30672Ismayil G., Abbas A. & Guo S.-Y. (2019): A new saxicolous Circinaria species (Megasporaceae) from northeast China. - Bryologist, 122(1): 23–30.
In an investigation of Circinaria species in volcanic mountains of northeast China, one new species, C. laxilobata was identified based on morphological characteristics and DNA sequence data. The new species differs morphologically from other members of the C. contorta group by its greenish olive, thin thallus with dispersed areoles and elongated, diverging, branching marginal areoles distinctly delimited from the inner part, round apothecia with entire thalline margin, moniliform paraphyses, asci with 1–2 ellipsoid spores, and the absence of secondary metabolites. Comparisons of the ITS sequences of the nuclear ribosomal DNA repeat tandem, both in phylogenetic analyses and secondary structure models of ITS2, support the taxonomic distinctness of this species. The new species is described and illustrated in detail. A key to the species of Circinaria from China is also provided. Key words: Pertusariales, dendroid margin, ITS, secondary structure, volcanic mountains.
30671Herrera-Campos M.Á., Barcenas-Peña A., Miranda-González R., Altamirano Mejía M., Bautista González J.A., Martínez Colín P., Sánchez Téllez N. & Lücking R. (2019): New lichenized Arthoniales and Ostropales from Mexican seasonally dry tropical forest. - Bryologist, 122(1): 62–83.
Twelve new lichenized species are described in Arthoniales and Ostropales from seasonally dry tropical forest in Mexico: eight in Graphidaceae, one in Gomphillaceae, and one each in Arthoniaceae, Roccellaceae, and Opegraphaceae. The new species are: Acanthothecis alba Herrera-Camp., Barcenas-Peña & Lücking, differing from A. poitaeoides in the erumpent to prominent ascomata with partially exposed disc and the relatively broader ascospores; Bactrospora lecanorina Herrera-Camp., Altamirano & Lücking, differing from the other species with patellarioides-type ascospores by the zeorine ascomata, in combination with narrow ascospores; Cryptothecia chamelensis Herrera-Camp., Bautista & Lücking, differing from C. inexpectata and C. irregularis in the perlatolic acid chemistry and the much smaller ascospores; Fissurina aperta Herrera-Camp., Barcenas-Peña & Lücking, differing from F. adscripturiens and F. novae-zelandiae by its exposed, disc and thin, erect margins; F. cinereodisca Altamirano, Colín & N.Sánchez, differing from F. furfuracea in the shorter ascomata with grey disc and thin, margin; F. jaliscoensis Herrera-Camp., Barcenas- Peña & Lücking, differing from F. subnitida in the shorter lirellae with exposed disc and thin margins; F. reticulata R. Miranda, Herrera Camp. & Lücking, differing from F. tuckermaniana by its muriform ascospores; F. tenuimarginata Herrera-Camp., Barcenas-Peña & Lücking, differing from F. cinereodisca in the smaller lirellae with yellowish-translucent disc and thinner margin; Gyalideopsis caespitosa Barcenas-Peña, Herrera-Camp. & Lücking, differing from other species of the genus in the initially zeorine apothecia and the sessile hyphophores with caespitose diahyphae; Ocellularia tomatlanensis Herrera-Camp., Colín & Lücking, differing from other Ocellularia species with small, transversely septate, hyaline ascospores and protocetraric acid by the absence of a columella; Phaeographis sarcographoides Herrera-Camp., N.Sánchez & Lücking, differing from other species of Phaeographis with inspersed hymenium, 3-septate ascospores, and lack of secondary substances, in the robust, prominent to sessile ascomata with often dissected disc; and Vigneronia mexicana Herrera-Camp., Bautista & Lücking, sp. nov., differing from V. spierii in the prominent to sessile ascomata with brown margin and light grey-pruinose disc. The new combination Vigneronia caceresiana (Kalb & Aptroot) Lücking & Herrera-Camp., comb. nov., is also proposed. Keywords: Chamela Biological Station, Chamela-Cuixmala Biosphere Reserve, seasonally dry tropical forest, lichens.
30670Heras R.D.L., Rodríguez-Gil J.L., Sauto J.S.S., Sánchez P.S. & Catalá M. (2018): Analysis of lipid peroxidation in animal and plant tissues as field-based biomarker in Mediterranean irrigated agroecosystems (Extremadura, Spain). - Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part B, 53(9): 567–279.
Keywords: Bioaccumulation, pesticides, sentinel species, Procambarus clarkii, Salix spp, Quercus rotundifolia, biomarkers.
30669Tucker C.L., Ferrenberg S. & Reed S.C. (2019): Climatic sensitivity of dryland soil CO2 fluxes differs dramatically with biological soil crust successional state. - Ecosystems, 22: 15–32.
Arid and semiarid ecosystems make up approximately 41% of Earth’s terrestrial surface and are suggested to regulate the trend and interannual variability of the global terrestrial carbon (C) sink. Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are common dryland soil surface communities of bryophytes, lichens, and/or cyanobacteria that bind the soil surface together and that may play an important role in regulating the climatic sensitivity of the dryland C cycle. Major uncertainties exist in our understanding of the interacting effects of changing temperature and moisture on CO2 uptake (photosynthesis) and loss (respiration) from biocrust and sub-crust soil, particularly as related to biocrust successional state. Here, we used a mesocosm approach to assess how biocrust successional states related to climate treatments. We subjected bare soil (Bare), early successional lightly pigmented cyanobacterial biocrust (Early), and late successional darkly pigmented moss-lichen biocrust (Late) to either ambient or + 5C above ambient soil temperature for 84 days. Under ambient temperatures, Late biocrust mesocosms showed frequent net uptake of CO2, whereas Bare soil, Early biocrust, and warmed Late biocrust mesocosms mostly lost CO2 to the atmosphere. The inhibiting effect of warming on CO2 exchange was a result of accelerated drying of biocrust and soil. We used these data to parameterize, via Bayesian methods, a model of ecosystem CO2 fluxes, and evaluated the model with data from an autochamber CO2 system at our field site on the Colorado Plateau in SE Utah. In the context of the field experiment, the data underscore the negative effect of warming on fluxes both biocrust CO2 uptake and loss—which, because biocrusts are a dominant land cover type in this ecosystem, may extend to ecosystem-scale C cycling. Key words: Bayesian statistics; biological soil crust; ecosystem model; gross primary production; moisture sensitivity; net soil exchange; semiarid shrublands; soil respiration; temperature sensitivity.
30668Ghiloufi W., Seo J., Kim J., Chaieb M. & Kang H. (2019): Effects of biological soil crusts on enzyme activities and microbial community in soils of an arid ecosystem. - Microbial Ecology, 77: 201–216.
Arid ecosystems constitute 41% of land’s surface and play an important role in global carbon cycle. In particular, biological soil crusts (BSC) are known to be a hotspot of carbon fixation as well as mineralization in arid ecosystems. However, little information is available on carbon decomposition and microbes in BSC and key controlling variables for microbial activities in arid ecosystems. The current study, carried out in South Mediterranean arid ecosystem, aimed to evaluate the effects of intact and removed cyanobacteria/lichen crusts on soil properties, soil enzyme activities, and microbial abundances (bacteria and fungi).We compared five different treatments (bare soil, soil with intact cyanobacteria, soil with cyanobacteria removed, soil with intact lichens, and soil with lichens removed) in four different soil layers (0–5, 5–10, 10–15, and 15–20 cm). Regardless of soil treatments, activities of hydrolases and water content increased with increasing soil depth. The presence of lichens increased significantly hydrolase activities, which appeared to be associated with greater organic matter, nitrogen, and water contents. However, phenol oxidase was mainly controlled by pH and oxygen availability. Neither fungal nor bacterial abundance exhibited a significant correlation with enzyme activities suggesting that soil enzyme activities are mainly controlled by edaphic and environmental conditions rather than source microbes. Interestingly, the presence of lichens reduced the abundance of bacteria of which mechanism is still to be investigated. Keywords: Biological soil crusts . Desert . Soil properties . Enzyme activities . Microbial community . Soil depth.
30667Pacé M., Fenton N.J., Paré D., Stefani F.O.P., Massicotte H.B., Tackaberry L.E. & Bergeron Y. (2019): Lichens contribute to open woodland stability in the boreal forest through detrimental effects on pine growth and root ectomycorrhizal development. - Ecosystems, 22: 189–201.
Inthe boreal forest, openlichenwoodlandshave been described as an alternative stable state to closedcrownfeathermoss forest. In this study, weaddressed the role of terricolous lichens in stabilizing open woodlands by hindering tree regeneration and/or growth. Based on field and greenhouse experiments, we compared germination and growth of jack pine (Pinus banksiana) on feather mosses (primarily Pleurozium schreberi) and lichens (primarily Cladonia stellaris), using bare mineral soil as a control. Drivers were investigated by (1) manipulating nutrient supply, (2) simulating shade of a closed canopy on the ground layer with the assumption thiswould mitigate lichen influence on pine growth, and (3) examining pine root ectomycorrhizal colonization and diversity as indicators of pine ability to take up nutrients. Total growth of 6-month-old greenhouse and 2–3-year-old field seedlings, as well as belowground growth of 2- year-old greenhouse seedlings, was significantly greater in moss than in lichen. Seed germination was not affected by ground cover type. Although field phosphorus and base cation availabilitywas greater in mosses than in lichens, fertilization did not entirely compensate for the negative effects of lichens on pine growth in the greenhouse. Ground layer shading had no impact on pine growth. Lichens were associated with reduced abundance and modified composition of the root ectomycorrhizal community. By suggesting that terricolous lichens constitute a less favorable growth substrate than mosses for pine, our results support the hypothesis that lichens contribute to open woodland stability in the potentially closedcrown feather moss forest. Key words: Cladonia spp.; ecosystem stability; ectomycorrhiza; feather moss; ground cover; jack pine; lichen woodland; pine regeneration; stable alternative state; terricolous lichen.
30666Determeyer-Wiedmann N., Sadowsky A., Convey P. & Ott S. (2019): Physiological life history strategies of photobionts of lichen species from Antarctic and moderate European habitats in response to stressful conditions. - Polar Biology, 42: 395–405.
The vegetation of many terrestrial habitats across Antarctica is dominated by poikilohydric symbiotic lichens. Terrestrial habitats generally are characterised by extended exposure to desiccation and high irradiation. Physiological adaptation mechanisms of the algal partner (photobiont) are key factors in the successful colonisation of lichens of locations under severe environmental conditions. This study focused on isolated photobionts of the genus Trebouxia, from the continental Antarctic lichens Buellia frigida, Pleopsidium chlorophanum, the maritime Antarctic lichen Umbilicaria antarctica, and the Swedish lichen Fulgensia bracteata from a moderate temperate ecosystem at sea level. The photosystems PS II and PS I and the ratio of linear to cyclic electron transport were studied to elucidate adaptation mechanisms in the physiology of the photobionts in response to desiccation and light stress. The photobionts of the Antarctic lichens demonstrated striking tolerance to the stress conditions studied. Although the photobionts of U. antarctica and P. chlorophanum were genetically identical based on non-coding internally transcribed spacer (ITS), their physiological responses were clearly different, possibly indicating ecotypic differentiation. The photobiont of F. bracteata showed clearly different responses to those of the Antarctic photobionts. The response differences of the photobionts studied point to fundamental differences in life history strategies. Keywords: Stress conditions · Adaptation · Photosystem II and I · Electron transport · Ratio LET to CET.
30665Bilen S., Sirtiyah A.M.A. & Terzi E. (2019): Therapeutic effects of beard lichen, Usnea barbata extract against Lactococcus garvieae infection in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). - Fish and Shellfish Immunology, 87: 401–409.
In this study, therapeutic effects of aqueous methanolic extracts of beard lichen (Usnea barbata) against Lactococcus garvieae (ATCC 43921) in rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) were investigated. Six different experimental groups [0 mg/100 μL (Control), 4 mg/100 μL, 8 mg/100 μL, 12 mg/100 μL, 6 mg/100 μL florfenicol (positive control), 6 mg/100 μL erythromycin (positive control)] were set up to determine effects of lichen extract on immune responses and survival rate. In the study, superoxide radical production was increased in fish treated with 12 mg beard lichen extract, florfenicol and erythromycin compared to that of control (P < 0.05). Lysozyme activity was generally decreased (P < 0.05) or no differences were observed in all experimental groups compared to that of control (P > 0.05). Myeloperoxidase was significantly increased in all antibiotic treated groups. No differences were observed in liver histology of experimental groups compared to control. Cytokine gene expressions were elevated in all experimental groups compared to that of control (P < 0.05), except IL-1β expression at 10th day sampling time. Other immune related genes (IL-8, TGF- β, IL-12 Beta, TNFα1, IL-10, COX-2, IL-6, TLR5, C3, IGM, MHC-II, iNOS, IgT, IFN1, IFN2, IFN reg) were also elevated in all experimental groups compared to that of control group. The survival rates obtained in 4 mg beard lichen treated group, 8 mg beard lichen treated group and erythromycin treated group were 73.08, 65.38 and 80.77% respectively. Our results suggest that beard lichen methanolic extract could be an effective therapeutic agent to be used against L. garvieae infection in rainbow trout at the dose of 4 mg/17.41 ± 0.3 g body weight/day.
30664Massimi L., Conti M.E., Mele G., Ristorini M., Astolfi M.L. & Canepari S. (2019): Lichen transplants as indicators of atmospheric element concentrations: a high spatial resolution comparison with PM10 samples in a polluted area (Central Italy). - Ecological Indicators, 101: 759–769.
Lichen transplants Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach. and recently available low-cost PM10 samplers were placed sideby- side for one year at twenty-three sites located in an urban-industrial hot-spot of Central Italy, thus enabling the construction of an extensive and dense air quality monitoring network. Accumulation levels of the elements in lichens after five months and thirteen months of exposure were compared with the means of the element concentrations determined in the PM10 sampled during the same monitoring periods. Water-soluble and insoluble fractions of the elements in the PM10 were separately analysed. Correlations between lichen and PM10 element concentrations were examined by considering Pearson coefficients and by performing principal component analysis. The study allowed us to evaluate the reliability of lichen transplants as biomonitors for the assessment of the spatial variability of atmospheric element concentrations and for the individuation of the elements tracers of PM emission sources. Lichen transplants appeared to be reliable for high spatial resolution measurements of PM10 elemental components emitted at high concentrations by intense local PM emission sources such as the steel plant (Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Mo, Nb, Ni, Ti and W) and the rail network (Cu, Sb and Sn), less reliable for spatially-resolved analyses of elements released by vehicular traffic (Cu, Sb and Sn) and not reliable for other elements emitted by the power plant, by industrial and domestic biomass heating and/or by other less intense emission sources (Ba, Bi, Cd, Cs, Mg, Pb, Rb and Tl). In general, bioaccumulation of the elements appeared to be more correlated with the total and insoluble fractions of the analysed elements than with the watersoluble one and reflected the solubility of the chemical species emitted by the main local PM emission sources. Keywords: Biomonitoring; Lichen; Evernia prunastri; Atmospheric element; Spatial variability; PM10 sampler.
30663Hofmeister J., Hošek J., Brabec M., Hermy M., Dvořák D., Fellner R., Malíček J., Palice Z., Tenčík A., Holá E., Novozámská E., Kuras T., Trnka F., Zedek M., Kašák J., Gabriš R., Sedláček O., Tajovský K. & Kadlec T. (2019): Shared affinity of various forest-dwelling taxa point to the continuity of temperate forests. - Ecological Indicators, 101: 904–912.
Effective indicators for biodiversity hotspots and refuges of threatened forest species could help with efforts to mitigate the decline of European forest’s biodiversity. ʻAncient forest species’ (AFS, i.e. a group of forest vascular plant species that rely on forest continuity) were previously noted as possible indicators of biodiversity hotspots. However, different aspects of the forest continuity may be important for different taxa. Using data from two multi-taxa surveys of central European forests, we examined spatial congruence between the richness of AFS and other forest-dwelling groups in stands that differed in various aspects of forest continuity. We provide evidence for a general positive relationship between the richness of AFS and other forest-dwelling taxa (bryophytes, macrofungi, lichens, beetles, moths and some groups of edaphic organisms) in temperate European forests. The ability of AFS to indicate hotspots of forest biodiversity is not seriously affected by forest management even in the case of long-term intensive and specific management practices such as coppicing. Any easily observable characteristics of the forest environment, excepting the richness of AFS, are unlikely to track exactly the complex effects of forest continuity, habitat quality and the delay in the rise and fall of species diversity of forest communities. Some other perennial plant species associated with beech forests are similar to AFS and regularly occupied the refuges of threatened species. The stands with outstanding biodiversity within the area of deciduous temperate forests can be easily revealed via AFS richness and eventually other similar beech-associated species in the case of beech forests. The retention of all small, mutually isolated refuges of endangered species interspersed within large areas of managed forests may be crucial for the mitigation of biodiversity decline in temperate European forests. Keywords: Biodiversity surrogate; Forest biodiversity; Forest continuity; Forest management; Red-listed species.
30662Schweigstillová J., Bruthans J., Falteisek L., Válek J. & Soukup J. (2013): Rychlá tvorba skalních kůr na povrchu hruboskalského pískovce: mikroskopický popis, tahová pevnost, odolnost vůči erozi, vznik a význam pro pískovcový reliéf. - Zprávy o geologických výzkumech [Geoscience Research Reports], 46: 228–234.
[In Czech] [Fast-formed case hardened surfaces on exposures of Hruba Skala sandstone: microscopic description, tensile strength, erodability, origin and significance for sandstone landscape] Keywords: sandstone * case hardening * erosion * lichen * Bohemian Cretaceous Basin.
30661Yang M.-X., Wang X.-Y., Liu D., Zhang Y.-Y., Li L.-J., Yin A.-C., Scheidegger C. & Wang L.-S. (2019): New species and records of Pyxine (Caliciaceae) in China. - MycoKeys, 45: 93–109.
In this study, the diversity of Pyxine Fr. in China was assessed based on morphological and chemical traits and molecular data are inferred from ITS and mtSSU sequences. Nineteen species were recognised, including three that are new to science (i.e. P. flavicans M. X. Yang & Li S. Wang, P. hengduanensis M. X. Yang & Li S. Wang and P. yunnanensis M. X. Yang & Li S. Wang) and three records new to China were found (i.e. P. cognata Stirt., P. himalayensis Awas. and P. minuta Vain.). Pyxine yunnanensis is diagnosed by the small size of the apothecia, a white medulla of the stipe and the presence of lichexanthone. Pyxine flavicans is characterised by broad lobes, a pale yellow medulla of the stipe and the presence of atranorin. Pyxine hengduanensis can be distinguished by its pale yellow medulla, marginal labriform soralia and the absence of atranorin. Detailed descriptions of each new species are presented, along with a key to the known species of Pyxine in China. Keywords: China, lichenised fungi, new species, phylogeny.
30660Goga M., Ručová D. & Bačkor M. (2017): Biologický a ekologický význam sekundárnych metabolitov lišajníkov (review). - Bulletin Slovenskej botanickej spoločnosti, 39: 139–146.
Lichens produce many unique chemical compounds, known also as secondary metabolites. They play an important role in photobiont as well as mycoboint defense of, e. g. photoprotection, antiherbivoral, antiviral, antibacterial, cytotoxic, antitumor activities. They can be used also as allelochemicals, antipyretics or analgetics. Secondary metabolites participate in chelating process because they can immobilize xenobiotics – such as metals. This review summarizes basic applications, where secondary metabolites can be used. Key words: anticancer activity, antimicrobial activity, antioxidant, antiviral, allelopathy, biomonitoring, cosmetic industry, cytotoxic activity, heavy metal sensitivity, photoprotection.
30659Barták M., Mishra K.B. & Marečková M. (2018): Spectral reflectance indices sense desiccation induced changes in the thalli of Antarctic lichen Dermatocarpon polyphyllizum. - Czech Polar Reports, 8: 249–259.
Lichens, in polar and alpine regions, pass through repetitive dehydration and rehydration events over the years. The harsh environmental conditions affect the plasticity of lichen’s functional and structural features for their survival, in a species-specific way, and, thus, their optical and spectral characteristics. For an understanding on how dehydration affects lichens spectral reflectance, we measured visible (VIS) and near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectra of Dermatocarpon polyphyllizum, a foliose lichen species, from James Ross Island (Antarctica), during gradual dehydration from fully wet (relative water content (RWC) = 100%) to dry state (RWC = 0%), under laboratory conditions, and compared several derived reflectance indices (RIs) to RWC. We found a curvilinear relationship between RWC and range of RIs: water index (WI), photochemical reflectance index (PRI), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), modified chlorophyll absorption in reflectance indices (MCARI and MCARI1), simple ratio pigment index (SRPI), normalized pigment chlorophyll index (NPCI), and a new NIR shoulder region spectral ratio index (NSRI). The index NDVI was initially increased with maxima around 70% RWC and it steadily declined with further desiccation, whereas PRI increased with desiccation and steeply falls when RWC was below 10%. The curvilinear relationship, for RIs versus RWC, was best fitted by polynomial regressions of second or third degree, and it was found that RWC showed very high correlation with WI (R2 = 0.94) that is followed by MCARI (R2 = 0.87), NDVI (R2 = 0.83), and MCARI (R2 = 0.81). The index NSRI, proposed for accessing structural deterioration, was almost invariable during dehydration with the least value of the coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.28). This may mean that lichen, Dermatocarpon polyphyllizum, activates protection mechanisms initially in response to the progression of dehydration; however, severe dehydration causes deactivation of photosynthesis and associated pigments without much affecting its structure. Key words: desiccation, lichens, reflectance and water index, protection mechanisms, survival stratégy.
30658Cempírková H. & Večeřová K. (2018): Pigment composition, glutathione and tocopherols in green algal and cyanobacterial lichens and their response to different light treatments. - Czech Polar Reports, 8: 208–217.
This study investigated photosynthetic pigments chlorophyll a and b, carotenoids (including xanthophyll cycle pigments) and antioxidants glutathione and tocopherols contents in chloro- (Lobaria pulmonaria, Lasallia pustulata) and cyanolichens (Lobaria scrobiculata, Peltigera canina) from different habitats and of different geographical origin. Lichen thalli were treated with various levels of irradiance (from 100 to 1500 mol m-2 s-1) for various time periods (from 20 min. to 5 h). The extent of increase of zeaxanthin content after different light treatments differed among chlorolichens, clearly distinguishing the species from light and shade habitats. Irrespective of light treatment, β-carotene content was always higher in cyanobacterial species than in green algal species. Highest canthaxanthin concentration, as well as β-carotene concentration, was found in L. scrobiculata from shade habitat. The content of total glutathione was the same in the same species from different collection sites. On the contrary, contents of -tocopherol differed in the same species from different collection sites. Key words: excess light stress, antioxidants, photoprotection, zeaxanthin.
30657Sonina A.V., Androsova V.I., Tsunskaya A.A. & Suroeva L.E. (2018): Comparative study of structural and ecophysiological features of lichens of different ecological groups in rocky forest communities of northernmost boreal zone (Karelia, Russia). - Czech Polar Reports, 8: 186–197.
The anatomical (thickness of layers of fungal and algal symbionts) and ecophysiological parameters (the content of photosynthetic pigments) of two lichen species (Hypogymnia physodes and Umbilicaria hyperborea) from rocky forest communities of northernmost boreal zone (North-West of Russia) were studied. H. physodes is a lichen with foliose thallus morphology and circumpolar distribution which colonizes almost every substrate. U. hyperborea is strictly epilithic lichen with umbilicate type of thallus morphology and arcto-alpine distribution. Despite the fact that the photobiont in two species are closely related taxa (unicellular green algae of the genus Trebouxia) a high variability of photosynthetic pigments content in H. physodes thalli has been revealed, whereas in U. hyperborea, the mycobiotic showed high structural variability. It can be concluded that both mycobiont and photobiont contribute to their adaptation to environmental factors. In the present study it was obtained that the proportion of variation in anatomical structures and the content of photosynthetic pigments probably less depends on taxonomic position of photobiont and more determined by the plasticity of the individual components of the symbiotrophic organism. Key words: Umbilicaria hyperborea, Hypogymnia physodes, photosynthetic pigments, chlorophyll, mycobiont, photobiont, anatomy, specific thallus mass.
30656Arcadia L. in (2019): Notes on the status and typification of some names of lichens described from Greece. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 18: 1–10.
The names Borrera ciliaris var. glabrissima Bory, B. ciliaris var. nigrescens Bory, B. ciliaris var. tomentella Bory, Collema sublimosum J. Steiner and Verrucaria pinguis J. Steiner, all described from Greece, are discussed and lectotypified. A previous "lectotypification" of Verrucaria pinguis f. alocizoides is in fact a neotypification, but that is regarded as a correctable error. The names Parmelia conspersa var. complicata Bory and Ramalina farinacea var. nuda Bory are discussed but not typified. Keywords. – Anaptychia, Europe, historical botany, nomenclature, taxonomy, Xanthoparmelia.
30655Jaksch K. (1971): Die historischen Gletschervorstöße der Tischlerkargruppe. - Mitteilungen aus dem Haus der Natur Salzburg, 2: 6–9.
The author has, with the help of lichens, dated the moraines of historical glacier advances in a mountain range in the eastern part of the Hohen Tauern (Tischlerkar-range near Badgastein). The glaciers in this area are cirque glaciers, which have deposited moraines like slopes ° f debris on their mostly more sloping forefields. As relatively small glaciers, they react sensitively to changes of climate. The entire glaciated area has been reduced by approximately 50% since 1920.
30654Nagl H. (1971): Zur Erkenntnis puartärer Klimaschwankungen aus geomorphologischen Erscheinungen am Beispiel des Pöllatals (Hafnergruppe, Kärnten). - Carinthia II, 161/81: 9–30.
30653de Neef D., Stewart G.H. & Meurk C.D. (2008): Urban biotopes of Aotearoa New Zealand (URBANZ) III: spontaneous urban wall vegetation in Christchurch and Dunedin. - Phyton (Horn), 48(1): 133–154.
The vegetation of urban walls in New Zealand's cities has been little studied. We investigated the occurrence of wall vegetation in Christchurch and Dunedin cities, and determined whether vegetation patterns could be distinguished. This is a contribution to the ecological knowledge base that enables the development of management tools aimed at preserving and enhancing New Zealand urban biodiversity. Walls were randomly selected with the only requirement that vegetation was present. In addition to plant species presence and abundance at different wall heights, wall characteristics including substrate type, aspect, orientation, and colour were also recorded. Due to high species diversity and low abundance, data analysis was generally carried out at the taxonomic level of orders. The majority of species on urban walls were non-native; 85.5% (100 of 117) and 91.4% (64 of 70) of species in Christchurch and Dunedin respectively. Species diversity is high, but repeat occurrences low; 76.5% and 50% of the species occur in less then 5% of the samples for Christchurch and Dunedin respectively. In both cities the orders Asterales, Brassicales, Caryophyllales, and Poales were predominant. High incidence of species in the crack between base of wall and pavement indicated more favourable conditions or enhanced accessibility compared to other parts of the wall habitat. Lichens, and to some extent bryophytes, seemed to prefer the higher areas of the wall; lichens on rock surfaces but bryophytes preferring the joints. In Christchurch, lichens were rare in the urban-industrial centre of the city. Overall the observed wall vegetation is relatively similar between the two cities. Key words: Floristics, neophytes, vegetation, urban walls. - Flora of New Zealand.
30652Reese Næsborg R., Peterson E.B. & Tibell L. (2019): Chaenotheca longispora (Coniocybaceae), a new lichen from coast redwood trees in California, U.S.A.. - Bryologist, 122(1): 31–37.
Chaenotheca longispora is described as a new species from the central coast of California, U.S.A. It is similar in morphology to C. laevigata but is distinguished by the long (up to 25 lm) and spirally ornamented ascospores as well as chemically by the PD+ orange and K+ yellow reaction of the thallus. Thus far, C. longispora has been collected only from the crowns of large coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) trees in Armstrong Redwoods State Natural Reserve, where it occurs on the thick, fibrous bark of the trunks. A key to Chaenotheca species in North America, including C. longispora, is provided. Keywords: Calicioid lichen, Chaenotheca, corticolous, epiphyte, pin lichen, spirally ornamented ascospores, taxonomy.
30651Gültekin S. & Özyiğitoğlu G. (2018): Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf Likeninin Antibakteriyel Aktivitesi ve Antioksidan Kapasitesinin Araştırılması [Assessment of antibacterial activity and antioxidant capacity in lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf]. - Marmara Fen Bilimleri Dergisi [Marmara Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences], 30(2): 189–194.
[In Turkish with English abstract:] Lichens are formed by the combination of a fungus (mycobiont) and a green alga and / or a cyanobacterium (photobiont), and as a result they produce unique secondary metabolites. Studies have shown that lichens have various biological and antibacterial effects due to these secondary metabolites. In this study, an antibacterial activity of acetone extracts from an epiphytic (growing on tree) fruticose lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf were investigated by disk diffusion method against ATCC 29212 Enterococcus faecalis, ATCC 25923 Staphylococcus aureus, CECT 4122 Pseudomonas aeruginosa and ATCC 25922 Escherichia coli strains. Also antioxidant capacities of the same extracts were assessed by Cupric Reducing Antioxidant Capacity (CUPRAC) method. According to the results obtained, the antibacterial activities of P. furfuracea acetone extracts were ineffective against Gram negative bacteria but inhibited the development of Gram positive bacteria. In addition, a high level of antioxidant activity was calculated with a value of 9.653 ± 0.102 μg TE / gr. It is seen that P. furfuracea has a potential to be used as a natural resource in the field of pharmacology. Keywords: Lichen, Pseudevernia furfuracea, antibacterial activity, antioxidant capacity, secondary metabolite.
30650Nguyen T.T.H., Dinh M.H., Chi H.T., Wang S.-L., Nguyen Q.V., Tran T.D. & Nguyen A.D. (2019): Antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of lichens collected from Bidoup Nui Ba National Park, Vietnam. - Research on Chemical Intermediates, 45: 33–49.
Lichens were some of the earliest colonizers of terrestrial habitats on Earth. They represent a unique symbiont between fungi (mycobionts) and algae and/or cyanobacteria (photobionts). Lichens have been used as a cure for diabetes, coughs, pulmonary tuberculosis, wound healing, and dermatological diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate the in vitro antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of methanol lichen extracts. Fourteen lichen species from Bidoup Nui Ba National Park were identified according to their morphology and anatomical and chemical characteristics. The antioxidant activity of the methanol lichen extracts was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity assay. The results showed that, of the lichens tested, L5 had the highest free radical activity with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 59.9 ± 4.65 mg mL−1. The methanol extract of L5 also showed the highest total flavonoid and polyphenol contents. In a cytotoxic assay, it was observed that the methanol extract of U38.1 exhibited high cytotoxic effect against MCF-7 cells, with IC50 of 34.27 ± 1.25 mg mL−1. The tested lichen extracts were also found to have slight cytotoxic effect on fibroblasts at screening concentration of 100 µg mL−1. All of the extracts were found to possess different cytotoxic activities against MO-91 cells, with IC50 values ranging from 10.50 ± 1.56 to over 50 mg mL−1. All of the extracts except U38.1 induced normal peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation, especially after 48 h of treatment at 25 µg/mL. Keywords: Lichen; Methanol extracts; Cytotoxicity; MCF-7; MO-91; Fibroblast; Peripheral blood mononuclear cells.
30649Nakajima H., Fujimoto N., Yamamoto Y., Amemiya T. & Itoh K. (2019): Response of secondary metabolites to Cu in the Cu-hyperaccumulator lichen Stereocaulon japonicum. - Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 26: 905–912.
Lichen secondary metabolites are known to be associated with heavy metal uptake and tolerance in lichens. Understanding the relationship between their secondary metabolites and heavy metals in them is important for clarifying the mechanisms of their heavy metal accumulation and tolerance. To determine the relationships between the concentrations of secondary metabolites and Cu in the Cu-hyperaccumulator lichen Stereocaulon japonicum and to clarify its response to Cu, we collected Cu-contaminated and uncontaminated samples of the lichen and determined relative concentrations of secondary metabolites and concentrations of Cu, K, glucose, and sugar alcohols in them. We found significant negative correlations between the relative concentrations of secondary metabolites—atranorin and stictic acid—and the concentration of Cu. These negative correlations can be interpreted in one of two ways: (a) S. japonicum itself reduced the relative concentrations of secondary metabolites in response to the increase of Cu concentration or (b) its carbon and energy metabolism was damaged by Cu stress, resulting in the reduction of the relative concentrations of secondary metabolites. The analysis of K, glucose, and sugar alcohols showed no effect of Cu on these concentrations, which means that the carbon and energy metabolism was not damaged by Cu stress. Therefore, the negative correlations can be interpreted that S. japonicum itself reduced the relative concentrations of secondary metabolites with the increase of Cu concentration. These findings provide a deeper understanding of the response of secondary metabolites to Cu in the lichen. Keywords: Stereocaulon japonicum . Copper hyperaccumulator . Lichen secondary metabolite . Atranorin . Stictic acid . Glucose . Sugar alcohol . Carbon and energymetabolism.
30648Prokopiev I., Filippova G., Filippov E., Voronov I., Sleptsov I. & Zhanataev A. (2019): Genotoxicity of (+)- and (−)-usnic acid in mice. - Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, 839: 36–39.
Usnic acid, which is the most widespread and well-studied secondary lichen compound, has antibacterial and cytotoxic effects. Usnic acid is present in lichens as the (+)- and (-)-enantiomers, which have different biological activities. We used a DNA-comet assay to determine the genotoxic effect of (+)- and (−)-usnic acid in the liver and kidney cells of mice. The genotoxic effect of usnic acid was only observed 1 h after oral administration. Usnic acid doses of 100 and 50 mg/kg resulted in DNA damage in the liver and kidney cells. The genotoxic effect of usnic acid is associated with oxidative stress in cells. There were no significant differences in the effects of (+)- and (−)-enantiomers.
