphological characters, as well as a dichotomous key to identify the treated species are included. Keywords: Mexican mycobiota; New locations; New records; Taxonomy.
28955Dorey J.E., Lendemer J.C. & Naczi R.F.C. (2018): Patterns of biodiverse, understudied groups do not mirror those of the surrogate groups that set conservation priorities: a case study from the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain of eastern North America. - Biodiversity and Conservation, 27: 31–51.
We conducted biodiversity inventories of lichens, woody plants, and sedges at 32 sites on the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain of eastern North America between November 2012 and June 2015. Each site comprised a single, uniform habitat, consisting of either Coastal Plain Floodplain forest, Coastal Plain Flatwood swamp, Coastal Plain Oak-Pine forest, Maritime forest, Mixed Mesic Hardwood forest, or Tidal forest. We compared alpha diversity and community assemblages of each organismal group across the sites, and compared selected minimal reserve sets in order to visualize biodiversity patterns and assess whether specific components of vascular plants (sedges and woody plants) serve as an effective surrogate for lichens. Woody plants provide a direct substrate for lichen growth, but there is no significant correlation between the alpha diversity of these groups. For conserving maximal species richness among the studied groups, lichens outperform the sedges and woody plants as the best surrogate group for building minimum reserve sets, even though vascular plants are more commonly used as a surrogate. Likewise, sedge alpha diversity does not correlate with lichens, or with woody plants. Although no group is an effective indicator for high alpha diversity sites of other organisms, a significant correlation between the community assemblages of lichens and woody plants suggests that protecting varied types of plant communities might serve as a workable surrogate for protecting lichens. The lack of congruence between species richness patterns across organismal groups suggests that the mechanisms that shape patterns of diversity are not identical, and that identifying and incorporating specific biodiversity indicators for understudied groups in conservation policy is necessary to ensure their protection. Keywords: Surrogates; Biodiversity indicators; Alpha diversity; Mid-Atlantic; Coastal Plain; Lichens; Vascular plants; Sedges.
28954Malaspina P., Casale M., Malegori C., Hooshyari M., Di Carro M., Magi E. & Giordani P. (2018): Combining spectroscopic techniques and chemometrics for the interpretation of lichen biomonitoring of air pollution. - Chemosphere, 198: 417–424.
A screening evaluation of lichen thalli, based on spectroscopic techniques coupled with chemometrics, is proposed as fast, simple and “green” method for the biomonitoring of air pollution. For two consecutive years, lichen thalli of Pseudevernia furfuracea were exposed for three months in selected sites of Liguria (NW-Italy) according to different levels and types of air pollution. At the end of the exposure period, transplanted thalli were analyzed by a set of monitoring techniques, including Front-Face Fluorescence Spectroscopy (FFFS), Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) and Plant Efficiency Analyser (PEA). Data were compared with values of air pollutants recorded during the exposure period by the Regional Agency for Environmental Protection, in order to relate lichen physiological indicators with the effects of atmospheric concentrations. A chemometric evaluation of the analytical signals, including principal component analysis (PCA) and quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA), was performed; the mean prediction rate of the discriminant models calculated on the FFFS emission spectra ranged from 70 to 75% on the external test sets. Frontface fluorescence spectroscopy proved to be a promising technique for the determination of level and type of pollutants in lichen thalli. Keywords: Lichens; Air pollution; FFFS; NIRS; PEA; Chemometrics.
28953Serafini I., Lombardi L., Reverberi M., Ciccola A., Calà E., Sciubba F., Guiso M., Postorino P., Aceto M. & Bianco A. (2018): New advanced extraction and analytical methods applied to discrimination of different lichen species used for orcein dyed yarns: Preliminary results. - Microchemical Journal, 138: 447–456.
In this paper, the preliminary results of a study aimed to discriminate between the different species of lichens, from which orchil dyes originate, are presented. A multi-analytical approach has been used to analyze several species of lichens, in particular Roccella tinctoria DC, Lasallia pustulata L. and Ochrolechia tartarea L., in an attempt to identify distinguishing markers within different orchil mixtures. In the first part of the research, samples of yarns dyed with the different species, prepared in laboratory after the proper raw lichens treatment, have been subjected to SERS on fiber analyses. Hence an innovative ammonia protocol has been applied to all the specimens. Firstly, in order to evaluate the difference among the different species, HPTLC has been applied to the extracts of dyed yarns and the dye baths. All the spots present on the TLC plates have been analyzed through SERS (HPTLC-SERS), in order to obtain a SERS database of each single compound, fixed on the yarns. Then,HPTLCMS and HPLC-MS experiments have been carried out, in order to deep into the identification of compounds corresponding to each spot. Keywords: Biogeography; Indian Ocean; Lobariaceae; Photomorph; Radiation.
28952Simon A., Goffinet B., Magain N. & Sérusiaux E. (2018): High diversity, high insular endemism and recent origin in the lichen genus Sticta (lichenized Ascomycota, Peltigerales) in Madagascar and the Mascarenes. - Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 122: 15–28.
Lichen biodiversity and its generative evolutionary processes are practically unknown in the MIOI (Madagascar and Indian Ocean Islands) biodiversity hotspot. We sought to test the hypothesis that lichenized fungi in this region have undergone a rapid radiation, following a single colonization event, giving rise to narrow endemics, as is characteristic of other lineages of plants. We extensively sampled specimens of the lichen genus Sticta in the Mascarene archipelago (mainly Réunion) and in Madagascar, mainly in the northern range (Amber Mt and Marojejy Mt) and produced the fungal ITS barcode sequence for 148 thalli. We further produced a four-loci data matrix for 68 of them, representing the diversity and geographical distribution of ITS haplotypes. We reconstructed the phylogenetic relationships within this group, established species boundaries with morphological context, and estimated the date of the most recent common ancestor. Our inferences resolve a robust clade comprising 31 endemic species of Sticta that arose from the diversification following a single recent (c. 11 Mya) colonization event. All but three species have a very restricted range, endemic to either the Mascarene archipelago or a single massif in Madagascar. The first genus of lichens to be studied with molecular data in this region underwent a recent radiation, exhibits micro-endemism, and thus exemplifies the biodiversity characteristics found in other taxa in Madagascar and the Mascarenes. Keywords: Biogeography; Indian Ocean; Lobariaceae; Photomorph; Radiation.
28951Bendiksby M., Reese Næsborg R. & Timdal E. (2018): Xylopsora canopeorum (Umbilicariaceae), a new lichen species from the canopy of Sequoia sempervirens. - MycoKeys, 30: 1–15.
Xylopsora canopeorum Timdal, Reese Næsborg & Bendiksby is described as a new species occupying the crowns of large Sequoia sempervirens trees in California, USA. The new species is supported by morphology, anatomy, secondary chemistry and DNA sequence data. While similar in external appearance to X. friesii, it is distinguished by forming smaller, partly coralloid squamules, by the occurrence of soralia and, in some specimens, by the presence of thamnolic acid in addition to friesiic acid in the thallus. Molecular phylogenetic results are based on nuclear (ITS and LSU) as well as mitochondrial (SSU) ribosomal DNA sequence alignments. Phylogenetic hypotheses obtained using Bayesian Inference, Maximum Likelihood and Maximum Parsimony all support X. canopeorum as a distinct evolutionary lineage belonging to the X. caradocensis–X. friesii clade. Keywords: California, epiphytic, Hypocenomyce, integrative taxonomy, morphology, multiple DNA sequence alignment, phylogeny, redwood forest, TLC.
28950Printzen C., Blanchon D.J., Fryday A.M., de Lange P.J., Houston D.M. & Rolfe J.R. (2017): Lecanora kohu, a new species of Lecanora (lichenised Ascomycota: Lecanoraceae) from the Chatham Islands, New Zealand. - New Zealand Journal of Botany, 55: 439–451.
Lecanora kohu Printzen, Blanchon, Fryday et de Lange is described as new to science from Rangatira (South East Island), Chatham Islands. It is morphologically similar to L. symmicta (Ach.) Ach., from which it is distinguished by the continuous, areolate thallus, immersed apothecia with pale pink to pink-brown discs, and by the presence of atranorin and psoromic acid rather than usnic acid, zeorin and xanthones in the thallus. The new species is so far known only from Rangatira (South East Island), the southernmost of the three main islands of the Chatham Islands group where it was collected twice in 2015 on the bark of Melicytus chathamicus (Violaceae) and on the bark of an undescribed species of Muehlenbeckia (Polygonaceae), M. aff. australis. Using the New Zealand Threat Classification System, the new species has been assessed as ‘Data Deficient’.
28949Rola K. & Osyczka P. (2018): Cryptogamic communities as a useful bioindication tool for estimating the degree of soil pollution with heavy metals. - Ecological Indicators, 88: 454–464.
Lichens and bryophytes have commonly been used as bioindicators of environmental conditions, especially in relation to air quality. However, their diagnostic role in the assessment of soil pollution is relatively poorly recognised. The aim of this study was to find a pattern of cryptogamic biota structure associated with zinc and lead soil pollution and to thereby identify common signal species useful for bioindication purposes. The study area encompassed various types of anthropogenic and semi-natural habitats directly associated with the processing of Zn-Pb ores in southern Poland. Detailed analysis of cryptogamic biota with respect to the chemical parameters of the corresponding soil enabled us to identify three different pollution classes related to the concentration of heavy metals and four distinct groups of ecologically close species with similar responses to the prevailing level of pollution. The significant relationship between soil chemical parameters and cryptogamic biota structure implies the high bioindicative value of the defined lichen and bryophyte assemblages. Consequently, specific sets of distinct species reflecting levels of pollution were instrumental in the development of a practical tool. This approach may constitute a first step in soil quality assessment in a broad landscape scale. It provides an opportunity for preliminary verification of the sites that are potentially the most contaminated and which require further attention, for example, within the framework of restoration projects, reclamation interventions, or conservation strategies. The proposed bioindication approach involves common, widespread lichens and bryophytes, thus increasing the potential for its wide application in post-industrial areas associated with the mining and processing of Zn-Pb ores. Keywords: Lichens; Bryophytes; Cryptogamic biota structure; Zn-Pb ores; Post-industrial areas; Environmental assessment.
28948Wierzchos J., Casero M.C., Artieda C. & Ascaso C. (2018): Endolithic microbial habitats as refuges for life in polyextreme environment of the Atacama Desert. - Current Opinion in Microbiology, 143: 124–131.
The extremely harsh conditions of hyperarid deserts are a true challenge for microbial life. Microorganisms thriving in such polyextreme environments are fascinating as they can tell us more about life, its strategies and its boundaries than other groups of organisms. The Atacama Desert (North Chile) holds two world records of extreme environmental characteristics: the lowest rainfall and greatest surface ultraviolet radiation and total solar irradiance ever measured on Earth. Despite these limiting conditions for life, we recently identified several remarkable examples of endolithic habitats colonized by phototrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms in the hyperarid core of the Atacama Desert.
