28818Cezanne R., Eichler M., Berger F., Brackel W. v., Dolnik C., John V. & Schultz M. (2017): Ergänzungen und Korrekturen zu „Deutsche Namen für Flechten“ I. - Herzogia, 30: 520–523.
Additions and corrections to “German names for lichens” I. In a first supplement to the list of “German names for lichens” ten corrections and 23 additions are made. Key words: Germany, German common names, popular names, vernacular names, lichens, standard list.
28817Pino-Bodas R., Ahti T. & Stenroos S. (2017): Cladoniaceae of the Azores. - Herzogia, 30: 445–462.
Based on material collected from 40 localities on four islands of the Azores, three species of Cladonia are new to Macaronesia: C. conista, C. mauritiana and C. novochlorophaea and four are new to the Azores: C. bellidiflora, C. dimorpha, C. rei and Cladonia sp. In addition, several species are new to individual islands of the archipelago. Cladonia dactylota is new to continental Europe (SW France). Cladonia stereoclada, described from the Azores, is lectotypified. These data are complemented with annotations on species distribution and chemical variations. Uncertain specimens were sequenced to confirm the species identities. Key words: Atlantic islands, biodiversity, lichen-forming fungi, Macaronesia, phylogeny.
28816Hauck M. (2017): Nimis, P. L. 2016. The lichens of Italy. A second annotated catalogue. – Triest: EUT Edizioni Università di Trieste. Hardcover, 740 S. ISBN 978-88-8303-754-2. Preis: 80,00 EUR. - Herzogia, 30: 524.
Book review
28815Ezhkin A.K. & Schumm F. (2017): Heterodermia incana (Physciaceae), a new record for Russia. - Herzogia, 30: 504–508.
We report a new finding of Heterodermia incana, a rare lichen with an otherwise tropical distribution, from Sakhalin Island in the Russian Far East. It is the northernmost record for Heterodermia incana to date. We provide illustrations of its morphological features, an occurrence map and results of HPTLC. Key words: Physciaceae, Podocarpae, rare lichen, Sakhalin.
28814Aptroot A., van Herk C.M. & Sparrius L.B. (2017): Twenty-two years of monitoring the lichen flora of megalithic monuments in the Netherlands. - Herzogia, 30: 483–495.
Over the past 22 years, the lichen flora of 54 megalithic monuments in The Netherlands has been monitored. In 2010, they harboured 133 lichen species. In 1988, 1993, 2000, 2005 and 2010, the lichen flora of all granite monuments were re-examined. Between 1988 and 2010 the number of lichen species per monument increased, especially those that grow normally as epiphytes and nitrophytes or have a southern distribution. Typical species of acidic rock decreased, together with other acidophytic epiphytes, lignicolous and terricolous species. The main driver for the observed changes is the increase in tree cover above and around the monuments. Changes in epiphytic lichen composition largely reflect changes in acid deposition, eutrophication and climate. Key words: Saxicolous lichens, tree cover, granite, lichen ecology.
28813Schiedermayr K. (1877): Gallerie österreichischer Botaniker. XXI. Anton Eleutherius Sauter. - Oesterreichische Botanische Zeitschrift, 27(1): 1-6.
28812Tibell L. (1998): Crustose mazaediate lichens and the Mycocaliciaceae in temperate South America. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 71: 1-107.
A taxonomic revision of crustose caliciod lichens and fungi occurring in the a and temperate areas of South America comprising 47 species in 7 genera is presented. Most of the species are lichenized, have passive spore dispersal, and belong to Acroscyphus, Calicium and Cyphelium in Caliciaceae and Chaenotheca in Coniocybaceae. Species in Mycocaliciaceae, included in Chaenothecopsis, Mycocalicium and Phaeocalicium are also frequent. They are parasites or saprobes on vascular plants and algae, or commensalistic on lichens. A few species of Microcalicium in Microcaliciaceae also occur. These lichens and fungi have previously been very neglected in the area. Calicium isabellinum, Chaenotheca australis, C. confusa, Chaenothecopsis arthoniae, C. australis, C. cinerea, C. lecanactidis, Mycocalicium anomalum and Phaeocalicium fuegensis are described as new. Eleven further species are new to South America, and several species are new to Argentina and Chile. Most of the species occur in oldgrowth Nothofagus forests, and are like in other areas sensitive to forest exploitation. A high proportion of the species (74%) also occur in the Northern hemisphere, only three (6%) species are austral, and eight (17%) are endemic. lichens, fungi, ascomycetes, Caliciales, calicioid, South America, taxonomy, new species, biogeography, ecology
28811Holien H. & Tønsberg T. (2017): Cliostomum piceicola, a new lichen species from oldgrowth coniferous forests in northern Europe. - Herzogia, 30: 427–430.
Cliostomum piceicola is described as new to science from old boreal forests in Scandinavia and Russia. It differs from C. corrugatum by the dull and finely warty surface of the thallus, in producing an unidentified, diagnostic lichen substance, by the northern distribution, and the preference for Picea abies in moist, often swampy forest. Key words: Cliostomum, Norway, oldgrowth coniferous forests, Picea abies, Russia, Sweden.
28810Muchnik E. & Konoreva L. (2017): New and noteworthy records of lichens and allied fungi from central European Russia. - Herzogia, 30: 509–514.
Thirteen lichen and allied fungi taxa are treated, of which one (Dactylospora microspora) is recorded for the first time for Russia from Bryansk oblast, two (Gyalideopsis helvetica and Sclerophora amabilis) are new for the European part of Russia, and two (Melaspileella proximella and Trapeliopsis pseudogranulosa) are new for central European Russia. Short notes on their characters and distributions are provided. Key words: Biodiversity, lichenicolous fungi, lichenised Ascomycota, rare species.
28809Yakovchenko L., Galanina I. & Davydov E.A. (2017): Buellia lacteoidea New to Eurasia from Transbaikal Territory (South Siberia, Russia). - Herzogia, 30: 515–519.
Buellia lacteoidea (Physciaceae, lichenized Ascomycetes), hitherto only known from western North America, is reported from the Transbaikal Territory (South Siberia, Russia). A morphological description based on the Russian material is provided. Key words: Physciaceae, new records, distribution, lichen, lichenized fungi.
28808Grünberg H., Cezanne R., Eckstein J., Eichler M., Kempf H., Meinunger L., Preussing M., Putzmann F., Scholz P., Thiel H., Thiemann R. & Hentschel J. (2017): Neue und bemerkenswerte Flechtenfunde in Thüringen. - Herzogia, 30: 463–482.
Records of newly reported, extremely rare or critically endangered lichens for Thuringia are presented. Absconditella lignicola, Acrocordia cavata, Agonimia allobata, A. flabelliformis, A. vouauxii, Alyxoria ochrocheila, Bacidia arceutina, B. trachona, B. viridifarinosa, Bacidina neosquamulosa, Caloplaca luteoalba, Candelariella plumbea, Cyphelium karelicum, Gregorella humida, Lecanactis dilleniana, Lecania sylvestris, Lempholemma isidiodes, Strigula jamesii, Thelenella muscorum, Umbilicaria subglabra and Verruculopsis lecideoides are reported for the first time from Thuringia. Recent records of species previously thought to be extinct are Bacidia rosella, Caloplaca cerina, Heppia lutosa and Parmelina quercina. The regional distribution of Evernia mesomorpha, Chaenotheca brachypoda, Pycnothelia papillaria and Usnea flavocardia is mapped. Key words: Distribution, ecology, Germany, lichen diversity, lichenized fungi, red list, threatened species, Thuringia.
28807Liška J. & Palice Z. (2017): Česká a slovenská lichenologická bibliografie XXX [Czech and Slovak lichenological bibliography, XXX]. - Bryonora, 60: 79–84.
Czech and Slovak lichenological bibliography
28806Malíček J. (2017): Review: Chytrý M., Danihelka J., Kaplan Z. & Pyšek P. [eds] (2017): Flora and vegetation of the Czech Republic. – Springer, Cham. - Bryonora, 60: 77–80.
book review
28805Šoun J., Bouda F., Kocourková J., Malíček J. & Palice Z., Peksa O., Svoboda D. & Vondrák J. (2017): Zajímavé nálezy lišejníků z čeledi Parmeliaceae v České republice [Interesting records of lichens of the family Parmeliaceae in the Czech Republic]. - Bryonora, 60: 46–64.
New records of 31 rare and red-listed species of the family Parmeliaceae from the Czech Republic are reported. A major part of these species, including Evernia divaricata, E. mesomorpha, Flavo- parmelia soredians, Hypotrachyna revoluta, Parmotrema perlatum and Usnea sp. div., are recently spreading epiphytic lichens positi- vely responding to decreased sulfur dioxide concentrations and cli- mate changes. Other reported species are rare lichens of old-growth forests (Alectoria sarmentosa, Hypogymnia bitteri and H. vittata), rare saxicolous lichens (Allantoparmelia alpicola, Melanohalea infumata and Xanthoparmelia tinctina), or other phytogeographi- cally remarkable lichens (e.g. Letharia vulpina). Hypotrachyna afrorevoluta, H. lividescens and Punctelia borreri are new to the Czech Republic; H. lividescens is new to Central Europe
28804Malíček J., Berger F., Bouda F., Cezanne R., Eichler M., Halda J.P., Langbehn T., Palice Z., Šoun J., Uhlík P. & Vondrák J. (2017): Lišejníky zaznamenané během bryologicko-lichenologického setkání v Mohelně na Třebíčsku na jaře 2016 [Lichens recorded during the Bryological and Lichenological meeting in Mohelno (Třebíč region, southwestern Moravia) in spring 2016]. - Bryonora, 60: 24–25.
We present a list of 405 lichenized, lichenicolous and lichen-allied fungi recorded on the famous rocky steppe with a serpentinite bedrock called Mohelenská hadcová step and at other localities in the Třebíč region. The steppe was visited regularly by lichenologists during the last 100 years. We confirmed many valuable historical records (e.g. Caloplaca conversa, Harpidium rutilans, Lecanora laatokkaënsis, Lichinella stipatula, Spilonema paradoxum, Toninia cinereovirens) and added several new ones (e.g. Catillaria atomarioides, Lemmopsis arnoldiana, Peccania cernohorskyi and Phaeophyscia pusilloides). A smaller serpentinite site in the surroundings, called Dukovanský mlýn, is also valuable due to the occurrence of a few rare species (Belonia russula, Porpidia nadvornikiana and Rinodina rinodinoides). Other surveyed sites included castle ruins Templštejn with neighbouring granulite rocks and natural oak forests, and Levnov, the type locality of the cyanolichen Pterygiopsis umbilicata occurring on Ca-enriched granulite rocks below the ruin. Our list also includes epiphytic lichens recorded during a detailed survey in a lowland forest at the Lamberk castle ruin in the valley of the river Oslava. One day of research by four lichenologists in a one-hectare plot resulted in findings of 153 epiphytic and epixylic species. Numerous rare and rarely collected crustose lichens were recorded, for example Arthonia endlicheri, Bacidia incompta, B. laurocerasi, Biatora pontica, Buellia violaceofusca, Chaenotheca hispidula, Dendrographa decolorans and Enterographa hutchinsiae
28803Elix J.A. & McCarthy P.M. (1998): Catalogue of the Lichens of the smaller Pacific Islands. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 70: 1-361.
Bibliographic and distributional information are provided for 33 islands/island groups between 40°N and 40°S. A total of 2189 species are listed for all the islands covered, and separate checklists are provided for each island or group
28802Archer A.W. (1997): The Lichen Genus Pertusaria in Australia. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 69: 1-249.
Keys and descriptions for the 128 species are given and the synonymy, chemistry, distribution and ecology of each species is discussed." New: Pertusaria aquilonia A. W. Archer & Elix sp. nov., P. boweniana A.W. Archer & Elix sp. nov., P. complanata A. W. Archer & Elix sp. nov., P. dehiscens var. sekikaica A. W. Archer & Elix var. nov., P. ewersii A. W. Archer & Elix sp. nov., P. georgeana A. W. Archer & Elix sp. nov., P. gundermanica A. W. Archer & Elix sp. nov., P. injuneana A. W. Archer & Elix sp. nov., P. meeana A. W. Archer & Elix sp. nov., P. orarensis A. W. Archer & Elix sp. nov., P. pallida A. W. Archer & Elix sp. nov., P. paradoxica var. tetraspora A. W. Archer & Elix sp. nov., P. pilosula A. W. Archer & Elix sp. nov., P. praetermissa A. W. Archer & Elix sp. nov., P. pseudothwaitesii A. W. Archer & Elix sp. nov., P. salebrosa A. W. Archer & Elix sp. nov., P. sydneyensis A. W. Archer & Elix sp. nov., P. umbricola A. W. Archer & Elix sp. nov., P. xanthodactylina A. W. Archer & Elix sp. nov., P. xenismota A. W. Archer & Elix sp. nov., P. barbatica A. W. Archer & Elix sp. nov., P. nerrigensis A. W. Archer & Elix sp. nov.
28801Rajan V.P., Gunasekaran S., Ramanathan S., Murugaiyah V., Samsudin M.W. & Din L.B. (2016): Biological activities of four Parmotrema species of Malaysian origin and their chemical constituents. - Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 6(8): 36–43.
The present study was carried out to evaluate the antibacterial and antioxidant potential of acetone and methanol extracts of lichen (Parmotrema praesorediosum, P. rampoddense, P. tinctorum and P. reticulatum) and isolated chemical constituents which are praesorediosic acid, protocetraric acid, usnic acid, α–collatolic acid, β–alectoronic acid, atranorin and chloroatranorin. The antibacterial activity was evaluated using broth dilution method. Acetone extracts (except for P. reticulatum) showed good inhibitory activity against S. aureus and B. subtilis with MIC values ranging from 500–125 µg/mL, whereas, no activity was observed for the methanol extracts. Extracts exhibited zero inhibitory activity against E. coli. The antioxidant ability was measured using a DPPH free radical scavenging activity assay. Only methanol extract of P. praesorediosum exhibited more than 50% scavenging activity. Among the isolates, usnic acid exhibited the strongest antibacterial activity against S. aureus and B. subtilis with MIC value 7.81 µg/mL. Praesorediosic acid and protocetraric acid isolates exclusively inhibited E. coli at concentration 125 µg/mL and displayed results exceeding 50% scavenging activity (57.57% and 63.97%, respectively). Hitherto, it is the first evaluation of antibacterial activity on lichens of Malaysian origin and to our knowledge; the first reported study on the biological activity of praesorediosic acid and Parmotrema rampoddense. Key words: Antibacterial activity, antioxidant activity, secondary metabolites, preparative HPLC guided isolation.
28800Payal P. & Sharma M.C. (2016): GC-MS analysis and biological activities of medicinally important lichen: Parmelia perlata. - International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research, 8(12): 1975–1985.
Parmelia perlata colloquially known as Chadeela or Shilapushp belongs to the family Parmeliaceae. In Ayurveda, it is used to treat wounds, infections, inflammation, skin diseases, diarrhoea, dysentery, cough, fever, seminal weakness, amenorrhoea and renal calculi. In view of its medicinal importance we have analyzed this plant using Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry and screened it for its antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. GC-MS analysis of the petether, chloroform and acetone extracts revealed the presence of 49 compounds in each. D:B-Friedo-B':A'neogammacer-5-en-3-ol, (3.beta.)-,D-Friedoolean-14-en-3-one, (+)-Usnic acid, D:A-Friedooleanan-3-one, 5-methyl-1,3benzendiol,5-pentyl-1,3-benzenediol, atranorin, methoxyolivetol and Z-10-tetradecen-1-ol were identified as major compounds. The results of antibacterial study suggested that pet-ether extract is more active against S. grieveces, whereas CHCl3 extract is found to be more active against B. subtilis and E. coli. Acetone extract of this plant showed moderate activity against B. subtilis and E. coli. The results of antifungal activities showed that pet ether and acetone extracts possesses potential activity against P. funiculosam. We have also examined the extracts for their antioxidant potential by DPPH and FRAP total reduction capability methods. Bioactivity assays showed that the acetone extract possess strong free radical scavenging activity (IC50=28 µg) followed by pet ether (IC50=31 µg) and chloroform (IC50=48 µg) extracts. Pet ether extract of this plant also showed strong ferric reducing ability of plasma (O.D. =.340). Keywords: Parmelia perlata, Chadeela, GC-MS analysis, antimicrobial activity, DPPH, FRAP, free radical scavenging activity.
28799Plaza C.M., Pérez de Salazar C., Vizcaya M., Rodríguez-Castillo C.G., Medina-Ramírez G.E. & Plaza R.E. (2017): Potential antifungal activity of Cladonia aff. rappii A. Evans. - Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research, 5(5): 301–309.
Context: Lichen is a self-supporting symbiotic organism composed of a fungus and an algal partner. They have manifold biological activities like antiviral, antibiotic, antioxidant, antitumor, allergenic and inhibition of plant growth. Species of Cladonia, have been studied by its antifungal activity. Aims: To evaluate the antifungal activity determination of Cladonia aff. rappii against five yeasts, four of genus Candida and one Cryptococcus, using water, ethanol and dichloromethane extracts. Methods: The evaluation of the antifungal activity was developed by three diffusion methods such as spot-on-a-lawn, disc diffusion and well diffusion. Additionally, the values of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) were determined. Results: Based on the experimental results obtained, the best antifungal activity was using ethanol extract at 20 mg/mL against Candida albicans, applying the three diffusion methods above mentioned. With ethanol extract, the lower MIC was against Candida glabrata and the lower MFC were with Candida glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis. The dichloromethane extract presented the lowest MIC and MFC against C. neoformans. Not activity was observed with aqueous extract. Conclusions: The present study revealed antifungal and fungicidal activity in the extract of lichen Cladonia aff. rappii. Keywords: Cladonia rappii; difussion methods; lichen; minimum fungicidal concentration; minimal inhibitory concentration.
28798Kantvilas G. (2016): Further additions to the lichen genus Ramboldia (Lecanoraceae) from Australia. - Muelleria, 34: 103–109.
Two lichens new to science are described and illustrated: Ramboldia atromarginata Kantvilas is corticolous in wet sclerophyll forest in Victoria, and R. greeniana Kantvilas is a saxicolous species found chiefly in upland areas of Tasmania. The New Zealand endemic taxon, Lecidea subsericea Zahlbr., is found to be a synonym of Ramboldia stuartii (Hampe) Kantvilas & Elix. Key words: anthraquinone pigments, biodiversity, lichenised ascomycetes, New Zealand, Tasmania, taxonomy, Victoria.
28797McCarthy P.M. & Kantvilas G. (2016): Verrucaria alborimosa, a new maritime lichen from Flinders Island, Tasmania. - Muelleria, 34: 55–58.
Verrucaria alborimosa P.M.McCarthy & Kantvilas (lichenized Ascomycota, Verrucariaceae) is described from coastal limestone in Flinders Island, Tasmania. A key is provided to the 12 marine and maritime species of Verrucaria in Australia. Key words: taxonomy, distribution, coastal.
28796Filson R.B. (1967): Supplementary descriptions for two Victorian desert lichens. - Muelleria, 1(3): 197-202.
28795Filson R.B. (1969): A review of the genera Teloschistes and Xanthoria in the lichen family Teloschistaceae in Australia. - Muelleria, 2(1): 65-115.
The Australian representatives of Teloschistes and Xanthoria are reviewed. Keys and descriptions are given for the ten species and two forms. One new form is described, Teloschistes spinosus forma subteres, and two new combinations are made, Xanthoria ectanea and Teloschistes velifer forma nodulosa. Distribution is fully discussed and maps have been provided with particular emphasis on Victorian occurrences.
