28366Yang Y., Nguyen T.T., Jeong M.-H., Crişan F., Yu Y.H., Ha H.-H., Choi K.H., Jeong H.G., Jeong T.C., Lee K.Y., Kim K.K., Hur J.-S. & Kim H. (2016): Inhibitory activity of (+)-usnic acid against non-small cell lung cancer cell motility. - Plos One, 11(1):e0146575 [16 p.].
Lichens are symbiotic organisms that produce various unique chemicals that can be used for pharmaceutical purposes. With the aim of screening new anti-cancer agents that inhibit cancer cell motility, we tested the inhibitory activity of seven lichen species collected from the Romanian Carpathian Mountains against migration and invasion of human lung cancer cells and further investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying their anti-metastatic activity. Among them, Alectoria samentosa, Flavocetraria nivalis, Alectoria ochroleuca, and Usnea florida showed significant inhibitory activity against motility of human lung cancer cells. HPLC results showed that usnic acid is the main compound in these lichens, and (+)-usnic acid showed similar inhibitory activity that crude extract have. Mechanistically, β-catenin-mediated TOPFLASH activity and KITENIN-mediated AP-1 activity were decreased by (+)-usnic acid treatment in a dose-dependent manner. The quantitative real-time PCR data showed that (+)-usnic acid decreased the mRNA level of CD44, Cyclin D1 and c-myc, which are the downstream target genes of both β-catenin/LEF and c-jun/AP-1. Also, Rac1 and RhoA activities were decreased by treatment with (+)-usnic acid. Interestingly, higher inhibitory activity for cell invasion was observed when cells were treated with (+)-usnic acid and cetuximab. These results implied that (+)-usnic acid might have potential activity in inhibition of cancer cell metastasis, and (+)-usnic acid could be used for anti-cancer therapy with a distinct mechanisms of action.
28365Tabbabi K. & Karmous T. (2016): Characterization and identification of the components extracted from 28 lichens in Tunisia by high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC), morphologic determination of the species and study of the antibiotic effects of usnic acid. - Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 5(4): 253 [8 p.].
This aim of this work is to study the isolation of usnic acid found in many lichen species and the evaluation of its antibacterial activity. The study began with a morphological determination of lichens harvested in Tunisia. The corresponding analysis identified 28 species belonging to the following families: Xanthoria, Parmelia, Caloplaca, Ramalina, Diploschistes, Usnea. A chromatographic study of the chemical composition of these lichens highlighted the presence of many compounds belonging to various chemical categories: depsides and depsidones, xanthones, anthraquinones, dibenzofurans, etc. Special attention was given to the components of this last category and particularly to usnic acid which is therapeutically very interesting. This component plays a very important role in fighting the bacteria responsible for numerous urinary and pulmonary infections and also in fighting viruses responsible for certain tumors. Antibacterial activity tests showed that the Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococci strains have certain sensitivity to usnic acid extracted from the Usnea hirta lichen. Given that various fields, and especially medicine, are currently showing considerable interest in vegetable extracts, this study will be continued in the future with the aim to isolate other components with efficient therapeutic effects. Keywords: Lichen; Usnea; Chromatographic analysis; Chemical composition; Usnic acid; Antibacterial activities.
28364Honda N.K., Lopes T.I.B., Costa R.C.S., Coelho R.G., Yoshida N.C., Rivarola C.R.V., Marcelli M.P. & Spielmann A.A. (2015): Radical-scavenging potential of phenolic compounds from Brazilian lichens. - Orbital: The Electronic Journal of Chemistry, 7(2): 99–107.
Lichens produce a wide range of phenolic substances, mostly depsides and depsidones. As part of our ongoing study of lichens from the Cerrado biome in Mato Grosso do Sul state, the present article reports novel findings on the radical-scavenging activity of two depsides, five depsidones, usnic acid, and lichexanthone that were evaluated against 0.1 and 0.3 mM 2,2’-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical concentrations. These substances were isolated from the lichens Parmotrema tinctorum (Nyl.) Hale, Parmotrema dilatatum (Vain.) Hale, Pseudoparmelia sphaerospora (Nyl.) Hale, Parmotrema lichexanthonicum Eliasaro & Adler, Ramalina anceps Nyl. Usnea subcomosa Vain. and Usnea jamaicensis Ach. Usnic acid (EC50 = 3.34 ± 1.44 and 5.97 ± 1.91 mM, respectively) and atranorin (2.48 ± 1.18 and 10.10 ± 1.18 mM, respectively) proved the most active unmodified compounds. Lecanoric and protocetraric acids exhibited significant EC50 differences between DPPH concentrations. Besides these, nine 9’-O-alkyl protocetraric acid derivatives were also evaluated. 9’-O-methyl protocetraric and 9’-O-iso-propyl protocetraric acids (with respective EC50 values of 1.74 ± 0.83 and 1.03 ± 1.0 mM, both against 0.1 mM DPPH) were the most active compounds evaluated. Except for 9’-O-methyl protocetraric acid, chain elongation correlated with increased scavenging activity in the linear series from 9’-O-ethyl to 9’-O-n-hexyl protocetraric acid. Keywords: lichens; scavenging activity; phenolic compounds; DPPH concentration.
28363Sanders W.B. & de los Rios A. (2017): Parenchymatous cell division characterizes the fungal cortex of some common foliose lichens. - American Journal of Botany, 104(2): 207–217.
Premise of the study: Lichen-forming fungi produce diverse vegetative tissues, some closely resembling those of plants. Yet it has been repeatedly affirmed that none is a true parenchyma, in which cellular compartments are subdivided from all adjacent neighbors by cross walls adjoining older cross walls. Methods: Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we tested this assumption by examining patterns of septum formation in the parenchyma-like cortex of three lichens of different phylogenetic affinities: Sticta canariensis, Leptogium cyanescens, and Endocarpon pusillum. Key results: In the cortex of all three lichens, new septa adjoined perpendicularly or obliquely to previous septa. Septal walls possessed an electrontransparent core (median) layer covered on both sides by layers of intermediate electron density. At septal junctures, the core layer of the newer septum was not continuous with that of the older septum. Amorphous, electron-dense material often became deposited in the core region of older septal walls, and the septum gradually delaminated along its median into what could then be recognized as the distinct walls of neighboring cells. However, cells maintained continuity at pores, where adjacent remnants of the electron-transparent core layer suggested septal partition rather than secondary establishment of a lateral wall connection via anastomosis. Conclusions: Although fungal tissues first arise by the coalescence of filaments early in lichen ontogeny, the mature cortical tissues of some lichens are comparable to true parenchyma in the unrestricted orientation of their septal cross walls and the resulting ontogenetic relationship among neighboring cell compartments. Key words: Endocarpon; fungal cell wall; fungal tissue; L eptogium ; lichen cortex; paraplectenchyma; true parenchyma; pseudoparenchyma; pseudomeristem; septum; Sticta.
28362Cardós J.L.H., Aragón G. & Martínez I. (2017): A species on a tightrope: Establishment limitations of an endangered lichen in a fragmented Mediterranean landscape. - American Journal of Botany, 104(4): 527–537.
Premise of the study: Habitat loss and forest fragmentation affect the dispersal and establishment of species. Furthermore, populations growing far from the species’ optimal climate might be less viable because good-quality habitat can be scarce and easily altered by smaller changes. The lichen Pectenia plumbea has oceanic climatic requirements, so in the Mediterranean region it needs the humidity provided by well-preserved forests to thrive, but most of this habitat has disappeared and the remnants are fragmented. In central Spain, this species occupies only a small proportion of the existing forests, so we aimed to determine whether this scattered distribution is due to limitations on dispersal or establishment. Methods: We selected a Mediterranean fragmented forest surface in central Spain and extracted environmental variables from 371 plots. We modeled the presence and abundance of P. plumbea and developed species distribution models (SDMs) to detect all the suitable habitats inside the Cabañeros National Park area. Key results: Pectenia plumbea was present in most of the habitats predicted as good-quality and was generally absent from the poor-quality zones (85.9% overall success). The abundance correlated fairly well with that predicted by the SDM (67%). Both models show that P. plumbea is linked to high temperature and precipitation. Conclusions: Good-quality habitat requirements for P. plumbea that are similar to oceanic conditions are found only in specifi c forested, stony slopes derived from historical land management. This habitat is scarce, but P. plumbea has successfully tracked all of these scattered areas via its high dispersal capacity. Key words: dispersal; edge eff ect; epiphyte cyanolichen; establishment; fragmentation; habitat loss; lichen reproductive stages; P ectenia plumbea ; predictive modeling; species distribution models (SDMs).
28361Merinero S., Aragón G. & Martínez I. (2017): Intraspecific life history variation in contrasting habitats: Insights from an obligate symbiotic organism. - American Journal of Botany, 104(7): 1099–1107.
Premise of the study: Life history theory predicts that plants in unfavorable habitats for juvenile growth and survival will commence reproduction at smaller sizes and exhibit higher reproductive allocations than those in favorable habitats. The scope of life history theory will increase if these predictions apply to a broad range of organisms. Populations of organisms in contrasting habitats may experience different demographic rates. Thus, we compared the demography and life history traits of a lichen species in contrasting habitats. Methods: We compared the abundance, growth, mortality, and reproductive strategy (threshold size for reproduction and reproductive allometry) of epiphytic and saxicolous populations of the asexually reproducing lichen Lobarina scrobiculata in two oak forests in central Spain. Key results: The growth rates of saxicolous individuals were two times faster than those of epiphytic individuals. Epiphytic specimens exhibited a smaller threshold size for reproduction and a higher reproductive allocation than their saxicolous counterparts. The populations hosted by trees were two times larger than those on rocks (13,788 vs. 6629 individuals, respectively). The mortality rate did not vary between habitats. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that contrasting habitats selected for differences in the demography and life history traits of a lichen species. Consistent with life history theory predictions, in the habitat with slower growth, L. scrobiculata started to reproduce at a smaller size and its reproductive allocation was higher. This study extends the scope of life history theory and improves our understanding of life history patterns and variations in overlooked taxa such as lichens. Key words: asexual reproduction; contrasting habitats; demography; lichen; life history theory; Lobariaceae; population ecology; relative growth rate; reproductive allometry; reproductive strategy.
28360Shivarov V.V., Thüs H. & Denchev C.M. (2017): First records of two freshwater lichens, Hydropunctaria scabra and Verrucaria alpicola, from Bulgaria. - Mycobiota, 7: 1–5.
Two lichen-forming fungi, Hydropunctaria scabra and Verrucaria alpicola (Verrucariaceae, Ascomycota), are reported for the fi rst time from Bulgaria. Descriptions and ecological observations based on the Bulgarian populations are provided. For Verrucaria alpicola the ability to survive a continuous submersion over a period of at least four years is confirmed. Key words: Bulgaria, freshwater habitats, lichen-forming fungi, Verrucariaceae.
28359Anonymous (2017): Index to scientific names and nomenclatural checklist of Trypetheliaceae – ERRATUM. - Lichenologist, 49(4): 429.
The index was erroneously published to run on from the previous article. It, and the pre- ceding article, have now been published online as separate articles, with the correct pagination and running heads.
28358Aptroot A., Cáceres M.E.S., Johnston M.K. & Lücking R. (2017): How diverse is the lichenized fungal family Trypetheliaceae (Ascomycota: Dothideomycetes)? A quantitative prediction of global species richness – ERRATUM. - Lichenologist, 49(4): 427.
This article was erroneously published to run together with the index. It, and the index, have now been published online as separate articles, with the correct pagination and running heads.
28357Aptroot A. & Lücking R. (2017): A revisionary synopsis of the Trypetheliaceae (Ascomycota: Trypetheliales) – ERRATUM. - Lichenologist, 49(4): 425.
28356Will-Wolf S., Jovan S. & Amacher M.C. (2017): Lichen element content is a reliable indicator for relative air pollution load in research and monitoring programmes requiring both efficiency and representation of many sites. We tested the value of costly rigorous field and handling protocols for sample element analysis using five lichen species. No relaxation of rigour was supported; four relaxed protocols generated data significantly different. - Lichenologist, 49(4): 415–424.
Lichen element content is a reliable indicator for relative air pollution load in research and monitoring programmes requiring both efficiency and representation of many sites. We tested the value of costly rigorous field and handling protocols for sample element analysis using five lichen species. No relaxation of rigour was supported; four relaxed protocols generated data significantly different from rigorous protocols for many of the 20 validated elements. Minimally restrictive site selection criteria gave quality data from 86% of 81 permanent plots in northern Midwest USA; more restrictive criteria would likely reduce indicator reliability. Use of trained non-specialist field collectors was supported when target species choice considers the lichen community context. Evernia mesomorpha, Flavoparmelia caperata and Physcia aipolia/stellaris were successful target species. Non-specialists were less successful at distinguishing Parmelia sulcata and Punctelia rudecta from lookalikes, leading to few samples and some poor quality data. Evernia mesomorpha, Flavoparmelia caperata, metals, nitrogen, Parmelia sulcata, Physcia aipolia/stellaris, Punctelia rudecta, sulphur
28355Morando M., Favero-Longo S.E., Carrer M., Matteucci E., Nascimbene J., Sandrone S., Appolonia L. & Piervittori R. (2017): Dispersal patterns of meiospores shape population spatial structure of saxicolous lichens. - Lichenologist, 49(4): 397–413.
Relationships between reproductive strategies and population spatial structure have often been suggested for lichens, but there is a lack of supporting aerobiological data. For the first time, this study couples aerobiological investigations on meiospore dispersal by Caloplaca crenulatella (Nyl.) H. Olivier and Rhizocarpon geographicum (L.) DC. with analysis of local spatial patterns of thalli of both species. During a two-year monitoring period carried out on the walls of a medieval castle in NW Italy, a total of 169 polar diblastic spores, 20% of which were morphologically attributable to C. crenulatella, was detected in the mycoareosol, while muriform spores of R. geographicum were never found. Laboratory experiments confirmed that different dispersal patterns characterize the two species, the meiospores of R. geographicum being poorly discharged and only recovered at a short distance from thalli, whereas those of C. crenulatella were more abundantly discharged, suspended and better dispersed by a moderate air flow. This difference was reflected on the castle walls by the random spatial pattern of C. crenulatella, while R. geographicum showed a clustered distribution. Different discharge rates and take-off limitations, possibly related to size differences between the spores, are not sufficient to explain the different colonization patterns and dynamics of the two species. Additional intrinsic and extrinsic factors are likely to drive their dispersal and establishment success. Nevertheless, information on the relationships between different dispersal patterns of the species and the local spatial structure of their populations might help to predict the recovery potential of lichen species exposed to habitat loss or disturbance, or encrusting monument surfaces. aerobiology, Caloplaca crenulatella, Rhizocarpon geographicum, stone cultural heritage, substratum preference
28354Candotto Carniel F., Pellegrini E., Bove F., Crosera M., Adami G., Nali C., Lorenzini G. & Tretiach M. (2017): Acetone washing for the removal of lichen substances affects membrane permeability. - Lichenologist, 49(4): 387–395.
Removing lichen substances from dry lichen thalli using pure acetone is the least detrimental method. Measurements of properties strictly related to the photobiont, such as chlorophyll a fluorescence (ChlaF), are frequently used to verify acetone toxicity but they cannot reveal possible damage accumulated at the whole thallus level. Here, measurements of ChlaF have been integrated with others concerning the status of cell membranes and photobiont population (potassium leakage, malondialdehyde and photosynthetic pigment content). Dry thalli of Flavoparmelia caperata, Parmotrema perlatum and Xanthoria parietina were subjected to sequential acetone washings according to standard protocols. Membrane permeability was assessed before and after the washing treatment, and after a recovery period of 48 hours. Measurements of ChlaF were taken in a parallel experiment. Acetone washings increased potassium leakage in all the species from 3·9 to 6·6 times greater than the control level. After recovery, only P. perlatum returned to the control level. ChlaF was affected only in F. caperata, with a 20% decrease in Fv/Fm which had not fully recovered after 48 hours. There was neither an increase in lipid peroxidation of membranes nor a change in the photosynthetic pigment content. The sensitivity of F. caperata to this method and the impact of the results on its future application are discussed. chlorophyll fluorescence, lichen secondary compounds, lipid peroxidation, membrane damage, potassium leakage
28353Ludwig L.R., Summerfield T.C., Lord J.M. & Sing G. (2017): Characterization of the mating-type locus (MAT) reveals a heterothallic mating system in Knightiella splachnirima. - Lichenologist, 49(4): 373–385.
In the present study, we characterized the mating-type locus of Knightiella splachnirima (Icmadophilaceae) using degenerate and inverse PCR techniques. We screened for the presence of both mating-type locus idiomorphs in DNA extracts of minuscule samples of haploid thalline tissue. We found that only one of the two idiomorphs was present in each sample, and the mating-type ratio (MAT1-1:MAT1-2) was very balanced, being 8:10 and 13:14 at local and global scales, respectively. This indicates that the species is probably self-incompatible and requires the presence of compatible mating partners for sexual reproduction (heterothallic mating system). Furthermore, we provide a mating-type screening protocol with K. splachnirima specific mating-type locus primers, which could serve as an essential tool for the conservation management of this rare Australasian endemic. heterothallism, Icmadophila splachnirima, Icmadophilaceae, lichen, New Zealand, sexual reproduction
28352Fryday A.M. & Thüs H. (2017): The genus Xenolecia (Lecideaceae s. lat., Lecanoromycetidae inc. sed.), including a second species in the genus from Campbell Island, New Zealand. - Lichenologist, 49(4): 365–372.
The new species Xenolecia cataractarum Fryday is described from Campbell Island. It differs from X. spadicomma, the only other species of the genus, in having much smaller apothecia and ascospores, an olivaceously pigmented epihymenium (brown in X. spadicomma), and a thallus with a non-amyloid medulla and norstictic acid (amyloid medulla and confluentic acid in X. spadicomma). Xenolecia spadicomma is reported here from several localities on the Falkland Islands and three from the Región de Los Lagos, Chile, which are the first reports of this species since its description from Isla Wellington in the south-west of Patagonia in 1868. A full description of X. spadicomma is also provided. Chile, Falkland Islands, lichen, Porpidiaceae, subantarctic islands
28351Fryday A.M., Schmitt I. & Pérez-Ortega S. (2017): The genus Endocena (Icmadophilaceae): DNA evidence suggests the same fungus forms different morphologies. - Lichenologist, 49(4): 347–363.
Numerous recent studies of lichenized fungi have uncovered hidden genetic diversity within a single phenotypic entity (so-called ‘cryptic species’). Here we report the opposite situation with vastly different morphologies apparently deriving from the same genotype. Endocena is a monotypic genus known only from southern South America. The single reported species, the terricolous E. informis, is morphologically variable; the type and other collections from the west coast of Chile being subfruticose, whereas specimens from further south and east are almost crustose in form. A sorediate terricolous lichen that is frequent on the Falkland Islands was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis of ITS rDNA and mtSSU rDNA sequences as being congeneric with E. informis and, surprisingly, both taxa were recovered as congeneric with the recently described genus and species Chirleja buckii, which is morphologically distinct from both E. informis and the sorediate taxon. Consequently, the genus Chirleja is included in the synonymy of Endocena and the new combination Endocena buckii is proposed. Because E. informis and the sorediate specimens have a similar thallus structure that differs radically from that of E. buckii, the name E. informis var. falklandica is proposed for the sorediate taxon. Poorly developed, incipient apothecia are also described from both varieties of E. informis, the first time that these have been reported for Endocena. We also report two lichenicolous fungi from E. informis var. informis, which are the first reports of lichenicolous fungi occurring on this genus. Chirleja, lichenized fungi, lichens, molecular systematics, phenotypic plasticity, southern South America, typification
28350Broeck D. van den, Lücking R., Gaya E., Chaves J.L., Lejju J.B. & Ertz D. (2017): Heterocyphelium leucampyx (Arthoniales, Ascomycota): another orphaned mazaediate lichen finds its way home. - Lichenologist, 49(4): 333–345.
Heterocyphelium is a mazaediate genus containing a single species, H. leucampyx. The species was originally described from Cuba within the genus Trachylia (Arthoniales, Arthoniaceae) and later placed in various genera of the collective order Caliciales s. lat. For the past three decades, Heterocyphelium was considered an orphaned genus (incertae sedis) within the Ascomycota, since morphology alone could not resolve its systematic position. In this study, we added molecular data with the aim of resolving this uncertainty. Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses of newly generated sequence data from the mitochondrial ribosomal RNA small subunit (mtSSU) and the RNA polymerase II second largest subunit gene (RPB2) provide clear evidence that Heterocyphelium leucampyx is nested within the order Arthoniales, in the family Lecanographaceae, sister to the genus Alyxoria. Heterocyphelium is a further example of parallel evolution of passive spore dispersal, prototunicate asci and the occurrence of a mazaedium in the Ascomycota, and another calicioid genus whose systematic placement could be eventually clarified by means of molecular data. Heterocyphelium is the fourth mazaediate genus in Arthoniales, in addition to Sporostigma, Tylophorella and Tylophoron. Alyxoria, Caliciales, Lecanographaceae, mtSSU, phylogeny, RPB2
28349Schultz M. (2017): Morphological and molecular data support Lichina intermedia as a distinct austral-marine species in the L. pygmaea group. - Lichenologist, 49(4): 321–332.
Morphological characteristics and analyses of molecular sequence data (ITS, mtSSU) indicate that the austral-marine lichen Lichina pygmaea var. intermedia is distinct from the chiefly European marine species L. confinis and L. pygmaea. It is thus proposed to treat var. intermedia as a separate species. Lichina intermedia differs from L. confinis chiefly in the distinctly corticated branches, and deviates from L. pygmaea in the shorter and thinner branches. Diagnostic differences between the three species are summarized and distribution patterns discussed. distribution, lichen, Lichina, Lichinomycetes, phylogeny, taxonomy
28348Gasparyan A., Sipman H.J.M., Lücking R. (2017): Ramalina europaea and R. labiosorediata, two new species of the R. pollinaria group (Ascomycota: Ramalinaceae), and new typifications for Lichen pollinarius and L. squarrosus. - Lichenologist, 49(4): 301–319.
Ramalina europaea Gasparyan, Sipman & Lücking and R. labiosorediata Gasparyan, Sipman & Lücking, two species of the R. pollinaria group, are described here as new to science. Ramalina europaea, widely distributed in Europe, can be distinguished by small, punctiform, often terminal soralia starting out on small, spine-like branchlets, whereas R. labiosorediata from North America differs from R. pollinaria s. str. and R. europaea in the almost exclusively terminal soralia formed on the tips of normal lobes, originating from the underside and becoming irregularly labriform. Morphological characters, chemistry, ecology and geographical distribution are discussed and a key to the species of the Ramalina pollinaria group is provided. The topology of a maximum likelihood tree based on ITS shows the presence of three well-supported clades, corresponding to the morphological differences of the three species. The status of several historical names variously placed in synonymy with or described as infraspecific entities of R. pollinaria is reassessed and a new neotype and an epitype are designated for Lichen pollinarius, a neotype for L. squarrosus, making it a synonym of R. farinacea, and lectotypes for R. pollinaria var. elatior, making it a synonym of R. pollinaria s. str., and for var. humilis, a taxon of yet unknown affinity. Lobaria squarrosa, Ramalina fennica, Ramalina squarrosa, species delimitation, taxonomy
28347Seaward M.R.D. & Hawksworth D.L. (2017): A tribute to Jack Laundon (1934–2016). - Lichenologist, 49(4): 297–299.
28346Medeiros I.D., Kraichak E., Lücking R., Mangold A. & Lumbsch H.T. (2017): Assembling a taxonomic monograph of tribe Wirthiotremateae (Lichenized Ascomycota: Ostropales: Graphidaceae). - Fieldiana Life and Earth Sciences, 9(1): 1–31.
Phylogenetic studies of the lichenized fungal family Graphidaceae necessitate various nomenclatural changes. Tribe Wirthiotremateae is more narrowly circumscribed on the basis of new molecular data and phenotypical differences towards allied clades. The new genus Austrotrema is described to accommodate the three species of the Thelotrema bicinctulum group, Asteristion is resurrected for the seven species of the Chapsa platycarpa group, and Nadvornikia is expanded to include two non-mazaediate species in addition to its two mazaediate species. Asteristion australianum is newly described for Australian material previously identified as T. albo-olivaceum. Eleven new combinations are made: Asteristion alboannuliforme (Bas.: Thelotrema alboannuliforme), As. albo-olivaceum (Bas.:T. albo-olivaceum), As. cupulare (Bas.: T. cupulare), As. leucophthalmum (Bas.: T. leucophthalmum), As. platycarpoides (Bas.: T. platycarpoides), As. platycarpum (Bas.: T. platycarpum), Austrotrema bicinctulum (Bas.: T. bicinctulum), Au. myriocarpum (Bas.: T. myriocarpum), Au. terebrans (Bas.: T. terebrans), Nadvornikia expallescens (Bas.: Leucodecton expallescens), and N. peninsulae (Bas.: Myriotrema peninsulae). Descriptions and discussions of Wirthiotremateae species are provided, along with keys to the species of the tribe. Phylogenetic analyses were based on six markers: the mitochondrial small subunit (mtSSU) and nuclear large subunit (nuLSU) rDNA, RNA polymerase II largest (RPB1) and second largest (RPB2) subunit, elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1-α), and internal transcribed spacer (ITS). Key Words: lichen systematics, tropical lichens, thelotremoid Graphidaceae, identification key, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Thailand, Philippines,Australia, Fiji,
28345Sujetovienė G. (2017): Epiphytic lichen diversity as indicator of environmental quality in an industrial area (central Lithuania). - Polish Journal of Ecology, 65(1): 38–45.
The objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of nitrogen fertilizer industry pollution on epiphytic lichen communities. The study plots are located in Scots pine Pinus sylvestris stands at differ - ent distances (up to 12 km) to the northeast and southwest of the nitrogen fertilizer producer plant in central Lithuania. The stands were semi-mature and mature and growing on sandy sites of the Vaccinio-myrtillosa site type. Species richness, composition and in - dex of atmospheric purity (IAP) were assessed at each site. Species diversity was calculated by grouping species by their ecological val - ues for eutrophication. Species frequency was calculated according to lichen life strategies (growth forms, photobionts, reproductive strategies). Twenty lichens species were recorded in the surround - ing of the pollution source. An increase in species richness and di - versity was found with increasing the distance up to 10 km from the plant. Based on IAP values three zones (< 5, 5–10, > 10 km) with different air pollution were distinguished. The increase in spe - cies richness was related to the increase in eutrophication-toler - ating species along with sensitive to pollution species. The lichen diversity value of nitrophytic species (LDV nitro ) increased with in - creasing distance from the pollution source. Foliose and fruticose growth forms were both positively significantly related with the distance, being common in the plots with lower level of pollution. Crustose lichens are less sensitive to this factor and the prevalence of crustose thalli was found in the nearest vicinity to the plant. Key words: air quality; biomonitoring; environmental variables; lichen diversity.
28344Etayo J. (2017): Hongos liquenícolas de Ecuador. - Opera Lilloana, 50: 1-535.
An annotated catalogue of the lichenicolous fungi collected by the author during two trips to Ecuador in 1999 and 2003 is presented. It is based on the examination of hundreds of samples, representing ca. 400 taxa, of which we have been able to identify 36 8 (incl. 16 lichenized fungi). Seven new genera are described: Chondronectria Etayo, Flakus & Kukwa, Cylindronectria Etayo, Leptobarya Etayo, Lichenopenicillus Etayo, Lichenotubeufia Etayo, Paragyalideopsis Etayo and Pygmaeosphaera Etayo & Diederich. The following 80 new taxa including two subspecies and two varieties are proposed: Abrothallus heterodermiicola Etayo & F. Berger on Heterodermia, A. niger Etayo on Everniastrum, and perhaps on Parmotrema and Usnea, Arthonia catillarioides Etayo on Sticta, A. heterodermiae Etayo on Heterodermia, Arthonia lobariellae Etayo on Lobariella, Arthrorhaphis phyllobaeis Etayo & Palice on Phyllobaeis, Capronia amylacea Etayo on Peltigera, C. muellerelloides Etayo on Heterodermia, C. solitaria Etayo on Heterodermia and perhaps on Lobaria, Lobariella and Sticta, Cercidospora hypotrachynicola Etayo on Hypotrachyna, Chondronectria eriodermaticola Etayo, Flakus & Kukwa on Erioderma, Clypeococcum amylaceum Etayo on Parmotrema, C. cajasense Etayo on Hypotrachyna, C. rugosisporum Etayo & Zhurb. on Parmotrema, Cornutispora ophiurospora Etayo on Lobariella, Cylindronectria cyanobactericola Etayo on epilichenic cyanobacteria, Dacampia pentaseptata Etayo on Parmotrema, Dactylospora heterodermiae Etayo on Heterodermia, Didymellopsis viridireagens Etayo on Leptogium, Didymocyrtis micropunctum Etayo on Parmotrema, Endococcus sipmanii Etayo on Heterodermia, Enterographa epigraphis Etayo & Sipman on Graphis, Fellhanera stictae Etayo on Sticta, Gyalideopsis usneicola Etayo on Usnea, Hainesia atrolazulina Etayo on Hypotrachyna, Hyalopeziza heterodermiae Etayo on Heterodermia, Leptobarya auranticarpa Etayo on Leptogium, L. nigra Etayo on Leptogium, Lettauia usneae Etayo on Usnea, Lichenochora bacidiispora Etayo on Parmotrema, L. chimaerica Etayo on Pertusaria, Lichenopeltella heterodermiicola ssp. endothallina Etayo on Heterodermia, L. thalamica Etayo, Flakus & Kukwa on Pseudocyphellaria, Lichenopenicillus versicolor Etayo on Sticta and Leptogium, Lichenotubeufia boomiana Etayo on Sticta, Lichenotubeufia tafallae Etayo on Leptogium, Llimoniella bergeriana Etayo on Punctelia, Ll. parmotrematis Etayo on Parmotrema, Micarea stereocaulorum Etayo & van den Boom on Stereocaulon, Nanostictis confusa Etayo on Everniastrum and Hypotrachyna, N. heterodermiae Etayo on Heterodermia, Nectriopsis albida Etayo on Sticta, N. curtiseta Etayo on Sticta, N. melongenoidea Etayo on Gomphillus, N. vinosa Etayo on Usnea, Nectriopsis vivida Etayo & Sipman on undetermined crustaceous lichen, Niesslia evae Etayo on Erioderma, N. sitctarum ssp. nuda Etayo on Lobariella, Opegrapha chapsae Etayo on Chapsa, O. lopezariae Etayo & Sipman on Lopezaria, O. stellanigra Etayo on Sticta, Paragyalideopsis breussii Etayo on Hypotrachyna, P. minuta Etayo on Trypethelium, Placidiopsis minor var. longispora Etayo & Breuss on Diploschistes, Plectocarpon aequatoriale Etayo on Sticta, Pronectria biglobosa Etayo on Hypotrachyna, P. pycnidioidea Etayo on Heterodermia, Protounguicularia usneae Etayo on Usnea, Pygmaeosphaera epigraphis Etayo on Graphis, P. sipmaniana Etayo on Parmeliella, Rhizocarpon tungurahuae Etayo & Palice on Gyalidea, Roselliniomyces erinaceus Etayo on Sticta, Sclerococcum phyllobaeis Etayo on Phyllobaeis, Skyttea recognita Etayo & Diederich on epiphytic crustaceous lichens, Skyttella stictae Etayo on Sticta, Sphaerellothecium episoralium Etayo on soralia of Heterodermia, S. usneicola Etayo on Usnea, Spirographa longispora Etayo on Sticta, Sporidesmium usneae Etayo on Usnea, Stigmidium ahtii Etayo & Palice on apothecia of Cladonia lopezii, S. epinesolechia Etayo on Nesolechia galls on Punctelia, S. hypotrachynicola Etayo on Hypotrachyna, Telogalla cajasense Etayo on Leptogium, Trichonectria apiculata Etayo on Usnea, Trichonectria intermedia Etayo on Parmotrema, Unguiculariopsis peltigericola Etayo on Peltigera, Xenonectriella coppinsiana Etayo on Yoshimuriella subdissecta, X. subimperspicua var. degenerans Etayo on Parmotrema, X. rugulatispora Etayo on Lobariella and X. vertebrata Etayo on Heterodermia. Furthermore 9 new combinations are proposed: Lichenotubeufia eriodermae (Etayo) Etayo, L. heterodermiae (Etayo) Etayo, L. pannariae (Etayo) Etayo, Paragyalideopsis floridae (Etayo & Diederich) Etayo, P. stereocaulicola (Etayo) Etayo, Protounguicularia hispidula (Etayo) Etayo, Pygmaeosphaera coccocarpiae (Diederich) Etayo & Diederich, Xenonectriella fissuriprodiens (Etayo) Etayo and X. subimperspicua (Speg.) Etayo. For many species a detailed description or a short diagnosis is given, together with discussion, host preferences, world-wide or South American distribution and autoecology based on own studies. For genera with newly described taxa, identification keys for the South American species, or sometimes for all known species are provided. A brief general introduction on lichenicolous fungi, with observations on vegetation, ecology and the relation between lichenicolous fungi and their hosts in Ecuador are given. Keywords: Andes; ascomycetes; lichens; South America; taxonomy.
28343Ohlert A. (1871): Lichenologische Aphorismen II. - Schriften der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft Danzig, N.F., 2: 1-38.
28342Reimers H. (1940): Geographische Verbreitung der Moose im südlichen Harzvorland (Nordthüringen) mit einem Anhang über die Verbreitung einiger bemerkenswerter Flechten. - Hedwigia, 79: 175-373.
28341Schiffner V. (1890): Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Moosflora Böhmens. - Lotos, N.F., 10: 1-36.
Bohemia; few lichens reported from Bohemian Forest at p. 28 (Blöckenstein = Mt. Plechý; Lobaria pulmonaria, Usnea longissima, Umbilicaria arctica)
28340Исмаилов А.Б., Урбанавичюс Г.П., Яковченко Л.C. & Урбанавичене И.Н. [Ismailov A.B., Urbanavichus G.P., Yakovchenko L.S. & Urbanavichene I.N.] (2017): Род Candelariella (Candelariaceae) в лихенофлоре Кавказа [The genus Candelariella (Candelariaceae, Candelariales) in the lichen flora of the Caucasus]. - Ботанический журнал [Botanicheskiy Zhurnal], 102(6): 780-796.
A taxonomic review of the genus Candelariella in the Caucasus is provided. The genus Candelariella includes approximately 50 species worldwide. Until recently, six years ago, in the first Russian checklist of lichens this genus was represented by 22 species. Only seven species of Candelariella were known from the Northern Caucasus. The Caucasus, however, is a world’s biodiversity hotspot, and this number of species was too low. The number of Candelariella species increased significantly after the start of our intensive floristic studies with new records of C. antennaria, C. efflorescens, C. oleaginescens, C. plumbea, C. rhodax, C. viae-lacteae. In this paper three species (C. faginea, C. rosulans and C. superdistans) are reported new to the Caucasus. Two species (C. medians and C. placodizans) are excluded from the Caucasian lichen flora. Currently there are a total of 16 species of Candelariella in the Caucasus. The most of the species were recorded from Adygeya (10 species), Dagestan (10), Armenia (8) and Krasnodar Region (8). Candelariella commutata, C. efflorescens, C. rhodax are reported for the first time for North Ossetia and Ingushetia, C. lutella — for Dagestan and Ingushetia, C. vitellina — for Ingushetia. This paper aims to contribute to a better understanding of this poorly known genus in the Caucasus, focusing mainly on authors’ collection in different regions of the Northern Caucasus in between 2009 and 2016. A key for the identification of all the Caucasian species (including 8 provisory species) is given. Detailed descriptions, taxonomic remarks, notes on ecology, distribution in the Caucasus and known distribution in the world for each taxon are provided. Key words: lichens, Candelariella, taxonomic review, new records, key to species, Northern Caucasus, Russia.
28339Anonymous (1863): Herbarium Normale Transsilvanicum, Centuria II. - Verhandlungen und Mitteilungen des Siebenbürgischen Vereins für Naturwissenschaften zu Hermannstadt, 14: 188-207.
Exsiccat by M. Fuss; Romania; lichens n. 110-112.