28947Kłos A., Ziembik Z., Rajfur M., Dołhańczuk-Śródka A., Bochenek Z., Bjerke J.W., Tømmervik H., Zagajewski B., Ziółkowski D., Jerz D., Zielińska M., Krems P., Godyń P., Marciniak M. & Świsłowski P. (2018): Using moss and lichens in biomonitoring of heavy-metal contamination of forest areas in southern and north-eastern Poland. - Science of the Total Environment, 627: 438–449.
In the years 2014–2016 biomonitoring studies were conducted in the forest areas of south and north-eastern Poland: the Karkonosze Mountains, the Beskidy Mountains, the Borecka Forest, the Knyszyńska Forest and the Białowieska Forest. This study used epigeic moss Pleurozium schreberi and epiphytic lichens Hypogymnia physodes. Samples were collected in spring, summer and autumn. Approximately 500 samples of moss and lichens were collected for the study. In the samples, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb concentrations were determined. Based on the obtained results, the studied areas were ranked by extent of heavy-metal deposition: Beskidy > Karkonosze Mountains > forests of north-eastern Poland. Some seasonal changes in concentrations of metals accumulated in moss and lichens were also indicated. There was observed, i.a., an increase in Cd concentration at the beginning of the growing season, which may be related to low emissions during the heating season. Analysis of the surface distribution of deposition of metals in the studied areas showed a significant contribution of nearby territorial emissions and unidentified local emission sources. The contribution of distant emission to Zn, Hg and Pb deposition levels in the Karkonosze and Beskidy region was also indicated.
28946del Hoyo A., Alvarez R., Gasulla F., Casano L.M. & del Campo E.M. (2018): Origin and evolution of chloroplast group I introns in lichen algae. - Journal of Phycology, 54(1): 66–78.
The history of group I introns is characterized by repeated horizontal transfers, even among phylogenetically distant species. The symbiogenetic thalli of lichens are good candidates for the horizontal transfer of genetic material among distantly related organisms, such as fungi and green algae. The main goal of this study was to determine whether there were different trends in intron distribution and properties among Chlorophyte algae based on their phylogenetic relationships and living conditions. Therefore, we investigated the occurrence, distribution and properties of group I introns within the chloroplast LSU rDNA in 87 Chlorophyte algae including lichen and free-living Trebouxiophyceae compared to freeliving non-Trebouxiophyceae species. Overall, our findings showed that there was high diversity of group I introns and homing endonucleases (HEs) between Trebouxiophyceae and non-Trebouxiophyceae Chlorophyte algae, with divergence in their distribution patterns, frequencies and properties. However, the differences between lichen Trebouxiophyceae and free-living Trebouxiophyceae were smaller. An exception was the cL2449 intron, which was closely related to x elements in yeasts. Such introns seem to occur more frequently in lichen Trebouxiophyceae compared to free-living Trebouxiophyceae. Our data suggest that lichenization and maintenance of lichen symbiosis for millions of years of evolution may have facilitated horizontal transfers of specific introns/ HEs between symbionts. The data also suggest that sequencing of more chloroplast genes harboring group I introns in diverse algal groups may help us to understand the group I intron/HE transmission process within these organisms. Key index words: 23S rRNA; Chlorophyta; chloroplast; homing endonuclease; intron; LAGLIDADG; phycobiont; Trebouxiophyceae.
28945Wijayawardene N.N., Hyde K.D., Lumbsch H.T., Liu J.K., Maharachchikumbura S.S.N., Ekanayaka A.H., Tian Q. & Phookamsak R. (2018): Outline of Ascomycota: 2017. - Fungal Diversity, 88: 167–263.
Taxonomic placement of genera have been changing rapidly as taxonomists widely use DNA sequence data in phylogenetic and evolutionary studies. It is essential to update existing databases/outlines based on recent studies, since these sources are widely used as a foundation for other research. In this outline, we merge both asexual and sexual genera into one outline. The phylum Ascomycota comprises of three subphyla viz. Pezizomycotina (including 13 classes, 124 orders and 507 families), Saccharomycotina (including one class, one order and 13 families) and Taphrinomycotina (five classes, five orders and six families). Approximately, 6600 genera have been listed under different taxonomic ranks including auxiliary (intermediate) taxonomic ranks. Keywords: Asexual genera  Classification  Sexual genera  Systematic  Taxonomic ranks.
28944Osyczka P., Boroń P., Lenart-Boroń A. & Rola K. (2018): Modifications in the structure of the lichen Cladonia thallus in the aftermath of habitat contamination and implications for its heavy-metal accumulation capacity. - Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 25(2): 1950–1961.
Phenotypic traits of lichens can be greatly modified by environmental factors. Granulose thalli on soil and podetia, densely covered with granules, referring to common and widespread lichen Cladonia cervicornis subsp. verticillata were found near zinc smelter. The granules are stratified, filled with fungal medulla and heavily encrusted with calcium oxalate weddellite crystals, not observed on regularly developed thalli of the species. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that deformed granulose forms belong to this taxon, showing that the phenotypic plasticity of the lichens of Cladonia can lead to the emergence of features that do not coincide with the taxonomic definition of the species. The heavy-metal accumulation capacity of both granulose and regular form of primary and secondary lichen thallus, in relation to the element content in corresponding substrate, was determined. Granulose-modified thalli accumulate greater amounts of heavy metals than regular ones, meaning that the bioaccumulation property of a given species may be greatly affected by morphological modifications. The granulose forms are also characterised by considerably higher ratios of Cd, Pb and As concentrations in lichen samples in relation to the corresponding substrates than regular ones. This means that collection of variously formed thalli should be avoided in biomonitoring sampling procedures. The results indicate that a substantial part of the element load, in particular zinc, in the examined lichen thalli collected near the smelter originates from atmospheric fallout. Keywords: Lichenized fungi; Phenotypic plasticity; Heavy metals; Bioaccumulation; Oxalate crystals; Biomonitoring; Thallus anatomy.
28943Moon K.H., Nakanishi M., Aptroot A., Kuchitsu N., Futagami Y., Sophearin S. & Kashiwadani H. (2013): Lichens found in Ta Nei Temple and its adjacent areas of Angkor, Siem Reap, Cambodia. - 保存科学 [Science for Conservation], 52: 43–57.
The lichens flora of Angkor, Siem Reap, Cambodia was investigated from 2005 to 2011 with special attention to the Ta Nei temple. So far we have recognized 15 families (including two incertae sedis), 15 genera and 45 species of lichens from the area, and an annotated checklist of them is provided. Among them following 25 species are new records for lichen flora of Cambodia;Agonimia tristicula, Arthonia cinnabarina, Chapsa indica, Coccocarpia erythroxyli, Coenogonium pineti, Dictyonema moorei, Dirinaria consimilis, Fellhanera fuscatula, Flakea papillata, Hyperphyscia granulate, Hyperphyscia syncolla, Laurera benguelensis, Myriotrema compunctum, Nadvornikia sorediate, Parmotrema saccatilobum, Peltula omphaliza, Phyllopsora furfuracea, Porina mastoidea, Porina nuculastrum, Porina papuensis, Pyrenula quassiaecola, Pyxine coralligera, Pyxine meissnerina, Rinodina atrofuscata and Trapelia coarctata.
28942Sun Y., Li J., Zhang Y., Tu Y., Huang C., Tao J., Yang M. & Yang L. (2018): The polysaccharide extracted from Umbilicaria esculenta inhibits proliferation of melanoma cells through ROS-activated mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. - Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 41(1): 57–64.
Melanoma is one of the most aggressive skin cancers with an increasing rate of morbidity. Umbilicaria esculenta is an edible lichen and its main component of extracts—polysaccharide (PUE) has shown significant antitumor effects in a variety of cancer types such as stomach adenocarcinoma. However, whether it has an anti-melanoma effect and the underlying mechanism has not been revealed. In this article, we showed that PUE extracted from Umbilicaria esculenta could inhibit the growth of A875 and A375 melanoma cells but without obvious toxicity to normal vascular endothelial cells. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in A875 cells was significantly elevated when treated with PUE for 24h. In addition, the expression of caspase-3 and -9 also increased as compared to the controlled group which resulted in the apoptosis of A875 melanoma cells. In the meantime, when pre-treated with N-acetylcysteine (NAC), the ROS scavenger, PUE induced apoptosis and cell death could be reversed via suppression of elevated generation of ROS and ROSmediated caspase-9 expression. In summary, our study demonstrated that PUE extracts from Umbilicaria esculenta have a potent anti-melanoma effect through the induction of ROS and caspases-3 and -9. It could provide a promising strategy of melanoma therapy with the components from the extracts of natural and edible plants such as lichen Umbilicaria esculenta. Key words Umbilicaria esculenta; extract; melanoma; reactive oxygen species; caspase.
28941中西 勤 [Nakanishi T.] (2007): 植物界(生薬及び植物)から薬用成分の探索と構造研究 [Search and structural elucidation of medicinal products from the vegetable kingdom (crude drugs and plant materials)]. - Yakugaku Zasshi, 127(12): 1975–1996.
[in Japanese with English abstract:] This review describes chemical and biological studies on natural products achieved by the author for the latest 47 years and its main contents are composed of the following researches of the eight sections, entitled 1) Hopane-type triterpenes from a lichen, Parmelia leucotyliza, 2) Spirostanol and frostanol glycosides from Metanarthecium luteo-viride (Liliaceae), 3) Selective reduction of double bonds: preparation of 22,23-dihydroergosterol from ergosterol, 4) Compositions and structures of fragrant sesquiterpenes from several types of agarwoods, 5) Triterpenes and other components from Meliaceous plants, 6) Constituents of seeds of crude drugs and medicinal plants, 7) Hopane-type triterpene glycosides from a fern, Diplazium subsinuatum, 8) Search and structural elucidation of biologically active components from American plants obtained from United States of America (Oregon and California), Mexico, Guatemala, and Honduras. In this review, many classes of natural products, i.e., terpenoids (mono-, sesqui-, di-, and triterpenoids), steroids, glycosides, saponins, tannins, phenylpropanoids, lignans, flavonoids (flavones, flavonols, flavanones, biflavones, flavan-3-ols, etc.), etc. are dealt with and referred to.
28940Kobayashi K. (2017): A phytosociological study on the moss and lichen communities in Cape Hinode, Antarctica. - 南極資料 (Nankyoku Shiryô) [Antarctic Record], 61: 57–80.
