32363Halbwachs H. (2020): Pilze in Bernsteinwäldern Nordeuropas. - Zeitschrift für Mykologie, 86(1): 121–130. .
[in German with English abstract: ] During the Eocene, ca. 24-47 million years ago, vast forests existed in the Baltic and Bitterfeld areas, which were a cradle of huge amber deposits. So-called amber trees produced copious amounts of resin, which often entombed a great diversity of organisms, predominantly insects. Under rare circumstances, also fungi or fungal material got preserved in the hardening material, which is often washed up along the Baltic coasts or is harvested industrially in Kaliningrad. Most amberised fungi are small ascomycetes, only a few macrofungi have so far been recovered. Interestingly, lichens proliferated during the Paleogene. The causes are probably multifarious, including favourable climates and diversely structured habitats. It remains to be seen whether more fungi will turn up in amber to close obvious gaps in fossil records. Keywords: Fossils, Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Lichens, Baltic, Bitterfeld, Paleogene.
32362Magnin A. (1877): Liste des cryptogames récoltés par MM. Therry et Veuillot pendant l'excursion botanique dans le Bugey. - Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France, 23[1876]: CXLII–CXLVII. .
32361Payot V. (1877): Florule de l'excursionniste aux gorges de la Diozaz. - Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France, 23[1876]: 394–397. .
France; 12 taxa of lichens listed at p. 397
32360Weddell H.A. (1877): Notice monographique sur les Amphiloma de la flora française. - Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France, 23[1876]: 82–99. .
France; monograph; Teloschistaceae
32359Magnin A. (1877): Sur les mousses et les lichens de la partie supérieure de la vallée de l'Ubaye (Basses Alpes). - Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France, 23[1876]: 49–50. .
32358Cornu M. [, Weddell M.-H. & Van Tieghem P.] (1875): Observations [sur le parasitisme, ... des Lichens]. - Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France, 21[1874]: 347–351. .
Not a standard paper but a discussion on parasites/parasymbionts among lichens.
32357Weddell H.-A. (1875): Florule lichénique des laves d'Agde. - Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France, 21[1874]: 330–347. .
France; several new taxa described: Acarospora sordida, Acarospora collemacea, Lecidea (Buellia) cladonema, Verucaria verrucicola, Verrucaria xanthoriae.
32356Roumeguère C. (1875): Quel est le physiologiste qui le premier, au milieu du XVIIIe siècle, a fait connaitre le mode de nutrition des lichens? Documents intéressant l'Histoire de ces végétaux. - Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France, 21[1874]: 195–201. .
Extract from a lecture
32355Roumeguère C. (1875): Correspondance inédite échangée entre Alexandre de Humboldt et Auguste Broussonet, au sujet de l'Histoire Naturelle des Iles Canaries. - Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France, 21[1874]: 154–158. .
Correspondence; notes on lichens included
32354Lefranc E. (1875): Les Roccella et le Rhytiphloea tinctoria de la Méditerranée, par-devant la pourpre de Tyr. - Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France, 21[1874]: 85–95. .
Roccella; lichen dyes
32353Bouteille (1875): [Lettre de M. Bouteille a M. de Schoenefeld]. - Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France, 21[1874]: 59–60. .
A letter; it includes among else a remark on occurence of lichens on glass
32352Fée A. (1875): Matériaux pour une flore lichénologique du Brésil, II. – Les Graphidées. - Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France, 21[1874]: 20–26. .
Brazil; Graphidaceae
32351Rosentreter R., Kaminsky L. & DeBolt A. (2020): If a tree falls in the forest, will its lichens flourish or die?. - Evansia, 37(1): 20–26. .
In 2016, a storm blew over an old growth sand post oak tree (Quercus margarettae) at O’Leno State Park in northern Florida. This event provided access to the entire tree without climbing it. Because the tree was suspended by its branches so it was parallel with the ground, we could easily observe and collect lichens at all former canopy heights. We surveyed the wind-blown tree’s lichens before the species’ composition changes had occurred. Several uncommon lichens were found on this oak. We rated relative abundance of each lichen species on the tree for three consecutive years. To our surprise, many of the lichens were still alive after one or more years, despite being in a lower canopy position and on a different aspect. However, most lichens changed in relative abundance or were reduced in abundance; one species, Parmeliella triptophylla, increased in relative abundance. Five species did not change, while 26 species decreased in abundance. Lichen response was dynamic in both abundance and thallus size. We found many old growth lichen indicators for Florida and this gave us an opportunity to study rarely encountered lichen species. Key words. Biodiversity, forest ecology, oaks, survivorship, Parmeliella triptophylla.
32350McCune B. & Stone D. (2020): Gregorella, a cyanobacterial pioneer on soil, new to North America. - Evansia, 37(1): 15–19. .
Gregorella humida was found in western Oregon, U.S.A. This is a new genus and species for North America, with both fertile and sterile collections. An ITS sequence demonstrated its affinity with European material. This minute, granular to branchedgranular cyanobacterial lichen is a pioneer on recently disturbed soil. The species was previously known from Fennoscandia, the U.K., continental Europe, and Turkey. Key words. Cyanolichens, ITS, Moelleropsis, Oregon, pioneer species.
32349Leavitt S.D. & Smith B. (2020): Baseline population density estimates of ‘Wyoming range lichens’ (Xanthoparmelia wyomingica) relative to mountain goats in the La Sal Mountains, Utah, USA. - Evansia, 37(1): 1–6. .
The La Sal Mountains in eastern Utah, USA, contain the only alpine habitat on the Colorado Plateau in Utah. These unique sky island alpine communities are vulnerable to a wide range of disturbances, including factors associated with the recent introduction of mountain goats (O. americanus). In order to monitor the potential impact of O. americanus, and other disturbances on alpine communities in the La Sals, we provide baseline estimate population densities for ‘Wyoming range lichens’ (Xanthoparmelia wyomingica) at two sites near Mount Laurel. Using the point-centered quarter and the quartered-neighbor methods, we estimate ca. 20 individuals/m2 at both sites. These estimates provide an important baseline for long-term monitoring of vulnerable alpine sites on the Colorado Plateau. Key words. Alpine habitats, Biomonitoring, climate change, Colorado Plateau, distance methods, disturbance.
32348吴园园, 高静, 赵润康, 陈庆芝, 柳燕云, 张佳林, 刘晓迪, 康志娟, 刘爱琴, 刘华杰 [Wu Y.-Y., Gao J., Zhao R.-K., Chen Q.-Z., Liu Y.-Y., Zhang J.-L., Liu X.-D., Kang Z.-J., Liu A.-Q. & Liu H.-J.] (2020): 黑龙江呼中自然保护区高山珊瑚枝假果柄不同部位的元素组成 [Element compositions in different parts of pseudopodetia of Stereocaulon alpinum from Huzhong Natural Reserve, Heilongjiang, China]. - 生命科学研究灾 [Life Science Research], 24(1): 39–46. .
[in Chinese with English abstract: ] Lichen element compositions are a reliable and effective tool for biomonitoring atmospheric element deposition. The lichen age effect is one of the important factors influencing lichen element concentrations. However, this effect is not fully understood for terricolous fruticose lichens. Herein, samples of a fruticose lichen Stereocaulon alpinum from a remote site of Huzhong Natural Reserve, Greater Khingan Mountains of Heilongjiang Province were collected. Fifty-five elements (Ag, Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Dy, Er, Eu, Fe, Gd, Ge, Hg, Ho, K, La, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nb, Nd, Ni, P, Pb, Pr, Rb, S, Sb, Sc, Se, Si, Sm, Sn, Sr, Tb, Th, Ti, Tl, Tm, U, V, Y, Yb, and Zn) were measured and their differences among 3 parts (apical, middle, and base parts) of the pseudopodetia were compared in order to examine the effect of different parts of lichen and elements on lichen element accumulations in the uncontaminated ecological environment. The results showed that concentrations of all elements were in the range of the reported background/baseline values, suggesting a low degree of atmospheric element deposition in the study site. Concentrations of most elements with limited metabolic significance were generally the highest at base part, suggesting a continuous bioaccumulation and a low degree of translocation in the lichen thalli. Concentrations of some nutrients showed little differences among the different parts, or were higher in the apical part than in the middle part. These results suggest a nutrient translocation from the older parts to the younger parts of pseudopodetia. Therefore, in lichen biomonitoring studies, specific parts of lichen should be taken into account based on the interested elements, and to ensure the comparability of data among different surveys, the same parts of the thallus should be selected. Key words: Stereocaulon; element concentration; biomonitoring; atmospheric deposition; fruticose lichens.
32347Ekanayaka A.H., Hyde K.D., Jones E.B.G., Zhao Q. & Bulgakov T.S. (2019): New and known discolichens from Asia and eastern Europe. - Asian Journal of Mycology, 2(1): 48–86. Doi 10.5943/ajom/2/1/2.
In the present study, lichenized discomycete taxa collected from northern Thailand, southern China, the UK, Ukraine and Russia are documented. Taxonomic studies of these taxa were carried out using both morphology and molecular data. Their phylogenetic relationships were inferred using LSU rDNA and ITS rDNA sequence data or combined analysis of these gene regions. Twelve lichenized discomycete taxa are reported in this paper including three new species (viz. Bacidia subareolata, Buellia sublauri-cassiae and Letrouitia magenta) and one reference species (Letrouitia transgressa). Key words – 3 new species – apothecia – Lecanoromycetes – phylogeny – taxonomy – thallus.
32346Cataldo D. & Minissale P. (2013): I licheni terricoli degli ambienti semiaridi costieri di Vendicari area protetta della Sicilia sud-orientale. - Notiziario della Società Lichenologica Italiana, 26: 63–77. .
32345Cataldo D. & Minissale P. (2015): The lichens in a relic wood of Juniperus turbinata Guss. (Pinales Cupressaceae) with a new record for Sicily. - Biodiversity Journal, 6(4): 795–802. .
This paper regards a research conducted on terrestrial and epiphytic lichen flora growing in an extensive juniper bush, Juniperus turbinata Guss. (Pinales Cupressaceae), in southeast Sicily. The flora recorded, although small in number, 29 species in all, includes several species quite rare in Italy or Sicily. One in particular, Heppia adglutinata (Kremp.) A. Massal. is new for Sicily and it is however rather rare in the Mediterranean area. Some considerations about the distribution and ecology of the found species are done. Key words: Epiphytic lichens; terrestrial lichens; Heppia adglutinata; juniper woodland; Mediterranean.
32344Widhelm T.J. (2019): Phylogenomic Systematics of Lichenized Fungi at Multiple Taxonomic Levels. - Thesis, Submitted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Biological Sciences in the Graduate College of the University of Illinois at Chicago, 245 p. .
Our study provides an important case study highlighting the importance of considering independent lines of evidence and analytical approaches for effectively delimiting species in taxonomically challenging groups. An integrative approach incorporating phenotypic characters (secondary metabolite variation, differences in reproductive strategies, and conidial size), analyses of molecular sequence data using Bayesian clustering, ML and BI phylogenetic inference and a coalescent­based species­tree method, and empirical species delimitation analysis in BP&P, provides unprecedented insight into species boundaries and evolutionary relationships in the P. perforatum group. We approached the delimitation of species in two ways. The first employed the Bayesian clustering algorithm STRUCTURE to infer putative populations. This approach was congruent with the concatenated phylogeny, inferring three populations that corresponded with the three major clades A, B, and C (Figure 16). Individuals were then assigned to their population for inferring a *BEAST species tree. This tree was used as a starting topology in BP&P for species delimitation. The three­species scenario was highly supported by all analysis methods (Figure 16). The second approach used a six­species scenario assigning individuals to their traditional circumscribed species to infer a *BEAST species tree (Figure 18). This topology was used as a starting tree in the BP&P species delimitation. This approach supported the distinctiveness of the traditionally recognized taxa P. perforatum, P. hypotropum, P. subrigidum and P. louisianae, while P. preperforatum and P. hypoleucinum were found to be conspecific. Although our results highlight the fact that secondary metabolite variation and differences in reproductive mode can serve as taxonomically relevant characters in Parmotrema, traditional species pair concepts and chemotaxonomy are not reflected in evolutionary relationships. Before secondary chemistry was integrated into the taxonomic treatment of the P. perforatum group, only two species, Parmelia perforata (apotheciate­fertile) and P. hypotropa (sorediate­sterile) were recognized as distinct, based solely on reproductive strategy. However, inclusion of secondary chemical data revealed six diagnosable populations. Culberson (1973) discussed what he considered to be the best taxonomic treatment of species in the P. perforatum group and claimed that all the chemical races of the apotheciate morph were sister species, each with a sorediate counterpart considered a secondary species. Based on this interpretation, he described a number of new species (Culberson 1973)⁠. By incorporating multilocus sequence data, we have added another valuable resource for species delimitation
32343Střelbová M. (2017): Makrolišejníky modřínových porostů na Rokycansku. - Bakalářská práce, Západočeská univerzita v Plzni, Fakulta pedagogická, Centrum biologie, geověd a envigogiky , 60 p + 11 fig.. .
The aim of this study was to explore the diversity of macrolichens in the larch plantations at selected localities in the Rokycany region. By field research, I have detected 48 taxa of macrolichens, which confirms fact, that larch is a exceptional substrate among our woody plants. In addition to common species, a number of endangered species (23) and rare species such as Bryoria capillaris, Flavoparmelia soredians, Nephromopsis laureri, Parmelia barrenoae, Usnea glabrata, U. wasmuthii and two species not yet published from the Czech Republic have been found – Hypotrachyna afrorevoluta and Punctelia borreri. A comparison of recorded species with literature data from our territory and neighboring countries is also included in the study. This work is the first study focused on the lichen recolonisation on larch in the Czech Republic
32342Reding J. (2019): Rock Climbing or Lichen Climbing? How Rock Climbing Impacts Bryophyte and Lichen Communities Within the Red River Gorge. - Thesis Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Science in the Graduate School of The Ohio State University, 99 p. .
Outdoor recreation has consistently been one of America’s greatest pastimes. Recently, the development of rock climbing areas has increased, becoming a $3.8 million industry in the Red River Gorge, Kentucky. This development has been shown to have differing levels of effects on the biota on cliff faces, with difficulty isolating natural effects to anthropogenic ones. The goals of this study are: 1) to determine the best practices of different abundance acquisition methods, determine if they can sense a disturbance gradient, and compare them to in-situ visual estimation, and 2) determine how rock climbing impacts cryptogamic abundance, species richness, and community composition while controlling for environmental factors. Accurately estimating vegetative abundance is a cornerstone of many ecological studies and a variety of methods to collect such data have been developed. In certain situations, for instance determining cryptogam abundance on rock surfaces, study sites can be difficult to access. Determining the best method to use when estimating abundance is an important part of collecting accurate data, gaining data in an efficient way, and limiting exposure to hazardous terrain. Because of this, it is important to understand the different types of methods available and how they compare to one another. Due to the increase in the popularity of rock climbing, understanding the impact of rock climbing is increasingly important, which requires abundance, species richness, and community composition data of cryptogamic communities on rock surfaces. Abundance was estimated using four different approaches: 1) visual cover estimation (total life-form and species-specific cover); 2) visual estimation of total cover from quadrat photographs; 3) unsupervised classification of quadrat photographs using the Interface Definition Language program Environment for Visualizing Images (ENVI); and 4) chlorophyll florescence using a Hansatech pocket PEA. The climbing use intensity, heat load index, and microtopographic variation were estimated for each quadrat. When comparing cover estimation methods, the ENVI method was the most strongly predictive of field visual estimation (R2 = 0.67), closely followed by visual photographic methods (R2 = 0.60). Chlorophyll florescence was not predictive of field visual methods (R2 = 0.09) but provided important insight to the presence of photosynthetic material not visible to the human eye. In-situ visual abundance, photographic visual abundance, and ENVI methods all detected significant differences in abundance across the climbing disturbance gradient. Community composition was significantly impacted (P < 0.01) by rock-climbing, the vertical resource gradient, climbing use intensity, microtopographic variation and heat load. Climbing impact interacted with the vertical resource gradient and the largest impacts on cryptogam abundance were seen at higher elevations on the routes. To minimize the impact of rock climbing, route establishers should avoid bolting to the top of the cliff face, climbers should avoid “topping out”, and climbers should climb as close the line of bolts (or guidebook depicted center of route) as possible
32341Sieteiglesias V., Gonzalez-Burgos E., Bermejo-Bescoś P., Divakar P.K.& Goḿez-Serranillos M.P. (2019): Lichens of Parmelioid Clade as Promising Multitarget Neuroprotective Agents. - Chem. Res. Toxicol., 32: 1165−1177. DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemrestox.9b00010.
Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease are multifactorial disorders which are increasing in incidence and prevalence over the world without existing effective therapies. The search for new multitarget compounds is the latter therapeutic strategy to address these pathological conditions. Lichens have an important and unknown therapeutic value attributed to their unique secondary metabolites. The aim of this study is to evaluate for the first time the in vitro neuroprotective activities and molecular mechanisms underlying methanol extracts of lichens of the parmelioid clade and to characterize major bioactive secondary metabolites responsible for their pharmacological actions. Of the 15 parmelioid lichen species, our results showed that Parmotrema perlatum and Hypotrachyna formosana methanol extracts exhibited high antioxidant activity as evidenced in ORAC, DPPH, and FRAP assays. Then, SH-SY5Y cells were pretreated with methanol extracts (24 h) followed by Fenton reagent exposure (2 h). Pretreatments with these two more antioxidant methanol lichen extracts increased cell viability, reduced intracellular ROS, prevented oxidative stress biomarkers accumulation, and upregulated antioxidant enzyme (CAT, SOD, GR, and GPx) activity compared to Fenton reagent cells. The neuroprotective activity was much higher for H. formosana than for P. perlatum, even equal to or higher than Trolox (reference compound). Moreover, H. formosana extracts inhibited both AChE and BuChE activities in a concentration dependent manner, and P. perlatum only showed concentration dependent activity against AChE. Finally, chemical composition analysis using TLC and HPLC methods revealed that physodic acid, lividic acid, and lichexanthone are major secondary metabolites in H. formosana and stictic acid and constictic acid are in P. perlatum. These results demonstrated that P. perlatum and, specially, H. formosana are promising multitargeted neuroprotective agents due to their antioxidant and AChE and BuChE inhibition activities
32340Backhaus T., Meeßen J., Demets R., Vera J.P. de & Ott S. (2019): Characterization of Viability of the Lichen Buellia frigida After 1.5 Years in Space on the International Space Station. - Astrobiology, 19(2): 233–241. DOI: 10.1089/ast.2018.1894.
The lichen Buellia frigida was exposed to space and simulated Mars analog conditions in the BIOlogy and Mars EXperiment (BIOMEX) project operated outside the International Space Station (ISS) for 1.5 years. To de- termine the effects of the low Earth orbit (LEO) conditions on the lichen symbionts, a LIVE/DEAD staining analysis test was performed. After return from the ISS, the lichen symbionts demonstrated mortality rates of up to 100% for the algal symbiont and up to 97.8% for the fungal symbiont. In contrast, the lichen symbiont controls exhibited mortality rates of 10.3% up to 31.9% for the algal symbiont and 14.5% for the fungal symbiont. The results performed in the BIOMEX Mars simulation experiment on the ISS indicate that the potential for survival and the resistance of the lichen B. frigida to LEO conditions are very low. It is unlikely that Mars could be inhabited by this lichen, even for a limited amount of time, or even not habitable planet for the tested lichen symbionts. Key Words: Astrobiology—BIOMEX—Lichen—Space conditions—Mars analog conditions. Astrobiology 19, 233–241.The lichen Buellia frigida was exposed to space and simulated Mars analog conditions in the BIOlogy and Mars EXperiment (BIOMEX) project operated outside the International Space Station (ISS) for 1.5 years. To de- termine the effects of the low Earth orbit (LEO) conditions on the lichen symbionts, a LIVE/DEAD staining analysis test was performed. After return from the ISS, the lichen symbionts demonstrated mortality rates of up to 100% for the algal symbiont and up to 97.8% for the fungal symbiont. In contrast, the lichen symbiont controls exhibited mortality rates of 10.3% up to 31.9% for the algal symbiont and 14.5% for the fungal symbiont. The results performed in the BIOMEX Mars simulation experiment on the ISS indicate that the potential for survival and the resistance of the lichen B. frigida to LEO conditions are very low. It is unlikely that Mars could be inhabited by this lichen, even for a limited amount of time, or even not habitable planet for the tested lichen symbionts. Key Words: Astrobiology, BIOMEX, Lichen, Space conditions, Mars analog conditions
32339Abas A., Sulaiman N., Adnan N.R., Aziz S.A. & Nawang W.N.S.W. (2019): Using Lichen (Dirinaria sp.) as Bio-Indicator for Airborne Heavy Metal at Selected Industrial Areas in Malaysia. - Environment Asia, 12(3): 85–90. DOI 10.14456/ea.2019.48.
In Malaysia, air pollution still measured using instrumental approach. Hence, this study used lichen as biological indicator to assess air pollution. Study has been conducted in four different locations which are Rumah Tumbuhan, UKM (Control station), Section 51 Industrial Area, Petaling Jaya, Spring Crest Industrial Area, Batu Caves and Nilai Industrial Area, Negeri Sembilan. This study used lichen Dirinaria sp.; an endemic species of tropical country; as the biological indicator. Heavy metal concentrations in lichen samples been analyzed using ICP-OES and number of motor vehicles were recorded for every sampling location. One way ANOVA and Pearson’s correlation used to test the relationship between heavy metals and sampling locations also relationship between heavy metals and motor vehicles. Result shows that heavy metals such as Cr, Fe, Cu, Ni, Zn and Pb have been recorded. One way ANOVA test shows there is significant relationship between heavy metals and sampling locations where F is 2.7728 and P value is 0.0001 (99% significant level). Pearson’s correlation also shows the relationships between all recorded heavy metals with number of motor vehicles where all the P value is < 0.05. This study found that lichen can be used as the alternative approach in determining the heavy metals content in the environment and it also cheaper and time saving rather than using instrumental approach. Heavy metals; Lichen; Air pollution; Environment; Urban ecosystem
32338Abas A., Awang A. & Aiyub K. (2019): Analysis of heavy metal concentration using transplanted lichen Usnea misaminensis at Kota Kinabalu, Sabah (Malaysia). - Applied Ecology and Environmental Research, 18(1): 1175–1182. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15666/aeer/1801_11751182.
Heavy metals were emitted from motor vehicles and industries as part of the effects of rapid urbanization. This study aims to measure the heavy metal concentrations (Cu, Fe, Zn, Pb, Mn, Cr) at Kota Kinabalu, Sabah using transplanted lichen. Samples of Usnea misaminensis were transplanted to the environment of the urban area. The lichen was collected from Mt. Kinabalu Park which is a remote area. Fifteen sampling stations were selected and transplanted lichens were exposed to heavy metals in those stations for about 4-6 weeks. Exposed lichens were analyzed using the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to determine the concentration of heavy metals in each sample. One-way ANOVA also has been used to test whether there is significant variation between heavy metals concentration at Kota Kinabalu, Sabah. The result showed that iron (Fe) has the highest concentration with 84.43 μg/g and chromium (Cr) has the lowest concentration with 0.66 μg/g. A statistical One-way ANOVA test showed that there is a significant variation between heavy metal frequency with P-value is 0.0000 < 0.05. A Tukey test also revealed that Fe has significantly higher concentration compare to the others. These findings prove that the increasing number of motor vehicles will also elevate the concentration of heavy metals in the atmosphere. Transplanted lichen can be the alternative approach in assessing air pollution in Malaysia’s urban area. lichen, air pollution, urban ecosystem, applied ecology, environmental management, Malaysia
32337Abas A., Khalid R.M., Rosandy A.R. & Sulaiman N. (2019): Lichens of Pulau Pangkor, Perak, Malaysia. - The Malaysian Forester, 82 (1): 59–66. .
A total of 12 species of lichens was recorded from the coastal areas of Teluk Nipah, Pulau Pangkor, Perak. The species are Buellia curatellae Malme, Dirinaria confluens (Fr.) D.D. Awasthi, Dirinaria picta (Sw.) Schaer. ex Clem., Chrysothrix xanthina (Vain.) Kalb, Cryptothecia striata G. Thor., Ocellularia perforata (Leight.) Müll. Arg., Parmotrema praesorediosum (Nyl.) Hale, Phaeographis intricans (Nyl.) Staiger, Pyxine berteriana (Fée) Imshaug, Pyrenula pyrenuloides (Mont.) R. C. Harris and Sarcographa labyrinthica (Ach.) Müll. Arg. Lichen, Pangkor Island, symbiotic organism, island ecosystem, environment
32336Rimondi V., Benesperi R., Beutel M.W., Chiarantini L., Costagliola P., Lattanzi P., Medas D. & Morelli G. (2020): Monitoring of airborne mercury: Comparison of different techniques in the Monte Amiata district, southern Tuscany, Italy. - International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(7): 2353 [10 p.] doi:10.3390/ijerph17072353. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072353.
In the present study, mercury (Hg) concentrations were investigated in lichens (Flavoparmelia caperata (L.) Hale, Parmelia saxatilis (L.) Ach., and Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th.Fr.) collected in the surrounding of the dismissed Abbadia San Salvatore Hg mine (Monte Amiata district, Italy). Results were integrated with Hg concentrations in tree barks and literature data of gaseous Hg levels determined by passive air samplers (PASs) in the same area. The ultimate goal was to compare results obtained by the three monitoring techniques to evaluate potential mismatches. Lichens displayed 180–3600 ng/g Hg, and Hg concentrations decreased exponentially with distance from the mine. Mercury concentration was lower than in Pinus nigra barks at the same site. There was a moderate correlation between Hg in lichen and Hg in bark, suggesting similar mechanisms of Hg uptake and residence times. However, correlation with published gaseous Hg concentrations (PASs) was moderate at best (Kendall Tau = 0.4–0.5, p > 0.05). The differences occurred because a) PASs collected gaseous Hg, whereas lichens and barks also picked up particulate Hg, and b) lichens and bark had a dynamic exchange with the atmosphere. Lichen, bark, and PAS outline different and complementary aspects of airborne Hg content and efficient monitoring programs in contaminated areas would benefit from the integration of data from different techniques. Keywords: biomonitoring; airborne pollutants; particulate Hg; lichens; tree barks; passive air samplers; mining area.
32335Dengler J., Matthews T.J., Steinbauer M.J., Wolfrum S., Boch S., Chiarucci A., Conradi T., Dembicz I., Marcenò C., García‐Mijangos I., Nowak A., Storch D., Ulrich W., Campos J.A., Cancellieri L., Carboni M., Ciaschetti G., De Frenne P., Dolezal J., Dolnik C., Essl F., Fantinato E., Filibeck G., Grytnes J., Guarino R., Güler B., Janišová M., Klichowska E., Kozub Ł., Kuzemko A., Manthey M., Mimet A., Naqinezhad A., Pedersen C., Peet R.K., Pellissier V., Pielech R., Potenza G., Rosati L., Terzi M., Valkó O., Vynokurov D., White H., Winkler M. & Biurrun I. (2020): Species–area relationships in continuous vegetation: Evidence from Palaearctic grasslands. - Journal of Biogeography, 47: 72–86. https://doi.org/10.1111/jbi.13697.
Aim: Species–area relationships (SARs) are fundamental scaling laws in ecology although their shape is still disputed. At larger areas, power laws best represent SARs. Yet, it remains unclear whether SARs follow other shapes at finer spatial grains in continuous vegetation. We asked which function describes SARs best at small grains and explored how sampling methodology or the environment influence SAR shape. Location: Palaearctic grasslands and other non‐forested habitats. Taxa: Vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens. Methods: We used the GrassPlot database, containing standardized vegetation‐plot data from vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens spanning a wide range of grassland types throughout the Palaearctic and including 2,057 nested‐plot series with at least seven grain sizes ranging from 1 cm2 to 1,024 m2. Using nonlinear regression, we assessed the appropriateness of different SAR functions (power, power quadratic, power breakpoint, logarithmic, Michaelis–Menten). Based on AICc, we tested whether the ranking of functions differed among taxonomic groups, methodological settings, biomes or vegetation types. Results: The power function was the most suitable function across the studied taxonomic groups. The superiority of this function increased from lichens to bryophytes to vascular plants to all three taxonomic groups together. The sampling method was highly influential as rooted presence sampling decreased the performance of the power function. By contrast, biome and vegetation type had practically no influence on the superiority of the power law. Main conclusions: We conclude that SARs of sessile organisms at smaller spatial grains are best approximated by a power function. This coincides with several other comprehensive studies of SARs at different grain sizes and for different taxa, thus supporting the general appropriateness of the power function for modelling species diversity over a wide range of grain sizes. The poor performance of the Michaelis– Menten function demonstrates that richness within plant communities generally does not approach any saturation, thus calling into question the concept of minimal area. Key words: logarithmic function, Michaelis–Menten function, minimal area, nested‐plot sampling, nonlinear regression, Palaearctic grassland, plant biodiversity, power law, scaling law, species– area relationship (SAR).
32334Materna J. (2000): Oribatid communities (Acari: Oribatida) inhabiting saxicolous mosses and lichens in the Krkonoše Mts. (Czech Republic). - Pedobiologia, 44: 40–62. .
Key words: Saxicolous mosses and lichens, altitudinal gradient, Oribatida, mountain fauna, community structure.
32333Wagner B. (2018): Lišejníky NPP Jánský vrch u Mostu (SZ Čechy) [Lichens of Jánský vrch Natural Monument near Most (NW Bohemia)]. - Severočeskou přírodou, 50: 91–94. .
A lichenological survey was performed in period 2011-2013. Key words: České středohoří, lichen flora, basaltic tuff, Dimelaena oreina, diversity.
32332Wagner B. (2018): Epifytické lišejníky Dlouhého vrchu u Litoměřic (severní Čechy) [Epiphytic lichens of the hill Dlouhý vrch near Litoměřice (Northem Bohemia)]. - Severočeskou přírodou, 50: 95–102. .
This paper shows recolonization of epiphytic lichens in economic forest and neighbouring pasture. Dlouhý vrch near Litoměřice lies in height 350 to 677 m above sea Jeve! and has seven main hilltops. Spruces trees, oak trees, pine vegetation, beech trees and mixed forest takes turn into rngged terrain. On the forest edges were found the most interesting species of epiphytic lichens. Probably these species are new for the territory České středohoří (Flavoparmelia caperata, Lecanora populicola, Parmelina tinctina, Punctelia jeckeri, Ramalina farinacea). Inside the forest the most interesting lichens were growing on larches (Usnea subfloridana, U. scabrata, U. dasypoga and other). In total, 50 species of epihytic and lignicolous lichens were recorded on the area about 10km2. Key words: České středohoří, Dlouhý vrch, epiphytic lichens, Flavoparmelia caperata, Usnea scabrata.
32331Wagner B. & Ondráček Č. (2018): Nové lokality lišejníku Evernia divaricata v severozápadních Čechách. - Severočeskou přírodou, 50: 72. .
32330Špryňar P., Palice Z. & Soldán Z. (2014): Za mechorosty, lišejníky a cévnatými rostlinami z Karlštejna do Srbska [Botanical excursion from Karlštejn to Srbsko (bryophytes, lichens and vascular plants)]. - Český kras, 40: 33–40. .
Report on excursion; [in Czech with English abstract: ] Two spring botanical excursions in 2013 (on April 6th and May 25th) were aimed to explore a less-known area between the villages of Karlštejn and Srbsko on the right bank of the Berounka River (Central Bohemia). At the beginning we examined ruderal grasslands and man-made habitats near the Karlštejn railway station with many synanthropic plant species. Among others, we recorded common occurrence of an endangered species Saxifraga tridactylites. Then we moved to the Silurian diabase outcrops east of Krupná. In the steppe grasslands, some endangered species were found: lichens Cladonia cariosa, C. peziziformis, C. symphycarpa, moss Tortella squarrosa (syn. Pleurochate squarrosa), flowering plants Bothriochloa ischaemum, Cerastium brachypetalum subsp. brachypetalum, C. pumilum, Lactuca perennis, Medicago minima, Pulsatilla pratensis subsp. bohemica etc. The next locality was situated on Devonian limestone rocks along the railway toward the Srbsko village. Forty-five years ago, this area was proposed (but not established yet) as a nature protected area called „Na Vanovicích“, distinguished by rich vegetation and flora. North-facing rocky slopes are covered with Sesleria caerulea-dominated grasslands, with occurrence of Saxifraga paniculata and Dianthus gratianopolitanus. On the other hand, the dry and warm south- and west-facing slopes are the stands of steppe grasslands Festucion valesiacae with Stipa pennata, Carex humilis, Erysimum crepidifolium, Potentilla incana (syn. P. arenaria) etc. We confirmed also the occurrence of critically endangered Pontic Dragonhead (Dracocephalum austriacum) and strongly endangered species Thesium bavarum, Silene nemoralis and Helianthemum canum. Our find of the endangered lichen species Xanthoria sorediata became the first record for the Bohemian Karst. Then we climbed down to the Myší rokle ravine. This damp and shady habitat is an important stand of lichens (e.g., Gyalecta subclausa, Acrocordia conoidea, Porina linearis, new and noteworthy records for the Bohemian Karst) as well as mosses (e.g., vulnerable moss Seligeria pusilla). After that, we visited the abandoned limestone quarry „Tomáškův lom“, which is an excellent example of natural restoration via ecological succession. One of our last botanical records was the strongly endangered species Saxifraga rosacea subsp. sponhemica growing on the railway embankment in the Srbsko village. In the whole, we recorded 60 taxa of lichens, 58 taxa of bryophytes and 278 taxa of vascular plants.
32329Ondráček Č. & Wagner B. (2017): Stereocaulon alpinum – druhá lokalita v Krušných horách. - Severočeskou přírodou, 49: 130. .
32328Yavuz M. & Çobanoğlu G. (2019): A biomonitoring study on Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th.Fr. in Isparta, Turkey. - Oltenia. Studii şi comunicări. Ştiinţele Naturii, 35(1): 71–80. .
This study aims at determining air quality and potential pollutant sources in Isparta, as well as Gölcük Nature Park, through lichen biomonitoring. The specimens of cosmopolite epiphytic foliose lichen Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th.Fr were sampled from 8 localities in the study area and analysed in an ICP – MS device with reference material, in order to detect Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn elements. The distribution of these airborne elements in the study area was mapped spatially. The results indicate that the elemental sequence of average concentrations measured is Ni > V > Cr > Fe > As > Cu > Al > Zn > Mn > Cd > Pb. Cluster analysis results of the elemental data indicate a strong correlation of the major 3 contaminants in the urban area, which are Ni, V, and Cr. The lichen specimens accumulated maximal concentrations of Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni, Zn within the Nature Park, the rest of the elements in northern and the eastern localities surrounding the city. The elemental pollution in Isparta is higher than expected due to extensive use of coal as fossil fuel in the city, and it seems to be associated with topographic and climatic characteristics of the city. Keywords: airborne elements, lichen, biomonitoring, Isparta.
32327Vicol I. (2019): A review of the distribution of the Mycomicrothelia Keissl. 1936 genus in Romania. - Oltenia. Studii şi comunicări. Ştiinţele Naturii, 35(1): 81–85. .
Recent data on the Mycomicrothelia genus chorology have not been reported for Romania. The information found in literature revealed a low distribution of the Mycomicrothelia genus on Romanian territory. Atmospheric pollution could be a cause of the lack of species belonging to the Mycomicrothelia genus within forests from Romania. In this paper, the worldwide and national chorological data, substrate, taxonomy and cenotaxonomy of Mycomicrothelia genus are presented. As the main conclusion, the Mycomicrothelia genus has not been identified on an extended area from Romania. Keywords: Mycomicrothelia genus, chorology, Romania.
32326Zárate-Arias N., Moreno-Palacios M. & Torres-Benítez A. (2019): Diversidad, especificidad de forófito y preferencias microambientales de líquenes cortícolas de un bosque subandino en la región Centro de Colombia. Diversity, phorophyte specificity and microenvironmental preferences of corticolous lichens in a sub-Andean forest in the Centro region of Colombia. - Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales, 43(169): 737–745. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.18257/raccefyn.886.
Our study aimed at contributing to the knowledge of the composition and diversity, phorophyte specificity, and microenvironmental preferences of corticolous lichens from a forest in the sub-Andean Centro region of Colombia (Ibague-Tolima). We selected 25 individuals from five tree species. We estimated the coverage percentage of each species of lichen and identified the microsite parameters (bark pH and diameter at breast height, DBH), as well as the microclimatic variables (temperature, humidity, and radiation). We estimated the richness and the alpha diversity and we applied multivariate analysis to establish the phorophyte-lichen and lichen-environmental condition relationships. We recorded 21 species grouped in eight families and 14 genera. Arthoniaceae was the family with the greatest coverage and Physciaceae the one with the greatest richness. The most abundant species was Bacidia spp. Trichilia pallida phorophyte had the highest richness and diversity, while Cecropia angustifolia was the most dominant species of lichen. Except Leptogium hanum, which was found in two phorophytes, the other species preferred one single phorophyte. The pH, light intensity, temperature, and DAP were positively correlated to the establishment of lichens. We registered a significant diversity that opens the way to new research useful for preserving these strategic ecosystems of the Andean region in Colombia. Keywords: Lichens; phorophytes; microclimatic; microsite; diversity.
32325Shivarov V.V. (2017): First records of lichenicolous species from the Bulgarian freshwater habitats. - Phytologia Balcanica, 23(3): 349–353. http://www.bio.bas.bg/~phytolbalcan/PDF/23_3/PhytolBalcan_23-3_04_Shivarov.pdf.
Placopyrenium cinereoatratum and Stigmidium rivulorum, lichenicolous lichen and fungus, respectively, are reported for the first time from Bulgaria. Both species are rare or otherwise overlooked worldwide. Descriptions, comments, and illustrations based on Bulgarian specimens are provided. Key words: Bulgaria, freshwater fungi, Mycosphaerellaceae, Pirin Mts, Verrucariaceae.
32324Tzonev R., Valachovič M., Ganeva A., Berešová A., Popgeorgiev G., Gussev C. & Fačkovcová Z. (2019): Low-altitudinal siliceous and base-rich screes: new habitats to Bulgaria from the Habitats Directive. - Phytologia Balcanica, 25(3): 287–294. http://www.bio.bas.bg/~phytolbalcan/PDF/25_3/PhytolBalcan_25-3_07_Tzonev_&_al.pdf.
The study presents recent data on the distribution of two new chasmophytic habitats to Bulgaria. They are low-altitudinal siliceous screes distributed mostly in South Bulgaria, and calcareous screes found mostly in the northern part of the country. Their main characteristics, as well as many typical vascular plants, mosses and lichens are given in the paper. The habitats are included in the Habitats Directive under the names 8150 Medio-European upland siliceous screes and 8160* Medio-European calcareous screes at hill and montane levels. This was the reason to make an attempt at calculating their representativeness in the existing NATURA 2000 sites in Bulgaria by means of field researches, GIS models from the Forestry Database and mapping. Key words: acidic and calcareous geological background, chasmophytic vegetation, NATURA 2000.
32323Potkay A., ten Veldhuis M.‐C., Fan Y., Mattos C.R.C., Ananyev G. & Dismukes G.C. (2020): Water and vapor transport in algal‐fungal lichen: Modeling constrained by laboratory experiments, an application for Flavoparmelia caperata. - Plant, Cell & Environment, 43(4): 945–964. https://doi.org/10.1111/pce.13690.
Algal‐fungal symbionts share water, nutrients, and gases via an architecture unique to lichens. Because lichen activity is controlled by moisture dynamics, understanding water transport is prerequisite to understand their fundamental biology. We propose a model of water distributions within foliose lichens governed by laws of fluid motion. Our model differentiates between water stored in symbionts, on extracellular surfaces, and in distinct morphological layers. We parameterize our model with hydraulic properties inverted from laboratory measurements of Flavoparmelia caperata and validate for wetting and drying. We ask: (1) Where is the bottleneck to water transport? (2) How do hydration and dehydration dynamics differ? and (3) What causes these differences? Resistance to vapor flow is concentrated at thallus surfaces and acts as the bottleneck for equilibrium, while internal resistances are small. The model captures hysteresis in hydration and desiccation, which are shown to be controlled by nonlinearities in hydraulic capacitance. Muting existing nonlinearities slowed drying and accelerated wetting, while exaggerating nonlinearities accelerated drying and slowed wetting. The hydraulic nonlinearity of F. caperata is considerable, which may reflect its preference for humid and stable environments. The model establishes the physical foundation for future investigations of transport of water, gas, and sugar between symbionts. Keywords: Flavoparmelia caperata; Symbiosis; hydraulic limitations; lichen; modeling; water relations.