28338Fuss M. (1865): Zur Kryptogamenflora Siebenbürgens. - Verhandlungen und Mitteilungen des Siebenbürgischen Vereins für Naturwissenschaften zu Hermannstadt, 16: 23-31.
Romania; lichens at p. 26-27.
28337Fuss M. (1857): Zur Cryptogamenflora Siebenbürgens. - Verhandlungen und Mitteilungen des Siebenbürgischen Vereins für Naturwissenschaften zu Hermannstadt, 8: 231-242.
Romania; lichens at p. 236-242.
28336Fuss M. (1868): Herbarii normalis Transsilvanici. Centuriam VI. - Verhandlungen und Mitteilungen des Siebenbürgischen Vereins für Naturwissenschaften zu Hermannstadt, 19: 190-197.
Exsiccat; Romania; lichens n. 508-510.
28335Fuss M. (1868): Herbarii normalis Transsilvanici. Centuriam VII . - Verhandlungen und Mitteilungen des Siebenbürgischen Vereins für Naturwissenschaften zu Hermannstadt, 19: 204-212.
Exsiccat; Romania; lichens n. 603-607.
28334Sprengel C. (1827): Caroli Linnaei Systema Vegetabilium. Editio decima sexta. Voluminis IV, Pars II. - Gottingae, 410 p..
Classification; lichens at p. 326-331.
28333Türk R. & Erschbamer B. (2010): Die Flechten im Gletschervorfeld des Rotmoosferners. - In: Koch E.-M. & Erschbamer B. (eds), Glaziale und periglaziale Lebensräume im Raum Obergurgl, p. 155–163 & 278–280, Innsbruck University Press, Innsbruck.
In the forefield of the Rotmoos glacier 75 terricolous, saxicolous and debricolous lichens occur. On 10 years icefree areas only higher plants and some bryophytes occur. With advancing age of the icefree areas terricolous lichens appear sporadically. In the older margines (icefree since 35-40 years) the biodiversity of the terricolous, saxicolous and debricolous lichens increases. The abundance and diversity of lichens is the highest on the oldest moraines.
28332Neuwirth G. (2012): Bemerkenswerte Flechtenhabitate auf der irischen Insel und in Schottland – ein Exkursionsbericht. - Stapfia, 97: 17–30.
A list of 134 lichen species and 3 lichenicolous fungi in their habitats is presented. The results show representative samples of lichens occurring on typical substrata in Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland and Scotland. Key words: Biodiversity, lichen habitats, lichenized and lichenicolous fungi, British Islands.
28331Forssell K.B.J. (1885): Die anatomischen Verhältnisse und die phylogenetische Entwicklung der Lecanora granatina Sommerf.. - Botanisches Centralblatt, 22: 54–58 & 85–89.
Lichinaceae; Euopsis granatina; anatomy.
28330Neuwirth G. (2012): Revision der Flechtenspezies Graphis elegans (Graphidaceae, Ostropales) in Österreich. Erstfunde einer seltenen Art im lichenologischen Herbar des Linzer Biologiezentrums (LI). - Stapfia, 97: 31–35.
New results on the distribution of Graphis elegans (Graphidaceae) in Austria are presented. Two historical specimens, recently found in the herbarium of the Biology Center of the Upper Austrian State Museum (Linz, Austria), confirm the occurrence of this species already in the years 1932 and 1967. Therefore, the new records from the herbarium in Linz are introduced as first and second records to Austria. Key words: Austria, lichenized fungi, Graphidaceae, historical records, lichen herbarium.
28329Breuss O. (2012): Flechtenfunde auf Madeira. - Stapfia, 97: 47–52.
The author’s recent lichen collections of two one-week excursions on the Atlantic island of Madeira are presented. Most collections are from laurel forests in the central mountainous part of the island. The following species are reported for the first time from Madeira: Calopadia subcoerulescens, Cladonia humilis, Cladonia ramulosa, Helocarpon lesdainii, Lecanora rubicunda, Lecidella achristotera, Leptogium velutinum, Lichinodium ahlneri, Parmotrema pseudoreticulatum, Placidium squamulosum, Ramalina implectens, and Usnea geissleriana. Byssoloma vezdanum and Koerberia biformis are new to Macaronesia. A list of all lichen records from all localities is added. Key words: Lichenised Ascomycetes. New records, systematics, floristics. Mycota of Madeira.
28328Breuss O. (2012): Zur Verbreitung von Psoroma tenue var. boreale (lichenisierte Ascomycota, Pannariaceae) in den Alpen. - Stapfia, 97: 169–173.
Psoroma tenue var. boreale is shown to be widely distributed and common in the Austrian Alps and is reported for the first time for Albania and Slovakia. All samples have been found in herbarium material labelled as „Psoroma hypnorum“. The species differ in morphology of thallus squamules, apothecia, and cephalodia. Key words: Lichenized Ascomycota. Taxonomy, systematics, new records. Mycota of Austria, Slovakia, and Albania.
28327Hierschläger M. & Türk R. (2012): Immission related lichen mapping in the city zone of Salzburg. - Stapfia, 97: 137–152.
From April to June 2009 a study in the city zone of Salzburg was conducted to determine the air quality by means of lichen mapping. The method used was the VDI-Guideline 3957 Part 13 according to Verein Deutscher Ingenieure, 2005. The results show that moderate air quality prevails in Salzburg. A comparison with technical measurements of air pollutants reveals an overall pattern, namely that local sites with high air pollutant values obtained by technical measurement also tend to have a rather low air quality obtained by lichen mapping. A comparison with Roth 1988 and Schulmeister 1996 revealed a trend of declining air quality since then. A recalculation of the air quality indices after leaving out the two most abundant lichens shows a severe decline in air quality. Above all, this study is designed to serve as a basis for subsequent studies. Key words: bioindication, Salzburg/Austria, lichen mapping.
28326Bilovitz O. & Grube M. (2012): Flechten im Ostalpenraum – sensible Zeiger von Umweltbedingungen. - Stapfia, 96: 141–161.
Lichens in the Eastern Alps - sensible indicators of environmental conditions.
28325Breuss O. (2011): Weitere Flechtenfunde aus Nicaragua. - Stapfia, 95: 106–109.
30 new records of lichen species from Nicaragua are listed and commented. Key words: Lichenised ascomycetes, taxonomy, new records, systematics, floristics, mycoflora of Nicaragua.
28324Neuwirth G. (2014): Revision of the lichen genus Candelaria (Ascomycota, Candelariales) in Upper Austria. - Stapfia, 101: 39–46.
A first assessment of the distribution and morphology of the revised lichen genus Candelaria in Upper Austria is presented. Candelaria, originally a monospecific genus in Europe, was expanded by separating a second species which shows distinct morphological and genetical characters (C. pacifica). This report summarizes first data and proves an astonishing percental quota of the separated species C. pacifica (27.6%) in Upper Austria. Key Words: Candelaria, taxonomy, distribution, Upper Austria.
28323Neuwirth G. (2016): Beachtenswerte, historische Belege der Flechtengattung Cladonia (Cladoniaceae, Lecanorales) im Herbar des Biologiezentrums Linz (LI). - Stapfia, 105: 155–160.
Twelve so far not identified historic specimens of the lichen genus Cladonia are presented. The surprisingly good condition of the old material made it possible to exactly determine the lichen species and and enrich the collection of the herbarium in the Biology Centre of the Upper Austrian State Museum in Linz. The investigated specimens were discovered at least 50 years ago, the oldest lichen specimen having already been collected 198 years ago by P. M. Opiz. Keywords: Lichenized fungi, historic specimens, revision, herbarium LI.
28322Türk R. & Hafellner J. (2017): Zweiter Nachtrag zur Bibliographie der Flechten in Österreich. - Stapfia, 104/3: 1–137.
Second supplement to the bibliography of lichens in Austria. Amplifying the new checklist of the lichenized fungi from Austria (Hafellner & Türk 2016) in this publication we present bibliographical informations about lichens in Austria that are mentioned in the lichenological literature published since the year 2008. A number of additional publications from past centuries and decades so far overlooked to contain lichen records from Austria has been incorporated. In total the bibliography contains data to 2491 lichen taxa excerpted from 288 original papers and books. The number of quotations for individual taxa admits to estimate the abundance of lichen species in Austria. Keywords: Lichens, lichenized fungi, Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, mycoflora of Austria.
28321Grishkan I. & Temina M. (2017): Basaltic stones with epilithic lichens as a novel substrate for an osmotolerant fungus, Aspergillus glaucus. - Acta Mycologica, 52(1):1091 [5 p.].
Aspergillus glaucus is a fungus able to tolerate low water activity of the environment. Its dense growth and sporulation were found on basaltic stones with epilithic lichens after 14 years of storage at a temperature of 4–7°C and relative humidity of 14–18%. Dust and soil particles deposited on the lichen thalli and dissolved in the water condensed on the stones during the storage period, apparently served as a nutrient source for the fungus. Probably, strongly xeric water regime on basaltic stones suitable for A. glaucus did not allow mesophilic fungi to develop and prevented the xerotolerant fungus from competition with other microfungi for nutrient sources. It is also possible that specific cellular mechanism associated with the production of chaotropic compounds (such as glycerol) supported germination and development of A. glaucus at low temperatures, which were considered non-optimal for the fungus. Keywords: basaltic stones; epilithic lichens; low temperatures; osmotolerant fungus; sporulation.
28320Wieczorek A., Łysko A. & Motiejŭnaite J. (2017): New and interesting species of lichens from xerothermic habitats in NW Poland. - Acta Mycologica, 52(1):1097 [12 p.].
This paper presents data on the occurrence of lichens in xerothermic grasslands, representing a great mycological peculiarity of the NW part of Pomerania, Poland. The 12 examined specimens of six species originated from fieldwork carried out in 2011–2014 in the nature reserves Brodogóry, Stary Przylep, Bielinek, Wrzosowiska Cedyńskie, Prof. Adam Wodziczko Nature Reserve in the Wolin National Park, and an old chalk excavation site on Wolin Island. Within the study sites, four lichen species were recorded as a new to Western Pomerania: Agonimia gelatinosa, Collema cristatum, Dermatocarpon luridum, and Leptogium subtile. The other two species, Collema auriforme and C. flaccidum, are rarely observed in the studied region. Keywords: biodiversity; lichens; nature reserves; NW Poland.
28319Bloch-Orłowska J., Afranowicz-Cieślak R., Żółkoś K., Kukwa M., Kaczorowska E., Gerstmann E., Ściborski M., Meissner W., Pleskot I. & Mikoś J (2015): Przyroda rezerwatu „Helskie Wydmy” (północna Polska) [Nature of the „Helskie Wydmy” reserve (northern Poland)]. - Acta Botanica Cassubica, Monographiae, 5: 1–135.
Natural values of the „Helskie Wydmy” reserve are presented. The reserve, located in the south-eastern part of the Hel Peninsula, is one of the very few places along Polish seashore, where coastal dune ecosystems altogether with active geomorphological processes of erosion and aeolian accumulation are protected. Within the area of 108.48 ha, managed by Polish State Forests, 180 species of vascular plants, 31 bryophytes, 124 lichens and 20 lichenicolous fungi, 86 vertebrates and 252 inverterbrata were found. Among them there were many taxa of special concern, i.e. under law protecion or belonging to different threat categories in both country and regional scale. Moreover, 6 plant communities were distinguished, among which 5 were connected with habitat types of European importance. Kezwords: coastal dunes, coastal ecosystems, flora and vegetation, lichen biota, fauna, Hel Peninsula, northern Poland.
28318Wieczorek A., Achrem M., Truszkowska A., Łysko A. & Popiela A. (): Genetic diversity of natural psammophilous populations of Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. on Polish seacoast dunes. - Acta Mycologica, 52(1):1096 [6 p.].
Hypogymnia physodes is a lichenized fungus of the family Parmeliaceae. The aim of this study was to compare the level of genetic diversity in eight psammophilous and three epiphytic populations of this species from the Baltic coast in Poland, based on randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. In the reactions with nine primers, 153 fragments were obtained, of which 133 were polymorphic. In one reaction, from 0 (for lich2 primer) to 55 (for C02 primer) amplicons were obtained. A Dice’s genetic similarity index matrix was constructed based on the results of RAPD marker polymorphism examination. The values of similarity indices ranged from 0.00 to 0.73. Results of this study confirm the separateness of all three epiphytic populations from those found on sand dunes (100% support, UPGMA/1000 trees). Keywords: genetic polymorphism; interpopulation variability; randomly amplified polymorphic DNA; RAPD; Hypogymnia physodes; sand dunes.
28317Hansen E.S. (2017): Contribution to the lichen flora of North East Greenland. V. Zackenberg and Clavering Ø area. - Botanica Lithuanica, 23(1): 43–50.
The paper lists 202 lichen taxa from Zackenberg and Clavering Ø area, North East Greenland. Ochrolechia androgyna, Psora globifera and Rhizocarpon renneri are new to East Greenland. Sixteen lichen taxa are new to North East Greenland, viz. Aspicilia aquatica, Candelariella dispersa, Chaenotheca furfuracea, Circinaria caesiocinerea, Cladonia libifera, Lecanora cenisia, L. chloroleprosa, L. leptacina, Lichenomphalia alpina, Miriquidica atrofulva, M. nigroleprosa, Ochrolechia alaskana, Peltigera castanea, P. extenuata, Phylliscum demangeonii and Pyrenopsis furfurea. Keywords: Arctic region, diversity, lichens.
28316Tsurykau A., Travkin V.E. & Korchikov E.S. (2017): Lichenicolous fungi new to Orenburg region, southern part of European Russia. - Botanica Lithuanica, 23(1): 51–58.
Twenty two species of lichenicolous fungi are reported as new to Orenburg region. Of these, Didymocyrtis cladoniicola is new to European Russia; Lichenoconium lichenicola, Marchandiomyces corallinus, Merismatium decolorans, Phoma peltigerae and Roselliniella cladoniae are new to the southern part of European Russia. Keywords: biodiversity, distribution, forest, new records, steppe.
28315Motiejūnaitė J., Prigodina Lukošienė I., Stončius D. & Uselienė A. (2017): Contribution to the Lithuanian flora of lichens and allied fungi. - Botanica Lithuanica, 23(1): 71–74.
Three species of lichens and four species of lichenicolous fungi were reported as new to Lithuania: Cercidospora macrospora, Didymocyrtis cladoniicola, Miriquidica leucophaea, Montanelia disjuncta, Plectocarpon lichenum, Porpidia nigrocruenta and Telogalla olivieri. Of these, two species, Didymocyrtis cladoniicola and Miriquidica leucophaea, were recorded for the first time in the Baltic States. Three lichens, namely Lecanora sulphurea, Protoparmelia badia and Punctelia subrudecta previously known in Lithuania from literature data were only confirmed with certainty for the first time. Keywords: Baltic States, lichenicolous fungi, lichenized fungi.
28314Moisejevs R. & Degtjarenko P. (2017): Four species of saxicolous lichenized fungi new to Latvia. - Botanica Lithuanica, 23(1): 60–62.
Four species of saxicolous and acidophilous lichens – Dermatocarpon miniatum, Trapelia coarctata, Trapelia placodioides, and Umbilicaria hirsuta found on different types of granite boulders were reported as new to Latvian lichen biota. Data on substratum geology, accompanying species, microhabitat and distribution in neighbouring to Latvia countries are provided. Keywords: acidophilous, epilithic, lichens.
28313Su Q.-X. & Ren Q. (2017): A new species of Megalaria (Ascomycota, Ramalinaceae) and M. laureri new to mainland China. - Phytotaxa, 313(1): 147–150.
Megalaria hainanensis is described as new to science. It occurs on bryophytes over rock, and is characterized by its large apothecia, light-brown to brown-red proper exciple, an epithecium containing cinereorufa-green, arnoldiana-brown in the hypothecium, ascospores of (22) –24– (25) × (9) –10 μm, and the presence of atranorin and zeorin in the thallus. Megalaria laureri is also reported from mainland China for the first time. Key words: lichenized fungi, lichen substances, Lecanorales, taxonomy.
28312Fischer E., Killmann D., Ertz D. & Sérusiaux E. (2017): Heterodermia pindurae (Physciaceae)—a new foliose lichen from Rwanda. - Phytotaxa, 311(3): 277–282.
The new species Heterodermia pindurae, found in the Nyungwe and Volcanoes National Parks in Rwanda, is described and illustrated. It differs from the morphologically similar H. subcomosa and H. pellucida in the minute, only 0.3–0.6 cm long thallus, blackish cilia, lack of laciniae, the pedicellate, cup-like apothecia with sorediate margins and production of norstictic acid. Key Words: Heterodermia pindurae, H. subcomosa, H. pellucida, new species, Nyungwe National Park, Volcanoes National Park, taxonomy.
28311Kim J.I., Nam S.W., So J.E., Hong S.G., Choi H.-G. & Shin W. (2017): Asterochloris sejongensis sp. nov. (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta) from King George Island, Antarctica. - Phytotaxa, 295(1): 60–70.
The new species Asterochloris sejongensis sp. nov. has been collected from four localities of King George Island, Antarctica, and is described as a phycobiont of the lichen species Cladonia pyxidata and Sphaerophorus globosus. This discovery is based on morphological and molecular data obtained using light microscopy, confocal laser microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and two molecular markers; nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA and actin genes. This species is characterized by five unique hemi-CBCs in the nuclear ITS transcripts, deeply lobed and echinulate chloroplasts (depending on the life stage), and two rows of pyrenoglobuli associated with two thylakoid envelopes. A molecular phylogenetic analysis of the ITS and actin gene sequences indicated that this new species is closely related to A. woessiae and forms a distinct well-supported lineage with the genus. Key words: Antarctica, Asterochloris, phycobiont, phylogeny, ultrastructure.
28310Ignatenko R.V. & Tarasova V.N. (2017): The population structure of the lichen Lobaria pulmonaria in the middle boreal forests depends on the time-since-disturbance. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 54: 83–94.
The population structure of the lichen Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm. was analyzed in the Vodlozersky National Park (Karelia, Russia), for middle boreal forest stands having a time-since-disturbance spanning 80 to 450 years. To estimate the age of the last disturbance, a method of evaluation for the tree population structure was applied. The forest stand communities belonged to a successional series: middle-aged aspen – mixed aspen-spruce – pre-climax spruce – climax (old-growth) spruce forest. All thalli (1055) of L. pulmonaria from all substrate units (165, separately standing or lying trees and shrubs) were described within 7 sample plots of 1 ha. For each thallus, the area (cm2) and the functional-age group were determined. The number of Lobaria thalli per ha, number of substrate units, number of substrate types (living, standing dead and lying dead trees of different species) colonized by L. pulmonaria, as well as number of substrate types on which the lichen had completed its life cycle increased with time-since-disturbance. Keywords: Lobaria pulmonaria; middle boreal forest; succession; population ekology.
28309Kuznetsova E.S. & Dudov S.V. (2017): New records of lichens from the Zeysky Nature Reserve (Amur Region, Russia). - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 54: 51–58.
The lichen biota of the Zeysky Nature Reserve (southern Russian Far East) was studied in the course of geobotanical expedition. In total 36 species of lichens and one lichenicolous fungus are reported for the first time for the reserve. Among them 19 are new to the Amur Region. Parmelia asiatica is reported for the first time for the southern Russian Far East, Cladonia norvegica – for the Asian part of Russia, Tuckermannopsis gilva – for Russia, Melanohalea laciniatula – for Asia. Four species are included in the Red Data Book of Russian Federation. Keywords: Russian Far East; Cladonia norvegica; Melanohalea laciniatula; Parmelia asiatica; Tuckermannopsis gilva.
28308Himelbrant D.E., Stepanchikova I.S., Motiejūnaitė J., Gerasimova J.V., Kuznetsova E.S., Dyomina A.V. & Tsurykau A.G. (2017): New records of lichens and allied fungi from the Leningrad Region, Russia. VIII. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 54: 63–70.
Thirteen species and one variety of lichens, nine lichenicolous and two saprobic fungi are reported for the first time for St. Petersburg, the whole Leningrad Region or its western or eastern parts. The lichens Bacidina brandii, B. neosquamulosa, Porina leptalea, Rinodina aspersa and the lichenicolous fungus Scutula dedicata are reported for the first time for Russia, lichenicolous fungus Lichenoconium aeruginosum – for European Russia, the lichen Tetramelas chloroleucus, lichenicolous fungi Lichenoconium pyxidatae and Tremella cetrariicola are new for the North-Western European Russia. The most interesting records are briefly discussed. Keywords: European Russia; Bacidina brandii; Bacidina neosquamulosa; Porina leptalea; Rinodina aspersa; Scutula dedicata.
28307Urbanavichus G. & Urbanavichene I. (2017): New records and noteworthy lichens and lichenicolous fungi from Pasvik Reserve, Murmansk Region, Russia. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 54: 31–36.
Sixteen species of lichens, five lichenicolous fungi and two non-lichenized fungi are reported for the first time for Pasvik Reserve (NW Murmansk Region). Clypeococcum hypocenomycis, Protoparmelia ochrococca and Xylographa vermicularis are new to the Murmansk Region and Xylographa vermicularis is new to Europe. Ten species are rarely recorded for Murmansk Region, European Russia or Russia: Arctoparmelia subcentrifuga, Chaenothecopsis debilis, Lathagrium undulatum, Merismatium nigritellum, Microcalicium disseminatum, Phaeophyscia nigricans, Placynthium asperellum, Protothelenella leucothelia, Stereocaulon capitellatum and Stigmidium leprariae. Fourteen species are new to the biogeographic province of Lapponia petsamoënsis. Two species, Arctoparmelia subcentrifuga and Stereocaulon capitellatum, are included in the Red Data Book of the Murmansk Region. Brief notes, mainly on habitats and distribution, are provided for all species listed. Keywords: lichens; new records; diversity; conservation; distribution; North-Western Russia.
28306Paukov A.G., Gagarina L.V. & Frolov I.V. (2017): New and interesting lichen records from the Ural Mountains, Russia. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 54: 25–30.
Ten species of lichenized ascomycetes are reported from the Urals. Aspicilia spermatomanes, Fuscidea praeruptorum, Lepra excludens, L. monogona, Metamelanea caesiella and Pertusaria amarescens are new to Russia while Bryobilimbia ahlesii, Lecanora orosthea, L. rouxii and Tephromela grumosa are new for the Urals. Our records considerably extend the ranges or fill gaps in the formerly disjunctive distributions of these species. The morphology, secondary chemistry and ecology of the species are discussed. Keywords: saxicolous lichens; range extension; biodiversity.
28305Konoreva L.A., Frolov I.V. & Chesnokov S.V. (2017): Lichens and allied fungi from the Pechenga district and surroundings (Lapponia Petsamoënsis, Murmansk Region, Russia). - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 54: 17–23.
168 species of lichens are specified for the Pechenga district and surroundings. Microcalicium ahlneri and Placidium norvegicum are new for the Murmansk Region. 18 species are new for Lapponia Petsamoënsis. Stereocaulon dactylophyllum is included into the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation. Caloplaca diphyodes, Dermatocarpon meiophyllizum, Haematomma ochroleucum, Phlyctis argena and Stereocaulon dactylophyllum are included into the Red Data Book of the Murmansk Region. Keywords: lichens; new records; Pechenga and Kola districts; Murmansk Region.
28304Moisejevs R. (2017): Lichens and allied fungi new for Latvia. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 54: 9–12.
Six lichenized fungi (Calicium parvum, C. trabinellum, Carbonicola anthracophila, C. myrmecina, Peltigera extenuata, Pycnora sorophora), two lichenicolous (Clypeococcum hypocenomycis and Illosporium carneum), and two saprobic calicioid fungi (Chaenothecopsis savonica and Microcalicium arenarium) are reported as new for Latvia. Keywords: Latvia; lichenicolous; calicioid; saprobic fungi.
28303Zhurbenko M.P., Ezhkin A.K., Skirina I.F. & Ohmura Y. (2017): Dactylospora anziae, a new lichenicolous ascomycete on Anzia from East Asia. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 54: 13–16.
Dactylospora anziae growing on species of Anzia is described from Russia and Japan. Keywords: new species; Russia; Japan.
28302Tsurykau A. & Korchikov E.S. (2017): Lichenicolous fungi from the Samara Region, southern part of European Russia. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 54: 1–8.
Twenty two species of lichenicolous and two occasionally lichen-inhabiting fungi are reported from the Samara Region. Twenty three of them are new to the region, eighteen – to southern part of European Russia; Intralichen lichenum is new to European Russia, and Phoma grumantiana and Pyrenidium crozalsii are reported for the first time for Russia. Keywords: biodiversity; distribution; new records.
28301Devkota S., Chaudhary R.P., Werth S. & Scheidegger C. (2017): Trade and legislation: consequences for the conservation of lichens in the Nepal Himalaya. - Biodiversity and Conservation, 26: 2491–2505.
Lichen harvest and trade are closely associated with the livelihood of most of the rural people in Western Nepal. The present study investigates the commercial collection of lichens, quantifies the traded volume and relates it to a market scenario, and discusses conservation measures in relation to established legal practices in Nepal. Data on lichen trade and revenue generated for the 12 years (2000–2011) were collected and analyzed from 74 districts of Nepal. Voucher specimens were deposited at TUCH (Tribhuvan University Central Herbarium) in Nepal. The lichens collected in West Nepal are mainly used in international trade, while those in East Nepal are used locally for food. A total of 20 commercially important species of lichens were identified from five trade centers and one local market. During 2000–2011, Nepal legally exported 2020 tons of lichens and collected NRs 25,293,305 (USD 240,000). The average annual quantity of turnover was 168 tons, though it is estimated that much was exported illegally. The hill districts in Nepal, which traded 1774 tons, were more important for the collection of commercial lichen species than the Mountainous and inner-Tarai districts, which traded 167 and 108 tons, respectively. Through the Forest Act, Forest Regulations and its amendment in 2011, the collection of lichens for harvest, trade and export in any crude or processed form was banned. However, the legislation lacks an effective implementation strategy, and sustainable harvest of lichen resources based on scientific data would better serve local livelihood and lichen conservation in Nepal. Keywords: Legislation; Revenue; Cross-border trade; Socioeconomics; Sustainable management.
28300Zawierucha K., Węgrzyn M., Ostrowska M. & Wietrzyk P. (2017): Tardigrada in Svalbard lichens: diversity, densities and habitat heterogeneity. - Polar Biology, 40: 1385–1392.
Tardigrades in lichens have been poorly studied with few papers published on their ecology and diversity so far. The aims of our study are to determine the (1) influence of habitat heterogeneity on the densities and species diversity of tardigrade communities in lichens as well as the (2) effect of nutrient enrichment by seabirds on tardigrade densities in lichens. Forty-five lichen samples were collected from Spitsbergen, Nordaustlandet, Prins Karls Forland, Danskøya, Fuglesongen, Phippsøya and Parrøya in the Svalbard archipelago. In 26 samples, 23 taxa of Tardigrada (17 identified to species level) were found. Twelve samples consisted of more than one lichen species per sample (with up to five species). Tardigrade densities and taxa diversity were not correlated with the number of lichen species in a single sample. Moreover, the densities of tardigrades was not significantly higher in lichens collected from areas enriched with nutrients by seabirds in comparison to those not enriched. The incorporation of previously published data on the tardigrades of Spitsbergen into the analysis showed that tardigrade densities was significantly higher in moss than it was in lichen samples. We propose that one of the most important factors influencing tardigrade densities is the cortex layer, which is a barrier for food sources, such as live photosynthetic algal cells in lichens. Finally, the new records of Tardigrada and the first and new records of lichens in Svalbard archipelago are presented. Keywords: High Arctic · Biodiversity · Ecology · Microhabitat. heterogeneity · Mosses · Tardigrada.
28299Mafole T.C., Chiang C., Solhaug K.A. & Beckett R.P. (2017): Melanisation in the old forest lichen Lobaria pulmonaria reduces the efficiency of photosynthesis. - Fungal Ecology, 29: 103–110.
The old forest lichen Lobaria pulmonaria synthesizes melanic pigments when exposed to ultraviolet light and high solar radiation. Here, we tested the effect of melanisation on photosynthetic efficiency. Melanisation effectively reduces high-light stress in lichen photobionts, as the photobionts of melanised thalli are healthy, based on chlorophyll contents and maximum rates of photosynthesis. However, the quantum yields of both photosynthetic CO2 uptake and O2 evolution were more than 40 percent lower in melanised thalli compared with control thalli. While chlorophyll fluorescence measurements suggested that melanised and pale thalli had similar apparent electron transport rates, this result was probably an artefact caused by screening reducing the light reaching the photobionts. Melanic thalli also had a higher chlorophyll a/b ratio and more xanthophyll cycle pigments, suggesting that the photosynthetic apparatus had adapted to high light. In conclusion, while protecting photobionts from high light, melanisation clearly reduced photosynthetic efficiency. Melanised thalli will be significantly disadvantaged if light levels return to lower values, more typical for those habitats in which this shade adapted lichen is most abundant. Keywords: Lobaria pulmonaria; Melanin; Quantum yield; Non-photochemical quenching; UV-Radiation; Reflectance.
28298Vuorinen K.E.M., Oksanen L., Oksanen T., Pyykönen A., Olofsson J. & Virtanen R. (2017): Open tundra persist, but arctic features decline—Vegetation changes in the warming Fennoscandian tundra. - Global Change Biology, 23(9): 3794–3807.
In the forest-tundra ecotone of the North Fennoscandian inland, summer and winter temperatures have increased by two to three centigrades since 1965, which is expected to result in major vegetation changes. To document the expected expansion of woodlands and scrublands and its impact on the arctic vegetation, we repeated a vegetation transect study conducted in 1976 in the Darju, spanning from woodland to a summit, 200 m above the tree line. Contrary to our expectations, tree line movement was not detected, and there was no increase in willows or shrubby mountain birches, either. Nevertheless, the stability of tundra was apparent. Small-sized, poorly competing arctic species had declined, lichen cover had decreased, and vascular plants, especially evergreen ericoid dwarf shrubs, had gained ground. The novel climate seems to favour competitive clonal species and species thriving in closed vegetation, creating a community hostile for seedling establishment, but equally hostile for many arctic species, too. Preventing trees and shrubs from invading the tundra is thus not sufficient for conserving arctic biota in the changing climate. The only dependable cure is to stop the global warming. Keywords: alpine, arctic, climate change, disturbance, Empetrum nigrum, lichens, mosses, reindeer, tree line, tundra, vegetation.
28297Piovár J., Weidinger M., Bačkor M., Bačkorová M. & Lichtscheidl I. (2017): Short-term influence of Cu, Zn, Ni and Cd excess on metabolism, ultrastructure and distribution of elements in lichen Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th. Fr.. - Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 145: 408–419.
Lichens are symbiotic organisms that are very sensitive to heavy metal pollution. However, there is little evidence of how heavy metal pollution affects the physiological status, ultrastructural changes and distribution of elements in the layers of lichen thalli. For this purpose we simulated metal pollution to lichens and studied its impact on Xanthoria parietina. Thalli were treated with the heavy metals Cu, Zn, Ni, Cd in the form of sulfates at concentrations of 100 µM and 500 µM during 24, 48 and 72 h. Untreated lichens served as controls. We assessed the status of physiological parameters (fluorescence and integrity of chlorophyll a, content of soluble proteins and ergosterol), ultrastructural changes, especially to the photobiont, and the distribution of elements in the layers of thalli in relation to treatment with heavy metals. We found positive correlations between the content of all tested heavy metals and the physiological response. We assessed the toxicity of the selected metals as follows: Cd >= Cu >= Ni > Zn, based on the effects on the photobiont layer in the lichen thallus and physiological measurements. Keywords: Lichens; Heavy metals; Photobiont; Light microscopy; Fluorescence microscopy; Electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.
28296Pinho P., Barros C., Augusto S., Pereira M.J., Maguas C. & Branquinho C. (2017): Using nitrogen concentration and isotopic composition in lichens to spatially assess the relative contribution of atmospheric nitrogen sources in complex landscapes. - Environmental Pollution, 230: 632–638.
Reactive nitrogen (Nr) is an important driver of global change, causing alterations in ecosystem biodiversity and functionality. Environmental assessments require monitoring the emission and deposition of both the amount and types of Nr. This is especially important in heterogeneous landscapes, as different land-cover types emit particular forms of Nr to the atmosphere, which can impact ecosystems distinctively. Such assessments require high spatial resolution maps that also integrate temporal variations, and can only be feasibly achieved by using ecological indicators. Our aim was to rank land-cover types according to the amount and form of emitted atmospheric Nr in a complex landscape with multiple sources of N. To do so, we measured and mapped nitrogen concentration and isotopic composition in lichen thalli, which we then related to land-cover data. Results suggested that, at the landscape scale, intensive agriculture and urban areas were the most important sources of Nr to the atmosphere. Additionally, the ocean greatly influences Nr in land, by providing air with low Nr concentration and a unique isotopic composition. These results have important consequences for managing air pollution at the regional level, as they provide critical information for modeling Nr emission and deposition across regional as well as continental scales. Keywords: Reactive nitrogen; Eutrophication; Isoscapes; Multiple pollution sources.
28295Raggio J., Green T.G.A., Sancho L.G., Pintado, Colesie C., Weber B. & Büdel B. (2017): Metabolic activity duration can be effectively predicted from macroclimatic data for biological soil crust habitats across Europe. - Geoderma, 306: 10–17.
Biological soil crusts (BSC) perform several important environmental functions such as soil erosion prevention, soil nutrient enrichment through photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation, and are receiving growing interest due to their importance in some changing habitats with soils under degradation risk. Primary producers within BSC (cyanobacteria, lichens, algae and bryophytes) are all poikilohydric and active only when wet, meaning that knowledge of the period of metabolic activity is essential to understand growth and adaptation to environment. Finding links with macroclimatic factors would allow not only prediction of activity but also the effects of any climate change over these communities. Metabolic activity and microclimate of BSC at four sites across Europe with different soils from semi-arid (Almeria, SE Spain) to alpine (Austria) was monitored during one year using a chlorophyll fluorometer. Local climatic data were also recorded. Mean monthly activity of crust within each site were strongly linked irrespective of crust type whilst, using the data from all sites, highly significant linear relationships (mean monthly values) were found for activity with incident light, air temperature and air relative humidity, and a nonlinear response to rainfall saturating at about 40 mm per month. Air relative humidity and air temperature were the best predictors of metabolic activity duration. The links observed are all highly significant allowing climate data to be used to model activity and to gain inferences about the effects of climate change over BSC communities, soil structure and fertility. Linear relationships mean that small changes in the environment will not produce massive alterations in activity. BSC also appear to behave as a single functional group, which is helpful when proposing general management policies for soil ecosystems protection. Keywords: Biocrust; Chlorophyll fluorescence; Climate change impact modelling; Functional type; Plant-soil interactions; Soil erosion prevention.
28294Fodor E. (2015): Analysis of the saxicolous lichen communities in Măcin Mountains National Park. - Acta Horti Botanici Bucurestiensis, 42(1): 67–86.
The assemblage of saxicolous lichenized fungal communities in Măcin Mountains National Park was assessed during a biodiversity study developed between 2006 and 2008. Fifty three species of saxicolous lichenized fungi were identified on Hercynic granites and granitoid outcrops characterized by intense weathering process. Apparently, competition was not the main mechanism in community assemblage as calculated C score showed (non-significant difference between mean calculated and simulated score). Niche overlap assessment showed that lichens avoided competition by spatial niche partition (mean Pianka index of 0.07 for sampling quadrats and 0.20 for locations). The estimation of nestedness index (N=0.63 at local scale and N=0.88 at sampling quadrat scale) indicated that local communities were subsets of a larger, regional scale metacommunity. Similarities in community composition across locations were assessed by means of Ward algorithm, results indicating that the most dissimilar communities were encountered at Pietrele Mariei, a residual inselberg and Suluc foothill. Conservation of saxicolous communities containing endangered species such as Umbilicaria grisea, critically endangered Ramalina obtusata and vulnerable Acrocordia gemmata, Pertusaria hemisphaerica, Pertusaria pertusa will be challenged in the future by anthropogenic impact coming from agriculture, sheep grazing and quarries operating in the proximity of the reserve area. Keywords: community assemblage; saxicolous lichenized fungal community; Hercynic granites; C-score; niche overlap; nestedness; conservation of endangered species.