Under the project of the 15th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition, the field investigation was carried out between December 30, 1973 and January 6, 1974 in Cape Hinode. This paper was undertaken to classify and describe the moss and lichen communities in Cape Hinode according to the vegetation concept and method of the Zürich-Montpellier (Z-M) school of phytosociology. The following vegetation units of moss and lichen communities were classified: A. Ceratodontetum purpurei ass. nov.: 1. Subass. of typicum, 2. Subass. of Protoblastenia citrina, 3. Subass. of Protoblastenia citrina-Rinodina olivaceobrunnea, 4. Subass. of Rinodina olivaceobrunnea, 5. Subass. of Alectoria minuscula, 6. Subass. of Alectoria minuscula-Buellia frigida, 7. Subass. of Buellia frigida; B. Buellietum frigidae ass. nov.: 8. Subass. of typicum, 9. Subass. of Caloplaca elegans var. pulvinata; C. Alectorietum minusculae ass. nov.: 10. Subass. of Buellia frigida, 11. Subass. of typicum. Each vegetation unit classified was described with an association table showing floristic composition and data on growing habitat. The distribution of each subassociation was shown on the map. The relationships among 11 classified subassociations were examined using the similarity index. Keywords: phytosociology, association, subassociation, fidelity, classify.
28939Garrido-Benavent I. & Pérez-Ortega S. (2017): Past, present, and future research in bipolar lichen-forming fungi and their photobionts. - American Journal of Botany, 104(11): 1660–1674.
Compared to other organisms, such as vascular plants or mosses, lichen-forming fungi have a high number of species occurring in both northern and southern hemispheres but are largely absent from intermediate, tropical latitudes. For instance, ca. 160 Antarctic species also occur in polar areas or mountainous temperate regions of the northern hemisphere. Early interpretations of this particular distribution pattern were made in terms of vicariance or long-distance dispersal. However, it was not until the emergence of phylogenetics and the possibility of dating past diversifi cation and colonization events that these initial hypotheses started to be evaluated. The premise of a relatively recent colonization of the southern hemisphere by boreal lichens through long-distance dispersal has gained support in recent studies based on either the comparison of genetic affi nities (i.e., tree topology) or more robust, statistical migratory models. Still, the scarcity of such studies and a concern that taxonomic concepts for bipolar lichens are often too broad preclude the generation of sound explanations on the mechanisms and origin of such fascinating disjunct distributions. This review provides an up-to-date overview of bipolar distributions in lichen-forming fungi and their photobionts. Evidence provided by recent, molecular- based studies as well as data on the type of lichen reproduction, dispersal ability, photobiont identity and availability, and habitat preferences are brought together to discuss how and when these distributions originated and their genetic footprints. Ideas for future prospects and research are also discussed. Key words: Antarctica; bipolar distribution; ecological niche; lichens; long-distance dispersal; nrITS; phylogeography; symbiotic interactions; vicariance.
28938Osyczka P. (2018): How many conidia are contained in one pycnidium? Volumetric characteristics of pycnidium and conidial counts estimated for Lichenoconium pyxidatae. - Lichenologist, 50(1): 147-151.
Taxonomic descriptions inevitably reflect the shapes of organisms in reduced form since the dimensions of all possible diagnostic characteristics are routinely considered at the planar level. By contrast the three- dimensional conformations of structures are difficult to define and remain unspecified. At present, it is difficult to assess the importance of volumetric characteristics for diagnostic taxonomy; however, some biological detail might be obtained from spatial data. When the pycnidia of lichenicolous fungi are examined under a microscope, as in the case of Lichenoconium pyxidatae (Oudem.) Petr. & Syd. (Fig. 1A), it is evident that the produc- tion of conidia by a single pycnidium is pro- lific, although hard to quantify. The question as to how many conidia are contained inside one pycnidium may arise. This study reveals previously unknown information about the structure and function of lichenicolous fungi. In particular, it gives an insight into the scale of reproductive effort represented by a single pycnidium, the quantity of conidia produced by conidiogenous cells and the general volu- metric proportions of the wall with con- idiogenous cells, internally generated conidia and empty space between them.
28937Solhaug K.A. (2018): Low-light recovery effects on assessment of photoinhibition with chlorophyll fluorescence in lichens. - Lichenologist, 50(1): 139–145.
Chlorophyll a fluorescence is often used to estimate various types of damage in lichens. In order to optimize the output and improve interpretations of such measurements the protocol for pretreatment and measuring is important. To study the effects of measurement conditions, the lichens Lobaria pulmonaria, L. scrobiculata, Xanthoria parietina and Parmelia sulcata were first stressed by high light intensities at 600 or 1000 μmol photons m−2 s−1 for 4 h. Then various conditions during recovery or pretreatment were used to optimize the detection of more lasting damage. Recovery from photoinhibition was incomplete in darkness, whereas light as low as 0·2 or 1·0 μmol m−2 s−1 resulted in complete recovery if the recovery period was long enough. Additionally, low intensity light given for1·5 h after one day in darkness caused rapid and complete recovery. In conclusion, before measuring maximal PSII efficiency (Fv/Fm) with chlorophyll fluorescence, it is important to let lichens recover in low intensity light and not in darkness, to optimize recovery from photoinhibition; dark adaptation can only be recommended if the photoinhibition status of the lichens is of interest. D1 protein, Lobaria pulmonaria, Lobaria scrobiculata, Parmelia sulcata, photosystem II, Xanthoria parietina
28936Molins A., Moya P., García-Breijo F.J., Reig-Armiñana J. & Barreno E. (2018): A multi-tool approach to assess microalgal diversity in lichens: isolation, Sanger sequencing, HTS and ultrastructural correlations. - Lichenologist, 50(1): 123-138.
Lichen thalli represent the most conspicuous examples of fungal-algal interactions. Studies that describe phycobiont diversity within entire thalli are based mainly on Sanger sequencing. In some lichen species, this technique could underestimate the intrathalline coexistence of multiple microalgae. In this study different multi-tool approaches were applied to two lichen taxa, Circinaria hispida and Flavoparmelia soredians, to detect algal coexistence. Here, we combined Sanger sequencing, a specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primer, 454-pyrosequencing, phycobiont isolation and ultrastructural characterization. Furthermore, we compared pyrenoid ultrastructural features of lichenized phycobionts with microalgae isolated in culture. An improved methodology was used to isolate and propagate phycobionts which, in combination with fast genetic identification, resulted in a considerable reduction in time and cost to complete the process. This isolation method, coupled with a specific PCR primer, allowed for the detection of coexisting algae in C. hispida (four Trebouxia lineages). 454-pyrosequencing detected only a fraction of such diversity, while Sanger sequencing identified only the primary phycobiont. Ultrastructural features of the isolated algae were observed by transmission electron microscopy; the maintenance of the pyrenoid characteristics suggested the existence of different Trebouxia lineages. In F. soredians a single Trebouxia lineage was identified using all these approaches. In cases of lichens with algal coexistence, a combination of different molecular and ultrastructural approaches may be required to reveal the underlying algal diversity within a single thallus. The approach proposed in this study provides information about the relationship between molecular and ultrastructural data, and represents an improvement in the delimitation of taxonomic features which is needed to recognize intrathalline Trebouxia diversity. coexistence, propagation, Trebouxia photobionts, 454-pyrosequencing
28935Cornejo C. & Scheidegger C. (2018): Estimating the timescale of Lobaria diversification. - Lichenologist, 50(1): 113-121.
Using an ITS mutation rate as calibration reference, a three-locus timetree was generated for the genus Lobaria and its most important clades. The timetree resolved most clades with strong support and gave an estimate of the diversification time for Lobaria during the early Oligocene. A fossil impression from a 12–24 million-year-old Miocene deposit is hypothesized here to belong to an ancestral Lobaria species. Additionally, the age estimate indicates that the paleoclimate and the closing or opening of the Bering Strait played a major role in shaping the current distribution of most Lobaria species. It is hypothesized that the Bering land bridge acted as a major highway during warm-temperate climate periods, but as a barrier during Arctic climate times. ascomycetes, Bering land bridge, disjunction, fossil impression, lichens, mutation rate, time-calibrated phylogeny
28934Purvis O.W., Fernández-Brime S., Westberg M. & Wedin M. (2018): Myriospora, a genus newly reported for Antarctica with a worldwide key to the species. - Lichenologist, 50(1): 89-99.
Myriospora signyensis Purvis, Fdez-Brime, M. Westb. & Wedin is described from Signy Island, South Orkney Islands, Antarctica, where it occurs predominantly on quartz mica schist. This represents the first record of the genus for Antarctica. The distinctive interrupted photobiont arrangement places it within the genus Myriospora (formerly known as the ‘Acarospora’ smaragdula group, or Silobia). The new species is characterized by having large, distinctly elevated, sessile apothecia with a prominent margin and a thallus that is usually lobed at the margins and variously orange-red, rust-coloured or brown-pigmented. Molecular phylogenetic analyses inferred with strong support that M. signyensis is closely related to M. scabrida which is similar in having a lobed, imbricate thallus with large and frequently somewhat raised apothecia, but which differs in never being rusty red, by frequently having a larger number of apothecia per areole/squamule and by having a thick and distinctive thalline epinecral layer. Myriospora signyensis is otherwise most similar to M. dilatata but the thallus of M. dilatata is never imbricate-lobate and the ascomata of M. signyensis have larger and more distinctly raised and sessile apothecia. A worldwide key to the 10 species currently recognized in the genus is presented. Acarosporaceae, lichenized fungus, refugia, taxonomy
28933Zhang Y.Y., Wang X.Y., Liu D., Shi H.X., Yang M.X., Li L.J. & Wang L.S. (2018): New species and new records of Ophioparmaceae (lichenized Ascomycota) from China. - Lichenologist, 50(1): 89-99.
The lichen family Ophioparmaceae contains three genera: Boreoplaca, Hypocenomyce and Ophioparma. The genus Hypocenomyce is reported here for the first time for China, being represented by the species Hypocenomyce scalaris which is distributed in south-western China. For the genus Ophioparma, one new species is described in this paper, namely Ophioparma pruinosa Li S. Wang & Y. Y. Zhang sp. nov., which is characterized by a pruinose thallus and the presence of usnic acid. Ophioparma araucariae is also reported as new for the Chinese lichen biota. Previous reports of O. lapponica in China are recognized as misidentifications of O. ventosa. Descriptions, keys and phylograms are provided for these species. alpine zone, haemoventosin, lichen diversity, taxonomy
28932Aptroot A., Sipman H.J.M., Mercado Diaz J.A., Mendonça de Oliveira C., Feuerstein S.C., Cunha-Dias I.P.R., Pereira T.A. & Cáceres da Silva M.E. (2018): Eight new species of Pyrenulaceae from the Neotropics, with a key to 3-septate Pyrgillus species. - Lichenologist, 50(1): 77-87.
