32945John V. & Beck A. (2020): Notiz zu den Flechtenbiota der Burgruine Erfenstein, mit einem Nachtrag zur Burgruine Drachenfels. - Mitteilugen der Pollichia [Bad Dürkheim], 100: 75–83. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Mitt-Pollichia_100_0075-0083.pdf.
On the relatively small complex of the Erfenstein Castle ruins 75 lichen species were found, including endangered and rare species. In addition to the species typical for sandstone, the castle is an oasis for numerous species on limestone. Due to the balanced ratio of nitrophytic to nitrophobic lichens, there is no evidence for excessive eutrophication. The castle can currently be regarded as an example of gentle care measurements. Solenopsora vulturiensis from the Drachenfels Castle ruins is confirmed by molecular methods.
32944Fernandes R.A., Chaudhari D.A. & Jha A.K. (2020): Evolution of strategies in paraconic acids synthesis. - Asian Journal of Organic Chemistry, 9: 1478–1501. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajoc.202000353.
Various syntheses of different paraconic acids over the last seventeen years have been abstracted here. Paraconic acids have either a methylene or methyl group at the 4-position of the γ-butyrolactone with a common C-3 carboxylic acid group and a long alkyl chain. Several possibilities of relative configurations give rise to distinct set of paraconic acids, which are also categorized in this review. Various strategies based on chiral catalytic methods, chiral pool, chiral auxiliary, resolution and other methods were engaged in the synthesis of different paraconic acids. A few members are yet to be synthesized and this compilation might entice future synthetic attempts on them. Keywords: catalysis · lactones · lichen · natural products · paraconic acids · total synthesis.
32943Zarabska-Bożejewicz D. (2020): The impact of nitrogen pollution in the agricultural landscape on lichens: A review of their responses at the community, species, biont and physiological levels. - Agronomy, 10(12): 1852 [19 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10121852.
Lichenized fungi are widely used as bioindicators owing to their sensitivity to various anthropogenic impacts. Increased nitrogen deposition affects the occurrence, abundance and distribution of lichens. The main sources of nitrogen in the agricultural landscape are ammonia (NH3) and the ammonium cation (NH4+). Livestock farming and the use of organic and mineral fertilizers are primarily responsible for the emissions of these compounds. N in excess can negatively impact lichen biota and lead, for example, to species decline, impoverishment of lichen communities or unbalanced symbiosis. However, there is also evidence for certain opposite effects, in particular at medium N concentrations. Positive influences may be manifested, for example, by higher chlorophyll a concentrations, or by a greater lichen diversity being supported by the coexistence of lichens with different trophic requirements. Indicator values of lichens in relation to N input are exhibited, for example, by some biont markers (the contents of ergosterol and chlorophyll a), particular species, such as Xanthoria parietina, or trophic functional groups (oligotrophilous and nitrophilous lichens). Gaps identified in the current knowledge are discussed. Keywords: lichenized fungi; elevated nitrogen deposition; bioindication.
32942Krzewicka B. (2012): A Revision of Verrucaria s.l. (Verrucariaceae) in Poland. - Polish Botanical Studies, 27: 3–143. .
A taxonomic treatment of the genus Verrucaria s.l. in Poland is provided, based on a study of ca 1700 specimens from Polish and foreign herbaria. A total of 62 species belonging to seven genera currently separated within Verrucaria s.l. are presented including two new combinations, Verruculopsis minutum (Hepp) Krzewicka and Parabagliettoa disjuncta (Arnold) Krzewicka. The following genera and species are recognized in the study area: Bagliettoa − B. baldensis (A. Massal.) Vězda, B. calciseda (DC.) Gueidan & Cl. Roux, B. marmorea (Scop.) Gueidan & Cl. Roux, B. parmigerella (Zahlbr.) Vězda & Poelt; Hydropunctaria − H. maura (Wahlenb.) Keller, Gueidan & Thüs, H. rheitrophila (Zschacke) Keller, Gueidan & Thüs, H. scabra (Vĕzda) Keller, Gueidan & Thüs; Parabagliettoa − P. cyanea (A. Massal.) Gueidan & Cl. Roux, P. disjuncta, P. dufourii (DC.) Gueidan & Cl. Roux; Placopyrenium − P. canellum (Nyl.) Gueidan & Cl. Roux, P. fuscellum (Turner) Gueidan & Cl. Roux, P. trachyticum (Hazsl.) Breuss; Verrucaria − V. acrotella auct., V. amylacea Hepp, V. andesiatica Servít, V. aquatilis Mudd, V. bryoctona (Th.Fr.) Orange, V. caerulea DC., V. cataleptoides (Nyl.) Nyl., V. cernaensis Zschacke, V. cincta Hepp, V. denudata Zschacke, V. dolosa Hepp, V. elaeina Borrer, V. elaeomelaena (A. Massal.) Arnold, V. funckii (Spreng.) Zahlbr., V. hochstetteri Fr., V. latebrosa Körb., V. macrostoma DC., V. maculiformis Kremp., V. madida Orange, V. margacea (Wahlenb.) Wahlenb., V. muralis Ach., V. myriocarpa Hepp, V. nigrescens Pers., V. nigroumbrina (A. Massal.) Servít, V. obfuscans (Nyl.) Nyl., V. ochrostoma Borrer, V. pachyderma (Arnold) Arnold, V. pinguicula A. Massal., V. policensis Servít, V. polonica J. Nowak, V. polysticta Borrer, V. praetermissa (Trevisan) Anzi, V. procopii Servít, V. sphaerospora Anzi, V. sublobulata Servít, V. submauroides auct., V. submersella Servít, V. tectorum (A. Massal.) Körb., V. tristis (A. Massal.) Kremp., V. umbrinula Nyl., V. viridicans Servít, V. viridula (Schrad.) Ach., V. xyloxena Norman; Verrucula − V. elegantaria (Zehetl.) Nav.-Ros. & Cl. Roux, V. helvetica (B. de Lesd.) Nav.-Ros. & Cl. Roux, V. polycarparia Nav.-Ros. & Cl. Roux, V. protearia (Zehetl.) Nav.-Ros. & Cl. Roux; and Verruculopsis − V. lecideoides (A. Massal.) Gueidan & Cl. Roux, V. minutum. Three species, Parabagliettoa disjuncta, Verrucula elegantaria and V. polycarparia are reported for the first time from Poland. Twenty five taxa are excluded from the survey because they were mistakenly reported or not confirmed for the study area. The morphology, anatomy, ecology and known distribution of all treated taxa are discussed. Keys for the identification of genera and particular groups of the species are provided. Additional nomenclatural and taxonomic clarification include the typification of Thrombium lecideoides A. Massal., Verrucaria aquatilis var. aerimontana Servít and Verrucaria timkoii Servít, and the synonymy of Lithoicea nigrescens var. acrotella A. Massal. with Verrucaria nigrescens, Verrucaria amylacea f. compacta Arnold with Verrucaria amylacea, Verrucaria aquatilis var. aerimontana with Verrucaria aquatilis, Verrucaria atroviridis Servít with Verrucaria aquatilis, Verrucaria denudata f. dissulta Servít with Verrucaria funckii, Verrucaria elaeina var. determinata Körb. with Verrucaria praetermissa, Verrucaria elaeina var. effusa Körb. with Verrucaria submersella, Verrucaria hoffmanni Hepp with Bagliettoa marmorea, Verrucaria maura var. opaca Körb. with Hydropunctaria scabra, Verrucaria nigrofusca Servít with Verrucaria nigroumbrina, Verrucaria sublobulata var. robustior Servít with Verrucaria sublobulata, Verrucaria timkoii with Bagliettoa calciseda. The name Verrucaria funckiana is rejected because it proved illegitimate as it was nomenclaturally superfluous when published. Key words: Verrucariaceae, Bagliettoa, Hydropunctaria, Parabagliettoa, Placopyrenium, Verrucaria, Verrucula, Verruculopsis, revision, nomenclature, taxonomy, ecology, key, Poland.
32941蒋淑华,张超,姚宗廷,刘华杰 [Jiang S.-H., Zhang C., Yao Z.-T. & Liu H.-J.] (2020): 星果衣属(乳嘴衣科)一新种和一中国新记录种 [A species new to science and a new Chinese record of Astrothelium (Typetheliaceae)]. - Mycosystema, 39(2): 1–9. DOI: 10.13346/j.mycosystema.200285.
[in Chinese with English abstract: ] Based on morphology, anatomy, chemistry and molecular biology, a new species of lichenized fungus Astrothelium, A. sinense, and a new record to China A. macrocarpum were reported. The new species is characterized by thallus bullate-folded, perithecia surrounded by whitish rim except for dark ostiolar area, and thallus and pseudostromata with lichexanthone both showing UV+ yellow. Comparisons and discussions with their similar species were provided. These are basic data for compilation of Flora Lichenum Sinicorum. Key words: lichenized fungi, Dothideomycetes, Trypetheliales, phenotype, genotype.
32940Huynh B.-L.-C., Pham N.K.T. & Nguyen T.P. (2021): Vinapraesorediosic acids D and E from the lichen Parmotrema praesorediosum (Nyl.) Hale. - Phytochemistry Letters, 41: 61–64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytol.2020.11.001.
One new α,β-unsaturated-γ-lactone acid, named Vinapraesorediosic acid D (1), and one new benzoic acid, Vinapraesorediosic acid E (2), were isolated from the lichen Parmotrema praesorediosum. Their chemical structures were elucidated by extensive IR, CD, HR-ESI-MS, and NMR spectroscopic analysis, and comparison with previously published data. Compound 1 was evaluated for the cytotoxicity against four human cancer cell lines (MCF-7, HeLa, NCI-H460, and HepG2) using SRB assay. As results, 1 exhibited moderate activity against MCF-7. Keywords: Parmotrema praesorediosum; Parmeliaceae; Vinapraesorediosic acid D; Vinapraesorediosic acid E.
32939Noël A., Garnier A., Clément M.,Rouaud I., Sauvager A., Bousarghin L., Vásquez-Ocmín P., Maciuk A. &Tomasi S. (2021): Lichen-associated bacteria transform antibacterial usnic acid to products of lower antibiotic activity. - Phytochemistry, 181: 112535 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2020.112535.
Lichens are specific symbiotic organisms harboring various microorganisms in addition to the two classic partners (algae or cyanobacterium and fungus). Although lichens produce many antibiotic compounds such as (+)-usnic acid, their associated microorganisms possess the ability to colonize an environment where antibiosis exists. Here, we have studied the behavior of several lichen-associated bacterial strains in the presence of (+)-usnic acid, a known antibiotic lichen compound. The effect of this compound was firstly evaluated on the growth and metabolism of three bacteria, thus showing its ability to inhibit Gram-positive bacteria. This inhibition was not thwarted with the usnic acid producer strain Streptomyces cyaneofuscatus. The biotransformation of this lichen metabolite was also studied. An ethanolamine derivative of (+)-usnic acid with low antibiotic activity was highlighted with chemical profiling, using HPLC-UV combined with low resolution mass spectrometry. These findings highlight the way in which some strains develop resistance mechanisms. A methylated derivative of (+)-usnic acid was annotated using the molecular networking method, thus showing the interest of this computer-based approach in biotransformation studies. Keywords: Streptomyces cyaneofuscatus; Nocardia sp.; Mabikibacter ruber; Bacillus weihenstephenensis; Actinobacteria; Alphaproteobacteria; Firmicutes; Biotransformation; Molecular networking; Usnic acid derivatives.
32938Ertz D. (2020): New insights into the systematics and phylogeny of the genus Fouragea (Arthoniales, Opegraphaceae). - Phytotaxa, 472(2): 184–192. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.472.2.8.
The foliicolous lichen-forming fungus Opegrapha vegae was collected on the French island of Mayotte (Comoros archipelago). Phylogenetic analyses using nuLSU and RPB2 sequences place this species in the genus Fouragea (Opegraphaceae). Opegrapha alba, O. heliabravoa, O. tuxtlensis and O. vegae are newly combined in the genus Fouragea because of their foliicolous habit, their general morphology and their ascomata and ascospores types. Fouragea vegae is reported as new for the Comoros archipelago. Keywords: Comoros archipelago; diversity; lichen; Opegrapha; taxonomy.
32937Ertz D. & van den Boom P.P.G. (2020): Lecanographa atlantica (Arthoniales, Lecanographaceae), a widespread and conspicuous but still undescribed lichen-forming fungus. - Phytotaxa, 472(2): 147–158. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.472.2.5.
Lecanographa farinosa was considered to be a lichen inhabiting coastal rocks of the Mediterranean region and to possess psoromic and conpsoromic acids as major secondary metabolites. A revision of its type specimen from Germany proved that the species has been misunderstood. In this paper, L. farinosa is shown to have a thallus containing confluentic and 2’-Omethylmicrophyllinic acids and to have a different ecology and distribution. A revision of previous reports of L. farinosa from continental Portugal and the study of recent specimens of Lecanographa cf. farinosa from the Azores, Canary Islands, Cape Verde and continental Portugal revealed a new species described as L. atlantica. Moreover, reports of L. dialeuca from France (Brittany) and of L. subgrumulosa from the Azores are considered misidentifications of L. atlantica. This latter has thus a widespread distribution ranging from the Azores to the Atlantic coast of the European continent where it inhabits volcanic rocks near the sea. Lecanographa atlantica is characterized by a whitish to cream coloured thallus, usually rounded or oblong to shortly lirelliform and white pruinose ascomata with a widely exposed hymenial disc and thin margin, (3–)5–7- septate ascospores of (16–)18.9–23(–26) × (3–)3.4–4(–4.5) μm, and a chemistry including at least 2’-O-methylperlatolic acid but lacking confluentic and 2’-O-methylmicrophyllinic acids. Psoromic acid is sometimes present in L. atlantica but its origin is unclear. Phylogenetic analyses using nuLSU sequences place L. atlantica as sister to L. hypothallina. Keywords: chemistry, diversity, island biology, phylogeny, taxonomy.
32936Santesson J. (1970): Anthraquinones in Caloplaca. - Phytochemistry, 9: 2149–2166. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(00)85380-7.
About 230 species of the lichen genus Caloplaca have been surveyed for anthraquinones. By means of lichen mass spectrometry and TLC, emodin, parietin, fallacinol, fallacinal, parietinic acid, xanthorin, 2-chloroemodin, fragilin, and 1-O-methylfragilin have been identified, as well as some non-anthraquinonoid compounds. The species studied can be arranged according to their anthraquinone content in thirteen “chemical groups”.
32935Gagarina L.V. & Ezhkin A.K. (2020): To the study of the lichen genus Usnea (Parmeliaceae) in Kunashir Island (Sakhalin Region, Russia). - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 54(2): 467–478. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2020.54.2.467.
Nine species from the genus Usnea were found in the Kunashir Island. Six species are new for the Kunashir Island. These are U. cornuta, U. glabrata, U. fragilescens, U. lapponica, U. pangiana, U. subfloridana. In total, six secondary medullary substances detected by HPTLC were found in the species of Usnea from Kunashir. Four new chemotypes are described. The paper provides a key for identification of Usnea species in the Kunashir Island, list of specimens examined, lists of chemotypes detected by authors and known from literature. Keywords: chemistry, distribution, key, lichen substances, Kuril Islands.
32934Stepanchikova I.S., Rodionova A.A., Himelbrant D.E. & Motiejūnaitė J. (2020): The lichens of Maly Island (Peninsaari) in the Gulf of Finland (Leningrad Region). - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 54(2): 453–466. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2020.54.2.453.
A lichen checklist for Maly Island (Leningrad Region, Russia) comprises 160 species, including 150 lichens, 9 lichenicolous fungi and 1 non-lichenized saprobic fungus. Lecidella eff ugiens is new to North-Western European Russia, Diplotomma pharcidium and Taeniolella delicata are new to the Leningrad Region. The lichen biota of Maly Island is relatively poor due to natural and anthropogenic factors: the island is small, sandy, lacking rocky outcrops, with low diversity of plant communities; all its forests are disturbed and young. The most valuable habitats for lichens on Maly Island are seashore communities and open pine stands on sand. Keywords: lichen diversity, seashore communities, Baltic Sea, Karelia australis, Kingisepp District, Russia.
32933Мучник Е.Э. [Muchnik E.E.] (2020): Дополнения к лихенобиоте Брянской области (Россия) [Contribution to the lichen biota of the Bryansk Region (Russia)]. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 54(2): 441–451. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2020.54.2.441.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] The checklist of 56 lichen species and 4 allied non-lichenized saprotrophic fungi is presented. It complements the previously available information on the lichen biota of the Bryansk Region. Lecanora stanislai, Micarea pusilla, and Physconia grumosa are recorded for the first time in Central Russia, 38 other species are new to the Bryansk Region. Calicium quercinum, Cladonia decorticata, C. homosekikaica, and Stereocaulon condensatum are rare species in Central Russia. We consider a number of species as indicators of biologically valuable forest and park landscapes in coniferous- broadleaved and broadleaved subzones in Central Russia. Recommendations on expanding the list of protected lichen species in Bryansk Region are given. Keywords: Lecanora stanislai, Micarea pusilla, Physconia grumosa, lichens, rare species, special protected areas, Central Russia.
32932Konoreva L.A., Chesnokov S.V., Korolev K.S. & Himelbrant D.E. (2020): On the Micarea prasina group (Pilocarpaceae) in the Kaliningrad Region. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 54(2): 429–440. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2020.54.2.429.
Seven species of Micarea prasina group were found during the lichen study in the northern part of the Kaliningrad Region. M. pseudomicrococca is reported for the fi rst time for Russia, 6 other species are new to the Kaliningrad Region. Morphological, anatomical, and chemical features of the species are discussed. Keywords: Micarea, biodiversity, distribution, lichens, secondary metabolites, taxonomy, Baltic region, Russia.
32931Исмаилов А.Б. [Ismailov A.B.] (2020): Лишайники высокогорных буковых лесов Республики Дагестан [Lichens of high mountainous beech forests of the Republic of Dagestan]. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 54(2): 413–427. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2020.54.2.413.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] The high mountainous beech (Fagus orientalis) forests of Dagestan which are a refugium of the species with oceanic/suboceanic distribution in the arid conditions of the East Caucasus have been studied for the first time, and 140 species of lichens, lichenicolous and non-lichenized fungi growing on beech have been revealed. Among them 3 species (Leptogium burnetiae, Lobaria pulmonaria, and Ricasolia amplissima) are endangered lichens included in the red data book of Russia. Seven species (Abrothallus nephromatis, A. peyritschii, Biatora beckhausii, Biatoropsis usnearum, Bryoria vrangiana, Dactylospora lobariella, and Usnea fragilescens) and 2 genera (Biatoropsis and Ramonia) are reported for the first time for the East Caucasus; 10 species (Collema nigrescens, C. subnigrescens, Gyalecta fagicola, G. herculina, Lecanora intumescens, Leptogium burnetiae, L. cyanescens, Melanohalea elegantula, Nephroma helveticum, and Ramonia luteola) and the genus Biatora are new for Dagestan. The record of Ramonia luteola is the second for Russia and the Caucasus. Most of the lichens are with trebouxioid photobiont, cyanolichens are represented by 20 species, lichens with trentepohlioid photobiont — by 14 species. Reproductive strategy by spores is prevailing. Vegetative diaspores are formed by 51 species of which 46 are fruticose and foliose. The species from Lobarion pulmonariae community are revealed. The presence of rare and endangered species shows a high value of studied community for nature protection. Keywords: Fagus orientalis, Lobarion pulmonariae, biodiversity, lichenicolous fungi, new records, old-growth forests, East Caucasus, Russia.
32930Zhdanov I.S. (2020): Halecania ahtii (Leprocaulaceae), a new lichen species from the Russian Far East. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 54(2): 405–411. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2020.54.2.405.
A new species, Halecania ahtii, is described and illustrated. It is only known from the type locality in the Russian Far East. It is characterized by thin, very inconspicuous thallus consisting of small, dispersed areoles and most likely containing argopsin (identifi ed by fast orange-red reaction with P), as well as relatively small ascospores, and a lichenicolous habit on diff erent saxicolous host species on acidic rocks. A key for Halecania species containing argopsin is proposed. Keywords: biodiversity, Primorye Territory.
32929Бельдиман Л.Н., Урбанавичене И.Н., Федосов В.Э. & Кузьмина Е.Ю. [Beldiman L.N., Urbanavichene I.N., Fedosov V.E. & Kuzmina E.Yu.] (2020): Мхи и лишайники острова Шокальского (Карское море, Ямало-Ненецкий автономный округ) [Mosses and lichens of Shokalsky Island (Kara Sea, Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Area)]. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 54(2): 497–513. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2020.54.2.497.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] We studied in detail a moss-lichen component of Shokalsky Island vegetation for the first time and identified 79 species of mosses and 54 species and 2 subspecies of lichens and lichenicolous fungi. All species of mosses and 23 species and 2 subspecies of lichens and lichenicolous fungi are recorded for the first time for the island. The study is based on collections made in South West part of the island, in arctic tundra. We also explored the participation of the mosses and lichens in the main types of plant communities and the species distribution in 10 ecotopes. The paper describes the noteworthy findings (Abrothallus parmeliarum, Aongstroemia longipes, Arthonia peltigerea, Caloplaca caesiorufella, Catillaria stereocaulorum, Ceratodon heterophyllus, Lecanora leptacinella, Sphagnum concinnum, S. olafii) and features of bryo- and lichenoflora of Shokalsky Island. Keywords: bryoflora, lichenoflora, arctic tundra, flora, Arctic, West Siberia.
32928Czernyadjeva I.V., Ahti T., Boldina O.N., Chesnokov S.V, Davydov E.A., Doroshina G.Ya., Fedosov V.E., Khetagurov Kh.М., Konoreva L.A., Kotkova V.M., Kuzmina E.Yu., Lavrentiev M.V., Liksakova N.S., Nikolayev I.А., Popova N.N., Safronova T.V., Shadrina S.N. & Yakovchenko L.S. (2020): New cryptogamic records. 6. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 54(2): 537–557. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2020.54.2.537.
First records of chrysophytes for the North-Western Russia and the Leningrad Region, fungi for the Pskov Region, lichens for Svalbard and the Altai Territory, bryophytes for the Far East, Arkhangelsk, Saratov, Voronezh and Sakhalin regions, the Karachayevo-Circassian Republic, Republic of North Ossetia – Alania, the Republic of Altai, the New Siberian Islands Archipelago, the Kuril Islands, the Republic of South Ossetia. The data on its localities, habitats and distribution are provided. Keywords: Alutaceodontia alutacea, Basidiomycota, Botryobasidium intertextum, Buellia epigaea, Calliergon megalophyllum, Chrysophyceae, Chrysostephanosphaera globulifera, Cladonia labradorica, Cladonia norvegica, Cladonia oxneri, Dendrothele acerina, Fissidens exilis, Homalia trichomanoides, Lewinskya laevigata, Mallomonas oviformis, Orthotrichum sibiricum, Orthotrichum sibiricum, Parmelia fraudans, Pellia endiviifolia, Peltigera extenuata, Peniophora lilacea, Pohlia beringiensis, Rhizomnium magnifolium, Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus, Sphagnum jensenii, Sphagnum majus, Sphagnum mirum, Sphagnum squarrosum, aphyllophoroid fungi, algae, chrysophytes, lichens, mosses, mycobiota, Republic of Altai, Altai Territory, Arctic, Arkhangelsk Region, Far East, Karachayevo-Circassian Republic, Kinnvika Bay, Kuril Islands, Leningrad Region, New Siberian Islands Archipelago, Nordaustlandet, North-Western Russia, Norway, Pskov Region, Republic of North Ossetia — Alania, Republic of South Ossetia, Russia, Saratov Region, Sakhalin Region, Stolbovoy Island, Svalbard, Voronezh Region, Urup Island.
32927Fjelde M.O., Melechin A. & Timdal E. (2020): Calvitimela talayana new to Fennoscandia. - Graphis Scripta, 32(5): 101–109. http://nhm2.uio.no/botanisk/lav/Graphis/32_5/GS_32_101.pdf.
The lichen species Calvitimela talayana (Tephromelataceae, Lecanorales) is rarely collected worldwide but seems to have a broad and northern circumpolar distribution. It is here reported as new to Fennoscandia. The collection was made on siliceous rocks in alpine to arctic boulderfields at massif Lovozerskie gory on the Kola peninsula (Murmansk oblast, Russia), extending the known distribution range of this species by almost 1200 km. An additional collection from the Priuralsky district (Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District) was made 160 km north of the former northernmost collection in the Ural Mountain. The specimens fit C. talayana in morphology (pale yellow areolae and yellow to dark green soralia), and the identification was confirmed by thin-layer chromatography and a maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis of the barcode marker nrITS.
32926Suija A. & Jüriado I. (2020): Records of new and interesting lichenicolous fungi from Finland and Norway. - Graphis Scripta, 32(5): 86–100. http://nhm2.uio.no/botanisk/lav/Graphis/32_5/GS_32_86.pdf.
Seven lichenicolous fungi new to Finland were found during the revision of lichen material collected by the second author from Finland and Norway, and of historical collections made by Prof. Theodor Lippmaa in the 1920s from north-western Finland. New localities for 29 lichenicolous species collected in the southern Finnish archipelago, in northern Finland or in northern Norway are also reported.
32925Wang W., Van den Boom P., Sangvichien E. & Wei J. (2020): A molecular study of the lichen genus Byssoloma Trevisan (Pilocarpaceae) with descriptions of three new species from China. - Lichenologist, 52(5): 387-396. .
A molecular phylogeny of the genus Byssoloma is inferred from mtSSU sequences using Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses. Byssoloma subdiscordans is resolved as sister to B. citricola rather than to the B. leucoblepharum clade, the B. subundulatum group (species with a compact apothecial margin) is shown to be a monophyletic group, and three species belonging to this group are described as new to science from Hainan Province in China: B. brunneodiscum W. C. Wang & J. C. Wei, with dark brown apothecia, crystals in the excipulum and the presence of 2,5,7-trichloro-3-O-methylnorlichexanthone; B. rubrofuscum W. C. Wang & J. C. Wei, with red-brown apothecia, 3–6-septate ascospores and the presence of 5,7-dichloro-3-O-methylnorlichexanthone; B. melanodiscocarpum W. C. Wang & J. C. Wei, with pure black apothecia, a K+ olive-black hypothecium and the presence of thiophanic acid. foliicolous lichens, Hainan, mtSSU, taxonomy
32924Wang W., Sangvichien E., Wei T. & Wei J. (2020): A molecular phylogeny of Pilocarpaceae Zahlbr., including a new species of Tapellaria Müll. Arg. and new records of foliicolous lichenized fungi from Thailand. - Lichenologist, 52(5): 377-385. .
The phylogeny of foliicolous taxa in Pilocarpaceae was reconstructed using Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses of concatenated ITS and mtSSU sequences. Sixty-six new partial sequences representing 36 taxa were generated and 29 sequences were downloaded from GenBank. Our results indicate that Lasioloma R. Sant. is nested within a paraphyletic Calopadia Vězda, whereas Fellhanera Vězda is poly- phyletic and the phylogenetic relationships of Eugeniella Lücking et al. and Sporopodium Mont. with Fellhanera require further investiga- tion. In addition, Tapellaria parvimuriformis W. C. Wang & J. C. Wei is described as a new species from Khao Yai National Park, Thailand, and is characterized by its small muriform ascospores, grey campylidia with a pale base, and short conidia. Eight new records of foliicolous lichens for Thailand are also listed. Asia, Bayesian analysis, foliicolous lichens, ITS, mtSSU
32923Van der Kolk H., Earland-Bennett P. & Hawksworth D. (2020): A new Psammina species with exceptionally long conidial arms, with a key to the ten known species of the genus. - Lichenologist, 52(5): 337-343. .
The algicolous and lichenicolous species Psammina filamentosa is described from the Netherlands and the UK, and is characterized by long (generally over 50 μm) and somewhat tapered conidial arms. Psammina filamentosa is compared with other Psammina specimens found in the same habitat, growing on algae or lichens on the dry side of trees and stones. Psammina filamentosa, P. inflata and P. stipitata differ in the dimensions of their conidial arms. Psammina simplex, however, may be a synonym of P. stipitata, and a DNA study is needed to deter- mine whether it is a distinct species or developing material of P. stipitata. Psammina inflata is also reported as new for the Netherlands. A new worldwide key to the 10 species of Psammina currently known is provided, including three species described from plant material. algicolous, coelomycetes, hyphomycetes, lichenicolous, The Netherlands, UK
32922Galanty A., Paśko P., Podolak I. & Zagrodzki P. (2020): Optimization of usnic acid extraction conditions using fractional factorial design. - Lichenologist, 52(5): 397-401. .
Usnic acid is a unique lichen metabolite of industrial importance, widely studied to explore its pharmacological potential and valued espe- cially as an antibacterial agent in cosmetics. Although a vast number of papers describe usnic acid extraction from various lichen species, none has so far provided an unequivocal indication of the best extraction procedure for this compound. Thus, the current study was focused on the direct comparison of three commonly used usnic acid extraction methods (heat reflux, shaking, ultrasound-assisted extractions), which were optimized using fractional factorial design. Heat reflux extraction, shaking extraction and ultrasound-assisted extraction were first optimized in a series of experiments using fractional factorial design, with respect to three parameters: the extraction time, the solvent used and the number of extraction repetitions. HPLC was employed for usnic acid quantitative analysis. The best scores for each extraction method were statistically compared and the optimal conditions were indicated. The optimal set of parameters for usnic acid was established to be a single, 60 min heat reflux extraction with acetone. This extraction scheme provided 4.25 ±0.08 mg g−1 d.w. of usnic acid, while for ultrasound-assisted and shaking extractions the amount was two- or even four times lower (2.33 ±0.17 and 0.97 ±0.08 mg g−1 d.w., respect- ively). The optimal procedure for usnic acid extraction described here may be suitable for effective acquisition of this compound for sci- entific research purposes, but also for applications in the pharmaceutical or cosmetic industries. extraction, fractional factorial design, lichen, optimization, usnic acid
32921Elvebakk A., Hong S., Park C. & Rämä T. (2020): Psoroma capense and P. esterhuyseniae (Pannariaceae), two new alpine species from South Africa. - Lichenologist, 52(5): 345-352. .
The new species Psoroma capense and P. esterhuyseniae are described from four alpine localities in the Western Cape Province of South Africa and are the only known Psoroma species from Africa. The specimens were all collected from moist sites near watercourses, on cool and mostly south-facing cliffs. Psoroma capense resembles P. tenue in gross morphology but differs in the ascending thallus squamules, lack of secondary compounds and short-ellipsoid to ovoid ascospores. However, a phylogenetic analysis involving the markers ITS, nucLSU, mtSSU and Mcm7, comparing the only recent collection of P. capense with previously published sequences, shows that it belongs to the P. hypnorum lineage, with no known, closely related species. Psoroma esterhuyseniae resembles P. hypnorum but has subglobose to short- ellipsoid ascospores without apical perispore extensions. The two species are thought to have evolved from one or two long-distance dis- persal events during the Pleistocene. biodiversity, evolution, lichens, phylogeny, taxonomy
32920Davydov E., Yakovchenko L., Urbanavichene I., Konoreva L., Chesnokov S., Kharpukhaeva T. & Obermayer W. (2020): Umbilicaria orientalis – a new species of Umbilicaria subg. Papillophora with an East Asian distribution: Morphological delimitation and molecular evidence. - Lichenologist, 52(5): 353-364. .
Umbilicaria orientalis Davydov sp. nov. is described and phylogenetic analysis (ITS, mtLSU and RPB2) confirmed its distinctness and indicated a sister relationship with U. trabeculata within the U. vellea group. The species is morphologically similar to U. vellea but differs by simple, cylindrical or strap-like rhizinomorphs and by thalloconidia, developing both on the lower surface and on rhizinomorphs, that are 1–2 (rarely 4)–celled or in aggregates of up to 5–6 cells. Umbilicaria orientalis is described from the Russian Far East and is currently known from a wide range of localities in East Asia, from the Far East to South Siberia and Mongolia in the north, to Hebei and Tibet in the south. New sequences of U. americana were obtained; the species represents an independent phylogenetic lineage within Umbilicaria subg. Papillophora. Diagnostic traits and variability of different developmental stages of U. orientalis, as well as its East Asian distribution pattern, are discussed. Ascomycota, China, Far East, lichen, Mongolia, Russia, South Siberia, Tibet
32919Crespo A., Rico V., Garrido E., Lumbsch H. & Divakar P. (2020): A revision of species of the Parmelia saxatilis complex in the Iberian Peninsula with the description of P. rojoi, a new potentially relict species. - Lichenologist, 52(5): 365-376. .
The species of the Parmelia saxatilis complex occurring in the Iberian Peninsula were revised. Eight species are accepted, including a new species found in southern Spain, described as P. rojoi A. Crespo, V. J. Rico & Divakar. The new species, which forms a sister-group rela- tionship with P. saxatilis s. str., is rare in the Iberian Peninsula and is restricted to higher altitudes of northern and central Spain. Parmelia rojoi differs from P. saxatilis by generally narrower isidia and a more fragile thallus. The segregation of the new species is also supported by ITS (rDNA) and Mcm7 (MS456) phylogeny and multispecies coalescent-based approaches, including StarBEAST and BP&P. Furthermore, the divergence of P. rojoi is dated back to the Pleistocene, c. 2.13 Ma. A key to the identification of species from the P. saxatilis complex with their diagnostic features is provided. All species of the complex known from Europe are also found in the Iberian Peninsula. We hypothesize that P. rojoi is a relict species that survived the Pleistocene glaciations in refugia in Spain and has been unable to extend its distributional range in postglacial periods. biogeography, glaciations, lichen, Parmeliaceae, phylogeny, refugia, systematics, taxonomy
32918Torres J.M., Spielmann A.A., Aptroot A., Cardoso K.F. & Honda N.K. (2020): The lichen genus Schistophoron Stirt. (Ascomycetes, Graphidaceae) in Brazil with a world key to the species. - Cryptogamie, Mycologie , 41(13): 211–217. https://cryptogamie.com/mycologie/41/13.
The genus Schistophoron Stirt. is reported for the first time from Brazil, based on collections from Mato Grosso do Sul State. Two species, S. indicum Kr.P.Singh & Swarnalatha, and S. tenue Stirt., were found, both of which are described and illustrated. In addition, a brief characterization of the other know species, with their geographic distribution, a comparative table and a world key are provided to facilitate their identification. Key words: Lirellae, mazaedium, new records, tropics, Chaco.
32917Kubiak D. & Osyczka P. (2020): Non-forested vs forest environments: The effect of habitat conditions on host tree parameters and the occurrence of associated epiphytic lichens. - Fungal Ecology, 47: 100957 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.funeco.2020.100957.
The study compares the epiphytic lichen communities of two different ecological systems of northern Poland, a non-forested area and a natural lowland deciduous forest corresponding to the potential vegetation flora of a large part of Central Europe, in relation to the same tree species. The impact of habitat type and tree species on individual tree properties and the association between tree size, bark pH, conductivity, water-holding capacity, bark splitting, light intensity at tree trunks and the composition of lichens were analysed. Three sets of lichens were identified: confined to non-forested areas (40 species), confined to forests (61 species), and non-specific mutual species (53 species). The results indicate that most species demonstrate specificity to habitat type rather than to tree species. Factors related to tree species and bark properties gain in importance at the level of a specific habitat. Bark pH and waterholding capacity are decisive factors for lichen occurrence in both habitat types; additionally, in forests, tree diameter is important. The paper provides potentially useful ecological data for campaigns aimed at lichen conservation and at shaping the environment with concern for biodiversity. Keywords: Epiphytes; Lichen communities; Host trees; Deciduous forest; Non-forested area; Ecology; Habitat factors; Lichen conservation.
32916Nelsen M.P. & Lumbsch H.T. (2020): A data-driven evaluation of lichen climate change indicators in Central Europe. - Biodiversity and Conservation, 29: 3959–3971. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-020-02057-8.
Lichens are widely utilized as indicators of air quality, forest health and climate change. In Central Europe, specific lichens have been designated as climate change indicators; however, the lichen biota of central Europe has been substantially altered by air pollution and only re-established during the past decades—complicating the interpretation of recent changes in lichen composition. To assess their validity as climate change indicators, we aggregated georeferenced records of these taxa and compared their historic and modern distributions. Modern distributions substantially differed for fewer than half of the indicator taxa with sufficient data to enable evaluation—reinforcing their utility as climate change indicators. However, modern distributions for approximately half of the taxa evaluated were largely confined to historically suitable climates—raising questions about their utility as climate change indicators. We were unable to model historic distributions for nearly two-thirds of all indicator taxa due to insufficient data. About one-third of these had multiple modern records but one or fewer historic records, suggesting they may indeed be expanding their range; however, about half had comparable or greater numbers of historic records relative to modern records, complicating their interpretation as climate change indicators. Together, our work illustrates that distributions for fewer than half of the lichen climate change indicators have substantially shifted in the recent past, and calls into question whether the remaining designated taxa are indeed strong positive indicators of climate change. We argue that more quantitative, evidence-based derivations of climate change indicators are required to accurately detect climate change. Keywords: Lichens;  Climate change;  Biomonitoring;  Europe.
32915Nimis P.L. & Martellos S. (2020): Towards a digital key to the lichens of Italy. - Symbiosis, 82: 149–155. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13199-020-00714-8.
Work is in progress for the completion of a computer-aided key to all lichens known to occur in Italy, which will be freely available online, and as a free application for mobile devices. A first example, concerning the lichens of Northern Italy (2.339 infrageneric taxa), is already available online for testing. A computer-generated but manually edited dichotomous key is invoked for all species previously filtered via a multi-entry interface, where several selected characters can be specified in a single step. To optimize the two query interfaces, two different datasets are used, one for the dichotomous, the other for the multi-entry interface. Keywords: Biodiversity . E-keys . Flora . Identification . Lichenized fungi.
32914Smith H.B., Dal Grande F., Muggia L., Keuler R., Divakar P.K., Grewe F., Schmitt I., Lumbsch H.T. & Leavitt S.D. (2020): Metagenomic data reveal diverse fungal and algal communities associated with the lichen symbiosis. - Symbiosis, 82: 133–147. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13199-020-00699-4.
Lichens have traditionally been considered the symbiotic phenotype from the interactions of a single fungal partner and one or few photosynthetic partners. However, lichen symbioses have been shown to be farmore complex andmay include a wider range of other interacting organisms, including non-photosynthetic bacteria, accessory fungi, and algae. In this study, we analyzed metagenomic shotgun sequences in an attempt to characterize lichen mycobiomes. Specifically, we inferred the range of fungi associated within lichen thalli from five groups of lichens – horsehair lichens (mycobiont = Bryoria spp.), shadow lichens (taxa in Physciaceae), rock posies (Rhizoplaca spp.), rock tripes (Umbilicaria spp.), and green rock shields (Xanthoparmelia spp.). Metagenomic reads from the multi-copy nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region, the standard DNA barcode region for fungi, were extracted, clustered, and used to infer taxonomic assignments. Our data revealed diverse lichen-associated mycobiomes. Many of the members of the lichen-associated mycobiomes that were identified here have not previously been found in association with lichens. Furthermore, closely related mycobionts tended to have more similar mycobiomes. We found little evidence supporting the ubiquitous presence of Cystobasidiales yeasts in macrolichens, although reads representing this putative symbiotic partner were found in samples of Bryoria lichens, albeit in low abundance. Our study further highlights the ecosystem-like features of lichens, with partners and interactions far from being completely understood. Future research is needed to more fully and accurately characterize lichen mycobiomes and how these fungi interact with the major lichen components, the photo- and mycobionts. Keywords: Cystobasidiomycetes . Endolichenic fungi . Genomics . Holobiont . ITS . Symbiosis.
32913Muggia L., Zalar P., Azua-Bustos A., González-Silva C., Grube M. & Gunde-Cimerman N. (2020): The beauty and the yeast: can the microalgae Dunaliella form a borderline lichen with Hortaea werneckii?. - Symbiosis, 82: 123–131. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13199-020-00697-6.
Lichenized fungi usually develop complex, stratifiedmorphologies through an intricately balanced living togetherwith their algal partners, but several species are known to form only more or less loose associations with algae. These borderline lichens are still little explored although they could inform us about early stages of lichen evolution.We studied the association of the extremely halotolerant fungus Hortaea werneckii with the alga Dunaliella atacamensis, discovered in a cave in the Atacama Desert (Chile), and with D. salina, common inhabitant of saltern brines. D. atacamensis forms small colonies, in which cells of H. werneckii can be frequently observed, while such interaction has not been observed with D. salina. As symbiotic interactions between Dunaliella and Hortaea have not been reported, we performed a series of co-cultivation experiments to inspect whether these species could interact and develop more distinct lichen-like symbiotic structures.We set up co-cultures between axenic strains of Hortaea werneckii (isolated both fromMediterranean salterns and from the Atacama cave) and isolates of D. atacamensis (from the Atacama cave) and D. salina (isolated from Mediterranean salterns). Although we used different growth media and cultivation approaches, bright field and SEMmicroscopy analyses did not indicate any mutual effects in these experiments.We discuss the implications for fungal algal interactions along the transition from algal exploiters to lichen symbioses. Keywords: Atacama Desert . Black yeast . Culture . Halotolerant . Mutualism . Salterns.
32912Černajová I. & Škaloud P. (2020): Lessons from culturing lichen soredia. - Symbiosis, 82: 109–122. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13199-020-00718-4.
Vegetative propagules play various important roles in lichen biology. We cultured soredia of Cladonia lichens in vitro and obtained three noteworthy results. Firstly, soredia are a beneficial source for the isolation of lichen symbionts. The mycobiont was obtained from 66% and the photobiont from 67% of the cultured soredia that were not contaminated. Secondly, the development of soredia followed a previously recognized pattern, arachnoid stage – soredium field – primordium, but a thalline structure was not achieved. We suggest that thallus formation in vitro is a question of favourable environmental factors, not partners compatibility. Finally, we discovered that fungi, other than the mycobiont, as well as airborne contaminants are dispersed together with lichen soredia. This is the first-ever report of such a phenomenon. The possible ecological consequences are discussed. Cystobasidiomycete yeasts were found among these fungi. We isolated representatives of three different lineages from a single thallus suggesting a low specificity for this association.
32911Pichler G., Stöggl W., Trippel D., Candotto Carniel F., Muggia L., Ametrano C.G., Çimen T., Holzinger A., Tretiach M. & Kranner I. (2020): Phytohormone release by three isolated lichen mycobionts and the effects of indole-3-acetic acid on their compatible photobionts. - Symbiosis, 82: 95–108. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13199-020-00721-9.
Evidence is emerging that phytohormones represent key inter-kingdom signalling compounds supporting chemical communication between plants, fungi and bacteria. The roles of phytohormones for the lichen symbiosis are poorly understood, particularly in the process of lichenization, i.e. the key events which lead free-living microalgae and fungi to recognize each other, make physical contact and start developing a lichen thallus. Here, we studied cellular and extracellularly released phytohormones in three lichen mycobionts, Cladonia grayi, Xanthoria parietina and Tephromela atra, grown on solid medium, and the effects of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) on their respective photobionts, Asterochloris glomerata, Trebouxia decolorans, Trebouxia sp. Using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) we found that mycobionts produced IAA, salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA). IAA represented the most abundant phytohormone produced and released by all mycobionts, whereas SA was released by X. parietina and T. atra, and JA was released by C. grayi only. With a half-life of 5.2 days, IAA degraded exponentially in solid BBM in dim light. When IAA was exogenously offered to the mycobionts’ compatible photobionts at “physiological” concentrations (as released by their respective mycobionts and accumulated in the medium over seven days), the photobionts’ water contents increased up to 4.4%. Treatment with IAA had no effects on the maximum quantum yield of photosystem II, dry mass, and the contents of photosynthetic pigments and α- tocopherol of the photobionts. The data presented may be useful for designing studies aimed at elucidating the roles of phytohormones in lichens. Keywords: Alga . Auxin . Fungus . Jasmonic acid . Lichen . Salicylic acid.
32910Díaz E.M., Zamora J.C., Ruibal C., Divakar P.K., González-Benítez N., Le Devehat F., Chollet M., Ferron S., Sauvager A., Boustie J., Crespo A. & Molina M.C. (2020): Axenic culture and biosynthesis of secondary compounds in lichen symbiotic fungi, the Parmeliaceae. - Symbiosis, 82: 79–93. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13199-020-00719-3.
Lichens produce unique secondary metabolites with a rich potential as bioactive compounds. In many cases, the use of these molecules is limited by the low concentration of these compounds in thalli, low growth rate in culture, and changes in chemical patterns between thalli and aposymbiotic culture. In addition, the massive collection of some species of industrial interest can cause damage to lichen diversity and the associated environment. Six lichenized fungi (Arctoparmelia centrifuga, Parmelia saxatilis, Parmelina tiliacea, Platismatia glauca, Xanthoparmelia tinctina, and Usnea ghattensis) with biotechnological interest and belonging to Parmeliaceae have been cultured in order to test culture conditions and obtain enough biomass for further studies. In addition, we analyzed the compounds synthetized in axenic conditions and they were compared with chemosyndromes identified in complete thalli. Arctoparmelia centrifuga, P. saxatilis, P. tiliacea and X. tinctina were successfully cultivated while for P. glauca and U. ghattensis we only obtained sporulation and germination of the spores. The chemical pattern of the compounds secreted into the culture media varied significantly from the chemosyndrome of the whole thallus. Phenolic compounds of pharmacological and industrial interest (usnic acid, aspicilin, α-alectoronic acid, physodic acid, lobaric acid and nordivaricatic acid) and a wide variety of potentially bioactive compounds were obtained during the culture process. Keywords: Axenic culture . Mycobiont . Phenolic compounds . Bioactive molecules.
32909de las Heras R. & Catalá M. (2020): Biotechnological applications of lichen phycobionts: fast bioassay of environmental toxicity. - Symbiosis, 82: 69–78. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13199-020-00726-4.
Microbioassays allow for efficient contamination monitoring and control strategies. Free-living microalgae, representative of the aquatic environment, are the most used organisms due to high sensitivity and reproducibility. However, a lack of testing methods representative of terrestrial habitats has long been highlighted. A good unexploited option is the use of lichen phycobionts. The use of appropriate biomarkers leads to a reduction in costs and number of organisms, contributing to cost-efficient, rapid, and sensitive microbioassays. With the aimto develop a fast microbioassay, axenic Asterochloris erici was grown on treated cellulose paper, desiccated and rehydrated with different concentrations of inorganic and organic pollutants. Chlorophyll autofluorescence and free radical content were measured 5 min post-rehydration as energetics and oxidative status biomarkers respectively. Fluorescence microscopical images of exposed phycobionts were also collected. Potassium dichromate and copper sulphate decreased chlorophyll autofluorescence at high concentrations whereas boric and clofibric acids had little effect, all showing LOECs similar to those found in the literature. Heavy metals induced free radical bursts at extremely low concentrations whereas boric and clofibric acid showed modest and fluctuant increases. Microscopical images support fluorometric results and relate free radical bursts with bigger cells. In every case, free radicals LOEC is lower than chlorophyll autofluorescence’s by at least three orders of magnitude, making this microbioassay highly sensitive and fast, as well as low cost and ecologically relevant. Keywords: Microbioassay . Asterochloris erici . Pollutants . Chlorophyll autofluorescence . Free radicals . Microalgae.