28794Filson R.B. (1972): Studies in Australian lichens II. The alpine lichen Thamnolia vermicularis (Sw.) Shaer. [sic!] in Australia. - Muelleria, 2(3): 180-187.
28793Filson R.B. (1974): Studies in Antarctic lichens I: Notes on Caloplaca citrina (Hoffm.) Th.Fr. and Physcia caesia (Hoffm.) Hampe. - Muelleria, 3(1): 1-8.
In a previous paper (Filson, 1966), the author discussed two species of lichen, Parmelia coreyi Dodge & Baker and Pyrenodesmia mawsonii Dodge but at that time he was uncertain of their correct systematic position. In this paper Pyrenodesmia mawsonii Dodge is discussed with the suggestion that it should be treated as a synonym of Caloplaca citrina (Hoffm.) Th.Fr. Three species of Parmelia, P. coreyi Dodge & Baker, P. johnstoni Dodge and P. variolosa Dodge & Baker, are placed in synonymy under Physcia caesia (Hoffm.) Hampe.
28792Filson R.B. (1974): Studies in Antarctic lichens II: Lichens from Windmill Islands, Wilkes Land. - Muelleria, 3(1): 9-36.
The lichen collections from the Windmill Islands are enumerated together with a key and description of each species. Two new species, Buellia soredians and Lecidea andersonii, are described and figured. Figures are provided for those species not already illustrated in the author's The Lichens and Mosses of Mac.Robertson Land (Filson, 1966).
28791Filson R.B. (1975): Studies in Antarctic lichens III: Notes on Rinodina olivaceobrunnea Dodge & Baker, from the Antarctic and moss-inhabiting species of Rinodina from other parts of the world. - Muelleria, 3(2): 117-121.
In a previous paper (Filson 1966: 42) the author referred all the Antarctic moss-inhabiting Rinodina to the one species, Rinodina archaeoides H. Magn. In the present paper the author examines several moss-inhabiting Rinodina species from the Northern Hemisphere and concludes that the Arctic species R. archaeoides is in fact a synonym of the Antarctic species, R. olivaceobrunnea.
28790Filson R.B. (1975): Studies in Antarctic lichens IV: Notes on Umbilicaria aprina Nyl.. - Muelleria, 3(2): 130-140.
28789Filson R.B. (1975): Studies in Antarctic lichens V: Lichenes Antarctici Exsiccati, Fascicle I, with additional notes on the taxonomy of each species. - Muelleria, 3(2): 146-158.
28788Filson R.B. (1987): Studies in Antarctic lichens 6: further notes on Umbilicaria. - Muelleria, 6(5): 335-347.
Five species of Umbilicaria are enumerated for Continental Antarctica, South Shetland Islands, South Orkney Islands and the off-shore islands of the Antarctic continent (Fig. I): U. aprina Nyl., U. cristata Dodge & Baker, U. decussata (Vill.) Zahlbr., U. propagulifera (Vainio) Llano and U. rufidula Hue. A key to species is given and a full description and distribution map of each species is provided. U. antarctica Frey & Lamb and U. dillenii Tuck. var. solida Frey are placed in synonymy under U. rufidula Hue; U. saviczii Llano and Gyrophora korotkeviczii Golubkova are placed in synonymy under U. aprina and Dermatiscum mawsoni Dodge is placed in synonymy under U. decussata. The validity of all other taxa within the Umbilicariaceae described from the region is discussed.
28787Filson R.B. (1976): Australian lichenology: a brief history. - Muelleria, 3(3): 183-190.
28786Weber W.A. (1977): Placynthium (Ach.) S. F. Gray, a genus of lichens previously unreported from Australia. - Muelleria, 3(4): 250.
28785Ford S., Gibson M. & Duke G. (2000): The lichens of Nothofagus cunninghamii-dominated rainforests and Acacia melanoxylon-dominated forests in the Otways, Victoria. - Muelleria, 14: 17-29.
Lichens occurring in rainforests dominated by Nothofagus cunninghamii (Hook.) Oerst. and in forests dominated by Acacia melanoxylon R. Br. were examined in the Otway Ranges, southwest Victoria. A total of 110 species were recorded, 93 occurred in N. cunninghamii rainforests and 67 in A. melanoxylon forests. Fifty of these species were common to both forest types. In total, 17 lichen species are newly reported for Victoria.
28784Kantvilas G. (2002): Agyrium Fr., Bryophagus Nitschke ex Arnold and Racodium Fr., lichen genera previously unrecorded for Australia. - Muelleria, 16: 65-70.
Agyrium rufum (Pers.) Fr. (Agyriaceae), Bryophagus minutissima (Vězda) D. Hawksw. (Gyalectaceae) and Racodium rupestre Pers. (incertae sedis) are recorded from Tasmania, representing the first reports of these lichen genera for Australia. Morphological and anatomical data, as well as information on the distribution and ecology of each species is presented.
28783Mayrhofer H., Kantvilas G. & Ropin K. (1999): The corticolous species of the lichen genus Rinodina (Physciaceae) in temperate Australia. - Muelleria, 12(2): 169-194.
A revision of corticolous and lignicolous species of the genus Rinodina (Ach.) Gray (lichenized Ascomycetes, Physciaceae) in temperate Australia is presented. Eight taxa are treated, of which two are described as new: Rinodina confusa H. Mayrhofer & Kantvilas and R. elixii H. Mayrhofer, Kantvilas & Ropin. The most important characters are outlined briefly and a key to the taxa is provided. Excluded taxa, including Amandinea insperata (Nyl.) H. Mayrhofer & Ropin comb. nov., are also discussed. Rinodina australiensis Müll. Arg., R. conradii Körb. and R. dolichospora Malme are lectotypified.
28782Kantvilas G. & Jørgensen P.M. (1998): Observations on the lichen genus Lempholemma Körb. in Australia. - Muelleria, 11(1): 45-50.
T he genus Lempholemma in Australia comprises the single species, Lempholemma polyanthes (Bernh.) Malme [synonym: L. myriococcum (Ach.) Th. Fr.]. This species is recorded from Tasmania and Victoria, and its morphology, anatomy, distribution and ecology are discussed. A lectotype for L. polyanthes is designated. L. hypolasium (Stirt.) F.M. Bailey is a synonym of Physma byrsaeum (Pers.) Mont. Synalissa cancellata F. Wilson, a further synonym of Lempholemma polyanhes, is neotypified. The genus Synalissa does not appear to occur in Australia.
28781Kantvilas G. & Elix J.A. (1999): Studies on the lichen genus Cladia Nyl. in Tasmania: the C. aggregata complex. - Muelleria, 12(2): 135-162.
The Cladia aggregata complex represents one of the most chemically and morphologically variable groups of lichens in southern Australasia, especially Tasmania. The complex is reviewed and eight species are recognised: the widespread C. aggregara (Sw.) Nyl., C. inflata (F. Wilson) D.J. Galloway and C. schizopora (Nyl.) Nyl.: and five species endemic to Tasmania: C. deformis Kantvilas & Elix sp. nov., C. dumicola Kantvilas & Elix sp. nov., C. moniliformis Kantvilas & Elix, C. mutabilis Kantvilas & Elix sp. nov. and C. oreophila Kantvilas & Elix sp. nov. The species are all characterised by a combination of habit, gross morphology, size of ascospores and conidia, and medullary chemistry. Within C. aggregata itself, six chemical races are identified: barbatic acid, fumarprotocetraric acid, stictic acid, psoromic acid, diffractaic acid and norstictic acid; the last two are not known to occur in Tasmanian species. A revised key to all thirteen species of Cladia Nyl. is provided.
28780Kantvilas G. & Elix J.A. (1999): A new species of Pseudocyphellaria (lichenised fungi), with a key to the Tasmanian species. - Muelleria, 12(2): 217-221.
Pseudocyphellaria soredioglabra Kantvilas and Elix is described. The new species is endemic to Tasmania and differs from its nearest relative, P. glabra (Hook.f. & Taylor) Dodge, its marginally granular-sorediate lobes. A key to all 18 species of Pseudocyphelfaria in Tasmania is provided.
28779Kantvilas G. (1993): Bacidia albidoplumbea (lichenised Ascomycotina) and its taxonomic synomyms. - Muelleria, 8(1): 43-46.
Bacidia albidoplumbea (J .D. Hook. & Taylor) Hellbom, previously considered endemic to New Zealand, is recorded from Tasmania, and additional descriptive data and illustrations are provided. The names of three Tasmanian taxa, B. melasemoides (Jatta) Zahlbr., B. otagensis var. tasmanica (Jatta) Zahlbr., and B. weymouthii (Shirley) Zahlbr., are reduced to synonymy.
28778Kantvilas G. (1994): A revised checklist of the Tasmanian lichen flora. - Muelleria, 8(2): 155-175.
A total of 762 taxa of lichens and lichenicolous fungi in 210 genera are recorded from Tasmania and its offshore islands. A revised list of names of taxa deleted from the census is provided. Seventeen species represent new records for Tasmania.
28777McCarthy P.M. (1993): New records of pyrenocarpous lichens from Australia. - Muelleria, 8(1): 31-36.
Laurera madreporiformis (Eschw.) Riddle, Pyrenula macufaris (Zahlbr.) R. C. Harris, P. rubrostoma R. C. Harris, Staurothele fissa (Taylor) Zwackh, Strigula stigmatella (Ach.) R. C. Harris and Thelenella marginata (Groenh.) Mayrh. are reported from Australia for the first time. New state/territorial records are provided for six other species.
28776McCarthy P.M. (1993): New saxicolous species of Ditremis Clements (Lichenized Ascomycotina, Monoblastiaceae) from New Zealand and Hawaii. - Muelleria, 8(1): 1-4.
Ditremis laevigata McCarthy sp. nov. and D. pacifica McCarthy sp. nov. are described from New Zealand and Hawaii, respectively. A key to the saxicolous species of Ditremis Clements is provided.
28775Mayrhofer H. & McCarthy P.M. (1991): Notes on the lichenized ascomycete genus Thelenella Nyl. in Australia, Southern Africa and on the islands of the Subantarctic and Antarctic. - Muelleria, 7(3): 333-341.
The Australian, South African, Subantarctic and Antarctic records of the lichen genus Thelenella are summarized. Thelenella tasmanica Mayrh. & McCarthy is new to science. The new combination Thelenella mawsonii (Dodge) Mayrh. & McCarthy (syn. Microglaena austrogeorgica D.C. Lindsay) is made for a species closely related to T. kerguelena (Nyl.) Mayrh. Thelenella luridella (Nyl.) Mayrh. and T. brasiliensis (Mull. Arg.) Vainio are reported for the first time from Australia and South Africa, respectively. Additional records are given for T. antarctica (M. Lamb) Eriksson, T. kerguelena, T. luridella, and T. mawsonii. Microglaena tibestiana Werner is a new synonym of T. luridella. A revised key to the saxicolous species of Thelenella is provided.
28774Plaza C.M., Díaz de Torres L.E., Lücking R.K., Vizcaya M. & Medina G.E. (2014): Antioxidant activity, total phenols and flavonoids of lichens from Venezuelan Andes. - Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research, 2(5): 138-147.
Context: The biological potential of lichens has been documented through their use in traditional medicine. Secondary lichen metabolites exert a wide variety of biological actions, including their use as antioxidants. Aims: To evaluate the antioxidant activity, total phenol content, and flavonoids of four lichen fungal taxa collected in Mérida (Venezuela), and statistically evaluate the correlation between the antioxidant activity and the amount of phenols and flavonoids in the samples. Methods: Extracts were prepared with water, ethanol and dichloromethane from Cladonia aff. rappii, Cora aff. glabrata, Peltigera laciniata and Thamnolia vermicularis. The antioxidant capacity assessment was determined using DPPH• radical method and reducing power, with ascorbic acid as control. Total phenols were determined by means of the Folin-Ciocalteu method with gallic acid. Total flavonoids were estimated according to the modified Dowd method, using quercetin as standard. Results: The ethanolic extracts of the tested lichens showed the highest scavenging activity and reducing power compared to water and dichloromethane extracts at 4 mg/mL. The highest antiradical power value was found in ethanolic extract of Peltigera laciniata (2.28 mL/mg) and the lowest in dichloromethane extract of Cora aff. glabrata (0.30 mL/mg). The correlation between antioxidant activity and total phenolic content was moderate. The flavonoids content of ethanolic extracts was highly significant but negative (p < 0.05). There was good correlation in dichloromethane extracts. The ethanolic extract of P. laciniata exhibited the highest antiradical activity despite showing the lowest flavonoid content. Conclusions: The ethanolic extracts of lichens tested showed to have the higher antioxidant activity and may be used as natural sources of new antioxidants. Keywords: Antioxidan; Cladonia; Cora; Peltigera; Thamnolia; Venezuelan lichens.
28773Filson R.B. (1988): The lichen genera Heppia and Peltula in Australia. - Muelleria, 6(6): 495-517.
The Australian species of Heppia and Peltula a re revised. Descriptions and illustrations are presented together with distribution maps for each species. Heppia brisbanensis F. Wilson is placed in synonymy with Heppia lutosa (Ach.) Nyl., Heppia placodizans Zahlbr. is placed in synonymy with Peltula decorticans (Müll. Arg.) R. Filson, Peltula obscurans Nyl. is placed in synonymy with P. euploca (Ach.) Wetmore and the new combination Peltula subglebosa (Müll. Arg.) R. Filson is made for the taxon now known as P. obscurans. Heppia acarosporoides Müll. Arg., H. deserticola Zahlbr. and H. hassei Zahlbr. are placed as synonyms of Peltula subglebosa. Peltula imbricata R. Filson is described as new.
28772Filson R.B. (1981): Studies in Macquarie Island lichens 2: the genera Hypogymnia, Menegazzia, Parmelia and Pseudocyphellaria. - Muelleria, 4(4): 317-331.
The genera Hypogymnia and Menegazzia (Hypogymniaceae), Parmelia (Parmeliaceae) and Pseudocyphellaria (Lobariaceae) are enumerated. Two new species, Parmelia lusitaniensis R. Filson and Parmelia phillipsiana R. Filson, are described. Keys to species and varieties are given where applicable. A full description of each species is provided, together with discussion on affinities, chemical constituents and distribution.
28771Filson R.B. (1986): Studies on Macquarie Island lichens 3: the genus Sphaerophorus. - Muelleria, 6(3): 169-172.
Two species in the genus Sphaerophorus are described and illustrated and a key is provided, with notes on their chemical constituents and distribution maps.
28770Filson R.B. (1981): Studies in Macquarie Island lichens 1: general. - Muelleria, 4(4): 305-316.
28769Filson R.B. & Archer A.W. (1986): Studies in Macquarie Island lichens 4: The genera Cladia and Cladonia. - Muelleria, 6(3): 217-235.
The species of Cladia and Cladonia which occur on Macquarie Island are examined critically and a full description of each is provided. Previous records are discussed and synonomy is given. The chemistry of each species was examined and the results are presented together with a taxonomic key and distribution maps. Cladonia subantarctica Filson & Archer is described as new.
28768McCarthy P.M. (1991): Some pyrenocarpous lichens from Macquarie Island. - Muelleria, 7(3): 343-347.
Five saxicolous pyrenocarpous lichens are reported from Macquarie Island. Verrucaria bubalina McCarthy sp. nov. is described.
28767Scott G.A.M. (1980): Lichens of South Australia. Rex B. Filson and Roderick W. Rogers. Handbooks of the Flora and Fauna of South Australia. Government Printer, South Australia. 1979. 197 pp., 28 b.&w. figures, 16 col. plates, 21 x 15 cm. Price $10.50. - Muelleria, 4(3): 295.
Book review
28766Archer A.W. (1980): A new Australian lichen: Cladonia kuringaiensis. - Muelleria, 4(3): 273-275.
28765Archer A.W. (1984): Three new Australian lichens: Cladonia celata, C. praetermissa and C. wilsonii. - Muelleria, 5(4): 271-275.
28764Ahti T., Stenroos S. & Archer A.W. (1990): Some species of Cladonia, published by J. D. Hooker & T. Taylor from the Southern Hemisphere. - Muelleria, 7(2): 173-177.
The taxonomy and nomenclature of some taxa of Cladonia (Lecanorales, lichen-forming ascomycetes) from the Southern Hemisphere are discussed. Cladonia decurva Taylor ex Church. Bab. & Mitten in J. D. Hooker (nom. inval.) is to be replaced by C. scabriuscula (Delise in Duby) Nyl., C. squamosula Milli. Arg. var. squamosula by C. rigida (J. D. Hooker & Taylor) Hampe var. rigida, C. squamosula var. subsquamosula A. W. Archer by C. rigida var. acuta (Taylor) A. W. Archer, C. campbelliana (Vainio) Gyelnik by C. sarmentosa (J. D. Hooker & Taylor) Dodge and C.jlavescens Vainio by C. ustulata (J. D. Hooker & Taylor) Leighton. C. phyllophora (J. D. Hooker & Taylor) Dodge (nom. illeg.) probably represents an unnamed species close to C. corniculata Ahti & Kashiw. A new combination is C. rigida var. acuta (Taylor) A. W. Archer. A lectotype is selected for C. sarmentosa (J. D. Hooker & Taylor) Leighton. The major phenolic compounds of each taxon are presented.
28763Archer A.W. (1985): Two new lichens: Cladonia bimberiensis and C. weymouthii. - Muelleria, 6(1): 93-95.
Two new lichen species, Cladonia bimberiensis and C. weymouthii, are described and discussed. Both occur in Australia and New Zealand.
28762Archer A.W. (1987): Two new lichens: Cladonia squamosula var. subsquamosula and C. sulcata var. striata with notes on chemotaxonomy within the species. - Muelleria, 6(5): 383-388.
Two new lichen varieties, Cladonia squamosula var. subsquamosula which occurs in Australia and Cladonia sulcata var. striata which occurs in Australia and New Zealand, are described and the chemotaxonomy of all Australian varieties within the two species is discussed. Additional distribution data is reported for C. sulcata var. sulcata and C. sulcata var. wilsonii.
28761Archer A.W. (1989): Two new lichens: Cladonia paeminosa and C. humilis var. bourgeanica. - Muelleria, 7(1): 1-5.
Cladonia paeminosa A.W. Archer and Cladonia humilis (With.) Laundon var. bourgeanica A.W. Archer are described as new. Both taxa contain fumarprotocetraric and bourgeanic acids and occur in Australia. C. humilis var. bourgeanica also occurs in Europe and North and South America.
28760Lendemer J.C. (2017): Recent literature on lichens—247. - Bryologist, 120(4): 537-548.
28759Etayo J. & Aptroot A. (2017): New and interesting lichens from Panama. - Bryologist, 120(4): 501-510.
The following five new species are described from Panama: Anisomeridium trichialis, Arthothelium isidiatum, Astrothelium flavomegaspermum, Mycocalicium chiodectonicola and Polymeridium xanthopleurothecium. In addition, 41 species are reported from Panama for the first time.
28758Lücking R., Moncada B., McCune B., Farkas E., Goffinet B., Parker D., Chaves J.L., Lőkös L., Nelson P.R., Spribille T., Stenroos S., Wheeler T., Yanez-Ayabaca A., Dillman K., Gockman O.T., Goward T., Hollinger J., Tripp E.A., Villella J., Álvaro-Alba W.R., Arango C.J., Cáceres M.E.S., Coca L.F., Printzen C., Rodríguez C., Scharnagl K., Rozzi R., Soto-Medina E. & Yakovchenko L.S. (2017): Pseudocyphellaria crocata (Ascomycota: Lobariaceae) in the Americas is revealed to be thirteen species, and none of them is P. crocata. - Bryologist, 120(4): 441-500.