32322Li A.-H., Yuan F.-X., Groenewald M., Bensch K., Yurkov A.M., Li K., Han P.-J., Guo L.-D., Aime M.C., Sampaio J.P., Jindamorakot S., Turchetti B., Inacio J., Fungsin B., Wang Q.-M. & Bai F.-Y. (2020): Diversity and phylogeny of basidiomycetous yeasts from plant leaves and soil: Proposal of two new orders, three new families, eight new genera and one hundred and seven new species. - Studies in Mycology, 96: 17–140. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.simyco.2020.01.002.
Nearly 500 basidiomycetous yeast species were accepted in the latest edition of The Yeasts: A Taxonomic Study published in 2011. However, this number presents only the tip of the iceberg of yeast species diversity in nature. Possibly more than 99 % of yeast species, as is true for many groups of fungi, are yet unknown and await discovery. Over the past two decades nearly 200 unidentified isolates were obtained during a series of environmental surveys of yeasts in phyllosphere and soils, mainly from China. Among these isolates, 107 new species were identified based on the phylogenetic analyses of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) [D1/D2 domains of the large subunit (LSU), the small subunit (SSU), and the internal transcribed spacer region including the 5.8S rDNA (ITS)] and protein-coding genes [both subunits of DNA polymerase II (RPB1 and RPB2), the translation elongation factor 1-α (TEF1) and the mitochondrial gene cytochrome b (CYTB)], and physiological comparisons. Forty-six of these belong to 16 genera in the Tremellomycetes ( Agaricomycotina ). The other 61 are distributed in 26 genera in the Pucciniomycotina . Here we circumscribe eight new genera, three new families and two new orders based on the multi-locus phylogenetic analyses combined with the clustering optimisation analysis and the predicted similarity thresholds for yeasts and filamentous fungal delimitation at genus and higher ranks. Additionally, as a result of these analyses, three new combinations are proposed and 66 taxa are validated. Key words: Basidiomycetous yeasts, Molecular phylogeny, Species diversity, Taxonomy.
32321Chiarantini L., Rimondi V., Benvenuti M., Beutel M.W., Costagliola P., Gonnelli C., Lattanzi P. & Paolieri M. (2016): Black pine (Pinus nigra) barks as biomonitors of airborne mercury pollution. - Science of the Total Environment, 569–570: 105–113. .
Tree barks are relevant interfaces between plants and the external environment, and can effectively retain airborne particles and elements at their surface. In this paper we have studied the distribution of mercury (Hg) in soils and in black pine (Pinus nigra) barks from the Mt. Amiata Hg district in southern Tuscany (Italy), where past Hg mining and present-day geothermal power plants affect local atmospheric Hg concentration, posing serious environmental concerns. Barks collected in heavily Hg-polluted areas of the district display the highest Hg concentration ever reported in literature (8.6 mg/kg). In comparison, barks of the same species collected in local reference areas and near geothermal power plants showmuch lower (range 19–803 μg/kg) concentrations; even lower concentrations are observed at a “blank” site near the city of Florence (5–98 μg/kg). Results showa general decrease of Hg concentration from bark surface inwards, in accordance with a deposition of airborne Hg, with minor contribution from systemic uptake from soils. Preliminary results indicate that bark Hg concentrations are comparable with values reported for lichens in the same areas, suggesting that tree barks may represent an additional useful tool for biomonitoring of airborne Hg.
32320Vanaja S., Suhashini G., Lakshmi Priya B., Ronaldo Anuf A., Ganesh Moorthy I., Sivakumar N., Al Dhabi N.A., Ponmurugan K. & Shyam Kumar R. (2017): Biology of lichen polysaccharides and its applications – a review. - In: Sivakumar N. & Kannan N.D. (eds), Proceedings of the National Conference on Innovations in Biotechnology [NCIB 2017], School of Biotechnology, MKU, p. 64–75, Nagamalaipudukottai Madurai, Sri Meenakshi Publications. .
[Conference paper] Lichens are symbiotic organisms. The two different organisms involved in the symbiosis is referred as mycobiont which is a fungus and photobiont, which may be an alga or cyanobacteria. Lichens are well known for the production of unique lichen substances, some are potentially useful and biologically active compounds. Traditional and modern techniques were used for isolation and separation of secondary metabolites and polysaccharides from lichens. Freezing and thawing of material in aqueous extract was the traditional methods have been practised for isolation which was followed by dialysis and ethanol precipitation for further purification. Polysaccharides isolated from lichens consist of linear or scarcely substituted α- or β-glucans, galactomannans and few complex heteroglycans. Functions of these polysaccharides mainly depend on the presence of monosaccharides, water solubility, molecular weight, degree of branching, structure and configuration. Monosaccharides of the lichen polysaccharides can be determined using gas chromatography, methylation analysis, 1H and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Lichen polysaccharides exhibits various properties such as anti-tumour, anti-viral, anti-oxidant, immunomodulatory and some biological effects. Lichens have been traditionally used for medicinal purposes throughout the ages, and its benefits have been correlated with their polysaccharide content. In this review, classification of lichens, lichen polysaccharides, extraction and analysis of polysaccharides and its applications were discussed. Keywords: Lichens; Polysaccharides, Galactomannans; Chromatography, NMR spectroscopy; Immunomodulators.
32319Ford M., Blanchon D.J. & de Lange P.J. (2020): Hidden in Plain sight—a new species of lichen Strigula oleistrata (Strigulaceae) from New Zealand. - Trilepidea, 196: 1 & 3–4. .
32318Sierra M.A., Danko D.C., Sandoval T.A., Pishchany G., Moncada B., Kolter R., Mason C.E. & Zambrano M.M. (2020): The microbiomes of seven lichen genera reveal host specificity, a reduced core community and potential as source of antimicrobials . - Frontiers in Microbiology, 11: 398 [12 p.] doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2020.00398. .
The High Andean Paramo ecosystem is a unique neotropical mountain biome considered a diversity and evolutionary hotspot. Lichens, which are complex symbiotic structures that contain diverse commensal microbial communities, are prevalent in Paramos. There they play vital roles in soil formation and mineral fixation. In this study we analyzed the microbiomes of seven lichen genera in Colombian Paramos using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and provide the first description of the bacterial communities associated with Cora and Hypotrachyna lichens. Paramo lichen microbiomes varied in diversity indexes and number of OTUs, but were composed predominantly by the phyla Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia. In the case of Cora and Cladonia, the microbiomes were distinguished based on the identity of the lichen host. While the majority of the lichen-associated microorganisms were not present in all lichens sampled, sixteen taxa shared among this diverse group of lichens suggest a core lichen microbiome that broadens our concept of these symbiotic structures. Additionally, we identified strains producing compounds active against clinically relevant microbial strains. These results indicate that lichen microbiomes from the Paramo ecosystem are diverse and host-specific but share a taxonomic core and can be a source of new bacterial taxa and antimicrobials. Keywords: lichen, microbiome, Paramo ecosystem, antimicrobials, core.
32317Травкин В.П., Корчиков Е.С. & Цуриков А.Г. [Travkin V.P., Korchikov E.S. & Tsurykau A.G.] (2020): Новые находки лишайников и лихенофильных грибов на территории Самарской области [New findings of lichens and lichenicolous fungi on the territory of Samara region]. - Вестник Оренбургского государственного педагогического университета [Vestnik of Orenburg State University], 33(1): 38–47. .
[in Russian with English summary: ] The article provides information on new records of the Samara region red-listed lichen Flavopunctelia soredica in the Trans-Volga territory, as well as on the first records of lichen Strangospora pinicola and lichenicolous fungus Marchandiomyces corallinus within the study area. In Samara region, Flavopunctelia soredica can be found in the Trans-Volga territory in Borskoye, Kinel, Krasnoyarsk, Stavropol districts, and in the city of Samara (Krasnoglinsky city district). Strangospora pinicola was reported in the Trans-Volga territory in the Kinel and Krasnoyarsk districts. Marchandiomyces corallinus was registered in the Trans-Volga territory in Bogatoye, Borskoye, Kinel-Cherkassy and Krasnoyarsk districts. The abundance of Flavopunctelia soredica in the registered localities is constant. The species occurs sporadically and often forms an average projective cover of up to 50% which makes it possible to reassess its conservation status if additional records are found. Genera Strangospora and Marchandiomyces are new for lichen biota of the Samara region. Considering the new records, the lichen biota of Samara region includes 350 species of lichens and 26 species of lichenicolous fungi. Key words: lichens, lichenicolous fungi, Samara region, red-listed species, conservation status.
32316Węgrzyn M.H., Kołodziejczyk J., Fałowska P., Wężyk P., Zięba-Kulawik K., Szostak M., Turowska A., Grzesiak B. & Wietrzyk-Pełka P. (2020): Influence of the environmental factors on the species composition of lichen Scots pine forests as a guide to maintain the community (Bory Tucholskie National Park, Poland). - Global Ecology and Conservation , 22: e01017 [17 p.] https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gecco.2020.e01017. .
Central European lichen Scots pine forests occur in extremely dry and poor sandy areas. This forest type, in terms of phytosociological classification, corresponds to the Cladonio- Pinetum association. This community is protected by European Union’s legislation (Natura 2000 habitat, code 91T0) and needs active protection to be maintained. The presented study was planned based on the conservation activities performed in 2017, which included thinning of the tree stand in selected areas of the lichen Scots pine forest community in the Bory Tucholskie National Park. Thinning effect was documented by the LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data collected in 2017 before thinning and 2018 after thinning. Next we characterized two different forms of Cladonio-Pinetum association (lichen-rich and bryophyte-rich forms) and their relation to local environmental factors. To demonstrate that thinning is beneficial to the lichens we also compared the microclimatic conditions (temperature, humidity and light intensity) in thinned and unthinned areas. Vegetation and organic matter sampling was conducted in 2018 in the 24 sampling plots, each of 100 m2. Microclimatic measurements was done in 2018e2019 in one sampling plots of the thinned area and one additional control plot in the unthinned area. Sampling plots representing lichen-rich community had significantly lower canopy cover, higher number of lichen species, higher lichen cover and lower bryophyte cover in comparison to bryophyte-rich plots. The results showed that the lower canopy cover creates more favorable conditions for the occurrence of lichens, because of increasing the daily amplitudes of temperature, humidity and light intensity. Reduction of the canopy cover may be the easiest method to maintain the lichen pine forests community with high abundance of lichens in the field layer. This is particularly important in relation to the observed disappearance phenomenon of lichen pine forest in Europe. Due to this tendency, it is particularly important to actively protect these plant communities.
32315Santos V.M., Cáceres M.E.S. & Lücking R. (2020): Diversity of foliicolous lichens in isolated montane rainforests (Brejos) of northeastern Brazil and their biogeography in a neotropical context. - Ecological Research, 35: 182–197. .
Foliicolous lichenized fungi (FLF) are widely distributed in tropical forests. The Brazilian Atlantic rainforest, one of the most diverse rainforest biomes, has multiple phyto-physiognomies. Montane forest fragments or forest refuges, so-called “Brejos,” are located within the semiarid Caatinga in Northeast Brazil. Our objective was to determine the FLF diversity within five Brejos and to analyze their biogeographic affinities within the Neotropics. The FLF biota of the Brejos was compared with that of 21 sites belonging to seven other rainforest biomes, ranging from the Atlantic rainforest in Argentina, to montane rainforests in Ecuador, to the Amazonia basin, and rainforests in Central America. One hundred and fifty-six species were identified in the Brejos. This biota is most similar to that of the Atlantic rainforest and eastern Amazonia, while that of western Amazonia is more similar to that of the Andes and rainforests in Central America (Chocó). Multiple species identified in the Brejos have a wide distribution in tropical America, and only 11 are potentially endemic. Few other species have also a restricted distribution. The FLF biota of the Chocó and western Amazon is substantially richer than that of eastern Amazon, the Atlantic rainforest and the Brejos. This suggests that the biota of the latter areas is largely a depauperate subset of the Chocó and the western Amazon region. We argue that the major differences between the two large regions are related to the Pleistocene and Pliocene, when paleoclimatic and geological changes caused the isolation of the Brejos and the temporary fragmentation particularly of eastern Amazonia. Keywords: Fragmentation, Fungi, Lichens, Neotropical rainforests, Palaeo-climate changes.
32314Rastetter V. (1964): Beitrag zur Flechtenflora des Ober-Elsasses. - Mitteilungen des Badischen Landesvereins für Naturkunde und Naturschutz, Freiburg im Breisgau, 8: 621–624. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Mitt-Bad-Landesver-Natkde-Natschutz-Freiburg_NF_8_0621-0624.pdf.
32313Almquist E. (1892): Zur Vegetation Japans mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Lichenen. - Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie, 14: 221–229. .
32312Möllmann G. (1911): Beitrag zur Flechtenflora des Regierungsbezirks Osnabrück . - Jahresbericht des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins Osnabrück, 17: 185–196. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Jber-Natwiss-Ver-Osnabrueck_17_0185-0196.pdf.
32311Boldt C. & Schier T. (1998): Bemerkenswerte Funde epiphytischer Flechten in Hamburg-Altenwerder. - Berichte des Botanischen Vereins zu Hamburg, 18: 109–114. .
32310Oblinger H. (1996): Bartflechten (Usneaceae) im Augsburger Raum . - Berichte des naturwiss. Vereins für Schwaben, Augsburg, 100(3): 55–61. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Ber-Naturwiss-Ver-fuer-Schwaben_100_3_0055-0061.pdf.
32309Oblinger H. (1999): Flechten in und bei Augsburg - vor 100 Jahren (1898) und jetzt (1998) . - Berichte des naturwiss. Vereins für Schwaben, Augsburg, 103: 48–59. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Ber-Naturwiss-Ver-fuer-Schwaben_103_0048-0059.pdf.
32308Bergner W., Hartmann E., Oblinger H. & Seitz W. (1998): Flechtenverbreitung im Augsburger Raum. - Berichte des naturwiss. Vereins für Schwaben, Augsburg, 102: 2–24. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Ber-Naturwiss-Ver-fuer-Schwaben_102_0002-0024.pdf.
32307Döbbeler P. (1980): Phycorella scytonematis (Dothideales), ein neuer Symbiont der Blaualge Scytonema. - Sydowia, 33: 33–38. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Sydowia_33_0033-0038.pdf.
Phycorella scytonematis nov. gen. et sp. (Dothideales) with minute colourless ascomata is described and illustrated. The fungus infects single colls of Scytonema (Cyanophyceae) by haustoria. The symbiosis is interpreted as biotrophic parasitism rather than lichenization, though Scytonema is known as phycobiont in many lichens and lichen-like associations.
32306Notov A.A. (2014): Fruticose lichens: structural diversity, taxonomic characteristics and evolution. - Wulfenia, 21: 21–31. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Wulfenia_21_0021-0031.pdf.
A morphological and taxonomical analysis of fruticose lichens has revealed the main characteristics of their structural diversity. The occurrence rate of the fruticose and similar growth forms in various taxa of the current lichen system has been identified. Various ways of origin have been investigated as well as the main directions of the fruticose growth form evolution. Keywords: lichens, fruticose lichens, growth forms, evolution, biomorphology, morphogenesis, structural diversity.
32305Perez Catán S., Bubach D., Arribére M., Ansaldo M., Kitaura M.J., Scur M.C. & Lirio J.M. (2020): Trace elements baseline levels in Usnea antarctica from Clearwater Mesa, James Ross Island, Antarctica. - Environmental Monitoring and Assessment , 192: 246 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-020-8212-7.
Clearwater Mesa is a pristine area located SE of Croft Bay in James Ross Island, at the northeast of the Antarctic Peninsula. The closest anthropic construction is the summer Mendel station located 25 km to the NE. Clearwater is a remote basalt volcanic mesa, (64° 01′ S, 57° 42′ W) located at ~ 250 m a.s.l., with around 50 small shallow lakes, a well-developed lichens flora and scarce fauna. The mesa offers a good opportunity to use lichens, like Usnea antarctica, as a biomonitor species. The aim of this study was to determine the baseline levels of trace elements in Usnea antarctica and their relationships with geographical parameters and climatological aspects, to use them as reference levels in futures studies. Usnea antarctica was collected in 23 sites in two transects: perpendicular and parallel to the shore. We found high contents of the elements associated with long-distance transport like Sm, La, Sc, Fe, Co, Hg, and Ca. The elements linked to the marine biogenic cycle as Sr, Rb, Cs, K, Na, Sb, As, Se, and Br were less significant. The distance to the sea was the factor that related the element contents. Hg, Se, As, and Br content in Usnea antarctica increased from the inland towards the sea coast. Keywords: Lichen . Biomonitor . Antarctica . Trace elements.
32304Meysurova A.F. & Notov A.A. (2020): Estimated indicator ability of several lichens for ecological monitoring of metals using atomic emission spectral analysis. - Journal of Applied Spectroscopy , 87(1): 83–91. DOI 10.1007/s10812-020-00967-7.
[English translation from the Russian original published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Spektroskopii, Vol. 87, No. 1, pp. 97–107] Distributions of heavy metals and metalloids (HMs) in forest reserves of Tver city districts were studied by ecological monitoring using inductively coupled plasma atomic-emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analysis. A total of 14 HMs were detected in two lichen species (Hypogymnia physodes, Xanthoria parietina); 13, in soil samples. TM spectra were similar in both species at all studied model territories. The TM contents in lichens and soil were different and due to specifi c absorption of ecotoxins by living objects. The nature of HM accumulation and indicator abilities of the lichens depended on the anthropogenic impacts on the territory, ecological factors, and specifi cs of the lichen chemical compositions. Hypogymnia physodes had greater indicator value on anthropogenically impacted territories; X. parietina, in undisturbed phytocenoses. Each of these species could reliably detect Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd, V, and Pb. Sn and Cr were absorbed more by X. parietina; Ni and Co, H. physodes, which should be considered in monitoring studies. Keywords: inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analysis, biomonitoring, heavy metal, metalloid, Hypogymnia physodes, Xanthoria parietina, epiphytic lichen, indicator species, accumulation level.
32303Goppel C. (1984): Emittentenbezogene Flechtenkartierung im Stadtgebiet von Laufen. - Berichte der Bayerischen Akademie für Naturschutz und Landschaftspflege, 8: 4–21. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Ber-Bayer-Akad-f-Natursch-u-Landschaftspfl_8_1984_0004-0021.pdf.
32302Wilmanns O. & Wirth V. (1968): Die Flechtenvegetation der Wutachschlucht. - Mitteilungen des Badischen Landesvereins für Naturkunde und Naturschutz, N.F., Freiburg im Breisgau, 9(4): 725–733. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Mitt-Bad-Landesver-Natkde-Natschutz-Freiburg_NF_9_0725-0733.pdf.
32301Hachenberg W. (1974): Beitrag zur Dortmunder Flechtenflora. - Dortmunder Beiträge zur Landeskunde, 7: 47–52. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Dortmunder-Beitr-Landeskde_7_0047-0052.pdf.
32300Oller Cruz O.J. (2016): Empleo de bioindicadores para determinar la calidad del aire en la ciudad de Tarija en puntos de muestreo de red MoniCA. Use of bioindicators to determine air quality in Tarija city in sampling points of MoniCA network. - Acta Nova, 8(3): 307–321. .
[in Spanish with English abstract: ] The possibility of using active bio monitoring with Vicia faba, Raphanus sativus and passive bio monitoring through mapping lichen in the city of Tarija has not been considered to this date. This type of monitoring is carried out in other cities of Bolivia; but with different climatic and geographical conditions, so its feasibility in Tarija’s territory is unknown. These type of studies are considered an economic alternative with an easy application compared to traditional monitoring process, which could be established as a preliminary study for air quality in smaller cities within the department. Being a subjective study and to be subject to external variables, it has been decided to carry out a comparison with recorded data by the Air Quality Monitoring Network (MoniCA Network). Keywords: Bioindicator, Air Quality, Tarija.
32299Gonzales Vargas N., Luján Pérez M., Navarro Sánchez G. & Flores Mercado R. (2016): Aplicabilidad de líquenes bioindicadores como herramienta de monitoreo de la calidad del aire en la ciudad de Cochabamba. Applicability of bioindicators lichens as monitoring tool for air quality in Cochabamba. - Acta Nova, 7(4): 455–482. .
[in Spanish with English abstract: ] This study was performed in the metropolitan area of Cercado in Cochabamba - Bolivia, using epiphytic lichens as bioindicators of air pollution, through the Index of Atmospheric Purity (IAP) method. The research was carried out in 9 monitoring points, taking Fraxinus americana as the only phorophyte, where 12 species of lichens were found in total. Data of climate parameters, pollutants, coverage and frequency of lichen communities were obtained in each monitoring point, in order to establish a statistical analysis using spearman correlations, cluster and path analysis. It was found that the epiphytic lichens are affected directly by atmospheric pollution (mainly NO2 and PM10) and indirectly by climate parameters and/or geomorphological data. In the case of Cochabamba‟s Valley, the temperature inversion is influenced directly by the minimum temperature of the coldest month and height, increasing pollution in lower areas and thus decreasing lichen communities. The development of IAP was able to identify isocontamination zones by the ArcGis program, where areas with poor air quality were identified in the south and areas with better quality in the north. We identified as more tolerant species to global pollution, C. concolor, P. pachyphylla and P. nubila, while the most sensitive were H. syncolla and T. chrysophthalmus. Key words: Bioindicators, air pollution, lichens, climatic parameters, statistical analysis.
32298Żarnowiec J., Stebel A. & Chmura D. (2020): The alien moss Orthodontium lineare Schwägr. in Poland (East-Central Europe): a summary of nearly 40 years of invasion . - Biological Invasions, 22: 1249–1263. .
Orthodontium lineare, a neophyte of southern origin, was accidentally introduced by human activity to England in 1910. Subsequently it spread to mainland Europe and it continues to move eastward. In Poland, it was discovered in 1980–1981. The present paper shows dot distribution maps at 10-year intervals and discusses the dynamics of its invasion and ecological preferences using statistical methods. In Poland in 2018 it was known in 235 stands. 86.4% of them were located below 300 m a.s.l. and only 10.2% of the sites reached the lower mountain forest belt (maximum altitude 915 m). On every substrate and in all types of habitat, it commonly produced sporophytes (88.6% of the specimens investigated). Most commonly it occurred on rotting wood (38.5% of all records) and the base of tree trunks (33.9%). Rarely it grew on soil (podzolic and acid podzolic brown soils and humus on rocks; in total 19.0%). Most frequently it was found on the dead wood of Pinus sylvestris (31.3% of all records on rotting wood) and Picea abies (23.2%) and on the bases ofP. sylvestris trunks (77.0%).Up to 2018 itwas listed in 13 habitat types, including eight EU habitats (two priority), the most often invaded being seminatural forest (25.8% of all records), boggy woodland (23.4%), mature managed forest developed from old plantations (17.7%), wooded dunes of the Atlantic region (9.7%) and Luzulo-Fagetum beech forest (6.9%). 33 accompanying taxa were found comprising 6 liverworts, 23 mosses and 4 lichens. Of these only 7 species were present in more than 5% of the samples. Keywords: Cryptogamic plant invasion; Adventive moss; Invasive moss; Invasion curve; Distribution map; Ecological preferences.
32297Dai D.-Q., Tang L.-Z., Liu C., Wang H.-B. & Hyde K.D. (2018): Studies on Parmulariaceae I. A phylogeny based on available sequence data; introducing Parmulariales ord. nov., and Hemigraphaceae, Melaspileellaceae and Stictographaceae fam. nov.. - Phytotaxa, 369(2): 63–79. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.369.2.1.
The family Parmulariaceae comprises three polyphyletic genera, but with very little data in GenBank and is presently placed in the order Asterinales. In this study, we re-analyze the available sequence data for taxa of the family and re-examine the type species of Hemigrapha, Inocyclus and Parmularia. The phylogenetic tree generated from maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses of combined LSU-SSU sequence data demonstrate the relationships among Hemigrapha, Inocyclus and Parmularia species, and the relations of Buelliella, Karschia, Labrocarpon, Lembosia, Melaspileella, Melaspileopsis and Stictographa. We introduce Parmulariales ord. nov. to accommodate Parmulariaceae and the order Asterinales accommodates Asterinaceae, Asterotexaceae, Hemigraphaceae fam. nov., Melaspileellaceae fam. nov. and Stictographaceae fam. nov. Notes for each new order and families are provided. We confirm that Asterinaceae sensu lato is distant from Asterinaceae sensu stricto in the phylogenic analysis. The classification presented here is provisional, as more species are needed to recollected and sequenced. We expect further support for our ordinal and familial lineages, as well as further novel lineages. Keywords: 4 new taxa, taxonomy, phylogeny, biotrophs, lichenicolous fungi.
32296Farkas E. & Flakus A. (2016): Trichonectria calopadiicola sp. nov. (Hypocreales, Ascomycota): the second species of the family Bionectriaceae parasitic on foliicolous lichens discovered in Tanzania. - Phytotaxa, 278(3): 281–286. http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.278.3.8.
Trichonectria calopadiicola, a new lichenicolous fungus from tropical Africa is described. The species is the second member of nectrioid fungi known as parasitic on foliicolous lichens. It is characterized by often aggregated, dark reddish brown, subglobose, richly setose perithecia, covered by obtuse, septate, thick-walled setae, and by hyaline, narrowly fusiform, 1-septate ascospores. The mycoparasite causes evident damages in the ascomata of its host. Keywords: Africa, biodiversity, lichenicolous fungi, new species, mycoparasites, phyllosphere, Usambara Mountains.
32295Suija A. & Motiejūnaitė J. (2017): Calycina alstrupii sp. nov. (Pezizellaceae, Helotiales), a new lichenicolous fungus from Norway. - Phytotaxa, 307(2): 113–122. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.307.2.2.
A new species of Calycina, C. alstrupii Suija & Motiejūnaitė, is described based on both morphological and molecular characteristics. The new fungus inhabits thalli of Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm. and is the first proven lichenicolous species of the genus. The new species is compared with closely related taxa of Hyaloscyphaceae s. lato. Key words: Peltigerales, phylogeny, taxonomy.
32294Puy-Alquiza M.J., Gómez-Peralta M., Reyes-Zamudio V., Gregorio-Cipriano M.R., Miranda-Avilés R., Rios-Ureña D.N. & Cortés-Hernández V. (2018): Diversidad de macrolíquenes saxícolas en México: caso de estudio del distrito minero de Guanajuato. Diversity of saxicolous macrolichens in Mexico: case study of the mining district of Guanajuato. - Acta Botánica Mexicana, 123: 37–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.21829/abm123.2018.1246.
[in Spanish with English abstract: ] Background and Aims: The diversity of saxicolous macrolichens in the state of Guanajuato is little known. The available information is limited to isolated notes of collections and species in specialized electronic pages. The objective of this work was to contribute through the development of a floristic list to the knowledge of the diversity of the saxicolous macrolichens in four localities (mountain “La Bufa”, ecological park “El Orito”, panoramic highway “El Pípila” and Sierra de Santa Rosa de Lima). Methods: The specimens were collected and subsequently determined using specialized keys, considering their morphological, anatomical and chemical characteristics. This was based on stereoscopic and composite microscope observations, response to chemical reagents and, in some cases, thin layer chromatography. Finally, descriptions of the species were reviewed and the specimens were compared with those existing in the herbarium EBUM of the Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo. Key results: A list of 42 species is presented for the mining district of Guanajuato, which constitute new records for the studied localities; 23 are new records for Guanajuato and one is new for Mexico. Conclusions: Of the 42 species presented in this study, the family Parmeliaceae is the most representative of the study area, especially the genus Xanthoparmelia with nine species, of which three are new records for the state of Guanajuato and one of them is new for Mexico. The zone of La Bufa with semiwarm climate and the ignimbrita like dominant rock reunites the majority of the registered species. The species of the families Cladoniaceae, Usneaceae, Ramalinaceae and Stereocaulaceae are representative of the zone of Santa Rosa de Lima dominated by a humid climate and the rhyolite tuff-like main rock. Key words: lichen flora, Mexican plateau, new record.
32293Barrera Zubiaga E. & Godínez Álvarez H. (2018): Infiltración en biocostras en una región semiárida del centro de México. Infiltration through biocrusts in a semiarid region of central México. - Terra Latinoamericana, 36(4): 337–343. DOI: https://doi.org/10.28940/terra.v36i4.335.
[in Spanish with English abstract: ] Infiltration alters the ecological processes of arid and semiarid regions because it can cause water accumulation on the surface or water storage in the soil. Thus, it is necessary to study the physical and biological factors that can modify it. One of these factors is biocrusts, communities of cyanobacteria, lichens, and mosses growing on soil surface, which can have positive, negative, or neutral effects. Biocrust impact on infiltration has been poorly studied in our country; there is only one study conducted in grasslands of Durango. In our study we evaluated infiltration through biocrusts in a semiarid region of central Mexico, where we selected two fluvial terraces with different soil textures (i.e., fine-soil and coarse-soil terraces) to measure soil physical and chemical properties, crust cover and species composition, and infiltration in soil with and without crust, in areas without vegetation. Soil from both terraces had high silt percentage, although soil had higher bulk density and lower porosity in the fine-soil terrace. Biocrusts were composed of five genera of cyanobacteria and three genera of lichens. Cyanobacteria cover was similar between terraces, although lichen cover was lower in the fine-soil terrace. The highest infiltration occurred in soil without crust in the fine-soil terrace and in soil with crust in the coarse-soil terrace. These results suggest that the impact of biocrusts on infiltration depends on silt content, soil bulk density, and porosity. It is necessary to evaluate infiltration in other sites such as areas beneath perennial plants and hillslopes to understand biocrust impact on infiltration in this semiarid region. Key words: cyanobacteria; lichens; mesquite shrubland; mosses; Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Valley.
32292Rodríguez E.F., Ramírez A.M., Alvítez E., Pollack L., Leiva S. & Aguirre R. (2017): Catálogo de la liquenobiota de la región La Libertad, Perú. - Arnaldoa, 24(2): 497–522. http://www.scielo.org.pe/pdf/arnal/v24n2/a05v24n2.pdf.
We provide a catalogue of 192 species of lichens, arranged in 28 families and 60 genera existing in La Libertad Region, Peru. The study was based on a review of material preferably deposited in the Herbarium Truxillense of the National University of Trujillo (HUT), the determination of specialists, and the contrast with species documented in official studies of lichenobiota of this region. The material examined for each species includes the geographical distribution according to provinces and altitudes, and a representative specimen marked by the name and number of the main collector, followed by the acronym of the herbarium where it is deposited, as well as the common name if it exists. The information presented will serve to continue with taxonomic, ecological and environmental studies in these organisms. Keywords: lichens, distribution, provinces, La Libertad Region.
32291Rydgren K., Auestad I., Halvorsen R., Hamre L.N., Jongejans E., Töpper J.P. & Sulavik J. (2020): Assessing restoration success by predicting time to recovery— But by which metric? . - Journal of Applied Ecology, 57: 390–401. https://besjournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1365-2664.13526.
Restoration of degraded ecosystems may take decades or even centuries. Accordingly, information about the current direction and speed of recovery provided by methods for predicting time to recovery may give important feedback to restoration schemes. While predictions of time to recovery have so far been based mostly upon change in species richness and other univariate predictors, the novel ordination‐regression based approach (ORBA) affords a multivariate approach based upon species compositional change. We used species composition data from four alpine spoil heaps in western Norway, recorded at three time points, to predict time to recovery using ORBA. This approach uses distances between restored plots and reference plots along a successional gradient, represented by a vector in ordination space, to model linear or asymptotic relationships of compositional change as a function of time. Results from ORBA were compared with results from models of more generic univariate attributes, that is total cover, species richness and properties of the physical environment as functions of time. ORBA predictions of time to species compositional recovery varied from less than 60 years with linear models to 115–212 years with asymptotic models. The long estimated time to recovery suggests that the restoration schemes adopted for these spoil heaps are likely to be suboptimal. Much shorter time to recovery was predicted from some of the more generic univariate attributes, that is species richness and total cover, than from species composition. Given the current rates of recovery, most spoil heaps will reach reference levels for total cover and species richness within 50 years, whereas predictions indicate that 67–111 years are needed to restore levels of soil organic matter and pH. Synthesis and applications. Species composition and soil conditions provide information of generally higher relevance for evaluation of ecosystem recovery processes than the most commonly used metric to assess restoration success, species richness. Species richness is decoupled from species compositional recovery, and likely to be a generally poor measure of restoration success. We therefore encourage further improvement of methods like the ordination‐regression based approach that use species compositional data to predict time to recovery.
32290Pankratov T.A., Grouzdev D.S., Patutina E.O., Kolganova T.V., Suzina N.E. & Berestovskaya J.J. (2020): Lichenibacterium ramalinae gen. nov, sp. nov., Lichenibacterium minor sp. nov., the first endophytic, betacarotene producing bacterial representatives from lichen thalli and the proposal of the new family Lichenibacteriaceae within the order Rhizobiales. - Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, 113: 477–489. .
This study of lichens in the subarctic zone of the northern hemisphere has resulted in the detection of new representatives of the order Rhizobiales. The16S rRNA gene sequence phylogeny placed the strains as a separate branch inside the Rhizobiales clade. Strain RmlP001T exhibits 91.85% similarity to Roseiarcus fermentans strain Pf56T and 91.76% to Beijerinckia doebereinerae strain LMG 2819T, whilst strain RmlP026T is closely related to B. doebereinerae strain LMG 2819T (91.85%) and Microvirga pakistanensis strain NCCP-1258T (91.39%). A whole-genome phylogeny of the strains confirmed their taxonomic positions. The cells of both strains were observed to be Gram-negative, motile rods that multiplied by binary fission. The cells were found to contain poly-β-hydroxybutyrate and polyphosphate, to grow at pH 3.5–8.0 and 10–30 °C, and could not fix atmospheric nitrogen. Their major cellular fatty acid identified was C18:1ω7c (68–71%) and their DNA G + C contents determined to be 70.5–70.8%. Beta-carotene was identified as their major carotenoid pigment; Q-10 was the only ubiquinone detected. Strains RmlP001T and RmlP026T are distinguishable from related species by the presence of β-carotene, the absence of C1 metabolism and the ability to grow in the presence of 3.5% NaCl. Based on their phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic features, we propose a novel genus Lichenibacterium and two novel species, Lichenibacterium ramalinae (the type species of the genus) and Lichenibacterium minor, to accommodate these bacteria within the family Lichenibacteriaceae fam. nov. of the order Rhizobiales. The L. ramalinae type strain is RmlP001T (= KCTC 72076T = VKM B-3263T) and the L. minor type strain is RmlP026T (= KCTC 72077T = VKM B-3277T). Keywords: Lichenibacterium; LAR1; Lichen endophytes; Rhizobiales; Beta-carotene; Phylogenetic analysis; Symbiotic bacteria.
32289Santiago R., Silva N.H., Silva F.P., Martins M.C.B., de Vasconcelos T.L., Yano-Melo A.M. & Pereira E.C. (2018): Interactions of the lichen Cladonia salzmannii Nyl. with soil, microbiota, mycorrhizae and Genipa Americana. - Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 18(3): 833–850. https://scielo.conicyt.cl/pdf/jsspn/v18n3/0718-9516-jsspn-02402.pdf.
The lichen Cladonia salzmannii can influence the arbuscular mycorrhizal formation (AMF) of sandy soils in the Brazilian Northeast, thereby contributing to improved vascular plant growth. The objective of this work was to evaluate how C. salzmannii changes the biological processes of soil in a tropical savannah ecosystem where soils have low nutrient availability, so any lichen-induced effects would be important. The microbial activity, AMF, growth of Genipa americana and chemical-physical characteristics of the soil were analyzed. Soil samples were collected under pillows of lichen thalli or in open spaces without them. Chemical and biological soil attributes were evaluated by analysis of soluble and exchangeable cations, microbial activity and AMF colonization. The presence of barbatic acid (BAR), a major compound of C. salzmannii, was detected in the soil, which positively influenced soil properties. AMF colonization was higher in lichen-covered soil. G. americana seedlings were grown under greenhouse conditions, the experiment was done in a randomized design of 4 inoculation treatments. The inoculated plants with lichens+AMF presented greater growth parameters. The results could indicate that BAR is capable of stimulating the association between plants and AMF, linking the root and the soil system. This arrangement improves a positive feedback loop established between lichen-AMF-vascular plant. Keywords: lichen substance; barbatic acid; cerrado biome; Glomeromycotina growth; Rubiaceae.
32288Lewis L., Gottschalk-Druschke C., Saldías C., Mackenzie R., Malebrán J., Goffinet B. & Rozzi R. (2018): Cultivando un jardín de nombres en los bosques en miniatura del Cabo de Hornos: extensión de la conservación biocultural y la ética a seres vivos poco percibidos [Cultivating a garden of names in the cape horn miniature forests: Extending biocultural conservation and ethics to little perceived living beings]. - Magallania, 46(1): 103–123. https://scielo.conicyt.cl/pdf/magallania/v46n1/0718-2244-magallania-46-01-00103.pdf.
[in Spanish with English abstract: ] Bryophytes (mosses, liverworts, and hornworts) and lichens have been undervalued in conservation and environmental education programs, and by modern culture in general. So much so, that most bryophytes and lichens lack a common name. We present a new methodology and activity to foster an ecological understanding of biodiversity, as well as of biocultural conservation and ethics, which includes little, under-perceived, living-beings - such as bryophytes. If something has no name, it does not exist in the cultural realm. If something is named, then it exists in the cultural sphere; additionally, its existence is decisively influenced by its name. At the southern end of the Americas, the UNESCO Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve in Chile protects a world’s biodiversity hotspot for bryophytes. Here, the research team at the Omora Ethnobotanical Park has developed an innovative educational and ecotourism activity to appreciate bryophytes: Cultivating a garden of names. This activity has been developed with the methodological approach of Field Environmental Philosophy. It encourages students and park’s visitors to engage physically as well as culturally (including the symbolic-linguistic dimension) with bryophytes and lichens, their life-habits and habitats. Park’s visitors are invited to observe, draw, and create names for bryophytes and lichens by using: (i) a magnifying glass or hand-lens to amplify the biophysical features of small plants, and (ii) the conceptual lenses of the biocultural ethics to broaden their understanding about how to interpret and respect the natural world. Through this activity, visitors connect to living beings that were previously under-perceived, and they come to see, value and care for a biophysical reality that is diverse, beautiful, and performs ecological functions that are essential to ecosystem integrity and human well-being. Cultivating a garden of names fosters a change of scientific and ethical perspectives to include little-perceived groups of organisms into the goals of conservation and environmental education. Key words: Bryophytes, biocultural ethics, education, field environmental philosophy, lichens.
32287Wirth V., Sipman H.J.M. & Curtis-Scott O. (2018): A sketch of the lichen biota in a Renosterveld vegetation habitat. - Carolinea, 76: 35–55. .
A sketch of the lichen vegetation of the Haarwegskloof Renosterveld Reserve near Bredasdorp (Western Cape, South Africa) is presented. This reserve is a representative example of renosterveld vegetation, which replaces the better known fynbos in relatively dry regions on more fertile, clay- and shale-based soils. Our sketch is a first attempt to characterize the lichen biota of a renosterveld area. The rather low number of 76 encountered species reflects the absence of aged trees and large rock formations and occasional bushfires. However, the significance of the species is great because most have very restricted distributions in southern Africa. Among the epiphytic lichens Physciaceae and Xanthoria-relatives prevail, while on soil and on rock the genus Xanthoparmelia is by far the most important, with 22 species, among them several endemics.
32286Wirth V. (2018): Nur eine Weidbuche? – Weidbuchen als Biodiversitätsgaranten im Schwarzwald. - Carolinea, 76: 21–34. .
Only a pasture beech? Freestanding beech trees as biodiversity sources in the Black Forest On an old beech tree on an extensive pasture in southern Black Forest a broken part of the crown allowed the investigation of epiphytes also on branches and little twigs of usually inaccessible parts of the tree. 127 epiphytic organisms were found, among them 91 lichen species, six lichenicolous fungi and 16 species of mosses and hepatics. The number of lichen species is remarkable and the highest which was registered on a tree in Europe. The high number proves the importance of the old beech trees (so called Weidbuchen) on extensive pastures of the southern Black Forest as habitats of high diversity with many endangered species, an additional argument for the protection of these trees which they should merit as historico-cultural witnesses anyway.
32285Wirth V. (2019): Contributions à la végétation lichénique des Vosges et de la vallée du Rhin alsacienne 1. Lichens observés dans la vallée du Rhin. - Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, 70: 77–90. .
The results of lichenological excursions in the Alsatian Rhine valley are presented. 40 localities were visited. The following species are noteworthy for the corresponding natural area : Agonimia opuntiella, Caloplaca demissa, Diploschistes actinostomus, Gonohymenia octosporella, Lecidea sarcogynoides, Parmelina carporrhizans, Pertusaria leucosora, Thyrea confusa, Xanthoparmelia tinctina. Acarospora moenium was found on natural stone substrate within dry grasslands. The population of Bactrospora dryina in Alsace is probably the most important in France.