30647Muurinen L., Oksanen J., Vanha-Majamaa I. & Virtanen R. (2019): Legacy effects of logging on boreal forest understorey vegetation communities in decadal time scales in northern Finland. - Forest Ecology and Management, 436: 11–20.
We followed how forest thinning, repeated twice during a period of 93 years, altered understorey plant community composition, affected the succession of forest understorey vegetation and the accumulation of logs in the long-term. The study was carried out in northern Finland by resampling 20 permanent experimental plots, established after a wildfire in 1920. Understorey vegetation was inventoried in 1961, 1986 and 2013 with forest thinning treatments done in 1953 and 1987, using four and three different harvesting intensities, respectively. We found succession to override the effects of forest logging until the latest study period (2013). We observed negligible long-term effects of logging on understorey communities during the two mid-successional stages (1961, 1986), when the forest was 41 and 66 years old respectively. The impacts of logging on understorey vegetation were strongest in the latest successional stage (2013), the forest being at the age of 93 years. In the latest successional stage (2013) logged plots had less coarse woody debris than unlogged plots. Forest management thus influenced the key feature for forest biodiversity and potential habitats for endangered species. These findings are of major interest since the studies of long-term impacts of less intensive forest management practices are scarce. Our results suggest that in addition to possible immediate impacts, harvesting treatments have legacy effects (subtle or delayed inherited effects of forestry in the past) that influence the forest understorey vegetation community composition and the amount of coarse woody debris. This finding deserves special attention when planning of species conservation, multiple use of forests and sustainable forestry. [p. 14:] 3.2. Changes in understorey vegetation community composition during the study period. "There was a clear between-year variation in species abundances (Fig. 4), but no difference in the total number of species, the number of vascular plants, or the number of bryophytes and lichens between years, harvesting treatments, or the interaction of years and harvesting treatments (Appendix C). Majority of the species maintained their populations during the whole study period and only few species were detected only once (Fig. 4). Many lichen species (Cladonia rangiferina, C. arbuscula, Nephroma arcticum, Peltigera sp. and Stereocaulon sp.) were common in 1961 but disappeared from all sites after the first vegetation inventory (Fig. 4)."
30646Jean M., Lafleur B., Fenton N.J., Paré D. & Bergeron Y. (2019): Influence of fire and harvest severity on understory plant communities. - Forest Ecology and Management, 436: 88–104.
In the managed portion of the boreal forest of eastern North America, logging has replaced fire as the most important disturbance agent. There, a large proportion of timber is harvested in forests susceptible of accumulating a thick Sphagnum layer that decreases forest productivity, a process called paludification. In such a context, understanding how disturbance type and severity of soil disturbances may affect post-disturbance microhabitat characteristics and understory community composition is critical for forest management. Different management techniques have been used such as careful logging and clearcutting, as well as winter and summer harvests, with various impacts on soils and forest regeneration. In the current study, we used 55 study sites representing a gradient of soil disturbance severity by harvesting (winter and summer) and fire (low and high severity) to compare their impacts on understory plant communities in the Clay Belt area of eastern Canada. At each site, understory community composition (vascular plants, bryophytes, and lichens) was assessed. We found a strong response of communities to overall severity as represented by disturbance type (careful logging, clearcutting, and fire), but little impact of fine scale disturbance severity (winter vs. summer, low vs. high severity disturbance) within each type of disturbance. Differences in community composition were reflected in the abundance of the various plant functional types, with invaders being more common in harvested sites, endurers being common in all disturbances except high severity fires, and avoiders being more common in older sites. Understory communities in harvested sites (< 40 years old) were similar to communities typical of old sites originating from natural wildfire disturbances (75–100 years old low severity fires or 200 years old high severity fires) in terms of composition, but also Sphagnum spp. abundance. In order to maintain long-term forest productivity and manage forests in ways that more closely reproduce post-fire conditions, logging operations should aim at increasing soil disturbances, for example by using prescribed burns, in the Clay Belt area of eastern North America.
30645Goth A., Michelsen A. & Rousk K. (2019): Railroad derived nitrogen and heavy metal pollution does not affect nitrogen fixation associated with mosses and lichens at a tundra site in Northern Sweden. - Environmental Pollution, 247: 857–865.
Traffic derived nitrogen (N) and heavy metal pollution is a well-known phenomenon, but little explored in otherwise pristine ecosystems such as subarctic tundra. Here, the main source of N input to the ecosystem is via N2 fixation by moss- and lichen-associated bacteria. While inhibitory effects of N deposition on moss-associated N2 fixation have been reported, we still lack understanding of the effects of traffic derived N and heavy metal deposition on this ecosystem function in an otherwise pristine setting. To test this, we established a distance gradient (0e1280 m) away from a metal pollution source -a railway transporting iron ore that passes through a subarctic birch forest. We assessed the effects of railway-derived pollution on N2 fixation associated with two moss species Pleurozium schreberi, Hylocomium splendens and with the lichen Peltigera aphthosa. Deposition and availability of N and heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb) as well as the respective contents in moss, lichen and soil was assessed. While we found a steep gradient in metal concentration in moss, lichen and soil with distance away from the pollution source, N deposition did not change, and with that, we could not detect a distance gradient in moss- or lichen-associated N2 fixation. Hence, our results indicate that N2 fixing bacteria are either not inhibited by heavy metal deposition, or that they are protected within the moss carpet and lichen tissue.
30644Tuovinen V., Ekman S., Thor G., Vanderpool D., Spribille T. & Johannesson H. (2019): Two basidiomycete fungi in the cortex of wolf lichens. - Current Biology, 22: 557–684.
In Brief: Lichens have historically been treated as symbioses of a single fungus and an alga, but shotgun DNA sequencing is enabling a re-evaluation of this census. Tuovinen et al. report a third fungal species in the cortex of 95% of sampled wolf lichens. The findings suggest that lichens may not be defined by any one universal combination of organisms. Highlights: * Most wolf lichens contain three fungal species in their cortex; * A Tremella fungus thought to be restricted to rare galls is ubiquitous as a yeast; * When in hyphal form, Tremella enwraps algal cells; * Bright-field microscopy underestimates secondary fungal occurrence in lichens.
30643Stahl E. (1888): Pflanzen und Schnecken. Biologische Studie über die Schutzmittel der Pflanzen gegen Schneckenfrass. - Jenaische Zeitschrift für Naturwissenschaft, N.F., 22: 557–684.
snail grazing on plants incl. lichens
30642Zahlbruckner A. (1901): [Geschichte der Botanik in Oesterreich von 1850 bis 1900] II. Die Entwicklung der Morphologie, Entwicklungsgeschichte und Systematik der Kryptogamen in Oesterreich von 1850 bis 1900. - In: Handlirsch A. & Wettstein R. v. (eds), Botanik und Zoologie in Österreich in den Jahren 1850 bis 1900, p. 155–194, K.K. Zoologisch-Botanische Gesellschaft in Wien.
Austria; history of lichenological research in Austrian monarchy (incl. present territory of the Czech Republic) summarized in subchapter "Flechten" at p. 176–188; a short biography and portrait of H. Zukal included
30641Johow F. (1896): Estudios sobre la Flora de las Islas de Juan Fernandez. - Cervantes, Santiago de Chile, 287 p.
Chile; lichens at p. 195–203
30640Schmid G. (1929): Pflanzen und Schnecken. - Archiv für Molluskenkunde, 61: 146–176.
snail grazing on plants incl. lichens
30639Metzner P. (1934): Zur Kenntnis der Hymenolichenen. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 51: 231–240.
30638Johow F. (1884): Über westindische Hymenolichenen. - Sitzungsberichte der Königlich Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, 1884: 113–128.
30637Stahl E. (1883): Ueber den Einfluss des sonnigen oder schattigen Standortes auf die Ausbildung der Laubblätter. - Jenaische Zeitschrift für Naturwissenschaft, N.F., 16: 162–199.
Physiology; chapter dealing with sun- and shade- forms of lichens entitled "Sonnen- und Schattenformen bei Flechten" at p. 185–186.
30636Stizenberger E. (1883): Herbarium Lichenum Fenniae, quod edidit Norrlin. Fasc. V—IX. Nr. 201—450. - Botanische Zeitung [Leipzig], 41(13): 219–220.
30635Winter G. (1876): Untersuchung der Flechtengattungen : Secoliga, Sarcogyne, Hymenelia und Naetrocymbe. - Sitzungsberichte der naturforschender Gesellschaft zu Leipzig, 2 [1875]: 5–8.
Extract from lecture presented by Prof. Schenk
30634Kny [L.] (1874): Entwickelung des Thallus von Lichina pygmaea Ag. und deren Beziehung zu Rivularia nitida Ag.. - Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin, 1874: 95–103.
Extract from lecture
30633Stahl E. (1878): Ueber Culturexemplare von Flechten. - Botanische Zeitung [Leipzig], 36: 140–141.
Extract from lecture
30632dBy [de Bary A.] (1879): Kryptogamen-Flora von Schlesien. Im Namen der Schlesischen Gesellschaft für vaterländische Cultur herausgegeben von Ferdinand Cohn. 2. Band, 2. Hälfte. Flechten, bearbeitet von Berth. Stein. Breslau 1879. 400 S. 8°. - Botanische Zeitung [Leipzig], 37: 535–536.
30631Lagostina E., Dal Grande F., Andreev M. & Printzen C. (2018): The use of microsatellite markers for species delimitation in Antarctic Usnea subgenus Neuropogon. - Mycologia, 110(6): 1047–1057.
Lichens are symbiotic associations consisting of a fungal (mycobiont) and one or more photosynthetic (photobionts) partners and are the dominant component, and most important primary producers, of Antarctic terrestrial ecosystems. The most common lichens in the maritime Antarctic are Usnea antarctica and U. aurantiacoatra, a so-called “species pair” in which U. antarctica shows asexual reproduction and propagation via soredia and U. aurantiacoatra forms ascospores in apothecia. Previous molecular analyses were not able to unambiguously distinguish the two morphotypes as species. Therefore, the goal of this study was to find out whether fast-evolving SSR (single sequence repeat) markers are able to separate morphotypes more clearly and help to clarify their taxonomy. We investigate 190 individuals from five mixed stands of both morphotypes collected in King George Island and Elephant Island (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica). Based on 23 microsatellite markers designed from sequenced genomes, discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC), Bayesian clustering analysis, and coalescent-based estimation of gene flow show clear evidence for the existence of two different species distinguishable by reproductive mode. We did not detect any statistical association between genetic clusters and three previously reported chemical races of each species. Keywords: DAPC, gene flow, haplotype network, ITS, Parmeliaceae.
30630Acharius E. (1815): Usneae generis novae species. - Nova Acta Regiae Societatis Scientiarum Upsaliensis, 7: 188–194.
Usnea jamaicensis Ach. spec. nov., U. ceratina Ach. spec. nov., U. cornicularia Ach. spec. nov., U. gracilis Ach. spec. nov., U. longissima Ach. spec. nov.
30629Itzigsohn H. (1863): Bitte an die Herren Lichenolgen [sic!] wegen Ephebe pubescens Fries. - Botanische Zeitung [Leipzig], 21: 147–148.
30628Milde J. (1864): Ein Sommer in Süd-Tirol. - Botanische Zeitung [Leipzig], 22(17–19), Beiblatt: 1–22.
Italy, Tyrol, Alps; lichens identified by P. Hepp
30627Milde J. (1864): Zur Cryptogamen-Flora Süd-Tirols. - Botanische Zeitung [Leipzig], 22(43–44), Beiblatt: 1–17.
Italy, Tyrol, Alps; lichens identified by P. Hepp; Guepinia polyspora Hepp sp. nov. [= Peltula euploca (Ach.) Poelt ex Pišút]
30626Zukal H. (1886): Ueber das Vorkommen von Reservestoffbehältern bei Kalkflechten. Ein Beitrag zur Kenntniss der histiologischen Eigenthümlichkeiten der Flechten. - Botanische Zeitung [Leipzig], 44: 761–770.
on sphaeroids in calcicolous lichens
30625dBy [de Bary A.] (1886): Handbuch der Pflanzenkrankheiten. Für Landwirthe, Gärtner, Forstleute und Botaniker bearbeitet von Paul Sorauer. — Zweite umbearbeitete Auflage. — Erster Theil: Die nicht parasitären Krankheiten. Mit 19 lithogr. Tafeln u. 61 Textabbildungen. 920 S. 8°. - Botanische Zeitung [Leipzig], 44: 625–629.
Review; quite a long discussion on 'parasiting' lichens
30624Koch A. (1886): L. R. Tulasne. - Botanische Zeitung [Leipzig], 44: 102–103.
30623Rostafiński J. & Woronin M. (1877): Ueber Botrydium granulatum. - Botanische Zeitung [Leipzig], 35: 649–671 [+ Tabs VII-XI].
on green thalloid algae confusable with thalli of some basidiolichens (a note in the text)
30622Hallier E. (1866): Bericht über die in den Jahren 1861 und 1862 auf Helgoland gesammelten Landkryptogamen. - Botanische Zeitung, 24: 89–92.
30621E. St. [Stizenberger E.] (1867): Lichenes Spitzbergenses determinavit Th. M. Fries. Separat-Abdruck aus Svenska Vetenscaps-Akademiens Handlingar, Band 7, 1867.. - Botanische Zeitung, 25: 389–391.
30620Askenasy E. (1867): Beiträge zur Kenntniss des Chlorophylls und einiger dasselbe begleitender Farbstoffe. - Botanische Zeitung, 25: 225–230 & 233–238 [+ Tab. V].
30619Famintzin A. & Baranietzky J. (1867): Beitrag zur Entwickelungsgeschichte der Gonidien und Zoosporenbildung bei Physcia parietina DN. (Vorläufige Mittheilung.). - Botanische Zeitung, 25: 189–190.
30618Stitzenberger [Stizenberger E.] (1867): Unterchlorigsaurer Kalk und Aetzkali, zwei neue Unterscheidungsmittel beim Flechtenstudium; von Dr. William Nylander. (Linnean Society´s Journal. Botanik. Band IX.). - Botanische Zeitung, 25: 150–151.
30617Nylander W. (1867): Circa genus Lichenum Dermatiscum. - Botanische Zeitung, 25: 133.
Dermatiscum gen. nov.
30616Stizenberger [E.] (1867): Prodromi Lichenographiae Scandinaviae supplementum : Lichenes Lapponiae orientalis. Von William Nylander (in Notis. ur Sallsk. pro F. et Fl. Fenn. Förh. Helsingfors 1866). - Botanische Zeitung, 25: 133–135.
30615Stitzenberger [Stizenberger E.] (1868): William Nylander´s Arbeiten über die Flechten Neu-Granada´s. - Botanische Zeitung, 26: 603–605.
30614Stitzenberger [Stizenberger E.] (1868): Conspectus synopticus Sticteorum, scripsit William Nylander. - Botanische Zeitung, 26: 446.
30613Stitzenberger [Stizenberger E.] (1868): Les Lichens du Jardin de Luxembourg, par William Nylander. - Botanische Zeitung, 26: 444–446.
30612S. [Stizenberger E.] (1868): Synopsis lichenum Novae Caledoniae scripsit William Nylander. Caen 1868.. - Botanische Zeitung, 26: 297–298.
30611S. [Stizenberger E.] (1868): Geschichte und Literatur der Lichenologie von den ältesten Zeiten bis 1865 (incl.). Von A. von Krempelhuber. München 1867. - Botanische Zeitung, 26: 286–289.
30610Hermann I. (1868): Cultur der Glaucogonidien von Peltigera canina. - Botanische Zeitung, 26: 185–196 [+ Tab. V].
30609Famintzin A. & Boranetzky J. (1868): Zur Entwickelungsgeschichte der Gonidien und Zoosporenbildung der Flechten. - Botanische Zeitung, 26: 169–177 [+ Tab. IV A].
30608Stahl E. & Schorn P.J. (1961): Dünnschicht-Chromatographie hydrophiler Arzneipflanzenauszüge. VIII. Mitteilung: Cumarine, Flavonderivate, Hydroxysäuren, Gerbstoffe, Anthracenderivate und Flechteninhaltsstoffe. - Hoppe-Seyler´s Zeitschrift f. physiol. Chemie, 325: 263–274.
The Chromatographie behaviour of 50 natural substances (α- and γ-pyrones, aromatic hydroxy-acids, tannins, anthracene derivatives and lichen constituents) on standardised Kieselgel-G plates (250 layer) has been studied with regard to the characterisation of extracts of medicinal plants. The best separations were obtained with acid solvent mixtures of the type toluene/ethyl acetate/formic acid, which took an average of about 30 min. to run 10 cm. Detection of the compounds separated was about 10 times more sensitive than in paper chromatography.
30607dBy [de Bary A.] (1870): Personal - Nachrichten. - Botanische Zeitung [Leipzig], 28: 325–328.
obituary and biography (J.D.W. Bayrhoffer)
30606Stizenberger [E.] (1870): Neuere lichenologische Arbeiten. VIII. - Botanische Zeitung [Leipzig], 28: 309–310.
review on : J. S. Deichmann Branth og E. Rostrup, Lichenes Daniae eller Danmarks Laver. Med 2 Kobbertavler. Kjöbenhavn 1870.
30605Stizenberger [E.] (1870): Neuere lichenologische Arbeiten. VII.. - Botanische Zeitung [Leipzig], 28: 276.
review on : Lichenes Britannici, sen Iichenum in Anglia, Scotia et Hibernia vigentium enumeratio. Scripsit Rev. Jacobus M. Crombie. Londini 1870.
30604dBy [de Bary A.] (1870): Kryptogamen - Flora von Sachsen , der Ober - Lausitz, Thüringen und Nord -Böhmen, mit Berücksichtigung der benachbarten Länder. — Zweite Abtheilung. Erste Hälfte. (Bogen 1 — 12.) Die Flechten. Bearbeitet von Dr. L. Rabenhorst. Mit zahlreichen Illustrationen, sämmtliche Flechtengattungen bildlich darstellend. — Leipzig 1810. 8°. - Botanische Zeitung [Leipzig], 28: 111–112.
30603D. B. [de Bary A.] (1870): Catalogue des cryptogames recueillis aux Antilles françaises en 1868 et Essai sur leur distribution géographique dans ces îles, par C. Husnot. Caen 1870. - Botanische Zeitung [Leipzig], 28: 107–111.
30602dBy [de Bary A.] (1870): Nachschrift. - Botanische Zeitung [Leipzig], 28: 58–60.
30601Stizenberger [E.] (1870): Neuere lichenologische Arbeiten. - Botanische Zeitung [Leipzig], 28: 29–32, 41–44 & 57–58.
Reviews on 6 lichenological works: I. Nylander, Note sur les Lichens de Port-Natal. Caen 1868; II. Nylander, Lichenes Angolenses Welwitschiani. Ibid. 1869; III. Nylander, Enumeration des Lichens recoltes par JH. Husnot aux Antilles francaises. Caen 1869; IV. Wedell [Weddell]. Les Lichens des promenades publiques et en particulier du Jardin de Blossac a Poitiers. Aus dem Bull, de la Soc. bot. de France, T. 16. 1869; Wilhelm Bausch, Uebersicht der Flechten des Grossherzogthums Baden. Carlsruhe 1869; and VI. S. Schwendener, Die Algentypen der Flechtengonidien. Programm für die Rectoratsfeier der Universität Basel, 1869. 4°. 42 Seiten, 3 Tafeln.
30600Göppert H.R. (1871): Höhe der Kältegrade, welche die Vegetation überhaupt erträgt. - Botanische Zeitung [Leipzig], 29: 49–58 & 65–75.
30599Treub M. (1873): Lichenencultur. - Botanische Zeitung [Leipzig], 31: 721–727 [+ Tab. VIIIa].
lichen cultivation; spore germination; symbiosis; sketch of an early symbiosis stage of Lecanora subfusca in culture
30598Stahl E. (1874): Beiträge zur Entwickelungsgeschichte der Flechten (vorläufige Mittheilung). - Botanische Zeitung [Leipzig], 32: 177–180.
30597Reess [M.] (1874): Mittheilung über die Flechtenfrage. - Botanische Zeitung [Leipzig], 32: 108–109.
30596Dolnik C. (2013): Candelaria pacifica und andere bemerkenswerte Flechten aus Schleswig-Holstein. - Kieler Notizen zur Pflanzenkunde, 39: 11–18.
Candelaria pacifica and other noteworthy lichens from Schleswig-Holstein. Recent taxonomic studies allowed the separation of further new species in Schleswig-Holstein not considered in the red data book of the province. Candelaria pacifica is a common, but only recently described species, whereas Graphis pulverulenta has been reported before, but not in the rank of a species. Other new species such as Lecanora pannonica and Thelocarpon epibolum are rare and have probably been overlooked in Schleswig-Holstein in the past. Rinodina aspersa has been rediscovered at a formerly unknown locality after being lost for several decades. Additionally, some other rare and noteworthy species are reported.
30595Dolnik C. & Neumann P. (2014): Lecanora stenotropa und andere bemerkenswerte Flechten aus Schleswig-Holstein. - Kieler Notizen zur Pflanzenkunde, 40: 45–52.
Lecanora stenotropa and other noteworthy lichens from Schleswig-Holstein. New findings of noteworthy lichens from Schlewig-Holstein are recorded, which are relevant for the mapping of lichens in the Country. New is Lecanora stenotropa, which was not distinguished from the similar L. polytropa before. Aspicilia intermutans and Hyperphyscia adglutinata have been rediscoverd after being missed for several decades. We report about the distribution of the map lichen Rhizocarpon geographicum, announced as Lichen-of-the-Year-2014, in Schleswig-Holstein. Additionally, some other noteworthy species are recorded.
30594Dolnik C. & Neumann P. (2016): Verbreitung der Gelbfrüchtigen Schwefelflechte (Psilolechia lucida) – Flechte des Jahres 2015 – in Schleswig-Holstein. - Kieler Notizen zur Pflanzenkunde, 41: 93–97.
Distribution of the Sulphur dust lichen (Psilolechia lucida) in Schleswig-Holstein. The Sulphur dust lichen (Psilolechia lucida) was announced as Lichen-of-the-Year-2015. This lichen species has been common in Schleswig-Holstein but is now suffering from habi-tat loss. The recent mapping of lichens of the country is still showing large gaps. Due to its typical habit and appearance the Sulphur dust lichen is easy detectable in the field. Therefore, everybody is pleased to support the mapping by sending new records for the species distribu-tion in Schleswig-Holstein.
30593Neumann P. & Dolnik C. (2017): Hepps Schönfleck (Caloplaca flavescens) und andere bemerkenswerte Flechten aus Schleswig-Holstein. - Kieler Notizen zur Pflanzenkunde, 42: 127–137.
Caloplaca flavescens and other noteworthy lichens from Schleswig-Holstein. Caloplaca flavescens was announced as Lichen-of-the-year-2017. The species was partially widespread in the past, but it recently shows a decline in its distribution area. Currently, it is only found in the western and northern part of Schleswig-Holstein regularly on old churches and church yard walls. A description of the species Caloplaca flavescens and its location requirements is given. In addition, records of other rare and remarkable lichen species are presented.
30592Krabbe G. (1883): Morphologie und Entwicklungsgeschichte der Cladoniaceen. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 1: 64–77.
Cladonia; ontogeny
30591Zukal H. (1885): Epilog zu meinen „Flechtenstudien". - Botanisches Centralblatt, 23: 292–296.
30590Krabbe G. (1882): Entwicklung, Sprossung und Theilung einiger Flechtenapothecien. - Botanische Zeitung [Leipzig], 40: 65–83, 89–99, 105–116 & 121–142.
30589Hestmark G. (1991): To sex, or not to sex... Structures and strategies of reproduction in the family Umbilicariaceae (Lecanorales, Ascomycetes). - Sommerfeltia, Supplement, 3: 1–47.
This is a study of the evolution and ecology of reproduction in the family of lichen-forming fungi Umbilicariaceae comprising the two genera Umbilicaria and Lasallia. Members of this family exhibit a variety of reproductive structures and strategies. The fungal partner of the symbiosis may reproduce by sexually generated ascospores, asexual thalloconidia, or both. Propagules reproducing the intact symbiosis include asexual isidia, soredia, thallyls, phyllidia and schizidia. The algal partner - unicellular Pseudotrebouxia (Chlorophyceae) - reproduces by asexual autospores when in symbiosis, and in addition zoospores and aplanospores in pure culture. In about half of the species in Umbilicariaceae the fungal partner can only reproduce sexually - it is exclusively teleomorphic. In these species, apparently, the option of asexual reproduction has not been presented by evolution. In the taxa where this option has been presented, the forces of ecology and evolution seem to favour this option. Although no tax.on with asexual reproduction appears to have dispensed with sexuality altogether, the allocation to sexual reproduction tends to decrease and the resources are translocated to asexual reproduction. Different taxa represent progressive stages in this de-evolution of sex. In some of these cases sex is correlated with geographical distribution patterns or ecological factors such as high humidity or high population density and sib-competition. The latter observation supports the 'Tangled Bank' hypothesis for the maintenance of sex, as well as ESS models for reproductive allocations in heterocarpic plants. In some cases exclusively teleomorphic tax.a co-exist with morphologically virtually identical but mainly asexual (anamorphic) taxa, suggesting that a difference in reproductive mode may have led to speciation. Associated with different propagule types are a number of other traits with consequences for the ecological performance of the species. These sets of correlated traits constitute strategies of reproduction, the core sets of specific life-history strategies. Three 'pure' reproductive strategies are tentatively distinguished in the Umbilicariaceae, depending on whether the propagule is sexually or asexually generated and whether it is symbiotic or not. The asexual propagules are close-dispersed while sexual propagules are more far-dispersed. A comparative study of the performance of representatives of the three strategy types in two glacier forelands shows that the sexually reproducing species are the fastest colonizers. The need to re-establish symbiosis at target site appears to be no great obstacle to sexual reproduction by ascospores. Keywords: Asexual reproduction, ESS, Evolutionary ecology, Lasallia, Lichen-forming fungi, Reproduction, Sex, Tangled Bank, Thalloconidia, Umbilicaria.
30588Gerstlauer L. (1909): Max Britzelmayr †. - Berichte der Bayerischen Botanischen Gesellschaft zur Erforschung der Flora, 12(2): 69–72.
obituary; biography; bibliography
30587Magnus P. (1926): Nachtrag zu: Die Pilze, bearbeitet von P. Magnus in der Flora der gefürst. Grafschaft Tirol, des Landes Vorarlberg und des Fürstentums Liechtenstein von Prof. K.W. v. Dalla Torre und Ludw. Grafen v. Sarnthein: III. Band, Innsbruck, Wagner, 1905. - Berichte des naturwissenschaftlichen-medizinischen Verein Innsbruck, 40: 1–315.
30586Magnus P. (1905): Die Pilze (Fungi) von Tirol, Vorarlberg und Liechtenstein. - In: Dalla Torre K.W. v. & Sarnthein L. v (eds), Flora der gefürsteten Grafschaft Tirol, des Landes Vorarlberg und des Fürstenthumes Liechtenstein. Bd. 3, p. 1–716, Wagner´schen Universitäts-Buchhandlung, Innsbruck.
Austria, Liechtenstein; lichenicolous, lichen-allied fungi and also several lichens formerly regarded for fungi included, e.g. Xylographa spp., Ptychographa flexella (= Elixia flexella), Biatorella (incl. current genera Steinia, Strangospora, Piccolia), Nesolechia p.p. (= Carbonea spp.), Omphalia p.p. (= Lichenomphalia), etc..
30585Eggensberger P. (1994): Die Pflanzengesellschaften der subalpinen und alpinen Stufe der Ammergauer Alpen und ihre Stellung in den Ostalpen. - Berichte der Bayerischen Botanischen Gesellschaft zur Erforschung der heimischen Flora, Beihaft, 8: 1–239.
30584Paz-Bermúdez G., Carballal R., Marques J. & López de Silanes M.E. (2018): Catálogo de los líquenes saxícolas (Ascomycota) del área arqueológica de Siega Verde (Salamanca, España). - Anales del Jardín Botánico de Madrid, 75(2): e076 [11 p.].
Catalogue of saxicolous lichens (Ascomycota) of the archaeological area of Siega Verde (Salamanca, Spain). We here present the partial results of a research project focusing on the lichen diversity and lichen-induced biodeterioration processes in two archaeological places—Siega Verde, Spain, and Foz-Côa, Portugal, both declared World Heritage sites by the UNESCO—. In this article the floristic results corresponding to the area of Siega Verde—Salamanca—are presented. In total, 97 taxa of lichens and two lichenicolous fungi have been identified. The presence of Peltula lobata J.Marques & al., Cyphelium lecideinum (Nyl.) Trevis., Variospora cancarixiticola (Nav.-Ros. & al.) Arup & al., and the lichenicolous fungus Llimoniella phaeophysciae Diederich & al. is particularly relevant. Some differences have been observed between the floristic composition of this area and that of the neighbor of Foz-Côa, attributable to the eutrophication of Siega Verde. Keywords. Lichenized fungi, lichenicolous fungi, schists, World Heritage site.
30583Llop E. (2013): La diversitat liquènica de les fagedes olositàniques, amb un estudi comparatiu de la diversitat liquènica epifítica dels alzinars i les fagedes de la Garrotxa. - Butlletí de la Institució Catalana d´Història Natural, 77: 61–74.
(Lichen diversity from olositanic beec forests, with a comparative study on the epiphytic lichen diversity of holm oak and beech forests of la Garrotxa). [in Catalonian with English abstract: ] Nineteen beech forests have been surveyed from la Garrotxa. The study has focused on the analysis of total lichen diversity from the selected sites. The current catalogue resulted in 153 lichenized ascomycetes and three lichenicolous fungi. 63 taxa, representing the 41% of the catalogue, are new reports to the lichen biota of La Garrotxa. Among them, two taxa are new for the Iberian Peninsula and seven for Catalonia. The lichen epiphytic diversity of beech forests from La Garrotxa differs from holm oak forests because a higher proportion of crustose lichens as well as lichens with sexual reproduction. On the other hand, holm oak forests are richer and more heterogeneous than beech forests, foliose lichens are well represented, among them cyanolichens. Quercus ilex forests show a more mature structrure, which determines more stable environmental conditions favouring those foliose lichens with cyanobacteria.
30582Egea J.M., Hernández-Padrón C. & Llimona X. (1987): Aportación al conocimiento de las comunidades de líquenes saxícolas de los pisos inferiores de Tenerife (Canarias). - Butlletí de la Institució Catalana d´Història Natural, 54 (Secció de Botànica, 6): 37–53.
(Contribution to the knowledge of saxicole lichen communities in the low stages of Tenerife (Canary Islands)). [In Catalonian with English abstract: ] After a brief visit to 7 localities of Tenerife island, the authors offer a list of 95 taxa, some of them new or interesting to the island (Buellia caloplacivora , Caloplaca aetnensis, Lecanora montagnei, Lichinella stipatula, Peltula omphaliza, P. placodizans, Gyalecta schisticola, Psorotichia frustulosa, Pyrenopsis rhodosticta, Thelenella sampaiana), and give a first insight of the lichen communities growing on volcanic rocks. The phytosociological sketch obtained fits well with that of SE Spain coasts, previously studied by the authors, in similar ecological conditions. Specially remarkable is the orange belt of the Xanthorietum resendei subas. caloplacetosum gloriae , on the sunny coastal rocks (10-100 m), and the pale yellowish Pertusarietum gallicae, on not insolated surfaces, with an important presence and dominance of Lecanora suiphurella , typical of the island. The high variability of this community is described. Other interesting associations are the Peltuletum obscuranto-euplocae , on rain-tracks, Solenopsoro- Diploicietum subcanescentis , on shaded rock surfaces, rich in terreuns materials, and Roccellion canariensis , with two coastal ombrophobous communities, one of them undescribed, rich in Dirina massiliensis ( D. schistosa) and Lecanactis sp. pl., and a second, more photophilous, rich in fructiculose lichens as orchil species of Roccella , the Roccelletum canariensis.
30581Longán À. & Gómez-Bolea A. (2002): Els líquens epífits com a bioindicadors de l’estat de conservació dels boscos. - Butlletí de la Institució Catalana d´Història Natural, 7: 5–20.
(Lichens as bioindicators of forest conservation status). [in Catalonian with English abstract: ] Since the seventies, epiphytic lichens are being used as bioindicators of ecological continuity of forests. Nevertheless, different authors give different meanings to this and other concepts such as forest quality, or forest conservation status. In this work, we give definitions for these and other related concepts, deal with the problem of their application in Mediterranean ecosystems and we also give a proposal for this kind of forests. We explain the reasons why epiphytic lichens are used as bioindicators, the different methodologies used, and the problems for their application. Key words: epiphytic lichens, bioindication, forests, conservation status, forest quality, naturality, ecological continuity.
30580Llop E. & Muñiz D. (2014): Els Líquens. - In: Vilar L. & Quintana X. (eds), El poblament vegetal i els hàbitats del massís del Montgrí, les Illes Medes i la plana del Baix Ter. Recerca i territori l poblament vegetal i els hàbitats del massís del Montgrí, les Illes Medes i la plana del Baix , p. 49–60, Càtedra d´ecosistemes litorals mediterranis. Museu de la Mediterrània, Universitat de Barc.
chapter in book; in Catalonian
30579Llop E. & Gómez-Bolea A. (2010): Contribució a la flora liquènica de la Garrotxa. Líquens dels alzinars madurs. - Butlletí de la Institució Catalana d´Història Natural, 75: 49–60.