We provide a phylogenetic revision of the Pseudocyphellaria crocata complex in the Americas. Specimens traditionally identified as P. crocata, based on their cyanobacterial photobiont, yellow pseudocyphellae, at least partially white medulla, and yellow soralia or soralia-like structures, are shown to represent 13 distinct species, forming a monophyletic group divided into four large clades, three comprising one species each and one containing eight species, plus two taxa for which no molecular data are available. Seven species correspond to what was previously recognized as P. crocata and one to P. dozyana, whereas a further one is identified as the sorediate counterpart of the usually apotheciate taxon P. lechleri and another as a pseudosorediate morph of the usually phyllidiate species P. neglecta. Surprisingly, none of the species represents P. crocata s.str., which must therefore be excluded from the American lichen biota. The 13 recognized species include three species new to science and three new combinations: P. citrina (Gyeln.) Lücking, Moncada & S.Stenroos, comb. nov. [bas.: Cyanisticta citrina Gyeln., nom. nov. pro Sticta citrina Pers. nom. illeg.], P. desfontainii (Delise) Vain., P. deyi Lücking, sp. nov., P. dozyana (Mont. & Bosch) D.J.Galloway, P. epiflavoides (Gyeln.) Lücking, Farkas & Lőkös, comb. nov. [bas.: Cyanisticta epiflavoides Gyeln.], P. hawaiiensis H.Magn., P. hillii (C.W.Dodge) D.J.Galloway, P. holarctica McCune, Lücking & Moncada, sp. nov., P. lechleri (Müll. Arg.) Du Rietz, P. neglecta (Müll. Arg.) H.Magn., P. punctata Lendemer, Lücking & Moncada sp. nov., P. sandwicensis (Zahlbr.) Moncada & Lücking, comb. nov. [bas.: Sticta crocata f. sandwicensis Zahlbr.], and P. xanthosticta (Pers.) Moncada & Lücking. Based on sequenced specimens, a neotype is selected for P. citrina and epitypes for P. hawaiiensis, P. lechleri, P. sandwicensis and P. xanthosticta. A key to all sorediate or pseudosorediate species of this complex in the Americas is presented, and all species are described, discussed and illustrated. Keywords: Bayesian Poisson tree processes (bPTP), Pseudocyphellaria gilva, Pseudocyphellaria maculata, Pseudocyphellaria physciospora, species delimitation.
28757Pérez-Ortega S. (2017): [Review:] Hongos liquenícolas de Ecuador. - Bryologist, 120(4): 551-552.
Review on the monograph: Etayo, J. 2017. Hongos Liquenícolas de Ecuador. Opera Lilloana 50: 1–535. Available as free electronic publication (PDF) from http://lillo.org.ar/revis/opera-lilloana/2017-opl-v50.pdf
28756Glew K.A. (1997): Do vascular plant communities influence the structure of alpine lichen communities?. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 68: 177-194.
Six alpine locations were studied, three sites each in the Olympic and North Cascade Mountains, Washington, U.S.A., to determine the effect of vascular plants on the structure of lichen communities. Sites were sampled using a 0.25 nr quadrat along eight 100 m transects/site. Percent cover of lichen species and total percent cover of vascular plants were recorded. Presence/absence of all plant species and bryophytes was determined. Communities in tundra areas with xeric plant associations contained Cetraria islandica, C. ericetorum, Flavocetraria nivalis, F. cucullata, Thamnolia vermicularis, vars. vermicularis and subuliformis, and Cladina mitis. Lichens were strongly associated with plants as a substrate (structure), reflecting the patchiness exhibited by vascular plant distributions. Ericaceous plant and snow bank communities tended to have lower lichen diversity and the dominant lichens were Cladonia spp., Lepraria cacuminum, and Tuckermannopsis subalpina. Krummholz communities displayed an inverse relationship between lichen and vascular plant cover. Peltigera rufescens and P. malacea, typically terricolous, also occurred epiphytically on krummholz vegetation. In general, lichen communities tended to extend over larger areas than plant communities. Vascular plants can be a major factor influencing the structure of alpine lichen communities. alpine lichen communities, snow banks, tundra, U.S.A. (Washington), vascular plant communities
28755Wolseley P. (1997): Response of epiphytic lichens to fire in tropical forests of Thailand. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 68: 165-176.
Fire is a major stimulus of change in seasonal tropical forests, often causing a shift in vegetation from evergreen moist forests to dry deciduous forest and finally to savanna. This shift has been exacerbated by the frequent, often annual, use of fire by man. During a three year project at the Natural History Museum, epiphytic lichen communities of adjacent seasonal evergreen (SEF) and deciduous forests (DDF) in Northern Thailand were sampled and permanent quadrats set up to monitor changes. Quadrats were revisited one year later, following a severe fire season. Changes in lichens in quadrats during 1 year are used to interpret data from 20 randomly selected trees in 50 m2 plots, and to identify lichen taxa sensitive and tolerant of fire, and characteristic of the forest type. Epiphytic lichen components of these plots are given, and the distribution of families in all plots discussed. The distribution of photobionts in all plots is discussed. Field observations of the frequency of highly coloured taxa in the DDF and their absence from the SEF are interpreted with the presence of secondary metabolites in the lichen thallus. The distribution of fruiting bodies and of vegetative propagules is discussed, and the low occurence of sexual reproduction in the DDF are investigated using data to illustrate characteristics of fire-tolerant lichen communities of the DDF, including thallus structure and chemistry, photobionts and reproduction. The spread of species-poor DDF, the loss of SEF and species-rich DDF is discussed
28754Modenesi P., Canepa R. & Tafanelli A. (1997): The structural role of calcium oxalate and medullary architecture in Menegazzia terebrata and Hypogymnia physodes. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 68: 101-110.
The possible role of calcium oxalate deposition related to the medullary architecture in Menegazzia terebrata and Hypogymnia physodes, is studied on the basis of the theory of elasticity. The investigations show that calcium oxalate may have a main structural role providing mechanical stability to a thallus with an internal cavity. H physodes develops the greatest efficiency in the medullary layer in which the crystal-bearing hyphae occur in the directions of the principal stresses, thereby permitting a minimum of material consumption. M. terebrata is characterized by a minor efficiency in saving material
28753Lange O.L. & Green T.G.A. (1997): High thallus water contents can limit photosynthetic productivity of crustose lichens in the field . - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 68: 81-99.
We investigated the occurrence and ecological relevance of photosynthetic depression at high thallus water content (WC) for different lichen species. Laboratory studies under controlled conditions showed clearly depressed net photosynthesis (NP) of water saturated thalli of Fulgensia fulgens, Lecanora muralis, Psora cerebriformis and Xanthoria calcicola. The depression was severe and present at all light levels and temperatures tested. In contrast, Diploschistes muscorum and D. diacapsis had no depression of photosynthesis at high WC. Performance of three of the species under natural condition was studied using a novel automatic ‘klapp-cuvette’ which measured CO2 exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and related microclimate parameters at 30 minute intervals over long periods, L. muralis for more than one year. The response of NP to high WC, for all three species in the field, was almost identical to that found in the laboratory. After thorough wetting, L. muralis and X. calcicola showed long periods of low, constant NP which was independant of light level. Subsequent to such periods of heavily depressed NP, they often had transient peaks of high CO2 uptake as the thalli dried through their optimal WC. In contrast, after substantial wetting in the field, D. muscorum retained high NP which tended to track ambient light levels. Our results demonstrated clearly that the depression in photosynthesis produced by high WC was species specific but, where it was present in laboratory studies, then it was also ecologically important in the field. There was an excellent agreement between laboratory and field studies. Lichens with the depression showed, in nature, severe loss of potential productivity when thoroughly wetted. On average, NP of the epilithic L. muralis on a man-made wall in the Botanical Garden Würzburg was heavily depressed for about 30% of its total time period of photosynthetic activity. However, since this species is a very successful and common lichen, it is clear that photosynthetic depression, on its own, is not a good predictor of overall performance for a species. The discovery of the thallus structures involved in controlling water distribution in the thallus and its effect on CO2 exchange pathways remains an interesting problem for lichen morphologists
28752Crespo A., Bridge P.D., Cubero O.F. & Hawksworth D.L. (1997): Determination of genotypic variability in the lichen-forming fungus Parmelia sulcata . - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 68: 73-79.
A molecular study of 261 samples of Parmelia sulcata from six countries in three continents was carried out. The ITS segment of the rDNA repeated unit of the mycobiont was analysed. Four different ITS fragment lengths, varying from about 580 to 840 base pairs (bp), were detected among different isolates of the species. The two most commonly isolated fragments were 840 and 620 bp fragments which were found in isolates from widely separated sites. The size difference between the two most common fragments is suggested to be due to the presence of a Group I intron at the 3' end of the gene for the small rRNA subunit
28751Ravera S., Vizzini A., Cogoni A., Aleffi M., Assini S., Bergamo Decarli G., Bonini I., von Brackel W., Cheli F., Darmostuk V., Fačkovcová Z., Gavrylenko L., Gheza G., Guttová A., Mayrhofer H., Nascimbene J., Paoli L., Poponessi S., Potenza G., Prosser F., Puddu D., Puntillo D., Rigotti D., Sguazzin F., Tatti A. & Venanzoni R. (2017): Notulae to the Italian flora of algae, bryophytes, fungi and lichens: 4. - Italian Botanist, 4: 76–86.
In this contribution, new data concerning bryophytes, fungi and lichens of the Italian flora are presented. It includes new records and confirmations for the bryophyte genera Campylopus, Paludella, Tortula, and Conocephalum, the fungal genera Agonimia, Buelliella, Entorrhiza, Filicupula, Poronia, and Sporisorium, the lichen genera Cladonia, Dibaeis, Lasallia, and Rhizocarpon. Keywords: Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Bryidae, Marchantiidae, floristic data.
28750Taraškevičius R., Motiejūnaitė J., Zinkutė R., Eigminienė A., Gedminienė L. & Stankevičius Ž. (2017): Similarities anddifferencesingeochemical distribution patternsinepiphytic lichens and topsoils from kindergarten grounds in Vilnius. - Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 183: 152–165.
Topsoil and lichen Phaeophyscia orbicularis were sampled from the grounds of kindergartens (Vilnius, Lithuania) using a side-by-side design and analysed for the total contents of Al, As, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, S, Si, Sr, Ti, V and Zn. Only Si, Mn and Zn were found to retain their positions in sequences arranged in descending order of their mean contents (> 90 mg kg− 1) in topsoil (Si > Al > Ca > K > Fe > Mg > Na > Ti > P > S > Mn > Cl > Zn) and in lichens (Si > Ca > K > S > Al > Fe > P > Mg > Na > Cl > Mn > Ti > Zn). In lichen thalli, unlike in topsoil, nutrients and lithogenic elements formed separate clusters. Results proved that by origin, the elements captured by lichens were not only from the immediate environs, but also from more distant city districts with different soil lithology. However, both in topsoil and in lichens, As, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, V and Zn form together with S and Br clusters of closely related elements indicating that Phaeophyscia orbicularis is a good urban indicator of polluting elements using which total contamination indices of topsoil ZT and of lichens ZL can be calculated. Higher ZT values were detected in the former industrial-residential areas, while ZL values were higher in new residential-commercial areas. The ratio ZT/ZL was found to be useful in revealing areas where pollution is on the increase. The contents of Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, V and Zn in topsoil from the same sites which had been sampled five years ago significantly (p < 0.05) decreased. Locations of Cr, Mn, Ni, V and Zn anomalies were found to have considerably changed, meanwhile Pb, Cu and Mo anomalies were found to be shifting least of all.
28749Vieira J., Matos P., Mexia T., Silva P., Lopes N., Freitas C., Correia O., Santos-Reis M., Branquinho C. & Pinho P. (2018): Green spaces are not all the same for the provision of air purification and climate regulation services: The case of urban parks. - Environmental Research, 160: 306–313.
The growing human population concentrated in urban areas lead to the increase of road traffic and artificial areas, consequently enhancing air pollution and urban heat island effects, among others. These environmental changes affect citizen's health, causing a high number of premature deaths, with considerable social and economic costs. Nature-based solutions are essential to ameliorate those impacts in urban areas. While the mere presence of urban green spaces is pointed as an overarching solution, the relative importance of specific vegetation structure, composition and management to improve the ecosystem services of air purification and climate regulation are overlooked. This avoids the establishment of optimized planning and management procedures for urban green spaces with high spatial resolution and detail. Our aim was to understand the relative contribution of vegetation structure, composition and management for the provision of ecosystem services of air purification and climate regulation in urban green spaces, in particular the case of urban parks. This work was done in a large urban park with different types of vegetation surrounded by urban areas. As indicators of microclimatic effects and of air pollution levels we selected different metrics: lichen diversity and pollutants accumulation in lichens. Among lichen diversity, functional traits related to nutrient and water requirements were used as surrogates of the capacity of vegetation to filter air pollution and to regulate climate, and provide air purification and climate regulation ecosystem services, respectively. This was also obtained with very high spatial resolution which allows detailed spatial planning for optimization of ecosystem services. We found that vegetation type characterized by a more complex structure (trees, shrubs and herbaceous layers) and by the absence of management (pruning, irrigation and fertilization) had a higher capacity to provide the ecosystems services of air purification and climate regulation. By contrast, lawns, which have a less complex structure and are highly managed, were associated to a lower capacity to provide these services. Tree plantations showed an intermediate effect between the other two types of vegetation. Thus, vegetation structure, composition and management are important to optimize green spaces capacity to purify air and regulate climate. Taking this into account green spaces can be managed at high spatial resolutions to optimize these ecosystem services in urban areas and contribute to improve human well-being.
28748Larrieu L., Paillet Y., Winter S., Bütler R., Kraus D., Krumm F., Lachat T., Michel A.K., Regnery B. & Vandekerkhove K. (2018): Tree related microhabitats in temperate and Mediterranean European forests: A hierarchical typology for inventory standardization. - Ecological Indicators, 84: 194–207.
Highlights: • Tree related Microhabitats (TreMs) are key structures for biodiversity. • We propose both a definition and a typology of TreMs, for standardized inventories. • The hierarchical structure of this typology allows multi-purpose uses. • This typology encompasses 7 basic forms, 15 groups and 47 types. • We focus on temperate and Mediterranean European forest ecosystems. Tree related Microhabitats (hereafter TreMs) have been widely recognized as important substrates and structures for biodiversity in both commercial and protected forests and are receiving increasing attention in management, conservation and research. How to record TreMs in forest inventories is a question of recent interest since TreMs represent potential indirect indicators for the specialized species that use them as substrates or habitat at least for a part of their life-cycle. However, there is a wide range of differing interpretations as to what exactly constitutes a TreM and what specific features should be surveyed in the field. In an attempt to harmonize future TreM inventories, we propose a definition and a typology of TreM types borne by living and dead standing trees in temperate and Mediterranean forests in Europe. Our aim is to provide users with definitions which make unequivocal TreM determination possible. Our typology is structured around seven basic forms according to morphological characteristics and biodiversity relevance: i) cavities lato sensu, ii) tree injuries and exposed wood, iii) crown deadwood, iv) excrescences, v) fruiting bodies of saproxylic fungi and fungi-like organisms, vi) epiphytic and epixylic structures, and vii) exudates. The typology is then further detailed into 15 groups and 47 types with a hierarchical structure allowing the typology to be used for different purposes. The typology, along with guidelines for standardized recording we propose, is an unprecedented reference tool to make data on TreMs comparable across different regions, forest types and tree species, and should greatly improve the reliability of TreM monitoring. It provides the basis for compiling these data and may help to improve the reliability of reporting and evaluation of the conservation value of forests. Finally, our work emphasizes the need for further research on TreMs to better understand their dynamics and their link with biodiversity in order to more fully integrate TreM monitoring into forest management. Keywords: Biodiversity conservation; Integrative forest management; Monitoring; Forest inventory; Tree structure; Wildlife habitat.
28747Zhang Z., Zheng Y., Li Y., Bai H., Ma T., Song X., Zhao J. & Gao L. (2018): The effects of sodium usnic acid by topical application on skin wound healing in rats. - Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, 97: 587–593.
Wound healing is the process of repairing and remodeling damaged tissue. This is a public health problem that can influence the survival rate and quality of life of injured people. This attracts the attention of the medical community because it has high health care costs and there is presently a lack of successful therapy. Thus, the application ofnatural ingredients and medicinal plants hasbecome a focus ofresearch. The purpose ofthis study istoinvestigatetheeffectivenessoftopically-appliedsodiumusnicacidonmacroscopicandmicroscopicchanges under dermal injury. These effects were measured using wound contraction experiments, histological analysis, and immunohistochemistry analysis, and gentamicin was used as a positive control medicine. Our results revealed that wound healing rates were higher and re-epithelialized times were shorter with topical application of sodium usnic acid, as compared to the negative control group. Histological results showed treatment with sodium usnic acid caused a reduction in inflammatory cells and an increase in fibroblast proliferation, granulation tissue, vascular regeneration. Sodium usnic acid treatment also resulted in earlier complete re-epithelialization, formation of well-organized bands of collagen, and epidermal keratinization. Furthermore, the levels of VEGF were significantly higher at day 1 post-wounding in those treated with sodium usnic acid. In conclusion, our results indicate that the topical use of sodium usnic acid could promote skin wound healing, and this mechanism might be related to anti-inflammatory effects at the wound site. Keywords: Sodium usnic acid; Wound healing; Histopathology; VEGF.
28746Moore C.M., Catella S.A. & Abbott K.C. (2018): Population dynamics of mutualism and intraspecific density dependence: How θ-logistic density dependence affects mutualistic positive feedback. - Ecological Modelling, 368: 191–197.
Mutualism describes the biological phenomenon where two or more species are reciprocally beneficial, regardless of their ecological intimacy or evolutionary history. Classic theory shows that mutualistic benefit must be relatively weak, or else it overpowers the stabilizing influence of intraspecific competition and leads to unrealistic, unbounded population growth. Interestingly, the conclusion that strong positive interactions lead to runaway population growth is strongly grounded in the behavior of a single model. This model—the Lotka–Volterra competition model with a sign change to generate mutualism rather than competition between species—assumes logistic growth of each species plus a linear interaction term to represent the mutualism. While it is commonly held that the linear interaction term is to blame for the model's unrealistic behavior, we show here that a linear mutualism added to a θ-logistic model of population growth can prevent unbounded growth. We find that when density dependence is decelerating, the benefit of mutualism at equilibrium is greater than when density dependence is accelerating. Although there is a greater benefit, however, decelerating density dependence tends to destabilize populations whereas accelerating density dependence is always stable. We interpret these findings tentatively, but with promise for the understanding of the population ecology of mutualism by generating several predictions relating growth rates of mutualist populations and the strength of mutualistic interaction.
28745Meli M.A., Desideri D., Cantaluppi C., Ceccotto F., Feduzi L. & Roselli C. (2018): Elemental and radiological characterization of commercial Cetraria islandica (L.) Acharius pharmaceutical and food supplementation products. - Science of the Total Environment, 613–614: 1566–1572.