28293Vicol I. (2010): Preliminary study on epiphythic lichens as indicator of environmental quality in forest from around Bucharest municipality (Romania). - Analele Universităţii din Oradea - Fascicula Biologie, 17(1): 200–207.
The epiphytic lichens were investigated for three forests situated around Bucharest Municipality. The comparative historical background studies concerned with epiphytic lichens in relation to environmental conditions were related. Five variables close related with the distance was analysed within this study, as follow: (1) in close correlation with the distance, the taxonomic analysis reveals a major significance regarding the dominant roll of the genera with a low epiphytic lichens diversity, within the Andronache Forest, unlike Cernica and Pustnicul Forest where, the number of genera is do not significantly owing increasing species number; (2) regarding the substrate, epiphytic lichens species from all investigated forests prefer trees with a roughly rhytidoma. Trees sampled in a great deal belong to the Quercus genus with a roughly rhytidoma facilitating a good growing of epiphytic lichens species because keeps for a long periods of time a high degree of humidity; (3) the analysis of toxi-tolerance degree has shown how the sensitive epiphytic lichens species to pollution is increasing depending on the distance; (4) autsozological categories are marked in a great deal by a great distance from an urban Bucharest area. Thus, the number of rare and disappearing lichens species is increasing direct proportional depending on the distance from the Bucharest Municipality area to investigated forests due to improvement of the environmental quality; (5) from geographical distribution of lichens species point of view, take a place an increasing number of epiphytic lichens species which is close correlated with the distance from Bucharest Municipality area to investigated forests. In addition, a great importance was conferred the presence of rare and disappearing epiphytic lichens species nearest perturbation area of Bucharest Municipality (Andronache Forest). This fact is possible to occur owing to the direction of prevailed winds. It was used of sensitivity values of epiphytic lichens species to quantify spatial gradients in environmental alteration. Keywords: epiphytic lichen, Bucharest Municipality (Romania), environmental quality, Andronache, Pustnicul, Cernica
28292Vicol I. (2016): Ecological patterns of lichen species abundance in mixed forests of Eastern Romania. - Annals of Forest Research, 59(2): 237–248.
The importance of this study consists in the knowledge of the ecological attributes characteristic to mixed forestry habitats and how they affect the structure of the lichen species abundances. The field activities were performed within five forest habitat types from Moldavia Province, characterised mainly by oak mixed forests, riparian mixed forests and mixed beech forests. The habitat variables, tree variables and the lichen species abundances were analysed to get informations on the structural disimilarities, on the one hand, and relationships on the other hand. Within this study no significant disimilarities were found out from abundance lichen species point of view. The lichen species abundances are a result of interactions between components of their microhabitat and macrohabitat. The correlation analysis pointed out the preferences of lichen species to their host trees, especially Quercus and Fraxinus, altitude and tree level variables as are aspect and mosses coverage. The regression analysis has highlighted that the changes in lichen species abundances are caused by macrohabitat level predictors such as host trees represented by Fraxinus. This study demonstrates that, structure of lichen species is influenced by attributes of mixed forest habitats; therefore maintaining the diversity of tree species and ensuring the continuous occurrence of forestry land is necessary for lichen and their habitat conservation. Keywords: Fraxinus, macrohabitat drivers, microhabitat particularities, Quercus, forest conservation.
28291Śliwa L. (2017): New combinations for Myriolecis zosterae (Ascomycota, lichenized fungi) varieties and a new record of the species for Poland. - Polish Botanical Journal, 62(1): 37–39.
Two new combinations for Myriolecis zosterae (Ach.) Śliwa, Zhao Xin & Lumbsch varieties are proposed: M. zosterae var. beringii (Nyl.) Śliwa and M. zosterae var. palanderi (Vain.) Śliwa. Additionally, M. zosterae var. zosterae is reported for the first time from Poland. The species is briefly discussed and its known distribution in Poland illustrated Keywords: nomenclature, lichenized Ascomycota, Lecanoraceae, new record, Poland.
28290Khodosovtsev A.Ye. & Darmostuk V.V. (2017): Zwackhiomyces polischukii sp. nov., and other noteworthy lichenicolous fungi from Ukraine. - Polish Botanical Journal, 62(1): 27–35.
The new lichenicolous fungus Zwackhiomyces polischukii Darmostuk & Khodos. is described from Bacidia fraxinea Lönnr. and B. rubella (Hoffm.) A. Massal. in Ukraine. Cercidospora caudata Kernst., Cladophialophora parmeliae (Etayo & Diederich) Diederich & Untereiner, Epicladonia simplex D. Hawksw., Laetisaria lichenicola Diederich, Lawrey & Van den Broeck, Lichenochora caloplacae Zhurb., L. weillii (Werner) Hafellner & R. Sant., Microsphaeropsis caloplacae Etayo & Yazıcı, Pronectria casaresii Etayo and P. cf. dillmaniae Zhurb. are new for Ukraine. Seven species are new for the plains of Ukraine and four species are new for the steppe zone. Pronectria diplococca, P. cf. dillmaniae, Lichenochora caloplacae and Microsphaeropsis caloplacae were previously known only from their original descriptions. Key words: Cercidospora, Pronectria, Lichenochora, Zwackhiomyces, distribution, new species, steppe zone.
28289Bertrand M. & Roux C. (2016): Compte rendu de la session lichénologique de l’AFL en Haute-Ubaye - juillet 2014. - Bull. Ass. fr. Lichénologie, 41(1): 23–62.
Report on a field meeting [in French:] En 2010, une étude de la flore et de la végétation lichéniques du secteur Haute-Ubaye du Parc national du Mercantour a été menée par cinq membres de l’AFL (C. ROUX, C. BAUVET, M. BERTRAND, O. BRICAUD et D. MASSON) pour le compte du PNM et a permis de recenser 802 taxons : 729 lichens, 67 champignons lichénicoles non lichénisés et 6 champignons non lichénisés non lichénicoles ordinairement traités par les lichénologues. Parmi ces taxons se trouvent de nombreuses nouveautés : un taxon signalé pour la première fois en Europe (Lecidella lecanoricola, champignon lichénicole non lichénisé) ; 36 taxons signalés pour la première fois en France, 31 lichens[Anaptychia ulotrichoides, Bryoria implexa (chémo. 2, acide norstictique), Caloplaca variabilis (morpho. fulva), Cladonia crispata var. elegans, Cladonia symphycarpa (chémo. dahliana ; acide psoromique), Diploschistes gypsaceus (morpho. ochrophanes), Halecania alpivaga, Involucropyrenium terrigenum, Lecanora eurycarpa, Lecanora leptacina Sommerf., Lecanora perpruinosa Fröberg, Lecidea albohyalina, Lecidea atrobrunnea subsp. saxosa, Lecidea praenubila Nyl., Parmelia barrenoae, Peccania cernohorskyi, Placynthium asperellum, Placynthium garovaglioi, Polyblastia burensis, Thelidium antonellianum, Thelidium inundatum, Thelidium minimum, Thelidium submethorium, Verrucaria rivalis, Verrucaria schindleri, Verrucaria slovaca, Verrucaria transfugiens, Verrucula elegantaria, Verrucula latericola, Verrucula microspora, Xylographa trunciseda) et 5 champignons lichénicoles non lichénisés (Endococcus brachysporus, Llimoniella phaeophysciae, Sphaerellothecium araneosum Chaenothecopsis epithallina, Chaenothecopsis savonica]; 1 taxon nouvellement signalé en France continentale (Lecanora rupicola subsp. rupicola morpho. glaucescens) ; 52 taxons nouvellement signalés dans les Alpes françaises s.l. (40 lichens, 10 champignons lichénicoles non lichénisés et 2 champignons non lichénisés non lichénicole, 1 champignon non lichénicole non lichénisé) ; 36 taxons nouvellement signalés dans la région Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur (35 lichens et 1 champignon lichénicole non lichénisé), 365 nouvellement signalés dans le département des Alpes-de-HauteProvence (346 lichens, 17 champignons lichénicoles non lichénisés et 2 champignons non lichénisés non lichénicoles). Parmi les lichens nous avons dressé une liste d’espèces patrimoniales qui comprend 27 taxons d’intérêt mondial ou européen et 48 taxons d’intérêt national.
28288Roux C. (2016): Lichens et champignons lichénicoles de deux localités du Tarn-et-Garonne (82). - Bull. Ass. fr. Lichénologie, 41(2): 151–170.
L’étude des lichens et champignons lichénicoles non lichénisés de deux localités du département de Tarn-et-Garonne permet de dresser une liste de 198 taxons, dont 169 nouvellement trouvés dans ce département. Sarcopyrenia sigmoideospora est signalé pour la première fois en France et Bagliettoa cazzae, Caloplaca calcitrapa, Porina ginzbergeri, Rinodina luridata subsp. immersa, Zwackhiomyces calcisedus pour la première fois en France eurosibérienne. 24 associations et peuplements ont été observés : 13 saxicoles-calcicoles, 3 terricoles et 8 corticoles.
28287Ceynowa-Giełdon M., Adamska E. & Kamiński D. (2017): An isolated site of calciphilous lichens in the Kujawy region. - Ecological Questions, 24/2016: 37–43.
The paper presents a list of lichen species occurring in three quarries and on mine dumps located within the dust emission impact zone of the cement plant “Kujawy”. The species occur in the lowlands far from their natural localities on limestone rocks in southern Poland. The study area is therefore a valuable habitat island for epilithic and epigeic species of calciphilous lichens in central Poland. Particularly noteworthy are taxa characteristic of natural limestone rocks found in mountain areas of Poland: Verrucaria calciseda, Verrucaria nigroumbrina V. obfuscans and V. polysticta, as well as nine species from the Polish Red List of Lichens: Bacidia rubella, Caloplaca cf. cerina, Enchylium coccophorum, Endocarpon pusillum, Heppia adglutinata, Lempholema chalazanum, Goidanichia ambrosiana, Thelidium incavatum and Th. papulare. Key words: biodiversity, lichenized fungi, endangered species, calciphilous lichens, Kujawy, environmental island, anthropopression, anthropogenic habitats.
28286Roux C. et coll. (2017): Catalogue des lichens et champignons lichénicoles de France métropolitaine. 2e édition revue et augmentée. Tome 2 (cartes). - Édit. Association française de lichénologie (A. F. L.), Fontainebleau, p. 1176-1581.
France; distribution; maps.
28285Coste C. & Pinault P. (2016): Découverte ďun champignon lichénicole extrêmement rare en France : Sphaerellothecium araneosum (Rehm ex Arnold) Zopf. - Carnets natures, 3: 27–30.
Presentation of Sphaerellothecium araneosum (Rehm ex Arnold) Zopf, a parasitic lichenicolous fungus frond on Ochrolechia or Stereocaulon observed in the Pyrenees- Atlantiques, Puy-de-Dôme and Spain. Keywords : Sphaerellothecium, araneosum, Ochrolechia, Stereocaulon, Pyrénées-Atlantiques, Spain.
28284Coste C. (2016): Présence en Corse du Sud d’un champignon lichénicole non signalé en France continentale : Lichenostigma diploiciae Calatayud, Navarro-Rosinès & Hafellner. - Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Toulouse, 152: 5–8.
Presence in southern Corsica of a lichenicolous fungus not recorded in mainland France : Lichenostigma diploiciae Calatayud, Navarro-Rosinès & Hafellner. Presentation of a lichenicolous fungus on thallus of Diploicia subcanescens (Werner) Hafellner & Poelt, Lichenostigma diploiciae Calatayud, Navarro-Rosinès & Hafellner first observation in France and Corsica. The note briefly describes the species, its ecology, distribution and systematically related taxa. A list of species belonging to the genus Lichenostigma described to date is given. Keywords : Lichenostigma, diploiciae, lichenicolous fungus, Diploicia subcanescens, Corsica.
28283Pinault P. & Coste C. (2017): Découverte de Toninia taurica (Szatala) Oxner sur le causse Méjean (Parc national des Cévennes, Gatuzières, 48). - Bulletin de la Société Botanique du Centre Ouest, 48: 13–74.
Discover Toninia taurica (Szatala) Oxner in the Cévennes National Park, lichen considered rare in France. Contribution of four French new observations in the Tarn, Aveyron and Lozère. Keywords : Toninia taurica, Cévennes.
28282Xiao B. & Veste M. (2017): Moss-dominated biocrusts increase soil microbial abundance and community diversity and improve soil fertility in semi-arid climates on the Loess Plateau of China. - Applied Soil Ecology, 117–118: 165–177.
Various ecological functions of biocrusts are mostly determined by their bacterial and fungal abundance and community diversity, which has not yet been fully investigated. To provide more insights into this issue, we collected samples of moss biocrusts, fixed sand, and mobile sand from a watershed with semi-arid climate on the Loess Plateau of China. The relative abundances and community diversities of soil bacteria and fungi of the samples were determined using high-throughput DNA sequencing. Finally, we analyzed the characteristics of bacterial and fungal community of the moss biocrusts and their relationships to the content of soil nutrients. Our results showed that the moss biocrusts had 1048 bacterial OTUs (operational taxonomic units) and 58 fungal OTUs, and their Shannon diversity indexes were 5.56 and 1.65, respectively. The bacterial community of the moss biocrusts was dominated by Acidobacteria (24.3%), Proteobacteria (23.8%), Chloroflexi (15.8%), and Actinobacteria (14.5%), and their fungal community was dominated by Ascomycota (68.0%) and Basidiomycota (23.8%). The moss biocrusts had far more bacterial OTUs (≥ 56.9%) but similar number of fungal OTUs as compared with the uncrusted soil, and their Sorenson’s similarity coefficients of bacterial and fungal communities were less than 0.768 and 0.596, respectively. Moreover, the contents of soil nutrients (C, N, P) were significantly correlated with the OTU numbers of bacteria and the relative abundances of bacteria and fungi. Our results indicated that moss biocrusts harbor a large number and high diversity of bacteria and fungi, and these diversified bacteria and fungi play important roles in ecosystem functioning through improving soil fertility. Keywords: Biological soil crust; Microbiotic crust; Microbial community composition; Microbial community diversity; Relative abundance of species; High-throughput sequencing.
28281Lan S., Ouyang H., Wu L., Zhang D. & Hu X. (2017): Biological soil crust community types differ in photosynthetic pigment composition, fluorescence and carbon fixation in Shapotou region of China. - Applied Soil Ecology, 111: 9–16.
In order to ensure the smooth operation of the Baotou-Lanzhou railway in Shapotou region of China (southeast edge of the Tengger Desert), vegetation protecting system was established, and then substantial biological soil crusts (BSCs) gradually developed there, however so far little study has focused on the refined crust community types and their related ecological functions. In this study, eight main crust community types were distinguished from the restoration region, and their pigment composition and photosynthetic performance were compared through spectrophotometry, chlorophyll fluorescence and infrared gas analysis technologies. The results showed that crust chlorophyll-a and carotenoids contents had a good linear relationship (R2 = 0.964; P < 0.001), generally increased with the development and succession of BSCs, while crust scytonemin content was highest in cyanolichen soil crusts. When chlorophyll-a content was less than 15 μg cm−2, crust original fluorescence (Fo) linearly increased with the increasing chlorophyll-a content (R2 = 0.758; P = 0.001), providing a convenient approach to monitor crust photosynthetic biomass in situ, but without crust destruction. Compared with cyanobacterial and cyanolichen soil crusts, chlorolichen and moss soil crusts had the higher photosynthetic activities (Fv/Fm), although the chlorolichen soil crusts performed the lowest net photosynthetic carbon fixation (average 1.5–1.8 mmol CO2 m−2 h−1), while moss soil crusts had the greater carbon fixation efficiency, about 2.4–7.5 fold higher according to the different community types. Conclusively, a finely divided classification of BSCs will not only improve the estimation of crust carbon fixation, but also strengthen the accuracy and importance of crust community types at the landscape scale. Keywords: Biological soil crusts; Ecological function; Chlorophyll; fluorescence; Photosynthesis.
28280Gauslaa Y., Alam M.A., Lucas P.-L., Chowdhury D.P. & Solhaug K.A. (2017): Fungal tissue per se is stronger as a UV-B screen than secondary fungal extrolites in Lobaria pulmonaria. - Fungal Ecology, 26: 109–113.
To test the hypotheses that (1) protective mycobiont tissues and/or (2) medullary UV-B-absorbing carbon-based secondary compounds (CBSCs) protect lichen photobionts against UV-B radiation, we quantified cortical UV-transmittance and ran a three-way factorial lab experiment with (1) three UV radiation regimes, (2) photobiont layers with/without a screening cortex, and (3) with natural/reduced CBSC-concentration. We used melanin-deficient Lobaria pulmonaria from shaded forests. Maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) in photobionts inside thalli with natural CBSC-concentrations was not affected by any UV-regime, consistent with close to 0% measured cortical transmittance of wavelengths <325 nm. Exposing photobiont layers to direct radiation strongly aggravated photoinhibition (P < 0.001), as did an increase in UV-exposure (P < 0.001). The effect of CBSC-removal was weaker (yet significant at P = 0.001), mainly affecting exposed photobiont layers given short-wavelength UV radiation. Based on these findings, we conclude that the primary role of extrolites in L. pulmonaria is not to screen excess solar radiation. Keywords: Carbon-based secondary compounds; Lobaria pulmonaria; Green algae; Stictic acid; Sun screens; UV-A; UV-B; UV tolerance; UV transmittance.
28279Delebassée S., Mambu L., Pinault E., Champavier Y., Liagre B. & Millot M. (2017): Cytochalasin E in the lichen Pleurosticta acetabulum. Anti-proliferative activity against human HT-29 colorectal cancer cells and quantitative variability. - Fitoterapia, 121: 146–151.
A biological screening of sixteen lichen extracts on human HT-29 colorectal cancer cells, led to the selection of Pleurosticta acetabulum, a lichen widely present in tree barks in Europe. Bioguided purification of the acetonic extract resulted in the isolation of cytochalasin E, a common fungal metabolite. This compound is responsible for the anti-proliferative activity of the extract. Its presence in lichens is reported here for the first time. LC-MS quantitation of cytochalasin E in different samples of P. acetabulum demonstrated quantitative variations of cytochalasin E production in the lichen and especially high concentrations in apothecia. Keywords: Lichen; Pleurosticta acetabulum; Parmeliaceae; Cytochalasin E; Colorectal cancer cells.
28278Gauslaa Y., Solhaug K.A. & Longinotti S. (2017): Functional traits prolonging photosynthetically active periods in epiphytic cephalolichens during desiccation. - Environmental and Experimental Botany, 141: 83–91.
By fluorescence imaging, we quantified how hydration traits and thallus size determine the duration of photosynthetic activity during drying in light and darkness for sympatric populations of three epiphytic old forest cephalolichens differing in specific thallus mass (STM) and growth form. Maximal PS II efficiency (FV/FM) during drying in darkness and effective PSII yield (ФPSII) during drying in light (200 μmol m−2 s−1) was repeatedly monitored in lichens under controlled conditions, using chlorophyll fluorescence imaging with simultaneous recordings of wet mass. STM shaping the water holding capacity (WHC), water content in percent at start (WC), and water loss rate per thallus area (WLR) in combination determined the duration of active periods during desiccation between (r2adj = 0.86) and within species (r2adj = 0.60–0.92). Lobaria pulmonaria with the lowest STM and the most upright growth form experienced the shortest active periods, Lobaria amplissima with the highest STM and the most prostrate growth form had the longest periods. Across the more compact species (L. amplissima, L. virens), WLR strongly declined with increasing thallus size, but weakly in the loosely attached L. pulmonaria. ФPSII, a proxy of photosynthesis, exhibited suprasaturation depression at maximal hydration. Fluorescence imaging allowed a rapid, non-invasive evaluation of the contribution of various functional traits to active periods in entire thalli during desiccation. A thick, prostrate growth form prolongs active periods by maximizing water storage, whereas a thin, loosely attached growth form uses a more flexible hydration strategy with shorter active periods. Keywords: Desiccation; Fluorescence imaging; Poikilohydry; Lobaria amplissima; Lobaria pulmonaria; Lobaria virens.
28277Coste C. (2016): Les lichens de la forêt de la Massane (Réserve Naturelle Nationale des Pyrénées-Orientales). - Travaux de la Massane, 104: 1–54.
This work aims at bringing up to date the previous lichen inventories from the area of the Natural Reserve of La Massane Forest. The main previous inventories were carried out by Henry Des Abbayes, Nylander W. (1891)- Lichenes Pyreaeorum orientalium observatis novis ; Clauzade and Rodon (1960) - Observations sur la végétation lichénique de la hêtraie de la Massane et de ses environs immédiats ; et Roux C., Coste C, Bricaud O. and Masson D. (2006) - Catalogue des Lichens et des Champignons lichénicoles de la région Languedoc-Roussillon (France méridionale). This new inventory raises the number of known lichens from the Reserve to 360 species, out of which 16 are cited for the first time. In addition to this inventory, a considerable work on the synonymies has been accomplished to bring the on hand data up to date.
28276Lü L. & Zhao Z.-T. (2017): Lecanora shangrilaensis sp. nov., on pinecones from China. - Mycotaxon, 132(2): 441–444.
Lecanora shangrilaensis from southwestern China is described as a new species. It can be distinguished from other multispored species of Lecanora by the presence of usnic acid instead of atranorin and the epruinose discs with coarse granular epihymenium. It is otherwise characterized by the thin thallus, yellow to yellowish brown apothecial disc, 12–16-spored ascus, and the pinecone substrate. Key words—East Asia, Lecanoraceae, lichenized Ascomycota.
28275Zhao X.-X., Zhao Z.-T., Miao C.-C., Ren Z.-J. & Zhang L.-L. (2017): Five Lecidea lichens new to China. - Mycotaxon, 132(2): 317–326.
Five Lecidea lichen taxa—L. andersonii, L. grisella, L. laboriosa, L. atrobrunnea subsp. saxosa, L. atrobrunnea subsp. stictica—are reported for the first time from China. Keywords: Asia; Lecideales; Lecideaceae; saxicolous lichens; taxonomy.
28274Cernava T., Erlacher A., Aschenbrenner I.A., Krug L., Lassek C., Riedel K., Grube M. & Berg G. (2017): Deciphering functional diversification within the lichen microbiota by meta-omics. - Microbiome, 5:82 [13 p.].
Background: Recent evidence of specific bacterial communities extended the traditional concept of fungal-algal lichen symbioses by a further organismal kingdom. Although functional roles were already assigned to dominant members of the highly diversified microbiota, a substantial fraction of the ubiquitous colonizers remained unexplored. We employed a multi-omics approach to further characterize functional guilds in an unconventional model system. Results: The general community structure of the lichen-associated microbiota was shown to be highly similar irrespective of the employed omics approach. Five highly abundant bacterial orders—Sphingomonadales, Rhodospirillales, Myxococcales, Chthoniobacterales, and Sphingobacteriales—harbor functions that are of substantial importance for the holobiome. Identified functions range from the provision of vitamins and cofactors to the degradation of phenolic compounds like phenylpropanoid, xylenols, and cresols. Conclusions: Functions that facilitate the persistence of Lobaria pulmonaria under unfavorable conditions were present in previously overlooked fractions of the microbiota. So far, unrecognized groups like Chthoniobacterales (Verrucomicrobia) emerged as functional protectors in the lichen microbiome. By combining multi-omics and imaging techniques, we highlight previously overlooked participants in the complex microenvironment of the lichens. Keywords: Metagenomics, Metaproteomics, Metatranscriptomics, Amplicon sequencing, Lichen symbiosis, Lobaria pulmonaria.
28273Réblová M., Untereiner W.A., Štěpánek V. & Gams W. (2017): Disentangling Phialophora section Catenulatae: disposition of taxa with pigmented conidiophores and recognition of a new subclass, Sclerococcomycetidae (Eurotiomycetes). - Mycological Progress, 16: 27–46.
A new genus Rhopalophora is described for Phialophora clavispora, a lignicolous species formerly placed in Phialophora section Catenulatae that possesses pigmented conidiophores, phialides with a single conidiogenous locus that occasionally appear as schizophialides, and clavate, aseptate conidia arranged in chains or sometimes in heads. Sexual morphs are not known for this taxon. Phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences from five loci (nucSSU, ITS, nucLSU, mitSSU, rpb1 and rpb2) of this and related fungi supports the introduction of a new family, Sclerococcaceae, for which we establish the order Sclerococcales. This order belongs to the new subclass Sclerococcomycetidae, a strongly supported clade within the Eurotiomycetes that is basal to a lineage containing the Chaetothyriomycetidae, Coryneliomycetidae and Eurotiomycetidae. Rhopalophora clavispora fits in this new family and is closely related to an isolate of Fusichalara minuta. The Sclerococcales also encompass marine, lignicolous species of Dactylospora, two species of the lichenicolous genus Sclerococcum, and a lineage comprised of strains from the digestive tracts ofNeotropical wood-inhabiting beetles.We confirm that Dactylospora is polyphyletic; the phylogenetic placement of D. parasitica, the generic type, remains unknown. Keywords: Dactylospora . Fusichalara . Lichenicolous fungi . Marine fungi . Rhopalophora . Sclerococcum.
28272Divakar P.K., Crespo A., Kraichak E., Leavitt S.D., Singh G., Schmitt I. & Lumbsch H.T. (2017): Using a temporal phylogenetic method to harmonize family and genus-level classification in the largest clade of lichen-forming fungi. - Fungal Diversity, 84: 101–117.
Although classification at supra-specific ranks is inherently arbitrary, comparable taxonomic ranks within clades can facilitate more consistent classifications and objective comparisons among taxa. Different circumscriptions of the hyper-diverse lichen-forming fungal family Parmeliaceae and widely different generic circumscriptions among authors have been proposed. For this study, we use a recently developed temporal approach that uses timecalibrated chronograms to identify temporal bands for specific ranks in Parmeliaceae and allied groups with the overarching goal of establishing a consistent, stable classification. A data set of 330 species, representing 73 genera in the family and 52 species of related families was used to address the circumscription of Parmeliaceae and its genera following the proposed temporal approach. Based on the results of this study, we propose a revised, temporal-based classification for Parmeliaceae, including all clades that share a common ancestor 102.13–112.88 Ma for families and a time window of 29.45–32.55 Ma for genera. Fortyfive of the currently accepted genera in Parmeliaceae were supported in their current circumscription. Two subfamilies are accepted within Parmeliaceae: Protoparmelioideae Divakar et al. subfam. nov., including Protoparmelia and the resurrected genus Maronina, and Parmelioideae, including the bulk of genera in the family. The new genus Austromelanelixia Divakar et al. is proposed to accommodate a clade of southern Hemisphere species previously included in Melanelixia. Eumitria and tentatively Dolichousnea are resurrected as genera separate from Usnea. The following genera are reduced to synonymy: Allocetraria, Cetrariella, Usnocetraria, and Vulpicida with Cetraria; Arctocetraria, Cetreliopsis, Flavocetraria, Kaernefeltia, Masonhalea, Tuckermanella, and Tuckermannopsis with Nephromopsis; and the lichenicolous genera Nesolechia and Raesaenenia with the lichen-forming genera Punctelia and Protousnea, respectively. A total of 47 new combinations and three new names at the species level are proposed. Keywords: Ascomycota; Gypsoplacaceae; Lecanorales; Lichenized fungi; Parmeliaceae; Phylogeny; Protoparmelia; Taxonomy; Taxonomic ranks.
28271Lücking R. & Moncada B. (2017): Dismantling Marchandiomphalina into Agonimia (Verrucariaceae) and Lawreymyces gen. nov. (Corticiaceae): setting a precedent to the formal recognition of thousands of voucherless fungi based on type sequences. - Fungal Diversity, 84: 119–138.
Based on an unexpected result of obtaining molecular sequence data from tropical representatives of the genus Normandina, we revised the biological concept of the neotropical taxon Marchandiomphalina foliacea. The obtained data let us conclude that M. foliacea is not a basidiomycete, as originally proposed, but belongs in Verrucariaceae, in the genus Agonimia, including its perithecia which had been identified with the lichenicolous Norrlinia peltigericola. The ITS (and nuLSU) sequences previously obtained from M. foliacea, seemingly confirming its status as a basidiomycete, are from an unmanifested lichenicolous fungus, present also in numerous specimens of Normandina. ITS data suggest the presence of seven lineages that can be recognized at the species level, forming two clusters: one cluster of three lineages found in thalli of M. foliacea, and a second cluster of four lineages found in thalli of Normandina. This pattern is similar to what has recently been found in the basidiomycete genus Cyphobasidium occurring predominantly in Parmeliaceae lichens. We propose the combination of Omphalina foliacea into the genus Agonimia, as Agonimia foliacea (P.M. Jørg.) Lücking & Moncada, comb. nov., and place Marchandiomphalina in synonymy with Agonimia. To formally recognize the unnamed lichenicolous basidiomycete present in Agonimia and Normandina thalli, we take advantage of provision ICN Art. 40.5 in the Code and describe the unmanifested fungus as a new genus, with seven new species, even if no physical type specimens can be preserved (except for the corresponding host lichens which, however, do not show the features of the fungus): Lawreymyces Lücking & Moncada, gen. nov. (Type: L. palicei), with L. bogotensis Lücking & Moncada, sp. nov., L. columbiensis Lücking & Moncada, sp. nov., L. confusus Lücking & Moncada, sp. nov., L, foliaceae Lücking & Moncada, sp. nov., L. palicei Lücking & Moncada, sp. nov., L. pulchellae Lücking & Moncada, sp. nov., and L. spribillei Lücking & Moncada, sp. nov. This opens the door to the formal recognition of thousands of species of voucherless fungi detected through environmental sequencing techniques under the current Code. Keywords: Artwork; International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants; Illustration; Sequences as types; Typification; Work of art.
28270Vanga N.R., Kota A., Sistla R. & Uppuluri M. (2017): Synthesis and anti-inflammatory activity of novel triazole hybrids of (+)-usnic acid, the major dibenzofuran metabolite of the lichen Usnea longissima. - Molecular Diversity, 21: 273–282.
(+)-Usnic acid ((R)-2,6-diacetyl-7,9-dihydroxy-8,9b-dimethyl-1,3(2H,9bH)-dibenzo-furandione), a dibenzofuran isolated from the lichen Usnea longissima, has been chemically transformed to synthesize a series of sixteen novel triazole analogs by click chemistry approach. The synthesized compounds were tested for their anti-inflammatory potential against the cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β in U937 cell lines. The bromo enamines (2a, 2b), azido enamines (3a, 3b) and triazole analogs (4f, 4g, 4h, 5f, 5g and 5h) exhibited promising anti-inflammatory activity against TNF-α with IC 50 values ranging from 1.40 to 5.70 μM. Most significantly, the IC 50 values of compounds 5f (1.40 μM) and 5h (1.88 μM) are the lowest among the compounds tested and found close to that of standard prednisolone. Hence, these two compounds can be considered as lead molecules for further fine tuning to make highly potent anti-inflammatory therapeutic agents.
28269Santos A., Pinho P., Munzi S., Botelho M.J., Palma-Oliveira J.M. & Branquinho C. (2017): The role of forest in mitigating the impact of atmospheric dust pollution in a mixed landscape. - Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 24: 12038–12048.
Atmospheric dust pollution, especially particulate matter below 2.5 μm, causes 3.3 million premature deaths per year worldwide. Although pollution sources are increasingly well known, the role of ecosystems in mitigating their impact is still poorly known. Our objective was to investigate the role of forests located in the surrounding of industrial and urban areas in reducing atmospheric dust pollution. This was tested using lichen transplants as biomonitors in a Mediterranean regional area with high levels of dry deposition. After a multivariate analysis, we have modeled the maximum pollution load expected for each site taking into consideration nearby pollutant sources. The difference between maximum expected pollution load and the observed values was explained by the deposition in nearby forests. Both the dust pollution and the ameliorating effect of forested areas were then mapped. The results showed that forest located nearby pollution sources plays an important role in reducing atmospheric dust pollution, highlighting their importance in the provision of the ecosystem service of air purification. Keywords: Heavy metals; Ecosystem services; Ecological indicators; Lichens; Particulate matter.
28268Domínguez-Morueco N., Augusto S., Trabalón L., Pocurull E., Borrull F., Schuhmacher M., Domingo J.L. & Nadal M. (2017): Monitoring PAHs in the petrochemical area of Tarragona County, Spain: comparing passive air samplers with lichen transplants. - Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 24: 11890–11900.
The levels of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in 8 passive air samples (PAS) and 6 lichen transplants (Ramalina fastigiata) deployed for a period of 2 months in different zones of Tarragona County (Catalonia, Spain), an area with an important number of chemical and petrochemical industries. The accumulated amount of the sum of the 16 PAHs ranged between 1363 to 7866 ng/sample in air samples. The highest concentration was found in the neighborhood of Puigdelfí (village of Perafort), in the vicinity of a big oil refinery and well under the potential influence of the petrochemical emissions. In lichen samples, the sum of the 16 PAHs ranged between 247 and 841 ng/g (dry weight), being the greatest value also observed in Puigdelfí. Data on the levels and profiles of PAHs in both passive monitoring methods were compared. A significant positive linear correlation was found between the concentrations of low molecular weight PAHs in lichens and the amounts accumulated in passive air samples (R = 0.827, P < 0.05), being especially significant the correlation of 4-ring PAHs (R = 0.941, P < 0.05). These results strongly suggest that lichens can be used to monitor gas-phase PAHs, providing data that can be quantitatively translated into equivalents for air. Keywords: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); Passive air sampling (PAS); Polyurethane foams (PUF); Lichens samples; Biomonitoring; Tarragona, Spain.
28267Jha B.N., Shrestha M., Pandey D.P., Bhattarai T., Bhattarai H.D. & Paudel B. (2017): Investigation of antioxidant, antimicrobial and toxicity activities of lichens from high altitude regions of Nepal. - BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine (2017) , 17:282 [8 p.].
Background: Several lichen species are reported to be used tradiationally in many theraupatic practices. Many lichen species are reported as sources of several bioactive natural compounds. Several lichen species of Nepal are so far chemically unexplored. Methods: The morphological, anatomical and phytochemical characteristics of lichens were compared for the taxonomic identification of the species. Methanol- water extract of lichens were sub fractionated into hexane, dichloromethane and methanol fractions for bioactivity assays. Antimicrobial activities of extracts were evaluated agaisnt pathogenic bacteria and fungal species. DPPH test was used for antioxidant potential evaluation. Brineshrimp test was perfermed to evaluate toxicity of the extracts. Results: A total of 84 lichen specimens were collected and identified from Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) Nepal. The specimens were identified as belonging to 19 genera and 47 species. Methanol fractions of 16 specimens and dichloromethane (DCM) fractions of 21 lichens specimens showed antioxidant activities comparable with commercial standards (BHA, Butylated hydroxyanisole, IC50=4.9±0.9 μg/mL) even at crude extract level. Similarly, the DCM fraction of 17 lichens showed potential antimicrobial activity against a Gram-positive bacterium (Staphylococcus aureus KCTC3881) and DCM fractions of 45 lichens showed antimicrobial activity against a Gramnegative bacterium (Klebsiella pneumoniae KCTC2242). DCM fractions of three lichens showed antifungal activity against the yeast, Candida albicans KCTC 7965. Likewise, methanol fractions of 39 lichens and DCM fractions of 74 lichens showed strong toxicity against brine shrimp nauplii with more than 80% mortality. Conclusion: Such biological activity-rich lichen specimens warrant further research on exploration of natural products with antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti cancer (toxic) potential. Keywords: Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, DPPH, Lichen, Thin layer chromatography.
28266Castro O.N., Benites J., Rodilla J., Santiago J.C., Simirgiotis M., Sepulveda B. & Areche C. (2017): Metabolomic analysis of the lichen Everniopsis trulla using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-OT-MS). - Chromatographia, 80: 967–973.