Eight new species of Pyrenulaceae are described as new to science from Brazil, Guyana and Puerto Rico. Pyrenula sanguineomeandrata Aptroot & Mercado Diaz (with a thallus with red, KOH+ purple pigmentation of lines or a reticulum, simple ascomata with vertical ostioles, a deep red inspersed, KOH+ orange hamathecium, and dark brown 3-septate ascospores 25–29 × 10–12 μm) and P. sanguineostiolata Aptroot & Mercado Diaz (with a thallus with deeply immersed simple ascomata with vertical ostioles, which are superficial and bright red, and 3-septate ascospores 25–28×9–12μm) are described from submontane evergreen forests in Puerto Rico. Pyrenula biseptata Aptroot & M. Cáceres (with simple ascomata with vertical ostioles, an inspersed hamathecium and 2-septate ascospores 11–12 × 4·5–5·0 μm) and P. xanthinspersa Aptroot & M. Cáceres (with an ecorticate thallus containing lichexanthone, simple ascomata with vertical ostioles, not inspersed hamathecium and 3-septate ascospores 14–17 × 6·0–7·5 μm) are described from rainforest in Amazonian Brazil. Pyrenula subvariabilis Aptroot & Sipman (with fused ascomata with lateral ostioles and submuriform ascospores 17–20(–25)×6–9μm) and Sulcopyrenula biseriata Aptroot & Sipman (with a thallus containing lichexanthone, simple ascomata with lateral ostioles and lozenge-shaped ascospores with 8 locules, (13–)15–17(–20) × 8–10 (width) × 6–7 (thickness) μm) are described from savannahs in Guyana. Special attention is paid to the genus Pyrgillus: two new species from the 3-septate core group of this small genus are described from Brazil, viz. P. aurantiacus Aptroot & M. Cáceres (with a corticate thallus containing lichexanthone, mazaedium with orange, KOH+ violet, UV+ red pruina and ascospores of 13–16×6·0–7·5μm) and P. rufus Aptroot & M. Cáceres (with a corticate thallus containing lichexanthone, mazaedium with dark red, KOH+ orange, UV+ red pruina and ascospores of 15·0–17·5 × 5·0–6·5 μm). An updated key to the 3-septate species of Pyrgillus is provided. Brazil, Guyana, lichen, Puerto Rico, Pyrenula, Sulcopyrenula
28931Onut-Brännström I., Johannesson H. & Tibell L. (2018): Thamnolia tundrae sp. nov., a cryptic species and putative glacial relict. - Lichenologist, 50(1): 59-75.
The lichen species of the genus Thamnolia, with their striking wormlike thalli and frequent occurrence in arctic and tundra environments, have often been debated with regard to the use of chemistry in lichen taxonomy. Phylogenetic studies have arrived at different conclusions as to the recognition of species in the genus, but in a recent study based on the analyses of six nuclear markers (genes or noncoding regions) of a worldwide sample of Thamnolia, we showed the existence of three well-supported lineages with two different chemistries and geographical distributions. Here, we present two analyses based on ITS and three markers, respectively, which were extended from the study mentioned above to include type specimens and additional Thamnolia strains and taxa. In these analyses the same three clades were retrieved. A putative DEAD-box helicase is used here for the first time as an informative phylogenetic marker to provide taxonomic resolution at species level. The distribution of morphological and chemical characters across the phylogeny was analyzed and it was concluded that three morphologically cryptic, but genetically well supported, species occur: T. vermicularis s. str., T. subuliformis s. str. and T. tundrae sp. nov. Thamnolia vermicularis s. str. contains individuals with uniform secondary chemistry (producing thamnolic acid) and a rather limited distribution in the European Alps, Tatra Mts and the Western Carpathians, a distribution which might result from glacial survival in an adjacent refugium/refugia. Thamnolia subuliformis s. str. is widely distributed in all hemispheres and the samples contain two chemotypes (either with thamnolic or squamatic acids). Thamnolia tundrae is described as new; it produces baeomycesic and squamatic acids, and has a distribution limited to the arctic tundra of Eurasia extending to the Aleutian Islands in North America. It may have survived the latest glaciation in coastal refugia near its present distribution. Thus, secondary chemistry alone is not suitable for characterizing species in Thamnolia, secondary chemistry and geographical origin are informative, and the ITS region can be confidently used for species recognition. Nomenclatural notes are given on several other names that have been used in Thamnolia. lichens, molecular phylogeny, new species, nomenclature, secondary chemistry, taxonomy
28930Czarnota P. & Guzow-Krzeminska B. (2018): Bacidina mendax sp. nov., a new widespread species in Central Europe, together with a new combination within the genus Bacidina. - Lichenologist, 50(1): 43-57.
Bacidina mendax, described here as a new lichen species, appears to be common and widespread, at least in Central Europe. Analyses of the ITS rDNA region and the morphology of specimens showed an intraspecific variation in the new taxon. It differs from B. neosquamulosa in the lack of a subsquamulose thallus, and from B. caligans in its longer and only slightly curved to apically hooked conidia and lack of a granular (sorediate) thallus. Since ITS rDNA data support the inclusion of Bacidia pycnidiata Czarnota & Coppins in the genus Bacidina, a new combination is proposed. ITS rDNA, lichen taxonomy, lichenized fungi, molecular phylogeny
28929Orange A. (2018): A new species-level taxonomy for Trapelia (Trapeliaceae, Ostropomycetidae) with special reference to Great Britain and the Falkland Islands. - Lichenologist, 50(1): 3-42.
Trapelia is a small genus of worldwide distribution. Trapelia coarctata has long been regarded as a morphologically variable species and phylogenetic studies have suggested that it is non- monophyletic, or at least that species are frequently misidentified. The phylogenetic relationships of freshly-collected material of Trapelia were studied using ITS, mitochondrial SSU rDNA and to a small extent also beta-tubulin sequence data, together with chemical and morphological characters. Sequence data combined with morphology and chemistry confirm that the diversity of the genus at species-level has been underestimated. Trapelia coarctata is defined in a more restricted way and many specimens previously referable to this taxon are assigned to the reinstated species T. elacista, which differs in subtle morphological characters including a crack separating the thallus and apothecium in well-developed thalli. Trapelia involuta is reinstated as a separate, though closely related, species to T. glebulosa based on sequence data, morphology and chemistry, and is lectotypified. Trapelia collaris is a distinctive species described as new from Great Britain which has an extensive, cracked thallus with abruptly thickening marginal areoles arising on an inconspicuous prothallus, relatively small apothecia (rarely exceeding 300μm diameter) and contains 5-O-methylhiascic acid as the major secondary substance. Trapelia obtegens is shown to include frequent non-sorediate morphs which have doubtless been misidentified as other species. The number of species of Trapelia considered to occur in Europe is thus raised from five to eight. The genus is newly reported for the Falkland Islands where seven species occur: T. coarctata, T. placodioides, T. sitiens sp. nov. (with a thin, extensive thallus, sessile apothecia, 5-O-methylhiascic acid as the major secondary substance and the presence of conidiomata), T. tristis sp. nov. (with relatively small apothecia up to 460 μm diameter, presence of gyrophoric acid as the major substance and an absence of conidiomata) and three unidentified species represented by very sparse material. All the species studied, with the possible exception of the three unidentified species, can usually be distinguished by morphological features, particularly the method of development of the thallus and the shape and distribution of the areoles, but morphological variation in response to microhabitat variation is likely to make a proportion of specimens difficult to assign to species in the absence of sequence data. beta-tubulin, early colonizers, Germany, ITS, lichens, mine spoil, mtSSU, streams, taxonomy
28928Crittenden P. (2018): Editorial. - Lichenologist, 50(1): 1-2.
The British Lichen Society celebrated its fiftieth anniversary in 2008. However, although The Lichenologist was launched in the same year as the Society it has only now reached its fiftieth volume because the first few volumes spanned several years. To mark the publication of Volume 50 (Part 1) I thought that it would be of interest to look back at the authors who contributed to Volume 1 and to briefly consider the legacies that they have left to present day lichenology. The contributors to the first volume, listed in order of appearance together with the number of papers that they published in brackets, were as follows: J. H. Tallis (3), A. E. Wade (7), T. D. V. Swinscow (4), J. R. Laundon (2), P. W. James (4), J. L. Gilbert (1), G. D. Scott (2), R. B. Ivimey- Cook (1), F. H. Brightman (1), U. K. Duncan (1), K. A. Kershaw (2), D. C. Smith (1) and M. E. Hale (1).
28927Ruete A., Jönsson M.T. & Snäll T. (2018): Conservation benefits of international Aichi protection and restoration targets for future epiphyte metapopulations. - Journal of Applied Ecology, 55: 118–128.
More than half way towards the deadline for 2020 Aichi targets, a key question is whether the metapopulation dynamics of dispersal-restricted habitat specialists can be sustained under current international targets of protection and restoration. We present the first metapopulation projections under scenarios of multiple Aichi biodiversity targets of protecting high-quality habitats and restoring suboptimal quality habitats under management. We simulate 200 years of metapopulation dynamics of nine old-growth beech (Fagus sylvatica)-associated epiphytic lichens, under a range of protection and restoration scenarios in a realistic landscape realm. Protection was generally more efficient than restoration, where protection resulted in a constant increase in occupancy over time. However, projections showed that substantial increments in the number of occupied protected beech stands will most likely occur within the next 100–200 years. The time frame was dependent on species-specific dispersal restriction, occupancy levels at onset and forest-age requirements. Suboptimally restored beech stands increased lichen metapopulation sizes over a transient period and shortened the time for dispersal-restricted species to reach higher occupancy levels inside protected areas of the landscape (c. 85– 125 years). Synthesis and applications. Based on projections of metapopulation dynamics of species associated with old-growth forest, we argue that a combination of protection and restoration with the shortest possible time frame for increasing occupancy is the safest strategy. This is especially important under climatic and socio-political changes that are unforeseeable over centuries. If choosing between conservation strategies, highest priority should be given to increased protection because it means larger metapopulation sizes of these species on the long term. Keywords: Aichi, biodiversity targets, conservation planning, epiphytes, fragmentation, lichens, metapopulations, protected areas, restoration, scenario projections.
28926Staiger B. (2002): Die Flechtenfamilie Graphidaceae. Studien in Richtung einer natürlicheren Gliederung. - Bibl. Lichenol., 95: 1-526.