An elemental and radiological characterization was performed on Cetraria islandica (L.) Ach. pharmaceutical and food supplementation products purchased in local specialty shops in Italy. Essential elements (K, Ca, P, S, Cl, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ni, Br, I) and nonessential or toxic elements (Al, Ti, Si, Rb, Sr, As, Cd, Sn, and Pb) were determined by Energy Dispersive Polarized X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry; natural radionuclides (238U, 234U, 230Th, 210Po, 232Th, and 228Th) were determined by alpha spectrometry. The results show that C. islandica, whose nutritional value was assessed referring to recommended nutrient intakes, could serve as an important source of essential elements. Moreover, as expected, lichens concentrate airborne 210Po, whose activity ranged from 132 to 489 Bq kg− 1dw. This value was much higher than those reported by UNSCEAR for leafy vegetables in the world. In addition, total As and Cd were < 1 mg kg− 1dw and Pb mean concentration was 9.25 mg kg− 1dw. Health risks associated with the toxic elements contained in C. islandica (L.) products were calculated using risk estimators. Their contribution to total elemental intake does not appear to pose a threat, but the concentrations of these elements should be continuously monitored to protect consumers against potential adverse health effects.
28744Silva H.A.M.F., Siqueira W.N., Sá J.L.F., Silva L.R.S, Martins M.C.B., Aires A.L., Amâncio F.F., Pereira E.C., Albuquerque M.C.P.A, Melo A.M.M.A. & Silva N.H. (2018): Laboratory assessment of divaricatic acid against Biomphalaria glabrata and Schistosoma mansoni cercariae. - Acta Tropica, 178: 97–102.
In this study, the molluscicidal and antiparasitic activities of divaricatic acid was evaluated, targeting the mollusc Biomphalaria glabrata and cercariae of the helminth Schistosoma mansoni. In addition, the environmental toxicity of divaricatic acid was assessed by bioassay using the microcrustacean Artemia salina. Divaricatic acid showed high toxicity against both adult snails (5 μg/mL) and embryos (20 μg/mL after 6 h of exposure). Similar activity was observed in Schistosoma mansoni cercariae after only a short exposure time (10 μg/mL after 30 min of exposure). The divaricatic acid did not show toxicity in the acute test using Artemia salina at concentrations equal to or below 200 μg/mL. The divaricatic acid proved to be a promising substance for the elimination of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata, an intermediate host of schistosomiasis, as well as the cercariae of the pathogen, while being non-toxic to the Artemia salina at the same concentrations. This is the first experimental observation of the molluscicidal and cercaricide activity of divaricatic acid.
28743Chrastný V., Šillerová H., Vítková M., Francová A., Jehlička J., Kocourková J., Aspholm P.E., Nilsson L.O., Berglen T.F., Jensen H.K.B. & Komárek M. (2018): Unleaded gasoline as a significant source of Pb emissions in the Subarctic. - Chemosphere, 193: 230–236.
After the phasing out of leaded gasoline, Pb emissions to the atmosphere dramatically decreased, and other sources became more significant. The contribution of unleaded gasoline has not been sufficiently recognized; therefore, we evaluated the impact of Pb from unleaded gasoline in a relatively pristine area in Subarctic NE Norway. The influence of different endmembers (Ni slag and concentrate from the Nikel smelter in Russia, PM10 filters, and traffic) on the overall Pb emissions was determined using various environmental samples (snow, lichens, and topsoils) and Pb isotope tracing. We found a strong relationship between Pb in snow and the Ni smelter. However, lichen samples and most of the topsoils were contaminated by Pb originating from the current use of unleaded gasoline originating from Russia. Historical leaded and recent unleaded gasoline are fully distinguishable using Pb isotopes, as unleaded gasoline is characterized by a low radiogenic composition (206Pb/207Pb = 1.098 and 208Pb/206Pb = 2.060) and remains an unneglectable source of Pb in the region.
28742Wieners P.C., Bilger W. & Gauslaa Y. (2018): Carbon-based secondary compounds in the lichen Hypogymnia physodes deter detrivorous woodlice. - Fungal Ecology, 31: 54–58.
Woodlice are not widely recognized as lichen-feeding invertebrates. We sought to discover whether the woodlouse, Porcellio scaber, could feed on the lichen Hypogymnia physodes and if the lichen carbon-based secondary compounds CBSCs would reduce grazing. We cut lichen thalli in two pieces, one was non-destructively rinsed in acetone to remove CBSCs; the other served as a control. Both pieces were fed to woodlice in a choice experiment. The CBSC concentration of individual thalli ranged from 3 to 19%. The woodlice grazed all pieces, but preferred the acetone-rinsed pieces, depending on the amount of CBSCs present in the non-extracted counterpart. The woodlice were not deterred from feeding on samples with CBSC concentrations ≤5%, which corresponded to natural contents in shade-adapted thalli. This suggested that P. scaber tolerates this amount of compounds at least in the short-term. In conclusion, P. scaber can feed on H. physodes, but CBSCs deter them from feeding.
28741Haughian S.R. & Burton P.J. (2018): Microclimate differences above ground-layer vegetation in lichen-dominated pine forests of north-central British Columbia. - Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 249: 100–106.
Lodgepole pine forests of north-central British Columbia have patchy ground-layer vegetation, typically dominated by either fruticose lichens, feathermosses, or ericaceous vascular plants; this patchy structure has been shown to correspond with environmental variables that likely moderate the ground-layer microclimate. To investigate the potential role of microclimate on patterns of dominance of ground-layer functional groups, we recorded temperature and relative humidity above the ground-layer vegetation during 25 summer days over patches dominated by mat-forming lichens, feathermosses, or vascular plants. Data were summarized for raw microclimate attributes and daily water potential of the air, and in terms of modelled equilibrium water content of moss or lichen thalli. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences in the water potential of air above the three patch types under sunny conditions, but not under overcast conditions. Differences in vegetation cover were only associated with differences in atmospheric moisture when using data from sunny periods during the daytime. These data confirm that lichens occupy microclimatic niches that are distinctly drier than those of feathermosses or vascular plants, and corroborate the suggested mechanism by which canopy or soil properties influence these types of ground-layer vegetation. Keywords: Reindeer lichen; Feathermoss; Ground cover; Lodgepole pine; Microclimate; Water potential.
28740Liu S., Liu W., Shi X., Li S., Hu T., Song L. & Wu C. (2018): Dry-hot stress significantly reduced the nitrogenase activity of epiphytic cyanolichen. - Science of The Total Environment, 619–620: 630–637.
Nitrogen (N) fixed by epiphytic cyanolichens (i.e. lichens that contain cyanobacterial symbionts) is thought to be the most important resource of this nutrient in some natural forest ecosystems. Although a great deal of work has been carried out to evaluate the biomass of this group as well as its contribution to ecosystem N budgets, empirical studies are needed to confirm the N input responses by cyanolichens under climate change conditions (dry-hot stress) as well as to determine the factors that control this process. We simulated climate change conditions by transplanting Lobaria retigera, a common cyanolichen in the area, to lower elevations, and measured nitrogenase activity in response to warmer and drier conditions. In addition, we conducted a series of laboratory and greenhouse experiments to determine the dominant factors influencing nitrogenase activity in this species. The results of this study show that mean annual nitrogenase activity at the higher site was 1.5 and 2.4 times that at the simulated warmer and drier (middle and lower) sites, respectively. Combining laboratory experimental conclusions, we show that thallus water content is a key factor determining the nitrogenase activity of L. retigera in early transplantation while insufficient carbon storage resulting from a combination of warming and desiccation was likely responsible for reducing nitrogenase activity in later months of the transplant experiment. The results of this study imply that the negative impact of climate change (dry-hot stress) on ecosystems not only impacts the distribution and growth of species, but also nutrient circles and budgets.
28739Pócs T. (2017): Billbuckia, a new name for Pocsia nom. illeg. (Sematophyllaceae, Bryophyta) versus Pocsia (Verrucariales, Ascomycota). - Phytotaxa, 329(3): 289–290.
28738Aptroot A. & Yazici K. (2017): Lecania sessilisoraliata, a new sorediate lichen species from limestone in Turkey. - Phytotaxa, 328(3): 298–300.
The new species Lecania sessilisoraliata is described from limestone in Burdur in Turkey. This species, close to L. baeomma with has indigo-speckled soralia and is coastal, has very clear discrete soralia with granular soredia. Key words: Burdur, Lecania, Ramalinaceae, lichen, new species, taxonomy.
28737Egea J.M. & Torrente P. (1994): El Género de Hongos Liquenizados Lecanactis (Ascomycotina). - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 54: 1-205.
Taxonomic treatment, including keys, descriptions, illustrations, and distribution maps, for Lecanactis (24 taxa), Lecanographa (27 taxa), and Sipmania (1 species). Includes a generic key for these and other similar genera, some of which have been recently segregated. New: Lecanactis exigua sp. nov., L. latispora sp. nov., L. neozelanica sp. nov., L. spermatospora sp. nov., L. sulphurea sp. nov., L. tibelliana sp. nov., Lecanographa gen. nov., L. abscondita (Th. Fr.) comb. nov., L. aggregata sp. nov., L. amylacea (Ehrh. ex Pers.) comb. nov., L. cretacea (Müll. Arg.) comb. nov., L. dialeuca (Cromb.) comb. nov., L. dimelaenoides (Egea & Torrente) comb. nov., L. farinosa (Hepp) comb. nov., L. farinulenta (Müll. Arg.) comb. nov., L. follmannii (Dodge) comb. nov., L. grumulosa (Duf.) comb. nov., L. hemisphaerica (Laundon) comb. nov., L. hypothallina (Zahlbr.) comb. nov., L. illecebrosula (Müll. Arg.) comb. nov., L. lyncea (Sm.) comb. nov., L. lynceoides (Müll. Arg.) comb. nov., L. microcarpella (Müll. Arg.) comb. nov., L. occidentalis sp. nov., L. subcaesia (Malme) comb. nov., L. subcaesioides sp. nov., L. subcalcarea (Müll. Arg.) comb. nov., L. subdryophila (Follmann & Vezda) comb. nov., L. subgrumulosa (Egea, Torrente & Manrique) comb. nov., L. unghvariensis (Szatala) comb. nov., L. werneri (Faurel, Ozenda & Schotter) comb. nov., Sipmania gen. nov., S. peltata sp. nov.
28736Malíček J. & Mayrhofer H. (2017): Additions to the lichen diversity of Macedonia (FYROM). - Herzogia, 30 (2): 431–444.
Selected localities in Galičica National Park, Matka canyon in the Suva Gora Mountains, Mavrovo National Park, Ohrid Basin, Vardar River valley and Popova Šapka in the Šar Planina Mountains were briefly studied during a field excursion in 2014. Seventy-seven lichenized fungi are reported for the first time from Macedonia (FYROM); eight species (Candelariella aggregata, Halecania viridescens, Lecanora albula, Lepraria diffusa, Normandina acroglypta, Parmelia barrenoae, Sarcogyne fallax and Schaereria corticola) are new to the Balkan Peninsula. Caloplaca substerilis, Fuscopannaria mediterranea, Gyalecta croatica, G. geoica, Leptochidium albociliatum, Lobarina scrobiculata, Protoblastenia lilacina, Sclerophora pallida and Thelopsis rubella represent other remarkable records. An enigmatic collection of an Immersaria, closely resembling I. athroocarpa and possibly representing a new species, is briefly discussed. The present paper brings the total number of lichenized and lichenicolous fungi known for Macedonia to 675 and 22, respectively.
28735Pino-Bodas R., Zhurbenko M.P. & Stenroos S. (2017): Phylogenetic placement within Lecanoromycetes of lichenicolous fungi associated with Cladonia and some other genera. - Persoonia, 10(3): 286–292.
Though most of the lichenicolous fungi belong to the Ascomycetes, their phylogenetic placement based on molecular data is lacking for numerous species. In this study the phylogenetic placement of 19 species of lichenicolous fungi was determined using four loci (LSU rDNA, SSU rDNA, ITS rDNA and mtSSU). The phylogenetic analyses revealed that the studied lichenicolous fungi are widespread across the phylogeny of Lecanoromycetes. One species is placed in Acarosporales, Sarcogyne sphaerospora; five species in Dactylosporaceae, Dactylospora ahtii, D. deminuta, D. glaucoides, D. parasitica and Dactylospora sp.; four species belong to Lecanorales, Lichenosticta alcicorniaria, Epicladonia simplex, E. stenospora and Scutula epiblastematica. The genus Epicladonia is polyphyletic and the type E. sandstedei belongs to Leotiomycetes. Phaeopyxis punctum and Bachmanniomyces uncialicola form a well supported clade in the Ostropomycetidae. Epigloea soleiformis is related to Arthrorhaphis and Anzina. Four species are placed in Ostropales, Corticifraga peltigerae, Cryptodiscus epicladonia, C. galaninae and C. cladoniicola comb. nov. (= Lettauia cladoniicola). Three new species are described, Dactylospora ahtii, Cryptodiscus epicladonia and C. galaninae.
28734Duisembecov B.A., Dubovskiy I.M. & Glupov V.V. (2017): Effect of plant secondary metabolites on susceptibility of insects to entomopathogenic microorganisms. - Contemporary Problems of Ecology, 10(3): 286–292.
[Original Russian Text published in Sibirskii Ekologicheskii Zhurnal, 2017, No. 3, pp. 332–340] The effect of a number of plant extracts on the susceptibility of experimental insects to enthomopathogenic microorganisms has been studied. It is shown that the weight of the wax moth Galleria mellonella larvae tends to decrease by 30–50% under the treatments of polar and nonpolar extracts from the ledum sprouts and the reindeer lichen, while the crude hemlock extract had the opposite effect, contributing to the larva weight gain by approximately 30%. The treatment with the reindeer lichen extract causes synergistic effects on mortality from both the nuclear polyhedrosis virus and the fungal infection in the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar and the wax moth, respectively. It has been determined that the main components of this extract are perlatolic acid, usnic acid, and a third component whose exact chemical identity is still unknown. The usnic acid is the most prospective additive component to entomopathogenic microorganisms. The treatment with the usnic acid caused the increase in mortality from the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium robertsii and Beauveria bassiana in the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata and the wax moth. However, the maximum effect occurs only after the treatment with the crude extract, which can be explained by either the combined effects of all the extract components or the change in a range of the properties of the components in the presence of the other crude extract components. Keywords: extracts, reindeer lichen, Colorado potato beetle, resistance, Metarhizium, usnic acid, gypsy moth, wax moth.
28733Seshadri T.R. (1944): A theory of biogenesis of lichen depsides and depsidones. - Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences - Section A, 20(1): 1–14.
Lichen depsides and depsidones are considered to arise from a common source (XIV) which originates from aldol condensation between a hexose and a biose and elimination of water. Oxidation and reduction lead to various modifications of this C8 unit and increase in the length of the sidechain arises from condensation with simple sugars and reduction. Depsides are formed by the combination of two of these units. β-Orcinol derivatives are obtained by nuclear methylation by means of formaldehyde and this reaction in general takes place prior to depside formation though the other possibility is not altogether excluded as far as the left half is concerned Depsidones come last in the evolution; they are based on depsides and require oxidation or dehydrogenation involving position 5 which is para to the activating hydroxyl. Nuclear oxidation without leading to depsidone formation also occurs. Either the 3-or the 5-position is involved and meta depsides result. Oxidation involving the left half is also possible and is represented by diploschistesic acid. The occurrence of orcinol and psoromic acid is attributed to decarboxylation taking place in the plant.
28732Seshadri T.R. & Sankara Subramanian S. (1949): Chemical investigation of Indian lichens. Part IX. Some lichens on sandal trees—Parmelia tinctorum and Usnea japonica. - Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences - Section A, 30: 62–66.
Two lichens are found on the sandal trees of Coorg which do not suffer adverse effects on this account. Parmelia tinctorum was earlier reported to contain atranorin and lecanoric acid; considerable amounts of norstictic acid are now isolated from it. Usnea japonica is reported for the first time in India. Besides usnic and stictic acids already known in this source, barbatolic acid also has now been found to be present in it.
28731Subba Rao V. & Seshadri T.R. (1942): Chemical examination of Indian lichens. Part V. Occurrence of active montagnetol in Roccella montagnei. - Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences - Section A, 15(6): 429–431.
A lower melting sample of montagnetol has been isolated from Roccella montagnei. It gives all the reactions of montagnetol, but differs in having a lower melting point and a different crystal structure, and in being dextrorotatory. Hence it is identified as d-montagnetol. The higher melting compound is the racemic variety having no optical activity. The general results indicate that racemisation takes place even in the plant.
28730Anderson T.J., Wagner D.L., Cooper B.R., McCarty M.E. & Zaspel J.M. (2017): HPLC-MS analysis of lichen-derived metabolites in the life stages of Crambidia cephalica (Grote & Robinson). - Journal of Chemical Ecology, 43: 66–74.
Tiger moths (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae: Arctiini) are notable for their specialized associations with hosts that produce toxic secondary compounds, and are thus an ideal study system for understanding insect-plant interactions and the evolution of antipredatory defense. Likewise, their sister lineage (Arctiinae: Lithosiini) has been documented feeding on algae and lichens, and is known to sequester lichen-derived secondary compounds from the larval to adult stages. Prevalence of lichenivory in this early radiation (ca. 3000 species) may provide clues to the phylogenetic basis for storied chemical sequestration within all tiger moths. Despite the evolutionary significance of this trait, we lack a basic understanding of the extent of lichenivory among lithosiines, and the distribution of sequestered chemicals among life stages. The dynamics of chemical sequestration throughout the lifecycle for the lichen moth Crambidia cephalica were investigated by testing the hypothesis that lichen-derived metabolites are unequally distributed among life stages, and that laboratory-reared C. cephalica have less metabolite diversity than wild-caught individuals. Crambidia cephalica was reared on Physcia, and analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HPLCMS). Several putative lichen-derived metabolites were detected across three life stages, i.e., larval, pupal, and adult, and differences among life stages and lichen host were observed. These results provide evidence that multiple lichen-derived metabolites are sequestered by C. cephalica; some metabolites are retained through adulthood, and others are lost or modified in earlier life stages. The presence of differing lichen-derived metabolites across life stages may indicate functional properties of the metabolites for C. cephalica with regards to chemical protection from antagonists, and other physiological processes. Keywords: Chemical sequestration; Physcia; Lichenivory; Anthraquinone; Chrysophanol; PCA; Lepidoptera; Erebidae; Arctiinae; Lithosiini.
28729Subba Rao V. & Seshadri T.R. (1942): Chemical examination of Indian lichens. Part VI. Constitution of erythrin. - Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences - Section A, 16: 23–28.
The constitution of erythrin has been definitely established. The new important observations now made are as follows: (1) it is not a carboxylic acid; (2) it is optically active; (3) picroerythrin is identical with montagnetol; (4) trimethyl erythrin a compound in which all the phenolic hydroxyl groups are methylated is obtained by the action of diazomethane; (5) on hydrolysis with alcoholic potash the methyl ether yields the ester of dimethyl orsellinic acid and the ester of isoeverninic acid. Consequently, it is concluded that erythrin is the erythrityl ester of lecanoric acid. This is in agreement with the occurrence of lecanoric acid and montagnetol along with erythrin in the lichens.
28728Subba Rao V. & Seshadri T.R. (1941): Chemical investigation of Indian lichens. Part III. The isolation of montagnetol, a new phenolic compound from Roccella montagnei. - Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences - Section A, 13(3): 199–202.
The isolation of a new phenolic compound, ‘Montagnetol’ from the lichenRoccella montagnei and its properties are described. The details of the extraction of a sample of the lichen which contained it as the major component are given.
28727Neelakantan S., Rajagopalan T.R. & Seshadri T.R. (1959): A new synthesis of islandicin and cynodontin. - Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences - Section A, 49(4): 234–240.
2-Methylanthraquinones with the 1∶4-dihydroxy system are conveniently prepared by the persulphate oxidation of the intermediate benzoylbenzoic acids and subsequent ring closure. 2-Methylquinizarin, islandicin and cynodontin have been prepared by this method as typical examples.