A new depside was identified in the methanolic extract from the lichen Everniopsis trulla based on the metabolomics UHPLC–DAD–MS analysis and HESI–MS–MS fragmentation patterns along with thirty-two known compounds for the first time. The compounds were structurally characterized by UV and high resolution quadrupole orbitrap mass spectra and by comparison with literature. According to the characteristic fragmentation patterns, the presence of two simple aromatic compounds, six lipid derivatives, eight depsidones, thirteen depsides, a chromone, two diphenylethers, and a dibenzofuran were identified. To our knowledge, this is the first study of the lichen E. trulla by liquid chromatography hyphenated with tandem mass spectrometry. Keywords: Depsides; Depsidones; UHPLC–ESI–MS; Everniopsis trulla; Lichens; Orbitrap.
28265Devkota S., Chaudhary R.P., Werth S. & Scheidegger C. (2017): Indigenous knowledge and use of lichens by the lichenophilic communities of the Nepal Himalaya. - Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 13:15 [10 p.].
Background: The aim of the study was to document the prevailing indigenous knowledge and various uses of lichens among the lichenophilic communities in the hills and mountainous settlements of Nepal. Methods: Ethnic uses were recorded during twelve field trips, each of roughly 15 days in three consecutive years, through direct questionnaires administered to 190 respondents. Lichen samples were identified applying microscopic observation and thin layer chromatography (TLC). Voucher specimens of identified species are deposited at TUCH (Tribhuvan University Central Herbarium) in Nepal. Results: Lichens are being used in several ways by different communities of Nepal. We recorded the ethnic use of seven species of lichens belonging to four families (Parmeliaceae, Physciaceae, Ramalinaceae and Usneaceae) and six genera (Heterodermia, Everniastrum, Parmotrema, Ramalina, Thamnolia and Usnea) among the Limbu, Sherpa, Lama, Gurung, Rai, Dalit, Tamang, Chhetri and Brahman communities. The present study revealed six use values namely; Medicinal value (MV), food value (FV), ritual and spiritual value (RSV), aesthetic and decorative value (ADV), bedding value (BV) and ethno-veterinary value (EVV) from different parts of Nepal. Three lichen species, Everniastrum cirrhatum, E. nepalense and Parmotrema cetratum were consumed by the Limbu and Rai communities. The Limbu and Sherpa ethnic groups are regarded as most lichenophilic communities while respondents from Brahman, Chhetri and Tamang communities showed less interest in lichen uses. Conclusions: The present study contributes to document traditional knowledge on various uses of lichens among nine communities with three different cultural background, inhabitants of eight different altitudinal levels of Nepal. Regarding the six values as identified from this research, significant difference (p = <0.05) were found along altitudinal gradients or locations of the settlements, cultural groups and ethnicity of the respondents. Keywords: Ethnolichenology, Use values, Limbu and Sherpa ethnic groups, Ethnoveterinary.
28264Boonpeng C., Polyiam W., Sriviboon C., Sangiamdee D., Watthana S., Nimis P.L. & Boonpragob K. (2017): Airborne trace elements near a petrochemical industrial complex in Thailand assessed by the lichen Parmotrema tinctorum (Despr. ex Nyl.) Hale. - Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 24: 12393–12404.
Several trace elements discharged by the petrochemical industry are toxic to humans and the ecosystem. In this study, we assessed airborne trace elements in the vicinity of the Map Ta Phut petrochemical industrial complex in Thailand by transplanting the lichen Parmotrema tinctorum to eight industrial, two rural, and one clean air sites between October 2013 and June 2014. After 242 days, the concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Ti, V, and Zn in lichens at most industrial sites were higher than those at the rural and the control sites; in particular, As, Cu, Mo, Sb, V, and Zn were significantly higher than at the control site (p < 0.05). Contamination factors (CFs) indicated that Cd, Cu, Mo, and Sb, which have severe health impacts, heavily contaminated at most industrial sites. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that most elements were associated with industry, with lesser contributions from traffic and agriculture. Based on the pollution load indexes (PLIs), two industrial sites were highly polluted, five were moderately polluted, and one had a low pollution level, whereas the pollution load at the rural sites was comparable to background levels. This study reinforces the utility of lichens as cost-effective biomonitors of airborne elements, suitable for use in developing countries, where adequate numbers of air monitoring instruments are unavailable due to financial, technical, and policy constraints. Keywords: Biomonitor; Contamination factor; Map Ta Phut; Pollution; load index.
28263Kinoshita Y., Yamamoto Y., Kurokawa T. & Yoshimura I. (2001): Influences of nitrogen sources on usnic acid production in a cultured mycobiont of the lichen Usnea hirta (L.) Wigg.. - Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry, 65(8): 1900–1902.
Effects of the nitrogen sources in the medium for the production of secondary metabolites in lichens were examined. The usnic acid production by a mycobiont of the lichen Usnea hirta was higher in the liquid medium containing ammonium and nitrate ions than in those containing amino acids.
28262Chekanov K., Feoktistov A. & Lobakova E. (2017): Spatial organization of the three-component lichen Peltigera aphthosa in functional terms. - Physiologia Plantarum, 160: 328–338.
The cephalolichen Peltigera aphthosa (L.) Willd. is characterized by lateral heterogeneity, which manifests itself in the presence of three thallus zones, referred to as the apical, basal and medial zone. These zones differ in terms of interaction between lichen bionts and their physiological activity. The apical thallus zone is more efficient in establishing a contact with cyanobacteria, because of a higher lectin content and a larger overall thallus surface area due to the presence of numerous mycobiont hyphae. Cephalodia are formed in this zone. The interaction between the mycobiont and cyanobiont is more intense in the medial zone. However, the establishment of the contact with cyanobacteria in this zone less probable. The spatial distribution of lectins in the thallus was determined. To reveal the differences in photosynthetic activity in three thallus zones, transient analysis of chlorophyll a fluorescence and the assessment of non-photochemical quenching of excited chlorophyll states were performed. Assimilation of absorbed light energy was more effective in the medial zone. The basal zone was characterized by decreased photosynthetic activity, lichen dissociation and thallus death.
28261Matteucci E., Occhipinti A., Piervittori R., Maffei M.E. & Favero-Longo S.E. (2017): Morphological, secondary metabolite and ITS (rDNA) variability within usnic acid-containing lichen thalli of Xanthoparmelia explored at the local scale of rock outcrop in W-Alps. - Chemistry and Biodiversity, 14: e1600483 [15 p.].
Lichen secondary metabolites (LSMs) are regarded with interest for valuable biological properties, but chemical variability among/within lichen taxa has been only fragmentarily characterized by advanced analytical techniques. Knowledge of variability at a local geographic scale has been particularly neglected, while it should address the collection of chemically homogeneous materials to test and exploit LSMs. Here we evaluated the chemical variability of 48 Xanthoparmelia specimens from two rock outcrops in Western Italian Alps, representative of nine morphotypes and sixteen rDNA ITS haplotypes. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were performed by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS2 and UPLC-HDR-DAD, respectively, and revealed the occurrence of 18 LSMs. Chemical partition allowed distinguishing six chemical groups, only partially overlapping with distinct morphotypes and three divergent haplotype groups, which, overall, accounted for the co-occurrence of different taxa only in part identifiable with species described for Europe. Some morphotypes were variable in presence and concentration of LSMs, and chemical divergences also characterized single ITS haplotypes. Accordingly, the collection of chemically homogeneous materials, even at a local scale, may be not properly addressed by morphological features and ITS barcoding, and should be confirmed by a specimen-level chemical characterization.
28260Prieto M., Martínez I., Aragón G. & Verdú M. (2017): Phylogenetic and functional structure of lichen communities under contrasting environmental conditions. - Journal of Vegetation Science, 28: 871–881.
Question: In order to identify the factors and assembly rules which potentially shape natural lichen communities we asked whether these communities are phylogenetically and functionally structured along an environmental gradient in beech forests in the Iberian Peninsula. Location: A climatic gradient in the Iberian Peninsula. Methods: We used species inventories, trait data and a molecular dated phylogeny to calculate phylogenetic and functional community metrics. We examined the phylogenetic and functional diversity of epiphytic lichen assemblages in nine beech forests along an environmental gradient. Results: We found a significant pattern in the average phylogenetic and functional diversity across sites. Species at northern sites were less closely related than expected by chance (phylogenetic and functional overdispersion), suggesting that these communities could be structured by species interactions limiting the similarity among them (e.g. by competition and facilitation). In contrast, species occurring in the southern distributional limit of the host tree were phylogenetically and functionally clustered, implying that these communities could be primarily structured by environmental filtering, driven by the reduction of summer rainfall. Lower precipitation areas favoured fruticulose and squamulose species and a larger proportion of species with green algal photobionts and asexual reproduction. Conclusions: Our results suggest that environmental filtering and species interactions regulate lichen communities differently under contrasting environmental conditions in beech forests in the Iberian Peninsula. These processes are reflected by the presence of key lichen traits that are phylogenetically conserved and can provide advantages for competition or adaptation to the environment. Keywords: Competition; CWM; Facilitation; Functional traits; Habitat filtering; NRI; NTI; Phylogenetic signal; Phylogeny.
28259Míguez F., Fernández-Marín B., Becerril J.M. & García-Plazaola J.I. (2017): Diversity of winter photoinhibitory responses: a case study in co-occurring lichens, mosses, herbs and woody plants from subalpine environments. - Physiologia Plantarum, 160: 282–296.
Winter evergreens living in mountainous areas have to withstand a harsh combination of high light levels and low temperatures in wintertime. In response, evergreens can activate a photoprotective process that consists of the downregulation of photosynthetic efficiency, referred to as winter photoinhibition (WPI). WPI has been studied mainly in woody evergreens and crops even when, in many instances, other functional groups such as lichens or bryophytes dominate in alpine and boreal habitats. Thus, we aimed to (1) assess the occurrence of WPI within overwintering evergreens comprising woody species, herbs, mosses and lichens, (2) compare the recovery kinetics among those groups and (3) clarify the role of thylakoid proteins and pigments in both processes: WPI and recovery. With this aim, WPI was analyzed in 50 species in the field and recovery kineticcs were studied in one model species from each functional group. Results showed that high levels of WPI are much more frequent among woody plants than in any other group, but are also present in some herbs, lichens and mosses. Winter conditions almost always led to the de-epoxidation of the xanthophyll cycle. Nevertheless, changes in the de-epoxidation level were not associated with the activation/deactivation of WPI in the field and did not match changes in photochemical efficiency during recovery treatments. Seasonal changes in thylakoid proteins [mainly D1 (photosystem II core complex protein) and PsbS (essential protein for thermal dissipation)] were dependent on the functional group. The results highlight the diversity of physiological solutions and suggest a physical–mechanical reason for the more conservative strategy of woody species compared with other groups.
28258Asplund J. & Wardle D.A. (2017): How lichens impact on terrestrial community and ecosystem properties. - Biological Reviews, 92: 1720–1738.
Lichens occur in most terrestrial ecosystems; they are often present as minor contributors, but in some forests, drylands and tundras they can make up most of the ground layer biomass. As such, lichens dominate approximately 8% of the Earth’s land surface. Despite their potential importance in driving ecosystem biogeochemistry, the influence of lichens on community processes and ecosystem functioning have attracted relatively little attention. Here, we review the role of lichens in terrestrial ecosystems and draw attention to the important, but often overlooked role of lichens as determinants of ecological processes. We start by assessing characteristics that vary among lichens and that may be important in determining their ecological role; these include their growth form, the types of photobionts that they contain, their key functional traits, their water-holding capacity, their colour, and the levels of secondary compounds in their thalli. We then assess how these differences among lichens influence their impacts on ecosystem and community processes. As such, we consider the consequences of these differences for determining the impacts of lichens on ecosystem nutrient inputs and fluxes, on the loss of mass and nutrients during lichen thallus decomposition, and on the role of lichenivorous invertebrates in moderating decomposition. We then consider how differences among lichens impact on their interactions with consumer organisms that utilize lichen thalli, and that range in size from microfauna (for which the primary role of lichens is habitat provision) to large mammals (for which lichens are primarily a food source). We then address how differences among lichens impact on plants, through for example increasing nutrient inputs and availability during primary succession, and serving as a filter for plant seedling establishment. Finally we identify areas in need of further work for better understanding the role of lichens in terrestrial ecosystems. These include understanding how the high intraspecific trait variation that characterizes many lichens impacts on community assembly processes and ecosystem functioning, how multiple species mixtures of lichens affect the key communityand ecosystem-level processes that they drive, the extent to which lichens in early succession influence vascular plant succession and ecosystem development in the longer term, and how global change drivers may impact on ecosystem functioning through altering the functional composition of lichen communities. Key words: decomposition, functional traits, invertebrate food webs, lichenized fungi, nutrient cycling, trophic interactions.
28257St. Martin P. & Mallik A.U. (2017): The status of non-vascular plants in trait-based ecosystem function studies. - Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 27: 1–8.
The contributions of non-vascular plants (NVPs) to ecosystem function can be significant in high latitude and high altitude ecosystems and yet their inclusion in trait-based studies is rare. Our aim in this paper is to argue for a more thorough and widespread inclusion of NVPs in trait-based studies of ecosystem function. We focused on three specific objectives, (i) to review and summarize the current knowledge base as to how NVP traits are measured and used in assessing ecosystem function, (ii) to highlight challenges in incorporating vascular plants (VPs) and NVPs together in trait-based studies, and (iii) discuss a framework by which VPs and NVPs can be included in explaining ecosystem function. From a literature search of the Web of Science database we found that the majority of trait-based studies examined mostly vascular plants (VPs), occasionally VPs and NVPs separately, but rarely the two groups together to describe ecosystem function. To date compared to VPs, assessment of the contributions of NVPs to ecosystem function has remained relatively unexplored. Plant communities comprising VPs and NVPs can influence, and in turn be influenced by their habitats. We argue that the response and effect traits of VPs and NVPs are comparable and that classifying NVPs simply as “mosses” and “lichens” and assessing their functions as such is inadequate. We summarized and identified particular measurable traits of both VPs and NVPs that have significant effects on nutrient cycling and community assembly. Future studies in areas where NVPs are abundant should include both VPs and NVPs, aggregated at the finest taxonomic resolution possible to relate ecosystem processes such as cycling of matter and plant community assembly. Keywords: Mosses; Lichens; Functional traits; Plant functional types; Ecosystem processes; Ecosystem function.
28256Moyo C.E., Beckett R.P., Trifonova T.V. & Minibayeva F.V. (2017): Extracellular redox cycling and hydroxyl radical production occurs widely in lichenized Ascomycetes. - Fungal Biology, 121: 582–588.
Some free-living Ascomycetes and white and brown rot Basidiomycetes can generate hydroxyl radicals using extracellular redox cycling. However, the mechanisms of hydroxyl radical production differ between white and brown rot Basidiomycetes, and are unknown for Ascomycetes. Here, we present a survey of extracellular hydroxyl radical production by a range of lichenized Ascomycetes. Results show that given a quinone and chelated ferric ions, many lichens can readily produce hydroxyl radicals, and this is accompanied by the reduction of Fe3+ to Fe2+. In white rot fungi, extracellular redox enzymes have been proposed to be involved in hydroxyl radical generation. However, a survey of a wide range of lichens suggests that in these fungi hydroxyl radical production does not directly correlate with the activity of laccases and peroxidases. Rather, radicals are probably produced by a mechanism like that proposed for brown rot fungi. Potential roles of hydroxyl radicals produced by lichens include the breakdown of lignocellulosic residues in the soil which may allow lichens to live a partially saprotrophic existence, the breakdown of toxic soil chemicals and the formation of an ‘oxidative burst’ to deter potential pathogens. Keywords: Laccases; Peroxidases; Quinone reductases; Reactive oxygen species; Saprophyte.
28255Favero-Longo S.E., Benesperi R., Bertuzzi S., Bianchi E., Buffa G., Giordani P., Loppi S., Malaspina P., Matteucci E., Paoli L., Ravera S., Roccardi A., Segimiro A. & Vannini A. (2017): Species- and site-specific efficacy of commercial biocides and application solvents against lichens. - International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 123: 127–137.
Control of lichens on stone cultural heritage is mostly achieved by a combination of mechanical removal with biocide applications. However, there is a lack of scientific evidence on the efficacy of different biocides on different species, and on the consistency of biocide effects on heritage sites in different environmental conditions. This results in some uncertainty when conservation interventions to control lichens are routinely defined on the basis of restoration tradition or empirical evaluation, without experimental measures of how lichens respond. In this work, we quantitatively evaluated (a) the efficacy of five commercially-available biocides, applied using a brush or with a cellulose poultice, against two species (Protoparmeliopsis muralis, Verrucaria nigrescens), and (b) whether the effects on the two species were consistent, per treatment, across three Italian heritage sites. Lichen vitality was quantified through analyses of chlorophyll a fluorescence (ChlaF) and ergosterol content. The results indicated that all the tested biocides, and their organic solvents, affected the vitality of both the species. However, most of treatments displayed different efficacy on each species, across the different sites and between brush and poultice applications. Accordingly, when a conservation intervention to control lichen growth is planned, biocide treatments need both species- and site-specific calibrations and lichen vitality should be properly ascertained in situ by monitoring ChlaF parameters (FV/FM and F0) twenty days after trial biocide applications. Keywords: Biocide; Chlorophyll a fluorescence; Ergosterol; Lichen; Organic solvents.
28254Tatsumi S., Ohgue T., Azuma A., Tuovinen V., Imada Y., Mori A.S., Thor G. & Ranlund Å. (2017): Tree hollows can affect epiphyte species composition. - Ecological Research, 32: 503–509.
Tree hollows often harbor animals and microorganisms, thereby storing nutritive resources derived from their biological activities. The outflows from tree hollows can create unique microenvironments, which may affect communities of epiphytic organisms on trunk surfaces below the hollows. In this study, we tested whether the species richness and composition of epiphytic bryophytes (liverworts and mosses) and lichens differ above and below tree hollows of Aria japonica and Cercidiphyllum japonicum in a Japanese temperate forest. The species richness of epiphytic bryophytes and lichens did not differ above and below hollows; however, the species composition of bryophytes differed significantly above and below hollows. Indicator species analyses showed that the moss species Anomodon tristis and the liverwort species Porella vernicosa were significantly more common below than above hollows, while the liverwort species Radula japonica and four lichen species, including Leptogium cyanescens, occurred more frequently above than below hollows. Our results highlight that tree hollows can produce unique microenvironments on trunk surfaces that potentially contribute to the maintenance of epiphytic diversity on a local scale. Keywords: Biodiversity; Cryptogams; Bryophytes; Lichens; Tree cavities.
28253Vanneste T., Michelsen O., Graae B.J., Kyrkjeeide M.O., Holien H., Hassel K., Lindmo S., Kapás R.E. & De Frenne P. (2017): Impact of climate change on alpine vegetation of mountain summits in Norway. - Ecological Research, 32: 579–593.
Climate change is affecting the composition and functioning of ecosystems across the globe. Mountain ecosystems are particularly sensitive to climate warming since their biota is generally limited by low temperatures. Cryptogams such as lichens and bryophytes are important for the biodiversity and functioning of these ecosystems, but have not often been incorporated in vegetation resurvey studies. Hence, we lack a good understanding of how vascular plants, lichens and bryophytes respond interactively to climate warming in alpine communities. Here we quantified long-term changes in species richness, cover, composition and thermophilization (i.e. the increasing dominance of warm-adapted species) of vascular plants, lichens and bryophytes on four summits at Dovrefjell, Norway. These summits are situated along an elevational gradient from the low alpine to high alpine zone and were surveyed for all species in 2001, 2008 and 2015. During the 15-year period, a decline in lichen richness and increase in bryophyte richness was detected, whereas no change in vascular plant richness was found. Dwarf-shrub abundance progressively increased at the expense of lichens, and thermophilization was most pronounced for vascular plants, but occurred only on the lowest summits and northern aspects. Lichens showed less thermophilization and, for the bryophytes, no significant thermophilization was found. Although recent climate change may have primarily caused the observed changes in vegetation, combined effects with non-climatic factors (e.g. grazing and trampling) are likely important as well. At a larger scale, alpine vegetation shifts could have a profound impact on biosphere functioning with feedbacks to the global climate. Keywords: Alpine vegetation; Climate change; Resurvey study; Thermophilization; Cryptogams.
28252Logesh A.R., Chinlampianga M., Shukla A.C. & Upreti D.K. (2017): Studies on lichens of Mizoram, northeast India. - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India, Section B: Biological Sciences, 87(2): 445–457.
The paper enumerates 159 species of lichens recorded from the Mizoram state of northeast India. Buellia aeruginascens, Chaenotheca chrysocephala, Diorygma reniforme, Gassicurtia acidobaeomyceta, Graphis granulosa, Hafellia demutans, Phyllopsora soralifera, Ramboldia sorediata, R. subnexa, Relicina sublanea, Stigmatochroma adaucta, S. gerontoides, S. kryptoviolascens, S. metaleptodes are new records for Indian lichen biota. An inventory of lichen species together with detailed account of new records of lichens are provided in the present communication. Keywords: Lichenized fungi  New records  Indo-Burma hotspot  Northeastern India.
28251Felczykowska A., Pastuszak-Skrzypczak A., Pawlik A., Bogucka K., Herman-Antosiewicz A. & Guzow-Krzemińska B. (2017): Antibacterial and anticancer activities of acetone extracts from in vitro cultured lichen-forming fungi. - BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 17:300 [12 p.].
Background: Lichens that were used in traditional medicine for ages produce numerous secondary metabolites, however our knowledge about biological activities of substances secreted by separated bionts is scarce. The main objectives of this study were to isolate and find optimal conditions for the growth of mycelia from three common lichen-forming fungi, i.e. Caloplaca pusilla, Protoparmeliopsis muralis and Xanthoria parietina and to evaluate antibacterial and antiproliferative activities of their acetone extracts. Methods: Agar disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods were used to test antimicrobial activity against six species of bacteria. MTT method, flow cytometry assay and DAPI staining were applied to test antiproliferative activity of selected extracts against MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma), PC-3 (human prostate cancer) and HeLa (human cervix adenocarcinoma) cancer cells. Results: P. muralis strongly inhibited the growth of Gram-positive bacteria, i.e. Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis (MICs from 6.67 to 100.00 μg mL−1). X. parietina grown on PDA and G-LBM media decreased HeLa or MCF-7 cancer cells viability with IC50 values of about 8 μg mL−1, while C. pusilla grown on G-LBM medium showed the highest potency in decreasing MCF-7 (7.29 μg mL−1), PC-3 (7.96 μg mL−1) and HeLa (6.57 μg mL−1) cancer cells viability. We also showed induction of apoptosis in HeLa, PC-3 and MCF-7 cell lines treated with increasing concentrations of C. pusilla extract. Conclusion: We showed that selected acetone extracts demonstrated a strong antimicrobial and anticancer effects that suggests that aposymbiotically cultured lichen-forming fungi can be a source of antibacterial and antiproliferative compounds. Keywords: Antibacterial activity, Antiproliferative effect, Apoptosis, Lichen, MIC, MBC.
28250Mikhailova I.N. (2017): Initial stages of recovery of epiphytic lichen communities after reduction of emissions from a copper smelter. - Russian Journal of Ecology, 48(4): 335–339.
[Translation of Original Russian Text by N. Gorgolyuk © I.N. Mikhailova, 2017, published in Ekologiya, 2017, No. 4, pp. 277–281.] Analysis has been made of changes in the species composition and abundance of epiphytic lichens on fir trees during the first decade after a sharp reduction of emissions from a large copper smelter in the Middle Urals. The results show that lichens have recolonized the area of the former lichen desert and that the abundance of lichen species in the impact and buffer zones has increased. However, a fairly long time is required before lichen communities in the vicinity of the smelter can recover to the background state, since species highly sensitive to pollution still occur only in the background area. Keywords: recolonization, succession, resistance, elasticity, heavy metals, sulfur dioxide, industrial pollution, the Middle Urals.
28249Zemanová L., Trotsiuk V., Morrissey R.C., Bače R., Mikoláš M. & Svoboda M. (2017): Old trees as a key source of epiphytic lichen persistence and spatial distribution in mountain Norway spruce forests. - Biodiversity and Conservation, 26: 1943–1958.
Habitat loss and fragmentation can negatively impact the persistence of dispersal-limited lichen species with narrow niches. Rapid change in microclimate due to canopy dieback exposes species to additional stressors that may limit their capacity to survive and colonize. We studied the importance of old trees as micro-refuges and microclimate stability in maintaining lichen survival and diversity. The study was situated in mountain Norway spruce (Picea abies) forests of the Gorgany Mountains of the Ukrainian Carpathian mountain belt. Lichens were collected on 13 circular study plots (1000 m2). Dendrochronological methods were used to reconstruct age structure and maximum disturbance event history. A linear mixed effects model and general additive models were used to explain patterns and variability of lichens based on stand age and disturbance history for each plot. Tree age was the strongest variable influencing lichen diversity and composition. Recent (<80 years ago) severely disturbed plots were colonized only by the most common species, however, old trees (>200 years old) that survived the disturbances served as microrefuges for the habitat-specialized and/or dispersal limited species, thus epiphytic lichen biodiversity was markedly higher on those plots in comparison to plots without any old trees. Most species were able to survive microclimatic change after disturbances, or recolonize disturbed patches from surrounding old-growth forests. We concluded that the survival of old trees after disturbances could maintain and/or recover large portions of epiphytic lichen biodiversity even in altered microclimates. Keywords: Biodiversity Colonization Forest continuity Microclimate Species refuges Tree age.
28248Vidal-Russell R. & Messuti M.I. (2017): Phylogenetic signal of photobiont switches in the lichen genus Pseudocyphellaria s. l. follows a Brownian motion model. - Symbiosis, 72: 215–223.
Lichen symbioses are defined as a symbiotic relationship between a mycobiont (generally an ascomycete) and one or more photobionts (green algae or/and cyanobacteria). It was proposed that cephalodia emancipation is an evolutionary driver for photobiont switch from chlorophyte to cyanobacteria. In this study we want to test the monophyly of cyanolichens and to measure the phylogenetic signal of the symbiotic relationship between cyanobacteria and a mycobiont partner in the lichen genus Pseudocyphellaria. This genus includes some species that have a chlorophyte as primary photobiont (and Nostoc in internal cephalodia), while others have only cyanobacteria. In a phylogenetic framework we measure the phylogenetic signal (or phylogenetic dispersion) as well as mapped photobiont switches performing stochastic character mapping. Results show that having cyanobacteria as main photobiont has a strong phylogenetic signal that follows a Brownian motion model. Seven clades in the phylogeny had an ancestor with cyanobacteria. Reversal to a green algae photobiont is rare. Several switches were estimated through evolutionary time suggesting that there was some flexibility in these traits along the phylogeny; however, close relatives retained cyanobacteria as main photobiont throughout the cyanolichen’s history. Photobiont switches from green algae to cyanobacteria might enhance ecotypical differentiation. These ecotypes could lead to several speciation events in the new lineage resulting in the phylogenetic signal found in this study. We give insights into the origin of lichen diversity exploring the photobiont switch in a phylogenetic context in Pseudocyphellaria s. l. as a model genus. Keywords: Evolutionary driver . Lichenized fungi . Photobiont switch . Speciation . Symbiosis.
28247Saccardo P.A. & Saccardo D. (1905): Supplementum universale. Pars VI. Hymenomycetae-Laboulbeniomycetae. - Sylloge Fungorum, 17: 1-991.
28246Gallo L., Corapi A., Apollaro C., Vespasiano G. & Lucadamo L. (2017): Effect of the interaction between transplants of the epiphytic lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea L. (Zopf) and rainfall on the variation of element concentrations associated with the water-soluble part of atmospheric depositions. - Atmospheric Pollution Research, 8(5): 912–920.
Water Soluble Bulk Deposition (WSBD) and Water Soluble Leaching (WSL) from Pseudevernia furfuracea thalli transplanted in a anthropized zone were separately collected in four locations where weather stations were set up for monitoring rainfalls rate and daily temperature. The thalli were exposed for three months during which 13 major rainfalls took place. The concentrations of 15 elements (Al, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, Pb, As, Cd, Ti, Sn, Sb) were measured as well in WSBD and WSL as in the lichen thalli at the end of the exposure period. The total bioaccumulation of each element was significantly correlated with its % representation in both the lichen input (WSBD) and output (WSL). Elements with a small water-soluble input-pool were mostly taken up by the thalli (output/input < 1). Among the elements with a high input-pool, Zn was nearly systematically taken up while Al and Mn were lost (output/input > 1). Al showed a significant direct correlation with the increase in mm and hours of rainfall (i.e. transition from net loss to net uptake) while Mn showed an inverse correlation (transition from net uptake to net loss), which may be due to element competition modulated by water-stimulated lichen physiology. Al was strongly bioaccumulated while Mn showed a slight increase in exposed thalli. This suggests that rainfall-induced loss can result in an underestimation by lichen biomonitoring of element concentrations in atmospheric deposition and an increase in the bioavailability of potential toxic elements for other environmental compartments.
28245Kaufmann S., Hauck M. & Leuschner C. (2017): Comparing the plant diversity of paired beech primeval and production forests: Management reduces cryptogam, but not vascular plant species richness. - Forest Ecology and Management, 400: 58–67.
Conflicting evidence of the impact of forest management on biodiversity exists, either decreasing or increasing species richness. Variable diversity responses may result from the adoption of different unmanaged reference systems, ranging from stands with management abandonment in the recent past to true primeval forests. We compared the species richness of epiphytic bryophytes and lichens and vascular forest floor plants in three primeval forest/production forest pairs of Fagus sylvatica in Slovakia, adopting a replicated design and a reference system without any management legacy. Mean number of bryophyte and lichen species per 500 m2-plot tended to be higher in the primeval forests, while the mean α-diversity of vascular plants was higher in the production forests. In contrast, the β-diversity of the three plant groups as expressed by the Sørensen Dissimilarity Index was generally higher in the primeval forest plot sample, reflecting a higher heterogeneity of plant community composition and habitat diversity. Plotting cumulative species numbers against plot numbers suggests that the curves for bryophyte and lichen species richness may saturate at ca. 250 plots or ∼12.5 ha in the primeval forests, but already at 30–60 plots (<3 ha) in the more homogeneous production forests. Total bryophyte and lichen species numbers are estimated to be 30–100% larger in the primeval forests than the production forests. Contrary to general belief, vascular plant species richness was similarly high, or even higher, in the primeval forests when >50 plots (total area: 2.5 ha) were investigated, evidencing the importance of natural disturbance regimes for maintaining high forest biodiversity. Our results show that Fagus sylvatica primeval forests are inhabited by a species-rich epiphyte flora despite the species poverty of the tree layer. This evidences the outstanding value of primeval forest reserves for the conservation of temperate forest biodiversity. Keywords: biodiversity offsetting, old-growth, restoration, secondary forest.
28244Spake R., Martin P.M., Ezard T.H.G., Newton A.C. & Doncaster C.P. (2015): A meta-analysis of functional group responses to forest recovery outside of the tropics . - Conservation Biology, 29(6): 1695–1703.
Both active and passive forest restoration schemes are used in degraded landscapes across the world to enhance biodiversity and ecosystem service provision. Restoration is increasingly also being implemented in biodiversity offset schemes as compensation for loss of natural habitat to anthropogenic development. This has raised concerns about the value of replacing old-growth forest with plantations, motivating research on biodiversity recovery as forest stands age. Functional diversity is now advocated as a key metric for restoration success, yet it has received little analytical attention to date. We conducted a meta-analysis of 90 studies that measured differences in species richness for functional groups of fungi, lichens, and beetles between old- growth control and planted or secondary treatment forests in temperate, boreal, and Mediterranean regions. We identified functional-group–specific relationships in the response of species richness to stand age after forest disturbance. Ectomycorrhizal fungi averaged 90 years for recovery to old-growth values (between 45 years and unrecoverable at 95% prediction limits), and epiphytic lichens took 180 years to reach 90% of old-growth values (between 140 years and never for recovery to old-growth values at 95% prediction limits). Non-saproxylic beetle richness, in contrast, decreased as stand age of broadleaved forests increased. The slow recovery by some functional groups essential to ecosystem functioning makes old-growth forest an effectively irreplaceable biodiversity resource that should be exempt from biodiversity offsetting initiatives. Keywords: biodiversity offsetting, old-growth, restoration, secondary forest.
28243McMullin R.T., Ure D., Smith M., Clapp H. & Wiersma Y.F. (2017): Ten years of monitoring air quality and ecological integrity using fieldidentifiable lichens at Kejimkujik National Park and National Historic Site in Nova Scotia, Canada. - Ecological Indicators, 81: 214–221.
Arboreal lichens have a wide range of tolerance to habitat disturbance. As a result, they have been used globally as bioindicators of environmental change, particularly for monitoring atmospheric pollution. Here, we use lichens to monitor air quality and ecological integrity (EI) at Kejimkujik National Park and National Historic Site in Nova Scotia, Canada. We provide descriptions of two protocols and compare the results using data gathered in 2006, 2011, and 2016. To monitor air quality, we established 12 monitoring sites throughout the park and used a suite of lichens that are intolerant to air pollution to develop an index of air purity (IAP) that we compared every 5 years. Our protocol for monitoring EI of forest ecosystems was set up at these same 12 sites. We selected 50 regionally common field-identifiable lichen species and genera ranging in sensitivity from disturbance-tolerant to intolerant, and compare their presence in spatially constrained zones on a variety of tree species every 5 years. Our results suggest that air quality in Kejimkujik has increased slightly in the 10 years since monitoring was implemented, which is consistent with improvements in local air quality. Species richness also increased slightly, suggesting that EI has not declined. The maintenance of EI, through protection and restoration of natural resources, is a key priority in the management of national parks in Canada. Our protocols will provide early detection of changes to EI, enabling park managers to take responsive action. We are confident that our protocols can be replicated in other parts of the world with different suites of regionally common lichens. Highlights: • A regionally specific suite of lichen species was successfully selected to monitor air quality and ecological integrity. • New monitoring protocols for air quality and ecological integrity were developed and successfully implement. • A positive correlation between the abundance of pollution intolerant species and a decline in air pollution was shown. • Regional suites of lichens can be used as a management tool for early detection ofdisturbances and environmental changes. Keywords: Bio-monitoring; Index of air purity; Sustainable forest management; Acadian forest; Maritimes.
28242Graney J.R., Landis M.S., Puckett K.J., Studabaker W.B., Edgerton E.S., Legge A.H. & Percy K.E. (2017): Differential accumulation of PAHs, elements, and Pb isotopes by five lichen species from the Athabasca Oil Sands Region in Alberta, Canada. - Chemosphere, 184: 700–710.
A 2014 case study investigated the relative accumulation efficiency of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), total sulfur (S), total nitrogen (N), major and minor elements and Pb isotopes in five common lichen species at three boreal forest sites in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) in northeastern Alberta, Canada to identify the optimum lichen species for future biomonitoring. Differences in concentrations of PAHs, multiple elements, and Pb isotopes in fruticose (Bryoria furcellata, Cladina mitis, Evernia mesomorpha) and foliose (Hypogymnia physodes and Tuckermannopsis americana) lichens were found along a 100 km distance gradient from the primary oil sands operations. Integration of insights from emission source samples and oil sands mineralogy in consort with aerosol collection indicates incorporation of more fine particulate matter (PM) into foliose than fruticose lichen biomass. Contrasting PAH with element concentrations allowed lichen species specific accumulation patterns to be identified. The ability of lichen species to incorporate different amounts of gas phase (S and N), petrogenic (V, Ni, Mo), clay (low Si/Al and more rare earth elements), and sand (higher Si/Al and Ti) components from the oil sand operations reflects aerosol particle size and lichen physiology differences that translate into differences in PM transport distances and lichen accumulation efficiencies. Based on these findings Hypogymnia physodes is recommended for future PAH biomonitoring and source attribution studies. Highlights: Five lichen species collected from three site transect in Athabasca Oil Sands Region. Lichen specific concentration gradients in PAHs, S, N, and 32 elements were found. Different coarse and fine particulate matter multi-element fingerprints identified. Oil sands mineralogy and Pb isotopes provided particulate matter source insights. Size dependent incorporation of aerosols in foliose and fruticose lichens documented. Keywords: Oil sands; PAHs; Pb isotopes; Foliose and fruticose lichens; Major and minor elements.
28241Lücking R., Hodkinson B.P. & Leavitt S.D. (2017): Corrections and amendments to the 2016 classification of lichenized fungi in the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. - Bryologist, 120(1): 58–69.