(Contribution to the lichen flora of la Garrotxa: lichens from mature holm oak forest). [In Catalonian with English abstract: ] The study of five holm oak forests, catalogued as mature, from La Garrotxa county has reported 146 taxa. 71 of these taxa are newly quoted for the county, among them 36 are new for the province of Girona, and 6 species are newly reported for Catalonia: Caloplaca insularis, Catillaria atomarioides, Fuscopannaria mediterranea, Lempholemma intricatum, Leptogium hibernicum and Verrucaria sorbinea. The percentage of biotypes present in the catalogue is similar to closer areas. However, the percentage of fruticose thalli is slightly lower in the study area. The large amount of new reports for the county and the province shows the need to propose further studies in this subject. Keywords: biogeography, lichens, Catalonia, diversity, epiphytic, saxicolous, terricolous.
30578Cera A., Force L., Navarro-Rosinés P., Gómez-Bolea A. & Llimona X. (2018): Noves dades sobre líquens i fongs liquenícoles dels substrats rocosos carbonatats a Catalunya. - Butlletí de la Institució Catalana d´Història Natural, 82: 9–22.
New data on lichens and lichenicolous fungi from calcareous rocks in Catalonia. In Catalonian with English abstract. L'estudi dels líquens i els fongs liquenícoles calcícoles a Catalunya s'inicia a la dècada dels anys 1980 amb diferents estudis que abasten zones més o menys àmplies de les muntanyes meridionals catalanes, de Catalunya continental, dels Pirineus i del litoral del nord de Catalunya. Contràriament les serralades calcàries properes al litoral de la Catalunya central han estat poc mostrejades. Com a resultat tant del treball de grau com de màster del primer autor, centrats en el Parc del Garraf, com de prospeccions més recent d'altres afloraments calcaris, s'han obtingut un primer catàleg amb un total de 133 espècies, de les que 13 són nova citació per Catalunya. Cal destacar principalment la família de les liquinàcies, un grup ben representat a la zona estudiada, de la qual són primera citació per Catalunya tant el gènere Peccania com les següents especies: Lichinella algerica, L. sinaica, Peccania coralloides, Psorotichia murorum i Thyrea girardii. D'aquesta família, s'han identificat diferents tal·lus estèrils, que han estat atribuits a Lichinella granulosa, Peccania cerebriformis, Psorotichia diffracta i Psorotichia frustulosa, espècies que serien també noves citacions per Catalunya, però, donada la dificultat del grup, cal considerar aquestes citacions amb prudència a l'espera de poder confirmar la presència d'aquests taxons amb l'estudi d'exemplars fèrtils.
30577Gasparyan A.H. & Ghaltaghchyan Ts.K. (2013): Proposed standard designations in Armenian for lichens occurring in the Republic of Armenia. - Flora Mediterranea, 23: 105–116.
Armenian standard designations are proposed for the 433 lichen species known from the Republic of Armenia. The introduction of names in Armenian aims to facilitate the use of lichenological data in various kinds of publication (educational, scientific, etc.) in Armenian language. Key words: Lichens, Vernacular names, Republic of Armenia.
30576Gasparyan A., Aptroot A., Burgaz A.R., Otte V., Zakeri Z., Rico V.J., Araujo E., Crespo A., Divakar P.K. & Lumbsch H.T. (2015): First inventory of lichens and lichenicolous fungi in the Khosrov Forest State Reserve, Armenia. - Flora Mediterranea, 25: 105–114.
In 2015, an international lichenological excursion to Armenia was organized by the Young Biologists Association NGO and Organization for the Phyto-Taxonomic Investigation of the Mediterranean Area. One of the main goals of this excursion was to study lichen diversity of the Khosrov Forest State Reserve. As a result of this inventory, 176 species of lichenized and lichenicolous fungi have been found in the protected area. Out of these, 49 are reported for the first time from Armenia: Acarospora versicolor, Agonimia tristicula, Anema decipiens, Arctomia fascicularis, Arthonia intexta, A. phaeophysciae, Aspicilia cf. glomerulans, A. intermutans, Bacidina arnoldiana, Bagliettoa calciseda, Bilimbia sabuletorum, Blennothallia crispa, Chrysopsora testacea, Collema subflaccidum, Diploschistes gypsaceus, Endocarpon pusillum, Gonohymenia nigritella, G. schleicheri, Gyalolechia juniperina, Immersaria iranica, Lecania rabenhorstii, Lecanora barkmaniana, L. juniperina, L. semipallida, Leprocaulon microscopicum, Llimoniella phaeophysciae, Lobothallia recedens, Peccania coralloides, Peltula euploca, Physconia thorstenii, Piccolia ochrophora, Placidium lacinulatum, Placopyrenium fuscellum, Psorotichia schaereri, Rinodina colobina, R. obnascens, Scytinium gelatinosum, S. turgidum, Solenopsora holophaea, Thermutis velutina, Toninia candida, T. squalida, Tremella phaeophysciae, Usnea lapponica, U. wasmuthii, Verrucaria dolosa, V. macrostoma, Xanthoparmelia protomatrae and X. tinctina. Key words: biodiversity, lichenology, protected areas, new records, oak and juniper forests, South Caucasus.
30575Urbanavichus G. & Urbanavichene I. (2017): New and noteworthy records of lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi from Abrau Peninsula (NW Caucasus, Russia) . - Flora Mediterranea, 27: 175–184.
98 species of lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi are reported for the first time from Utrish Reserve, Abrau Peninsula. Fifteen species are new to the Northern Caucasus, of which ten species are reported for the first time for the Caucasus region and five are new to Russia: Dirina fallax, Flavoplaca navasiana, Lecanographa lyncea, Melaspilea enteroleuca and Verrucaria elaeina. Key words: biodiversity, Utrish Nature Reserve, new records, sub-Mediterranean forests, Black Sea coast.
30574Gregorio-Cipriano M.R., Gómez-Peralta M. & Álvarez I. (2016): Líquenes cortícolas de las áreas urbanas y suburbanas de Morelia, Michoacán, México. - Botanica Complutensis, 40: 9–21.
(Corticolous lichens from urban and suburban areas of Morelia, Michoacan, Mexico). [in Spanish with English abstract: ] In this paper is presented the diversity of lichens that develop on the native and introduced trees of the avenues and green areas from the urban and suburban zones of Morelia. 49 species distributed in 26 genera and 10 families were listed. From these, 39 were reported for the first time in Morelia including 27 new reports from Michoacan state and one from Mexico (Hyperphyscia isidiata). Physciaceae and Parmeliaceae families were the best represented with 71% of the recorded species. The 69.39% have foliose tallus and 30.61% crustose tallus; while fruticose lichens were absent in the area. Keywords: lichenized fungi; epiphytes; Morelia city.
30573Rosabal D., Burgaz A.R. & Reyes O.J. (2016): Analizando la diversidad beta en ensambles de líquenes en un gradiente vertical sobre cinco especies de forófitos en la pluvisila montana de la Gran Piedra, Cuba. - Botanica Complutensis, 40: 23–33.
(Partitioning beta-diversity of lichens assemblages in a vertical gradient on five tree species of the montane rainforest of Gran Piedra, Cuba) [in Spanish with English abstract: ] This study aims to determine which component of the beta-diversity (replacement, species richness differences or nestedness) contributes to the dissimilarities among lichens assemblage in a vertical gradient of heights from the base of the trees until the external branches in five phorophytes species in the montane rainforest of Gran Piedra. The species of trees sampled were Myrcia fenzliana, Coccoloba wrightii, Clusia tetrastigma, Dendropanax arboreus and Brunellia comocladifolia. The dissimilarities among lichens assemblage because of the substitution of species, the differences in species richness or nestedness of species were calculated according to Baselga (2010, 2012) and Carvalho et al. (2012). The nestedness measure was determined through the coefficients NODF (Almeidanet et al. 2008) and Nestedness (Ulrich 2006). The beta-diversity among lichens assemblage in the vertical gradient of heights are determined by the replacement. Among the areas I and II, the dissimilarities among lichens assemblage are attributed to the differences in species richness, a nestedness pattern were also presented between both areas. Keywords: beta-diversity partitioning; nestedness; NODF coeficient; Nestedness coefficient; species replacement; Caribbean lichens.
30572Burgaz A.R. (2016): Bibliografía Botánica Ibérica, 2015. Líquenes. - Botanica Complutensis, 40: 203–207.
Bibliography; Iberian peninsula
30571Burgaz A.R., Atienza V., Chesa M.J., Chiva S., Fernández-Salegui A.B., Fontecha A., Gómez-Bolea A., Gutiérrez B., Llop E., López de Silanes M.E., Pérez-Llamazares A., Pino-Bodas R., Prats S., Rodríguez C. & Trobajo-Pérez S. (2017): Lichens and lichenicolous fungi of Serranía de Ronda (Málaga-Cádiz), southern Spain. - Botanica Complutensis, 41: 9–28.
As a result of a field trip organised by the Spanish Lichen Society in Serranía de Ronda, south Spain, a catalogue of 360 taxa is presented (336 lichens, 24 lichenicolous fungi). The list includes three new records for the Iberian Peninsula: Arthonia paretinaria, Micarea myriocarpa and Niesslia keissleri, 51new ones for the Autonomous Andalusian Community, and three and 81 new ones for the province of Cádiz and of Málaga, respectively. After these results, the total updated number of the province of Málaga rises to 556 lichens and lichenicolous fungi. The best represented lichen genus is Cladonia (18) with the most species, unlike Lecanora (15), Pertusaria (12), Physconia (12) and Collema (9). As regard habitat, most lichen species are mainly corticolous (55%), as opposed to saxicolous (24%), terricolous (14%) as the species growing on other lichens as lichenicolous fungi (7%). The percentages of lichen growth forms are mainly foliose (50%) and crustose (31%), while fruticose (7%), crustose squamulose (6%) and dimorphic (6%) are less represented. The lichen with a green photobiont (Chlorophyta 84%) predominates, while the cyanobacteria photobiont (15%) is less represented. Keywords: new records; Arthonia; Micarea; Niesslia.
30570Burgaz A.R. (2017): Bibliografía botánica ibérica, 2016. Líquenes. - Botanica Complutensis, 41: 109–113.
Bibliography; Iberian peninsula
30569Monia A.A., Rafika B. & Tarek H. (2018): Lichen diversity in the Edough Peninsula, North East of Algeria. - Botanica Complutensis, 42: 9–18.
This study was carried out with the aim of enriching the list of lichens of Algeria, for this reason we have prospected 2 stations “Les Cascades des Vautours” and “Dar smayer” at 442 and 856 m of altitude, Edough Peninsula on the North East Algerian coast. The annual precipitation is relatively abundant, of the order of 1000 mm. Seventythree taxa were registered belonging to 15 families of which 8 taxa: Cladonia cervicornis subsp. verticillata (Hoffm.) Ahti, C. ramulosa (With.) J.R. Laundon, C. humilis (With.) J.R. Laundon, Nephroma parile (Ach.) Ach., Parmelinopsis afrorevoluta (Krog & Swinscow) Elix & Hale, Ramalina siliquosa (Huds.) A.L. Sm., Usnea esperantiana P. Clerc and Xanthoparmelia conspersa (Ehrh. ex Ach.) Hale, which were never mentioned in Algerian lichen flora. Keywords: Lichens; North Africa.
30568Burgaz A.R., Ahti T., Inashvili T., Batsatsashvili K. & Kupradze I. (2018): Study of Georgian Cladoniaceae. - Botanica Complutensis, 42: 19–55.
Through updating of the identifications of 1306 specimens housed at the largest herbarium collection in Tbilisi (TBI) and some new collections made in the summer of 2015 along the Greater Caucasus Range in Georgia, a comprehensive list and a key of forty three Georgian Cladonia species are presented. Cladonia acuminata, C. bacilliformis, C. borealis, C. conista, C. cyanipes, C. cyathomorpha, C. cf. libifera, C. macrophyllodes, C. sulphurina, and C. symphycarpa are reported as new to Georgia. Thirteen species of Cladonia were deleted from the earlier checklists. Key words: Cladonia; Georgia; lichens; phytogeography.
30567Burgaz A.R. (2018): Bibliografía botánica ibérica, 2017. Líquenes. - Botanica Complutensis, 42: 181–185.
Bibliography; Iberian peninsula
30566Fontecha A. & Burgaz A.R. (2018): Uso de los líquenes como bioindicadores de la calidad del aire: estado de la Ciudad Universitaria (Madrid, España). - Botanica Complutensis, 42: 57–68.
(Use of lichens as bioindicators of air quality: status of Ciudad Universitaria (Madrid, Spain). [in Spanish with English abstract: ] Sampling 11 plots on Pinus phorophytes in Ciudad Universitaria and 3 control plots in Monte de El Pardo the effects of pollution in Ciudad Universitaria are studied. Although the indexes of diversity and atmospheric quality show the absence of diversity loss, composition reveals the marked effects of fires, eutrophication and bark basification. The lichen flora is relatively homogeneous, with abundance of nitrophilous and toxitolerant species. These effects are mainly due to the presence of particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide. Although, the values of degradation are moderated by it privileged location. Key words: bioindicators; pollution; eutrophication.
30565Cleavitt N.L., Clyne A.B. & Fahey T.J. (2019): Epiphytic macrolichen patterns along an elevation gradient in the White Mountain National Forest, New Hampshire. - Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society, 146(1): 8–17.
We conducted lichen surveys on mixed broadleaf-conifer plots along an elevation gradient in a northern hardwood forest to test whether current community patterns were more indicative of a gradient in atmospheric inputs of sulfur and nitrogen or a gradient of moisture availability with elevation gain. Our lichen surveys of 12 0.38-ha plots throughout the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in north-central New Hampshire revealed four new species records for the state: Heterodermia squamulosa, Hypotrachyna afrorevoluta, Parmelia fertilis, and Parmotrema arnoldii. Lichen composition was related to elevation, tree basal area and size of the largest tree. The percent of fruticose lichen species was significantly, positively related to elevation. Species richness also increased with elevation, but was only significantly related to aspect, particularly southness. Species abundance is related positively to tree basal area. The pollution indices were mainly correlated to each other though the sulfur index was correlated to the second ordination axis. Overall, the Hubbard Brook valley appears to have a relatively diverse lichen assemblage related more strongly to plot characteristics than to pollution indices. Key words: community change, diversity, growth form, macrolichen, pollution indices, water relations.
30564Wright B., St. Clair L.L. & Leavitt S.D. (2019): Is targeted community DNA metabarcoding suitable for biodiversity inventories of lichen-forming fungi?. - Ecological Indicators, 98: 812–820.
Comprehensive lichen inventories at biomonitoring reference sites provide valuable ecological information but are notoriously difficult to obtain. Due to the limited number of specialists and challenges with generating objective species inventories, investigating alternative or complementary strategies for compiling lichen inventories is paramount to improve biomonitoring strategies. The aim of this study was to determine if targeted community DNA metabarcoding provides an efficient, objective and reliable approach for characterizing lichen-forming fungal diversity in biomonitoring research. To evaluate if reliable biodiversity data could be obtained efficiently and objectively, metacommunity samples were collected by trained field technicians and a professional lichenologist at a previously established biomonitoring reference site in east-central Nevada, USA. Using amplicon-based high-throughput sequencing of a portion of the fungal DNA barcoding marker, the internal transcribed spacer region, molecular operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were inferred and used as a proxy for species diversity. OTUs from individual sampling efforts and two DNA extraction methods were compared to data from the original, voucher-based inventory at the same site. Treating OTUs as a proxy for species diversity, a 1.6-fold increase in diversity of lichen-forming fungi was observed when comparing the targeted community DNA metabarcoding to the initial, voucher-based inventories – 72 OTUs vs. 43 species. Strikingly, substantial overlap in captured OTU diversity was observed between minimally trained technicians and a professional lichenologist metacommunity samples. Based on these results, targeted community DNA metabarcoding is a promising strategy for creating objective lichen inventories. However, metabarcoding cannot discriminate the presence of established thalli from that of spores or propagules (in absence of established thalli) present in the sample/area. Therefore, targeted community DNA metabarcoding for assessing lichen biodiversity offers a complementary, rather than a substitutive sampling strategy. Keywords: Forest Inventory and Analysis National Program (FIA); Great Basin; High-throughput sequencing (NGS); Illumina; Internal transcribed spacer region.
30563Araújo H.D.A., Aires A.L., Soares C.L.R., Brito T.G.S., Nascimento W.M., Martins M.C.B., Silva T.G., Brayner F.A., Alves L.C., Silva N.H., Albuquerque M.C.P.A. & Lima V.L.M. (2019): Usnic acid potassium salt from Cladonia substellata (Lichen): Synthesis, cytotoxicity and in vitro anthelmintic activity and ultrastructural analysis against adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni. - Acta Tropica, 192: 1–10.
We report for the first time the in vitro effect of Potassium Salt, derived from Usnic Acid (PS-UA), isolated from the lichen Cladonia substellata Vanio, on couples of Schistosoma mansoni. As schistosomicide parameters, we evaluated mortality, motility, cell viability of the worms and tegument changes by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Exposure to a concentration of 100 μM caused 75% mortality after 3 h. After 6 h, changes in motility in concentrations of 50 and 25 μM are evidenced. After 12 h and 24h, the concentrations of 50 and 100 μM caused 6.25% and 87.5% and 50% and 100% mortality, respectively. PS-UA reduced the cell viability of the worms by 27.36% and 52.82% at concentrations 50 and 100 μM, respectively. Through SEM we observed progressive dose-and time-dependent, alterations such as swelling, blisters, dorsoventral contraction, erosion until disintegration of the tubercles in the tegument of male and female. PS-UA did not alter the viability of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and showed high selectivity indices (IC50 > 200 μM). Our results indicate that PS-UA represents a possible candidate for a new anthelmintic drug in the control of schistosomiasis. Keywords: Usnic acid potassium salt; Anthelmintic aktivity; Schistosoma mansoni; Ultrastructural tegument analysis; Schistosomiasis; Neglected diseases.
30562Atkinson D.M. & Treitz P. (2012): Arctic ecological classifications derived from vegetation community and satellite spectral data. - Remote Sensing, 4: 3948–3971.
As a result of the warming observed at high latitudes, there is significant potential for the balance of ecosystem processes to change, i.e., the balance between carbon sequestration and respiration may be altered, giving rise to the release of soil carbon through elevated ecosystem respiration. Gross ecosystem productivity and ecosystem respiration vary in relation to the pattern of vegetation community type and associated biophysical traits (e.g., percent cover, biomass, chlorophyll concentration, etc.). In an arctic environment where vegetation is highly variable across the landscape, the use of high spatial resolution imagery can assist in discerning complex patterns of vegetation and biophysical variables. The research presented here examines the relationship between ecological and spectral variables in order to generate an ecologically meaningful vegetation classification from high spatial resolution remote sensing data. Our methodology integrates ordination and image classifications techniques for two non-overlapping Arctic sites across a 5° latitudinal gradient (approximately 70° to 75°N). Ordination techniques were applied to determine the arrangement of sample sites, in relation to environmental variables, followed by cluster analysis to create ecological classes. The derived classes were then used to classify high spatial resolution IKONOS multispectral data. The results demonstrate moderate levels of success. Classifications had overall accuracies between 69%–79% and Kappa values of 0.54–0.69. Vegetation classes were generally distinct at each site with the exception of sedge wetlands. Based on the results presented here, the combination of ecological and remote sensing techniques can produce classifications that have ecological meaning and are spectrally separable in an arctic environment. These classification schemes are critical for modeling ecosystem processes. Keywords: arctic; tundra vegetation; vegetation mapping; correspondence analysis; cluster analysis; remote sensing; IKONOS. [pp. 3957–3958: ] "Clusters 1 and 2 are comprised of the CB sample sites and have similar primary and secondary cover types; till (75.4% and 40.6%) and mosses (8.8% and 27.8%), though in differing proportions. The average PVC for clusters 1 and 2 are 25.4% and 73.4% respectively. In terms of soil moisture each is dry during the peak growing season (13.4% and 20.6% soil moisture for clusters 1 and 2 respectively). Indicator species analysis is applied to aid in cluster identification. The indicator species for cluster 1 is Papaver radicatum (Arctic Poppy) (IV = 42.2) with till (IV = 38.1). Cluster 2 has lichens as the highest indicator species (i.e., Thamnolia subliformis (Worm Lichen) (IV = 31.8) and Cetraria nivalis (Snow Lichen) (IV = 20.7)). Cluster 3 is mesic with average soil moisture of 37.3%. Nostoc commune, a nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria that forms a black crust on the soil [60], is the primary cover (48.6%) and indicator species (IV = 49.0), whereas Salix arctica (IV = 29.8) is the secondary indicator species for cluster 3. With undisturbed soil covered by Nostoc commune, the PVC for the cluster is high at 101.7%. The sites for this cluster are exclusively at CB. When examining the dendrogram, clusters 2 and 3 are more similar to each other than to cluster 1; a result of the lack of vegetation cover in cluster 1. Cluster 4 is dominated by Felsenmeer (68.8%) and mosses (22.1%) and is only found at CB and is very different from the other clusters. The primary indicator species is the lichen Rock Tripe (Umbilicaria spp.) (IV = 91.3)."
30561Calviño-Cancela M. & Martín-Herrero J. (2016): Spectral discrimination of vegetation classes in ice-free areas of Antarctica. - Remote Sensing, 8(10): 856 [15 p.].
Detailed monitoring of vegetation changes in ice-free areas of Antarctica is crucial to determine the effects of climate warming and increasing human presence in this vulnerable ecosystem. Remote sensing techniques are especially suitable in this distant and rough environment, with high spectral and spatial resolutions needed owing to the patchiness and similarity between vegetation elements. We analyze the reflectance spectra of the most representative vegetation elements in ice-free areas of Antarctica to assess the potential for discrimination. This research is aimed as a basis for future aircraft/satellite research for long-term vegetation monitoring. The study was conducted in the Barton Peninsula, King George Island. The reflectance of ground patches of different types of vegetation or bare ground (c. 0.25m2, n = 30 patches per class) was recorded with a spectrophotometer measuring between 340nm to 1025nm at a resolution of 0.38nm. We used Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) to classify the cover classes according to reflectance spectra, after reduction of the number of bands using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The first five principal components explained an accumulated 99.4% of the total variance and were added to the discriminant function. The LDA classification resulted in c. 92% of cases correctly classified (a hit ratio 11.9 times greater than chance). The most important region for discrimination was the visible and near ultraviolet (UV), with the relative importance of spectral bands steeply decreasing in the Near Infra-Red (NIR) region. Our study shows the feasibility of discriminating among representative taxa of Antarctic vegetation using their spectral patterns in the near UV, visible and NIR. The results are encouraging for hyperspectral vegetation mapping in Antarctica, which could greatly facilitate monitoring vegetation changes in response to a changing environment, reducing the costs and environmental impacts of field surveys. Keywords: Antarctica; classification; field spectroscopy; hyperspectral imaging; species discrimination; lichen; moss; Deschampsia antarctica.
30560Jägerbrand A.K. & Alatalo J.M. (2014): Native roadside vegetation that enhances soil erosion control in boreal Scandinavia. - Environments, 1(1): 31–41.
This study focused on identifying vegetation characteristics associated with erosion control at nine roadside sites in mid-West Sweden. A number of vegetation characteristics such as cover, diversity, plant functional type, biomass and plant community structure were included. Significant difference in cover between eroded and non-eroded sub-sites was found in evergreen shrubs, total cover, and total above ground biomass. Thus, our results support the use of shrubs in order to stabilize vegetation and minimize erosion along roadsides. However, shrubs are disfavored by several natural and human imposed factors. This could have several impacts on the long-term management of roadsides in boreal regions. By both choosing and applying active management that supports native evergreen shrubs in boreal regions, several positive effects could be achieved along roadsides, such as lower erosion rate and secured long-term vegetation cover. This could also lead to lower costs for roadside maintenance as lower erosion rates would require less frequent stabilizing treatments and mowing could be kept to a minimum in order not to disfavor shrubs. Keywords: erosion resistance; evergreen shrubs; maintenance; native species; roadside; vegetation.
30559Fouillaud M., Venkatachalam M., Girard-Valenciennes E., Caro Y. & Dufossé L. (2016): Anthraquinones and derivatives from marine-derived fungi: Structural diversity and selected biological activities. - Marine Drugs, 14(4): 64 [64 p.].
Anthraquinones and their derivatives constitute a large group of quinoid compounds with about 700 molecules described. They are widespread in fungi and their chemical diversity and biological activities recently attracted attention of industries in such fields as pharmaceuticals, clothes dyeing, and food colorants. Their positive and/or negative effect(s) due to the 9,10-anthracenedione structure and its substituents are still not clearly understood and their potential roles or effects on human health are today strongly discussed among scientists. As marine microorganisms recently appeared as producers of an astonishing variety of structurally unique secondary metabolites, they may represent a promising resource for identifying new candidates for therapeutic drugs or daily additives. Within this review, we investigate the present knowledge about the anthraquinones and derivatives listed to date from marine-derived filamentous fungi1s productions. This overview highlights the molecules which have been identified in microorganisms for the first time. The structures and colors of the anthraquinoid compounds come along with the known roles of some molecules in the life of the organisms. Some specific biological activities are also described. This may help to open doors towards innovative natural substances. Keywords: anthraquinone; marine; fungi; pigment; biological activity; antitumor; antibiotic; cytotoxicity.
30558Lehnert L.W., Jung P., Obermeier W.A., Büdel B. & Bendix J. (2018): Estimating net photosynthesis of biological soil crusts in the Atacama using hyperspectral remote sensing. - Remote Sensing, 10(6): 891 [17 p.].
Biological soil crusts (BSC) encompassing green algae, cyanobacteria, lichens, bryophytes, heterotrophic bacteria and microfungi are keystone species in arid environments because of their role in nitrogen- and carbon-fixation, weathering and soil stabilization, all depending on the photosynthesis of the BSC. Despite their importance, little is known about the BSCs of the Atacama Desert, although especially crustose chlorolichens account for a large proportion of biomass in the arid coastal zone, where photosynthesis is mainly limited due to low water availability. Here, we present the first hyperspectral reflectance data for the most wide-spread BSC species of the southern Atacama Desert. Combining laboratory and field measurements, we establish transfer functions that allow us to estimate net photosynthesis rates for the most common BSC species. We found that spectral differences among species are high, and differences between the background soil and the BSC at inactive stages are low. Additionally, we found that the water absorption feature at 1420 nm is a more robust indicator for photosynthetic activity than the chlorophyll absorption bands. Therefore, we conclude that common vegetation indices must be taken with care to analyze the photosynthesis of BSC with multispectral data. Keywords: biological soil crusts; Atacama Desert; photosynthesis; hyperspectral remote sensing.
30557Reis C.E.R., D’Otaviano L.O., Rajendran A. & Hu B. (2018): Co-culture of filamentous feed-grade fungi and microalgae as an alternative to increase feeding value of ethanol coproducts. - Fermentation, 4: 86 [9 p.].
Distiller’s grains, an important commodity in the feed and food chains, are currently underdosed in rations due to several factors, mainly nutrient imbalance. This study aimed to increase the linoleic acid content in distiller’s grains and decrease the excess nutrients in stillage water by the use of an artificial lichen, composed of fungi, algae, and a supporting matrix. A maximum concentration of 46.25% of linoleic acid in distiller’s grains was achieved with a combination of Mucor indicus and Chlorella vulgaris using corn-to-ethanol whole stillage as substrate. Microbial hydrolytic enzymes during fermentation were able to decrease the solids in whole stillage. Nitrogen depletion by microalgal uptake causes lipid-formation stress to Mucor indicus cells, increasing linoleic acid production to about 49% of the total lipids, potentially decreasing costs in the animal feed. The culture supernatant can potentially be recycled as process water to the ethanol fermentation tank, and enhanced distiller’s grains can replace animal-specific diets. This would reduce exogenous enzyme use and supplementation of unsaturated fatty acids from other sources. Keywords: Chlorella vulgaris; distiller’s grains; lichen; Mucor indicus; Taguchi.
30556Kim K.-J., Jeong M.-H., Lee Y., Hwang S.-J., Shin H.-B., Hur J.-S. & Son Y.-J. (2018): Effect of usnic acid on osteoclastogenic activity. - Journal of Clinical Medicine, 7: 345 [12 p.].
Osteoclasts are the only cells that can resorb bone and they are produced from monocytes/macrophages in the presence of M-CSF and RANKL and are activated in vivo by an immune response. Usnic acid is a secondary metabolite of lichen and has a unique dibenzofuran skeleton. It has been used for years in cosmetics, fragrances, and traditional medicines. It has a wide range of bioactivities, including anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-cancer, anti-viral, and so on. However, the anti-osteoclastogenic activity of usnic acid has not been reported yet. In this study, we investigated whether usnic acid could affect RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis. Usnic acid significantly inhibited RANKL-mediated osteoclast formation and function by reducing the transcriptional and translational expression of NFATc1, a master regulator of osteoclastogenesis. In addition, it prevented lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced bone erosion in mice. Taken together, our results suggest that usnic acid might be a potential candidate for the treatment of osteoporosis. Keywords: bone; osteoporosis; bone; osteoclast; usnic acid; NFATc1.
30555Gao H., Na G., Yao Y., Li R., Gao Y., Zhang Z. & Yao Z. (2018): Distribution characteristics and source of dechloranes in soil and lichen of the Fildes Peninsula (Antarctica). - International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15: 2312 [12 p.].
Dechloranes (Decs) have been widely found in the environment, even in the Tibetan Plateau and remote polar regions. However, the understanding of their regional distribution characteristics in polar regions is limited. To study the long-range atmospheric transport and fates of these emerging contaminants, Decs were analyzed in soil and lichen from the Fildes Peninsula in Antarctica. The concentrations of five Decs in soil and lichen ranged from 141.46 to 838.47 pg/g dw and 237.04 to 3599.18 pg/g dw, respectively. The mean fractions of anti-Dechlorane Plus (DP) (f anti) values estimated in the current soils (0.37) and lichen (0.24) were lower than those of commercial products (f anti = 0.64–0.80), which confirms that long-range atmospheric transport is a main source of DP, and the DP burdens could be driven by the accumulation of syn-DP. The average SDP concentration in soil in the coastal area was higher than that in the inland area and Ardley Island, while in lichen, the average DP concentration at the Ardley Island site was approximately three-fold higher than that in the coastal area and inland areas. This indicates that the distribution of DP was influenced by anthropogenic interference and animal activities in the Fildes Peninsula. The spatial variation of f anti of the three regions was clearer in soil than that in lichen. The f anti values were negatively correlated with DP concentrations in soil, suggesting that DP concentration levels play an important role in determining the isomeric composition of DP in the soil. Keywords: dechloranes; stereo selection; soil; lichen; Fildes Peninsula.
30554Fitriani L., Afifah, Ismed F. & Bakhtiar A. (2019): Hydrogel formulation of usnic acid and antibacterial activity test against Propionibacterium acne. - Scientia Pharmaceutica, 87: 1 [8 p.].
Usnic acid is known for its remarkable antimicrobial activity. The aim of this research was to formulate hydrogel of usnic acid and evaluate the antibacterial activity against Propionibacterium acne. Due to low solubility of usnic acid, solid dispersion was prepared using PVP K-30. In this study, intact usnic acid (UA) and usnic acid-solid dispersion (UA-SD) was formulated in hydrogel using several gelling agents: Aqupec HV-505, sodium alginate and HPMC K 100M. Concentration of each gelling agent was optimized for hydrogel base. All of hydrogel base showed homogenous gel, pH at range 5.37–6.33 and viscosity in range 259.07–10,759.00 cps. Hydrogel was prepared by dispersing 1% intact UA and 3% UA-SD in three different gelling agents. The hydrogel was evaluated for pH, viscosity, stability test for two months and microbiology test. The amount of usnic acid in hydrogel was determined by spectrophotometry UV-Vis. Hydrogel UA showed non-homogenous gel, while hydrogel usnic UA-SD was homogenous. The pH of all hydrogel was in range 5.5–6.4 and viscosity was 2,017.03–3,866.52 cps. All the hydrogel was stable and diameter inhibition of hydrogel was in a range 20–32 mm. The amount of usnic acid in hydrogel was in range 96.9–99.23%. In conclusion, hydrogel UA-SD is promising preparation in handling acne. Keywords: usnic acid; hydrogel; Propionibacterium acne; solid dispersion.
30553Barbosa-Silva A.M. & Vasconcellos A. (2019): Consumption rate of lichens by Constrictotermes cyphergaster (Isoptera): Effects of C, N, and P contents and ratios. - Insects, 10: 23 [11 p.].
Wood is the main dietary item for most termites; however, supplementation with certain nutrients may occur via the ingestion of other available food resources in the ecosystem. The objective of this study was to evaluate the consumption of lichens with different C, N, and P contents by Constrictotermes cyphergaster under laboratory conditions, and estimate the intake of this substrate by this species in a semi-arid area of Northeast Brazil. The foraging activities of fifteen field colonies were monitored over 15 days from 6:00 p.m. to 6:00 a.m., and the lichens that were consumed were identified. Blocks of lichen thallus (1.5  1.5 cm) of four lichen species were offered to the termites in the laboratory. The mean total consumption rate of lichen by C. cyphergaster was 0.032 mg lichen/g termite (fresh weight)/day. Dirinaria confluens was the lichen most consumed by termites (0.010 mg lichen/g of termite (fresh weight)/day), followed by Lecanora spp. and Haematomma persoonii at a mean consumption of 0.008 and 0.006 mg lichen/g termite (fresh weight)/day, respectively. Based on the size of the C. cyphergaster populations, the estimated lichen consumption rate was 105.12 g lichen/ha/year. Lichen consumption was significantly affected by the N content and the C:N and C:P ratios, with the N content being the factor that best explained the consumption by the termites. The results suggest that C. cyphergaster can use lichens as a supplemental source of nutrients, especially nutrients that are found in low concentrations in wood. Keywords: stoichiometry; decomposition; isoptera; neotropical region; semi-arid.