28726Neelakantan S., Seshadri T.R. & Sankara Subramanian S. (1956): Chemical investigation of Indian lichens. Part XX. A new synthesis of teloschistin. - Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences - Section A, 44(1): 42–45.
Teloschistin has been prepared from physcion, the essential stage being the ω-bromo compound obtained by the use of N-bromo-succinimide. The higher m.p. of 244–46° is now recorded both for the synthetic and for the natural sample purified through the acetate. Complete methylation of teloschistin requires the use of methyl iodide and silver oxide at the final stage.
28725Burkin A.A., Kononenko G.P. & Tolpysheva T.Yu. (2013): Enzyme immunoassay of usnic acid in lichens . - Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology, 49(3): 315–321.
[Original Russian Text published in Prikladnaya Biokhimiya i Mikrobiologiya, 2013, Vol. 49, No. 3, pp. 322–328] An enzyme immunoassay for usnic acid in lichens was developed, the sensitivity of which was 0.1 μg/g of air-dried material (0.00001%). Polyclonal rabbit antibodies against bovine serum albumin conjugated to (+)-usnic acid under the conditions of formaldehyde condensation made it possible to determine the analyzed substance in solutions at concentrations from 1 ng/mL when it interacts with immobilized gelatin conjugate homologous in the binding mode. Usnic acid in 2–26600 μg/g (0.0002–2.6%) amounts was found in all 236 studied samples of lichens belonging to 53 species and 8 families.
28724Seshadri T.R. & Sankara Subramanian S. (1949): Chemical investigation of Indian lichens. Part X. Chemical components of Teloschistes flavicans. - Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences - Section A, 30: 67–73.
A yellow lichen accompanying Ramalina tayloriana has been identified asTeloschistes flavicans. Besides physcion and a colourless substance, another orange coloured compound melting at 229–30° and having the formula C16H12O6 is now isolated. It is designated ‘Teloschistin’. It resembles physcion closely and its constitution is established as 4∶5-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-2-hydroxymethyl anthraquinone (ω-hydroxy physcion).
28723Meeßen J., Sánchez F.J., Sadowsky A., de la Torre R., Ott S. & de Vera J.-P. (2013): Extremotolerance and resistance of lichens: Comparative studies on five species used in astrobiological research II. Secondary lichen compounds. - Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres, 43(6): 501–526.
Lichens, which are symbioses of a fungus and one or two photoautotrophs, frequently tolerate extreme environmental conditions. This makes them valuable model systems in astrobiological research to fathom the limits and limitations of eukaryotic symbioses. Various studies demonstrated the high resistance of selected extremotolerant lichens towards extreme, non-terrestrial abiotic factors including space exposure, hypervelocity impact simulations as well as space and Martian parameter simulations. This study focusses on the diverse set of secondary lichen compounds (SLCs) that act as photo- and UVR-protective substances. Five lichen species used in present-day astrobiological research were compared: Buellia frigida, Circinaria gyrosa, Rhizocarpon geographicum, Xanthoria elegans, and Pleopsidium chlorophanum. Detailed investigation of secondary substances including photosynthetic pigments was performed for whole lichen thalli but also for axenically cultivated mycobionts and photobionts by methods of UV/VIS-spectrophotometry and two types of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Additionally, a set of chemical tests is presented to confirm the formation of melanic compounds in lichen and mycobiont samples. All investigated lichens reveal various sets of SLCs, except C. gyrosa where only melanin was putatively identified. Such studies will help to assess the contribution of SLCs on lichen extremotolerance, to understand the adaptation of lichens to prevalent abiotic stressors of the respective habitat, and to form a basis for interpreting recent and future astrobiological experiments. As most of the identified SLCs demonstrated a high capacity in absorbing UVR, they may also explain the high resistance of lichens towards non-terrestrial UVR. Keywords: Lichens; Secondary lichen compounds; Melanin; Parietin; Rhizocarpic acid; Extremotolerance; BIOMEX.
28722Mishchenko N.P., Stepanenko L.S., Krivoshchekova O.E. & Maksimov O.B. (1980): Anthraquinones of the lichen Asahinea chrysantha . - Chemistry of Natural Compounds, 16(2): 117–121.
[Translated from the Russian original published in Khimiya Prirodnykh Soedinenii, No. 2, pp. 160–165] From a hexane extract of the dry lichen we have isolated six anthraquinones: chryso- phanol (I), islandicin (II), cynodontin (III), emodin (IV), a tetrahydroxymethyl- anthraquinone (V), and a pentahydroxymethylanthraquinone (VI). The structures of (I) and (IV) were confirmed by direct comparison with authentic samples. The structures of (II) and (III) were established by the aid of UV, IR, PMR, and mass spectra. Pigments (V) and (VI) were isolated from a carbonate extract. Pigment (V): mp > 320°C; UV spectrum (run) 258, 283, 310, 447, 500, 533; mass spectrum: 286 (M+, 100%), 270, 258, 257, 241, 229, 216, 213, 212, 211, 201, 161, 155, 137, 115, 105, 97. Pigment (Vl): mp 315°C; UV spectrum (nm): 247, 261, 302, 500, 540, 565, 578; IR spectrum (cm-1): 1587, 3492; mass spectrum: 302 (M+, 100%), 286, 274, 245, 228, and the metastable ions 248.6, 219.1, and 192.5. The positions of the β-hydroxyls in the molecules of (V) and (Vl) have not been definitively established.
28721Tabacchi R., Tsoupras G. & Allemand P. (1995): Identification of triterpenes from lichens by tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS) . - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 57:429-442.
In lichens, triterpenes are rare compounds present in very low quantity. By tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS), a powerful analytical method that allows the identification of trace compounds even in complicated mixtures, it has been possible to differentiate between some of these compounds and to establish their structure
28720Nimis P.L. & Martellos S. (1995): On the ecology of sorediate lichens in Italy. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 57: 443-457.
The distribution of sorediate lichens in different ecological scenarios is depicted on basis of data obtained from ITALIC, an on-line database on the lichens of Italy. Sorediate species are ca. 15% of the Italian flora. They are most frequent under humid-shaded condiitions and - limited to certain types of substrata - under moderate to high levels of eutrophication. Most of the sorediate species of Italy are relatively rare, only a few are abundant in anthropized habitats. It is suggested that the presence of sorediate species is highest under the same conditions which favour the proliferation of free-living algae
28719Wirth V. & Heklau M. (1995): Die epiphytischen Arten der Flechtengattungen Lepraria und Leproloma in Baden-Württemberg. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 57: 443-457.
The epiphytic species of Lepraria and Leproloma in Baden-Württemberg (SW Germany). - A statistical analysis of altitudinal distribution and substrate choice of the Lepraria species L. eburnea, L incana, L. jackii, L. lobificans, and L. rigidula, and Leproloma vouauxii in Baden-Württemberg was carried out based on more than 1000 samples investigated by thin layer chromatography. Frequency of species diminishes in the order Lepraria incana, L. lobificans, L. rigidula, Leproloma vouauxii, Lepraria jackii, L. eburnea. Significant differences in the altitudinal distribution are evident. Lepraria incana and Leproloma vouauxii are concentrated in colline and submontane areas, Lepraria rigidula and L. eburnea in the montane zone, and L. jackii in the montane and high-montane zone. Lepraria incana is the most frequent species in the northern parts of Baden-Württemberg which are also the more polluted areas, reaching a proportion of 70% of the samples in the northern Rhine valley. In the more elevated regions of the Suabian Forest, the Suabian Alb and Oberschwaben Lepraria rigidula is the most important species, in the southern Black Forest L. jackii. Lepraria lobificans is rather common in nearly all areas. Lepraria incana is found mainly on spruce and oak, often also on pear-trees, L. lobificans on oak, beech, spruce, and ash. Lepraria lobificans is the most important species on ash and almost the only species on common maple. The main substrates of Leproloma vouauxii are apple-tree and pear-tree, whereas Lepraria lobificans, L. jackii and L. eburnea are nearly absent from these phorophytes. Lepraria rigidula is found mainly on beech, pear-trees, oak and spruce. It is the most frequent species on Acer pseudoplatanus and Tilia spec. Lepraria jackii is nearly confined to conifers and decorticated stumps. Lepraria eburnea grows especially on oak, spruce and calcareous substrate
28718Guzow-Krzemińska B., Łubek A., Malíček J., Tønsberg T., Oset M. & Kukwa M. (2017): Lecanora stanislai, a new, sterile, usnic acid containing lichen species from Eurasia and North America. - Phytotaxa, 329(3): 201–211.
Lecanora stainislai is characterized by a very thin sorediate thallus, forming a more or less continuous layer of soredia and by the production of usnic acid and zeorin. It usually grows on smooth bark of trees in forests and is known from the Czech Republic, Norway, Poland, Russia, Ukraine and western North America (Canada, USA). It is chemically similar to the sorediate L. compallens, which however has an episubstratal thallus in non-sorediate parts and often delimited soralia. They have also different phylogenetic positions within the L. symmicta group. Moreover, based on molecular marker analysis the position of L. expallens is resolved within this group for the first time.
28717Seavey F., Seavey J., Gagnon J., Guccion J., Kaminsky B., Pearson J., Podaril A. & Randall B. (2017): The lichens of Dagny Johnson Key Largo Hammock Botanical State Park, Key Largo, Florida, USA. - Bulletin Florida Museum of Natural History, 53(5): 201–268.
In January, 2015, we conducted a lichen inventory of Dagny Johnson Key Largo Hammock Botanical State Park in Key Largo, Florida. The site was divided into four ecologically different zones which included two coastal hardwood hammocks of different maturities, a disturbed exposed site once probably dominated by pines long extirpated and a fully exposed dwarf mangrove zone interspersed with other non-mangrove species. The mature coastal hammock yielded 172 species dominated by the family Graphidaceae, especially the subfamily Fissurinoideae and the tribe Thelotremateae. The most exposed mangrove site produced only 73 species dominated by the families Arthoniaceae, Physciaceae and Lecanoraceae. The park is also compared to two nearby South Florida preserves, Everglades National Park and Fakahatchee Strand Preserve State Park both of which have had recent lichen inventories. A surprisingly high number of species were found to be unique to each preserve suggesting at least some lichens have difficultyin dispersing themselves sexually or asexually over even moderate distances. Foray participants recovered 323 species including 315 lichenized and 8 lichenicolous fungi. Eighteen lichen species and one lichenicolous fungi are described as new to science: Acanthothecis floridensisF. Seavey and J. Seavey sp. nov. Arthonia pseudostromatica F. Seavey and J. Seavey sp. nov., Coenogonium maritimum F. Seavey and J. Seavey sp. nov., Cryptothecia calusarum F. Seavey and J. Seavey sp. nov., Cryptothecia randallii F. Seavey and J. Seavey sp. nov., Cryptothecia submacrocephala F. Seavey and J. Seavey sp. nov., Enterographa johnsoniae F. Seavey and J. Seavey sp. nov., Enterographa keylargoensis F. Seavey and J. Seavey sp. nov., Fissurina albolabiata F. Seavey and J. Seavey sp. nov., Fissurina incisura F. Seavey and J. Seavey sp. nov., Graphis ferrugineodisca F. Seavey and J. Seavey sp. nov., Graphis koltermaniae F. Seavey and J. Seavey sp. nov., Leiorreuma erodens F. Seavey and J. Seavey sp. nov., Phaeographis pseudostromatica F. Seavey and J. Seavey sp. nov., Phaeographis radiata F. Seavey and J. Seavey sp. nov., Platygramme elegantula F. Seavey and J. Seavey sp. nov., Ramalina ramificansF. Seavey and J. Seavey sp. nov., Stirtonia divaricatica F. Seavey and J. Seavey sp. nov. The lichenicolous fungus Enterographa bagliettoae F. Seavey and J. Seavey sp. nov. is also described as new to science. Furthermore, the following 25 lichens are new to the North American lichen checklist: Arthonia microsperma Nyl., Arthonia hypochniza Nyl., Bacidiopsora orizabana (Vain.) Kalb, Baculifera micromera (Vain.) Marbach, Chapsa boninensis (Tat. Matsumoto) Rivas Plata and Mangold, Chapsa paralbida (Riddle) Rivas Plata and Lücking, Chapsa phlyctidioides (Müll. Arg.) Mangold, Coenogonium pyrophthalmum (Mont.) Lücking, Aptroot and Sipman, Graphis bungartzii Barcenas-Peña, Lücking, Herrera-Campos and R. Miranda, Graphis elongata Zenker, Graphis perstriatula Nyl., Graphis pseudoserpens Chaves, Lücking and Umaña, Leucodecton compunctum (Ach.) A. Massal., Leucodecton fissurinu (Hale) A. Frisch, Malmidea cineracea Bruess and Lücking, Mazosia viridescens (Fèe) Aptroot and M. Cáceres, Monoblastia palmicola Riddle, Mycomicrothelia apposita (Nyl.) D. Hawksw., Pertusaia rigida Müll. Arg., Pertusaria subrigida Müll. Arg., Phaeographis dividens (Nyl.) Kr. P. Singh and Swarnalatha, Phaeographis quadrifera (Nyl.) Staiger, Phyllopsora glaucescens (Nyl.) Gotth. Schneider, Stigmatochroma gerontoides (Stirton) Marbach, Stirtonia alba Makhija and Patw., as well as the lichenicolous fungus Arthonia tavaresii Grube and Hafellner. The following keys are provided: updated key to Florida Graphis; North American key to Phaeographis; corrected Neotropical key to Stirtonia, and a world key to Platygramme. In the updated Graphis key Graphis chlorotica A. Massal. is replaced by G. subtenella Müll. Arg. based upon a review of G. chlorotica type material in a recently published manuscript. Therefore, we recommend replacing G. chlorotica with G. subtenella on the North American lichen checklist. Key words: new species; Key Largo, Florida; Dagny Johnson; lichen inventory; lichen identification; lichen photos; biodiversity.
28716Fernández-Moriano C., Gómez-Serranillos M.P. & Crespo A. (2016): Antioxidant potential of lichen species and their secondary metabolites. A systematic review. - Pharmaceutical Biology, 54(1): 1–17.
Pharmacological interest of lichens lies in their capacity to produce bioactive secondary metabolites, being most of them phenolic compounds with reactive hydroxyl groups that confer antioxidant potential through various mechanisms. Increasing incidence and impact of oxidative stress-related diseases (i.e., neurodegenerative disorders) has encouraged the search of new pharmacological strategies to face them. Lichens appear to be a promising source of phenolic compounds in the discovery of natural products exerting antioxidant activity. Objective: The present review thoroughly discusses the available knowledge on antioxidant properties of lichens, including both in vitro and in vivo studies and the parameters assessed so far on lichen constituents. Methods: Literature survey was performed by using as main databases PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, Science Direct, and Recent Literature on Lichens. We reviewed 98 highlighted research articles without date restriction. Results: Current report collects data related to antioxidant activities of more than 75 lichen species (from 18 botanical families) and 65 isolated metabolites. Much information comes from in vitro investigations, such as chemical assays evaluating radical scavenging properties, lipid peroxidation inhibition, and reducing power of lichen species and compounds; similarly, research on cellular substrates and animal models generally measures antioxidant enzymes levels and other antioxidant markers, such as glutathione levels or tissue peroxidation. Conclusion: Since consistent evidence demonstrated the contribution of oxidative stress on the development and progression of several human diseases, reviewed data suggest that some lichen compounds are worthy of further investigation and better understanding of their antioxidant and neuroprotective potentials. Keywords: Antioxidants, neurodegenerative diseases, lichens, oxidative stress, scavenging properties.
28715Dal Grande F., Rolshausen G., Divakar P.K., Crespo A., Otte J., Schleuning M. & Schmitt I. (2018): Environment and host identity structure communities of green algal symbionts in lichens. - New Phytologist, 217(1): 277–289.
 An understanding of how biotic interactions shape species’ distributions is central to predicting host–symbiont responses under climate change. Switches to locally adapted algae have been proposed to be an adaptive strategy of lichen-forming fungi to cope with environmental change. However, it is unclear how lichen photobionts respond to environmental gradients, and whether they play a role in determining the fungal host’s upper and lower elevational limits.  Deep-coverage Illumina DNA metabarcoding was used to track changes in the community composition of Trebouxia algae associated with two phylogenetically closely related, but ecologically divergent fungal hosts along a steep altitudinal gradient in the Mediterranean region.  We detected the presence of multiple Trebouxia species in the majority of thalli. Both altitude and host genetic identity were strong predictors of photobiont community assembly in these two species. The predominantly clonally dispersing fungus showed stronger altitudinal structuring of photobiont communities than the sexually reproducing host. Elevation ranges of the host were not limited by the lack of compatible photobionts.  Our study sheds light on the processes guiding the formation and distribution of specific fungal–algal combinations in the lichen symbiosis. The effect of environmental filtering acting on both symbiotic partners appears to shape the distribution of lichens. Key words: altitude, climate change, elevation gradient, metabarcoding, Nextgeneration sequencing (NGS), range limits, symbiosis, Trebouxia.
28714Seaward M.R.D., Edwards H.G.M. & Farwell D.W. (1995): FT-Raman microscopic studies of Haematomma ochroleucum var. porphyrium. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 57: 395-407.
The FT-Raman spectra of thallus-substratum encrustations of the lichen Haematomma ochroleucum var. porphyrium on 18th century brickwork have been obtained successfully, despite the acknowledged fragility of this species. Spectra from the upper and lower surfaces of the encrustations are different; the spectra from the upper surface contain vibrational features which are assignable to the lichen, whereas those from the lower surface are dominated by bands arising from calcium oxalate and oxalic acid. Other features present in the vibrational spectra are ascribed to phenolic compounds from lichen metabolism
28713Scholz P. (1995): New or interesting records of lichens and lichenicolous fungi from Germany. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 57: 387-394.
New or interesting records of 26 lichens and 11 lichenicolous fungi are reported from Germany. More than 20 are new to various provinces (Bundesländer), mainly Sachsen-Anhalt. Porina interjungens is reported as new to Germany due to the discovery of the missing type of Microglaena (Clathroporina) rivularis which is reduced to synonymy
28712Pintaric M., Türk R. & Peer T. (1995): Vergleichende Untersuchungen über den Ca-, Mg- und K-Gehalt von Flechten und ihrem Substrat von Kalk- und Silikatstandorten. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 57: 363-385.
The total amount of Ca, K and Mg was investigated in terricolous and epiphytic lichens and their substrata collected on calcareous and siliceous sites. In order to determine the proportions of these elements available for the lichens the exchangeable and water soluble amounts of Ca, K and Mg of the substrata (soil and bark) were also measured. - The Ca-content of the terricolous and epiphytic lichens is dependent on the site and the species investigated. The Ca-concentration in lichens from Ca-rich sites is higher than in lichens from siliceous sites. The ability of Ca-retention in the thalli is very different between the species and shows particularly wide variations within the different ecotypes of the same species. A close relation between the Ca-content of the thalli and the Ca-content of the substrata could be found e. g. in the terricolous species Cetraria cucullata (Bellardi) Ach. and Cladonia furcata (Huds.) Schrad. Similar relationships were found in the epiphytic lichens. - The K- content of the lichen thalli is independent of the K-content of the substratum. All lichen species investigated show the trend to a specific, constant K-content. The K-content is different from species to species. Some lichen species, e. g. Peltigera spec., have a higher K-content than other species, independent of the substratum and the site. - The Mg-content of the lichens is dependent on the species and is only slightly influenced by the mineral composition of the site. There is an intraspecific tendency to a constant Mg-content in the thalli. - The vertical distribution of K in the thalli is very clear: The apical parts of the fruticose and pendent thalli always contain more K than the basal parts. Lichens with a corticated, dorsiventral thallus, e. g. Cetraria species contain higher amounts of Ca and Mg in the basal parts. Fruticose, cylindrical thalli without a cortex (Cladonia species) show higher concentrations of Ca and Mg in the apical segments
28711Lumbsch T.H., Dickhäuser A. & Feige G.B. (1995): Systematic studies in the Pertusariales III. Taxonomic position of Thamnochrolechia (lichenized Ascomycetes). - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 57: 355-361.