The following corrections and amendments are made to the 2016 classification of lichenized fungi published in the previous issue of this journal. Four families are added: Harpidiaceae (Pezizomycotina incertae sedis), with the two genera Euopsis and Harpidium; Pleomassariaceae (Pleosporales), with the genus Splanchonema; Squamarinaceae (Lecanorales), with the two genera Herteliana (moved from Ramalinaceae) and Squamarina (moved from Stereocaulaceae); and Trichosphaeriaceae (Sordariomycetes: Trichosphaeriales), with the genus Cresporhaphis. The following previously overlooked genera are also added: Allophoron (Pezizomycotina incertae sedis), Cresporhaphis (Trichosphaeriaceae), Gabura (Arctomiaceae), Julella (Trypetheliaceae), Knightiella (Icmadophilaceae), Porpidinia (Lecideaceae), Protoroccella (Roccellaceae), Psoromidium (Pannariaceae) and Tremotylium (Arthoniales incertae sedis). The classification is adjusted for four genera: Asteroporum (moved from Pezizomycotina incertae sedis to Dothideomycetes incertae sedis), Eremastrella (moved from Psoraceae to Lecideaceae), Hosseusia (moved from Pannariaceae to Lecanoromycetes incertae sedis) and Joergensenia (moved from Lecanorales incertae sedis to Pannariaceae). Further, the following overlooked generic synonyms are listed: Buscalionia (= Marcelaria [nom. cons. prop.]), Degeliella (= Psoromaria), Dirinastrum (= Buellia), Gymnographa (= Phaeographis), Kroswia (= Fuscopannaria), Marfloraea (= Lepra), Medusulina (= Fissurina), and Phaeographina (= Pliariona); the genus Anapyrenium is discussed as a potential synonym of Thelomma. Species numbers are adjusted for nine genera: Austrella (Pannariaceae; 3 spp.), Icmadophila (Icmadophilaceae; 5 spp.), Lepidocollema (Pannariaceae; 23 spp.), Massalongia (Massalongiaceae; 6 spp.), Parmeliella (Pannariaceae; 70 spp.), Psoromidium (Pannariaceae; 1 spp.), Pyrgillus (Pyrenulaceae; 7 spp.), Siphula (Icmadophilaceae; 17 spp.) and Synarthonia (Arthoniales incertae sedis; 5 spp.). The fossil lichen Honeggeriella (complexa) is validated by adding MycoBank registration numbers, the validity of the genus name Pallidogramme (Graphidaceae) is discussed and confirmed, and the authorship of the name Thallinocarpon (Lichinaceae) is clarified. Several genera are (continued to be) considered non-lichenized, namely Chaenothecopsis (Eurotiomycetes: Mycocaliciales: Sphinctrinaceae), Limboria (newly lectotypified with L. constellata; Pezizomycotina incertae sedis), Naetrocymbe (Dothideomycetes: Pleosporales: Naetrocymbaceae), and Obryzum (Dothideomycetes incertae sedis: Obryzaceae); the status of the genus Pleurotrema (Dothideomycetes incertae sedis: Pleurotremataceae) is also discussed. Seven genera are corrected to have molecular data available: Adelolecia, Aspiciliopsis, Aspilidea, Crocodia, Parasiphula, Vezdaea and Xylopsora. With these corrections, the number of lichenized species is now tabulated at 19,409 and the number of fungal genera, families, and orders including lichens at 1,002, 119, and 40, respectively.Keywords: Delichenization, Diploschistes, lichen species richness, Mycocaliciales, Peltigerales.
28240Lumbsch H.T. (2017): [Review:] The Lichens of Italy. A Second Annotated Checklist. - Bryologist, 120(1): 110–111.
Book review. Nimis, P. L. 2016. The Lichens of Italy. A Second Annotated Checklist. 739 pp., 2 figs, hardcover. EUT – Edizioni Universit`a di Trieste, Trieste, Italy [ISBN 9788883037542]. Price: E80.00 (approx. $85.00)þshipping. Available from http://dbiodbs.univ.trieste.it/egbooks/scli.html.
28239Lendemer J.C. (2017): Recent literature on lichens—244. - Bryologist, 120(1): 97–109.
28238Brodo I.M. (2017): [Review:] A lichen hotspot in the city of Boulder. - Bryologist, 120(1): 112–113.
Book review. Tripp, Erin A. 2016. Field Guide to the Lichens of White Rocks (Boulder, Colorado). University Press of Colorado, Boulder. 170 pages. Paper: ISBN 978-1-60732-553-6. $21.95; Ebook: ISBN 978-1-60732-554-3, $17.95.
28237Cáceres M.E.S., Aptroot A., Mendonça C.O., dos Santos L.A. & Lücking R. (2017): Sprucidea, a further new genus of rain forest lichens in the family Malmideaceae (Ascomycota). - Bryologist, 120(2): 202–211.
We describe the new genus, Sprucidea M.Cáceres, Aptroot & Lücking, from rain forest areas in South America and Southeast Asia. Phylogenetic analysis of the mtSSU and nuLSU markers place Sprucidea within Malmideaceae, sister to the genus Savoronala from Madagascar. Like Malmidea, Sprucidea is characterized by frequently red thalli containing norsolorinic acid, but differs in the bacillar instead of ellipsoid ascospores and in the stalked sporodochia as conidiomata; from Savoronala, Sprucidea is distinguished by the crustose thallus and short stalks of the sporodochia. The new genus thus far contains four species, two of them new to science, namely S. granulosa M.Cáceres, Aptroot & Lücking and S. rubropenicillata M.Cáceres, Aptroot & Lücking (type species), and two newly proposed combinations: S. gymnopiperis (Kalb) M.Cáceres, Aptroot & Lücking (basionym: Malmidea gymnopiperis Kalb) and S. penicillata (Aptroot, M.Cáceres, Lücking & Sparrius) M.Cáceres, Aptroot & Lücking (basionym: Bacidina penicillata Aptroot, M.Cáceres, Lücking & Sparrius). In addition, we propose the new combination Malmidea floridensis (Nyl.) M.Cáceres, Aptroot & Lücking (basionym: Lecidea floridensis Nyl.). We further include the pantropical genus Crustospathula (with currently five species) in Malmideaceae, differing from the other genera by its stalked soralia. With the recent addition of the genus Kalbionora, Malmideaceae thus contains five genera and two additional, orphaned lineages of species currently included in Lecidea s.l. A key to all genera and lineages is provided, as well as a key to all species of Sprucidea and Crustospathula. Keywords: Brazil, corticolous, Costa Rica, Lecidea cyrtidia, Lecidea plebeja, Papua New Guinea, Thailand, Venezuela.
28236Wieczorek A., Achrem M., Mitka J.R., Rogalski M. & Werczyńska K. (2014): Genetic variability of the populations of Zwackhia viridis (Ach.) Poetsch & Schied [sic!] (Lecanographaceae, Lichenized Ascomycetes) in the eastern Poland: Geographic versus habitat distance. - Polish Journal of Ecology, 62: 253–261.
Zwackhia viridis is a crustose lichen being found in forests throughout Poland. It belongs to rare species being labelled primeval forest lichens which are associated with large forest complexes. The eastern populations of Z. viridis were examined using RAPD technique in order to check whether geographic distance affects genetic diversity of the populations under study. The analysis of seven populations of that species showed large intraspecific diversity. The greatest genetic similarity occurred between populations from the north-eastern area of the country, about 300 km away from each other. In dendrograms, only these populations have simple matching distance greater than 50%. Keywords: lichens; random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), genetic variation.
28235Domaschke S., Fernández-Mendoza F., García M., Martín M. & Printzen C. (2012): Low genetic diversity in Antarctic populations of the lichen-forming ascomycete Cetraria aculeata and its photobiont. - Polar Research, 31: 17353.
Lichens, symbiotic associations of fungi (mycobionts) and green algae or cyanobacteria (photobionts), are poikilohydric organisms that are particularly well adapted to withstand adverse environmental conditions. Terrestrial ecosystems of the Antarctic are therefore largely dominated by lichens. The effects of global climate change are especially pronounced in the maritime Antarctic and it may be assumed that the lichen vegetation will profoundly change in the future. The genetic diversity of populations is closely correlated to their ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions and to their future evolutionary potential. In this study, we present evidence for low genetic diversity in Antarctic mycobiont and photobiont populations of the widespread lichen Cetraria aculeata. We compared between 110 and 219 DNA sequences from each of three gene loci for each symbiont. A total of 222 individuals from three Antarctic and nine antiboreal, temperate and Arctic populations were investigated. The mycobiont diversity is highest in Arctic populations, while the photobionts are most diverse in temperate regions. Photobiont diversity decreases significantly towards the Antarctic but less markedly towards the Arctic, indicating that ecological factors play a minor role in determining the diversity of Antarctic photobiont populations. Richness estimators calculated for the four geographical regions suggest that the low genetic diversity of Antarctic populations is not a sampling artefact. Cetraria aculeata appears to have diversified in the Arctic and subsequently expanded its range into the Southern Hemisphere. The reduced genetic diversity in the Antarctic is colonization
28234Werth S. & Sork V. L. (2014): Ecological specialization in Trebouxia (Trebouxiophyceae) photobionts of Ramalina menziesii (Ramalinaceae) across six range-covering ecoregions of western North America. - American Journal of Botany, 101: 1127–1140.
Premise of the study: Many lichens exhibit extensive ranges spanning several ecoregions. It has been hypothesized that this wide ecological amplitude is facilitated by fungal association with locally adapted photobiont strains. Methods: We studied the identity and geographic distribution of photobionts of the widely distributed North American lichen Ramalina menziesii based on rbcL (chloroplast DNA) and nuclear ribosomal ITS DNA sequences. To test for ecological spe- cialization, we associate photobiont genotypes with local climate and phorophyte. Key results: Of the photobiont lineages of R. menziesii, 94% belong to a clade including Trebouxia decolorans. The remaining are related to T. jamesii. The photobionts showed (1) significant structure according to ecoregion and phorophyte species and (2) genetic associations with phorophyte species and climate. Conclusions: Geography, climate, and ecological specialization shape genetic differentiation of lichen photobionts. One great advantage of independent dispersal of the fungus is symbiotic association with locally adapted photobiont strains. ecological specialization; genetic differentiation; host plant specificity; lichenized ascomycetes; phorophyte; photobiont; Ramalina menziesii; Ramalinaceae; symbiosis; Trebouxia decolorans; Trebouxiophyceae.
28233Alors D., Dal Grande F., Cubas P., Crespo A., Schmitt I., Molina M. C. & Divakar P. K. (2017): Panmixia and dispersal from the Mediterranean Basin to Macaronesian Islands of a macrolichen species. - Scientific Reports, 7: 40879.
The Mediterranean region, comprising the Mediterranean Basin and the Macaronesian Islands, represents a center of diversi cation for many organisms. The genetic structure and connectivity of mainland and island microbial populations has been poorly explored, in particular in the case of symbiotic fungi. Here we investigated genetic diversity and spatial structure of the obligate outcrossing lichen-forming fungus Parmelina carporrhizans in the Mediterranean region. Using eight microsatellite and mating-type markers we showed that fungal populations are highly diverse but lack spatial structure. This is likely due to high connectivity and long distance dispersal of fungal spores. Consistent with low levels of linkage disequilibrium and lack of clonality, we detected both mating-type idiomorphs in all populations. Furthermore we showed that the Macaronesian Islands are the result of colonization from the Mediterranean Basin. The unidirectional gene ow, though, seemed not to be su cient to counterbalance the e ects of drift, resulting in comparatively allelic poor peripheral populations. Our study is the rst to shed light on the high connectivity and lack of population structure in natural populations of a strictly sexual lichen fungus. Our data further support the view of the Macaronesian Islands as the end of the colonization road for this symbiotic ascomycete
28232Wiens J. J. (2012): Why biogeography matters: historical biogeography vs. phylogeography and community phylogenetics for inferring ecological and evolutionary processes. - Frontiers of Biogeography, 4(3): 128–135.
Phylogenetic and phylogeographic approaches have become widespread in evolutionary biol‐ ogy, ecology, and biogeography. However, analyses that incorporate inferences from historical biogeography (e.g., timing of colonization of a region) may be essential to answer the most important large‐ scale questions in these fields, but they remain infrequently used. I focus on two examples here. First, I argue that understanding the origins of biodiversity hotspots (and other high‐diversity regions) requires comparing the timing of biogeographic colonization and diversification rates among regions. In contrast, phylogeographic studies (e.g., analyses within species within a region) may themselves say little about why a region is diverse relative to others. Second, incorporating historical biogeograpy can help address the processes that determine community species richness and structure, such as dispersal, in‐situ trait evolution, and in‐situ speciation. In contrast, the widespread “community phylogenetics” approach (focusing on relatedness of species in communities) may have limited ability to explain community rich‐ ness and structure. biodiversity hotspot, biogeography, community ecology, community phylogenetics, phylogeny, phylogeography, species richness
28231Leavitt S. D. & Lumbsch H. T. (2016): Ecological biogeography of lichen-forming fungi. In: Druzhinina I. S. & Kubicek C. P. (eds), Environmental and microbial relationships, Ed. 3. - The Mycota IV, Springer International Publishing, Switzerland., p. 15–37.
Current research has dramatically increased our understanding of the geographical distribu- tion of lichens and allowed new insights in the importance of the photosynthetic partners for shaping the spatial distribution of these symbi- otic organisms. Novel methods, including the increased availability of data from environmen- tal sampling, will further enhance and refine our hypotheses to explain distribution patterns. These are truly exciting times—with the help of next-generation sequencing techniques, increased number of species for which micro- satellite markers have been identified, and improved analytical tools, biogeographical questions can be addressed that were beyond our reach only a decade ago. Improved under- standing of species delimitations of the fungal partners has allowed us to better understand distribution patterns, and in tandem with enhanced knowledge of species diversity of photosynthetic partners, this provides an ave- nue to better understand patterns that explain distribution patterns at an ecological level. Currently, ecological biogeographical studies focus on a few species that provide great insights, but we look forward to seeing these exemplary studies extended to other lichens, including phylogenetically distant groups and also tropical species, which are currently severely understudied. The extension of research to include a wider amplitude of species will also strengthen predictions of the impact of global climatic change to lichen distribution.
28230Knudsen K. (2004): A preliminary study of Acarospora smaragdula var. lesdainii in California. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 1: 21–24.
The current state of Acarospora studies is discussed. Acarospora hassei Herre and Acarospora particularis H. Magnusson are placed in synonymy with Acarospora smaragdula var. lesdainii (Harmand in A.L. Smith) H. Magnusson. A lectotype is selected for A. hassei Herre.
28229Lendemer J.C. (2004): Placynthiella knudsenii sp. nov., a new lichen from western New York. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 1: 75–78.
Placynthiella knudsenii Lendemer, a new species from western North America is described. It differs from all previously described species in the genus by the combination of a fissured and wrinkled areolate thallus composed primarily of isidioid structures, proportionally larger spores, and the presence of two unknowns by TLC and lack of gyrophoric acid.
28228Harris R.C. (2004): A preliminary list of the lichens of New York. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 1: 55–74.
A list of 808 species and 7 subspecific taxa of lichens known to the author to occur in New York state is presented. The new combination Myriospora immersa (Fink ex J. Hedrick) R. C. Harris is made.
28227Lendemer J.C. (2004): Recent records of lichens in the local area (MD, NJ, PA). I. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 1: 9–20.
An index to the collections of lichens made by the author in Maryland, New Jersey, Pennsylvania from 2002 to 2004 is provided.
28226Lendemer J.C. (2004): A preliminary checklist of the lichen flora of Lehigh Gorge State Park. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 1: 1–8.
Recent field work in the Lehigh Gorge, NE Pennsylvania, USA, revealed the presence of 100 lichen species. Of these, 22 have not previously been reported for the state of Pennsylvania and several represent undescribed taxa.
28225Lendemer J.C. (2005): Lichens of Eastern North America Exsiccati. Fascicle IV, nos. 151-200 . - Opuscula Philolichenum, 2: 37–52.
In conjunction with the preparator’s work on the lichen flora of eastern North America he began distribution of this exsiccat (Lichens of Eastern North America Exsiccati) from the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia (PH). This, the fourth fascicle in the series comprises the nos. 151 to 200 and is distributed in 20 sets on exchange to the following herbaria: ASU, B, BG, CANB, CHR, DOV, FH, GZU, H, HMAS, M, MIN, S, TSB, TNS, TU, UPS, herb. Lendemer. Lepraria caesiella R.C. Harris sp. nov., is described as new to science. The new combination Phlyctis ludoviciensis (Müll. Arg.) Lendemer, is proposed.
28224Knudsen K. (2005): Lichens of the Santa Monica, Part One. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 2: 27–36.
63 taxa are reported from the Santa Monica Mountains in southern California. Endocarpon pseudosubnitescens Breuss is reported as new to North America. New collections of the rare species Cladonia pulvinella Hammer and Placynthiella knudsenii Lendemer are reported. Acarospora arenosa Herre, Acarospora smaragdula (Wahlenberg) A. Massalongo var. smaragdula, Lecanora glaucopsina Nylander in Hasse, and Lecidea subplebeia Nylander in Hasse are discussed. Two new combinations are made: Mycobilimbia austrocalifornica (Zahlbruckner) Knudsen, and Sarcogyne arenosa (Herre) Knudsen & Standley. Acarospora craterifolia H. Magnusson is synonomized with Acarospora smaragdula var. smaragdula, and Acarospora carnegiei Zahlbruckner is synonomized with Acarospora obpallens (Nylander in Hasse) Zahlbruckner. Lectotypes are selected for the following names: Acarospora arenosa Herre, Lecanora obpallens Nylander in Hasse, and Lecidea subplebeia Nylander in Hasse.
28223Lendemer J.C. (2005): Contributions to the lichen flora of Pennsylvania: The lichen flora of the diabase region of northern Bucks and Montgomery Counties. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 2: 21–26.
This preliminary checklist of lichens and lichenicolous fungi occurring in the diabase region of northern Bucks and Montgomery Counties, Pennsylvania, USA, includes a total of 72 taxa, of which ten have not previously been reported from the state. The range of Lecanora oreinoides (Krber) Hertel & Rambold, is extended to include Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Pennsylvania.
28222Knudsen K. (2005): Polysporina lapponica in southern California. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 2: 17–20.
The occurrence of Polysporina lapponica (Acharius ex Schaerer) Degelius is reported for Southern California. Sarcogyne bicolor H. Magnusson is recognized as a new synonym of Polysporina lapponica. The species is discussed as a possible lichenized fungus and as an opportunistic parasite.
28221Harris R.C. (2005): Some name changes in Porina s. lat.. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 2: 15–16.
North American species of Porina Acharius s. lat (Porinaceae, Ostropomycetidae, Lecanoromycetes) lacking setae assigned by Harris to Trichothelium Müll. Arg. are here recognized as Pseudosagedia (Müll. Arg.) M. Choisy to co-ordinate with recent European checklists. The requisite new combinations are Pseudosagedia cestrensis (Michener) R. C. Harris, Pseudosagedia crocynioides (R. C. Harris) R. C. Harris, Pseudosagedia isidiata (R. C. Harris) R. C. Harris, and Pseudosagedia rhaphidosperma (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris.
28220Knudsen K. (2005): Acarospora epilutescens rediscovered. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 2: 11–14.
Acarospora epilutescens Zahlbruckner is assigned a neotype. Acarospora albida H. Magnusson is made a synonym of A. epilutescens. Its relation to Acarospora epilutesecens sensu Hasse and Magnusson is discussed.
28219Harris R.C. & Lendemer J.C. (2005): Contributions to the lichen flora of Pennsylvania: A checklist of lichens collected during the First Howard Crum Bryological Workshop, Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 2: 1–10.
A checklist of 209 species of lichens and lichenicolous fungi collected during the First Howard Crum Bryological Workshop in the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area, Pennsylvania, USA is provided. The new species Opegrapha bicolor R.C. Harris & Lendemer, collected during the Foray, is described. Chrysothrix flavovirens Tønsberg and Merismatium peregrinum (Flotow) Triebel are reported as new to North America.
28218Knudsen K. (2007): Lichenicolous Fungi of the Czech Republic (The First Commented Checklist) by Jana Kocourková. Acta Musei Nationalis Pragae. Sborník Nárosního [sic!] Muzea V Praze. Series B-Historia Naturalis, 55, 3-4, pp. 59-167 with eight plates of black and white photographs. 1999 (published in 2000). - Opuscula Philolichenum, 4: 81.
Literature review
28217Lendemer J.C. (2007): Lichens of eastern North America Exsiccati, Fascicle V, Nos. 201- 250. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 4: 69–80.
Data for the fifth fascicle, comprising the nos. 201 to 250, of Lichens of Eastern North America Exsiccati is presented. The exsiccat is distributed to ASU, B, BG, CANB, CHR, DOV, FH, GZU, H, HMAS, M, MIN, S, TSB, TNS, TU, UPS, and hb. Lendemer. The new combinations Fissurina cypressi (Müll. Arg.) Lendemer and F. scolecitis (Tuck.) Lendemer, are proposed.
28216Beeching S.Q. (2007): Dimelaena tenuis (lichenized Ascomycota) new to North America, and Xanthoparmelia pseudocongensis new to Georgia, USA. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 4: 55–56.
Dimelaena tenuis is reported as new to North America. Xanthoparmelia pseudocongensis is reported for the first time from Georgia.
28215Tønsberg T. (2007): Notes on lichen genus Lepraria in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, southeastern North America: Lepraria lanata and L. salazinica spp. nov.. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 4: 51–54.
Lepraria lanata Tønsberg and L. salazinica Tønsberg are described as new from the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, North Carolina and Tennessee, U.S.A. Lepraria lanata has exceptionally large consoredia, produces protocetraric and angardianic/roccellic acids and occurs on rock walls. It is easily recognized even in the field. Lepraria salazinica forms a thin, grayish white cover of soredia and consoredia on overhanging rock surfaces and produces atranorin, salazinic acid, and angardianic/roccellic acid.
28214Lendemer J.C. & Harris R.C. (2007): Lepraria normandinoides, a new widespread species from eastern North America. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 4: 45–50.
Lepraria normandinoides, a new species found to be widely distributed in eastern North America, USA is described.
28213Lendemer J.C. (2007): Megalaria beechingii (lichenized ascomycota), a new species from eastern North America. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 4: 39–44.
Megalaria beechingii, a new species from the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA is described.
28212Lendemer J.C. & Knapp W.M. (2007): Contributions to the lichen flora of Maryland: Recent collections from the Delmarva Peninsula. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 4: 23–28.
Results of a recent collecting trip to the Delmarva Peninsula in Maryland, USA, are presented. The Delmarva Peninsula (coastal Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia) is the northern limit of the geographic distribution of numerous typical coastal plain species. Lichen checklists for six localities are provided, and 46 taxa are reported for the first time from the state.
28211Knudsen K., Elix J.A. & Lendemer J.C. (2007): Lepraria adhaerens: A new species from North America. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 4: 5–10.
Lepraria adhaerens K. Knudsen, Elix & Lendemer is described as a new species of lichenized fungi growing usually over mosses and lichens on rock and soil, in southern California, Missouri and Pennsylvania. It is characterized by the presence of pannarin and zeorin. Keywords: Lepraria, lichenized Ascomycetes, North America, California, Santa Monica Mountains, Ozarks, Pennsylvania, Stereocaulaceae.
28210Fryday A.M., Lendemer J.C. & Howe N.M. (2007): Porpidia soredizodes (lichenized ascomycota) in North America. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 4: 1–4.
The occurrence of the sorediate species Porpidia soredizodes (Nyl. ex Lamy) J.R. Laundon in North America is confirmed based on a collection from the zinc contaminated superfund site at Lehigh Gap, Carbon Co., Pennsylvania. Another recent collection from Connecticut is also referable to P. soredizodes and two earlier collections from eastern Canada that were provisionally referred to this species are re-examined.
28209Buaruang K., Boonpragob K., Mongkolsuk P., Sangvichien E., Vongshewarat K., Polyiam W., Rangsiruji A., Saipunkaew W., Naksuwankul K., Kalb J., Parnmen S., Kraichak E., Phraphuchamnong P., Meesim S., Luangsuphabool T., Nirongbut P., Poengsungnoen V., Duangphui N., Sodamuk M., Phokaeo S., Molsil M., Aptroot A., Kalb K., Lücking R. & Lumbsch H.T. (2017): A new checklist of lichenized fungi occurring in Thailand. - MycoKeys, 23: 1–91.
A new revised checklist of lichenized fungi in Thailand is presented, including 1,292 species. Recent work on the taxonomy of these organisms in Thailand resulted in an enormous increase in our knowledge of the lichen biota of the country – the current checklist includes more than twice as many species as the previous catalogue published 15 years ago – and phylogenetic studies resulted in numerous changes in the generic classification of lichenized fungi. Hence, a new checklist is here presented summarizing the current knowledge of lichens in Thailand. Six new records are reported, viz. Acanthothecis salazinica, Bactrospora metabola, Buellia parastata, Diploschistes cinereocaesius, Rolfidium coccocarpioides, and Trapelia placodioides. Five previously recorded species, namely Lecanora carpinea, Platismatia glauca, P. lacunosa, P. tuckermanii and Roccella phycopsis are shown to be based on misidentifications and are excluded from the checklist. Three new combinations of species previously placed in Pertusaria to Lepra are proposed: L. bulolensis (A.W.Archer, Elix & Streimann) Schmitt & Lumbsch, L. patellifera (A.W.Archer) Schmitt & Lumbsch, and L. subventosa (Malme) Schmitt & Lumbsch. Keywords: Asia, biodiversity, lichens, new records, taxonomy.
28208Jia Z.-F. & Lücking R. (2017): Resolving the species of the lichen genus Graphina Müll. Arg. in China, with some new combinations. - MycoKeys, 25: 13–29.
In the framework of continuing studies on the Graphidaceae in China, the status of all taxa traditionally assigned to the genus Graphina reported from China are resolved in the present paper. Five new combinations are made, namely Diorygma isabellinum (Zahlbr.) Z.F. Jia & Lücking, comb. nov., Fissurina adscribens (Nyl.) Z.F. Jia & Lücking, comb. nov., Graphis lecanactiformis (Zahlbr.) Z.F. Jia & Lücking, comb. nov., Phaeographis haloniata (Zahlbr.) Z.F. Jia & Lücking, comb. nov. and Platygramme taiwanensis (J.C. Wei) Z.F. Jia & Lucking, comb. nov. Five new synonymies were found: Graphina olivascens Zahlbr. (= Fissurina adscribens), Graphina plumbicolor Zahlbr. (= Phaeographis haloniata), Graphina roridula Zahlbr. and its variety platypoda Zahlbr. [= Diorygma pachygraphum (Nyl.) Kalb, Staiger & Elix], and Graphina taiwanensis f. obscurata J.C. Wei (= Platygramme taiwanensis). Key words: Lichens, taxonomy, Graphidaceae, Ostropales, Lecanoromycetes, Ascomycota.
28207Svensson M., Ekman S., Klepsland J.T., Nordin A., Thor G., von Hirschheydt G., Jonsson F., Knutsson T., Lif M., Spribille T. & Westberg M. (2017): Taxonomic novelties and new records of Fennoscandian crustose lichens. - MycoKeys, 25: 51–86.
We present taxonomic, distributional and ecological notes on Fennoscandian crustose lichens and lichenicolous fungi, based on new collections as well as revision of herbarium material. Two new combinations are proposed: Frutidella furfuracea comb. nov. for F. pullata and Puttea duplex comb. nov. for Fellhanera duplex. Lecidea byssoboliza, L. carneoglauca and Variolaria torta are all reduced to synonymy with Bacidia antricola, Bacidia invertens is synonymized with B. igniarii, B. atrolivida with Mycobilimbia tetramera, and Gyalidea fruticola with Thelenella pertusariella. A new description is provided for Micarea hylocomii. 25 species of lichens and lichenicolous fungi are reported as new to Finland, Norway and/or Sweden: Absconditella lignicola (Norway), Bacidia antricola (Norway), B. polychroa (Norway), B. pycnidata (Sweden), Bacidina adastra (Sweden), Biatora veteranorum (Norway), Briancoppinsia cytospora (Finland), Catillaria scotinodes (Norway), Cliostomum subtenerum (Norway), Dirina fallax (Sweden), Fellhaneropsis almquistiorum (Norway), Gyalidea subscutellaris (Sweden), Lecania inundata (Norway), L. suavis (Norway), Micarea capitata (Norway), M. deminuta (Norway), M. hylocomii (Sweden), M. lynceola (Sweden), M. soralifera (Sweden), M. subconfusa (Sweden), Mycoblastus sanguinarioides (Finland, Sweden), Paralecia pratorum (Sweden), Puttea duplex (Sweden), Sarcogyne algoviae (Finland) and Toninia subnitida (Norway). Lectotypes are designated for Bacidia antricola, Lecidea byssoboliza, Lecidea carneoglauca, Lecidea subconfusa and Lecidea submoestula. Key words: Ascomycota, lectotypification, lichens, Ramalinaceae, Pilocarpaceae.
28206Harris R.C. & Ladd D. (2007): New taxa of lichens and lichenicolous fungi from the Ozark Ecoregion. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 4: 57–68.
Three genera and species of lichens from the Ozark region of midcontinental North America are described as new to science and illustrated. Pachyphysis ozarkana (Porpidiaceae s. lat.) is widely distributed on exposed carbonate rocks, Phoebus hydrophobius (Roccellaceae) occurs on sheltered areas of massive carbonate bluffs, and Xyleborus sporodochifer (Stereocaulaceae) occurs on lightly shaded decorticate hardwoods logs and stumps in wooded uplands. A lichenicolous fungus, Opegrapha diffracticola (Roccellaceae), occurring on Bacidia diffracta, is also described and illustrated.
28205McCarthy P.M. & Kantvilas G. (2017): A new species of Porina (lichenized Ascomycota, Porinaceae) from Tasmania. - Telopea, 20: 109–113.
Porina australis sp. nov. (lichenized Ascomycota, Porinaceae) is described from seasonally inundated, siliceous rocks in the Frankland River, north-western Tasmania, Australia. It has a thin, medium yellow-brown to dark rusty red-brown, rimose to areolate thallus, prominent, medium-sized, outwardly blackish perithecia that are mainly orange-brown within, a comparatively thick, pale excipulum and fusiform or narrowly oblong, 7(–9)-septate ascospores of 37–65 × 5–8 μm
28204Urbanavichene I.N. & Urbanavichus G.P. (2017): Micarea tomentosa (Pilocarpaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) new to Russia from the Republic of Mordovia. - Turczaninowia, 20(1): 30-34.
lichens, oristic nding, biogeography, ecology, indicator species, ecological continuity, Mordovskiy Reserve, Eastern Europe. Micarea tomentosa is reported as new to Russia from one locality in the Republic of Mordovia, where it grows on decaying wood of Alnus glutinosa in humid habitat of the old alder forest in the oodplain of the Vyaz- Pushta stream in Mordovskiy Reserve. M. tomentosa is similar to M. hedlundii stalked, whitish and tomentose pycnidia, but has a more brightly colored and more continuous thallus which is composed of granules larger than the goniocysts of M. hedlundii; anatomically, the two species can be differentiated by the presence of the dull orange pig- ment (reacting K+ violet, C+ violet) within the goniocysts of M. hedlundii; the apothecia of M. tomentosa are pale to slightly brownish, pinkish-brown usually simple and adnate while the apothecia of M. hedlundii are often tuberculate, larger and darker, pinkish-brown or brown pigmented. In addition, M. tomentosa has short (meso)condia. The spe- cies was known earlier only from four European countries (Poland, Slovakia, Estonia and Sweden), where it occurrs mostly within large complexes of natural forest ecosystems, especially in protected nature reserves, demonstrating its particular role as an indicator of ecological continuity for forest habitats. Considering the earlier known distribution of M. tomentosa, the Mordovian nding extends its known geographic range far to the East and con rms its occurrence in the Eastern Europe
28203Zhurbenko M.P. & Pino-Bodas R. (2017): A revision of lichenicolous fungi growing on Cladonia, mainly from the Northern Hemisphere, with a worldwide key to the known species. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 16: 188-266.
The paper documents 70 species of fungi found on species of the lichen genus Cladonia, 65 of which are obligately lichenicolous. One genus, Brackelia, and seven species, Biciliopsis cladoniae, Brackelia lunkei, Caeruleoconidia biazrovii, Neolamya ahtii, Niesslia keissleri, Sclerococcum crassitunicatum and S. epicladonia, are here described as new to science. The names Caeruleoconidia and C. ochrolechiae are validated. Ameroconium cladoniae is considered as a heterotypic synonym of Taeniolella beschiana. Merismatium cladoniicola most likely is a heterotypic synonym of M. decolorans. Taxonomic notes on critical specimens, including those of Abrothallus cf. pezizicola, Arthonia cf. lepidophila, Cladophialophora cf. cladoniae, Hainesia cf. bryonorae, Merismatium cf. nigritellum as well as of unidentified species of Acremonium, Dactylospora, Leptosphaeria, Lichenopeltella and Pronectria found on Cladonia are provided. Cercidospora cladoniicola, Didymocyrtis cladoniicola, Hainesia longicladoniae, Pezizella ucrainica, Plectocarpon cladoniae and Polycoccum laursenii are documented as new to Asia. Biazrovia stereocaulicola, Hainesia longicladoniae and Polycoccum microcarpum are new to North America. The following species are new to various countries: Argentina (Bachmanniomyces uncialicola and Niesslia cladoniicola), Finland (Didymocyrtis foliaceiphila and Roselliniella cladoniae), Japan (Lichenosticta alcicorniaria), Lithuania (Abrothallus cf. pezizicola), Mongolia (Arthonia digitatae, Didymocyrtis cladoniicola, Epicladonia stenospora s. lat., Lichenostigma alpinum s. lat., Phaeopyxis punctum, Sphaerellothecium cladoniicola and Taeniolella beschiana), New Zealand (Abrothallus cladoniae s. lat. and Epicladonia sandstedei), Norway (Arthonia digitatae), Kazakhstan (Sphaerellothecium cladoniae), Kyrgyzstan (Epicladonia sandstedei), Papua New Guinea (Opegrapha cladoniicola), Portugal (Epicladonia stenospora s. lat.), Russia (Abrothallus cladoniae s. lat., A. cf. pezizicola, Arthrorhaphis aeruginosa, Didymocyrtis foliaceiphila, Hainesia longicladoniae, Neoburgoa freyi, Pezizella ucrainica and Polycoccum laursenii), Spain (Lichenoconium aeruginosum), U.S.A. (Biazrovia stereocaulicola, Hainesia longicladoniae, Niesslia cladoniicola and Polycoccum microcarpum), Venezuela (Roselliniella cladoniae) and Vietnam (Pyrenidium actinellum s. lat.). Epicladonia sandstedei and E. stenospora s. lat. are new to Macaronesia. Heterocephalacria bachmannii is for the first time documented in the polar desert biome. Biazrovia stereocaulicola, Coniochaeta sp., Merismatium coccisporum and Pyrenidium actinellum s. lat. are newly reported to occur on Cladonia. A key to 138 species of fungi so far known to occur on Cladonia is provided. Cladoniicolous fungi, new taxa, new records, new host lichens, taxonomy
28202Lewis C.J. Brinker & Samuel R. (2017): Notes on new and interesting lichens from Ontario, Canada - III. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 16: 153-187.