Using chemical, morphological, anatomical, and molecular data, the system of spore-based genera hitherto used in the Graphidaceae is replaced with a more natural generic circumscription. Seventeen previously described genera are accepted or reintroduced and two new genera are proposed. New: Acanthothecis africana Staiger & Kalb sp. nov. (Kenya), A. aurantiaca (Müll. Arg.) Staiger & Kalb comb. nov., A. dialeuca (Kremp.) Staiger & Kalb comb. nov., A. rosea (Vainio) Staiger & Kalb comb. nov., A. socotrina (Müll. Arg.) Staiger & Kalb comb. nov., A. subclavulifera Staiger & Kalb sp. nov. (Guatemala), Chroodiscus brasilianus (Hale) Staiger & Kalb comb. nov., Anomomorpha aggregans (Nyl.) comb. nov., A. sordida sp. nov. (Brazil), Carbacanthographis Staiger & Kalb gen. nov., C. amicta (Nyl.) Staiger & Kalb comb. nov., C. candidata (Nyl.) Staiger & Kalb comb. nov., C. chionophora (Redinger) Staiger & Kalb comb. nov., C. crassa (Müll. Arg.) Staiger & Kalb comb. nov., C. inspersa sp. nov. (Brazil), C. marcescens (Fée) Staiger & Kalb comb. nov., C. stictica Staiger & Kalb sp. nov. (Brazil), C. subalbotecta Staiger & Kalb sp. nov. (Brazil), Fissurina albocinerea (Vainio) comb. nov., F. alboscripta (Coppins & P. James) comb. nov., F. cingalina (Nyl.) comb. nov., F. columbina (Tuck.) comb. nov., F. comparimuralis sp. nov. (Brazil), F. globulifica (Nyl.) comb. nov., F. marginata sp. nov. (Australia, Africa [Reunion Islands], Ecuador), F. rubiginosa (Fée) comb. nov., F. subnitidula (Nyl.) comb. nov., F. tachygrapha (Nyl.) comb. nov., F. glauca (Müll. Arg.) comb. nov., F. humilis (Vainio) comb. nov., F. rufula (Mont.) comb. nov., F. canlaonensis (Vainio) comb. nov., F. dumastioides (Fink) comb. nov., Glyphis subgen. Pallidoglyphis subgen. nov., G. dictyospora sp. nov. (Kenya), G. montoensis (Archer) comb. nov., G. scyphulifera (Ach.) comb. nov., G. substriatula (Nyl.) comb. nov., Graphis albotecta (Redinger) comb. nov., G. alpestris (Zahlbr.) comb. nov., G. aquilonia (Archer) comb. nov., G. britannica nom. nov. (for "Graphina anguina" auct. europ), G. crystallifera (Redinger) comb. nov., G. hyphosa sp. nov. (Brazil), G. muscicola (Kalb) comb. nov., G. vestitoides (Fink) comb. nov., Gymnographa cyclospora (Müll. Arg.) comb. nov., G. eludens (Stirton) comb. nov., G. heterospora (Nyl.) comb. nov., Hemithecium subgen. Leucogramma subgen. nov., H. chapadanum (Redinger) comb. nov, H. chlorocarpoides (Nyl.) comb. nov., H. implicatum (Fée) comb. nov., H. laubertianum (Fée) comb. nov., H. oryzaeforme (Fée) comb. nov., H. rufopallidum (Vainio) comb. nov., Leiorreuma dilatatum (Vainio) comb. nov., L. ellipticum (Müll. Arg.) comb. nov., L. exaltatum (Mont. & v. d. Bosch) comb. nov., L. hypomelaenum (Müll. Arg.) comb. nov., L. lyellii (Sm.) comb. nov., L. patellulum (Fée) comb. nov., L. sericeum (Eschw.) comb. nov., Phaeographis amazonica sp. nov. (Brazil), P. caesiodisca sp. nov. ( Brazil), P. epruinosa (Redinger) comb. nov., P. fusca sp. nov. (Brazil, Dominican Republic), P. intricans (Nyl.) comb. nov., P. kalbii sp. nov. (Brazil, Costa Rica, Kenya), P. lecanographa (Nyl.) comb. nov., P. leprieurii (Mont.) comb. nov., P. scalpturata (Ach.) comb. nov., Platygramme australiensis Staiger & Matthes-Leicht sp. nov., P. colubrosa (Nyl.) comb. nov., P. discurrens (Nyl.) comb. nov., P. muelleri (Archer) comb. nov., P. pachyspora (Redinger) comb. nov., P. praestans (Müll. Arg.) comb. nov., Platythecium gen. nov., P. acutisporum sp. nov. (Brazil), P. allosporellum (Nyl.) comb. nov., P. colliculosum (Mont.) comb. nov., P. dimorphodes (Nyl.) comb. nov., P. grammitis (Fée) comb. nov., P. inspersum sp. nov. (Brazil), P. leiogramma (Nyl.) comb. nov., P. serpentinellum (Nyl.) comb. nov., P. sphaerosporellum (Nyl.) comb. nov., Sarcographa ramificans (Kremp.) comb. nov., Thalloloma anguinaeforme (Vainio) comb. nov., T. astroideum (Müll. Arg.) comb. nov., T. buriticum (Redinger) comb. nov., T. cinnabarinum (Fée) comb. nov., T. deplanatum (Nyl.) comb. nov., T. haemographum (Nyl.) comb. nov., T. halonatum sp. nov. (Brazil), T. hypoleptum (Nyl.) comb. nov., T. isidiosum sp. nov. (Papua New Guinea), T. janeirense sp. nov. (Brazil), T. rhodastrum (Redinger) comb. nov., Thecaria montagnei (v. d. Bosch) comb. nov.
28925Joshi S., Upreti D.K. & Hur J.-S. (2017): Key to the lichen families Pyrenulaceae and Trypetheliaceae in Vietnam, with eight new records. - Mycotaxon, 132(4): 957-969.
An identification key is presented for the members of the lichen families Pyrenulaceae and Trypetheliaceae in Vietnam. Eight pyrenocarpous species (in Anthracothecium, Astrothelium, Lithothelium, and Pyrenula) collected from Nam Cat Tien National Park, are new records for Vietnam. Taxonomic characters of the species are given along with ecology, distribution, and illustrations. Key words—Bathelium, Nigrovothelium, taxonomy, Trypethelium.
28924Miao C.-C, Zhao X.-X., Zhao Z.-T., Shahidin H. & Zhang L.-L. (2017): Huneckia pollinii and Flavoplaca oasis newly recorded from China. - Mycotaxon, 132(4): 895-901.
Huneckia pollinii and Flavoplaca oasis are described and illustrated from Chinese specimens. The two species and the genus Huneckia are recorded for the first time from China. Keywords—Asia, lichens, taxonomy, Teloschistaceae.
28923Knudsen K., Kocourková J. & Schiefelbein U. (2017): New reports of Myriospora (Acarosporaceae) from Europe. - Mycotaxon, 132(4): 857-865.
Myriospora dilatata is newly reported for the Czech Republic and M. myochroa new for Italy. Myriospora rufescens was rediscovered in Germany almost 100 years after its first collection. A neotype is designated for Acarospora fusca, which is recognized as a synonym of M. rufescens. Key words—Myriospora hassei, Silobia, Trimmatothelopsis.
28922Cao S., He J., Zhang F., Tian H., Liu C., Wang H. & Zhou Q. (2017): Baeomyces lotiformis sp. nov. from China. - Mycotaxon, 132(4): 831-837.
A new species of lichenized fungus, Baeomyces lotiformis, is described and illustrated. It is distinguished by its short podetia and wide apothecium discs, and its affinity was confirmed by ITS sequence analysis. Key words—Ascomycota, Baeomycetaceae, chemistry, molecular systematics, morphology.
28921Ertz D. Christnach C., Wedin M. & Diederich P. (2005): A World Monograph of the Genus Plectocarpon (Roccellaceae, Arthoniales). - Bibl. Lichenol., 91: 1-155.
Recognition of 32 species with keys; most are lichenicolous on thalli of Lobariaceae and Nephromataceae. New: Plectocarpon bunodophori Wedin, Ertz & Diederich sp. nov. (Australia, New Zealand), P. concentricum Ertz, Diederich & Wedin sp. nov. (New Zealand), P. coppinsii Ertz & Diederich sp. nov. (Chile), P. crystalliferum Christnach, Ertz & Diederich sp. nov. (La Réunion), P. gallowayi (S. Kondratyuk) Ertz & Diederich comb. nov., P. latisporum Ertz, Diederich & Wedin sp. nov. (Argentina, Chile), P. leuckertii (S. Kondratyuk & D. J. Galloway) Ertz & Diederich comb. nov., P. melanohaleae Ertz & Diederich sp. nov. (Chile), P. obtectum Ertz & Diederich sp. nov. (Chile), P. opegraphoideum Christnach, Ertz, Diederich & Wedin sp. nov. (New Zealand), P. pseudoleuckertii Diederich, Ertz & Wedin sp. nov. (Argentina, Chile), P. serusiauxii Ertz & Diederich sp. nov. (La Réunion), P. sticticola Ertz, Wedin & Diederich sp. nov. (New Zealand), P. tibellii Ertz & Diederich sp. nov. (New Zealand), P. triebeliae Diederich & Ertz sp. nov. (USA, Minnesota), P. venustum Ertz, Coppins & Diederich sp. nov. (Chile), P. violaceum Ertz, R. Sant., Diederich & Wedin sp. nov. (Chile, Argentina), Arthonia sampaianae (Diederich & Etayo) Ertz & Diederich comb. nov., Enterographa epiphylla (Sérus.) Ertz, Diederich & Sparrius comb. nov., E. punctata Ertz & Diederich sp. nov. (Sri Lanka), O. phaeophysciae R. Sant., Diederich, Ertz & Christnach sp. nov. (Russia), Perigrapha nitida Ertz, Diederich, Christnach & Wedin sp. nov. (New Zealand, Australia), Sigridea labyrinthica (Follmann) Ertz & Diederich comb. nov.
28920Hafellner J. (2004): A further evolutionary lineage to lichenicolous growth in Physciaceae (Lecanorales). - Bibl. Lichenol., 88: 175-186.
A reinvestigation of Buellia adjuncta and a study of another lichenicolous discomycete led to the conclusion that both belong to the genus Amandinea. The generic position of both taxa is established on characters of ascomata and pycnidia. Obligatory lichenicolous growth is reported for the first time in Amandinea. The neotropical lichenicolous A. deminuta is described as new (type host: Caloplaca felipponei). It is similar in its autecology to the holarctic Buellia adjuncta (type host: Lecanora straminea), as it is restricted to coastal rocks and does not develop a visible thallus but lives as a parasymbiont on a lecanoraiean host lichen. The new combination Amandinea adjuncta (Th. Fr.) Hafellner is proposed. A key for lichenicolous buellioid Physciaceae with endokapylic thalli is presented
28919Atienza V. (2002): Two new species of Minutoexcipula (mitosporic fungi) from Spain. - Bibl. Lichenol., 82: 141-152.
Two new species of Minutoexcipula (mitosporic fungi) are described and illustrated, M. mariana and M. calatayudii, M. mariana grows on thalli of Pertusaria heterochroa and is known from two collections made in the “Parque Natural Devesa-Albufera” (Valencia, Spain). Minutoexcipula calatayudii grows on thalli of Hypogymnia tubulosa and it is known only from the type locality (Badajoz, Spain). The separation of this two new species from Minutoexcipula tuckerae and M. tuerkii is discussed. A key and a table summarising their differences is also included
28918Malíček J. & Vondrák J. (2017): Středoevropské pralesy a lišejníky II. Biodiverzita a srovnávání lokalit. - Živa, 6/2017: 290-293.