Thamnochrolechia, an endemic taxon from Papua New Guinea, shows a number of unique characters which support its delimitation at the generic level. In addition, it exhibits the spore structure of Ochrolechia and the amyloid ascus reactions of Pertusaria consistent with its placement in the family Pertusariaceae
28710Kümmerling H. (1995): Neufunde von Flechten in Berlin und Brandenburg. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 57: 347-354.
Cladonia conista is found on several sites in Berlin, where it appears to be rather common, and in Brandenburg. Cladonia cryp- tochlorophaea, C. humilis, C merochlorophaea var. novochlorophaea, C. peziziformis, Parmelia submontana, Thelocarpon lichenicola, Trapelia placodioides and Trapeliopsis pseudogranulosa are further new records from Brandenburg. Diploschistes muscorum is reported for the first time from Berlin
28709Kondratyuk S.Y. & Galloway D.J. (1995): Lichenicolous fungi and chemical patterns in Pseudocyphellaria. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 57: 327-345.
From 53 species of Pseudocyphellaria, out of 107 species examined world-wide, 23 genera and 51 species of lichenicolous fungi are recorded. It appears that lichenicolous fungi occur more frequently on lichens having restricted geographical ranges. The species of Pseudocyphellaria investigated show 17 different chemical patterns. Species with a basic 2-hopane chemistry (which is regarded as an ancestral pattern upon which other more advanced chemical patterns are elaborated) or with two hopanes and depsides, or with two hopanes, depsides and the stictic acid aggregate, tend to have the highest numbers of lichenicolous fungi. Other chemical groupings correlating with high numbers of lichenicolous fungi include: hopane-triol, stictic acid aggregate and pulvinic acid derivatives (P. crocata)', and femene triterpenoids with pulvinic acid pigments (P. aurata). Preliminary results indicate that chemical patterns, geographical distributions, and coevolution of lichenicolous fungi have potential utility in the study of evolutionary relationships in Pseudocyphellaria and possibly more widely in the order Peltigerales. Opegrapha leuckertii and Melaspilea gallowayii are newly described and the new combination Dactylospora orygmaea is proposed
28708Welch D. (2013): The floristics of contrasting grazed-down Scottish moorland sites initially dominated by heather (Calluna vulgaris). - New Journal of Botany, 3(3): 169–177.
p. 172: "Lichens had insufficient cover for plotting in Fig. 2 except at site E3, where the main species, Cladonia impexa and Parmelia physodes, were intimately associated with the Calluna bushes."
28707Knoph J.G. & Mies B. (1995): Beiträge zur Flechtenflora der Kapverdischen Inseln III. Die saxicolen Arten der Gattung Lecidella. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 57: 297-305.
The saxicolous species of Lecidella from the Cape Verde Islands were revised. Three species (Lecidella asema, Lecidella latypiza and Lecidella leuckertiana Knoph Sc Mies spec, nova) were recognized. The new species Lecidella leuckertiana is mainly characterized by a heavily black brown pigmented excipulum and epihymenium, a pale yellowish hypothecium and the content of 2,7- dichloro-6-<9-methylnorlichexanthone and an unknown compound. The taxon must, at present, be regarded as endemic to Cape Verde Islands
28706Welch D. (2016): The floristic changes of Scottish moorland dominated by heather (Calluna vulgaris, Ericaceae) but unburnt for 50 years and kept checked by moderate grazing. - New Journal of Botany, 6(1): 31–42.
p. 37: "Lichens were rare at L1, L2 and O2, never exceeding 2% cover, and are only shown in Fig. 3 for site D2. Here they tolerated the sheep grazing and maintained substantial cover until cattle began to use the site in 2002; they then suffered trampling damage and were reduced to 4% cover by 2010."
28705Verloove F. (2016): Jacques Lambinon (1936-2015) en de Nouvelle Flore de la Belgique. Een terugblik. - Dumortiera, 108: 5–7.
obituary [in Flemish]
28704van den Broeck D. & de Wit D. (2016): Micarea lignaria, een nieuw licheen voor Vlaanderen. - Dumortiera, 110: 26–28.
Micarea lignaria, new for the lichen biota of Flanders. The species was discovered on March 19, 2016 on a border of iron sandstone of the Saint-Lamberts church at Westerlo (prov. of Antwerp). Morphology, habitat, ecology and distribution of the species are described. The species is not very demanding in the choice of substrate but prefers an acid, humid, exposed to shady and mineral-poor environment.
28703van den Broeck D., van Dort K. & de Wit D. (2016): Thelidium zwackhii, nieuw voor Vlaanderen. Met een veldsleutel voor de pyrenocarpe terrestrische lichenen van België. - Dumortiera, 108: 30–32.
Thelidium zwackhii, new for the lichen flora of Flanders. Habitat, ecology and distribution of the species are described. A field key of the terricolous pyrenocarp lichens in Belgium is given.
28702Eaton S., Ellis C., Genney D., Thompson R., Yahr R. & Haydon D.T. (2018): Adding small species to the big picture: Species distribution modelling in an age of landscape scale conservation. - Biological Conservation, 217: 251–258.
A recent shift in conservation policy from the site scale to the ecosystem or landscape scale requires underpinning by large-scale species distribution data. This poses a significant challenge in conserving small/less charismatic species (SLCS's) whose often cryptic nature can result in spatially restricted sampling, thus preventing landscape scale conservation projects from being realised for these ecologically important groups. Species distribution models (SDMs) can provide a powerful tool to bridge this gap. However, in the case of SLCS's (here lichen epiphytes in temperate rainforests of western Scotland are used as a model system), direct predictor variables exist at micro-scales (millimetres to centimetres), which are not extensively available in landscape-scale datasets. Here we identify a group of well-mapped larger-scale ‘compound variables’ which capture the effect of multiple direct predictors (such as bark pH and topography), and test whether they can be successfully used to predict species distributions at the landscape scale, circumventing the need for direct (micro-scale) predictor data. By testing the SDMs more widely within western Scotland, accurate predictions of species presence/absence could be made throughout the region for 5 of the 9 lichen epiphytes, making these SDMs extremely valuable as a conservation planning tool. Species distribution models utilising compound variables as predictors offer a solution to the paucity of species distributional data for SLCS's, and present a valuable resource in conservation planning for such species. The importance of testing the SDMs outside of a training region to prevent prediction error is highlighted however. Keywords: Compound variables; Generalised Additive Model (GAM); Lichen epiphytes; Native Woodland Survey Scotland (NWSS); Temperate rainforests.
28701Parrot D., Intertaglia L., Jehan P., Grube M., Suzuki M.T. & Tomasi S. (2018): Chemical analysis of the Alphaproteobacterium strain MOLA1416 associated with the marine lichen Lichina pygmaea. - Phytochemistry, 145: 57–67.
Alphaproteobacterium strain MOLA1416, related to Mycoplana ramosa DSM 7292 and Chelativorans intermedius CC-MHSW-5 (93.6% 16S rRNA sequence identity) was isolated from the marine lichen, Lichina pygmaea and its chemical composition was characterized by a metabolomic network analysis using LC-MS/MS data. Twenty-five putative different compounds were revealed using a dereplication workflow based on MS/MS signatures available through GNPS (https://gnps.ucsd.edu/). In total, ten chemical families were highlighted including isocoumarins, macrolactones, erythrinan alkaloids, prodiginines, isoflavones, cyclohexane-diones, sterols, diketopiperazines, amino-acids and most likely glucocorticoids. Among those compounds, two known metabolites (13 and 26) were isolated and structurally identified and metabolite 26 showed a high cytotoxic activity against B16 melanoma cell lines with an IC50 0.6 ± 0.07 μg/mL. Keywords: Lichen-associated bacteria; Lichina pygmaea; Alphaproteobacteria; LC/MSn; Dereplication workflow; Molecular networking.
28700Belliveau A.G. & McMullin R.T. (2017): Parmotrema perforatum new to Canada from Kejimkujik National Park and National Historic Site in Nova Scotia, Canada. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 16: 322–328.
Parmotrema perforatum is a large macrolichen that is common in southeastern North America. We report the first Canadian records from Kejimkujik National Park and National Historic Site in Nova Scotia, Canada. The taxon was located during surveys of the nationally rare Atlantic Coastal Plain habitat in southern Nova Scotia where many disjunct species of vascular plants, bryophytes, and other lichens reach their northern limit in eastern North America. Keywords: Conservation, biogeography, temperate.
28699Wang Y., Shu X., Chen Y., Yan J., Zhang S., Wu B. & Jia J. (2018): Enrichment, purification and in vitro antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from Umbilicaria esculenta macrolichen. - Biochemical Engineering Journal, 130: 10–20.
Umbilicaria esculenta as an edible macrolichen possesses nutritional properties, such as antioxidant, immune-boosting, and lipid peroxidation inhibitory properties. A new enrichment and separation technology for the polysaccharides from Umbilicaria esculenta (UEP) with AB-8 resin was established, and its adsorption data were well fitted to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the Langmuir isotherm, with a process of monolayer coverage of UEP onto it. After purification by DEAE (diethylaminoethyl) Cellulose-52 chromatography, two polysaccharide fractions (UEP-1, UEP-2) were obtained and characterized. UEP-1 was composed of mannose, rhamnose, glucose and galactose in a molar ratio of 0.59:3.12:93.09:3.20 with a molecular weight of 124.7 kD, while UEP-2 comprised mannose and glucose in a molar ratio of 20.66:79.34 with a molecular weight of 249.4 kD. With DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), ABTS (2,2′-Azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate), superoxide anion, and hydroxyl scavenging capacities as indices, their antioxidative assays in vitro indicated that the polysaccharides exhibited the very strong scavenging activities in a concentration-dependent manner. It was worth expecting that UEP could be developed as a novel potential functional component in food industries.
28698Nannoni F., Mazzeo R., Santolini R. & Protano G. (2017): Multi-matrix environmental monitoring to assess heavy element distribution around a municipal solid waste landfill in Italy. - International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 14: 2591–2602.
Multi-matrix environmental monitoring was used to evaluate the influence of a municipal solid waste landfill (Ginestreto, Emilia Romagna, Italy) on the level and distribution of heavy elements in the surrounding environment (air, soil and soil biota). Concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Tl and Zn were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry in transplanted lichens, topsoils and isopods. The highest accumulation levels found for Cd, Cr, Pb, Sb and Zn in lichens transplanted within the Ginestreto landfill. However, similar concentrations of these heavy elements were also found in lichens exposed in monitoring sites influenced by other man-made sources, such as vehicle traffic and truck movements. The fallout of heavy elements emitted by the landfill had low impact on their levels in topsoil: Cd, Cr, Pb, Sb and Zn showed higher contents in topsoil collected close to the landfill and a slight decrease in concentrations with increasing distance from the landfill. There was no variation in heavy element accumulation in isopods in relation to distance from the landfill. The results of this study indicate that the Ginestreto municipal solid waste landfill had limited impact on the environmental distribution of heavy elements, since accumulation and enrichment in lichens and topsoils were only detected close to the landfill, up to about 100 m from its border. Keywords: Heavy elements; Isopods; Lichens; Multi-matrix environmental monitoring; Municipal solid waste landfill; Topsoil.
28697Jia R., Teng J., Chen M., Zhao Y. & Gao Y. (2018): The differential effects of sand burial on CO2, CH4, and N2O fluxes from desert biocrust-covered soils in the Tengger Desert, China. - Catena, 160: 252–260.
Biocrusts are a crucial component of desert ecosystems, playing a significant role in greenhouse gas fluxes when they cover soils. However, little is known about whether, and how sand burial, one of the most common disturbances affecting the biodiversity and ecological function of biocrusts, influences fluxes of CO2, CH4, and N2O from the desert biocrust-covered soils. Based on measurements of the fluxes of three greenhouses gases from soils covered with two kinds of biocrusts separately dominated by mixed (i.e., approximately 50% algal coverage and 50% lichen coverage of Endocarpon pusillum Hedw., here cyanobacteria are classed as algae) and moss (i.e., 100% coverage of Didymodon vinealis (Brid.) Zand.) crusts respectively, followed by zero (control), 1 mm (shallow burial), and 10 mm (deep burial) burial depths of sand, we studied the effects of short (20 days) and relatively long periods (one year) of sand burial on the fluxes of three greenhouse gases as well as their relationships with soil temperature and moisture at Shapotou on the southeastern edge of the Tengger Desert. The results of this study showed that sand burial had a significantly positive effect on emission fluxes of CO2 and a negative effect on uptake of CH4 by soils covered with the two types of biocrusts (P < 0.05), but had a differential effect on N2O fluxes depending on burial depth. Shallow burial dramatically increased N2O emissions from the biocrust-covered soils (P < 0.05), but the opposite was observed under deep burial. As burial time increased, the increase of CO2 emissions decreased, but changes in fluxes of CH4 and N2O varied with biocrust types and burial depths, respectively. In addition, results showed that CO2 fluxes from the two biocrusts were closely related to soil temperature and moisture; thereby increased with the raised soil temperature at 5 cm depth and soil moisture caused by sand burial. In contrast, CH4 and N2O emissions were not clearly related to temperature or moisture. Overall, the increase in global warming potential caused by sand burial indicates that this kind of deposition may aggravate the greenhouse effect of desert areas covered with biocrusts. Keywords: Biocrusts; Sand burial; Greenhouse gas; Desert.
28696Rao P.S., Sarma K.G. & Seshadri T.R. (1967): The ultraviolet and infrared spectra of some lichen depsides and depsidones. - Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences - Section A, 66(1): 1–14.
The ultraviolet and infrared spectral data for a number of lichen depsides, depsidones and their fission products have been recorded. The U.V. spectra of the orcinol depsides, orcinol depsidones andβ-orcinol depsidones are characteristic while those of theβ-orcinol depsides less useful for diagnostic purposes. The I.R. spectra are more useful and the carbonyl region is significant for this purpose.
28695Kumara Sastry V.V. & Seshadri T.R. (1942): Chemical investigation of Indian lichens. Part VII. Chemical components of Parmelia abessinica (Rathipuvvu). - Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences - Section A, 16: 137–140.
A complete examination of the lichenParmelia abessinica is reported. Atranorin and lecanoric acid form the major lichen acids and salazinic acid the minor component. The presence of these three important lichen acids together is highly significant in regard to the biogenesis of these compounds.
28694Singh S.M., Sharma J., Gawas-Sakhalkar P., Upadhyay A.K., Naik S., Pedneker S.M. & Ravindra R. (2013): Atmospheric deposition studies of heavy metals in Arctic by comparative analysis of lichens and cryoconite. - Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 185: 1367–1376.
Lichens and cryoconite (rounded or granular, brownish-black debris occurring in holes on the glacier surface) from Ny-Ålesund were used for understanding the elemental deposition pattern in the area. Lichen samples collected from low-lying coastal region and cryoconite samples from high altitudinal glacier area were processed and analysed for elements such as aluminium (Al), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), cesium (Cs), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), vanadium (V) and zinc (Zn) through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results showed that heavy metals, Al and Fe, are present in high concentration in the cryoconite samples. Al was also present in high amounts in seven of the eight lichen samples studied. The general scheme of elements in the decreasing order of their concentrations for most of the cryoconite samples was Al > Fe > Mn > Zn > V > Pb > Cr > Ni > Cu > Co > As > Cs > Cd while that for the lichen samples was Al > Fe > Zn > Mn > Pb > Cu > Cs > Cr > Ni > V > Co > As > Cd. Similarity in trends in the two sample types confirms that the environment indeed contains these elements in that order of concentration which overtime got accumulated in the samples. Overall comparison showed most elements to be present in high concentrations in the cryoconite samples as compared to the lichen samples. Within the lichens, elemental accumulation data suggests that the low-lying site (L-2) from where Cladonia mediterranea sample was collected was the most polluted accumulating a number of elements at high concentrations. The probable reasons for such deposition patterns in the region could be natural (crustal contribution and sea salt spray) and anthropogenic (local and long-distance transmission of dust particles). In the future, this data can form a baseline for monitoring quantum of atmospheric heavy metal deposition in lichens and cryoconite of Svalbard, Arctic. Keywords: ICPMS; Elemental deposition; Biomonitoring; Glacier; Crustal contribution.
28693Mondal N.K. & Kundu M. (2016): Biosorption of fluoride from aqueous solution using lichen and its Ca-pretreated biomass. - Water Conservation Science and Engineering, 1(3): 143–160.
One of the major ground water contaminants is fluoride; hence, numerous procedures for its removal are reported. In this study, adsorption of fluoride was investigated by lichen and its Ca-pretreated lichen biomass from aqueous solution. The entire study was done by batch adsorption mode. The operating parameters such as pH, adsorbent dose, stirring rate, contact time, particle size, initial fluoride solution, and temperature in such solution influence the degree of fluoride ions adsorption. The kinetics of the fluoride adsorption was calculated by pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order and intraparticle diffusion rate laws. The surface morphology was evaluated by scanning electron micrograph (SEM). In this biosorption study, results revealed that Ca-pretreated lichen showed higher removal at pH 6. The fluoride adsorption isotherms, D-R and Langmuir isotherms are well fitted for both the biomasses and pseudo-second-order kinetic model showed high regression coefficient. The Langmuir adsorption capacity of lichen and Ca-pretreated lichen are 0.81 mg/g and 1.72 mg/g, respectively. The FTIR study showed active functional groups associated with biomass. Thermodynamic parameters such as Gibbs free energy (ΔG°), enthalpy (ΔH°), and entropy (ΔS°) change of sorption were also evaluated which indicated that the adsorption process was spontaneous, feasible, and exothermic in nature. The present findings suggest that lichen biomass may be used as an inexpensive and effective adsorbent. Keywords: Lichen; Ca-pretreated Fluoride; Adsorption; Adsorption isotherm; Kinetics and thermodynamic.
28692Belivermiş M., Kılıç Ö., Çayır A., Coşkun M. & Coşkun M. (2016): Assessment of 210Po and 210Pb in lichen, moss and soil around Çan coal-fired power plant, Turkey. - Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 307: 523–531 .
This paper deals with determination of 210Po and 210Pb activity concentrations using epigeic moss (Hypnum cupressiforme), bushy soil (fruticose) lichen (Cladonia rangiformis) and surface soil samples in the area around Çan coal-fired power plant, northwest Turkey. Mean activity concentrations of 210Po and 210Pb were found to be 303.9 and 425.8 Bq kg−1 for moss, 161.6 and 259.1 Bq kg−1 for lichen, and 79.9 and 91.5 Bq kg−1 for soil samples at dry weight, respectively. We propose that distance and altitude of sampling site may be of significant parameters of distribution of both radionuclides. Keywords: 210Po; 210Pb; Moss; Lichen; Soil; Coal-fired power; plant.
28691Shukla V., Patel D.K., Upreti D.K., Yunus M. & Prasad S. (2013): A comparison of metallic contents in lichen Pyxine subcinerea, its substratum and soil. - International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 10: 37–46 .