32284Wirth V. (2019): Zur Kenntnis der Flechtenbiota im Nordschwarzwald. - Mitteilungen des Badischen Landesvereins für Naturkunde und Naturschutz, Freiburg im Breisgau, 22(4): 685–712. .
Contribution to the lichen flora of the Northern Black Forest. Records of lichen species from the National Park Black Forest are listed and some typical associations mentioned. Particularly characteristic are communities which prefer old stems of Abies and Picea, on rather rain-protected faces with Lecanactis abietina, on wet faces with Thelotrema lepadinum and rarely with Sphaerophorus globosus, towards their basis with Micarea species as M. adnata and M. cinerea. On dead stems communities with Calicium glaucellum, Chaenotheca and Chaenothecopsis species are widespread. On sandstone boulders Lecidea lithophila and L. plana are most frequent; on steep faces protected from rapid drying the Fuscideetum kochianae is typical. On raw humus covers of Trapeliopsis granulosa, Placynthiella uliginosa and P. oligotropha form mosaics with communities rich in Cladonia species. The area is dominated by conifer woods and excludes human settlements, therefore man-made substrates and subneutral bark habitats are of minor importance concerning their frequency; nevertheless, they increase the species diversity considerably. Ramboldia cinnabarina is new to Germany. Key words: lichens, Northern Black Forest, National Park, forests, boulder slopes.
32283Wirth V. (2019): Basi- und subneutrophytische Flechten im Grundgebirge des Schwarzwaldes. - Mitteilungen des Badischen Landesvereins für Naturkunde und Naturschutz, Freiburg im Breisgau, 22(3): 443–467. .
Basi- and subneutrophytic lichens in the bedrock area of the Black Forest. For more than 100 years, botanists have devoted particular attention to the occurrence of calcicolous or basi- and subneutrophytic bryophytes and vascular plants in the area of bedrock in the Black Forest, which is characterized by acidophilous vegetation. This phenomenon was not specifically dealt with in respect to lichens. In habitats with calcite-containing or SiO2-poor siliceous rock as basic silicates, many lichen species occur that avoid more acidic substrates. Lichens are excellent indicators of basic or subneutral substrate conditions and special mineralogical characteristics. The petrographic conditions vary widely, yet rocks with plagioklase or hornblende, such as amphibolites, occur frequently. Different from most bryophytes which prefer moister and more shadowy habitats, most lichen species are specialised in xeric microhabitats. The slightly basiphytic and subneutro-phytic lichen species are listed. Key words: lichens, basic rock, calcite, basiphytes, subneutrophytes, Black Forest.
32282Wirth V. (2017): Die Flechte Fuscidea arboricola Coppins & Tønsberg in Deutschland. - Mitteilungen des Badischen Landesvereins für Naturkunde und Naturschutz, Freiburg im Breisgau, 22(2): 329–332. .
The lichen Fuscidea arboricola Coppins & Tønsberg in Germany. The crustose lichen species Fuscidea arboricola is recorded as new for Germany. It was found in the southern Black Forest. Key words: epiphytic lichens, forest species, old-growth forests.
32281Wirth V. (2019): Flechtenfunde in Südwestdeutschland und angrenzenden Gebieten. - Mitteilungen des Badischen Landesvereins für Naturkunde und Naturschutz, Freiburg im Breisgau, 22(3): 549–560. .
Lichen records from Southwest-Germany and adjacent regions. Noteworthy records of lichens are reported from Southwest-Germany, Switzerland and the Vosges, among them endangered species of old growth forests. The first record of Fellhanera gyrophorica in Germany is documented. Key words: rare and endangered lichens, new records, old growth forests.
32280Türk R. (2014): Die Flechten in Wäldern des Biosphärenparks Wienerwald. - Wissenschaftliche Mitteilungen Niederösterreichisches Landesmuseum, 25: 191–208. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/WM_25_0191-0208.pdf.
Lichens in forests of the Biosphere Reserve Wienerwald The biodiversity of lichens in the Biosphere Reserve Wienerwald was investigated on all substrates in 54 monitoring plots of the core areas (KZO) and in 24 managed forests (WW). In the core areas occurred 109 species, including adjacent areas 154 lichen species were identified. Due to the favourable climatic conditions for lichen growth in some areas the following rare epiphytic lichens were found: Anaptychia ciliaris, Arthonia atra, Bacidia subincompta, Evernia divaricata, Hyperphyscia adglutinata, Lecanora expallens, Lecanora intumescens, Lecanora subrugosa, Mycobilimbia carneoalbida, Naetrocymbe punctiformis, Pseudosagedia aenea and Ramalina obtusata and the saxicolous lichen Bacidina arnoldiana. In many core areas and managed forest areas no or only a few epiphytic lichen species could be found and mostly with low abundance. Also the degree of epiphytic coverage was very low (< 0,1 - 2 %) and exceeded only in few sites 3 % of the recording areas which ranges from the root collar to the stem height of 2 m. In most monitoring sites the bark of the trees is covered by aerial algae (Prasiola spec., Desmococcus spec. and Trentepohlia spec.). These algae indicate a high input of mainly nitrogen compounds (nitrogen oxides, ammonium and ammonium nitrate) and aerosols, which cause heavy damage of macrolichens. The source of these compounds is most likely the conurbation of Vienna, the petrochemical industry, local agricultural sources and the long range transport of pollutants. Key words: lichens, woodland, species diversity, air pollution.
32279Stolley J. (2016): Der ehemalige Schwerzer Berg nordöstlich von Halle (Saale) – ein Nachruf aus floristischer Sicht. - Mitteilungen zur floristischen Kartierung in Sachsen-Anhalt [Halle], 21: 53–62. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Mitt-flor-Kartierung-Sachsen-Anhalt_21_0053-0062.pdf.
The former hill Schwerzer Berg northeast of Halle (Saale) – an obituary from the floristic point of view. The former porphyric outcrop hill Schwerzer Berg, situated 15 km northeast of Halle (Saale), has been devastated completely until 2013 by the extension of a stone quarry. A review is given here about the site which was formerly rich in plant species. Today it is a further example for local or regional extinctions of several rare and endangered plant species in the surrounding of Halle (Saale). List of 15 lichen species included (p. 59; det. R.Stordeur).
32278John V. (2012): Flechten und flechtenbewohnende Pilze im Industriegelände des Weltkulturerbes „Völklinger Hütte“. - Abhandlungen der Delattinia, 38: 95–104. https://delattinia.de/sites/default/files/pdf/abhandlungen/Delattinia_Abh_38_2012_095-104_John.pdf.
Lichens and lichenicolous fungi in the industrial area of the World Heritage Site „Völklinger Hütte“. During a half day study in the industrial area of the World Heritage Site „Völklinger Hütte“ 101 lichens and 8 lichenicolous fungi have been recorded, eleven of them for the first time in Saarland. Represented by 32 species the percentage of the lichens growing on iron-constructions is extremely high. Some species are growing over an asbest-rubber-tube, leather and a cord. The epiphytic species indicate an improved air quality, influence of immissions by nitrogene and warming as a result of climate change. Keywords: Lichens, lichenicolous fungi, Saarland, unusual substrates, air pollution, Saarland.
32277John V. & Oesau A. (2017): Myriolecis percrenata, eine für Deutschland neue Flechte in Rheinhessen, Rheinland-Pfalz. - Mitteilungen der Pollichia, 98: 79–82. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Mitt-Pollichia_98_0079-0082.pdf.
Myriolecis percrenata , a new lichen for Germany in Rheinhessen, Rheinland - Pfalz. The crustose lichen Myriolecis percrenata is reported from three sites on loess as new to Germany.
32276Zimmermann D.G. (2014): Die Winzige Korallenflechte, Leprocaulon microscopicum (Vill.) Gams ex D. Hawksw., neu für das Süderbergland und Westfalen. - Jahrbuch des Bochumer Botanischen Vereins, 5: 67–68. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Jahrb-Bochumer-Bot-Ver_5_0067-0068.pdf.
The Mealy Lichen, Leprocaulon microscopicum (VILL.) GAMS ex D. HAWKSW., new to Süder Uplands and Westphalia, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany Leprocaulon microscopicum, the Mealy Lichen, has been found recently on cliffs in the valley of river Volme in the Sauerland and in the valley of river Sieg in the Bergisches Land. These represent the first record of the species for Westphalia and the Süder Uplands (Süderbergland), North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
32275Loos G.H. & Zimmermann D.G. (2015): Rhizocarpon geographicum – Große Landkartenflechte (Rhizocarpaceae), Flechte des Jahres 2014. - Jahrbuch des Bochumer Botanischen Vereins, 6: 240–246. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Jahrb-Bochumer-Bot-Ver_6_0240-0246.pdf.
32274Feuerer T. & Schultz M. (2014): Standardliste der Flechten der Freien und Hansestadt Hamburg. - Berichte des Botanischen Vereins zu Hamburg, 29: 3–56. https://www.botanischerverein.de/wp-content/uploads/Ber_Bot_Verein_29.pdf.
Checklist of the lichens of the City of Hamburg. An updated checklist of the lichens, lichenicolous fungi and lichen parasites of the City of Hamburg is presented, altogether 351 taxa being listed. Voucher specimens, distributional records and additional notes are provided for rare and otherwise interesting species.
32273John V. & Stapper N.J. (2018): Tag der Artenvielfalt 2017 in Börfink – Die Flechten. - Mitteilungen der Pollichia, 99: 35–43. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Mitt-Pollichia_99_0035-0043.pdf.
On the occasion of the Biodiversity Day in 2017, in an area around Börfink (Hunsrück, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany), 106 lichen species and three lichen-inhabiting or related fungi were recorded during a random spot survey. The ecology of the species, their vulnerability and significance as bioindicators are briefly discussed.
32272李 潤 & 木下 光 [Lee Y. & Kinoshita H.] (2016): 瓦屋根における生育実験を踏まえた地衣類の自生実態に関する研究-明日香村稲渕・栢森集落及び小布施町小布施堂界隈を事例として [A study on the characteristics of the grown lichen ased on the growth experiments in tiled roof-A case study of Inabuchi·Kayanomori villages and Obuse neighborhood area]. - 日本建築学会計画系論文集 [Journal of Architecture and Planning], 81(719): 125–132. https://doi.org/10.3130/aija.81.125.
[in Japanese with English abstract:] This study aims to clarify the relationship between the grown lichen and the difference of roof tile. The characteristics of the grown lichen were analyzed on following two methods. (1) The growth experiments of lichen on Mock-ups have been carried out for 6 months in Inabuchi village by using six kinds of roof tiles through the difference of production area and method. (2) The distribution of tiled roofs with lichen was surveyed in Inabuchi·Kayanomori villages and Obuse neighborhood area. The condition of the grown lichen was classified by the difference of roof tiles and the substrate of roof.
32271棚橋孝雄 [Tanahashi T.] (2017): 薬用植物及び単離培養地衣菌の二次代謝物の多様性 [Diversity of secondary metabolites from some medicinal plants and cultivated lichen mycobionts]. - 蕚 纛 箋 議 [Yakugaku Zasshi], 137(12): 1443–1482. https://doi.org/10.1248/yakushi.17-00147 .
[in Japanese with English abstract: ] Studies on the structural determination, biosynthesis, and biological activities of secondary metabolites from natural sources are significant in the field of natural products chemistry. This review focuses on diverse secondary metabolites isolated from medicinal plants and cultivated mycobionts of lichens in our laboratory. Monoterpene-tetrahydroisoquinoline glycosides and alkaloids isolated from Cephaelis acuminata and Alangium lamarckii gave important information on the biosynthesis of ipecac alkaloids. A variety of glycosides linked with a secologanin unit and indole alkaloids were obtained from medicinal plants belonging to the families of Rubiaceae, Apocynaceae, and Loganiaceae. Plant species of the four genera Fraxinus, Syringa, Jasminum, and Ligustrum of the family Oleaceae were chemically investigated to provide several types of secoiridoid and iridoid glucosides. The biosynthetic pathway leading from protopine to benzophenanthridine alkaloids in suspension cell cultures of Eschscholtzia californica was elucidated. The structures and biological activities of the bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids of Stephania cepharantha and Nelumbo nucifera were also investigated. In addition, the mycobionts of lichens were cultivated to afford various types of metabolites that differ from the lichen substances of intact lichens but are structurally similar to fungal metabolites. The biosynthetic origins of some metabolites were also studied. These findings suggest that cultures of lichen mycobionts could be sources of new bioactive compounds and good systems for investigating secondary metabolism in lichens. Key words: secondary metabolite, medicinal plant, cultivated lichen mycobiont, structure determination, biosynthesis, biological acitivity.
32270山本 好和 , 高萩 敏和 , 坂東 誠 & 川上寛子 [Yamamoto Y., Takahagi T., Bando M. & Kakakami H.] (2017): 大阪府地衣類資料 Ⅰ. 長居公園(大阪市)の地衣類相および日本新産種を含む興味深い [Lichen data of Osaka Prefecture I. Lichens of the Nagai Park (Osaka City) and four noteworthy species including two as new for Japan]. - 大阪市立自然史博物館研究報告 [Bulletin of the Osaka Museum of Natural History], 71: 11–16. .
[in Japanese with English abstract: ] Lichen flora of the Nagai Park (Osaka City) was investigated. As a result, 16 species of 13 genera of 8 families in Dothideomycetes and Lecanoromycetes were recognized. Lepraria ecorticata (J.R.Laundon) Kukwa and L. leuckertiana (Zedda) L.Saag were new to Japan, and Amandinea punctata (Hoffm.) Coppins & Scheid. and Punctelia borreri (Sm.) Krog were the first record in Osaka Prefecture. Key Words: urban biodiversity; cryptogamic flora; Amandinea; Lepraria; Punctelia.
32269池田 A. 雅志 , 中村 英人 & 沢田 健 [Ikeda M.A., Nakamura H. & Sawada K.] (2018): 地衣類ハナゴケ属およびオオロウソクゴケ属から検出された 脂肪族炭化水素:化学分類・環境指標の可能性 [Aliphatic hydrocarbons identified in lichen genus Cladonia and Xanthoria : Potential for their chemotaxonomic and environmental indicators]. - Researches in Organic Geochemistry, 34(2): 15–28. https://doi.org/10.20612/rog.34.2_15.
[in Japanese with English abstract: ] Aliphatic hydrocarbons were analyzed in 3 species (Cladonia vulcani, Cladonia scabriuscula, and Xanthoria sp.) of lichens collected from Hokkaido and Hyogo Prefectures, Japan. Molecular composition of n-alkanes is likely influenced by precipitation, as the long chain n-alkanes are produced under arid environments. Alkenes such as heptadecene are also detected as major components in these samples. Molecular composition of these alkanes is different between the genus Xanthoria and Cladonia, suggesting that the composition is influenced by taxonomic diversity. Molecular composition of the aliphatic hydrocarbons other than n-alkanes and alkenes detected are far different between the genera Xanthoria and Cladonia, but are almost similar in these 2 species of the genus Cladonia, potentially depending on taxonomy at the genus level. From these results, we predict that the alkenes, as well as other aliphatic hydrocarbons, can be useful as a chemotaxonomic marker, while the composition of n-alkanes can be an environmental indicator.
32268山本 好和 , 高萩 敏和 , 河合 正人 & 川上寛子 [Yamamoto Y., Takahagi T., Kawai M. & Kakakami H.] (2018): 大阪府地衣類資料 Ⅱ. 枚岡公園(東大阪市)の地衣類相および興味深い5種について [Lichen data of Osaka Prefecture II. Lichens of the Hiraoka Park (Higashiosaka City) and five noteworthy species]. - 大阪市立自然史博物館研究報告 [Bulletin of the Osaka Museum of Natural History], 72: 53–60. .
[in Japanese with English abstract: ] Lichen flora of the Hiraoka Park (Higashiosaka City) was investigated. As a result, 25 species of 19 genera of 11 families in Arthoniomycetes, Eurotiomycetes and Lecanoromycetes were recognized. Agonimiella pacifica H.Harada and Verrucaria muralis Ach. were new to Kinki District, and Enterographa divergens (Müll. Arg.) Redinger, Hypotrachyna pseudosinuosa (Asah.) Hale and Pyxine subcinerea Stirt. were the first record in Osaka Prefecture. Key words: suburban biodiversity, cryptogamic flora, Agonimia, Enterographa, Hypotrachyna, Pyxine, Verrucaria.
32267Zachariah S.H., Nayaka S., Gupta P. & Varghese S.K. (2019): The lichen genus Pyxine (Caliciaceae) in Kerala state with P. dactyloschmidtii as new to India. - Hattoria, 10: 109–117. https://doi.org/10.18968/hattoria.10.0_109.
A total of 12 species of Pyxine is reported from Kerala state of which P. retirugella Nyl. is new to the region while P. dactyloschmidtii Kalb & Mongkolsuk is new to India. Pyxine dactyloschmidtii is characterized in having polysidiangia and earlier known from Thailand. Brief descriptions for the novel taxa and a key to all Pyxine species occurring in India are provided.
32266Kulkarni A.N., Bhalkar B.N., Khandare R.V., Kurade M.B., Jeon B.-H. & Govindwar S.P. (2019): Densitometric quantification for the validation of decolorization of Disperse Orange ERL by lichen Parmelia sp.. - Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 127(3): 388–393. .
Densitometric high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) quantification method was developed to validate the decolorization/biotransformation of Disperse Orange ERL and dye mixture by lichen Parmelia sp. which release several colored compounds during decolorization process, hence unable to use colorimetric estimation. Percent decolorization of Disperse Orange ERL and dye mixture by lichen Parmelia sp. was observed when estimated using developed HPTLC method. Limit of detection and limit of quantification for both dyes in mixture were obtained as 0.3 and 1 μg/μl, respectively. Area of peak of control Disperse Orange ERL was reduced by 43% after 12 h, 71% after 48 h and upto 82% after 72 h of incubation. Precision and repeatability of data elucidated the % relative standard deviation less than 3 for all the values thus indicating statistically acceptable. Biodegradation of dye and mixture was confirmed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis, i.e., altered fingerprinting spectral pattern.
32265山本 好和 , 高萩 敏和 , 坂東 誠 & 河合 正人 [Yamamoto Y., Takahagi T., Bando M. & Kawai M.] (2019): 大阪府地衣類資料 Ⅲ. 箕面公園(箕面市)の地衣類相および興味深い2種について[Lichen data of Osaka Prefecture III. Lichens of the Minoh Park (Minoh City) and two noteworthy species]. - 大阪市立自然史博物館研究報告 [Bulletin of the Osaka Museum of Natural History], 73: 107–114. .
[in Japanese with English abstract: ] Lichen flora of the Minoh Park (Minoh City) was investigated. As a result, 54 species of 38 genera of 18 families in Arthoniomycetes, Coniocybomycetes, Eurotiomycetes and Lecanoromycetes were recognized. Botryolepraria lesdainii (Hue) Canals et al. and Haematomma collatum (Stirton) Dodge were new to Kinki District. Key words: suburban biodiversity; cryptogamic flora; Botryolepraria; Haematomma.
32264Inoue T., Uchida M., Inoue M., Kaneko R., Kudoh S., Minami Y. & Kanda H. (2019): Vegetation data of high Arctic lichens on Austre Brøggerbreen glacier foreland, Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, in 1994. - Polar Data Journal, 3: 1–11. http://doi.org/10.20575/00000005.
We made a detailed investigation of the occurrence and cover of lichen species near Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, high Arctic Norway, in 1994. We identified 82 lichen species, and our data clearly show their forms, location, and microtopography and composition of lichens. This information will be useful for understanding future vegetation changes.
32263Fryday A.M. (2020): Lecidea cerviniicola and L. promiscua new to the North American lichen biota. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 19: 9–13. http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/op/biblio_details.php?irn=482984.
Lecidea cerviniicola and L. promiscua are reported for the first time from North America from collections made by Henry Imshaug in the 1950’s and housed in the herbarium of Michigan State University (MSC). A key to the species of the L. auriculata group reported from North America is also provided. Key words: C+ red exciple, Lecidea auriculata group, Lecideaceae, thalline chemistry, western USA.
32262Monge-Nájera J. (2019): Relative humidity, temperature, substrate type, and height of terrestrial lichens in a tropical paramo. - Revista de Biología Tropical, 67(1): 206–212. .
Lichens are traditionally divided into types such as “crustose”, “foliose” and “fruticose”, with different shapes and heights. Substrate, temperature and water are thought to affect lichen height, but there are few studies regarding tropical paramo lichens. Along 2015 I measured those variables in the terricolous lichens of the Cerro Buena Vista, paramo (Costa Rica, 9°33’ N & 83°45’ W). The measurements were taken inside the lichens and in the substrate under them, in 61 randomly located quadrats (50 x 50 cm). Lichens grew taller on (1) warmer ground, (2) wetter ground, (3) the moister Caribbean slope, and (4) the season with heavier rainfall, as expected. Apparently, atmospheric factors are more important than substrate in the determination of temperature, relative humidity and growth of lichens. Physiologically available water seems to be the main determinant of lichen vertical growth in the Buena Vista paramo. Key words: physical variables; growth factors; climate; highland lichens; paramo; thallus growth.
32261Sarlej M.I. (2019): El género Pyxine (Lecanorales, Physciaceae) en la Reserva de la Biosfera Yaboty (Misiones Argentina). - Boletín de la Sociedad Argentina de Botánica, 54: 161–168. http://www.scielo.org.ar/pdf/bsab/v54n2/v54n2a01.pdf.
Background and aims: Pyxine (Lecanorales, Physciaceae) is an interesting genus, which is little known in the Argentinian territory, for this reason a study of the species presents in the Yaboty Biosphere Reserve (Misiones, Argentina) is proposed. M&M: The identification of the species was carried out following the methodology conventionally used for the study of lichens, which includes a morphological and chemical analysis. The macroscopic characters were studied with a stereoscopic microscope. In order to determine the type of plectenchyma and study the morphology of ascospores, freehand sections were made, which were subsequently mounted in 5% potassium hydroxide and observed under an optical microscope. The identification of the lichen substances present was carried out by means of specific color reactions with 10% potassium hydroxide, ultraviolet light chamber test and thin layer chromatography with solvent A. Results & Conclusions: In this contribution Pyxine daedalea, Pyxine katendei, Pyxine maculata and Pyxine sorediata are cited for the first time for Argentina. It is presented a dichotomous key, a brief description of the species in the area, geographical distribution, observations and illustrations of each of them. It is considered that this work is a great contribution for further taxonomic and ecological investigations. Key words: Conservation area, lichens, Pyxine, taxonomy
32260González Y., Aragón G. & Prieto M. (2019): Nuevos registros de líquenes terrícolas en los páramos ecuatorianos [New records of terricolous lichens in ecuadorian páramos]. - Caldasia, 41(2): 445–449. Doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.15446/caldasia.v41n2.72040. http://www.scielo.org.co/pdf/cal/v41n2/0366-5232-cal-41-02-445.pdf.
We present 49 new lichen records from El Cajas and El Ángel páramos, in the provinces of Azuay and Carchi, respectively. We found the following new records to Ecuador: Cladonia scabriuscula, Cora accipiter, C. caucensis, C. dalehana, C. hafecesweorthensis, C. inversa, Dictyonema caespitosum, and Diploschistes hypoleucus; Cladonia corymbosula as new record to mainland Ecuador, and the new chemotype Cladonia squamosa QIII, with stictic and barbatic acids. 39 new records for Azuay and Carchi provinces are reported. Keywords: Cladonia, Cora, Dictyonema, Diploschistes, diversity, lichenized fungi.
32259Ohmura Y. & Clerc P. (2019): Lectotypification of Usnea confusa (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota). - Bulletin of the National Museum of Nature and Science, Series B [Tokyo], 45(2): 63–70. .
The original material of Usnea confusa Asahina consists of several thalli glued on a cardboard. In order to avoid any future taxonomic confusion especially presence or absence of “isidiate soredia”, a single specimen with numerous isidiofibrils developing on the soralia was chosen as lectotype. The lectotype of U. confusa contains usnic, salazinic, constictic acids and trace amount of protocetraric acid as the secondary substances. ITS rDNA sequences of Japanese and Taiwanese specimens that have the same morphology and chemistry with the lectotype form two distinct clades nested within the strongly supported clade representing the core group of Usnea cornuta (containing U. cornuta Körber s.str.). Our molecular phylogenetic result based only on ITS rDNA sequences doesn’t allow to confirm or contradict the conspecificity of U. confusa with U. cornuta. Key words : isidiofibrils, ITS rDNA, lectotype, lichenized fungi, phylogeny, soralia, taxonomy.
32258Pyakurel D., Smith-Hall C., Bhattarai-Sharma I. & Ghimire S.K. (2020): Trade and conservation of Nepalese medicinal plants, fungi, and lichen. - Economic Botany, 73(4): 505–521. .
Trade in Nepalese medicinal plants, fungi, and lichens is huge, yet there is no overview of traded species, impeding the development of targeted and appropriate conservation interventions. This study intends to identifyalltradedspeciesfromNepal,analyzetheirdistributionpatterns,andassesstheirvulnerability,none of which has been done before. Contemporary data on traded species were obtained from 113 sub-local traders, 105 local traders, and 75 central wholesalers for case year 2014–2015, and historical data from a review of trade-related publications. We recorded 300 species in trade, double that of previous estimates, distributed across 97 families and 197 genera. Most species are concentrated in subtropical and lower temperate regions indicating an economic potential for increased cultivation and domestication at middle altitudes. About 39% of commercial species are formally protected, including through bans on collection and trade of certain species. But this approach does not appear to protect species from commercial harvesting,drivenbyincreasingdemandandhigherprices.Thehigh-altitudespeciesNardostachysjatamansi, Rheum australe, andPicrorhiza scrophulariiflora are the most vulnerable traded species, warranting the development of alternative protection mechanisms, e.g., transferring management rights to local communities. Key Words: Altitudinal distribution, Commercialization, Illegal trade, Himalayas, South Asia, Vulnerability.
32257Kupreev V.E., Semenishchenkov Yu.A., Teleganova V.V. & Muchnik E.E. (2020): Ecological and floristic features of pioneer grass vegetation on automorphic sandy soils as a pine-forest recovery phase in the southern part of the Nonchernozem zone of Russia. - Contemporary Problems of Ecology, 13(1): 20–35. .
[Translation of original Russian text published in Sibirskii Ekologicheskii Zhurnal, 2020, No. 1, pp. 26–45] This article addresses the phytocoenotic diversity of psammophytic grass communities in the southern part of the nonchernozem zone of Russia, where the restoration of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is either ongoing or potentially possible. Community structure and composition formation trends developing under the influence of key environmental and coenotic factors have been identified. The studies were carried out in Bryansk, Kaluga, and Smolensk oblasts in 2010–2018; over 150 geobotanical releves of psammophytic grass communities have been produced. This vegetation belongs to the class Koelerio-Corynephoretea Klika 1931, which combines dry grasslands on sandy soils and rocky outcrops in the temperate and boreal zones of Europe, on islands of the North Atlantic, and in Greenland. Differences between environmental regimes of various habitats occupied by psammophytic communities have been identified. In most cases, the environmental amplitudes of syntaxonomic units vary significantly by the three key edaphic factors (moisture, soil reaction, and soil richness in mineral nitrogen) and form pretty compact environmental spaces: within each syntaxon, numerical values of the above factors, expressed in score points, normally vary within a narrow range. Regression analysis has established that the species richness of psammophytic communities depends statistically significantly only on the mineral nitrogen supply and soil moisture. Based on the statistical analysis results, the number of Pinus sylvestris plants of any age does not depend on the species richness in the community, total projective cover of the grass stand (excluding the Scots pine), separately calculated moss and lichen projective covers, and average numerical values of environmental factors identified by H. Ellenberg in the community. It is established that numbers of pine trees on study sites depend on only one factor: distance from the diaspora source determining the invasion possibility. The data on the phytocoenotic and floristic diversity of the psammophytic grass vegetation are to be incorporated into the unified database on the southern part of the nonchernozem zone of Russia to identify environmental and botanical–geographical features of this plant community type in the region. Keywords: psammophytic vegetation, floristic classification, pine restoration, southern part of the nonchernozem zone of Russia.
32256ten Veldhuis M.-C., Ananyev G. & Dismukes G.C. (2020): Symbiosis extended: exchange of photosynthetic O2 and fungal‑respired CO2 mutually power metabolism of lichen symbionts . - Photosynthesis Research, 143: 287–299. .
Lichens are a symbiosis between a fungus and one or more photosynthetic microorganisms that enables the symbionts to thrive in places and conditions they could not compete independently. Exchanges of water and sugars between the symbionts are the established mechanisms that support lichen symbiosis. Herein, we present a new linkage between algal photosynthesis and fungal respiration in lichen Flavoparmelia caperata that extends the physiological nature of symbiotic co-dependent metabolisms, mutually boosting energy conversion rates in both symbionts. Measurements of electron transport by oximetry show that photosynthetic O2 is consumed internally by fungal respiration. At low light intensity, very low levels of O2 are released, while photosynthetic electron transport from water oxidation is normal as shown by intrinsic chlorophyll variable fluorescence yield (period-4 oscillations in flash-induced Fv/Fm). The rate of algal O2 production increases following consecutive series of illumination periods, at low and with limited saturation at high light intensities, in contrast to light saturation in free-living algae. We attribute this effect to arise from the availability of more CO2 produced by fungal respiration of photosynthetically generated sugars. We conclude that the lichen symbionts are metabolically coupled by energy conversion through exchange of terminal electron donors and acceptors used in both photosynthesis and fungal respiration. Algal sugars and O2 are consumed by the fungal symbiont, while fungal delivered CO2 is consumed by the alga. Keywords Algae · Fungi · Lichens · Metabolism · Oxygenic photosynthesis · Respiration · Symbiosis.
32255Timoshok E.E., Timoshok E.N., Gureyeva I.I. & Skorokhodov S.N. (2020): Primary successions of vegetation on the young moraines in the Severo-Chuiskiy center of glaciation (Central Altai). - Contemporary Problems of Ecology, 13(1): 36–47. .
[Translation of original Russian text published in Sibirskii Ekologicheskii Zhurnal, 2020, No. 1, pp. 46–61] The primary successions of vegetation have been investigated in the continental conditions of the Severo-Chuiskiy center of present-day glaciation (Central Altai) from the colonization of deglaciated terrains by the first plants to the formation of simple plant groups to the primary plant communities. The observations were carried out for 15 years on the young moraines of the valley glaciers of Malyi Aktru (2200–2250 m a.s.l.) and Bolshoi–Levyi Aktru (2370–2500 m a.s.l.) in chrono-sequences from the ends of glaciers to the moraines of the mid-19th century. Three stages and four sub-stages of the primary succession of vegetation are identified. The species composition of vascular plants, mosses, and ground lichens is identified; the dominant species and the peculiarities of primary vegetation are characterized. Ideas about the course of successions and their peculiarities at different altitudes in the upper part of the forest and subchalet altitudinal zones are obtained. It has been found that, in the 150 year period, a young forest community has been formed on new moraines in the upper part of the forest altitudinal zone, and a combination of microcenoses similar to tundra communities have been formed in the alpine altitudinal zone. The primary succession of vegetation on both glacier forelands has some similarities, especially in early stages of ecosystem development (pioneer species composition and three-stage structure of successions). Strong differences appear during the late stages of succession. The primary succession of vegetation on the foreland of the Malyi Aktru glacier involves 146 species of vascular plants, 44 species of mosses, and 6 species of lichens. On the foreland of Bolshoi Levyi Aktru, 128 species of vascular plants, 26 species of mosses, and 8 ground lichens have been recorded. Keywords: young moraines, vascular plants, mosses, lichens, primary successions, dynamics, Severo-Chuiskiy center of glaciation, Central Altai.
32254Tang Y. & Lian B. (2012): Diversity of endolithic fungal communities in dolomite and limestone rocks from Nanjiang Canyon in Guizhou karst area, China. - Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 58: 685–693. .
The endolithic environment, the tiny pores and cracks in rocks, buffer microbial communities from a number of physical stresses, such as desiccation, rapid temperature variations, and UV radiation. Considerable knowledge has been acquired about the diversity of microorganisms in these ecosystems, but few culture-independent studies have been carried out on the diversity of fungi to date. Scanning electron microscopy of carbonate rock fragments has revealed that the rock samples contain certain kinds of filamentous fungi. We evaluated endolithic fungal communities from bare dolomite and limestone rocks collected from Nanjiang Canyon (a typical karst canyon in China) using culture-independent methods. Results showed that Ascomycota was absolutely dominant both in the dolomite and limestone fungal clone libraries. Basidiomycota and other eukaryotic groups (Bryophyta and Chlorophyta) were only detected occasionally or at low frequencies. The most common genus in the investigated carbonate rocks was Verrucaria. Some other lichen-forming fungi (e.g., Caloplaca, Exophiala, and Botryolepraria), Aspergillus, and Penicillium were also identified from the rock samples. The results provide a cross-section of the endolithic fungal communities in carbonate rocks and help us understand more about the role of microbes (fungi and other rock-inhabiting microorganisms) in rock weathering and pedogenesis. Key words: fungal community, diversity, endolithic, karst, weathering.
32253Wang Y., Yuan X., Chen L., Wang X. & Li C. (2018): Draft genome sequence of the lichen-forming fungus Ramalina intermedia strain YAF0013. - Genome Announcements, 6(23):e00478-18 [2 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1128/genomeA.00478-18.
Here, we report a draft genome sequence of Ramalina intermedia strain YAF0013. The functional annotation of R. intermedia provides important information related to its ability to produce secondary metabolites. The genome sequence reported here builds the basis for further genome mining.
32252Jia Z.-F., Li J. & Yang M.-Z. (2017): Carbacanthographis (Graphidaceae), a lichen genus new to Guangxi. - Guihaia, 37(2): 231–233. http://www.guihaia-journal.com/ch/reader/create_pdf.aspx?file_no=170214&flag=1&journal_id=gxzw&year_id=2017.
Based on the specimens collected from Yunnan Province, the lichen genus Schizotrema Mangold & Lumbsch is reported as new to China, with the species S. guadeloupense (Hale) Mangold & Lumbsch. Among Graphidaceae, the genus is characterized by its ascomata with concentrically layered margins composed of carbonized excipular remnants of older hymenia; the proper exciple is fused to indistinctly free, periphysoids are usually present, and the ascospores are transversely septate to muriform. The species also is new to Asia. Notes of other five species in the genus are given, also with ecology and distribution. World-wide key to species of Schizotrema be presence in the present paper. This study provides the basic data for the taxonomy of the family Graphidaceae. Key words: Cryptogamae, taxonomy, lichenized fungi, Ostropales, new record.
32251Jia Z.-F. & Lücking R. (2019): A genus Schizotrema (Graphidaceae) new to China, with a world-wide key. - ChinaXiv合作期刊, 201902.00011 [6 p.]. http://chinaxiv.org/abs/201902.00011.
Based on the specimens collected from Yunnan Province, the lichen genus Schizotrema Mangold & Lumbsch is reported as new to China, with the species S. guadeloupense (Hale) Mangold & Lumbsch. Among Graphidaceae, the genus is characterized by its ascomata with concentrically layered margins composed of carbonized excipular remnants of older hymenia; the proper exciple is fused to indistinctly free, periphysoids are usually present, and the ascospores are transversely septate to muriform. The species also is new to Asia. Notes of other five species in the genus are given, also with ecology and distribution. World-wide key to species of Schizotrema be presence in the present paper. This study provides the basic data for the taxonomy of the family Graphidaceae. Key words: Cryptogamae, taxonomy, lichenized fungi, Ostropales, new record.
32250Mitrović T., Stamenković S., Cvetković V., Radulović N., Mladenović M., Stanković M., Topuzović M., Radojević I., Stefanović O., Vasić S. & Čomić L. (2014): Platismatia glauca and Pseudevernia furfuracea lichens as sources of antioxidant, antimicrobial and antibiofilm agents. - EXCLI Journal, 13: 938–953. .
The antioxidative, antimicrobial and antibiofilm potentials of acetone, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of lichen species Platismatia glauca and Pseudevernia furfuracea were evaluated. The phytochemical analysis by GC, GC/MS and NMR revealed caperatic acid, atraric acid, atranorin and chloroatranorin as the predominant compounds in Platismatia glauca. Atraric acid, olivetoric acid, atranorin and chloroatranorin were the major constituents in Pseudevernia furfuracea. The strong antioxidant capacities of the Platismatia glauca and Pseudevernia furfuracea extracts were assessed by their total phenolic and flavonoid contents and DPPH scavenging activities. The methanol extracts of both species exhibited the strongest antioxidant activities with the highest IC50 value for Pseudevernia furfuracea (95.33 μg/mL). The lichen extracts demonstrated important antibacterial activities against 11 bacterial strains with detectable MIC values from 0.08 mg/mL to 2.5 mg/mL for Platismatia glauca and from 0.005 mg/mL to 2.5 mg/mL for Pseudevernia furfuracea. While the antibacterial activities of Pseudevernia furfuracea were solvent–independent, the acetone and ethyl acetate extracts of Platismatia glauca showed higher antibacterial activities compared to its methanol extract. The methanol extracts of both species demonstrated significant antifungal activities against 9 fungal strains with detectable MIC values from 0.04 mg/mL to 2.5 mg/mL. The best antifungal activities were determined against Candida species in Pseudevernia furfuracea extracts with remarkable MIC values which were lower than the MIC values of the positive contol fluconazole. The acetone and ethyl acetate extracts of Platismatia glauca showed better antibiofilm activities on Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus mirabilis with BIC value at 0.63 mg/mL then its methanol extract. On the other hand, the methanol extract of Pseudevernia furfuracea was more potent with BIC value at 1.25 mg/mL on Staphylococcus aureus and 0.63 mg/mL on Proteus mirabilis compared to other types of extracts. Our study indicates a possible use of lichens Platismatia glauca and Pseudevernia furfuracea as natural antioxidants and preservatives in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry. Keywords: Platismatia glauca, Pseudevernia furfuracea, chemical profile, antioxidant activity, antimicrobial activity, antibiofilm activity.
32249Stojanović I.Ž., Radulović N.S., Mitrović T.L., Stamenković S.M. & Stojanović G.S. (2011): Volatile constituents of selected Parmeliaceae lichens. - Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society, 76(7): 987–994. http://umv.doiserbia.nb.rs/img/doi/0352-5139/2011/0352-51391100087S.pdf.
The acetone soluble fraction of the methanol extracts of Parmeliaceae lichens: Hypogymnia physodes, Evernia prunastri and Parmelia sulcata, growing on the same host tree (Prunus domestica) and at the same locality was analyzed for the first time by GC and GC–MS. The major identified components were olivetol (33.5 % of the H. physodes extract), atraric acid (30.1 and 30.3 % of the E. prunastri and P. sulcata extracts, respectively), orcinol (25.0 % of the E. prunastri extract), vitamin E (24.7 % of the P. sulcata extract) and olivetonide (15.7 % of the H. physodes extract). Even though all the identified compounds are known, a number of them were found for the first time in the examined lichens, i.e., orcinol monomethyl ether (H. physodes), orcinol, atranol, lichesterol, ergosterol (H. physodes and P. sulcata), methyl haematommate, atraric acid, olivetol, vitamin E (H. physodes and P. sulcata) and β -sitosterol (P. sulcata). Keywords: Hypogymnia physodes; Evernia prunastri; Parmelia sulcata; volatile constituents.
32248Winkler A., Contardo T., Vannini A., Sorbo S., Basile A. & Loppi S. (2020): Magnetic emissions from brake wear are the major source of airborne particulate matter bioaccumulated by lichens exposed in Milan (Italy). - Applied Sciences, 10(6): 2073 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10062073.
The concentration of selected trace elements and the magnetic properties of samples of the lichen Evernia prunastri exposed for 3 months in Milan (Italy) were investigated to test if magnetic properties can be used as a proxy for the bioaccumulation of chemical elements in airborne particulate matter. Magnetic analysis showed intense properties driven by magnetite-like minerals, leading to significant correlations between magnetic susceptibility and the concentration of Fe, Cr, Cu, and Sb. Selected magnetic particles were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope and Energy Dispersion System microanalyses, and their composition, morphology and grain size supported their anthropogenic, non-exhaust origin. The overall combination of chemical, morphoscopic and magnetic analyses strongly suggested that brake abrasion from vehicles is the main source of the airborne particles accumulated by lichens. It is concluded that magnetic susceptibility is an excellent parameter for a simple, rapid and cost-effective characterization of atmospheric trace metal pollution using lichens. Keywords: magnetic biomonitoring; particulate matter; lichen transplants; brake wear; urban air pollution.