32908Expósito J.R., Mejuto I. & Catalá M. (2020): Detection of active cell death markers in rehydrated lichen thalli and the involvement of nitrogen monoxide (NO). - Symbiosis, 82: 59–67. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13199-020-00727-3.
Lichen desiccation/rehydration cycles lead to an increased oxidative stress modulated by the multifaceted mediator nitrogen monoxide (NO). Active cell death, frequently triggered by oxidative damage with NO participation, has been confirmed even in unicellular organisms. This adaptive mechanism has not been studied in lichens and no specific experimental protocols exist. Hoechst 33,342 enters viable cells and DNA binding increases its fluorescence, particularly intense in condensed apoptotic chromatin. YO-PRO-1 can only permeate the altered membrane of apoptotic P2X7-positive cells. Proteolytic caspases are activated upon different types of active cell death. Our objectives are to determine if these markers indicate active cell death in Ramalina farinacea after desiccation/rehydration and to study the effect of NO scavenging. YO-PRO-1, Hoechst 33342, and Caspase 3/7 Green DNA binding were assessed in thalli rehydrated with deionized water and with a cocktail of apoptosis inducers. A 24 h kinetics and a microscopical analysis were performed. YO-PRO-1 fluorescence was not detected, Hoechst 33342 staining abruptly decreases during the first hours, while caspase-like activity associated to phycobionts steadily increases. Whereas the apoptosis inducers cocktail 1x significantly increased caspase-like activity affecting both symbionts, Hoechst staining was only affected at 10x. NO scavenging diminishes caspase-like activation and seems to accelerate Hoechst abrupt decrease during thallus rehydration. In conclusion, the demonstration of caspase-like activity in R. farinacea and its Trebouxia phycobionts point to the presence of active cell death but other methods assessing cell effective death or DNA irreversible fragmentation (i.e. TUNEL assay) are necessary to confirm this feature. Keywords: Caspases . Apoptosis . Programmed cell death . Hoechst 33342 .NO . Oxidative stress .YO-PRO-1.
32907Sancho L., de los Ríos A., Pintado A., Colesie C., Raggio J., Ascaso C. & Green A. (2020): Himantormia lugubris, an Antarctic endemic on the edge of the lichen symbiosis. - Symbiosis, 82: 49–58. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13199-020-00723-7.
Himantormia lugubris is an Antarctic endemic with a distribution restricted to the northwest tip of Antarctic Peninsula, adjacent islands and South Georgia Island. In this region H. lugubris is an important component of the epilithic lichen community. The species has a fruticose thallus with usually simple and flattened branches whose grey surface is often disrupted exposing the black and dominant chondroid axis. Because the photobiont cells are mainly restricted to the patchy grey areas, positive carbon balance seems to be rather difficult for this species. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to elucidate which functional strategy, possibly linked with thallus anatomy, is used by H. lugubris that enables it to be a successful species in the maritime Antarctic. To achieve this goal, we constructed a picture of the lichen’s physiological, anatomical and morphological characteristics by using a broad range of technologies, such as chlorophyll fluorescence, CO2 exchange and electron microscopy. We found that H. lugubris has a very low net photosynthesis, apparently restricted to the grey areas, but high respiratory rates. Therefore, positive net photosynthesis is only possible at low temperatures. Chlorophyll content is also low but is present in both gray and black areas. Our conclusion is that the only possibility for this species to achieve a positive carbon balance is to be active for long periods under optimal conditions, that means, wet, cold and with enough light, a common combination in this region of Antarctica. Given these constrains, we suggest that H. lugubris is likely to be especially sensitive species to predicted climate warming in the maritime Antarctic. Keywords: Ecophysiology . Antarctic . Lichens . Photosynthesis . Anatomy . Himantormia lugubris.
32906Garrido-Benavent I., Pérez-Ortega S., de los Ríos A. & Fernández-Mendoza F. (2020): Amphitropical variation of the algal partners of Pseudephebe (Parmeliaceae, lichenized fungi). - Symbiosis, 82: 35–48. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13199-020-00709-5.
Lichens are present in most terrestrial ecosystems on Earth and colonize extreme habitats, where vascular plants are unable to thrive, due to unique properties of the fungal-algal symbiosis. Here, we explored the phylogeographic structure of green algae engaged in symbiosis with species in the genus Pseudephebe (Parmeliaceae). These often form deep brown to blackish fruticose thalli on acidic rocks, and have partially overlapping distributions: P. minuscula is bipolar and co-occurs with P. pubescens in Europe. Based on a broad sampling, including the Arctic and Antarctica, we focused on photobionts (1) to identify genetic lineages and their phylogenetic assignment, (2) to infer the haplotype distribution in relation with geography and the mycobiont’s identity, and (3) to evaluate spatial genetic structure and polymorphism. Results revealed three Trebouxia clade S lineages (Trebouxia S02, T. suecica and T. angustilobata) associated to Pseudephebe species, with predominant haplotypes distributed throughout the entire geographic distribution, and some, less frequent, shared between widely distant localities. Photobiont switching was evident in the Mediterranean region, and algal co-occurrence was frequent in both mycobionts, which shared the same set of photobionts; this could explain, at least partially, their overlapping distribution. Furthermore, genetic structure was influenced by geography given the substantial percentages of genetic variation (ca. 25–50%) explained by the different delimited eco−/biogeographic regions. In Continental Antarctica, mycobionts showed a high specialization towards the photobionts, which are probably endemic of this climatically extreme region. Taken together, our findings provide further insight about the processes shaping lichen biogeography. Keywords: Antarctica . Bipolar . Cryptogamic cover . Genetic structure . Phylogeography . Ultrastructure.
32905Molins A., Chiva S., Calatayud Á., Marco F., García-Breijo F., Reig-Armiñana J., Carrasco P. & Moya P. (2020): Multidisciplinary approach to describe Trebouxia diversity within lichenized fungi Buellia zoharyi from the Canary Islands. - Symbiosis, 82: 19–34. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13199-020-00722-8.
The Canary Islands are famous for their extraordinary biodiversity; however, lichenized algae have only been studied partially. Buellia zoharyi is a circum-Mediterranean/Macaronesian species that usually occurs in semi-arid areas of theMediterranean, but occasionally some interesting communities of this species grow on basaltic lava flows in Lanzarote, Fuerteventura and Tenerife. Those three locations showed similar ecological conditions, but different mean annual temperatures. Here we applied a multidisciplinary approach to describe microalgae diversity from B. zoharyi covering the entire described range of distribution in the Canary Islands. Photobionts were characterized in symbiosis using molecular and microscopic techniques. Different Trebouxia spp. were detected as primary photobiont in each island (Trebouxia cretacea-Fuerteventura, T. asymmetrica-Lanzarote and Trebouxia sp. `arnoldoi´-Tenerife). Coexistence of various Trebouxia spp. within a thallus were detected by using specific primers-PCR. Those three photobionts were isolated and cultured under laboratory conditions. Different phytohormone profiles were obtained in the isolated strains which suggest different internal signalling needs. In addition, we characterized the response of the isolated strains to different temperatures using chlorophyll fluorescence. T. asymmetrica did not modify their Fv/fm values with respect to temperature acclimation. In contrast, Trebouxia sp. `arnoldoi’and T. cretacea were more sensitive to changes in growing temperature decreasing Fv/fm at 17 °C. Our results indicate that B. zoharyi is flexible regarding the photobiont choice depending on the region, and suggest that bioclimatic factors could influence the myco/photobiont association patterns. Keywords: Coexistence . Isolation . Microalgae . Photosynthesis . Symbiosis . Ultrastructure.
32904Pino-Bodas R., Araujo E., Gutiérrez-Larruga B. & Burgaz A.R. (2020): Cladonia subturgida (Cladoniaceae, Lecanoromycetes), an overlooked, but common species in the Mediterranean region. - Symbiosis, 82: 9–18. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13199-020-00688-7.
Cladonia subturgida is a Mediterranean species that has been overlooked. Apparently it was restricted to the Iberian Peninsula and Canary Islands. However, during the study of the genus Cladonia in the Mediterranean region, new populations from 44 localities were found in: south France, Sardinia, south Italian peninsula, Crete and continental Greece. Distribution models based on MaxEnt, GLM, GAMandMARS algorithms were used to estimate the potential distribution of C. subturgida. Sicily, Corsica and the north of Africa were regions with suitable climatic conditions for C. subturgida where it has not been reported yet. The climatic variables with greatest relative influence in the C. subturgida distribution were the Precipitation of Warmest Quarter and the Annual Precipitation. Additionally, the ITS rDNA region was used to study the genetic variation of this species across its distribution area. Eleven haplotypes were found, one of them widely distributed through its geographical range. AMOVA analyses indicated lack of geographical structure. Keywords: Cladoniaceae . Distribution modelling . Genetic diversity . Lichen forming fungi.
32903Crespo A., Divakar P.K., Muggia L. & Santos A. (2020): Eva Barreno Rodríguez at 70: the person and the professional. - Symbiosis, 82: 3–7. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13199-020-00728-2.
anniversary; biography
32902Muggia L. (2020): Introduction to the Festschrift dedicated to Professor Eva Barreno. - Symbiosis, 82: 1–2. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13199-020-00729-1.
32901Truong C. & Clerc P. (2020): Lichens of the Creux-du-Van nature reserve (Neuchâtel, Switzerland). - Bulletin de la Société neuchâteloise des sciences naturelles, 140: 5–24. .
The Creux-du-Van nature reserve was created in 1960 to protect a large rocky cirque ca. 1.5 km wide in the Jura mountains in Switzerland. This impressive rock formation comprises a large variety of habitats over small distances that favor a wide diversity of lichen species. We conducted a lichen inventory of the reserve and compiled data from the literature and herbarium collections. We found a total of 167 species, out of which 44 were cited for the first time in the state (canton) of Neuchâtel and two in the Jura region of Switzerland. In addition, 34 species were under threat in the Jura region or in the country as a whole. The beech forests surrounding the cliff harbored the widest diversity of species, while specialized lichen species adapted to specific microhabitats were growing at the bottom of the cliff and on the south-exposed ridge. Key words: lichenized fungi, floristics, conservation, corticolous, saxicolous, lignicolous, terricolous.
32900Meysurova A.F., Notov A.A., Pungin A.V. & Skrypnik L.N. (2020): Complex physicochemical analysis of Hypogymnia physodes in different phytocenoses . - Journal of Applied Spectroscopy, 87(5): 877–887. .
[translated from Russian original published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Spektroskopii, Vol. 87, No. 5, pp. 804–815] The physiological and biochemical parameters and elemental composition of Hypogymnia physodes lichen samples from various phytocenoses differing in lighting conditions and atmospheric humidity were studied. A significant increase in the chlorophyll a and nitrogen contents, the maximal pheophytinization coefficient, and the minimum content of phenolic compounds were observed in H. physodes thalli under severe shading conditions in a spruce forest. Most of these biochemical parameters reached their minimum values with high insolation in birch and pine forests except for the content of phenolic compounds, which reached the maximum value. ICP–AES analysis of H. physodes thalli detected 20 elements (Al, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Pb, Sn, Sr, Tl, V, W, Zn) that were found in lichen samples from all studied natural phytocenoses except for Mo, which was absent in samples from a black alder forest. The maximum concentrations for almost half of the elements (Al, B, Fe, K, Mo, Na, Sn, Ti, V) were determined in samples from the spruce forest where the thalli were more often and consistently hydrated because of the high and more stable humidity level. A complex system of correlation relationships was established based on an analysis of cross-correlations of the physiological and biochemical parameters and the metal concentrations in the samples. The results indicated a high coordination of various physiological processes. Chlorophyll a played a crucial role in maintaining their consistency with changing environmental conditions. Its content was associated with a more signifi cant number of different parameters and elemental concentrations. Keywords: physicochemical methods, ICP–AES, photosynthetic pigments, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, pheophytinization, total nitrogen, phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, elemental composition, metals, macroelements, microelements, Hypogymnia physodes, natural phytocenoses, correlation analysis.
32899Prokopiev I.A. & Filippova G.V. (2020): Effect of (+) and (–) usnic acid on physiological, biochemical, and cytological characteristics of Allium fistulosum seeds. - Russian Journal of Plant Physiology, 67(6): 1046–1053. DOI: 10.1134/S102144372006014X.
[Original Russian text published in Fiziologiya Rastenii, 2020, Vol. 67, No. 6, pp. 636–643.] The effect of (+) and (–)-usnic acid (UA) on the physiological, biochemical, and cytological characteristics of Allium fistulosum L. seedlings was studied. It was shown that germination of seeds in the medium supplemented with both enantiomers of UA at concentrations of 62.5–1000 μM led to a decrease in laboratory germination, an inhibition of growth processes, a slowing of the mitotic activity of root meristems, and tissue depigmentation. A dose-dependent increase in the frequency of chromosomal aberrations and the degree of damage to nuclear DNA in cells was shown, which indicates the potentially genotoxic and mutagenic effect of the studied UA enantiomers. However, (–)-UA induced a greater number of atypical DNA comets than the (+)-enantiomer, which may indicate its stronger effect on DNA fragmentation in cells. An increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes and a decrease in the content of flavonoids were observed under the action of both UA enantiomers against the background of the accumulation of lipid peroxidation products in seedlings’ cells, which indicates the development of oxidative stress. At the same time, no significant differences between the activity of (+) and (–)-UAs at the level of physiological and biochemical parameters of seedlings were revealed.
32898Tanona M. & Czarnota P. (2020): Index of Atmospheric Purity reflects the ecological conditions better than the environmental pollution in the Carpathian forests. - Journal of Mountain Science, 17: 2691–2706. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11629-020-6266-1.
The Index of Atmospheric Purity (IAP) is a popular tool used for the assessment of air quality in polluted urban areas, on the basis of phytosociological data of epiphytic lichen communities. We hypothesized that this indicator could also be used in less polluted forest areas to determine the quality of ecological conditions for lichens. The aim of the present study was to verify the use of IAP method in the assessment of environmental pollution, and alternatively for the assessment of general ecological conditions in protected mountain forests of Gorce National Park (Polish Western Carpathians) based on the epiphytic lichen biota associated with Picea abies. The spatial distribution of IAP values on monitored sites in GNP was compared with: 1) spatial distribution of accumulated sulfur, nitrogen, selected heavy metals, and total heavy metals in Hypogymnia physodes thalli in 1993 and 2018 (30 sites), 2) mean ecological indicator values characterizing species requirements for light (L), substrate reaction (R) and nutrients (N), in 1993, 2013 and 2018 (33 sites). Generalized linear model and redundancy analysis were performed for disclosing most influencing factors affecting lichen communities. The study revealed a few negligible relationships between IAP values and accumulation of such elements as Ni, Mn, Cd, and Cr in both monitoring periods. Simultaneously, IAP can be useful for the identification of forest areas with a high degree of naturalness. Keywords: Biomonitoring; Lichens; Forest ecology; Norway spruce; Ecological indices; Environmental pollution.
32897Tanona M., Czarnota P. & Ortyl B. (2017): Wykorzystanie transplantowanych plech Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. w ocenie zanieczyszczenia miasta Rzeszowa [Use of transplanted thalli of Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. in assessing of the contamination in Rzeszów city]. - Polish Journal for Sustainable Development, 21(1): 69–80. DOI: 10.15584/pjsd.2017.21.1.8.
[in Polish with English summary: ] Evaluation was made of the air pollution level in Rzeszów city (SE Poland) caused by chemical elements: S, N, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb based on their accumulation in the transplanted Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. (lichenized Ascomycota) thalli. Samples were distributed within the city area in 37 monitoring points in the winter/spring season of 2014/2015. The average concentration of lead in the city was 3.159 mg/kg DW, and it exceeded the content of the element in relation to the reference at the average amount of 43.24%. The accumulation values of other 7 elements were comparable with those in the control sample. The results show, that bioindication method using transplanted lichen thalli, although controversial when the level of elements in the control sample is higher than the contamination in samples exposed within investigated city, may be successfully used in analysis of several months spatial distribution of an air pollution in towns. Key words: bioindication, air pollution, lichens, CHNS, AAS.
32896Vitt D.H., House M., Kitchen S. & Wieder R.K. (2020): A protocol for monitoring plant responses to changing nitrogen deposition regimes in Alberta bogs. - Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 192: 743 [25 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-020-08645-z.
Bogs are nutrient poor, acidic ecosystems that receive their water and nutrients entirely from precipitation (= ombrogenous) and as a result are sensitive to nutrient loading from atmospheric sources. Bogs occur frequently on the northern Alberta landscape, estimated to cover 6% of the Athabasca Oil Sands Area. As a result of oil sand extraction and processing, emissions of nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) to the atmosphere have led to increasing N and S deposition that have the potential to alter the structure and function of these traditionally nutrient-poor ecosystems. At present, no detailed protocol is available for monitoring potential change of these sensitive ecosystems. We propose a user-friendly protocol that will monitor potential plant and lichen responses to future environmental inputs of nutrients and provide a structured means for collecting annual data. The protocol centers on measurement of five key plant/lichen attributes, including changes in (1) plant abundances, (2) dominant shrub annual growth and primary production, (3) lichen health estimated through chlorophyll/ phaeophytin concentrations, (4) Sphagnum annual growth and production, and (5) annual growth of the dominant tree species (Picea mariana). We placed five permanent plots in each of six bogs located at different distances from the center of oil sand extraction and sampled these for 2 years (2018 and 2019). We compared line intercept with point intercept plant assessments using NMDS ordination, concluding that both methods provide comparable data. These data indicated that each of our six bog sites differ in key species abundances. Structural differences were apparent for the six sites between years. These differences were mostly driven by changes in Vaccinium oxycoccos, not the dominant shrubs. We developed allometric growth equations for the dominant two shrubs (Rhododendron groenlandicum and Chamaedaphne calyculata). Equations developed for each of the six sites produced growth values that were not different from one another nor from one developed using data from all sites. Annual growth of R. groenlandicum differed between sites, but not years, whereas growth of C. calyculata differed between the 2 years with more growth in 2018 compared with 2019. In comparison, Sphagnum plant density and stem bulk density both had strong site differences, with stem mass density higher in 2019. When combined, annual production of S. fuscum was greater in 2019 at three sites and not different at three of the sites. Chlorophyll and phaeophytin concentrations from the epiphytic lichen Evernia mesomorpha also differed between sites and years. This protocol for field assessments of five key plant/lichen response variables indicated that both site and year are factors that must be accounted for in future assessments.A portion of the site variation was related to patterns of N and S deposition. Keywords: Allometric equation . Atmospheric deposition .Bog .Boreal .Nitrogen .Peatland .Oilsands . Sphagnum.
32895Elvebakk A., Hong S.G. & Park C.H. (2020): Hispidopannaria and Phormopsora, two new and small, but evolutionary old Pannariaceae lichen genera from southern South America. - Mycological Progress, 19: 1353–1364. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11557-020-01632-1.
Based on phylogenetic analyses of the ITS, nuclear large subunit rRNA, mitochondrial small subunit rRNA, and MCM7 genes, species previously treated as Pannaria hispidula and P. isabellina are shown to represent two new Pannariaceae genera, Hispidopannaria and Phormospsora. Each genus forms monophyletic clades, both in multilocus phylogeny and in single gene phylogenies. In the multilocus phylogeny, both genera together formed a monophyletic clade as a sister group to the genus Pannaria, whereas this monophyly was not maintained in single gene phylogenies. Hispidopannaria differs from Pannaria in having large, geotropically arranged, hispid squamules, IKI+ internal ascus structures, and perispores with irregular pulvinate verrucae and apical extensions. The southern South American, TLC-negative species H. hispidula is generitype and is concentrated to trunks in the evergreen Nothofagus forests of south-central Chile. Psoroma dasycladum, a similar endemic species from the Juan FernándezArchipelago, is also transferred to Hispidopannaria. Phormopsora is monospecific and is the only member of Pannariaceae which contains norstictic and connorstictic acids. Its thallus of large, branched squamules with large, foliose cephalodia and its bullate perispores with long-apiculate apical extensions also separate it from Pannaria. Its species, Phormopsora isabellina, has a similar distribution as H. hispidula on the South American mainland, but is more widespread. The position of these two small genera as a sister group to the large and diverse genus Pannaria, indicates a long period of slow evolutionary rate, with the island endemic Hispidopannaria dasyclada as an exception. Reproductive isolation and photobiont specialization are partly suggested to explain their slow evolution and lack of surviving speciation. Keywords: Endemism . Evolution . Pannaria . Photobionts . Phylogeny . Taxonomy.
32894Vallese C., Nascimbene J., Giordani P., Benesperi R. & Casazza G. (2021): Modelling range dynamics of terricolous lichens of the genus Peltigera in the Alps under a climate change scenario. - Fungal Ecology, 49: 101014 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.funeco.2020.101014.
Climate change is expected to strongly impact biodiversity in Alpine ecosystems and species distribution modelling is increasingly used to provide anticipatory information to guide conservation. In this study, (1) we quantified the range loss, range gain, range change and range turnover caused by climate change in the genus Peltigera a group of terricolous lichens widespread across the Alps, and then (2) we evaluated the relationships between the predictors of range dynamics and functional traits. Our results indicate moderate range dynamics for species of the genus Peltigera across the Alps under a climate change scenario. This would imply a relative stability and resistance of these lichens to climate change that may reflect the local persistence of the species under sub-optimal conditions. Our results also suggest that range dynamics could be associated with functional traits mainly related to water-use strategies and to a trade-off between dispersal and establishment ability. This finding suggests that functional traits may strongly modulate the lichen response to climate change and that species with similar functional traits are prone to similar selective pressures. Keywords: Asexual dispersal; Functional traits; Sexual dispersal; Species distribution modelling; Thallus thickness; Trade-off between dispersal and establishment; Water-use strategies.
32893Hurtado P., Prieto M., Martínez-Vilalta J., Giordani P., Aragón G., López-Angulo J., Košuthová A., Merinero S., Díaz-Peña E.M., Rosas T., Benesperi R., Bianchi E., Grube M., Mayrhofer H., Nascimbene J., Wedin M., Westberg M. & Martínez I. (2020): Disentangling functional trait variation and covariation in epiphytic lichens along a continent-wide latitudinal gradient. - Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 287: 20192862 [9 p.]. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2019.2862.
Characterizing functional trait variation and covariation, and its drivers, is critical to understand the response of species to changing environmental conditions. Evolutionary and environmental factors determine how traits vary among and within species at multiple scales. However, disentangling their relative contribution is challenging and a comprehensive trait–environment framework addressing such questions is missing in lichens. We investigated the variation in nine traits related to photosynthetic performance, water use and nutrient acquisition applying phylogenetic comparative analyses in lichen epiphytic communities on beech across Europe. These poikilohydric organisms offer a valuable model owing to their inherent limitations to buffer contrasting environmental conditions. Photobiont type and growth form captured differences in certain physiological traits whose variation was largely determined by evolutionary processes (i.e. phylogenetic history), although the intraspecific component was non-negligible. Seasonal temperature fluctuations also had an impact on trait variation, while nitrogen content depended on photobiont type rather than nitrogen deposition. The inconsistency of trait covariation among and within species prevented establishingmajor resource use strategies in lichens. However, we did identify a general pattern related to the water-use strategy. Thus, to robustly unveil lichen responses under different climatic scenarios, it is necessary to incorporate both among and within-species trait variation and covariation.
32892Kukwa M., Kosecka M. & Guzow-Krzemińska B. (2020): One name – one fungus: The influence of photosynthetic partners on the taxonomy and systematics of lichenized fungi. - Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae, 89(3): 89311 [11 p.]. DOI: 10.5586/asbp.89311.
Lichens are fungi (mycobionts) that form symbiotic associations with photoautotrophic prokaryotes or eukaryotes (photobionts); however, some species can exchange photosynthetic partners during their lifecycles. This phenomenon modifies the morphology of lichens and consequently influences the taxonomy of lichenized fungi. Here, a few such cases in which the photobionts influenced the taxonomy and systematics of lichenized fungi are reviewed. Two different morphotypes of the same species – known as photomorphs – were classified as different species and sometimes different genera. Moreover, different types of photobionts and the absence or presence (optional lichenization) of an alga in the thallus were believed to be diagnostic characters for discriminating genera. However, the taxonomy and systematics of lichens are based always, according to Article F.1.1. of the International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi, and Plants, on the fungal partner and only one name is applied. Keywords: mycobiont; photobiont; photomorphs; optional lichenization; Hymeneliaceae; Lecanographaceae; Peltigeraceae; Stictidaceae.
32891Wang X.Y., Zhang Y.Y., Liu D., Li L.J., Yang M.X., Yin A.C. & Wang L.S. (2020): Taxonomic study of Hypotrachyna subg. Everniastrum (Hale ex Sipman) Divakar, A.Crespo, Sipman, Elix & Lumbsch (Ascomycota) from China. - Cryptogamie, Mycologie, 41(12): 193–209. https://doi.org/10.5252/cryptogamie-mycologie2020v41a12. http://cryptogamie.com/mycologie/41/12.
The taxonomy of Hypotrachyna subg. Everniastrum (Hale ex Sipman) Divakar, A.Crespo, Sipman, Elix & Lumbsch from China is revised based on morphological, chemical and phylogenetic analyses. Four species new to science (Hypotrachyna corallifera Xin Y.Wang & Li S.Wang, sp. nov., H. longicilia Xin Y.Wang & Li S.Wang, sp. nov., H. puerensis Xin Y.Wang & Li S.Wang, sp. nov., and H. yunnana Xin Y.Wang & Li S.Wang, sp. nov.) and a new floristic record for one species (H. catawbiensis (Degel.) Divakar, A.Crespo, Sipman, Elix & Lumbsch) in China are reported, and a total of fifteen species are confirmed, including all the species previously reported from China. Specimens of three species (H. cirrhata (Fr.) Divakar, A.Crespo, Sipman, Elix & Lumbsch, H. nepalensis (Taylor) Divakar, A.Crespo, Sipman, Elix & Lumbsch and H. vexans (Zahlbr. ex W.L.Culb. & C.F.Culb.) Divakar, A.Crespo, Sipman, Elix & Lumbsch) from the type localities are sequenced, providing fundamental molecular data for species delimitation. New chemical varieties are detected for H. diffractaica (Y.M.Jiang & J.C.Wei) Divakar, A.Crespo, Sipman, Elix & Lumbsch. Detailed descriptions and figures for the new species and a key to all known species from China are provided. Key words: New species, phylogeny, hidden diversity, lichens, Parmeliaceae, China.
32890Spjut R., Simon A., Guissard M., Magain N. & Sérusiaux E. (2020): Corrigendum: Spjut R, Simon A, Guissard M, Magain N, Sérusiaux E (2020) The fruticose genera in the Ramalinaceae (Ascomycota, Lecanoromycetes): their diversity and evolutionary history. MycoKeys 73: 1–68. https://doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.73.47287. - Mycokeys, 74: 109–110. https://doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.74.59175.
32889Wang Yang J.-R. & Lai M.-J. (1976): Note on the lichen genus Sphaerophorus Pers. of Taiwan, with descriptions of three new species. - Taiwania, 21(1): 83‒85. DOI: 10.6165/tai.1976.21.83. https://taiwania.ntu.edu.tw/pdf/tai.1976.21.83.pdf.
Six species of the lichen genus Sphaerophorus of Taiwan are treated, of which S. digitatus, S. taiwanensis and S. yangii are described as new.
32888Chen S.S.C. & Lai M.-J. (1976): A synopsis of the Formosan plants. - Taiwania, 21(1): 87‒122. DOI: 10.6165/tai.1976.21.87. https://taiwania.ntu.edu.tw/pdf/tai.1976.21.87.pdf.
The present synopsis is intended to serve as an introduction to the study of the flora of Taiwan. Systematic arrangements of the genera and families of lichens, bryophytes, pteridophytes and spermatophytes indigenous to Taiwan anf its offshore islands are offered, with brief historical remarks and bibiographical survey for each plant group.
32887Wang Yang J.-R. & Lai M.-J. (1976): Additions and corrections to the lichen flora of Taiwan. - Taiwania, 21(2): 226‒228. DOI: 10.6165/tai.1976.21.226. https://taiwania.ntu.edu.tw/pdf/tai.1976.21.226.pdf.
32886Wang Yang J.-R. & Lai M.-J. (1973): A checklist of the lichens of Taiwan. - Taiwania, 18(1): 83‒104. DOI: 10.6165/tai.1973.18.83. https://taiwania.ntu.edu.tw/pdf/tai.1973.18.83.pdf.
In this study, an attempt has been made to summarize our present knowledge of the lichen flora in Taiwan. The 396 species in 90 genera, 7 subspecies, 56 varieties and 38 forms which have been reported are listed, together with new additions made by the present authors.
32885Wang Yang J.-R. (1973): A new locality for the remarkable lichen Coenogonium interplexum Nyl.. - Taiwania, 18(2): 194. DOI: 10.6165/tai.1973.18.194. https://taiwania.ntu.edu.tw/pdf/tai.1973.18.194.pdf.
A new locality for Coenogonium interplexum.
32884Wang Yang J.-R. (1971): A study of lichenized fungi of Taiwan fruticose lichen. - Taiwania, 16(1): 137‒142. DOI: 10.6165/tai.1971.16.137. https://taiwania.ntu.edu.tw/pdf/tai.1971.16.137.pdf.
Eight kinds of mycobionts of Taiwan fruticose lichens were cultivated and produced a basic type of colony. Observations on the single-spore cultures, morphological differentiation of fungal symbionts of these lichens were made. The mycobiunts from fruticose lichens were compact, hard in consistency. The cultivated mycobiont rarely produced pigment and also did not produce reproductive structures. Experimental evidence show that different algae in lichens are associated with different fungi.
32883Wang Yang J.-R. (1970): Some species of Trebouxia, a genus of lichenized algae, isolated from Taiwan fruticose lichens. - Taiwania, 15(1): 181‒188. DOI: 10.6165/tai.1970.15.181. https://taiwania.ntu.edu.tw/pdf/tai.1970.15.181.pdf.
Six species of the phycobionts,Trebouxia, have been successfully isolated and cultured from Taiwan fruticose lichens, mainly from the family of Cladoniaceae. It has been reported that the algal symbionts isolated from fruticose lichens (i. e. Stereocaulon, Cladonia, Pilophorus) (Ahmadjian 1960) all belonged to Group I. But based on this investigation,Taiwan fruticose lichens contain phycobionts Trebouxia from both Group I and Group II. It has been further assumed that distinct species of lichens, contain the same phycobionts, (at least, at the species level), but many from of Trebouxia which differ bith morphologically and physiologically, occur in the same species of lichens.
32882Wang Yang J.-R. (1968): A morphological study of the algal symbionts of four Taiwan lichens: Anaptychia comosa, A. dendricata, Parmelia caperata, and P. rudecta. - Taiwania, 14(1): 53‒60. DOI: 10.6165/tai.1968.14.53. https://taiwania.ntu.edu.tw/pdf/tai.1968.14.53.pdf.
Three species of the phycobiont Trebouxia have been described in this investigation. On the basis of this study, all the algal symbionts isolated from the four species of lichens, namely, Anaptychia comosa, A. dendricata, Parmelia. caperata, and P. rudecta, collected in Taiwan, belong to Trebouxia Group H. The results show that different species of lichens contain the morphologically identical algae (e. g. symbionts of A. comosa, and A. dendricata,) and that at times the same species of lichen may contain physiologically different forms of algal symbiont (e.g. P. caperata as compared in this study with my previous study, Wang-Yang, 1965). However, at the species level, lichen fungi are not highly specific with regard to their algal partners.
32881Ohmura Y., Sugimoto M., Aung M.M. & Tanaka N. (2020): Contribution to the knowledge of the Lichen Mycota of Myanmar (I) twenty species newly recorded from Southern Myanmar. - Taiwania, 65(4): 548‒558. DOI: 10.6165/tai.2020.65.548. https://taiwania.ntu.edu.tw/pdf/tai.2020.65.548.pdf.
Specimens of lichens collected from southern Myanmar including Tanintharyi and Yangon Regions were examined. As the result of taxonomic examinations, the following 20 species were identified: Astrothelium macrocarpum, Bulbothrix subscortea, Coccocarpia erythroxyli, C. palmicola, Cruentotrema thailandicum, Dirinaria aegialita, D. consimilis, Dyplolabia afzelii, Flakea papillata, Glyphis cicatricosa, Graphis cf. caesiella, G. desquamescens, G. supracola, Malmidea bakeri, Physcia undulata, Pyrenula mamillana, Pyxine dactyloschmidtii, Sarcographa labyrinthica, Trypethelium eluteriae, and Zwackhia prosodea. All of them, except the two species of Coccocarpia, are new records for Myanmar. The ITS rDNA sequences were successfully obtained from 17 samples for 14 species. The BLAST identities for Myanmar collections with the same species in GenBank range from 89 to 100%. Key words: BLAST, distribution, inventory, ITS rDNA, lichenized fungi, Southeast Asia, taxonomy.
32880Cejp K. (1936): Atlas des champignons de l'Europe. Tome 4. Omphalia (Fr.) Quél.. - Praha, [i-iv +] 152 p. .
A monograph on omphalinoid fungi includes also currently recognized lichenized species belonging to Lichenomphalia, i.e. Omphalia umbellifera and O. grisella
32879Xiao Y.-Q., Yu F.-Q., Wang L.-S., Liu P.-G. & Hur J.-S. (2005): Lichenomphalia hudsoniana (Lichenized Basidiomycota) from China. - Lichenology, 4(1): 29–32. .
The fertile fruitbodies of Lichenomphalia hudsoniana are reported for the first time in China. External morphology, anatomy and habitat data are also provided, as well as the distribution in China. Key words: basidiolichen, Omphalina, China.
32878Zhang Y., Tan C.Y., Spjut R.W., Fuchs J.R., Kinghorn A.D. & Rakotondraibe L.H. (2020): Specialized metabolites of the United States lichen Niebla homalea and their antiproliferative activities. - Phytochemistry, 180: 112521 [7 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2020.112521.
Three undescribed stictanes, nieblastictanes A, two flavicanes, nieblaflavicanes A and B, together with three already reported stictanes, along with the known compounds (+)-usnic acid, sekikaic acid, divaricatic acid, and divaricatinic acid methyl ester were isolated from an ethyl acetate extract of the western North American lichen Niebla homalea. The structures of the new and known compounds were established by spectroscopic methods including nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and electronic circular dichroism. Among the compounds isolated, usnic acid exhibited moderately potent antiproliferative activities against the A2780 ovarian (IC50 3.8 μM) and MCF-7 breast cancer (IC50 6.8 μM) cell lines. A plausible mode of formation of the chlorine-containing compound nieblastictane C is provided and the contribution of the isolated compounds to the chemotaxonomy of United States lichen species of the genus Niebla is also discussed. Keywords: Niebla homalea; Ramalinaceae; Lichen; Strictanes; Flavicane.
32877Min S.K., Kim J.E., Hong J.-M., Yim J.H., Youn U.J., Han S.J. & Kim I.-C. (2020): Anti-inflammatory effects of Lecania gerlachei extract collected from the Antarctic King Sejong Island. - Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering, 25: 543–550. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12257-019-0371-4.
Chronic inflammation is the cause of various diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and asthma, with a large number of people suffering from them. There have been many reports that even link cancer to inflammation, so the development of sophisticated and powerful drugs continues to be in demand. Here we demonstrate that the methanol extract of Lecania gerlachei (LGME), a lichen member found in the extreme Antarctic environment, exhibits anti-inflammatory activities. Treatment of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated Raw 264.7 murine macrophage cells with LGME reduced nitric oxide (NO) immune modulator production, and also down-regulated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), pro-inflammatory interleukin 6, 1β and 1α (IL-6, IL-1β and IL-1α), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) at both transcript and protein levels, in a concentration dependent manner. Furthermore, it was found that these effects were mediated by nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling inhibition. Thus, our findings may contribute towards the development of novel inflammatory drugs. Keywords: Lecania gerlachei, lichens, Antarctica, antiinflammatory properties, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway.
32876Malíček J. (2020): Buk – nejvýznamnější česká dřevina pro lišejníky?. - Botanika, 2020/2: 2–4. .
32875Štikāne K., Brūmelis G., Piterāns A. & Moisejevs R. (2017): Epiphytic lichen diversity in broadleaved tree forests in Latvia. - Acta Biol. Univ. Daugavp., 17(1): 123–132. .
Broad-leaved tree forests host a large diversity of epiphytic lichens, but this forest type is rare in Latvia. Epiphytic lichen diversity of broad-leaved trees mostly has been studied in protected areas and there is insufficient knowledge of the general distribution of epiphytic lichens outside the protected areas. The aims of this study were to compare epiphytic lichen diversity among tree species and between broad-leaved tree forest in protected and non-protected areas in Latvia. Epiphitic lichen diversity in broad-leaved tree woodland was studied in two regions of Latvia: Kurzeme and Zemgale. Altogether 67 lichen species were recorded on 160 sampled trees of 11 tree species in 19 forest stands. Eight of the recorded lichens are listed in the Latvian protected species list, of which 4 are species for which microreserves can be established. Only two were listed in the Latvian Red Data Book. Protected species were found in 18 of the studied 19 stands, but only 6 of these stands occurred in protected areas. One recorded lichen species Opegrapha niveoatra is reported as new to Latvia. Quercus robur had the highest number of lichen species on the basal trunk. 53.85% of recorded occurences (21 of 39 records) of protected lichen species and 60.42% of recorded occurences (29 of 48 records) of Woodland Key Habitat species occurred outside of protected areas. Key words: epiphytic lichens, species diversity, broad-leaved forests, fragmentation, protected species, protected areas.
32874Banchi E., Ametrano C.G., Tordoni E., Stanković D., Ongaro S., Tretiach M., Pallavicini A., Muggia L., [ARPA Working Group:] Verardo P., Tassan F., Trobiani N., Moretti O., Borney M.F. & Lazzarin S. (2020): Environmental DNA assessment of airborne plant and fungal seasonal diversity. - Science of The Total Environment, 738: 140249 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.140249.
Environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding and metagenomics analyses can improve taxonomic resolution in biodiversity studies. Only recently, these techniques have been applied in aerobiology, to target bacteria, fungi and plants in airborne samples. Here, we present a nine-month aerobiological study applying eDNA metabarcoding in which we analyzed simultaneously airborne diversity and variation of fungi and plants across five locations in North and Central Italy. We correlated species composition with the ecological characteristics of the sites and the seasons. The most abundant taxa among all sites and seasons were the fungal genera Cladosporium, Alternaria, and Epicoccum and the plant genera Brassica, Corylus, Cupressus and Linum, the latter beingmuchmore variable among sites. PERMANOVA and indicator species analyses showed that the plant diversity from air samples is significantly correlated with seasons, while that of fungi varied according to the interaction between seasons and sites. The results consolidate the performance of a new eDNA metabarcoding pipeline for the simultaneous amplification and analysis of airborne plant and fungal particles. They also highlight the promising complementarity of this approach with more traditional biomonitoring frameworks and routine reports of air quality provided by environmental agencies. Keywords: Aerobiology; High throughput sequencing; Italy; PERMANOVA; PLANiTS; Pollen; Spore.
32873Vega-García S., Sánchez-García L., Prieto-Ballesteros O. & Carrizo D. (2021): Molecular and isotopic biogeochemistry on recently-formed soils on King George Island (Maritime Antarctica) after glacier retreat upon warming climate. - Science of The Total Environment, 755: 142662 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.141439.
Maritime Antarctica is a climate-sensitive region that has experienced a continuous increase of temperature over the last 50 years. This phenomenon accelerates glacier retreat and promotes the exposure of ice-covered surfaces, triggering physico-chemical alteration of the ground and subsequent soil formation. Here,we studied the biogeochemical composition and evolution extent of soil on three recently exposed peninsulas (Fildes, Barton and Potter) on Southwest (SW) King George Island (KGI). Nine soil samples were analyzed for their lipid biomarkers, stable isotope composition, bulk geochemistry and mineralogy. Their biomarkers profiles were compared to those of local fresh biomass of microbial mats (n = 3) and vegetation (1 moss, 1 grass, and 3 lichens) to assess their contribution to the soil organic matter (SOM). The molecular and isotopic distribution of lipids in the soil samples revealed contributions to the SOM dominated by biogenic sources, mostly vegetal (i.e. odd HMW nalkanes distributions and generally depleted δ13C ratios). Microbial sources were also present to a lesser extent (i.e. even LMW n-alkanes and n-alkanoic acids, heptadecane, 1-alkenes, 9-octadecenoic acid, or iso/anteiso 15: 0 and 17:0 alkanoic acids). Additional contribution from petrogenic sources (bedrock erosion-derived hydrocarbons) was also considered although found to be minor. Results from mineralogy (relative abundance of plagioclases and virtual absence of clay minerals) and bulk geochemistry (low chemical weathering indexes) suggested little chemical alteration of the original geology. This together with the low content of total nitrogen and organic carbon, as well as moderate microbial activity in the soils, confirmed little edaphological development on the recently-exposed KGI surfaces. This study provides molecular and isotopic fingerprints of SOMcomposition in young Antarctic soils, and contributes to the understanding of soil formation and biogeochemistry in this unexplored region which is currently being affected by thermal destabilization. Keywords: Lipids biomarkers; Soils; Microbial mats; Organic matter; Maritime Antarctica; Isotopes.
32872Rola K., Lenart-Boroń A., Boroń P. & Osyczka P. (2021): Heavy-metal pollution induces changes in the genetic composition and anatomical properties of photobionts in pioneer lichens colonising post-industrial habitats. - Science of The Total Environment, 750: 141439 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.141439.
Certain lichens are effective colonisers of polluted sites. However, little is known about the tolerance of photobionts and the degree of mycobiont selectivity to photobionts relative to metal pollution. The present study recognises the genetic and anatomical diversity of Asterochloris photobionts in epigeic lichens, i.e. Cladonia cariosa, C. rei, and Diploschistes muscorum, in relation to a wide spectrum of soil pollution. In accordance with phylogenetic analysis, photobionts were clustered in 7 moderately- to well-supported clades, including 19 haplotypes. The mycobionts of all studied lichens demonstrated a low level of selectivity and were capable of associating with various Asterochloris lineages. This tendency was also expressed by the frequent (~25%) occurrence of multiple algal genotypes in a single thallus. This indicates that identified Asterochloris lineages are generally tolerant to heavy-metal pollution, and the low level of selectivity of mycobionts enables them to select the most suitable and/or available partner. The trend of increasing incidence of certain Asterochloris lineages and decreasing frequency of others along with increasing soil pollution was observed. This proves the superior adaptation of some photobionts to polluted sites. Such symbiotic plasticity constitute an adaptive feature necessary for the successful colonisation. High number of haplotypes at polluted sites could be the result of multiple introduction events from different areas during the initial stages of spontaneous succession. Regardless of the genetic pattern, Asterochloris cells were considerably smaller, and the density and compaction of cells in the algal layer were higher, in lichen specimens from polluted sites, indicating that photobiont characteristics may be closely dependent on heavy-metal pollution. Keywords: Lichenized fungi; Mycobiont selectivity; Asterochloris; Algal partner; Genetic diversity; Anthropogenic habitat.
32871Munzi S., Cruz C., Branquinho C.,Cai G., Faleri C., Parrotta L., Bini L., Gagliardi A., Leith I.D. & Sheppard L.J. (2020): More tolerant than expected: Taking into account the ability of Cladonia portentosa to cope with increased nitrogen availability in environmental policy. - Ecological Indicators, 119: 106817 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2020.106817.
The lichen Cladonia portentosa is generally considered to be sensitive to increased environmental nitrogen (N) deposition. However, the presence of this lichen in impacted environments suggests that it can cope with prolonged exposure to high N availability. To test the tolerance of this species to N, photosynthetic parameters, carbon and N concentrations and isotopic signature, chitin concentration, surface pH and extracellular enzymatic activity were measured in samples exposed for 11 years to different N doses and forms at the Whim bog N manipulation experimental site (United Kingdom). The results showed that C. portentosa is tolerant to long-term exposure to wet N deposition, maintaining its functionality with almost unaltered physiological parameters. The comparison of the proteome of short- and long-term exposed samples showed similar changes in protein expression suggesting that mechanisms to cope with N are not dependent on the exposure time even after more than a decade. Since empirical N Critical Loads are based on the response of sensitive components of the ecosystem, like C. portentosa, its capacity to cope with short- and long-term exposure to N needs to be recognized and taken into account when setting them, likewise, the significance of the form of N. Keywords: Algal ultrastructure; Critical loads and levels; Long-term exposure; Physiological response; Photosynthetic parameters; Proteomics.
32870Kováčik J., Dresler S., Babula P., Hladký J. & Sowa I. (2020): Calcium has protective impact on cadmium-induced toxicity in lichens. - Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 156: 591–599. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2020.10.007.
Eventual protective action of calcium (Ca, 100 or 1000 μM) against cadmium (Cd, 10 or 100 μM) toxicity in common lichen Hypogymnia physodes after 24 h of exposure was studied. Total Cd reached 482 and 2801 μg/g DW in 10 and 100 μM Cd treatments while Ca content reached over 23 mg/g DW in 1000 μM Ca treatment. Ca suppressed Cd accumulation by 23 and 38% in total fraction and completely in absorbed fraction. Fluorescence microscopy of Cd and Ca ions revealed good correlation with quantitative data. Cd stimulated increase in ROS formation and lipid peroxidation as detected using fluorescent reagents and quantification of H2O2 while co-application of Ca suppressed these effects. Formation of nitric oxide was mainly affected by cadmium. Cd depleted amount of amino acids but proteins or phenols remained unaffected by Cd or Ca. On the contrary, sum of thiols, reduced glutathione and ascorbic acid were depleted by Cd but reversed mainly by higher Ca dose. Among organic acids, only Cd-induced depletion of citric acid content was reversed by Ca. Data indicate that ameliorative effect of Ca under Cd excess in lichens is comparable with effect in plants and metabolic responses in various life lineages are discussed. Keywords: Antioxidants; Fungi; Heavy metals; Microscopy; Reactive oxygen species.
32869Papatheodorou E.M., Papapostolou A., Monokrousos N., Jones D.-W., Scullion J. & Stamou G.P. (2020): Crust cover and prior soil moisture status affect the response of soil microbial community and function to extreme rain events in an arid area. - European Journal of Soil Biology, 101: 103243 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejsobi.2020.103243.