Chromium, copper, cadmium, lead, nickel, iron and zinc contents of a lichen species (Pyxine subcinerea Stirton) and mango bark collected from 12 sites in Haridwar city (Uttarakhand) were compared with soil, sampled from beneath the tree from which lichens were collected. The metal contents in lichen, bark and soil ranged from 1,573 to 18,793, 256 to 590 and 684 to 801 μg g−1, respectively. This clearly indicates that lichens accumulated higher amounts of metal compared to bark or soil. Statistical analysis revealed that metal concentration in lichens did not show significant linear correlation with the bark or soil. Pearsons correlation coefficients revealed negative correlation of Pb (r = −0.2245) and Ni (r = −0.0480) content between lichen and soil, which indicate direct atmospheric input of metals from ambient environment. Quantification and comparison of elemental concentration in lichens, its substratum and soil can provide valuable information about air quality in the collection area. Keywords: Atmospheric input; Bioaccumulation; Elemental content; Lichen; Statistical analysis.
28690Bajpai R., Upreti D.K. & Dwivedi S.K. (2010): Passive monitoring of atmospheric heavy metals in a historical city of central India by Lepraria lobificans Nyl.. - Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 166: 477–484.
Using an organism living in situ for monitoring is referred as passive monitoring. Lepraria lobificans Nyl., a leprose lichen growing naturally on monuments and buildings in the city Mandav in central India is used for passive monitoring of atmospheric metals. Seven metals (Cd, Cr, Ni, Al, Fe, Cu, and Zn) were analyzed. Samples collected from road site exhibit the maximum concentration of Fe, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Zn. Iron exhibit maximum accumulation both in lichen thallus and the substratum with mean values of 2,195.63 μg g − 1 dry weight. As compared with other growth form of lichens, L. lobificans exhibits the higher accumulation of Fe than foliose and fruticose lichens. On the basis of these results, it can be hypothesized that L. lobificans is an excellent accumulator of different metals. The statistical analysis applied to the element concentration between the metals as well as between the sites by analysis of variance found the difference to be significant at 1% and 5%, respectively. Student–Newman–Keuls test also shows significant difference for iron between the different metals. Keywords: Heavy metals; Lepraria lobificans; Passive monitoring. 
28689Karakoti N., Bajpai R., Upreti D.K., Mishra G.K., Srivastava A. & Nayaka S. (2014): Effect of metal content on chlorophyll fluorescence and chlorophyll degradation in lichen Pyxine cocoes (Sw.) Nyl.: a case study from Uttar Pradesh, India. - Environmental Earth Sciences, 71: 2177–2183 .
The major aim of the present study is to identify the relationship of physiological parameters of the photosynthetic system with the elemental content of the naturally growing lichen Pyxine cocoes. The epiphytic foliose lichen P. cocoes was used as biomonitoring indicator and effect of atmospheric pollutants on physiological integrity was examined. Potential quantum yield of Photosystem II (fluorescence ratio Fv/Fm), chlorophyll degradation ratio and quantitative estimation of Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Fe and Zn contained in the lichen thallus were ascertained. Statistical analysis revealed significantly positive correlations between Fv/Fm and element contents (Al and Cr). The chlorophyll degradation as well as alteration in the pigment content was found to be the most sensitive parameters to assess the vitality of lichen thallus against polluted environment. The species accumulated higher amounts of elements (Al, As, Cu, Fe and Zn) in the polluted sites as compared to the non polluted sites. It was also evident from this study that vehicular emission played a significant role in the release of elements as pollutants in the surrounding environment. The effectiveness of this lichen could be further investigated by comparing this species with other biomonitors. Keywords: Chlorophyll fluorescence; Lichens; Elements; Photosystem II.
28688Frost R.L., Erickson K. & Weier M. (2004): Thermal treatment of moolooite: A high resolution thermogravimetric and hot stage Raman spectroscopic study. - Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 77: 851–861.
Evidence for the existence of primitive life forms such as lichens and fungi can be based upon the formation of oxalates. These oxalates form as a film like deposit on rocks and other host matrices. Moolooite as the natural copper(II) oxalate mineral is a classic example. High resolution thermogravimetry coupled to evolved gas mass spectrometry shows decomposition takes place at 260°C. Evolved gas mass spectrometry shows the gas lost at this temperature is carbon dioxide. No water evolution was observed, thus indicating the moolooite is the anhydrous copper(II) oxalate as compared to the synthetic compound which is the dihydrate. The high resolution thermogravimetry was complimented with hot stage Raman spectroscopy. The temperature at which no intensity remains in the bands assigned to the oxalate vibrations is the upper limit of the stability of the moolooite. Keywords: copper(II) oxalate, evolved gas mass spectrometry, high resolution thermogravimetry, moolooite, oxalate, Raman spectroscopy.
28687Protano C., Guidotti M., Owczarek M., Fantozzi L., Blasi G. & Vitali M. (2014): Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and metals in transplanted lichen (Pseudovernia [sic!] furfuracea) at sites adjacent to a solid-waste landfill in central Italy. - Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 66: 471–481 .
The aim of the study was to evaluate the airborne contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and some heavy metals (arsenic [As], cadmium [Cd], chromium [Cr], copper [Cu], nickel [Ni], lead [Pb], and zinc [Zn]) of different pollution scenarios around a solid-waste landfill in central Italy using the lichen Pseudovernia furfuracea as a monitoring tool. For this purpose, eight stations around a landfill characterized by different air pollution sources (industrial, agricultural, residential areas, and roads with different traffic intensities), together with three stations far from the landfill (control areas), were monitored using a set of 22 lichen samples (11 samples analysed for PAHs and metals after 4 months, and 11 samples analysed for metals after 8 months). After 4 months of exposure, the lichen content of all of the analysed elements was greater than that in the pre-exposed lichens. In addition, the Cu and Pb concentration after 8 months was greater than the level after 4 months. The order of metal concentration was Zn > Pb > Cu (or Cu > Pb) > Cr > Ni > As > Cd in all cases. The range of ∑11PAHs concentration was 634–1,371 ng/g dw (three to seven times greater than the amount in the pre-exposed lichens). The ∑11PAHs were dominated (>70 %) by compounds with three aromatic rings. The comparison of the levels of air pollutants among the monitored stations shows nonrelevant spatial patterns between the landfill stations and the control areas; the levels of PAHs and metals found in the lichen samples around the landfill seemed to be more related to the general diffusion of these pollutants in that area.
28686Bozkurt Z. (2017): Determination of airborne trace elements in an urban area using lichens as biomonitor. - Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 189: 573 [12 p.].
The amounts of elements emitted from industrial, domestic, and vehicle sources in Düzce through the analyses of lichens, which are bioindicators of air pollution, were determined in this research. Concentrations of Al, Fe, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, V, Cd, Hg, and Pb in the lichens that were collected from 40 different points were analyzed using an inductively coupled plasma (ICP-MS) device. The highest concentration values were detected for Fe and Al, while the lowest concentration values were detected for Cd and Hg. Distribution maps of elements were created using geographic information systems. The distribution maps showed how the concentrations of elements for Düzce have changed across the city. According to our results, the elements sourced from traffic and combustion, such as Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, As, and V, have the highest concentrations in the city center near the traffic. Keywords: Air pollution; Trace element; Lichen; Biomonitoring; Pollution; distribution map.
28685Monna F., Bouchaou L., Rambeau C., Losno R., Bruguier O., Dongarrà G., Black S. & Chateau C. (2012): Lichens used as monitors of atmospheric pollution around Agadir (southwestern Morocco)—A case study predating lead-free gasoline. - Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 223: 1263–1274 .
More than 30 epiphytic lichens, collected in Agadir (Morroco) and along a 150-km transect from the Atlantic Ocean eastward, were analyzed for their metal content and lead isotopic composition. This dataset was used to evaluate atmospheric metal contamination and the impact of the city on the surrounding area. The concentrations of Cu, Pb, and Zn (average ± 1 SD) were 20.9 ± 15.2 μg g−1, 13.8 ± 9.0 μg g−1, and 56.6 ± 26.6 μg g−1, respectively, with the highest values observed in lichens collected within the urban area. The 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb ratios in the lichens varied from 1.146 to 1.186 and from 2.423 to 2.460, respectively. Alkyllead-gasoline sold in Morocco by the major petrol companies gave isotopic ratios of 206Pb/207Pb = 1.076–1.081 and 208Pb/207Pb = 2.348–2.360. These new, homogeneous values for gasoline-derived lead improve and update the scarce isotopic database of potential lead sources in Morocco, and may be of great value to future environmental surveys on the presence of lead in natural reservoirs, where it persists over time (e.g., soils and sediments). The interest of normalizing metal concentrations in lichens to concentrations of a lithogenic element is demonstrated by the consistency of the results thus obtained with lead isotopic ratios. Leaded gasoline contributed less than 50% of the total amount of lead accumulated in lichens, even in areas subject to high vehicular traffic. This strongly suggests that the recent banishment of leaded gasoline in Morocco will not trigger a drastic improvement in air quality, at least in Agadir. Keywords: Atmospheric contamination; Metal; Bio-monitor; Stable lead isotopes.
28684Seshadri T.R. & Sankara Subramanian S. (1949): Chemical investigation of Indian lichens. Part VIII. Some lichens growing on sandal trees (Ramalina tayloriana and Roccella montagnei). - Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences - Section A, 30: 15–22.
28683Kumara Sastry V.V. & Seshadri T.R. (1940): Chemical investigation of Indian lichens. Part II. Synthetic uses of some lichen acids. - Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences - Section A, 12: 498–506.
28682Subba Rao V. & Seshadri T.R. (1940): Chemical investigation of Indian lichens. Part I. Chemical components of RoccelIa montagnei. - Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences - Section A, 12: 466–471.
28681Balabanova B., Stafilov T., Šajn R. & Bačeva K. (2014): Comparison of response of moss, lichens and attic dust to geology and atmospheric pollution from copper mine. - International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 11: 517–528 .
Different sampling media (moss, lichen and attic dust) were used for monitoring the distribution of 15 elements, including certain trace elements, in the vicinity of an intensively exploited copper mine in the east of the Republic of Macedonia. Moss species (Hypnum cupressiforme and Campothecium lutescens), epiphytic lichens (Hypogymnia physodes and Evernia prunastri) and attic dust were collected for comparative analysis for monitoring air pollution. In both cases (lithological and anthropogenic affected areas) for the distribution of elements, the sampling media follows the expression capabilities: attic dust > moss > lichens. Enrichment factors M/L—moss vs. lichen, for plant response to elements distribution and D/L—attic dust vs. lichen, for historical response of elements distribution were significant for Cu and Ni, which were singled out as the main markers for anthropogenic and geogenic distribution. The factor analysis highlighted geogenic (F1: Ni-Cr-Cd-Fe-Al-K-Mn-Zn) and anthropogenic (F2: As-Cu-Pb) association of elements from three types of media samples. For anthropogenic affected areas, T value and F value for Cu content were significant at p < 0.05 and higher enrichment factors were obtained for lichen, moss and attic dust media (3.8, 5.0 and 5.7, respectively). Spatial distribution for element deposition (with emphasis on Cu and Ni) is not disturbed by the significant differences in the sampling media matrix. Treated sample materials (attic dust, moss, lichen) are shown to be useful in determining an anthropogenic impact, as well as the chemical properties or geological background on orographic diverse terrain in the presence of complex geological structure. Keywords: Attic dust; Bučim copper mine; Macedonia; Lichen; Moss; Spatial distribution.
28680Yorkina N.V. (2016): Impact of technogenic pollution of urban environment on vitality indicators of urban biota (mollusk fauna, soil mesofauna, epiphytic lichens). - Moscow University Biological Sciences Bulletin, 71(3): 177–183.
[Original Russian Text published in Vestnik Moskovskogo Universiteta, Seriya 16: Biologiya, 2016, No. 3, pp. 73–80.] The article presents results of ecological, chemical, and bioindication assessment of the urban ecosystem of an industrial city in the South of Ukraine. The dynamics of physical and chemical parameters of soil, surface water, and air in various functional areas of the city was analyzed. The complex pollution index for environmental components was determined. Bioindicative assessment of the ecological condition of the urban ecosystem was performed based on vitality parameters of epiphytic lichen flora, soil mesofauna, and freshwater mollusk fauna. Based on bioindicators’ vitality, zones with different ecological conditions were demarcated. Toxic effects of various pollutants on living organisms and tolerance of some bioindicator species under anthropogenic pressure were analyzed. It was found that the amount of zoophages increases and homogenization of anamorphoscope composition of major mesopedobionts groups with the dominance of individual species is observed in anthropogenically transformed areas. In alkaline soils of functional areas of the urban ecosystem, prevalence of calcicole species—millipedes, pill bugs, and gastropods—was noted, which allows them to be used as soils' alkalization level indicators. The degree of correlation between the viability of bioindicator groups and complex pollution index of basic components of the urban environment was determined. For instance, an inverse correlation between the vitality of epiphytic lichen flora (G, %) and the complex atmospheric air environmental contamination index (Pa) (–0.80, p < 0.05); and a direct correlation between the decline in the vitality of soil mesofauna ( ,%) and complex soil contamination index (Zs) (0.84, p < 0.05) were discovered. Therefore, biomorphs of epiphytic lichen flora and some groups of mesopedobionts can be used as pollution indicators for urban environments. Based on the study results, an algorithm for complex ecological, chemical, and bioindication assessment of ecological condition of an urban ecosystem in an industrial city was proposed. Keywords: bioindication assessment, urban ecosystem, mollusk fauna, soil mesofauna, epiphytic lichens, ecological condition, vitality.
28679Ljubič Mlakar T., Horvat M., Kotnik J., Jeran Z., Vuk T., Mrak T. & Fajon V. (2011): Biomonitoring with epiphytic lichens as a complementary method for the study of mercury contamination near a cement plant. - Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 181: 225–241.
The study was focused on understanding the mercury contamination caused by a cement plant. Active and passive biomonitoring with epiphytic lichens was combined with other instrumental measurements of mercury emissions, mercury concentrations in raw materials, elemental mercury concentrations in air, quantities of dust deposits, temperatures, precipitation and other measurements from the cement plant’s regular monitoring programme. Active biomonitoring with transplanted lichens Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf was performed at seven of the most representative sites around the cement plant and one distant reference site for periods of 3, 6 and 12 months. In situ lichens of different species were collected at the beginning of the monitoring period at the same sites. Mercury speciation of the plant exhaust gas showed that the main form of emitted mercury is reactive gaseous mercury Hg2 + , which is specific for cement plants. Elemental mercury in air was measured in different meteorological conditions using a portable mercury detector. Concentrations in air were relatively low (on average below 10 ng m − 3). In situ lichens showed Hg concentrations comparable to lichens taken from the background area for transplantation, indicating that the local pollution is not severe. Transplanted lichens showed an increase of mercury, especially at one site near the cement plant. A correlation between precipitation and Hg uptake was not found probably due to a rather uniform rainfall in individual periods. Dust deposits did not influence Hg uptake significantly. Lichens vitality was affected over longer biomonitoring periods, probably due to some elements in dust particles, their alkalinity and the influence of other emissions. Mercury uptake measured in vital transplanted lichens was in a good correlation with the working hours (i.e. emitted Hg quantity) of the kiln. The study showed that selected lichens could be used to detect low to moderate Hg emissions from a cement plant and that the biomonitoring procedure could be further standardized and used as part of an environmental monitoring programme. Keywords: Mercury; Emission; Biomonitoring; Epiphytic lichens; Cement plant.
28678Shevchenko V.P., Pokrovsky O.S., Starodymova D.P., Vasyukova E.V., Lisitzin A.P., Drovnina S.I., Zambere N.S., Makhnovich N.M., Savvichev & Sonke J. (2013): Geochemistry of terricolous lichens in the White Sea catchment area. - Doklady Earth Sciences, 450(1): 514–520.
[Translation of the original Russian text published in Doklady Akademii Nauk, 2013, Vol. 450, No. 1, pp. 87–93.] This paper presents new data on the multielemental composition of terricolous lichens in the White Sea catchment area. The content of 51 chemical elements was determined in 31 samples using modern analytical methods. It was shown that the chemical composition of terricolous lichens varies widely and depends on many factors. The lithogenic dust plays the main role in accumulation of Ti, Cr, Co, Ga, Fe, Zr, Nb, Ga, Th, U, and REE. Longrange transport from remote pollution sources is important for Pb, Zn, Cd, Bi, Hg, and Se. The Kostomuksha ore dressing mill provides the local enrichment of the lichens in Fe, whereas the Monchegorsk copper–nickel enterprise affects large distances and additionally enriches the lichens in Cu, Ni, Co, Pb, and Cd in comparison with the background regions. The marine impact is reflected in elevated contents and enrichment factors in Na, Mg, and the Na/K ratio.
28677Herceg Romanić S., Kljaković-Gašpić Z., Bituh T., Žužul S., Dvoršćak M., Fingler S., Jurasović J., Klinčić D., Marović G., Orct T., Rinkovec J. & Stipičević S. (2016): The impact of multiple anthropogenic contaminants on the terrestrial environment of the Plitvice Lakes National Park, Croatia. - Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 188: 27 [16 p.].
The anthropogenic impact on the terrestrial environment of the Plitvice Lakes National Park (PLNP) was investigated through the analysis of three groups of major contaminants (persistent organochlorine pollutants including 15 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 17 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), trace elements/heavy metals (6 major and 23 trace constituents), and anthropogenic radionuclides (90Sr, 134Cs, and 137Cs)) in three terrestrial compartments (soil, air, and bioindicators of air contamination) during 2011–2013. The correlation coefficients of element mass fractions with soil properties indicated that total Fe and Al minerals, soil organic matter (OM), and organic carbon (OC) content affected the mass fractions of most trace elements in the topsoils. The annual and spatial distributions of heavy metals in total deposited matter (TDM) indicated that the metals came from natural sources and long-range transfer of particulate matter. The PCB and OCP levels found in soil and conifer needles corresponded to global environmental pollution levels by persistent organic pollutants and represented the lower end of the mass fraction ranges reported in the relevant literature. Analyses of anthropogenic radionuclides in bioindicators (conifer needles, lichens, and mosses) showed low but measurable activity concentrations of 134Cs (for the first time after the Chernobyl accident), which indicated origin from the March 2011 Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident. Our overall results indicated that human activity inside or near the PLNP had no significant impact either on contaminant spread by air or on their content in topsoils. Keywords: Metal(oid)s; Polychlorinated biphenyls; Organochlorine pesticides; Radionuclides; Soil; Total deposited matter.
28676Kar S., Samal A.C., Maity J.P. & Santra S.C. (2014): Diversity of epiphytic lichens and their role in sequestration of atmospheric metals. - International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 11: 899–908 .
Diversity and abundance of five species of epiphytic lichens were assessed in Kolkata, India. Significant correlation between abundance of lichen species and volume of vehicular traffic suggests atmospheric pollution load in urban region. Parmelia caperata (L.) Ach. and Graphis scripta (L.) Ach. exhibited higher abundance among the five species studied indicating their higher level of tolerance to air pollution. Significant correlations (p < 0.05) between levels of heavy traffic and both diversity and abundance of all lichen species were also observed. These findings indicate a potential threat to the survival of the lichen communities in Kolkata. Study further deals with quantifying the effectiveness of lichen species in accumulating metallic elements like Pb, Zn, and Cu. This was achieved by analyzing the most abundant lichen species (Parmelia caperata) collected from nine different sites in winter, summer, and monsoon seasons. Metal content in lichen thalli, as analyzed by AAS, shows their elevated levels with the order Pb > Zn > Cu. Relationship between metal content and volume of vehicular traffic suggests that co-associated, metallic elements are emitted as vehicle-derived pollutants as well as diffuse industrial emissions. Accumulation of these metals is higher in winter which is proportionate with the higher degree of metabolism due to higher humidity in this season. Study also demonstrates the dynamics of metal uptake by the lichen at different sites influenced with different degree of vehicular traffic. Overall results confirm suitability of lichen with their potential role in sequestration of atmospheric metal contamination. Keywords: Airborne metals; Bioaccumulation; Parmelia caperata; Vehicular traffic.