We report on fifty-seven lichen species from forty-four genera that are new either to Canada or the Province of Ontario, are the first published records in approximately the last century, or are additional provincial records of rare species with few collections. Ranges of several species are also expanded in northeastern North America. The first published reports of Abrothallus microspermus, Lecanora epanora, Parmotrema hypotropum, and Placidium arboreum in Canada are presented, as well as, the first published reports of Arthrorhaphis alpina, Dermatocarpon intestiforme, Menegazzia subsimilis, Multiclavula vernalis, Parmelia neodiscordans, Polychidium muscicola, Porpidia melinodes, Protothelenella corrosa, and Ramalina sinensis in Ontario. We report the first documented records since the late 19th to early 20th century for Ontario of Arthonia ruana, Heterodermia hypoleuca, Leptogium corticola, Lithothelium septemseptatum, Phaeophyscia hispidula ssp. hispidula, and Scyntinium dactylinum. Details on the following additional rare species are also provided: Acarospora sinopica, Anaptychia palmulata, Arthothelium spectabile, Catapyrenium cinereum, Chrysothrix chlorina, C. xanthina, Evernia prunastri, Gyalecta jenensis, Heppia adglutinata, Lecanora fugiens, Lepraria humida, Scytinium subtile, S. teretiusculum, Microcalicium arenarium, Myriospora smaragdula, Normandina pulchella, Opegrapha mougeotii, O. rufescens, Parmeliella triptophylla, Psilolechia lucida, Psora decipiens, P. globifera, P. pseudorussellii, Punctelia appalachensis, Rhizocarpon oederi, Rhizoplaca chrysoleuca, Teloschistes chrysophthalmus, Thyrea confusa, Toninia sedifolia, and Usnea longissima. Rare lichens, Appalachian-Great Lakes, arctic-alpine, metallophytes, range extension, Ontario lichens
28201Xu M., Heidmarsson S., Thorsteinsdottir M., Eiriksson F.F., Omarsdottir S. & Olafsdottir E.S. (2017): DNA barcoding and LC-MS metabolite profiling of the lichen-forming genus Melanelia: Specimen identification and discrimination focusing on Icelandic taxa. - PLoS ONE, 12(5): e0178012.
Taxa in the genus Melanelia (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) belong to a group of saxicolous lichens with brown to black foliose thalli, which have recently undergone extensive changes in circumscription. Taxa belonging to Parmeliaceae are prolific producers of bioactive com- pounds, which have also been traditionally used for chemotaxonomic purposes. However, the chemical diversity of the genus Melanelia and the use of chemical data for species dis- crimination in this genus are largely unexplored. In addition, identification based on morpho- logical characters is challenging due to few taxonomically informative characters. Molecular identification methods, such as DNA barcoding, have rarely been applied to this genus. This study aimed to identify the Melanelia species from Iceland using DNA barcoding approach, and to explore their chemical diversity using chemical profiling. Chemometric tools were used to see if lichen metabolite profiles determined by LC-MS could be used for the identifi- cation of Icelandic Melanelia species. Barcoding using the fungal nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (nrITS) successfully identified three Melalenlia species occurring in Iceland, together with Montanelia disjuncta (Basionym: Melanelia disjuncta). All species formed monophyletic clades in the neighbor-joining nrITS gene tree. However, high intra- specific genetic distance of M. stygia suggests the potential of unrecognized species line- ages. Principal component analysis (PCA) of metabolite data gave a holistic overview showing that M. hepatizon and M. disjuncta were distinct from the rest, without the power to separate M. agnata and M. stygia due to their chemical similarity. Orthogonal partial least– squares to latent structures–discriminate analysis (OPLS-DA), however, successfully distin- guished M. agnata and M. stygia by identifying statistically significant metabolites, which lead to class differentiation. This work has demonstrated the potential of DNA barcoding, chemical profiling and chemometrics in identification of Melanelia species
28200Park C.-H., Li X.R., Zhao Y., Jia R.L. & Hur J.-S. (2017): Rapid development of cyanobacterial crust in the field for combating desertification. - Plos One, 12(6): e0179903.
Desertification is currently a major concern, and vast regions have already been devastated in the arid zones of many countries. Combined application of cyanobacteria with soil fixing chemicals is a novel method of restoring desertified areas. Three cyanobacteria, Nostoc sp. Vaucher ex Bornet & Flahault, Phormidium sp. Ku ̈tzing ex Gomont and Scytonema arcan- geli Bornet ex Flahault were isolated and tested in this study. Tacki-SprayTM (TKS7), which consists of bio-polysaccharides and tackifiers, was used as a soil fixing agent. In addition, superabsorbent polymer (SAP) was applied to the soil as a water-holding material and nutri- ent supplement. Application of cyanobacteria with superabsorbent polymer and TKS7 (CST) remarkably improved macro-aggregate stability against water and erodibility against wind after 12 months of inoculation when compared to the control soil. The mean weight diameter and threshold friction velocity of the CST treated soil were found to be 75% and 88% of those of the approximately 20-year-old natural cyanobacterial crust (N-BSC), re- spectively, while these values were 68% and 73% of those of the N-BSC soil after a single treatment of cyanobacteria alone (CY). Interestingly, biological activities of CST were similar to those of CY. Total carbohydrate contents, cyanobacterial biomass, microbial biomass, soil respiration, carbon fixation and effective quantum yield of CST treated soil were en- hanced by 50–100% of the N-BSC, while those of control soil were negligible. Our results suggest that combined application of cyanobacteria with soil fixing chemicals can rapidly develop cyanobacterial crust formation in the field within 12 months. The physical properties and biological activities of the inoculated cyanobacterial crust were stable during the study period. The novel method presented herein serves as another approach for combating desertification in arid regions
28199Halda J. P. (2016): Druhová diverzita lišejníků v údolí Zdobnice mezi Souvlastním a Plačtivou skálou. - Orlické hory a Podorlicko, 23(1-2): 125-140.
A detailed lichenological exploration has been made in Zdobnice‘s valley between Souvlastní settlement and Plačtivá skála rock formation. Several rare and endangered epiphytic and freshwater species were found. Well preserved valley of the river Zdobnice presents a lot of considerable biotopes and localities for rare lichens (Arthonia endlicheri, Bacidina inundata, Ente- rographa zonata, Ionaspis lacustris, Lecidea ahlesii, Micarea lutulata, Micarea tuberculata, Opegrapha lithyrga a Porina lectissima, Verrucaria funckii, V. margacea and V. praetermissa). lichen diversity, Zdobnice river, Orlické hory Mts, East Bohemia
28198Vondrák J., Moniri M.H., Malíček J. & Košnar J. (2017): Extensive yellow crusts below limestone overhangs: a new taxon close to a minute epiphytic lichen. - Nordic Journal of Botany, 35: 368–376.
A conspicuous yellow crust forming extensive covers on some dry and shaded limestone rocks in Europe is described here as Caloplaca substerilis subsp. orbicularis M. Haji Moniri, Vondrák & Malíček subsp. nov. Based on nuITS rDNA, 28S nuLSU rDNA and mtSSU rDNA sequence data, the new taxon is closely related to Caloplaca substerilis and C. ulcerosa. e three taxa form a supported clade in the subfamily Xanthorioideae (Teloschistaceae), but none of the recently seggregated genera are suitable for them. In the ITS phylogeny, the new taxon forms a monophylum nested within C. substerilis. However, its extensive yellow thalli and absence of vegetative diaspores clearly distinguish it from Caloplaca substerilis (subsp. substerilis). Indeed, if it had not been for the molecular evidence, we would have described it at the rank of species. We suggest that the substrate switch and accompanying processes are responsible for the striking phenotypic di erence between Caloplaca substerilis subsp. substerilis and C. substerilis subsp. orbicularis
28197Wagner B. (2017): Lišejníky vrchu Sedlo v Českém středohoří (severní Čechy). [Lichens of the Sedlo Hill in the České středohoří Mts (North Bohemia)]. - Bryonora, 59: 37–43.
This contribution presents the results of a lichenofloristic survey of the Sedlo Hill near the town of Úštěk in North Bohemia, which was undertaken in 2011–2013. The tephrite hill is covered mostly by a scree forest. In total, 72 lichen species were recorded, including one endangered lichen (Usnea subfloridana) and three vulnerable species (Bryoria fuscescens, Melanelixia subaurifera and Physcia stellaris). Aspicilia cinerea, Lecanora cenisia, L. soralifera, Miriquidica leucophaea, Porpidia rugosa and Rimularia insularis represent remarkable species from tephrite rocks
28196Malíček J. (2017): Lišejníky NPP Kaňk u Kutné Hory [Lichens of the protected area Kaňk near Kutná Hora]. - Bryonora, 59: 30–36.
A list of 101 lichen taxa recorded in 2016 in the Kaňk National Nature Monument near Kutná Hora in Central Bohemia is presented. The locality is well known due to findings of fossils in calcareous conglomerates. Acarospora rehmii is reported here for the first time from the Czech Republic. Caloplaca albolutescens, C. velana, C. xerica, Diplotomma porphyricum, Lecanora albellula, Lempholemma polyanthes, Melanelixia elegantula, Sarcogyne privigna, Verrucaria bryoctona and Xanthoparmelia delisei represent further remarkable findings from the protected area.
28195Bouda F. (2017): Nové druhy žluté skupiny rodu Rhizocarpon v České Republice. [A new species of yellow Rhizocarpon in the Czech Republic]. - Bryonora, 59: 24–29.
Three species of map lichens, Rhizocarpon atroflavescens, R. carpaticum and R. ferax, have newly been discovered in the Czech Republic. These taxa occur predominantly in mountain regions with uncovered rocky outcrops and boulders. Rhizocarpon atrofla- vescens has a whitish prothallus and ascospores containing at most one longitudinal septum. It grows on slightly calcareous rocks. The acidophilous species Rhizocarpon carpaticum also rarely has one longitudinal septum; however, the species has convex apothecia extending up above the areoles and the thallus margin is bordered with a black prothallus. Rhizocarpon ferax occurs mainly on overhangs or at bases of vertical faces of acidic rocks. It has muriform spores and its roundish apothecia are usually hidden between two crescent-shaped areoles
28194Halda J.P., Kocourková J., Lenzová V., Malíček J., Müller A., Palice Z., Uhlík P. & Vondrák J. (2017): Lišejníky zaznamenané během 22. jarního setkání bryologicko-lichenologické sekce ČBS v Moravském krasu v dubnu 2015. [Lichens recorded during the 22th spring meeting of the Bryological and lichenological section of the CBS in the Moravian Karst (Czech Republic), April 2015]. - Bryonora, 59: 1–23.
A list of 297 lichen species and non-lichenized or lichenicolous fungi recorded in the Moravian Karst region in April 2015 during the 22th spring meeting of the Bryological and lichenological section of the Czech Botanical Society is presented. Remarkable endangered lichens were found: Anaptychia ciliaris, Arthonia byssacea, A. calcicola, Bacidia arceutina, B. auerswaldii, B. vermifera, Biatora albohyalina, Caloplaca biatorina, C. lucifuga, Candelariella reflexa s. str., Catillaria minuta, Chaenotheca hispidula, C. chlorella, Dirina stenhammari, Gyalecta geoica, Lecania cuprea, L. sylvestris, Lecanora intumescens, Lecidea strasseri, Lemmopsis arnoldiana, Lepraria diffusa, Leptogium subtile, Mycobilimbia tetramera, Parabagliettoa cyanea, Phaeophyscia hirsuta, Placynthium subradiatum, Polychidium muscicola, Porina linearis, Protoblastenia laeta, Psorotichia diffracta, Rinodina excrescens, Schismatomma pericleum, Thelenella muscorum, Thelidium incavatum and Thelopsis rubella
28193Moon K.H., Nakanishi M., Futagami Y. & Kashiwadani H. (2011): Studies on Cambodian species of Graphidaceae (Ostropales, Ascomycota) (I). - J. Jap. Bot., 86(5): 273-278.
Cambodia, Fissurina batavana, Graphis chlorotica, Graphis taneina, lichen. Three species of two genera, Fissurina batavana (Zahlbr.) M. Nakan., Kashiw. & K. H. Moon, Graphis taneina M. Nakan., Kashiw. & K. H. Moon and Graphis chlorotica A. Massal. in the lichen family Graphidaceae are newly reported from Cambodia and their distribution ranges are presented. Among them, Graphis taneina is new to science. G. taneina is distinct from the allied species of the genus in having sorediate thallus, erumpent lirellae without striation, labia covered by a thallus nearly up to the top of exciples, transversely septate colorless spores which are 30-32 × 7-8 um and in producing 2-methoxypsoromic acid. A new combination, Fissurina batavana (Zahlbr.) M. Nakan., Kashiw. & K. H. Moon is proposed. In addition, these are the second worldwide records for F batavana and Graphis chlorotica. Graphis taneina M. Nakan., Kashiw. & K. H. Moon; Fissurina batavana (Zahlbr.) M. Nakan., Kashiw. & K. H. Moon
28192Shibuichi H., Kashiwadani H., Yoshida K. & Timdal E. (2006): Materials for the Distribution of Lichens in Japan (15). - J. Jap. Bot., 81(1): 52-53.
Japan, Toninia
28191Shibuichi H. & Kurokawa S. (2006): Materials for the Distribution of Lichens in Japan (14). - J. Jap. Bot., 81(1): 51.
Japan, Cladonia
28190Kantvilas G., Kashiwadani H. & Moon K.H. (2005): The lichen genus Siphula Fr. (Lecanorales) in East Asia. - J. Jap. Bot., 80: 208-213.
Siphula decumbens, East Asia, Japan, Taiwan, China
28189Asahina Y. (1931): The Raiken's Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. XXXVI. - J. Jap. Bot., 7(5): 143-146.
Japan, Umbilicaria
28188Asahina Y. (1931): The Raiken's Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. XXXV. - J. Jap. Bot., 7(4): 102-106.
Japan, Umbilicaria, Phylliscum, Pseudocyphellaria, Cladia
28187Asahina Y. (1930): The Raiken\'s Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. XXXIII. - J. Jap. Bot., 7(1): 3-6.
28186Kon Y., Kashiwadani H., Masada M. & Tamura G. (1993): Effects of culture conditions on the growth of symbionts from Usnea confusa subsp. kitamiensis. - J. Jap. Bot., 68(6): 348-354.
Japna, Usnea confusa subsp. kitamiensis
28185Kurokawa S. (1987): Japanese names of lichen families. - J. Jap. Bot., 62(11): 349-350.
28184Ohmura Y. & Seaward M.R.D. (2017): Is Glyphis cicatricosa an indicator for \‘global warming\’ or an \‘urban heat island\’ effect in Japan?. - Lichenologist, 49(3): 291–296.
During the course of floristic studies of Japa- nese lichens, Glyphis cicatricosa Ach. (Graphi- daceae, Ascomycota), a pantropical species (Galloway 2007), was found on the bark of Phellodendron amurense Rupr. in a suburban area of Tsukuba-city (36°06'03''N, 140° 06'43''E). This is on the Pacific side of eastern Honshu, with a warm-temperate climate and is the northernmost locality of G. cicatricosa in Japan. The sapling tree was planted in the Tsukuba Botanical Garden (c. 14 ha, 20 m elev.) in 1984 when the mean annual temperature was 12 °C, but this has gradually increased since then to almost 15 °C in 2015 when G. cicatricosa was discovered (Fig. 1). Does an increase in annual temperature at this site plausibly explain the unexpected phyto- geographical distribution of this lichen in terms of ‘global warming’, or is it the result of an ‘urban heat island’ effect, or indeed is it related to one or more other factors?
28183Kirika P.M., Divakar P.K., Leavitt S.D., Buaruang K., Crespo A., Mugambi G., Gatheri G.W. & Lumbsch H. T. (2017): The genus Relicinopsis is nested within Relicina (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota). - Lichenologist, 49(3): 189–197.
Macro-morphological features traditionally used to segregate genera in Parmeliaceae have been shown to be highly plastic, placing limits on their taxonomic value. Here we aim to elucidate the evolutionary relationships of the genera Relicina and Relicinopsis and reassess the phenotypic features traditionally used to separate these genera. To this end, we gathered ribosomal DNA sequences of ITS, nuLSU and mtSSU and analyzed them in a phylogenetic framework. Relicina was recovered as paraphyletic, with Relicinopsis nested within, and three different clades were identified within Relicina. Alternative hypothesis tests significantly rejected the monophyly of Relicina. Our results indicate that the presence or absence of bulbate cilia is of limited taxonomic value in this clade. Based on differences in conidia, however, we propose to accept Relicinopsis as a subgenus within Relicina as Relicina subgen. Relicinopsis (Elix & Verdon) Kirika, Divakar & Lumbsch. It is proposed that five new combinations of species previously classified in Relicinopsis be placed in Relicina. generic circumscription, integrative taxonomy, lichenized fungi, molecular systematics, parmelioid lichens
28182Gerlach A. da Cruz Lima, Clerc P. & Borges R.M. da Silveira (2017): Taxonomy of the corticolous, shrubby, esorediate, neotropical species of Usnea Adans. (Parmeliaceae) with an emphasis on southern Brazil. - Lichenologist, 49(3): 199–238.
Seventeen corticolous shrubby apotheciate Usnea species without vegetative propagules are reported from Brazil, including five species that are new to science: Usnea aurantiaca-parvula A. Gerlach & P. Clerc (characterized by an orange medulla and lageniform spinulose fibrils), U. cirrosa Motyka, U. cladocarpa Fée (syn. nov.: U. ramillosa Motyka), U. concinna Stirton (lectotype designated here, syn. nov. U. radiata Stirton, U. florida var. scabrosa Zahlbr.), U. cristatula Motyka, U. erinacea Vain., U. fleigiae A. Gerlach & P. Clerc (characterized by large spores and a thin, lax medulla), U. grandispora A. Gerlach & P. Clerc (characterized by large spores, a black base and protocetraric or salazinic acids in the medulla), U. kalbiana P. Clerc & A. Gerlach (characterized by a vitreous cortex and annular cracks in the basal part), U. lunaria Motyka, U. meridionalis Zahlbr. (syn. nov.: U. michauxii I. I. Tav.), Usnea cf. moreliana Motyka, U. parvula Motyka, U. steineri Zahlbr, U. subelegans (Vain.) B. de Lesd. (lectotype designated here), U. subparvula A. Gerlach & P. Clerc (characterized by spinulose fibrils and protocetraric acid in the medulla) and one as yet unidentified species (named Usnea sp. 1). Usnea cirrosa, U. cristatula and U. erinacea are new records for Brazil. A full description with morphological, anatomical (CMA and ascospores) and chemical features (TLC), as well as geographical distribution, is provided for each species along with an identification key to all species reported. Molecular data from the ITS rDNA, RPB1 and Mcm7 markers are present for most taxa, except for U. concinna, U. cristatula, U. kalbiana, U. lunaria, U. cf. moreliana and U. subelegans. anatomy, ascospores, lichens, morphology, phylogenetics, thin-layer chromatography
28181Bjelland T., Bendiksby M., Frisch A. (2017): Geographically disjunct phylogenetic lineages in Leptogium hibernicum reveal Leptogium krogiae sp. nov. from East Africa. - Lichenologist, 49(3): 239–251.
Phylogenetic analyses of nuclear (Mcm7, nrITS, nrLSU) and mitochondrial (mrSSU) DNA sequences revealed geographically disjunct lineages in Leptogium hibernicum. One of these lineages is described here as Leptogium krogiae, which differs from L. hibernicum in the thinner thallus (190–210 μm vs. 390–480μm), shallowly striate lobes instead of deeply furrowed lobes, isidia that are seldom distinctly flattened, and apothecia with a subhymenial euparaplectenchymatous layer. Leptogium krogiae is a widespread epiphyte in mist-affected woodlands and montane forests in East Africa and appears to be a common species. Afromontane rainforests, Collemataceae, lichen, Mcm7, mrSSU, nrITS, nrLSU, taxonomy
28180Neuwirth G. & Stocker-Wörgötter E. (2017): Tapellaria palaeotropica (Pilocarpaceae), a new foliicolous lichen species from the Seychelles, and a world key to the genus. - Lichenologist, 49(3): 253–258.
The new lichenized ascomycete Tapellaria palaeotropica is described from Mahé Island in the Seychelles. The species is characterized by a crustose, pale green, smooth thallus dispersed in patches and by having black, rounded apothecia with flat discs, hyaline, transversely, 3–5-septate ascospores and a purplish brown excipulum. Morphology, distribution and related species are discussed. A world key to all currently known species in the genus is presented. lichen diversity, rainforest, taxonomy, tropical islands
28179Asplund J., Siegenthaler A. & Gauslaa Y. (2017): Simulated global warming increases usnic acid but reduces perlatolic acid in the mat-forming terricolous lichen Cladonia stellaris. - Lichenologist, 49(3): 269–274.
Lichens as sessile and slow-growing symbiotic associations have evolved various carbon- based secondary compounds (CBSCs) to mitigate the effects of some stressors in the extreme environments in which they often grow. The mat-forming lichen Cladonia stellaris, an important fodder for reindeer, produces usnic acid in the outermost layer and perlatolic acid in the medulla. Here, we studied effects of simulated global warming on these CBSCs in C. stellaris cultivated in climate chambers with: 1) ambient conditions as control or 2) ambient conditions +4°C. The chambers simulated, at an hourly resolution, an averaged 10-year growing season dynamic from a long-term monitored boreal mire in northern Sweden. After two months of acclimation, +4 °C warming in one simulated growing season increased the concentration of usnic acid by 31% compared with ambient conditions, whereas the warming decreased the concentration of perlatolic acid by 14%. Since lichen CBSCs play important roles in ecosystem processes such as lichenivory and decomposition, these changes may profoundly affect lichen-dominated ecosystems. boreo-arctic ecosystems, carbon based secondary compounds, climate change, reindeer lichen
28178Brickley M.R. (2017): Development of a live cell imaging method for mitochondria in Trebouxia photobionts. - Lichenologist, 49(3): 275–286.
The Trebouxia photobiont freshly isolated from Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th. Fr. was used to develop a live cell chondriome (mitochondrial DNA) labelling method. In the initial phase six candidate dyes were tested and compared for mitochondrial labelling utility as assessed by the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the mitochondrial signal to the adjacent cellular background in standardized confocal images of 30 labelled cells. DIOC7, JC-1 and MitoTracker orange (MTO) dyes showed some labelling ability. MTO had significantly higher utility than the other dyes. In a second phase, MTO concentration was optimized. The final labelling protocol was a 30 minute incubation with 1 μM of MTO. The resultant labelling was suitable for both widefield and confocal microscopy. Both 2D thresholding and 3D volume construction are demonstrated using the resultant data. The protocol can therefore be utilized for both qualitative research and for quantitative measurement of the chondriome in Trebouxia photobionts. This will facilitate a wide range of mitochondrial investigations in lichenology. chondriome, dyes, lichens, microscopy, MitoTracker orange, photobiont
28177Singh P. & Singh K.P. (2017): Note on the taxonomic status of Pyrgillus tibellii Kr. P. Singh & Pushpi Singh with a world key to the species of Pyrgillus Nyl. (Pyrenulaceae: Pyrenulales). - Lichenologist, 49(3): 287–289.
Pyrgillus tibellii Kr. P. Singh & Pushpi Singh was described from Arunachal Pradesh in the Eastern Himalaya, India (Singh & Singh 2012a). In the same year Kashiwadani et al. (2012) described P. cambodiensis Kashiw. et al. from Cambodia (Fig. 1). Recently, Shi et al. (2015) reported P. cambodiensis and P. javanicus (Mont. & Bosch) Nyl. as new to China from southern Yunnan and considered P. tibellii (Fig. 2) as conspecific with Pyrgillus cambodiensis following the rule of priority (Art. 11.4; McNeill et al. 2012). Shi et al. (2015), however, ignored the chemistry of P. tibellii. We have examined the holotype of P. cambodiensis (Cambodia: Siem Reap Province, Western Prasat Top, Angkor Wats complex, Siem Reap, 13°26'N, 103°51'E, alt. c. 30 m, on bark of Dipterocarpus elatus, 24 November 2010, H. Kashiwadani 50508) borrowed from TNS Japan and found it clearly distinct from the type of P. tibellii (India: Arunachal Pradesh, Papumpare dis- trict, Sankei view, on bark, alt. c. 340m, 12 January 1997, K. P. Singh 9616) housed at ASSAM in India. Pyrgillus tibellii, although similar to P. cambodiensis in morphology and anatomy (they both have 3-septate ascos- pores), is easily distinguished from the latter by its larger ascospores and the presence of lichexanthone (UV+ yellow) in the thallus. In lichen taxonomy, secondary metabolites play a significant role in delimiting species (Hawksworth 1976; Lumbsch 1998a, b; Luangsuphabool et al. 2016). Reaction to ultraviolet (UV) has been considered an important and necessary criterion for the identification of several lichen species (Aptroot 2012). It is therefore concluded that P. tibellii and P. cambodiensis are two distinct taxa and not conspecific as treated by Shi et al. (2015). Pyrgillus tibellii is endemic to India, so far confined to Arunachal Pradesh in Eastern Himalaya and Kerala in Western Ghats, and grows on trees in tropical forests at lower elevations. It might possibly also occur in China. The genus Pyrgillus Nyl. belongs to the family Pyrenulaceae and is so far represented by seven species (Aptroot 1991; Kashiwadani et al. 2012; Singh & Singh 2012b), four of which occur in India (Singh & Singh 2012b). We present a key to these species.
28176Joshi S., Upreti D.K., Thanh N.T., Nguyen A.D. & Hur J.-S. (2017): New and interesting species in the family Graphidaceae (Ascomycota: Ostropales) from Vietnam . - Lichenologist, 49(3): 259–268.
The lowland area of southern Vietnam contains a high diversity of corticolous, crustose lichens, particularly in the family Graphidaceae. Two species, Acanthothecis verrucosa S. Joshi, Upreti & Hur and Graphis exuta S. Joshi, Upreti & Hur, are described new to science. Acanthothecis verrucosa is characterized by a verrucose, olive green thallus containing irregular to shortly lirellate apothecia, hyaline to brownish proper exciple apically lined by robust periphysoids, muriform ascospores, 30–70 × 15–20 μm, and the presence of psoromic and subpsoromic acids. Graphis exuta is characterized by a smooth, greenish white thallus, simple lirellae lacking thalline margin, entire labia coarsely white pruinose towards slit, muriform ascospores, 20–35 × 10–13 μm, and norstictic acid in the thallus. A new name, Acanthothecis yokdonensis S. Joshi & Hur, is proposed here for the species Acanthothecis salazinica S. Joshi & Hur, a later homonym of A. salazinica van den Boom & Sipman. In addition, 34 species from Vietnam are newly reported. A world key to the group of Graphis species characterized by short, simple and sessile lirellae lacking or with basal thalline margins (nuda-morph) is presented. lichen, keys, mangrove, nomenclature, taxonomy, tropical
28175Orange A. , Earland-Bennett P.M., Hitch C.J.B. & Powell M. (2017): Select A new leprose Leprocaulon (Ascomycota, Leprocaulales) from Great Britain A new leprose Leprocaulon (Ascomycota, Leprocaulales) from Great Britain. - Lichenologist, 49(3): 183-188.
Leprocaulon calcicola is described as new from walls in SE England; it is leprose, pale to mid blue-grey, and contains zeorin and usnic acid. It differs from L. knudsenii from North America in its habitat on mortared walls rather than non-calcareous rock and in its ITS sequence. ‘Lecanora’ ecorticata differs in the yellower colour, and the presence of unidentified fatty acids and traces of unknown terpenoids (but not zeorin) by thin-layer chromatography. Leprose lichens with usnic acid are still poorly known and sequencing must be used to support morphological and chemical studies. churches, lichen, taxonomy, usnic acid, walls
28174Pavlova E.A., Kuzmin A.N., Pozdnyakov N.V. & Maslov A.I. (2017): 15N – nitrate uptake and nitrogen exchange in the bionts of the lichen Parmelia sulcata. - Symbiosis, 72: 117–121.
Nitrateuptake andnitrogeninclusion into aminoacids were studied in the intact thallus and isolated bionts of the lichen Parmelia sulcata with the aid of mass spectroscopic tracing of heavy isotope 15N. The isolated photobiont, the green algae Trebouxia sp. did not take up nitrate, whereas the mycobiont and intact thalli were enriched in 15N when incubated with Na15NO3. Pulse feeding experiments with intact thalli followed by separation of photobiont showed that the labelled nitrate was originally assimilated by the mycobiont and only after that was detected in the photobiont. The isolated mycobiont after pulse labeling excreted labeled compounds into the incubation medium. Amino acidswere detected in the exudate. The quantities of two amino acids considerably exceeded those of the others. One wasidentifiedasalanine, theothercouldnotyetbeidentifiedwith certainty. Both of these high-quantity compounds were also much more enriched in 15N than the others. These two compounds are proposed to be the transport forms of nitrogen within the Parmelia sulcata thallus. Keywords: Lichen . Mycobiont . Nitrogen metabolism . Parmelia sulcata . Photobiont . Symbiosis.
28173Zhao X., Fernández-Brime S., Wedin M., Locke M., Leavitt S.D. & Lumbsch H.T. (2017): Using multi-locus sequence data for addressing species boundaries in commonly accepted lichen-forming fungal species. - Organisms Diversity and Evolution, 17(2): 351–363.
Accurate species delimitations are of great importance for effectively characterizing biological diversity. Our criteria for delimiting species have changed dramatically over the last decades with the increasing availability of molecular data and improvement of analytical methods to evaluate these data. Whereas reciprocal monophyly is often seen as an indicator for the presence of distinct lineages, recently diverged species often fail to form monophyletic groups. At the same time, cryptic species have repeatedly been detected in numerous organismal groups. In this study, we addressed the species delimitation in the crustose lichen-forming fungal genus Diploschistes using multilocus sequence data from specimens representing 16 currently accepted species. Our results indicate the presence of previously undetected, cryptic specieslevel lineages in the subgenus Limborina. In the subgenus Limborina, samples from different continents currently classified under the same species were shown to be only distantly related. At the same time, in parts of subgen. Diploschistes characterized by short branches, none of the currently accepted species formed monophyletic groups. In spite of the lack of monophyly in phylogenetic reconstructions, a multispecies coalescent method provided support for eight of the nine accepted species in subgen. Diploschistes as distinct lineages. We propose to reduce D. neutrophilus to synonymy with D. diacapsis and point out that additional sampling will be necessary before accepting additional species in subgen. Limborina. Keywords: BPP . Diploschistes . Graphidaceae . Molecular phylogeny . Species delimitation.
28172Fałtynowicz W. & Kossowska M. (2016): The lichens of Poland. A fourth checklist. - Acta Botanica Silesiaca, Monographiae, 8: 3–122.
This catalogue consists of 1642 lichen species and 19 subspecies belonging to 333 genera. All the taxa recorded to date on the Polish territory are listed. For taxa recorded after 2003 and not included to the previous checklist the appropriate reference is given. If present, contemporary taxonomical revisions of individual genera and other groups occurring in Poland are also cited. For 286 taxa, whose names have been changed compared to the previous edition of the checklist, the old names published there are added as synonyms. The index of Polish names of all species is also given. Key words: lichens, checklist, Poland.
28171Kärnefelt I. & Thell A. (2017): Suomen Rupijäkälät. - Graphis Scripta, 29(1–2): 47–48.
Book review of: STENROOS, S., VELMALA, S., PYKÄLÄ, J. and AHTI, T. (eds). 2015. Suomen Rupijäkälät. Norrlinia 28 [in Finnish]. Luonnontieteellinen keskusmuseo [Finnish Museum of Natural History], Helsinki, pp. 454. ISBN: 978-951-51-0837.
28170Kärnefelt I. & Thell A. (2017): Lavar – en fältguide. - Graphis Scripta, 29(1–2): 46.
Bokk review of : MOBERG, R. and HULTENGREN, S. 2016. Lavar – en fältguide [Lichens – a field guide]. Naturcentrum, Stenungsund, 244 pp.
28169Kärnefelt I. & Thell A. (2017): Syllabus of Plant families. - Graphis Scripta, 29(1–2): 45.
Book review of : JAKLITSCH, W., BARAL, H.-O., LÜCKING, R. and LUMBSCH, H. T. 2016: 1/2 Ascomycota. – In: Frey, W. (ed): Syllabus of Plant Families. Adolf Engler’s Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien 13th ed. – Gebrüder Borntraeger, Stuttgart, 322 pp.
28168Pykälä J., Lendemer J.C., Malíček J., Haughland D.L. & Huhtinen S. (2017): Interesting lichens found during the IAL8 pre-excursion in the south-western archipelago of Finland 2016. - Graphis Scripta, 29(1–2): 57–64.
In July 2016, the pre-excursion of the IAL8 symposium was held in Kemiönsaari in the SW archipelago of Finland (biogeographical province V). Seven localities were visited and a number of interesting species were found, reports of which are summarized here. Lepraria humida is new to Fennoscandia, Halecania viridescens, Lepraria nivalis, Protoparmelia phaeonesos, Reichlingia leopoldii and Scoliciosporum gallurae are new to Finland, and Lecanora norvegica, Ramboldia insidiosa and Rinodina efflorescens are new to the biogeographical province. Notes on new finds of threatened species are also provided.
28167Feuerer T. & Schiefelbein U. (2017): The poverty of lichenological internet sources. - Graphis Scripta, 29(1–2): 49–56.
Some of the more important global lichenological internet sources are roughly characterized. Major deficits on data quality are outlined and proposals for an improved service are made. It is shown that the cooperation between the single database operators needs to be intensified and well established standardizations have to be applied wherever possible.
28166Feuerer T. & Höhne H. (2017): Takhtajan’s definition of global floristic regions revisited. - Graphis Scripta, 29(1–2): 40–43.
Based on an enlarged and improved set of species lists for the floristic regions defined by Takhtajan, a map of the global floristic realms of lichens is presented. The differences between this and a map of the floristic realms of phanerogams are discussed.
28165Jordal J.B., Klepsland J.T. & Nordén B. (2017): Melaspilea lentiginosula, a species of oceanic pine forests, new to Fennoscandia . - Graphis Scripta, 29(1–2): 33–39.
Melaspilea lentiginosula, here reported from 15 localities in Norway, is new to Fennoscandia. All collections were made from living trunks of old Pinus sylvestris in coastal forests in western and central parts of the country. The distribution and habitat preferences suggest an oceanic species of native old-growth hemiboreal and boreal pine forests.
28164Thell A., Tsurykau A., Persson P.-E., Hansson M., Åsegård E., Kärnefelt I. & Seaward M.R.D. (2017): Parmelia ernstiae, P. serrana and P. submontana, three species increasing in the Nordic countries. - Graphis Scripta, 29(1–2): 24–32.
Revised information on the morphology, chemistry and distribution of species of Parmelia s. str. in Fennoscandia is presented. Although Parmelia ernstiae was earlier believed to be chemically distinct from P. serrana in terms of lobaric acid, its presence in all studied samples detected by TLC means that these two semi-cryptic species can no longer be chemically separated. All three species are increasing in frequency and spreading northwards in Fennoscandia. Parmelia serrana is reported as new to Zealand in Denmark.
28163Kondratyuk S.Y., Schumm F., Elix J.A., Kärnefelt I., Thell A. & Hur J.-S. (2017): Eilifdahlia schwarzii (Caloplacoideae, Teloschistaceae) – a new species from Western Australia. - Graphis Scripta, 29(1–2): 18–23.
The new species Eilifdahlia schwarzii F. Schumm & S. Y. Kondr. is described. It differs from the more common southern Australian E. dahlii (Elix, S. Y. Kondr. & Kärnefelt) S. Y. Kondr., Kärnefelt, Elix, A. Thell, J. Kim, A. S. Kondr. & J.-S. Hur in having a poorly developed whitish thallus, bright yellow to bright yellow-orange apothecia, with a persistent glossy margin, a proper exciple with scleroplectenchymatous tissue, longer ascospores, and wider ascospore septa. The new species is known from scattered localities in Western Australia. The new combination E. sergeyana (Kantvilas) S. Y. Kondr., Elix, Kärnefelt & A. Thell is made, and a key to the species of Eilifdahlia is presented. Key words: New species, new combination, ecology, lichen substance, key.
28162Hestmark G. (2017): Lectotypification of Umbilicaria leiocarpa. - Graphis Scripta, 29(1–2): 12–17.
The name Umbilicaria leiocarpa is reviewed and lectotypified using a specimen in the Herbarium Ramond at BBF. Keywords: lichens; de Candolle; Ramond’s cryptogams; France; Pyrenees.
28161Golubkov V. & Tsurykau A. (2017): Contribution to the knowledge of Cladonia in the Russian Arctic. - Graphis Scripta, 29(1–2): 8–11.
Cladonia monomorpha is reported from the Yamal and Mammoth Peninsulas (Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug) as new to Russia. Cladonia cryptochlorophaea is new to the Yamal-Gydan area. The occurrence of C. chlorophaea in the Yamal Peninsula was confirmed by thin-layer chromatography.
28160McMullin R.T. (2017): Chaenothecopsis marcinae new to Europe from Lapland, Finland. - Graphis Scripta, 29(1–2): 6–7.