30552Zhao L., Kim J.-C., Paik M.-J., Lee W. & Hur J.-S. (2017): A multifunctional and possible skin UV protectant, (3R)-5-hydroxymellein, produced by an endolichenic fungus isolated from Parmotrema austrosinense. - Molecules, 22: 26 [14 p.].
Lichens are considered a great bio-resource because they produce large numbers of secondary metabolites with many biological activities; however, they have not been cultivated under artificial conditions to date. As a result, lichen substances from natural sources are limited and have not been widely utilized in commercial applications. Accordingly, interest in lichen-associated fungi, especially endogenic fungi, has increased. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation in sunlight is harmful to human health, resulting in demand for effective UV filtering agents for use in sunscreen. In this study, we purified (3R)-5-hydroxymellein, which has UVA absorption activity, from the secondary metabolites of an endolichenic fungus (ELF000039). The antioxidant properties were then assessed by in vitro tests. The antioxidant activity of (3R)-5-hydroxymellein was high when compared to the recognized antioxidants ascorbic acid (ASA) and butyl hydroxyl anisole (BHA). Moreover, the compound exhibited no cytotoxicity toward mouse melanoma cell lines, B16F1 and B16F10, or the normal cell line, HaCaT. Furthermore, (3R)-5-hydroxymellein recovered the damage caused by UVB irradiation and inhibited melanin synthesis. Taken together, these results suggest that (3R)-5-hydroxymellein could have an interesting and vital profile to go further development as a multifunctional skin UV protectant. Keywords: antioxidant; endolichenic fungus; (3R)-5-hydroxymellein; melanin; UV protection.
30551Fernández-Marín B., Artetxe U., Becerril J.M., Martínez-Abaigar J., Núñez-Olivera E. & García-Plazaola J.I. (2018): Can parietin transfer energy radiatively to photosynthetic pigments?. - Molecules, 23: 1741 [8 p.].
The main role of lichen anthraquinones is in protection against biotic and abiotic stresses, such as UV radiation. These compounds are frequently deposited as crystals outside the fungal hyphae and most of them emit visible fluorescence when excited by UV. We wondered whether the conversion of UV into visible fluorescence might be photosynthetically used by the photobiont, thereby converting UV into useful energy. To address this question, thalli of Xanthoria parietina were used as a model system. In this species the anthraquinone parietin accumulates in the outer upper cortex, conferring the species its characteristic yellow-orange colouration. In ethanol, parietin absorbed strongly in the blue and UV-B and emitted fluorescence in the range 480–540 nm, which partially matches with the absorption spectra of photosynthetic pigments. In intact thalli, it was determined by confocal microscopy that fluorescence emission spectra shifted 90 nm towards longer wavelengths. Then, to study energy transfer from parietin, we compared the response to UV of untreated and parietin-free thalli (removed with acetone). A chlorophyll fluorescence kinetic assessment provided evidence of UV-induced electron transport, though independently of the presence of parietin. Thus, a role for anthraquinones in energy harvesting is not supported for X. parietina under presented experimental conditions. Keywords: anthraquinones; chlorophyll; fluorescence; parietin; photosynthesis; ultraviolet radiation; UV-B; Xanthoria parietina.
30550Yang Y., Bhosle S.R., Yu Y.H., Park S.-Y., Zhou R., Taş İ., Gamage C.D.B., Kim K.K., Pereira I., Hur J.-S., Ha H.-H. & Kim H. (2018): Tumidulin, a lichen secondary metabolite, decreases the stemness potential of colorectal cancer cells. - Molecules, 23: 2968 [13 p.].
Lichens produce various unique chemicals that are used in the pharmaceutical industry. To screen for novel lichen secondary metabolites that inhibit the stemness potential of colorectal cancer cells, we tested acetone extracts of 11 lichen samples collected in Chile. Tumidulin, isolated from Niebla sp., reduced spheroid formation in CSC221, DLD1, and HT29 cells. In addition, mRNA expressions and protein levels of cancer stem markers aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 (ALDH1), cluster of differentiation 133 (CD133), CD44, Lgr5, and Musashi-1 were reduced after tumidulin treatment. Tumidulin decreased the transcriptional activity of the glioma-associated oncogene homolog zinc finger protein (Gli) promoter in reporter assays, and western blotting confirmed decreased Gli1, Gli2, and Smoothened (SMO) protein levels. Moreover, the tumidulin activity was not observed in the presence of Gli and SMO inhibitors. Together, these results demonstrate for the first time that tumidulin is a potent inhibitor of colorectal cancer cell stemness. Keywords: lichen; secondary metabolites; tumidulin; stemness potential; colorectal cancer cells; oncogene; transcriptional regulation.
30549Bouges H., Monchot A. & Antoniotti S. (2018): Derivatives into dimeric hydrosoluble materials: Application to the preparation of a low-atranol oakmoss absolute. - Cosmetics, 5: 69 [12 p.].
Oakmoss absolute, a solvent extract from Evernia prunastri, is a valuable fragrance ingredient widely used in fine fragrance for almost two centuries. Some minor components of oakmoss absolute, such as atranol and chloroatranol, are attested contact allergens and their presence in fragrance and cosmetic products should be as low as possible. In this context, we have developed an enzyme-based protocol upon which these undesirable molecules are converted in a hydrosoluble dimeric material, and thus easily separated from the absolute by liquid–liquid extraction. Analytical and sensory analyses were performed to confirm the specificity of the process, the absence of alteration of the olfactory quality of the absolute, and the final titles of atranol and chloroatranol, which eventually were observed in the ppm range. This highly sustainable process is a viable alternative to conventional time-, energy-, and manpower-consuming techniques to produce very low-atranol oakmoss absolute. Keywords: lichen extract; perfumery; peroxidase; IFRA compliance; sustainable chemistry; fragrance ingredients.
30548Mittermeier V.K., Schmitt N., Volk L.P.M., Suárez J.P., Beck A. & Eisenreich W. (2015): Metabolic profiling of alpine and Ecuadorian lichens . - Molecules, 20(10): 18047–18065.
Non-targeted 1H-NMR methods were used to determine metabolite profiles from crude extracts of Alpine and Ecuadorian lichens collected from their natural habitats. In control experiments, the robustness of metabolite detection and quantification was estimated using replicate measurements of Stereocaulon alpinum extracts. The deviations in the overall metabolite fingerprints were low when analyzing S. alpinum collections from different locations or during different annual and seasonal periods. In contrast, metabolite profiles observed from extracts of different Alpine and Ecuadorian lichens clearly revealed genus- and species-specific profiles. The discriminating functions determining cluster formation in principle component analysis (PCA) were due to differences in the amounts of genus-specific compounds such as sticticin from the Sticta species, but also in the amounts of ubiquitous metabolites, such as sugar alcohols or trehalose. However, varying concentrations of these metabolites from the same lichen species e.g., due to different environmental conditions appeared of minor relevance for the overall cluster formation in PCA. The metabolic clusters matched phylogenetic analyses using nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of lichen mycobionts, as exemplified for the genus Sticta. It can be concluded that NMR-based non-targeted metabolic profiling is a useful tool in the chemo-taxonomy of lichens. The same approach could also facilitate the discovery of novel lichen metabolites on a rapid and systematical basis. Keywords: metabolomics; principle component analysis; chemotaxonomy; Sticta; Stereocaulon; sticticin.
30547Gadea A., Le Pogam P., Biver G., Boustie J., Le Lamer A.-C., Le Devehat F. & Charrier M. (2017): Which specialized metabolites does the native subantarctic gastropod Notodiscus hookeri extract from the consumption of the lichens Usnea taylorii and Pseudocyphellaria crocata?. - Molecules, 22: 425 [16 p.].
Notodiscus hookeri is the only representative of terrestrial gastropods on Possession Island and exclusively feeds on lichens. The known toxicity of various lichen metabolites to plant-eating invertebrates led us to propose that N. hookeri evolved means to protect itself from their adverse effects. To validate this assumption, the current study focused on the consumption of two lichen species: Usnea taylorii and Pseudocyphellaria crocata. A controlled feeding experiment was designed to understand how the snail copes with the unpalatable and/or toxic compounds produced by these lichen species. The occurrence of two snail ecophenotypes, represented by a mineral shell and an organic shell, led to address the question of a metabolic response specific to the phenotype. Snails were fed for two months with one of these lichens and the chemical profiles of biological samples of N. hookeri (i.e., crop, digestive gland, intestine, and feces) were established by HPLC-DAD-MS and compared to that of the lichens. N. hookeri appears as a generalist lichen feeder able to consume toxic metabolite-containing lichens, independently of the ecophenotype. The digestive gland did not sequester lichen metabolites. The snail metabolism might be based on four non-exclusive processes according to the concerned metabolites (avoidance, passive transport, hydrolysis, and excretion). Keywords: lichens; snails; chemical ecology; Crozet Archipelago; Notodiscus hookeri; Usnea taylorii; Pseudocyphellaria crocata.
30546Zhou Y.-F., Shi H.-X., Hu K., Tang J.-W., Li X.-R., Du X., Sun H.-D., Wang L.-S. & Pu J.-X. (2017): Gypmacrophin A, a rare pentacyclic sesterterpenoid, together with three depsides, functioned as new chemical evidence for Gypsoplaca macrophylla (Zahlbr.) Timdal identification. - Molecules, 22(10): 1675 [9 p.].
The phytochemical investigation on 1 g of materials from Gypsoplaca macrophylla (Zahlbr.) Timdal resulted in the discovery of gypmacrophin A, a rare pentacyclic sesterterpenoid; brialmontin III, a new polysubstituted depside and two known ones, brialmontins I and II. The structure and absolute configurations of gypmacrophin A were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses and computational methods. Gypmacrophin A showed weak inhibition of AchE with an IC50 value of 32.03 M. The four compounds provided new chemical evidence for G. macrophylla identification. Keywords: Gypsoplacaceae; Gypsoplaca macrophylla; sesterterpenoid; identification.
30545Koroleva Y. & Revunkov V. (2017): Air pollution monitoring in the south-east Baltic using the epiphytic lichen Hypogymnia physodes. - Atmosphere, 8(7): 119 [8 p.].
Epiphytic lichens are well-known indicators of air contamination. The chemical composition of lichens is affected by the concentration of pollutants in the environment. Usually, researchers assess long-term variations in trace elements or other pollutants in the study area, or identify spatial features of air contamination. The aim of this study is to create a database of trace element concentrations in the samples of the epiphytic lichen Hypogymnia physodes growing in the Kaliningrad region. The database can be used as a “reference point” for monitoring studies. Another objective is to identify the spatial patterns of iron, manganese, nickel, cadmium, silver, lead, strontium, rubidium, and calcium in the Kaliningrad region. With the help of a regular grid, samples of wild lichens were collected from pine and birch trees, 1.2–1.8 m from their bases, in August 2010. One- to two-year-old thalli were used in the chemical analysis. The metals Ag, Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, Fe, Mn, and Zn were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry AAS (Mn and Fe by flame atomic absorption FA AAS and the others by electro thermal atomisation ETA AAS); the elements Sr, Rb, and Ca were determined by X-ray fluorescence. The concentration of metals in the western coastal area (the Sambian or Kaliningrad Peninsula) is higher than it is in the central and eastern parts of the region. Principal component factor analysis was carried out to detect and characterise different pollution sources. The authors examined the features of spatial distribution of trace elements. The prevailing wind direction is between south and west; therefore, the highest concentrations of trace elements were found on the Sambian peninsula and on the coasts of the Vistula and Curonian Lagoons. The chemical composition of lichens on the Sambian peninsula may have developed under the impact of both local pollution sources—vehicles, thermal energy facilities, and ports—and such factors as trans-boundary traffic and sea spray. Keywords: air pollution; monitoring; lichen; Hypogymnia physodes; trace elements; south-east Baltic.
30544Neupane B.P., Malla K.P., Gautam A., Chaudhary D., Paudel S., Timsina S. & Jamarkattel N. (2017): Elevational trends in usnic acid concentration of lichen Parmelia flexilis in relation to temperature and precipitation. - Climate, 5: 40 [8 p.].
Usnic acid contents in acetone extracts of 31 samples of lichen Parmelia flexilis collected from different altitudes were identified using thin layer chromatography (TLC) and determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The usnic acid content varied in between highest 5.13% to lowest 1.66% in oven dried (80 C) lichen samples. The species collected from lower altitudes all show high levels of usnic acid. The negative relationship between usnic acid and altitude was obtained. Statistically, it is revealed that there is a significant difference between average percentages of usnic acid in lichen samples with varying altitudes (p < 0.05). Beside these, the precipitation averages of the regions where the species have been collected were linked with the content of usnic acid. It is clear that lichens from the regions receiving the highest precipitation produced lower amounts of usnic acid. The results suggest that the production of secondary metabolite in lichens is altered due to the climatic variables like temperature and precipitation at different altitude gradients. Keywords: HPLC; Kaski; Parmelia flexilis; usnic acid; altitude.
30543Sueoka Y., Sakakibara M., Sano S. & Yamamoto Y. (2016): A new method of environmental assessment and monitoring of Cu, Zn, As, and Pb pollution in surface soil using terricolous fruticose lichens. - Environments, 3(4): 35 [13 p.].
Levels of trace element pollution in surface soil can be estimated using soil analyses and leaching tests. These methods may reveal different results due to the effect of soil properties, such as grain size and mineral composition, on elemental availability. Therefore, this study advocates an alternative method for monitoring and assessment of trace element pollution in surface soil using terricolous fruticose lichens. Lichens growing at abandoned mine sites and unpolluted areas in southwest Japan and their substrata were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry to clarify the relationships between Cu, Zn, As, and Pb concentrations in lichens and soils, including their absorption properties. Concentrations of these elements in the lichens were positively correlated with those in the soils regardless of lichen species, location, habitat, or conditions of soils. The analyzed lichens had neither competitive nor antagonistic properties in their elemental absorption, which made them good biomonitors of trace element pollution in surface soil. The distribution maps of average Cu, Zn, As, and Pb concentrations at each sampling region detected almost all of the Cu, Zn, and As pollution of the soils. Therefore, lichens could be used in practical applications to monitor Cu, Zn, and As pollution in surface soils. Keywords: biomonitor; environmental assessment; elemental competition; bioconcentration factor.
30542Martins M.C.B., Silva M.C., Silva H.A.M.F., Silva L.R.S., Albuquerque M.C.P.A., Aires A.L., Falcão E.P.S., Pereira E.C., De Melo A.M.M.A. & Da Silva N.H. (2017): Barbatic acid offers a new possibility for control of Biomphalaria glabrata and schistosomiasis. - Molecules, 22: 568 [11 p.].
This study evaluated the biological activity of an ether extract and barbatic acid (BAR) from Cladia aggregata on embryos and adult mollusks of Biomphalaria glabrata, cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni and the microcrustacean Artemia salina. The ether extract and BAR were obtained by successive extractions with diethyl ether. The obtained extracts were analyzed using thin-layer chromatography (TLC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The results demonstrated that the ether extract exerted embryotoxic effects at 50 and 100 g/mL and molluscicidal effects at 20 and 25 g/mL. BAR exhibited no embryotoxicity, and its molluscicidal concentration was equal to that of the ether extract. However, after 60 min of exposure, 1 g/mL BAR presented cercaricidal activity against the parasite S. mansoni at the second larval stage. Neither substance induced toxicity against A. salina. These results indicate the potential molluscicidal activities of the ether extract and BAR against B. glabrata and S. mansoni cercariae. In addition to these effects, there was a lack of toxicity against the aquatic environment and no damage to the biota, indicating the potential of these products for large-scale control and/or eradication of schistosomiasis. Keywords: Cladia aggregata; embryotoxicity; molluscicidal activity; environmental toxicity; lichen substances; mollusks.
30541Muggia L., Kopun T. & Grube M. (2017): Effects of growth media on the diversity of culturable fungi from lichens. - Molecules, 22: 824 [22 p.].
Microscopic and molecular studies suggest that lichen symbioses contain a plethora of associated fungi. These are potential producers of novel bioactive compounds, but strains isolated on standard media usually represent only a minor subset of these fungi. By using various in vitro growth conditions we are able to modulate and extend the fraction of culturable lichen-associated fungi. We observed that the presence of iron, glucose, magnesium and potassium in growth media is essential for the successful isolation of members from different taxonomic groups. According to sequence data, most isolates besides the lichen mycobionts belong to the classes Dothideomycetes and Eurotiomycetes. With our approach we can further explore the hidden fungal diversity in lichens to assist in the search of novel compounds. Keywords: Dothideomycetes; Eurotiomycetes; Leotiomycetes; nuclear ribosomal subunits DNA; nutrients; Sordariomycetes.
30540Legouin B., Lohézic-Le Dévéhat F., Ferron S., Rouaud I., Le Pogam P., Cornevin L., Bertrand M. & Boustie J. (2017): Specialized metabolites of the lichen Vulpicida pinastri act as photoprotective agents. - Molecules, 22: 1162 [17 p.].
The extreme resiliency of lichens to UV radiations makes them an interesting model to find new photoprotective agents acting as UV-blockers and antioxidant. In this research, using a new in vitro method designed to overcome the shortage of material associated to many studies dealing with natural products, we show that the three major compounds isolated from the lichen Vulpicida pinastri, vulpinic acid, pinastric acid and usnic acid, were UV blocker agents. Antioxidant assays evidenced superoxide anion scavenging activity. Combination of the most promising compounds against UVB and UVB radiations, usnic acid, vulpinic acid and pinastric acid, increased the photoprotective activity. At the same time, they were found not cytotoxic on keratinocyte cell lines and photostable in the UVA and UVB ranges. Thus, lichens represent an attractive source to find good candidate ingredients as photoprotective agents. Additionally, the uncommon scalemic usnic acid mixture in this Vulpicida species was proven through electronic circular dichroism calculation. Keywords: lichen; photoprotection; antioxidant; phototoxicity; pulvinic acid; synergy.
30539Torres-Benítez A., Rivera-Montalvo M., Sepúlveda B., Castro O.N., Nagles E., Simirgiotis M.J., García-Beltrán O. & Areche C. (2017): Metabolomic analysis of two Parmotrema lichens: P. robustum (Degel.) Hale and P. andinum (Mull. Arg.) Hale using UHPLC-ESI-OT-MS-MS. - Molecules, 22: 1861 [12 p.].
Lichens are symbiotic associations of fungi with microalgae and/or cyanobacteria. Lichens belonging to the Parmeliaceae family comprise 2700 species of lichens, including the Parmotrema genus which is composed of 300 species. The metabolites of this genus include depsides, depsidones, phenolics, polysaccharides, lipids, diphenylethers and dibenzofurans, which are responsible for the biological activities reported including antidiabetic, antihelmintic, anticancer, antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antimitotic, antitumoral, antifungal, and antioxidant enzyme inhibitory. Due to scarce knowledge of metabolomic profiles of Parmotrema species (P. andinum and P. robustum), a full metabolome study based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography- diode array detector-electrospray ionization-quadrupole-orbitrap-mass-spectrometry (UHPLC-DAD-ESI-Q-orbitrap MS) was performed for a comprehensive characterization of their substances. From the methanolic extracts of these species, a total of 54 metabolites were identified for the first time using this hyphenated technique, including thirty compounds in P. andinum, and thirty-seven in P. robustum. Moreover, two compounds were not identified as known compounds, and could be new structures, according to our data. This report shows that this technique is effective and accurate for rapid chemical identification of lichen substances and the compounds identified could serve as chemotaxonomic markers to differentiate these ruffle lichens. Keywords: electrospray; lichens; metabolomic; Parmotrema; UHPLC-MS-MS; orbitrap.
30538Salgado F., Albornoz L., Cortéz C., Stashenko E., Urrea-Vallejo K., Nagles E., Galicia-Virviescas C., Cornejo A., Ardiles A., Simirgiotis M., García-Beltrán O. & Areche C. (2018): Secondary metabolite profiling of species of the genus Usnea by UHPLC-ESI-OT-MS-MS. - Molecules, 23: 54 [16 p.].
Lichens are symbiotic associations of fungi with microalgae and/or cyanobacteria, which are considered among the slowest growing organisms, with strong tolerance to adverse environmental conditions. There are about 400 genera and 1600 species of lichens and those belonging to the Usnea genus comprise about 360 of these species. Usnea lichens have been used since ancient times as dyes, cosmetics, preservatives, deodorants and folk medicines. The phytochemistry of the Usnea genus includes more than 60 compounds which belong to the following classes: depsides, depsidones, depsones, lactones, quinones, phenolics, polysaccharides, fatty acids and dibenzofurans. Due to scarce knowledge of metabolomic profiles of Usnea species (U. barbata, U. antarctica, U. rubicunda and U. subfloridana), a study based on UHPLC-ESI-OT-MS-MS was performed for a comprehensive characterization of their secondary metabolites. From the methanolic extracts of these species a total of 73 metabolites were identified for the first time using this hyphenated technique, including 34 compounds in U. barbata, 21 in U. antarctica, 38 in U. rubicunda and 37 in U. subfloridana. Besides, a total of 13 metabolites were not identified and reported so far, and could be new according to our data analysis. This study showed that this hyphenated technique is rapid, effective and accurate for phytochemical identification of lichen metabolites and the data collected could be useful for chemotaxonomic studies. Keywords: lichen; Usnea; natural product; Orbitrap™; UHPLC-MS-MS.
30537Muggia L. & Grube M. (2018): Fungal diversity in lichens: From extremotolerance to interactions with algae. - Life, 8(2): 15 [14 p.].
Lichen symbioses develop long-living thallus structures even in the harshest environments on Earth. These structures are also habitats for many other microscopic organisms, including other fungi, which vary in their specificity and interaction with the whole symbiotic system. This contribution reviews the recent progress regarding the understanding of the lichen-inhabiting fungi that are achieved by multiphasic approaches (culturing, microscopy, and sequencing). The lichen mycobiome comprises a more or less specific pool of species that can develop symptoms on their hosts, a generalist environmental pool, and a pool of transient species. Typically, the fungal classes Dothideomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, Leotiomycetes, Sordariomycetes, and Tremellomycetes predominate the associated fungal communities. While symptomatic lichenicolous fungi belong to lichen-forming lineages, many of the other fungi that are found have close relatives that are known from different ecological niches, including both plant and animal pathogens, and rock colonizers. A significant fraction of yet unnamed melanized (‘black’) fungi belong to the classes Chaethothyriomycetes and Dothideomycetes. These lineages tolerate the stressful conditions and harsh environments that affect their hosts, and therefore are interpreted as extremotolerant fungi. Some of these taxa can also form lichen-like associations with the algae of the lichen system when they are enforced to symbiosis by co-culturing assays. Keywords: cultures; metabarcoding; mycobiome; photobionts; phylogenetics; symbiosis; systematice.
30536Resende D.I.S.P., Pereira-Terra P., Inácio Â.S., da Costa P.M., Pinto E., Sousa E. & Pinto M.M.M. (2018): Lichen xanthones as models for new antifungal agents . - Molecules, 23: 2617 [16 p.].
Due to the emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogenic microorganisms, the search for new antimicrobial compounds plays an important role in current medicinal chemistry research. Inspired by lichen antimicrobial xanthones, a series of novel chlorinated xanthones was prepared using five chlorination methods (Methods A–E) to obtain different patterns of substitution in the xanthone scaffold. All the synthesized compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity. Among them, 3-chloro-4,6-dimethoxy-1-methyl-9H-xanthen-9-one 15 showed promising antibacterial activity against E. faecalis (ATCC 29212 and 29213) and S. aureus ATCC 29213. 2,7-Dichloro-3,4,6-trimethoxy-1-methyl-9H-xanthen-9-one 18 revealed a potent fungistatic and fungicidal activity against dermatophytes clinical strains (T. rubrum, M. canis, and E. floccosum (MIC = 4–8 g/mL)). Moreover, when evaluated for its synergistic effect for T. rubrum, compound 18 exhibited synergy with fluconazole (SFIC = 0.289). These results disclosed new hit xanthones for both antibacterial and antifungal activity. Keywords: xanthones; synthesis; chlorination; antifungal activity; antibacterial aktivity.
30535Oh J.M., Kim Y.J., Gang H.-S., Han J., Ha H.-H. & Kim H. (2018): Antimicrobial activity of divaricatic acid isolated from the lichen Evernia mesomorpha against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. - Molecules, 23: 3068 [9 p.].
One hundred and seventy seven acetone extracts of lichen and 258 ethyl acetate extracts of cultured lichen-forming fungi (LFF) were screened for antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecium using a disk diffusion method. Divaricatic acid was isolated from Evernia mesomorpha and identified by LC-MS, 1H-, 13C- and DEPT-NMR. Purified divaricatic acid was effective against Gram + bacteria, such as Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus mutans, and Enterococcus faecium, with the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 7.0 to 64.0 g/mL, whereas vancomycin was effective in the MICs ranging from 0.78 to 25.0 g/mL. Interestingly, the antibacterial activity of divaricatic acid was higher than vancomycin against S. epidermidis and E. faecium, and divaricatic acid was active against Candida albicans. In addition, divaricatic acid was active as vancomycin against S. aureus (3A048; an MRSA). These results suggested that divaricatic acid is a potential antimicrobial agent for the treatment of MRSA infections. Keywords: lichen; Evernia mesomorpha; divaricatic acid; antimicrobial activity; minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC); methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).
30534Almendras K., García J., Carú M. & Orlando J. (2018): Nitrogen-fixing bacteria associated with Peltigera cyanolichens and Cladonia chlorolichens. - Molecules, 23: 3077 [16 p.].
Lichens have been extensively studied and described; however, recent evidence suggests that members of the bacterial community associated with them could contribute new functions to the symbiotic interaction. In this work, we compare the nitrogen-fixing guild associated with bipartite terricolous lichens with different types of photobiont: Peltigera cyanolichens and Cladonia chlorolichens. Since cyanobacteria contribute nitrogen to the symbiosis, we propose that chlorolichens have more diverse bacteria with the ability to fix nitrogen compared to cyanolichens. In addition, since part of these bacteria could be recruited from the substrate where lichens grow, we propose that thalli and substrates share some bacteria in common. The structure of the nitrogen-fixing guild in the lichen and substrate bacterial communities of both lichens was determined by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) of the nifH gene. Multivariate analyses showed that the nitrogen-fixing bacteria associated with both types of lichen were distinguishable from those present in their substrates. Likewise, the structure of the nitrogen-fixing bacteria present in the cyanolichens was different from that of chlorolichens. Finally, the diversity of this bacterial guild calculated using the Shannon index confirms the hypothesis that chlorolichens have a higher diversity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria than cyanolichens. Keywords: bacterial community structure; Chile; chlorolichens; Coyhaique National Reserve; cyanolichens; nifH gene; Nothofagus forest; terricolous lichens.
30533Calchera A., Dal Grande F., Bode H.B. & Schmitt I. (2019): Biosynthetic gene content of the ‘perfume lichens’ Evernia prunastri and Pseudevernia furfuracea. - Molecules, 24: 203 [21 p.].
Lichen-forming fungi produce a vast number of unique natural products with a wide variety of biological activities and human uses. Although lichens have remarkable potential in natural product research and industry, the molecular mechanisms underlying the biosynthesis of lichen metabolites are poorly understood. Here we use genome mining and comparative genomics to assess biosynthetic gene clusters and their putative regulators in the genomes of two lichen-forming fungi, which have substantial commercial value in the perfume industry, Evernia prunastri and Pseudevernia furfuracea. We report a total of 80 biosynthetic gene clusters (polyketide synthases (PKS), non-ribosomal peptide synthetases and terpene synthases) in E. prunastri and 51 in P. furfuracea. We present an in-depth comparison of 11 clusters, which show high homology between the two species. A ketosynthase (KS) phylogeny shows that biosynthetic gene clusters from E. prunastri and P. furfuracea are widespread across the Fungi. The phylogeny includes 15 genomes of lichenized fungi and all fungal PKSs with known functions from the MIBiG database. Phylogenetically closely related KS domains predict not only similar PKS architecture but also similar cluster architecture. Our study highlights the untapped biosynthetic richness of lichen-forming fungi, provides new insights into lichen biosynthetic pathways and facilitates heterologous expression of lichen biosynthetic gene clusters. Keywords: lichen secondary metabolites; tree moss; oakmoss; biosynthetic gene clusters; polyketide synthases; non-ribosomal peptide synthetases; terpene synthases; transcription factor; phylogeny; comparative genomics.
30532Rogers P.C., Rogers R.W., Hedrich A.E. & Moss P.T. (2015): Lichen monitoring delineates biodiversity on a Great Barrier Reef coral cay. - Forests, 6: 1557–1575.
Coral islands around the world are threatened by changing climates. Rising seas, drought, and increased tropical storms are already impacting island ecosystems. We aim to better understand lichen community ecology of coral island forests. We used an epiphytic lichen community survey to gauge Pisonia (Pisonia grandis R.BR.), which dominates forest conditions on Heron Island, Australia. Nine survey plots were sampled for lichen species presence and abundance, all tree diameters and species, GPS location, distance to forest-beach edge, and dominant forest type. Results found only six unique lichens and two lichen associates. A Multi-Response Permutation Procedures (MRPP) test found statistically distinct lichen communities among forest types. The greatest group differences were between interior Pisonia and perimeter forest types. Ordinations were performed to further understand causes for distinctions in lichen communities. Significant explanatory gradients were distance to forest edge, tree density (shading), and Pisonia basal area. Each of these variables was negatively correlated with lichen diversity and abundance, suggesting that interior, successionally advanced, Pisonia forests support fewer lichens. Island edge and presumably younger forests—often those with greater tree diversity and sunlight penetration—supported the highest lichen diversity. Heron Island’s Pisonia-dominated forests support low lichen diversity which mirrors overall biodiversity patterns. Lichen biomonitoring may provide a valuable indicator for assessing island ecosystems for conservation purposes regionally. Keywords: bioindicators; tropical forest; islands; Pisonia grandis; Casuarina equisetifolia; Australia; ordination; NMS; MRPP; epiphyte.
30531Kobylinski A. & Fredeen A.L. (2015): Importance of arboreal cyanolichen abundance to nitrogen cycling in sub-boreal spruce and fir forests of central British Columbia, Canada. - Forests, 6: 2588–2607.
The importance of N2-fixing arboreal cyanolichens to the nitrogen (N)-balance of sub-boreal interior hybrid spruce (Picea glauca × engelmannii) and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) forests was examined at field sites in central BC, Canada. Host trees were accessed by a single-rope climbing technique and foliage as well as arboreal macrolichen functional groups were sampled by branch height in eight random sample trees from each of two high (High Cyano) and two low (Low Cyano) cyanolichen abundance sites for a total of 32 sample trees. Natural abundances of stable isotopes of N (15N, 14N) and carbon (13C, 12C) were determined for aggregate host tree and epiphytic lichen samples, as well as representative samples of upper organic and soil horizons (Ae and Bf) from beneath host trees. As expected, N2-fixing cyanolichens had 2–6-fold greater N-contents than chlorolichens and a δ15N close to atmospheric N2, while foliage and chlorolichens were more depleted in 15N. By contrast, soils at all trees and sites were 15N-enriched (positive δ15N), with declining (not significant) δ15N with increased tree-level cyanolichen abundance. Lichen functional groups and tree foliage fell into three distinct groups with respect to δ13C; the tripartite cyanolichen Lobaria pulmonaria (lightest), host-tree needles (intermediate), and bipartite cyanolichens, hair (Alectoria and Bryoria spp.) and chlorolichens (heaviest). Branch height of host trees was an effective predictor of needle δ13C. Our results showed a modest positive correlation between host tree foliage N and cyanolichen abundance, supporting our initial hypothesis that higher cyanolichen abundances would elevate host tree foliar N. Further study is required to determine if high cyanolichen abundance enhances host tree and/or stand-level productivity in sub-boreal forests of central BC, Canada. Keywords: sub-boreal forest nitrogen; δ15N ; δ13C; arboreal lichens; cyanolichens; lichen epiphyte nitrogen; Lobaria pulmonaria.
30530Pinno B.D. & Errington R.C. (2016): Burn severity dominates understory plant community response to fire in xeric jack pine forests. - Forests, 7: 83 [14 p.].
Fire is the most common disturbance in northern boreal forests, and large fires are often associated with highly variable burn severities across the burnt area. We studied the understory plant community response to a range of burn severities and pre-fire stand age four growing seasons after the 2011 Richardson Fire in xeric jack pine forests of northern Alberta, Canada. Burn severity had the greatest impact on post-fire plant communities, while pre-fire stand age did not have a significant impact. Total plant species richness and cover decreased with disturbance severity, such that the greatest richness was in low severity burns (average 28 species per 1-m2 quadrat) and plant cover was lowest in the high severity burns (average 16%). However, the response of individual plant groups differed. Lichens and bryophytes were most common in low severity burns and were effectively eliminated from the regenerating plant community at higher burn severities. In contrast, graminoid cover and richness were positively related to burn severity, while forbs did not respond significantly to burn severity, but were impacted by changes in soil chemistry with increased cover at pH >4.9. Our results indicate the importance of non-vascular plants to the overall plant community in this harsh environment and that the plant community is environmentally limited rather than recruitment or competition limited, as is often the case in more mesic forest types. If fire frequency and severity increase as predicted, we may see a shift in plant communities from stress-tolerant species, such as lichens and ericaceous shrubs, to more colonizing species, such as certain graminoids. Keywords: Pinus banksiana; burn severity; composite burn index; revegetation; forest regeneration; lichen.