Většina studií lišejníkové diverzity značně podhodnocuje její současnou druhovou bohatost. Proto jsme vyvinuli nové metody, kterými lze získat kompletnější seznam druhů obývajících dané území a jejichž výsledky lze vzájemně srovnávat – a tento přístup jsme uplatnili při výzkumu pralesovitých porostů v České republice, v Karpatech na Ukrajině a na Kavkaze. Celkové srovnání výsledků vedlo k některým doporučením z hlediska ochranářských opatření a k výběru druhů lišejníků jako vhodných indikátorů pralesovitých bukových a smrkových porostů ve střední Evropě. [Most studies into lichen diversity strongly underestimate actual species richness. We have developed new methods for obtai­ning more complete species lists, whose results are comparable to each other, and applied this approach to research into old-growth forests in the Czech Republic, the Ukrainian Carpathians and the Caucasus. The overall comparison resulted in several recommendations for nature protection and a selection of suitable species indicators of Central European old-growth beech and spruce forests.]
28917Hoffmann N. & Hafellner J. (2000): Eine Revision der lichenicolen Arten der Sammelgattungen Guignardia und Physalospora. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 77: 1-190.
28916Cáceres M.E.S., Maia L.C. & Lücking R. (2000): Foliicolous lichens and their lichenicolous fungi in the atlantic rainforest of Brazil: diversity, ecogeography and conservation. - In: Schroeter, B., Schlensog, M., Green, T.G.A. (eds.): New Aspects in Cryptogamic Research. Contributions in Honour of Ludger Kappen. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 75: 47-70.
Based on a floristic survey in the state of Pernambuco, we present a synopsis of the foliicolous lichen flora of the Atlantic rainforest of Brazil. The Atlantic rainforest exhibits less species richness than the Amazon and the Central American rainforests, which can be explained by its drier climate and, in part, subtropical character. Even so, 191 species of foliicolous lichens and 19 associated Hchenicolous fungi were found in Pernambuco, and the Atlantic rainforest as a whole shelters 282 and 37 species, respectively. Of the foliicolous lichens, 73-87% are shared with the Amazon and the Central American rainforests, and two thirds show a wide intercontinental distribution. Consequently, subtle bio- geographical differenciations, such as those exhibited by higher plants or animals. are not evident. Well-documented taxa considered endemic to the area, like Bapalmuia consanguinea (MÜLL. .ARG.) KALB & LÜCKING and Byssolecania vezdae KALB & LÜCKING, are few in number. Along the Atlantic rainforest, a humidity gradient from south to northeast, correlated with differences in vegetation structure, follows a drop in foliicolous lichen species richness. Accordingly, the foliicolous lichen flora of the northeast, as in Pernambuco, is dominated by species tolerating the presence of a distinct dry season. As a consequence. species associations are different from and less distinct than those found in wet rainforests. The high degree of deforestation and degradation of the Atlantic rainforest, particularly in the northeast, causes a drastical, stochastically influenced decrease of foliicolous lichen species richness in isolated forest remnants. It is concluded that only the integrative consideration of these forest remnants can provide a base for the conservation of as much of the original biodiversity of the Atlantic rainforest as possible
28915Louwhoff S.H.J.J. & Elix J.A. (1999): Parmotrema and allied lichen genera in Papua New Guinea. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 73: 1-152.
Canomaculina, Papua New Guinea, Parmeliaceae, Parmotrema, Rimelia, descriptions for 50 species of Parmotrema, 1 species of Canomaculina, and 3 species of Rimelia. New: Parmotrema kurokawianum sp. nov., P. malonprotocetraricum sp. nov., P. menyamyaense sp. nov., P. sipmanii sp. nov., P. verrucatum sp. nov., P. watutense sp. nov.
28914Fries T.M. (1867): Lichenes Spitsbergenses. - Kongl. Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar, N.F., Stockholm, 7(1)/2: 1–53.
Svalbard; Caloplaca jungermanniae subsp. subolivacea ssp. nov., Gyrophora anthracina ssp. discolor ssp. nov., Toninia conjungens sp. nov., Biatora collodea sp. nov., Lecanora(?) coriacea sp. nov., Lecidea pullulans sp. nov., Lecidea elata ssp. scrobiculata spp. nov., Lecidea impavida sp. nov. (= Lambiella impavida), Lecidea associata sp. nov. (lichenicole on Lecanora tartarea), Sporastatia morio ssp. tenuirimata ssp. nov., Buellia vilis sp. nov., Arthonia excentrica sp. nov., Verrucaria extrema sp. nov.., V. rejecta sp. nov., Arthopyrenia conspurcans sp. nov. (lichenicole on Psora rubiformis)
28913Zetterstedt J.E. (1867): Om vegetationen i de högländtaste trakterna af Småland. - Kongl. Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar, N.F., Stockholm, 6(2)[1866]: 1–37.
Sweden, vegetation, lichens at p. 30-31
28912Nylander W. (1856): Om den systematiska skillnaden emellan svampar och lafvar. - Öfversigt af Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar [Stockholm], 12[1855]: 7–11.
28911Fries T.M. (1856): Om Ukräns Laf-Vegetation. - Öfversigt af Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar [Stockholm], 12[1855]: 13–20.
Ukraine; Biatora polychroa sp. nov., Trachylia lucida sp. nov.
28910Fries T.M. (1857): Observationes LichenoIogicae. - Öfversigt af Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar [Stockholm], 13[1856]: 123–130.
28909Stenhammar [C.] (1857): Ny exsiccatsamling af svenska lichener. - Öfversigt af Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar [Stockholm], 13[1856]: 171–172.
28908Åkerman J. (1858): Om utbredningen af Iaf-arten Biatora cinnabarina i Skandinavien. - Öfversigt af Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar [Stockholm], 14[1857]: 333–335.
28907Stenhammar [C.] (1858): Bidrag till Gottlands och Ölands Laf-flora.. - Öfversigt af Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar [Stockholm], 14/4[1857]: 109–122.
Sweden; Verrucaria depressa sp. nov., Verrucaria nidulans sp. nov.
28906Lönnroth K.J. (1858): Till Gotlands Laf-Flora. - Öfversigt af Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar [Stockholm], 14/1[1857]: 1–9.
28905Lönnroth K.J. (1859): Nya Skandinaviska laf-arter. - Öfversigt af Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar [Stockholm], 15[1858]: 273–285.
28904Hellbom P.J. (1883): Berättelse om en för lichenologiska forskningar i Norrland företagen resa under sommaren 1881. - Öfversigt af Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar [Stockholm], 39/5[1882]: 69–88.
28903Öhrstedt G. (1917): Usnea longissima Acharius (1810). - Botaniska Notiser, 1917/4: 203–204.
28902Hulting J. (1917): Lichenes nonnulli Scandinaviae. VI. - Botaniska Notiser, 1917/1: 41–42.
28901Hulting J. (1915): Lichenes nonnulli Scandinaviae. V. - Botaniska Notiser, 1915/2: 61–64.
Sweden; Lecidea sparsilis Nyl. sp. nov.
28900Molér W. (1913): Nephroma lusitanicum Schaer. på Gotland. - Botaniska Notiser, 1913/2: 81.
28899Norman J.M. (1902): Nephroma arcticum. - Botaniska Notiser, 1902/5: 214.
28898Norman J.M. (1902): Om Tholurna dissimilis Norm.. - Botaniska Notiser, 1902/5: 214.
28897Kajanus B. (1911): Über die systematische Stellung der Flechtengattung Stereocaulon. - Botaniska Notiser, 1911/2: 83–90.
28896Lång G. (1912): Några sällsynta eller för Sverige nya Cladonia-arter. - Botaniska Notiser, 1912/1: 33–37.
Sweden, Cladonia
28895Nilson B. (1903): Zur Entwickelungsgeschichte, Morphologie und Systematik der Flechten. - Botaniska Notiser, 1903/1: 1–33.
28894Hulting J. (1910): Lichenes nonnulli Scandinaviae. IV. - Botaniska Notiser, 1910/6: 303–306.
Sweden; Lecidea margaritella sp. nov.
28893Vestergren T. (1902): Om den olikformiga snöbetäckningens inflytande på vegetationen i Sarjekfjällen. - Botaniska Notiser, 1902/6: 241–268.
Sweden; vegetation; lichens det. T. Hedlund
28892Nilson B. (1902): Peltigera spuria (Ach.) DC. och dess arträttighet. - Botaniska Notiser, 1902/6: 283–286.
28891Malme G.O.A. (1901): Några drag af lafvarnas inbördes kamp för tillvaron. - Botaniska Notiser, 1901/4: 163–179.
28890Sernander R. (1901): Om de buskartade lafvarnes hapterer. - Botaniska Notiser, 1901/1-2: 21–32 & 107–114.
28889Svendsen C.J. (1899): Ueber ein auf Flechten schmarotzendes Sclerotium. - Botaniska Notiser, 1899/5: 219–228.
lichenicolous fungi; Sclerotium lichenicola sp. nov.
28888Hulting J. (1899): Några ord om Fagus silvatica L. och lafvegetationen på densamma. - Botaniska Notiser, 1899/5: 229–237.
Sweden; lichens on beech; Lecidea inundata f. nigricolor Hulting f. nov.
28887Stenhammar C. (1863): Öfversigt af de vigtigaste Laf-former, som innehålles i femte och sjette fasciklarne af "Lichenes Sueciae exsiccati". - Öfversigt af kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar [Stockholm], 19[1862/9]: 471–478.
28886Fries T.M. (1862): Bidrag till utredandet af Skandinaviska Laf-arternas Synonymik. - Öfversigt af kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar [Stockholm], 18[1861/2]: 93–110.
28885Nylander W. (1861): Novitiae quaedam Licheneae Norvegieae. - Öfversigt af kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar [Stockholm], 17[1860/6]: 295–297.
Norway; Nephromium expallidum sp. nov., Verrucaria subumbrina sp. nov., Verrucaria methoria sp. nov., Pannaria praetermissa sp. nov., Lecanora rhypariza sp. nov., Lecidea squalescens sp. nov., Lecidea ochrococca sp. nov.
28884Stenhammar [C.] (1860): Fortsatt exsiccat-samling af Svenska lafarter. - Öfversigt af kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar [Stockholm], 16[1859/6]: 293–297.
28883McMullin R.T., Gagnon J., Anderson F., Buck W.R., Clayden S.R., Dorin B.C., Fryday A., Guccion J.G., Harris R.C., Hinds J., Isabel C., Ladd D., Lay E., Lendemer J.C., Maloles J.R., Roy C. & Waters D.P. (2017): One hundred new provincial, national, and continental lichen and allied fungi records from Parc National de la Gaspésie, Québec, Canada. - Northeastern Naturalist, 24(4): 446–466.