Chaenothecopsis marcineae Selva is reported for the first time from the Eastern Hemisphere. It was collected on Picea abies resin in Pallas-Yllästunturi National Park in Lapland, Finland.
28159Pykälä J. (2017): Additions to the lichen flora of Finland. VIII. - Graphis Scripta, 29(1–2): 1–5.
Eleven lichen species are reported as new to Finland including one species new to Fennoscandia: Bagliettoa steineri, Caloplaca isidiigera, Catillaria groenlandica, Fellhaneropsis almquistiorum, Lecidea septentrionalis, Placynthium dolichoterum, Polyblastia aurorae, Ramonia interjecta, Rhizocarpon chioneum, Verrucaria asperula (new to Fennoscandia) and Vezdaea rheocarpa.
28158Lendemer J.C. (2011): Vezdaea schuyleriana (Vezdaeaceae, Lichenized Ascomycetes), a new species from eastern North America. - Notulae Naturae, 484: 1–4.
Vezdaea schuyleriana, a new species with sessile apothecia, simple ascospores, and filiform paraphyses that do not entwine individual asci is described from Pennsylvania, USA. A new English language key to the known species of the genus Vezdaea is provided.
28157Lendemer J.C. (2015): Lichens: our neglected and imperiled natives. - Marilandica, 6(1): 3–4.
popular paper
28156Knudsen K. & Kocourková J. (2017): What is Acarospora nitrophila (Acarosporaceae)?. - Bryologist, 120(2): 124–128.
Acarospora nitrophila is lectotypified and a new description is supplied with photographs. It is currently considered a rare saxicolous species only positively known from Norway and Sweden. A key is supplied for some European species commonly confused with A. nitrophila. Keywords: Biodiversity, species concepts, taxonomy.
28155McCune B., Curtis M.J. & Di Meglio J. (2017): New taxa and a case of ephemeral spore production in Lecideaceae from western North America. - Bryologist, 120(2): 114–123.
Cyclohymenia epilithica is a newly described genus and species from Oregon and Washington, U.S.A. It occurs on noncalcareous rock in the oceanic forests west of the crest of the Cascade Range. Unlike most other North American species in the Lecideaceae, it is restricted to shady habitats in cool, wet, temperate climates. It is distinguished from other members of the family by its thick, pale gray green, epilithic thallus; immersed apothecia that superficially appear like perithecia or pycnidia; and ascocarps that usually contain a central sterile column surrounded by a ring-shaped hymenium. The structure and position of the ascocarp appear to be unique among Lecideaceae and related families. The species is also unusual in producing short-lived asci; most collections have barren apothecia. Lecidea atrobrunnea subsp. deplanaica is raised to the species level. The taxon deserves specific rank, not just from its distinctive chemistry, but also from morphology, distribution, and ecology that differ from L. atrobrunnea s.str. The newly described Lecidea uniformis from Oregon and Washington, mainly west of the Cascade crest, is similar in many ways to L. fuscoatra, but the areoles are uniformly brown and do not have a differentiated gray, blackish, or whitish edge. DNA sequence data support the taxa Cyclohymenia epilithica and L. uniformis. Keywords: Ascomycota, Lecanoromycetidae, Lecideales, lichenized fungi, Pacific Northwest.
28154Sundstøl S.A. & Odland A. (2017): Responses of alpine vascular plants and lichens to soil temperatures. - Annales Botanici Fennici, 54: 169–178.
Plant abundance and distribution patterns have mostly been explained in terms of air temperatures, yet a great deal of vascular plant biomass is located below ground. Winter soil temperatures, which are related to both air temperature and snow cover, may therefore be important determinants of species composition in alpine areas. Epigeic lichens, however, have no underground biomass, and they often dominate at sites that are inhospitable to vascular plants, such as those that experience sustained periods of sub-freezing temperatures. In this study, effects of several warm- and cold-season soil-temperature variables on individual plant and lichen species common to oligotrophic alpine heaths was investigated using linear regression and ordination. The differences in growing season length as measured by soil temperatures were compared. Warm season variables were found to have less influence than cold season variables on individual species abundances in these areas. Changes in winter snow cover depth and duration, such as those that are predicted in Norway, can result in changes to soil temperature patterns, to the possible benefit of some species and detriment of others.
28153Tsurykau A. & Khramchankova V. (2011): Lichens from Gomel Region: a provisional checklist. - Botanica Lithuanica, 17(4): 157–163.
A total of 267 species and two subspecies of the lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi from Gomel Region (Republic of Belarus) are listed. Of these, seven lichen species and two lichenicolous fungi are indicated as new to the Region. Acarospora moenium is a new lichen species to Belarus. There are 14 species included in the Red Data Book of the Republic of Belarus. Keywords: lichens, checklist, biodiversity, Gomel, Belarus.
28152Hansen E.S. (2011): A contribution to the lichen flora of the Kobbefjord area, West Greenland. - Botanica Lithuanica, 17(4): 151–155.
The paper lists 137 species of lichens from the Kobbefjord area in West Greenland. Of these, 125 species were recorded for the first time. The lichen vegetation forms mosaics of epiphytic species, snow patch species and species occurring in different types of dwarf shrub heaths and on rocks. The saxicolous lichen flora varies from a fairly moist to a dry, wind-exposed type. Nitrophilous lichens occur more or less scattered at the locality. Keywords: lichens, Kobbefjord, Greenland.
28151Asahina Y. (1929): The Raikens Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. XXXI. - J. Jap. Bot., 6(9): 269-271.
28150Asahina Y. (1929): On the Specimens of Lichens Collected in the Vicinity of Sapporo, Hokkaido, 50 Years Ago. - J. Jap. Bot., 6(8): 234-253.
Japan, Hokkaido
28149Asahina Y. (1929): The Raikens Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. XXX. - J. Jap. Bot., 6(5): 137-139.
Japan, Chiodecton
28148Asahina Y. (1929): The Raikens Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. XXIX. - J. Jap. Bot., 6(4): 101-103.
28147Asahina Y. (1929): The Raikens Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. XXVIII. - J. Jap. Bot., 6(3): 64-66.
Japan, Solenopsora
28146Asahina Y. (1929): I am in Great Hopes That Books of the Every Local Flora of Japan will be Published Successively. - J. Jap. Bot., 6(12): 408-411.
Flora of Japan
28145Asahina Y. (1929): The Raiken's Soliloquy on Botanical Science" or Notes on Lichens. XXXII. - J. Jap. Bot., 6(11): 336-340.
28144de Crozals A. (1912): Lichens du Massif de l'Espinouze. - Bulletin de Géographie Botanique, 22: 252–274.
Collema trivallense ['trivallensis'] sp. nov. (= Lempholemma trivallense); Collema querceti sp. nov. (= Collema fuscovirens)
28143Olivier H. (1912): Les Pertusaria de la flore d'Europe: Etude synoptique, descriptive et Géographique. - Bulletin de Géographie Botanique, 22: 193–217.
Pertusaria; key; Europe.
28142Olivier H. (1911): Etude synoptique et géographique des Lécidés de la Flore d’Europe. - Bulletin de Géographie Botanique, 21: 157–209.
Bacidia; Europe; key.
28141Ravera S., Cogoni A., Totti C., Aleffi M., Assini S., Caporale S., Fačkovcová Z., Filippino G., Gheza G., Olivieri N., Ottonello M., Paoli L., Poponessi S., Pišút I. & Venanzoni R. (2016): Notulae to the Italian flora of algae, bryophytes, fungi and lichens: 2. - Italian Botanist, 2: 43–54.
In this contribution, new data concerning red algae, lichens and bryophytes of the Italian flora are presented. It includes new records and confirmations for the algal genus Grateloupia, the bryophyte genus Didymodon, and the lichen genera Buellia, Cladonia, Letharia, Pertusaria, and Pyrenula. Keywords: Bryidae, floristic data, lichenized ascomycetes, Rhodophyceae.
28140Ravera S., Cogoni A., Vizzini A., Aleffi M., Assini S., Barcella M., von Brackel W., Caporale S., Fačkovcová Z., Filippino G., Gheza G., Gigante D., Paoli L., Potenza G., Poponnessi S., Prosser F., Puntillo D., Puntillo M. & Venanzoni R. (2017): Notulae to the Italian flora of algae, bryophytes, fungi and lichens: 3. - Italian Botanist, 3: 55–60.
In this contribution, new data concerning bryophytes, fungi and lichens and of the Italian flora are presented. It includes new records and confirmations for the bryophyte genera Dicranodontium, Fontinalis, Lophocolea and Riccia, the fungal genus Diplolaeviopsis, the lichen genera Agonimia, Cladonia, Protoparmelia, Rhizocarpon, and Scytinium. Keywords: Ascomycota, Bryidae, Marchantiidae, Jungermanniidae, floristic data.
28139Ravera S., Cogoni A., von Brackel W., Filippino G., Isocrono D., Matteucci E., Morando M., Prosser F. & Puntillo D. (2016): Notulae to the Italian flora of algae, bryophytes, fungi and lichens: 1. - Italian Botanist, 1: 55–60.
In this contribution, new data concerning lichens and bryophytes of the Italian flora are presented. It includes new records, exclusions, and confirmations to the Italian administrative regions for taxa in the lichen genera Athallia, Ramonia, Thelotrema, Pertusaria, Bryoplaca and in the bryophyte genera Dicranella, Bryum, and Scorpiurium. Keywords: Bryopsida, floristic data, lichenized ascomycetes.
28138Loppi S. (2006): Licheni come bioaccumulatori di elementi in traccia: stato della ricerca in Italia. - Biologia Ambientale, 20(2): 69–78.
Lichens as bioaccumulators of trace elements: state-of the-art of research in Italy. The state-of-the-art of research on the use of lichens as bioaccumulators of trace element carried out in Italy is presented. The role of atmospheric particulate matter and soil contamination of samples, as well as the interpretation of results were especially addressed. Some future research lines are suggested. Key words: Atmospheric pollution / Biomonitoring / Heavy metals / Lichens.
28137Fiorentino J. (2008): Studying the lichens of the Maltese Islands. - Notiziario della Società Lichenologica Italiana, 21: 67–72.
28136Fiorentino J. (2007): First record of Pyrenula chlorospila Arnold (Pyrenulales : Pyrenulaceae) from the Maltese Islands (Central Mediterranean). - Central Mediterranean Naturalist, 4(3): 195–198.
One specimen of an inconspicuous, corticolous lichen found on the bark of an oak tree at Buskett was identified as Pyrenula chlorospila Arnold. This species is not included in the checklist published by Sommier and Caruana Gatto in Flora Melitensis Nova (Sommier & Caruana Gatto, 1915). Instead Pyrenula nitida var nitidella is mentioned which name is also used for specimens in Caruana Gatto's collection housed in the herbarium at Argotti. Three of these specimens were also examined and were found to represent P. chlorospila. Consequently, Pyrenula chlorospila is recorded for the first time from the Maltese Islands.
28135Fiorentino J. (2008): First record of Pyrenocollema halodytes (Nyl.) R. Harris (Pyrenulales: Pyrenulaceae) from the Maltese Islands (Central Mediterranean). - Central Mediterranean Naturalist, 4(4): 213–219.
The marine crustose lichen Pyrenocollema halodytes (Nyl.) R. Harris is known to grow on substrates such as limestone, chalk, molluscan shells and barnacles and is consequently considered as a marine lichen. It was formerly placed under the genus Arthopyrenia but together with other lichens from this genus all containing cyanobacteria as the symbiont photobiont was placed under the genus Pyrenocoliema. In this review Pyrenocollema halodytes is being recorded for the first time from the Maltese Islands having been found growing at Mistra Bay on the calcareous plates of the Star Barnacle Chthamalus stellatus found on rocks of the upper mediolittoral zone.
28134Fiorentino J. (2012): The genus Xanthoria (Teloschistaceae, lichenised Ascomycota) in the Maltese Islands. - Central Mediterranean Naturalist, 5(3-4): 9–17.
The occurrence of Xanthoria calcicola Oksner, Xanthoria aureola (Ach.) Erichsen and Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th.Fr. are confirmed for the Maltese Islands. The morphological features and ecological preferences of these lichens are described and illustrated. The lobe widths and thallus thicknesses of these three species are measured. Three other species of Xanthoria with ecological requirements that can be met locally are also described briefly. These species have so far not been recorded for the Maltese Islands. Finally an identification key for all six species of Xanthoria is included.
28133Fiorentino J. (2002): An appraisal of scientific names used in the 1915 list of lichens of the Maltese Islands by Stefano Sommier and Alfredo Caruana Gatto. - Central Mediterranean Naturalist, 3(4): 189–196.
In 1915 Stefano Sommier and Alfredo Caruano Gatto published a list of lichens from the Maltese islands. Since then no other lists of local lichens have been published. This work reviews the lichen names appearing in the original checklist and, where relevant, alternative names are suggested based on contemporary usage.
28132Hofmann H. (2016): Die BLAM hat ein neues Ehrenmitglied. - Herzogiella, 3: 3–4.
Anniversary; Regine Stordeur.
28131von Brackel W. (2016): Flechte und Moos des Jahres 2016. - Herzogiella, 3: 65.
Lichen and moss of the year 2016: Icmadophila ericetorum and Sphagnum magellanicum.
28130Heerd E., Kirschbaum U., Mattonet B. & Windisch U. (2016): 30 Jahre Mittelhessischer Lichenologischer Arbeitskreis (MLA). - Herzogiella, 3: 62–64.
28129Berger A. & Berger M. (2016): Genuss ohne Reue – Bericht zum Flechtenkurs 2015 des Mittelhessischen Lichenologischen Arbeitskreises in Gießen. - Herzogiella, 3: 58–61.
28128John V. (2016): THW-Hanomag im Dienste der Flechten. - Herzogiella, 3: 55–57.
Lichens on artificial substrates.
28127Blanz P. (2016): Report on the Symposium „Biodiversity and Ecology of fungi, lichens and mosses, in commemoration of Josef Poelt’s death 20 ears ago“. - Herzogiella, 3: 52–54.
28126Schultz M. & Resl P. (2016): Taxonomische und nomenklatorische Neuerungen – Flechten, Erste Folge. - Herzogiella, 3: 21–28.
Summarization of nomenclatoric and taxonomic novelties concerning (at least potentially) Central Europe.
28125Schirmacher U. & Henze M. (2016): Untersuchung von Flechten-Inhaltsstoffen aus Cetraria-Herbarmaterial und eines Isländisch-Moos-Tees aus Island. - Herzogiella, 3: 34–39.
Cetraria islandica; TLC; lichen metabolits.
28124Eichler M. & Cezanne R. (2016): Neue Publikationen die Flechtenflora Mitteleuropas betreffend, Zweite Folge. - Herzogiella, 3: 16–20.
Bibliography; Central Europe
28123Anonymous (2016): Newsletter from the Japanese Society for Lichenoloqy. - Newsletter from the Japanese Society for Lichenoloqy, 138: 513-516.
28122Anonymous (2016): Newsletter from the Japanese Society for Lichenoloqy. - Newsletter from the Japanese Society for Lichenoloqy, 137: 509-512.
28121Anonymous (2016): Newsletter from the Japanese Society for Lichenoloqy. - Newsletter from the Japanese Society for Lichenoloqy, 136: 507-508.
28120Anonymous (2016): Newsletter from the Japanese Society for Lichenoloqy. - Newsletter from the Japanese Society for Lichenoloqy, 135: 503-506.
28119Anonymous (2016): Newsletter from the Japanese Society for Lichenoloqy. - Newsletter from the Japanese Society for Lichenoloqy, 134: 499-502.
28118Anonymous (2016): Newsletter from the Japanese Society for Lichenoloqy. - Newsletter from the Japanese Society for Lichenoloqy, 133: 495-498.
28117Kondratyuk S. Y., Lőkös L., Kim J. A., Kondratiuk A. S., Jeong M.-H., Jang S. H., Oh S.-O. & Hur J.-S. (2015): New members of the Pertusariales (Ascomycota) proved by combined phyloge- netic analysis. - Studia Bot. Hung. , 46(2): 95–110.
New genus Marfloraea for the Variolaria amara-group as well as new members of the genera Dibaeis and Ochrolechia proved by results of the combined phylogenetic analysis based on nuclear ITS1/ITS2 portion of ribosomal nrDNA and 12S SSU mtDNA sequences are described and compared with closely related taxa. Fi een new combinations are proposed, i.e. Dibaeis yurii, Mar oraea albescens, M. amara, M. aspergilla, M. corallina, M. corallophora, M. erythrella, M. ex- cludens, M. mammosa, M. ophthalmiza, M. panyrga, M. pulvinata, M. scaberula, M. subventosa and Ochrolechia dactylina. Dibaeis yurii is recorded for the rst time from South Korea. Marfloraea, new genus, Ochrolechia, Variolaria
28116Moon K.H., Nakanishi M., Ahn C. & Kashiwadani H. (2014): Existence of Graphis cervina Müll Arg. (Graphidaceae) in Korea. - J. Jap. Bot., 89: 249-252.
The existence of Graphis cervina Müll. Arg. (Graphidaceae) is confirmed in Korea and its distribution is reported. It was largely found on granite along the Taebaek and Sobaek Mountains located on the east and east-south side of the Korean Peninsula. G. koreana Joshi & al., a species recently described from Korea, is simply reduced to a synonym of G. cervina
28115Moon K.H., Aptroot A., Elix J.A. & Kashiwadani H. (2014): Diploicia canescens subsp. australasica (Caliciaceae) found in Korea. - J. Jap. Bot., 89(1): 51-53.
Diploicia canescens (Dicks.) A. Massal. subsp. australasica Elix & Lumbsch is reported for the first time from Korea. It was found on lava rock along the coast of Cheju (Jeju) Island, Korea. This taxon was previously known from Australia and New Zealand, so its distribution now extends to Eastern Asia
28114Kashiwadani H., Aptroot A., Iakovchenko L. & Yoshida K. (2014): The studies of speciation and species diversity of lichen in the costal and insular areas of the eastern Asia (III). - National Institute of Biological Resources, 58 pp.
Korea is situated on the east Asian Continent and its northeast/southest extension is about 1,100 km. Phytogeographically it belongs to the easternmost part of the Sino-Himalayan Region. Korean lichens were initially studied by European and Japanese botanists and lichenologists. The first study of Korean lichens was made in 1891 by Müller J, a German lichenologist, who reported Synechoblastus bicaudatus Müll. Arg. [= Collema japonicum (Müll.Arg.) Hue]. In 1905, Hue, a French lichenologist, reported Lecanora oreina Ach. on the basis of a collection made by U. Faurie, a catholic priest and then Korean and foreign botanists or lichenologists reported Korean lichens. In 1996, Ministry of Environment reported 498 lichens species. In 2013, the newly compiled national inventory of Korean lichens, 788 taxa were recorded. Korean species of the genus Myelochroa are revised taxonomically and the following 8 species are recognized: M. aurulenta (Tuck.) Elix & Hale, M. entotheiochroa (Hue) Elix & Hale, M. galbina (Ach.) Elix & Hale, M. hayachinensis (Kurok.) Elix & Hale, M. rrugans (Nyl.) Elix & Hale, M. leucotyliza (Nyl.) Elix & Hale, M. metarevoluta (Asahina) Elix & Hale and M. perisidians (Nyl.) Elix & Hale. M. ibukiensis Moon et al. is reduced to a synonym for M. aurulenta. M. indica (Hale) Elix & Hale and M. xantholepis (Mont. & Bosch) Elix & Hale are excluded from the lichen of Korea. The propose of this survey is found out the new to Korea or new to science species. According to this study, two species, Gyalecta sp. and Hymenelia sp. are reported as new to science. 28 species were reported as new to Korea. Among them, 11 species was recorded as new to Asia;Catillaria atomarioides, Circinaria leprosescens, Eopyrenula leucoplaca, Fellhanera subtilis, Fellhaneropsis myrtillicola, Fuscidea austera, F. intercincta, Hymenelia ceracea, Psilolechia clavulifera, Strigula brevis, and Verrucaria simplex, and 2 species, Roccellina nipponica, Schismatomma ocellulatum, were reported as the second report from the world. 38 species were reported as second recoered from the Korea
28113Jayalalal U., Oh S.O., Park J.S., Sung J.H., Kimb S.H. & Hur J.S. (2015): Evaluation of air quality using lichens in three different types of forest in Korea. - Forest Science and Technology, 12(1): 1-8.
There is little available information on lichen diversity and air quality in forests in South Korea. To address this, the present study aims to correlate corticolous lichen diversity with air quality in selected forests in South Korea. Two sites located on Jeju Island and one site located at Mt. Hambaek, Kangwon Province were selected for this study. Twenty trees representing two species (Quercus sp. and Pinus japonica) were chosen at each site. The coverage and frequency of corticolous lichens found on the selected trees were recorded by using 2500 cm2 grids. Ambient SO2, NO2, and O3 levels at each site were determined using OgawaTM passive samplers having filter pads coated with absorbing reagents. Lichen diversity data collected on selected trees were used to formulate the index of atmospheric purity (IAP). A total of 65 lichen species were found. A negative correlation was observed between lichen diversity expressed as IAP and the concentrations of SO2, NO2, and O3 levels. The results revealed that corticolous lichens could be used as indicators to monitor the air quality of forests in South Korea on a large scale. air pollution; bioindicator; index of atmospheric purity (IAP); forest health; lichen diversity
28112Fosaa A.M. (1987): The ecology of some marine and maritime lichens on rocky shores of the Faroe Islands. - Fróðskaparrit, 34–35: 91–106.
The seashore zonation found by Fletcher (1973) and Lewis (1964), was also found in the Faroe Islands. Following indicators are usable: Xeric supralittoral zone: Anaptychia fusca; Submesic supralittoral zone: Xanthoria parietina; Mesic supralittoral zone: Caloplaca marina and Lichina confinis; Littoral fringe: Verrucaria maura; Eulittoral Zone: Verrucaria mucosa. As the seashore is strongly influenced by guano, the lichen communities are dominated by ornitocoprophilous lichens, while the ornitocoprophobic species were not found. Almborn (1955), Søchting & Gjeldstrup (1985) and other Scandinavian lichenologists treat the m.s.l. and s.s.l. zone as one zone, but as Xanthoria parietina together with other foliose lichens invades here, it is on the basis of these foliose lichens that we divide the supralittorale zone of the Faroe Islands in a mesic supralittoral zone and a submesic supralittoral zone.
28111Fosaa A.M. (2004): Altitudinal distribution of plant communities in the Faroe Islands. - Fróðskaparrit, 51: 217–236.
This paper presents the first quantitative vegetation analysis carried out along a continuous altitudinal gradient in the Faroe Islands. In order to describe the distribution of plant communities along altitudinal gradients, five mountains were studied. The aim was to define vegetation zones and to determine the transition boundary between temperate and arctic- alpine vegetation. The vegetation was classified into 12 plant communities belonging to four main vegetation types. Several terricolous species of macrolichens (Cladonia spp. div., Cetraria islandica, Peltigera canina, Solorina crocea) included.
28110Townrow J.E.S. (1960): Um nakrar skónir í Føroyum (On some Lichens of the Faroe Islands). - Fróðskaparrit, 9: 78–83.
[In Danish with English summary:] Species lists and short ecological notes are given for a collection of Faroese lichens. About a quarter of the species are new records for the Faroes.
28109Alstrup V., Christensen S.N., Hansen E.S. & Svane S. (1994): The lichens of the Faroes. - Fróðskaparrit, 40: 61–121.
The collections of lichens from the Faroes in the Danish herbaria have been revised together with new collections. 471 species, subspecies and varieties of lichens and 50 species of lichenicolous fungi were found. Notes are given about the frequency, habitats and distribution of the species, and new collections are cited for the rarer species. References are made to the literature of the subject and the synonyms used in that literature are listed. New species and new combinations are: Carbonea degelii Alstrup sp. nov., Cercidospora arthroraphidicola Alstrup sp. nov., Dactylospora rostrupii Alstrup sp. nov., Endococcus verrucosporus Alstrup sp. nov., Lasiosphaeriopsis cephalodiorum (Rostrup) Alstrup comb. nov., Micarea paratropa (Nyl.) Alstrup comb. nov., Micarea subconfusa (Nyl.) Alstrup comb. nov. and Roselliniopsis ventosa (Rostrup) Alstrup comb. nov. Another 223 species are new to the area.
28108Schultz M., Dolnik C., Neumann P. & Schiefelbein U. (2016): Die Flechten auf der Elbinsel Neßsand. - Berichte des Botanischen Vereins zu Hamburg, 30: 97–114.
Eine Kartierung der Flechten auf der Elbinsel Neßsand ergab Nachweise von 108 Taxa, davon 100 Flechtenarten, eine Form sowie sieben lichenicole Pilze und Flechtenparasiten. Fellhanera viridisorediata, Myriospora rhagadiza und Scoliciosporum gallurae sind Neufunde für die Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg. Erstmals für Niedersachsen wird Bacidina etayana nachgewiesen. Die Bedeutung der Insel als Rückzugs- und Ansiedlungsort diverser in Hamburg und Umland sonst seltener Flechten wird diskutiert.
28107Kinalioglu K. [Kınalıoğlu K.] & Aptroot A. (2017): Bacidia, Micarea, Sagedia, and Stigmidium species new to Turkey. - Mycotaxon, 132(1): 223–229.
During lichenological exploration in Turkey, two lichenised fungi (Micarea micrococca, Sagedia zonata) and one lichenicolous fungus (Stigmidium microspilum) were established as new records for Asia, and one lichenised fungus (Bacidia chloroticula) as new for Turkey. Illustrations are accompanied by brief descriptions and comments on habitat, substrate, and geographical distribution. Key words—biodiversity, Corylus, Giresun, İstanbul, Trabzon. Key words—biodiversity, Corylus, Giresun, İstanbul, Trabzon.
28106Łubek A. & Kukwa M. (2017): Additions to the mycobiota of Poland. - Mycotaxon, 132(1): 183–195.
One saprobic fungus (Agyrium rufum), one facultative lichenicolous fungus (Trimmatostroma quercicola), and six obligatory lichenicolous fungi (Arthonia coronata, Cornutispora intermedia, Didymocyrtis melanelixiae, Minutoexcipula mariana, Stigmidium rivulorum, and Weddellomyces xanthoparmeliae) are reported as new to Poland. Lecanora pulicaris is a new host for Cornutispora intermedia and Ochrolechia turneri for Minutoexcipula mariana. Seven of the reported species were found in natural forest communities in Białowieża National Park. Discussions on characteristics of each species and distributions are also provided. Key words—mitosporic fungi, Ascomycota.
28105Kukwa M., Czarnota P. & Łubek A. (2017): Three lichen species in Buellia, Catillaria, and Cheiromycina, new to Poland. - Mycotaxon, 132(1): 177–182.
Three sterile crustose lichen species, Buellia arborea from the Tatra Mts and Catillaria fungoides and Cheiromycina reimeri from Białowieża National Park, are recorded as new to Poland. The record of Cheiromycina reimeri is also the first from Europe. Characteristics of all three species, notes on similar taxa, distribution, and habitat preferences are provided. Key words—sorediate lichens, lichenized fungi, Ascomycota.
28104 González Y., Aragón G., Burgaz A.R. & Prieto M. (2017): Records of terricolous lichens from páramos of southern Ecuador. - Mycotaxon, 132(1): 153–175.
Ecological studies of five páramos in Azuay and Loja provinces recorded one lichen species new to South America (Bryoria nitidula), five new to Ecuador (Cladonia halei, C. melanopoda, C. merochlorophaea, C. subreticulata, Diploschistes diacapsis), two new to mainland Ecuador (Cladonia grayi, C. pyxidata), and 20 new provincial records. Brief morphological descriptions, with remarks on distribution and ecology, are provided. Key words—Andes, biodiversity, Cladoniaceae, Neotropics.
28103Wilk K. & Flakus A. (2017): Eight Caloplaca species newly recorded from Bolivia, including C. crocina comb. nov.. - Mycotaxon, 132(1): 125–140.
Eight species of Caloplaca s. lat. are reported as new to Bolivia: Caloplaca baueri, C. cinnabarina, C. crocina, C. darbishirei, C. ochraceofulva, C squamosa, C. subsoluta, and C. texana. Caloplaca texana is also reported as new for Peru and the Southern Hemisphere. The new combination Caloplaca crocina is proposed and compared with other Caloplaca spp. producing hourglass-shaped ascospores. Taxonomic notes and data on the distribution and habitat preferences are presented for all treated species. Key words—lichenized fungi, Ascomycota, Lecanoromycetes, Teloschistaceae, tropical dry forest.
28102Kinalioglu K. [Kınalıoğlu K.] (2017): New records of Caloplaca, Hydropunctaria, and Verrucaria from Turkey and Asia. - Mycotaxon, 132(1): 73–78.
Three lichen species—Caloplaca oleicola, Hydropunctaria adriatica, and Verrucaria elaeina—are described as new to Turkey and to Asia. Key words—Ascomycota, Corylus sp., lichenized fungi, Teloschistaceae, Verrucariaceae.
28101Armstrong R.A. (2017): A study of fragmentation rates in lichen populations on rock surfaces using the Kaplan-Meir estimator and Cox regression. - Annales Botanici Fennici, 54: 169–178.
Fragmentation rates in 21 populations of three foliose lichens Xanthoparmelia conspersa, Melanelixia fuliginosa ssp. fuliginosa and Parmelia saxatilis and the crustose lichen Rhizocarpon geographicum were estimated in north Wales, UK from the size frequency distribution of thalli with fragmenting centres. The Kaplan-Meier estimator suggested significant differences in fragmentation rates among populations of three of the four species. In M. fuliginosa ssp. fuliginosa, Cox regression analysis also suggested higher rates of fragmentation on rock surfaces with a greater percent lichen cover and increased diversity (Shannon-Weaver diversity index). Slope angle, aspect, texture, and location of population relative to the sea also influenced fragmentation rates. The data suggest considerable variation in fragmentation rates among populations within the same area which may be determined primarily by the intensity of competition on a rock surface.
28100Hartl C., Schmidt A.R., Heinrichs J., Seyfullah L.J., Schäfer N., Gröhn C., Rikkinen J. & Kaasalainen U. (2015): Lichen preservation in amber: morphology, ultrastructure, chemofossils, and taphonomic alteration. - Fossil Record, 18: 127–135.
The fossil record of lichens is scarce and many putative fossil lichens do not show an actual physiological relationship between mycobionts and photobionts or a typical habit, and are therefore disputed. Amber has preserved a huge variety of organisms in microscopic fidelity, and so the study of amber fossils is promising for elucidating the fossil history of lichens. However, so far it has not been tested as to how amber inclusions of lichens are preserved regarding their internal characters, ultrastructure, and chemofossils. Here, we apply light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and Raman spectroscopy to an amber-preserved Eocene lichen in order to gain information about the preservation of the fossil. The lichen thallus displays lifelike tissue preservation including the upper and lower cortex, medulla, photobiont layer, apothecia, and soredia. SEM analysis revealed globular photobiont cells in contact with the fungal hyphae, as well as impressions of possible former crystals of lichen compounds. EDX analysis permitted the differentiation between halite and pyrite crystals inside the lichen which were likely formed during the later diagenesis of the amber piece. Raman spectroscopy revealed the preservation of organic compounds and a difference between the composition of the cortex and the medulla of the fossil.
28099Rowe E.C., Ford A.E.S., Smart S.M., Henrys P.A. & Ashmore M.R. (2016): Using qualitative and quantitative methods to choose a habitat quality metric for air pollution policy evaluation. - PLoS ONE, 11(8): e0161085 [20 p.].
Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition has had detrimental effects on species composition in a range of sensitive habitats, although N deposition can also increase agricultural productivity and carbon storage, and favours a few species considered of importance for conservation. Conservation targets are multiple, and increasingly incorporate services derived from nature as well as concepts of intrinsic value. Priorities vary. How then should changes in a set of species caused by drivers such as N deposition be assessed? We used a novel combination of qualitative semi-structured interviews and quantitative ranking to elucidate the views of conservation professionals specialising in grasslands, heathlands and mires. Although conservation management goals are varied, terrestrial habitat quality is mainly assessed by these specialists on the basis of plant species, since these are readily observed. The presence and abundance of plant species that are scarce, or have important functional roles, emerged as important criteria for judging overall habitat quality. However, species defined as ‘positive indicator-species’ (not particularly scarce, but distinctive for the habitat) were considered particularly important. Scarce species are by definition not always found, and the presence of functionally important species is not a sufficient indicator of site quality. Habitat quality as assessed by the key informants was rank-correlated with the number of positive indicator-species present at a site for seven of the nine habitat classes assessed. Other metrics such as species-richness or a metric of scarcity were inconsistently or not correlated with the specialists’ assessments. We recommend that metrics of habitat quality used to assess N pollution impacts are based on the occurrence of, or habitat-suitability for, distinctive species. Metrics of this type are likely to be widely applicable for assessing habitat change in response to different drivers. The novel combined qualitative and quantitative approach taken to elucidate the priorities of conservation professionals could be usefully applied in other contexts.
28098Li Q., Zhang B., He Z. & Yang X. (2016): Distribution and diversity of bacteria and fungi colonization in stone monuments analyzed by high-throughput sequencing . - PLoS ONE, 11(9): e0163287 [17 p.].
The historical and cultural heritage of Qingxing palace and Lingyin and Kaihua temple, located in Hangzhou of China, include a large number of exquisite Buddhist statues and ancient stone sculptures which date back to the Northern Song (960–1219 A.D.) and Qing dynasties (1636–1912 A.D.) and are considered to be some of the best examples of ancient stone sculpting techniques. They were added to the World Heritage List in 2011 because of their unique craftsmanship and importance to the study of ancient Chinese Buddhist culture. However, biodeterioration of the surface of the ancient Buddhist statues and white marble pillars not only severely impairs their aesthetic value but also alters their material structure and thermo-hygric properties. In this study, high-throughput sequencing was utilized to identify the microbial communities colonizing the stone monuments. The diversity and distribution of the microbial communities in six samples collected from three different environmental conditions with signs of deterioration were analyzed by means of bioinformatics software and diversity indices. In addition, the impact of environmental factors, including temperature, light intensity, air humidity, and the concentration of NO2 and SO2, on the microbial communities’ diversity and distribution was evaluated. The results indicate that the presence of predominantly phototrophic microorganisms was correlated with light and humidity, while nitrifying bacteria and Thiobacillus were associated with NO2 and SO2 from air pollution.
28097Zhang B.-W., Xu J.-L., Zhang H., Zhang Q., Lu J. & Wang J.-H. (2016): Structure elucidation of a polysaccharide from Umbilicaria esculenta and its immunostimulatory activity. - PLoS ONE, 11(12): e0168472 [18 p.].
Umbilicaria esculenta has been used as a tonic food in China for several centuries owing to its pleasant flavor and health benefits. In this study, a water soluble polysaccharide, which we designated as UP2, with an average molecular weight of 3.33 × 105 Da, was isolated from U. esculenta cultivated in the Huangshan Mountain, by consecutive hot water extraction and anion-exchange chromatography. Gas chromatography analysis indicated that UP2 contained three kinds of monosaccharides, including mannose, glucose, and galactose at a molar ratio of 1.7:1.0:1.2. Linkage analysis of UP2 revealed the presence of (1 → 6)-linked glucosyl, (1 → 3,6)-linked glucosyl, t-linked galactosyl, (1 → 6)-linked galactosyl and (1 → 6)-linked mannosyl at a molar ratio of 0.7:4.6:4.1:2.2:9.1. Structural analysis determined that UP2 possessed a backbone consisting of (1 → 6)-linked β-D-glucopyranosyl and (1 → 6)-linked α-D-mannopyranosyl residues, which substituted at the O-3 position of (1 → 6)-linked β-D-glucopyranosyl residues by branches of (1 → 6)-linked α-D-galactopyranosyl and 1-linked β-D-galactopyranosyl residues. Immunostimulatory activity analysis showed that UP2 could stimulate the proliferation of RAW264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner, and all the samples (20–500 μg/mL) were found to enhance nitric oxide production. The highest phagocytic activity of UP2 was observed at 200 μg/mL. Thus, UP2 may be a potential source of biological and pharmacological agents.