30529Rapanoela R., Raulier F. & Gauthier S. (2016): Regional instability in the abundance of open stands in the boreal forest of eastern Canada. - Forests, 7: 103 [17 p.].
Fires are a key disturbance of boreal forests. In fact, they are the main source of renewal and evolution for forest stands. The variability of fire through space and time results in a diversified forest mosaic, altering their species composition, structure and productivity. A resilient forest is assumed to be in a state of dynamic equilibrium with the fire regime, so that the composition, age structure and succession stages of forests should be consistent with the fire regime. Dense spruce-moss stands tend, however, to diminish in favour of more open stands similar to spruce-lichen stands when subjected to more frequent and recurring disturbances. This study therefore focused on the effects of spatial and temporal variations in burn rates on the proportion of open stands over a large geographic area (175,000 km2) covered by black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) Britton, Sterns, Poggenb.). The study area was divided into 10 different zones according to burn rates, as measured using fire-related data collected between 1940 and 2006. To test if the abundance of open stands was unstable over time and not in equilibrium with the current fire regime, forest succession was simulated using a landscape dynamics model that showed that the abundance of open stands should increase progressively over time in zones where the average burn rate is high. The proportion of open stands generated during a specific historical period is correlated with the burn rate observed during the same period. Rising annual burn rates over the past two decades have thereby resulted in an immediate increase in the proportion of open stands. There is therefore a difference between the current proportion of open stands and the one expected if vegetation was in equilibrium with the disturbance regime, reflecting an instability that may significantly impact the way forest resources are managed. It is apparent from this study that forestry planning should consider the risks associated with the temporal variability of fire regimes on the forest ecosystem, as the resulting changes can have a significant impact on biodiversity and allowable cut estimates. Keywords: boreal forest; fire; succession; black spruce; resilience; vulnerability; landscape.
30528Liu P., Zha T., Jia X., Wang B., Guo X., Zhang Y., Wu B., Yang Q. & Peltola H. (2016): Diurnal freeze-thaw cycles modify winter soil respiration in a desert shrub-land ecosystem. - Forests, 7: 161 [10 p.].
Winter soil respiration (Rs) is becoming a significant component of annual carbon budgets with more warming in winter than summer. However, little is known about the controlling mechanisms of winter Rs in dryland. We made continuous measurements of Rs in four microsites (non-crust (BS), lichen (LC), moss (MC), and a mixture of moss and lichen (ML)) in a desert shrub-land ecosystem northern China, to investigate the causes of Rs dynamics in winter. The mean winter Rs ranged from 0.10 to 0.17 mol CO2 m2s1 across microsites, with the highest value in BS. Winter Q10 (known as the increase in respiration rate per 10 C increase in temperature) values (2.8–19) were much higher than those from the growing season (1.5). Rs and Q10 were greatly enhanced in freeze-thaw cycles compared to frozen days. Diurnal patterns of Rs between freeze-thaw and frozen days differed. Although the freeze-thaw period was relatively short, its cumulative Rs contributed significantly to winter Rs. The presence of biocrust might induce lower temperature, thus having fewer freeze-thaw cycles relative to bare soil, leading to the lower Rs for microsites with biocrusts. In conclusion, winter Rs in drylands was sensitive to soil temperature (Ts) and Ts-induced freeze-thaw cycles. The temperature impact on Rs varied among soil cover types. Winter Rs in drylands may become more important as the climate is continuously getting warmer. Keywords: winter soil respiration; soil crust; frozen; freeze-thaw cycles; Q10.
30527Portier J., Gauthier S., Leduc A., Arseneault D. & Bergeron Y. (2016): Fire regime along latitudinal gradients of continuous to discontinuous coniferous boreal forests in eastern Canada. - Forests, 7: 211 [23 p.].
Fire is the main disturbance in North American coniferous boreal forests. In Northern Quebec, Canada, where forest management is not allowed, the landscape is gradually constituted of more opened lichen woodlands. Those forests are discontinuous and show a low regeneration potential resulting from the cumulative effects of harsh climatic conditions and very short fire intervals. In a climate change context, and because the forest industry is interested in opening new territories to forest management in the north, it is crucial to better understand how and why fire risk varies from the north to the south at the transition between the discontinuous and continuous boreal forest. We used time-since-fire (TSF) data from fire archives as well as a broad field campaign in Quebec’s coniferous boreal forests along four north-south transects in order to reconstruct the fire history of the past 150 to 300 years. We performed survival analyses in each transect in order to (1) determine if climate influences the fire risk along the latitudinal gradient; (2) fractionate the transects into different fire risk zones; and (3) quantify the fire cycle—defined as the time required to burn an area equivalent to the size of the study area—of each zone and compare its estimated value with current fire activity. Results suggest that drought conditions are moderately to highly responsible for the increasing fire risk from south to north in the three westernmost transects. No climate influence was observed in the last one, possibly because of its complex physical environment. Fire cycles are shortening from south to north, and from east to west. Limits between high and low fire risk zones are consistent with the limit between discontinuous and continuous forests, established based on recent fire activity. Compared to the last 40 years, fire cycles of the last 150–300 years are shorter. Our results suggest that as drought episodes are expected to become more frequent in the future, fire activity might increase significantly, possibly leading to greater openings within forests. However, if fire activity increases and yet remains within the range of variability of the last 150–300 years, the limit between open and closed forests should stay relatively stable. Keywords: fire history reconstruction; fire cycle; fire risk; black spruce–moss forests; lichen woodlands; boreal ecosystems; fire weather; survival analyses.
30526Girard F., Payette S. & Delwaide A. (2017): Patterns of early postfire succession of alpine, subalpine and lichen-woodland vegetation: 21 years of monitoring from permanent plots. - Forests, 8: 346 [14 p.].
Field observations using chronosequences are helpful to study vegetation succession. This method allows to establish comparisons based on soil composition, stand structure, micro- and macrofossil remains from sites of different ages but on similar edaphic and topographic conditions. In the boreal forest, post-fire succession through time is triggered by climate, disturbance history (insect epidemics, fire and logging), latitude and altitude. The main objective of this research is to identify the main patterns of early post-fire succession, including similarities and differences in vegetation composition and attributes, of three contrasted ecosystems distributed along an altitudinal gradient. To do so, we have monitored the successional development of the alpine, subalpine and boreal lichen-woodland sites during the first 21 years (1991 to 2011) of post-fire sequence in eastern Canada 1991 to 2011. Each site was characterized by a different functional group that became established following fire. A rapid resurgence of ericaceous shrubs and lichens was observed in the lichen woodland and subalpine sites. Bryophyte and lichen species were not an important component of vegetation communities during the earlier stages of post-fire succession. For all three sites monitored, lichens were the last functional group to establish in the chronosequences. Herbs and mosses characterized the post-fire succession in alpine areas, the latter functional group established late in the chronosequence to cover >25% of the site after 15 years. Post-fire chronosequences in the three contrasted environments indicate that plant succession is a repetitive process often involving similar resilient plant assemblages. Keywords: secondary succession; in situ monitoring; alpine and subalpine vegetation; lichen woodland; postfire succession; boreal forest; functional groups.
30525Li S., Liu S., Shi X.-M., Liu W.-Y., Song L., Lu H.-Z., Chen X. & Wu C.-S. (2017): Forest type and tree characteristics determine the vertical distribution of epiphytic lichen biomass in subtropical forests. - Forests, 8: 436 [16 p.].
Epiphytic lichens are an important component in subtropical forests and contribute greatly to forest biodiversity and biomass. However, information on epiphytic lichens still remains scarce in forest conservation owing to the difficulty of accessing all canopy layers for direct observation. Here, epiphytic lichens were quantified on 73 whole trees in five forest types in Southwest China to clarify the vertical stratification of their biomass in subtropical forests. Lichen biomass was significantly influenced by forest type and host attributes, varying from 187.11 to 8.55 gtree/-1 among forest types and from 289.81 to <0.01 gtree/-1 among tree species. The vertical stratification of lichen biomass was also determined by forest type, which peaked at the top in primary Lithocarpus forest and middle-aged oak secondary forest and in the middle upper heights in other forests. Overall, the proportion of lichen biomass accounted for 73.17–100.00% of total lichen biomass on branches and 0.00–26.83% on trunks in five forests, and 64.53–100.00% and 0.00–35.47% on eight host species. Seven functional groups showed marked and various responses to tree height between and among forest types. This information improves our understanding of the distribution of epiphytic lichens in forest ecosystems and the promotion of forest management in subtropical China. Keywords: epiphyte; forest type; functional group; host species; subtropical forest; vertical stratification.
30524Wang Z., Wu F., Yang W., Tan B., Chang C., Wang Q., Cao R. & Tang G. (2018): Effect of gap position on the heavy metal contents of epiphytic mosses and lichens on the fallen logs and standing trees in an alpine forest. - Forests, 9: 383 [12 p.].
To understand the role of the forest gaps and epiphytic mosses and lichens in the heavy metal cycles of forest ecosystems, the biomass, concentration, and storage of Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn in epiphytic mosses and lichens on fallen logs and standing trees from the gap center to the closed canopy of an alpine forest ecosystem on the eastern Tibetan Plateau were investigated. Mosses were the dominant epiphytes on fallen logs and standing trees and contribute 82.1–95.1% of total epiphyte biomass in the alpine forest. A significantly higher biomass of epiphytic mosses and lichens was observed at the gap edge. The heavy metals concentration in mosses and lichens on fallen logs and standing trees varied widely with gap positions. Lower concentrations of Cd, Cu, and Pb were found in the mosses and lichens under the closed canopy, higher concentrations of Cd and Pb were detected in the mosses and lichens at the gap edge, and higher concentrations of Cu were found at the gap center. A significant difference in Zn concentration was observed between the mosses and lichens. No significant differences in Pb or Zn concentrations were observed in the mosses and lichens between the fallen log and standing tree substrates. Furthermore, the epiphytic mosses and lichens at the gap edge accumulated more Cd, Pb, and Cu, whereas the epiphytic lichens on the fallen logs and large shrubs at the gap center accumulated more Zn. In conclusion, gap regeneration accelerates the cycling of heavy metals in alpine forest ecosystems by promoting the growth of epiphytic mosses and lichens on fallen logs and standing trees at gap edges and increasing the concentration of heavy metals in these plants. Keywords: coarse woody debris; heavy metal accumulation; epiphytic moss; epiphytic lichen; gap regeneration.
30523Heinrichs S., Ammer C., Mund M., Boch S., Budde S., Fischer M., Müller J., Schöning I., Schulze E.-D., Schmidt W., Weckesser M. & Schall P. (2019): Landscape-scale mixtures of tree species are more effective than stand-scale mixtures for biodiversity of vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens. - Forests, 10: 73 [35 p.].
Tree species diversity can positively affect the multifunctionality of forests. This is why conifer monocultures of Scots pine and Norway spruce, widely promoted in Central Europe since the 18th and 19th century, are currently converted into mixed stands with naturally dominant European beech. Biodiversity is expected to benefit from these mixtures compared to pure conifer stands due to increased abiotic and biotic resource heterogeneity. Evidence for this assumption is, however, largely lacking. Here, we investigated the diversity of vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens at the plot (alpha diversity) and at the landscape (gamma diversity) level in pure and mixed stands of European beech and conifer species (Scots pine, Norway spruce, Douglas fir) in four regions in Germany. We aimed to identify compositions of pure and mixed stands in a hypothetical forest landscape that can optimize gamma diversity of vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens within regions. Results show that gamma diversity of the investigated groups is highest when a landscape comprises different pure stands rather than tree species mixtures at the stand scale. Species mainly associated with conifers rely on light regimes that are only provided in pure conifer forests, whereas mixtures of beech and conifers are more similar to beech stands. Combining pure beech and pure conifer stands at the landscape scale can increase landscape level biodiversity and conserve species assemblages of both stand types, while landscapes solely composed of stand scale tree species mixtures could lead to a biodiversity reduction of a combination of investigated groups of 7 up to 20%. Keywords: Fagus sylvatica; Pinus sylvestris; Picea abies; Pseudotsuga menziesii; forest management; tree species diversity; forest conversion; gamma diversity; landscape scale; Biodiversity Exploratories.
30522Karlen W. (1973): Holocene Glacier and Climatic Variations, Kebnekaise Mountains, Swedish Lapland. - Geografiska Annaler. Series A, Physical Geography, 55(1): 29-63.
Detailed mapping of well-preserved moraine systems fronting 23 small glaciers in the Kebne- kaise Mountains in Swedish Lapland reveals that the Holocene was punctuated by four prolonged intervals of glacier expansion. The youngest interval corresponds to the well-known Little Ice Age and lasted from at least A. D. 1500 until the 20th century. Minor fluctua- tions superimposed on this broad interval of expansion are dated by lichenometry and historical records; they culminated about A. D. 1916, 1890, 1850, 1780, 1710, and 1500 to 1640. The next youngest interval, which also involved a number of minor fluctuations spread over several centuries, is associated with C14dates of 2320+160 years B.P. (St-3811) and 2460+90 years B. P. (1-6854) (Corrected for variation in atmospheric C14: 2370 and 2475-2720 years B. P., respectively). The two oldest glacial intervals center around tentative lichenometric dates of 5000 and 8000 years B. P., respectively. Advances of the two older intervals were the least extensive. Advances of the two youngest intervals were approximately equal in magnitude although the relative extents of drift sheets suggest that in many cases the older of these two intervals may have been slightly more intense. Within the Little Ice Age the advances between A. D. 1500 and 1640 were commonly the most extensive. Two features commonly encountered in the Kebne- kaise Mountains point to the complexity of moraine construction. The first involves large moraine ridges that were built up over a time span of up to 8000 years by proximal enlargement of an original moraine obstruction by drift related to successively younger advances. The second feature involves numerous mo- raines that have survived documented glacier overriding essentially intact
30521Sérusiaux E. (1991): Porina rosei sp. nov., une espèce nouvelle d'Europe occidentale. - Cryptogamie, Bryologie et Lichénologie, 12(1): 31–39.
30520Bråten A.T., Flø D., Hågvar S., Hanssen O., Mong C.E. & Aakra K. (2012): Primary Succession of Surface Active Beetles and Spiders in an Alpine Glacier Foreland, Central South Norway. - Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, 44(1): 2-15.
Lichens Cetraria nivalis, Cladonia, Sterocaulon. Spiders and beetles were pitfall-trapped in the foreland of the receding Hard- angerjøkulen glacier in central south Norway. At each of six sampling sites, ages 3 to 205 years, twenty traps covered the local variation in moisture and plant communities. Thirty-three spider species and forty beetle species were collected. The species composition was correlated to time since glaciation and vegetation cover. A characteristic pioneer community of spiders and mainly predatory beetles had several open-ground species, and some species or genera were common to forelands in Svalbard or the Alps. While the number of spider species increased relatively constant with age, the number of beetle species seemed to level off after about 80 years. Half of the beetle species were Staphylinidae, and contrary to Carabidae, most of these were rather late colonizers. Most herbivore beetles colonized after more than 40 years, but the moss-eating Byrrhidae species Simplocaria metallica and also certain Chironomidae larvae developed in pioneer moss colonies after 4 years. The large Collembola Bourletiella hortensis, a potential prey, fed on in-blown moss fragments after 3 years. In the present foreland, chlorophyll-based food chains may start very early. Two pioneer Amara species (Carabidae) could probably feed partly on seeds, either in-blown or produced by scattered pioneer grasses.
30519Ouimet R., Boucher J.-F., Tremblay P. & Lord D. (2018): Comparing soil profiles of adjacent forest stands with contrasting tree densities: lichen woodlands vs. black spruce–feathermoss stands in the continuous boreal forest. - Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 98(3): 458–468.
We studied mature and adjacent open lichen–spruce woodlands (LWs) and closed-canopy spruce– feathermoss stands (FMs) growing under similar edaphic conditions in the continuous boreal forest zone in Quebec (Canada). A total of six pairs of stands were investigated by profile sampling. Stem density, basal area, and biomass were about four times greater in FMs than in LWs on an area basis. In the humus layer, total stocks of C and N and of exchangeable K, Ca, Mg, Al, and Na were 1.4–2.3 times larger in FM than in LW soils. The first 30 cm and the first metre of mineral soils in LWs and FMs displayed similar available nutrient pools except for total C stocks, which were more than twice as large in FM as in LW soils in these soil layers. For the whole profile, total stocks of C and N and stocks of exchangeable Ca and Mg were 1.3–2.6 times larger in FM than in LW soils. These results highlight the low intrinsic fertility of LWsoils, primarily due to the humus layer, but also the importance of the biological control of C, N, and mineral nutrients in these boreal soils. Key words: lichen woodland, Picea mariana, podzols, boreal forest, soil fertility, carbon, nutrient pools.
30518Alegro A., Šegota V., Papp B., Deme J., Kovacs D., Purger D. & Csiky J. (2018): The invasive moss Campylopus introflexus (Hedw.) Brid. (Bryophyta) spreads further into South-Eastern Europe. - Cryptogamie, Bryologie, 39(3): 331–341.
Campylopus introflexus (Hedw.) Brid. is the most widespread invasive moss species in Europe. Originating from the Southern Hemisphere, it is nowadays causing serious changes in coastal sand habitats of Western Europe and invading various anthropogenic habitats in Central Europe. In South-Eastern Europe, the species was initially found in Croatia in 2013, in the Dinaric region in the karst plain Vrhovinsko polje, on leached bare soil and pine bark remnants. In 2015, another stand of similar size was found in the peri-Pannonian region, on Mt Papuk, on a gneiss cliff in an acidophilous sessile oak forest. These two localities are on the South-Eastern frontline of the species’ invasion within Europe. The oldest individuals were three to four years old, and sporophytes were not found. At the moment, it seems that the invasive moss is not a threat to native flora in the Dinaric region. Nevertheless, special attention should be given to the peri-Pannonian and Eastern Balkan regions, since its expansion could threaten the habitats of native moss and lichen species growing in similar acidic forests. Since the bryoflora of South-Eastern Europe is still largely undersampled, directed surveys and monitoring programs should be promptly established. Keywords: Alien moss species / Biological invasion / Croatia / Dinaric region / peri-Pannonian region. [p. 336:] "Other lichens and bryophytes present within the studied sample (plot size 2 m2) are the following: Cladonia arbuscula (Wallr.) Flot. (new for Papuk), Cladonia coccifera (L.) Willd. (new for Croatia), Cladonia furcata (Huds.) Schrad., Cladonia gracilis (L.) Willd., Cladonia macilenta Hoffm., Cladonia pyxidata (L.) Hoffm., Cladonia rangiferina (L.) Web. ex Wigg., Cladonia squamosa (Scop.) Hoffm., Cladonia uncialis (L.) Web. ex Wigg., Cladonia cervicornis (Ach.) Flot. subsp. verticillata (Hoffm.) Ahti (new for Papuk), ...". Lichens were identified by L. Lőkös.
30517Olsen O., Haug S. & Nordén B. (2019): Agonimia globulifera new to mainland Norway. - Graphis Scripta, 31(1): 1–4.
Agonimia globulifera is reported for the first time from mainland Norway. It was collected on bryophytes on shell-sand in Vetvika, Bremanger municipality in Sogn og Fjordane. It may be rare in Norway, but should be looked for on other shell-deposits and in places with calcareous bedrocks.
30516Sørlie R. (2001): Ectomycorrhiza on Salix herbacea L. in the glacier foreland of Midtdalsbreen, Finse, Norway. - ms., Cand. Scient. Thesis, University of Oslo, Division of botany and plant physiology, 106 p.
Cetraria delisei, C. islandica, Cladonia arbuscula, C. bellidiflora, C. cervicornis ssp. pulvinata, C. ecmocyna, C. macrophylloides, C. maxima, C. stricta, Peltigera aphthosa, P. malacea, Solorina crocea, Stereocaulon spp. One should suppose that the composition of ectomycorrhiza fungi would change as vegetation develops following a glacier retreat. The objectives of this study were to compare ectomycorrhiza (EM) along a chronosequence in a recently deglaciated land, from bare mineral soil to established alpine snow-beds. A chronosequence developed after the retreat of'the glacier Midtdalsbreen since 1750 provided an opportunity to study the EM formation on roots of the dwarf willow Salix herbacea in different successional stages. The EM quantity and the morphotype composition were examined in snow-bed communities to get a below-ground view of the fungal spatial pattern. The approach consisted of analysing the distribution of different EM morphotypes in different successional stages and to relating distribution patterns to the variations in environmental conditions. The below-ground density of EM fine-roots and the differentiation of morphotypes were studied on roots from the upper soil layer in 50 sample plots of 1 x 1 m. Fine-scale variation was studied by sampling two soil cores (100 cm3) from each plot. The approach included environmental variables measured in each plot. Coarser scaled topographic variables were derived from the surrounding terrain using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) including a Digital Elevation Model (DEM). A total of approximately 40 000 EM root tips were encountered and categorised into 27 morphotypes using gross morphological traits. Ectomycorrhiza formation was encountered on all individualsofSalix herbacea alongthechronosequence.Thecommunitystructurechangedfrequently from pioneer stages to older established sites. The EM colonisation and number of sheathed root tips increased rapidly from sites of 30 years of age to 50 years of age. The maximum abundance was encountered in 200-250 years old terrain. The number of sheathed root tips seemed to be lower in snow-beds beyond the glacier foreland. 96 environmental variables were analysed for covariation using principal component analysis (PCA). Indirect ordination (DCA) showed that the main gradient in the EM data corresponded to a primary succession gradient. Ecologically important variables associated with this main gradient were pH, organic soil depth, soil moisture, lichen- cover and cover of Salix herbacea. A second gradient seemed to be associated with the terrain aspect and the potential radiation. Fine-scale variation in physiognomic structures of the host (biomass, number of shoots, and leaf size) did not seem to be dependent on the ectomycorrhiza variation (morphotypes or abundance). Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) based on morphotypes showed that pH and several topographic variables significantly contributed to the variation explained. A fairly high explanatory contribution from some topographic variables highlights the restrictions of using a stratified sampling design and sampling units of different scales. Causes of spatial variation are discussed. The restriction of only investigating gross EM morphological structures is also stressed.
30515Matthews J.A. & Whittaker R.J. (1987): Vegetation Succession on the Storbreen Glacier Foreland, Jotunheimen, Norway: A Review. - Arctic and Alpine Research, 19(4): 385-395.
Investigations of spatial patterns, environmental gradients, directly measured changes, and plant population structures in front of the Storbreen glacier, southern Norway, have extended the traditional chronosequence approach to the study of primary vegetation succession. A geoecological approach has been developed which does not assume that the vegetation patterns represent a simple linear time sequence. The whole suite of studies is reviewed with particular reference to implications for vegetation succession theory and hence applications in the field of vegetation restoration. Distribution patterns of plant species demonstrate that pioneer colonizers are replaced at various rates and by different species depending on local environmental factors, particularly altitude, aspect, and microtopography. Analyses of community types and vegetation gradients indicate a two-stage high-altitude succession which diverges from a three-stage low-altitude succession. Measurement of environmental variables has distinguished two factor complexes which are important in explaining the vegetation landscape. One of these (the snow melt/exposure/moisture factor complex) is relatively independent of terrain age. Direct measurements of vegetation change over 12 yr show strong progressive succession on terrain ages of 20 to 50 yr and retrogression associated with disturbance on older terrain. Finally, sampling of the size structures of species populations has identified varying patterns of behavior; some commonality in population patterns between species suggests common roles within the succession and common patterns in response to available resources.
30514Matthews J.A. (1977): A lichenometric test of the 1750 end-moraine hypothesis: Storbreen gletscervorfeld, southern Norway. - Norsk geogr. Tidsskr., 31(3): 129-136.
The hypothesis that the the outermost end moraine in front of a southern Norwegian glacier dates from 1750 is tested by a lichenometric technique on the Storbreen gletschervorfeld, Jotunheimen. A method of randomised extrapolation involving 300 lichenometry curves is used, whereby predicted dates are obtained from lichenometry curves constructed from well-founded fixed points based on surfaces dating from between 1900 and 1951. The mean predicted date based on the use of five largest lichens per surface is 1757 with 95 % confidence limits at 1743 and 1770. Mean predicted dates based on the use of single largest or ten largest lichens are 1785 and 1774, respectively, dates which differ significantly from 1750. Statistical and ecological reasons suggest that a systematic bias is resulting in underestimates of true age. It is concluded that there is no reason to reject the 1750 end moraine hypothesis and that deglaciation from the Ml moraine ridge at Storbreen occurred early in the second half of the eighteenth century.
30513Matthews J.A. (1974): Families of lichenometric dating curves from the Storbreen glet- schervorfeld, Jotunheimen, Norway. - Norsk geogr. Tidsskr., 28: 215-235.
Lichenometric dating, based on Rhizocarpon geographicum, is applied to the estab­ lishment of an areal chronology for deglaciation of the Storbreen gletschervorfeld, central southern Norway. A simple approach permitting many lichenometry curves to be constructed in the same area is adopted, each curve differing in the number of sites per surface or the number of lichens per site employed in its construction. Nine lichenometry curves of exponential form are constructed from largest lichens on four past glacier margins of known age, and the age of four margins of unknown age predicted. Median predicted ages are 1811, 1833, 1854 and 1871 and all pre­ dictions fall within an overall range of 17 years, 10 years, 10 years and 7 years respectively. The reproducibility of the predicted ages, together with independent supporting evidence, suggests that families of lichenometry curves allow considerable confidence to be placed in the lichenometric dates and are a promising addition to lichenometric dating technique in general
30512Matthews J.A. (1975): Experiments on the reproducibility and reliability of lichenometric dates, Storbreen gletschervorfeld, Jotunheimen, Norway. - Norsk geogr. Tidsskr., 29: 97–109.
Experiments are made on the reproducibility of lichenometric dates and a method outlined for obtaining reliable lichenometric dates and a measure of their accuracy. The paper is based on field measurements of Rhizocarpon geographicum growing on 10 former ice margins, Storbreen gletschervorfeld, Jotunheimen, southern Norway. The whole population of largest lichens was measured on each margin and 144 lichenometry curves constructed from randomly sampled sub-sets of the data. The effect on predicted dates of varying the number of fixed points and varying the number of largest lichens per margin is analysed. Reproducibility of dates is measured by the dispersion of individual predictions about the mean prediction. Each mean prediction is the best estimate available of the true age of each margin. It is argued that ‘preferred predictions’ are, in this case, the mean prediction based on five largest lichens per margin and an overall mean of predictions based on one, five and ten largest lichens per margin. Use of families of lichenometry curves is reassessed by comparing mean predicted dates from 40 non-independent lichenometry curves with the ‘preferred predictions’. The ‘preferred predictions’ for the four margins of unknown age are: 1867–71 (M5), 1852–53 (M4), 1824–27 (M3), 1810 (M2). Previously published predicted dates, based on families of lichenometry curves and necessary for the establishment of an areal chronology for the Storbreen gletschervorfeld, are substantiated. Previously published results of lichenometric dating, based on single lichenometry curves, are criticised and widespread use of the principle of reproducibility is advocated.
30511Wijayawardene N.N., Hyde K.D., McKenzie E.H.C. & Wang Y. (2018): Notes for genera update – Ascomycota: 6822-6917. - Mycosphere, 9(6): 1222–1234.
Acquiring updated information of fungi is one of the challenges faced by mycologists. This study is a continuation of Wijayawardene et al. (2017, 2018) and provides notes (generic name, classification, number of species, typification details, life mode, distribution, references) for each genus of Ascomycota described mainly during the period January to June 2018. Key words – Classification – Coelomycetes – Hyphomycetes – New Genera – Sexual Genera.
30510Rosentreter R. & Root H.T. (2019): Biological soil crust diversity and composition in southwest Idaho, U.S.A.. - Bryologist, 122(1): 10–22.
Biological soil crusts (BSCs) were sampled by habitat types within and adjacent to the Orchard Combat Training Center (OCTC) in southwest Idaho, U.S.A. Plots consisting of a 34.7 m radius circle, approximately equal to one acre or 0.38 hectares were sampled. We focused on five native vascular plantdominated current habitat types within the OCTC, including: 1) Wyoming sagebrush, 2) saltbush, 3) rabbitbrush, 4) winterfat, and 5) Sandberg bluegrass. We describe how BSC cover and species richness varied with habitat types in the study area. We recorded the relative abundance of BSCs and vascular plant species and collected voucher specimens for each BSC. The biodiversity of each BSC in these arid habitat types was much greater than many ecologists have assumed. We found a total of 68 species of BSC across all 17 plots. BSC cover differed significantly across the different habitat types. BSC cover was significantly higher in sagebrush and saltbush as compared with Poa, rabbitbrush and winterfat habitat types. Overall, there was substantially more BSC richness (17–47 species) than vascular plant richness (4– 13 species), and BSC richness was positively related to vascular plant richness (R2¼0.18, p¼0.041). On average, each additional plant species was associated with 1.36 additional BSC species. BSC communities also varied across the habitat types with Buellia punctata as a significant indicator species for sagebrush, Toninia sedifolia for saltbush, and Cladonia pocillum for winterfat. Several BSC species were associated with 2 or 3 habitat types; for example, Cladonia fimbriata, Diploschistes muscorum, Leptogium lichenoides, Massalongia carnosa, Riccia sorocarpa and Trapeliopsis steppica were most common in the sagebrush, Poa, and rabbitbrush habitats. In contrast, Caloplaca tominii, Endocarpon loscosii, Placidium squamulosum and Psora tuckermanii were most common in winterfat and saltbush habitats. Keywords: Biodiversity, biocrusts, Great Basin, lichens, bryophytes, military training area.
30509Гельтман Д.В., Гимельбрант Д.Е., Конечная Г.Ю., Коткова В.М., Лукницкая А.Ф., Потемкин А.Д., Сафронова Т.В., Смирнова С.В., Степанчикова И.С., Андреев М.П., Белякова Р.Н., Болдина О.Н., Гагарина Л.В., Глазкова Е.А., Гогорев Р.М., Доронина А.Ю., Дорошина Г.Я., Ефимов П.Г., Жакова Л.В., Катаева О.А., Ковальчук Н.А., Кузнецова Е.С., Михайлова Т.А., Морозова О.В., Новожилов Ю.К., Попов Е.С., Сорокина И.А. & Спирин В.А. [Geltman D.V., Himelbrant D.E., Konechnaya G.Yu., Kotkova V.M., Luknitskaya A.F., Potemkin A.D., Safronova T.V., Smirnova S.V., Stepanchikova I.S., Andreev M.P., Belyakova R.N., Boldina O.N., Gagarina L.V., Glazkova E.A., Gogorev R.M., Doronina A.Yu., Doroshina G.Ya., Efimov P.G., Zhakova L.V., Katayeva O.A., Kovalchuk N.A., Kuznetsova E.S., Mikhaylova T.A., Morozova O.V., Novozhilov Yu.K., Popov E.S., Sorokina I.A. & Spirin V.A.] (2018): Виды сосудистых растений, мохообразных, водорослей, лишайников, грибов и миксомицетов, нуждающиеся в региональной охране на территории Ленинградской области [Vascular plants, bryophytes, algae, lichens, fungi and slime molds needed in regional conservation measures in the Leningrad Region]. - Ботанический журнал [Botanicheskii Zhurnal], 103(6): 764–811.
[In Russian with English summary:] The list of species included in the Red Data Book of the Leningrad Region and, thus, legally protected, was officially adopted in 2015 and contains 529 species. However, in fact this list is out of date because it almost completely repeats the list of species, included into the Red Data Book of Nature of the Leningrad Region (plants and fungi) published in 2000. A group of experts during 2015—2017 revised and actualized the list of species needed in conservation measures in the Leningrad Region and are to be included into the regional Red Data Book (officially protected). Complex analysis of distribution, habitat preferences and biological features of the species led us to the conclusion that 129 species included into the Red Data Book of Nature of the Leningrad Region (plants and fungi) (2000) in fact do not merit special conservation measures; at the same time 189 species are proposed for conservation. As a result, we suggest that 590 species are needed in conservation measures including 188 vascular plants, 87 bryophytes, 80 algae, 101 lichens, 134 fungi and slime molds. For every species the IUCN Red List category and criteria are indicated, taking into account their application at the regional level. Key words: plant conservation, Leningrad Region, Red Data Book, the IUCN Red List category and criteria, vascular plants, bryophytes, algae, lichens, fungi, slime molds.
30508Исмаилов А.Б. [Ismailov A.B.] (2018): Новые для Дагестана виды макролишайников [The species of macrolichens new to Dagestan]. - Ботанический журнал [Botanicheskii Zhurnal], 103(6): 755–759.
[In Russian with English summary:] The data on the records of 10 species and 3 genera (Imshaugia, Lobarina and Tuckermannopsis) of macrolichens new to Republic of Dagestan is presented. The information on their distribution in the Caucasus with data of localities is given. Key words: macrolichens, high mountains, new records, Dagestan, East Caucasus.
30507Исмаилов А.Б. & Урбанавичюс Г.П. [Ismailov A.B. & Urbanavichus G.P.] (2018): Материалы к лихенофлоре Самурского хребта (высокогорный Дагестан) [Materials to the lichen flora of Samurskiy Ridge (High mountainous Dagestan)]. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 52(2): 397–406.