Biological soil crusts (BSC) are an important multi-trophic component of arid ecosystems in the Mediterranean region, considered to have an important role in protecting the underlying soil from erosion and enhancing soil ecosystem functions. Using mesocosms in a 48 days glasshouse experiment, we investigated how previously hydrated (+W) and dried (-W) crust (+BSC) and uncrust (-BSC) -soil samples influenced microbial community structure, biomass and soil functionality of the underlying soils when exposed to two simulated extreme rain events. Community structure was assessed by phospholipid fatty acids analysis (PLFAs) and soil functionality by the activity of b-glucosidase, polyphenol oxidase, N-acetylglucosaminidase, acid phosphomoesterase and urease involve in C, P and N cycles. Crust increased the soil water content. In contrast, NH4 and NO3 were unaffected by the presence of the crust or its previous hydration status. N availability was affected by rain events; it declined from first to second event. Microbial biomasses were affected by the interaction crust x watering. Significant decline in biomasses was recorded in +BSC + W soils as a response to rain events. Little effects of treatments on soil enzymes were noticed; crust presence had a positive influence on the activity of phenol oxidase and a negative one on acid phosphomoesterase activity. The first rainfall had the greatest impact on microbial community structure, with communities in the previously hydrated crust affected most. These effects were less pronounced for the second rain event possibly due to microbial acclimation. Responses in enzyme profiles were consistent with those of communities, but delayed, with more marked responses following the second rainfall. We concluded that the effect of this lichen crust from the Mediterranean area on the response of soil microbial communities and enzymes to rainfall events depended strongly on the prior hydration status of the crust-soil complex. Keywords: Mediterranean ecosystem; Climate change; Community resistance; Lichen crust; Cladonia rangiformis.
32868Noël A., Garnier A., Clément M., Rouaud I., Sauvager A., Bousarghin L., Vásquez-Ocmín P., Maciuk A. & Tomasi S. (2021): Lichen-associated bacteria transform antibacterial usnic acid to products of lower antibiotic activity. - Phytochemistry, 181: 112535 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2020.112535.
Lichens are specific symbiotic organisms harboring various microorganisms in addition to the two classic partners (algae or cyanobacterium and fungus). Although lichens produce many antibiotic compounds such as (+)-usnic acid, their associated microorganisms possess the ability to colonize an environment where antibiosis exists. Here, we have studied the behavior of several lichen-associated bacterial strains in the presence of (+)-usnic acid, a known antibiotic lichen compound. The effect of this compound was firstly evaluated on the growth and metabolism of three bacteria, thus showing its ability to inhibit Gram-positive bacteria. This inhibition was not thwarted with the usnic acid producer strain Streptomyces cyaneofuscatus. The biotransformation of this lichen metabolite was also studied. An ethanolamine derivative of (+)-usnic acid with low antibiotic activity was highlighted with chemical profiling, using HPLC-UV combined with low resolution mass spectrometry. These findings highlight the way in which some strains develop resistance mechanisms. A methylated derivative of (+)-usnic acid was annotated using the molecular networking method, thus showing the interest of this computer-based approach in biotransformation studies. Keywords: Streptomyces cyaneofuscatus; Nocardia sp.; Mabikibacter ruber; Bacillus weihenstephenensis; Actinobacteria; Alphaproteobacteria; Firmicutes; Biotransformation; Molecular networking; Usnic acid derivatives.
32867Goga M., Baláž M., Daneu N., Elečko J., Tkáčiková Ľ., Marcinčinová M. & Bačkor M. (2021): Biological activity of selected lichens and lichen-based Ag nanoparticles prepared by a green solid-state mechanochemical approach. - Materials Science and Engineering C, 119: 111640 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2020.111640.
Lichens dispose a wide spectrum of bioactive compounds known as secondary metabolites. Their biological effects like antioxidant and antibacterial activities are widely studied. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is a method where the compounds/substances present in plants are used for reduction of AgNO3 instead of toxic chemicals. However, this methodology is usually a two-step process (extract preparation step and the synthesis step) performed under the elevated temperatures nad in the case of lichens, the redicing compounds are insoluble in water. These disadvantages can be overcome by a solid-state mechanochemical synthesis applied in the present study. As microorganisms are becoming more resistant to commercial antibiotics, AgNPs prepared in an environmentally friendly way represent an interesting alternative. In the present study, we compared the processing of lichen material of Pseudevernia furfuracea and Lobaria pulmonaria for extraction as well as for synthesis of AgNPs, and tested the antibacterial and antioxidant activity of the extracts. Both selected lichen species could be successfully used as reducing agents to produce AgNPs. Six different bacterial strains were tested for antibacterial activity of AgNPs-containing products and it was highly effective on all strains. However, the antioxidant activity of lichen extracts showed the lowest effect even if AgNPs are present which positively correlated with the content of total phenols and flavonoids. Both phenols and flavonoids are natural antioxidants and react with silver nitrate. Due to this fact, we observed a decrease of total phenols, total flavonoids as well as antioxidant activity when processing of lichen extracts with silver nitrate was used. We demonstrated that the formation of AgNPs increased the antibacterial activity but on the other hand reduced the antioxidant activity. Thus, antibacterial and antioxidant effects have to be treated differentially. Keywords: Mechanochemistry; Silver nanoparticles; Lichens; Phenols; Antibacterial activity; Green synthesis.
32866Lendemer J.C. (2020): Epitypes are forever: Best practices for an increasingly misused nomenclatural action. - Taxon, 69(5): 849–850. https://doi.org/10.1002/tax.12289.
nomenclature
32865Mercado‐Díaz J.A., Lücking R., Moncada B., Widhelm T.J. & Lumbsch H.T. (2020): Elucidating species richness in lichen fungi: The genus Sticta (Ascomycota: Peltigeraceae) in Puerto Rico. - Taxon, 69(5): 851–891. https://doi.org/10.1002/tax.12320.
Traditional taxonomic studies provide only a limited understanding of species richness within a group. Their usefulness for assessing species diversity could also be limited as many lack sufficient sampling and/or fail to integrate different data types for assessing species boundaries. To explore the challenges and limitations of estimating species richness in lichens, we employed an integrative taxonomic approach to elucidate diversification patterns of the genus Sticta (Peltigeraceae) in Puerto Rico. Specimens were collected throughout the island, and a six‐locus dataset was generated to infer phylogenetic relationships among Puerto Rican Sticta and their continental counterparts. Phylogenetic analysis was combined with species delimitation methods and analysis of morpho‐anatomical characters to assess diversity patterns and clarify species‐level taxonomy. We found that Sticta is represented by 16 species in Puerto Rico and that at least 11 (69%) of them are potentially endemic to the island. We describe eight of these in this work: S. borinquensis sp. nov., S. corymbosa sp. nov., S. densiphyllidiata sp. nov., S. guilartensis sp. nov., S. harrisii sp. nov., S. parvilobata sp. nov., S. riparia sp. nov., and S. tainorum sp. nov. These species do not cluster in a monophyletic assemblage but are scattered over the broader Sticta phylogeny, indicating at least eight separate dispersal events. Putative endemic species were found to have close allies occurring in South America. Careful re‐examination of material revealed phenotypical characters that separate most species, suggesting low levels of cryptic diversity. We highlight that integrating molecular methods and other sources of information in species discovery along with comprehensive sampling efforts can greatly enhance our knowledge about diversity patterns in poorly studied groups and regions. Furthermore, species and ecosystems in the Caribbean are being threatened by substantial human‐driven changes (e.g., deforestation, climate change). Consequences of these impacts include reduction in already restricted habitats and potential extinction. We argue that studies analyzing species diversity within a phylogenetic framework could better inform conservation efforts aimed at addressing these challenges.
32864Marcinčinová M., Širka P. & Dudáš M. (2020): The lichen flora of the Košice Zoological Garden (E Slovakia). - Thaiszia – Journal of Botany, Košice, 30(2): 197–207. https://doi.org/10.33542/TJB2020-2-04.
The Košice Zoological Garden offers a wide range of habitats from sunny exposed meadows, hedges and semi-natural well-lit to shaded forests with brooks together with concrete paths and animal cages. To best represent the area, 14 locations were selected. Total of 61 species were recorded. Most of the recorded species were epiphytic or epigeic; epilithic species were limited to a few limestone boulders or anthropogenic substrates. Besides common and widespread nitrophilous species, two recorded species are critically endangered (Arthonia radiata, Parmelia submontana), four are endangered (Evernia prunastri, Flavoparmelia caperata, Graphis scripta and Pleurosticta acetabulum), one is vulnerable (Usnea hirta), while eight are listed as near threatened in Slovakia. The discovery of Bryoria sp. is particularly interesting because of missing records of this species in the area. The lowest altitude of 412 m a.s.l. for Parmelia submontana in Slovakia was recorded. The region provides a suitable environment for a wide spectrum of lichen species and is worth of our biodiversity conservation concerns. Keywords: lichen diversity, endangered species, air pollution, Carpathians, biodiversity.
32863van Herk K. (2020): Cetrelia cetrarioides (grote spikkelaar) nieuw voor Nederland. - Buxbaumiella, 118: 18–19. .
Cetrelia cetrarioides, new for the Netherlands Cetrelia cetrarioides was recorded as new for the Netherlands. Several young specimens were found in an oak forest in the centre of the country (Stompert, near Soest). TLC was performed and perlatolic acid was shown. The increase of its range might be due to climate change.
32862Joshi Y. (2018): Documentation of lichenicolous fungi from India - Some additional reports. - Kavaka, 51: 30–34. http://www.fungiindia.co.in/images/kavaka/51/6.pdf.
This manuscript records twelve lichenicolous fungi, namely Arthonia coronata Etayo (on Flavoparmelia caperata), Dactylospora deminuta (Th. Fr.) Triebel (on Parmotrema kamatii), Didymocyrtis bryonthae (Arnold) Hafellner (on Lecanora sp.), Muellerella triseptata Diederich (on Physcia), Phoma peltigerae (P. Karst.) D. Hawksw. (on Peltigera didactyla), Polycoccum ibericum Etayo & van den Boom (on Rinodina sp.), Tremella cladoniae Diederich & M.S. Christ. (on Cladonia spp.), T. phaeophysciae Diederich & M.S. Christ. (on Phaeophyscia sp.), Zwackhiomyces physciicola Alstrup (on Physcia gomukhensis) and Z. sphinctriniformis Grube & Hafellner (on Romjularia sp.) along with two new species viz. Endococcus physciae sp. nov. growing on Physcia and Opegrapha gyalolechiae sp. nov. growing on Gyalolechia flavorubescens from India. Key words:Caloplaca, fungi, Gyalolechia, lichen, Opegrapha,Physcia, Teloschistaceae.
32861Joshi Y., Tripathi M., Bisht K., Upadhyay S., Kumar V., Pal N., Gaira A., Pant S., Rawat K.S., Bisht S., Bajpai R. & Halda J.P. (2018): Further contributions to the documentation of lichenicolous fungi from India. - Kavaka, 50: 26–33. .
Fifty two rarely collected or otherwise interesting species of lichenicolous fungi are presented, of which three species are described as new to science: (on from Uttarakhand), (on from Uttarakhand) and (on from Kerala), while 49 species are additions to the known lichenicolous mycobiota of India. Keywords: Didymocyrtis rhizoplacae Rhizoplaca chrysoleuca Plectocarpon parmeliarum Parmelia meiophora Pyrenidium hypotrachynae Hypotrachyna coorgiana lichens, lichenicolous fungi, lichenicolous lichens, new records, taxonomy.
32860Joshi Y. (2020): Polycoccum hawksworthianum (Polycoccaceae, Trypetheliales), a new lichenicolous fungus on Lepra and Varicellaria from India. - Acta Botanica Hungarica, 62: 217–224. https://doi.org/10.1556/034.62.2020.3-4.2.
The study revealed a new species of Polycoccum colonising thallus of lichen genus Lepra and Varicellaria in tropical and temperate regions of India. The genus belonging to the family Polycoccaceae is represented by 7 species in India. Though the genus is host-specific, there are 12 genera of lichens which are home for more than one species of this fungus. It is the second known species of Polycoccum on members of Lepra and Varicellaria, and differs from the previously known ones – 1) Polycoccum ochvarianum by being gall forming and having smaller perithecia [(88–)104–128–152(–170) × (81–)95–114–133(–145) μm] and 2) Polycoccum sp. in having smaller perithecia [op. cit. vs. 250–300 μm], hymenial gelatine I–, and smaller asci [(50–)55–60–65(–75) × (10–)13–15–17(–18) vs. 90 × 14 μm]. Key words: Ascomycota, lichens, new species, taxonomy.
32859Yazıcı K., Aslan A., Karahan D., Aptroot A. & Sipman H.J.M. (2020): Lichens and lichenicolous fungi from Muş province in Turkey. - Acta Botanica Hungarica, 62: 435–452. https://doi.org/10.1556/034.62.2020.3-4.10.
A contribution to the lichen flora of Turkey is presented. A total of 282 lichen taxa and 20 lichenicolous fungi, of which 4 are varieties, are determined from 87 different localities in Muş province (Turkey). Lichenostigma gracile, a lichenicolous fungus, is new to Turkey, and 274 lichen species and 20 lichenicolous fungi are new for Muş. Key words: Ascomycota, biodiversity, lichen, Muş, Turkey.
32858van den Boom P.P.G. (2020): Lichens and lichenicolous fungi of the Azores (Pico, São Jorge), additional records and four new species. - Acta Botanica Hungarica, 62: 417–434. https://doi.org/10.1556/034.62.2020.3-4.9.
One hundred twelve lichens and lichenicolous fungi species are recorded for the Azores. Twelve species are new records for the archipelago. A list with new records for the islands Pico and/or Sao Jorge is presented. Four species are newly described: Gassicurtia azorica, Polycoccum parmotrematis, Rinodina subcolobina and Stigmidium pyrenulae. Key words: biodiversity in lichens and lichenicolous fungi, ecology, Macaronesia, new records, taxonomy.
32857Rodriguez J.M. & Filippini E. (2020): Three new synonyms of lichens based on type collection of Kőfaragó-Gyelnik. - Acta Botanica Hungarica, 62: 411–416. https://doi.org/10.1556/034.62.2020.3-4.8.
We proposed Parmelia maculoides Gyeln. as a synonym of Punctelia stictica (Delise ex Duby) Krog; Physcia hosseana Gyeln. as a synonym of Physcia stellaris (L.) Nyl. and Teloschistes exilis (Michx.) Vain. f. inaequalis Gyeln. as a synonym of Teloschistes nodulifer (Nyl.) Hillmann based on the study of the Argentinian type material of Kőfaragó-Gyelnik. We also confirmed the presence of Oropogon loxensis (syn. Bryopogon hosseusianus Gyeln.) in Central Argentina by comparing the type specimen with samples collected recently. Finally we excluded the presence of Parmotrema stuppeum (Taylor) Hale from Argentina. Key words: Argentina, Kőfaragó-Gyelnik, lichenized fungi, taxonomy, types.
32856Mishra G.K., Upreti D.K., Nayaka S., Thell A., Kärnefelt I., Lőkös L., Hur J.-S., Sinha G.P. & Kondratyuk S.Y. (2020): Current taxonomy of the lichen family Teloschistaceae from India with descriptions of new species. - Acta Botanica Hungarica, 62: 309–391. https://doi.org/10.1556/034.62.2020.3-4.5.
The present study recorded 36 genera and 115 species of the lichen family Teloschistaceae in India. Three species, i.e. Caloplaca rajasthanica S. Y. Kondr., Upreti et G. P. Sinha, Huriella upre- tiana S. Y. Kondr., G. K. Mishra, Nayaka et A. Thell, and Squamulea uttarkashiana S. Y. Kondr., Upreti, Nayaka et A. Thell, are described as new species. Seven new combinations, i.e. Fulgo- gasparrea awasthii (Y. Joshi et Upreti) S. Y. Kondr., Upreti et A. Thell, Neobrownliella cinnabarina (Ach.) S. Y. Kondr., Upreti et A. Thell, Neobrownliella holochracea (Nyl.) S. Y. Kondr., Upreti et A. Thell, Opeltia flavorubescens (Huds.) S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur, Oxneriopsis bassiae (Willd. ex Ach.) S. Y. Kondr., Upreti et J.-S. Hur, Upretia hueana (B. de Lesd.) S. Y. Kondr. et Upreti and Megaspora subpoliotera (Y. Joshi et Upreti) S. Y. Kondr., Upreti et A. Thell, are proposed based on nrITS phylogeny in the Teloschistaceae and Megasporaceae consequently. Validation of combination Olegblumia demissa is provided. Molecular data on Fulgogasparrea awasthii andMegaspora subpoliotera are recorded from India for the first time. Four new genera including one species each, i.e. Lazarenkoiopsis ussuriensis (Oxner, S. Y. Kondr. et Elix) S. Y. Kondr., L. őkö et J.-S. Hur, Mikhtomia gordejevii (Tomin) S. Y. Kondr., Kärnefelt, Elix, A. Thell, J. Kim, A. S. Kondratiuk et J.-S. Hur, Olegblumia demissa (Flot.) S. Y. Kondr., L. őkö, J. Kim, A. S. Kond- ratiuk, S.-O. Oh et J.-S. Hur and Pachypeltis intrudens (H. Magn.) Sochting Froden et Arup, as well as the genus Megaspora are reported as new for the Indian lichen biota. Out of the eight lichenogeographical regions of India, the Western Himalayas show the maximum diversity of Teloschistaceae members represented with 110 species followed by the Central Indian region with 38 species. The lichen genus Caloplaca is represented with 50 species in the country followed by Athallia and Rusavskia with 6 species each. The saxi- colous taxa exhibit dominance with 65 species whereas the corticolous and terricolous taxa are represented by 48 and 9 species, respectively. Among the different states of India, Ut- tarakhand showed the maximum diversity represented by 54 species followed by the state of Jammu & Kashmir with 37 species, whereas the Jharkhand and Meghalaya states are represented only by the occurrence of a single species each. A key to the genera and species together with the description, basionyms and synonyms of each species are provided. Key words: Caloplaca, diversity, Huriella, Lecanoromycetes, Megaspora, Mikhtomia, Neobrownliella, Olegblumia, Opeltia, Oxneriopsis, Pachypeltis, Squamulea, Teloschistales, Upretia.
32855Kondratyuk S.Y., Lőkös L., Oh S.-O., Kondratiuk T.O., Parnikoza I.Yu. & Hur J.-S. (2020): New and noteworthy lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi, 11. - Acta Botanica Hungarica, 62: 225–291. https://doi.org/10.1556/034.62.2020.3-4.3.
Fourteen species new for science are described, illustrated and compared with closely related taxa. Six species of them are from South Korea, i.e. Bryostigma huriellae S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur, Caloplaca ulleungensis S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, Enterographa dokdoensis S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur, Neobrownliella salyangensis S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur, Rufoplaca aesanensis S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur, Squamulea coreana S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur, and seven species are from Chile: Caloplaca nothocitrina S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur, Caloplaca nothoholocarpa S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur, Caloplaca patagoniensis S. Y. Kondr., S.-O. Oh et J.-S. Hur, Follmannia suborthoclada S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur, ‘Lecidea’ buellielloides S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur, Massjukiella rusavskioides S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur, Rehmanniella poeltiana S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur, as well as one species, i.e. Pyrenodesmia vernadskiensis S. Y. Kondr., T. O. Kondratiuk et I. Yu. Parnikoza, similar to Antarctic endemic species Huea coralligera, is from Argentine Islands, Western Antarctic Peninsula. The member of the genus Pyrenodesmia A. Massal. is for the first time confirmed by molecular data from the Antarctic. Eighteen new combinations, i.e. Massjukiella impolita (for Caloplaca impolita Arup), Massjukiella pollinarioides (for Xanthoria pollinarioides L. Lindblom et D. M. Wright), Massjukiella stellata (for Caloplaca stellata Wetmore et Kärnefelt), Massjukiella tenax (for Xanthoria tenax L. Lindblom), and Massjukiella tenuiloba (for Xanthoria tenuiloba L. Lindblom), Pyrenodesmia albopruinosa (for Biatorina albopruinosa Arnold), Pyrenodesmia ceracea (for Caloplaca ceracea J. R. Laundon), Pyrenodesmia cretensis (for Blastenia cretensis Zahlbr.), Pyrenodesmia erythrocarpa (for Patellaria erythrocarpa Pers.), Pyrenodesmia haematites (for Lecanora haematites Chaub. ex St.-Amans), Pyrenodesmia percrocata (for Blastenia percrocata Arnold), Pyrenodesmia soralifera (for Caloplaca soralifera Vondrák et Hrouzek), Pyrenodesmia transcaspica (for Lecanora transcaspica Nyl.), Pyrenodesmia viridirufa (for Lecidea viridirufa Ach.), Pyrenodesmia xerica (for Caloplaca xerica Poelt et Vězda), as well as Rehmanniella leucoxantha (for Amphiloma leucoxanthum Müll. Arg.), Rehmanniella syvashica (for Caloplaca syvashica Khodos., Vondrák et Šoun), and Rehmanniella subgyalectoides (for Caloplaca subgyalectoides S. Y. Kondr. et Kärnefelt) are proposed. Buelliella inops and Zwackhiomyces aff. berengerianus are for the first time recorded from South America as well as from Follmannia orthoclada (as lichenicolous fungi). Caloplaca poliotera, Rinodina convexula and Rinodina kozukensis are new to the Republic of Korea, and new localities as well as illustrations for the further 13 new and rare lichen species recently described from Eastern Asia are provided too. Key words: Antarctica, Bryostigma, Caloplaca, Chile, Enterographa, Follmannia, Lecidea, Massjukiella, Neobrownliella, Pyrenodesmia, Rehmanniella, Rufoplaca, South America, South Korea, Squamulea.
32854Kondratyuk S.Y., Lőkös L., Jeong M.-H., Oh S.-O., Kondratiuk A.S. & Hur J.-S. (2020): Contributions to molecular phylogeny of lichen-forming fungi, 1. The family Candelariaceae. - Acta Botanica Hungarica, 62: 293–307. https://doi.org/10.1556/034.62.2020.3-4.4.
Three genera new for science, i.e. Candelinella S. Y. Kondr. for the Candelariella makarevichiae group, Opeltiella S. Y. Kondr. for the Candelaria fraudans group, as well as Protocandelariella Poelt, D. Liu, J.-S. Hur et S. Y. Kondr. for the Candelariella subdeflexa group are proposed for robust monophyletic branches of the Candelariaceae on the basis of three-gene phylogeny (i.e. concatenated nrITS, 12S mtSSU and 28S nrLSU sequences). Eight new combinations, i.e. Candelinella makarevichiae (for Candelariella makarevichiae S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.- S. Hur), Candelinella deppeanae (for Candelariella deppeanae M. Westb.), Opeltiella fraudans (for Candelaria fraudans Poelt et Oberw.), Opeltiella fibrosoides (for Candelaria fibrosoides M. Westb. et Frödén), Opeltiella rubrisoli (for Candelariella rubrisoli D. Liu et J.-S. Hur), Opeltiella canadensis (for Candelariella canadensis H. Magn.), Protocandelariella subdeflexa (for Lecanora subdeflexa Nyl.), Protocandelariella blastidiata (for Candelariella blastidiata L. Yakovchenko) are provided. Molecular data provided for Candelinella makarevichiae (including holotype and isotype), as well as additional specimens of Candelaria asiatica from South Korea for the first time. The latter species (Candelaria asiatica) from China, as well as ‘Candelaria’ murrayi from Argentina, South America are recorded for the first time. Voucher of Candelariella vitellina from Antarctica is also identified based on molecular phylogeny. It is for the first time shown that ‘Candelaria’ murrayi is positioned in the outermost position to Candelaria s. str. branch of the phylogenetic tree of the Candelariaceae, and may belong to another genus. Status of the ‘Candelariella’ medians group, the ‘Candelariella’ placodizans group, as well as single species ‘Candelariella’ reflexa and ‘Candelaria’ pacifica, forming separate branches outside the Candelariella s. str. and Candelaria s. str. clades, will be clarified when additional molecular data will be accumulated. Candelariella subsquamulosa D. Liu et Hur, recently described from South Korea (Liu et al. 2019), proved to be a new synonym of Candelinella makarevichiae. Key words: Candelaria, Candelariaceae, Candelariella, Candelina, Candelinella, multigene phylogeny, Opeltiella, Placomaronea, Protocandelariella.
32853Krzewicka B., Matura N., Adamska E. & Osyczka P. (2020): Species composition of freshwater lichens in temperate mountain streams: the effect of site, habitat and local spatial isolation. - Preslia, 93: 235–254. Doi: 10.23855/preslia.2020.235. http://www.preslia.cz/P203Krzewicka.pdf.
Lichens associated with aquatic and semi-aquatic habitats are a specific ecological group of symbiotic organisms. Distribution patterns, especially those of freshwater lichens and factors determining their occurrence, are poorly recognized. The species richness and composition of lichens were studied in the splash and submerged zones of Carpathian mountain streams. Habitat parameters, including pH, water conductivity, dissolved oxygen content, silting and light intensity at sampling sites, were used in the analysis. The streams differed greatly in terms of the species composition; only three lichens (Thelidium minutulum, Verrucaria hydrophila and V. praetermissa) of the entire pool of 29 recorded species were found in all streams. This fact does not directly relate to the habitat parameters measured either at the level of individual streams or considering all the streams studied. Instead, the differences in the species composition of lichens increased with the geographical distance between streams, even locally. This means that the occurrence of lichens in mountain streams is strongly site-dependent and the variability in the habitat is of less importance for species presence. Presumably lack of effective natural vectors and weak dispersal ability are strong limiting factors for freshwater lichens. Nevertheless, increased ion concentration in water can considerably promote the development of the thalli of some species of lichens, as in the case of Verrucaria praetermissa, while it can be a limiting factor for others, as in the case of V. hydrophila. Keywords: aquatic habitat, distribution, ecology, flysch watercourses, lichenized fungi, species diversity.
32852Gheza G., Assini S., Leili C., Marini L., Mayrhofer H. & Nascimbene J. (2020): Biodiversity and conservation of terricolous lichens and bryophytes in continental lowlands of northern Italy: the role of different dry habitat types. - Biodiversity and Conservation, 29: 3533–3550. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-020-02034-1.
In dry habitats of European lowlands terricolous lichens and bryophytes are almost neglected in conservation practises, even if they may strongly contribute to biodiversity. This study aims at (a) testing the role of heathlands, acidic and calcareous dry grasslands for lichen and bryophyte diversity and conservation in lowland areas of northern Italy characterized by high human impact and habitat fragmentation; (b) detecting the effect of environmental drivers and vegetation dynamics on species richness and composition. Lichens, bryophytes, vascular plants, and environmental variables were recorded in 287 circular plots for 75 sites. Our results indicate that heathlands, acidic and calcareous dry grasslands host peculiar terricolous lichen and bryophyte communities that include several species of conservation concern. Thus, each habitat provides a complementary contribution to lichen and bryophyte diversity in continental lowland landscapes. Furthermore, in each habitat different factors drive species richness and composition with contrasting patterns between lichens and bryophytes. In terms of conservation, our results indicate that management of lowland dry habitats should act at both local and landscape scales. At local scale, vegetation dynamics should be controlled in order to avoid biodiversity loss due to vegetation dynamics and wood encroachment. At the landscape scale, patches of all the three habitats should be maintained to maximize regional diversity. Keywords: Bryophytes  Dry grasslands  Heathlands  Lichens  Natura 2000 network  Nature conservation.
32851Zhang T., Wang N. & Yu L. (2020): Soil fungal community composition differs significantly among the Antarctic, Arctic, and Tibetan Plateau. - Extremophiles , 24: 821–829. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00792-020-01197-7.
Fungi are widely distributed in all terrestrial ecosystems, and they are essential to the recycling of nutrients in all terrestrial habitats on earth. We wanted to determine the relationship between soil fungal communities and geochemical factors (geographical location and soil physicochemical properties) in three widely separated geographical regions (the Antarctic, Arctic, and Tibet Plateau). Using high-throughput Illumina amplicon sequencing, we characterized the fungal communities in 53 soil samples collected from the three regions. The fungal richness and diversity indices were not significantly different among the three regions. However, fungal community composition and many fungal taxa (Thelebolales, Verrucariales, Sordariales, Chaetothyriales, Hypocreales, Pleosporales, Capnodiales, and Dothideales) significantly differed among three regions. Furthermore, geographical location (latitude and altitude) and six soil physicochemical properties ( SiO4 2−-Si, pH, NO3 −-N, organic nitrogen, NO2 −-N, and organic carbon) were significant geochemical factors those were correlated with the soil fungal community composition. These results suggest that many geochemical factors influence the distribution of the fungal species within the Antarctic, Arctic, and Tibet Plateau. Keywords Fungal diversity · High-throughput sequencing · Geographical location · Physicochemical properties.
32850Demková L., Árvay J., Bobul’ská L., Hauptvogl M., Michalko M., Michalková J. & Jančo I. (2020): Evaluation of soil and ambient air pollution around un-reclaimed mining bodies in Nižná Slaná (Slovakia) post-mining area. - Toxics, 8(4): 96 [17 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8040096.
Thirty soil samples were taken, and the same number of moss (Dicranum scoparium) and lichen (Pseudevernia furfuracea) bags were exposed to detect environmental pollution in the former mining area Nižná Slaná. Soil and ambient air are influenced by hazardous substances, which leak from old mining bodies due to insufficient or completely missing reclamation. The total content of the risk elements (As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Sb, Se, Pb, Zn) was determined in soil, moss, and lichen samples and in the bodies of Leccinum pseudoscabrum. Biological (soil enzymes—urease, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, fluorescein diacetate (FDA), ß-glucosidase) and chemical properties (pH) were determined in soil samples. Contamination factor (Cf), degree of contamination (Cd), pollution load index (PLI), and enrichment factor (EF) were used for soil and relative accumulation factor (RAF) for air quality evaluation. Contamination factor values show serious pollution by Cd, Fe, Hg, and Mn. Pollution load index confirmed extremely high pollution almost at all evaluated areas. Soil enzymes reacted to soil pollution mostly by decreasing their activity. Mosses and lichens show differences in the accumulation abilities of individual elements. Regular consumption of L. pseudoscabrum would provide the dose of Cd and Hg below the limit of provisional weekly intake. Based on the bioaccumulation index (BAF) values, L. pseudoscabrum can be characterized as an Hg accumulator. Keywords: former mining area; L. pseudoscabrum; moss and lichen bag technique; soil contamination; contamination factor; degree of contamination; relative accumulation factor.
32849Gogoi R., Joseph S., Choudhury M.P., Nayaka S. & Yasmin F. (2020): Crustose lichens new to India. - Mycotaxon, 135: 657–663. https://doi.org/10.5248/135.657.
Bacidia pycnidiata (Ramalinaceae), Malmidea nigromarginata (Malmideaceae), Porina malmei and P. nuculastrum (Porinaceae), and Pyrenula laetior and P. wrightii (Pyrenulaceae) are reported for the first time from India. The specimens were collected from the state of Assam. Taxonomic descriptions, distributions, and illustrations are provided for each species. Key words—biodiversity, lichenized Ascomycota, Nagaon, taxonomy, Tezpur.
32848Miao C., Sun M., Zhang X., Ren Z. & Hu L. (2020): New records of Toninia from China. - Mycotaxon, 135: 569–578. https://doi.org/10.5248/135.569.
Four Toninia taxa (T. albilabra, T. poeltii, T. tristis subsp. Arizonica, and T. tristis subsp. fujikawae) are reported for the first time from China. Descriptions with morphological and chemical characters and known distribution are given for each taxon. A key to the species of Toninia s.l. in China is also provided. Keywords—lichen-forming fungi, Lecanorales, Ramalinaceae, taxonomy.
32847Stam Å., He X., Kaasalainen U., Toivonen M., Enroth J., Räsänen M. & Rikkinen J. (2020): Epiphyte colonisation of fog nets in montane forests of the Taita Hills, Kenya. - Annales Botanici Fennici, 57: 227–238. https://doi.org/10.5735/085.057.0406.
The dispersal ecology of tropical non-vascular epiphytes has rarely been experimentally investigated. We studied epiphyte colonisation on 1 × 1 m polyethene nets placed for four years at seven sites at different elevations in montane forests in the Taita Hills, Kenya. During the first year the nets were also used to measure fog deposition. We predicted that differences in growth conditions would affect colonisation and subsequent growth of non-vascular epiphytes and result in clear differences in epiphyte cover and biomass, and community composition among sites. After four years the nets were taken down for determination of epiphyte cover and biomass. The diversity of established liverworts and macrolichens was also examined. Many liverwort and macrolichen species established diverse communities on the nets placed in the moist upper-montane zone. This was in contrast with the situation in the drier lower-montane zone where only green algae and crustose lichens were able to colonise most nets. Light intensity was an important determinant of epiphyte community composition, with liverworts dominating on nets under closed forest canopies and lichens dominating at more open sites. Atmospheric moisture was also important, with lichens benefiting from abundant fog deposition at open and windy sites. The dry weight of epiphytes (per unit area) on lichen-dominated nets was greater than on liverwort-dominated nets, while the highest cover was generally observed on liverwort-dominated nets. Our results demonstrate that polyethylene nets can be effectively used to study colonisation of non-vascular epiphytes as well as the abiotic and biotic factors controlling epiphyte colonisation and community composition in tropical forests. The liverworts Acanthocoleus chrysophyllus and Diplasiolejeunea kraussiana were new additions to the Kenyan bryophyte flora.
32846Etayo J., Aptroot A. & Cáceres M.E.S. (2020): New lichenicolous fungi from Brazil, with a checklist of all lichenicolous fungi known from Brazil. - Bryologist, 123(3): 483–491. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-123.3.483.
Two lichenicolous fungi are described as new to science from Brazil: Cryptodiscus gassicurtiae on Gassicurtia coccinea from Alagoas, with very small (60–150 lm diam.), grey to brownish apothecia, and Stigmidium anguinellicola on Nyungwea anguinella from Sergipe, without black patches on the host, and ascospores with halo, 8–11 3 3–3.5 lm. Nine further lichenicolous fungi are reported for the first time from Brazil (or from South America). An annotated list is presented of the 78 lichenicolous fungi previously reported from Brazil. Keywords: Cryptodiscus, Gassicurtia, Nyungwea, Stigmidium.
32845Liška J. (2015): Neznámý sběratel Celestýn Opitz. - Mykologické listy, 131: 35–38. .
Celestýn Opitz, unknown collector from the 19th century
32844Mascalchi M., Orsini C., Pinna D., Salvadori B., Siano S. & Riminesi C. (2020): Assessment of different methods for the removal of biofilms and lichens on gravestones of the English Cemetery in Florence. - International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 154: 105041 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2020.105041.
The control of biodeterioration encompasses the operations undertaken to eliminate the biological growth and, possibly, to delay a new colonization. The current attitude is generally oriented toward its planned removal whenever it causes an objective damage and/or structural impairments to the substratum. The English Cemetery, located in the centre of Florence, offers interesting features for a research focused on the removal of biofilms and lichens growing on stone surfaces of some tombs. The study compared the efficacy of two methods based on physical approach (mechanical cleaning with a brush and microwave heating) with a chemical approach using biocide ROCIMA™ 103 to remove biofilms and lichens from each tombstone. The research, focusing on methodologies with low impact for the environment, tested the efficacy of an innovative portable system that produces localized microwave heating. Its great advantage lays on lack of the potential risks associated with the irreversible application of microbicides. The assessment of the treatments’ efficacy was carried out monitoring the chlorophyll a fluorescence’s parameters, informative on the vitality and stress responses of photosynthetic organisms. The long-term monitoring of the recolonization after the treatments was performed for five years. The mechanical cleaning eliminated the superficial layer of biofilms and lichens but not the cells within the stones. The biocide was efficient in killing the biological growth; almost no recolonization was observed after about five years. The innovative microwave treatment was effective on biofilms and lichens, eliminating also cells present in the bulk of the substrata, but recolonization was observed after 15 months. This suggests that, dopo treatment aggiungere virgola the microwave treatment should be performed more frequently than biocide treatments yet guaranteeing lower impact on the environment. Keywords: Biodeterioration; Biofilms; Lichens; Mechanical removal; Microwave heating; Biocide; Chlorophyll a fluorescence; Marble; Sandstone.
32843Favero-Longo S.E., Vannini A., Benesperi R., Bianchi E., Fačkovcová Z., Giordani P., Malaspina P., Martire L., Matteucci E., Paoli L., Ravera S., Roccardi A., Tonon C. & Loppi S. (2020): The application protocol impacts the effectiveness of biocides against lichens. - International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 155: 105105 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2020.105105.
This work analyzed the influence of different application protocols on the efficacy of two biocides against the foliose lichen Xanthoparmelia tinctina on the sandstones of the Roman Archaeological site of Luni (Italy). The hypotheses that (a) biocide application tools (brush vs. poultice), (b) pre-treatment hydration, and (c) posttreatment washing may affect devitalization success were verified by monitoring chlorophyll a fluorescence of thalli, both in situ and in laboratory conditions. The hypothesis that (d) stone substrate may act as reservoir for later biocide release under repeated cycles of wetting and drying was also assayed. Analyses confirmed the importance of the application tool, with cellulose poultice being more effective than brush. Hydration influenced the biocide absorption by thalli. Moreover it modulated the metabolic activity and susceptibility to the available toxic compound, hindering lichens from entering a dormant state to tolerate stress. Depending on the preparation solvent (water vs. white spirit), the biocide application benefited from pre-treatment hydration and/or a posttreatment washing. Lastly, we showed that different sandstones variously adsorb the biocides and potentially contribute as a reservoir for their long-term release at low concentrations during successive hydration events. Keywords: Benzalkonium chloride; Chlorophyll a fluorescence; Lichen; Thallus hydration; Stone conservation.
32842Kulkarni A.N., Kadam S.K., Jeon B.H. & Govindwar S.P. (2020): Enhanced application of cross-linked enzyme aggregates of lichen Dermatocarpon vellereceum released extracellular enzymes for degradation of textile dyes. - International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 153: 105044 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2020.105044.
Like all objects exposed to the atmosphere, cultural heritage monuments and buildings must face the effects of global change. Some of environmental factors that are predicted to change and that are likely to affect the development of subaerial biofilms include water regime and CO2 concentration. This study investigated, for the first time, the influence of simultaneous environmental stressors on the development of subaerial biofilms on granite, the most commonly used stone in historical and modern buildings in Galicia (north-western Spain). Laboratory experiments revealed counteractive effects of water availability and increased CO2 concentration on the development of biofilms. Moreover, although the amount of colonizing biomass is not expected to change under the climate change projections for Galicia, the composition of the biofilm will probably change and cause more intense biodeterioration of stone cultural heritage. The study findings will be useful to help develop conservation and prevention policies against the deterioration of the built cultural heritage. Keywords: Climate change; CO2 atmospheric levels; Water availability; Photosynthetic pigments; Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS).
32841Owczarek-Kościelniak M., Krzewicka B., Piątek J., Kołodziejczyk Ł.M. & Kapusta P. (2020): Is there a link between the biological colonization of the gravestone and its deterioration?. - International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 148: 104879 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2019.104879.
The relationship between the structure (taxonomic richness and composition) of biological assemblages colonizing gravestones and the deterioration of the gravestone surface was investigated. The study was conducted at the Rakowicki Cemetery in Kraków, which is a Polish cultural heritage site. Data on the occurrence of algae, cyanobacteria, fungi and lichens were collected from 10 limestone and 10 sandstone substrates. Deteriorations were visually assessed on a generalized 3-point scale. In total, 77 taxa were recorded, including 21 algae, 3 cyanobacteria, 13 fungi and 40 lichens. Both the taxonomic richness and the composition of the studied biota were related to the degree of deterioration but the relationships were weak. A significant increase in the taxonomic richness of lichens was recorded, but only between the second and third degrees of deterioration. This was accompanied by a compositional shift in the fungi group, which resulted mainly from the more frequent occurrence of one species, Knufia marmoricola, on more deteriorated surfaces. The type of substrate had a strong impact on the taxonomic composition (especially, of fungi and lichens), but not on the taxonomic richness. The structural changes in gravestone assemblages during the observed succession, although quite small, may lead to intensification of the deterioration processes. Keywords: Stone art work; Biodeterioration; Limestone; Sandstone; Stone-inhabiting biota; Community structure.
32840Sanmartín P., Villa F., Cappitelli F., Balboa S. & Carballeira R. (2020): Characterization of a biofilm and the pattern outlined by its growth on a granite-built cloister in the Monastery of San Martiño Pinario (Santiago de Compostela, NW Spain). - International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 147: 104871 [8 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2019.104871.
The upper zone of the background walls of the processional cloister of the Monastery of San Martiño Pinario (Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, Spain) is affected by a deep green, highly hydrophobic subaerial biofilm. The pattern that the biofilm follows the walls suggests that particular microclimatic conditions induce changes in the biofilm properties. To test this hypothesis, taxonomic and structural identification of the biofilm was carried out by respectively light microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy. In addition, the chemical composition was determined by quantification of extracellular polymeric substances in the extracellular matrix of the biofilm, and hydrophobicity was determined by contact angle and water drop penetration time of biofilm and cells. Furthermore, the bioprotective or biodeteriorative role of the biofilm on the cloister is discussed on the basis of the results of stereoscopic microscope observations, X-ray diffraction and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis of granite samples from uncolonized areas and from underneath the biofilm. The findings showed that Apatococcus lobatus is the predominant algae in the biofilm. The presence of this alga is favoured by water condensation and it neither damages nor protects the substrate, only causing an aesthetic impact. Keywords: Apatococcus lobatus; Biodeterioration; Cultural heritage; Extracellular matrix (ECM); Hydrophobicity; Subaerial biofilm (SAB).
32839Kakakhel M.A., Wu F., Gu J.-D., Feng H., Shah K. & Wang W. (2019): Controlling biodeterioration of cultural heritage objects with biocides: A review. - International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 143: 104721 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2019.104721.
Biodeterioration is when living organisms chemically or physically change or alter the appearance of materials objects. Organisms can colonize and destroy valuable cultural heritage. New advances in biotechnology and applied microbiology provide important information on conserving cultural heritage. Various physical and mechanical methods have previously been used, but they are incapable of preventing the growth of organisms entirely. Organic biocides, particularly commercial formulations, do not last long because they can be utilized as a nutrient source by indigenous microflora after these microflora are exposed to biocides and develop resistance. Therefore, inorganic nanoparticles have a better chance to protect cultural heritage. Silver (Ag2O) and titanium (TiO2) oxides are effective against biofilm, and nanoparticles of zinc oxide (ZnO) are effective antimicrobial agents. This new generation of biocides is much smaller in size and extremely active to damage DNA or RNA. In addition, green biocides from natural sources offer an alternative to chemical ones, having low toxicity compared to chemically synthesized biocides. Future research on biofilm control technologies may contribute to a broader understanding of and new perspectives on a future generation of biocontrol agents and methods with the potential for sustainable development. Keywords: Cultural heritage; Biodeterioration; Biocide; Nanoparticles; Essential oils.
32838Zhang G., Gong C., Gu J., Katayama Y., Someya T. & Gu J.-D. (2019): Biochemical reactions and mechanisms involved in the biodeterioration of stone world cultural heritage under the tropical climate conditions. - International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 143: 104723 [8 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2019.104723.
The World Cultural Heritage stone monuments/temples suffer from severe deterioration from weathering caused by a combination of physical, chemical and biological forces. Current knowledge on biodeterioration of these stone monuments has been improving because of the suite of research techniques available. Previous investigations were mainly carried out with culture-dependent methods to isolate and describe a small number of microorganisms from selective sites. Now, the culture-independent method of Next Generation Sequencing technologies is readily available at an affordable cost to obtain a much more deeper information of the microbial community of many sites more quickly. Since flora, fauna and microorganisms are members of the complex community on stone monuments in tropical regions, the fundamental scientific question remains to be the biochemical mechanisms involved for the destruction to allow a better and fundamental understanding of the interactions between the inorganic materials and the colonizing biota. More importantly, the biochemical processes shall be given more attention under the local environmental conditions, especially the tropical climate. Organic acids and inorganic acids (sulfuric and nitric), produced by colonizing biota are known biochemical processes and mechanisms contributing to the attack of stone. Lichens, cyanobacteria, fungi and bacteria are ubiquitously detected on surfaces of stone monuments of Angkor, Maya and Inca. Sulfur cycle and the oxidation are known major contributing factor to the destruction of stone. Recently, ammonia-oxidizing archaea are found more abundant than ammonia-oxidizing bacteria on the Angkor monuments in Cambodia. In addition, the mobility of solutes into and out of the stone is also involved to the damage of sandstone under the influence of water regime and climate conditions. The available information on the specific biochemical mechanisms by the microbiota on stone provides important insights into the biochemical reactions involved and also the protective measures against biodeterioration of the world cultural heritage effectively. Keywords: Angkor temples; Sandstone; Cultural heritage; Biofilms; Salting; Defoliation; Capillary action; Secondary mineralization.
32837Ravera S., Vizzini A., Puglisi M., Adamčík S., Aleffi M., Aloise G., Boccardo F., Bonini I., Caboň M., Catalano I., De Giuseppe A.B., Di Nuzzo L., Dovana F., Fačkovcová Z., Gheza G., Gianfreda S., Guarino C., Guttová A., Jon R., Malíček J., Marziano M., Matino C., Nimis P.L., Pandeli G., Paoli L., Passalacqua N.G., Pittao E., Poponessi S., Puntillo D., Sguazzin F., Sicoli G. & Vallese C. (2020): Notulae to the Italian flora of algae, bryophytes, fungi and lichens: 9. - Italian Botanist, 9: 35–46. https://doi.org/10.3897/italianbotanist.9.52762.
In this contribution, new data concerning bryophytes, fungi, and lichens of the Italian flora are presented. It includes new records and confirmations for the bryophyte genera Encalypta, Grimmia, and Riccia, for the fungal genera Hericium, Inocybe, Inocutis, Pluteus, and Russula, and for the lichen genera Bryoria, Farnoldia, Hypocenomyce, Lecania, Paracollema, Peltigera, Sarcogyne, and Teloschistes. Keywords: Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Bryidae, Jungermanniidae, Marchantiidae.
32836Smith R.J., Jovan S., Stanton D. & Will-Wolf S. (2020): Epiphytic macrolichen communities indicate climate and air quality in the U.S. Midwest. - Bryologist, 123(3): 516–532. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-123.3.516.
Epiphytic lichens directly exposed to atmospheric conditions can help detect how diffuse but pressing global changes may impact regional forest health. For 388 plots in the U.S. Midwest region, we developed indices for climate and air quality based on variation in tree-dwelling macrolichen community compositions (NMS ordination scores), species indicator values, and species environmental optima. Three lichen indices (NMS axis 1 scores, thermophile scores, and climate centroid scores) strongly covaried with thermal and evaporative-demand variables. By contrast, three other indices (NMS axis 2 scores, nitrophile scores and nitrogen centroid scores) were correlated with NHx (reduced N) deposition. Lichen communities had contrasting responses to different forms of N (NOx vs. NHx). Overall, thermal climate variables appeared more influential than air quality in structuring regional communities, based on greater explained variation of community compositions. Richness of species and of potentially adaptive secondary metabolites declined in hot, dry, or NHx-rich sites. With continued monitoring, significant changes in lichen-community based indices could signal directional shifts in forest vegetation. Changes in the thermophile or nitrophile indices more specifically would indicate the agent and rate of change for forest-altering trends. Keywords: Air quality, climate indication, community compositions, diversity, global changes, indicator species, nitrogen loads, secondary metabolites.