32247Singh P. (2016): Opegrapha trilocularis Müll. Arg. (lichenized Ascomycota), a lichen species new to India. - NeoBio, 6(4)[2015]: 1–3. .
Opegrapha trilocularis Müll. Arg. (Roccellaceae) is reported as a new record for Indian lichen flora from Uttarakhand, Western Himalaya of India. The species is characterized by its black, sessile lirellate ascomata and transversely 2-septate ascospores. A detailed taxonomic description with illustrations is provided to facilitate its easy identification of the species. Keywords: Opegrapha trilocularis, Roccellaceae, New record, Garhwal Himalaya.
32246Tatipamula V.B. & Vedula G.S. (2020): Fibrinolytic, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic potentialities of extracts and chemical constituents of manglicolous lichen, Graphis ajarekarii Patw. & C. R. Kulk. - Natural Products Journal, 10: 87–93. .
Background: Lichens which are betide to mangroves are termed as Manglicolous Lichens (ML). As these ML are habituated under stress conditions, they are screened for unique metabolites and biological activities. Objective: The study aimed to establish the chemical and biological profile of ML, Graphis ajarekarii. Methods: The Ethyl Acetate Extract of G. ajarekarii (EAE) was subjected to chromatographic techniques and the obtained isolates were characterized by spectroscopic analysis. The hydroalcoholic extract of G. ajarekarii (AE), EAE, isolates and Hydroalcoholic Extract of host (HE) were evaluated for fibrinolytic (fibrin clot method), in vitro (protein denaturation method) and in vivo (formalin-induced rat paw oedema assay), anti-inflammatory and cytotoxicity (MTT assay) activities. Results: Chemical investigation of the EAE led to the isolation of two known compounds namely atranorin (1) and ribenone (2), which were confirmed by spectral data. The AE and EAE gradually lysed the fibrin clot with 94.54 and 65.07%, respectively, at 24 h. The AE inhibited protein denaturation of about 88.06%, while the standard (Indomethacin) with 93.62%. Similarly, the in vivo antiinflammatory analysis of AE (200 mg/mL) showed potent reduction of rat paw oedema than the standard, whereas EAE and 1 depicted moderate depletion. In addition, the AE revealed prominence inhibition on MCF-7, DU145 and K-562 with IC50 values of 69.5, 42.5 and 38 μg/mL, respectively, whereas the HE exhibited mild inhibitory profile against fibrin clot, inflammation and cancer. Conclusion: From the results, it can be concluded that the G. ajarekarii has an aptitude to act against coagulation, inflammation and cancer cells. Keywords: Graphis ajarekarii, manglicolous lichen, fibrinolytic activity, protein denaturation method, formalin-induced rat paw oedema assay, MTT assay.
32245Greiser C., Ehrlén J., Meineri E. & Hylander K. (2020): Hiding from the climate: Characterizing microrefugia for boreal forest understory species. - Global Change Biology, 26(2): 471–483. .
Climate warming is likely to shift the range margins of species poleward, but fine‐scale temperature differences near the ground (microclimates) may modify these range shifts. For example, cold‐adapted species may survive in microrefugia when the climate gets warmer. However, it is still largely unknown to what extent cold microclimates govern the local persistence of populations at their warm range margin. We located 99 microrefugia, defined as sites with edge populations of 12 widespread boreal forest understory species (vascular plants, mosses, liverworts and lichens) in an area of ca. 24,000 km2 along the species' southern range margin in central Sweden. Within each population, a logger measured temperature eight times per day during one full year. Using univariate and multivariate analyses, we examined the differences of the populations' microclimates with the mean and range of microclimates in the landscape, and identified the typical climate, vegetation and topographic features of these habitats. Comparison sites were drawn from another logger data set (n = 110), and from high‐resolution microclimate maps. The microrefugia were mainly places characterized by lower summer and autumn maximum temperatures, late snow melt dates and high climate stability. Microrefugia also had higher forest basal area and lower solar radiation in spring and autumn than the landscape average. Although there were common trends across northern species in how microrefugia differed from the landscape average, there were also interspecific differences and some species contributed more than others to the overall results. Our findings provide biologically meaningful criteria to locate and spatially predict potential climate microrefugia in the boreal forest. This opens up the opportunity to protect valuable sites, and adapt forest management, for example, by keeping old‐growth forests at topographically shaded sites. These measures may help to mitigate the loss of genetic and species diversity caused by rear‐edge contractions in a warmer climate. Key words: cold-adapted species, marginal populations, microclimate, range contraction, range edge, range shift, rear edge, thermal niche.
32244Velasco Ayuso S., Oñatibia G.R., Maestre F.T. & Yahdjian L. (2020): Grazing pressure interacts with aridity to determine the development and diversity of biological soil crusts in Patagonian rangelands. - Land Degradation and Development, 31(4): 488–499. .
Grazing is directly related to land degradation and desertification in global drylands. Grazing impacts on vascular plants, reasonably well‐known, depend on its intensity and are modulated by local aridity conditions. However, we do not know how the interplay of grazing intensity and aridity affect biocrusts, topsoil assemblages dominated by cyanobacteria, lichens, and mosses that provide key ecosystem services in drylands. Here, we determined how grazing affects biomass, total cover, and richness of biocrust structural types across a regional aridity gradient in the Patagonian steppe. On average, grazing by sheep reduced biocrust biomass, total cover and richness of structural types by 55, 90, and 59%, respectively. In general, high grazing pressures had a larger impact on biocrusts than moderate or light grazing pressures. For example, biocrust cover was reduced by 85, 89, and 98% by light, moderate, and high grazing pressures, respectively. Although a slightly different response to grazing was observed under low aridity conditions, these more benign climatic conditions did not compensate for the negative effects of trampling by domestic animals on biocrusts. Nonetheless, estimated biocrust recovery rates under medium aridity conditions were faster than previously thought: it took 24, 18, and 58 years to double biocrust biomass, total cover, and richness of structural types. Sheep cannot be just removed in Patagonian rangelands because the production of meat and wool represents the main local economic activity. But landowners must consider our results to protect the ecosystem functions and services provided by biocrusts for future generations to come. Keywords: Patagonian steppe; aridity; biocrusts; grazing intensity; recovery rates.
32243Pandey S., Misra S.K. & Sharma N. (2020): Development of Usnic acid embedded Eudragit microspheres for alleviation of nosocomial infections. - Anti-Infective Agents, 18: 79–87. .
Background: Usnic Acid has been progressively reported in the literature as one of the chiefly significant lichen metabolites exemplified by an ample diversity of applications such as antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral, antiprotozoal agents, etc. Herein, we shed a light on nosocomial infections and formulated topical microspheres loaded with Usnic acid for improved antimicrobial activity. Recent patents and novel researches were referred to pursue the present work. Methods: Usnic acid embedded Eudragit microspheres were designed applying solvent evaporation method, investigated for topography and drug-polymer compatibility studies. Dialysis bag method was utilized for studying drug release kinetics. In vitro antibacterial assay was carried out against the virulent bacterial strain of Staphylococcus aureus using the disc diffusion method. Results: Topography studies revealed the formation of regular, micro-sized, smooth surface microspheres. Well defined and specific structural peaks were obtained from FTIR and TGA studies, revealing drugpolymer compatibility. The dissolution profile suggested Korsmeyer Peppas kinetic and Fickian kind of diffusion from microspheres. The pre-eminent activity of formulated microspheres was visualized from the disc diffusion study against Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusion: The strong biological activity of Usnic acid –loaded Eudragit RS and Eudragit RL microspheres provides a promising application for corresponding material as a bactericidal agent for the alleviation of nosocomial infection. Findings paid attention to the potential of usnic acid microspheres for effective treatment of dermal and nosocomial infections caused by S. aureus. Keywords: Antimicrobial, usnic acid, biocompatible, nosocomial infection, controlled release, microspheres.
32242刘华杰 刘四娃 王磊 刘晓迪 赵良成 吴清凤 [Liu H.-J., Liu S.-W., Wang L., Liu X.-D., Zhao L.-C. & Wu Q.-F.] (2016): 物种和基物偏好对河北太行山区六种地衣的元素含量的影响 [Effects of species and substrate preference on element concentration of six lichens in Taihang Mountains, Hebei, China]. - Mycosystema, 35(10): 1258–1267. .
[in Chinese with English abstract:] To test the effects of species and substrate preference on lichen element concentrations, sixteen chemical elements (Al, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Na, P, S, Sc, Sr, Ti, V and Zn) were analyzed in six lichen species (three saxicolous lichens, Collema cristatum, Xanthoria mandschurica and Xanthoparmelia mexicana, two terricolous lichens, Cladonia pocillum and Endocarpon pusillum, and one corticolous lichen, Phaeophyscia hispidula) from six localities of the Taihang Mountains, Hebei, China. A combination of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Friedman test shows that species and substrate preference have high effects on element composition in lichen thalli, whereas locality has no significant effect. The corticolous lichen accumulates the highest level of atmospheric elements (P, S and Zn), while the terricolous lichens have the highest concentration for the crustal metals (Al, Ba, Fe, Mn, Mo, Na, Sc, Sr, Ti and V) and atmospheric metal Cr. As compared with the terricolous lichens, the saxicolous lichens are similar in levels of P, S and Zn, but are less affected by soil contamination. The three saxicolous lichens are roughly similar in concentration for these elements. These results suggest that atmospheric deposition biomonitoring with the aid of lichens should give consideration to the influence of species and substrate preference. Key words: North China, atmospheric deposition, air pollution, biomonitoring.
32241Wang J.-H. & Wei J.-C. (2016): A new lichenized fungus Sarcogyne parviascifera (Acarosporaceae, Ascomycota). - Mycosystema, 35(11): 1344–1347. .
A new lichenized fungus Sarcogyne parviascifera is described based on the pheno-genotypic analysis. The diagnosis, description with figures of the new species are given. Key words: Sarcogyne parviascifera, diagnosis, description, Acarosporaceae.
32240王娇红 李二伟 魏江春 [Wang J.-H., Li E.-W. & Wei J.-C.] (2017): 小囊网盘衣真菌新色原酮类次级代谢产物初步研究 [A preliminary study of the isoprenylated chromones from lichenized fungus Sarcogyne asciparva]. - Mycosystema, 36(4): 492–502. .
[in Chinese with English abstract:] Lichens are symbiotic ecosystem of mostly ascomycetous fungi (mycobiont) and photosynthetic partners (photobiont) which are either green algae or cyanobacteria. Using cultured separated lichenized fungus Sarcogyne asciparva as material, sarcasciols A–H (1–8), eight new isoprenylated chromone derivatives have been isolated from scale-up culture. The structures of 1–8 were elucidated by mass spectra and nuclear magnetic resonance experiments. The absolute configuration of C-6 in 1 was assigned by application of the modified Mosher’s method. The antibacterial activity of compounds 1–8 was revalued by 96-well plate method. Key words: lichenized fungus, Sarcogyne asciparva, new chromones.
32239王治军 魏鑫丽 陈玉惠 [Wang Z.-J., Wei X.-L. & Chen Y.-H.] (2017): 荒漠地衣对沙坡头人工植被固沙区的生态影响 [Ecological effects of desert lichens on Shapotou artificial vegetation zone, Ningxia, China]. - Mycosystema, 36(9): 1260–1270. .
[in Chinese with English abstract:] The ecological pattern dominated by microbiotic crust in the Shapotou area of the Tengger Desert is one of the unique ecological landscapes in natural vegetation of desert areas. Lichen, an important component of microbiotic crusts, plays a crucial role in influencing ecological changes. In this study, we investigated species composition and coverage of vascular plants and lichens, measured concentration of major nutrients in crust soil. The results show that the dominant lichens in microbiotic crusts are taxa of Collema and Endocarpon. We also observed roughly significant positive correlations between vascular plants and microbiotic crust converges, thickness of crust and concentration in soil nutrients, all which posing an increasing trend with ages of artificial vegetation. The consistent patterns of parameters of vascular plants, microbiotic crusts, lichens and soil nutrients clearly suggest a positive effect of microbiotic crusts on shallow-rooted vegetation and soil restoration, and provide a necessary theoretical basis for the artificial sand control and the full implementation of the desert bio-carpet engineering. Key words: desert, microbiotic crust, lichen, ecological succession.
32238柳润东 蒋淑华 李二伟 魏江春 [Liu R.-D., Jiang S.-H., Li E.-W. & Wei J.-C.] (2018): 石果衣菌藻次级代谢产物的初步研究 [A preliminary study on the secondary metabolites from the mycobiont and phycobiont of lichen Endocarpon pusillum]. - Mycosystema, 37(2): 246–255. .
[in Chinese with English abstract:] In the desert lichen Endocarpon pusillum can not be detected any secondary metabolite. But, its mycobiont genome contains fourteen PKS genes and two NRPS genes. Through the activation of culture in vermiculite medium, three secondary metabolites have been obtained from the mycobiont, including a new isoindolin-1-one compound (endocarpin A), a new naphthoquinone (endocarpin B) and lamellicolic anhydride. Other three demagnesium chlorophyll compounds were isolated from its phycobiont Diplosphaera chodatii. They are phaeophorbide b, 13-epi-phaeophorbide a and phaeophorbide a. Phaeophorbide b owned medium antioxidant activity based on the ability to scavenge DPPH free radicals in vitro. Key words: lichenized fungus, phycobiont, Diplosphaera chodatii, isoindolin-1-one, naphthoquinone.
32237魏江春 [Wei J.-C.] (2018): 中国地衣学现状综述 [A review on the present situation of lichenology in China]. - Mycosystema, 37(7): 812–818. .
[in Chinese with English abstract: ] A short review of the lichenology in China is given by the present paper. A concept about the lichen systematic biology with three systems of storage and retrieval as a bridge between biodiversity in the nature and exploration of lichen resources is emphasized. The significance of lichen species and genes in desert biological carpet engineering is discussed. The secret that lichen doesn′t produce secondary metabolites is uncovered, and a new way to solve it has been found. Key words: lichenology in China, biodiversity, systematic biology, species and genes, resource biology.
32236Miao C.-C., Wang X.-Y., Scheidegger C., Wang L.-S. & Zhao Z.-T. (2018): Three new cyanobacterial species of Lobaria (Lobariaceae, Peltigerales) from the Hengduan Mountains, China. - Mycosystema, 37(7): 838–848. .
Eight hundred and thirty specimens of cyanobacterial Lobaria from Hengduan Mountains were examined morphologically and chemically. Eighteen new nuclear ITS sequences were generated and a phylogeny based on ITS sequences is presented. Three species of Lobaria are described as new to science: L. hengduanensis, L. irrugulosa and L. latilobulata. L. hengduanensis can be recognized by its soredioid isidia; L. imrugulosa is characterized by its indistinct reticulately ridged upper side of the thallus; L. latilobulata differs from other species of the genus in having wide and rounded tips of lobes. These new species formed independent clades on the ITS phylogenetic tree. A key to the cyanobacterial species of Lobaria from China is presented. Key words: lichenized fungi, taxonomy, phylogeny.
32235Liu D., Goffinet B., Wang X.-Y., Hur J.-S., Shi H.-X., Zhang Y.-Y., Yang M.-X., Li L.-J., Yin A.-C. & Wang L.-S. (2018): Another lineage of basidiolichen in China, the genera Dictyonema and Lichenomphalia (Agaricales: Hygrophoraceae). - Mycosystema, 37(7): 849–864. .
Several specimens of basidiolichen belonging to the Hygrophoraceae were collected as part of the China lichen mycota. These belong to four species in two genera, Dictyonema and Lichenomphalia. Dictyonema yunnanum is described as new and Lichenomphalia velutina is newly recorded for Asia based on inferences from morphological, chemical and phylogenetic analysis. Dictyonema yunnanum is characterized by the dark aeruginous blue to black filamentous, ascending to erect, micro-fruticulose thallus. The species of lichenized Hygrophoraceae occurring in China are described and a key to distinguish them is presented. Key words: lichenized fungi, taxonomy, diversity, Hygrophoraceae, China.
32234Jia Z.-F., Lücking R., Li J. & Meng Q.-F. (2018): A preliminary study of the lichen genus Fissurina (Graphidaceae) in China. - Mycosystema, 37(7): 881–895. .
As part of a revision of the lichen family Graphidaceae in China, a treatment of 16 species of the genus Fissurina is presented. Among these, three species, viz. F. consentanea, F. globulifica and F. insidiosa, are new records for China. Four synonyms are suggested: Fissurina isidiata Z.F. Jia [= Platythecium dimorphodes (Nyl.) Staiger], Fissurina marginata Staiger [= Fissurina elaocarpa (A.W. Archer) A.W. Archer], Graphis canlaonensis Vain. (=Fissurina consentanea Nyl.) and Graphis glauca Müll. Arg. (=Fissurina dumastii Müll. Arg.). Descriptions and known distribution are given for each species. A revised key for the identification of Fissurina species so far known from China is presented. Key words: lichenized fungi, Ascomycota, Ostropales, Graphidaceae, taxonomy.
32233Fan L.-L., Guo S.-Y. & Han L.-F. (2018): Diversity of endolichenic fungi associated with some species of Cladonia from the Greater Khingan Mountains of Northeast China. - Mycosystema, 37(7): 896–906. .
Seven species of Cladonia were collected from the Greater Khingan Mountains, Northeast China. The endolichenic fungi associated with them were isolated by using the scraping cortex method and 90 strains were obtained from 710 pieces for 15 samples. The average colonization rate was 12.68% (2.86%-32.76%). There was no obvious corresponding relationship between the Cladonia species and its colonization rate. Based on morphological characteristics of colony, hyphae and conidia, 30 strains were selected as representatives and the ITS sequences of them were obtained and analyzed. According to the cultural colony characteristics and ITS sequences, these strains were identified as 19 taxa belonging to 15 genera, eleven families, eight orders, and five classes in three phyla. Xylariaceae was the dominant family, accounting for 77.78% of all strains. Hypoxylon fuscum was the dominant species, accounting for 62.22%. The Shannon-Wiener and Simpson diversity index values of the fungal community for every Cladonia species and overall demonstrated that there was moderate endolichenic fungal species diversity in Cladonia with obvious host specificity. Key words: diversity index, endolichenic fungi, nrDNA ITS sequence, host specificity, Hypoxylon.
32232帕丽旦·艾海提 阿不都拉·阿巴斯 艾尼瓦尔·吐米尔 [Ahat P., Abbas A. & Tumur A.] (2018): 中国新疆博格达山周边地区大型地衣物种多样性及分布特征 [Species diversity and distribution characteristics of macrolichens around the Bogda Mountains, Xinjiang, China]. - Mycosystema, 37(7): 907–918. .
[in Chinese with English abstract: ] A comprehensive research on lichen taxonomy and ecology of the macrolichens around the Bogda Mountains was conducted. Species diversity and distribution characteristics were analyzed and the environmental variables and ecological factors affecting macrolichens distribution were discussed. Totally 43 species of marcolichens in 15 genera, 11 family and 6 orders were found. Among them, species of the Lecanorales and Teloschistales were dominant, accounted for 81%, 67% and 55% of the sum total of species, genera and families, respectively. Five groups were recognized, they are: Physcia caesia + Xanthoria lobulata, Xanthoria candelaria + Physconia perisidiosa, Physcia tenella + Xanthoparmelia somloensis, Peltigera rufescens + Phaeophyscia sciastra and Phaeophyscia hispidula + Cladonia coniocraea. Elevation has a more significant impact on the species distribution pattern. This study provides scientific evidence for accurately determining the ecological relationship and the distribution pattern of macrolichens in Bogda Mountains. Key words: macrolichen, species diversity, distribution characteristics, Bogda Mountains, Xinjiang.
32231李苏 柳帅 刘文耀 石贤萌 宋亮 武传胜 [Li S., Liu S., Liu W.-Y., Shi X.-M., Song L. & Wu C.-S.] (2018): 亚热带常绿阔叶林附生地衣凋落物的物种多样性和生物量 的边缘效应 [Edge effects on species diversity and biomass of epiphytic macrolichen litterfall in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest]. - Mycosystema, 37(7): 919–930. .
[in Chinese with English abstract: ] Epiphytic lichens are an important component of epiphytes and show extreme sensitivity to environmental changes in subtropical montane forests. To understand the response of epiphytic lichens to forest edge effects, 16 plots at 5m, 25m, 50m, and 100m from the edge in four edge-interior transects were established in a primary montane moist evergreen broad-leaved forest in the Ailao Mountains of Yunnan. Within each plot, epiphytic macrolichen litterfall was collected over one year and the differences in biomass, species diversity and community structure were compared. It was indicated that there was a positive effect of edge environments on the species diversity and biomass accumulation of epiphytic macrolichen litterfall in the plots within 25m from the edge. Epiphytic lichen groups also showed various responses to edge effects. Ordination analysis showed that there was a significant difference in species composition between the 5m plots and the other plots while indicator species analysis revealed significant indicators only occurred in 5m plots. The positive effect of forest edge on the epiphytic lichens in the Ailao Mountains may be due to the high-light damage largely weakened by the high humidity and the small thalli of dominant foliose and fruticose macrolichen species being potentially less prone to mechanical damage destroyed by wind-force. Key words: macrolichen, epiphyte, litterfall, indicator species, community structure, ordination analysis.
32230柳帅 李苏 刘文耀 [Liu S., Li S. & Liu W.-Y.] (2018): 亚热带山地森林附生地衣的移植生长及其对环境变化的响应 [Growth of epiphytic lichens and their responses to environmental changes in a subtropical mountain forest]. - Mycosystema, 37(7): 931–939. .
[in Chinese with English abstract: ] Transplanting experiments of six species of epiphytic macrolichens were carried out in Ailao Mountains for two-year. The differences of health rate and biomass growth rate of the lichens among three habitats, primeval forest interior, forest edge and open land, were compared. The relationship between lichen growth and environmental factors were also detected. It was found that the biomass of Lobaria retigera and Sticta nylanderiana increased most rapidly in the forest edge, while Sulcaria sulcata, Usnea florida, Nephromopsis pallescens and Lobaria isidiophora grew best at the open land with strongest light and lower humidity. The health rates of the lichens were higher in the open land, relatively lower in forest edge, and lowest in the forest interior, except for Lobaria retigera. Non-parametric correlation analysis showed that the growth rate of the six lichen species was positively correlated with light and temperature, and negatively correlated with atmospheric humidity. Temperature and light are the most important factors affecting the growth of epiphytic lichens. Key words: montane forest, macrolichen, epiphyte, transplant growth, biomass accumulation.
32229王立松 梁萌萌 王欣宇 & 杨美霞 [Wang L.-S., Liang M.-M., Wang X.-Y. & Yang M.-X.] (2018): “地衣”词考 [Textual source of the Chinese word “diyi” (lichen)]. - Mycosystema, 37(7): 950–953. .
[in Chinese with English abstract: ] Definitions of the word “diyi” (lichen) in Chinese were investigated, and ancient books appeared from 2100 BC till AD 1912 were consulted; The concept that “diyi” is a symbiont was first proposed in 1858 in the book titled “Zhi Wu Xue” (botany) compiled by Li Shan-Lan et al. Key words: ancient books, “diyi” (lichen), source.
32228阿不都拉·阿巴斯 & 拉扎提·努尔太 [Abbas A. & Nurtai L.] (2018): 中国微孢衣属地衣(微孢衣科)三个新记录种 [Three new records of lichen genus Acarospora (Acarosporaceae) from China]. - Mycosystema, 37(7): 954–961. .
[in Chinese with English abstract: ] Three new records of lichen genus Acarospora (Acarosporaceae) are reported from China, viz. Acarospora obpallens (Nyl. ex Hasse) Zahlbr., A. rosulata (Th. Fr.) H. Magn. and A. aeginaica H. Magn. The specimens were collected from Heilongjiang, Inner Mongolia and Xinjiang. Morphological description, figures, ITS and mtSSU sequences are provided for each species. The materials are deposited in the Herbarium of Lichen Research Center in Arid Zones of Northwestern China of Xinjiang University, Urumqi, Xinjiang, China (XJU-NALH). Key words: Acarosporaceae, Acarospora, new records, taxonomy.
32227Wei J.-C. & Guo W. (2019): A taxonomic revision of some taxa in the Umbilicariaceae (Umbilicariales, Ascomycota). - Mycosystema, 38(10): 1600–1609. .
Based on systematic analysis of symplesiomorphy together with synapomorphy Umbilicaria laceratula (1926) has been combined as Lasallia laceratula comb. nov. and Lasallia rossica (1978) has been treated as a heterotypic synonym of Lasallia laceratula. U. caucasica (1885) has been treated as the heterotypic synonym of Lasallia pensylvanica, and Gyrophora proboscidea var. orizabae (1926) is the synonym of Umbilicaria bigleri (1949). Key words: Symplesiomorphy, synapomorphy, heterotypic synonym.
32226任强 [Ren Q.] (2019): 中国白衣属的分类修订 [Taxonomic revision of the genus Lepra (Pertusariales) in China]. - Mycosystema, 38(11): 1840–1864. .
[in Chinese with English abstract: ] Seventeen species of the genus Pertusaria s. lat. are transferred to the recently resurrected genus Lepra. Lepra albopunctata and L. muricata are reported as new to China. Pertusaria sanguinulenta is synonymized with Lepra submultipuncta. Pertusaria brachyspora is excluded from the lichen checklist of China because of wrong identification. Some of the wrongly identified specimens cited in literature are corrected, and a key to the 37 Lepra species known in China is provided. Key words: lichen-forming fungi, taxonomy, new combinations, secondary metabolites, new records.
32225Pykälä J. & Breuss O. (2011): Notes on some rare Verrucaria species (lichenised Ascomycotina, Verrucariales). - Österreichische Zeitschrift für Pilzkunde, 20: 29–34. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/OestZPilz_20_0029-0034.pdf.
Verrucaria cincta and V. putnae are reported for the first time from Fennoscandia; V. dalslandensis is new to Finland and Austria. Verrucaria scabridula is synonymized with V. subfuscata, and Verrucaria olivacella with V. inaspecta. Verrucaria inaspecta and V. scabridula are lectotypified. The type material of V. gotlandica includes four Verrucaria species. Key words: Pyrenocarpous lichens, Verrucariacae. – Taxonomy, systematics. – Mycoflora of Fennoscandia.
32224Arcadia in L. (2019): (2722) Proposal to conserve the name Bilimbia (Ramalinaceae, lichenised Ascomycota) with a conserved type. - Taxon, 68(6): 1363–1364. .
Nomenclature
32223Trovão J., Portugal A., Soares F., Paiva D.S., Mesquita N., Coelho C., Pinheiro A.C., Catarino L., Gil F. & Tiago I. (2019): Fungal diversity and distribution across distinct biodeterioration phenomena in limestone walls of the old cathedral of Coimbra, UNESCO World Heritage Site. - International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 142: 91–102. .
Fungi are powerful biodeteriogens and when colonizing stone monuments are often responsible for severe physical, chemical and aesthetical modifications. Recently the old cathedral of Coimbra (Portugal) was awarded the UNESCO World Heritage Site distinction as an integrant part of the “University of Coimbra- Alta and Sofia” area. The limestone walls in this cathedral show clear visual signs of biological colonization and biodeterioration. The aim of this work was to obtain an extensive fingerprint of the biodeteriorating fungal agents in this affected ancient limestone through the application of traditional cultivation and modern Next Generation Sequencing techniques. Due to high diversity of distinctive biodeterioration phenomena affecting this site, a rapport between the identified fungal populations and the different biodeterioration types found was also established and their importance for the monument preservation discussed. The results obtained through the application of this approach, not only allowed a robust characterization of the fungal communities colonizing this monument, but also elucidated that distinct fungal communities are dissimilar according to the type of biodeterioration analyzed. In addition, we verified that both cultivation and metagenomics methodologies should be employed synergistically in limestone biodeterioration studies in order to tackle inherent limitations regarding both techniques. Two lichen-forming genera were revealed during this study: Polysporina and Botryolepraria.
32222Mafole T.C., Solhaug K.A., Minibayeva F.V. & Beckett R.P. (2019): Occurrence and possible roles of melanic pigments in lichenized ascomycetes. - Fungal Biology Reviews, 33: 159–165. .
Many species of lichenized ascomycetes are capable of synthesizing darkly colored melanin pigments by polymerizing phenolic compounds. Available data suggest that different clades of lichens produce various kinds of melanins, with N2-fixing Peltigeralean lichens producing N-rich DOPA or “eumelanins” and lichens from other orders producing N-poor “allomelanins.” In general, melanic lichens seem to be more common in environments with high levels of abiotic stress such as polar and montane regions, but they are by no means restricted to these habitats. Here, we review the occurrence of melanins in lichens, their chemical structure, methods of quantification and biological roles. Good evidence exists that melanins in lichens protect the mycobiont from high UV, and the photobiont against high PAR. However, given their many unique properties, it seems likely that melanins help lichens to survive a range of biotic and abiotic stresses. Keywords: Lichens; Melanin; Photoinhibition; Stress tolerance.
32221Sohrabi M., Ghiyasi A., Bordbar F., Safavi S.R., Aliabadi F. & Sipman H. (2019): A checklist of lichenized fungi of Kerman province, SE, Iran. - Mycologia Iranica, 6(1): 21–32. .
The lichenized mycota of the southern part of Iran including Kerman province has been poorly studied compared to the Northern Iranian provinces such as Azerbaijan, Golestan or Mazandaran. Here we present the first lichen checklist for Kerman province, which comprises 57 species in 30 genera and 14 families. For this purpose, we reviewed both old and recent literature, examined herbarium collections and performed fieldwork in the province during 2009, 2010 and 2011. The results include 15 taxa new to the lichenized mycota of Kerman. Acarospora impressula Th. Fr., Anaptychia bryorum Poelt and Sarcogyne similis H. Magn. are new to the lichenized mycota of Iran. The following new combinations are proposed: Circinaria excrescens (J. Steiner) Sohrabi, C. scabridula (H. Magn.) Sohrabi and C. straussii (J. Steiner) Sohrabi. Key words: Circinaria, lichenized fungi, mycota, new combinations, new records.
32220Zolovs M., Jakubāne I., Kirilova J., Kivleniece I., Moisejevs R., Koļesnikova J. & Pilāte D. (2020): The potential antifeedant activity of lichen-forming fungal extracts against the invasive Spanish slug (Arion vulgaris). - Canadian Journal of Zoology, 98: 195–201. .
The protection of horticultural crops from slug feeding can be achieved using slug pellets; however, application of molluscicides is not always safe for the environment. There is a need for alternative methods to reduce the palatability of crop plants. Chemical properties of secondary compounds from lichens influence the feeding behaviour of slugs. Liquid extracts of three lichen species (Cladonia rangiferina (L.) F.H. Wigg., Cladonia stellaris (Opiz) Pouzar & Vězda, and Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf) were applied to three different crops and tested for their antifeedant properties against an important agricultural pest, the Spanish slug (Arion vulgaris Moquin-Tandon, 1855). All three extracts had specific activity, showing a decrease in grazing intensity as well as slug mass loss after feeding on treated food. Slugs significantly gained mass after feeding under control condition; however, they did not gain mass when fed on extract-treated food. The most effective extract was from P. furfuracea. We propose to use properties of lichen extracts to develop new environmentally friendly molluscicides. Key words: lichen, Arion vulgaris, Spanish slug, extraction, antifeedants, secondary metabolites, invasive species.
32219Komendova R. [recte Komendová], Nevrla J. [recte Nevrlá], Kuta J. & Sommer L. (2016): Innovative preconcentration technique on polymer sorbent for simultaneous determination of platinum group metals in the waters and lichen Hypogymnia physodes. - Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 25(12): 5172–5179. .
This study is focused on optimization of preconcentration procedure of trace amounts of platinum group metals (PGMs) by solid phase extraction. Amberlite polystyrene-divinylbezene based sorbent was used for this purpose. Under the optimizing process were optimize number of parameters such as pH value of sorption; type and concentration of complexing agent; concentration and type of cationic surfactant; type, pH, and volume of eluent mixture; acidity of final solution and various interfering influences (presence of various ions, matrix effects). Ammonium-pyrrolidindithiocarbamate, thiourea, 4-(2-pyridylazo) resorcinol and 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid were used as complexing agents for PGMs. Sorbent was conditioned using cationic surfactant solution. Benzyldimethyltetradecyl ammonium chloride, N-(alpha-carbethoxypentadecyl)trimethyl ammonium bromide and benzyldimethyldodecyl ammonium bromide were tested. Mixture of acetonitrile and HCl was proved as eluent. The influences of various concentrations of hydrochloric acid during the complexation, elution and partial evaporation of the eluent prior the determination were tested. Effects of various elements and ions were studied during the sorption and retention on the above mentioned sorbent. Simultaneous determination of PGMs was performed by ICP-MS spectrometer using helium collision cell and internal standard. Detection limits for individual elements at discussed conditions were evaluated. The optimized method of solid phase extraction was applied to spiked real water samples and lichens for testing influences of matrix and efficient of sorption process. It was discovered that recovery ratio of sorption process is diverse for individual studied elements. Acceptable results was achieved for Platinum and Palladium which showed recovery ratio about 100 % and 95 % for Osmium. Keywords: Platinum group metals; preconcentration; separation; cationic surfactant; lichens; ICP-MS.
32218Martínez-Alberola F., Barreno E., Casano L.M., Gasulla F., Molins A., Moya P., González‐Hourcade M. & Campo E.M. (2020): The chloroplast genome of the lichen‐symbiont microalga Trebouxia sp. Tr9 (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta) shows short inverted repeats with a single gene and loss of the rps4 gene, which is encoded by the nukleus. - Journal of Phycology, 56(1): 170–184. .
The Trebouxiophyceae is the class of Chlorophyta algae from which the highest number of chloroplast genome (cpDNA) sequences has been obtained. Several species in this class participate in symbioses with fungi to form lichens. However, no cpDNA has been obtained from any Trebouxia lichen‐symbiont microalgae, which are present in approximately half of all lichens. Here, we report the sequence of the completely assembled cpDNA from Trebouxia sp. TR9 and a comparative study with other Trebouxio‐phyceae. The organization of the chloroplast genome of Trebouxia sp. TR9 has certain features that are unusual in the Trebouxiophyceae and other green algae. The most remarkable characteristics are the presence of long intergenic spacers, a quadripartite structure with short inverted repeated sequences (IRs), and the loss of the rps4 gene. The presence of long intergenic spacers accounts for a larger cpDNA size in comparison to other closely related Trebouxiophyceae. The IRs, which were thought to be lost in the Trebouxiales, are distinct from most of cpDNAs since they lack the rRNA operon and uniquely includes the rbcL gene. The functional transfer of the rps4 gene to the nuclear genome has been confirmed by sequencing and examination of the gene architecture, which includes three spliceosomal introns as well as the verification of the presence of the corresponding transcript. This is the first documented transfer of the rps4 gene from the chloroplast to the nucleus among Viridiplantae. Additionally, a fairly well‐resolved phylogenetic reconstruction, including Trebouxia sp. TR9 along with other Trebouxiophyceae, was obtained based on a set of conserved chloroplast genes. Keywords: Trebouxia; chloroplast; gene transfer; genome; lichen; microalga; rps4; symbiont.
32217Felton A., Petersson L., Nilsson O., Witzell J., Cleary M., Felton A.M., Björkman C., Sang Å.O., Jonsell M., Holmström E., Nilsson U., Rönnberg J., Kalén C. & Lindbladh M. (2020): The tree species matters: Biodiversity and ecosystem service implications of replacing Scots pine production stands with Norway spruce. - Ambio, 49: 1035–1049. .
The choice of tree species used in production forests matters for biodiversity and ecosystem services. In Sweden, damage to young production forests by large browsing herbivores is helping to drive a development where sites traditionally regenerated with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) are instead being regenerated with Norway spruce (Picea abies). We provide a condensed synthesis of the available evidence regarding the likely resultant implications for forest biodiversity and ecosystem services from this change in tree species. Apart from some benefits (e.g. reduced stand-level browsing damage), we identified a range of negative outcomes for biodiversity, production, esthetic and recreational values, as well as increased stand vulnerability to storm, frost, and drought damage, and potentially higher risks of pest and pathogen outbreak. Our results are directly relevant to forest owners and policy-makers seeking information regarding the uncertainties, risks, and trade-offs likely to result from changing the tree species in production forests. Keywords: Biological diversity;  Climate change;  Ecosystem services;  Planted forest;  Sustainability. A review paper discussing also lichens in one-two paragraphs (p. 1038) in relation to the topic of the paper.
32216Ndlovu N.B., Frontasyeva M.V., Newman R.T. & Maleka P.P. (2019): Active biomonitoring of atmospheric pollution in the Western Cape (South Africa) using INAA and ICP‑MS. - Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 322: 1549–1559. .
For the first time, active biomonitoring was used to assess elemental content of atmospheric pollution in selected areas of the Western Cape Province in South Africa. Two moss and lichen species were exposed for a maximum period of 3-months (i.e. 12-weeks) at three sites. Overall, 47 elements were identified and their concentrations were determined using both INAA and ICP-MS. Some of the identified elements could be linked back to the anticipated pollution sources. Relative Accumulation Factor values were calculated for the identified elements. Overall, concentrations of elements were found to be relatively lower in the Western Cape air. Keywords: Biomonitoring · Air quality · Heavy metals · Trace elements · Neutron activation analysis.
32215Koivula M. & Vanha-Majamaa I. (2020): Experimental evidence on biodiversity impacts of variable retention forestry, prescribed burning, and deadwood manipulation in Fennoscandia. - Ecological Processes, 9: 11 [22 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13717-019-0209-1.
Intensive forest management has been applied in most Fennoscandian forests for a period of almost one felling rotation. This paradigm has produced even-aged and even-structured forests of different successional stages that cover about 90% of forest land. At the same time, wildfires have been nearly eliminated in most of the Fennoscandian nature. Consequently, hundreds of species are red-listed because of forest management. To support these species, forest management requires improvements. Variable retention forestry and habitat restoration have been suggested to mitigate negative effects of forest management on biodiversity, and these have been practiced to some extent during the past few decades. Here, we review experimental results on the effects of variable retention and two restoration measures (prescribed burning and artificial addition of coarse woody debris) on different species groups in Fennoscandia. Our key findings are as follows: (i) Many species respond positively to felling within a few years, apparently due to released and often ephemeral resources, such as fresh residue and stumps. Species associated with shady conditions are negatively impacted, but any retention supports many of these, and their species composition remains almost unaffected with 50–70% retention of the initial tree volume. (ii) These effects remain detectable for at least 10–30 years or, according to some studies, nearly 100 years, e.g., in polypore fungi. (iii) Initial effects of prescribed burning on most species groups (apart from pyrophiles) are negative, but within 10–15 years post-fire sites begin to support many rare and threatened deadwood-dependent species. Epiphytic lichens, however, remain negatively affected. (iv) Artificial addition of deadwood (mostly high stumps) supports a wide spectrum of deadwood-dependent species, but the species composition differs from that of naturally died trees. (v) Moisture and micro-habitat variation are crucial for forest species at harvested sites, at least in forests dominated by Norway spruce. We conclude that felling method as such is of little importance for threatened forest species, although retention mitigates many negative effects. These species require microclimatic continuity, and maintenance and active increase of legacies, such as deadwood of different qualities (species, downed/standing, snag/log/stump, decay stage), very old trees, and tree species mixtures. Keywords: Beetle, Forest management, Invertebrate, Polypore, Resilience, Resistance, Restoration, Saproxylic, Soil fauna, Understory vegetation.
32214Coufalík P., Uher A., Zvěřina O. & Komárek J. (2020): Determination of cadmium in lichens by solid sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (SS-GF-AAS). - Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 192: 222 [7 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-020-8186-5.
The determination of trace metal contents directly from a solid sample is a trend in modern atomic spectrometry. The aim of this study was to develop an analytical method for the routine determination of Cd in lichens using solid sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (SS-GF-AAS). For the determination of Cd, the temperature program of the graphite furnace was optimized using a mixed matrix modifier (Pd + Mg (NO3)2 + Triton X-100). The limit of detection and the limit of quantification were 0.9 μg/kg and 3 μg/kg, respectively. The analytical method for Cd determination in the plant matrix was verified by the analysis of certified reference materials of lichens, seaweed, and rye grass. The developed procedure was applied to the study of Cd distribution in thalli of Usnea antarctica lichen from James Ross Island, Antarctica. The SS-GF-AAS analytical method is particularly suited for use in environmental studies and plant physiology (the microanalysis of anatomical structures). Keywords: Cadmium. Lichen . Solid sampling . AAS.