[In Russian with English abstract:] The lichens and lichenicolous fungi of high mountainous landscapes of Samurskiy Ridge were studied in altitudinal range 2400–3770 m a. s. l. for the first time and 112 species are recorded. Among them 33 species, 10 genera (Arthrorhaphis, Baeomyces, Calvitimela, Epilichen, Lambiella, Psorinia, Rufoplaca, Sagedia, Sporastatia, Tremolecia) and 4 families (Anamylopsoraceae, Arthrorhaphidaceae, Baeomycetaceae, Hymeneliaceae) are new for Dagestan, six species (Buellia uberior, Carbonea atronivea, Lecanora atrosulphurea, Lecidea fuliginosa, L. swartzioidea, Rhizoplaca subdiscrepans) are reported for the first time for the Greater Caucasus and two species (Acarospora subpruinata and Rhizocarpon postumum) — for the North Caucasus. Most of the new findings were collected from 3500–3770 m a. s. l. Keywords: lichenicolous fungi, lichens, new records, high mountainous Dagestan, East Caucasus, Russia, Samurskiy Ridge.
30506Макрый Т.В. [Makryi T.V.] (2018): Sedelnikovaea baicalensis (Lecanoraceae) — новый для Европы род и вид лишайника [Sedelnikovaea baicalensis (Lecanoraceae) — new lichen genus and species for Europe]. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 52(2): 407–416.
[in Russian with English abstract:] Sedelnikovaea baicalensis, the Siberian-Central Asian lichen species, is recorded for the first time for Europe. Based on all the known localities, including those first-time reported from Baikal Siberia, the peculiarities of the ecology and distribution of this species are discussed, the map of its distribution is provided. It is concluded that the species was erroneously considered earlier as a Central Asian endemic. The center of the present range of this lichen is the steppes of Southern Siberia and Mongolia. Assumptions are made that S. baicalensis is relatively young (Paleogene-Neogene) species otherwise it would have a vast range extending beyond Asia, and also that the Yakut locations of this species indicate that in the Pleistocene its range was wider and covered a significant part of the Northeastern Siberia but later underwent regression. Based on the fact that in the mountains of Central Asia the species is found only in the upper mountain belts, it is proposed to characterize it as «cryo-arid xerophyte» in contrast to «arid xerophytes». A conclusion is made that the presence of extensive disjunctions of S. baicalensis range between the Southern Pre-Urals and the Altai-Sayan Mountains or the Mountains of Central Asia is unlikely; the lichen is most likely to occur in the Urals and most of Kazakhstan. Keywords: ecology, range, Central Asia, Orenburg Region, Russia, Siberia, Yakutia.
30505Урбанавичене И.Н. & Урбанавичюс Г.П. [Urbanavichene I.N. & Urbanavichus G.P.] (2018): К лихенофлоре Ставропольского края (Центральный Кавказ, Россия) [Contributions to the lichen flora of the Stavropol Territory (Central Caucasus, Russia)]. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 52(2): 417–434.
[in Russian with English abstract:] New data on lichen flora of the Stavropol Territory (Central Caucasus) are provided. Study of four protected natural areas of the Stavropol Territory — «Lermontova Skala» and «Mashuk Mountain» natural monuments, and «Beshtaugorskiy» and «Malyy Essentuchok» sanctuaries resulted in finding of 279 species: 258 species of lichens, 18 species of lichenicolous fungi and 3 species of non-lichenized saprobic fungi. Among them Bacidia notarisiana, Buelliella minimula, Pertusaria pluripuncta, Protoparmelia memnonia, Psorotichia vermiculata, Rebentischia massalongii are new for Russia, 23 species are new for Caucasus, 25 species for the North Caucasus, 164 species for the Central Caucasus and 225 species are new for the Stavropol Territory. Keywords: lichen flora, new records, protected areas, Caucasus, Russia, Stavropol Territory.
30504Чабаненко С.И. [Tchabanenko S.I.] (2018): Обзор видов рода Nipponoparmelia (Parmeliaceae) России [A review of the genus Nipponoparmelia (Parmeliaceae) in Russia]. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 52(2): 435–444.
[in Russian with English abstract:] Based on our research and literature data, an overview of the species of the genus Nipponoparmelia (Parmeliaceae) that occur on the territory of Russia (N. isidioclada, N. laevior, N. perplicata, N. pseudolaevior) is presented. An identification key, refined diagnoses of the species, description of their ecology and distribution are provided. Keywords: Nipponoparmelia, key to species, lichens, taxonomic review, Far East, Russia, Sakhalin Region.
30503Himelbrant D.E., Efimova A.A., Khanov Z.M., Leostrin A.V., Makryi T.V. & Stepanchikova I.S. (2018): New records of lichens and lichenicolous fungi. 1. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 52(2): 445–453.
[In English but part by T. Makryi at p. 448-450 entitled 'Новые находки лишайников для Оренбургской области — New lichen records for the Orenburg Region' and acknowledgments are written in Russian]. First records of 8 lichens, 2 lichenicolous fungi and 1 saprobic fungus for the Kostroma Region, 3 arctic-alpine lichens for the Orenburg Region, 1 lichen for the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic as well as data on their localities, habitats and distribution are provided. Keywords: Absconditella lignicola, Alyxoria varia, Anisomeridium polypori, Buellia griseovirens, Fuscidea pusilla, Lichenostigma maureri, Melanohalea septentrionalis, Opegrapha niveoatra, Peridiothelia fuliguncta, Pertusaria coccodes, Phacopsis huuskonenii, Rhizocarpon disporum, Rinodina roscida, Sarcogyne clavus, Thelenella muscorum, Caucasus, European Russia, Kabardino-Balkarian Republic, Kostroma Region, Orenburg Region, Russia.
30502Joseph S., Sinha G.P. & Ramachandran V.S. (2013): A new record of Syncesia (lichenized Ascomycota) from India with additional taxonomic characters. - Taiwania, 58(4): 300–304.
A lichen species Syncesia farinacea (Fée) Tehler collected from the Nilgiri hills of Tamil Nadu is reported as new to India. A detailed description and figures along with additional information about its pycnidia, oil globules in young ascomata and rare isidia like structures not mentioned in earlier reports for this species are also provided. Key words: Arthoniales, Roccellaceae, Tamil Nadu, taxonomy.
30501Singh P., Singh K.P. & Bhatt A.B. (2013): New species and new records of thelotremoid Graphidaceae (lichenized Ascomycota) from Arunachal Pradesh (India). - Taiwania, 58(4): 246–250.
Rhabdodiscus indicus, a new species is described from Arunachal Pradesh, India. It is characterized by the isidiate thallus, white prurinose, reticulate columellate apothecia, hyaline small 4-locular ascospores and presence of cinchonarum unknown substance. In addition, two species viz. Ocellularia neopertusariiformis Hale and Ocellularia subgranulosa (Homchantara & Coppins) Lumbsch & Papong dealt briefly are reported for the first time from India. Key words: Eastern Himalaya, India, isidia, new records, new species, taxonomy.
30500Joseph S. & Sinha G.P. (2015): The lichenicolous species of Melaspilea (Melaspileaceae) in India. - Taiwania, 60(1): 18–22.
The lichenicolous species of genus Melaspilea has been studied. As a result, a new species Melaspilea amarkantakensis has been described and M. insitiva has been lectotypified. The new species grows on the thallus and ascomata of Pertusaria species in ‘sal’ forests of central India and is characterized by relatively small, blackish ascomata, I– and K/I+ pale blue hymenium, 4-spored, shorter, 25.4–33.2 × 14.3–20.2 μm asci and 1-septate, (12.1–)13.3–16.0(–17.5) × (5.0–)6.1–7.6(–8.9) μm ascospores lacking perispore. Key words: Arthoniomycetes, Ascomycota, lectotypification, Madhya Pradesh, taxonomy.
30499Ingle K.K., Trivedi S., Nayaka S. & Upreti D.K. (2017): The lichen genera Dictyomeridium and Polymeridium (Trypetheliales: Trypetheliaceae) in India. - Taiwania, 62(1): 50–54.
Taxonomic account of Dictyomeridium and Polymeridium are presented from India. Polymeridium cinereonigricans (Vain.) R.C. Harris, P. pleurothecium R.C. Harris and P. submuriforme Aptroot are reported as new records for India. An artificial key to all the species known so far from India along with notes on their distribution and ecology is also presented. Key words: Dictyomeridium, India, Lichen, Polymeridium, Taxonomy, Trypetheliaceae.
30498Gupta P., Joseph S. & Sinha G.P. (2019): Enterographa assamica, a new species from North-East India. - Taiwania, 64(1): 1–3.
A new species Enterographa assamica, in the family Roccellaceae sensu lato is described from Assam, India. It is characterized by whitish grey thallus, rounded to elongate ascomata with yellowish-white thalline margin and presence of lichexanthone and confluentic acid in the thallus. A key to all the known species of Enterographa in India is also provided. Key words: Arthoniales; Assam; India; Enterographa assamica; Lichenized Ascomycota; Roccellaceae s. l.; Taxonomy.
30497Yakovchenko L., Davydov E.A. & Ohmura Y. (2016): Candelariella placodizans (Candelariaceae) reported new to mainland China and Taiwan based on morphological, chemical and molecular phylogenetic analyses. - Taiwania, 61(2): 159–164.
Candelariella placodizans is newly reported from China. It was collected on exposed rocks with mosses on the alpine areas of Taiwan and Yunnan Province, China at elevation between 3200-4400 m. Molecular phylogenetic analyses based on ITS rDNA sequences were also performed to confirm the monophyly of the Chinese populations with respect to already existing sequences of the species, and then further to examine their relationships to other members of the genus. An identification key to all 14 known taxa of Candelariella in China is provided. Keyword: China, Distribution, Flora, Identification key, ITS rDNA, Phylogeny, Taiwan, Yunnan.
30496Galanina I.A., Ezhkin A.K. & Yakovchenko L.S. (2018): Rinodina megistospora (Physciaceae) in the Russian Far East. - Новости систематики низших растений / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 52(1): 133–139.
The paper presents new data on distribution of the lichen Rinodina megistospora in the Russian Far East and its revealed range in eastern Asia. R. megistospora is recorded for the first time for the Sakhalin Region (Sakhalin and Iturup islands). It has been found on the territory of Russia in eight localities in the boreal and nemoral zones of Northeast Asia. The species grows in old-growth intact coniferous and oak forests on bark of Betula sp., Kalopanax septemlobus, Picea sp., Quercus crispula and Sorbus sp. Current data suggest that R. megistospora is one of the species belonging to the Eastern Asiatic — Western North American group of species, characterized by disjunctive range. The paper presents the anatomical and morphological description of Rinodina megistospora, based on the examined specimens. Keywords: Asia, biogeography, disjunction, lichens.
30495Gagarina L.V., Poryadina L.N., Chesnokov S.V. & Konoreva L.A. (2017): The lichen genus Usnea Dill. ex Adans. in the Sakha Republic (Yakutia). - Botanica Pacifica, 6(1): 31–36.
The occurrence of lichens belonging to the genus Usnea was studied in Yakutia.Eight species have been revealed: U. barbata (L.) F.H. Wigg., U. cavernosa Tuck., U. dasypoga (Ach.) Nyl., U. glabrescens (Nyl. ex Vain.) Vain., U. hirta (L.) W.H. Wigg., U. lapponica Vain., U. longissima Ach. and U. subfloridana Stirt. Distribution maps, an identification key and notes with diagnostic features and distribution data for each species are provided. Keywords: lichens, Usnea, identification key, Yakutia.
30494Ezhkin A.K. (2018): Megalospora porphyritis (Tuck.) R.C. Harris, a new record for Russia. - Botanica Pacifica, 7(2): 143–145.
A new finding of Megalospora porphyritis, previously known only from North America and Japan was registered on Sakhalin and Kuriles, Far East of Russia. The taxon is considered as a good example of an American/Asian disjunction most likely related to geological events in the Tertiary. Illustrations of lichen’s morphological features and a map of finding points are provided. Key words: rare species, disjunction, relict, broad-leaved forest.
30493Tchabanenko S.I., Konoreva L.A. & Chesnokov S.V. (2018): Lichens collected in the Sakhalin Botanical Garden: new records to Russia, the Russian Far East and Sakhalin Island. - Botanica Pacifica, 7(1): 71–79.
During the lichenogical survey conducted in the Sakhalin Branch of Botanical Garden-Institute FEB RAS, a number of interesting findings were made. Among the identified species, Thelotrema bicinctulum is new for Russia; Agonimia flabelliformis, Peridiothelia fuliguncta, and Strigula jamesii were recorded for the Russian Far East for the first time; Arthonia helvola, A. spadicea and Ionaspis epulotica are new to the South of the Russian Far East and five species to Sakhalin Island. Key words: lichens, Far East, Sakhalin, new records, Asia.
30492Keller C. (2017): Flechten von Gavdos. In: Urmi E., Bryoflorula Gaudensis – Ein Beitrag zur Kryptogamenflora der Ägäis. - Herzogia, 30(2): 336–338.
30491Das K., Rossi W., Leonardi M., Ghosh A., Bera I., Hembrom M.E., Bajpai R., Joseph S., Nayaka S., Upreti D.K., Wang X.-H., Hofstetter V. & Buyck B. (2018): Fungal Biodiversity Profiles 61 - 70. - Cryptogamie, Mycologie, 39(4): 381–418.
In this new series of Fungal Biodiversity Profiles, the authors describe nine species new to science, four Ascomycota, as well as one Cantharellus and four Russula (Basidiomycota). Among Ascomycota, the lichen forming Cryptothecia odishensis sp. nov. (Arthoniales) is reported from tropical forests in India, while first Indian reports are given for C. atropunctata and C. exilis, two species originally described from Australia, and for the tropical American Myriostigma filicinum. In Laboulbeniales, descriptions are provided for Hesperomyces auriculatus sp. nov., Laboulbenia montana sp. nov. and Zodiomyces vermiformis sp. nov. Among Basidiomycota, Cantharellus subfloridulus sp. nov. (Cantharellales) is described from the African rain forest, and detailed data are provided on the holotype location of C. addaiensis. In Russulales, Russula gnathangensis sp. nov., R. indohimalayana sp. nov., R. pseudokrombholzii sp. nov. and R. subalpinogrisea sp. nov. are newly described from Abies densa forests in Indian Himalaya. Still among Asian Russulales, Multifurca roxburghii is epitypified with a recent collection from its original habitat and the recently described M. albovelutina is clearly a later synonym. In addition, the recently described M. mellea is most likely either a later synonym of M. pseudofurcata or of M. orientalis. Lichenized Ascomycota / Arthoniales / Cantharellales / epitypification / ITS / Laboulbeniales / Multifurca / phylogeny / Russula / Russulales / taxonomy /
30490Morse C.A. & Lendemer J.C. (2019): A new Biatoridium from eastern North America, with comments on the disposition of species of Biatorella sensu Magnusson. - Bryologist, 122(1): 1–9.
Biatoridium lasiothecium is described as new to science from southeastern North America. The species differs from B. delitescens and B. monasteriense in the shaggy appearance of the ascomata, due to the elongation of individual paraphyses. A taxonomic key to morphologically similar, polysporous species, as well as other North American lichenized and non-lichenized fungi traditionally included in Biatorella, is provided. A new combination is made for Strangospora cyphalea (” B. cyphalea). Keywords: Great Plains, Atlantic Coastal Plain, lichenized fungi, taxonomy, Albemarlea, Maronea, Myrionora, Piccolia, Ramonia, Sarcosagium, Sarea, Sporastatia, Steinia.
30489Ohmura Y., Takeshita S. & Kawachi M. (2019): Photobiont diversity within populations of a vegetatively reproducing lichen, Parmotrema tinctorum, can be generated by photobiont switching. - Symbiosis, 77: 59–72.
Photobiont diversity within populations of a vegetatively reproducing lichen can be generated by photobiont switching between the original lichen photobiont and the compatible algal partners on its surrounding substrate. The hypothesis was tested using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) with a partial rbcL sequence amplified from thalli of Parmotrema tinctorum and from the substrate immediately adjacent to each thallus. On the surface of tombstones where P. tinctorum was growing, only various haplotypes of Trebouxia corticola (s. lat.) that is characterized by having distinct starch sheaths surrounding the pyrenoid were detected. DGGE could detect one to five bands of T. corticola (s. lat.) haplotypes on each substrate, and one (or rarely two) of them was often identical with the photobiont haplotype of P. tinctorum growing on the same tombstone. Through PCR screening directed at a fungal rDNA fragment, many substrate samples were found to be free of microscopic contamination from P. tinctorum. Individual algal haplotypes from the substrate were identified by sequencing of the DGGE rbcL bands and compared to the corresponding sequences of the P. tinctorum photobionts. The presence of compatible algae on the lichen substrate and the genetic identity between some of the substrate algae and those in the lichen suggest the possibility of photobiont switching in vegetatively reproducing lichens like P. tinctorum. The following observations also support the phenomenon of photobiont switching: 1) high genetic diversity of photobiont in small populations; 2)multiple photobionts in a single thallus; 3) incomplete correspondence in cophylogenetic analyses between mycobiont and photobiont; and 4) clear selectivity for photobiont in diverse lichens. Keywords: Lichenized fungi . Microalgae . rbcL . Trebouxia corticola . Selectivity . Vegetative reproduction.
30488Ranlund Å., Hylander K., Johansson V., Jonsson F., Nordin U. & Gustafsson L. (2018): Epiphytic lichen responses to environmental change due to clear-cutting differ among tree taxa. - Journal of Vegetation Science, 29: 1065–1074.
Question: Many species‐rich communities are associated with a foundation species. While we often have detailed information about the foundation species, we know less about its associated species. We explore such a situation, comparing the responses of lichen species associated with different tree taxa, which differ in successional strategy, to the environmental change that takes place when the surrounding trees are clear‐cut. Location: Boreal forests in Sweden. Methods: We illustrated general differences in lichen species composition among four tree taxa and three stand categories using ordination of species occurrences. To analyse responses to clear‐cutting we modelled the occurrence probability individually for 144 epiphytic lichen species from the lower 2 m of 2,400 tree trunks of four tree taxa in 130 stands, and compared trees in closed‐canopy forests with those retained in logged stands, using Bayesian hierarchical models. Results: The composition of lichens on aspen trees deviated clearly from that on the other tree species. Also lichen responses to logging differed among main host tree taxa, where lichen species associated with birches, European aspen, and Scots pine increased in probability of occurrence on trees in logged areas compared to intact forest, while lichen species associated with Norway spruce decreased. We found that time lags for changes in occupancy existed primarily in the increase, but not in the decline, of the groups of lichens associated with different tree taxa. Conclusions: Lichens associated with different tree taxa vary in their response to the environmental change brought about by logging, but in a way that differs from the differences in species composition among host trees. Our results highlight the importance of considering the taxa of trees in forest management for the conservation of their associated lichen species. The extent to which the ecology of foundation species influences their associated species merits further inquiry, since such knowledge may facilitate predictions of responses of associated species also in other species‐rich communities. Keywords: Bayesian hierarchical models, disturbance, environmental change, environmental history, foundation species, host tree species, lichen, response distribution, tree retention.
30487Kremer B.P. (2018): Der Kölner Dom als unerwartet artenreicher Lebensraum. Ein Felsbiotop inmitten der Großstadt. - Biologie in unserer Zeit, 48(6): 387–393.
[in German with English summary:] The Cologne Cathedral, famous UNESCO World Heritage Site, is in many regards a building of superlatives. At the time of its (preliminary) completion in 1880 it represented the tallest building in the world. The southern tower houses the heaviest free-swinging bell (24 t). The façade is almost as large as a football field. However, this cathedral does not only fascinate by its archi- tectural features and its numerous art objects, but it also proves as a remarkable complex of biotopes. All five king- doms of organisms are represented. This article deals with the diverse major taxa which meanwhile have successfully established themselves on the cathedral.
30486Díaz-Álvarez E.A. & de la Barrera E. (2018): Characterization of nitrogen deposition in a megalopolis by means of atmospheric biomonitors. - Scientific Reports, 8:13569 [10 p.].
An increase of nitrogen deposition resulting from human activities is not only a major threat for global biodiversity, but also for human health, especially in highly populated regions. It is thus important and in some instances legally mandated to monitor reactive nitrogen species in the atmosphere. The utilization of widely distributed biological species suitable for biomonitoring may be a good alternative. We assessed the suitability of an ensemble of atmospheric biomonitors of nitrogen deposition by means of an extensive sampling of a lichen, two mosses, and a bromeliad throughout the Valley of Mexico, whose population reaches 30 million, and subsequent measurements of nitrogen metabolism parameters. In all cases we found significant responses of nitrogen content, C:N ratio and the δ15N to season and site. In turn, the δ15N for the mosses responded linearly to the wet deposition. Also, the nitrogen content (R2 = 0.7), the C:N ratio (R2 = 0.6), and δ15N (R2 = 0.5) for the bromeliad had a linear response to NOx. However, the bromeliad was not found in sites with NOx concentrations exceeding 80 ppb, apparently of as a consequence of excess nitrogen. These biomonitors can be utilized in tandem to determine the status of atmospheric nitrogenous pollution in regions without monitoring networks for avoiding health problems for ecosystems and humans.
30485Cernava T., Aschenbrenner I.A., Soh J., Sensen C.W., Grube M. & Berg G. (2019): Plasticity of a holobiont: desiccation induces fasting-like metabolism within the lichen microbiota. - The ISME Journal, 13: 547–556.
The role of host-associated microbiota in enduring dehydration and drought is largely unknown. We have used lichens to study this increasingly important problem because they are the organisms that are optimally adapted to reoccurring hydration/dehydration cycles, and they host a defined and persistent bacterial community. The analysis of metatranscriptomic datasets from bacterial communities of the lung lichen (Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm.), sampled under representative hydration stages, revealed significant structural shifts and functional specialization to host conditions. The hydrated samples showed upregulated transcription of transport systems, tRNA modification and various porins (Omp2b by Rhizobiales), whereas the desiccated samples showed different functions related to stress adaption prominently. Carbohydrate metabolism was activated under both conditions. Under dry conditions, upregulation of a specialized ketone metabolism indicated a switch to lipid-based nutrition. Several bacterial lineages were involved in a functional transition that was reminiscent of a ‘fasting metaorganism’. Similar functional adaptions were assigned to taxonomically unrelated groups, indicating hydration-related specialization of the microbiota. We were able to show that host-associated bacterial communities are well adapted to dehydration by stress protection and changes of the metabolism. Moreover, our results indicate an intense interplay in holobiont functioning under drought stress.
30484Yang Y., Bae W.K., Lee J.-Y., Choi Y.J., Lee K.H., Park M.-S., Yu Y.H., Park S.-Y., Zhou R., Taş İ., Gamage C., Paik M.-J., Lee J.H., Chung I.J., Kim K.K., Hur J.-S., Kim S.K., Ha H.-H. & Kim H. (2018): Potassium usnate, a water-soluble usnic acid salt, shows enhanced bioavailability and inhibits invasion and metastasis in colorectal cancer. - Scientific Reports, 8:16234 [11 p.].
Usnic acid (UA), a lichen secondary substance, has considerable anticancer activity in vitro, whereas its effect in vivo is limited. Here, potassium usnate (KU) was prepared by the salinization of UA to enhance its water solubility. KU showed increased bioavailability compared with UA in the tumor, liver, and plasma of a CT26 syngeneic mouse tumor xenograft model after oral administration, as determined by LC-MS/MS analysis. KU exhibited potent anticancer effects on colorectal cancer cells and inhibited liver metastasis in an orthotopic murine colorectal cancer model. KU treatment downregulated the epithelial-mesenchymal markers Twist, Snail, and Slug and the metastasis-related genes CAPN1, CDC42, CFL1, IGF1, WASF1, and WASL in cells and tumor tissues. The present results suggest the potential application of the water-soluble form of UA, KU, in anticancer therapy.
30483Schiller K. (1894): Kryptogamen des Bayrischen Waldes. - Sitzungsberichte und Abhandlungen der Naturwissenschaftlichen Gesellschaft Isis in Dresden, 1894: 1071–1073.
30482Ricek E.W. (1988): Die Peitschenmoos-Fichtenwälder des Mühlviertels. - In: Das Mühlviertel. Natur-Kullur-Leben. Beiträge zur Landesausstellung des Amtes der Oberösterreichischen Landesregierung, Amt der Öberösterreichischen Landesregierung, Linz, pp. 97-104.
Flechten treten daher in der typischen Assoziation zurück. Oft sind sie auf die Stamm- und Strunksockel bzw. auf die Stamm- basen beschränkt: Cladonia digitata, C. squamosa, C. deformis. Die bodenbesiedelnden Arten (Cetraria islandica = Isländische Moosflechte, Cladonia chlorophaea, eine Becherflechte) wachsen oft an Stellen mit gestörter Vegetation.
30481Zimmermann A. (1982): Erica-reiche Silikat-Föhrenwälder in den östlichen Zentralalpen (III): überregionaler Vergleich. - Phyton, 22(2): 289–316.
Silicate-pine-forests, rich in Erica carnea, in the eastern Central Alps (III): comparison beyond the region.
30480Horák J., Materna J., Halda J.P., Mladenović S., Bogusch P. & Pech P. (2019): Biodiversity in remnants of natural mountain forests under conservation-oriented management. - Scientific Reports, 9:89 [10 p.].
The structure of forests is an important stabilizing factor regarding ongoing global climate and land use change. Biodiverse mountain forests with natural structure are one of the ecosystems most endangered by these problems. We focused on the mountain forest islands of European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and their role in the natural distribution of organisms. The study area was situated in the oldest Czech national park, Krkonoše (385 km2), which is the highest mountain ridge in the country. We studied multi-taxa (lichens, beetles and hymenopterans) responses to three hierarchical spatial levels of the environment: the topography was described by the elevation gradient; the patch structure was described by canopy openness, dead wood amounts, and Norway spruce (Picea abies) cover; and the tree level was described by species of the sampled tree and its diameter. Lichens preferred higher elevations, while insect groups responded conversely. Furthermore, insect groups were mainly influenced by the inner patch structure of beech islands. Lichens may be jeopardized due to the predicted future increase in temperatures, since they would need to shift toward higher altitudes. Insects may be mainly threatened in the future by land use changes (i.e., forest management) – as indicated by an interconnection of canopy openness and the amount of dead wood.
30479Rüggeberg H. (1911): Die Lichenen des Gebietes mit ihren Stand- und Fundorten. - Jahresbericht der Naturhistorischen Gesellschaft zu Hannover, 60–61: 15–66.
30478Lämmermayr L. (1918): Die grüne Vegetation steirischer Höhlen. - Mitteilungen des naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins für Steiermark, 54: 53–88.
30477Lämmermayr L. (1912): Die grüne Pflanzenwelt der Höhlen. I. Teil. Materialien zur Systematik, Morphologie und Physiologie der grünen Höhlenvegetation unter besonderer Berücksichtigung ihres Lichtgenusses. - Denkschriften der Akademie der Wissenschaften, mathematisch-naturwissenschaftliche Klasse, 87: 325–364.
30476Lämmermayr L. (1914): Die grüne Pflanzenwelt der Höhlen. I. Teil. Materialien zur Systematik, Morphologie und Physiologie der grünen Höhlenvegetation unter besonderer Berücksichtigung ihres Lichtgenusses. - Denkschriften der Akademie der Wissenschaften, mathematisch-naturwissenschaftliche Klasse, 90: 125–153.
30475Lämmermayr L. (1916): Die grüne Pflanzenwelt der Höhlen. I. Teil. Materialien zur Systematik, Morphologie und Physiologie der grünen Höhlenvegetation unter besonderer Berücksichtigung ihres Lichtgenusses. - Denkschriften der Akademie der Wissenschaften, mathematisch-naturwissenschaftliche Klasse, 92: 107–148.
30474Lämmermayr L. (1927): Materialien zur Systematik und Ökologie der Serpentinflora II. Das Problem der »Serpentinpflanzen«. – Eine kritische ökologische Studie. - Sitzungsberichte der Akademie der Wissenschaften, mathematisch-naturwissenschaftliche Klasse, 136: 25–69.
ultramafic rocks; several lichens listed (det. A.Zahlbruckner)
30473Pax F. (1949): Das Naturschutzgebiet auf dem Glatzer Schneeberg. - Abhandlungen des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins zu Bremen, 32: 266–291.
Czech Republic; Poland; Králický Sněžník
30472Hertel H. (1982): Die Exsiccatenwerke des Flechtenherbares der Botanischen Staatssammlung. - Mitteilungen der Botanischen Staatssammlung München, 18: 297–339.
The catalogue of lichen exsiccates kept in Munich herbarium
30471Walentowski H. (1991): Die Pflanzengesellschaften der Rodungsinsel Bischofsreut im Hinteren Bayerischen Wald (800 bis 1050 m ü NN). - Berichte der Bayerischen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 62: 67–96.
Germany; Bavaria; syntaxonomy; several terricolous lichens (e.g. Pycnothelia papillaria) mentioned from relevés
30470Heinrich G. (2003): Zur radioaktiven Belastung von Pilzen. - Fritschiana (Graz), 42: 14–24.
Lichens, mosses, higher plants: Following the reactor accident in Chernobyl, the radiocesium ( 137Cs ) activity in the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea rose to over 50 000 Bq kg-1 d. w. from an initial value of approximately 400 Bq. The biological half-life of 137Cs in lichens and mosses was two to three years. The biological half-life of 90Sr was shorter than that of 137Cs, between 1.2 and 1.6 years. The biological half-life is not a constant value, it is increasing with time. The 137Cs concentrations in higher plants from forests (altitude approximately 1000 m) and pastures in the Styrian Koralpe were found to be still high today, 16 years after the Chernobyl accident. This is not the case for higher plants around Graz.
30469Riedl H. & Schiman-Czeika H. (1964): Diagnosen und Neukombinationen chilenischer Flechten. - Sydowia, 17: 82–92.
30468Riedl H. & Riedl-Dorn C. (1986): Ergebnisse einer Sammel- und Studienreise nach Mauritius im Sommer 1981. - Linzer biologische Beiträge, 18(2): 381–387.
30467Riedl H. (1968): Drei neue Lecidea-Arten aus Chile. - Sydowia, 20: 342–347.
30466Riedl H. (1976): Beobachtungen an Ramalina arabum (Ach.) Meyen et Flot. und Ramalinopsis mannii (Tuck.) Follm. et Hun. - Sydowia, 28: 134–142.
Ramalina arabum is the only fertile member of sect. Ecorticatae STEIN., characterized by the absence of a cortical layer of transverse, anastomosing hyphae. Though this character also occurs in other groups, e. g. in R.fraxinea, a separation seems justified, as the vegetative thallus is terete and most of the ascogonia are situated on the border between vegetative thallus and apothecium, while they are confined to the medullary excipulum in other species of Ramalina examined by the present author. Apothecia of Ramalinopsis mannii are more similar to typical Ramalina than those of R. arabum. It does not seem justified to regard R. arabum as a primitive species for morphological reasons. Similarities in the structure of tubercles on the vegetative thallus, beginning ramifications, pseudocyphellae and the soralia of Ramalina thrausta are stressed and some more anatomical details given. The pycnidia of Ramalinopsis mannii are described obviously for the first time.
30465Riedl H. (1970): Vorstudien zu einer Revision der Gattung Arthopyrenia Mass. sensu amplo II.. - Sydowia, 23: 230–241.
The fruiting body of the fungi concerned consists of a dark outer layer formed either by blackened host tissue with a few mostly torulous hyphae from the vegetative mycelium, or by dark hyphae arising from the medulla of C o r n e r (1929) to form what is called a trichocutis by K. L o h w a g (1940), of the prosenchymous or pseudoparenchymous medullary layer or Medulla of Corner, sometimes also a hypothecium and of the paraphyses or paraphysoids together with the asci in the centre. What looks like a parenchymous central tissue is formed by paraphysoids with short and thick, often nearly globular cells, while in other cases the paraphysoids (or true paraphyses?) are filiform. The fruiting bodies of Lejophloea punctiformis (Pers.) S. Gray, L. saxicola (Mass.) H. R i e d l , comb, n., L. fallax (Nyl.) H. Riedl, comb. n., Arthopyrenia cerasi (Schrad.) Mass. and Acrocordia alba (Schrad.) Bouly de Lesd. are described as examples. Arthopyrenia has two well defined sections. The genus Acrocordia Mass, is newly defined with the help of anatomical characteristics. Mycoporum elachistoterum Nyl. is a typical Arthopyrenia without an ostiolum the covering layer of the wall breaking up at maturity. Its right name is Arthopyrenia elachistotera (Nyl.) H. R i e d l , comb. n. It is described including anatomical features and vegetative pecularities, and some older opinions referring to its taxonomical position are discussed.
30464Riedl H. (1977): Arthonia aquatica n. spec. und die Beziehung zwischen Arthoniaceae und Micareaceae (Lichenes). - Sydowia, 29: 139–145.
Arthonia aquatica H. RIEDL, sp. n., most closely related to A. tenellula NYL, is characterized by apothecia anatomically scarcely distinct from the vegetative thallus. Algae are rare in the vegetative part and do not form clusters, as is typical for Jficarea-species such as M. prasina, which are similar in several other respects, but they do not belong to Trentepohlia or any of the algae known as phycobiont of Allarthonia until now. The apothecia uniformly consist of irregular, slender hyphae without any trace of separate layers. These hyphae are in no way different from the paraphysoids, among which the few asci are irregularly scattered, but never reach the surface of the apothecium. A. aquatica growing in brooklets on wood is considered to be the extreme end of a series of reductive evolutionary steps starting from morphological types like Scoliciospora holomelaena still possessing tramal tissues, medulla in CORNERS (1929) sense, ascogenous hyphae and a typical hymenial layer, and from Micarea prasina-like forms having a medullary layer and short ascogenous hyphae, but no tramal tissues as an intermediate. Allarthonia, separated by some authors only because of its different algae, must not be considered as a genus of its own in my opinion.
30463Riedl H. (1960): Über eine neue Flechtengattung aus der Verwandtschaft von Arthopyrenia. - Sydowia, 14: 334–336.