32835Perlmutter G.B., Rivas Plata E., LaGreca S., Aptroot A., Lücking R., Tehler A. & Ertz D. (2020): Biatora akompsa is revealed as a disjunct North American species of Pentagenella (Opegraphaceae) through molecular phylogenetic analysis and phenotype-based binning. - Bryologist, 123(3): 502–516. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-123.3.502.
Historical and recent material of Bacidia akompsa (basionym: Biatora akompsa) was studied to determine the taxonomic position of this crustose lichen, prompted by the appearance of the provisional name ‘‘Lecanactis akompsa (Tuck.) ined.’’ in multiple online lichen databases and checklists. Initial morphological assessment of verified material confirmed B. akompsa as a member of Arthoniales but distinct from Lecanactis by having epruinose ascomata with a thin exciple open below the hymenium; a pale, K/Iþ violet to deep blue hypothecium; and ascospores with a gelatinous sheath. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of specimens recently collected near the type locality revealed B. akompsa to be nested within the genus Pentagenella in Opegraphaceae. The same placement was found using phenotype-based phylogenetic binning with 37 morphological, anatomical and chemical characters. The new combination Pentagenella akompsa is proposed and the species represents the first North American member of this genus, otherwise known only from Chile and Peru. Therefore, our results reveal the genus Pentagenella to have a remarkably disjunct distribution between North and South America. Several specimens previously labeled as Bacidia, Biatora, or Lecanactis akompsa were found to be misidentifications, narrowing the range of P. akompsa to coastal California, where it is found on two coastal conifer species that are (like P. akompsa itself) narrowly endemic and of conservation concern. Keywords: Arthoniales, Bacidia, California, nomenclature, taxonomy.
32834McCune B. (2020): Epigloea diversispora, a new possibly lichenized ascomycete from Oregon, with a key to the World species. - Bryologist, 123(3): 534–540. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-122.3.534.
Epigloea diversispora is newly described from a coastal mountain summit in western Oregon, U.S.A. The species has minute, shiny, jet black ascocarps appearing on a biofilm of mixed cyanobacteria and algae. The spores are diverse in both shape and septation. Immature spores are initially nonseptate and ellipsoid, then become soleiform, then 1-septate, while mature spores are 3-septate and short fusiform. Lichenization is uncertain, but the species appears to form a loosely lichenized thallus with hyphae dispersed in a partly cyanobacterial and partly algal crust on thin soil, moss, and plant detritus, over rock. Keywords: Biofilms, Epigloeaceae, North America, Ostropomycetidae.
32833Lendemer J.C. (2020): Recent literature on lichens—258. - Bryologist, 123(3): 584–591. https//doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-123.3.584.
Bibliography
32832Ristić S., Stamenković S., Stojković Piperac M., Šajn R., Kosanić M. & Ranković B. (2020): Searching for lichen indicator species: the application of self-organizing maps in air quality assessment—a case study from Balkan area (Serbia). - Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 192: 693 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-020-08633-3.
The subject of this paper is the possibility of using self-organizing map (SOM) in the biomonitoring studies. We used lichens as biomonitors to indicate different degrees of air quality. This research included all of 88 lichen species that was collected at 75 investigated points. These lichen species showed the different responses to air pollution. The air quality was assessed by IAP (index of atmospheric pollution) values. The IAP values were calculated for all of investigated points on the territory of four natural and one urban ecosystem. Calculated IAP values were in range of 10 to 75. On the basis of the lichen data and IAP values, we have employed SOM analysis that distinguished three clusters (A, B, and C). It presented lichen indicator species for each cluster: 16 species for cluster A, 18 species for cluster B, and two species for cluster C. This paper presents a useful method to find indicator species. Keywords: Bioindication . Mapping . Zonification . SOManalysis . Clusters.
32831Doering J.A., Booth T., Wiersma Y.F. & Piercey‑Normore M.D. (2020): How do genes flow? Identifying potential dispersal mode for the semi‑aquatic lichen Dermatocarpon luridum using spatial modelling and photobiont markers. - BMC Ecology, 20: 56 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12898-020-00324-4.
Background: Landscape genetics is an interdisciplinary field that combines tools and techniques from population genetics with the spatially explicit principles from landscape ecology. Spatial variation in genotypes is used to test hypotheses about how landscape pattern affects dispersal in a wide range of taxa. Lichens, symbiotic associations between mycobionts and photobionts, are an entity for which little is known about their dispersal mechanism. Our objective was to infer the dispersal mechanism in the semi-aquatic lichen Dermatocarpon luridum using spatial models and the spatial variation of the photobiont, Diplosphaera chodatii. We sequenced the ITS rDNA and the β-actin gene regions of the photobiont and mapped the haplotype spatial distribution in Payuk Lake. We subdivided Payuk Lake into subpopulations and applied four spatial models based on the topography and hydrology to infer the dispersal mechanism. Results: Genetic variation corresponded with the topography of the lake and the net flow of water through the waterbody. A lack of isolation-by-distance suggests high gene flow or dispersal within the lake. We infer the dispersal mechanism in D. luridum could either be by wind and/or water based on the haplotype spatial distribution of its photobiont using the ITS rDNA and β-actin markers. Conclusions: We inferred that the dispersal mechanism could be either wind and/or water dispersed due to the conflicting interpretations of our landscape hypotheses. This is the first study to use spatial modelling to infer dispersal in semi-aquatic lichens. The results of this study may help to understand lichen dispersal within aquatic landscapes, which can have implications in the conservation of rare or threatened lichens. Keywords: Dermatocarpon luridum, Diplosphaera chodatii, Dispersal, Genetic variation, Lichenized alga, Semi-aquatic, Spatial modelling.
32830Mugnai G., Rossi F., Mascalchi C., Ventura S. & De Philippis R. (2020): High Arctic biocrusts: characterization of the exopolysaccharidic matrix. - Polar Biology, 43: 1805–1815. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00300-020-02746-8.
Biocrusts can be found in a wide array of habitats, where they provide important ecosystem services. These microbial associations are particularly important in High Arctic environments, where biocrust colonize the newly exposed barren soil after glacier retreat and significantly contribute to soil stabilization and nutrient cycling. Starting from incipient, structurally simple biolayers, they develop in complexity, increasing from the glacier terminus. Starting from a simple community structure, mainly constituted by cyanobacteria, heterotrophic bacteria and fungi immersed in a self-secreted extracellular polymeric matrix (cyanobacterial crusts), they later may recruit mosses and lichens (moss crusts and lichen crusts, respectively). The extracellular polymeric matrix protects the biocrust community from abiotic constraints, notably drought and freezing stress, from external physical harming factors, and from predation. The physicochemical characteristics of the extracellular matrix are related to several of its properties, such as its soil-stabilizing effect and water retention. We analysed the chemical (monosaccharidic composition) and macromolecular (molecular weight distribution) properties of the extracellular polymeric matrix of biocrusts with different morphologies collected in northwestern Spitsbergen, Norway. The uronic acid content and molecular weight (MW) distribution of the extracellular polysaccharidic matrices (EPMs) appeared in accordance with the developmental stages of the biocrusts. The MW distribution also showed significant differences between the samples, possibly reflecting differences in microbial enzymatic activities leading to the degradation of high-MW polymers into smaller compounds. The MW distribution profiles presented some important differences, reflecting differences in environmental conditions and, probably, the seasonal variance in microbial community composition that is known to characterize the environment examined in the present study. Keywords: Biocrusts · Arctic environment · Extracellular polysaccharidic matrix (EPM) · Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS).
32829Conti M.E., Plà R., Simone C., Jasan R. & Finoia M.G. (2020): Implementing the monitoring breakdown structure: native lichens as biomonitors of element deposition in the southern Patagonian forest connected with the Puyehue volcano event in 2011—a 6-year survey (2006–2012). - Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 27: 38819–38834. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-10001-0.
This study aims to investigate the airborne elements’ deposition by using native Usnea barbata lichens as biomonitors in the forested areas of Tierra del Fuego (TdF, southern Patagonia), an apparently pristine environment. The present study is linked to the volcanic eruption of the Puyehue-Cordón Caulle which started in north Patagonia in June 2011, which gives rise to longdistance transport of pollutants through the atmosphere at 1700 km from our sampling sites. The monitoring breakdown structure (MBS) was applied to three sampling campaigns in 2006 (baseline) ➔ 2011–2012 (3 and 15 months after the volcanic event, respectively). We have on purpose enhanced the information variety endowment: (i) Seventy-one referenced sites were double sampled; (ii) up to 426 composite lichen samples were collected; (iii) twenty-six elements were measured by neutron activation analysis (As, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb, Zn) for samples of 2011 and 2012 campaigns; (iv) thirteen common elements (As, Ba, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, Na, Sb, Se, U, Zn) were determined in 2006 for the baseline comparison. The natural contamination by tephras is reflected by lichens more clearly in the 2011 campaign, where Ba, Cr, Na, Ca, Cs, and U showed higher median levels compared with the baseline campaign (2006). Ca, K, and Na were the most accumulated elements after the volcano event and could be associated with the volcanic ashes’ deposition. Rare earth elements (REEs) showed no significant bioaccumulation levels between 2011 and 2012, indicating their association with higher lithogenic inputs than volcanic ashes. Using the Earth’s crust as reference, nine elements (As, Ba, Br, Ca, K, Na, Sb, Se, and Zn) presented moderate/significant mean enrichment factor (EF) values (> 5). The usefulness of Usnea barbata as test species for direct biomonitoring oriented kinetic studies in areas characterized by a low human impact is confirmed. Eventually, our results confirm that TdF is not an actual pristine environment as earlier supposed. Keywords: Usnea barbata .Native lichens .Monitoringbreakdown structure(MBS) . Elements . Atmospheric deposition . Tierra del Fuego . Puyehue-Cordón Caulle volcano . Neutron activation analysis.
32828Norouzi H., Azizi A., Gholami M., Sohrabi M. & Boustie J. (2020): Chemotype variations among lichen ecotypes of Umbilicaria aprina as revealed by LC-ESI-MS/MS: a survey of antioxidant phenolics. - Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 27: 40296–40308. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-10053-2.
In the present study,we characterized the phytochemical properties, which were specifically associatedwith phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities in six distinct ecotypes of Umbilicaria aprina Nyl. from Iran (including Kivarestan, Mishan, Takht-e Nader, Tochal, Sabalan, and Sahand) to detect diversities within the species. Total phenolic concentration (TPC) and radical scavenging capacities of U. aprina ecotypes were evaluated. Moreover, qualitative differences between chemical profiles were surveyed using liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Relatively moderate TPCs (Kivarestan = 36.12 ± 2.1, Mishan = 41.59 ± 2.2, Takht-e Nader = 31.85 ± 1.3, Tochal = 37.55 ± 2.3, Sabalan = 28.91 ± 2.5, and Sahand = 31.59 ± 2.2) were observed for ecotypes, but a very strong correlation (r = −0/842) was obtained between TPCs and IC50 values. Based on the results of LC-ESI-MS/MS, the following chemical substanceswere identified: orsellinic acid (1), lecanoric acid (2), evernic acid (3), gyrophoric acid (4), umbilicaric acid (5), hiascic acid (6), stictic acid (7) methyl hiascic acid (8), and an unknown substance (9). The MS/MS fragmentation scheme for each substance was determined and proposed. Wide discrepancies were observed in the chemical profiles of lichen ecotypes, which may corroborate the influence of ecological locality conditions, for example, altitude and slope aspects on secondary metabolism of lichen species U. aprina. The northfacing and east-facing ecotypes (Sabalan and Mishan, respectively) lacked depsidones (stictic acid) mainly because they receive the least direct radiation. Mishan ecotype, as the only east-facing ecotype, showed the most different chemical profile. Keywords_ Umbilicaria aprina . Umbilicariaceae . Phytochemical profile . Phenolic . LC-ESI-MS/MS . Depsides . Ecological factors . Slope aspect.
32827Maheu J. & Werner R.-G. (1934b): Contribution a la flore lichenique de L\´Alsace. - Bulletin de la Société d'Histoire Naturelle de Colmar, n. s., 24(1933-1934): 51–85. .
France, Alsace
32826van der Pluijm A. (2020): Hyperphyscia lucida (Physciaceae, lichenized Ascomycota), a new species from willow forests in the Biesbosch, the Netherlands. - Lindbergia, 43: linbg.01138 [11 p.]. Doi: 10.25227/linbg.01138. .
Hyperphyscia lucida is described as a new lichen species from the Netherlands on morphological grounds. It most closely resembles H. adglutinata, but differs by a whiter grey thallus, confluent or laterally imbricate, mostly flat and closely appressed, shiny lobes, a transparent prothallus, and groups of laminal pustules that develop into finely granular to coarsely isidioid soredia. Hyperphyscia lucida was found in 2020 in an area of approximately 1 km2 in the freshwater tidal area the Biesbosch. Thalli were found on 14 Salix trees in the southwest of two ca 60-year-old willow forests, together with a. o. Hyperphyscia adglutinata (with apothecia), Phaeophyscia orbicularis, Xanthoria parietina and Hypnum cupressiforme. Further interesting companions include Porina byssophila, Physciella chloantha and Strangospora deplanata. Keywords: climate change, Hyperphysica, lichens, new species, phylogenetic, taxonomy.
32825Pineda Cáceres J., Morano Büchner S. & Vidal O.J. (2020): Catálogo de las colecciones de líquenes de la región de Magallanes y Antártica Chilena depositadas en el herbario del Instituto de la Patagonia (HIP) [Catalog of the collections of lichens of the Magallanes region (Chile) deposited in the herbarium of the Instituto de la Patagonia (HIP)]. - Anales del Instituto de la Patagonia, 48(1): 7–26. DOI: 10.4067/S0718-686X2020000100007. https://scielo.conicyt.cl/pdf/ainpat/v48n1/0718-686X-ainpat-48-01-7.pdf.
[in Spanish with English abstract: ] The lichen mycobiota of Magellan region is diverse but has been poorly studied. This situation can result in a low rating for this biodiversity and an inadequate management for the conservation of this group. A preliminary catalog of the lichen mycobiota of the Magallanes and Chilean Antarctic region was prepared from records deposited in the Herbarium of the Instituto de la Patagonia (HIP). The catalog includes information on habitat, collection locations, distribution in Chile, global distribution and record numbers of the 296 exsiccata examined. Taxonomical, geographical and ecological information is described for 100 taxa distributed in 3 classes, 9 orders, 19 families and 43 genera. The most diverse taxonomic orders were Lecanorales (Lecanoromycetes) with 24 genera and 51 taxa, and Peltigerales (Lecanoromycetes) with 9 genera and 37 taxa. These species represent collections made through a wide geographical and ecological range including four provincial districts (Magallanes, Tierra del Fuego, Última Esperanza and Chilean Antarctic), and ecosystems like steppes, shrubs, forests and Andean habitats. This information can contribute to improve and systematize the current knowledge of the lichen mycobiota of the southernmost region in Chile for management and conservation purposes. Keywords: herbarium; checklist; index herbariorum; Chile; lichen diversity.
32824Benatti M.N. & Honda N.K. (2020): Small Parmeliaceae (liquenized Ascomycota) of Ilhabela State Park and nearby areas, São Paulo state, Brazil. - Rodriguésia, 71: e00052019 [7 p.]. DOI: 10.1590/2175-78602020971106. https://www.scielo.br/pdf/rod/v71/2175-7860-rod-71-e00052019.pdf.
A survey of lichens at Ilhabela State Park and nearby areas in São Sebastião Island revealed the occurrence of 12 taxa belonging to six genera of small foliose Parmeliaceae, which are characterized by usually small thalli (hardly > 10 cm in diameter) with narrow lobes or laciniae less than 1 cm wide. Comments are provided for the species registered. Key words: Atlantic rainforest, lichens, mycobiota, restinga wood, São Sebastião Island.
32823Cantón N., Rodríguez J.M. & Estrabou C. (2020): La familia Parmeliaceae (Ascomycota liquenizados) en la provincia de La Rioja, Argentina [The Parmeliaceae family (lichenized Ascomycota) from La Rioja province, Argentina]. - Boletín de la Sociedad Argentina de Botánica, 55(2): 195–213. DOI: 10.31055/1851.2372.v55.n2.26451. http://www.scielo.org.ar/pdf/bsab/v55n2/v55n2a02.pdf.
[in Spanish with English summary: ] Background and aims: results of a taxonomic study on Parmeliaceae family (lichenized Ascomycota) from La Rioja province are presented, as part of a long time study to list and know the lichen biota from central - west of Argentina. M&M: an extensive collection was made in different phytogeographycal units and altitudinal belts in the main mountains chains of the province territory. The species were identified using morphological, anatomical and Chemical observations. Results & conclusions: forty one species were identified of which twenty nine are the first mention to La Rioja province and one species, Psiloparmelia arhizinosa is recorded for the first time for the country. Keys to genera and species were made and their distinctive characteristics together with the local distribution are mentioned. The identified species belong to the parmelioid clades Hypotrachyna, Parmotrema, and Xanthoparmelia; and to the non-parmelioid lichens clades Psiloparmelia and Usnea. Key words: Argentina, distribution, parmelioid lichens, taxonomy.
32822Hongsanan S., Hyde K.D., Phookamsak R., Wanasinghe D.N., McKenzie E.H.C., Sarma V.V., Boonmee S., Lücking R., Bhat D.J., Liu N.G., Tennakoon D.S., Pem D., Karunarathna A., Jiang S.H., Jones E.B.G., Phillips A.J.L., Manawasinghe I.S., Tibpromma S., Jayasiri S.C., Sandamali D.S., Jayawardena R.S., Wijayawardene N.N., Ekanayaka A.H., Jeewon R., Lu Y.Z., Dissanayake A.J., Zeng X.Y., Luo Z.L., Tian Q., Phukhamsakda C., Thambugala K.M., Dai D.Q., Chethana K.W.T., Samarakoon M.C., Ertz D., Bao D.F., Doilom M., Liu J.K., Pérez-Ortega S., Suija A., Senwanna C., Wijesinghe S.N., Konta S., Niranjan M., Zhang S.N., Ariyawansa H.A., Jiang H.B., Zhang J.F., Norphanphoun C., de Silva N.I., Thiyagaraja V., Zhang H., Bezerra J.D.P., Miranda-González R., Aptroot A., Kashiwadani H., Harishchandra D., Sérusiaux E., Aluthmuhandiram J.V.S., Abeywickrama P.D., Devadatha B., Wu HX, Moon K.H., Gueidan C., Schumm F., Bundhun D., Mapook A., Monkai J., Chomnunti P., Suetrong S., Chaiwan N., Dayarathne M.C., Yang J., Rathnayaka A.R., Bhunjun C.S., Xu J.C., Zheng J.S., Liu G., Feng Y. & Xie N. (2020): Refined families of Dothideomycetes: Dothideomycetidae and Pleosporomycetidae. - Mycosphere, 11(1): 1553–2107. Doi: 10.5943/mycosphere/11/1/13. http://mycosphere.org/pdf/MYCOSPHERE_11_1_13.pdf.
The class Dothideomycetes is the largest and most ecologically diverse class of fungi, comprising endophytes, epiphytes, saprobes, human and plant pathogens, lichens, and lichenicolous, nematode trapping and rock-inhabiting taxa. Members of this class are mainly characterized by bitunicate asci with fissitunicate dehiscence, and occur on broad range of hosts in aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Since the last monograph of families of Dothideomycetes in 2013, numerous novel species, genera, families and orders have been discovered. This has expanded information which has led to the modern classification in Dothideomycetes. In this paper, we provide a refined updated document on families of Dothideomycetes with emphasis on Dothideomycetidae and Pleosporomycetidae. We accept three orders with 25 families and four orders with 94 families in Dothideomycetidae and Pleosporomycetidae, respectively. The new family Paralophiostomataceae is introduced in Pleosporales. Each family is provided with an updated description, notes, including figures to represent the morphology, list of accepted genera, and economic and ecological significances. We also provide an overall phylogenetic tree of families in Dothideomycetes based on combined analysis of LSU, SSU, rpb-2 and tef1 sequence data, and phylogenetic trees for each order in Dothideomycetidae and Pleosporomycetidae. Family-level trees are provided for the families which include several genera such as Mycosphaerellaceae and Teratosphaeriaceae. Two new genera (Ligninsphaeriopsis and Paralophiostoma) are introduced. Five new species (Biatrisopora borsei, Comoclathris galatellae, Ligninsphaeriopsis thailandica, Paralophiostoma hysterioides and Torula thailandica) are introduced based on morphology and phylogeny, together with nine new reports and seven new collections from different families. Key words – 6 new taxa – Capnodiales – Dothideales –Gloniales – Hysteriales – Myriangiales – Mytilinidiales – new family – new genera – new species – Pleosporales – Phylogeny – Taxonomy.
32821Eldridge D.J., Reed S., Travers S.K., Bowker M.A., Maestre F.T., Ding J., Havrilla C., Rodriguez‐Caballero E., Barger N., Weber B., Antoninka A., Belnap J., Chaudhary B., Faist A., Ferrenberg S., Huber‐Sannwald E., Malam Issa O. & Zhao Y. (2020): The pervasive and multifaceted influence of biocrusts on water in the world's drylands. - Global Change Biology, 26(10): 6003–6014. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.15232.
The capture and use of water are critically important in drylands, which collectively constitute Earth's largest biome. Drylands will likely experience lower and more unreliable rainfall as climatic conditions change over the next century. Dryland soils support a rich community of microphytic organisms (biocrusts), which are critically important because they regulate the delivery and retention of water. Yet despite their hydrological significance, a global synthesis of their effects on hydrology is lacking. We synthesized 2,997 observations from 109 publications to explore how biocrusts affected five hydrological processes (times to ponding and runoff, early [sorptivity] and final [infiltration] stages of water flow into soil, and the rate or volume of runoff) and two hydrological outcomes (moisture storage, sediment production). We found that increasing biocrust cover reduced the time for water to pond on the surface (−40%) and commence runoff (−33%), and reduced infiltration (−34%) and sediment production (−68%). Greater biocrust cover had no significant effect on sorptivity or runoff rate/amount, but increased moisture storage (+14%). Infiltration declined most (−56%) at fine scales, and moisture storage was greatest (+36%) at large scales. Effects of biocrust type (cyanobacteria, lichen, moss, mixed), soil texture (sand, loam, clay), and climatic zone (arid, semiarid, dry subhumid) were nuanced. Our synthesis provides novel insights into the magnitude, processes, and contexts of biocrust effects in drylands. This information is critical to improve our capacity to manage dwindling dryland water supplies as Earth becomes hotter and drier. Keywords: biological soil crust; bryophyte; cryptogam; cyanobacteria; hydrological cycle; infiltration; lichen; sediment production; soil hydrology; soil moisture.
32820Liepa L., Rendenieks Z., Jansons Ā., Straupe I., Dubrovskis E. & Miezīte O. (2020): The persisting influence of edge on vegetation in hemiboreal Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. swamp forest set-asides adjacent to recently disturbed stands. - Forests, 11: 1084 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/f11101084.
To increase set-aside areas and protect biodiversity values in managed hemiboreal forest landscapes, small forest parcels called Woodland Key Habitats have been designated in Baltic and Nordic countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the persisting influence of the edge on vegetation dynamics for young, medium-old and old edges in Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. Woodland Key Habitats. All of these edges are adjacent to recently disturbed (clear-cut) stands. We surveyed edge influence on vegetation in bryophyte, herbaceous, shrub and tree layers in 90 plots in 30 set-aside forest stands in Southern Latvia. We tested the differences in the number of species and projective coverage in all vegetation layers, but plant functional types were examined—separately in the herbaceous layer. We found that edge influence in protected forest stands of A. glutinosa swamp forests reflects strong changes in vegetation and plant functional types in the herbaceous layer mostly up to 20 years after clear-cut disturbance in adjacent stands. The greatest differences were between young edges (≤20 years) and old edges (≥41 years), but there were very few significant differences between medium-old (21–40 years) and old edges which signifies more rapid changes in the early stages of edge influence and gradual stabilization of vegetation later on. We found that in edges adjacent to recently disturbed stands (up to 20 years), significantly less rare and indicator epiphytic lichen species occur, but this occurrence increases over time and edge influence is no longer present beyond 20 years after disturbance. Changes in vegetation and species occurrence found in our study indicated the need to plan the allocation of set-aside patches in production forest landscapes to ensure connectivity over longer period of time. Careful planning of clear-cuts in neighboring areas over time can significantly reduce the impact of edge effect on these set-asides. Keywords: black alder; hemiboreal forests; epiphytic lichens; plant functional types; clear-cut edges; edge effect.
32819Khodosovtsev A.Ye. & Darmostuk V.V. (2020): Records of lichen species new for Ukraine from steppe habitats of the country. - Botanica Serbica, 44(2): 243–250. Doi: 10.2298/BOTSERB2002243K. https://botanicaserbica.bio.bg.ac.rs/arhiva/pdf/2020_44_2_779_full.pdf.
The lichens Arthonia cretacea, Bacidia viridescens, Candelariella blastidiata, C. xanthostigmoides, Enchylium bachmanianum, Haematomma nemetzii, Lecania triseptata, Lecidea sarcogynoides, Ramalina europaea, Sarcogyne praetermissa and Xanthocarpia diffusa are reported for the first time from Ukraine. Xanthocarpia interfulgens is confirmed from an arid Ukrainian landscape. Locations, herbarium deposits and substrates are given, together with notes on worldwide distribution of the reported taxa and morphological differences from similar species. Keywords: Arthonia, Bacidia, Candelariella, Enchylium, Haematomma, Lecania, Lecidea, Ramalina, Sarcogyne, Xanthocarpia, loess, granite, limestone, bark.
32818Puvar A.C., Nathani N.M., Shaikh I., Bhatt A.D., Bhargava P., Joshi C.G. & Joshi M.N. (2020): Bacterial line of defense in Dirinaria lichen from two different ecosystems: First genomic insights of its mycobiont Dirinaria sp. GBRC AP01. - Microbiological Research, 233: 126407 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micres.2019.126407.
Lichens have been widely studied for their symbiotic properties and for the secondary metabolites production by its fungal symbiont. Recent molecular studies have confirmed coexistence of bacteria along with the fungal and algal symbionts. Direct nucleic acid study by -omics approaches is providing better insights into their structural and functional dynamics. However, genomic analysis of individual members of lichen is difficult by the conventional approach. Hence, genome assembly from metagenome data needs standardization in the eukaryotic system like lichens. The present study aimed at metagenomic characterization of rock associated lichen Dirinaria collected from Kutch and Dang regions of Gujarat, followed by genome reconstruction and annotation of the mycobiont Dirinaria. The regions considered in the study are eco-geographically highly variant. The results revealed higher alpha diversity in the dry region Kutch as compared to the tropical forest associated lichen from Dang. Ascomycota was the most abundant eukaryote while Proteobacteria dominated the bacterial population. There were 23 genera observed only in the Kutch lichen (KL) and one genus viz., Candidatus Vecturithrix unique to the Dang lichen (DL). The exclusive bacterial genera in the Kutch mostly belonged to groups reported for stress tolerance and earlier isolated from lithobionts of extreme niches. The assembled data of KL & DL were further used for genome reconstruction of Dirinaria sp. using GC and tetra-pentamer parameters and reassembly that resulted into a final draft genome of 31.7 Mb and 9556 predicted genes. Twenty-eight biosynthesis gene clusters were predicted that included genes for polyketide, indole and terpene synthesis. Association analysis of bacteria and mycobiont revealed 8 pathways specific to bacteria with implications in lichen symbiosis and environment interaction. The study provides the first draft genome of the entire fungal Dirinaria genus and provides insights into the Dirinaria lichen metagenome from Gujarat region. Keywords: Lichen; Dirinaria; Genome reconstruction; Metagenomics; Symbiosis.
32817Kuusinen N., Juola J., Karki B., Stenroos S. & Rautiainen M. (2020): A spectral analysis of common boreal ground lichen species. - Remote Sensing of Environment, 247: 111955 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2020.111955.
Lichens dominate a significant part of the Earth's land surface, and are valuable bioindicators of various environmental changes. In the northern hemisphere, the largest lichen biomass is in the woodlands and heathlands of the boreal zone and in tundra. Despite the global coverage of lichens, there has been only limited research on their spectral properties in the context of remote sensing of the environment. In this paper, we report spectral properties of 12 common boreal lichen species. Measurements of reflectance spectra were made in laboratory conditions with a standard spectrometer (350–2500 nm) and a novel mobile hyperspectral camera (400–1000 nm) which was used in a multiangular setting. Our results show that interspecific differences in reflectance spectra were the most pronounced in the ultraviolet and visible spectral range, and that dry samples always had higher reflectance than fresh (moist) samples in the shortwave infrared region. All study species had higher reflectance in the backward scattering direction compared to nadir or forward scattering directions. Our results also reveal, for the first time, that there is large intraspecific variation in reflectance of lichen species. This emphasizes the importance of measuring several replicates of each species when analyzing lichen spectra. In addition, we used the data in a spectral clustering analysis to study the spectral similarity between samples and species, and how these similarities could be linked to different physical traits or phylogenetic closeness of the species. Overall, our results suggest that spectra of some lichen species with large ground coverage can be used for species identification from high spatial resolution remote sensing imagery. On the other hand, for lichen species growing as small assemblages, mobile hyperspectral cameras may offer a solution for in-situ species identification. The spectral library collected in this study is available in the SPECCHIO Spectral Information System. Keywords: Cetraria; Cladonia; Hyperspectral; Multiangular; Reflectance spektra; Stereocaulon.
32816Malíček J., Palice Z., Vondrák J. & Tønsberg T. (2020): Japewia aliphatica (Lecanoraceae, lichenized Ascomycota), a new acidophilous, sorediate-blastidiate lichen from Europe. - Phytotaxa, 461(1): 21–30. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.461.1.3.
Japewia aliphatica is described as a new species. It is characterized by the usually brown, often areolate, blastidiate to sorediate- blastidiate, rarely fertile thallus containing unknown fatty acid(s). It grows on acidic bark of broad-leaved trees in mainly in montane forests, and is known from Austria, the Czech Republic, Germany, Norway, Russia (European part of the Caucasus), Slovakia and Ukraine. The new species is well characterized by its morphological, chemical and molecular (nrITS, mtSSU) traits. Systematic placement of Japewia is briefly discussed and its position within Lecanoraceae confirmed. Keywords: Aliphatic acids, montane forests, sterile lichens.
32815Song Y., Yu Z., Song B., Guo S., Lei L., Ma X. & Su Y. (2018): Usnic acid inhibits hypertrophic scarring in a rabbit ear model by suppressing scar tissue angiogenesis. - Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, 108: 524–530. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2018.06.176.
Hypertrophic scarring is a common condition in the Chinese population; however, there are currently no satisfactory drugs to treat the disorder. Previous studies showed that angiogenesis plays an important role in the early phase of hypertrophic scarring and inhibition of angiogenesis has been reported as an effective strategy for anti-hypertrophic scar therapy. A recent study showed that usnic acid (UA), an active compound found mainly in lichens, inhibited tumor angiogenesis both in vivo and in vitro. To investigate the therapeutic effects of UA on hypertrophic scarring and to explore the possible mechanism involved, a rabbit ear hypertrophic scar model was established. Scars were treated once a week for four weeks with UA, DMSO or triamcinolone acetonide acetate. Histological evaluation of hematoxylin and eosin staining indicated that UA significantly inhibited hypertrophic scar formation, with obvious reductions in scar height and coloration. The scar elevation index (SEI) was also evidently reduced. Masson’s trichrome staining showed that UA significantly ameliorated accumulation of collagen tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis of CD31 expression showed that UA significantly inhibited scar angiogenesis. In vitro, UA inhibited endothelial cell migration and tube formation as well as the proliferation of both human umbilical vein endothelial cells and scar fibroblast cells. These results provide the first evidence of the therapeutic effectiveness of UA in hypertrophic scar formation in an animal model via a mechanism that involves suppression of scar angiogenesis. Keywords: Usnic acid; Hypertrophic scar; Angiogenesis.
32814Syed Zameer Ahmed K., Sidhra S.Z.A., Thangakumar A. & Krishnaveni R. (2019): Therapeutic effect of Parmotrema tinctorum against complete Freund’s adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats and identification of novel Isophthalic ester derivative. - Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, 112: 108646 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2019.108646.
The present study reveals the anti-arthritic potential of traditionally used Parmotrema tinctorum (Pt) on experimental rats and purification of novel Isophthalic ester derivative. Arthritis was induced in rats using Freund’s complete adjuvant (CFA) and subsequently treated with Pt extract (100 & 200 mg/kg.b.w). Assessment of antiarthritic activity was carried out using paw volume, arthritic score, haematological, biochemical, tissue antioxidant, histopathology and radiological analyses of ankle joints. The results revealed that continuous administration of Pt reduces the complication associated with arthritis by inhibiting the edema formation and arthritic score significantly (P < 0.05). The altered changes in biochemical parameters were brought back with an improvement in free radical scavenging ability after treatment with Pt significantly. Further purification of Pt using conventional column chromatography led to the isolation of four compounds and the structure of these isolated compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectral data’s FTIR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, DEPT-NMR spectroscopy, COSY & HSQC-NMR spectroscopy and LC–MS. The spectral data revealed that the three compounds were found to be Methyl-γ-Orsellinate, Atranorin, and usnic acid (CIIII) along with a novel secondary metabolite, (C-IV)4-Hydroxy-5-methyl-isophthalicacid3-(3,4-dihydroxy-5- methyl-phenyl)ester (C16H14O7,318.1amu). The present study reveals that Parmotrema tinctorum reduces complications associated with arthritis and the compounds were isolated for the first time. Keywords: Isolation; Arthritis; Freund’s complete adjuvant (CFA); Inflammatory; Lichen.
32813Syed Zameer Ahmed K., Sidhra S.Z.A., Kisore P.V., Kamaraj C. & Sanjeeva N. (2018): Larvicidal potential of selected indigenous lichens against three mosquito species–Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi. - Chinese Herbal Medicines, 10: 152–156. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chmed.2018.03.002.
Mosquitoes are the major transmitting vectors of serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year with undesirable effects, including toxicity to non-target organisms. Some plants with insecticidal properties have been used in recent years for the control of a variety of pest insects and vectors. In the quest for alternative natural biological control agents against mosquito larvae lichens were selected. Method: Larvicidal activity was assessed with methanolic extracts of Parmotrema reticulatum, Parmotrema kamatti, Parmotrema tinctorum, Parmelia erumpens, Leptogium papilosum , and Roccella montagnei against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi , and Culex quinquefasciatus . The standard WHO protocols with minor modifications were adopted and the bioassay was evaluated at the concentrations of 10 0–50 0 μg/mL for each lichen. Since all the lichen extracts showed complete mortality against C. quinquefasciatus in 100 μg/mL, the concentrations were decreased to 100, 50, 25, 12.5, and 6.25 μg/mL for C. quinquefasciatus . Larval mortality was observed for 24 h after treatment. Results: All the lichen extracts exhibited activity against third instar larvae of A. aegypti and A. stephensi at 100 μg/mL, and 100% mortality was observed against the vector C. quinquefasciatus at 100 μg/mL. The highest larvicidal activity was found with L. papilosum against A. aegypti (LC 50 = 81.127 μg/mL) and A. stephensi (LC 50 = 89.10 μg/mL). Similarly, P. tinctorum and R. montagnei when tested against C. quinque-fasciatus with minimum concentration < 100 μg/mL exhibited significant activity with LC 50 values of 5.32 and 6.97 μg/mL. Conclusion: The bioassay results revealed larvicidal potential of lichens especially against C. quinque-fasciatus with high mortality even at lower concentration. Hence, lichens can be used as an ideal sustainable approach for the control of lymphatic filariasis caused by vector C. quinquefasciatus. Keywords: larvicidal; lichen; mortality; mosquito; vectors.
32812Zacharski D.M., Esch S., König S., Mormann M., Brandt S., Ulrich-Merzenich G. & Hensel A. (2018): β-1,3/1,4-Glucan Lichenan from Cetraria islandica (L.) ACH. induces cellular differentiation of human keratinocytes. - Fitoterapia, 129: 226–236. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2018.07.010.
Lichenan (molecular weight 275 kDa, β-D-1,3/1,4-glucopyranose ratio 1:3) from Cetraria islandica at a concentration of 100 μg/mL induced terminal cellular differentiation of primary human keratinocytes as demonstrated by immunofluorescence staining using cytokeratin 10 and involucrin as marker proteins. Lichenan-derived oligosaccharides (DP3 to 8), obtained by acid-catalyzed partial hydrolysis of the polymer, did not influence cellular differentiation. Cytokeratin, filaggrin, involucrin, loricrin and transglutaminase gene expression as typical differentiation markers was increased by lichenan in a time-dependent manner. Lichenan upregulated gene cluster which were mostly related to cellular differentiation with focus on MAPK signaling as was shown by Whole Human Genome Microarray. These gene expression data from the array experiments were subsequently confirmed by qPCR for selected genes. For identification of the molecular binding structures of lichenan 1- and 2- D PAGE of keratinocyte protein membrane preparations was performed, followed by blotting with FITC-labeled lichenan and subsequent mass spectrometric identification of the pinpointed proteins. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and integrin β4, both proteins being strongly involved in induction of keratinocyte differentiation were identified. In addition, protein disulfide isomerase A3 (PDIA3) showed strong binding to FITClichenan, indicating this enzyme to be an intracellular target of the glucan for induction of the cellular differentiation of keratinocytes. As lichenan did not influence the EGFR phosphorylation and the phosphorylation of CREB transcription factor but strongly interacted with cytosolic proteins it is hypothized that the glucan may interact with EGFR and is subsequently internalized into the cell via endosomal uptake, interacting with PDIA3, which again alters TGFβ1 signaling towards keratinocyte differentiation. Keywords: Lichenan; Keratinocytes; Differentiation; Involucrin; Keratin; Microarray.
32811Schinkovitz A., Le Pogam P., Derbré S., Roy-Vessieres E., Blanchard P., Thirumaran S.-L., Breard D., Aumond M.-C., Zehl M., Urban E., Kaur A., Jäger N., Hofer S., Kopp B., Stuppner H., Baglin I., Seraphin D., Tomasi S., Henrion D., Boustie J. & Richomme P. (2018): Secondary metabolites from lichen as potent inhibitors of advanced glycation end products and vasodilative agents. - Fitoterapia, 131: 182–188. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2018.10.015.
Secondary metabolites from lichens are known for exhibiting various biological effects such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antibacterial activities. Despite this wide range of reported biological effects, their impact on the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) remains vastly unexplored. The latter are known contributors to lifestyle and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer and Parkinson. Moreover, the development of atherosclerosis and arterial stiffness is causally linked to the formation of AGEs. With this in mind, the present work evaluated the inhibitory effects of secondary lichen metabolites on the formation of pentosidine- like AGEs' by using an in vitro, Maillard reaction based, fluorescence assay. Overall, thirty-seven natural and five synthetically modified compounds were tested, eighteen of which exhibiting IC50 values in the range of 0.05 to 0.70 mM. This corresponds to 2 to 32 fold of the inhibitory activity of aminoguanidine. Targeting one major inhibiting mechanism of AGEs formation, all compounds were additionally evaluated on their radical scavenging capacities in an DPPH assay. Furthermore, as both AGEs' formation and hypertension are major risk factors for atherosclerosis, compounds that were available in sufficient amounts were also tested for their vasodilative effects. Overall, and though some of the active compounds were previously reported cytotoxic, present results highlight the interesting potential of secondary lichen metabolites as anti-AGEs and vasodilative agents. Keywords: Inhibition of Advanced Glycation End Products; Maillard reaction; Radical scavenging; Lichen metabolites; Vasodilation.
32810Zheng K.-X., Jiang Y., Jiang J.-X., Huang R., He J. & Wu S.-H. (2019): A new phthalazinone derivative and a new isoflavonoid glycoside from lichen-associated Amycolatopsis sp.. - Fitoterapia, 135: 85–89. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2019.04.011.
A new phthalazinone derivative, named amycophthalazinone A (1), and a new isoflavonoid glycoside, 7-Omethyl- 5-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosylgenestein (2), along with an isoflavonoid glycoside, 7-O-α-D-arabinofuranosyl daidzein (3) firstly found from natural sources, and eight known compounds (4–11), were isolated from the culture broth of the lichen-associated Amycolatopsis sp. YIM 130642. The structures of new compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. Compound 1 was the first example of naturally occurring phthalazinone derivative. The antimicrobial activities of all compounds towards five pathogenic strains were evaluated by a broth microdilution assay. Compound 1 exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, and Candida albicans with MIC values of 32, 32, and 64 μg/mL, respectively. Keywords: Amycolatopsis; Lichen; Phthalazinone; Isoflavonoid; Antimicrobial activity.
32809Sweidan A., Smida I., Chollet-Krugler M., Sauvager A., Vallet J., Gouault N., Oliviero N., Tamanai-Shacoori Z., Burel A., van de Weghe P., Chokr A., Tomasi S. & Bousarghin L. (2019): Lichen butyrolactone derivatives disrupt oral bacterial membrane. - Fitoterapia, 137: 104274 [8 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2019.104274.
We have previously demonstrated that out of the butyrolactones series synthesized based on the natural lichen metabolite lichesterinic acid, compound (B-13) was the most effective against oral bacteria. However, its antibacterial mechanism is still unknown. In this study, we have investigated its bacterial localization by synthesizing a fluorescently labeled B-13 with NBD while maintaining its antibacterial activity. We showed that this compound binds to Streptococcus gordonii cell surface, as demonstrated by HPLC analysis. By adhering to cell surface, B-13 induced cell wall disruption leading to the release of bacterial constituents and consequently, the death of S. gordonii, a Gram-positive bacterium. A Gram-negative counterpart, Porphyromanas gingivalis, showed also cracked and ruptured cells in the presence of B-13. Besides, we also demonstrated that the analog of B-13, B-12, has also induced disruption of P. gingivalis and S. gordonii. This study revealed that butyrolactones can be considered as potent antibacterial compounds against oral pathogens causing medical complications. Keywords: Lichen; Butyrolactone; Streptococcus gordonii; Porphyromanas gingivalis; Cell wall.
32808Nguyen V.-K., Genta-Jouve G., Duong T.-H., Beniddir M.A., Gallarde J.-F., Ferron S., Boustie J., Mouray E., Grellier P., Chavasiri W. & Le Pogam P. (2020): Eumitrins C-E: Structurally diverse xanthone dimers from the vietnamese lichen Usnea baileyi. - Fitoterapia, 141: 104449 [8 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2019.104449.
Three new xanthone dimers, eumitrins C − E (1–3), along with a new depsidone, 3′-O-demethylcryptostictinolide (4) were isolated from the acetone extract of the whole thallus of the lichen Usnea baileyi collected in Vietnam. Their structures were unambiguously established by spectroscopic analyses (HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR), as well as comparison to literature data. The absolute configurations of 1–3 were elucidated through electronic circular dichroism (ECD) analyses. The absolute configuration of 2 was validated by comparison between experimental and TDDFT-calculated ECD spectra while that of 3 was based on DFT-NMR calculations and subsequent DP4 probability score. The antiparasitic activities against Plasmodium falciparum as well as the cytotoxic activity against seven cell lines were determined for the new compounds 1–3, and led from null to mild bioactivities.
32807Duong T.-H., Nguyen H.-H., Le T.-T., Tran T.-N., Sichaem J., Nguyen T.-T., Nguyen T.-P., Mai D.-T., Nguyen H.-H. & Le H.-D. (2020): Subnudatones A and B, new trans-decalin polyketides from the cultured lichen mycobionts of Pseudopyrenula subnudata. - Fitoterapia, 142: 104512 [5 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2020.104512.
Chemical investigation of the cultured polyspore-derived mycobionts of a Pseudopyrenula subnudata lichen led to the isolation of two new compounds, subnudatones A and B (1 and 2), together with four known compounds, 1- (2-hydroxy-1,2,6-trimethyl-1,2,4a,5,6,7,8,8a-octahydronaphthalen-1-yl)ethanone (3), libertalide C (4), aspermytin A (5), and 6,7-dimethoxy-4-hydroxymellin (6). Their chemical structures were elucidated by extensive 1D and 2D NMR analysis and high resolution mass spectroscopy, and comparisons were made with the literature. The absolute configuration of 1 was defined unambiguously using single crystal X-ray crystallography. Compound 1 represents the first dimeric decalin polyketide to be found in nature. The in vitro cytotoxicity of 1 against two cancer cell lines (K562 and MCF-7) was evaluated. Compound 1 showed moderate cytotoxic activity with IC50 values of 23.5 ± 1.0 and 51.9 ± 1.4 μM, respectively. Keywords: Pseudopyrenula subnudata; Subnadatones A and B; trans-decalin polyketide; Cytotoxicity.
32806Tuong T.L., Do L.T.M., Aree T., Wonganan P. & Chavasiri W. (2020): Tetrahydroxanthone–chromanone heterodimers from lichen Usnea aciculifera and their cytotoxic activity against human cancer cell lines. - Fitoterapia, 147: 104732 [7 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2020.104732.
Four new tetrahydroxanthone–chromanone heterodimers, usneaxanthones E–H (1–4) together with eleven known compounds (5–15) were isolated from lichen Usnea aciculifera Vain (Parmeliaceae). Their structures and absolute configurations, particularly the central and axial chiralities, were unambiguously demonstrated by a combination of spectroscopic data (1D, 2D NMR, HRESIMS), electronic circular dichroism (ECD) experiments, and single-crystal X-ray crystallographic analyses. The cytotoxicity of new compounds was evaluated on four human cancer cell lines including HCT116 colorectal cancer, MCF-7 breast cancer, A549 lung cancer, and OVCAR-3 ovarian cancer. Compounds 1–4 exhibited good cytotoxicity against all tested cancer cell lines, except ovarian cancer, with the best IC50 value of 3.37 μM. All compounds showed potent cytotoxicity against HCT116 colon cancer with IC50 value from 3.37 to 4.53 μM. Keywords: Usnea aciculifera; Dimeric xanthones; Tetrahydroxanthone chromanone heterodimers; Usneaxanthones E–H; Cytotoxicity.
32805Tuong T.L., Aree T., Do L.T.M., Nguyen P.K.P., Wonganan P. & Chavasiri W. (2019): Dimeric tetrahydroxanthones from the lichen Usnea aciculifera. - Fitoterapia, 137: 104194 [7 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2019.104194.
Four unusual heterodimeric tetrahydroxanthones, usneaxanthones A–D (1–4) were isolated from lichen Usnea aciculifera Vain (Parmeliaceae). Their structures and absolute configurations, particularly the central and axial chiralities, were unambiguously demonstrated by a combination of spectroscopic data (1D, 2D NMR, HRESIMS), electronic circular dichroism (ECD) experiments, and single-crystal X-ray crystallographic analyses. Cytotoxic effects of isolated compounds (1, 2 and 4) were evaluated on HT–29 human colorectal cancer cells. Compound 4 showed potent cytotoxicity against HT–29 with IC50 values of 2.41 μM. Keywords: Usnea aciculifera; Dimeric xanthones; Tetrahydroxanthone; Usneaxanthones A–D; Cytotoxicity.