32213de Carvalho C.R., Santiago I.F., da Costa Coelho L., Câmara P.E.A.S., Silva M.C., Stech M., Rosa C.A. & Rosa L.H. (2019): Fungi associated with plants and lichens of Antarctica. - In: Rosa L.H. (ed.), Fungi of Antarctica, p. 165–199, Springer, Cham. .
Chapter in book
32212Luo D., Wang Z., Zhou R. & Cao S. (2020): A polysaccharide from Umbilicaria yunnana: Structural characterization and anti-inflammation effects. - Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 151: 870–877. .
A polysaccharide JUYP was isolated and purified from Umbilicaria yunnana. The detailed structure of JUYP was studied using gas chromatography (GC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), methylation-GC–MS, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A homogeneous polysaccharide JUYP was obtained with the yield of 21.2% and average molecular weight (Mw) of 577 kDa. Monosaccharide composition analysis indicated that JUYP was composed of glucose, galactose and mannose with a molar ratio of 2.3:1:0.7. Structural analyses demonstrated that the dominate components in JUYP were 6-β-D-Glcp, and other sugar residues included 2,4-β-D-Manp and T-β-D-Galf. TEM images further revealed JUYP was a linear branched molecule with entangled chains. Based on the anti-inflammatory assays, 1 μg/mL of JUYP exhibited good inhibitory effects on TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β and COX-2 mRNA expressions in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, while the inhibitory effects (87.8% for mRNA, 55.89% for protein) of JUYP on IL-1β expressions were more significant than that of dexamethasone (DXMS, 61.6% for mRNA, 35.15% for protein) (p<0.01). Keywords: Umbilicaria yunnana; Structural characterization; Anti-inflammation effects.
32211Bhattarai P., Bhatta K.P., Zhang Y.-J. & Vetaas O.R. (2020): Microtopography driven plant species composition in alpine region: a fine-scale study from Southern Norway. - Journal of Mountain Science, 17(3): 542–555. .
This study explores the relationship between the species composition of lichen and vascular plant species with microtopography at fine scale. We conducted our study in Hardengervidda National Park, Norway. Specifically, we aim to test whether the species richness of different plant lifeforms peaks at middle of the microtopography gradient, and then explain the observed patterns with an aid of snow cover gradient along microtopography and snow cover. We sampled 69 species of vascular plants and lichens in 151 plots of 4 m2 along 23 transects during summer on Tronsbu, Sandhaug and Besso. Detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) was performed to explore how microtopographical gradient was related to the variation in the species composition. One-way ANOVA was performed to test the microtopographic variability in species richness. Afterwards, generalized linear model (GLM) was used to reveal species richness patterns along the snow cover gradient. The first axis in DCA represents the complex gradient from snow free ridge to wet snowbed habitats and the second axis represents a gradient from acidic to calcareous sites. Lichen’s species richness is greater in ridge than in snowbeds, while all other life forms follow the opposite trend. Species richness for total plant species, vascular plant species and herbaceous plant species increased with increase in weighted average snow indicator value (WASI), whilst species richness for lichen species declined substantially towards the maximum WASI value. In contrast, species richness for dwarf shrub species showed a unimodal relationship with WASI. This study shows that liquid water availability provides a good potential explanation for species composition and richness in mountains, which is controlled by snow cover and prevalent wind direction. Keywords: Species richness; Water energy dynamics hypothesis; Weighted average snow indicator value; Microtopography; Ordination.
32210Hayova V.P., Tykhonenko Yu.Ya., Sukhomlyn M.M., Martynova K.V. & Vasilenko D.V. (2019): First record of fungal fruit bodies on a leaf from Late Eocene Rovno Amber (Ukraine). - Paleontological Journal, 53(10): 1104–1110. .
The first record of fruit bodies of a microscopic fungus on the leaf of an unidentified dicotyledonous plant in amber is reported. The fungus is represented by numerous superficial fruit bodies (up to 35 in total), presumably of an ascomycetous fungus, at various stages of development. Ascomata are small, single, scattered all over the surface of half a leaf, setose. Setae are numerous, stiff, brown to black, densely covering the entire surface of the ascomata. In external appearance, the fungus reminds representatives of several taxonomic groups of non-lichenized ascomycetes. However, combination of the observed morphological characters does not fit any extant genus of foliicolous ascomycetes. Most probably, this fungus belongs to the group of lichenized fungi. In our opinion, in taxonomic position it may be close to extant representatives of the family Porinaceae (Lecanoromycetes), but possesses a unique combination of morphological characteristics. Keywords: Fossil, Late Eocene, Rovno amber, Ascomycota, setose ascomata, foliicolous lichen.
32209Vobis G., Solans M., Scervino J.M., Schumann P., Spröer C. & Messuti M.I. (2020): Isolation and characterization of an endolichenic actinobacterium from the lichen thallus of Pseudocyphellaria berberina. - Symbiosis, 80: 43–51. .
Recent research has shown that lichenized fungi, which constitute a symbiotic association between a fungus and an algae and/or cyanobacteria, could be a source of biotechnologically interesting microorganisms, including actinobacteria. Studies conducted on lichenized microecosystems in the Andean region (Patagonia, Argentina) showed the isolation of twenty-three strains of actinobacteria, belonging to different genera, coming from the lichen Pseudocyphellaria berberina (Ascomycota). The aim of this work was to complement these studies by means of a polyphasic approach (morpho-physiological, chemical and molecular characterization) in order to describe a new endolichenic Pseudonocardia (Actinobacteria) strain BCRU MITI 22 (= DSM 46833). The study of cultivable actinobacteria isolated from lichen could contribute to a better interpretation of the physiological functions of these organisms within the “lichen microbiome”. Keywords: Actinobacteria . Lichen thallus . Patagonia . Pseudonocardia . Temperate rainforest.
32208Łubek A., Kukwa M., Czortek P. & Jaroszewicz B. (2020): Impact of Fraxinus excelsior dieback on biota of ash‑associated lichen epiphytes at the landscape and community level. - Biodiversity and Conservation, 29: 431–450. .
The landscape-scale extinction of a tree species may have a negative impact on diversity of associated epiphytic species. We used ordination and hierarchical clustering methods to assess landscape and the community level effects of reduction in the abundance of European ash Fraxinus excelsior, caused by ash dieback, on the associated epiphytic lichen biota in Białowieża Forest (Poland)—the best preserved forest complex in Central Europe. At the landscape level ash decline impact on the biota of ash-associated epiphytic lichens was weak, due to the high diversity of tree species, which may serve as potential alternative hosts. At this level, oak and hornbeam are the most important alternative hosts, assuring the maintenance of ash-associated epiphytic lichens. Lime, alder, and hazel appeared to be less important but still may serve as substitute phorophytes to approximately 2/3 of the ash-associated lichen biota. About 90% of epiphytic biota are likely to survive on the landscape scale. However, at the community level of alder-ash floodplain forest, where ash was dominant, about 50% of ash-associated epiphytic lichen species are threatened by ash dieback. Our results highlight the importance of a spatial scale in conservation biology. Protection of large forest areas with rich diversity of phorophyte trees increases chances of survival of the associated epiphytic organisms. Keywords: European ash · Foundation species · Hot spot tree · Metapopulation · Phorophytes · Primeval forest.
32207Lendemer J.C. (2020): Recent literature on lichens—256. - Bryologist, 123(1): 112–123. .
Bibliography
32206Andrade D.S., Aptroot A., Lücking R., Barbosa B.M.C, Cavalcante J.G. & Cáceres M.E.S. (2020): Crustose Caliciaceae in Restinga vegetation in Brazil with a new species of Gassicurtia and two identification keys. - Bryologist, 123(1): 75–83. .
During ecological studies on corticolous lichens in Restinga vegetation in northeastern Brazil, many species of crustose Caliciaceae formerly placed in the collective genus Buellia s.l. were collected. A new species was discovered and is described here—Gassicurtia restingiana D.S.Andrade, M.Cáceres & Aptroot differs from G. catasema in the absence of lichexanthone. Two identification keys are provided, one for all species of Gassicurtia known from Brazil, and one for crustose, epiphytic, non-mazaediate species of Caliciaceae found in Restinga areas in northeastern Brazil. Keywords: Lichens, coastal vegetation, corticolous, Amandinea, Baculifera, Buellia, Stigmatochroma.
32205Mežaka A. & Kirillova J. (2019): Epiphytic bryophytes and lichens and their functional trait relationships with host characteristics in the Lūznava Manor Park. - Acta Biologica Universitatis Daugavpiliensis, 19(2): 241–251. .
Manor parks are urban areas that offer favorable environmental conditions for epiphytic bryophyte and lichen conservation. We investigated epiphytic bryophyte and lichen species richness and functional trait associations with tree diameter and documented data about tree bark pH in Lūznava manor park in southeastern Latvia. In total, 76 epiphytic (44 lichen, 32 bryophyte) species, including rare species, were found on 91 host trees. We found that epiphytic bryophytes with a perennial stayer life strategy were significantly positively associated with tree diameter, but negatively with high tree bark pH. Lichen functional traits, however, were not associated with tree diameter. Lichens with leprose growth form, similar to lichens with asexual reproductive strategy, were associated positively with low bark pH trees. The study shows the importance of bryophytes and lichens in ecological studies exploring functional trait and environment relationships. Future studies are needed to involve larger spectrum of bryophyte and lichen functional traits across larger spatial scales. Key words: Epiphytic bryophytes and lichens, conservation, manor park, functional traits.
32204Castillo-Campos G., Pérez-Pérez R.E., Córdova-Chávez O., García-Franco J.G. & Cáceres M.E.S. (2020): Vertical distribution of epiphytic lichens on Quercus laurina Humb. & Bonpl. in a remnant of cloud forest in the state of Veracruz, México. - Nordic Journal of Botany, 37(12) [2019]: e02459 [11 p.]. doi: 10.1111/njb.02459.
In the tropics, corticolous lichen richness and cover tend to increase from the trunk base to the top of the crown of trees. In this study we calculated the total beta diversity of the lichen community along a vertical gradient on Quercus laurina in Mexican cloud forest. By comparing the richness and cover of the lichens by zone, we show that foliose and fruticose lichens are a minor component of the total lichen species richness, but have a higher cover than the crustose lichens. Five zones were identified along each phorophyte (n = 15) with a diameter at breast height >40 cm. A total of 92 species were identified. Of these, 38% were found only in a single zone, 51% were shared between the different zones and 11% occurred across all zones. Species richness and cover increased from the lowest to the highest zones of the phorophytes. Dissimilarity in species composition between the zones could be explained by species replacement. An indicator species analysis revealed that only a few species, e.g. Hypotrachyna vexans, H. cf. sublaevigata and Ramalina cf. sinaloensis prefer a particular zone. The results show that the lichen community associated with Quercus laurina phorophytes is highly diverse and suggest that species richness and cover are related to the zone and the various growth forms. Keywords: beta diversity, corticolous lichens, Neotropical lichens, tropical cloud forest.
32203Waldvogel A.-M., Feldmeyer B., Rolshausen G., Exposito-Alonso M., Rellstab C., Kofler R., Mock T., Schmid K., Schmitt I., Bataillon T., Savolainen O., Bergland A., Flatt T., Guillaume F. & Pfenninger M. (2020): Evolutionary genomics can improve prediction of species’ responses to climate change. - Evolution Letters, 4(1): 4–18. doi:10.1002/evl3.154.
Global climate change (GCC) increasingly threatens biodiversity through the loss of species, and the transformation of entire ecosystems. Many species are challenged by the pace of GCC because they might not be able to respond fast enough to changing biotic and abiotic conditions. Species can respond either by shifting their range, or by persisting in their local habitat. If populations persist, they can tolerate climatic changes through phenotypic plasticity, or genetically adapt to changing conditions depending on their genetic variability and census population size to allow for de novo mutations. Otherwise, populations will experience demographic collapses and species may go extinct. Current approaches to predicting species responses to GCC begin to combine ecological and evolutionary information for species distribution modelling. Including an evolutionary dimension will substantially improve species distribution projections which have not accounted for key processes such as dispersal, adaptive genetic change, demography, or species interactions. However, eco-evolutionary models require new data and methods for the estimation ofa species’ adaptive potential, which have so far only been available for a small number of model species. To represent global biodiversity, we need to devise large-scale data collection strategies to define the ecology and evolutionary potential of a broad range of species, especially of keystone species of ecosystems. We also need standardized and replicable modelling approaches that integrate these new data to account for eco-evolutionary processes when predicting the impact of GCC on species’ survival. Here, we discuss different genomic approaches that can be used to investigate and predict species responses to GCC. This can serve as guidance for researchers looking for the appropriate experimental setup for their particular system. We furthermore highlight future directions for moving forward in the field and allocating available resources more effectively, to implement mitigation measures before species go extinct and ecosystems lose important functions. Key words: Biodiversity loss, eco-evolutionary dynamics, genomic quantitative genetics, models.
32202Storch I., Penner J., Asbeck T., Baile M., Bauhus J., Braunisch V., Dormann C., Frey J., Gärtner S., Hanewinkel M., Koch B., Klein A.M., Kuss T., Pregernig M., Pyttel P., Reif A., Scherer-Lorenzen M., Segelbacher G., Schraml U., Staab M., Winkel G. & Yousefpour R. (2020): Evaluating the effectiveness of retention forestry to enhance biodiversity in production forests of Central Europe using an interdisciplinary, multi-scale approach. - Ecology and Evolution, 10: 1489–1509. doi.org/10.1002/ece3.6003.
Retention forestry, which retains a portion of the original stand at the time of harvesting to maintain continuity of structural and compositional diversity, has been originally developed to mitigate the impacts of clear‐cutting. Retention of habitat trees and deadwood has since become common practice also in continuous‐cover forests of Central Europe. While the use of retention in these forests is plausible, the evidence base for its application is lacking, trade‐offs have not been quantified, it is not clear what support it receives from forest owners and other stakeholders and how it is best integrated into forest management practices. The Research Training Group ConFoBi (Conservation of Forest Biodiversity in Multiple‐use Landscapes of Central Europe) focusses on the effectiveness of retention forestry, combining ecological studies on forest biodiversity with social and economic studies of biodiversity conservation across multiple spatial scales. The aim of ConFoBi is to assess whether and how structural retention measures are appropriate for the conservation of forest biodiversity in uneven‐aged and selectively harvested continuous‐cover forests of temperate Europe. The study design is based on a pool of 135 plots (1 ha) distributed along gradients of forest connectivity and structure. The main objectives are (a) to investigate the effects of structural elements and landscape context on multiple taxa, including different trophic and functional groups, to evaluate the effectiveness of retention practices for biodiversity conservation; (b) to analyze how forest biodiversity conservation is perceived and practiced, and what costs and benefits it creates; and (c) to identify how biodiversity conservation can be effectively integrated in multi‐functional forest management. ConFoBi will quantify retention levels required across the landscape, as well as the socio‐economic prerequisites for their implementation by forest owners and managers. ConFoBi's research results will provide an evidence base for integrating biodiversity conservation into forest management in temperate forests.
32201Freeman H. (2020): "Potholes" in a mod-bit roof membrane – lichen attack. - IIBEC Interface, 20–23. .
This article describes the interaction between a naturally occurring lichen and a modified-bituminous (mod-bit) roof membrane. I have not found this topic discussed by anyone in roofing literature. The growth of this lichen is very slow in relation to the expected life span of a mod-bit roof membrane. As a result, the roof will have reached the end of its useful life and been replaced or been coated or given a cap sheet re-cover before the lichen has advanced to the point of causing a membrane failure. The only routine maintenance that may be required would be patching potholes.
32200Kleinman R. & Blisard K. (2020): The Lichen Rinodina confragosa (Ach.) Körb. New to New Mexico. - The New Mexico Botanist Newsletter, 65: 1–2. .
Rinodina confragosa (Ach.) Körb. is a thin, crustose lichen known from Europe and Africa, and also native to the Rocky Mountains of North America, including Arizona. We searched the Consortium of North American Lichen Herbaria (https://lichenportal.org) and found no specimens listed for New Mexico, although there are known sites close by in Arizona, including Portal (Cochise Co.) and Mt. Graham (Graham Co.), both of which are close to the New Mexico state line and within about 100 miles of the location in southwest New Mexico near Silver City. This new location is in piñon-juniper woodland on private land in 50% shade. Rinodina confragosa has a light gray thallus and is usually found with black apothecia evident. In our specimen, the apothecia were numerous enough to give the lichen a black overall appearance from a distance on the granitic boulder, which is its preferred substrate. The photobiont is a single-celled green alga. The asci each hold 8 brown two-celled elliptic spores, and the reaction in KOH is yellow. The specimen packet consists of scrapings from the boulder and will be located at SNM, the Dale A. Zimmerman Herbarium at Western New Mexico University in Silver City. Many thanks to Larry St. Clair for confirming our identification.
32199Chirva O.V., Nikerova K.M., Androsova V.I. & Ignatenko R.V. (2019): Activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase in Lobaria pulmonaria from forest communities of middle and northernmost boreal zone (NW Russia). - Czech Polar Reports, 9(2): 228–242. .
The present study was carried out to evaluate the activity of antioxidant enzymes and the protein content in Lobaria pulmonaria thalli of various ontogenetic stages (studied groups: juvenile and mature) in forest communities of the middle and northernmost boreal subzones (i.e. two habitat groups). Obtained results showed that the protein content in thalli of different ontogenetic stages and habitats did not differ significantly between the two studied groups and ranged from 3.4 to 3.8 mg g-1. Peroxidase (POD) activity was low and did not exceed 0.01 μmol TG mg-1 of protein. No significant differences between the studied groups (ontogenetic and habitat) in POD was found. On the contrary, the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) showed significant differences. SOD activity ranged from 5.1 to 6.3 U mg-1 of protein. Significant differences were found between the SOD activity in juvenile and mature L. pulmonaria thalli in the communities of the northern boreal subzone (p = 0.043) and in juvenile thalli from different habitats (р = 0.020). In general, CAT activity ranged from 187 to 605 μmol H2O2 mg-1 protein. Significant differences in CAT activity were apparent between the thalli from the middle and northernmost boreal subzone communities (p=0.040). The differences in CAT activity values in juvenile and mature thalli in the northernmost boreal subzone (p = 0.006) were found as well. Juvenile thalli from different habitats (p = 0.008) differed. As a result we suggest that juvenile thalli might be more suitable for the purposes of bioindication of environmental conditions, such as temperature, humidity, since they are more sensitive in comparison to mature thalli. Key words: Lobaria pulmonaria, antioxidant, catalase, superoxide dismutase.
32198Konoreva L., Kozhin M., Chesnokov S. & Hong S.G. (2019): Lichens and vascular plants in Duvefjorden area on Nordaust-landet, Svalbard. - Czech Polar Reports, 9(2): 182–199. .
Floristic check-lists were compiled for the first time for Duvefjorden Bay on Nordaustlandet, Svalbard, based on field work in July 2012 and on data from literature and herbaria. The check-lists include 172 species of lichens and 51 species of vascular plants. Several species rare in Svalbard and in the Arctic were discovered: Candelariella borealis was new to Svalbard. 51 lichen species were newly recorded on Nordaustlandet and 131 lichen species were observed in the Duvefjorden area for the first time. Among lichen species rare in Svalbard and in the Arctic the following can be mentioned: Caloplaca magni-filii, C. nivalis, Lecidea silacea, Phaeophyscia nigricans, Polyblastia gothica, Protothelenella sphinctrinoidella, Rinodina conradii, Stenia geophana, and Tetramelas pulverulentus. Two species of vascular plants, Saxifraga svalbardensis and S. hyperborea, were found new to the Duvefjorden area. The investigated flora is represented mostly by species widespread in Svalbard and in the Arctic. Although Duvefjorden area is situated in the northernmost part of Svalbard, its flora is characterized by relatively high diversity of vascular plants and lichens. Apparently this is due to the influence of the warm North Atlantic Current. Key words: Arctic, vascular plants, lichen biota, new records, rare species.
32197Lojka H. (1886): Adatok Magyarország zuzmóflórájához. III. - Mathematikai és Természettudományi Közlemények, 21: 321–378. .
Romania / Rumania
32196Xu L.-L., Wu Q.-H. & Jia Z.-F. (2016): Chapsa (Graphidaceae, Ostropales), a lichen genus new to China. - 热带亚热带植物学报 [Journal of Tropical and Subtropical Botany], 24: 495–498. .
Based on the specimens collected from Hainan Island and Guangxi Province, the lichen genus Chapsa A. Massal. and two species, C. indica A. Massal. and C. leprocarpa (Nyl.) A. Frisch, are reported as new to China. The genus is characterized by the corticolous crustose thallus, apothecioid or chroodiscoid ascomata with a fused to indistinctly free proper exciple, the presence of lateral paraphyses, and the transversely septate to muriform asco-spores. Key words: Cryptogamae; Lichenized fungi; Taxonomy; New record.
32195Dou M.-Z., Yao Z.-T. & Jia Z.-F. (2019): Reimnitzia, a newly recorded lichen genus to China. - 热带亚热带植物学报 [Journal of Tropical and Subtropical Botany], 27: 726–730. .
The lichenized fungi genus Reimnitzia Kalb(Graphidaceae) is reported as new record to China. It is a monotypic genus, containing the single species R. santensis epiphytic on bark or bryophytes. Reimnitzia santensis is crustose; has no cortex structures; contains large columns of calcium oxalate crystals; has abundant isidia, which are concolorous to thallus, unbranched, first globular, then worm-like, with a length of up to 1.5 mm, and a black pore area or a single pore at the top. The species has chroodiscoid ascomata, brown submuriform ascospores sized 15–25 μm×8–12 μm, and pycnidia that occur on the tips of isidia-like structures and in thallus warts, with bacilliform conidia, and abscence of lichen compounds.
32194Xiong Y.-J., Qin Q.-L. & Ren Q. (2020): Three species of crustose lichens new to China. - 热带亚热带植物学报 [Journal of Tropical and Subtropical Botany], 28: 91–95. .
Porina byssophila, Sarcogyne privigna and Trimmatothelopsis versipellis collected from Mt. Kunyu in Shandong Province, are reported as new record species to China. The detailed description of morphology, anatomy, chemistry and the distribution are also given. Key words: Lichenized fungi; Porinaceae; Acarosporaceae.
32193Qin Q.-L., Xiong Y.-J. & Ren Q. (2020): Three Biatora species new to China. - 热带亚热带植物学报 [Journal of Tropical and Subtropical Botany], 28: 96–100. .
Three species of Biatora, including B. alaskana, B. alborufidula and B. longispora, are reported from China for the first time. The morphological, anatomical, and chemical characteristics were described. The key to the known species of Biatora in China is presented. Key words: Ramalinaceae; Biatora; Lichenized fungi; Lichen.
32192Lewis C.J. (2020): Checklist of the lichens and allied fungi of Frontenac Provincial Park, Ontario. - Rhodora, 121(988) [2019]: 248–296. .
Frontenac Provincial Park is located on the Frontenac Axis, a southern extension of the Canadian Shield, linking Algonquin Park to the Adirondack Mountains. To better understand the lichen biota of this interesting ecosystem, an inventory was conducted during several field visits from 2016–2019. During these surveys, 280 species of lichens and allied fungi in 115 genera were discovered. Presented is the first published record of Lempholemma cladodes (Tuck.) Zahlbr. in Canada, as well as the first published discoveries of Cladonia petrophila R. C. Harris, Coccocarpia palmicola (Spreng.) Arv. & D. J. Galloway, and Leprocaulon adhaerens (K. Knudsen, Elix & Lendemer) Lendemer & B. P. Hodk. in Ontario. Sixteen species are provincially ranked as critically imperilled (S1, S1S2 or S1S3), sixteen species as imperilled (S2 or S2S3), and nineteen species as vulnerable (S3 or S3S4). Unranked species reported for the second time in Canada are Dermatocarpon muhlenbergii (Ach.) Müll. Arg. and Cladonia atlantica A. Evans. An undescribed species of Lempholemma growing on flooded deciduous tree bases in vernal pools was also discovered. A discussion of Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm., a pollution and habitat disturbance sensitive species, is presented. The records of L. pulmonaria discovered in Frontenac quite possibly represent the most southern observations in the province and are of conservation concern. It is recommended that a lichen awareness and education program be created for the park staff and visitors to highlight these rare and sensitive lichens and habitats within the park in the hope that lichens are protected through appropriate management and planning.
32191Yoshino K., Yamamoto K., Masumoto H., Degawa Y., Yoshikawa H., Harada H. & Sakamoto K. (2020): Polyol-assimilation capacities of lichen-inhabiting fungi. - Lichenologist, 52(1): 49–59. doi:10.1017/S0024282919000483.
Fungi are one of the most diverse carbon source-assimilating organisms, living as saprobes, parasites and symbionts; they play an important role in carbon cycling in the ecosystem. A lichen thallus provides habitats for many non-lichenized fungi and usually contains large quantities of polyols. However, research has not been undertaken to identify carbon sources of lichen-inhabiting fungi. In this study, we isolated various lichen-inhabiting fungi from surface-sterilized Ramalina spp., Flavoparmelia caperata and Peltigera degenii, and demon- strated their ability to assimilate carbon sources, namely glucose, ribitol and mannitol. Several isolates efficiently assimilated mannitol and ribitol; however, most isolates could assimilate only mannitol or both ribitol and mannitol at low levels. It is suggested that there are different preferences and niche segregation of carbon sources among lichen-inhabiting fungi, and that this assemblage includes fungi with different lifestyles such as saprobes, endophytes and transient visitors. Dothideomycetes, Lecanoromycetes, mannitol, Pezizomycetes, ribitol, Sordariomycetes
32190Wilk K. (2020): Huriella flakusii (Teloschistaceae, lichenized Ascomycota), a new species from the Colca Canyon region in Peru. - Lichenologist, 52(1): 37–47. doi:10.1017/S0024282919000458.
A new species, Huriella flakusii, is described from the arid region of the Colca Canyon in southern Peru, and is characterized by squamulose, orange thalli and abundant, crowded and aggregated, usually flexuous when compressed, reddish apothecia. The thalline cortex, proper margin and hypothecium are paraplectenchymatous. The ascospores are broadly ellipsoid, 10‒15 × 5.0‒9.5 μm, with rather thin septa, 2‒4 μm. Phylogenetic analyses of the DNA sequences of ITS, nuLSU and mrSSU rDNA markers revealed that the new species is nested within the Amundsenia-Squamulea subclade in the subfamily Xanthorioideae, and has a sister group relationship to Huriella loekoesiana from South Korea. Caloplaca s. lat., ITS, mrSSU, nuLSU, phylogeny, South America, taxonomy
32189Miranda-González R., Aptroot A., Lücking R., Flakus A., Barcenas-Peña A. & Herrera-Campos M. (2020): The identity, ecology and distribution of Polypyrenula (Ascomycota: Dothideomycetes): A new member of Trypetheliaceae revealed by molecular and anatomical data. - Lichenologist, 52(1): 27–35. doi:10.1017/S0024282919000422.
New collections are reported of the monospecific genus Polypyrenula, an apparently extinct and doubtfully lichenized fungus, typically clas- sified in the Pyrenulaceae. Anatomical studies reveal that it is facultatively lichenized. The structure of its hamathecium suggests affinities with Dothideomycetes rather than Eurotiomycetes. Molecular analysis using nuLSU and mtSSU markers demonstrates for the first time its inclusion in Trypetheliaceae, outside the core genera as part of the early diverging lineages in this family. The known distribution of Polypyrenula is extended to Mexico and South America, new information on its phorophyte associations is provided, and the name Polypyrenula sexlocularis is reinstated as the correct name for this species. albissima, Bolivia, lichen, Mexico, seasonally dry tropical forest, sexlocularis
32188Gasulla F., Barrasa J., Casano L. & Del Campo E. (2020): Symbiont composition of the basidiolichen Lichenomphalia meridionalis varies with altitude in the Iberian Peninsula. - Lichenologist, 52(1): 17–26. doi:10.1017/S002428291900046X.
Basidiolichens are generally poorly researched because of the very small number of species and their restriction to special niches. Lichenomphalia basidiolichens grow in considerable quantities in arctic and alpine habitats but they are inadequately studied in these habi- tats in Mediterranean areas. Based on morphological and phylogenetic analyses, we identified the different symbionts of L. meridionalis, collected in localities in Spain at altitudes ranging from 533 to 2200 m above sea level. The present study provides the first molecular data available for L. meridionalis. We found that a microindel of six bp within the nrITS2 could help to discriminate L. meridionalis from other species of the genus. Molecular analyses revealed the existence of two different green algal strains, both belonging to Coccomyxa subellipsoidea, a species shared with other Lichenomphalia lichens. Notably, the two chlorobiont strains associated with L. mer- idionalis were differentially distributed according to altitude, and samples having one of the two strains consistently also included cyanobacteria. arctic-alpine, Coccomyxa, cyanobacteria, lichen, Mediterranean, symbiosis
32187Magain N., Spribille T., DiMeglio J., Nelson P., Miadlikowska J. & Sérusiaux E. (2020): Phylogenetic evidence for an expanded circumscription of Gabura (Arctomiaceae). - Lichenologist, 52(1): 3–15. doi:10.1017/S0024282919000471.
Since the advent of molecular taxonomy, numerous lichen-forming fungi with homoiomerous thalli initially classified in the family Collemataceae Zenker have been transferred to other families, highlighting the extent of morphological convergence within Lecanoromycetes O. E. Erikss. & Winka. While the higher level classification of these fungi might be clarified by such transfers, numerous specific and generic classifications remain to be addressed. We examined the relationships within the broadly circumscribed genus Arctomia Th. Fr., which has been the recipient of several transfers from Collemataceae. We demonstrated that Arctomia insignis (P. M. Jørg. & Tønsberg) Ertz does not belong to Arctomia s. str. but forms a strong monophyletic group with Gabura fascicularis (L.) P. M. Jørg. We also confirmed that Arctomia borbonica Magain & Sérus. and the closely related Arctomia insignis represent two species. We formally trans- ferred A. insignis and A. borbonica to the genus Gabura Adans. and introduced two new combinations: Gabura insignis and Gabura bor- bonica. We reported Gabura insignis from Europe (Scotland and Ireland) for the first time. While material from Europe and North America is genetically almost identical, specimens from Madagascar, South Africa and Reunion Island belong to three distinct phylogenetic lineages, all of which are present in the latter area and may represent distinct species. In its current circumscription, the genus Gabura may contain up to six species, whereas Arctomia s. str. includes only two species (A. delicatula Th. Fr. and A. teretiuscula P. M. Jørg.). The Gabura insignis group is shown to have an unexpectedly large, subcosmopolitan distribution. With the extended sampling from Arctomiaceae Th. Fr., the placement of Steinera sorediata P. James & Henssen in the genus Steinera Zahlbr. is confirmed and the presence of a new Steinera species from Chile is highlighted. biogeography, Ireland, lichenized fungi, Scotland, species delimitation
32186McCarthy J.W., Clayden S.R. & Ahti T. (2020): Tholurna dissimilis (Caliciaceae) confirmed as occurring in eastern North America. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 19: 1–8. http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/op/biblio_list.php?BucVolume_tab=19.
Tholurna dissimilis, a rare corticolous dwarf fruticose lichen known from Scandinavia since the early 19th century and from western North America since the early 1960s, is confirmed as occurring in eastern Labrador, Canada. The taxon was discovered during a lichen survey of the Makkovik region of coastal Labrador during a botany survey initiated by the Newfoundland and Labrador Wildlife Division in the summer of 2010. The discovery of this rare, unusual lichen ends decades of speculation regarding its occurrence in eastern North America. Keywords. – Caliciales, lichen biodiversity, subarctic, alpine, bird-manured.
32185Koyuncu H. & Kul A.R. (2020): Removal of methylene blue dye from aqueous solution by nonliving lichen (Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf.), as a novel biosorbent. - Applied Water Science, 10:72 [14 p.] doi.org/10.1007/s13201-020-1156-9. .
The use of lichens is insufficient in industry. To the best of our knowledge, there is no study on the use of lichens in the removal of dyes from aqueous media. The aim of this study is to draw attention to the biosorption capabilities of lichens which are natural, renewable and inexpensive sources, and to investigate the usability of nonliving lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf. (LPF) in methylene blue (MB) dye removal from aqueous solution. With the green chemistry approach, no chemical treatment was applied to the LPF and it was used as a natural biosorbent for the biosorption. The LPF samples were prepared and characterized and performed batch mode biosorption experiments studying the effect of various parameters on MB biosorption. The experimental data were fitted with four different kinetic models (pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, Elovich model and intra-particle diffusion) which were evaluated for their validity. Identification of the biosorption mechanism of MB onto the LPF was performed by isotherm studies via three isotherm models [Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin–Radushkevich (D–R)], and the parameters of each model were determined. It was concluded that the biosorption rate and yield were high, the type of biosorption of MB onto the LPF was defined as chemical biosorption, and the surface of the LPF was decided energetically heterogeneous. The results indicate that the LPF biomass can be attractive options for MB dye removal from aqueous media. Keywords: Biosorption · Equilibrium · Kinetics · Lichen (Pseudevernia furfuracea) · Methylene blue.
32184Balabanova B., Stafilov T., Šajn R. & Baèeva [recte Bačeva] K. (2012): Characterisation of heavy metals in lichen species Hypogymnia physodes and Evernia prunastri due to biomonitoring of air pollution in the vicinity of copper mine. - International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 6: 779–794. .
Lichen species (Hypogymnia physodes and Evernia prunastri) were used for biomonitoring the possible air pollution with heavy metals in the vicinity of copper mine in the eastern part of the Republic of Macedonia. The contents of 18 elements were analysed by ICP-AES and ETAAS techniques. For data processing basic statistical methods and multivariate exploratory (factor and cluster analysis) techniques were applied. Three geogenic and one anthropogenic group of elements were singled out from factor analysis. Maps of spatial distribution of elements from the anthropogenic group showed an increased content of the anthropogenic elements only in close vicinity to the mine. A maximum value obtained for Cu content was 130 mg/kg and for Pb content was 120 mg/kg. Lichen talus of the collected species showed high retention power for accumulation of the anthropogenic group of elements compared to moss species sampled from the same study area (r=0.86 and r=0.68). Here we show that lichens can be use as biomonitors for atmospheric distribution of anthropogenicintroduced elements. Key words: Atmospheric pollution, Heavy metals, Biomonitoring, Lichens, Copper mine.
32183Rehman S., Andleeb S., Rehman Niazi A. & Ali S. (2018): Estimation of trace elements and in vitro biological activities of lichens extracts. - Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Science, 31(4): 1407–1416. .
Infectious diseases caused by etiological agents are still a major threat to public health. Their impact is particularly large in developing countries due to relative unavailability of medicine and the emergence of widespread drug resistance. In the current research, trace metals were detected in lichens species through inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. The antimicrobial potency of Pseudevernia furfruracea, Physcia species, Dermatocarpon vellerum and Parmellia species (lichens) extracts have been investigated against three local clinical bacterial isolates i.e. Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis through various agar disc and well diffusion methods. The antioxidant potential effect was also evaluated by DPPH and ABTS.+ free radical scavenging methods. Phytochemical constituents were screened through thin layer chromatography (TLC) and qualitative methods. Methanolic extract of P. furfruracea, Physcia spp, and D. vellerum showed a significant inhibition of S. epidermidis (14.3±1.7mm, 12.3±2.0mm, and 11.3±0.9mm) by pouring method of disc diffusion. Moderate zone of inhibition (8.0±1.4 mm) against S. epidermidis was observed by methanolic extract of Parmellia spp, through spreading method. All the results were evaluated by ANOVA and LSD tests at p<0.05. The diethyl ether extracts showed considerable antioxidant potential activity with 80%, 81%, 79% and 66%. Thin layer chromatography profiling gave us the idea about the presence of phytochemical constituents such as tannins, phenols, saponins, and terpenoids. Various Rf values on silica gel plates provided the valuable clues about polarity and the selection of solvents for separation of phytochemicals. Significant inhibition of E. coli was also observed through TLC-Bioautography. The findings revealed the considerable inhibitory and antioxidant effect of lichens may be due to the presence of bioactive compounds. Therefore, lichens could be a potential source of new antimicrobial and antioxidant agents. Keywords: Antibacterial activity, antioxidant assay, phytochemical screening, tlc-bioautography, lichens, antibiogram, estimation of trace metals.
32182Kashiwadani H., Nakanishi M. & Moon K.H. (2014): Two new species of Graphis and Halegrapha (Graphidaceae, Ostropales) from southern Japan. - 植物研究雑誌 [The Journal of Japanese Botany], 89: 12–16. http://www.jjbotany.com/pdf/JJB_089_012_016.pdf.
Two new species of the lichen family Graphidaceae are described from Yakushima Island, southern Japan. Graphis plumbeidisca M. Nakan., Kashiw. & K. H. Moon is distinct from allied species of the genus in having erumpent lirellae without striation, labia with lateral thalline margin, leaden and shiny discs without pruina, completely carbonized exciples, clear hymenia, colorless spores with 3(–4) transverse septa and 17–18 × 5–6 μm in size, and in producing no chemical substance. Halegrapha yakushimensis M. Nakan., Kashiw. & K. H. Moon is easily distinguished from other species of the genus by its muscicolous habitat, erumpent lirellae with slight striations, totally carbonized exciples, clear hymenia, submuriform and brown spores, 14–16 × 7–8 μm in size and in producing no chemical substance. They are so far known only from Yakushima Island in southern Japan. Key words: Graphidaceae, Graphis plumbeidisca, Halegrapha yakushimensis, Japan, Kyushu, lichen, new species, Yakushima Island.
32181Fedrowitz K., Frisch A., Kaasalainen U. & Ohmura Y. (2014): Nephroma squamigerum (Nephromataceae, lichenized Ascomycota) is a distinct species. - 植物研究雑誌 [The Journal of Japanese Botany], 89: 98–102. http://www.jjbotany.com/pdf/JJB_089_346_354.pdf.
We evaluated the taxonomic status of Nephroma squamigerum in Japan, a taxon currently ascribed as a forma to N. bellum. Using an extensive data set of herbarium and freshly collected specimens we confirm that N. squamigerum differs morphologically, chemically and genetically from N. bellum and other Nephroma species, and should be treated as a distinct species. Nephroma squamigerum is morphologically similar to N. bellum and to glabrous morphotypes of N. helveticum and may have been frequently overlooked, especially in other parts of eastern Asia. However, the absence of lichen substances in N. squamigerum always allows a clear identification. Also, N. squamigerum can be clearly distinguished from all other Nephroma species based on the sequences of ITS rDNA and mtSSU rDNA. Neotypification of N. squamigerum is made. A key to the Japanese taxa of Nephroma is provided. Keywords: Asia, ITS rDNA, mtSSU, neotype, Peltigerales, triterpenoids.
32180Moon K.H., Nakanishi M., Futagami Y. & Kashiwadani H. (2015): Studies on Cambodian species of Graphidaceae (Ostropales, Ascomycota) (II). - 植物研究雑誌 [The Journal of Japanese Botany], 90: 98–102. http://www.jjbotany.com/pdf/JJB_090_98_102.pdf.
Five species of five genera in the lichen family Graphidaceae are newly reported from Cambodia and their distribution ranges are presented as follows: Dyplolabia afzelii (Ach.) A. Massal., Glyphis cicatricosa Ach., Leiorreuma melanostrazans (Leight.) A. W. Archer, Phaeographis fragilissima M. Nakan., Kashiw. & K. H. Moon (sp. nov.) and Sarcographa labyrinthica (Ach.) Müll. Arg. P. fragilissima is distinct from allied species of the genus in having fragile lirellae without striation, apically carbonized exciples, clear hymenia, 5–6 transversely septate brown spores 20–25 × 6–7 μm in size and in producing fumarprotocetraric acid. Key words: Cambodia, Graphidaceae, lichen, Phaeographis fragilissima.
32179Kashiwadani H., Aptroot A., Nakanishi M., Moon K.H., Inoue M. & Sasaki O. (2015): New or noteworthy species of lichens found in Akita prefecture, Japan. - 植物研究雑誌 [The Journal of Japanese Botany], 90: 227–234. http://www.jjbotany.com/pdf/JJB_090_227_234.pdf.
Five species of pyrenocarpous lichens and one species of the genus Graphis are reported from Akita Prefecture, northern Japan, and their distribution ranges are presented. Among them, Graphis fulvescens M. Nakan., Kashiw. & K. H. Moon is new to science. It resembles G. kousyuensis M. Nakan., but it differs in having smaller spores and concealed discs. Agonimia opuntiella (Buschardt & Poelt) Vĕzda and Porina dolichophora (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. are new records for Japan. Additional localities are presented for Julella sericea (A. Massal.) Coppins, Pyrenula nitidella (Flörke ex Schaer.) Müll. Arg., and Pyrenula tokyoensis (Müll. Arg.) H. Harada, which have been found only in a few localities in Japan. Key words: Agonimia opuntiella, Akita, Graphis fulvescens, Japan, Julella sericea, new record, new species, Porina dolichophora, Pyrenula nitidella, Pyrenula tokyoensis.