Sporoschizon petrakianum gen. et spec. nov
30462Riedl H. (1978): Vorstudien zu einer Revision der Gattung Arthopyrenia Mass. sensu amplo III. - Zur Nomenklatur und Systematik von Arthopyrenia punctiformis auct.. - Sydowia, 29: 115–138.
Arthopyrenia analepta MASSAL., A. punctiformis (PERS.) MASSAL., A. salicis MASSAL. and some of their varieties are lectotypified and their lectotypes described in detail. The lectotypification of A. analepta revealed, that this name must not be abandoned as recently had been supposed by several authors. The main distinguishing character used is the presence or absence of paraphysoids at maturity of the spores. All the taxa united under the illegitimate name A. persoonii MASSAL. seen so far by the present author have two-celled spores contrary to MASSALONGO'S (1855) description except A. persoonii var. pancina MASSAL. f. acericola MASSAL. and f. tiliaecola MASSAL., which are based on heterogenous material and therefore illegitimate. A. analepta var. mespyli MASSAL. is closest to A. solids in the absence of paraphysoids, A. persoonii var. mali MASSAL. and var. punctiformis f. castaneae MASSAL. are regarded as identic and varieties of A. punctiformis. A. persoonii var. alni MASSAL. also seems to be closely related to A. punctiformis, but cannot be related to any of the species described here with certainty. A. epidermidis MASSAL. has to be abandoned as a nomen ccnfusum. The spores of A. padi RABENH. are unknown to the present author hitherto, but it seems to be a separate species judging from the thick paraphysoids. The taxonomic importance of several characters is discussed.
30461Riedl H. (1977): Was ist Lindauopsis A. Zahlbruckner?. - Sydowia, 28: 166–170.
Lindauopsis A. ZAHLBR. is not a parasite on lichens like Caloplaca callopisma as ZAHLBRUCKNER (1906) maintained, but structures of a hymenial layer degenerated through the competition with an overgrown thallus of a different lichen-species. Paraphyses tend to form sporelike ends, while asci are much narrowed and produce only 1 or 2 spores, becoming paraphysis-like in the parts not containing spores. There are also intermediates between asci and paraphyses. The type specimen of Lindauopsis itself revealed these facts upon closer examination.
30460Riedl H. (1962): Die Arten der Gattung Mycoporellum Müll. Arg. sensu A. Zahlbruckner. Catal., nebst Bemerkungen zum System dothidealer Flechten. - Sydowia, 15: 257–287.
30459Riedl H. (1977): Eine neue Polyblastia-Art aus der Gletscherregion der Hohen Tauern, Kärnten, Österreich. - Sydowia, 29: 245–251.
Polyblastia subglacialis sp. nov.
30458Gärtner G., Dablander A. & Kofler W. (2011): Zur Taxonomie von Solorina bispora Nyl. ssp. bispora (Ascolichenes) nach Sporenmerkmalen. - Berichte des naturwissenschaftlichen-medizinischen Verein Innsbruck, 97: 27–33.
Taxonomy of Solorina bispora Nyl. ssp. bispora (Ascolichenes) based on spore wall ornamentation. Morphology and structure of spores of S. bispora Nyl. were investigated with light- and scanning electrone microscope to elucidate the taxonomy of its infraspecific taxa. A key for determination of all European taxa of the genus Solorina is also proposed. Keywords: lichens, Solorina bispora ssp. bispora, spores, wall ornamentation, scanning electron microscopy, taxonomy, key.
30457Riedl H. (1962): Die Arten der Gattung Mycoporellum Müll. Arg. sensu Zahlbruckner, Catal., nebst Bemerkungen zum System dothidealer Flechten. II. - Sydowia, 16: 215–234.
Among else notes on Rhaphidicyrtis trichosporella (as Leptorhaphis trichosporella (Nyl.) H.Riedl comb. nov.).
30456Benedetter-Herramhof A. (2016): Flechten – Farbe, Gift & Medizin. - Kataloge des Oberösterreichischen Landesmuseums, N.S., 179: 1–84.
Catalogue to the exhibion of lichens undertaken between 3.11.2016 and 22.10.2017 in Biological centre of the Upper Austrian Museum (Biologiezentrum des Oberösterreichischen Landesmuseums) in Linz , curated by Franz Berger, Othmar Breuss, Roman Türk, Martin Pfosser and Alexandra Aberham.
30455Mielke U. (1971): Epixyle Flechten in der Stadt Magdeburg. - Hercynia, 8(2): 172–177.
30454Hanedar A., Güneş E., Kaykioğlu G., Çelik S.Ö. & Cabi E. (2019): Presence and distributions of POPS in soil, atmospheric deposition, and bioindicator samples in an industrial-agricultural area in Turkey. - Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 191:42 [15 p.].
In this study, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were detected in the soil, lichen pine needle, and total deposition samples in the Meriç-Ergene Basin, which is one of the most important regions in terms of industrial and agricultural activities in Turkey. POP concentrations were measured in 192 samples selected to represent four seasons over a 1-year period across four different regions: an intensive industrial area, an industrial + residential area, an agricultural area, and a background area. Total PAH concentrations are found in the range of 69.6–887.6 ng/g, 74.6–1277.7 ng/g, 113.4–588.9 ng/g, and 0.00–937.8 ng/m2-day; total PCB concentrations are 9.98–62.9 ng/g, 6.8–68.1 ng/g, 11.3–32.7 ng/g, and 0.00–144.4 ng/m2-day; total OCPs concentrations are 5.9–83.2 ng/g, 7.3–85.6 ng/g, 9.9–97.1 ng/g, and 0.00–137.6 ng/m2-day respectively for soil, lichen, pine needles, and bulk samples. The data were evaluated according to pollutant groups and spatial and temporal changes. The highest PAH and PCB values were detected in lichen samples from industrial areas. The highest OCP values were detected for total deposition and soil samples and in the agricultural area. The results showed that two- to three-ring PAHs, hepta-PCBs, and cyclodienes were the most widespread pollutant groups. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate the accumulation and indication properties of the matrices in the study for 0.05 significance level. The pollutant group in which matrices are most similar is PAHs. Total deposition samples showed the most different pattern in terms of indications, especially for PCBs. For OCP results, the concentration values obtained in soil samples were different from all other matrices. It was determined that the indication properties of the matrices identified as pollutant indicators differ markedly from the pollutant type, and this difference is at the lowest level for PAH pollutants. Keywords: POPs; PAHs; PCB; OCP; Meriç-Ergene; Basin; Bioindicator.
30453Ravera S., Cogoni A., Vizzini A., Bonini I., Cheli F., Fačkovcová Z., Gheza G., Guttová A., Mair P., Mayrhofer H., Miserere L., Pandeli G., Paoli L., Prosser F., Puntillo D., Puntillo M., Selvaggi A., Spitale D. & Tratter W. (2018): Notulae to the Italian flora of algae, bryophytes, fungi and lichens: 6 . - Italian Botanist, 6: 97–109.
In this contribution, new data concerning bryophytes, fungi, and lichens of the Italian flora are presented. It includes new records and confirmations for the bryophyte genera Barbula, Fissidens, Gymnostomum, Jungermannia, Riccia, and Scapania, the fungal genera Hyalopsora and Urocystis and the lichen genera Arthothelium, Chaenotheca, Lepraria, Lobaria, Miriquidica, Parmelia, Rinodina, Solenopsora, Thelopsis and Xanthoparmelia. Keywords: Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Bryidae, Jungermanniidae, Marchantiidae, floristic data.
30452Zvěřina O., Coufalík P., Barták M., Petrov M. & Komárek J. (2018): The contents and distributions of cadmium, mercury, and lead in Usnea antarctica lichens from Solorina Valley, James Ross Island (Antarctica). - Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 190:13 [9 p.].
Lichens are efficient and cost-effective biomonitors of the environment. Their geographic distribution together with their slow growth rate enable investigation of the deposition patterns of various elements and substances. In this research, levels of cadmium, lead, and mercury in Usnea antarctica lichens in the area of James Ross Island, Antarctica, were investigated. The lichens were microwave-digested, and the metals were determined by means of atomic absorption spectrometry with graphite furnace and a direct mercury analyzer. Median total contents of Cd, Hg, and Pb were 0.04, 0.47, and 1.6 mg/kg in whole lichens, respectively. The bottom-up distributions of these metals in the fruticose lichen thalli were investigated, and it was revealed that the accumulation patterns for mercury and lead were opposite to that for cadmium. The probable reason for this phenomenon may lie in the inner structure of thalli. The total contents of metalswere comparable with those published for other unpolluted areas of maritime Antarctica. However, this finding was not expected for mercury, since the sampling locality was close to an area with some of the highest mercury contents published for Antarctic lichens. In short, lichens proved their usability as biological monitors, even in harsh conditions. However, the findings emphasize the need to take into account the distributions of elements both in the environment and in the lichen itself. Keywords: Lichen . Biomonitoring . Antarctica . Heavy metals.
30451Pardo-De la Hoz C.J., Magain N., Lutzoni F., Goward T., Restrepo S. & Miadlikowska J. (2018): Contrasting symbiotic patterns in two closely related lineages of trimembered lichens of the genus Peltigera. - Frontiers in Microbiology, 9:2770 [14 p.].
Species circumscription is key to the characterization of patterns of specificity in symbiotic systems at a macroevolutionary scale. Here, a worldwide phylogenetic framework was used to assess the biodiversity and symbiotic patterns of association among partners in trimembered lichens from the genus Peltigera, section Chloropeltigera. We sequenced six loci of the main fungal partner and performed species discovery and validation analyses to establish putative species boundaries. Single locus phylogenies were used to establish the identity of both photobionts, Nostoc (cyanobacterium) and Coccomyxa (green alga). Distribution and specificity patterns were compared to the closely related clade, section Peltidea, which includes mainly Peltigera species with trimembered thalli. For section Chloropeltigera, eight fungal species (including five newly delimited putative species) were found in association with nine Nostoc phylogroups and two Coccomyxa species. In contrast, eight fungal species (including three newly delimited putative species) in section Peltidea were found in association with only four Nostoc phylogroups and the same two Coccomyxa species as for section Chloropeltigera. This difference in cyanobiont biodiversity between these two sections can potentially be explained by a significantly higher frequency of sexual reproductive structures in species from section Chloropeltigera compared to section Peltidea. Therefore, horizontal transmission of the cyanobiont might be more prevalent in Chloropeltigera species, while vertical transmission might be more common in Peltidea species. All Peltigera species in section Chloropeltigera are generalists in their association with Nostoc compared to more specialized Peltigera species in section Peltidea. Constrained distributions of Peltigera species that associate strictly with one species of green algae (Coccomyxa subellipsoidea) indicate that the availability of the green alga and the specificity of the interaction might be important factors limiting geographic ranges of trimembered Peltigera, in addition to constraints imposed by their interaction with Nostoc partners and by climatic factors. Keywords: Coccomyxa, Nostoc, sexual vs. asexual reproduction, species delimitation, symbiosis.
30450Lutzoni F., Nowak M.D., Alfaro M.E., Reeb V., Miadlikowska J., Krug M., Arnold A.E., Lewis L.A., Swofford D., Hibbett D., Hilu K., James T.Y., Quandt D. & Magallón S. (2018): Contemporaneous radiations of fungi and plants linked to symbiosis. - Nature Communications, 9:5451 [11 p.].
Interactions between fungi and plants, including parasitism, mutualism, and saprotrophy, have been invoked as key to their respective macroevolutionary success. Here we evaluate the origins of plant-fungal symbioses and saprotrophy using a time-calibrated phylogenetic framework that reveals linked and drastic shifts in diversification rates of each kingdom. Fungal colonization of land was associated with at least two origins of terrestrial green algae and preceded embryophytes (as evidenced by losses of fungal flagellum, ca. 720 Ma), likely facilitating terrestriality through endomycorrhizal and possibly endophytic symbioses. The largest radiation of fungi (Leotiomyceta), the origin of arbuscular mycorrhizae, and the diversification of extant embryophytes occurred ca. 480 Ma. This was followed by the origin of extant lichens. Saprotrophic mushrooms diversified in the Late Paleozoic as forests of seed plants started to dominate the landscape. The subsequent diversification and explosive radiation of Agaricomycetes, and eventually of ectomycorrhizal mushrooms, were associated with the evolution of Pinaceae in the Mesozoic, and establishment of angiosperm-dominated biomes in the Cretaceous.
30449Santos F.T.J., Siqueira W.N., Santos M.L.O., Silva H.A.M.F., Sá J.L.F., Fernandes T.S., Silva N.H., França E.J., Silva E.B. & Melo A.M.M.A. (2018): Radiosensitizer effect of usnic acid on Biomphalaria glabrata embryos. - International Journal of Radiation Biology, 94(9): 838–843.
Purpose: Some phytochemicals have shown the potential of being radiomodifiers, especially phenolic compounds, such as lichenic secondary metabolites. To evaluate the phytochemical usnic acid as a radiomodifier, embryonic cells of molluscs have been used due to their ease of collection, high sensitivity to physical and chemical agents, well-known embryology and low cost for analysis. Materials and methods: This study aimed to assess the radiosensitizing action of usnic acid on Biomphalaria glabrata embryos. Samples were irradiated with 4Gy of gamma rays from a 60Co source (dose rate 2.906Gy/h). An acute toxicity test was performed using B. glabrata embryos in the blastula stage, in order to determine the toxicity of usnic acid and to establish the lethal Concentration for 50% (LC50). Subsequently, the radiomodifing capacity of usnic acid was estimated using assays with B. glabrata embryos. Results: Irradiation increased the number of non-viable embryos compared to unirradiated controls. Additionally, it was observed that embryos exposed to a non-toxic concentration of usnic acid (0.6 mg/ mL) before irradiation showed a further enhancement in non-viable embryos when compared with exposure to ionizing radiation alone. Conclusion: The results presented here indicate that usnic acid makes cells more sensitive to the damaging effects of radiation. Keywords: Biomphalaria glabrata, radiation, radiosensitization, usnic acid.
30448Pozo-Antonio J.S. & Sanmartín P. (2018): Exposure to artificial daylight or UV irradiation (A, B or C) prior to chemical cleaning: an effective combination for removing phototrophs from granite. - Biofouling, 34(8): 851–869.
This study evaluated whether exposing samples of granite colonized by a natural biofilm to artificial daylight or UV-A/B/C irradiation for 48 h enhanced removal of the biofilm with a chemical product previously approved for conservation of monuments by the European Biocide Directive. Rodas granite, which is commonly found in stone-built heritage monuments in Galicia (NW Spain), was naturally colonized by a sub-aerial biofilm. The efficacy of the cleaning method was evaluated relative to uncolonized surfaces and colonized control samples without previous irradiation, treated by dry-brushing or with benzalkonium chloride. The effect of UV irradiation in the combined treatment was evident, as comparable cleaning levels were not reached in the controls. Although the biofilm was not totally removed by any of the treatments, UV-B irradiation followed by benzalkonium chloride was potentially useful for cleaning stone, with results comparable to those achieved by UV-C irradiation, which is known to have germicidal effects.
30447Mallavadhani U.V., Boddu R., Rathod B.B. & Setty P.R. (2018): Stereoselective synthesis of the lichen metabolite, (+) montagnetol and its congeners as antimicrobial agents. - Synthetic Communications, 48(23): 2992–2999.
In view of structural diversity, (+) montagnetol, the major metabolite of the fruticose lichen, Roccella montagnei was synthesized along with three of its congeners by employing highly efficient protocols. (+) Montagnetol (2 R, 3S; 11) and (-) montagnetol (2S, 3R; 5) were synthesized in 7 and 9 steps, respectively, from L-ascorbic acid. The two new congeners 3 (2 R, 3R) and 6 (2S, 3S), which differ in configuration at C-2 and C-3 positions of the (+) montagnetol, were synthesized from (−) diethyl D-tartrate and (+) diethyl L-tartrate, respectively. The synthesized compounds were evaluated in vitro for antimicrobial activity against two Gram-positive (S. aureus and E. coli) and two Gram-negative (S. typhi and P. aeruginosa) bacteria and one fungal strain Candida albicans. Interestingly, the congener 3 showed promising anti-bacterial activity (MIC: 0.062 µg/ml) against P. aeruginosa, whereas the congener 6 displayed potent anti-fungal activity (MIC: 0.062 µg/ml) against C. albicans. Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, diethyl tartrate, L-ascorbic acid, montagnetol, Roccella montagnei.
30446Weber B., Tamm A., Maier S. & Rodríguez-Caballero E. (2018): Biological soil crusts of the Succulent Karoo: a review. - African Journal of Range & Forage Science, 35: 335–350.
The Succulent Karoo is characterised by a dense coverage of biological soil crusts (biocrusts) belonging to different types and successional stages. Whereas the Soebatsfontein region hosts cyanobacteria-dominated and minor amounts of lichen- and bryophyte-dominated biocrusts, the Knersvlakte comprises a rich cover of hypolithic crusts growing on the sides and undersides of quartz pebbles. Apart from dominating photosynthesizers used to classify biocrusts, each crust type hosts a rich and specific fungal and bacterial community and also diverse protists. In a remote-sensing mapping approach, soil-inhabiting biocrusts of the Soebatsfontein region covered ~27% of the surface area, whereas in the Knersvlakte soil-inhabiting biocrusts covered ~16% and hypolithic biocrusts ~42% of the region. Combining these data with biomass contents, results suggested that the Knersvlakte, despite somewhat harsher environmental conditions, harboured about 65% more biocrust biomass per surface area. In physiological measurements we observed that biocrusts emit the reactive nitrogen compounds nitric oxide and nitrous acid, showing water pulse-dependent emission patterns. In addition, CO2 gas fixation showed characteristic type-specific patterns depending on climatic conditions. Long-term microclimate measurements along a gradient revealed that forecasted climate and land-use change may be detrimental for biocrusts with potentially adverse effects on soil stability and overall fertility of the Succulent Karoo. Keywords: biodiversity, climate change, CO2 gas exchange, reactive nitrogen compounds, remote sensing.
30445Frisch A., Thor G., Moon K.H. & Ohmura Y. (2018): Galbinothrix, a new monotypic genus of Chrysotrichaceae (Arthoniomycetes) lacking pulvinic acid derivatives. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 63(2): 31–37.
Galbinothrix caesiopruinosa is described from Japan and Korea. The new genus and species is placed in Chrysotrichaceae by its ascoma morphology and by a phylogenetic analysis of mtSSU and nLSU sequence data using Bayesian and maximum likelihood inference. The monotypic genus Galbinothrix is superficially similar to Chrysothrix caesia in having dark brown ascomata covered by a thin bluish grey pruina, reddish brown ascomatal pigment in the epithecium and proper exciple, the greyish green to yellowish olive thallus, and usnic acid as the main secondary thallus compound. It differs from this species and all other Chrysotrichaceae by its large, oblong, thick-walled ascospores with a distinct epispore, the narrowly clavate to almost tubular asci, and the never clearly granular to leprose thallus. Key words: Arthoniales, Ascomycota, East Asia, taxonomy, lichenized fungi.
30444Miadlikowska J., Magain N., Pardo-De la Hoz C.J., Niu D., Goward T., Sérusiaux E. & Lutzoni F. (2018): Species in section Peltidea (aphthosa group) of the genus Peltigera remain cryptic after molecular phylogenetic revision. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 63(2): 45–64.
Closely related lichen-forming fungal species circumscribed using phenotypic traits (morphospecies) do not always align well with phylogenetic inferences based on molecular data. Using multilocus data obtained from a worldwide sampling, we inferred phylogenetic relationships among five currently accepted morphospecies of Peltigera section Peltidea (P. aphthosa group). Monophyletic circumscription of all currently recognized morphospecies (P. britannica, P. chionophila, P. frippii and P. malacea) except P. aphthosa, which contained P. britannica, was confirmed with high bootstrap support. Following their re-delimitation using bGMYC and Structurama, BPP validated 14 putative species including nine previously unrecognized potential species (five within P. malacea, five within P. aphthosa, and two within P. britannica). Because none of the undescribed potential species are corroborated morphologically, chemically, geographically or ecologically, we concluded that these monophyletic entities represent intraspecific phylogenetic structure, and, therefore, should not be recognized as new species. Cyanobionts associated with Peltidea mycobionts (51 individuals) represented 22 unique rbcLX haplotypes from five phylogroups in Clade II subclades 2 and 3. With rare exceptions, Nostoc taxa involved in trimembered and bimembered associations are phylogenetically closely related (subclade 2) or identical, suggesting a mostly shared cyanobiont pool with infrequent switches. Based on a broad geographical sampling, we confirm a high specificity of Nostoc subclade 2 with their mycobionts, including a mutualistically exclusive association between phylogroup III and specific lineages of P. malacea. Key words: cyanolichen, molecular systematics, morphospecies, Nostoc, phylogeny, species delimitation, specificity, symbiosis.
30443Adamska E. & Juśkiewicz W. (2018): Visualisation of the influence of habitat on lichen occurrence, Toruń, Poland. - Journal of Maps, 14(1): 9–16.
The main aim of the paper was a visual comparison of lichen distribution with urban environmental factors. This paper presents a cartographic method for representing the spatial distribution of anthropogenic and natural factors in atmospheric air pollution and prevalent elements of the natural environment and their correlation to occurrences of two selected lichen species – the acidophilous Hypogymnia physodes and the nitrophilous Xanthoria parietina in the area of Toruń (Central Poland). Lichens are a good indicator of changes in habitat conditions. Analyses of the occurrence of lichens in Toruń were conducted for data covering a period of more than 60 years. A choropleth map method (a square tile grid map) was used, based on a grid of 144 one-kilometre squares (ATPOL). An inventory of taxa was made in 137 squares (localities). This recorded the type of substrate and abundance (extent) of occurrence. Keywords: Choropleth map – square tile grid map, anthropopressure, lichens, urban ecology, the city of Toruń, Poland.
30442Aptroot A., Sparrius L.B. & Alvarado P. (2018): Aquacidia, a new genus to accommodate a group of skiophilous temperate Bacidia species that belong in the Pilocarpaceae (lichenized ascomycetes). - Gorteria, 40: 11–14.
The new genus Aquacidia is proposed to accommodate three temperate Bacidia species that belong in the Pilocarpaceae and are not related to the type species B. rosella, which is in the Ramalinaceae. The phylogenetic position was clarified by an analysis of the mtSSU region showing a distinct lineage within the Pilocarpaceae. The following new combinations are proposed: Aquacidia antricola (Hulting) Aptroot (syn. Bacidia antricola, B. carneoglauca), A. trachona (Ach.) Aptroot, and A. viridifarinosa (Coppins & P. James) Aptroot. A key to Aquacidia species is provided. Key words: Lecanorales; Ramalinaceae; riparian; saxicolous lichens.
30441Zraik M., Booth T. & Piercey-Normore M.D. (2018): Relationship between lichen species composition, secondary metabolites and soil pH, organic matter, and grain characteristics in Manitoba. - Botany, 96: 267–279.
Many lichen secondary metabolites have functions related to the environmental conditions of lichen habitats but few studies have compared soil characteristics with lichen species composition or their secondary products. The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between soil characteristics with lichen species composition and secondary metabolites. Five locations were chosen in Manitoba, each with five sites (transects), and each transect with five quadrats (1 m × 1 m). All species were collected from each of the quadrats, presence of secondary metabolites was determined by thin layer chromatography, and soil characteristics were examined. The results revealed that rounded sand grains were significantly higher in southeastern Manitoba than in other locations, corresponding to a distinct species composition. Angular grains were significantly higher in northern locations, corresponding to a different group of species. Some of the significant relationships between soil characteristics and secondary metabolites include correlations of atranorin with pH, organic matter, and sand content; fumarprotocetraric acid with organic matter and sand content; and usnic acid with pH and organic matter. A better understanding of the role of lichens with respect to soil characteristics will be important for improving soil stabilization in land reclamation. Key words: Cladonia, lichen species, organic matter, sand particles, secondary metabolites.
30440Power T.D., Cameron R.P., Neily T. & Toms B. (2018): Forest structure and site conditions of boreal felt lichen (Erioderma pedicellatum) habitat in Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, Canada. - Botany, 96: 449–459.
Boreal felt lichen [Erioderma pedicellatum (Hue) P.M. Jorg. (1972)] occurs on mainland Nova Scotia as well as Cape Breton, growing almost entirely on balsam fir [Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.] in wet coastal forests. A Geographical Information System (GIS) based predictive model for E. pedicellatum habitat in Nova Scotia has facilitated surveys and guided conservation. We used this model to examine the relationship between presence of E. pedicellatum and forest structure (tree DBH, height, age, and crown closure, inter-tree distance, basal area of live and dead trees, and percent cover of shrubs, herbs, Sphagnum spp., and other mosses), and site conditions (topographic position, slope, aspect, and drainage) as well as the presence of lichen indicator species. Erioderma pedicellatum sites had significantly older trees, higher density of live trees, lower crown closure, lower basal area of live Picea mariana (Mill.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb., lower basal area of live trees, higher basal area of dead trees, higher Sphagnum spp. cover, and lower shrub cover than unoccupied habitat. Erioderma pedicellatum sites were significantly less well drained and occurred on steeper slopes with a north or east aspect. Four macrolichens (Coccocarpia palmicola, Platismatia norvegica, Lobaria scrobiculata, and Sphaerophorus globosus) occurred at a significantly higher frequency at E. pedicellatum sites. Key words: Erioderma pedicellatum, boreal felt lichen, habitat, forest structure, predictive model.
30439McMullin R.T., Maloles J.R., Selva S.B. & Newmaster S.G. (2018): A synopsis of Chaenotheca in North America, including a new species from southern Ontario, C. selvae, supported by morphometric analyses. - Botany, 96: 547–553.
We describe and illustrate a new species of calicioid lichen from southern Ontario, Chaenotheca selvae. We place it in Chaenotheca because of its lichenized thallus with a Stichococcus photobiont, a brown mazaedium, and ascospores that are brown, spherical, and single-celled (3.0–3.6 m in diam.). It differs from other species of Chaenotheca by its photobiont, non-ornamented ascospores, straight stalks, and producing orange-brown pruina on the mazaedium, excipulum, and upper portion of the stalk when mature. Using a detrended correspondence analysis we identified 25 taxa, including the sp. nov., analyzing 22 morphological characters. Our results provide evidence of chemical and morphometric variation among species of Chaenotheca. We also provide a key for the identification of the 25 Chaenotheca species in North America. Key words: calicioid, Caliciales, Coniocybaceae, Great Lakes region, old-growth forest.
30438Husová M. & Andresová J. (1992): Das Cladonio rangiferinae-Pinetum sylvestris des Landschaftsschutzgebietes Křivoklátsko (Mittelböhmen) und seine Stellung im phytozönologischen System. - Folia Geobotanica et Phytotaxonomica, 27: 357–386.
phytocenology; lichens from relevés identified by J.Liška
30437Orekhova A., Marečková M., Hazdrová J. & Barták M. (2018): The effect of upper cortex absence on spectral reflectance indices in Antarctic lichens during thallus dehydration. - Czech Polar Reports, 8(1): 107–118.
In maritime Antarctica, lichens and mosses represent dominant autotrophs forming community structure of vegetation oases. In our study, we selected 4 most common lichen species (Xanthoria elegans, Rhizoplaca melanophthalma, Leptogium puberulum, Physconia muscigena) and monospecific colony of Nostoc commune typical for James Ross Island (Antarctica) for detailed physiological experiments. We investigated their spectral characteristics in response to hydration status of their thalli. In samples desiccating from fully wet (RWC, relative water content of 100%) to dry state (RWC = 0), photochemical reflectance index (PRI), and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) were evaluated for control thalli and those with removed upper cortex. In this way, the effect of presence/absence of the upper cortex on PRI, NDVI was studied. PRI showed either no change or species-specific an increase/decrease with dehydration. Removal of the upper cortex caused both PRI decrease (N. commune, P. muscigena) and increase (R. melanophthalma, L. puberulum). Removal of the upper cortex led to increase in NDVI in all species, typically within the RWC range of 20-100%. Species-specific differences of hydration-response curves of PRI and NDVI are discussed as well as the role of the absence of the upper cortex in the evaluation of spectral characteristics in desiccating lichens. Key words: PRI, NDVI, cyanolichens, chlorolichens, Nostoc commune.
30436Sonina A.V., Rumjantseva A.D., Tsunskaya A.A. & Androsova V.I. (2017): Adaptations of epilithic lichens to the microclimate conditions of the White Sea coast. - Czech Polar Reports, 7(2): 133–143.
Anatomical and functional features of the following three epilithic lichens Umbilicaria torrefacta, Physcia caesia, Physcia dubia were studied. These species have different morphological characteristics of thalli and occupy similar environmental conditions on supralittoral of the White Sea coast. The studied lichens are widespread in the territory of Karelia. U. torrefacta is an obligate epilithic species, Physcia caesia and Physcia dubia colonize both bark of trees and stones. Within the study area, these species were found only on coastal boulders. Photobiont of all studied lichens is unicellular green alga of the genus Trebouxia (Purvis et al. 1992). Based on the study, it was found that Ph. caesia adapts to the environmental conditions through the variability of photosynthetic pigments level which is confirmed by a strong variation of the chlorophylls a/b ratio and chlorophylls/carotenoids ratio (coefficient of variation, CV > 42%) with the stability of anatomical structures (CV ≤ 11%) – functional adaptation. Lichen Ph. dubia adapts through the variability of anatomical layers (upper cortex, algal layer, medullae, lower cortex, thallus thickness) (CV > 22%), and amounts of photosynthetic pigments (CV > 19%) – structural and functional adaptation. For U. torrefacta, the structural adaptation to environmental conditions (CV thickness of anatomical layers > 28%, CV amounts of photosynthetic pigments – 7, 8%) was recorded. Key words: coastal zone, Umbilicaria torrefacta, Physcia caesia, Physcia dubia, physiology, anatomy, adaptations.
30435Xiao J., Vogl J., Rosner M., Deng L. & Jin Z. (2019): A validated analytical procedure for boron isotope analysis in plants by MC-ICP-MS. - Talanta, 196: 389–394.
Boron (B) is an essential micronutrient for plant growth. Lack of valid methods for pretreatment and measurement of δ11B in plant restrict applications of it in the biosphere. Dry ashing, one step cation exchange and micro-sublimation were combined to separate and purify boron (B) in plant tissues. The low procedure blank, high B recovery and the accurate δ11B values of the plant reference materials demonstrate that this method is suitable and valid for B pretreatment and δ11B measurement in plant samples by MC-ICP-MS. Based on this method, the δ11B in different plants (Brassica napus, Chenopodium album L, moss, lichen, and Nostoc commune) was analyzed. For Brassica napus, δ11B increased gradually from root to leaf, and then decreased to rapeseed. For the same parts, the δ11B increased from the lower parts to the higher parts. This variation may be due to the B(OH)3 transporter of NIP6;1 and the incorporation of B into the cell. The reason for lower δ11B values in shell and rapeseed compared to those in leaves presumably is to the preferred transport of borate in the phloem. The largest δ11B fractionation between leaf and root in Brassica napus and Chenopodium album L was +24.2‰ and +26.6‰, respectively. The large variation and fractionation of δ11B within plants indicates that δ11B is a good tracer to study the B translocation mechanisms and metabolism within plants. The δ11B in Nostoc commune, lichen, and moss showed variations of -4.1‰ to +21.5‰, −9.4‰ to +7.3‰, and −18.3‰ to +11. 9‰, respectively. In the same site, δ11B in different plants ranked Nostoc commune>moss>lichen and δ11B in mosses growing in different environment ranked soil>tree>rock. Rain and soil available B are the main B sources for these plants. The δ11B in Nostoc commune, lichen, and moss may be a useful tracer to study the atmospheric B input. In the future, plants culture experiments under certain environments and studies from molecular level are necessary to decipher the variation of δ11B and fractionation mechanisms within plants. Keywords: Boron isotope; Isotopic fractionation; Micro-sublimation; Plant tissue; MC-ICP-MS.
30434Ardelean I.V., Crișan F., Gaft D. & Roman A. (2019): High lichen species richness but low taxonomic diversity built up on abandoned tailings heaps in a cultural landscape. - Flora, 251: 68–76.
We aimed to detect species distribution patterns at landscape level that have arisen following the colonisation of a mine spoil heap (MSH) by macrolichens. All taxa occurring on various substrates and the degree of occupancy by different vegetation patch types were recorded at a resolution of 50m×50m within a regular square grid of 25 ha, which extended over a 60-year-old abandoned MSH and its adjacent agro-pastoral area. The fraction of MSH was the most important predictor of the lichen composition and richness at grid cell level, followed by the terrain slope and the proportion of heathland. Almost all lichen taxa positively correlated with the MSH fraction were terricolous, fruticose, oligotrophilous, acidophilous species that occurred preferentially on the steep, barren slopes. The few corticolous, nitrophilous species were negatively correlated with the MSH fraction. Except for the corticolous and saprophytic species, the proportion of MSH and the elevation range had each a positive effect on both total and terricolous lichen richness. Conversely, taxonomic distinctness displayed an opposite pattern. Such a contrast was determined by the numerous conspecific (Cladonia) lichens occurring on the steeper MSH slopes, with scarce vegetation. A conspicuous nestedness, but no pattern of species turnover, was detected along the main ecological gradient. This was due to both the corticolous/saprophytic species shared with the adjacent, tailings-free habitats and the terricolous/saxicolous lichens dispersed from proximal source-habitats. The MSH studied can be considered a hotspot for lichen species richness but not for taxonomic diversity. Keywords: Functional groups; Nestedness pattern; Species accumulation curve; Species turnover; Terrain slope; Vegetation patch cover.