32804Londoñe-Bailon P., Sánchez-Robinet C. & Alvarez-Guzman G. (2019): In vitro antibacterial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of methanol-acetone extracts from Antarctic lichens (Usnea antarctica and Usnea aurantiaco-atra). - Polar Science, 22: 100477 [7 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polar.2019.08.003.
The lichens are symbiotic organisms, synthesize a great variety of chemically complex. Natural and potential source of bioactive compounds. U. antarctica and U. aurantiaco-atra were collected during 23rd Peruvian Scientific Expedition (ANTAR XXIII–2015) from the Antarctic Scientific Station “Machu Picchu” and were transferred to the ITP for processing. The samples were dried and grounded, after that, an extraction with acetone (1:10 w/v) also with methanol (1:10 w/v) was performed. Both extracts were mixed and vacuumed dried (30 °C). A methanol-acetone extract (MAE) from each lichen was obtained. MAE from U. antarctica showed a major concentration of total phenols (22.80 ± 0.08 mg GA/g MAE) than U. aurantiaco-atra (19.42 ± 0.32 mg GA/g MAE). Besides, U. antarctica exhibited a superior value of inhibition of ABTS•+ radical (89.05 ± 0.01 μmol TE/g MAE) than U. aurantiaco-atra (79.84 ± 0.09 μmol TE/g MAE). The antibacterial activity of MAEs against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 14775, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and Vibrio alginolyticus ATCC 17749 was performed however was only demonstrated against S. aureus. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was evaluated, U. antarctica and U. aurantiaco-atra exhibited 94.76% and 98.43%, respectively of inhibition bacterial growth at 31.25 μg/mL of MIC value. MAE of U. antarctica (IC50 = 169.64 μg/mL) and U. aurantiaco-atra (IC50 = 270.82 μg/mL).
32803Zhao X., Zhu J., Wang L., Li Y., Zhao T., Chen X., Sun Y., Dai Y., Wei G., Altamirano A., Zhang T. & Yan Z. (2019): U. diffracta extract mitigates high fat diet and VD3-induced atherosclerosis and biochemical changes in the serum liver and aorta of rats. - Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy, 120: 109446 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2019.109446.
Background and aims: Usnea diffracta Vain. (U. diffracta) belonging to the Usnea genus, is widely used as a folk medicine for the treatment of ulcer, abdominal pain, diarrhea, malaria and so on. However, the antiatherogenic effect of U. diffracta has not yet been reported. This study aims to investigate the antiatherogenic effects of the ethanol extract of U. diffracta and its mechanism. Method: A high fat diet and VD3 were used to establish the atherosclerotic rat model, with 0.004 g/kg/d of simvastatin as a positive control, fed with 0.7, 1.4, and 2.8 g/kg/d of Usnea ethanol extract for 21 days. The blood, liver, and aorta samples from each rat were collected after the last administration. Pharmacodynamic effects were evaluated. The inflammation related factors, the gene expressions of Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5), myeloid differentiating factor 88 (MyD88), and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) were detected. Results and conclusions: Compared with the model group, simvastatin and ethanol extract of U. diffracta can significantly reduce the serum levels of triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), Ca2+, AST, ALT, the liver contents of total cholesterol (TC), TG, AI and liver index, as well as significantly increase the contents of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) both in serum and liver (p < 0.01 or p < 0.05). The serum level of ox-LDL can be significantly reduced by simvastatin, low and medium U. diffracta ethanol extract doses (p < 0.01). In addition, simvastatin and low dosage of U. diffracta ethanol extract can significantly reduce the liver content of LDL-C (p < 0.01). U. diffracta ethanol extract shows a positive antiatherogenic effect. Furthermore, the mechanism may be related to promoting the expression of serum IL-10 and inhibition of TLR5/ NF-κB signaling pathway. Keywords: Ethanol extract of U. diffracta; Atherosclerosis; Inflammation-related factor; Gene expression.
32802Degtjarenko P., Mark K., Moisejevs R., Himelbrant D., Stepanchikova I., Tsurykau A., Randlane T. & Scheidegger C. (2020): Low genetic differentiation between apotheciate Usnea florida and sorediate Usnea subfloridana (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) based on microsatellite data. - Fungal Biology, 124(10): 892–902. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.funbio.2020.07.007.
Accurate species delimitation has a pivotal role in conservation biology, and it is especially important for threatened species where decisions have political and economic consequences. Finding and applying appropriate character sets and analytical tools to resolve interspecific relationships remains challenging in lichenized fungi. The main aim of our study was to re-assess the species boundaries between Usnea subfloridana and Usnea florida, which have been phylogenetically indistinguishable until now, but are different in reproductive mode and ecological preferences, using fungal-specific simple sequence repeats (SSR), i.e. microsatellite markers. Bayesian clustering analysis, discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC), minimal spanning network (MSN), and principal component analysis (PCA) failed to separate U. florida and U. subfloridana populations. However, a low significant differentiation between the two taxa was observed across all populations according to AMOVA results. Also, analysis of shared haplotypes and statistical difference in clonal diversity (M) supported the present-day isolation between the apotheciate U. florida and predominantly sorediate U. subfloridana. Our results do not provide a clear support either for the separation of species in this pair or the synonymization of U. florida and U. subfloridana. We suggest that genome-wide data could help resolve the taxonomic question in this species pair. Keywords: Species pair; Lichens; Lichenized fungi; Species boundaries; Conservation; Speciation process.
32801Myllys L., Stenroos S. & Ahti T. (2020): Orvo Vitikainen, an 80th birthday tribute. - Graphis Scripta, 32(4): 63–65. http://nhm2.uio.no/botanisk/lav/Graphis/32_4/GS_32_63.pdf.
anniversary
32800Jørgensen P.M. (2020): Notes on Wahlenberg’s names in ‘Methodus Lichenum’ by E. Acharius. - Graphis Scripta, 32(4): 66–69. http://nhm2.uio.no/botanisk/lav/Graphis/32_4/GS_32_66.pdf.
The correct author citation of G. Wahlenberg’s new names of lichen taxa published in E. Acharius’ ‘Methodus Lichenum’ (1803) is discussed, and it is pointed out that Acharius in the preface clearly indicated that Wahlenberg is the author of these names, so the correct citation is Wahlenb. in Ach.
32799Timdal E., Westberg M., Haugan R., Hofton T.H., Holien H., Speed J.D.M., Tønsberg T. & Bendiksby M. (2020): Integrative taxonomy reveals a new species, Nephroma orvoi, in the N. parile species complex (lichenized Ascomycota). - Graphis Scripta, 32(4): 70–85. http://nhm2.uio.no/botanisk/lav/Graphis/32_4/GS_32_70.pdf.
Our knowledge of the diversity and distribution of many groups of lichens remains poor due to unclear species boundaries and challenging species identification. We have studied the medium sized to large foliose lichen Nephroma parile, which is known to be heterogeneous in chemistry and genetics. Our aim has been to assess the potential presence of evolutionary significant units within the Nephroma parile species complex that may be worthy of recognition at species level. Using phylogenetic analysis of the fungal DNA-barcode marker (ITS) in combination with studies of morphology and chemistry, we discover two distinct lineages in the N. parile species complex. For the strongly supported clade that corresponds to chemotype II, we describe the new species Nephroma orvoi. The new species is known from Norway, Sweden, Finland, Switzerland, Canada (Alberta and British Columbia), USA (Washington), and Greenland.
32798Kubiak D. & Sucharzewska E. (2018): Porosty epifityczne starodrzewów dębowych w nadleśnictwie Stare Jabłonki [Epiphytic lichens in old-growth oak forests in the Stare Jabłonki Forest District (N Poland)]. - Chrońmy Przyrodę Ojczystą, 74(1): 27–36. .
[in Polish with English summary: ] The paper presents the results of lichenological research conducted in three old-growth oak stands in the Stare Jabłonki Forest District (N Poland). A total of 96 lichen species were identified. The highest diversity of lichens was noted on the bark of common hornbeam Carpinus betulus (67 species) and English oak Quercus robur (63). The attached list of identified taxa (Table 1) comprises five species protected in Poland, including two species under strict and three species under partial protection. Thirty-five species are on the red list of threatened lichens in Poland, including twenty-three under a high-risk category (CR, EN and VU taxa). A characteristic feature of the analysed lichen biota is a significant number of species – indicators of lowland old-growth forests (15 species). The most interesting taxa in this group are: Arthonia arthonioides, Cetrelia monachorum, Chrysothrix candelaris, and Inoderma byssaceum. Furthermore, the presence of several rare and rarely reported species was noted, e.g. Calicium parvum, Caloplaca lucifuga, Fuscidea pusilla, Lecanora stanislai, Protoparmelia hypotremella, Rinodina degeliana, R. efflorescens, and Sclerophora coniophaea. Key words: lichenized fungi, epiphytes, rare, protected and threatened species, Olsztyn Lakeland.
32797Kubiak D. (2020): Lichenobiota pomnikowych dębów w Puszczy Napiwodzko-Ramuckiej [The lichen biota of monumental oaks in the Napiwoda-Ramuki Forest]. - Fragmenta Floristica et Geobotanica Polonica, 27(1): 73–82. https://doi.org/10.35535/ffgp-2020-0006.
[in Polish with English abstract and summary: ] The paper lists lichen species recorded on 32 monumental oaks (at least 300 cm in circumference) growing in the forest environment of the Napiwoda-Ramuki Forest (N Poland). A total of 87 lichen species were recorded, including many taxa that are rare in Poland and threatened with extinction. Key words: epiphytic lichens, forest, old tree, rare species. The aim of the study was to present the state of conservation of the epiphytic lichen biota associated with the oldest (largest) oaks in the Napiwoda-Ramuki Forest (N Poland; Fig. 1). The presented data were collected in 2009–2019 as part of several different research projects. A total of 32 pedunculate oaks (Quercus robur) were examined (Fig. 2); these trees were officially recognized as nature monuments or reached a size meeting the minimum criteria for this form of protection (i.e. trunk circumference of at least 300 cm). In total, 87 lichen species were recorded, indicating that the analyzed trees are of great value for preserving the diversity of epiphytic lichens. Among the recorded species, nine are legally protected and 37 are recognized as threatened with extinction on the national scale. The list includes a group of 12 lichens characteristic of well-preserved natural forest, referred to in Poland as indicators of lowland old-growth forest. The obtained results supplement the data on the distribution of many lichen species recognized as very rare across the country (e.g. Cliostomum corrugatum, Dendrographa decolorans, Lecanographa amylacea, Sclerophora coniophaea). The data also document a specific pattern of diversity and can serve as a reference point for future research.
32796Nugraha A.S., Laksono T.A., Firli L.N., Putri C.P.Z.S., Pratoko D.K., Zulfikar Z., Untari L.F., Wongso H., Lambert J.M., Dillon C.T. & Keller P.A. (2020): Anti-cancer evaluation of depsides isolated from Indonesian folious lichens: Physcia millegrana, Parmelia dilatata and Parmelia aurulenta. - Biomolecules, 10(10): 1420 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10101420.
Cancer is a serious health burden on global societies. The discovery and development of new anti-cancer therapies remains a challenging objective. Although it has been shown that lichen secondary metabolites may be potent sources for new anti-cancer agents, the Indonesian- grown folious lichens, Physcia millegrana, Parmelia dilatata and Parmeila aurulenta, have not yet been explored. In this study exhaustive preparative high-performance liquid chromatography was employed to isolate the lichen constituents with spectroscopic and spectrometric protocols identifying nine depsides 9–17, including the new methyl 4-formyl-2,3-dihydroxy-6-methylbenzoate 13. The cytotoxicity of the depsides towards cancer cells was assessed using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The results indicated lowest toxicity of the depsides towards human A549 lung cancer cells. Importantly, the di-depsides (11, 12 and 17) showed greatest toxicity, indicating that these structures are biologically more active than the mono-depsides against the HepG2 liver cancer, A549 lung cancer and HL-60 leukemia cell lines. Keywords: Indonesia; lichen; Physcia millegrana; Parmelia dilatata; Parmelia aurulenta; depsides; anti-cancer.
32795Knudsen K. & Kocourková J. (2020): Notes on three new species from California. - Bulletin of the California Lichen Society, 27(1): 6–7. .
Three new species recently described from California are briefly discussed: Acarospora bernardinensis, A. erratica, and Ramalina sarahae.
32794Stepanchikova I.S., Himelbrant D.E., Kuznetsova E.S., Motiejūnaitė J., Chesnokov S.V., Konoreva L.A. & Gagarina L.V. (2020): The lichens of the northern shore of the Gulf of Finland in the limits of St. Petersburg, Russia – diversity on the edge of the megapolis. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 57: 101–132. https://doi.org/10.12697/fce.2020.57.11.
We present a lichen checklist for the northern shore of the Gulf of Finland in the limits of St. Petersburg, Russia. This area has diverse lichen biota within the city limits, and has been comprehensively studied since 1893, which gives a good base for analysis of historical changes in lichen diversity. The documented lichen biota comprises 469 species (430 lichenized, 24 lichenicolous, 3 facultatively lichenicolous, and 12 non-lichenized saprobic fungi), of them 191 species are known from herbaria and literature for the period before 1991, and 436 species were recorded since 1991 to 2019. Thirty-three taxa were excluded from the lichen list of the study area as erroneous or dubious records. Altogether 48 species are new to St. Petersburg, including: Lecidea malmeana and Micarea czarnotae – new to Russia; Caloplaca lucifuga, Gyalecta nigricans, Micarea soralifera – new to European Russia; Agonimia flabelliformis, Endococcus verrucosus, Lecania turicensis, Micarea fallax, M. tomentosa, Xanthomendoza huculica – new to Northwestern European Russia; Lichenoconium lichenicola, Ramalina europaea, Sarcogyne hypophaea – not known also from the Leningrad Region. The studied lichen biota is moderately rich compared to other city territories. The history of economic development of the region has caused its serious transformation, degradation of natural habitats and therefore partial loss of lichen diversity. At the same time, human-made substrates and anthropogenic plant communities are inhabited by lichens, including species unknown in the natural habitats of the study area. However, 44 species recorded in the study area are red-listed in St. Petersburg, with 13 of them known only from historical collections. Forest communities, as well as historical parks, in NW part of St. Petersburg are important source of biodiversity on regional level nowadays and hopefully in future, and deserve protection. Keywords: Isthmus karelicus, black alder communities, indicator species, protected areas, Caloplaca lucifuga, Gyalecta nigricans, Lecidea malmeana, Micarea czarnotae, Micarea soralifera.
32793Tarasova V.N., Konoreva L.A., Zhurbenko M.P., Pystina T.N., Chesnokov S.V., Androsova V.I., Sonina A.V., Semenova N.A. & Valekzhanin A.A. (2020): New and rare lichens and allied fungi from Arkhangelsk region,N orth-West Russia . - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 57: 85–100. https://doi.org/10.12697/fce.2020.57.10.
Thirty-one lichen-forming fungi, 12 lichenicolous fungi, and 5 non-lichenized fungi are reported as new for Arkhangelsk Region; 7 species are new for its mainland area. Micarea fallax is reported for the first time for Russia; M. laeta and M. pusilla are new for the European part of Russia. The second finding of Nicropuncta rugulosa for Russia is recorded; microconidia are first observed in this species. The records of ten species which have been included in the new edition of the Red Data Book of the Arkhangelsk Region (2020) are presented. Nephromopsis laureri from the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation (2008) and Leptogium rivulare from the IUCN Red List are reported for the first time for Arkhangelsk Region. Keywords: Leptogium rivulare, Micarea fallax, Micarea laeta, Micarea pusilla, Nephromopsis laureri, Nicropuncta rugulosa, Red Data Book, Vodlozersky National Park.
32792Muchnik E.E. & Cherepenina D.A. (2020): Lichens and allied fungi of old parks of three museum-reserves in Moscow Region (Russia). - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 57: 37–48. https://doi.org/10.12697/fce.2020.57.06.
We present the results of lichenological research in the parks of the museum-reserve Abramtsevo, the museumreserve of A. S. Pushkin and the museum-estate Ostafyevo – Russian Parnassus, for which no previous data were available. The checklist of lichen biota contains 103 species including 98 lichens, a lichenicolous fungus and 4 non-lichenized fungi. 55 species were found in the park of the museum-reserve Abramtsevo, 58 species in the museum-reserve of A. S. Pushkin (estates Vyazemy – 51 and Zakharovo – 29) and 69 species in the museum-estate Ostafyevo – Russian Parnassus. Lichenochora obscuroides (Ostafyevo) is new for Central Russia. Cladonia macilenta, Evernia prunastri and Usnea hirta (Ostafyevo) are listed in the Red Data Book of Moscow. Parmelina tiliacea (Abramtsevo, Vyazemy), Ramalina farinacea, Usnea dasopoga and U. subfloridana (Abramtsevo) are listed in the Red Data Book of the Moscow Oblast. Chaenotheca chrysocephala, Melanelixia subargentifera, Parmelina tiliacea, Physconia perisidiosa and Ramalina europaea (Ostafyevo) are proposed for inclusion in the next edition of the Red Data Book of Moscow. Keywords: lichen biota, lichenicolous fungi, biodiversity, indicator species, Red Data Book, park communities, Central Russia.
32791Suija A., Jüriado I., Lõhmus P., Moisejevs R., Motiejūnaitė J., Tsurykau A. & Kukwa M. (2020): Where the interesting species grow – remarkable records of lichens and lichenicolous fungi found during a Nordic Lichen Society meeting in Estonia. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 57: 73–84. https://doi.org/10.12697/fce.2020.57.09.
In August 2019, the Nordic Lichen Society held its bi-annual meeting and excursion in south-western Estonia. The most remarkable findings of lichenized and lichenicolous fungi are recorded herewith, including nine new species (of them two lichenicolous), and one new intraspecific taxon for the country. Full species lists are provided for two notable locations, sandstone outcrop at the river Pärnu and an oak woodland in the Naissoo Nature Reserve, for which no previous data were available, to illustrate the importance of collective survey effort. Keywords: new species, red-listed species, sandstone lichens, lichens in oakwood.
32790Cheek M., Lughadha E.N., Kirk P., Lindon H., Carretero J., Looney B., Douglas B., Haelewaters D., Gaya E., Llewellyn T., Ainsworth A.M., Gafforov Yu., Hyde K., Crous P., Hughes M., Walker B.E., Campostrini Forzza R., Wong K.M. & Niskanen T. (2020): New scientific discoveries: Plants and fungi. - Plants, People, Planet, 2: 371–388. DOI: 10.1002/ppp3.10148.
Scientific discovery, including naming new taxa, is important because without a scientific name, a species is invisible to science and the possibilities of researching its ecology, applications and threats, and conserving it, are greatly reduced. We review new scientific discoveries in the plant and fungal kingdoms, based largely on new names of taxa published in 2019 and indexed in the International Plant Names Index and Index Fungorum. Numbers of new species in both kingdoms were similar with 1942 new species of plant published and 1882 species of fungi. However, while >50% of plant species have likely been discovered, >90% of fungi remain unknown. This gulf likely explains the greater number of higher order taxa for fungi published in 2019: three classes, 18 orders, 48 families and 214 genera versus one new family and 87 new genera for plants. We compare the kingdoms in terms of rates of scientific discovery, globally and in different taxonomic groups and geographic areas, and with regard to the use of DNA in discovery. We review species new to science, especially those of interest to humanity as new products, and also by life-form. We consider where future such discoveries can be expected. We recommend an urgent increase in investment in scientific discovery of plant and fungal species, while they still survive. Priorities include more investment in training taxonomists, in building and equipping collections-based research centers for them, especially in species-rich, income-poor countries where the bulk of species as yet unknown to science are thought to occur. Keywords: DNA versus morphology, extinction before scientific discovery, properties of new species, rates of discovery of plants and fungi.
32789Corbin J.D. & Thiet R.K. (2020): Temperate biocrusts: mesic counterparts to their better-known dryland cousins. - Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 18(8): 456–464. https://doi.org/10.1002/fee.2234.
Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are known to serve crucial functions in many arid and semiarid habitats, but less is understood about biocrusts in temperate biomes, where they are often widespread and can play important roles in aboveground and belowground processes. Because the distinctive conditions that support biocrusts in temperate biomes – sandy, acidic, and/or nutrient-poor soils or exposed bedrock – frequently also support rare plant and animal communities, such sites can have considerable conservation value. We detail the distribution of biocrusts in temperate habitats, including many in the northeastern US, where they have not previously been described. Besides adding another layer of biodiversity to the sites in which they occur, biocrusts may also play a critical role in site-level ecology and functioning. As such, integrating temperate biocrust composition, distribution, and functions into ecosystem management may contribute to the stability and resilience of the ecosystems in which they are found in the face of global climate change and other disturbances.
32788Correa-Ochoa M.A., Vélez-Monsalve L.C., Saldarriaga-Molina J.C. & Jaramillo-Ciro M.M. (2020): Evaluation of the Index of Atmospheric Purity in an American tropical valley through the sampling of corticulous lichens in different phorophyte species. - Ecological Indicators, 115: 106355 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2020.106355.
Lichens have been widely used worldwide as bioindicators of air quality and also integrated into national programs and protocols in several countries. The Index of Atmospheric Purity (IAP) has been a commonly used tool for the diagnosis of air quality using corticulous lichens. However, its implementation is recommended when phorophytes with similar characteristics of the bark are used. Therefore, many studies are restricted to the use of a single supporting phorophyte. This criterion makes it difficult to implement this index in areas with limited number of individuals and species of phorophytes. This research evaluates the functionality of this index without differentiating among carrier phorophytes for the classification of areas with differences in air quality. For this, the lichens were mapped and collected, along with bark samples to determine the pH bark of phorophytes close to air quality monitoring stations located in Medellín City. A total of 148 lichen species were identified, belonging to 26 families and 52 genera. In addition, indicators such as thallus heterogeneity, richness (with correlations coefficients r = 0.52 with no phorophyte differentiation and for the tree species F. uhdei and T. rosea, r=0.578 and r=0.777; respectively) and total coverage of corticulous lichens (r = 0.76) vary in response to air pollution levels, no matter if their evaluation is carried out on a single phorophyte or in a diversity of phorophytes. This research also revealed that the evaluation of IAP in the biomonitoring zones is functional, resulting in positive correlations between the IAP and the air quality classification when this index is evaluated without differentiation of phorophytes (r = 0.78) and for T. rosea (r = 0.94) and F. uhdei (r = 0.99). In this sense, the uniformity criterion in the selection of the phorophyte use for the application of this index can be complemented taking into account the possibility of using a heterogeneous sample of phorophytes. Keywords: Bioindicator; Air quality; Phorophyte diversity; Corticolous lichens.
32787Brunialti G., Frati L., Calderisi M., Giorgolo F., Bagella S., Bertini G., Chianucci F., Fratini R., Gottardini E. & Cutini A. (2020): Epiphytic lichen diversity and sustainable forest management criteria and indicators: A multivariate and modelling approach in coppice forests of Italy. - Ecological Indicators, 115: 106358 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2020.106358.
Epiphytic lichens represent one of the most suitable indicators of forest continuity and management, especially in the context of ancient and old-growth forests. Nevertheless, they have not yet been included among Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) indicators to which Pan-European forest policy and governance refer. In addition, currently adopted SFM indicators are mainly designed for high forests rather than coppice forests, despite the fact that today this management system covers more than 10% of the total European forests. In this study we investigated these two issues by examining epiphytic lichen diversity in three coppice forest stands, located in the two Italian regions of Tuscany and Sardinia. In particular, we addressed: i) the role of lichen diversity as SFM indicator and ii) its relationship with consolidated and new SFM indicators dealing with structural, health, biodiversity, protective and socioeconomic functions. Multivariate Factor Analysis and Generalised Linear Models were adopted for data analysis. We found that lichen diversity and the frequency of single sensitive species were mainly related to the biodiversity of plants and fungi (Criterion 4), the health and vitality of the forests (Criterion 2) and their protective functions (Criterion 5). Furthermore, our results show that the lichen species highlighted by the models may represent suitable indicators in long-term studies, especially in relation to complex and interconnected aspects of sustainable forest management. Although our findings represent a first contribute to this issue, more in-depth researches will be needed to clarify further aspects of the complex interactions among SFM indicators in the context of coppice forests. Keywords: Lichen Diversity Value (LDV); Biodiversity; European forest types; Predictive models.
32786Bernardo F., Rocha T., Branquinho C., Garcia P. & Rodrigues A. (2020): Thallus structural alterations in green-algal lichens as indicators of elevated CO2 in a degassing volcanic area. - Ecological Indicators, 114: 106326 [7 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2020.106326.
We hypothesize that the thalli of the green-algal, CO2-sensitive lichen Usnea rubicunda (Stirton) undergo significant structural alterations as a biological response indicating increased CO2 emissions. To test that, U. rubicunda thalli were transplanted from a reference site with no volcanism into 36 sites distributed within the volcanically active Furnas caldera, encompassing the gradient of soil diffuse CO2 degassing areas (700 t d−1 of hydrothermal CO2). After 6 months of exposure in similar macroclimatic conditions, both Furnas transplants and samples kept at the reference site were retrieved for histology to assess thalli structure and the proportion between the symbionts. On average, cross-sections of Furnas thalli were significantly thicker than reference, owing mostly to the fungal layers of medulla and central cord. The latter occupied a significantly greater than reference relative volumetric density despite a smaller than reference relative percentage of algal occupation on Furnas thalli. These results reveal a positive and time-integrated response of U. rubicunda to the greater availability of CO2 from hydrothermal emissions in the volcanic environment, translated in greater efficiency of the algae in sustaining the fungal biomass. Histomorphometric structural alterations in the heteromerous thalli of U. rubicunda are suitable response biomarkers with potential to indicate a global rise of CO2 levels in natural environments. Keywords: Usnea rubicunda; Volcanism; Hydrothermal emissions; Carbon dioxide; Histology; Biomarkers.
32785Gauslaa Y., Goward T. & Pypker T. (2020): Canopy settings shape elemental composition of the epiphytic lichen Lobaria pulmonaria in unmanaged conifer forests. - Ecological Indicators, 113: 106294 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2020.106294.
The importance of forest canopy settings for the elemental chemistry of epiphytic lichens in undisturbed forests is poorly understood despite its impact on epiphytes, understory vegetation and microbial soil communities. Here, we examine the elemental composition in standardized thalli of the cephalolichen Lobaria pulmonaria transplanted to the lower branches of Picea glauca x engelmannii in inland British Columbia. Transplants were attached to nets (avoiding direct contact with tree bark) exposed to natural canopy throughfall in three categories of natural forest stands: 1) within dripzones of Populus species in mixed stands always supporting L. pulmonaria; 2) outside Populus dripzones, yet with L. pulmonaria and 3) outside Populus dripzones and without L. pulmonaria, which is the most common canopy setting. After one year, and with the exception of Fe and Al, the elemental content in lichen transplants changed within and between forest categories. Lichen transplants within Populus dripzones had more base cations (Ca, Mg, K) and less Mn than in the two categories outside dripzones. In Picea canopies outside Populus dripzones, lichen transplants had higher Ca, Na, Mo and lower C, S and Cu in trees with L. pulmonaria than without. The pH of Picea branches and soil within the rooting zone of trees with transplants were both approximately ten times more acidic outside Populus dripzones than within them. However, bark pH did not differ between the two categories of stands outside Populus dripzones. Based on our findings we conclude that canopy setting shapes the elemental composition of epiphytic lichen transplants, suggesting that such transplants might be used to monitor spatial variation in throughfall elements from forest canopies in unmanaged stands. We also conclude that elemental concentrations, Ca in particular, is a better predictor than bark pH for the occurrence of L. pulmonaria on Picea. Keywords: Canopy hydrology; Canopy leachates; Lobaria pulmonaria; Nutrients; Base cations; pH.
32784Dörter M., Karadeniz H., Saklangıç U. & Yenisoy-Karakaş S. (2020): The use of passive lichen biomonitoring in combination with positive matrix factor analysis and stable isotopic ratios to assess the metal pollution sources in throughfall deposition of Bolu plain, Turkey. - Ecological Indicators, 113: 106212 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2020.106212.
The main objective of this study was to determine the elemental content of (51 elements) and stable isotope (δ13C, δ15N) content of lichen, Xanthoria parietina. The results were evaluated according to seasonal changes, pollution source, and altitudes. The data indicated that there is no significant impact of seasonal variation in concentrations of most of the elements and isotopes. The uptake efficiency of Xanthoria parietina and pine needle was compared and it was found out that significantly higher amounts of metals were accumulated by Xanthoria parietina than by pine needles. The lowest δ13C and the highest δ15N values were obtained in pine needle in both seasons. Both δ13C and δ15N showed increasing (for summer) and decreasing (for winter) trends with a rise in an altitude. Source apportionment of elements was performed by using positive matrix factorization (PMF) and supported by G-score maps. As a result, six sources were determined for the area namely urban environment, lichen nutrient elements, contaminated soil, traffic and mixed soil, lichen metabolism and coal combustion. The concentration pollution maps and G-score maps of Pb and Ba were similar and this was an indication of the vehicle emissions. The elements As, Bi and Tl signed the coal combustion. Keywords: Biomonitoring; Lichen; Elements; Stable isotope; Positive matrix factorization.
32783Guzmán Q. J.A., Laakso K., López-Rodríguez J.C., Rivard B. & Sánchez-Azofeifa G.A. (2020): Using visible-near-infrared spectroscopy to classify lichens at a Neotropical Dry Forest. - Ecological Indicators, 111: 105999 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2019.105999.
The optical properties of lichens have been traditionally explored in the context of geological mapping where the encrustation of lichens on rocks may influence the detection of minerals of interest. As of today, few studies have looked into the potential of using the optical properties of lichens to classify them; however, none has investigated the classification of tropical lichens using spectroscopy. Here we explore the use of the visible-near infrared reflectance (VNIR; 450–1000 nm) to discriminate Neotropical corticolous lichens; the most abundant lichens in tropical forests. Reflectance measurements on lichens and their bark substrate were performed on 282 lichens samples of 32 species attached to their host's bark. Using these measurements, we first explored the degree of spectral mixing of bark and lichens by linear unmixing each lichen spectrum with the corresponding average species spectrum and bark spectrum. Overall, the results reveal that the lichen signatures tend to mask the spectral contributions from bark; however, there are some specific groups of species with high bark mixing probably due to their nature and the similarities between the lichen and bark spectra. Next, we classified the lichen spectra based on growth forms and taxonomic ranks (i.e., family, genus, species) using five machine learning classifiers. This analysis was conducted on raw reflectance spectra and wavelet-transformed spectra to enhance the absorption features prior to classification. As expected, the classification of lichen spectra is less accurate at species-specific levels, rather than higher taxonomic ranks. The wavelet transformation was found to enhance the general performance of classification; however, the accuracy of the classification depends on the classifier. Of the classifiers used in this study, linear discrimination applied to reflectance spectra presents the highest performance at the species level. Our results reveal the potential of using the VNIR reflectance as a method to discriminate Neotropical lichens. The introduced methodology may be conducted in the field, thus allowing the monitoring of lichen communities in forests; thereby furthering the current understanding of the role of lichens in ecosystem functioning. Keywords: Reflectance; Lichen spectroscopy; Species discrimination; Spectral classification; Wavelet analysis.
32782Capozzi F., Sorrentino M.C., Di Palma A., Mele F., Arena C., Adamo P., Spagnuolo V. & Giordano S. (2020): Implication of vitality, seasonality and specific leaf area on PAH uptake in moss and lichen transplanted in bags. - Ecological Indicators, 108: 105727 [8 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2019.105727.
In this work the moss Hypnum cupressiforme and the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea were exposed in bags for six weeks alive and oven-devitalized during summer and winter; the content of 24 PAHs was quantified to evaluate the effect of vitality, seasonality and specific leaf area (SLA) on PAH uptake and profiling. Vitality was followed throughout the exposure by measuring PSII maximal photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm). In summer, a limited PAH signal was detected, with no significant increase, or even loss, of these compounds. During winter, a significant increase of PAHs was measured in both biomonitors, especially in those devitalized, with a lower baseline PAH content compared to alive material. This result suggests that PAH uptake mostly relies on passive mechanisms. Accordingly, Fv/Fm demonstrated that moss and lichen exposed alive spent most of the exposure time in cryptobiosis. In both biomonitors 4-rings PAHs prevailed, followed by 2-3-rings in lichen and 5-6-rings in moss. Lichen performed better than moss, due to the ability to entrap PAHs in the body of thalli, preserving these compounds during the exposure. A formula was developed to express the accumulated PAHs in terms of flux, that resulted higher in lichen than in moss. Oven devitalized lichen exposed in winter provided the highest uptake, indicating that morphology, SLA and seasonality represent key parameters in PAH biomonitoring. Keywords: PAH biomonitoring; Moss and lichen transplants; Fv/Fm; Specific leaf area;Daily PAH flux.
32781Schmitz D., Schaefer C.E.R.G., Putzke J., Francelino M.R., Ferrari F.R., Corrêa G.R. & Villa P.M. (2020): How does the pedoenvironmental gradient shape non-vascular species assemblages and community structures in Maritime Antarctica?. - Ecological Indicators, 108: 105726 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2019.105726.
The main terrestrial ecosystems dominated by lichens and mosses, which represent important ecological indicators of climatic changes in high polar latitudes, are found in the Antarctic continent. However, little is known about how environmental filtering shapes cryptogamic communities’ assemblages at fine-scale. In this study, we analysed changes in non-vascular species richness, species composition and plant coverage along a pedoenvironmental gradient in Maritime Antarctica. We hypothesized that pedoenvironmental filters (i.e. soil texture and chemistry properties) drive the non-vascular assembly community. We classified soils according to the World Reference Base for Soil Resources, selecting ten different pedoenvironments at fine-scale. The plant inventory data from 206 plots across these pedoenvironments was used to evaluate the main effect of plant coverage, soil texture and soil chemistry on non-vascular species richness and composition. The ecological value of the species was determined and the type of community it occurred in was characterized, then the associations of the species were classified in each pedoenvironment. Differences in species richness, species composition and plant coverage were detected along the pedoenvironmental gradient. However, plant coverage, soil chemistry, soil texture and soil variables did not affect species richness and species composition, with the exception of clay content that was particularly an important predictor of species composition. High pedoenvironmental filtering apparently has no effect on species richness but determined differences in species composition. Therefore, we assumed that pedoenvironmental filtering determined high beta diversity in this island from maritime Antarctica. This study reveals that fine scale heterogeneity contributes to specific species associations along a pedoenvironmental gradient; thus, pedoenvironmental filtering not only determines diversity pattern in non-vascular plants, but also type of communities. Keywords: Lichens; Pedoenvironmental filtering; Microsite conditions; Mosses; Plant coverage.
32780Hillmann J. (1939): Bemerkungen über einige Arten der Flechtengattung Parmelia. I. - Hedwigia, 78(5-6): 249–267. .
Parmelia
32779Melekhina E.N. (2020): Oribatid mites as inhabitants of lichens in the taiga zone of northeastern Europe: Biotopic association and ecological groups of species. - Biology Bulletin, 47(5): 522–534. https://doi.org/10.1134/S1062359020050064.
[Original Russian text published in Izvestiya Akademii Nauk, Seriya Biologicheskaya, 2020, No. 5, pp. 534–547] The ground (Cladina arbuscula, C. rangiferina, C. stellaris, Cetraria islandica) and epiphytic (Hypogymnia physodes and Bryoria subcana) lichens in taiga forests of the European Northeast were examined as habitats of oribatid mites. In total, in different species of lichens, 55 species of oribatids from 30 families were found. Five ecological groups of oribatid mites as inhabitants of lichens were identified. It was found that the specificity of the oribatid mite population in epiphytic lichens consisted of dominant arboricolic species also not numerous arboricolic species. Dominant hemiedaphic species and not numerous hemiedaphic species were characteristic of ground lichens. The arboricolic‒hemiedaphic group includes species that live in both ground and epiphytic lichens. The ecologically vicariating species in relation to epiphytes were identified; these are species of the genera Carabodes, Mycobates, Oribatula, and Phauloppia.
32778Wilken P.M., Aylward J., Chand R., Grewe F., Lane F.A., Sinha S., Ametrano C., Distefano I., Divakar P.K., Duong T.A., Huhndorf S., Kharwar R.N., Lumbsch H.T., Navathe S., Pérez C.A., Ramírez-Berrutti N., Sharma R., Sun Y., Wingfield B.D. & Wingfield M.J. (2020): IMA Genome - F13. Draft genome sequences of Ambrosiella cleistominuta, Cercospora brassicicola, C. citrullina, Physcia stellaris, and Teratosphaeria pseudoeucalypti. - IMA Fungus, 11:19 [17 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s43008-020-00039-7.
Draft genomes of the fungal species Ambrosiella cleistominuta, Cercospora brassicicola, C. citrullina, Physcia stellaris, and Teratosphaeria pseudoeucalypti are presented. Physcia stellaris is an important lichen forming fungus and Ambrosiella cleistominuta is an ambrosia beetle symbiont. Cercospora brassicicola and C. citrullina are agriculturally relevant plant pathogens that cause leaf-spots in brassicaceous vegetables and cucurbits respectively. Teratosphaeria pseudoeucalypti causes severe leaf blight and defoliation of Eucalyptus trees. These genomes provide a valuable resource for understanding the molecular processes in these economically important fungi. Keywords: Ambrosia beetle, Cercospora, Brassica rapa subsp. rapa, Foliose lichens, Lagenaria siceraria, Physcia, Teratosphaeria, Eucalyptus leaf pathogen.
32777Kono M., Kon Y., Ohmura Y., Satta Y. & Terai Y. (2020): In vitro resynthesis of lichenization reveals the genetic background of symbiosis-specific fungal-algal interaction in Usnea hakonensis. - BMC Genomics, 21: 671 [16 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12864-020-07086-9.
Background: Symbiosis is central to ecosystems and has been an important driving force of the diversity of life. Close and long-term interactions are known to develop cooperative molecular mechanisms between the symbiotic partners and have often given them new functions as symbiotic entities. In lichen symbiosis, mutualistic relationships between lichen-forming fungi and algae and/or cyanobacteria produce unique features that make lichens adaptive to a wide range of environments. Although the morphological, physiological, and ecological uniqueness of lichens has been described for more than a century, the genetic mechanisms underlying this symbiosis are still poorly known. Results: This study investigated the fungal-algal interaction specific to the lichen symbiosis using Usnea hakonensis as a model system. The whole genome of U. hakonensis, the fungal partner, was sequenced by using a culture isolated from a natural lichen thallus. Isolated cultures of the fungal and the algal partners were co-cultured in vitro for 3 months, and thalli were successfully resynthesized as visible protrusions. Transcriptomes of resynthesized and natural thalli (symbiotic states) were compared to that of isolated cultures (non-symbiotic state). Sets of fungal and algal genes up-regulated in both symbiotic states were identified as symbiosis-related genes. Conclusion: From predicted functions of these genes, we identified genetic association with two key features fundamental to the symbiotic lifestyle in lichens. The first is establishment of a fungal symbiotic interface: (a) modification of cell walls at fungal-algal contact sites; and (b) production of a hydrophobic layer that ensheaths fungal and algal cells;. The second is symbiosis-specific nutrient flow: (a) the algal supply of photosynthetic product to the fungus; and (b) the fungal supply of phosphorous and nitrogen compounds to the alga. Since both features are widespread among lichens, our result may indicate important facets of the genetic basis of the lichen symbiosis. Keywords: Lichen symbiosis, Resynthesis, Mycobiont-photobiont interaction, Genetic background.
32776Mun S.-K., Kang K.-Y., Jang H.-Y., Hwang Y.-H., Hong S.-G., Kim S.-J., Cho H.-W., Chang D.-J., Hur J.-S. & Yee S.-T. (2020): Atraric acid exhibits anti-inflammatory effect in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and mouse models. - International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 21(19): 7070 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21197070.
Lichens, composite organisms resulting from the symbiotic association between the fungi and algae, produce a variety of secondary metabolites that exhibit pharmacological activities. This study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory activities of the secondary metabolite atraric acid produced by Heterodermia hypoleuca. The results confirmed that atraric acid could regulate induced pro-inflammatory cytokine, nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, induced nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Meanwhile, atraric acid downregulated the expression of phosphorylated IκB, extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) and nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) signaling pathway to exhibit anti-inflammatory effects in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Based on these results, the anti-inflammatory effect of atraric acid during LPS-induced endotoxin shock in a mouse model was confirmed. In the atraric acid treated-group, cytokine production was decreased in the peritoneum and serum, and each organ damaged by LPS-stimulation was recovered. These results indicate that atraric acid has an anti-inflammatory effect, which may be the underlying molecular mechanism involved in the inactivation of the ERK/NFκB signaling pathway, demonstrating its potential therapeutic value for treating inflammatory diseases. Keywords: anti-inflammation; endotoxin shock; atraric acid; lichen; Heterodermia hypoleuca.
32775Paoli L., Guttová A., Sorbo S., Lackovičová A., Ravera S., Landi S., Landi M., Basile A., Sanità di Toppi L., Vannini A., Loppi S. & Fačkovcová Z. (2020): Does air pollution influence the success of species translocation? Trace elements, ultrastructure and photosynthetic performances intransplants ofa threatened forest macrolichen. - Ecological Indicators, 117: 106666 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2020.106666.
Species translocation can be considered as a primary conservation strategy with reference to in situ conservation. In the case of lichens, translocations often risk to fail due stress factors associated with unsuitable receptor sites. Considering the bioecological characteristics of lichens, air pollution is among the most limiting stress factors. In this study, the forest macrolichen Lobaria pulmonaria was used as a model to test the hypothesis that the translocation of sensitive lichens is effective only in unpolluted environments. At purpose, 500 fragments or whole thalli were translocated in selected beech forests of Central Europe (the Western Carpathians, Slovakia) where the species disappeared in the past and in oak forests of Southern Europe (Tuscany, Central Italy) where native populations are present. Prior to the translocation (May 2016) and after one year, morphological and ultrastructural features, trace elements as well as chlorophyll a fluorescence emission were analysed. Four years later, the effectiveness of lichen translocation was further evaluated as presence of the transplants and of newly formed individuals. After one year, the translocation ensured an effective survival of the thalli in remote oak and beech forests characterized by a negligible or low contamination by heavy metals. The transplants were considered successful and developed new lobules and rhizines, attaching by themselves to the bark of the host trees, looking overall healthy, without evident signs of alteration also at ultrastructural level. Moreover, in a few cases newly formed individuals were observed after four years. On the other hand, the results highlighted the link between the unsuccess of the translocation and air pollution in other areas of the Western Carpathians and suggested that current air quality still limits the possibility of recolonization in areas where the model species disappeared. Keywords: Beech forest; Chlorophyll fluorescence; Lobaria pulmonaria; In situ conservation; Mediterranean oak forest; Western Carpathians.
32774Cannon P., Otálora M.A.G., Košuthová A., Wedin M., Aptroot A., Coppins B. & Simkin J. (2020): Peltigerales: Collemataceae, including the genera Blennothallia, Callome, Collema, Enchylium, Epiphloea, Lathagrium, Leptogium, Pseudoleptogium, Rostania and Scytinium. - Revisions of British and Irish Lichens, 2: 1–38. DOI: 10.34885/174.. https://www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/files/Collemataceae.pdf.
32773Cannon P., Ertz D., Frisch A., Aptroot A., Chambers S., Coppins B., Sanderson N., Simkin J. & Wolselsey P. (2020): Arthoniales: Arthoniaceae, including the genera Arthonia, Arthothelium, Briancoppinsia, Bryostigma, Coniocarpon, Diarthonis, Inoderma, Naevia, Pachnolepia, Reichlingia, Snippocia, Sporodophoron, Synarthonia and Tylophoron. - Revisions of British and Irish Lichens, 1: 3–48. DOI: 10.34885/173. https://www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/sites/www.britishlichensociety.org.uk/files/Arthoniaceae.pdf.
32772Mallen-Cooper M. & Cornwell W.K. (2020): A systematic review of transplant experiments in lichens and bryophytes. - Bryologist, 123(3): 443–453. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-123.3.443.
Transplant studies have long been a cornerstone of experimental ecology. Lichens and bryophytes have several useful characteristics for transplantation: they are small, easily transported, and highly responsive to environmental gradients. Here we conduct a systematic review to synthesise lichen and bryophyte transplant studies up until March 2020 (N¼454). A great majority of studies (67%) used lichen and bryophyte transplants as biosensors of airborne pollutants. Other research themes such as forest management and biotic interactions were associated with comparably modest bodies of work. A total of 247 lichen and bryophyte species had been used in transplant studies, but four species predominated: Hypogymnia physodes, Pseudevernia furfuracea, Evernia prunastri and Lobaria pulmonaria. Liverworts were only transplanted in 4% of studies, and most studies focused on epiphytic (69%) or terricolous species (31%). A small group of studies (N¼15) used whole-community transplants with areas ranging from 25–250,000 cm2. Apart from pollution research, studies centered on assisted colonization and simulated climate change appear to be increasing most rapidly in time. There were several recurrent lines of investigation within the included literature (e.g., edge effects, colonization of young forests, climate change effects and local adaptation) and we synthesise the key results. We recommend that future research address underrepresented taxa (e.g., liverworts, biological soil crusts) and geographic gaps, namely Australia and Africa. Keywords: Biomonitoring, climate change, cryptogam, edge effects, experimental ecology, local adaptation, non-vascular, plasticity, pollution, transplantation.
32771Wang X.Y., Li L.J., Liu D., Zhang Y.Y., Yin A.C., Zhong Q.Y., Wang S.Q. & Wang L.S. (2020): Two new species and six new records of Buellia s.l. (lichenized Ascomycota, Caliciaceae) from China. - Bryologist, 123(3): 430–442. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-123.3.430.
Eight species of Buellia s.l. containing xanthones are newly reported from China, including two species new to science (Buellia endoflavida and B. microareolata) and six records (B. concinna, B. mamillana, Stigmatochroma gerontoides, Tetramelas chloroleucus, T. geophilus and T. insignis) new to China. The genera Stigmatochroma and Tetramelas are also newly recorded from China. These species share the yellowish thallus with a UVþ yellow to orange reaction and can thus be easily separated from other buellioid taxa. Morphological, chemical and phylogenetic analyses were carried out to elucidate the placement of these species and to support the delimitation of the new taxa. Detailed descriptions and figures for the two new species are given and a key to all xanthone-containing buellioid species from China is provided. Kewords: Taxonomy, biodiversity, phylogeny, ITS, buellioid lichens.
32770Lee B.G. & Hur J.-S. (2020): A new lichen-forming fungus, Orientophila corticola, from South Korea, with a key to the genus. - Mycoscience, 61: 212–218. .
Orientophila corticola is described as a new lichen-forming fungus from South Korea. The new species is distinguishable from other Orientophila species by the substrate preference to tree barks and the habitat specificity to inland areas. Molecular analyses applying internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and mito- chondrial small subunit (mtSSU) sequences clearly classify O. corticola as a distinct species in the genus Orientophila. A surrogate key is provided to assist in the identification of all 13 taxa in the genus Orientophila
32769Hafellner J. (1995): Bemerkenswerte Funde von Flechten und lichenicolen Pilzen auf Makronesischen Inseln. I. Erstnachweise einiger Gattungen. – In: Daniëls F.J.A., Schulz M., Peine J. (eds.): Flechten Follmann. Contributions to lichenology in Honour of Gerhard Follmann. - Geobotanical and Phytotaxonomical Study Group, Botanical Institute, University of Cologne, Cologne, pp. 427-439. .