32178Ohmura Y., Mizobuchi A., Handa S. & Lücking R. (2016): Coenogonium moniliforme (Coenogoniaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) new to Japan, with taxonomic notes of the photobiont in culture. - 植物研究雑誌 [The Journal of Japanese Botany], 91: 74–78. http://www.jjbotany.com/pdf/JJB_091_74_78.pdf.
Coenogonium moniliforme Tuck. is new to Japan. Although this species has been recorded as corticolous and foliicolous, it was found on rock for the first time. A key to Japanese taxa of Coenogonium is also provided. Key words: Distribution, lichens, saxicolous, Trentepohlia monile.
32177Ohmura Y., Kindaichi H. & Yoshida K. (2016): Materials for the Distribution of Lichens in Japan (21) Toninia tristis subsp. fujikawae. - 植物研究雑誌 [The Journal of Japanese Botany], 91: 362–364. http://www.jjbotany.com/pdf/JJB_091_362_364.pdf.
A new locality of Toninia tristis (Th. Fr.) Th. Fr. subsp. fujikawae (M. Satô) Timdal, an endangered endemic lichen growing on calcareous rocks in Japan, is reported from Nippara of Okutama in Tokyo Metropolis. Meanwhile, it has been lost from Meshimoriyama on Mt. Buko in Saitama Prefecture due to extensive mining of limestone. Additional specimens collected from known localities and neighboring sites decades after the first collection suggest that many populations appear to be stable except in habitats subject to destructive practices such as limestone mining.
32176Kashiwadani H. & Moon K.H. (2017): Two new species of Ramalina (Ascomycotina: Ramalinaceae) from the Nansei Islands, Japan. - 植物研究雑誌 [The Journal of Japanese Botany], 92: 27–33. http://www.jjbotany.com/pdf/JJB_092_27_33.pdf.
Two new species, Ramalina ryukyuensis Kashiw. & K. H. Moon and R. yokotae Kashiw. & K. H. Moon, from the Nansei Islands, southern Japan, are described. Ramalina ryukyuensis, a corticolous or epiphytic species on the creeping stems of Zoysia, has predominantly dichotomous branches with wide angles throughout the thallus; solid branches without soredia; round or ellipsoid pseudocyphellae; long fusiform spores of 10–12.5 × 2.3–2.5 μm in size; and norstictic acid or sekikaic acid. Ramalina yokotae, an epiphytic species on Zoysia over calcareous rocks, has a hollow thallus with clearly dichotomous branches without soredia, separated perforations, and norstictic acid and sekikaic acid (±). They are only known from the Nansei Islands in Japan. Key words: Japan, lichens, Nansei Islands, new species, Ramalina ryukyuensis, Ramalina yokotae.
32175Ohmura Y. & Frisch A. (2016): Sporodophoron primorskiense (Arthoniaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) new to Japan, as the second locality in the World. - 植物研究雑誌 [The Journal of Japanese Botany], 91: 69–73. http://www.jjbotany.com/pdf/JJB_091_69_73.pdf.
Sporodophoron primorskiense is reported as new to Japan, as the second locality in the world. This species was previously only known from Primorsky territory in Russia. In Japan it was found on bark of Fagus crenata at ca. 1000 m elev. in an old-growth forest in Toyama Prefecture. This locality is situated at the Japanese side of the Sea of Japan opposite from Primorsky territory. The Japanese specimen agrees well with the type of S. primorskiense in terms of morphology and chemistry. Sequence data of mtSSU support conspecificity with the type. A key to Japanese Arthoniaceae with sporodochia or elevated, white pruinose pycnidia is also provided. Key words: Conidia, distribution, mtSSU, pycnidia, sorediate crust, sporodochia.
32174van den Boom P.P.G., Clerc P. & Ertz D. (2015): New records of lichens and lichenicolous fungi from La Gomera (Canary Islands, Spain), including the new species: Usnea boomiana P. Clerc. - Candollea, 70: 165–177. https://www.ville-ge.ch/cjb/publications/cando702/C702_165-177.pdf.
Lichens and lichenicolous fungi are very diverse in the Canary Islands but the flora is still poorly known despite numerous recent publications. For this reason, two field trips were undertaken in 2011 in order to study the lichen flora of La Gomera (western Canary Islands). About 1000 specimens were collected in the different habitats of the island. In addition, c. 200 specimens collected in 1986, and c. 60 specimens from the Oslo herbarium (O) were studied. As a result, an annotated list of 107 newly recorded lichens and lichenicolous fungi from La Gomera is presented. Terricolous, saxicolous, as well as corticolous species are included. Further notes are given for 17 taxa that are new for the Canary Islands. Hypotrachyna meyeri (Zahlbr.) Streim. is new to Macaronesia. In addition, one species is newly described in the genus Usnea Dill. ex Adans., Usnea boomiana P. Clerc characterized notably by large and convex soralia and by the presence of caperatic acid in the medulla. Keywords: Ascomycetes – Usnea – Mycoflora of Macaronesia – La Gomera – Canary Islands – Taxonomy – Ecology.
32173Nordén B., Andersson R., Andreasen M., Aptroot A., Chomnunti P., Friebes G., Jaklitsch W., Johannesen E., Jordal J.B. & Voglmayr H. (2019): Ascomycetes new to Norway found at workshop in Hordaland, 13-16 May 2019. - Agarica, 39: 53–59. .
During a workshop in Hordaland with invited international experts, we found 13 ascomycete species new to Norway. These are presented with photos and notes on their micromorphology, ecology and occurrence in Skandinavia. In addition, the rarely collected species Melaspileella proximella and “Dothiorina tulasnei” (the asexual morph of Chlorociboria aeruginascens) are reported. Two lichenized fungi are presented: Ptychographa xylographoides and Strigula taylorii.
32172Dorval H.R. & McMullin R.T. (2019): Lichens and allied fungi of Sandbar Lake Provincial Park, Ontario. - Canadian Field-Naturalist, 133(3): 206–215. https://doi.org/10.22621/cfn.v133i3.2209.
Sandbar Lake Provincial Park (Sandbar Lake) covers 8053 ha in the boreal forest in northwestern Ontario. Within the park boundary are natural forests representative of those in the region, as well as forests that are heavily disturbed from resource extraction activities, which are prevalent in northwestern Ontario. The lichen biota in this part of the boreal forest is known to be rich and abundant, but lichen diversity is also known to be negatively impacted by disturbances (e.g., timber harvesting, mining, and climate change). Therefore, lichens can be used to monitor the effects of these disturbances, but baseline data are required. Here, we present the results of the first detailed inventory of the lichens and allied fungi of Sandbar Lake. We report 139 species in 69 genera from 16 sites that represent all macrohabitats present in the park. Seven species have a provincial conservation status rank from S1 to S3 (critically imperilled to vulnerable), and one species, Arthrosporum populorum, has previously been collected only once in northwestern Ontario. Our results fill biogeographic gaps for many species and allow lichens to be used as biomonitors during further study at Sandbar Lake. We show that Sandbar Lake has important conservation value, and our data provide an opportunity for further study in an area with no previous research on lichens. Key words: Sandbar Lake Provincial Park; lichens; fungi; boreal forest; Great Lakes–St. Lawrence forest; conservation; biogeography; bioindicators; protected areas.
32171Váňa J. (1976): Floristický výzkum území budoucího odkaliště Louchov (nižší rostliny). - In: Přírodovědecký výzkum složiště popílku elektrárny SSM Prunéřov na lokalitě Louchov v Krušných horách okres Chomutov (1973/1975), p. 56–71, Krajské muzeum Teplice. .
[in Czech], a chapter in a booklet; floristic paper dealing with macromycetes, lichens and bryophytes in the area of the planned depositary basin near the power plant Prunéřov, commented list of 13 lichen taxa at p. 62-63
32170Roberts P. (2011): Marchandiomyces aurantiacum and Efibulobasidium rolleyi: two unusual fungi on a Welsh apple twig. - Field Mycology, 12(4): 132–134. .
lichenicolous basidiomycetes
32169Taylor J.J., Lawler J.P., Aronsson M., Barry T., Bjorkman A.D., Christensen T., Coulson S.J., Cuyler C., Ehrich D., Falk K., Franke A., Fuglei E., Gillespie M.A., Heiðmarsson S., Høye T., Jenkins L.K., Ravolainen V., Smith P.A., Wasowicz P. & Schmidt N.M. (2020): Arctic terrestrial biodiversity status and trends: A synopsis of science supporting the CBMP State of Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Report. - Ambio, 90: 833–847. .
This review provides a synopsis of the main findings of individual papers in the special issue Terrestrial Biodiversity in a Rapidly Changing Arctic. The special issue was developed to inform the State of the Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Report developed by the Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program (CBMP) of the Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF), Arctic Council working group. Salient points about the status and trends of Arctic biodiversity and biodiversity monitoring are organized by taxonomic groups: (1) vegetation, (2) invertebrates, (3) mammals, and (4) birds. This is followed by a discussion about commonalities across the collection of papers, for example, that heterogeneity was a predominant pattern of change particularly when assessing global trends for Arctic terrestrial biodiversity. Finally, the need for a comprehensive, integrated, ecosystem-based monitoring program, coupled with targeted research projects deciphering causal patterns, is discussed. Keywords: Arctic;  Biodiversity monitoring;  CAFF; CBMP;  Focal ecosystem components;  Status and trends.
32168Bjorkman A.D., Criado M.G., Myers-Smith I.H., Ravolainen V., Jónsdóttir I.S., Westergaard K.B., Lawler J.P., Aronsson M., Bennett B., Gardfjell H., Heiðmarsson S., Stewart L. & Normand S. (2020): Status and trends in Arctic vegetation: Evidence from experimental warming and long-term monitoring. - Ambio, 49: 678–692. .
Changes in Arctic vegetation can have important implications for trophic interactions and ecosystem functioning leading to climate feedbacks. Plot-based vegetation surveys provide detailed insight into vegetation changes at sites around the Arctic and improve our ability to predict the impacts of environmental change on tundra ecosystems. Here, we review studies of changes in plant community composition and phenology from both long-term monitoring and warming experiments in Arctic environments. We find that Arctic plant communities and species are generally sensitive to warming, but trends over a period of time are heterogeneous and complex and do not always mirror expectations based on responses to experimental manipulations. Our findings highlight the need for more geographically widespread, integrated, and comprehensive monitoring efforts that can better resolve the interacting effects of warming and other local and regional ecological factors. Keywords: Arctic;  Experimental warming; Long-term monitoring;  Phenology;  Vegetation change. P. 682: "Experimental warming led to more dramatic responses, particularly in lichens, which were far more likely to decrease in abundance in response to experimental warming (46–63%) than to increase (0%) or remain stable (37%). Bryophytes also had a tendency to respond negatively to experimental warming, while evergreen and deciduous shrubs were more likely to respond positively."
32167Nguyen T.T.T., Vu T.H. & Retailleau P. (2018): Study on chemical constituents of the lichen Parmotrema tinctorum (Nyl.) Hale. - Vietnam Journal of Science and Technology, 56(4): 434–440. .
A phytochemical investigation was conducted on foliose lichen, Parmotrema tinctorum (Nyl.) Hale, collected in Lam Dong province, Vietnam. Color reactions for identification of lichen substances (+K deep yellow, +C red, +KC red, + P pale yellow) suggested the presence of atranorin, lecanoric acid, quinones, depsides, and xanthones containing two free hydroxyl groups in meta-position. In fact, six compounds, including atranol (1), methyl haematomate (2), divaricatinic acid (3), methyl divaricatinate (4), atranorin (5) and lecanoric acid (6) were isolated in the acetone extract, in which isolates (3) and (4) were reported for the first time in such species. Their structures were elucidated by X-ray diffraction or spectroscopic data and compared with those in references. Keywords: atranorin, lecanoric acid, lichen, Parmotrema tinctorum, X-ray diffraction.
32166Nguyen T.T.T., Dinh H.A., Huynh H.T. & Nguyen N.T. (2020): Investigation of chemical constituents and cytotoxic activity of the lichen Usnea undulata. - Vietnam Journal of Chemistry, 58(1): 63–66. .
Lichens are a promising source of good anticancer agents. However the study on their bioactivities remains limited, especially in Vietnam. In this study, three extracts of lichen Usnea undulata Stirt. including n‐hexane, acetone and methanol were investigated for their cytotoxic activity on two human cancer cell lines (MCF‐7, NCI‐H460) and normal fibroblasts by sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. The results showed that the n‐hexane extract exhibited the highest inhibition activity with IC50 5.26±0.13 μg/mL for MCF‐7 and 6.83±0.64 μg/mL for NCI‐H460, followed by acetone extract with IC50 66.44±1.37 μg/mL and 92.14±1.49 μg/mL, respectively. The methanol extract possessed weak cytotoxic effect against MCF‐7 and NCI‐H460 (IC50 values more than 100 μg/mL). The n‐hexane extract demonstrated interesting activity particularly on MCF‐7 as good selectivity index was recorded (SI > 3). The phytochemical study on n‐hexane and acetone extracts led to the isolation of four compounds including usnic acid (1), methyl orsellinate (2), methyl β‐orsellinate (3), 7‐hydroxyl‐5‐methoxy‐6‐methylphtalide (4) in which compound (4) was isolated the first time in such species. Their structures were elucidated by NMR analysis and compared with literature data. Keywords: Anticancer, cytotoxicity, lichen, selectivity index, Usnea undulata.
32165Song G., Li X. & Hui R. (2020): Biological soil crusts increase stability and invasion resistance of desert revegetation communities in northern China. - Ecosphere, 11(2): e03043 [13 p.]. 10.1002/ecs2.3043. .
Biological soil crusts (BSCs) in arid region provide critical ecosystem services. However, most previous studies on BSC–plant topic have had a narrow spatiotemporal and taxonomic focus, so context dependency concerning exotic plant responses to BSCs remains poorly understood. In this study, using a series of manipulative experiments under greenhouse conditions, we investigated the influence of BSCs in the Tengger Desert in northern China on seed germination and seedling growth of an exotic grass species, Stipa glareosa P. Smirn., with or without two native plants species, Eragrostis poaeoides Beauv. and Artemisia capillaris Thunb., both of whose ontogeny differs from that of the exotic species. BSC treatments included intact crusts, disturbed crusts, and bare soil. Compared to bare soil, the presence of BSCs reduced the germination of E. poaeoides and A. capillaris by 78% and 74%, respectively. For the exotic species, BSCs reduced the germination percentage by as much as 90%. With gradual increases in soil nutrients such as organic carbon, available phosphorus, and available nitrogen, the shoot biomass of the three plants increased along the sequence from bare soil to lichens and mosses. Shoot biomass of the two native plant species was reduced by the exotic species S. glareosa. The percent germination and shoot biomass of S. glareosa on the disturbed crusts were greater than those on the intact crusts and bare soils. Overall, the presence of BSCs on stabilized sand dunes can reduce the germination of these three plant species, but compared with native plant species, BSCs have a stronger inhibitory effect on the seed germination of the exotic plant species. However, the disturbance may weaken the inhibition of the seed germination of the exotic grass S. glareosa and may provide more nutrients for the exotic grass S. glareosa to establish a revegetation region. We concluded that compared with the absence of BSCs, BSCs in this desert ecosystem can provide more nutrients and a suitable environment for native vascular plants and exert an inhibitory effect on the exotic plants. Key words: arid ecosystem; biological soil crusts; biomass; biotic resistance; disturbance; exotic grass.
32164Knudsen K., Kocourková J. & Lendemer J.C. (2020): Calicium brachysporum, a rare California endemic. - Bulletin of the California Lichen Society, 26(2): 51–53. .
Calicium brachysporum (Nádv.) K. Knudsen, Kocourk. & Lendemer, comb. nov. MB 833014 (Fig. 1). =Cyphelium brachysporum Nádv., Ann. Myc. 40: 133 (1942). TYPE: U.S.A. California, Riverside County, near Murrieta, H.E. Hasse, 1903 (Holotype, PRM. lsotype, BRA).
32163Expósito J.R., Barreno E. & Catalá M. (2020): Biological strategies of lichen symbionts to the toxicity of lead (Pb). - In: Gupta D.K., Chatterjee S. & Walther C. (eds), Lead in Plants and the Environment, Radionuclides and Heavy Metals in the Environment, p. 149–170, Springer, Cham. .
Lichens are symbiotic organisms, originated by mutualistic associations of heterotrophic fungi (mycobiont), photosynthetic partners (photobionts) which can be either cyanobacteria (cyanobionts) or green microalgae (phycobionts), and bacterial consortia. They are poikilohydric organisms without cuticles or nutrient absorption organs adapted to anhydrobiosis. They present a large range of tolerance to abiotic stress (UV radiation, extreme temperatures, high salinity, mineral excess, etc.) and prosper all around the Earth, especially in harsh habitats, including Antarctica and warm deserts. Their biodiversity is widely used as a bioindicator of environmental quality due to this diversity of tolerance in different species, and they are included in air Pb monitoring programmes worldwide. Their ability to bioaccumulate environmental substances, including some air pollutants and heavy metals, makes them excellent passive biomonitors of Pb. Heavy metal tolerance is related to diverse mechanisms: cell walls and exclusion systems (such as extracellular polymeric substances), intracellular chelators and an extraordinary antioxidant and repair capacity. But recent data show that the most powerful mechanism is related with the upregulation of mutual systems by symbiosis. Keywords: Pb · Lichens · Bioindicators · Biomonitors · Tolerance · Microalgae.
32162Paukov A.G. & Davydov E.A. (2020): Aspicilia stalagmitica (Megasporaceae) – a new lichen species with isidia-like thalline outgrowths. - Turczaninowia, 23(1): 5–12. .
Aspicilia stalagmitica Paukov et Davydov from the Altai Mts, a species with isidia-like outgrowths on areoles, is described as new to science. From other species of the genus Aspicilia stalagmitica differs by the following set of characters: short narrow marginal lobes, conidiomata in the isidia-like outgrowths, appressed to almost substipitate apothecia, long picnoconidia, and stictic acid as a main secondary metabolite. A phylogenetic analysis of Aspicilia stalagmitica (ITS) showing its relationships within Aspicilia is presented. Keywords: Altai, Aspicilia, China, ITS, molecular phylogeny, new taxon, Xinjiang.
32161Galanina I.A. & Ezhkin A.K. (2019): The genus Rinodina in the Kuril Islands (Russian Far East). - Turczaninowia, 22(4): 5–16. .
The presented work is based on the study of extensive material collected by Ezhkin A. K. in 2014–2018 from the islands of Kunashir, Iturup, Paramushir, and Shikotan. As a result of the study, the new list of species of the genus Rinodina for the Kuril Islands consists of 17 taxa. One species, Rinodina herrei H. Magn., is new to northeastern Asia and Russia, 14 taxa are new to the Kuril Islands. The genus Rinodina is represented by species with disjunctive distribution by 35.3 % (6 species). They are divided into two groups: East Asian – West American (R. herrei, R. megistospora) and East Asian – East North American (R. ascociscana, R. subminuta, R. tenuis and R. willeyi). East Asian species account for 17.6 % (3 species: R. hypobadia, R. subalbida and R. xanthophaea) of the known number of Rinodina species of the Kuril Islands. Keywords: biodiversity, disjunctive distribution, lichens, new species, northeast Asia, Physciaceae.
32160Frisch A., Klepsland J., Palice Z., Bendiksby M., Tønsberg T. & Holien, H. (2020): New and noteworthy lichens and lichenicolous fungi from Norway. - Graphis Scripta, 32 (1): 1–47. http://nhm2.uio.no/botanisk/lav/Graphis/32_1/GS_32_1.pdf.
Twelve species of lichens and lichenicolous fungi are reported as new to Fennoscandia. Additionally, we report 19 species as new to Norway. New localites are given for 47 rare or seldom collected species. The new combination Reichlingia anombrophila (Coppins & P. James) Frisch is proposed. Most collections were made in the boreo-nemoral and boreal rainforests during the NBIC funded project Three storied diversity – mapping and barcoding crustose lichens and lichenicolous fungi in the Norwegian rainforests and associated fieldwork in recent years. With the present contribution, we hope to raise awareness on previously neglected groups of lichenised and lichenicolous fungi and encourage further fieldwork in understudied habitats in Norway.
32159Tokizawa M., Ohmura Y., Moon K.H. & Takeshita S. (2015): Sarcogyne endopetrophila (Acarosporaceae, Lichenized Ascomycota), a New Species from Japan. - J. Jpn. Bot., 90: 46–51. http://www.jjbotany.com/pdf/JJB_090_46_51.pdf.
Sarcogyne endopetrophila Tokiz. & Y. Ohmura, an endolithic lichen, is described as a new species from Hiroshima, western Japan, where it grows on granodiorite rocks along a river. Sarcogyne endopetrophila resembles S. clavus, S. gibberella, and S. hypophaea in having endolithic thalli and lecideoid apothecia with black to dark-red discs lacking pruina. However, it is distinguished from them by having smaller apothecia with smooth margin, pale brown and thick hypothecium, and indistinct subhymenium. Pycnidia of S. endopetrophila were also found on the bare rock surfaces. The identity of pycnidia was confirmed by comparisons with ITS rDNA sequences of the pycnidia, apothecia and endolithic thalli. Endolithic lichen, ITS rDNA, pycnidia, taxonomy
32158Bannister J., Harrold P. & Blanchon D. (2020): Additional lichen records from New Zealand 51.Usnea dasaea Stirt.. - Australasian Lichenology, 86: 114–117. .
Usnea dasaea is reported for the first time from New Zealand.
32157Joshi Y., Falswal A. & Halda J.P. (2017): Polycoccum ochvarianum – a new species of Dothideomycetes from India. - Sydowia, 69: 147-151. .
Polycoccum ochvarianum, sp. nov., a lichenicolous fungus growing on the thallus of Ochrolechia, Pertusaria and Varicellaria species is described as new to science from India. The species is mainly distinct by its ascospore size and host selection. Addition- ally, four species of lichenicolous fungi growing on Pertusaria are reported as new to India. ascomycetes, commensalistic, lichenicolous, taxonomy
32156Orange A. (2013): British and Other Pyrenocarpous Lichens. - Department of Biodiversity and Systematic Biology National Museum of Wales, Cardiff CF10 3NP, Wales, Version 2 , 250 p.. https://museum.wales/media/13849/Orange-A-2013-British-and-other-pyrenocarpous-lichens.pdf.
This informal identification guide was originally prepared for the British Lichen Society Workshop ‘Pyrenocarps on Rock’, held at the Blencathra Field Study Centre, Keswick, Cumbria, on 26 August to 2 September 2006. Although much of the material is original, most of the accounts were originally prepared for the second edition of the The Lichen Flora of the Great Britain and Ireland, and the authorship is complex. Some accounts are almost completely the work of other authors. This version updates some taxonomy and nomenclature, and includes some colour images, but is still only a preliminary account, especially for Verrucariaceae
32155Beschel R. (1959b): Glacier foreland succession in West Greenland. - Proceedings of the IXth International Botanical Congress, Montreal, August 19–29, 1959, volume 2 Abstracts: 29–30, Toronto: University of Toronto Press. .
32154Beschel R. (1954d): Growth of lichens, a mathematical indicator of climate (lichenometry). - Huitième Congrès International de Botanique, Paris 1954, Rapports et Communications parvenue avant le congrès aux sections 7 et 8: 148. – Paris: P. André, . .
32153Beschel R. (1954c): Eine Flechte als Niederschlagsmesser. - Wetter und Leben, 6(3–4): 56–60. .
32152McCarthy P.M., Elix J.A. & Kantvilas G. (2020): New species and new records of the lichen genus Rhizocarpon from Tasmania, with a key to the Australian taxa. - Australasian Lichenology, 86: 36–61. .
Rhizocarpon austroalpinum P.M.McCarthy, Elix & Kantvilas, R. exiguum P.M.McCarthy, Elix & Kantvilas and R. torquatum P.M.McCarthy, Elix & Kantvilas are described as new to science from Tasmania; the first species also occurs in alpine New South Wales. Rhizocarpon exiguum is most similar to R. intersitum Arnold; it differs by having a sparse, minutely areolate thallus lacking lichen substances, very small apothecia with an exceptionally thin excipulum, a thin hymenium and significantly smaller and more sparingly septate, dark brown submuriform ascospores. The other new taxa are related to the common, pantemperate R. reductum Th.Fr., but they have substantially larger apothecia, and they are distinguishable from each other by a suite of differences in thalline and apothecial anatomy and morphology as well as thallus chemistry and apothecial pigmentation. Detailed descriptions are provided for the Tasmanian collections of R. intersitum and R. reductum for comparative purposes. Four other species of Rhizocarpon are reported for the first time from Tasmania, including R. aff. lusitanicum (Nyl.) Arnold, a parasite of the lichen Lepra sp. An updated key is provided to the 22 species currently accepted from Australia.
32151McCarthy P.M. & Kantvilas G. (2020): Thelidium carbonaceum (Verrucariaceae), a new saxicolous lichen from Tasmania. - Australasian Lichenology, 86: 109–113. .
The lichen Thelidium carbonaceum P.M.McCarthy & Kantvilas (Verrucariaceae) is described from siliceous rock in south-western Tasmania. It has very small, thin thalli that are jet-black and rimose-areolate along with diminutive, semi-immersed perithecia, 0.08–0.17 mm diam., with an excavate apex and a well-developed, carbonized involucrellum, a brown-black excipulum, and 1-septate ascospores, 11–18 × 4.5–6 μm.
32150Keepers K.G., Pogoda C.S., White K.H., Anderson-Stewart C.R., Hoffman J.R., Ruiz A.M., McCain C.M., Lendemer J.C., Kane N.C. & Tripp E.A. (2019): Whole genome shotgun sequencing detects greater lichen fungal diversity than amplicon-based methods in environmental samples. - Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 7: 484 [14 p.] doi: 10.3389/fevo.2019.00484. .
In this study we demonstrate the utility of whole genome shotgun (WGS) metagenomics in study organisms with small genomes to improve upon amplicon-based estimates of biodiversity and microbial diversity in environmental samples for the purpose of understanding ecological and evolutionary processes. We generated a database of full-length and near-full-length ribosomal DNA sequence complexes from 273 lichenized fungal species and used this database to facilitate fungal species identification in the southern Appalachian Mountains using low coverage WGS at higher resolution and without the biases of amplicon-based approaches. Using this new database and methods herein developed, we detected between 2.8 and 11 times as many species from lichen fungal propagules by aligning reads from WGS-sequenced environmental samples compared to a traditional amplicon-based approach. We then conducted complete taxonomic diversity inventories of the lichens in each one-hectare plot to assess overlap between standing taxonomic diversity and diversity detected based on propagules present in environmental samples (i.e., the “potential” of diversity). From the environmental samples, we detected 94 species not observed in organism-level sampling in these ecosystems with high confidence using both WGS and amplicon-based methods. This study highlights the utility of WGS sequence-based approaches in detecting hidden species diversity and demonstrates that amplicon-basedmethods likely miss important components of fungal diversity. We suggest that the adoption of this method will not only improve understanding of biotic constraints on the distributions of biodiversity but will also help to inform important environmental policy. Keywords: metagenomics, ribosomal RNA, sequence database, biological soil crusts, lichen, potential of diversity, taxonomic diversity.
32149Kantvilas G., Stajsic V. & M. McCarthy P. (2020): A new combination in Angiactis (lichenised Ascomycetes: Roccellaceae). - Muelleria, 38: 71–75 . https://www.rbg.vic.gov.au/documents/Muelleria_vol_38_Angiactis_Kantvilas_pp_71–75.pdf.
The new combination Angiactis banksiae (Müll.Arg.) Kantvilas & Stajsic is proposed. The ecology of this remarkable species, known from coastal south-western Western Australia, Victoria, Flinders Island (Tasmania) and southern New South Wales, is discussed. Keywords: Lecanographa, rare species, taxonomy.
32148Kocourková J. (2004): Lišejníky (Lichenes). - In: Jóža M., Vonička P. et al. (eds), Jizerskohorská rašeliniště, p. 44–45, Jizersko-ještědský horský spolek, Liberec. .
[in Czech], chapter on lichens in a popular book about peat-bogs in Jizerské hory Mts
32147Eichler M., Cezanne R. & Teuber D. (2015): Ergänzungen zur Liste der Flechten und flechtenbewohnenden Pilze Hessens – 5. Folge. - Botanik und Naturschutz in Hessen, 28: 85–99. .
Contributions to the list of lichens and lichenicolous fungi in Hesse – 5 instalment. Brief comments are provided on 32 taxa of lichens or lichenicolous fungi that are either new for the state of Hesse or have long not been confirmed. Three species are new for Germany: Endocarpon adsurgens, Lichenochora aipoliae and Tremella candelariellae.
32146Cezanne R., Eichler M. & Teuber D. (2013): Ergänzungen zur Liste der Flechten und flechtenbewohnenden Pilze Hessens – 4. Folge. - Botanik und Naturschutz in Hessen, 26: 181–196. https://d-nb.info/1161763996/34.
Contributions to the list of lichens and lichenicolous fungi in Hesse – 4th instalment. Short comments are given on 38 new, re-discovered, and unpublished records of lichens and lichenicolous fungi in Hesse. Three species are new for Germany: Agonimia repleta, Caloplaca xerica and Tremella caloplacae.
32145Zugic A., Tadic V. & Savic S. (2020): Nano- and microcarriers as drug delivery systems for usnic acid: Review of literature. - Pharmaceutics, 12: 156 [25 p.] doi:10.3390/pharmaceutics12020156. .
Usnic acid is one of the most investigated lichen secondary metabolites, with several proven biological properties with potential medical relevance. However, its unfavorable physico-chemical properties, as well as observed hepatotoxicity, have discouraged wide-range utilization of usnic acid as a promising therapeutic agent. In accordance with the growing research interest in the development of nanotechnology, especially in the arena of preparations based on natural sources of medicinal compounds, usnic acid incorporated into nano- and microsized colloidal carriers has been a subject of a large number of publications. Therefore, this review discusses the overall results of the studies dealing with usnic acid encapsulated into lipid-based, polymeric and nonorganic micro- and/or nanocarriers, as potential drug delivery systems for this natural compound, in an attempt to introduce its usage as a potential antitumor, antimicrobial, wound-healing, antioxidative and anti-inflammatory drug. Keywords: usnic acid; nanocarriers; microcarriers; delivery systems; natural products.
32144Spribille T. (2019): Lichen symbionts outside of symbiosis: how do they find their match? A commentary on: ‘A case study on the re-establishment of the cyanolichen symbiosis: where do the compatible photobionts come from?’. - Annals of Botany, 124(3): vi–vii. .
Commentary on the paper by Cardós et al. (2019) [jjh32143], in the same issue of the journal.
32143Cardós J.L.H., Prieto M., Jylhä M., Aragón G., Molina M.C., Martínez I. & Rikkinen J. (2019): A case study on the re-establishment of the cyanolichen symbiosis: where do the compatible photobionts come from?. - Annals of Botany, 124(3): 379–388. .
• Background and Aims: In order to re-establish lichen symbiosis, fungal spores must first germinate and then associate with a compatible photobiont. To detect possible establishment limitations in a sexually reproducing cyanolichen species, we studied ascospore germination, photobiont growth and photobiont association patterns in Pectenia plumbea. • Methods: Germination tests were made with ascospores from 500 apothecia under different treatments, and photobiont growth was analysed in 192 isolates obtained from 24 thalli. We determined the genotype identity [tRNALeu (UAA) intron] of the Nostoc cyanobionts from 30 P. plumbea thalli from one population. We also sequenced cyanobionts of 41 specimens of other cyanolichen species and 58 Nostoc free-living colonies cultured from the bark substrate. • Key Results: Not a single fungal ascospore germinated and none of the photobiont isolates produced motile hormogonia. Genetic analyses revealed that P. plumbea shares Nostoc genotypes with two other cyanolichen species of the same habitat, but these photobionts were hardly present in the bark substrate. • Conclusions: Due to the inability of both symbionts to thrive independently, the establishment of P. plumbea seems to depend on Dendriscocaulon umhausense, the only cyanolichen species in the same habitat that reproduces asexually and acts as a source of appropriate cyanobionts. This provides support to the hypothesis about facilitation among lichens. Key words: Ascospore germination, cyanolichen symbiosis, free-living Nostoc, Pectenia plumbea, photobiont association, photobiont-mediated guilds, tRNALeu (UAA) intron.
32142Voglmayr H., Aguirre-Hudson M.B., Wagner H.G., Tello S. & Jaklitsch W.M. (2019): Lichens or endophytes? The enigmatic genus Leptosillia in the Leptosilliaceae fam. nov. (Xylariales), and Furfurella gen. nov. (Delonicicolaceae). - Persoonia, 42: 228–260. .
Based on DNA sequence data, the genus Leptosillia is shown to belong to the Xylariales. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of ITS-LSU rDNA sequence data and of a combined matrix of SSU-ITS-LSU rDNA, rpb1, rpb2, tef1 and tub2 reveal that the genera Cresporhaphis and Liberomyces are congeneric with Leptosillia. Coelosphaeria fusariospora, Leptorhaphis acerina, Leptorhaphis quercus f. macrospora, Leptorhaphis pinicola, Leptorhaphis wienkampii, Liberomyces pistaciae, Sphaeria muelleri and Zignoëlla slaptonensis are combined in Leptosillia, and all of these taxa except for C. fusariospora, L. pinicola and L. pistaciae are epitypified. Coelosphaeria fusariospora and Cresporhaphis rhoina are lectotypified. Liberomyces macrosporus and L. saliciphilus, which were isolated as phloem and sapwood endophytes, are shown to be synonyms of Leptosillia macrospora and L. wienkampii, respectively. All species formerly placed in Cresporhaphis that are now transferred to Leptosillia are revealed to be non-lichenized. Based on morphology and ecology, Cresporhaphis chibaensis is synonymised with Rhaphidicyrtis trichosporella, and C. rhoina is considered to be unrelated to the genus Leptosillia, but its generic affinities cannot be resolved in lack of DNA sequence data. Phylogenetic analyses place Leptosillia as sister taxon to Delonicicolaceae, and based on morphological and ecological differences, the new family Leptosilliaceae is established. Furfurella, a new genus with the three new species, F. luteostiolata, F. nigrescens and F. stromatica, growing on dead branches of mediterranean fabaceous shrubs from tribe Genisteae, is revealed to be the closest relative of Delonicicola in the family Delonicicolaceae, which is emended. ITS rDNA sequence data retrieved from GenBank demonstrate that the Leptosilliaceae were frequently isolated or sequenced as endophytes from temperate to tropical regions, and show that the genus Leptosillia represents a widely distributed component of endophyte communities of woody plants. Key words: Ascomycota; Diaporthales; eight new combinations; five new taxa; phylogenetic analysis; pyrenomycetes; Sordariomycetes.
32141Marquardt B., Rathjen J., Boch S., Kaiser T. & Dengler J. (2004): Naturschutz im Industriegebiet? – Flora, Vegetation und Naturschutzpotenzial des Lüneburger Hafens. - Drosera, 2004: 43–92. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Drosera_2004_0043-0092.pdf.
Nature conservation in an industrial area? – Flora, vegetation and the potential for nature conservation of the Lüneburg harbour In summer 2002, the vegetation of the industrial area Lüneburg harbour has been examined. This area is located in the eastern part of the city Lüneburg (Lower Saxony, NW Germany). It is characterised by plant communities of dry and poor open sites. Besides heathland communities and xerotherm grassland communities, that dominate large parts of the area, ruderal vegetation, pasture vegetation and woodland communities are occurring. 356 taxa of vascular plants, 51 taxa of bryophytes and 37 taxa of lichens were found in the area under investigation. 22 of them are actually listed in the regional red data book, which underlines the nature conservation value of this area. The plant communities occuring in the industrial area are described in detail, and their syntaxonomic classification is discussed. Their spatial distribution is exemplarily illustrated in a vegetation map for one part of the area. A special section is dedicated to the endangered and chorologically interesting plant species found around the Lüneburg harbour. Finally, we discuss the consequences of our results for nature conservation.
32140de Bruyn U. (2001): Zur aktuellen Verbreitung epiphytisch auftretender lichenicoler und nicht lichenisierter flechtenähnlicher Pilze im nördlichen Weser-Ems-Gebiet. - Drosera, 2001: 183–188. .
The presented study provides a list of epiphytic lichenicolous fungi and non-lichenized taxa traditionally treated by lichenologists reported for the northern Weser Ems region (Lower Saxony, Germany). Overall 41 taxa are known for the investigated area. 21 taxa are still present in the investigated area, 20 taxa are considered extinct. Six species are reported as new for Lower Saxony. Lichenicolous fungi include a high number of host-specific taxa. They are very susceptible to changes in the environmental conditions.
32139de Bruyn U. (2005): Veränderungen der Flechtenflora der Insel Spiekeroog seit 1900. - Drosera, 2005: 75–88. .
Changes of the lichen flora on the East Frisian island of Spiekeroog since1900. – In the course of a survey of the lichen flora on Spiekeroog in 2004/2005, 156 lichen taxa were found. Thus, 182 lichen taxa are known for Spiekeroog. Since 1900, the taxa number has distinctly increased by 87 taxa. Only 26 species have to be considered lost species. The species regarded as „lost“ are mainly species growing in anthropogenic habitats. The loss rate in near-natural habitats, however, is very low. The considerable increase in species is explained by the formation of new habitats (e.g. small island woods) or the deposition of new substrates (e.g. breakwaters in the harbour). The strong increase in soil lichen species in the nearnatural brown dunes is worthy of note. It is presumably explained by the fact that the sand deposit dynamics have been reduced since 1900. For epiphytic lichens no difference is found between island and mainland. Species that spread strongly in the past years have been able to settle on Spiekeroog as well. Species particularly sensitive to air pollution have disappeared.
32138de Bruyn U. & Linders H.-W. (1999): Bedeutung und naturschutzfachliche Bewertung von Hybrid-Pappeln als Trägerbäume für Moos- und Flechtenarten in Nordwestdeutschland. - Drosera, 1999(2): 95–108. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Drosera_1999_0095-0108.pdf.
The importance of wayside poplars (Populus x canadensis) for the conservation of bryophytes and lichens in coastal areas of Lower Saxony is pointed out. A sampling method and an evaluation procedure to assess the significance for species conservation are presented. The problems of short-lived poplars as phorophytes for endangered bryophytes and lichens are discussed. Replacement plantations of long-lived tree species should be initiated. The preservation of selected stands of poplars rich in endangered species is proposed in order to maintain the present species inventory. They are important to bridge the existing gap in phorophytes. Suitable tree species for new plantations of wayside trees are suggested. A different aspect concerns the role of poplars for biomonitoring purposes. With the disappearance of wayside poplars valuable monitoring sites are lost and cannot be substituted within the next decades. This results in a loss of information concerning the control of im- mission rates in these regions.
32137Linders H.-W. (1986): Zur Verbreitung epiphytischer Makroflechten im Landkreis Leer. - Drosera, 1986: 57–70. .
39 species of epiphytic macrolichens were mapped in the district of Leer, Northwestern Germany during 1985. A comparison with earlier reports indicates a strong, negative trend in the distribution of these species. Parmelia flaventior Stirton is reported as new in the investigated area.
32136Wagner H.-G. (2013): Funde bemerkenswerter Flechten, lichenicoler und flechtenähnlicher Pilze in Niedersachsen – ein Aufruf zur gezielten Erfassung wenig beachteter ökologischer und systematischer Gruppen. - Drosera, 2011: 119–126. .
records of remarkable lichens and lichenicolous fungi in Lower saxony – a call for targeted recording of hitherto neglected ecological and systematic groups. – some lichenicolous fungi for the first time found in Lower Saxony are listed same as other mentionable findings. Only recently a supposedly complete flora list for Lower Saxony was published and yet ten new species have to be added after only a short period. Therefore, it is encouraged to do some deeper research on private and public basis including the missing inconspicuous species as well as those hard to determine.
32135Bock B. (2019): Unterschätzt und oft übersehen – Die Flechten. - Im Gseis, 33: 4–7. .
[in German] Popular paper published in the official journal of the Nationalpark Gesäuse (Austria).
32134Mezaki Y., Kato S., Nishikawa O., Takashima I., Tsubokura M., Minowa H., Asakura T., Matsuura T. & Senoo H. (2019): Measurements of radiocesium in animals, plants and fungi in Svalbard after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant disaster. - Heliyon, 5: e03051 [7 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e03051.