28096Wu L., Lei Y., Lan S. & Hu C. (2017): Photosynthetic recovery and acclimation to excess light intensity in the rehydrated lichen soil crusts. - PLoS ONE, 12(3): e0172537 [13 p.].
As an important successional stage and main type of biological soil crusts (BSCs) in Shapotou region of China (southeastern edge of Tengger Desert), lichen soil crusts (LSCs) often suffer from many stresses, such as desiccation and excess light intensity. In this study, the chlorophyll fluorescence and CO2 exchange in the rehydrated LSCs were detected under a series of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) gradients to study the photosynthetic acclimation of LSCs. The results showed that although desiccation leaded to the loss of photosynthetic activity in LSCs, the fluorescence parameters including Fo, Fv and Fv/Fm of LSCs could be well recovered after rehydration. After the recovery of photosynthetic activity, the effective photosynthetic efficiency ΦPSII detected by Imaging PAM had declined to nearly 0 within both the lichen thallus upper and lower layers when the PAR increased to 200 μE m-2 s-1, however the net photosynthesis detected by the CO2 gas analyzer in the LSCs still appeared when the PAR increased to 1000 μE m-2 s-1. Our results indicate that LSCs acclimating to high PAR, on the one hand is ascribed to the special structure in crust lichens, making the incident light into the lichen thallus be weakened; on the other hand the massive accumulation of photosynthetic pigments in LSCs also provides a protective barrier for the photosynthetic organisms against radiation damage. Furthermore, the excessive light energy absorbed by crust lichens is also possibly dissipated by the increasing non-photochemical quenching, therefore to some extent providing some protection for LSCs.
28095Rickbeil G.J.M., Hermosilla T., Coops N.C., White J.C. & Wulder M.A. (2017): Estimating changes in lichen mat volume through time and related effects on barren ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) movement. - PLoS ONE, 12(3): e0172669 [16 p.].
Lichens form a critical portion of barren ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) diets, especially during winter months. Here, we assess lichen mat volume across five herd ranges in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut, Canada, using newly developed composite Landsat imagery. The lichen volume estimator (LVE) was adapted for use across 700 000 km2 of barren ground caribou habitat annually from 1984–2012. We subsequently assessed how LVE changed temporally throughout the time series for each pixel using Theil-Sen’s slopes, and spatially by assessing whether slope values were centered in local clusters of similar values. Additionally, we assessed how LVE estimates resulted in changes in barren ground caribou movement rates using an extensive telemetry data set from 2006–2011. The Ahiak/Beverly herd had the largest overall increase in LVE (median = 0.033), while the more western herds had the least (median slopes below zero in all cases). LVE slope pixels were arranged in significant clusters across the study area, with the Cape Bathurst, Bathurst, and Bluenose East herds having the most significant clusters of negative slopes (more than 20% of vegetated land in each case). The Ahiak/Beverly and Bluenose West had the most significant positive clusters (16.3% and 18.5% of vegetated land respectively). Barren ground caribou displayed complex reactions to changing lichen conditions depending on season; the majority of detected associations with movement data agreed with current understanding of barren ground caribou foraging behavior (the exception was an increase in movement velocity at high lichen volume estimates in Fall). The temporal assessment of LVE identified areas where shifts in ecological conditions may have resulted in changing lichen mat conditions, while assessing the slope estimates for clustering identified zones beyond the pixel scale where forage conditions may be changing. Lichen volume estimates associated with barren ground caribou movement metrics in an expected manner and, as such, show value for future habitat assessments.
28094Moya P., Molins A., Martínez-Alberola F., Muggia L. & Barreno E. (2017): Unexpected associated microalgal diversity in the lichen Ramalina farinacea is uncovered by pyrosequencing analyses. - PLoS ONE, 12(4): e0175091 [21 p.].
The current literature reveals that the intrathalline coexistence of multiple microalgal taxa in lichens is more common than previously thought, and additional complexity is supported by the coexistence of bacteria and basidiomycete yeasts in lichen thalli. This replaces the old paradigm that lichen symbiosis occurs between a fungus and a single photobiont. The lichen Ramalina farinacea has proven to be a suitable model to study the multiplicity of microalgae in lichen thalli due to the constant coexistence of Trebouxia sp. TR9 and T. jamesii in longdistance populations. To date, studies involving phycobiont diversity within entire thalli are based on Sanger sequencing, but this method seems to underestimate the diversity. Here, we aim to analyze both the microalgal diversity and its community structure in a single thallus of the lichen R. farinacea by applying a 454 pyrosequencing approach coupled with a careful ad hoc-performed protocol for lichen sample processing prior to DNA extraction. To ascertain the reliability of the pyrosequencing results and the applied bioinformatics pipeline results, the thalli were divided into three sections (apical, middle and basal zones), and a mock community sample was used. The developed methodology allowed 40448 filtered algal reads to be obtained from a single lichen thallus, which encompassed 31 OTUs representative of different microalgae genera. In addition to corroborating the coexistence of the two Trebouxia sp. TR9 and T. jamesii taxa in the same thallus, this study showed a much higher microalgal diversity associated with the lichen. Along the thallus ramifications, we also detected variations in phycobiont distribution that might correlate with different microenvironmental conditions. These results highlight R. farinacea as a suitable material for studying microalgal diversity and further strengthen the concept of lichens as multispecies microecosystems. Future analyses will be relevant to ecophysiological and evolutionary studies to understand the roles of the multiple photobionts in lichen symbioses.
28093Sodamuk M., Boonpragob K., Mongkolsuk P., Tehler A., Leavitt S.D. & Lumbsch H.T. (2017): Kalbionora palaeotropica, a new genus and species from coastal forests in Southeast Asia and Australia (Malmideaceae, Ascomycota). - Mycokeys, 22: 15–25.
A new species and genus, Kalbionora palaeotropica, is described for a crustose lichen occurring in coastal forests in Thailand, Vietnam, and northeastern Australia. It is morphologically similar to Malmidea and Eugeniella, but differing in morphological and chemical characters. The single known species in the new genus contains atranorin, zeorin, the stictic acid chemosyndrome and chlorinated xanthones. Morphologically it is characterized by having asci of the Catillaria-type, a yellowish brown colour, a granulose epihymenium, dark brown hypothecium, hyaline, 1–3 transversely septate ascospores. Molecular data strongly support a phylogenetic position in Malmideaceae, sister to a clade including Malmidea, Savoronala and two species currently placed in Lecidea s. lat. (including L. cyrtidia and L. plebeja). Key words: Lecanorales, lichens, mangroves, taxonomy, tropical diversity.
28092Lumbsch H.T. & Rikkinen J. (2017): Evolution of lichens. - In: Dighton J. & White J.F. (eds), The Fungal Community: Its Organization and Role in the Ecosystem. 4. edn, Mycology series, no. 32, p. 53–62, CRC Press / Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton.
chapter in book
28091Holzschuh A. (2016): Does rock climbing threaten cliff biodiversity? - A critical review. - Biological Conservation, 204: 153–162.
Rock climbing has increased in popularity over the past 20 years. Meanwhile, there have been increasing calls for restrictions on rock climbing due to concerns about the impact of climbing on cliff biodiversity. However, the biological impacts of rock climbing are still not well understood. Here, I review the existing literature to assess the impact of rock climbing on cliff biodiversity. The majority of published results may be confounded by systematic abiotic differences between climbed and unclimbed cliffs, and this lack of proper controls may lead to the overestimation of the negative effects of rock climbing on biodiversity. Evidence for the impact of rock climbing on biodiversity is inconclusive for most taxa. Studies on lichens and vascular plants have described evidence for negative, positive and no effects of rock climbing. Snail biodiversity was found to be negatively affected, while reliable evidence of the impacts of rock climbing on birds is still lacking. Bryophytes were generally unaffected by rock climbing. Further research is urgently needed, because the mixed results of the existing studies do not allow final conclusions how rock climbing affects the cliff biota. Future studies should select comparable controls for biodiversity comparison, widen the focus to further cliff-associated taxa, and investigate how climbing effects vary with climbing intensity. Such studies would facilitate the improved management of rock climbing areas that are rich in biodiversity and contain rare and threatened species. Keywords: Community composition; Diversity; Human disturbance; Rocky habitat; Trampling.
28090Sohrabi M., Favero-Longo S.E., Pérez-Ortega S., Ascaso C., Haghighat Z., Talebian M.H., Fadaei H. & de los Ríos A. (2017): Lichen colonization and associated deterioration processes in Pasargadae, UNESCO world heritage site, Iran. - International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 117: 171–182.
Knowledge on lichen and microbial colonization as well as associated biodeterioration processes of the stone cultural heritage is needed to establish proper conservation programs, but is still poor for stonework in semi-arid regions. In this study, lichen diversity was characterized on seven monumental buildings of the Pasargadae UNESCO-world heritage site (Iran). The risk of biodeterioration processes associated to lichen occurrence on two types of limestones, and the lichen resilience to mechanical cleaning intervention were examined. Physico-chemical substrate features and climatic conditions, combined with the agricultural surrounding and tourist disturbance, supported a pervasive colonization by species-poor epi- and endolithic communities, and fast recolonization processes by nitrophytic species after mechanical removal. The endolithic growth of some lichens and the penetration of hyphal structures of epilithic ones, examined by light and electron microscopy, were associated to stone disintegration and dissolution at the lichen-rock interface. Endolithic cyanobacteria were detected under lichen thalli, likely contributing to deterioration processes. Colonization and deterioration patterns did not appear peculiar with respect to previous investigations on similar communities in different climatic regions, and were mostly related to the different examined lithologies, indicating lichens as harmful biodeteriogens of the sedimentary rock materials used in the stone cultural heritage of semi-arid regions.
28089Padhi S., Das D., Panja S. & Tayung K. (2017): Molecular characterization and antimicrobial activity of an endolichenic fungus, Aspergillus sp. isolated from Parmelia caperata of Similipal Biosphere Reserve, India. - Interdisciplinary Sciences: Computational Life Sciences, 9: 237–246.
Endolichenic fungi are microbes that inhabit healthy inner lichen tissues without any disease symptoms. They have been reported to produce new and interesting bioactive metabolites. In the present study, an endolichenic fungus frequently isolated from surface-sterilized lichen thallus of Parmelia caperata has been described. The fungus was identified as Aspergillus tubingensis based on morphological traits and ITS rDNA sequence. Crude metabolites extracted from the culture broth exhibited considerable antimicrobial activity against a panel of clinically significant human pathogens. The fungus showed optimum antimicrobial activity in PDB medium in day 7 of incubation period. PDB medium amended with 1 % NaCl and at alkaline pH was found to be optimal for antimicrobial metabolites production. Enhanced activity was observed when the fungus was exposed briefly to a heat shock of 60 C during incubation. The metabolites showed optimum k-max at 214 nm with an absorbance value of 1.589. Molecular characterization of the isolate was carried out by ITS phylogeny and ITS2 secondary structure analyses. The phylogenetic trees based on both ITS rDNA and ITS2 sequences showed the isolate within the clade A. tubingensis. Considering the ubiquity and ambiguity in identifying Aspergillus species of different lifestyles, a method to differentiate pathogenic and endophytic Aspergillus at species level was developed using ITS2 secondary structure analysis. The results showed common folding pattern in the secondary structures with a helix and a 50 dangling end found to be highly conserved. Certain features in the secondary structure like multi-bulges and a symmetric interior loop were observed to be unique which distinguish our isolate from other A. tubingensis. Keywords: Endolichenic fungi;  Parmelia caperata; Aspergillus tubingensis; Antimicrobial aktivity; ITS2 secondary structure.
28088Duong T.H., Huynh B.L.C., Chavasiri W., Chollet-Krugler M., Nguyen V.K., Nguyen T.H.T., Hansen P.E., Le Pogam P., Thüs H., Boustie J. & Nguyen K.P.P. (2017): New erythritol derivatives from the fertile form of Roccella montagnei. - Phytochemistry, 137: 156–164.
Highlights: • Five montagnetol derivatives were isolated from the fertile form of Roccella montagnei collected in Vietnam. • Chemical structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR, HR-ESI-MS analysis and the application of a modified Mosher method. • The cytotoxic activities of some isolated compounds against HepG2, NCI-H460, MCF-7, and HeLa cell lines were evaluated. Chemical investigation of the methanol extract of the fertile form of Roccella montagnei collected in Vietnam afforded twelve secondary metabolites, including five new montagnetol derivatives, orsellinylmontagnetols A−D and a furanyl derivative together with seven known compounds. Their chemical structures were elucidated by analysis of 1D and 2D NMR and high resolution mass spectroscopic data. The relative stereochemistry of two chiral centers (C-2 and C-3) of orsellinylmontagnetols A and B was elucidated by comparison of their coupling constants and the specific rotation with those reported in the literature while the absolute stereochemistry was determined by the application of a modified Mosher method for the hydroxy group at C-3. The absolute configuration (2R,3S) of the butanetetraol moiety of these compounds is in accordance with that of erythrin, a recognized chemotaxonomic marker of the genus Roccella. Five of these compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against four cancer cell lines. Only orsellinylmontagnetol A exerted a moderate activity against MCF-7 cell line with an IC50 value of 68.39 ± 3.46 μM. Keywords: Lichen; Roccella montagnei (fertile form); Montagnetol; Montagnetol derivatives; Stereochemistry; Cytotoxicity.
28087Giordani P., Minganti V., Brignole D., Malaspina P., Cornara L. & Drava G. (2017): Is there a risk of trace element contamination in herbal preparations? A test study on the lichen Cetraria islandica. - Chemosphere, 181: 778–785.
Lichens are a source of unique secondary metabolites, which have been proved to have many biological properties with possible pharmaceutical roles, including e.g. antioxidant, antimicrobial, antifungal or anti-inflammatory activities and to be worth of consideration for potential human use. However, lichens lack cuticolar tissues and are exposed to several atmospheric contaminants, including trace elements. This work aims at exploring the potential toxicity of herbal preparations derived by the lichen Cetraria islandica due to trace element contamination, testing whether different concentrations may be observed, depending on the origin of the raw material. Fourteen samples of C. islandica, as cut dried thalli occurring on the European market, have been bought from different providers. For each sample, the concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, P, Pb, V and Zn were measured on comminuted herbal substance and on the corresponding decoction, using atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The elemental concentrations in decoctions were significantly lower than those measured in raw materials, dropping down to levels of negligible health concern. Differences observed in raw materials were not observed anymore in the corresponding decoctions. Also, the elemental transfer rate from dried lichen to decoction was extremely element-specific, ranging from 2% for Cu to 95% for Zn. Keywords: Decoction; Iceland moss; Metals; Phytotherapy.
28086Coyle J.R. (2017): Intraspecific variation in epiphyte functional traits reveals limited effects of microclimate on community assembly in temperate deciduous oak canopies. - Oikos, 126: 111–120.
Forest canopies are heterogeneous environments where changes in microclimate over short distances create an opportunity for niche-based filtering of canopy-dwelling species assemblages. This environmental filtering may not occur if species’ physiological capacities are flexible or if rapid dispersal alleviates compositional differences. I assess the role of humidity, light and temperature gradients in structuring epiphyte communities in temperate deciduous oak (Quercus) canopies and determine whether gradients filter species with fixed traits or whether environmental constraints act primarily to alter individual phenotypes. I measured environmental conditions and seven functional traits related to water and light acquisition on individual macrolichens at 60 sample locations in northern red oaks Quercus rubra in two Piedmont forests in North Carolina, USA. The effects of environmental variables on individual-level traits and community composition were evaluated using linear mixed models and constrained ordination (RDA). In general, traits and community composition responded weakly to environmental variables and trait variation within taxa was high. Cortex thickness exhibited the strongest response, such that individuals with thicker cortices were found in samples experiencing lower humidity and higher light levels. Overall, gradients of humidity, light and temperature were not strong environmental filters that caused large changes in community composition. This was probably due to phenotypic variability within taxa that enabled species to persist across the full range of environmental conditions measured. Thus, humidity affected the phenotype of individuals, but did not limit species distributions or alter community composition at the scale of branches within trees. Community and trait responses were primarily associated with site-level differences in humidity, suggesting that in these forests landscape-scale climatic gradients may be stronger drivers of epiphyte community assembly than intra-canopy environmental gradients.
28085Onuţ‐Brännström I., Tibell L. & Johannesson H. (2017): A worldwide phylogeography of the whiteworm lichens Thamnolia reveals three lineages with distinct habitats and evolutionary histories. - Ecology and Evolution, 7(10): 3602–3615.
Thamnolia is a lichenized fungus with an extremely wide distribution, being encountered in arctic and alpine environments in most continents. In this study, we used molecular markers to investigate the population structure of the fungal symbiont and the associated photosynthetic partner of Thamnolia. By analyzing molecular, morphological, and chemical variation among 253 specimens covering the species distribution range, we revealed the existence of three mycobiont lineages. One lineage (Lineage A) is confined to the tundra region of Siberia and the Aleutian Islands, a second (Lineage B) is found in the high alpine region of the Alps and the Carpathians Mountains, and a third (Lineage C) has a worldwide distribution and covers both the aforementioned ecosystems. Molecular dating analysis indicated that the split of the three lineages is older than the last glacial maximum, but the distribution ranges and the population genetic analyses suggest an influence of last glacial period on the present-day population structure of each lineage. We found a very low diversity of Lineage B, but a higher and similar one in Lineages A and C. Demographic analyses suggested that Lineage C has its origin in the Northern Hemisphere, possibly Scandinavia, and that it has passed through a bottleneck followed by a recent population expansion. While all three lineages reproduce clonally, recombination tests suggest rare or past recombination in both Lineages A and C. Moreover, our data showed that Lineage C has a comparatively low photobiont specificity, being found associated with four widespread Trebouxia lineages (three of them also shared with other lichens), while Lineages A and B exclusively harbor T. simplex s. lat. Finally, we did not find support for the recognition of taxa in Thamnolia based on either morphological or chemical characters. Keywords: chemical variation; clonality; lichens; phylogeography; symbiosis; Thamnolia.
28084Aschenbrenner I.A., Cernava T., Erlacher A., Berg G. & Grube M. (2017): Differential sharing and distinct co-occurrence networks among spatially close bacterial microbiota of bark, mosses and lichens. - Molecular Ecology, 26: 2826–2838.
Knowledge of bacterial community host-specificity has increased greatly in recent years. However, the intermicrobiome relationships of unrelated but spatially close organisms remain little understood. Trunks of trees covered by epiphytes represent complex habitats with a mosaic of ecological niches. In this context, we investigated the structure, diversity and interactions of microbiota associated with lichens, mosses and the bare tree bark. Comparative analysis revealed significant differences in the habitat-associated community structures. Corresponding co-occurrence analysis indi- cated that the lichen microbial network is less complex and less densely intercon- nected than the moss- and bark-associated networks. Several potential generalists and specialists were identified for the selected habitats. Generalists belonged mainly to Proteobacteria, with Sphingomonas as the most abundant genus. The generalists com- prise microorganisms with generally beneficial features, such as nitrogen fixation or other supporting functions, according to a metagenomic analysis. We argue that benefi- cial strains shared among hosts contribute to ecological stability of the host bio- coenoses. Keywords: amplicon sequencing, co-occurrence patterns, host microbe associations, metagenome, microbial ekology.
28083Nascimbene J., Mayrhofer H., Dainese M. & Bilovitz P.O. (2017): Assembly patterns of soil-dwelling lichens after glacier retreat in the European Alps. - Journal of Biogeography, 44: 1393–1404.
Aim: To assess the spatial-temporal dynamics of primary succession following deglaciation in soil-dwelling lichen communities.Location: European Alps (Austria, Switzerland and Italy). Methods: Five glacier forelands subjected to relevant glacier retreat during the last century were investigated. In each glacier foreland, three successional stages were selected at increasing distance from the glacier, corresponding to a gradient of time since deglaciation between 25 and 160 years. In each successional stage, soil-dwelling lichens were surveyed within five 1 × 1 m plots. In addition to a classical ecological framework, based on species richness and composition, we applied a functional approach to better elucidate community assembly mechanisms. Results: A positive relationship was found between species richness and time since deglaciation indicating that richer lichen communities can be found at increasing terrain ageing. This pattern was associated with compositional shifts, suggesting that different community assemblages can be found along the successional stages. The analysis of β-diversity revealed a significant nested pattern of species assemblages along the gradient (i.e. earlier successional stages hosted a subset of the species already established in older successional stages), while the turnover component was less relevant. Considering functional groups, we found contrasting patterns in relation to time since deglaciation: the incidence of species with a cyanobacterial photobiont and those reproducing by spores decreased, while that of species reproducing by vegetative propagules increased. Main conclusions: This study reveals that community assembly patterns of soil-dwelling lichens in alpine glacier forelands are ruled by mechanisms of directional species accumulation and trait selection that involve a trade-off between different functional strategies. Functional traits that reflect the dispersal and adaptation capability of the species underpin the colonization success of soil-dwelling lichens in glacier forelands. Keywords: dispersal traits, glacier forelands, photobiont type, primary succession, spatialtemporal patterns, species accumulation, species richness and composition, trait selection, β-diversity.
28082Suija A. & Liira J. (2017): Community response to alkaline pollution as an adjusting reassembly between alternative stable states. - Journal of Vegetation Science, 28: 527–537.
Aims: We hypothesize that the community response to disturbances can be interpreted as a large-scale dynamic equilibrium between multiple alternate states stemming from different species pools within a regional meta-pool and being limited by species’ multi-dimensional niches. We explore this hypothesis by examining the re-assembly of an acidophilous lichen community in response to long-term alkaline dust pollution, assuming understorey as a potential side- factor. Location: Around a cement factory in Kunda, Estonia. Methods: Lichen communities on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) trunks in 40 stands around a cement factory and in nine distant limestone habitats were assessed. Results: The formed bark pH gradient from pH 2.4 to 8.1 was reflected in a continuum of lichen communities on pines from acidophilous to basiphilous communities. Besides suppressing species richness, understorey density more evidently caused the compositional divergence from neutral bark conditions. The effect of hidden interactions among drivers was explained through reactions of individual species – almost all species across the pollution gradient were pH-limited, whereas species adapted to neutral or alkaline substrate were additionally sensitive to understorey conditions. The hump-shaped distribution of pH niche ranges along the observed niche optima, rather than ecological indicator values, showed that the shape of species’ multi-dimensional niche-space still needs to be quantified. Conclusions: Each alternative community state along the disturbance gradient represents a realization of its specific species pool within the meta-pool. Degradation can be defined if the community state is not supported by a meta-pool. Species infiltration during community re-assembly can be predicted using species source communities as cost-efficient proxies. Keywords: Alkaline pollution; Alternate states; Assembly rules; Community dynamics; Ecological indicator values; Environmental filters; Lichens; Species pool hypothesis.
28081Kellogg J.J. & Raja H.A. (2017): Endolichenic fungi: a new source of rich bioactive secondary metabolites on the horizon. - Phytochemistry Reviews, 16: 271–293.
Endolichenic fungi are diverse groups of predominantly filamentous fungi that reside asymptomatically in the interior of lichen thalli. Natural products from endolichenic fungi, isolated from a variety of different lichen species, have been attracting increased attention for their potential to produce bioactive metabolites possessing new structures and representing different structural classes. This is evident from the steady increase of publications devoted to endolichenic fungal metabolites over the past decade, since the first report of endolichenic secondary metabolites. The bioactive metabolites produced by endolichenic fungi originate from multiple biosynthetic pathways and occupy different chemical structure classes, including steroids, quinones, terpenoids, peptides, xanthones, sulfur-containing chromenones, etc. Endolichenic fungal metabolites possess a diverse array of bioactivities, such as anticancer, antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, and anti-Alzheimer’s disease. This review provides the first thorough assessment of endolichenic fungi, their biodiversity, secondary metabolites, and associated bioactivity. This review will highlight the bioactive metabolites reported in recent years from endolichenic fungi, as well as discussing the potential of these symbiotic fungi as sources of new, diverse natural products with varying bioactivities. Keywords: Bioactivity;  Biodiversity;  Endolichenic fungi;  Lichen;  Natural products.
28080Aguillaume L., Avila A., Pinho P., Matos P., Llop E. & Branquinho C. (2017): The critical levels of atmospheric ammonia in a Mediterranean holm-oak forest in north-eastern Spain. - Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 228:93 [13 p.].
Despite recent regulations, atmospheric ammonia (NH3) emissions have not changed much over the last decades and excessive nitrogen remains as one of the major drivers for biodiversity changes. To prevent deleterious effects on species and ecosystems, it is very important to establish safety thresholds, such as those defined by the Critical Level (CLE) concept, “the concentration above which direct adverse effects on receptors may occur, based on present knowledge.” Empirical critical levels of atmospheric NH3 have mainly been reported for temperate forests and there is a lack of information for Mediterranean forests. Here, we provide a case study on NH3 CLEs for a typical Mediterranean ecosystem, the holm-oak (Quercus ilex) forest. To derive the CLE value, we measured NH3 concentrations for 1 year at a distance gradient in the forest surrounding a point source (cattle farm) and used diversity changes of lichen functional groups to indicate the onset of adverse effects. We estimate a NH3 CLE threshold of 2.6 μg m−3, a value that is higher than that reported in other Mediterranean ecosystems and suggests that the site has been already impacted by NH3 pollution in the past. In a more general context, this study confirms the validity of lichen functional groups to derive CLEs in Mediterranean forests and woodlands and contribute to the body of knowledge regarding the impacts of NH3 on ecosystems. Keywords: Critical levels; Ammonia; Ecological indicators; Lichen functional groups; Mediterranean; Quercus ilex forest; N pollution.
28079Santaniello F., Djupström L.B., Ranius T., Weslien J., Rudolphi J. & Thor G. (2017): Large proportion of wood dependent lichens in boreal pine forest are confined to old hard wood. - Biodiversity and Conservation, 26: 1295–1310.
Intensive forest management has led to a population decline in many species, including those dependent on dead wood. Many lichens are known to depend on dead wood, but their habitat requirements have been little studied. In this study we investigated the habitat requirements of wood dependent lichens on coarse dead wood (diameter >10 cm) of Scots pine Pinus sylvestris in managed boreal forests in central Sweden. Twenty-one wood dependent lichen species were recorded, of which eleven were confined to old (estimated to be >120 years old) and hard dead wood. Almost all of this wood has emanated from kelo trees, i.e. decorticated and resin-impregnated standing pine trees that died long time ago. We found four red-listed species, of which two were exclusive and two highly associated with old and hard wood. Lichen species composition differed significantly among dead wood types (low stumps, snags, logs), wood hardness, wood age and occurrence of fire scars. Snags had higher number of species per dead wood area than logs and low stumps, and old snags had higher number of species per dead wood area than young ones. Since wood from kelo trees harbours a specialized lichen flora, conservation of wood dependent lichens requires management strategies ensuring the future presence of this wood type. Besides preserving available kelo wood, the formation of this substratum should be supported by setting aside P. sylvestris forests and subject these to prescribed burnings as well as to allow wild fires in some of these forests. Keywords: Coarse woody debris;  Fire scars;  Habitat requirements;  Saproxylic species; Kelo.
28078Egertová Z., Gaisler J., Zemanová L. & Hradílek Z. (2016): Mniaecia jungermanniae (Helotiales), an overlooked bryophilous ascomycete in the Liberec Region (Czech Republic). - Czech Mycology, 68(2): 149–165.
Mniaecia jungermanniae, a tiny inoperculate ascomycete growing on leafy liverworts of the order Jungermanniales, was recorded at 66 localities in the Liberec Region (Czech Republic) since December 2013 to May 2015. It was noticed on 17 species of liverworts, with Cephalozia bicuspidata, Calypogeia neesiana, C. azurea and Diplophyllum albicans being the most frequently inhabited ones. The species was recorded on rocks and boulders as well as on soil on forest tracks and along streams, exceptionally on wood. The geological bedrock was acidic in all cases – sandstone, granite or phyllite. The altitude of the localities ranged between 315 and 1215 m a.s.l. Localities were predominantly located in the shade in coniferous and broad-leaved forests, always with a rich occurrence of liverworts. Hitherto known localities in the Czech Republic are also summarised in the article. Key words: bryophilous fungi, Jungermanniales, leafy liverworts, North Bohemia.
28077Adamčík S., Aude E., Bässler C., Christensen M., van Dort K., Fritz Ö., Glejdura S., Heilmann-Clausen J., Holec J., Jančovičová S., Kunca V., Lackovičová A., Lüth M. & Ódor P. (2016): Fungi and lichens recorded during the cryptogam symposium on natural beech forests, Slovakia 2011. - Czech Mycology, 68(1): 1–40.
In September 2011, an international team of cryptogam experts visited seven national nature reserves in five mountain areas of Slovakia: Havešová and Stužica in the Poloniny Mts., Vihorlat in the Vihorlatské vrchyMts., Oblík in the Slanské vrchyMts., Dobročský prales and Klenovský Vepor in the Veporské vrchy Mts. and Badínsky prales in the Kremnické vrchy Mts. The reserves were selected to represent examples of the best protected old-growth beech forests in the country. The aim was to study the diversity of wood-inhabiting fungi on fallen beech logs and epiphytic lichens on standing beech trees. In total, 215 fungal species and 128 lichens were recorded on beech wood and bark, and 27 fungi and 26 lichens on additional substrates. The site of the highest conservation value is Stužica with 126 fungi and 79 lichens recorded on beech, of which 12 fungi and 19 lichens are indicators of high nature conservation value. Combined with historical records, a total of 19 non-lichenised fungal indicators are now reported from the site, making it the highest ranked natural beech forest in Europe. The second most important reserve for fungal diversity is Havešová with 121 species, including 14 indicator species recorded on beech wood. For lichens, the second most important reserve is Klenovský Vepor with 69 species including 18 lichen indicators recorded on beech. Nine fungus species are here reported as new to Slovakia: Asterostroma medium, Entoloma hispidulum, E. pseudoparasiticum, Gloeohypochnicium analogum, Hohenbuehelia valesiaca, Hymenochaete ulmicola, Hypocrea parmastoi, Melanomma spiniferum and Scutellinia colensoi. Lichen species Alyxoria ochrocheila is reported as new to Slovakia and Lecanographa amylacea, which was considered extinct in the Slovak Red list, was also recorded. This is the first list of wood-inhabiting fungi and epiphytic lichens of old-growth beech forests in Slovakia, and hence an important contribution to the exploration of biodiversity in Slovakia.
28076Awasthi D.D. (1991): A Key to the Microlichens of India, Nepal and Sri Lanka. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 40: 1-340.
Includes keys for 163 genera and 1, 150 species. New: Aspicilia scabridula (Magn.) comb. nov., A. maculata (Magn.) comb. nov., Buellia confusa sp. nov., Caloplaca handelii (Zahlbr.) comb. nov., C. orissensis (Räs.) comb. nov., Diploschistes megalosporus Lumbsch nom. nov., Graphina subintricata (Krempelh.) comb. nov., Enterographa praepallens (Nyl.) comb. nov., Laurera andamanica nom. nov., Myriotrema tarmuguliense (Sethy, Nagarkar & Patw.) comb. nov., M. pertusarioides (Nagarkar, Sethy & Patw.) comb. nov., M norstictideum (Patw. & Nagarkar) comb. nov., M. meghalayense (Patw. & Nagarkar) comb. nov., Ocellularia guptei (Nagarkar, Sethy & Patw.) comb. nov., O. neomasonhalei (Patw., Sethy & Nagarkar) comb. nov., O. jamesii (Patw. & Kulk.) comb. nov., O. submicrosporoides (Nagarkar, Sethy & Patw.) comb. nov., O. mahabalei (Patw. & Kulk.) comb. nov, Pertusaria neilgherrensis (Müll. Arg.) Awasthi & Srivastava stat. et comb. nov., Pleurotrema corticola (Makh. & Patw.) comb. nov., P. verrucosum (Makh. & Patw.) comb. nov., Protoblastenia griseococcinea (Nyl. in Hue) Inoue comb. nov., Rinodina megaspora (Awasthi & Agarwal) stat et comb. nov., Anthracothecium austroindicum A. Singh sp. nov., A. badioatrum A. Singh sp. nov., A. goaense A. Singh sp. nov., A. nanosporum A. Singh sp. nov., A. himalayense var. pseudohimalayense (A. Singh) A. Singh comb. nov., Bacidia psorina (Nyl. in Hue) G. Pant & Awasthi comb. nov., Coenogonium himalayense G. Pant & Awasthi sp. nov.
28075Arnold N. & Poelt J. (1995): Über Anthrachinone-Pigmente bei einigen Arten der Flechtengattung Xanthoria, insbesondere aus der Verwandtschaft von Xanthoria elegans (Teloschistaceae). - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 57: 49-58.
anthraquinones, chemistry, fallacinol, parietin, physcion, teloschistin, Xanthoria
28074Aptroot A. (1997): Lichen biodiversity in Papua New Guinea, with the report of 173 species on one tree. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 68: 203-213.
Comparison of the lichen flora in a lowland primary tropical rain forest (1-230 m), a mountain forest (2300-2750 m), and a high mountain area with subalpine and alpine vegetation (3500-4500 m). Between 400 and 500 species were found at each region, although actual species composition was very different
28073Singh S.M. & Nayaka S. (2017): Contributions to the Floral Diversity of Schirmacher Oasis and Larsemann Hills, Antarctica . - Proc Indian Natn Sci Acad, 83(2): 469-481.
In continental Antarctica, algae, fungi, lichen and mosses are the major floristic elements. To understand their distribution and diversity pattern in ice free areas of Schirmacher Oasis and Larsemann Hills investigations were conducted during various Indian Antarctic Expeditions. Due to the extreme environmental conditions in Antarctica, lichens and bryophytes undergo sever morphological changes and occur in mostly in sterile condition that makes them difficult group to identify. A total of 69 species of lichens were encountered in the Schirmacher Oasis and 25 species in the region of Larsemann Hills. Most lichens known from these two areas are microlichens. The ecophysiological studies on lichens indicated Rhizoplaca melanophthalma as the most desiccation tolerant species in Schirmacher Oasis. The studies on moss flora contributed only 12 species under eight genera and five families from Schirmacher Oasis. The sub-fossil moss Pohlia nutans of Holocene period was recorded from lake sediment cores from Schirmacher Oasis. There are several studies on algal flora of Schirmacher Oasis and in one of the studies a total of 109 species of cyanobacteria belonging to 30 genera and 9 families were recorded from Schirmacher Oasis. Similarly, a total of 19 species of fungi belonging to 13 genera and seven families were recorded from Schirmacher Oasis soils and 5 species of yeasts were recorded from Larsemann Hills. Furthermore, Thelebolus microsporus was characterized for adaptation strategies and biotechnological potentials. Schirmacher Oasis; Larsemann Hills; Algae; Fungi; Moss; Lichens; Antarctica
28072Elix J.A. & Mayrhofer H. (2017): New species and new records of buellioid lichens (Physciaceae, Ascomycota) from New Zealand. - Telopea, 20: 75–84.
Amandinea rangitatensis Elix & H.Mayrhofer, Buellia haywardii Elix,A.Knight & H.Mayrhofer, B. maungatuensis Elix & H.Mayrhofer, B. papanui Elix & H.Mayrhofer, and Tetramelas allisoniae Elix, H.Mayrhofer & Glenny are described as new to science. Rinodinella fertilis var. hypostictica (Elix) Elix is recorded for the first time from New Zealand. Tetramelas allisoniae also occurs in Tasmania
28071Kashiwadani H. (1979): Materials for the distribution of lichens in Japan (5). Parmelia erumpens Kurok. - J. Jap. Bot., 54: 223.
Japan, Parmelia erumpens
28070Asahina Y. (1928): The Raiken\'s Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. XXV. - J. Jap. Bot., 5(9): 317-322.
Japan, Glossodium, Massalongia, Placynthium, Buellia
28069Asahina Y. (1928): The Raiken\'s Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. XXIV. - J. Jap. Bot., 5(8): 288-290.
Japan, Manna, Lecanora
28068Asahina Y. (1928): The Reiken\'s Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. XXIII. - J. Jap. Bot., 5(7): 255-256.
Japan, Myriangium
28067Asahina Y. (1928): Mach More to Perceive by the Tongue and Nose. - J. Jap. Bot., 5(7): 253-255.
Japan, Cladonia, fumarprotocetraric acid