We report 100 lichen and allied fungi species for the first time from Québec, Canada. Six of these species are new to North America: Arthonia subastroidea, Biatora mendax, Cornutispora pyramidalis, Gyalecta hypoleuca, Taeniolella pertusariicola, and Varicellaria lactea. Six additional species are new to Canada: Cecidonia xenophana, Lecidea commaculans, L. herteliana, Polycoccum sporastatiae, Scoliciosporum intrusum, and Stereocaulon leucophaeopsis. All collections are from parc national de la Gaspésie on the Gaspé Peninsula in eastern Québec. Our collections were made between 2012 and 2017, primarily during Crum and Tuckerman Workshops. We provide diagnostic descriptions of all species that are new continental or national records. Our results demonstrate the park's rich and unexplored biodiversity and conservation importance, and contribute to a better understanding of the lichen and allied fungus biota of Canada and North America.
28882Fries T.M. (1865): Bidrag till Skandinaviens Lafflora. - Öfversigt af Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar, 1864/5: 269-277.
Sweden, Norway; Arthothelium scandinavicum sp. nov., Belonia incarnata Th. Fr. et Graewe sp. nov., Polyblastia agraria sp. nov., Verrucaria obscura sp. nov., Leptogium tetrasporum sp. nov.,
28881Hellbom P.J. (1866): Lichenologiska Anteckningar från en resa i Lule Lappmark sommaren 1864. - Öfversigt af Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar [Stockholm], 22/6[1865]: 451-477.
28880Stenhammar C. (1866): Bidrag till några af de i Lichenes Suecise Exsiccati, Fasc. VII och VIII utgifna lafarters synonymi och historia. - Öfversigt af Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar [Stockholm], 22/4[1865]: 231-237.
28879Hellbom P.J. (1867): Kort redogörelse för de lichenologiska undersökningarne i Nerike under år 1866. - Öfversigt af Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar, 1866/8: 199-209.
28878Sternberg S. (1869): Om användandet af Lafvar såsom material för framställning af Drufsocker och Alkohol. - Öfversigt af Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar, 1868/1: 17-28.
28877Hellbom P.J. (1868): Rariores Lichenum species, quas in Nericia invenit. - Öfversigt af Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar, 24/5[1867]: 267-278.
Scalidium ophiosporum gen. et spec. nov.; Bilimbia rufidula Graewe sp. nov., Biatorina versicolor sp. nov., Biatora helvola Körber (sp. nov.), Microglena [sic!] wallrothiana sp. nov., M. nericiensis sp. nov., Tomasellia bituminea sp. nov.
28876Blomberg O.G. (1868): Bidrag till kännedomen om Kinnekulles Lafvegetation. - Öfversigt af Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar, 1867/4: 115-125.
28875Almquist S. (1870): Berättelse om en resa i Jämtland sommaren 1868. - Öfversigt af Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar, 1869/3: 435-454.
28874Almquist S. (1874): Berättelse om en resa i Ångermanland, Medelpad och Jämtland sommaren 1873. - Öfversigt af Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar, 1874/3: 75-93.
28873Hellbom P.J. (1875): Bidrag till Lule Lappmarks lafflora. - Öfversigt af Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar, 1875/3: 49-82.
28872Theorin P.G.E. (1875): Ombergs Lafvegetation. - Öfversigt af Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar, 1875/1: 139-157.
28871Malme G.O.A. (1895): Lichenologiska notiser. IV. Adjumenta ad Lichenographiam Sueciæ meridionalis. - Botaniska Notiser, 1895: 207-213.
Caloplaca perfida sp. nov., Lecidea enalliza var. subplana var. nov.
28870Malme G.O.A. (1895): Lichenologiska notiser. III. Bidrag till södra Sveriges lafflora. - Botaniska Notiser, 1895: 137-146.
28869Hulting J. (1897): Lichenes nonnulli Scandinaviae. III. - Botaniska Notiser, 1897: 215-218.
28868Malme G.O.A. (1896): Lichenologiska notiser. V. Bidrag till kännedomen om de sydsvenska Rinodina-arterna af sophodes-gruppen. - Botaniska Notiser, 1896: 173-183.
28867Nyman E. (1895): En Moriola-liknande laf. - Botaniska Notiser, 1895: 242-244.
28866Nyman E. (1895): Några ord om Åreskutans fjällhed. - Botaniska Notiser, 1895: 121-125.
28865Hedlund T. (1892): Tillägg till "Några ord om substratets betydelse for lafvarne". - Botaniska Notiser, 1892: 183.
28864Sernander R. (1892): Ytterligare några ord om substratets betydelse för lafvarne. - Botaniska Notiser, 1892: 253-258.
28863Theorin P.G.E. (1892): Några lafväxtställen. - Botaniska Notiser, 1892: 49-55.
28862Th. Fr. [Fries T.M.] (1857): Lichenes Sueciae Exsiccati. Editio altera, fasciculus I. Curante Chr. Stenhammar. 4:o. 1856. - Botaniska Notiser, 1857: 69-71.
28861Norman J.M. (1868): Lichenes Finmarkici novi. - Botaniska Notiser, 1868: 191-193.
Norway, Finnmark; Lecanora cribriformis sp. nov., Verrucaria philaea sp. nov., Arthopyrenia naevoides sp. nov., Arthopyrenia coepulona sp. nov., Leptorhaphis deformis sp. nov., Coniothele perquisita gen. et sp. nov., Glomerilla subtilis gen. et sp. nov.
28860Norman J.M. (1867): Novae lichenum species. - Botaniska Notiser, 1867: 86-88.
Norway; Biatorella conspurcans sp. nov., Lecidea (Boloplaca) epiploica sp. nov., Verrucaria xyloxena sp. nov., Verrucaria (Cisternula) trachinoides sp. nov., Microthelia atramentea sp. nov.
28859Blomberg O.G. (1871): Tillägg till artikeln "Bidrag till kännedomen om Bohuslänska skärens lafflora". - Botaniska Notiser, 1871: 117-120.
28858Blomberg O.G. (1868): 2. Bidrag till kännedomen om Bohuslänska skärens lafflora. - Botaniska Notiser, 1868: 176-182.
28857Blomberg O.G. (1895): Bidrag till kännedomen om lafvarnas utbredning m.m. i Skandinavien. - Botaniska Notiser, 1895: 89-106.
28856Norman J.M. (1893): Nephromium lusitanicum (Schaer.). - Botaniska Notiser, 1893: 214-215.
28855Malme G.O.A. (1892): Lichenologiska notiser. I—II. - Botaniska Notiser, 1892: 125-132.
28854Hedlund T. (1892): Några ord om substratets betydelse for lafvarne. - Botaniska Notiser, 1892: 133-142.
28853Hulting J. (1892): Lichenes nonnulli Scandinaviae. II. - Botaniska Notiser, 1892: 121-124.
Sweden; Lecidea ostrogothensis Nyl. sp. nov.
28852Hulting J. (1875): Bidrag till kännedomen om Bohusläns lafvegetation. - Botaniska Notiser, 1875: 44-48 & 65-70.
Sweden; Bohuslän.
28851Tingstad L., Gjerde I., Dahlberg A. & Grytnes J.A. (2017): The influence of spatial scales on Red List composition: Forest species in Fennoscandia. - Global Ecology and Conservation, 11: 247–297.
National Red Lists are widely used prioritizing tools for nature conservation. However, status and trends of species vary with scale, and accounting for a larger spatial scale may provide complementary perspectives for nature conservation.We investigate effects of upscaling and influence of wider-scale distribution patterns for composition of Red Lists. We collated nationally red-listed forest species in Norway, Sweden and Finland, and extracted “Candidates for a Fennoscandian Red List” (CFRL), defined as species red-listed where they appear in the region. For each country, we compared composition of organism groups and forest type associations of species that were national CFRL to the nationally red-listed species not CFRL. European distribution patterns were compared to investigate how broader-scale distribution is reflected in national Red Lists. Among the 4830 nationally red-listed forest species in Fennoscandia, 58% were CFRL. The fraction of species in the different forest type and species groups differed significantly between the two spatial scales for several groups, although the overall differences in composition were relatively small. Red-listed species had more confined distribution patterns, suggesting that many nationally red-listed species owe their status to being at the edge of their distribution range. An up-scaling had a large effect on which species designated to a Red List, but a relatively small impact on which organism groups or forest types that contained most red-listed species. A regional perspective generated by compilation of national Red Lists can give valuable complementary information on the status of species and effects of scale. Keywords: National Red List; Fennoscandia; Conservation priorities; Forest; Scale; Regional perspective.
28850Bürgi-Meyer K. & Dietrich M. (2016): Ein weiterer Fund von Peltula farinosa Büdel auf dem europäischen Festland. Peltula farinosa als Begleitart im Peltuletum euplocae Wirth 1972 auf Amphibolit der Ivrea Zone (Kanton Tessin, Schweiz). - Meylania, 57: 35–44.
We report the first discovery of the cyanobacterial lichen Peltula farinosa Büdel in Switzerland. It is the second find of this species on mainland Europe. P. farinosa Büdel grows within the lichen community Peltuletum euplocae Wirth 1972 situated in the Canton of Ticino. Peltula farinosa Büdel and P. euploca (Ach.) Poelt are described and illustrated. In addition, we present ecological and other field observations.
28849Groner U. (2016): Placynthium pannariellum – eine kleine, in der Schweiz bisher unbekannte Cyanoflechte. - Meylania, 57: 29–34.
Placynthium pannariellum, a small cyanolichen, is rather widespread in northern countries, but observations from Central Europe are rare. A collection made a few months ago in the Muota Valley, Swiss Prealps, obviously is the first record for Switzerland. The paper presents information about species characteristics, ecology and the currently known distribution.
28848Schnyder N. & Stofer S. (2016): FlorApp – ein neues Erfassungswerkzeug für Moose und Flechten. - Meylania, 58: 23–25.
28847Dietrich M. (2017): Lecania subfuscula und Psorotichia lutophila neu für die Schweiz – Weitere Entdeckungen im Flechtenherbar von Anton Gisler (1820–1888). - Meylania, 59: 5–9.
Beside the huge collection from the canton of Uri, the lichen herbarium of the excellent naturalist Anton Gisler (1820–1888) also comprises specimens from other cantons and from aboard. They originate mainly from Carl Hegetschweiler, Philipp Hepp and Johannes Müller-Aargau. In the frame of the investigation of the terricolous crustose and gelatinous lichens, two species new to Switzerland were detected. Both of them, Lecania subfuscula on Mount Pilatus in the Canton of Nidwalden and Psorotichia lutophila at the Albis in the Canton of Zurich, were collectet in the 19th century by C. Hegetschweiler.
28846Wei X.-L., Leavitt S.D., Huang J.-P., Esslinger T.L., Wang L.-S., Moncada B., Lücking R., Divakar P.K. & Lumbsch H.T. (2017): Parallel Miocene-dominated diversification of the lichen-forming fungal genus Oropogon (Ascomycota: Parmeliaceae) in different continents. - Taxon, 66(6): 1269–1281.