Clypeococcum epicrassum (H. Oliv.) Haf. & Nav.-Ros. New to Macaronesia: Buelliella physciicola, Clypeococcum cladonema, Cornutispora lichenicola, Llimoniella neglecta, Milospium graphideorum, Miriquidica intrudens, Placynthium tremniacum, Protoblastenia rupestris, Pseudoseptoria usneae, Refractohilum galligenum, R. peltigerae, Sphaerellothecium minutum, Staurothele rugulosa, Thelidium decipiens, Unguiculariopsis lettaui, U. thallophila, Vouauxiomyces santessonii, V. truncatus, Xanthoriicola physciae, Xylographa vitiligo, Canary Islands, lichenicolous, Macaronesia, Madeira
32768Zhou X., Zhao Y., Belnap J., Zhang B., Bu C. & Zhang Y. (2020): Practices of biological soil crust rehabilitation in China: experiences and challenges. - Restoration Ecology, 28(S2): 45–55. https://doi.org/10.1111/rec.13148.
Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are a central component of dryland ecosystems.However, they are highly vulnerable to disturbance and natural recovery may be slow. Therefore, finding ways to enhance the reestablishment of biocrusts after disturbance has been of great interest to researchers. This article provides a review of the laboratory cultivation and field inoculations of biocrust materials in China (mostly published in Chinese). Larger filamentous cyanobacteria (e.g. Microcoleus) are relatively easy, although slow, to grow in culture compared to other biocrust components. Thus,most researchers have focused their efforts on the cyanobacteria and a few species of mosses that are also easily grown but at smaller scale. For all the studies, a small amount of biocrust material was collected and its biomass enhanced under controlled conditions. However, the enhancement was done using various methods and techniques in different regions. These materialswere then applied to disturbed field sites, againwith various methods. Results show that keeping the inoculated soil surface wet for some time period after inoculation was crucial for restoration success. Cyanobacterial establishment was improved by installing automatic sprinkling using micro-irrigation techniques and/or physical structures that reduced sediment moving onto the inoculated area. Experimental applications in China showed that cyanobacteria can be successfully inoculated at a large scale (hundreds of ha). Moss inoculation, on the other hand, was only accomplished at a small scale (several m2). To assess whether biocrust restoration can enhance the establishment of a self-supporting ecosystem, further research is needed on how inoculation affects vegetation diversity and structure and ecological processes. Key words: biological soil crusts, China, cyanobacteria, lichen, moss, restoration.
32767Padhi S., Masi M., Panda S.K., Luyten W., Cimmino A., Tayung K. & Evidente A. (2020): Antimicrobial secondary metabolites of an endolichenic Aspergillus niger isolated from lichen thallus of Parmotrema ravum. - Natural Product Research, 34(18): 2573–2580. https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2018.1544982.
A new 6-benzyl-γ-pyrone (1), named aspergyllone was isolated from the culture filtrates of an endolichenic fungus Aspergillus niger Tiegh, obtained from lichen thallus Parmotrema ravum (Krog & Swinscow) Serus, collected in India. 1 was isolated for the first time from an endolichenic fungus together with six other known metabolites identified as aurasperones A (2) and D (3), asperpyrone A (4), fonsecinone A (5), carbonarone A (6) and pyrophen (7). The compounds were tested against a panel of human, plant, food borne and fish pathogens. Aspergyllone showed strong selective antifungal activity against Candida parapsilosis (Ashford) Langeron & Talice, with an IC50 of 52 µg/mL. Aurasperone A and pyrophen showed moderate to strong antimicrobial activity inhibiting seven different test pathogens, being pyrophen active with IC50 ranging from 35 to 97 µg/mL. Keywords: Aspergillus niger; Endolichenic fungus; Parmotrema ravum; antimicrobial activity; aspergyllone.
32766Marcano V. & Castillo L. (2020): Diversidad de líquenes de los páramos de El Batallón y La Negra, Parque Nacional General Juan Pablo Peñaloza, Andes venezolanos. - Anales del Jardín Botánico de Madrid, 77(1): e096 [16 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3989/ajbm.2549.
[in Spanish with English abstract: ] Increasing temperatures and changing land-use in the Venezuelan Andes result in an accelerated decline of sensitive lichen populations. Monitoring of these populations by biological plot inventories in particularly vulnerable sites is urgently needed. In order to know the diversity and distribution of lichen species occurring in the paramos El Batallón and La Negra, General Juan Pablo Peñaloza National Park, in the Venezuelan Andes, we carried out various collections along an altitudinal gradient including montane forest (2100–3000 m) and paramo vegetation (3200–3650 m). The results showed a total of 104 species and 40 genera, 44 species from the montane forest, 82 species from the paramo, six new records for Venezuela, and 31 new records for the southwest of the Venezuelan Andes (Táchira State). A checklist with taxonomic, morphological and ecological data is provided for the most relevant species. Bunodophoron portachuelense V. Marcano & L. Castillo (Sphaeorophoraceae) is described from the paramo. Increasing forestry exploitation, livestock and cultivation during decades from the montane forest would explain the highest diversity found in the paramo. Keywords: Bunodophoron, diversity, lichenized fungi, montane forest.
32765Loppi S., Vannini A., Monaci F., Dagodzo D., Blind F., Erler M. & Fränzle S. (2020): Can chitin and chitosan replace the lichen Evernia prunastri for environmental biomonitoring of Cu and Zn air contamination?. - Biology, 9(9): 301 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology9090301.
This study compared the ability of the lichen Evernia prunastri, chitin and chitosan to take up Cu2+ and Zn2+. It was hypothesized that chitin and chitosan have an accumulation capacity comparable to the lichen, so that these biopolymers could replace the use of E. prunastri for effective biomonitoring of Cu and Zn air pollution. Samples of the lichen E. prunastri, as well as chitin (from shrimps) and chitosan (from crabs), were incubated with Cu and Zn solutions at concentrations of 0 (control), 10, 25, 50, 75, and 100 µM and analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Metal concentrations accumulated by lichen, chitin and chitosan samples were strongly and linearly correlated with the concentrations in the treatment solutions. The lichen always showed significantly higher accumulation values compared to chitin and chitosan, which showed similar accumulation features. The outcomes of this study confirmed the great effectiveness of the lichen Evernia prunastri for environmental biomonitoring and showed that chitin and chitosan have a lower accumulation capacity, thus suggesting that although these biopolymers have the potential for replacing E. prunastri in polluted areas, their suitability may be limited in areas with intermediate or low pollution levels. Keywords: bioaccumulation; biopolymers; biosorption; Cu; ion exchange; Zn.
32764Wicaksono W.A., Cernava T., Grube M. & Berg G. (2020): Assembly of bacterial genomes from the metagenomes of three lichen species. - Microbiology Resource Announcements, 9:e00622-20 [3 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1128/MRA.00622-20.
Bacteria have recently emerged as important constituents of lichen holobionts. Here, 29 bacterial metagenome-assembled genome (MAG) sequences were reconstructed from lichen metagenomes and taxonomically classified in four phyla. These results provide a pivotal resource for further exploration of the ecological roles played by bacterial symbionts in lichen holobionts.
32763Brinker S.R. (2020): Contributions to the Ontario flora of lichens and allied fungi, with emphasis on the Great Lakes Basin. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 19: 58–157. http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/op/biblio_list.php?BucVolume_tab=19.
One-hundred and sixty-three new or noteworthy lichens and allied fungi are reported from Ontario based on new collections. The lichens Lecanora atromarginata, L. gisleriana, Rhizocarpon ridescens and Sclerococcum griseisporodochium are new to North America. The reported species new to Canada are: Abrothallus bertianus, Absconditella trivialis, Agonimia opuntiella, Diploschistes gypsaceus, Ephebe solida, Heterodermia japonica, Minutoexcipula tuckerae, Peltula bolanderi, Placynthium petersii, Protothelenella sphinctrinoides, Pycnora praestabilis, Thelopsis melathelia, Toninia tecta and Verrucaria quercina. Sixty-one taxa reported new to Ontario include: Abrothallus peyritschii, A. usneae, Agonimia tristicula, Arctoparmelia subcentrifuga, Arthrorhaphis citronella, Bachmanniomyces uncialicola, Baeomyces placophyllus, Biatora printzenii, Bilimbia lobulata, Calicium lucidum, Caloplaca stillicidiorum, Cetraria nigricans, Chaenothecopsis australis, Cystocoleus ebeneus, Dactylospora lobariella, Dendriscocaulon intricatulum, Dermatocarpon schaechtelinii, Enchylium conglomeratum, Endocarpon pulvinatum, Gyrographa gyrocarpa, Henrica theleodes, Heterodermia neglecta, Homostegia piggotii, Hypotrachyna afrorevoluta, H. revoluta, Lathagrium auriforme, Lecanora appalachensis, Lecanora epibryon, Lecanora orae-frigidae, Lecidea lapicida, Lecidella wulfenii, Lempholemma radiatum, Lepraria oxybapha, Lichenoconium usneae, Lichenomphalia umbellifera, Lichenostigma elongata, Lopadium coralloideum, Ophioparma lapponica, Pertusaria bryontha, P. coriacea, P. globularis, Phylliscum demangeonii, Plectocarpon lichenum, Polycauliona stellata, Porpidia flavicunda, Pseudosagedia chlorotica, Rhizocarpon eupetraeoides, Rostania ceranisca, Sclerophora farinacea, Scytinium schraderi, Solorina bispora, Sphaerellothecium minutum, Sticta beauvoisii, S. fuliginosa, Tetramelas papillatus, Tremella cetrariicola, Umbilicaria lyngei, Usnea ceratina, Xanthomendoza fulva and Xylographa opegraphella. Details on additional rare or otherwise rarely collected species new to explored counties and districts are also provided. These include: Acarospora bullata, Ahtiana aurescens, Amygdalaria panaeola, Anaptychia crinalis, Arctoparmelia incurva, Arthonia diffusella, Baeomyces carneus, Blastenia ferruginea, Buellia badia, Calicium abietinum, Caloplaca saxicola, Cetraria aculeata, Chaenotheca stemonea, Chaenothecopsis perforata, Cliostomum griffithii, Cyphobasidium hypogymniicola, Dermatocarpon dolomiticum, Dibaeis baeomyces, Flavocetraria nivalis, Fuscopannaria leucosticta, Heppia adglutinata, Heterodermia hypoleuca, H. obscurata, Hyperphyscia syncolla, Hypogymnia vittata, Immersaria athroocarpa, Inoderma byssaceum, Lecanora epanora, Lepraria cryophila, Leproplaca chrysodeta, Leptogium rivulare, Lichenodiplis lecanorae, Lichenostigma cosmopolites, Lithothelium hyalosporum, Lobaria scrobiculata, Lobothallia alphoplaca, Lopadium disciforme, Melanelixia albertana, M. subargentifera, Melanohalea halei, M. subolivacea, Muellerella erratica, Mycoblastus alpinus, Mycoglaena myricae, Myelochroa obsessa, Ovicuculispora parmeliae, Pannaria tavaresii, Parmotrema hypotropum, P. reticulatum, P. stuppeum, Peltigera venosa, Pertusaria superiana, Phacopsis oxyspora var. oxyspora, Physcia americana, Physcia tenella, Physconia grumosa, Placidium arboreum, Polychidium muscicola, Porina scabrida, Porpidia degelii, Pseudocyphellaria holarctica, Pseudoschismatomma rufescens, Psoroma hypnorum, Punctelia appalachensis, P. stictica, Rhizocarpon eupetraeum, Rinodina pachysperma, Sarea difformis, Scytinium gelatinosum, Scytinium intermedium, Sphaerophorus fragilis, S. globosus, Stictis radiata, Synalissa ramulosa, Syzygospora physciarcearum, Teloschistes chrysophthalmus, Thyrea confusa, Toninia aromatica, Tremella everniae, Umbilicaria arctica, U. hirsuta, U. proboscidea, U. torrefacta, Usnea glabrescens and Xanthoparmelia angustiphylla. Keywords. – Appalachian, arctic-alpine, biodiversity, old-growth, rare species.
32762Yazıcı K., Aslan A., Aptroot A., Etayo J., Karahan D. & Sipman H. (2020): Lichens and lichenicolous fungi from Bitlis province in Turkey. - Lindbergia, 43: linbg.01126 [12 p.]; doi: 10.25227/linbg.01126. https://doi.org/10.25227/linbg.01126.
As a result of lichenological exploration in Bitlis province (Turkey), a total of 325 lichens and 21 lichenicolous fungi, which are belonging 113 genera in Ascomycota were determined from 92 different localities. Buellia vouauxii, a lichenicolous fungus, and is new to Turkey and also new for Asia. Aspicilia glomerulans, Llimoniella muralicola, Myriolecis invadens, Ochrolechia subviridis, Placynthium hungaricum and Placynthium posterulum were reported for the second time from Turkey. Collecting localities and their substrata are presented. Keywords: Ascomycota, biodiversity, Bitlis, lichen, lichenicolous fungi, new records, Turkey.
32761Bianchi E., Benesperi R., Brunialti G., Di Nuzzo L., Fačkovcová Z., Frati L., Giordani P., Nascimbene J., Ravera S., Vallese C. & Paoli L. (2020): Vitality and growth of the threatened lichen Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm. in response to logging and implications for its conservation in Mediterranean oak forests. - Forests, 11(9): 995 [11 p.]; doi: 10.3390/f11090995. https://doi.org/10.3390/f11090995 .
Forest logging can be detrimental for non-vascular epiphytes, determining the loss of key components for ecosystem functioning. Legal logging in a Mediterranean mixed oak forest (Tuscany, Central Italy) in 2016 heavily impacted sensitive non-vascular epiphytes, including a large population of the threatened forest lichen Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm. This event offered the background for this experiment, where the potential effects of logging in oak forests are simulated by means of L. pulmonaria micro-transplants (thallus fragments <1 cm). Our working hypothesis is that forest logging could negatively influence the growth of the thalli exposed in logged stands compared to those exposed in unlogged stands. One hundred meristematic lobes and 100 non-meristematic fragments are exposed for one year on 20 Turkey oak trees (Quercus cerris), half in a logged and half in an unlogged stand. Chlorophyll (Chl) a fluorescence emission and total chlorophyll content are used as a proxy for the overall vitality of the transplants, while their growth is considered an indicator of long-term effects. Generally, vitality and growth of the transplants in the logged stand are lower than in the unlogged stand. Both vitality and growth varies between the meristematic and non-meristematic fragments, the former performing much better. Hence, irrespective of forest management, meristematic fragments show higher growth rates (0.16–0.18 cm2 year.
32760Burgaz A.R., Gutiérrez B. & Pino-Bodas R. (2019): Cladoniaceae of Montenegro. - Botanica Complutensis, 43: 109–139. http://dx.doi.org/10.5209/BOCM.65893.
As a result of collections made in 61 locations during the year 2018, the number of Cladonia taxa is enlarged to 42, and ten new records of Cladonia are provided to Montenegro, Cladonia cariosa, C. coccifera, C. cyathomorpha, C. digitata, C. diversa, C. homosekikaica, C. imbricarica, C. merochlorophaea, C. novochlorophaea and C. subulata. The distribution of many taxa previously known for the territory is extended. The chemical variation and the distribution of each species are discussed. Key words: Cladonia; diversity; phytogeography; lichens; chemical metabolites; Mediterranean Region.
32759Kantvilas G. (2020): Tasmanian chroodiscoid thelotremoid lichens (Graphidaceae) revisited. - Phytotaxa, 459(3): 209–218. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.459.3.2.
Some thelotremoid lichens of Tasmania are reviewed. The following new combinations are proposed: Gintarasia asteliae (Kantvilas & Vĕzda) Kantvilas, G. minor (Kantvilas & Vĕzda) Kantvilas and G. tasmanica (Kantvilas & Vĕzda) Kantvilas. A revised description of Schizotrema schizolomum (Müll.Arg.) Mangold & Lumbsch, based on Tasmanian collections, is provided, and the new species, S. vezdanum Kantvilas, recorded from Tasmanian and Victoria, is described and illustrated; it is characterised by a thallus containing stictic acid, 8-spored asci, and non-amyloid, muriform ascospores, 22−44 × 9−18 µm. Schizotrema guadeloupense (Hale) Mangold & Lumbsch is deleted from the Tasmanian census. Also described as new and illustrated is the Tasmanian endemic, Topeliopsis fatiscens Kantvilas, characterised by a thallus containing salazinic acid, (1−)2(−3)-spored asci and strongly amyloid, muriform ascospores, 37−100 × 19−40 µm. Thelotrema lepadodes var. endochrysoides Jatta is identified as a synonym of the cosmopolitan species T. lepadinum (Ach.) Ach. Keywords: Australia, Chapsa, Chroodiscus, Gintarasia, new species, Thelotrema, Schizotrema, Topeliopsis.
32758Košuthová A., Bergsten J., Westberg M. & Wedin M. (2020): Species delimitation in the cyanolichen genus Rostania. - BMC Evolutionary Biology, 20: 115 [17 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12862-020-01681-w.
Background: In this study, we investigate species limits in the cyanobacterial lichen genus Rostania (Collemataceae, Peltigerales, Lecanoromycetes). Four molecular markers (mtSSU rDNA, β-tubulin, MCM7, RPB2) were sequenced and analysed with two coalescent-based species delimitation methods: the Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent model (GMYC) and a Bayesian species delimitation method (BPP) using a multispecies coalescence model (MSC), the latter with or without an a priori defined guide tree. Results: Species delimitation analyses indicate the presence of eight strongly supported candidate species. Conclusive correlation between morphological/ecological characters and genetic delimitation could be found for six of these. Of the two additional candidate species, one is represented by a single sterile specimen and the other currently lacks morphological or ecological supporting evidence. Conclusions: We conclude that Rostania includes a minimum of six species: R. ceranisca, R. multipunctata, R. occultata 1, R. occultata 2, R. occultata 3, and R. occultata 4,5,6. Three distinct Nostoc morphotypes occur in Rostania, and there is substantial correlation between these morphotypes and Rostania thallus morphology. Keywords: Biodiversity, Fungi, Integrative taxonomy, Lichens, Phylogeny, Symbiosis, Systematics.
32757Ghiyasi A., Ahmadimoghadam A. & Sohrabi M. (2019): Floristic study and diversity of lichen species in highlands of Kuh-Asiab protected area in Kuhbanan (Kerman province, Iran). - Rostaniha, 20(1): 44–61. .
[in Persian with English summary: ] Little attention has been devoted to lichens of Kerman province (Iran). This study was conducted to identify lichens in the Kuh-Asiab protected area of Kubanan located in the northernmost part of Kerman province. In this study, eight sites were chosen in the area. Sampling was carried out according to Random method. Height data were obtained from each site along with the abundance of lichen species. In addition, number and density of species and cover percentage of the species were measured. Thirty-one species belong to 19 genera and two vegetative forms were identified. Both the Shannon and Simpson indices were calculated and compared for each sampling site. Species richness was calculated according to Margalef and Menhinick indices. Our results suggested that, lichen species richness and diversity were increasing with increasing height. The results also showed significant differences in species diversity and richness among sampling sites. The highest number of indicators was observed in sites with average height. Comparison of indices showed that, Simpson diversity was the best indicator for showing the situation of the community. Keywords: Lichen communities, sampling, Simpson diversity, species richness, vegetative forms.
32756Isocrono D., Benesperi R., Bianchi E., Di Nuzzo L., Catalano I., Gheza G., Giordani P., Matteucci E., Nascimbene J., Ongaro S., Puntillo D. & Pittao E (2019): Lichenes Italici Exsiccati ex Società Lichenologica Italiana. Fascicle III (Nos. 25-36). - Notiziario della Società Lichenologica Italiana, 32: 127–130. .
Italy; exsiccate.
32755Wijayawardene N.N., Hyde K.D., Dai D.Q., Tang L.Z., Aptroot A., Castañeda-Ruiz R.F., Druzhinina I.S., Cai F., Ekanayaka A.H., Erdoğdu M., Fiuza P.O., Gentekaki E., Goto B.T., Haelewaters D., Hongsanan S., Jeewon R., Kirk P.M., Jayalal U., Karunarathna S.C., Wanasinghe D.N., Lumbsch H.T., Madrid H., Maharachchikumbura S.S.N., Monteiro J.S., Shivaprakash N., Pfliegler W.P., Phillips A.J.L., Saxena R.K., Stadler M., Tian Q., Tokarev Y.S., Tsurykau A., Ertz D., Lee H.B., Etayo J., Vizzini A., Jones E.G.B., Lin C.G., Li W.J., Dai Y.C., Fan X.L., McKenzie E.H.C., Shivas R.G., Hustad V., Leontyev D.V., de Hoog G.S., Niskanen T., Boekhout T., Gaya E. & Thines M. (2020): A dynamic portal for a community-driven, continuously updated classification of Fungi and fungus-like organisms: outlineoffungi.org. - Mycosphere, 11(1): 1514–1526. Doi 10.5943/mycosphere/11/1/11.
The website http://outlineoffungi.org, is launched to provide a continuous up-to-date classification of the kingdom Fungi (including fossil fungi) and fungus-like taxa. This is based on 1516 recent publications and on the outline of fungi and fungus-like taxa published recently (Mycosphere 11, 1060–1456, doi 10.5943/mycosphere/11/1/8). The website is continuously updated according to latest classification schemes, and will present an important platform for researchers, industries, government officials and other users. Users can provide input about missing genera, new genera, and new data. They will also have the opportunity to express their opinions on classifications with notes published in the ‘Notes’ section of the webpage following review and editing by the curators and independent experts. The website will provide a system to stay abreast of the continuous changes in fungal classification and provide a general consensus on the systematics of fungi. Keywords – classification – community-driven – higher ranks – outline – portal – taxa.
32754Урбанавичюс Г.П. [Urbanavichus G.P.] (2020): К лихенофлоре природного парка «Кораблекк» (Мурманская область) [Contribution to the lichen flora of the Nature Park Korablekk (Murmansk Region)] . - Труды Карельского научного центра РАН, Серия "Биология", Петрозаводск [Proceedings of the Karelian Research Centre of Russian Academy of Science, ser. Biology, Petrozavodsk], 8: 81–89. DOI: 10.17076/bg1179.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] The Nature Park Korablekk is located in the biogeographic province Lapponia petsamoënsis, in the northernmost part of the Green Belt of Fennoscandia (Pechenga District, Murmansk Region). The Nature Park Korablekk was established in 2017 for the conservation of old-growth pine forests at the northern limit of their distribution. The total area of the Nature Park is ca. 83.4 km2. The current phase of lichen flora studies in the Park commenced in 2012. The main goals of the expedition in 2019 was to study the lichen diversity in the old-aged pine and aspen forests and in mountain tundra habitats of Kas kama Mt. and Korablekk Mt. Based on the material collected in 2019, 281 species have been identified. This article presents information about 217 species that had not been previously known for the lichen flora of the Park, including 195 lichen species, 18 lichenicolous fungi, and 4 species of non-lichenized saprobic fungi. Five species (Cecidonia xenophona, Cercidospora thamnoliae, Lichenoconium lichenicola, Muellerella triseptata, Polycoccum peltigerae) are reported for the first time for the Murmansk Region. Thirteen species and four genera (Brodoa, Caeruleum, Merismatium, Rhymbocarpus) are reported as new to the biogeographic province Lapponia petsamoënsis. Muellerella triseptata is new for European Russia and the second record for the whole Russia. Lichenoconium lichenicola is reported for the first time for North-Western European Russia. An annotated list of species with locations and substrates is provided. As a result, the lichen flora of the Nature Park Korablekk currently comprises 327 species, of which 301 species are lichens, 19 species are lichenicolous fungi, and 7 species are saprobic fungi. Representative specimens of the new records are deposited in the herbarium of the Institute of North Industrial Ecology Problems, Kola Science Centre RAS, Apatity (INEP). Keywords: lichens; lichenicolous fungi; biodiversity; protected area; Lapponia petsamoënsis; Green Belt of Fennoscandia.
32753Spjut R., Simon A., Guissard M., Magain N. & Sérusiaux E. (2020): The fruticose genera in the Ramalinaceae (Ascomycota, Lecanoromycetes): their diversity and evolutionary history. - MycoKeys, 73: 1–68. https://doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.73.47287.
We present phylogenetic analyses of the fruticose Ramalinaceae based on extensive collections from many parts of the world, with a special focus on the Vizcaíno deserts in north-western Mexico and the coastal desert in Namibia. We generate a four-locus DNA sequence dataset for accessions of Ramalina and two additional loci for Niebla and Vermilacinia. Four genera are strongly supported: the subcosmopolitan Ramalina, the new genus Namibialina endemic to SW Africa, and a duo formed by Niebla and Vermilacinia, endemic to the New World except the sorediate V. zebrina that disjunctly occurs in Namibia. The latter three genera are restricted to coastal desert and chaparral where vegetation depends on moisture from ocean fog. Ramalina is subcosmopolitan and much more diverse in its ecology. We show that Ramalina and its sister genus Namibialina diverged from each other at c. 48 Myrs, whereas Vermilacinia and Niebla split at c. 30 Myrs. The phylogeny of the fruticose genera remains unresolved to their ancestral crustose genera. Species delimitation within Namibialina and Ramalina is rather straightforward. The phylogeny and taxonomy of Vermilacinia are fully resolved, except for the two youngest clades of corticolous taxa, and support current taxonomy, including four new taxa described here. Secondary metabolite variation in Niebla generally coincides with major clades which are comprised of species complexes with still unresolved phylogenetic relationships. A micro-endemism pattern of allopatric species is strongly suspected for both genera, except for the corticolous taxa within Vermilacinia. Both Niebla and saxicolous Vermilacinia have chemotypes unique to species clades that are largely endemic to the Vizcaíno deserts. The following new taxa are described: Namibialina gen. nov. with N. melanothrix (comb. nov.) as type species, a single new species of Ramalina (R. krogiae) and four new species of Vermilacinia (V. breviloba, V. lacunosa, V. pustulata and V. reticulata). The new combination V. granulans is introduced. Two epithets are re-introduced for European Ramalina species: R. crispans (= R. peruviana auct. eur.) and R. rosacea (= R. bourgeana auct. p.p). A lectotype is designated for Vermilacinia procera. A key to saxicolous species of Vermilacinia is presented. Keywords: Atacama, Baja California, Namib, Namibialina, Niebla, Ramalina, taxonomy, Vermilacinia, Vizcaíno deserts.
32752Suija A., Zhurbenko M.P., Stepanchikova I.S., Himelbrant D.E., Kuznetsova E.S. & Motiejūnaitė J. (2020): Kukwaea pubescens gen. et sp. nova (Helotiales, incertae sedis), a new lichenicolous fungus on Cetraria islandica, and a key to the lichenicolous fungi occurring on Cetraria s. str.. - Phytotaxa, 459(1): 39–50. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.459.1.4.
A new lichenicolous genus Kukwaea is introduced for a species discovered on Cetraria islandica from coniferous forests in European and Asian parts of Russia. The new fungus is characterized by its cupulate, brown ascomata with grey to blackish disc surrounded by brownish grey hairs, exciple of textura angularis type, with crystals in the lower part, with granulose excipular hairs obtuse at the tips, simple to forked paraphyses, Calycina-type asci, and hyaline, aseptate ascospores. The DNA sequence data confirmed its placement in Helotiales, but the exact affiliation remains open. A worldwide key for lichenicolous fungi occurring on Cetraria s. str. is provided. Keywords: Ascomycota, Hyaloscyphaceae s. lat., Leotiomycetes, lichen-inhabiting fungi, taxonomy.
32751Tatipamula V.B. (2019): Chemical and pharmacological evaluation of manglicolous lichens. - LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing, Mauritius, [i-v +] 57 p. .
book; India; lichen chemistry; mangroves
32750Odland A. (2005): Oligotrophic and mesotrophic vegetation in southern Scandinavian mountains. Gradients in species and community distribution extracted by numerical analyses of earlier published vegetation descriptions. - Phytocoenologia, 35(4): 985–1018. .
Fennoscandian mountain vegetation and its ecology has been a field of intensive research for more than a century, and the main aims of the studies have in most cases been to perform regional vegetation descriptions with subsequent phytosociological classifications. The main patterns in species distribution and vegetation composition along important ecological gradients are therefore well known, but so far no generally accepted classification of mountain vegetation has been reached. The present study is based on a compilation of 306 oligotrophic and mesotrophic communities (with data from more than 2200 stands and 4800 releve´s) from the Scandinavian mountains. The sampling unit used here is the described plant communities, and an importance value (IV) is calculated for all species (taxa) based on their frequency and mean cover. The main aims were: (1) to quantify similarities and dissimilarities between earlier described mountain vegetation communities by use of numerical methods, (2) to discuss the results in relation to earlier proposed classifications of Scandinavian mountain vegetation, and (3) to interprete the main gradients in the data. DCA axis 1 (5.04 SD units long with an eigenvalue of 0.60) was interpreted to represent a complex gradient with increasing length of snow cover, soil moisture and altitude. DCA axis 2 describes a complex gradient in soil thickness, soil moisture and altitude. Eighteen groups of communities were separated by TWINSPAN, and these are discussed in relation to earlier classifications. Most of these groups have some overlap in the ordination diagram, indicating that the communities make a continuum. Along the main gradient, three community clusters could be separated: (1) communities dominated by lichens and ericaceous species; (2) fern-, graminoid- and Salix herbacea- dominated communities; and (3) extreme moss-dominated snow beds. Keywords: DCA, ordination, TWINSPAN, classification, snow bed, phytosociology.
32749Kolbek J. & Jarolímek I. (2013): Vegetation of the northern Korean Peninsula: classification, ecology and distribution. - Phytocoenologia, 43: 245–327. .
This preliminary survey of North Korean vegetation is based on phytocoenological data obtained during the five expeditions that took place between 1984 and 1990 (1181 relevés) by Czech and Slovak phytocoenologists. Field analyses and the classification of vegetation were carried out using the Braun-Blanquet approach and methods of hierarchical numerical classification. In the eleven synoptic tables, related to the eleven main groups of biotopes, all distinguished associations and communities are presented and compared. Individual vegetation units are syntaxonomically and nomenclaturally revised. Within the 20 classes (Asteretea tripolii, Bidentetea tripartitae, Cakiletea maritimae, Carici rupestris-Kobresietea bellardii, Glehnietea littoralis, Lemnetea, Miscanthetea sinensis, Oryzetea sativae, Phragmito-Magnocaricetea, Plantaginetea majoris, Potametea, Querco-Fagetea crenatae, Rhamno-Prunetea, Robinietea, Rosetea multiflorae, Salicetea sachalinensis, Salsoletea komarovii, Selaginello tamariscini-Potentilletea dickinsii, Stellarietea mediae, Vaccinio- Piceetea), 89 associations and communities are distinguished. Each unit is characterised by the correct name and short paragraphs on the diagnostic species, synmorphology, synecology, intra-association variability, distribution, human influence and references used. The zonality of the forest vegetation in North Korea is briefly characterised. Keywords: Braun-Blanquet methodology, East Asia, floristic composition, plant communities, synchorology, synecology, syntaxonomy, vegetation survey.
32748Thébaud G. & Pétel G. (2009): Contribution à une révision des végétations tourbeuses ombrotrophes et ombrominérotrophes medioeuropéennes. - Phytocoenologia, 38(4): 287–304. .
Keywords: plant community • syntaxa • bogs • Sphagnion magellanici • communautés végétales • syntaxons • tourbière haute.
32747Drees B. & Daniëls F.J.A. (2009): Mountain vegetation of south-facing slopes in continental West Greenland. - Phytocoenologia, 39(1): 1–25. .
Keywords: altitudinal indicator, altitudinal vegetation belts, arctic steppe, cryptogams, Saxifrago tricuspidatae- Calamagrostietea purpurascentis, syntaxa. Numerous lichens listed from phytocenological relevés.
32746Lünterbusch C.H. & Daniëls F.J.A. (2004): Phytosociological aspects of Dryas integrifolia vegetation on moist-wet soil in Northwest Greenland. - Phytocoenologia, 34(2): 241–270. .
Keywords: Arctic, Caricion atrofusco-saxatilis, Dryadion integrifoliae, species richness, synecology, transect study. Numerous lichens listed from phytocenological relevés.
32745Vančurová L., Kalníková V., Peksa O., Škvorová Z., Malíček J., Moya P., Chytrý K., Černajová I. & Škaloud P. (2020): Symbiosis between river and dry lands: Phycobiont dynamics on river gravel bars. - Algal Research, 51: 102062 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.algal.2020.102062.
River gravel bars are dynamic and heterogeneous habitats straddling the transition between aquatic and terrestrial environments. Periodic flooding, low nutrient concentrations, frost, lack of stable sites, drought, and ground surface heat significantly influence the biota of these habitats. Mutualistic symbiosis may be a successful strategy for organisms to survive and proliferate under such harsh conditions. The lichen genus Stereocaulon was selected as a model symbiotic system from among the organisms living on river gravel bars. The goal of the current study was to determine the effect of this dynamic environment on phycobiont (i.e., green eukaryotic photobiont) community structure. We analyzed 147 Stereocaulon specimens collected in the Swiss Alps using Sanger sequencing (fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA, algal ITS rDNA, and algal actin type I gene) and analyzed 8 selected thalli and 12 soil samples using Illumina metabarcoding (ITS2 rDNA). Phytosociological sampling was performed for all 13 study plots. Our analyses of communities of phycobionts, lichens, bryophytes, and vascular plants indicated a gradual change in the phycobiont community along a successional gradient. The particularly large phycobiont diversity associated with Stereocaulon mycobionts included algae, here reported as phycobionts for the first time. Each of the two Stereocaulon mycobiont operational taxonomic units had a distinct pool of predominant phycobionts. The thalli selected for Illumina metabarcoding contained a wide range of additional algae, i.e., they showed algal plurality. Keywords: Specificity; Lichen phycobiont; Succession; Community composition; Metabarcoding; Algal plurality.
32744Szyja M., Menezes A.G.S., Oliveira F.D.A., Leal I., Tabarelli M., Büdel B. & Wirth R. (2019): Neglected but potent dry forest players: Ecological role and ecosystem service provision of biological soil crusts in the human-modified Caatinga. - Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 7: 482 [18 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fevo.2019.00482.
Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) have been recognized as key ecological players in arid and semiarid regions at both local and global scales. They are important biodiversity components, provide critical ecosystem services, and strongly influence soil-plant relationships, and successional trajectories via facilitative, competitive, and edaphic engineering effects. Despite these important ecological roles, very little is known about biocrusts in seasonally dry tropical forests. Here we present a first baseline study on biocrust cover and ecosystem service provision in a human-modified landscape of the Brazilian Caatinga, South America’s largest tropical dry forest. More specifically, we explored (1) across a network of 34 0.1 ha permanent plots the impact of disturbance, soil, precipitation, and vegetation-related parameters on biocrust cover in different stages of forest regeneration, and (2) the effect of disturbance on species composition, growth and soil organic carbon sequestration comparing early and late successional communities in two case study sites at opposite ends of the disturbance gradient. Our findings revealed that biocrusts are a conspicuous component of the Caatinga ecosystem with at least 50 different taxa of cyanobacteria, algae, lichens and bryophytes (cyanobacteria and bryophytes dominating) covering nearly 10% of the total land surface and doubling soil organic carbon content relative to bare topsoil. High litter cover, high disturbance by goats, and low soil compaction were the leading drivers for reduced biocrust cover, while precipitation was not associated Second-growth forests supported anequally spaced biocrust cover, while in old-growth-forests biocrust cover was patchy. Disturbance reduced biocrust growth by two thirds and carbon sequestration by half. In synthesis, biocrusts increase soil organic carbon (SOC) in dry forests and as they double the SOC content in disturbed areas, may be capable of counterbalancing disturbance-induced soil degradation in this ecosystem. As they fix and fertilize depauperated soils, they may play a substantial role in vegetation regeneration in the human-modified Caatinga, and may have an extended ecological role due to the Szyja et al. Caatinga Biocrust Distribution and Services ever-increasing human encroachment on natural landscapes. Even though biocrusts benefit from human presence in dry forests, high levels of anthropogenic disturbance could threaten biocrust-provided ecosystem services, and call for further, in-depth studies to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Keywords: biological soil crusts, Caatinga, dry forest, exotic goats, human disturbances, soil organic carbon.
32743Condon L.A. & Pyke D.A. (2020): Components and predictors of biological soil crusts vary at the regional vs. plant community scales. - Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 7: 449 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fevo.2019.00449.
Although biological soil crusts (biocrusts) occur globally in arid and semi-arid environments, most of our knowledge of biocrust cover and ecology is from a relatively small number of locations worldwide. Some plant communities are known to have high cover of biocrusts, but the abundance of biocrusts is largely undocumented inmost plant communities. Using a data driven approach, we identified 16 plant communities based on plant cover from the Assessment, Inventory, and Monitoring Strategy data from the Bureau of LandManagement (AIM, 5,200 plots).We found that abundance of lichens and mosses varies among communities, but that both components of biocrusts are present in all plant communities. Biocrusts are indicators of two of these communities: one that is defined by high cover of mosses and basin big sagebrush and one that is defined by high cover of lichens and shadscale saltbush. Using non-parametric multiplicative regression, we evaluated a suite of abiotic and disturbance variables to assess the degree to which climate and soils are associated with the abundance of lichens and mosses at the regional scale. At the regional scale, soil depth and maximum vapor pressure deficit were found to be strongly associated with the abundance of lichens and January minimum temperature dictated the abundance of mosses. At the scale of plant communities, community specific metrics of soils and climate were better able to explain the abundance of biocrusts. Our demonstration of the presence of biocrusts across the western US suggests that studies on ecosystem function could include these organisms because they are present in all plant communities, maintain arguably stronger associations with climatic variation, are directly associated with soils, and contribute to ecosystem functions that are not solely maintained by vascular plants. Keywords: AIMdata, biocrusts, climate, disturbance, lichen, moss, non-parametric multiplicative regression, soils.
32742Warren S.D., St. Clair L.L., Stark L.R., Lewis L.A., Pombubpa N., Kurbessoian T., Stajich J.E. & Aanderud Z.T. (2019): Reproduction and dispersal of biological soil crust organisms. - Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 7: 344 [17 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fevo.2019.00344.
Biological soil crusts (BSCs) consist of a diverse and highly integrated community of organisms that effectively colonize and collectively stabilize soil surfaces. BSCs vary in terms of soil chemistry and texture as well as the environmental parameters that combine to support unique combinations of organisms—including cyanobacteria dominated, lichen-dominated, and bryophyte-dominated crusts. The list of organismal groups thatmake up BSC communities in various and unique combinations include—free living, lichenized, and mycorrhizal fungi, chemoheterotrophic bacteria, cyanobacteria, diazotrophic bacteria and archaea, eukaryotic algae, and bryophytes. The various BSC organismal groups demonstrate several common characteristics including—desiccation and extreme temperature tolerance, production of various soil binding chemistries, a near exclusive dependency on asexual reproduction, a pattern of aerial dispersal over impressive distances, and a universal vulnerability to a wide range of human-related perturbations. With this publication, we provide literature-based insights as to how each organismal group contributes to the formation and maintenance of the structural and functional attributes of BSCs, how they reproduce, and how they are dispersed. We also emphasize the importance of effective application of molecular and microenvironment sampling and assessment tools in order to provide cogent and essential answers that will allow scientists and land managers to better understand and manage the biodiversity and functional relationships of soil crust communities. Keywords: biological soil crusts (BSCs), bacteria, fungi, terrestrial algae, bryophytes, reproduction, aerial dispersal.
32741Albright M.B.N., Mueller R.C., Gallegos-Graves L.V., Belnap J., Reed S.C. & Kuske C.R. (2019): Interactions of microhabitat and time control grassland bacterial and fungal composition. - Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 7: 367 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fevo.2019.00367.
Dryland grasslands are vast and globally important and, as in all terrestrial ecosystems, soil microbial communities play fundamental roles in regulating dryland ecosystem function. A typical characteristic of drylands is the spatial mosaic of vascular plant cover surrounded by interspace soils, where biological soil crusts (biocrusts)—a complex community of organisms including bacteria, fungi, algae, mosses, and lichens—are common. The implications of this heterogeneity, where plants and biocrust cover co-occur, are often explored in the context of soil fertility and hydrology, but rarely has the impact of these multiple microhabitat types been simultaneously explored to determine the influence on bacterial and fungal communities, key biological players in these ecosystems. Further, our understanding of the temporal dynamics of bacterial and fungal communities in grasslands, and of how these dynamics depend on the microhabitat within the ecosystem, is notably poor. Here we used a temporally and spatially explicit approach to assess bacterial and fungal communities in a grassland on the Colorado Plateau, and to link variation in these communities to edaphic characteristics. We found that microhabitat (e.g., vascular plant rhizosphere, biocrust, and below biocrust) was the strongest driver of differences in bacterial and fungal community richness, diversity, and composition. Microhabitat type also significantly mediated the impact of temporal change in shaping community composition. Taken together, 29% of the variation in bacterial community composition could be explained by microhabitat, date, and microhabitat-by-date interactions, while only 11% of the variation in fungal community composition could be explained by the same factors, suggesting important differences in community assembly processes. Soil microbial communities dictate myriad critical ecosystem functions, thus understanding the factors that control their compostition is crucial to considering and forecasting how terrestrial ecosystems work. Overall, this case study provides insights for future studies on the spatial and temporal dynamics of bacterial and fungal communities in dryland grasslands. Keywords: biological soil crusts, diversity, temporal dynamics, fungi, bacteria.
32740Aanderud Z.T., Bahr J., Robinson D.M., Belnap J., Campbell T.P., Gill R.A., McMillian B. & St. Clair S. (2019): The burning of biocrusts facilitates the emergence of a bare soil community of poorly-connected chemoheterotrophic Bacteria with depressed ecosystem services. - Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 7: 467 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fevo.2019.00467.
Wildfires destabilize biocrust, requiring decades for most biological constituents to regenerate, but bacteria may recover quickly and mitigate the detrimental consequences of burnt soils. To evaluate the short-term recovery of biocrust bacteria, we tracked shifts in bacterial community form and function in Cyanobacteria/lichen-dominated (shrub interspaces) and Cyanobacteria/moss-dominated (beneath Artemisia tridentata) biocrusts 1 week, 2 months, and 1 year following a large-scale burn manipulations in a cold desert (Utah, USA). We found no evidence of the burned bacterial community recovering to a burgeoning biocrust. The foundational biocrust phyla, Cyanobacteria, dominated by Microcoleus viginatus (Microcoleaceae), disappeared from burned soils creating communities void of photosynthetic taxa. One year after the fire, the burned biocrust constituents had eroded away and the bare soils supported the formation of a convergent community of chemoheterotrophic copiotrophs regardless of location. The emergent community was dominated by a previously rare Planococcus species (family Planococcaceae, Firmicutes) and taxa in the Cellulomonadaceae (Actinobacteria), and Oxalobacteraceae (Betaproteobacteria). Previously burnt soils maintained similar levels of bacterial biomass, alpha diversity, and richness as unburned biocrusts, but supported diffuse, poorly-interconnected communities with 75% fewer species interactions. Nitrogen fixation declined at least 3.5-fold in the burnt soils but ammonium concentrations continued to rise through the year, suggesting that the exhaustion of organic C released from the fire, and not N, may diminish the longevity of the emergent community. Our results demonstrate that biocrust bacteria may recover rapidly after burning, albeit along a different community trajectory, as rare bacteria become dominant, species interconnectedness diminishes, and ecosystem services fail to rebound. Keywords: biological soil crust, Bromus tectorum, disturbance, Great Basin Desert, rare biosphere, network co-occurrence model.
32739Kistenich S., Halvorsen R., Schrøder-Nielsen A., Thorbek L., Timdal E. & Bendiksby M. (2019): DNA sequencing historical lichen specimens. - Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 7: 5 [20 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fevo.2019.00005.
Biological specimens in natural history collections worldwide are increasingly being used in biogeographical, environmental, and taxonomic studies. For their meaningful use, correct species identification is crucial. For example, clarifying if a species is new to science requires an overview of what has already been described. This includes comparisons with existing authoritative specimens (types). Most type specimens are rather old and their DNA expected to be degraded to various extents. Comparative DNA sequence analysis is in regular use in taxonomic research of today and is essential for identifying and delimiting species. In this study, we focus on lichenized fungi (lichens), in which many species groups are highly inconspicuous and impossible to identify to species based on morphology alone. Our aim was to test the non-mutually exclusive hypotheses that DNA quality of lichens depends on (1) time since collection, (2) taxonomic affinity, and/or (3) habitat/ecology. We included two species from each of four different lichen genera (i.e., Cladonia, Nephroma, Peltigera, and Ramalina), each species pair with a different autecology. For each species, we included samples from approximately every 25 years from present to about 150 years back in time. We used a two-step PCR-based approach followed by sequencing on an Ion Torrent PGM to produce target sequences (mtSSU) of degraded DNA. We received satisfactory DNA sequence information for 54 of 56 specimens. We recovered full-length sequences for several more than 100-years-old specimens, including a 127-years-old specimen, and retrieved enough sequence information for species identification of a 150-years-old specimen. As expected, sequencing success was negatively correlated with age of the specimens. It also varied with taxonomic affinity. We found no significant correlation between sequencing success and habitat ecology of the investigated specimens. The herein tested Ion Torrent sequencing approach outperformed Sanger sequencing with regard to sequencing success and efficiency. We find the protocol used herein highly suitable for obtaining sequences from both young and old lichen specimens and discuss potential improvements to it.
32738Autumn K., Barcenas-Peña A., Kish-Levine S., Huang J.-P. & Lumbsch H.T. (2020): Repeated colonization between arid and seasonal wet habitats, frequent transition among substrate preferences, and chemical diversity in western Australian Xanthoparmelia. - Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 8: 129 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fevo.2020.00129.
Arid soil habitats are challenging for sedentary and slow-growing lichens because the integrity of the substrate can easily be disturbed by natural forces, e.g., wind and flood. Yet, adaptation into such habitat types occurred multiple times in lichens that may be associated with specific morphological and ecological adaptations. We studied the genetic and chemical diversity of the lichen-forming fungal genus Xanthoparmelia in Western Australia, where it is abundant in both arid and temperate ecoregions occurring on both soil and rock substrates. We found frequent evolutionary transitions among substrate types and between arid and temperate habitats. However, specific chemical phenotypes were not associated with different habitat and substrate types, and the level of phenotypic (the composition of secondary metabolites) divergence was not correlated with the level of genetic divergence among taxa. The study closes by discussing the importance of arid soil habitats for evolutionary diversification in the hyperdiverse genus Xanthoparmelia. Keywords: Anthropocene, soil habitat, rapid diversification, repeated evolution, thin-layer chromatography.