30433Hou L., Jin Y., Sun W., Guan S., Gu H., Wang Q., Zhang L. & Du Y. (2019): Metabolites identification of (+)-usnic acid in vivo by ultra-highperformance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. - Fitoterapia, 133: 85–95.
(+)-usnic acid (UA) is an active natural phenolic acid ingredient originating from Chinese traditional Tibetan herb. Usnea acid is expected to become a new agent for anticancer and remarkable antitumor. To reveal its metabolic profile, metabolites identification of UA in vivo was studied using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) in this present study. The chromatographic separation was performed on a C18 column with a mobile phase consisted of methanol and water with a flow rate of 0.4 ml/min. The mass spectral analysis conducted in a negative electrospray ionization mode combined with information-dependent acquirement technology (IDA) was used to trace all the potential UA metabolites. Several sensitive and specific multiple data-mining techniques especially key product ions (KPIs) filter were applied to hunt and identify metabolites rapidly. As a result, a total of 36 metabolites were detected after oral administration of UA, including 33, 8 and 16 in rat urine, plasma and bile, respectively. These results showed that the probable metabolite pathways of UA were oxidation, reduction, dihydroxylation, glycine conjugation, glucuronide conjugation, N-acetylcysteine conjugation and methylation. It is the first time to elucidate the profile of UA in vivo. These results not only provided the basis of UA pharmacological properties, but also gave the guidance in clinical medication. Moreover, the analysis strategy and methodology proposed in this paper could be widely used in characterization of other phenolic acids metabolites. Keywords: (+)-usnic acid; UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS; In vivo; Metabolites; Identification.
30432Wirth V., Tønsberg T., Reif A. & Stevenson D. (2018): Loxospora cristinae found in Germany. - Herzogia, 31: 995–999.
Loxospora cristinae, a sterile crustose lichen recently described from Poland, was discovered also in Germany. The ecological conditions at the locality in southern Black Forest are characterized. Key words: Epiphytes, oldgrowth forests, sterile crustose lichens.
30431Yakovchenko L., Davydov E.A., Paukov A., Frisch A., Galanina I., Han J.E., Moon K.H. & Kashiwadani H. (2018): New lichen records from Korea – I. Mostly arctic-alpine and tropical species. - Herzogia, 31: 965–981.
Fifteen lichen species are reported as new to Korea. These are mainly azonal arctic-alpine or tropical taxa as well as boreal species of microlichens. Rinodina badiexcipula, hitherto only known from North America, is first reported for Eurasia. Rhizocarpon timdalii is new to Asia. Boreoplaca ultrafrigida, Cryptothecia subnidulans, Enterographa hutchinsiae, Immersaria athroocarpa, Lecidea fuscoatra, Ochrolechia mahluensis, Rhabdodiscus inalbescens, Rhizocarpon eupetraeoides, R. saanaёnse, Rimularia limborina, Rinodina tephraspis, Sarcogyne endopetrophila, and Septotrapelia usnica as well as the four genera Boreoplaca, Cryptothecia, Immersaria, and Rhabdodiscus are new to Korea. New localities are given for 22 species. A sorediate morph of the pantropical Enterographa leucolyta was occasionally observed together with the more common esorediate specimens. Key words: Biogeography, East Asia, lichenized Ascomycota, new records.
30430Maphangwa K.W., Sipman H.J.M., Tekere M. & Zedda L. (2018): Epiphytic lichen diversity on Jacaranda and Acacia trees in Pretoria (Tshwane, Republic of South Africa). - Herzogia, 31: 949–964.
The epiphytic lichen diversity in and around the city of Pretoria (Tshwane, South Africa) has been investigated in 11 sites representing different land use types. Lichens were collected from three tree species: Jacaranda mimosifolia, Acacia karoo and A. caffra. Twenty-four taxa were recorded and are listed with notes on their ecology and distribution. Small foliose lichens of the family Physciaceae appear to be predominant, while crustose lichens are rare and fruticose lichens absent. The highest lichen diversity is found in protected areas, and comprises predominantly subtropical to tropical species. By contrast, at strongly disturbed and contaminated sites only few species are found, mostly Heterodermia speciosa and the cosmopolitan Candelaria concolor and Hyperphyscia adglutinata. No substantial differences in lichen richness could be detected among the three phorophytes. However, Jacaranda, being more common in disturbed areas, hosted more frequently species typical for disturbed conditions. Key words: Biodiversity, lichenized fungi, distribution, savannah biome, man-made disturbance.
30429Hafellner J. & van den Boom P.P.G. (2018): Combined lichenological results of two one-day trips to Liechtenstein. - Herzogia, 31: 931–948.
The lichen flora of Liechtenstein was investigated at five localities along a rough altitudinal transect by the senior author and at two lowland localities by the co-author. Altogether 114 lichenized taxa and 22 species of lichenicolous fungi have been identified, of which 75 species of lichens, 17 lichenicolous fungi and two non-lichenized ascomycetes represent new records for Liechtenstein. The study constitutes apparently the first major contribution to the knowledge about diversity of lichenized and lichenicolous fungi in this country and fills at least partly an existing gap in the information concerning the distribution of lichens in the Alps. Key words: Alps, biodiversity, lichenized fungi, lichenicolous fungi.
30428Brackel W. v., Cezanne R., Eichler M., Feuerer T., Gnüchtel A., Hohmann M.-L., Otte V., Schultz M. & Türk R. (2018): Lichenologische Ergebnisse der Jahresexkursion 2014 der BLAM in Ettal, ergänzt um weitere Flechtendaten aus der Umgebung von Garmisch-Partenkirchen. - Herzogia, 31: 893–930.
The lichenological results of the excursion of the Bryologisch-lichenologische Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Mitteleuropa in August 2014 with additions from pre- and post-excursions are presented. Five species are new to Germany: Buellia arborea and the lichenicolous fungi Buelliella minimula, Cladophialophora cladoniae, Dactylospora suburceolata and Merismatium decolorans. Cladonia acuminata is a rediscovery for Germany. Four species are new to Bavaria: Chaenotheca subroscida, Lecanora antiqua, Placynthium hungaricum, Unguiculariopsis lettaui; a rediscovery in Bavaria is Parabagliettoa disjuncta. New finds for the Bavarian Alps are Absconditella lignicola, Botryolepraria lesdainii, Chaenotheca chlorella, Enchylium limosum, Lepraria jackii, Metamelanea umbonata, Parmelia serrana, Psorotichia lutophila, Ramalina baltica and Verrucaria bryoctona. Thelidium zwackhii and Thelocarpon impressellum were rediscovered in the Bavarian Alps. Numerous species are listed for the first time for the Mittelstock of the Bavarian Alps (Ammergebirge, Wettersteingebirge and Estergebirge). Key words: Lichens, lichenicolous fungi, biodiversity, Germany, Bavaria.
30427Amrani S., Seaward M.R.D., Sipman H.J.M. & Feuerer T. (2018): Lichenological exploration of Algeria II: checklist of lichenized, lichenicolous and allied fungi. - Herzogia, 31: 817–892.
Despite more than two centuries of almost uninterrupted studies of the Algerian lichen flora, its diversity, ecology and biogeography remain much under-explored. Following the publication of our historical overview of lichenological exploration of Algeria (1798 –2013) and an annotated bibliography of 171 titles in 2015, it was thought necessary to provide a basis for future studies in the form of a checklist of Algerian lichens and lichenicolous fungi. In all, 1051 lichen taxa and 43 species of lichenicolous and allied fungi are listed, and their synonyms used in publications on Algerian lichens are provided. An attempt has also been made to provide basic biogeographical data. Keywords: lichens, biodiversity, North Africa, Mediterranean, history of Algerian lichenology.
30426Hertel H. (2018): Prof. Dr. Franz Oberwinkler (1939–2018) und Seine Studien an Basidiolichenen. - Herzogia, 31: 767–782.
Obituary; biography
30425Beschel R. (1957): Lichenometrie im Gletschervorfeld. - Jahrbuch des Vereins zum Schutze der Alpenpflanzen und -Tiere, 22: 164–185.
30424Paul J. (1908): Beiträge zur Pilzflora von Mähren. - Verhandlungen des naturforschenden Vereines in Brünn, 47: 119–148.
30423Reichardt H.W. (1866): Lichenologische Notiz. - Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien, 16: 494–495.
Austria, Czech Republic
30422Wilmanns O. (1988): Können Trockenrasen derzeit trotz Immissionen überleben? - Eine kritische Analyse des Xerobrometum im Kaiserstuhl. - Carolinea, 46: 5–16.
May dry grassland communities survive in spite of immissions? - A critical analysis of the Xerobrometum in the Kaiserstuhl/SW-Germany. The object of this study was to ascertain whether changes due to immission, in particular nitrogenous immission, have occurred in the dry grasslands of the Kaiserstuhl, belonging to the Xero- brometum artemisietosum VON ROCHOW 1948. The study was carried out by comparing very recent vegetational relevés (1987) with those from earlier decades (beginning 1926) and by reference to descriptions by earlier authors. Symmorphology, synecology and synsystematics as prerequisites for the critical evaluation of possible floristic differences are presented, since not all differences can be interpreted as representing steps in auto- or allogenous successions. The following points could be demonstrated: 1. The mean species number per relevé on the Badberg has increased from 32,2 to 45,2. This was not the case for the other sites surveyed. 2. The average total cover has increased significantly. The decrease in some less competitive species (see Table 2) might be partially due to this change. 3. The species listed in Table 2 showed significant increases in their presence (Stetigkeit). The differences are considerably smaller than in those Mesobro- meta, which have lain fallow for many years. This observation is understandable when one considers that the Xerobrometa have almost never been mown although they have been very probably occasionally slightly disturbed by tredding or by transport of wood. Population fluctuation in the annuals amongst the Sedo-Scle- ranthetea species and in the pioneer species of the Dauco-Melilotion can be demonstrated. The increases in Verbascum lychnitis and Dactylis glomerata, two species usually regarded to be good nitrogen indicators, are discussed. They cannot be considered to represent evidence for a degeneration of the Xerobrometa due to immission. The increase in mosses and Cladonia spp. point to decreased disturbance through utilization of the surrounding vegetation. An advancing of Prunus spinosa, Ulmus minor and Robinia pseudacacia from old „bush cores" into the Mesobrometa and into the ecollogically intermediate Xerobrometum sanguisorbe- tosum VON ROCHOW 1948 for decades has been evident. Field elm and Robinia are dying back visibly since some years. The xerothermic heart areas, occupied by the Xerobrometum artemisietosum, are not expected to become overgrown - at least in the foreseeable future and in those cases when they are greater than ca. 10 m x 10 m in area.
30421Wettstein R. v. (1885): Schedae ad "Floram exsiccatam Austro-Hungaricam" a Museo botanico universitatis Vindobonensis editam. Auctore A. Kerner. Centuria IX—XII. Editio anni 1883. - Österreichische Botanische Zeitschrift, 35: 247–249.
30420Fehlner C. (1883): Schedae ad "Floram exsiccatam Austro-Hungaricam" a Museo botanico universitatis Vindobonensis editam, auctore A. Kerner. Wien, Frick. IV. Centurie. - Österreichische Botanische Zeitschrift, 33: 52–55.
30419Hopp U. & Kappen L. (1981): Einige Aspekte zur immissionsbedingten Verbreitung von Flechten im Stadtgebiet von Würzburg. - Berichte der Bayerischen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 52: 12–24.
30418Lojka H. (1868): Kleine Beiträge zur Lichenenflora Nieder-Oesterreichs. - Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien, 18: 517–520.
Lower Austria
30417Ginzberger A. & Rechinger K. (1902): Der Ellender Wald. (Eine floristische Skizze.). - Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien, 52: 40–45.
30416C. Bl. [Bley C.] (1881): Nekrolog. Dr. Gottlob Ludwig Rabenhorst. - Sitzungsberichte und Abhandlungen der Naturwissenschaftlichen Gesellschaft Isis in Dresden, 1881: 35–38.
30415Brackel W. v. (2010): Neuanlage von Magerrasen auf Ausgleichsflächen der Stadt München - Vergleich verschiedener Techniken [Establishment of oligotrophic grasslands on Munich’s compensation areas – a comparison between different techniques]. - Anliegen Natur, 34: 9–24.
In 1994-1997 an experiment to establish semi-dry grassland on former farmland was started in in the surroundings of the „Hochmutting-estate“ north of Munich. Several alternatives were tested. After eleven years of observation the variant of „mown swath transfer on bare gravel ground“ showed to be superior to all others. The variants „divot transfer“ and „top soil transfer“ did not show better results; moreover they are more sumptuous and lead to the destruction of the donor location. The variant „mown swath transfer on not-removed topsoil“ showed to be inferior to all other variants and is not suited as a compensation measure for the destruction of semi-dry grasslands.
30414Altehage C. (1960): Die VegetationsverhäItnisse des Naturschutzgebietes Berger Keienvenn im Kreise Lingen. - Veröffentlichungen des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins zu Osnabrück, 29: 17–36.
30413Altehage C. (1962): Zwei ehemalige atlantische Florenstätten unweit Schüttorf und Friesoythe in Niedersachsen. - Veröffentlichungen des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins zu Osnabrück, 30: 7–18.
30412Brackel W. v. & Brackel J. v. (2016): Ein Pilotversuch zur Wiederherstellung von Flechten-Kiefernwäldern [A pilot experiment for the restoration of lichen pine forests]. - Anliegen Natur, 38(1): 102–110.
Lichen pine forests covered large areas of the Nürnberger Reichswald up to the 1980s. Due to the cessation of litter raking and the input of atmospheric nitrogen compounds they disappeared except for small remnants, a phenomenon noticed in the whole Central European range. Since 2012 a pilot experiment is running to reconvert moss rich pine forests to lichen pine forests. For this purpose the pine canopy was thinned out and the pine shrubs were cleared on the entire experimental site. In subareas the topsoil was removed and then they were inoculated with lichen fragments. First results show how fast the measures may lead to success: after only four years on the stripped and inoculated plot the typical species of the lichen pine forests showed a higher coverage then on the reference plots where only the canopy was thinned out.
30411Jeschke M. (2009): Auswirkungen verschiedener Renaturierungsund Managementverfahren auf die Artendiversität von Gefäßpflanzen und Kryptogamen in Kalkmagerrasen [Impacts of various restoration and management techniques on species diversity of vascular plants and cryptogams in oligotrophic calcareous grasslands]. - Laufener Spezialbeiträge, 2/2009: 103–112.
Effects of different restoration and management regimes on the species diversity of vascular and cryptogamous plants in calcareous grassland Different restoration and conservation measures were studied in three nature reserves in Southern Germany and Switzerland (Garchinger Heide, Kissinger Heide, Merishausener Gräte), using vegetation samples with different plot sizes. The nature reserve “Garchinger Heide” showed significantly lower numbers of vascular plant species than the other nature reserves, probably due to a lower intensity of mowing (every second year) practised in the past. The most efficient method to restore nutrient rich sites was shown to be topsoil removal in combination with transfer of diaspore-rich hay or raking material. Initial ploughing in combination with yearly mowing or grazing led to high vascular plant species numbers. Bryophyte, lichen and overall species diversity was reduced, however. Other mowing regimes as well as controlled burning in spring increased tall grass cover and reduced both rare species total species numbers. Hay transfer generated species-rich stands, but it also facilitates the spread of pleurocarpous mosses which can inhibit less competitive species.
30410Pichler G. & Speta F. (1997): Ein spätbiedermeierliches Pflanzenverzeichnis aus Hallstatt. - Beiträge zur Naturkunde Oberösterreichs, 5: 333–346.
The hand-written and still existing history of Hallstatt (Upper Austria) written by Johann PILZ from 1800 onwards, has an inventory of plants attached. This inventory which has been compiled by Johann Pilz (maybe influenced by Franz GLÜCK?) lists 139 plants from sites around Hallstatt. The table originating from the first half of the 19th century has been reproduced in original letters and Latin names as used today have been added. Two lichens included in the list (Cetraria islandica, Lobaria pulmonaria).
30409Dunzendorfer W. (1974): Pflanzensoziologie der Wälder und Moore des oberösterreichischen Böhmerwaldes. - Natur- und Landschaftsschutz in Oberösterreich 3, Linz, 110 p. [+ 6 tabs].
30408Poetsch J.S. & Schiedermayr K.B. (1872): Systematische Aufzählung der im Erzherzogthume Oesterreich ob der Enns bisher beobachteten samenlosen Pflanzen (Kryptogamen). - K.K. Zool.-Bot. Gesellschaft, Wien, 384 p.
30407Gistel J. (1864): Die Flora des Sumawa-Gebirges nach ihren topischen und verticalen Verbreitungsformen. - Archiv für Naturgeschichte, 30(1): 214–255.
30406Punz W., Engenhart M. & Schinninger R. (1986): Zur Vegetation einer Eisenerzschlackenhalde bei Leoben/Donawitz. - Mitteilungen des naturwissenschaftlichen Vereines für Steiermark, 116: 205–210.
Spontaneous vegetation on an iron slag heap near Leoben/Donawitz (Styria, Austria) is dominated by a single moss species (Tortula inermis). The vegetation on this site is presented and discussed with respect to the extreme ecological conditions.
30405Zopf W. (1890): Die Pilze in morphologischer, physiologischer, biologischer und systematischer Beziehung. - E.Trewendt, Breslau, 500 p.
30404Fehlner C. (1884): Schedae ad „Floram exsiccatam Austro-Hungaricam" a Museo botanico Universitatis Vindobonensis editam. Centuria VIII. - Österreichische Botanische Zeitschrift, 34: 176–179.
30403Picbauer R. (1941): Beitrag zur Pilzflora von Böhmen, Mähren und der Slowakei. - Verhandlungen des naturforschenden Vereines in Brünn, 73: 177–203.
Diplodina Sandstedei Zopf. Auf Cladonia pyxidata. am Annaberg bei Weikersdorf nächst Zöptau (Dr. Cernik).
30402Zumpfe H. (1929): Vorarbeiten zu einer Pflanzengeographischen Karte Österreichs. XIII. Oberösterreichische Moore. Mit besonderer Berücksichtigung des Hechtensee-Gebietes. - Abhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Österreich, 15(2): 1–100.
30401Firbas F. & Sigmond H. (1928): Vegetationsstudien auf dem Donnersberge im Böhmischen Mittelgebirge. - Lotos, 76: 113–172.
30400Zwanzinger G.A. (1869): Beiträge zur Kryptogamenflora von Kärnten. - Jahrbuch des Naturhistorischen Landesmuseums von Kärnten, 10: 114–139.
Austria; Carinthia
30399Rudolph K., Firbas F. & Sigmond H. (1928): Das Koppenplanmoor im Riesengebirge. (Ein Beispiel für den subalpinen Moortypus in Böhmen). - Lotos, 76: 173–222.
30398Kaule G. (1976): Die Moore des Ammergebirges und seines Vorlandes. - Berichte der Bayerischen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 47: 151–173.
30397Lämmermayr L. (1928): Weitere Beiträge zur Flora der Magnesit- und Serpentinböden. - Sitzungsberichte der Akademie der Wissenschaften, mathematisch-naturwissenschaftliche Klasse, 137: 55–99.
30396Hagen K. (1996): Vegetationsveränderungen in Kalk-Magerrasen des Fränkischen Jura. Untersuchung langfristiger Bestandsveränderungen als Reaktion auf Nutzungsumstellung und Stickstoff-Deposition. - Laufener Forschungsbericht, 4: 1–218.
30395Dittrich J. (1941): Die Moore der Umgebung Marienbads. - Lotos, 88: 127–145.
30394Kolbek J. (1998): Das Pulsatillo pratensis-Festucetum valesiacae in Böhmen. - Tuexenia, 18: 207–216.
The Pulsatillo pratensis-Festucetum valesiacae Klika ex Kolbek (with two subassociations: thymetosum pulegioidis subass. nova and thymetosum praecocis subass. nova) is described as new. Both subassociations are documented by phytosociological relevés and classified into the Festucion valesiacae (Festuco-Brometea). Floristic composition, synecology (namely soil characteristics) and distribution in Bohemia are given. Keywords: Czech Republic, Festucion valesiacae, xerotherm grasslands. Several terricolous lichens listed from phytosociological relevés.
30393Marstaller R. (2010): Moosgesellschaften in der Porphyrkuppenlandschaft bei Halle/S. (Sachsen-Anhalt). - Hercynia, 43: 19–70.
Bryophyte communities in the landscape of porphyry outcrops near Halle/S. (Saxony Anhalt).
30392Gauckler K. (1937): Steppenheide und Steppenheidewaid der Fränkischen Aih in pflanzensozioiogischer, ökologischer und geographischer Betrachtung. - Berichte der Bayerischen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 23: 5–134.
30391Kretschmer L. (1931): Die Pflanzengesellschaften auf Serpentin im Gurhofgraben bei Melk. - Verhandlungen des Zoologisch-Botanischen Vereins in Wien, 80: 163–208.
30390Gauckler K. (1953): Serpentin Vegetation in Nordbayern. - Berichte der Bayerischen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 30: 19–26.
On vegetation of serpentinic / ultramafic bedrock in Northern Bavaria. Lichens identified by O. Klement.
30389Meusel H.H.H. (1939): Aus dem Schrifttum I. Neuere Arbeiten über die Verbreitung und Vergesellschaftung Niederer Pflanzen, insbesondere von Moosen und Flechten. - Hercynia, 1: 327–332.
30388Gams H. (1939): Über einige flechtenreiche Trockenrasen Mitteldeutschlands. - Hercynia, 1: 277–284.
30387Köstner B. & Lange O.L. (1986): Epiphytische Flechten in bayerischen Waldschadensgebieten des nördlichen Alpenraumes: Floristisch-soziologische Untersuchungen und Vitalitätstests durch Photosynthesemessungen. - Berichte der Bayerischen Akademie für Naturschutz und Landschaftspflege, 10: 185–210.
The flora and vegetation of epiphytic lichens were investigated in forests of the Bavarian Alps (around Garmisch-Partenkirchen) in which the spruce trees (Picea abies) exhibit different degrees of the characteristic symptoms of forest damage reputed to be associated with air pollution. Characteristic lichen communities were: the Nephrometum belli on the lower trunks of maple trees (Acerpseudoplatanus), the Parmeliopsidetum ambiguae on the lower trunks, primarily on spruce, and the Pseudevernie- tum furfuraceae and the Usneetum florido-neglec- tae predominantly on the upper crowns of the trees. Seventy-six taxa of lichens were identified. Samples of two species, namely of the widely distributed Pseudevernia furfuracea and of Lobaria pulmonaria, which has a very specific habitat preference, were collected from different areas and their physiological activity was tested by means of C02-exchange measurements in the laboratory. Metabolic activity was characterized by parameters such as dark respiration, light compensation point, initial slope of the light response curve of net photosynthesis, and photosynthetic capacity at saturating photon flux density. All measurements were conducted at saturating external CO2 partial pressure. Lichens are known as useful bioindicators of air pollution, being especially sensitive to S02. This has been reported in the literature in field correlations as well as in laboratory fumigation experiments. In the present study, there were no indications of any impact of sulphur dioxide on the viability or phsiological activity of the epiphytic lichens. Lichen species and communities in these forests occur which are known to be very SCVsensitive. Photosynthetic activity of selected species did not show any correlation with the degree of damage of the forests where they had been sampled (damage classes 0 -1 to 1 - 2). A rich vegetation of lichens, including sensitive species, was found growing even directly on branches of spruce trees which were damaged, as indicated by chlorosis and loss of needles (Piets. 2 and 3). Since lichens in these habitats are apparently not affected by SO2 and since it is known that specific lichens respond more sensitively to S02 than higher plants, it is concluded from these findings, that a direct influence of atmospheric sulphur dioxide is likely not the cause of the observed tree damage. Naturally, this conclusion must be restricted to the area of this study. Conditions certainly may be different in other areas of forest damage. The present study with lichens also does not necessarily have any bearing on the possible role of air-born photochemical oxidants for the tree damage in this study area.
30386Kolbek J. (1999): Der Unterverband Coronillo variae-Festucenion rupicolae in Böhmen. - Tuexenia, 19: 343–349.
Only one community of the suballiance Coronillo variae-Festucenion rupicolae has been known hitherto from the Czech Republic, viz. Diantho deltoidis-Festucetum rupicolae, which occurs in the western half of the country. The characteristics of the community, its species composition, synecology, synchorology, successional relationships, etc., are described. The community is documented by phyto- cenological relevés and soil analysis. Keywords: Coronillo variae-Festucenion rupicolae, Czech Republic, Diantho deltoidis-Festucetum rupicolae, Festucion valesiacae, xerothermic grasslands, phytocenology. Numerous lichens (especially Cladonia spp.) listed from relevés.
30385Rambold G. (1985): Fütterungsexperiment mit den an Flechten fressenden Raupen von Setina aurita Esp. (Lepidoptera, Arctiidae). - Nachrichtenblatt der Bayerischen Entomologen, 34: 82–90.
It can be shown that the caterpillars of Setina aurita Esp. feed on numerous lichens containing various lichen substances. Lichens with vulpinic, salazinic or thamnolic acid as major secondary substances were refused. Depositions of iron compounds or calcium oxalate in the thallus do not protect the lichen from being eaten. The kind of damage caused by caterpillars of Setina aurita Esp. depends on the growth form of the lichen. The lepidoptera of Central Europe, whose caterpillars feed on lichens are listed.
30384Mihelčič F. (1967): Baummose und Flechten als Lebenstätten für Tardigraden. - Carinthia II, 157/77: 227–236.
30383Klemun M. (1989): Franz Xaver Freiherr von Wulfen-Jesuit und Naturforscher. - Carinthia II, 179/99: 5–17.
30382Kernstock E. (1897): Einiges über die Flechten. - Carinthia II, 87: 13–22 & 68–77.
30381Kernstock [E.] (1897): Dr. J. Steiner, Lichenes Carinthiae exsiccati. (Nr. 251–301.). - Carinthia II, 87: 38–42.
30380Zedrosser T. (1925): Die Flechten des Lavanttales. - Carinthia II, 114–115/34–35: 29–38.
30379Komposch H. & Breuss O. (2013): Erstnachweise lichenisierter und nicht-lichenisierter Pilze für Kärnten, die Steiermark, Niederösterreich und Österreich. - Carinthia II, 203/123: 495–506.
A list of 15 lichenized and one non-lichenized ascomycetes, representing new records for the Austrian provinces carinthia, styria or Lower Austria is presented along with photographs and short notes on their autecology and/or distribution. most species were discovered within the framework of a lichenological survey of the calcareous landslide area of mount Dobratsch in carinthia, others were detected in the public herbaria KL, GZu and the private herbarium of the first author. The genus Solenopsora is reported for the first time occurring in Austria. Among the lichenized species Acrocordia conoidea, Caloplaca erodens, Catillaria minuta, Fulgensia pruinosa var. pruinosa, Protoparmeliopsis admontensis, Leucocarpia biatorella, Lecanora leuckertiana, Micarea leprosula, Physcia wainioi, Solenopsora car patica, Toninia philippea, Verrucaria fuscoatroides and Verrucaria mimicrans represent new records for the province of Carinthia, as well as the non-lichenized ascomycete Naetrocymbe fraxini. In addition, Solenopsora carpatica and Verrucaria schindleri are new to the province of styria and Thelotrema suecicum to Lower Austria, respectively.
30378Repetzky W. (1994): Flechten-Artenliste – Sardinien 1988. Nachtrag. - Carinthia II, 184/104: 309–314.
Italy; Sardinia. List of lichens from excursion
30377Drescher A., Theiss M., Hafellner J. & Berg C. (2007): Die Vegetationsverhältnisse des Großen Kars der Koralpe (Kärnten, Österreich). - Mitteilungen des naturwissenschaftlichen Vereines für Steiermark, 136: 187–238.
The vegetation of the cirque “Großes Kar” on the Koralpe (Carinthia, Austria). – During the summer 1997, the vegetation cover of the nature reserve “Koralm-Kar” (Carinthian part of Koralpe) has been investigated using the Braun-Blanquet-approach. Based on a classification of 141 relevées, 19 different associations of the classes Montio-Cardaminetea, Salicetea herbaceae, Caricetea curvulae, Seslerietea albicantis, Loiseleurio-Vaccinietea, Oxycocco-Sphagnetea, Scheuchzerio-Caricetea fuscae, Mulgedio-Aconitetea and Vaccinio-Piceetea have been distinguished. The correlation between the attributes of the associations (physiognomy, floristic composition, species diversity, distribution within the mapped area, human impact) and several site factors, e.g., soil properties, content of calcium, inclination and exposition of the stands, duration of the snow cover as well as problems of vegetation dynamics are discussed. Finally, the vulnerability and the possibilities of nature conservation in the whole area are discussed. The distribution of 16 mapping units (partly mosaic types) is presented in a vegetation map at a scale of 1 : 10.000.
30376Hafellner J. & Bilovitz P.O. (2011): Tag der Artenvielfalt - Flechten und lichenicole Pilze im Botanischen Garten Graz. - Mitteilungen des naturwissenschaftlichen Vereines für Steiermark, 141: 185–191.
Biodiversity Day – Lichens and lichenicolous fungi in the Botanical Garden Graz. – One day of field work in the botanical garden of the Karl-Franzens-University Graz on occasion of a biodiversity day and consecutive laboratory work yielded 54 species of lichenized and 6 species of lichenicolous fungi. Notable records for the town area include Anisomeridium polypori, Pseudosagedia aenea and Hyperphyscia adglutinata, as well as Tubeufia heterodermiae.
30375Wilfling A. & Hafellner J. (2010): Zur Diversität der Flechten und lichenicolen Pilze auf Böden über Marmor in den Hochlagen der Ostalpen (Österreich). - Mitteilungen des naturwissenschaftlichen Vereines für Steiermark, 140: 85–120.
Diversity of lichenized and lichenicolous fungi on soils on marble at high elevation in the Eastern Alps (Austria). – The local diversity of terricolous lichens (on soil, bryophytes and plant debris) on marble has been investigated at 69 localities in the Eastern Alps. Altogether 178 taxa of lichenized fungi and 39 species of lichenicolous fungi have been identified. Lichen diversity and species compostion on marble at high altitude are similar to those on Mesozoic limestone (e.g. in the Northern Limestone Alps). In the Eastern Alps lichens on local marble outcrops increase substancially the lichen diversity on a regional scale but have little influence on the total diversity on larger scales (e.g. entire province or on a national level) as surveys on these scales will normally also include parts of the bordering Limestone Alps. The distribution patterns of many lichen species change considerably when data from central alpine marble outcrops are included. Polyblastia bryophilopsis, Dactylospora dubia, Lichenochora constrictella, and Pezizella epithallina are recorded for the first time in the province of Styria.
30374Hafellner J. (2009): Zur Flechtendiversität im Natura 2000-Schutzgebiet Raabklamm (Österreich, Steiermark). - Mitteilungen des naturwissenschaftlichen Vereines für Steiermark, 139: 83–126.
Lichen diversity in the Natura 2000 conservation area Raabklamm (Austria, Styria). – In the nature conservation area „Raabklamm“ in Styria at a number of temporary plots with special emphasis on sites that could be assigned to habitat types listed in annex I to the European Union “Council directive on the conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora” the local diversity of lichenized fungi and their lichenicolous fungi has been investigated. A total of 266 lichenized taxa and 41 taxa of lichenicolous fungi have been identified so far, including 57 species listed in the “Red List of End angered Lichens in Austria”. Of special interest are the low elevation rocky sites partly representing “habitat types with conservation priority”. Field work yielded also the presence of further habitat types listed in Annex 1 to the EU directive but not mentioned in the provincial legal ordinance. Lichenochora aipoliae is reported from the European countries Austria, Finland and Sweden, furthermore from Asia (Afghanistan) and North America (Canada). Arthonia coronata, Tremella candelariellae and Tubeufia heterodermiae are reported as new to Austria. At two localities populations of Placocarpus schaererei thought to be extinct in Styria could be found again. Merismatium peregrinum represents a new record for Styria.
30373Lõhmus A., Lõhmus P. & Runnel K. (2018): A simple survey protocol for assessing terrestrial biodiversity in a broad range of ecosystems. - PLoS ONE, 13(12):e0208535 [24 p.].
Finding standard cost-effective methods for monitoring biodiversity is challenging due to trade-offs between survey costs (including expertise), specificity, and range of applicability. These trade-offs cause a lack of comparability among datasets collected by ecologists and conservationists, which is most regrettable in taxonomically demanding work on megadiverse inconspicuous taxon groups. We have developed a site-scale survey method for diverse sessile land organisms, which can be analyzed over multiple scales and linked with ecological insights and management. The core idea is that field experts can effectively allocate observation effort when the time, area, and priority sequence of tasks are fixed. We present the protocol, explain its specifications (taxon group; expert qualification; plot size; effort) and applications based on>800 original surveys of four taxon groups; and we analyze its effectiveness using data on polypores in hemiboreal and tropical forests. We demonstrate consistent effort-species richness curves and among-survey variation in contrasting ecosystems, and high effectiveness compared with casual observations both at local and regional scales. Bias related to observer experience appeared negligible compared with typical assemblage variation. Being flexible in terms of sampling design, the method has enabled us to compile data from various projects to assess conservation status and habitat requirements of most species (specifically rarities and including discovery of new species); also, when linked with site descriptions, to complete environmental assessments and select indicator species for management. We conclude that simple rules can significantly improve expert-based biodiversity surveys. Ideally, define (i) a common plot size that addresses multiple taxon groups and management goals; (ii) taxon groups based on field expertise and feasible number of species; (iii) sufficient and practical search time; (iv) a procedure for recording within-plot heterogeneity. Such a framework, combined with freedom to allocate effort on-site, helps utilizing full expertise of observers without losing technical rigor.