An earthquake struck the eastern part of Japan on March 11, 2011. The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant was severely damaged by the earthquake and subsequent tsunami, leading to the emission of large amounts of radioactive pollutants, including 134Cs and 137Cs, into the environment. From August 23 to September 1 in 2011, and from August 27 to September 4 in 2013, we collected samples of animals, plants, fungi and lichens from Svalbard, Norway and measured the radioactivity of 134Cs and 137Cs contained in the samples. Though no radioactivity of 134Cs, which has a half-life of approximately 2 years, was observed, radioactivity of 137Cs, which has a half-life of approximately 30 years, was observed in some samples of lichens and fungi. We failed to detect the radioactivity of 134Cs in any of the samples we collected, therefore, it was impossible to say clearly that the radioactivity is derived from Fukushima or not. Nevertheless, the radioactivity data documented in this report are a useful reference for the future surveys of radioactivity within the Arctic.
32133Bungartz F., Elix J.A. & Printzen C. (2020): Lecanoroid lichens in the Galapagos Islands: the genera Lecanora, Protoparmeliopsis, and Vainionora (Lecanoraceae, Lecanoromycetes). - Phytotaxa, 431(1): 1–85. .
As part of the Galapagos lichen inventory, species in the genus Lecanora and closely related genera have been revised, using both historic and recent collections. A total of 34 species are reported of which fourteen are new to science: Lecanora atro-ocellata, L. cactacea, L. cerebriformis, L. cerebrosorediata, L. confusoides, L. darwiniana, L. kalbii, L. malagae, L. ombligulata, L. pyrrhosporoides, L. subaureoides, L. terpenoidea, Protoparmeliopsis ertzii, and Vainionora nugrae. The taxonomy of Lecanora s.l. remains poorly resolved. Based on morphological similarities we assign the species treated here to several informal groups: the largest, with thirteen species, is the Lecanora subfusca-group, i.e., the core of Lecanora s.str. In the archipelago, most species in this group grow on bark but a few occur on rock. Seven species, assigned here to the L. marginata-group, occur exclusively on rock. Two species are included in the L. pallida-group, which may also include L. cactacea. However, this species is retained in the L. subfusca-group as it lacks densely pruinose discs. Three species are treated as part of the L. pinguis group. Six species belong to a heterogeneous assemblage commonly referred to as the L. varia-group. Species in this group are not necessarily closely related, but assigning them to phylogenetically defined, “natural” clades, i.e., the L. symmicta- or L. polytropa-groups, is currently not possible. Species of Vainionora share characteristics with these species as well as with species in the L. subfusca-group; the characters used to distinguish Vainionora from Lecanora are reviewed. A total of seven Lecanora species previously reported for the Galapagos could not be confirmed. Detailed descriptions for all thirty-four species of Lecanora, Protoparmeliopsis and Vainionora so far known from Galapagos are presented. An identification key for these species is provided. Bryonora granulata Fryday is reported as new to Galapagos. Keywords: Census of Galapagos Biodiversity, Galapagos Lichen Inventory, taxonomy, identification key, South America, Pyrrhospora, Lichens, Fungi.
32132Woods R.G. (2010): A Lichen Red Data List for Wales / Rhestr o Gen Data Coch ar gyfer Cymru. - Plantlife, Salisbury, 69 p. http://wales-lichens.org.uk/sites/wales-lichens.org.uk/files/imagesfiles/welsh_lichen_red_data_book.pdf.
This report presents the results of a comprehensive analysis of the current status of lichens in Wales using the updated IUCN criteria. It has brought to light a suite of species more threatened in Wales than in the rest of Britain, as well as some species threatened in Britain but which are doing better in Wales. Wales has a responsibility to protect and conserve all these threatened species, and it is hoped the findings of this study will be used to inform priorities for conservation action and future revisions of the British Red Data Book of Lichens and the list of lichens that appear in Section 42 of the Natural Environment and Rural Communities Act (NERC) 2006 (Habitats and species of principal importance in Wales). It also highlights those species with Welsh populations of European and/or world significance. This report has been produced by Plantlife Cymru with the support of the Countryside Council for Wales and the British Lichen Society.
32131Marshall A.J., Blanchon D.J., Aptroot A. & de Lange P.J. (2020): Five new records of Pyrenula (Pyrenulaceae) for New Zealand. - New Zealand Journal of Botany, 58(1): 48–61. .
Pyrenula (Pyrenulaceae) is a poorly studied genus of lichenized mycobiota in New Zealand. Following the sampling of lichens from over 50 vegetation plots established within the Auckland Region by the Auckland Council, we have recognised a further five species of Pyrenula: P. leucostoma (Zahlbr.) R. C. Harris, P. microcarpa Müll. Arg., P. pyrenuloides (Mont.) R. C. Harris, P. subumbilicata (C. Knight) Aptroot and P. subvariolosa (C. Knight) Aptroot from the New Zealand Botanical Region. These discoveries increase the number of Pyrenula accepted for New Zealand from 10 to 15, and extend the range of two species previously regarded as endemic to Australia. The discoveries also highlight the importance of undertaking more comprehensive lichen sampling within New Zealand’s ecosystems. We recommend that, for those regions where permanent vegetation plots have been established for long-term monitoring, an assessment of lichen diversity should also be included in their initial sampling phase and monitoring protocols. With these additions, as well as changes in the taxonomy of New Zealand Pyrenula, a revised key to the known species of Pyrenula in New Zealand is presented. Keywords: Pyrenulaceae, Pyrenula, P. leucostoma, P. microcarpa, P. pyrenuloides, P. subumblicata, P. subvariolosa, Auckland Region, additions New Zealand mycobiota.
32130Yin A.C., Wang X.Y., Liu D., Zhang Y.Y., Yang M.X., Li L.J. & Wang L.S. (2019): Two new species of Placolecis (lichenized Ascomycota) from China. - Mycobiology, 47(4): 401–407. .
Two new species of the lichen genus Placolecis are discovered in China, namely P. kunmingensis An. C. Yin & Li S. Wang and P. sublaevis An. C. Yin & Li S. Wang. The new combination P. loekoesiana (S.Y. Kondr., Farkas, J.J. Woo & Hur) An. C. Yin is proposed. Placolecis kunmingensis is characterized by having simple, spherical or ellipsoid, hyaline spores, and pear-shaped pycnidia; while P. sublaevis can be distinguished by its thallus forming larger aggregations with slightly flattened lobes at the thallus margin, and urn-shaped pycnidia. Descriptions, a phylogenetic tree and a key are provided for all the known Placolecis species in China. Keywords: Lichen, taxonomy, Catillariaceae, Yunnan Province.
32129Puglisi M. & Cataldo D. (2019): A comparative study on the bryophyte and lichen flora for monitoring the conservation status of protected areas of Sicily (Italy). - Nova Hedwigia, 109: 321–343. .
A comparative analysis of the bryophytes and lichens used as environmental bioindicators of three Oriented Nature Reserves of the Ionian coast of Sicily (Italy) is presented. For this purpose, ecological and bio-ecological indices (Ellenberg indices, life form, life strategy, human impact, poleotolerance) were considered. Comparing the ecological data, the bryophytes result more tolerant than lichens of shaded condition, moist substrate, conversely, lichens reveal higher resistance to xericity and eutrophication and a preference towards the conditions of photophily. Relating to the bio-ecological parameters, bryophytes and lichens agree in revealing a more marked anthropic disturbance in the ONR Oasi del Simeto, a moderate disturbance in the ONR Fiume Fiumefreddo and even more moderate in the ONR La Timpa, the best preserved Reserve. Key words: bioindicators; bryophytes; lichens; Oriented Nature Reserves; Sicily.
32128Öztürk Ş., Güvenç Ş. & Oran S. (2019): The determination of the changes in epiphytic lichen diversity at microclimatic conditions the Quercus petraea (Mattuschka) Liebl. forest in the Uludağ Mountains (Bursa, Turkey). - Nova Hedwigia, 109: 475–487. .
The aim of this study is to determine the effects of microclimatic factors and tree size on epiphytic lichen diversity in different parts of Quercus petraea. The microclimatic factors used were tree size, the base and trunk of the tree, bark surface moisture, and environmental factors such as the amount of relative humidity and light in the environment. A total of 35 epiphytic lichen species was found in the Quercus petraea forest in the Uludağ Mountains. Parmelia sulcata was the most common species. The highest species diversity was found in small trees. Shannon diversity on the trunk of the tree decreased with the increase in the tree size. The relationship between tree size and species richness on the trunk of the tree was found to be more significant than that found on the base. It has been determined that the frequency of some species on the base and trunk of the tree was increased as a result of an increase in the amount of relative humidity and light in the environment and an increase in the bark surface moisture. At the same time the frequency decreased when the amount of relative humidity and light in the environment and bark surface moisture decreased. Key words: biodiversity; epiphytic lichen; microclima; Quercus petraea; Uludağ.
32127Jiang S.H., Hawksworth D.L., Lücking R. & Wei J.C. (2020): A new genus and species of foliicolous lichen in a new family of Strigulales (Ascomycota: Dothideomycetes) reveals remarkable class-level homoplasy. - IMA Fungus, 11: 1 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s43008-019-0026-2.
Phylogenetic analysis of some foliicolous lichens collected in Hainan Province, China, revealed a new lineage morphologically similar to Porina but phylogenetically related to Strigulaceae (Dothideomycetes), differing from the latter in ascus type. The monospecific genus Tenuitholiascus gen. nov. is introduced for the single species, T. porinoides sp. nov., which is placed in the new, monogeneric family Tenuitholiascaceae, sister to Strigulaceae in Strigulales. The new taxon closely resembles the genus Porina in external morphology and ascospore type, as well as the thin-walled asci and unbranched paraphyses. Yet, it is entirely unrelated to the latter, which belongs in class Lecanoromycetes in the order Gyalectales. Keywords: Phylloblastia, Phyllocratera, Phylloporis.
32126Padgett T. & Wiersma Y.F. (2020): Arboreal macrolichen community composition and habitat associations in boreal forested wetlands of Newfoundland, Canada. - Bryologist, 123(1): 64–74. .
Forested wetlands are ecologically and economically important, but many are poorly understood. A robust inventory of species is important for sound management in these ecosystems, particularly ones that include cryptogams such as arboreal lichens, which are rich and abundant in forested wetlands. On the island of Newfoundland, Canada, little is known about what lichens are found in forested wetlands, how lichen communities interact with different forested wetlands, or whether there are lichens unique to forested wetlands. Therefore, we investigated the potential for macrolichens to act as indicators of forested bog, fen and swamp wetland classes in four regions. We counted macrolichen thalli, by species, on the lower bole of black spruce (Picea mariana) trees within plots from each forested wetland class in each region. We also collected data on habitat characteristics in each wetland: soil pH, canopy closure, and ground and shrub cover, all of which differed significantly among forested wetland classes. Macrolichen communities differed among regions and forested wetland classes but the greatest differences were among regions. We also attempted to identify reliable macrolichen indicator species for forested wetland classes and regions but were unsuccessful. A lichen of conservation concern, Erioderma pedicellatum (Hue) P.M.Jørg., was detected in some of our forested wetland sites, highlighting the importance of proper management of these unique habitats. Keywords: Ecoregions, indicator species, forested bogs, forested fens, swamps, epiphytes.
32125Garrido-Benavent I., Pérez-Ortega S., Durán J., Ascaso C., Pointing S.B., Rodríguez-Cielos R., Navarro F. & de los Ríos A. (2020): Differential Colonization and Succession of Microbial Communities in Rock and Soil Substrates on a Maritime Antarctic Glacier Forefield. - Frontiers in Microbiology, 11: 126 [19 p.] doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2020.00126. .
Glacier forefields provide a unique chronosequence to assess microbial or plant colonization and ecological succession on previously uncolonized substrates. Patterns of microbial succession in soils of alpine and subpolar glacier forefields are well documented but those affecting high polar systems, including moraine rocks, remain largely unexplored. In this study, we examine succession patterns in pioneering bacterial, fungal and algal communities developing on moraine rocks and soil at the Hurd Glacier forefield (Livingston Island, Antarctica). Over time, changes were produced in the microbial community structure of rocks and soils (ice-free for different lengths of time), which differed between both substrates across the entire chronosequence, especially for bacteria and fungi. In addition, fungal and bacterial communities showed more compositional consistency in soils than rocks, suggesting community assembly in each niche could be controlled by processes operating at different temporal and spatial scales. Microscopy revealed a patchy distribution of epilithic and endolithic lithobionts, and increasing endolithic colonization and microbial community complexity along the chronosequence. We conclude that, within relatively short time intervals, primary succession processes at polar latitudes involve significant and distinct changes in edaphic and lithic microbial communities associated with soil development and cryptogamic colonization. Keywords: Antarctica, Livingston Island, algae, bacteria, fungi, geomicrobiology, chronosequence, primary succession.
32124Biľová I., Goga M. & Bačkor M. (2019): Physiological responses of Xanthoria parietina to long-term copper excess: role of the extracellular secondary metabolite parietin. - Botanica Serbica, 43: 133–142. http://botanicaserbica.bio.bg.ac.rs/arhiva/pdf/2019_43_2_747_full.pdf.
Xanthoria parietina is a common lichen that is widespread around the world. Tolerance of heavy metal pollution in this lichen is well known. Xanthoria parietina contains the secondary metabolite parietin, which protects the photobiont from high UV- radiation. Secondary metabolites of lichens have been found to form complexes with metal cations. In a long-term experiment (lasting 8 weeks), we tested the resistance of X. parietina with and without the secondary metabolite parietin against two concentrations of Cu (50 μM and 500 μM). Removal of parietin did not affect the measured physiological parameters. However, it caused higher accumulation of intracellular Cu. De novo synthesis of parietin in the lichen thallus after removal of the metabolite was not observed. Physiological parameters (chlorophyll a fluorescence, chlorophyll a integrity, content of soluble proteins, ergosterol levels, TBARS production) were affected by the higher dose of Cu during the long-term experiment. It seems that the secondary metabolite parietin does not protect the lichen against Cu excess. Keywords: parietin, lichens, heavy metals, accumulation, tolerance.
32123Ručová D., Goga M., Sabovljević M.S., Vilková M., Petruľová V. & Bačkor M. (2019): Insights into physiological responses of mosses Physcomitrella patens and Pohlia drummondii to lichen secondary metabolites. - Protoplasma, 256: 1585–1595. .
It is widely accepted that allelopathy among mosses and lichens do exist due to its similar ecological needs, though it is rarely documented. With an aim to test whether there is an effect of allelochemicals to mosses, we grow axenically two moss species (namely Physcomitrella patens and Pohlia drummondii) in controlled conditions and use them to test the effect of lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea acetone extracts containing active compounds: atranorin, chloratranorin, and physodic acid. The photosynthesis value and the biochemical parameters were measured to detect changes in moss organisms upon application of different concentration of lichen extract. The results obtained clearly showed that both moss species reacted to allelochemicals applied in test but to different extent. This suggests that tested moss species have various patterns on reaction to allelochemicals, and that the process of allelopathy is rather a recently coevolving one, than pre-defined. The lichen secondary metabolites are allelochemicals effective also to moss species that are not selected lichen cohabitants. Keywords: Lichenized fungi; Secondary metabolites; Bryophytes; Allelopathy.
32122Caneva G., Fidanza M.R., Tonon C. & Favero-Longo S.E. (2020): Biodeterioration patterns and their Interpretation for potential applications to stone conservation: a hypothesis from allelopathic inhibitory effects of lichens on the Caestia Pyramid (Rome). - Sustainability, 12(3): 1132 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12031132.
The colonisation of stone by different organisms often leaves biodeterioration patterns (BPs) on the surfaces even if their presence is no longer detectable. Peculiar weathering patterns on monuments and rocks, such as pitting phenomena, were recognised as a source of information on past colonisers and environmental conditions. The evident inhibition areas for new bio-patinas observed on the marble blocks of the Caestia Pyramid in Rome, recognisable as tracks of previous colonisations, seem a source for developing new natural products suitable for restoration activities. To hypothesise past occurring communities and species, which gave rise to such BPs, we carried out both in situ observations and analyses of the rich historical available iconography (mainly photographs). Moreover, we analysed literature on the lichen species colonising carbonate stones used in Roman sites. Considering morphology, biochemical properties and historical data on 90 lichen species already reported in Latium archaeological sites, we suppose lichen species belonging to the genus Circinaria (Aspicilia s.l.) to be the main aetiological agent of such peculiar BPs. These results seem relevant to highlight the long-lasting allelopathic properties of some lichen substances potentially applicable as a natural product to control colonisation, improving the environmental and economical sustainability of stone restoration. Keywords: lichen allelopathic substances; natural biocides; stone biodeterioration; stone conservation; historical photographs.
32121Miao C., Tang R., Dong L., Ren Z. & Zhao Z. (2019): Haematomma pluriseptatum sp. nov. from China. - Mycotaxon, 134: 637–641. .
A new species, Haematomma pluriseptatum, is described from southwestern China. This corticolous species is characterized by large ascospores with (19–)20–26(–27) septa and by the presence of atranorin, russulone, and pseudoplacodiolic acid. A detailed description of its morphology, high resolution photographs, chemistry, comments, and distribution are provided. Related lichen taxa are discussed, and a key to the species of Haematomma from China is also provided. Key words—East Asia, Haematommataceae, Lecanorales, lichenized fungi, taxonomy.
32120Borsch T., Stevens A.-D., Häffner E., Güntsch A., Berendsohn W.G., Appelhans M.S., Barilaro C., Beszteri B., Blattner F.R., Bossdorf O., Dalitz H., Dressler S., Duque-Thüs R., Esser H.-J., Franzke A., Goetze D., Grein M., (2020): A complete digitization of German herbaria is possible, sensible and should be started now. . - Research Ideas and Outcomes, 6: e50675 [27 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3897/rio.6.e50675.
Keywords: Herbaria, Digitization, Botanical Collections, Research Infrastructure, Biodiversity Data, Conservation, Biomonitoring, Taxonomy, Semantics, Artificial Intelligence.
32119Rinas C. & McMullin R.T. (2020): Alectoria sorediosa new to Quebec from Parc national du Mont-Mégantic. - Evansia, 36(4): 135–138. .
Alectoria sorediosa is reported from Québec, Canada for the first time from the conifer zone above 1000 m in Parc national du Mont-Mégantic. This rare species has only been reported in North America five times previously. Ours is the second report from eastern North America. Key words. Biogeography, Parmeliaceae, rare species.
32118Benesperi R., Brunialti G., Fappiano A., Frati L., Giordani P., Loppi S., Paoli L., Ravera S., Buzio P., Benco C., Martellos S. & Tretiach M. (2007): Contributo alla conoscenza della flora lichenica dell’Abetone, Appennino Tosco-Emiliano [Contribution to the knowledge of the epiphytic and terricolous lichen flora of Abetone (Tuscan - Emilian Apennines, Central Italy)]. - Informatore Botanico Italiano, 39(1): 43–51. .
[in Italian with English abstract:] 200 infrageneric taxa of lichenised and lichenicolous fungi are reported from the Abetone area (Tuscan - Emilian Apennines, Central Italy). Psilolechia clavulifera (Nyl.) Coppins is a new addition to the lichen flora of Italy, other 17 taxa are new to Central Italy, 26 to Tuscany, 2 to Emilia Romagna. The presence of some taxa previously known from collections of the XIX° century is confirmed. The ecology and distribution of selected species are discussed.
32117Gruszka W. & Lipnicki L. (2019): Standard procedure for the identification of lichen refuges: a case study of the Krajeńskie Lakeland area in Poland. - Ecological Questions, 30(4): 19–27. .
This paper presents guidelines for the identification of lichen refuges based on research carried out in the Krajeńskie Lakeland between 2009 and 2014. The main goal of this publication was to establish a methodology to distinguish refuges from other habitats. The main points of this methodology include the precise determination of the research area, comprehensive development of its local lichenobiotic biodiversity, identification of the most valuable species (mainly rare and endangered) and selection of areas with the highest concentration of their stands. Keywords: epiphytic lichens, refuge, endangered species, local biodiversity.
32116Tanona M. & Czarnota P. (2019): Natural disturbances of the structure of Norway spruce forests in Europe and their impact on the preservation of epixylic lichen diversity: A review. - Ecological Questions, 30(4): 7–17. .
The review of current studies on the importance of two main natural disturbances in montane and boreal forests of Europe, dominated by Norway spruce, namely windstorms and the spruce bark beetle outbreaks, for the accumulation of decaying wood in forest ecosystems, shows the relationship between these processes and the creation of habitat diversity for epixylic lichens, especially in the context of the conservation of rare and endangered species. At the same time, this work reveals insufficiency of knowledge on this subject and points to the potential negative effects of removing this substrate in forests under area protection. It also includes recommendations for modern forestry, in which one of the significant goals would be to protect biodiversity. Keywords: bark beetle outbreaks, windstorms, lichen protection, decaying wood.
32115Haughian S.R. & Lundholm J.L. (2019): The Moss Machine in action: a preliminary test of a low-cost, indoor cultivation method for mosses. - Evansia, 36(4): 139–150. .
Mosses and lichens are not generally used in green architecture and gardens in Canada, despite being widely used elsewhere in the world. This may be partly due to a lack of products that promote or incorporate them as landscaping elements. We built a low-cost growth cart specifically for mosses and lichens, called the “Moss Machine”, and tested its ability to grow four types of moss over 4.5 months in an indoor setting. Moss growth ranged from 1.5-4.5 cm over the duration of the study, with differences primarily due to species identity. The primary opportunity for improvement appears to be around the timing, duration, and overall management of watering regimens. We discuss other limitations and benefits of this initial design and recommend improvements for the next stage of development. Key words: Bryophyte, lichen, green roof, growth cart, ex situ conservation.
32114Munzi S., Benesperi R., Bianchi E., Brackel W. v., Di Nuzzo L., Favero-Longo S.E., Gheza G., Giordani P., Matteucci E., Paoli L. & Tonon C. (2019): Sulle orme dei Sambo. Escursione del XXXI congresso della Società Lichenologica Italiana al Monteferrato. - Notiziario della Società Lichenologica Italiana, 32: 99–107. .
[in Italian] Italy; report on lichenological congress excursion
32113Keuler R., Garretson A., Saunders T., Erickson R.J., St. Andre N., Grewe F., Smith H., Lumbsch H.T., Huang J.-P., St. Clair L.L. & Leavitt S.D. (2020): Genome-scale data reveal the role of hybridization in lichen-forming fungi. - Scientific Reports, 10:1497 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-58279-x.
Advancements in molecular genetics have revealed that hybridization may be common among plants, animals, and fungi, playing a role in evolutionary dynamics and speciation. While hybridization has been well-documented in pathogenic fungi, the effects of these processes on speciation in fungal lineages with different life histories and ecological niches are largely unexplored. Here we investigated the potential influence of hybridization on the emergence of morphologically and reproductively distinct asexual lichens. We focused on vagrant forms (growing obligately unattached to substrates) within a clade of rock-dwelling, sexually reproducing species in the Rhizoplaca melanophthalma (Lecanoraceae, Ascomycota) species complex. We used phylogenomic data from both mitochondrial and nuclear genomes to infer evolutionary relationships and potential patterns of introgression. We observed multiple instances of discordance between the mitochondrial and nuclear trees, including the clade comprising the asexual vagrant species R. arbuscula, R. haydenii, R. idahoensis, and a closely related rock-dwelling lineage. Despite well-supported phylogenies, we recovered strong evidence of a reticulated evolutionary history using a network approach that incorporates both incomplete lineage sorting and hybridization. These data suggest that the rock-dwelling western North American subalpine endemic R. shushanii is potentially the result of a hybrid speciation event, and introgression may have also played a role in other taxa, including vagrant species R. arbuscula, R. haydenii and R. idahoensis. We discuss the potential roles of hybridization in terms of generating asexuality and novel morphological traits in lichens. Furthermore, our results highlight the need for additional study of reticulate phylogenies when investigating species boundaries and evolutionary history, even in cases with wellsupported topologies inferred from genome-scale data.
32112Steggles E.K., Facelli J.M., Ainsley P.J. & Pound L.M. (2019): Biological soil crust and vascular plant interactions in Western Myall (Acacia papyrocarpa) open woodland in South Australia. - Journal of Vegetation Science, 30: 756–764. .
Aim: Biological soil crust (BSC) is a key component of arid environments and plays a major role in determining ecological structure and function. Our research aim was to examine several mechanisms that contribute to BSC–plant interactions at species and community levels, to increase our understanding of plant community dynamics. Location: Yellabinna Regional Reserve, South Australia (30°50′17.99″ S, 132°12′10.37″ E). Methods: We used seed extraction techniques to examine soil seed banks beneath patches with and without BSC, and field and glasshouse experiments to study the effects of crust presence and disturbance on seedling emergence and survival. We also explored the influence of chemical leachates from BSC on seed germination. Results: Biological soil crust plays a pivotal role in influencing spatial patterns in soil seed bank composition. Our results showed less propagules accumulate in soils beneath crust when compared with patches without crust, and that propagule size is a contributing factor to determining their distribution between patch types. We found that late‐stage BSC physically inhibited seedling emergence, which increased when the BSC was disturbed in field experiments. Low seedling survivorship in both patch types suggests that although BSC may suppress recruitment in favourable years, it is low precipitation levels that have the over‐riding impact on recruitment success. Finally, leachates from late‐stage BSC were found to inhibit germination in three annual plant species, whilst early‐stage BSC accelerated germination in one annual plant. This clearly shows that leachate effects on seed germination vary according to plant species and crust successional stage. Conclusion: Overall, we identified several mechanisms through which BSC has complex effects on the annual and short‐lived perennial plant guilds of arid lands. These mechanisms contribute to species diversity through the creation of spatial heterogeneity in soil seed bank structure and emergence opportunities. Keywords: allelopathy, arid ecology, biological soil crust, chemical leachates, chenopod shrubland, microphytic crust, plant community structure, seed germination, seedling emergence, soil seed banks.
32111Hui R., Liu L., Xie M. & Yang H. (2019): Variation in snow cover drives differences in soil properties and microbial biomass of BSCs in the Gurbantunggut Desert—3 years of snow manipulations. - Ecohydrology, 12: e2118 [10 p.] DOI: 10.1002/eco.2118. .
Variations in snow cover (as specific precipitation) can have an important effect on development of biological soil crusts (BSCs) in arid and semiarid regions, where water is the principal limiting factor for microorganisms. However, there is still limited knowledge available regarding the effects of snowfall on soil properties and microbial biomass in BSCs. To examine these effects of snow cover, three types of BSCs (cyanobacteria‐dominated, lichen‐dominated, and moss‐dominated crusts) were collected and exposed to five snow depths for 3 years. The results indicated that most of the soil properties and soil microbial biomass were significantly (p < .05) affected by 3 years of snow manipulation in three types of BSCs. In BSCs, the values of most soil properties and microbial biomass were higher in the increased snow depth treatments relative the snow removal treatments. Moreover, there were variations in soil properties and microbial biomass among BSC types. In short, increases/decreases in snow cover had different effects on three types of BSCs after 3 years of manipulation. Moreover, increases in snow cover had a positive influence on soil properties and microbial biomass, but negative effects were observed in all BSCs following snow removal and snow reduction. Thus, variations in snow cover can drive differences in soil properties and microbial biomass of BSCs, which may further affect development and succession of BSCs in arid and semiarid regions. Keywords: biological soil crusts (BSCs), snow cover, soil microbial biomass, successional stages, water availability.
32110Staples R., LaDuca R.L., Roze L.V., Laivenieks M., Linz J.E., Beaudry R., Fryday A., Schilmiller A.L., Koptina A.V., Smith B. & Trail F. (2020): Structure and chemical analysis of major specialized metabolites produced by the lichen Evernia prunastri. - Chemistry and Biodiversity, 17: e1900465 [13 p.] doi: 10.1002/cbdv.201900465. .
We performed comparative profiling of four specialized metabolites in the lichen Evernia prunastri, collected at three different geographic locations, California and Maine, USA, and Yoshkar Ola, Mari El, Russia. Among the compounds produced at high concentrations that were identified in all three specimens, evernic acid, usnic acid, lecanoric acid and chloroatranorin, evernic acid was the most abundant. Two depsidones, salazinic acid and physodic acid, were detected in the Yoshkar‐Ola collection only. The crystalline structure of evernic acid (2‐hydroxy‐4‐[(2‐hydroxy‐4‐methoxy‐6‐methylbenzoyl)oxy]‐6‐methylbenzoate) (hmb) revealed two crystallographically and conformationally distinct hmb anions, along with two monovalent sodium atoms. One hmb moiety contained an exotetradentate binding mode to sodium, whereas the other exhibited an exohexadentate binding mode to sodium. Embedded edge‐sharing {Na2O8}n sodium‐oxygen chains connected the hmb anions into the full three‐dimensional crystal structure of the title compound. The crystal used for single‐crystal X‐ray diffraction exhibited non‐merohedral twinning. The data suggest the importance of the acetyl‐polymalonyl pathway products to processes of maintaining integrity of the lichen holobiont community. Keywords: Evernia prunastri, evernic acid, lichen specialized metabolites, crystalline structure, profiling specialized metabolites.
32109Aschenbrenner I.A., Cardinale M., Berg G. & Grube M. (2016): Understanding microbial multi-species symbioses. - Frontiers in Microbiology, 7: 180 [9 p.] doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2016.00180. .
[a review paper] Lichens are commonly recognized as a symbiotic association of a fungus and a chlorophyll containing partner, either green algae or cyanobacteria, or both. The fungus provides a suitable habitat for the partner, which provides photosynthetically fixed carbon as energy source for the system. The evolutionary result of the self-sustaining partnership is a unique joint structure, the lichen thallus, which is indispensable for fungal sexual reproduction. The classical view of a dual symbiosis has been challenged by recent microbiome research, which revealed host-specific bacterial microbiomes. The recent results about bacterial associations with lichens symbioses corroborate their notion as a multi-species symbiosis. Multi-omics approaches have provided evidence for functional contribution by the bacterial microbiome to the entire lichen meta-organism while various abiotic and biotic factors can additionally influence the bacterial community structure. Results of current research also suggest that neighboring ecological niches influence the composition of the lichen bacterial microbiome. Specificity and functions are here reviewed based on these recent findings, converging to a holistic view of bacterial roles in lichens. Finally we propose that the lichen thallus has also evolved to function as a smart harvester of bacterial symbionts. We suggest that lichens represent an ideal model to study multi-species symbiosis, using the recently available omics tools and other cutting edge methods. Keywords: lichens, symbiosis, microbiome, Alphaproteobacteria, host-associated bacteria.
32108Karaahmet Z., Kınalıoğlu K. & Aydın S. (2019): Antioxidant and antibacterial potencies of Xanthoparmelia conspersa (Ehrh. ex Ach.) Hale and Dermatocarpon miniatum (L.) W. Mann. lichens from Black Sea Region in Turkey. - Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi, 9(3): 415–424. .
Antibacterial properties of Dermatocarpon miniatum (L.) W. Mann and Xanthoparmelia conspersa (Ehrh. ex Ach.) Hale lichens were investigated by disc diffusion and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) methods. Antioxidant capacity of the lichens were examined by utilizing 2,2-diphenyl-1picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, 2,2’Azino-bis (3-ethylbenzenotiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, metal chelating activity, total antioxidant capacity, determination of total phenolic and total flavonoid contents. Extracts showed antibacterial effect against all bacteria except for Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. When compared antibacterial efficiency of the tested lichens, it is concluded that X. conspersa lichen is more active than D. miniatum lichen. DPPH radical scavenging activity of the extracts are increased in the following order: ethanol extract of X. conspersa > acetone extract of D. miniatum > ethanol extract of D. miniatum > acetone extract of X. conspersa. Studied lichen extracts showed relatively weak metal chelating activity. According to the obtained results, it is concluded that D. miniatum and X. conspersa lichen extracts can be alternative antibacterial and antioxidant agents. Keywords: Antibacterial Activity, Antibiotic, Antioxidant Activity, Lichen.
32107Kınalıoğlu K., Aydın S. & Bilgin Sökmen B. (2019): Antimicrobial potential of Usnea longissima Ach. lichen against human pathogens. - Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi, 9(4): 710–715. .
Lichens are a symbiotic associations between a fungus and algae and/or cyanobacteria. Lichens use as food and dye source, air pollution indicator, medicinal and decoration. In this study, antimicrobial activity of ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of Usnea longissima Ach. lichen was searched by disc diffusion method. While inhibition zones range from 14.5 mm to 24.5 mm for bacteria, inhibition zones range from 10 mm to 32 mm for fungi. Lichen extracts exhibited higher activity than gentamicin and tetracycline but they showed similar activity to nystatin. The MIC values of the extracts varied between 2-117 μg/mL against bacteria; while the MIC values of the extracts varied between 4-59 μg/mL against fungi. According to the obtained results, it could be said that U. longissima might be an alternative to synthetic antimicrobial agents. Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, Lichen, Microorganism.
32106Zhang K., Jiang L.-Q., Wang L.-S., An D.-F., Lang L., Li G.-D., Wang X.-Y., Shi S.-B., Li Q.-Y., Jiang C.-L. & Jiang Y. (2020): Aureimonas leprariae sp. nov., Isolated from a Lepraria sp. lichen. - Current Microbiology, 77: 313–319. .
A Gram-negative, motile, aerobic and coccoid rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain YIM132180T, was isolated from a Lepraria sp. lichen collected from Pu’er, Yunnan Province, China. The strain grew at 15–35 °C (optimum, 25–28 °C), at 0–2% (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 0–1%) and at pH 6.0–9.0 (optimum, pH 7.0). The 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain YIM132180T had highest similarity (96.4%) with Aureimonas endophytica 2T4P-2-4T, followed by Aureimonas ureilytica NBRC 106430T (95.7%) and Aureimonas rubiginis CC-CFT034T (95.6%). Phylogenetic analysis showed that the strain grouped with species of the genus Aureimonas. The genomic sequence was 4,779,519 bp and contained 4584 coding sequences (CDSs), 54 RNA genes, 3 complete rRNA genes and 47 tRNA genes. The major fatty acids (>10%) of strain YIM132180T were C18:1ω7c, C-16:0 and C19:0 cyclo ω8c. The predominant menaquinone was ubiquinone 10 (Q-10). The polar lipid profile comprised diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, unidentified phospholipid, amino lipid, lipid and most importantly sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG). Based on the draft genome sequence, the G +C content of strain YIM132180T was 68.4 mol%. The results of the polyphasic taxonomic study, including phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and phylogenetic analyses, showed that strain YIM132180T represents a novel species of the genus Aureimonas, for which the name Aureimonas leprariae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM 132180T (=KCTC 72462T = CGMCC 1.17389T).
32105Mendonça C.O., Aptroot A., Lücking R. & Cáceres M.E.S. (2020): Global species richness prediction for Pyrenulaceae (Ascomycota: Pyrenulales), the last of the “big three” most speciose tropical microlichen families. - Biodiversity and Conservation, 29: 1059–1079. .
Together with Graphidaceae and Trypetheliaceae, Pyrenulaceae forms part of the "big three", the three most speciose, chiefly tropical microlichen families. Microlichens are the most diverse component of tropical lichen communities, with numerous species still to be discovered. Following previous analyses of Graphidaceae and Trypetheliaceae, here we present a global species richness estimate for Pyrenulaceae, using a recently devised method based on a global grid system. We refined this approach by using an iterative adjustment to estimate mean predicted grid range per species from a grid frequency histogram. We also adjusted a previously implemented randomization approach to estimate error margins. Our results showed a global estimate for Pyrenulaceae of (395–)441(–453) species world-wide, 307 of which are currently known, thus an overall predicted increase of over 40%. This includes 416 known and predicted tropical and 25 known, exclusively temperate species, the latter assumed to remain unchanged. While the robustness of the global prediction depends on accurately setting grid sampling scores, individual predicted grid richness varies according to additional factors such as evolutionary history. In addition to undescribed species contribution to predicted richness, we hypothesize that species delimitation studies in presumably widespread taxa will reveal refined species concepts with narrower ranges, thus further increasing estimated global richness. The comparison of predicted richness values for the three families Graphidaceae, Trypetheliaceae and Pyrenulaceae with regard to their evolutionary ages highlights this rather robust method as a promising tool to circumvent sampling and knowledge bias when assessing speciation and diversification patterns. Keywords: Microlichens · Neotropics · Anthracothecium · Lithothelium · Pyrenula · Pyrgillus.
32104Sérusiaux E., Lücking R. & Sparrius L.B. (2008): Opegrapha viridistellata (Roccellaceae), a new foliicolous lichen species from the Paleotropics. - Mycotaxon, 104: 223–227. .
The new foliicolous species Opegrapha viridistellata is described from the Paleotropics. The species is characterized by a pale greyish green thallus without black dots, partially branched apothecia covered by a thin thalline layer, predominantly 4-septate ascospores and abundant black pycnidia producing two conidial types. Key words — Australia, Ivory Coast, Japan, New Caledonia, Papua New Guinea, Seychelles, Thailand.
32103Bawingan P., Lardizaval M. & Elix J. (2019): Philippine lichens with bulbate cilia – Bulbothrix and Relicina (Parmeliaceae). - Philippine Journal of Science, 184(4): 637–645. .
This paper presents a taxonomic treatment of Bulbothrix and Relicina lichens (Ascomycota, Parmeliaceae) collected in the Philippines, two genera characterized by the presence of bulbate cilia. A total of five species of Bulbothrix and fifteen species of Relicina were identified, with one new record for each genus. The Philippines is a major center of diversity for Relicina. Keywords: coronate apothecia, lichenic acid crystals, parmelioid lichen, retrorse cilia, Hale.
32102John V. (2002): Die botanischen Sammlungen der Pollichia im Pfalzmuseum für Naturkunde, Bad Dürkheim (POLL). Eine erste Übersicht. - Mitteilungen der Pollichia, 89: 141–191. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Mitt-Pollichia_89_0141-0191.pdf.
[The botanical collections of the POLLICHIA in the Natural History Museum of the Palatinate, Bad Dürkheim (POLL). A first overview]. The development of the constituents of the POLLICHIA herbarium between 1840 and 2002 is described. Besides information on the processing and kind of arrangements, from different sections of the collections examples are provided. The paper offers for the first time a register of type specimens and exsiccates stored in the herbarium, as well as an index of collectors and a rough overview on the geographical origin.
32101Werner K. (1988): Zur Geschichte des Herbariums der Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg nebst Anmerkungen zu einigen Sammlern. - Hercynia, 25(1): 11–26. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Hercynia_25_0011-0026.pdf.
After a brief account to the task of the Halle herbarium (HAL), its history is described from the foundation in 1819 to 1945. Special attention is given to the most important herbaria of D. F. L. v. Schlechtendal and his father D. F. K. v. Schlechtendal, other holdings are mentioned. New activities in research, started in 1947, stimulated the development and continuous enlargement of the herbarium. The estimated number of specimens in the different plant groups is given. Frequent collectors of flowering plants are named and in addition all bound exsiccata of Cryptogams deposited in HAL. Annotations deal with informations (mainly from unpublished letters) about parts of herb. Lambert in Germany and the collections of Schiede and Deppe, C. A. Ehrenberg, C. Papst, Hohenacker, Drège, Ecklon, and Zeyher.
32100Jagadeesh M.K., Valluri S.R., Kari V., Kubska K. & Kaczmarek Ł. (2020): Indexing exoplanets with physical conditions potentially suitable for rock-dependent extremophiles. - Life, 10(2): 10 [8 p.] . https://doi.org/10.3390/life10020010.
The search for different life forms elsewhere in the universe is a fascinating area of research in astrophysics and astrobiology. Currently, according to the NASA Exoplanet Archive database, 3876 exoplanets have been discovered. The Earth Similarity Index (ESI) is defined as the geometric mean of radius, density, escape velocity, and surface temperature and ranges from 0 (dissimilar to Earth) to 1 (similar to Earth). The ESI was created to index exoplanets on the basis of their similarity to Earth. In this paper, we examined rocky exoplanets whose physical conditions are potentially suitable for the survival of rock-dependent extremophiles, such as the cyanobacteria Chroococcidiopsis and the lichen Acarospora. The Rock Similarity Index (RSI) is first introduced and then applied to 1659 rocky exoplanets. The RSI represents a measure for Earth-like planets on which physical conditions are potentially suitable for rocky extremophiles that can survive in Earth-like extreme habitats (i.e., hot deserts and cold, frozen lands). Keywords: Earth-like planets; exoplanets; extremophiles; habitability; Rock Similarity Index (RSI).
32099Puntillo D., Pittao E., Benesperi R., Bocca E., Catalano I., Nascimbene J., Ravera S., Matteucci E., Morando M., Potenza G. & lsocrono D. (2017): Lichenes ltalici Exsiccati ex Societa Lichenologica ltaliana. Fascicle I (Nos. 1-12). - Notiziario della Società Lichenologica Italiana, 30: 86–89. .