32737Fos S., Mora F.I. & Huesca S.E. (2020): El liquen de los lobos, Letharia vulpina (L.) Hue, novedad destacada para la biota liquénica de la Comunitat Valenciana (este de España) [The wolf lichen, Letharia vulpina (L.) Hue: an outstanding novelty for the lichen biota of the Valencian Community (eastern Spain)]. - Butlletí Societat Micològica Valenciana, 24: 115–129. .
[in Catalonian with Spanish and English abstracts: ] The work carried out within the framework of the European RedBosques project has enabled us to locate the first population of the wolf lichen, Letharia vulpina, in the Valencian Community. The species seems restricted to mature and well-structured Scots pine forest (Sabino-Pinetum sylvestris) from Alto de las Barracas, in the Puebla de San Miguel Natural Park (Valencia). It occurs on the bark of large trees and on the wood of old dead specimens, forming almost monospecific, high-coverage communities. The presence of this lichen in this area reinforces its incorporation to the network of mature forests. Keywords: lichens, biogeography, mature forests, RedBosques, Ademuz area.
32736Jagielski T., Bakuła Z., Gawor J., Maciszewski K., Kusber W.-H., Dyląg M., Nowakowska J., Gromadka R. & Karnkowska A. (2019): The genus Prototheca (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta) revisited: Implications from molecular taxonomic studies. - Algal Research, 43: 101639 [19 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.algal.2019.101639.
The only algae which are able to inflict disease on humans and other mammals through active invasion and spread within the host tissues belong to either of two genera: Chlorella and Prototheca. Whereas Chlorella infections are extremely rare, with only two human cases reported in the literature, protothecosis is an emerging disease of humans and domestic animals, especially dairy cows. The genus Prototheca, erected by Krüger in 1894, has undergone several significant revisions, as more phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and molecular data have become available. Due to this, a large number of Prototheca strains have been accumulated in public culture collections, over the years, where they still exist under outdated or invalid infraspecific or species names. In this study, the partial cytb gene was used as a marker to revise the taxonomy and nomenclature of a set of Prototheca strains, preserved in major algae culture repositories worldwide. Within the genus, two main lineages were observed, with a dominance of typically dairy cattle-associated (i.e. P. ciferrii, formerly P. zopfii gen. 1, the here validated P. blaschkeae, and one newly erected species, namely P. bovis, formerly P. zopfii gen. 2) and human-associated (i.e. P. wickerhamii, P. cutis, P. miyajii) species, respectively. In the former lineage, three newly described species were allocated, namely P. cookei sp. nov., P. cerasi sp. nov., and P. pringsheimii sp. nov., and the lecto- and epitypified P. zopfii species. The second, or so-called P. wickerhamii lineage, incorporated a newly proposed species of P. xanthoriae sp. nov. These protothecans were shown as the closest relatives of the photosynthetic genera, Chlorella and Auxenochlorella. The environmental species P. ulmea was synonymized with the lecto- and epitypified P. moriformis species. For circumscription and differentiation of Prototheca spp., the use of phenotypic characters, and morphology in particular, is of limited value and should rather be auxiliary to molecular marker-based approaches. As demonstrated in our previous study and corroborated in the present one, the cytb gene provides higher resolution than the conventional rDNA markers, and currently represents the most efficient barcode for the Prototheca algae. Keywords: Prototheca spp.; Microalgae; Taxonomy; Species; Lineage; cytb.
32735Schneider G., Figuero F.L., Vega J., Chaves P., Álvarez-Gómez F., Korbee N. & Bonomi-Barufi J. (2020): Photoprotection properties of marine photosynthetic organisms grown in high ultraviolet exposure areas: Cosmeceutical applications. - Algal Research, 49: 101956 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.algal.2020.101956.
Seaweeds have been identified as promising sources of bioactive substances for the cosmeceutical industry, especially by their photoprotection capacity. Accordingly, this study aimed to evaluate the photoprotective properties of extracts from macroalgae and one marine lichen. Samples of 22 species of macroalgae and one marine lichen, were collected along the southern Iberian Peninsula. Hydroethanolic extracts were prepared from algal and marine lichen lyophilized biomass. Ultraviolet (UV) and visible absorption spectra, polyphenol content, antioxidant activity, mycosporine-like amino acid content and composition were analyzed. In order to quantify the photoprotection capacity of the extracts against different biological effects, two new indices were used, i.e., effective solar absorption radiation (%ESAR) and extract photoprotection index (EPI), considering the radiation absorbed and transmitted by the extract, respectively. In the ultraviolet spectrum, Porphyra umbilicalis and Pyropia elongata presented the highest absorbance values at 330 nm, while Ulva lactuca showed a prominent peak at 290 nm. In the visible spectrum, a fucoxanthin peak (450 nm) was strongly evident in extracts from the brown algal species, while green algal extracts presented characteristic chlorophyll a and b peaks at 447, 620 and 664 nm. Polyphenol content and antioxidant activity were much higher in Sargassum vulgare, Carpodesmia tamariscifolia, P. umbilicalis and Lichina pygmaea in comparison to the other species. P. umbilicalis and Bangia atropurpurea showed the highest amount of mycosporine-like amino acids. S. vulgare and P. umbilicalis extracts presented the highest values of potential photoprotection against all analyzed biological response according to the different action spectra. S. vulgare and P. umbilicalis showed an increase in %ESAR values associated with an increase in the concentration of their extracts. Considering the analyzed species, our results suggest that S. vulgare and P. umbilicalis could be potential sources of photoprotective extracts. The potential use of these species in cosmeceutical products is discussed. Keywords: Action spektra; Antioxidant aktivity; Effective solar absorption radiation; Extract photoprotection index; Mycosporine-like amino acids; UV–visible absorption spectra.
32734Li T., Jiang L., Hu Y., Paul J.T., Zuniga C., Zengler K. & Betenbaugh M.J. (2020): Creating a synthetic lichen: Mutualistic co-culture of fungi and extracellular polysaccharide-secreting cyanobacterium Nostoc PCC 7413. - Algal Research, 45: 101755 [8 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.algal.2019.101755.
In order to create synthetic lichens, extracellular polysaccharide (EPS)-secreting cyanobacterium Nostoc PCC 7413 was cultured together with fungal Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus niger species without extraneous organic carbon. Cyanobacterial supernatants and harvested EPS both supported fungal growth, while fungal supernatants slightly enhanced Nostoc growth. Furthermore, when Nostoc and A. nidulans were co-cultured together, total biomass was approximately 3-fold higher than the axenic Nostoc cultures in pH 6 buffered BG-11 media. The spectrum of fatty acids generated in co-culture differed from those of the individual cyanobacterial and fungal species. The fatty acid fractions of C18:0 and C18:1 were reduced or intermediate in co-cultures compared to mono-cultures while fractions of C16:1 and C18:3 fatty acids increased in co-culture, suggesting a shift in the fatty acid biosynthesis following co-cultivation. Our study establishes a low-cost mutualistic coculture platform composed of cyanobacteria and filamentous fungi for producing biomass and biofuel precursors with potential commercial applications. Keywords: Cyanobacteria; Fungi; Co-culture; Artificial lichen; Nostoc; Aspergillus.
32733Yakovchenko L., Davydov E.A., Paukov A. & Ohmura Y. (2020): Porpidinia brevispora, a new species and the second representative of the genus Porpidinia (Lecideaceae, Lecanorales) from the Russian Far East. - Phytotaxa, 459(1): 75–80. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.459.1.8.
Porpidinia brevispora sp. nov. from Shikhote-Alin Range, Primorye Territory, Russian Far East is described and illustrated. The new species resembles Porpidinia tumidula morphologically, but is distinct in its spherical to ellipsoid, significantly smaller ascospores that do not overlap in size with those of P. tumidula, as well as a lower hymenium with paraphyses embedded into hyaline gelatinous envelopes, up to 5 μm wide. Porpidinia brevispora inhabits carbonate rocks at low elevations. Keywords: new taxa, East Asia, Porpidinia tumidula, calciphilous lichen, Shikhote-Alin Range, squamulose growth form.
32732Pykälä J., Kantelinen A. & Myllys L. (2020): Taxonomy of Verrucaria species characterised by large spores, perithecia leaving pits in the rock and a pale thin thallus in Finland. - MycoKeys, 72(1): 43–92. https://doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.72.56223.
Species of Verrucaria , characterised by large spores (at least some spores exceeding 25 µm in length), perithecia leaving pits in the rock and a pale thin thallus, form a taxonomically-difficult and poorly-known group. In this study, such species occurring in Finland are revised, based on ITS sequences and morphology. Maximum likelihood analysis of ITS sequence data was used to examine if the species belong to the Thelidium group, as suggested by BLAST search. Twelve species are accepted in Finland: Verrucaria bifurcata sp. nov., V. cavernarum sp. nov., V. devergens, V. difficilis sp. nov., V. foveolata, V. fuscozonata sp. nov., V. karelica, V. kuusamoensis sp. nov. , V. subdevergens sp. nov., V. subjunctiva, V. subtilis and V. vacillans sp. nov. Verrucaria foveolata is nested in V. subjunctiva in the phylogeny, but due to morphological and ecogeographical differences, the two taxa are treated as separate species pending further studies. Based on the analysis, the study species belong to the Thelidium group. The studied species show a rather high infraspecific morphological, but a low genetic variation. Furthermore, they show considerable overlap in their morphology and many specimens cannot be reliably identified, based on morphology only. All species are restricted to calcareous rocks. Verrucaria alpigena , V. cinereorufa and V. hochstetteri are excluded from the lichen flora of Finland. Verrucaria grossa is considered a species with unresolved identity. Verrucaria foveolata and V. subtilis are rather common on calcareous rocks of Finland while V. devergens and V. kuusamoensis are restricted to northern Finland. Verrucaria subjunctiva occurs mainly in northern Finland. Verrucaria bifurcata has been found only from southern Finland. Verrucaria difficilis has few localities both in SW and NE Finland. Verrucaria vacillans is restricted to calcareous rocks (dolomite) on the mountains of the NW corner of Finland. Verrucaria fuscozonata, V. karelica and V. subdevergens occur only in the Oulanka area in NE Finland. A lectotype is designated for V. subjunctiva. The morphology of the Finnish species was compared with 51 European species of Verrucaria presumably belonging to the Thelidium group.
32731Yu H., Shen X., Liu D., Hong M. & Lu Y. (2019): The protective effects of β-sitosterol and vermicularin from Thamnolia vermicularis (Sw.) Ach. against skin aging in vitro. - Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, 91(4):e20181088 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1590/0001-3765201920181088.
Aged skin, featured with dryness and wrinkles, has received mounting attention due to its adverse influences on beauty. β-Sitosterol and vermicularin are two common active ingredients of Thamnolia vermicularis (Sw.) Ach., a traditional Chinese medicine, of which the anti-aging effect has been discovered. Their protective performance against skin aging was assayed by co-culturing with skin cells in this work. Results showed that β-sitosterol promoted the biosynthesis of hyaluronic acid by increasing the expression of hyaluronic acid synthases in fibroblasts and enhanced the expression of skin barrier functional proteins including aquaporin 3, loricrin, filaggrin and involucrin in keratinocytes, which conduced to the moisture retention within skin. Moreover, vermicularin might function as an anti-wrinkle agent by preventing the loss of collagen type I. Specifically, vermicularin reduced the amount of reactive oxygen species within hydrogen-peroxide-induced fibroblasts; together with suppressing the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, it could inhibit the production of matrix metalloproteinases-1. The present research will contribute to the development of the compounds as anti-aging ingredients for future applications in cosmetic formulations and functional food as well as promote further studies of raw materials containing alike compounds. Key words anti-wrinkle; moisturize; β-sitosterol; skin aging; Thamnolia vermicularis (Sw.) Ach.; vermicularin.
32730Sarlej M.I., Michlig A. & Ferraro L.I. (2018): El género Heterodermia (Physciaceae, Lecanorales) en la reserva de biosfera Yaboty (Misiones, Argentina). - Boletín de la Sociedad Argentina de Botánica, 53(1): 9–16. http://www.scielo.org.ar/pdf/bsab/v53n1/v53n1a02.pdf.
[in Spanish with English abstract: ] The genus Heterodermia (Physciaceae, Lecanorales) in the Yaboty Biosphere Reserve (Misiones, Argentina). In this work, a study of the Heterodermia species of the Yaboty Biosphere Reserve is presented. Six species were identifed, of which Heterodermia galactophylla (Tuck.) W.L. Culb. is recorded for the frst time from Argentina, and the distribution range within the country is extended for other four species: Heterodermia japonica (M. Satô) Swinscow & Krog, Heterodermia aff. speciosa (Wulfen) Trevis., Heterodermia squamulosa (Degel.) W.L. Culb., and Heterodermia vulgaris (Vain.) Follmann & Redón. A dichotomous key for the species of the area and a brief description, observations and illustration of each of them are presented. Key words: Biodiversity, conservation area, lichens, taxonomy.
32729Harris R.C. (1986): The family Trypetheliaceae (Loculoascomycetes: lichenized Melanommatales) in Amazonian Brazil. - Acta Amazonica, 14, suppl. 1–2: 55–80. .
The family Trypetheliaceae is redefined including a key to the genera. Exiliseptum gen. nov. is described. Keys to the species are provided for the six genera which occur in Amazonian Brazil along with brief comments on the three other genera. Thirty-five species are included, tem new species described and ten new combinations proposed.
32728Manojlovic N.T., Vasiljevic P.J., Gritsanapan W., Supabphol R. & Manojlovic I. (2010): Phytochemical and antioxidant studies of Laurera benguelensis growing in Thailand. - Biological Research, 43(2): 169–176. https://doi.org/10.4067/S0716-97602010000200004.
The aim of this study was to investigate metabolites of the lichen Laurera benguelensis. A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method has been developed for the characterization of xanthones and anthraquinones in extracts of this lichen. Lichexanthone, secalonic acid D, norlichexanthon, parietin, emodin, teloschistin and citreorosein were detected in the lichen samples, which were collected from two places in Thailand. Components of the lichen were identifed by relative retention time and spectral data. This is the frst time that a detailed phytochemical analysis of the lichen L. benguelensis was reported and this paper has chemotaxonomic signifcance because very little has been published on the secondary metabolites present in Laurera species. Some of the metabolites were detected for the frst time in the family Trypetheliaceae. The results of preliminary testing of benzene extract and its chloroform and methanol fractions showed that all samples showed a weak radical scavenging activity. The chloroform extract showed the highest antioxidant activity. Key terms: anthraquinones, antioxidant activity, Laurera benguelensis, xanthones.
32727Estévez Alvarez J., Montero Alvarez A., López Sánchez D., Pupo González I., Hernández Torres D., Pérez Arriba O., Iglesias Brito H. & Wolterbeek B. (2011): Biomonitoreo de la contaminación atmosférica en La Habana durante la campaña 2004-2005 [Biomonitoring of the atmospheric pollution in Havana during 2004-2005 survey]. - Nucleus, 50: 18–23. http://scielo.sld.cu/pdf/nuc/n50/nuc045011.pdf.
[in Spanish with English abstract: ] An epiphytic lichen (Physcia alba sp.) grown over Royal Palm (Roystonea regia) tree was used as bioindicator of air quality in Havana City. A total of 225 lichen samples were collected in 181 selected sites according to traffic and industrial conditions. The concentrations of 15 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Cd and Pb) were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry, Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence and Anodic Stripping Voltammetry. Principal Component Analysis was applied to analytical results and some factors were obtained. Finally, maps with lichen elemental contents and factors’ patterns are presented. Several possible pollution sources were identified. Key words: heavy metals, lichens, air pollution monitoring, X-ray fluorescence analysis, absorption spectroscopy, voltametry.
32726Vaillant-Flores D.I., Gómez-Peralta M., Romeu-Carballo C.R., Ramírez-Ochoa R. & Porras-González A. (2015): Actividad antifúngica de extractos de tres especies de líquenes en Cuba. - Agronomía Mesoamericana, 47: 287–302. https://doi.org/10.15517/am.v26i2.19328. https://www.scielo.sa.cr/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1659-13212015000200345&lang=en.
[in Spanish with English abstract: ] The objective of this work was to evaluate the antifungal activity of the three lichens extracts. Extracts from Leptogium cyanescens, Physcia americanaand Pyxine aff. cocoes were collected from the lichens thallus in 2009 in areas fromo the Cienfuegos Botanic Garden, Cuba. The fungicide activity was evaluated against phytopathogens fungi of potato: Rhizoctonia solani andPhytophthora nicotianae var parasitica. The study was conducted from 2009 to 2011. The compounds were extracted with acetone, concentrated by rotoevaporation, and evaluated at concentrations of 0,01 and 0,07% in potato dextrose agar (PDA) culture medium; stock solution was made of 5% dimethilsufoxide. These extracts were classified by their toxicity as: toxic, slight and moderately toxic and harmless. The extracts from P. americana of 0,07% inhibited P. nicotianae 100%, and it showed values over 50% for R. solani. L. cyanescens only showed fungicide activity in both phytopathogens at the maximum concentration studied; similar results were obtained with the extract from P. aff. cocoes. The lichens extracts were classified as lightly toxic at the maximum concentration, and harmless at the minimum concentration. Key words: lichen metabolites; lichen antibiotic activity; phytopathogens fungi of potato.
32725Varol M. (2019): Parietin as an efficient and promising anti-angiogenic and apoptotic small-molecule from Xanthoria parietina. - Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia, 29(6): 728–734. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bjp.2019.04.012.
Lichens that are exclusive symbiotic organisms composed of fungus and alga, are considered as a wealthy source of biologically and pharmacologically active small-molecules thanks to the tight metabolic relationship between symbiotic partners. We herein report cytotoxic, anti-angiogenic and apoptotic profile of a lichen derived small-molecule named parietin. Parietin was isolated from the acetone extract of Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th.Fr (1860), Teloschistaceae, which was gathered from Afyon, Turkey. AlamarBlue™ cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase membrane leakage and PicoGreen™ dsDNA quantitation assays were used to determine the cytotoxic concentrations of parietin on cisplatin-resistant BRCA2-mutated human breast TNM stage IV adenocarcinoma (HCC1428), human breast ductal carcinoma (T-47D), and human umbilical vein endothelial (HUVEC) cells. Additionally, cell adhesion, endothelial tube formation, reactive oxygen species accumulation and active caspase 3 determination assays were employed to identify the anti-angiogenic and apoptotic efficiency of parietin. Low concentrations of parietin such as 50 and 100 µM showed a significant anti-angiogenic and apoptotic activity though the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values were higher than 600 µM on the cells. On the other hand, it was observed that parietin shows less cytotoxic and membrane degradative activities on healthy HUVEC cells than the HCC1428 and T-47D breast cancer cells. Parietin seems to be a promising anti-angiogenic and apoptotic lichen metabolite for the further investigations. Keywords: Angiogenesis; Apoptosis; Caspase; Lichen; Natural products; Parietin.
32724Sepulveda B., Chamy M.C., Piovano M. & Areche C. (2013): Lichens: Might be considered as a source of gastroprotective molecules?. - Journal of the Chilean Chemical Society, 58(2): 1750–1752. https://doi.org/10.4067/S0717-97072013000200024.
Lichens are symbiotic relationship between fungi and algae or cyanobacteria. Secondary metabolites from lichens are known as lichen substances. We investigated depsidone and depside from lichens 1-6 in the context of their action to prevent gastric ulcer on the model of HCl/ethanol in mice for the first time. Doses of 30 mg/kg of lichen substances 1-6 and positive control (lansoprazole) significantly diminished the lesion index compared with negative control (treated only with HCl/EtOH). Lobaric acid 1, atranorin 2 and psoromic acid 5 reduced the gastric lesions by 76%, 63% and 65%, while for variolaric acid 3, diffractaic acid 4 and perlatolic acid 6 their values were 32%, 14% and 45%, respectively. Our results suggest that lichens have potential as a suite of gastroprotective molecules. Keywords: Lichens; depside; depsidone; gastric ulcer.
32723Siqueira-Moura M.P., Lira M.C.B. & Santos-Magalhães N.S. (2008): Validação de método analítico espectrofotométrico UV para determinação de ácido úsnico em lipossomas [Validation of a UV-spectrophotometric analyticalmethod for the determination of usnic acid inliposomes]. - Revista Brasileira de Ciências Farmacêuticas [Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences], 44(4): 621–628. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-93322008000400008.
[in Portuguese with English abstract: ] The secondary lichen metabolite usnic acid [2,6-diacetyl-7,9-dihydroxy-8,9b-dimethyl-1,3(2H,9bH)-dibenzofuran]has demonstrated pharmacological potential activitiessuch as antitumor, antimicrobial, antiviral,antiproliferative, and anti-inflammatory. Liposomes arevesicles composed of phospholipid bilayers surroundingaqueous compartments and they have been used ascolloidal drug carriers. The aim of this study was todevelop and validate a quantitative UVspectrophotometric method for determination of usnicacid in liposomal formulations. The validation parameterswere assessed according to The International Conferenceon Harmonization (ICH) and American Pharmacopoeiaguidelines. The linearity range was of 3-15 μg.mL-1,regression equation: absorbance = 0.070 x UAconcentration (μg.mL-1) + 0.013, and r = 0.9997. Therepeatability (relative standard deviation) of the methodwas 1.96% and intermediate precision indicated that thedifference among mean was statistically insignificant (P< 0.05). The accuracy revealed a mean percentagerecovery of 100.4% of usnic acid. The method was robustfor the variation of temperature and solvent. The detectionand quantization limits were found to be 0.34 and 1.13μg.mL-1, respectively. The content of usnic acid inliposomes was of 96.8% (± 0.2). The proposed method isaccurate, precise and reproducible for estimation of usnicacid as raw material and in pharmaceutical dosage formssuch as liposomes. UNITERMS: Usnic acid/determination. Liposomes.Ultraviolet Spectrophotometry. Quantitative analysis/method’s validation.
32722Comandolli-Wyrepkowski C.D., Grafova I., Naiff M.F., Avella M., Gentile G., Grafov A. & Franco A.M.R. (2017): Topical treatment of experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis in golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) with formulations containing pentamidine. - Acta Amazonica, 47(1): 39–46. https://doi.org/10.1590/1809-4392201601333.
Current treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) relies mainly on pentavalent antimonials salts and second-line drugs include pentamidine and amphotericin B, but these therapies have side effects and require parenteral administration. The aim of this work was to evaluate the topical formulations containing pentamidine isethionate (PI) in the experimental treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) were infected in the nose with Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis. Six treatment groups received different topical treatments of anhydrous or hydrating emulsions, for a maximum of 10 days, with an application of 50 mg day-1. After treatment tissue samples of lesions were evaluated by histology, transmission electron microscopy and biopsy cultivation. Compared with untreated group, topical treatment with hydrating emulsion with 10% PI and usnic acid (ACE5AU) showed significantly decrease in volume lesion (P= 0.028) on 20th day after the end of the treatment with reduction of 27.37%. Topical treatment with anhydrous emulsion with 10% PI and usnic acid (ACPU) reduces parasite burden in Golden hamsters. This study demonstrated the potential of topical treatment to reduce the number of parasites that could be combined with others drugs and to have a faster and more effective treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Keywords: topical formulations; experimental treatment; pentamidine isethionate; animal model; Leishmania.
32721Marinho K.S.N., Antonio E.A., Silva C.V.N.S., da Silva K.T., Teixeira V.W., de Aguiar Junior F.C., dos Santos K.R.P., da Silva N.H. & Santos N.P.S. (2017): Hepatic toxicity caused by PLGA-microspheres containing usnic acid from the lichen Cladonia substellata (Ahti) during pregnancy in Wistar rats. - Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, 89(2): 1073–1084. https://doi.org/10.1590/0001-3765201720160650.
This study aimed to evaluate the teratogenic and hepatotoxic potential of the usnic acid encapsulated into PLGA-microspheres. In total, 12 female Wistar rats in pregnancy were randomly distributed in the control group (n= 6) that received 1.0 mL of physiological solution and treatment group (n= 6) that received 25 mg/kg of encapsulated usnic acid by oral administration. All females were euthanized at day 20 of pregnancy and their fetuses were removed and analyzed. During the pregnancy was observed a reduction in weight gain. There was no difference in serum transaminases levels analyzed as well as any difference in liver weight in both groups. The histomorphometric analysis of the liver from the treatment group revealed an increase in number of hepatocytes and a decrease in nuclear area of these cells. Moreover, no alteration was observed in cell area of hepatocytes or number of Kupffer cells. The fetuses had an increase in total number of hepatocytes and a reduction in the amount of megakaryocytes. These results show the hepatotoxic potential of usnic acid during pregnancy. However, its toxicity can be minimized by encapsulation in microspheres. Key words: encapsulation; fetotoxicity; hepatotoxicity; secondary metabolite.
32720Barrera Tomas M., Tomas Chota G.E., Sheen Cortavarría P., Fuentes Bonilla P., Inocente Camones M.A. & Contreras J.S. (2017): Synthesis of acyl-hydrazone from usnic acid and isoniazid and its anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity. - Revista Colombiana de Química, 46(3): 17–21. https://doi.org/10.15446/rev.colomb.quim.v46n3.61980.
Compound usnic acid (1), isolated from lichen Evernia prunastri (Cajamarca-Peru) and the synthesis and characterization of its acyl-hydrazone (2), from the condensation reaction between usnic acid and isoniazid in an ethanol solution under reflux, giving an overall yield of 95%, were evaluated. Both compounds were evaluated and compared with isoniazid according to its anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity based on the tetrazolium microplate assay (TEMA). Compound 1 had MIC (minimal inhibitory concentration) value of 16.0 μg/mL in each test of H37Rv (susceptible type), TB DM 97 (resistant wild type) and MDR DM 1098 (multi drug resistances type) strains. In similar tests, compound 2 MIC values were 2.0, 64.0 and 64.0 μg/mL respectively. Key words: Evernia prunastri; condensation reaction; TEMA; MIC.
32719Cavalcanti I.M.F., Menezes T.G.C., Campos L.A.A., Ferraz M.S., Maciel M.A.V., Caetano M.N.P. & Santos-Magalhães N.S. (2018): Interaction study between vancomycin and liposomes containing natural compounds against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates. - Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 54(2):e00203 [8 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1590/s2175-97902018000200203 .
The treatment of infections caused by resistant microorganisms is limited, and vancomycin (VAN) treatment failures for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia are not uncommon, even when MRSA clinical isolates are susceptible to VAN. Thus, this study proposed the association of VAN with usnic acid and β-lapachone encapsulated into liposomes as a novel therapeutic option for infections caused by MRSA. Liposomes containing β-lap (β-lap-lipo) or usnic acid (UA-lipo) were prepared by the thin lipid film hydration method followed by sonication. Antimicrobial activity against MRSA clinical isolates was investigated by the microdilution method according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). The interaction studies were carried out using the checkerboard method and epsilometer test (Etest). The interaction between VAN and β-lap or β-lap-lipo was synergistic (FICI = 0.453 and FICI = 0.358, respectively). An additive interaction between VAN and UA (FICI = 0.515) was found. UA-lipo resulted in synergism with VAN (FICI = 0.276). The Etest reproduced the results obtained by the checkerboard method for approximately 82% of the analysis. Thus, the present study demonstrated that VAN in combination with UA-lipo, β-lap or β-lap-lipo synergistically enhanced antibacterial activity against MRSA. Keywords: β-lapachone; Usnic acid; Liposomes; Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA); Synergism.
32718Değerli E., Torun V. & Cansaran-Duman D. (2020): miR‑185‑5p response to usnic acid suppresses proliferation and regulating apoptosis in breast cancer cell by targeting Bcl2. - Biological Research, 53:19 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40659-020-00285-4.
Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer types among women. Recent researches have focused on determining the efficiency of alternative molecules and miRNAs in breast cancer treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of usnic acid response-miR-185-5p on proliferation in the breast cancer cell and to determine its relationship with apoptosis pathway. Methods: The cell proliferation and cell apoptosis rate were significantly increased following the ectopic expression of miR-185-5p in BT-474 cells. Furthermore, the results of cell cycle assay performed by flow cytometry revealed that the transfection with miR-185-5p induced G1/S phase arrest. The apoptosis-related genes expression analysis was performed by qRT-PCR and the direct target of miR-185-5p in BT-474 cells was identified by western blot and luciferase reporter assay. Results: Our data showed that miR-185-5p can cause significant changes in apoptosis-related genes expression levels, suggesting that cell proliferation was suppressed by miR-185-5p via inducing apoptosis in breast cancer cells. According to western blot results, miR-185-5p lead to decrease BCL2 protein level in BT-474 cells and direct target of miR-185-5p was identified as BCL by luciferase reporter assay. Conclusion: This study revealed that miR-185-5p may be an effective agent in the treatment of breast cancer. Keywords: miR-185-5p, Usnic acid, Breast cancer, Apoptosis, BCL2.
32717Mishra T., Shukla S., Meena S., Singh R., Pal M., Upreti D.K. & Datta D. (2017): Isolation and identification of cytotoxic compounds from a fruticose lichen Roccella montagnei, and it’s in silico docking study against CDK-10. - Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia, 27: 724–728. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bjp.2017.07.006.
Roccella montagnei Bél. belongs to lichen family Roccelleceae growing luxuriantly along the coastal regionsof India. As Roccella has been shown to be bioactive, we prepared methanolic extract and assessed itsanticancer potential. The methanolic extract showed significant in vitro cytotoxic activity against fourhuman cancer cell lines such as colon (DLD-1, SW-620), breast (MCF-7), head and neck (FaDu). Thisprompted us to isolate bioactive compounds through column chromatography. Two compounds roccel-lic acid and everninic acid have been isolated, out of which everninic acid is reported for the first time.Both the compounds have been tested for in vitro cytotoxic activity in which roccellic acid showed stronganticancer activity as compared to the everninic acid. Cyclin Dependent Kinase (CDK-10) contributes toproliferation of cancer cells, and aberrant activity of these kinases has been reported in a wide variety ofhuman cancers. These kinases therefore constitute biomarkers of proliferation and attractive pharmaco-logical targets for development of anticancer therapeutics. Therefore both the isolated compounds weretested for in silico molecular docking study against Cyclin Dependent Kinase isomer enzyme to supportthe cytotoxic activity. Keywords: Docking study; Roccellic acid; Everninic acid; Cytotoxic activity.
32716Micheletti A.C., Beatriz A., de Lima D.P., Honda N.K., Pessoa C.Ó., de Moraes M.O., Lotufo L.V., Magalhães H.I.F. & Carvalho N.C.P. (2009): Constituintes químicos de Parmotrema lichexanthonicum Eliasaro & Adler: isolamento, modificações estruturais e avaliação das atividades antibiótica e citotóxica [Chemical constituents of parmotrema lichexanthonicum Eliasaro & Adler - isolation, structure modification and evaluation of antibiotic and cytotoxic activities]. - Química Nova, 32(1): 12–20. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-40422009000100003.
[in Portuguese with English abstract: ] From the lichen Parmotrema lichexantonicum were isolated the depsidone salazinic acid, the xanthone lichexanthone, and the depside atranorin. The two major compounds, salazinic acid and lichexanthone, were selected for structure modifications. Salazinic acid afforded O-alkyl salazinic acids, some of them potentially cytotoxic against tumor cell lines (HCT-8, SF-295 and MDA/ MB - 435). From lichexanthone were obtained norlichexanthone, 3-O-methylnorlichexanthone, 3-O-methyl-6-O-prenylnorlichexanthone, 3,6-di-O-prenyl-norlichexanthone, 3,6-bis[(3,3-dimethyloxyran-2-il)methoxy]-1-hydroxy-8-methyl-9H-xanten-9-one and 3,6-bis[3-(dimethylamine)propoxy]-1-hydroxy-8-methyl-9H-xanten-9-one. The last compound was the most active against S. aureus. Keywords: lichexanthone; salazinic acid; lichens.
32715Ravaglia L.M., Gonçalves K., Oyama N.M., Coelho R.G., Spielmann A.A. & Honda N.K. (2014): In vitro radical-scavenging activity, toxicity against A. salina, and nmr profiles of extracts of lichens collected from Brazil and Antarctica. - Química Nova, 37(6): 1015–1021. tps://doi.org/10.5935/0100-4042.20140159 .
Extracts of six lichen species collected from Brazil and Antarctica were investigated for their potential toxicity and radical-scavenging properties. The composition of the extracts was investigated using TLC and NMR, leading to identification of atranorin (1), along with salazinic (2), barbatic (3), a-alectoronic (4), a-collatolic (5), cryptochlorophaeic (6), caperatic (7), lobaric (8), and protolichesterinic (9) acids. All acetone extracts were evaluated for their 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging ability and subjected to Artemia salina bioassay. The free-radical-scavenging activities of each extract (100 mg) ranged from 8.9 ± 0.1% to 38.7 ± 2.5% and the EC50 values ranged from 0.24 ± 2.10 to 3.54 ± 0.28 mg mL–1, while the toxicity of the extracts against A. salina were low (151.0 to >600 mg mL–1). Keywords: lichens; phenolic compounds; NMR; radical-scavenging potential; Artemia salina.
32714Rodríguez Pérez E.M., Toledo Marante F.J., Caballero Hernández J., Bermejo Barrera J. & Estevez Rosas F.J. (2016): Actividad antioxidante de los polifenoles de Hypogymnia tavaresii D. Hawksw. & P. James [Antioxidant activity of polyphenols from Hypogymnia tavaresii D. Hawksw. & P. James]. - Química Nova, 39(4): 456–461. http://dx.doi.org/10.5935/0100-4042.20160053.
[in Spanish with English abstract: ] Lichen substances have more than one phenolic hydroxyl group attached to one or more benzene rings, thus qualifying them as polyphenols. The secondary metabolites isolated from the lichen H. tavaresii have been studied in a bid to find compounds protective against oxidative stress and free radical-induced damage. The compounds were identified based on their MS and 1H-NMR spectra as well as retention factors of TLC analysis. In addition to the previously described metabolites (atranorin, chloroatranorin, physodic and physodalic acids) of H. tavaresii, a further three were identified in its thalli: 2´-O-methylphysodone, isophysodic and ursolic acids. The newly identified compounds of H. tavaresii thalli may be useful in the chemotaxonomic classification of this species. Antioxidant effectiveness of the acetone extract’s fractions was measured. The compounds of the active fractions were purified and exhibited 180- 800 fold less radical scavenging activity than the reference substance α-(+)-tocopherol in a DPPH• model expressed by IC50 values. Keywords: Hypogymnia; tavaresii; lichen; depsides; depsidones; scavengers.
32713Yildiz Ü.C., Kiliç C., Gürgen A. & Yildiz S. (2020): Possibility of using lichen and mistletoe extracts as potential natural wood preservative. - Maderas. Ciencia y tecnología, 22(2): 179–188. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0718-221X2020005000204.
Increasing environmental pressures on toxic chemical wood preservatives lead to the development of natural and environmentally friendly wood preservatives. In this study, using possibilities of lichen (Usnea filipendula) and leaves of mistletoe (Viscum album) as potential natural wood preservative were researched. Impregnation procedure was applied at four different concentration levels and with two different extraction methods (hot water and methanol). The concentration levels were arranged as 3%, 5%, 10%, 15% for hot water and as 3,75%; 6,25%; 12,5%; 18,75% for methanol. The treatment procedure has been applied according to the ASTM D-1413 (1988) standard test method. The fungal decay test has been done according to the EN 113 (1996) standard test method using a brown rot fungus, Coniophora puteana for both treated test and untreated control samples. The best results were obtained at the highest concentration level of the solutions. However, the weight losses in treated test specimen have not met the standard requirements. Nevertheless, it can be assumed that both natural extracts provide promising protection performance. Keywords: Decay test, retention, Usnea filipendula, Viscum album, wood protection.
32712Emsen B., Ozdemir O., Engin T., Togar B., Cavusoglu S. & Turkez H. (2019): Inhibition of growth of U87MG human glioblastoma cells by Usnea longissima Ach.. - Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, 21(3):e20180994 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1590/0001-3765201920180994 .
Herbal medicines are efficient to reduce side effects in the fight against glioblastoma, which plays a critical role within brain cancer species. The recent studies designated for testing the effects of lichens that have shown numerous anticancer activities on glioblastoma so far. In the present study, different concentrations of water extract obtained from Usnea longissima Ach. were used in order to determine cytotoxic (via 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and lactate dehydrogenase tests), antioxidant (via total antioxidant capacity test), pro-oxidant (via total oxidant status test) and genotoxic (via 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine test) effects of them on human U87MG-glioblastoma cancer cell lines. Primary mixed glial-neuronal non-cancerous cells from Sprague-Dawley rats were also utilized to measure the effects of treatments on non-cancerous cells. Based on median inhibitory concentration values, the data belonged to non-cancerous cells (2486.71 mg/L) showed distinct towering compared to U87MG (80.93 mg/L) cells. The viability of non-cancerous and U87MG cells exposed to extract is decreased in a dose dependent manner. It was also showed that low concentrations of extract notably increased total antioxidant capacity on non-cancerous cells. In addition, various phenolic compounds in extract were detected through high-performance liquid chromatography. The recent results encourage that extract will be able to have therapeutic potential against glioblastoma. Key words cytotoxicity; genotoxicity; HPLC; total antioxidant capacity; total oxidative stress.
32711Mammadov R., Suleyman B., Altuner D., DemirciI E., Cetin N., Yilmaz A., Baykal H., Alpcan H., Turumtay E.A. & Suleyman H. (2019): Effect of ethyl acetate extract of Usnea longissima on esophagogastric adenocarcinoma in rats. - Acta Cirurgica Brasileira, 34(3):e201900305 [11 p.]. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0102-865020190030000005.
Purpose: To investigate the effects of the EtOAc extract of U. longissima which is uninvestigated previously on esophagogastric cancer induced in rats with N-methyl-N-nitro- N-nitrosoguanidin (MNNG). Methods: The anticancer activity of EtOAc extract of U. longissima was examined in the esophagogastric adenocarcinoma models induced in rats with MNNG. EtOAc extract of U. longissima, 50 and 100 mg/kg oral doses were administered once daily for six months. MNNG induced differentiated and undifferentiated type adenocarcinomas in the esophageal and gastric tissues of rats. Results: EtOAc extract of U. longissima obtained from U. longissima prevented gastric and esophageal cancerogenesis induced in rats with MNNG. EtOAc extract of U. longissima did not have a lethal effect at doses of 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg. The prominent anticarcinogenic activity of EtOAc extract of U. longissima 50 and 100 mg/kg suggests that it is not toxic and it is selective to the cancer tissue. Conclusion: This information may shed light on clinical implementation of EtOAc extract of U. longissima in future. Key words: Adenocarcinoma. Acetates. Usnea. Rats.
32710Martínez M., Mantilla L.E., Toro D.R. & Galvis García J.H. (2016): Perfil químico y actividad antibacterial de los extractos de Peltigera laciniata (Merrill ex Riddle) Gyeln [Chemical profile and antibacterial activity of extracts from Peltigera laciniata (Merrill ex Riddle) Gyeln]. - Revista Cubana de Plantas Medicinales, 21(4): 1–10. http://scielo.sld.cu/pdf/pla/v21n4/pla01416.pdf.
[in Spanish with English abstract: ] Introduction: Due to their content of secondary metabolites such as xanthones, anthraquinones and alkaloids, lichens have been suggested to be a material of high biological potential (e.g. antibiotic and antiviral). Their very promising antibacterial potential may be determined by diffusion antibiograms, the main concern of the present study. Objective: Evaluate the antibacterial activity of extracts obtained from Peltigera laciniata (Merrill ex Riddle) Gyeln, cutleaf elm. Methods: The lichenic material was percolated with 96 % ethanol. Total alkaloids and total flavonoids were isolated from the crude ethanolic extract by adding 3 % HCL and methanol, respectively. Both fractions were monitored by thin-layer chromatography and fractioned by column chromatography. Extracts and fractions were subjected to bioassays against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus for inhibition haloes, using sultamicillin as control. The assays were conducted 3 times with 2 replications. Results: Upon chromatographic separation of the alkaloids, an increase was observed in inhibition when compared with the alkaloidal mixture. Fraction A1 displayed inhibition values close to the control. Fraction FT showed lower inhibition values than the other treatments evaluated. The fraction of total flavonoids had a lesser impact on E. coli and S. aureus, but alkaloidal nitrogenated compounds had significant antibacterial activity against Gram-positive microorganisms. Conclusions: The chemical profile of extracts from the study species revealed the presence of alkaloidal and flavonoidal secondary metabolites, as well as the antimicrobial effect of the alkaloids contained in the extract and the fraction. This confirms the antibacterial pharmacological potential attributed to the protoberberine core. Keywords: alkaloids; antibiogram; flavonoids; Peltigera laciniata.
32709García R., Kristensen M.J. & Rosato V. (2016): Interacciones competitivas en una comunidad de líquenes murícola [Competitive interactions in a community of lichens in a wall]. - Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales, 18(1): 31–37. .
[in Spanish with English abstract: ] Interspecific competition determines the distribution of species and the structure of communities. Crustose lichens are the first colonizers on rocky substrates and they compete among themselves for space and light. Previous studies have mentioned three possible situations resulting from the interaction that occur by contact between thalli of different species of lichens: species that grow over the other (+), species that are killed or retract (-), or the stop of the growth of both species at the contact point (ǁ). We analyzed the interactions between crustose lichens that colonize urban walls. On a transect of 30 m traced on the wall of a building in La Plata (Argentina), with sampling units of 20x20 cm (n=20), we recorded species coverage and the type of contact between the lichen thalli of different species. We estimated richness and relative frecuency. The average coverage of the community was 83 ± 8.6% and the absolute species richness was eight. The dominant species were Flavoplaca austrocitrina and Caloplaca teicholyta that were recorded in all sampling units. The remaining species had frequencies ≤ 50% and ≤ 1% coverage. All contacts involve some dominant. Among them, the most frequent interaction was the stop of growth (ǁ), which occurred in 82% of contacts. Overgrowth (wins (+) – loss (-)) occurred in the 18% of contacts, always positive for the dominant. It is concluded that among the observed species, in this community, the two dominant species have equal competitive ability and suppress the rest. F. austrocitrina had advantage in colonizing the substrate. Key words: interspecific competition, coverage, contact between thalli, colonization.
32708Zhang C., Aptroot A., Liu H.-J. & Jiang S.-H. (2020): Two new species of Anisomeridium (lichenized Dothideomycetes, Ascomycota) from China. - Phytotaxa, 458(2): 167–172. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.458.2.4.
The humid tropical and subtropical forests in South China harbour a rich diversity of crustose lichens. As a result of taxonomic studies of Anisomeridium, two species new to science are described. Comparisons and discussions with similar species are given. In addition, a key to the species of Anisomeridium in China is also provided. Keywords: corticolous lichens, Monoblastiales, morphological analysis, taxonomy, Lichens.
32707Brunbjerg A.K., Bruun H.H., Dalby L., Classen A.T., Fløjgaard C., Frøslev T.G., Pryds Hansen O.L., Høye T.T., Moeslund J.E., Svenning J.-C. & Ejrnæs R. (2020): Multi-taxon inventory reveals highly consistent biodiversity responses to ecospace variation. - Oikos, 129: 1381–1392. https://doi.org/10.1111/oik.07145.
Amidst the global biodiversity crisis, identifying general principles for variation of biodiversity remains a key challenge. Scientific consensus is limited to a few macroecological rules, such as species richness increasing with area, which provide limited guidance for conservation. In fact, few agreed ecological principles apply at the scale of sites or reserve management, partly because most community‐level studies are restricted to single habitat types and species groups. We used the recently proposed ecospace framework and a comprehensive data set for aggregating environmental variation to predict multi‐taxon diversity. We studied richness of plants, fungi and arthropods in 130 sites representing the major terrestrial habitat types in Denmark. We found the abiotic environment (ecospace position) to be pivotal for the richness of primary producers (vascular plants, mosses and lichens) and, more surprisingly, little support for ecospace continuity as a driver. A peak in richness at intermediate productivity adds new empirical evidence to a long‐standing debate over biodiversity responses to productivity. Finally, we discovered a dominant and positive response of fungi and insect richness to organic matter accumulation and diversification (ecospace expansion). Two simple models of producer and consumer richness accounted for 77% of the variation in multi‐taxon species richness suggesting a significant potential for generalization beyond individual species responses. Our study widens the traditional conservation focus on vegetation and vertebrate populations unravelling the importance of diversification of carbon resources for diverse heterotrophs, such as fungi and insects. Keywords: abiotic environment; carbon resources; environmental DNA; heterotrophs; primary producers; taxonomic aggregation.
32706Joshi T., Sharma P., Joshi T. & Chandra S. (2020): In silico screening of anti-inflammatory compounds from Lichen by targeting cyclooxygenase-2. - Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics, 38(12): 3544–3562. https://doi.org/10.1080/07391102.2019.1664328 .
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) targeting cyclooxygenase-2 are clinically effective. However, they lack anti-thrombotic activity resulting in incidences of adverse effects like myocardial infarction, gastrointestinal and abdominal discomfort which necessitate for discovering new drug candidates with improved therapeutic effects and tolerability. Various recent researches have suggested that many lichens offer a vast reservoir for anti-inflammatory drug candidates which are natural as well as safe for human consumption. Drug discovery is a very complex and time-consuming process; however, in silico techniques can make this process simple and economic. Hence to find out natural anti-inflammatory compounds, we have carried out the virtual screening of 412 lichen compounds by molecular docking with human Cox-2 enzyme and validated the docking score by X-Score followed by ADMET and Drug-likeness analysis. The resulting 6 top-scored compounds were subjected to Molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) to analyze the stability of docked protein-ligand complex, to assess the fluctuation and conformational changes during protein-ligand interaction. The values of RMSD, Rg, and interaction energy after 30 ns of MDS revealed the good stability of these Lichen compounds in the active site pocket of Cox-2 in compare to reference, JMS. Additionally, we have done the pharmacophore analysis which found many common pharmacophore features between Lichen compounds and well known anti-inflammatory compounds. Our result shows that these lichen compounds are potential anti-inflammatory candidates and could be further modified and evaluated to develop more effective anti-inflammatory drugs with fewer side effects for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.
32705Pavan Kumar P., Siva B., Anand A., Tiwari A.K., Rao C.V., Boustie J. & Babu K.S. (2020): Isolation, semi-synthesis, free-radicals scavenging, and advanced glycation end products formation inhibitory constituents from Parmotrema tinctorum. - Journal of Asian Natural Products Research, 22(10): 976–988. https://doi.org/10.1080/10286020.2019.1628024.
Bioassay-guided separation of acetone extract from lichen Parmotrema tinctorum (Delise ex Nyl.) Hale led to the isolation of six major phenolic constituents (1–6). Compounds structures were established using NMR and mass spectral techniques. Further, to develop libraries on these scaffolds, a series of semi-synthetic derivatives were prepared (1a–1f, 2a–2b, 3a, 5a) and investigated for their free-radicals (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS)) scavenging and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) formation inhibitory activities. Amongst tested derivatives, 1a, 1d, 1e, 2a, and 5a showed strong ABTS scavenging potentials comparable to Trolox. In addition, these derivatives also manifested moderate AGEs formation inhibitory activities. Keywords: AGEs inhibition, antioxidant activity, lichen substance, Parmotrema tinctorum , semi-synthetic derivatives.