Lineages with broad, intercontinental distributions can provide insight into factors that influence diversity across both temporal and geographic scales. Lichens are well known for distinct biogeographic distribution patterns, including a high number of lineages with intercontinental distributions. The lichen-forming fungal genus Oropogon, from one of the largest families of lichen-forming ascomycetes, Parmeliaceae, occurs in both Asia and the Neotropics. How this genus obtained this disjunct distribution is not currently known. To better understand factors shaping diversity in Oropogon, we (i) estimated the timing of diversification of major clades within this genus; (ii) inferred the historical biogeography of Oropogon; and (iii) identified factors that potentially affected the distribution and evolution of this genus. Our results suggest that the genus originally radiated during the early Miocene, with subsequent diversification events occurring during the middle Miocene. Ancestral area reconstructions for Oropogon suggest that the genus was either widespread with subsequent separate diversification in Asia and America or originated in the New World (America), with subsequent migration to Asia. We hypothesize that the Mi-1 glaciation impacted diversification of Oropogon species in Asia, and that the rise of major mountain ranges, such as the Himalayas, helped promote diversification in Oropogon in the Old World. Keywords biogeography; molecular evolution; molecular systematics; Oropogon; substitution rate.
28845Davydov E.A., Peršoh D. & Rambold G. (2017): Umbilicariaceae (lichenized Ascomycota) – Trait evolution and a new generic concept. - Taxon, 66(6): 1282–1303.
To reconstruct hypotheses on the evolution of Umbilicariaceae, 644 sequences from three independent DNA regions were used, 433 of which were newly produced. The study includes a representative fraction (presumably about 80%) of the known species diversity of the Umbilicariaceae s.str. and is based on the phylograms obtained using maximum likelihood and a Bayesian phylogenetic inference framework. The analyses resulted in the recognition of eight well-supported clades, delimited by a combination of morphological and chemical features. None of the previous classifications within Umbilicariaceae s.str. were supported by the phylogenetic analyses. The distribution of the diagnostic morphological and chemical traits against the molecular phylogenetic topology revealed the following patterns of evolution: (1) Rhizinomorphs were gained at least four times independently and are lacking in most clades grouping in the proximity of Lasallia. (2) Asexual reproductive structures, i.e., thalloconidia and lichenized dispersal units, appear more or less mutually exclusive, being restricted to different clades. Two major ontogenetic types of thalloconidial development (thallobred versus rhizinobred) exist, reflecting their non-homologous origin. Both types of thalloconidial formation were gained multiple times. (3) “Gyrodisc-omphalodisc” apothecia are plesiomorphic in Umbilicariaceae. The apothecial type is a relatively variable trait, because the main types of apothecia switched at least six times in evolution. Multiple evolutionary changes from the gyrodiscs to leiodiscs, by reduction of carbonized hymenial structures, seem likely. (4) Ascospore characters, such as spore number per ascus, spore size, and septation type and degree are strongly correlated. Eight non-septate small ascospores per ascus represent a plesiomorphic trait. The results indicate parallel evolutionary trends from “gyrodisc-omphalodisc” to leiodisc apothecia, from octospory to mono- or bispory and from unicellular to multicellular-muriform ascospores. The other types of apothecia and ascospores evolved multiple times. This suggests that the concept of Umbilicariaceae s.str. has to be refined. The new classification includes eight subgenera in the only genus Umbilicaria: subg. Actinogyra (type: U. muehlenbergii), subg. Agyrophora (type: A. atropruinosa), subg. Floccularia subg. nov. (type: U. deusta), subg. Gyrophora (type: U. vellea), subg. Iwatakia subg. nov. (type: U. esculenta), subg. Lasallia (type: L. pustulata), subg. Umbilicaria (type: U. hyperborea), and subg. Umbilicariopsis subg. nov. (type: Umbilicaria polyrhiza). Furthermore, four new combinations are proposed: Umbilicaria daliensis comb. nov., U. hispanica comb. nov., U. sinorientalis comb. nov., U. xizangensis comb. nov. Kewwords apothecia; ascospores; classification; likelihood; morphology; mtLSU; nrITS/5.8S; nrSSU nrDNA; RPB2; rhizinomorphs; thalloconidia.
28844Arcadia L. in & Vondrák J. (2017): (2563) Proposal to conserve the name Lichen ferrugineus (Blastenia ferruginea) with a conserved type (Teloschistaceae, lichenised Ascomycota). - Taxon, 66(6): 1467–1468.
28843Pejin B., Iodice C., Bogdanović G., Kojić V. & Tešević V. (2017): Stictic acid inhibits cell growth of human colon adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells. - Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 10: S1240–S1242.
The growth inhibition of stictic acid, a secondary metabolite isolated from the lichen Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm. (Lobariaceae), was evaluated in vitro on three human cell lines for the first time. The cell lines HT-29 and MCF-7 were utilized for measuring the activity of stictic acid against cancer cells, while the cell line MRC-5 was selected for estimation of its effect on normal cells. The results suggest a moderate anticancer activity (IC50 value for the cell line HT-29 was 29.29 μg/ml) and a low growth inhibition on nonmalignant cells (IC50 value for the cell line MRC-5 was 2478.40 μg/ml) of stictic acid. This natural product can be considered as a promising lead compound for the design of novel human colon adenocarcinoma drugs. Keywords: Lobaria pulmonaria; β-Orcinol depsidone; MTT growth inhibition assay; Human colon; adenocarcinoma.
28842Galindo J.L.G., García B.F., Torres A., Galindo J.C.G., Romagni J.G. & Macías F.A. (2017): The joint action in the bioactivity studies of Antarctic lichen Umbilicaria antarctica: Synergic-biodirected isolation in a preliminary holistic ecological study. - Phytochemistry Letters, 20: 433–442.
Antarctica is one of the world’s most inaccessible regions. This area is also unique in that it has a terrestrial biota dominated by non-vascular plants, of which lichens and mosses are typically the dominant life-forms. A phytochemical study of Antarctic lichen (Umbilicaria antarctica) collected from maritime Antarctica has been carried out. The hexane, acetone and butanol extracts have been subjected to a preliminary general bioactivity test using wheat etiolated coleoptiles. A chromatographic study of the acetone extract was performed and seven known compounds were isolated. The general bioactivity of the compounds on etiolated wheat coleoptile has been assessed and joint action studies on mixtures of the compounds were carried out  a methodology that may be the way to a holistic approach in the ecological studies of lichens. The results corroborated the activity exhibited by the original fractions, which in turn support the use of this bioassay to determine joint interactions responsible for the bioactivity shown by U. antarctica. Keywords: Allelopathy; Antarctica; Polyols; Phenolic compounds; Coleoptile bioassay; Additive interactions.
28841Magain N., Miadlikowska J., Mueller O., Gajdeczka M., Truong C., Salamov A.A., Dubchak I., Grigoriev I.V., Goffinet B., Sérusiaux E. & Lutzoni F. (2017): Conserved genomic collinearity as a source of broadly applicable, fast evolving, markers to resolve species complexes: A case study using the lichen-forming genus Peltigera section Polydactylon. - Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 117: 10–29.
Synteny can be maintained for certain genomic regions across broad phylogenetic groups. In these homologous genomic regions, sites that are under relaxed purifying selection, such as intergenic regions, could be used broadly as markers for population genetic and phylogenetic studies on species complexes. To explore the potential of this approach, we found 125 Collinear Orthologous Regions (COR) ranging from 1 to >10 kb across nine genomes representing the Lecanoromycetes and Eurotiomycetes (Pezizomycotina, Ascomycota). Twenty-six of these COR were found in all 24 eurotiomycete genomes surveyed for this study. Given the high abundance and availability of fungal genomes we believe this approach could be adopted for other large groups of fungi outside the Pezizomycotina. As a proof of concept, we selected three Collinear Orthologous Regions (COR1b, COR3, and COR16), based on synteny analyses of several genomes representing three classes of Ascomycota: Eurotiomycetes, Lecanoromycetes, and Lichinomycetes. COR16, for example, was found across these three classes of fungi. Here we compare the resolving power of these three new markers with five loci commonly used in phylogenetic studies of fungi, using section Polydactylon of the cyanolichen-forming genus Peltigera (Lecanoromycetes) – a clade with several challenging species complexes. Sequence data were subjected to three species discovery and two validating methods. COR markers substantially increased phylogenetic resolution and confidence, and highly contributed to species delimitation. The level of phylogenetic signal provided by each of the COR markers was higher than the commonly used fungal barcode ITS. High cryptic diversity was revealed by all methods. As redefined here, most species represent lineages that have relatively narrower, and more homogeneous biogeographical ranges than previously understood. The scabrosoid clade consists of ten species, seven of which are new. For the dolichorhizoid clade, twenty-two new species were discovered for a total of twenty-nine species in this clade. Keywords: Synteny; Intergenic spacers; Species delimitation; Species discovery; Species validation; Lichen-forming fungi.
28840Maurya I.K., Singh S., Tewari R., Tripathi M., Upadhyay S. & Joshi Y. (2018): Antimicrobial activity of Bulbothrix setschwanensis (Zahlbr.) Hale lichen by cell wall disruption of Staphylococcus aureus and Cryptococcus neoformans. - Microbial Pathogenesis, 115: 12–18.
In the present study, antimicrobial activity of a common Himalayan lichen viz. Bulbothrix setschwanensis (Zahlbr.) Hale extract in three common solvents (acetone, chloroform and methanol) was evaluated against six bacterial and seven fungal clinical strains. The acetone extract showed promising antimicrobial activity against S. aureus (1.56 mg/mL) and C. neoformans (6.25 mg/mL). Further, GC-MS analysis revealed 2,3-bis(2-methylpentanoyloxy)propyl 2-methylpentanoate and Ethyl 2-[(2R,3R,4aR,8aS)-3-hydroxy-2,3,4,4a,6,7,8,8a-octahydropyrano [3,2-b]pyran-2-yl]acetate as the predominant compounds. The combination of acetone extract with antibacterial drugs [kanamycin (KAN), rifampicin (RIF)] and antifungal drugs [amphotericin B (Amp B) and fluconazole (FLC)] showed lysis of S. aureus and C. neoformans at non-inhibitory concentration (FICI values were 0.31 for KAN, 0.18 for RIF, 0.37 for Amp B and 0.30 for FLC, respectively). Notably, the acetone extract confirmed cell wall damage of both S. aureus and C. neoformans cells and was clearly visualized under scanning electron microscopy (SEM), flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Besides this, the three extracts also have less significant cytotoxic activity at MIC concentrations against mammalian cells (HEK-293 and HeLa). This study for the first time suggests that the chemical compounds present in the acetone extract of B. setschwanensis could be used against S. aureus and C. neoformans infections. Keywords: Lichen; Antibacterial; Antifungal; Checkerboard assay; Mechanistic study; Mammalian cytotoxicity.