Lichenes ltalici exsiccati ex Società Lichenologica ltaliana, a new series of exsiccata distributed by the Italian Lichen Society (Società Lichenologica ltaliana, SU), is introduced. The labels of the first 12 numbers are listed. Key words: Lichens, exsiccata.
32098Wiersma Y.F., McMullin R.T. & Sleep D.J.H. (2019): Model systems to elucidate minimum requirements for protected areas networks. - Scientific Reports, 9: 19594 [7 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-56142-2.
In conservation biology there have been varying answers to the question of “How much land to protect?” Simulation models using decision-support software such as Marxan show that the answer is sensitive to target type and amount, and issues of scale. We used a novel model system for landscape ecology to test empirically whether the minimum conservation requirements to represent all species at least once are consistent across replicate landscapes, and if not, whether these minimum conservation requirements are linked to biodiversity patterns. Our model system of replicated microcosms could be scaled to larger systems once patterns and mechanisms are better understood. We found that the minimum representation requirements for lichen species along the microlandscapes of tree trunks were remarkably consistent (4–6 planning units) across 24 balsam fir trees in a single stand, as well as for 21 more widely dispersed fir and yellow birch trees. Variation in minimum number of planning units required correlated positively with gamma diversity. Our results demonstrate that model landscapes are useful to determine whether minimum representation requirements are consistent across different landscapes, as well as what factors (life history, diversity patterns, dispersal strategies) affect variation in these conservation requirements. This system holds promise for further investigation into factors that should be considered when developing conservation designs, thus yielding scientifically-defensible requirements that can be applied more broadly.
32097Baker M.L., Grove S., de Salas M.F., Byrne C., Cave L., Bonham K., Moore K. & Kantvilas G. (2019): Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery’s Expedition of Discovery I – The flora and fauna of Wind Song, Little Swanport, Tasmania. - Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania, 153: 5–30. .
A flora and fauna survey was conducted at the east coast Tasmanian property Wind Song in 2017 as part of the Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery’s ongoing research, collection-building and nature-discovery program. The survey recorded 885 taxa, primarily from the targeted groups of vascular plants, bryophytes, lichens, butterflies, moths, beetles, snails and slugs. Several of the taxa recorded, chiefly lichens and invertebrates, are new to science or new records for Tasmania. The survey provides a benchmark for further work and serves as an indicator of the biodiversity of a former farming property on Tasmania’s east coast. Key Words: species discovery, biodiversity, Tasmania, lichens, multidisciplinary survey.
32096Metz S., Singer D., Domaizon I., Unrein F. & Lara E. (2019): Global distribution of Trebouxiophyceae diversity explored by high-throughput sequencing and phylogenetic approaches. - Environmental Microbiology, 21(10): 3885–3895. .
Trebouxiophyceae are a ubiquitous class of Chlorophyta encountered in aquatic and terrestrial environments. Most taxa are photosynthetic, and many acts as photobionts in symbiotic relationships, while others are free-living. Trebouxiophyceae have also been widely investigated for their use for biotechnological applications. In this work, we aimed at obtaining a comprehensive image of their diversity by compiling the information of 435 freshwater, soil and marine environmental DNA samples surveyed with Illumina sequencing technology in order to search for the most relevant environments for bioprospecting. Freshwater and soil were most diverse and shared more than half of all operational taxonomic units (OTUs), however, their communities were significantly distinct. Oceans hosted the highest genetic novelty, and did not share any OTUs with the other environments; also, marine samples host more diversity in warm waters. Symbiotic genera usually found in lichens such as Trebouxia, Myrmecia and Symbiochloris were also abundantly detected in the ocean, suggesting either free-living lifestyles or unknown symbiotic relationships with marine planktonic organisms. Altogether, our study opens the way to new prospection for trebouxiophycean strains, especially in understudied environments like the ocean.
32095Sundqvist M.K., Moen J., Björk R.G., Vowles T., Kytöviita M.‐M., Parsons M.A. & Olofsson J. (2019): Experimental evidence of the long‐term effects of reindeer on Arctic vegetation greenness and species richness at a larger landscape scale. - Journal of Ecology, 107(6): 2724–2736. .
Large herbivores influence plant community structure and ecosystem processes in many ecosystems. In large parts of the Arctic, reindeer (or caribou) are the only large herbivores present. Recent studies show that reindeer have the potential to mitigate recent warming‐induced shrub encroachment in the Arctic and the associated greening of high‐latitude ecosystems. This will potentially have large scale consequences for ecosystem productivity and carbon cycling. To date, information on variation in the interactions between reindeer and plants across Arctic landscapes has been scarce. We utilized a network of experimental sites across a latitudinal gradient in the Scandinavian mountains where reindeer have been excluded from 59 study plots for at least 15 years. We used this study system to test the effect of long‐term exclusion of reindeer on the abundance of major plant functional groups, the greenness indexes Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), soil mineral nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P), and species richness, and to determine whether the effect of reindeer exclusion is dependent on reindeer density, productivity, soil fertility or climate. We found that NDVI and LAI, lichen and deciduous shrub abundances were largely reduced while soil mineral N was enhanced by reindeer. The direction and amplitude of other plant functional group responses to reindeer exclusion differed between forest and tundra as well as shrub‐ and herbaceous‐dominated vegetation. Higher reindeer densities were related to decreased plant species richness in low‐productive sites and to increased species richness in productive sites. The relative reduction in LAI and associated absolute reductions of deciduous shrubs in response to reindeer were positively related to reindeer density, while the relative reduction in NDVI was not. Further, relative reductions in LAI and NDVI in response to reindeer were unrelated to climate and soil fertility. Synthesis. Our results provide long‐term experimental evidence highlighting the role of reindeer density in regulating plant species richness, global climate change induced greenness patterns and shrub encroachment at regional scales in the Arctic. These findings emphasize the need to consider reindeer in models predicting vegetation patterns and changes in high‐latitude ecosystems. Keywords: climate change; forest; grazing; large mammalian herbivores; plant community composition; plant–herbivore interactions; soil nutrients; tundra.
32094Havrilla C.A., Chaudhary V.B., Ferrenberg S., Antoninka A.J., Belnap J., Bowker M.A., Eldridge D.J., Faist A.M., Huber‐Sannwald E., Leslie A.D., Rodriguez‐Caballero E., Zhang Y. & Barger N.N. (2019): Towards a predictive framework for biocrust mediation of plant performance: A meta‐analysis. - Journal of Ecology, 107(6): 2789–2807. .
Understanding the importance of biotic interactions in driving the distribution and abundance of species is a central goal of plant ecology. Early vascular plants likely colonized land occupied by biocrusts — photoautotrophic, surface‐dwelling soil communities comprised of cyanobacteria, bryophytes, lichens and fungi — suggesting biotic interactions between biocrusts and plants have been at play for some 2,000 million years. Today, biocrusts coexist with plants in dryland ecosystems worldwide, and have been shown to both facilitate or inhibit plant species performance depending on ecological context. Yet, the factors that drive the direction and magnitude of these effects remain largely unknown. We conducted a meta‐analysis of plant responses to biocrusts using a global dataset encompassing 1,004 studies from six continents. Meta‐analysis revealed there is no simple positive or negative effect of biocrusts on plants. Rather, plant responses differ by biocrust composition and plant species traits and vary across plant ontogeny. Moss‐dominated biocrusts facilitated, while lichen‐dominated biocrusts inhibited overall plant performance. Plant responses also varied among plant functional groups: C4 grasses received greater benefits from biocrusts compared to C3 grasses, and plants without N‐fixing symbionts responded more positively to biocrusts than plants with N‐fixing symbionts. Biocrusts decreased germination but facilitated growth of non‐native plant species. Synthesis. Results suggest that interspecific variation in plant responses to biocrusts, contingent on biocrust type, plant traits, and ontogeny can have strong impacts on plant species performance. These findings have important implications for understanding biocrust contributions to plant productivity and community assembly processes in ecosystems worldwide. Keywords: biological soil crust; biotic interactions; biotic resistance; biotic soil community; germination; facilitation; meta‐analysis; plant functional traits; plant–soil (below‐ground) interactions.
32093Rodríguez-Caballero E., Román J.R., Chamizo S., Ramos B.R. & Cantón Y. (2019): Biocrust landscape-scale spatial distribution is strongly controlled by terrain attributes: Topographic thresholds for colonization in a semiarid badland system . - Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 44: 2771–2779. .
Biological soil crust, or biocrust communities, are the dominating life form in many extreme habitats, such as arid and semiarid badlands, where water scarcity and highly erodible substrates limit vegetation cover. While climate, soil and biotic factors have been described as environmental filters influencing biocrust distribution in such biomes, little is known about the effect of terrain attributes on creating specific microhabitats that promote or restrict biocrust colonization. This study aimed to identify the main terrain attributes controlling biocrust distribution in the driest badland system in Europe, the Tabernas Badlands (SE Spain). To do this, we analysed the influence of different terrain attributes related to landscape stability and microclimate formation on the spatial distribution of lichen and cyanobacteria, using field measurements and topographical information from a LiDAR survey. Our results showed that the spatial distribution of cyanobacteria-dominated biocrusts, which are physiologically and morphologically adapted to extreme drought and high UVA radiation, was mostly associated with areas of high potential incoming solar radiation. The exception was bare south-aspect hillslopes with very high sediment transport potential, where bare physically crusted soils were the dominant ground cover. Lichen-dominated biocrusts, in contrast, colonized near the top of north-aspect hillslopes, characterized by low potential incoming solar radiation and potential evapotranspiration, and their cover decreased downstream, as conditions became good enough for vascular plants. Keywords: cyanobacteria; lichen; spatial pattern; microclimate; slope; badland.
32092Frisch A., Moen V.S., Grube M. & Bendiksby M. (2020): Integrative taxonomy confirms three species of Coniocarpon (Arthoniaceae) in Norway. - MycoKeys, 62: 27–51. .
We have studied the highly oceanic genus Coniocarpon in Norway. Our aim has been to delimit species of Coniocarpon in Norway based on an integrative taxonomic approach. The material studied comprises 120 specimens of Coniocarpon, obtained through recent collecting efforts (2017 and 2018) or received from major fungaria in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, as well as from private collectors. We have assessed (1) species delimitations and relationships based on Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses of three genetic markers (mtSSU, nucITS and RPB2), (2) morphology and anatomy using standard light microscopy, and (3) secondary lichen chemistry using high-performance thin-layer chromatography. The results show three genetically distinct lineages of Coniocarpon, representing C. cinnabarinum, C. fallax and C. cuspidans comb. nov. The latter was originally described as Arthonia cinnabarina f. cuspidans and is herein raised to species level. All three species are supported by morphological, anatomical and chemical data. Keywords: Arthoniales, Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood, morphology, mtSSU, nucITS, phylogeny, RPB2.
32091Zhao Y., Jia R.L. & Wang J. (2019): Towards stopping land degradation in drylands: Water‐saving techniques for cultivating biocrusts in situ. - Land Degradation and Development, 30: 2336–2346. .
In recent years, inoculating sand surfaces with biocrust organisms has become one of the most promising biotechnological strategies for controlling and reversing land degradation in drylands. To fully exploit this biotechnology on a large scale in drylands, researchers must explore water‐saving techniques to incubate biocrusts in situ. To achieve this aim, we tested three methods—broadcasting dried cyanobacteria, spraying fresh cyanobacteria, and broadcasting natural biocrust fragments—to culture biocrusts in situ on the Tengger Desert in Northern China. The cover of incubated biocrust increased during the first 2 months after inoculation (from 6% to more than 20.0% in treatments using biocrust fragments); biocrust cover declined but persisted after 12 months of incubation (13.8% cover in the best treatment, natural cyanobacteria fragments). The cover of cyanobacteria was higher than the cover of lichen in our natural cyanobacteria‐lichen crust fragment treatment (NCL; p < .05) after incubating for 12 months. We highlight that cyanobacteria should be selected for biocrust incubation during the initial stages of dryland restoration. Accumulated rainfall was positively related to the cover of incubated biocrust. However, wind speed and wind erosion intensity were both negatively related to the cover of incubated biocrust. In conclusion, broadcasting biocrust fragments is a rapid, efficient, and water‐saving biotechnique to cultivate biocrusts in situ. Actions to reduce wind speed and wind erosion, such as mechanical sand fixing, can help stabilize soils and improve crust cultivation. Keywords: cyanobacteria, eco‐friendly biotechnique, ecology restoration, water‐saving.
32090Chelli S., Marignani M., Barni E., Petraglia A., Puglielli G., Wellstein C., Acosta A.T.R., Bolpagni R., Bragazza L., Campetella G., Chiarucci A., Conti L., Nascimbene J., Orsenigo S., Pierce S., Ricotta C., Tardella F.M., Abeli T., Aronne G., Bacaro G., Bagella S., Benesperi R., Bernareggi G., Bonanomi G., Bricca A., Brusa G., Buffa G., Burrascano S., Caccianiga M., Calabrese V., Canullo R., Carbognani M., Carboni M., Carranza M.L., Catorci A., Ciccarelli D., Citterio S., Cutini M., Fratte M.D., De Micco V., Del Vecchio S., Di Martino L., Di Musciano M., Fantinato E., Filigheddu R., Frattaroli A.R., Gentili R., Gerdol R., Giarrizzo E., Giordani P., Gratani L., Incerti G., (2019): Plant–environment interactions through a functional traits perspective: a review of Italian studies. - Plant Biosystems, 153(6): 853–869. .
Italy is among the European countries with the greatest plant diversity due to both a great environmental heterogeneity and a long history of man–environment interactions. Trait-based approaches to ecological studies have developed greatly over recent decades worldwide, although several issues concerning the relationships between plant functional traits and the environment still lack sufficient empirical evaluation. To draw insights on the association between plant functional traits and direct and indirect human and natural pressures on the environmental drivers, this article summarizes the existing knowledge on this topic by reviewing the results of studies performed in Italy adopting a functional trait approach on vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens. Although we recorded trait measurements for 1418 taxa, our review highlighted some major gaps in plant traits knowledge: Mediterranean ecosystems are poorly represented; traits related to belowground organs are still overlooked; traits measurements for bryophytes and lichens are lacking. Finally, intraspecific variation has been little studied at community level so far. We conclude by highlighting the need for approaches evaluating trait–environment relationship at large spatial and temporal scales and the need of a more effective contribution to online databases to tie more firmly Italian researchers to international scientific networks on plant traits. Keywords: Climate change, CSR plant strategy theory, forest management, intraspecific variability, land use change, plant traits, terrestrial and freshwater environments.
32089Huang J.‐B., Liu W.‐Y., Li S., Song L., Lu H.‐Z., Shi X.‐M., Chen X., Hu T., Liu S. & Liu T. (2019): Ecological stoichiometry of the epiphyte community in a subtropical forest canopy. - Ecology and Evolution, 9: 14394–14406. .
Epiphytes in tree canopies make a considerable contribution to the species diversity, aboveground biomass, and nutrient pools in forest ecosystems. However, the nutrient status of epiphytes and their possible adaptations to nutrient deficiencies in the forest canopy remain unclear. Therefore, we analyzed the stoichiometry of five macroelements (C, N, P, K, and Ca) in four taxonomic groups (lichens, bryophytes, ferns, and spermatophytes) to investigate this issue in a subtropical montane moist evergreen broad‐leaved forest in Southwest China. We found that the interspecific variations in element concentrations and mass ratios were generally greater than the intraspecific variations. And there were significant stoichiometric differences among functional groups. Allometric relationships between N and P across the epiphyte community indicated that P might be in greater demand than N with an increase in nutrients. Although canopy nutrients were deficient, most epiphytes could still maintain high N and P concentrations and low N:P ratios. Moreover, ferns and spermatophytes allocated more limited nutrients to leaves than to stems and roots. To alleviate frequent drought stress in the forest canopy, vascular epiphytes maintained several times higher K concentrations in their leaves than in the tissues of lichens and bryophytes. Our results suggest that epiphytes may have evolved specific nutrient characteristics and adaptations, so that they can distribute in heterogeneous canopy habitats and maintain the stability of nutrient metabolism. Forest canopies are occupied by nearly 600 epiphytic species (including lichens, bryophytes, ferns, and spermatophytes) in a subtropical montane moist evergreen broad‐leaved forest in Southwest China. However, the nutrient status of epiphytes and their adaptations to nutrient deficiencies in the forest canopy remain unclear. In this study, we analyzed the stoichiometry of five macroelements (C, N, P, K, and Ca) of dominant epiphytes and found that stoichiometric characteristics differed across species and functional groups. Keywords: arboreal epiphyte; element content; functional group; nutritional strategy; phylogeny; stoichiometric ratio.
32088Wang M., Wang C. & Jia R. (2019): The impact of nitrogen deposition on photobiont‐mycobiont balance of epiphytic lichens in subtropical forests of central China. - Ecology and Evolution, 9: 13468–13476. .
Excessive nitrogen (N) deposition can impact lichen diversity in forest ecosystems, and this is a particular situation in China. Here, we examined the N uptake, assimilation, and the impact of excessive N deposition on the symbiotic balance of dominant epiphytic lichens in the subtropical forests in the Mts. Shennongjia of central China. The results show that lichen species took up, assimilated and utilized more ammonium than nitrate in a species-specific way, following the increase of N availability. The photobiont of the lichens decreased with the increase of N concentration following an initial increase, while the mycobiont response to the N addition was not apparent. Considerable variation in response to excessive N deposition exists among the lichen species. Usnea longissima could regulate its N uptake, resulting in a stable photobiont-mycobiont ratio among N treatments. In contrast, the photobiont-mycobiont ratio of other four lichens increased initially but decreased when N concentration exceeded a certain level, and N stress may have broken the balance between photobiont and mycobiont of these lichens. Our results suggest that most epiphytic lichens in subtropical forest of central China could uptake and assimilate more ammonium than nitrate and that the balance between photobiont and mycobiont of many epiphytic lichens might change with the increasing N deposition load, which could impact the lichen diversity of this forest ecosystem. Keywords: ammonium; chlorophyll; ergosterol; lichen; nitrate.
32087Fick S.E., Barger N., Tatarko J. & Duniway M.C. (2020): Induced biological soil crust controls on wind erodibility and dust (PM10) emissions. - Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 45(1): 224–236. .
Inducing biological soil crust (biocrust) development is an appealing approach for dust mitigation in drylands due to the resistance biocrusts can provide against erosion. Using a portable device, we evaluated dust emissions from surfaces either inoculated with biocrust, amended with a plant‐based soil stabilizer, or both at varying wind friction velocities. Four months after application, emissions from all treatments were either indistinguishable from or greater than controls, despite evidence of biocrust establishment. All treatments had greater surface roughness and showed more evidence of entrapment of windblown sediment than controls, factors which may have been partially responsible for elevated emissions. There was a synergistic effect of inoculation and stabilizer addition, resulting in a nearly two‐fold reduction in estimated emissions compared to either treatment alone. Stepwise regression analysis indicated that variables associated with surface crust strength (aggregate stability, penetration resistance) were negatively associated with emissions and variables associated with sediment supply (sand content, loose sediment cover) were positively associated with emissions. With more time to develop, the soil‐trapping activity and surface integrity of biocrust inoculum and soil stabilizer mixtures is expected to increase with the accumulation of surface biomass and enhancement of roughness through freeze–thaw cycles. We measured dust emissions from surfaces either inoculated with biological soil crust, amended with an organic stabilizer, or both at varying wind friction velocities. Four months after treatment initiation, we found combinations of inoculant and stabilizer provided greater erosion resistance than either of the treatments alone, resulting in a nearly two‐fold reduction in emissions across simulations. The rapid soil‐building activity and enhanced integrity of biocrust inoculum and soil stabilizer mixtures provides a promising methodology for dryland dust mitigation. Keywords: Colorado Plateau; PI‐SWERL; aeolian; cyanobacteria; dust; erosion; lichen; moss; restoration.
32086Arcadia L. in & Coppins B.J. (2019): (2713) Proposal to reject the name Lecidea cornea (lichenised Ascomycota). - Taxon, 68(5): 1114. .
nomenclature
32085Arcadia L. in, Knudsen K. & Kocourková J. (2019): (2712) Proposal to conserve the name Lichen cervinus (Acarospora cervina) with a conserved type (Acarosporaceae, lichenised Ascomycota). - Taxon, 68(5): 1113–1114. .
nomenclature
32084Buch C. (2019): Exkursion: Bochum-Querenburg, Moose und Flechten auf dem Gelände der Ruhr-Universität. - Jahrbuch des Bochumer Botanischen Vereins, 10: 105–107. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Jahrb-Bochumer-Bot-Ver_10_0105-0107.pdf.
Germany; report on excursion
32083Mežaka A., Bader M.Y., Salazar Allen N. & Mendieta-Leiva G. (2020): Epiphyll specialization for leaf and forest successional stages in a tropical lowland rainforest. - Journal of Vegetation Science, 31: 118–128. .
Questions: The importance of tropical rainforest gap dynamics in biodiversity maintenance is not fully understood, in particular for taxa other than trees and lianas. We used epiphylls on rainforest leaves to study the importance of leaf- and forest-scale succession in determining biodiversity patterns by characterizing community change with leaf age in gaps and closed-forest habitats. We asked: (1) Do epiphylls show specialization for leaf and forest successional stages? (2) Can early- and late-successional epiphyllous species be recognized at these two scales? (3) How do epiphyll presence, species richness, and cover change with leaf and forest successional stages? Location: Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Method: Data were collected from 420 leaves, in three age groups and at two heights on shrubs in gaps and closed forest. We calculated turnover and nestedness components of dissimilarity to evaluate the importance of species replacement or accumulation during leaf and forest succession. Using generalized linear mixed models we determined what factors explain epiphyll species occurrence, richness and cover. Results: Closed forest contained more liverwort and lichen specialist species than gaps. Specialist species were identified for older leaves only. Dissimilarity between leaves within age groups was dominated by turnover within and between forest successional stages. Dissimilarity between leaf age groups, at the site level, was dominated by nestedness, i.e., species accumulation. Both in forest and gaps, epiphyll presence and cover increased with leaf age for all taxa except fungi, while species richness increased only for lichens. Conclusion: Early and late forest successional stages both contribute to epiphyll species richness by harboring specialized species. Among leaf successional stages, young leaves contain a mere subset of the species found on older leaves. Epiphyll communities do not follow classic succession, in the sense of changes being driven by species replacement, but are characterized by species accumulation through time. Keywords: Bryophytes, community dynamics, epiphylls, forest gaps, fungi, lichens, specialists, species accumulation, succession.
32082Prieto M. & Olariaga I. (2019): (2697–2698) Proposals to conserve the names Placidium and P. michelii with conserved types (Verrucariales: lichenized Ascomycota). - Taxon, 68(4): 855–856. .
nomenclature
32081Prateeksha, Palya B.S., Bajpai R., Jadavan V., Kumar S., Upreti D.K., Singh B.R., Nayaka S & Singh B.N. (2016): The genus Usnea: a potent phytomedicine with multifarious ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology. - Royal Society of Chemistry Advance, 6: 21672–21696. .
[a Review paper] The genus Usnea Adans. (Parmeliaceae; lichenized Ascomycetes) is a typical group of mostly pale grayishgreen fruticoselichens that grow as leafless mini-shrubs. More than 360 species of Usnea are known in the world. Usnea has long been thought to have treat various illnesses in addition to its historical use as dyes, cosmetics, preservatives, and deodorants, particularly in eastern countries such as China, Japan, Taiwan, India and Europe. The current review focuses on the traditional uses and phytochemistry aspects of different Usnea species, and discusses the pharmacological findings and toxicology of their extracts and isolated compounds. The available compilation of data will provide a new base for future perspectives and highlight the need for further studies of this potent herbal source to harvest more beneficial therapeutic drugs. Nineteen species of the genus Usnea are found to be important folk medicines all over the world. It is evident from the comparative analysis of the searched literature that the genus Usnea has been used for various purposes for centuries and its long and traditional medicinal history was well documented in the past. As per ancient records and recent scientific literature, the species of genus Usnea have been used as promising traditional medicines, exerting an array of therapeutic properties to relieve sore throats, bronchitis, cold, flu, infection, and indigestion. Phytochemical analysis confirms the general presence of a wide range of metabolites, polysaccharides, fatty acids, phenolic acids, flavonoids, terpenes, sterols, depsides, depsidones, and benzofurans. As specific constituents, usnic acid, polyphenols, and depsides have been considered as main efficacy component for antibacterial and antifungal activities. In addition, pharmacological analysis also revealed that other pure compounds and crude extracts of Usnea species prove to be significant anti-cancer, anti-proliferative, anti-oxidant, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer, hepatoprotective, and anti-genotoxic agents. However, there is a need for more precise investigations to examine the clinical value of both isolated pure compounds and crude extracts and to elucidate their mechanisms of action. Apart from clinical validation and elucidation of their mechanism of action, biosafety studies of the compounds are also important to legitimately use the potential bioactive compounds for the further development of future lead drugs.
32080Malíček J., Man M. & Novotný P. (2019): DaLiBor – nejobsáhlejší databáze rozšíření mechorostů a lišejníků v ČR. - Botanika, 2/2019: 7–9. .
32079Mejstřík V. (2019): Lišejníky vrchu Praha v Brdech [The lichens of the Praha Hill in the Brdy Highlands]. - Bohemia centralis, 35: 161–168. .
The floristic results of a lichenological survey carried out on Praha Hill (862 m a. s. l.) in the central Brdy Highlands in 1992 and 1993 are presented. Studied substrats: boulder (boulder scree), soil, wood, dead wood, bark of trees. 65 species of lichens was found. The occurrence of the arctic-alpine species was recorded – Brodoa atrofusca, B. intestiniformis, Cladonia macrophylla, Melanelia stygia, Miriquidica nigroleprosa, Pertusaria corallina, Protoparmelia atriseda, Rhizocarpon polycarpum, Umbilicaria hyperborea, Umbilicaria polyphylla.
32078Šoun J., Malíček J. & Vondrák J. (2019): Zajímavé nálezy lišejníků v Brdech a na Rokycansku. - Erica, 26: 45–64. .
New records of 64 rare and data-deficient lichens from the Brdy Mts and the Rokycany region are reported. In addition, new records of six lichen-allied fungi are included. 18 lichens are reported for the first time from the Brdy Mts, e.g. Absconditella sphagnorum, Caloplaca lucifuga, Chaenotheca chlorella, Gyalecta fagicola and Lecidea turficola. Cetraria sepincola, Cladonia amaurocraea, C. stellaris, Fellhaneropsis myrtillicola, Pertusaria flavida, Sclerophora peronella, Usnea glabrescens and Xanthoparmelia mougeotii represent other remarkable species from the study region. Several recently spreading macrolichens, such as Evernia mesomorpha, Hypotrachyna afrorevoluta, H. revoluta, Nephromopsis laureri and Parmotrema perlatum are reported mainly from twigs of Larix, while Parmotrema reticulatum (new for the Czech Republic) from a twig of Prunus spinosa.
32077Gómez González D.C., Rodríguez Quiel C., Zotz G. & Bader M.Y. (2017): Species richness and biomass of epiphytic vegetation in a tropical montane forest in western Panama. - Tropical Conservation Science, 10: 1–17. .
In tropical montane forests epiphytes represent a substantial proportion of biodiversity and green biomass, particularly where fog occurs almost daily. Epiphytes play important ecological roles in these ecosystems, for example, in forest hydrology and in amplifying arthropod biodiversity, but quantitative assessments of epiphytic biomass and species diversity are rare. Such data are important, however, for a better understanding on their ecological roles and as a baseline for detecting ecological change due to climate or land-use changes. In a tropical lower montane cloud forest (c. 1,150 m above sea level) in Panama, we identified and weighed all epiphytic matter, which includes vascular plants, bryophytes, lichens, and dead organic matter from the trunks of 22 trees varying in diameters at breast height and 28 canopy branches. Additionally, we collected epiphytic matter in the understory in 22 plots of 2 × 2 m. A total of 155 species of vascular epiphytes, hemiepiphytes, and nomadic vines were found. Orchidaceae were by far the most species-rich family, followed by Araceae and Bromeliaceae. The vertical distribution of these species in the forest showed species-specific vertical preferences, but species numbers varied little in undergrowth, trunks, and tree crowns. Epiphytic matter was positively related to tree size, and we used tree-size data inventory data from a nearby 1-ha plot to extrapolate our findings to the plot level. The resulting estimate of 16,439 kg ha−1 for total epiphytic matter and 6,214 kg ha−1 for living plants, the latter representing about 2% of aboveground forest biomass. Keywords: biomass, cloud forest, epiphytes, hemiepiphytes, species richness.
32076Kondratyuk S., Lőkös L., Halda J., Lee B.G., Jang S.-H.,Woo J.-J., Park J.S., Oh S.-O., Han S.-K. & Hur J.-S. (2019): Arthonia dokdoensis and Rufoplaca toktoana – two new taxa from Dokdo Islands (South Korea). - Mycobiology, 47(4): 355–367. .
Arthonia dokdoensis sp. nov., a lichenicolous fungus from the subcosmopolitan Arthonia molendoi complex growing on crustose thalli of species of the genus Orientophila (subfamily Xanthorioideae, Teloschistaceae), as well as the lichen species Rufoplaca toktoana sp. nov. (subfamily Caloplacoideae, Teloschistaceae) similar to Rufoplaca kaernefeltiana, both from Dokdo Islands, Republic of Korea, are described, illustrated, and compared with closely related taxa. In the phylogenetic tree of the Arthoniaceae based on 12S mtSSU and RPB2 gene sequences, the phylogenetic position of the A. dokdoensis and the relationship with the A. molendoi group are illustrated, while the position of the newly described R. toktoana is confirmed by phylogenetic tree based on ITS nrDNA data. Keywords: New species; Orientophila; phylogenetic analysis; taxonomy.
32075Kliment J., Hrabovský M., Kučera V., Guttová A., Hindáková A. & Guričanová D. (2019): Rodová homonymia v slovenskom odbornom botanickom menosloví a jej riešenie. - Kultúra slova, 53(6): 335–341. .
[in Slovak] Slovak vernacular names; generic homonyms
32074Knudsen K., Adams J.N., Kocourková J., Wang Y., Ortañez J. & Stajich J.E. (2020): The monophyletic Sarcogyne canadensis–wheeleri clade, a newly recognized group sister to the European Acarospora glaucocarpa group. - Bryologist, 123: 11–30. .
Molecular phylogenetic analyses of newly generated sequences from North American material belonging to the Acarospora glaucocarpa group recovered these sequences in a previously unrecognized clade sister to European members of the group. North American material is recognized as a distinct clade, named the ‘‘Sarcogyne canadensis–wheeleri clade,’’ and its constituent species are described. Four new calciphytes from North America are described from the clade: S. alcesensis, S. bernardinensis, S. convexa and S. wheeleri. Sarcogyne wheeleri is the taxon North American lichenologists usually identified as A. glaucocarpa. Acarospora canadensis was recovered in the clade and is revised and transferred to Sarcogyne. A neotype is designated for A. glaucocarpa. We transfer S. bolleana, a rare species described from Texas, to Acarospora and do not consider it a synonym of S. arenosa. We do not recognize A. glaucocarpa s.str. as occurring in continental North America. We supply a key to the S. canadensis-wheeleri clade. Currently we report 102 species of Acarosporaceae from North America. Keywords: Biodiversity, interspecific taxa, integrative taxonomy, New Mexico.
32073Lendemer J.C. (2020): Leprocaulon beechingii (Leprocaulaceae), a new species from the southern Appalachian Mountains of eastern North America. - Bryologist, 123: 1–10. .
Leprocaulon beechingii is described as new to science based on collections from exposed rock outcrops in the southern Appalachian Mountains in eastern North America. Taxonomic placement in Leprocaulon, and delimitation from other members of the genus with usnic acid, is supported by molecular phylogenetic analyses of ITS and mtSSU sequence data. The species is readily recognized by its occurrence on non-calcareous rocks, normandinoides-type placodioid thallus, and the production of usnic acid and zeorin. Keywords: Asexual reproduction, biodiversity hotspot, cliff community, granite dome, endemism, leprose thallus.
32072Lendemer J.C. (2020): Bacidia thiersiana (Ramalinaceae), a new species with lobaric acid widespread in southeastern North America. - Bryologist, 123: 39–47. .
Bacidia thiersiana is described as new to science from scattered locations throughout southeastern North America, including the southern Appalachian Mountains and Coastal Plain. The species is characterized by its frequent occurrence on and near thalli of Bathelium carolinianum, minutely areolate, esorediate thallus with small, pale to tan, biatorine apothecia and the production of lobaric acid. In addition to comparison with other morphologically similar species that produce lobaric acid and other fluorescent secondary compounds, Bacidina crystallifera is discussed and illustrated in detail. Keywords: Biodiversity, endemism, natural history collections, Scoliciosporum pensylvanicum, Scoliciosporum pruinosum.
32071Kyselová Z. (1990): Beitrag zu Flechtenflora der Tatra I. (Addenda ad lichenographiam Tatrae I.). - Zborník prác o Tatranskom národnom parku, 30: 87–94. .
Slovakia; Tatra Mts
32070Morse C.A. & Sheard J.W. (2020): Rinodina lecideopsis (Teloschistales, Physciaceae) a new endemic species from the central United States related to R. bischoffii. - Bryologist, 123: 31–38. .
Rinodina lecideopsis is described as new to science. The species is characterized by the lecideine appearance of its apothecia due to the darkly pigmented cortex of the thalline margin and by a broad, hyaline proper exciple, which limits the algae to a narrow region at the base of the margin. The hymenium is densely inspersed with oil droplets and the spores are Bischoffii-type, both characters indicating a relationship with R. bischoffii. The new species belongs to a group of ecologically similar saxicolous lichens restricted to outcrops in tallgrass prairies, and glade openings in savannas and woodlands, fire-adapted ecosystems of the central United States. The biogeography and conservation needs of these lichens is briefly discussed. Keywords: Epihymenium, hymenial inspersion, proper exciple, spore size, fire, glade, Great Plains–Ozarks distribution.
32069Kyselová Z. (1995): Contribution to the lichen flora of the Tatra Mountains Il. Addenda ad lichenographiam Tatrae II. - Oecologia Montana, 4: 15–20. .
This article provides up-to-date information about the occurence and distribution of some lichen species in the Tatra Mountains. Belonia incarnata, Bryonora castanea, Caloplaca isidiigera, Massalongia carnosa, Nephroma arcticum, Peccania coralloides and others have previously been reported from a restricted number of localities. Solorina octospora is reported as new species for the West Carpathian Mountains. Species considered as extinct or missing are mentioned: Arthonia didyma, A. punctiformis, Cyphelium karelicum, Peltigera collina and Usnea carpatica. Attention has been given to critically endangered species, where extinction is a possibility e.g.: Cetraria laureri, Leptogium saturninum, Lobaria pulmonaria. Menegazzia terebrata, Nephroma parile, Normandina pulchella and Thelotrema lepadinum. Key words: Lichen, distribution, the Tatra Mountains.
32068Hansen E.S. (2019): Lichens from Sisimiut in West Greenland and their climatic preferences. - Botanica, 25(2): 102–110. .
A total of 165 lichen taxa collected from Sisimiut in West Greenland in summer 2017 were reported and categorized toward their climatic preferences. Almost 68% of the 165 lichens are more or less equally distributed in continental and oceanic areas of Greenland. More than 26% of the lichens occur most frequently in oceanic areas and more rarely in continental areas. Almost 5% of the lichens occur most frequently in continental areas and more rarely in oceanic areas. Two lichens are distinctly oceanic. No distinctly continental lichens were found in the present investigation. The results are in good accordance with those obtained from similar investigations in West Greenland. Two different climatic scenarios and their influence upon the lichen communities are discussed. Keywords: distribution types, ecology, global warming, lichenized ascomycetes, West Greenland.
32067Konoreva L., Chesnokov S., Kuznetsova E. & Stepanchikova I. (2019): Remarkable records of Micarea from the Russian Far East and significant extension of Micarea laeta and M. microareolata range. - Botanica, 25(2): 186–201. .
The aim of the study was to consolidate data on lichens of the genus Micarea Fr. from the Russian Far East. A total of 19 Micarea species were found to be known from this area. Micarea laeta and M. microareolata were new to Asia and Russia. Additionally, M. laeta was reported new to North America, Austria and Great Britain, M. microareolata – to North America, Czech Republic and Germany as well. Micarea contexta was reported new to Asia, Micarea adnata and M. tomentosa were reported new to the Russian Far East, M. hedlundii to the South of the Russian Far East and M. lignaria to the Sakhalin Region. Micarea turfosa was excluded from the list. The distribution of taxa and some differences between related species were discussed. Molecular data were obtained and used for phylogenetic analysis of Micarea contexta, M. laeta and M. microareolata. Keywords: biogeography, crustose lichens, distribution, Kamchatka, Kurile Islands, Sakhalin, North America.
32066Hämäläinen A., Strengbom J. & Ranius T. (2019): Low‐productivity boreal forests have high conservation value for lichens. - Journal of Applied Ecology, 57: 43–54. .
1. Land set aside for preservation of biodiversity often has low productivity. As biodiversity generally increases with productivity, due to higher or more diverse availability of resources, this implies that some of the biodiversity may be left unprotected. Due to a lack of knowledge on the species diversity and conservation value of low‐productivity habitats, the consequences of the biased allocation of low‐productivity land for set‐asides are unknown. 2. We examined the conservation value of boreal low‐productivity forests (potential tree growth <1 m3 ha−1 year−1) by comparing assemblages of tree‐ and deadwooddwelling lichens and forest stand structure between productive and low‐productivity forest stands. We surveyed 84 Scots pine‐dominated stands in three regions in Sweden, each including four stand types: two productive (managed and unmanaged) and two low‐productivity stands (on mires and on thin, rocky soils). 3. Lichen species richness was the highest in low‐productivity stands on thin soil, which had similar amounts and diversity of resources (living trees and dead wood) to productive unmanaged stands. Stands in low‐productivity mires, which had low abundance of living trees and dead wood, hosted the lowest lichen richness. Lichen species composition differed among stand types, but none of them hosted unique species. The differences in both species richness and composition were more pronounced in northern than in southern Sweden, likely due to shorter history of intensive forestry. 4. Synthesis and applications. Boreal low‐productivity forests can have as high conservation value as productive forests, which should be reflected in conservation strategies. However, their value is far from uniform, and conservation planning should acknowledge this variation and not treat all low‐productivity forests as a uniform group. Some types of low‐productivity forest (e.g. on rocky soil) are more valuable than others (e.g. on mires), and should thus be prioritized in conservation. It is also important to consider the landscape context: low‐productivity forests may have higher value in landscapes where high‐productivity forests are highly influenced by forestry. Finally, although low‐productivity forests can be valuable for some taxa, productive forests may still be important for other taxa. Keywords: boreal forests, dead wood, epiphytic, epixylic, mire, productivity‐diversity relationship, Scots pine.
32065Root H.T., Miller J.E.D. & Rosentreter R. (2020): Grazing disturbance promotes exotic annual grasses by degrading soil biocrust communities. - Ecological Applications, 30(1): e02016 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1002/eap.2016.
Exotic invasive plants threaten ecosystem integrity, and their success depends on a combination of abiotic factors, disturbances, and interactions with existing communities. In dryland ecosystems, soil biocrusts (communities of lichens, bryophytes, and microorganisms) can limit favorable microsites needed for invasive species establishment, but the relative importance of biocrusts for landscape-scale invasion patterns remains poorly understood. We examine effects of livestock grazing in habitats at high risk for invasion to test the hypothesis that disturbance indirectly favors exotic annual grasses by reducing biocrust cover. We present some of the first evidence that biocrusts increase site resistance to invasion at a landscape scale and mediate the effects of disturbance. Biocrust species richness, which is reduced by livestock grazing, also appears to promote native perennial grasses. Short mosses, as a functional group, appear to be particularly valuable for preventing invasion by exotic annual grasses. Our study suggests that maintaining biocrust communities with high cover, species richness, and cover of short mosses can increase resistance to invasion. These results highlight the potential of soil surface communities to mediate invasion dynamics and suggest promising avenues for restoration in dryland ecosystems. Key words: biocrust; cheatgrass; disturbance ecology; diversity–ecosystem-function relationship; exotic annual grasses; livestock grazing; plant establishment; rangeland; resistance to invasion.
32064Root H.T., Miller J.E.D. & Rosentreter R. (2020): Grazing disturbance promotes exotic annual grasses by degrading soil biocrust communities. - Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America, 101(1):e01637 [5 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1002/bes2.1637.
Photogallery illustrating the article “Grazing disturbance promotes exotic annual grasses by degrading soil biocrust communities” by Heather T. Root, Jesse E. D. Miller and Roger Rosentreter published in Ecological Applications. https ://doi.org/10.1002/eap.2016 [jjh32065]