32704Palharini K.M.Z., Vitorino L.C., Menino G.C.O. & Bessa L.A. (2020): Edge effects reflect the impact of the agricultural matrix on the corticolous lichens found in fragments of Cerrado Savanna in Central Brazil. - Sustainability, 12(17): 7149 [19 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12177149.
Habitat fragmentation affects lichen communities by inducing edge effects, although the dispersal of pollutants by pesticide drift from commercial crops may also provoke alterations in community structure, due to the varying sensitivity of lichen morphotypes to pollutants. In this context, we tested the hypothesis that lichen morphotype richness and diversity, and the percentage area of the trunks covered by different lichen morphotypes are modified significantly at the edges of fragments of Cerrado vegetation inserted within the agricultural matrix. We evaluated habitat fragments representing different Cerrado formations (Cerradão, Cerrado sensu stricto, and seasonal semi-deciduous forest) as well as the Emas National Park, a prominent Cerrado conservation unit. We used Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMMs) to test the potential of the models compiled using a mixture of phytosociological and environmental parameters, including the species, the height of the host plant (H), the circumference of its stem at breast height (CBH), total chlorophyll (TC), bark fissuring (BF) and pH, and illuminance (Lum), to explain the observed variation in the lichen morphotype richness and the percentage cover of the trunks by corticolous lichen morphotypes at the center and edge of the fragments. The central areas invariably had a greater diversity of morphotypes in all the fragments. The morphotypes considered highly sensitive to disturbance were not observed in edge areas, confirming a clear edge effect, as well as the influence of pesticide drift from the adjacent farmland matrix, on the structure of the lichen community. At both the edge and center sites, the larger trees (higher CBH) with less fissured bark tended to have the greatest diversity of lichen morphotypes, and more acidic barks had the greatest lichen cover. The models tested indicated that the variable tree species is an important determinant of the observed patterns of lichen morphotype richness and cover, either on its own or in association with pH or CBH + pH. The analyses also indicated that all the variables tested are important in some way for the definition of the percentage cover of the host trunks. The present study contributes to the understanding of the diversity of the corticolous lichen communities in the remaining fragments of Cerrado vegetation and the effects of the agricultural matrix on this community. The lichen may thus play a role as indicators of impact on other species, these organisms may provide important insights for the further investigation of the disturbance caused by the agricultural matrix on the communities of other groups of organisms. Keywords: diversity of lichens; lichen cover; lichen morphotype richness; Brazilian savanna; corticolous lichen.
32703Komendova R. [recte Komendová R.] (2020): The HR-CS-GF-AAS determination and preconcentration of palladium in contaminated urban areas, especially in lichens. - Environmental Pollution, 256: 985–991. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.113468.
The increasing content of platinum group metal particles emitted into the environment by car traffic is gradually attracting the attention of the scientific community. However, the methods for the determination of platinum group metals in environmental matrices are either costly or suffer from low sensitivity. To facilitate the use of less sensitive, but significantly cheaper, devices, the preconcentration of platinum group metals is employed. For platinum, a multitude of preconcentration approaches have been published. On the contrary, the preconcentration approaches for palladium are still rare. In this work, the development, optimization, and testing of a new approach is described; it is based on a preconcentration of palladium on octadecyl modified silica gel together with the complexing agent dimethylglyoxime, and it is then analyzed with the high-resolution continuum-source atomic absorption spectrometry. For comparison, a newly developed sorbent, QuadraSil™ TA, with a high affinity for platinum group metals was also tested. The preconcentraiton approach was tested on the lichen Hypogymnia physodes, which served as a bioindicator of palladium emissions. The case study site was a mid-sized city in central Europe: Brno, Czech Republic. The dry “bag” monitoring technique was used to collect the palladium near roads with a large span of traffic density. The developed analytical approach confirmed an increasing concentration of palladium with increasing exposure time and intensity of the traffic. Consequently, a simple relationship between the amount of bioaccumulated palladium and traffic density was established. Keywords: Palladium; Solid phase extraction; Dimethylglyoxime (diacetyldioxime); Silica gel C18; QuadraSil™ TA; HReCSeGF-AAS.
32702van Zuijlen K., Roos R.E., Klanderud K., Lang S.I., Wardle D.A. & Asplund J. (2020): Decomposability of lichens and bryophytes from across an elevational gradient under standardized conditions. - Oikos, 129(9): 1358–1368. https://doi.org/10.1111/oik.07257.
Lichens and bryophytes are abundant primary producers in high latitude and high elevation ecosystems, and they play an important role in ecosystem processes such as decomposition and nutrient cycling. Despite their importance, little is known about the decomposability of lichens and bryophytes either among or within species, at the whole community level, or how this decomposability is affected by their functional traits. Here, we studied decomposability of lichens and bryophytes at the community‐level and individual species‐level (using 21 species and genera) collected from an elevational gradient in alpine Norway. In order to isolate the elevation effect on litter quality, we used a standardized laboratory bioassay to measure decomposability. In contrast to our expectations, we found that community‐level decomposability of lichens and bryophytes increased with elevation and thus decreasing temperature. In contrast, phosphorus release from the litter decreased with elevation while nitrogen release was unresponsive. Decomposability was explained by nutrient concentrations, litter pH and primary producer group identity (lichens versus bryophytes) at both the individual species and community levels. Species turnover (changes in species composition and abundance) was the main driver of decomposability across elevation at the community level, despite some of the traits explaining decomposability showing high intraspecific variability. Our study highlights the importance of among‐species variation in determining lichen and bryophyte decomposability. Further, the higher decomposability that we found for higher elevations suggests that global warming might result in a shift towards slower decomposable lichen and bryophyte species. Keywords: alpine ecology; cryptogams; decomposition; elevational gradient; functional traits; tundra.
32701Mishra K.B., Vítek P., Mishra A., Hájek J. & Barták M. (2020): Chlorophyll a fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy can monitor activation/deactivation of photosynthesis and carotenoids in Antarctic lichens. - Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, 239: 118458 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2020.118458.
Lichens survive harsh weather of Antarctica as well as of other hostile environments worldwide. Therefore, this investigation is important to understand the evolution of life on Earth in relation to their stress tolerance strategy. Wehave used chlorophyll a fluorescence (ChlF) and Raman spectroscopy, respectively, tomonitor the activation/ deactivation of photosynthesis and carotenoids in three diverse Antarctic lichens, Dermatocarpon polyphyllizum (DP), Umbilicaria antarctica (UA), and Leptogium puberulum (LP). These lichens, post 4 h or 24 h of hydration, showed differences in their ChlF transients and values of major ChlF parameters, e.g., in the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fm), and yields of fluorescence and heat dissipation (Φf,d), of effective quantumefficiency of PSII photochemistry (ΦPSII) and of non-photochemical quenching (Φnpq), whichmay be due to quantitative and/or qualitative differences in the composition of their photobionts. For understanding the kinetics of hydration-induced activation of photosynthesis, we screened ΦPSII of these lichens and reported its nonlinear stimulation on a minute time scale; half of the activation time (t1/2) was fastest ~4.05 ± 0.29 min for DP, which was followed by 5.46±0.18 min for UA, and 13.95±1.24 min for LP. Upon drying of fully activated lichen thallus, there was a slow decay, in hours, of relative water content (RWC) as well as of Fv/Fm. Raman spectral signatures were different for lichens having algal (in DP and UA) and cyanobacteria (in LP) photobionts, and there was a significant shift in ν1(C=C) Raman band of carotenoids post 24 h hydration as compared to their value at a dry state or post 4 h of hydration; this shift was decreased, when drying, in DP and LP but not in UA. Weconclude that hydration nonlinearly activated photosynthetic apparatus/reactions of these lichens in minute time range but there was a de-novo synthesis of chlorophylls as well as of carotenoids post 24 h. Their dehydrationinduced deactivation, however, was comparatively slow, in hours range, and there seemed a degradation of synthesized chlorophylls and carotenoids post dryness. We conclude that in extremophilic lichens, their photosynthetic partners, in particular, possess a complex survival and photoprotective strategy to be successful in the extreme terrestrial environments in Antarctica. Keywords: Effective quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry; Extremophile organisms; Harsh environments; Non-invasive methods; Optical signal Raman spectra.
32700Fraga Junior C.A.V., Gumboski E.L. & Eliasaro S. (2020): The genus Cladonia (Lichenized Ascomycota) from Restinga Vegetation of Espírito Santo state, Brazil: Supergroups Crustaceae and Perviae. - Rodriguésia, 71: e01612018 [10 p.]. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/2175-7860202071064.
In this paper we recognize a total of 11 species of Cladonia, five belonging to Supergroup Crustaceae and six to Supergroup Perviae, occurring in the Restinga vegetation of Espírito Santo state, Brazil. We confirm the occurrence of C. sprucei and C. rangiferina to Espírito Santo state Restinga, being their most austral record in Brazil so far. Four species are new records to the state: C. consimilis, C. dendroides, C. salzmannii, and C. sphacelata. Here we expand the number of known species of Cladonia of Supergroup Perviae from three to five, and of Supergroup Crustaceae from three to six in the studied environment. An identification key, comments and illustrations are provided. Key words: Atlantic rainforest, Cladoniaceae, dimorphic lichens, lichenized fungi, taxonomy.
32699León-González D. & Pérez-Pérez R.E. (2020): Líquenes epífitos en Juniperus flaccida Schltdl. (Cupressaceae) – componente importante de los bosques templados de Oaxaca, México [Epiphytic lichens on Juniperus flaccida Schltdl. (Cupressaceae) – important component of the temperate forest from Oaxaca, Mexico]. - Acta Biológica Colombiana, 25(2): 235–245. http://dx.doi.org/10.15446/abc.v25n2.77238.
[in Spanish with English abstract: ] The study of the epiphytic lichen community on Juniperus flaccida, an endemic species from Mexico, is investigated. We analyzed the influence of diameter at breast height (DBH) in the lichen community richness. Phorophytes selected was clasify in seven diametric classes. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to compare the diametric classes with the lichen richness. Species composition were using to clasified the diametric classes with the Two Way Cluster Analysis. We calculated the alfa, beta and, gamma diversity. Fortynine species were collected around to J. flaccida. A total of 65 species of corticolous lichens were collected on J. flaccida. 59 were new records to J. flaccida, while six are new records for Oaxaca (Caloplaca ferruginea, Dermatocarpon americanum, Lecanora albella, Lecanora helva, Ochrolechia mexicana y Parmotrema neotropicum) and, three are new records to Mexico (Diploschistes scruposus, Traponora varians y Chaenotheca trichialis). Nevertheless that J. flaccida is found in patches immersed in the pine, oak and pine-oak forest, it is a phorophyte that has allowed the maintenance of the lichen community spite of the fragmentation of the forest. Keywords: DBH, diversity index, lichen community.
32698Anonymus (2020): Recent literature on Australasian lichens. - Australasian Lichenology, 87: 96. .
bibliography
32697McCarthy P.M. (2020): Additional lichen records from Australia 87. Monoblastiopsis nigrocortina R.C.Harris & C.A.Morse. - Australasian Lichenology, 87: 92–95. .
Monoblastiopsis nigrocortina R.C.Harris & C.A.Morse (lichenized Ascomycota, Pleosporales, incertae sedis) and that genus are reported for the first time from Australia. Previously known only from the U.S.A., mainly on calcareous and non-calcareous sandstones, the species was collected on a bonded cement-asbestos tile in the Southern Tablelands, New South Wales.
32696Louwhoff S.H. (2020): Observations on the vertical distribution of lichens on a Eucalyptus radiata subsp. radiata tree in burnt lowland forest, Victoria, including a new State record. - Australasian Lichenology, 87: 85–91. .
A large, recently fallen branch presented an opportunity to record the previously undocumented vertical lichen distribution and canopy species on Eucalyptus radiata Sieber ex DC. subsp. radiata (narrow-leaf peppermint) in burnt lowland forest in Victoria, Australia. Ten species were detected from the canopy and eight were recorded from a shaded, unburnt part of the buttress. The heavily charred bark on the remainder of the lower trunk supported only Hypocenomyce australis and Cladonia rigida var. rigida squamules. Fifteen species were recorded overall, with the lignicolous Xylographa isidiosa a new record for Victoria. The zone near the base of the tree supported a Cladoniaceae-dominated community with C. rigida var. rigida extending higher up the trunk and into the lower canopy. Pannoparmelia wilsonii and X. isidiosa occurred only on canopy branches and attained the greatest coverage of all species observed. These observations provide a preliminary insight into the lichen flora of Eucalyptus radiata subsp. radiata, and the contribution this makes to biodiversity in a fire-affected, lowland forest by providing suitable lichen habitat.
32695Elix J.A. & Kantvilas G. (2020): A new isidiate species and a new record of Rinodina (Physciaceae, Ascomycota) from Tasmania. - Australasian Lichenology, 87: 82–84. .
Rinodina austroisidiata Elix & Kantvilas is described as new to science, and Rinodina cana (Arnold) Arnold is reported for the first time from Tasmania and New South Wales.
32694Mayrhofer H. & Elix J.A. (2020): Three new corticolous species and two new records of Rinodina (Physciaceae, Ascomycota) from subtropical and tropical Australia. - Australasian Lichenology, 87: 73–81. .
The corticolous Rinodina gerhardii H.Mayrhofer & Elix and R. heronensis H.Mayrhofer & Elix from Queensland and R. klauskalbii H.Mayrhofer & Elix from New South Wales are described as new to science. In addition, Rinodina galapagoensis Giralt & Bungartz and R. maculans (Kremp.) Müll.Arg. are reported for the first time from Australia. A revised key to the corticolous species of Rinodina in Australia is provided.
32693McCarthy P.M. & Elix J.A. (2020): New species and new records of Micarea (Pilocarpaceae) from Australia. - Australasian Lichenology, 87: 62–72. .
Micarea crassa P.M.McCarthy & Elix sp. nov. (Pilocarpaceae) is described from bark in the wet tropics of the Northern Territory, and the corticolous M. queenslandica P.M.McCarthy & Elix sp. nov. is described from rainforest in north-eastern Queensland. Micarea synotheoides (Nyl.) Coppins and M. ternaria (Nyl.) Vězda are reported for the first time from Australia (both from New South Wales), while new state and territory records are provided for four other species.
32692McCarthy P.M. (2020): A new corticolous species of Lasioloma (lichenized Ascomycota, Pilocarpaceae) from north-eastern Queensland. - Australasian Lichenology, 87: 58–61. .
Lasioloma corticola P.M.McCarthy is described from the bark of Casuarina in a montane rainforest margin in north-eastern Queensland, Australia. It is characterized by having conidia with 4 or 5 branches diverging from a single point, the branches (5–)7–9(–11)-septate and 25–60 × 1.5–2.5 μm.
32691Elvebakk A. & Sipman H.J.M. (2020): Gibbosporina revisited: new records from Fiji, Indonesia, New Caledonia, Papua New Guinea and Queensland, with one species from the Solomon Islands transferred to Pannaria. - Australasian Lichenology, 87: 52–57. .
More than 40 Australasian collections of the genus Gibbosporina have been studied and found to confirm the concepts of the six species previously known from Australia and Papua New Guinea. Perispore morphology is the character most useful for identification. Gibbosporina nitida appears to be the most common species in the area. Gibbosporina elixii and G. leptospora were previously thought to be very rare, known from only two localities each, but they are reported here from several new localities. Gibbosporina thamnifera was previously known from only the Eungella National Park in Queensland and from one locality in Papua New Guinea, but is now known from further localities. New Caledonia is now known to have three species, G. leptospora newly reported. Fiji also has three species, G. leptospora, G. nitida and G. sphaerospora newly reported here, and G. sphaerospora is also reported as new to Papua New Guinea. Gibbosporina phyllidiata, previously known from only the sterile holotype specimen from the Solomon Islands, is now shown to contain pannarin, and is therefore much better accommodated in Pannaria under its new name P. melanesica.
32690McCarthy P.M. & Elix J.A. (2020): A new species of the lichenicolous genus Phaeospora Hepp ex Stein (Verrucariales) from Australia. - Australasian Lichenology, 87: 48–51. .
A pyrenocarpous microfungus, collected from consolidated soil in Eucalyptus-dominated woodland in the Australian Capital Territory, proved to be a species of the lichenicolous genus Phaeospora Hepp ex Stein (Verrucariales), probably parasitic on the endemic Sarcogyne terrulenta P.M.McCarthy & Elix (Acarosporaceae). Phaeospora australiensis P.M.McCarthy & Elix has minute, semi-immersed to almost superficial perithecia lacking an involucrellum and paraphyses, but with a uniformly brown-black excipulum, simple periphyses, an amyloid hymenium, (4–)8-spored fissitunicate asci, and 3-septate ascospores that are medium grey or medium brown or brownish grey, lack a perispore, and measure 12–22 × 4.5–8 μm.
32689Elix J.A. & McCarthy P.M. (2020): Three new species and a new record of Trapelia (lichenized Ascomycota, Trapeliaceae) from Australia. - Australasian Lichenology, 87: 40–47. .
Trapelia occidentalis Elix, T. rosettiformis Elix & P.M.McCarthy and T. terrestris Elix & P.M.McCarthy (Trapeliaceae) are described as new from siliceous soil and rocks in southern Australia. Trapelia placodioides Coppins & P.James is reported from Australia for the first time, and an updated key to Trapelia in Australia is provided.
32688McCarthy P.M. (2020): A new saxicolous species, a new combination and a new record of Gyalidea (lichenized Ascomycota, Asterothyriaceae) from Australia. - Australasian Lichenology, 87: 30–39. .
Gyalidea nambourensis sp. nov. is described from siliceous rock in rainforest near Nambour, south-eastern Queensland. The new combination Gyalidea halocarpa (P.M.McCarthy & Elix) P.M.McCarthy is made for the calcicolous, Australian endemic Gyalideopsis halocarpa. Gyalidea psammoica (Nyl.) Lettau ex Vězda is reported for the first time from Australia (A.C.T. and N.S.W.), and a key is provided to the five species of Gyalidea known from the country.
32687McCarthy P.M. & Elix J.A. (2020): A new species of Micarea (Pilocarpaceae) from soil in New Zealand. - Australasian Lichenology, 87: 26–29. .
Micarea rubiformis P.M.McCarthy & Elix sp. nov. (lichenized Ascomycota, Pilocarpaceae) is described from consolidated, siliceous soil in Nothofagus forest in southern New Zealand.
32686Elix J.A. & Kantvilas G. (2020): Three new species and a new record of buellioid lichens (Caliciaceae, Ascomycota) from Tasmania. - Australasian Lichenology, 87: 20–25. .
Buellia acervicola Elix & Kantvilas, B. paradisana Elix & Kantvilas and Tetramelas oreophilus Elix & Kantvilas are described as new to science, and Buellia macveanii Elix is reported for the first time from Tasmania.
32685Elix J.A. (2020): Ten new species and two new records of buellioid lichens (Physciaceae, Ascomycota) from Australia and Norfolk Island. - Australasian Lichenology, 87: 3–19. .
Amandinea pilbarensis Elix, Baculifera confusa Elix, Buellia arida Elix, B. cravenii Elix, B. eldridgei Elix, B. kowenensis Elix & P.M.McCarthy, B. lordhowensis Elix, B. phillipensis Elix, Tetramelas flindersianus Elix and T. gariwerdensis Elix are described as new to science. In addition, Amandinea brugierae (Vain.) Marbach and Buellia hypostictella Elix & H.Mayrhofer are reported for the first time from Australia.
32684McCarthy P.M. & Elix J.A. (2020): Additional lichen records from Australia 86. Hymenelia ceracea (Arnold) M.Choisy and Thelenella fernandeziana (Zahlbr.) H.Mayrhofer. - Australasian Lichenology, 86: 118–122. .
Hymenelia ceracea (Arnold) M.Choisy (Hymeneliaceae) and Thelenella fernandeziana (Zahlbr.) H.Mayrhofer (Thelenellaceae) are reported for the first time from Australia. The former occurs on granite in the Southern Tablelands, New South Wales, while the latter was collected from sandstone in woodland in the Australian Capital Territory.
32683Elix J.A. & McCarthy P.M. (2020): Three new species of Trapelia (lichenized Ascomycota, Trapeliaceae) from eastern Australia. - Australasian Lichenology, 86: 102–108. .
Trapelia atrocarpa Elix & P.M.McCarthy, T. kosciuszkoensis Elix and T. pruinosa Elix & P.M.McCarthy (Trapeliaceae) are described as new from siliceous rocks and soil in eastern Australia.
32682Elix J.A., Edler C. & Mayrhofer H. (2020): Two new corticolous species of Rinodina (Physciaceae, Ascomycota) from New Zealand. - Australasian Lichenology, 86: 95–101. .
The corticolous Rinodina fineranii Elix, Ch.Edler & H.Mayrhofer and R. malcolmii Elix, Ch.Edler & H.Mayrhofer, both characterized by the presence of Mischoblastia-type ascospores, are described as new to science. In addition, Rinodina australiensis Müll.Arg. is reported for the first time from New Zealand.
32681McCarthy P.M. & Elix J.A. (2020): A new species of Circinaria (Megasporaceae) from New South Wales, Australia. - Australasian Lichenology, 86: 90–94. .
Circinaria deminuta P.M.McCarthy & Elix sp. nov. (lichenized Ascomycota, Megasporaceae) is described from sandstone in central-western New South Wales, Australia. The new species has a dark greyish brown, areolate thallus containing aspicilin, small, aspicilioid apothecia with a dark brown to blackish disc, cylindrical, Aspicilia-type asci with (4–)8, minute, globose ascospores in uniseriate arrangement, and bacilliform conidia 3.5–5(–6) × 0.5 μm.
32680Elix J.A. & Mayrhofer H. (2020): A new species of Cratiria (Caliciaceae, Ascomycota) from Ascension Island, South Atlantic Ocean. - Australasian Lichenology, 86: 87–89. .
Cratiria jamesiana Elix & H.Mayrhofer, a saxicolous species with Physconia- then Buelliatype ascospores and bacilliform conidia, and containing thuringione and arthothelin, is described as new to science.
32679McCarthy P.M. & Elix J.A. (2020): Three new species of Sarcogyne (Acarosporaceae) from the Australian Capital Territory. - Australasian Lichenology, 86: 74–86. .
Sarcogyne molongloensis P.M.McCarthy & Elix sp. nov. (Acarosporaceae) is described from sandstone outcrops, while S. porphyricola P.M.McCarthy & Elix sp. nov. and S. terrulenta P.M.McCarthy & Elix sp. nov. are reported from consolidated, siliceous soil in the Australian Capital Territory. Some recent collections of S. canberrensis P.M.McCarthy & Elix, S. iridana P.M.McCarthy & Kantvilas and S. tholifera P.M.McCarthy & Elix are reported from the A.C.T. and the Northern Territory, and an updated key is provided to the 12 Australian species of Sarcogyne.
32678Elix J.A., Øvstedal D.O. & Broady P.A. (2020): A new sorediate species of Amandinea (Caliciaceae, Ascomycota) from Antarctica. - Australasian Lichenology, 86: 70–73. .
The new species Amandinea clearyi Elix & Øvstedal, is described from Marie Byrd Land and MacRobertson Land, Antarctica.
32677Elix J.A. & Mayrhofer H. (2020): Four new species and a new record of buellioid lichens (Caliciaceae, Ascomycota) from Australia. - Australasian Lichenology, 86: 62–69. .
Amandinea mountmeensis Elix & H.Mayrhofer, Buellia bularmialensis Elix & H.Mayrhofer, B. dayboroana Elix & H.Mayrhofer and B. neohalonia Elix & H.Mayrhofer are described as new to science. In addition, Buellia haywardii Elix, A.Knight & H.Mayrhofer is reported from Australia for the first time.
32676Elix J.A. & McCarthy P.M. (2020): Three new species of buellioid lichens (Caliciaceae, Ascomycota) from south-eastern Australia. - Australasian Lichenology, 86: 30–35. .
Amandinea bittangabeensis Elix & P.M.McCarthy, A. hypohyalina Elix & P.M.McCarthy and Buellia quarryana Elix & P.M.McCarthy are described as new to science.
32675Archer A.W. & Elix J.A. (2020): Six new species, a new variety, a new report and two new records in the Australian Pertusariaceae (Pertusariales, lichenized Ascomycota). - Australasian Lichenology, 86: 14–29. .
Three species of Lepra (L. elatinica A.W.Archer & Elix and L. perlacericans A.W.Archer & Elix from New South Wales and L. arida A.W.Archer & Elix from Victoria) and four taxa of Pertusaria (P. alloisidiosa A.W.Archer & Elix from the Northern Territory and Queensland, P. copiocarpa A.W.Archer & Elix from Victoria, P. macroides from New South Wales and Tasmania and P. microstoma var. deficiens from Queensland) are described as new to science. The new combination Lepra leeuwenii (Zahlbr.) A.W.Archer & Elix is proposed for Pertusaria leeuwenii Zahlbr. Pertusaria expolita R.C.Harris is reported as an earlier name for P. balekensis A.W.Archer & Elix, originally described from Papua New Guinea. Lepra dactylina (Ach.) Hafellner and Pertusaria simoneana A.W.Archer & Elix are reported for the first time from Australia.
32674Kalb K., Schumm F. & Elix J.A. (2020): Pigments and new lichen substances in the lichen genus Dirinaria. - Australasian Lichenology, 86: 6–13. .
The new combination Dirinaria endocrocea (D.D.Awasthi) Kalb, Schumm & Elix is proposed for Dirinaria confusa var. endocrocea D.D.Awasthi, and the new name Dirinaria rhodocladonica Kalb, Schumm & Elix is proposed for Dirinaria confluens var. coccinea (Lynge) D.D.Awasthi. Melanoclinin A & B, two pigments of unknown structure, were found in the apothecial pruina of Dirinaria melanoclina, D. pruinosa and D. purpurascens. The anthraquinone diacetylgraciliformin was identified in the lower medulla of most Dirinaria species. The naphthaquinones canarione and rhodocladonic acid were detected in the medulla of Dirinaria leopoldii and D. coccinea, and the latter substance was also found in the medulla of D. endocrocea and D. rhodocladonica. The relative Rf values for the pigments are recorded, and a key is provided to the Dirinaria species treated in this paper.
32673McCarthy P.M. (2020): Verrucaria kowenensis (lichenized Ascomycota, Verrucariaceae), a new species on soil in the Australian Capital Territory. - Australasian Lichenology, 86: 3–5. .
Verrucaria kowenensis P.M.McCarthy (lichenized Ascomycota, Verrucariaceae) is described from consolidated, siliceous soil in the Australian Capital Territory. It has a pale greyish green or pale to medium greenish grey, areolate to pseudosquamulose thallus that is corticate, comparatively thick and dominated by algae. Perithecia are numerous, exceptionally minute, non-involucrellate and largely immersed in the thallus, with a black apex, the excipulum being colourless at the sides and base. The ascospores are 11–20 × 5–7.5 μm.
32672Anonymus (2020): Recent literature on Australasian lichens. - Australasian Lichenology, 86: 123. .
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32671Rogers R.W. (2018): Additional lichen records from Australia 84. Three Bactrospora species (Roccellaceae, Ascomycota) from Queensland. - Australasian Lichenology, 83: 62–63. .
Bactrospora denticulata (Vain.) Egea & Torrente, B. myriadea (Fée) Egea & Torrente and B. pleistophragmia (Nyl.) Räsänen, are reported for the first time from Australia
32670Archer A.W. & Elix J.A. (2018): Validation of the recent combination Lepra roseola. - Australasian Lichenology, 83: 48. .
The recent combination Lepra roseola (A.W.Archer & Elix) A.W.Archer & Elix is validated.
32669McCarthy P.M. & Elix J.A. (2018): A new species of Enterographa (lichenized Ascomycota, Roccellaceae) from Lord Howe Island, Australia. - Australasian Lichenology, 83: 49–53. .
Enterographa membranacea sp. nov. (Roccellaceae) is described from the trunk of a palm tree in Lord Howe Island, south-western Pacific Ocean. A key is provided to the 12 species of Enterographa known from Australia and its island territories.
32668Elix J.A. (2018): New combinations of Tetramelas (Caliciaceae, Ascomycota) and a key to the species in Antarctica. - Australasian Lichenology, 83: 42–47. .
The new combinations Tetramelas anisomerus (Nyl.) Elix, T. cladocarpizus (I.M.Lamb) Elix, T. darbishirei (I.M.Lamb) Elix, T. grimmiae (Filson) Elix, T. inordinatus (Hue) Elix, T. nelsonii (Darb.) Elix and T. subpedicellatus (Hue) Elix are proposed, and a key is provided to the eleven species of Tetramelas present in Antarctica.
32667Elix J.A. (2018): A key to the buellioid lichens (Ascomycota, Caliciaceae) in New Zealand. - Australasian Lichenology, 83: 26–35. .
A key to the 106 taxa of buellioid lichens in New Zealand is provided. Amandinea hnatiukii Elix is reported for the first time from New Zealand.
32666McCarthy P.M. & Elix J.A. (2018): Agonimia abscondita sp. nov. (lichenized Ascomycota, Verrucariaceae) from New South Wales, Australia. - Australasian Lichenology, 83: 18–21. .
Agonimia abscondita P.M.McCarthy & Elix (lichenized Ascomycota, Verrucariaceae) is described from bark and corticolous bryophytes in cool-temperate rainforest in south-eastern New South Wales, Australia. It has a thin, greenish, microlobulate thallus, immersed perithecia, 0.25–0.45 mm wide, with a concave to plane apex, long periphyses, (1–)4-spored asci and pale yellowish brown, muriform ascospores, 45–95 × 17–32 μm.
32665McCarthy P.M. & Elix J.A. (2018): Sclerophyton puncticulatum sp. nov. (lichenized Ascomycota, Opegraphaceae) from New South Wales, Australia. - Australasian Lichenology, 83: 14–17. .
Sclerophyton puncticulatum P.M.McCarthy & Elix (lichenized Ascomycota, Opegraphaceae) is described from bark in montane rainforest in northern New South Wales, Australia. Some older reports from Australia of other Sclerophyton species are re-assessed.
32664Anonymus (2018): Recent literature on Australasian lichens. - Australasian Lichenology, 83: 61. .
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32663Anonymus (2017): Recent literature on Australasian lichens. - Australasian Lichenology, 81: 99. .
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32662Anonymus (2017): Recent literature on Australasian lichens. - Australasian Lichenology, 80: 78. .
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32661Anonymus (2016): Recent literature on Australasian lichens. - Australasian Lichenology, 79: 58. .
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32660Anonymus (2016): Recent literature on Australasian lichens. - Australasian Lichenology, 78: 52. .
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32659Anonymus (2019): Recent literature on Australasian lichens. - Australasian Lichenology, 84: 72. .
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32658Basiouni S., Fayed M.A.A., Tarabees R., El-Sayed M., Elkhatam A., Töllner K.-R., Hessel M., Geisberger T., Huber C., Eisenreich W. & Shehata A.A. (2020): Characterization of sunflower oil extracts from the lichen Usnea barbata. - Metabolites, 10(9): 353 [16 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10090353.
The increasing global emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) pathogens is categorized as one of the most important health problems. Therefore, the discovery of novel antimicrobials is of the utmost importance. Lichens provide a rich source of natural products including unique polyketides and polyphenols. Many of them display pharmaceutical benefits. The aim of this study was directed towards the characterization of sunflower oil extracts from the fruticose lichen, Usnea barbata. The concentration of the major polyketide, usnic acid, was 1.6 mg/mL extract as determined by NMR analysis of the crude mixture corresponding to 80 mg per g of the dried lichen. The total phenolics and flavonoids were determined by photometric assays as 4.4 mg/mL (gallic acid equivalent) and 0.27 mg/mL (rutin equivalent) corresponding to 220 mg/g and 13.7 mg/g lichen, respectively. Gram-positive (e.g., Enterococcus faecalis) and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as clinical isolates of infected chickens were sensitive against these extracts as determined by agar diffusion tests. Most of these activities increased in the presence of zinc salts. The data suggest the potential usage of U. barbata extracts as natural additives and mild antibiotics in animal husbandry, especially against enterococcosis in poultry. Keywords: usnic acid; Usnea barbata; Enterococcus faecalis; enterococcosis; natural antimicrobial; multidrug resistant bacteria; cytotoxicity; phenolics; flavonoids
32657Abdullah S.M., Kolo K. & Sajadi S.M. (2020): Greener pathway toward the synthesis of lichen‐based ZnO@TiO2@SiO2 and Fe3O4@SiO2 nanocomposites and investigation of their biological activities. - Food Science & Nutrition, 8(8): 4044–4054. https://doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.1661.
A green way is introduced to biosynthesis of ZnO@TiO2@SiO2 and Fe3O4@SiO2 nanocomposites using the bioactive potential of Lecanora muralis (LM) lichen. UV‐Vis spectroscopy and GC–Mass analysis of the lichen show the presence of various bioactive constituents inside the lichen aqueous extract. The XRD, SEM, EDS, and elemental mapping techniques revealed the well fabrication of biosynthesized nanostructures. Also, investigation of antibacterial and antifungal activities of nanostructures demonstrated that green synthesized nanostructures have a very good antibacterial ability against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas spp. and Candida spp. pathogenic bacteria, and fungi but no antifungal activity toward the Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, and Aspergillus terrus fungi species. This study investigates the greener pathway toward the synthesis of lichen‐based ZnO@TiO2@SiO2 and Fe3O4@SiO2 nanocomposites and investigation of their biological activities.
32656Roca E. & Nimis P.L. (2002): I licheni e l'etnofarmacologia di Paolo Boccone (Sec. XVII-XVIII). - Museologia scientifica, 17(1): 27–49. .
Keywords: lichens, Boccone, ethno-pharmacology, ethnobotany, iconography.
32655Llewellyn T., Gaya E. & Murrell D.J. (2020): Are urban communities in successional stasis? A case study on epiphytic lichen communities. - Diversity, 12: 330 [18 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/d12090330.
Urban areas may contain a wide range of potential habitats and environmental gradients and, given the many benefits to human health and well-being, there is a growing interest in maximizing their biodiversity potential. However, the ecological patterns and processes in urban areas are poorly understood. Using a widely applicable ecological survey method, we sampled epiphytic lichen communities, important bioindicators of atmospheric pollution, on host Quercus trees in urban parks of London, UK, to test if common patterns relating to lichen diversity are mirrored in urban green spaces. We found lichen diversity to be dependent on host species identity, and negatively related to local tree crowding. In addition, we found a strong negative effect of tree size on lichen diversity, leaving large trees as unexploited niches. A novel network analysis revealed the presence of only pioneer communities, showing the lichen communities are being held in successional stasis, likely due to the heritage effects of SO2 emissions and current nitrogen pollution and particulate emissions. Our study highlights that jointly assessing species richness, community structure and the successional stage can be key to understanding diversity patterns in urban ecosystems. Subsequently, this may help best determine the optimum conditions that will facilitate biodiversity increase within cities. Keywords: bioindicators; community ecology; empty niches; epiphytes; fungal diversity; pollution; species co-occurrence; urban ecosystems; lichenized fungi.
32654Łubek A., Kukwa M., Czortek P. & Jaroszewicz B. (2019): Lichenicolous fungi are more specialized than their lichen hosts in primeval forest ecosystems, Białowieża Forest, northeast Poland. - Fungal Ecology, 42: 100866 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.funeco.2019.100866.
Taxonomy and diversity of symptomatic lichenicolous fungi (visible as fruitbodies on lichen thalli, their discoloration, and/or deformation) and their specificity to lichen hosts is becoming more and more studied. However, information on their ecology is still scarce. We assess how large the specialization of these fungi towards their hosts and microhabitat is. Epiphytic, epixylic and epigeic lichens and associated lichenicolous fungi were studied on 144 permanent plots in Białowieza Forest in relation to forest _ communities, species of tree phorophyte and substrates. On all these three studied levels lichenicolous fungi were more specialized than their lichen hosts. Our study provides the first estimation of ecological dependences between associations of lichenicolous fungi and their hosts, microhabitats and forest communities in a primeval forest ecosystem representative of lowland Europe. Keywords: Habitat specialization; Substrates; Forest communities; Parasitic fungi; Białowieza National Park.
32653Marshall A.J. & de Lange P.J. (2020): First record of Zwackhia viridis (Lecanographaceae) from the Chatham Islands. - Trilepidea, 201: 6–8. .
New Zealand
32652Knudsen K. & Kocourková J. (2020): Lichenological Notes 7: On taxa of Acarospora and Sarcogyne. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 19: 158–162. http://sweetgum.nybg.org/philolichenum/.
Acarospora cervina and A. tongleti are discussed as not occurring in North America and should be removed from North American checklist. Sarcogyne sphaerospora is transferred to Acarospora and given a new name Acarospora lendermeri. Sarcogyne reebiae is considered a synonym of S. similis. Sarcogyne similis is verified as occurring in Europe in Greece. Keywords: Acarospora janae, lichenicolous fungi, New Mexico, nomenclature, stromata.
32651Guterres D.C., dos Santos M.D.M., da Silva R.A.F., Souza E.S.C., Soares W.R.O., Pinho D.B. & Dianese J.C. (2020): Cladosterigma: an enigmatic fungus, previously considered a basidiomycete, now revealed as an ascomycete member of the Gomphillaceae. - Mycologia, 112(4): 829–846. https://doi.org/10.1080/00275514.2020.1781501.
Cladosterigma clavariellum has been treated as a basidiomycete since its first description by Spegazzini in 1886 as Microcera clavariella. After further morphological studies, between 1919 and 2011, it remained among the basidiomycetes, most recently as incertae sedis in the order Cryptobasidiales. Our studies, based on light and scanning electron microscopy, supported by multilocus phylogenetic analyses—second-largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB2), translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF1), small subunit (18S), large subunit (28S), and nuclear internal transcribed spacers (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 = ITS) of the nuclear rDNA sequences, and mitochondrial rDNA small subunit (mtSSU)—finally determined the phylogenetic placement of Cladosterigma as the first nonlichenicolous mycoparasitic member of the Gomphillaceae within the Graphidales, an ascomycete order previously composed predominantly of lichen-forming fungi. Keywords: Brazil, Cerrado fungi, Graphidales, hyperparasitism, Lecanoromycetes, mycoparasite, Neotropical ascomycetes, Ostropomycetidae.
32650Ghimire N., Han S.-R., Kim B., Park H., Lee J.H. & Oh T.-J. (2020): Comparative genomic study of polar lichen-associated Hymenobacter sp. PAMC 26554 and Hymenobacter sp. PAMC 26628 reveals the presence of polysaccharide‑degrading ability based on habitat. - Current Microbiology, 77: 2940–2952. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00284-020-02120-1.
The genus Hymenobacter is classified in the family Hymenobacteraceae under the phylum Bacteroidetes. They have been isolated from diverse environments, such as air, soil, and lichen, along with extreme polar environments, including the Arctic and Antarctic regions. The polar regions have attracted intense research interest for the discovery of novel microorganisms and their functions. Analysis of the polysaccharide utilization-related carbohydrate-active enzyme among the two lichenassociated polar organisms Hymenobacter sp. PAMC 26554 and Hymenobacter sp. PAMC 26628 was performed, along with its comparison with the complete genome of the same genus available in the NCBI database. The study was conducted relying on the AZCL screening data for the two polar lichen-associated species. While comparing with eight other complete genomes, differences in polysaccharide preferences based on the isolation environment and biosample source were discovered. All the species showed almost similar percentage of cellulose synthesis and degradation genes. However, the polar lichen-associated microorganism was found to have a high percentage of hemicellulose degradation genes, and less starch and laminarin degradation. The Hymenobacter species with higher number of hemicellulose degradation genes was found to have a lower number of starch and laminarin degradation genes and vice versa, highlighting the differences in polysaccharide utilization among the species.
32649Sonina A.V. & Androsova V.I. (2020): Coastal lichens. - In: Grigore M.-N. (ed.), Handbook of Halophytes, p. 1–22, Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-17854-3_34-1.
Lichens are a symbiotic complex of autotrophic (algae, Cyanobacteria) and heterotrophic (fungi) components that have developed during evolution in coastal ecosystems in the process of adaptation of algae and fungi to terrestrial habitats. Lichens are highly adapted to extreme habitats including the littoral (or intertidal) zones of coasts. In this chapter, we present developmental stages of aquatic lichen investigations: freshwater and marine lichens. The issues of species diversity of coastal lichens, their ecology, and adaptations to the coastal marine environment are described. The leading factors affected the epilithic lichen cover of coasts, and freshwater habitats are at a distance from the waterline and substrate characteristics. Substrate characteristics, especially near the waterline, depend on the wave rhythm. On the coasts of freshwater bodies, four zones are recognized based on flooding duration and lichen ecology. Lichen zones of fresh and marine coasts are distinguished by their species composition: on sea coasts halophytes are predominant and on freshwater shores – hydrophilic lichens. Marker species of lichens were identified for each zone. For the littoral zone, the intrazonal structure of lichen flora was shown. In the adaptation of symbiotic organisms, such as lichens, both symbionts take part: mycobiont and photobiont. Morphological and structural adaptations are mainly associated with mycobiont variability: the presence of morphotypes, structural features of the reproductive organs, and anatomical layers. Photobiont is responsible for functional adaptations: the variability of the amount of photosynthetic pigments and the synthesis of various substances that ensure the resistance of lichen to salt stress. The photobiont provides synthesis of osmolytes, and these process patterns can change depending on the photobiont species (strain), as well as for one photobiont in different coastal conditions. The distribution of epilithic lichen species on the coasts is therefore also ensured by the functions of the photobiont. The important component of the lichen association is the microbial complex; however its role in adapting lichens to coastal environment is still not clear. The perspective of studying coastal lichens is determined by a rather poor knowledge of species diversity and ecology of this group, including physiology, biochemistry, and genetics based on modern research methods. Keywords: Coastal lichens · Epilithic lichens · Freshwater lichens · Marine lichens · Tidal zone · Adaptation.
32648García‐Velázquez L., Rodríguez A., Gallardo A., Maestre F.T., Dos Santos E., Lafuente A., Fernández‐Alonso M.J., Singh B.K., Wang J.‐T. & Durán J. (2020): Climate and soil micro‐organisms drive soil phosphorus fractions in coastal dune systems. - Functional Ecology, 34(8): 1690–1701. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2435.13606.
The importance of soil phosphorus (P) is likely to increase in coming decades due to the growing atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition originated by industrial and agricultural activities. We currently lack a proper understanding of the main drivers of soil P pools in coastal dunes, which rank among the most valued priority conservation areas worldwide. Here, we evaluated the joint effects of biotic (i.e. microbial abundance and richness, vegetation and cryptogams cover) and abiotic (i.e. pH and aridity) factors on labile, medium‐lability and recalcitrant soil P pools across a wide aridity gradient in the Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula. Climate determined the availability of medium‐lability, recalcitrant and total P, but had a minor net effect on labile P, which was positively and significantly related to the presence of plants, mosses and lichens. Medium‐lability P was significantly influenced by soil bacterial richness and abundance (positively and negatively, respectively). Our results suggest that micro‐organisms transfer P from medium‐lability pool to more labile one. At the same time, increases in bacterial richness associated to biofilms might be involved in the thickening of the medium‐lability P pool in our climosequence. These bacterial‐mediated transfers would confer resistance to the labile P pool under future climate change and uncover an important role of soil micro‐organisms as modulators of the geochemical P cycle. Keywords: biofilms; climosequence; coastal dunes; global change; medium‐lability phosphorus; microbial transfer model; phosphorus pools.
32647Kosecka M., Jabłońska A., Flakus A., Rodriguez‐Flakus P., Kukwa M. & Guzow‐Krzemińska B. (2020): Trentepohlialean algae (Trentepohliales, Ulvophyceae) show preference to selected mycobiont lineages in lichen symbioses. - Journal of Phycology, 56(4): 979–993. https://doi.org/10.1111/jpy.12994.
The main aims of this work were to assess phylogenetic relationships of the trentepohlialean photobionts in tropical, mainly sterile, lichens collected in Bolivia, to examine their genetic diversity, host specificity, and the impact of habitat factors on the occurrence of Trentepohliales. Based on rbcL marker analysis, we constructed a phylogenetic tree with eight major clades of Trentepohliales, of which seven free‐living species are intermingled with lichenized ones. Our analyses show that the studied photobionts are scattered across the phylogenetic tree and algae from temperate and tropical regions do not form monophyletic groups, except within one clade that seems to be restricted to the tropics. There is no significant occurrence pattern of lichenized Trentepohliaceae on a specific substratum, except Cephaleuros spp. and Phycopeltis spp., which are restricted to leaves, while some clades with lichenized algae may be specialized to tree bark and wood. Moreover, we found two patterns of associations: first, closely related algae can associate with distantly related mycobionts; second, some other trentepohlioid algae associate with selected lineages of fungi (e.g., Arthoniaceae or Graphidaceae). We also found that some lineages of photobionts are even more selective and associate exclusively with one species (e.g., Dichosporidium nigrocinctum, Diorygma antillarum) or closely related lichen‐forming fungi (Herpothallon spp.). Concluding, we found that occurrence of some trentepohlialean photobionts may correlate with the particular type of the mycobiont. Keywords: 18S rDNA; Bolivia; lichen‐forming fungi; neotropics; photobionts; phylogeny; rbcL; selectivity; specificity; symbiotic associations.
32646González‐Hourcade M., Campo E.M., Braga M.R., Salgado A. & Casano L.M. (2020): Disentangling the role of extracellular polysaccharides in desiccation tolerance in lichen‐forming microalgae. First evidence of sulfated polysaccharides and ancient sulfotransferase genes. - Environmental Microbiology, 22(8): 3096–3111. https://doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.15043.
Trebouxia sp. TR9 and Coccomyxa simplex are desiccation‐tolerant microalgae with flexible cell walls, which undergo species‐specific remodelling during dehydration–rehydration (D/R) due to their distinct ultrastructure and biochemical composition. Here, we tested the hypothesis that extracellular polysaccharides excreted by each microalga could be quantitatively and/or qualitatively modified by D/R. Extracellular polysaccharides were analysed by size exclusion and anion exchange chromatography, specific stains after gel electrophoresis and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of trimethylsilyl derivatives (to determine their monosaccharide composition). The structure of a TR9‐sulfated polymer was deduced from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses. In addition, sugar‐sulfotransferase encoding genes were identified in both microalgae, and their expression was measured by RT‐qPCR. D/R did not alter the polydispersed profile of extracellular polysaccharides in either microalga but did induce quantitative changes in several peaks. Furthermore, medium‐low‐sized uronic acid‐containing polysaccharides were almost completely substituted by higher molecular mass carbohydrates after D/R. Sulfated polysaccharide(s) were detected, for the first time, in the extracellular polymeric substances of both microalgae, but only increased significantly in TR9 after cyclic D/R, which induced a sugar‐sulfotransferase gene and accumulated sulfated ß‐D‐galactofuranan(s). Biochemical remodelling of extracellular polysaccharides in aeroterrestrial desiccation‐tolerant microalgae is species‐specific and seems to play a role in the response to changes in environmental water availability.