28675Dragović S., Howard B.J., Caborn J.A., Barnett C.L. & Mihailović N. (2010): Transfer of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides to ants, bryophytes and lichen in a semi-natural ecosystem. - Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 166: 677–686.
Few data are available to quantify the transfer of both natural and anthropogenic radionuclides to detritivorous invertebrates to facilitate estimation of the internal dose to such biota in models used to assess radiation exposure. To enhance the available data, activity concentrations of 137Cs, 40K, 90Sr, 239 + 240Pu, 241Am, 235U and 238U were measured in ants (Formicidae) and corresponding undisturbed soil collected from the Zlatibor mountain in Serbia and ant/soil concentration ratios (CR) calculated. The 241Am concentration ratios for ants were fourfold higher than those calculated for ants in a previous study whereas they are similar to the more numerous data previously reported for a range of detritivorous invertebrates in other studies. CR values for 137Cs in ants were similar to the few other reported values and slightly lower than those for a range of detritivorous invertebrates. Those for 239 + 240Pu were slightly higher than those for ants in two other studies but they were close to upper limit of a range of data reported for detritivorous invertebrates. All the CR values will be included in a future revision of the ERICA Tool database and will particularly improve the information available for uranium. Keywords: Ants; Detritivorous invertebrate; Concentration ratio; ERICA. 
28674Blanár D. (2017): Dub cerový (Quercus cerris) na Muránskej planine [Turkey oak (Quercus cerris) in the Muránska planina Mts]. - Naturae Tutela [Liptovský Mikuláš], 21(1): 15–49.
[In Slovak with English abstract:] Within the territory of the Muránska planina Mts (as well as in the Muránska planina National Park) Turkey oak (Quercus cerris) at the presence occurs excessively in one site – northeast of the Muráň village – at the foot of southeastern slope of the Šiance massif. Turkey oak dominates in one part of the forest stand. The site of the population of Quercus cerris in the Šiance massif, including its vegetation conditions based on phytosociological releves, is described in the study. Its occurrence in the territory can be considered as endangered. Quercus cerris species in communities is growing as a dominating tree or subdominating tree in mixed stands mainly with oaks – Quercus dalechampii and Q. petraea, Fraxinus excelsior, Sorbus aria or with Fagus sylvatica. Phytocenoses with Quercus cerris in the Muránska planina Mts are forming of the following (sub)alliances – mainly Quercion pubescenti-petraeae, rarely Cephalanthero-Fagenion (asoc. Carici albae-Fagetum) and very rare in Eu- Fagenion (asoc. Dentario bulbiferae-Fagetum) and also (marginally) in Tilienion platyphylli (asoc. Seslerio heuflerianae-Quercetum petraeae). Several rare and threatened plant species (macromycetes, epiphytic lichenes, epiphytic mosses and vascular plants) in the investigated communities with Quercus cerris were identified. Key words: Fagaceae, Quercus cerris communities, rare and threatened plant species, Spišsko-gemerský kras Karst, West Carpathians.
28673Kłos A., Rajfur M., Šrámek I. & Wacławek M. (2011): Use of lichen and moss in assessment of forest contamination with heavy metals in Praded and Glacensis Euroregions (Poland and Czech Republic). - Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 222: 367–376.
The concentrations of selected metals—Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb—were determined in the samples of Hypogymnia physodes lichen and Pleurozium schreberi moss collected in Polish and Czech Euroregions Praded and Glacensis. More specifically, the samples were collected in Bory Stobrawskie, Bory Niemodlińskie, and Kotlina Kłodzka (Poland) and in Jeseniki (Czech Republic). The concentration of metals in the samples was measured using the atomic absorption spectrometry (flame AAS technique and electrothermal atomization AAS technique). The results were used to calculate the comparison factor (CF) that quantifies the difference in concentration of a given bioavailable analyte × accumulated in lichens and mosses: CF = 2 (cx,lichen − cx,moss) (cx,lichen + cx,moss)−1. The values of CF greater than 0.62 indicate the most probable location of heavy metals deposited in the considered area. In this work, the method was used to show a significant contribution of urban emissions to the deposition of heavy metals in the area of Bory Stobrawskie and in the vicinity of Kłodzko City. Keywords: Heavy metals; Biomonitoring; Lichen; Moss; Comparison factor. 
28672Radeka M., Kiurski J., Markov S., Marinković-Nedučin R. & Ranogajec J. (2007): Microbial deterioration of clay roofing tiles. - In: Brebbia C.A. (ed.), Structural Studies, Repairs and Maintenance of Heritage Architecture X, p. 567–575, WIT Transactions on The Built Environment, Vol. 95, WIT Press, Southampton & Billerica.
The study illustrates both the biodeterioration and biomineralization actions of two fungus species (Aspergillus niger and Cladosporium sp.) and two organic acids (oxalic and acetic) and the action of the frost (frost dilatation studies in laboratory conditions) as the main factors of the process of ageing of clay roofing tiles. The nano-crystalline products, formed in this way, contribute to the abundant reactive surface area of the existing and new filled pores (due to the fungus hyphen penetration into the ceramic support) deepening the ageing processes of the clay roofing tiles. A relationship between the textural and microstructural characteristics of the studied systems and the formation of the specific crystal forms, developed after the actions of fungus, and oxalic/acetic acids was set up. Keywords: biodeterioration, lichen, fungi, oxalic acid, acetic acid, clay roofing tiles.
28671Wagner B. (2017): Naučná stezka Hasina u Lipence - doplnění lichenologického průzkumu [The instructive path Hasina by Lipenec - addition to lichenological research] . - Severočes. Přír., 49: 126.
Total 35 taxa lichenized fungi in Natural Monument Hasina u Lipence, Acarospora sphaerosperma R. C. Harris & K. Knudsen new to Czech Republic and Europe
28670Wagner B. (2017): Lišejníky Velkého vrchu a Černodol u Loun (severní Čechy) [Lichens of the hill Velký vrch and Cernodoly near town Louny (North-western Bohemia)]. - Severočes. Přír., 49: 90-96.
Velký vrch Hill is a low cone-shaped hill (308 m) with forest and steppe vegetation. The hill is the only locality in north-western Bohemia which was declared to protect the habitats of thermophilous fungi of a Mediterranean type. The form is due to the bed of porcelanite under the summit of the hill. The slopes of Velký vrch Hill are formed of a basement of Mesozoic marlstones and sandstones. Area is relatively rich in epiphytic lichens and poor in saxicole lichens. The most interesting finds were lichens Leptogium schraderi, Physcia aipolia and Usnea subfloridana.The lichen flora consist of 73 recorded species. lichen diversity, marlstone, Leptogium schraderi, Physcia aipolia, Usnea subfloridana
28669Wagner B. (2017): Lišejníky vrchu Březinské tisy (severní Čechy) [Lichens of the hill Březinské tisy (Northern Bohemia)]. - Severočes. Přír., 49: 85-89.
During 2011 and 2013 the lichen diversity of the protected area Březinské tisy in České středohoří Higland was explored. The slopes were declared a national nature monument to protect a rich population of yew trees (Taxus baccata) in all possible age classes. The territory is also designated to protect a significant palaeontological site (important paleontological locality in this area). The list comprises 47 taxa found in forest biotopes, on rocky substrates, tree bark and on soil.Keywords: lichen diversity, České středohoří Mts., basalt, Peltigera membranacea, Verrucaria praetermissa
28668Wagner B. (2017): Lišejníky vrchu Kamýk u Litoměřic (severní Čechy) [Lichens of the hill Kamýk near town Litoměřice (Northern Bohemia)]. - Severočes. Přír., 49: 79-84.
The woody small-sized hill was surveyed near town Litoměřice. 65 taxa are reported from the hill Kamýk. In the area are basaltic rocks, two boulder screes and rocky steppe too. Cladonia cervicomis, Stereocaulon pileatum and Rimularia insularis represent the most interesting records. Lichenes, basalt. České středohoří, Cladonia cervicomis
28667Hawkes C.V. & Menges E.S. (2003): Effects of lichens on seedling emergence in a xeric Florida shrubland . - Southeastern Naturalist, 2(2): 223–234.
The effects of ground lichens on seed germination were studied in rosemary scrub on the Lake Wales Ridge in south-central Florida. Lichen removal and seed addition experiments were established within gaps patches unburned for more than 30 years. Vegetation in these gaps was dominated by ground lichens and vegetatively propagated Licania michauxii and Selaginella arenicola. All ground lichens were removed from one of each paired plots in 1995 and 1998. Seeds of four short-lived perennial herbs were added to 9 randomly selected plot pairs in 1998. Plots were monitored for seedling and clonal recruitment and death, as well as feral pig damage from 1995-2000. Occasional feral pig disturbance temporarily decreased lichen cover. Our study confirms that seedling recruitment is naturally low in these long-unburned, lichen-covered sites. Seedling emergence was higher, however, in lichen removal plots throughout the experiment, but only significantly so before seed addition. Low recruitment after seed addition was not limited by the availability of seeds and was probably caused by drought. Lichen cover evidently suppresses recruitment in years favorable for recruitment, but variation in precipitation has an overriding effect. Fire suppression leads to increased lichen cover and reduced recruitment of herbs over long periods of time, but remnant larger gaps retain microsites that support.
28666Pastore A.I., Prather C.M., Gornish E.S., Ryan W.H., Ellis R.D. & Miller T.E. (2014): Testing the competition—colonization trade-off with a 32-year study of a saxicolous lichen community. - Ecology, 95(2): 306–315.
Competition-colonization trade-offs are theorized to be a mechanism of coexistence in communities structured by environmental fluctuations. But many studies that have tested for the trade-off have failed to detect it, likely because a spatiotemporally structured environment and many species assemblages are needed to adequately test for a competition-colonization trade-off. Here, we present a unique 32-year study of rock-dwelling lichens in New Mexico, USA, in which photographs were used to quantify lichen life history traits and interactions through time. These data allowed us to determine whether there were any trade-offs between traits associated with colonization and competition, as well as the relationship between diversity and disturbance in the community. We did not find evidence for a trade-off between competitive ability and colonization rate or any related life history traits. Interestingly, we did find a peak in all measures of species diversity at intermediate levels of disturbance, consistent with the intermediate disturbance hypothesis pattern. We suggest that the coexistence of the dominant species in this system is regulated by differences in persistence and growth rate mediating overgrowth competition rather than a competition-colonization trade-off. Key words: coexistence; disturbance; diversity; Hill's diversity index; intermediate disturbance hypothesis ; life history trade-off.
28665Jasinski J.P.P. & Payette S. (2005): The creation of alternative stable states in the southern boreal forest, Québec, Canada. - Ecological Monographs, 75(4): 561–583.
The southernmost spruce-lichen woodlands in the Parc des Grands-Jardins, Qu6bec, Canada, are situated 500 km south of their usual range in the northern lichen woodland zone. Their co-occurrence within a spruce-moss forest matrix suggests the existence of alternative stable states. We investigate the possibility of these spruce-lichen woodlands as an alternative stable state along with the factors contributing to their origin and spatiotemporal distribution. Analysis of plant macrofossils, charcoal, head capsules of defoliating insects, and pollen were used along with vegetation surveys to reconstruct the past and present disturbance dynamics along an east-west transect, corresponding to a precipitation and fire frequency gradient. At each site, spruce budworm head capsules were found preceding the charcoal layer delineating the shift to spruce-lichen woodland, demonstrating the compound disturbance (insect-fire) origin of the lichen woodlands. Moss forests previously occupied all lichen woodland sites, with the oldest record starting ca. 8300-9400 yr BP. A change to a higher fire frequency around 2500 yr BP was evident in the lichen woodland zone of the park. A lower fire frequency west of the lichen woodland zone likely is a result of orographic precipitation. While the spruce budworm affects the entire region, lichen woodlands are found exclusively within an increased fire frequency zone. Thus, it is the superimposition of these two disturbance factors that is responsible both for their creation and spatial distribution. Lichen woodland inception dates range between 580 and 1440 yr BP, demonstrating that these lichen woodlands have maintained their open structure with time and have not transformed into closed forests. Their persistence, along with their previous moss forest histories and current occurrence adjacent to closed moss forests, indicate that they are an alternative stable state to the spruce-moss forests and not a successional stage. In contrast to other examples of reported alternative stable states, this one is a result of natural disturbances inherent to the system and not anthropogenic impacts. Key words: alternative stable states; black spruce; compound disturbance; fire; lichen woodlands; macrofossils; Picea mariana; spruce budworm.
28664Zander R. [Showman R.E.] (1981): Lichen recovery follows air quality improvement. - BioScience, 31(11): 840–841.
A preview of a paper shown by the editor of the Bryologist - Richard Zander. A condensation of "Lichen Recolonization Following Air Quality Improvement" by Ray E. Showman, to be published in Vol. 84, No. 4 (Winter) issue of The Bryologist.
28663Rominger E.M., Robbins C.T. & Evans M.A. (1996): Winter foraging ecology of woodland caribou in Northeastern Washington. - Journal of Wildlife Management, 60(4): 719–728.
Key words: arboreal lichen, digestibility, endangered, foraging, intake rate, old-growth, nutrition, Rangifer tarandus caribou, winter, woodland caribou.
28662Klein D.R. (1987): Recovery patterns following overgrazing by reindeer on St. Matthew Island . - Journal of Range Management, 40(4): 336–338.
Heavy grazing by extremely high densities of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) on St. Matthew Island in the Bering Sea resulted in degradation of the lichen stands. Grasses, sedges, and other vascular plants initially increased in response to the removal of lichens under heavy grazing pressure by the reindeer. Twenty-two years following the crash die-off of the reindeer, mosses had invaded large portions of the ground area denuded of lichens, and lichens had recovered to only 10% of the standing crop of living lichen biomass occurring on adjacent Hall Island where there is no his tory of grazing. Lichen species dominating the recovering lichen stands on St. Matthew Island were those of relatively low preference as forage by reindeer in contrast to those in climax lichen stands. Key Words: overgrazing, reindeer, lichens, range recovery.
28661Raham R.G. (1978): Exploiting the Lichen Liaison. - American Biology Teacher, 40(8): 470–479.
28660Koerner R.M. (1980): The problem of lichen-free zones in Arctic Canada. - Arctic and Alpine Research, 12(1): 87–94 .
The origin of lichen-free areas in the High Arctic has been attributed to lichen-kill under permanent snowfields developed 300 yr ago during the Little Ice Age. There are inconsistencies in this hypothesis, particularly in regard to the manner of lichen-kill, the mechanism of dead lichen removal once the previously ice-covered ground is exposed again, the period when the lichen-kill occurred, and the form of lichen trimlines. An alternative hypothesis is suggested whereby lichen-free areas occur where seasonal snowfields persist for a much greater part of the summer than elsewhere. As a result the lichen growth season there is very short.
28659Pöykkö H., Bačkor M., Bencúrová E., Molcanová V., Bačkorová M. & Hyvärinen M. (2010): Host use of a specialist lichen-feeder: dealing with lichen secondary metabolites. - Oecologia, 164(2): 423–430 .
Host use by herbivores is largely determined by host properties such as nutrient content and chemical defence against foragers. The impacts of these attributes on a herbivore may largely depend on its life cycle stage. Lichen species are known to differ in nutritional quality and level of chemical defence and, consequently, vary as fodder for herbivores. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of several lichen species and the presence of their secondary metabolites on their use as hosts by a specialist lichen-feeder, Cleorodes lichenaria. This study also addressed, for the first time, how a specialist lichen-feeder deals with different lichen secondary metabolites. In the beginning of their development, larvae grew better on Xanthoria parietina than on the other host lichens, whereas older larvae grew best on Ramalina fraxinea. Lichen secondary chemicals in R. fraxinea and Parmelia sulcata hindered larval growth in the beginning but after 75 days lichen secondary chemicals had no impact on the mass of larvae. Physodic acids in Hypogymnia physodes were lethal to larvae. In general, larvae metabolized 70-95% of ingested lichen secondary chemicals and the rest of these were excreted in frass. Lichen secondary metabolites in P. sulcata restrict and in H. physodes prevent their use as a host for C. lichenaria larvae. Our main finding, the ability of larvae to metabolize several lichen secondary metabolites, indicates digestive adaptation to these chemicals. No signs of sequestration of these chemicals were found. Keywords: Evolution of host use • Lichen • Metabolize • Secondary chemical • Sequester.
28658Pedashenko H., Apostolova I., Boch S., Ganeva A., Janišová M., Sopotlieva D., Todorova S., Ünal A., Vassilev K., Velev N. & Dengler J. (2013): Dry grasslands of NW Bulgarian mountains: first insights into diversity, ecology and syntaxonomy. - Tuexenia, 33: 309–346.
We present the data of the 3rd research expedition of the European Dry Grasslands Group (EDGG), which was conducted in 2011 in two contrasting areas in NW Bulgarian mountains. The aim was to collect plot data for comparing Bulgarian dry grasslands with those of other parts of Europe in terms of syntaxonomy and biodiversity. We sampled 15 nested-plot series (0.0001–100 m²) and 68 normal plots (10 m²) covering the full variety of dry grassland types occurring in the Vratsa area (Balkan Mts.) and the Koprivshtitsa area (Sredna Gora Mt.). In the plots all vascular plants, terricolous non-vascular plants and a set of soil and other environmental parameters were determined. By applying modified TWIN-SPAN, we distinguished 10 floristically well characterised vegetation types at the association level. After comparison with the regional and European literature, we propose to place them within three classes and five orders: Festuco-Brometea with the orders Stipo pulcherrimae-Festucetalia pallentis (xerophilous dry grasslands of base-rich rocks; alliance Saturejion montanae), Brachypodietalia pinnati (meso-xeric, basiphilous grasslands; alliances Cirsio-Brachypodion pinnati and Chyrsopogono grylli-Danthonion calycinae), Calluno-Ulicetea with the order Nardetalia stricae (lowland to montane Nar-dus swards; alliance Violion caninae), and Koelerio-Corynephoretea with the orders Sedo-Scleranthetalia (open communities of skeleton-rich, acidic soils; alliance unclear) and Trifolio arvensis-Festucetalia ovinae (closed, meso-xeric, acidophilous grasslands; alliance Armerio rumelicae-Potentillion). The Violion caninae with the association Festuco rubrae-Genistelletum sagittalis is reported from Bulgaria for the first time, while the two occurring Koelerio-Corynephoretea communi-ties are described as new associations (Cetrario aculeatae-Plantaginetum radicatae, Plantagini radica-tae-Agrostietum capillaris). According to DCA the main floristic gradient was largely determined by soil conditions, differentiating the Festuco-Brometea communities on soils with high pH and high humus content from the Koelerio-Corynephoretea communities on acidic, humus-poor soils, while the Calluno-Ulicetea stands are the connecting link. At 10 m² Festuco-Brometea and Calluno-Ulicetea stands were richer in species across all investigated taxa and in vascular plants than Koelerio-Corynephoretea stands; the latter were richest in lichen species, while bryophyte richness did not differ significantly among syntaxa. Among the Bulgarian classes, the species-area relationships tended to be steepest in the Festuco-Brometea (i.e. highest beta diversity), but both alpha and beta diversity clearly fell behind the Festuco-Brometea communities in the Transylvanian Plateau, Romania, located less than 500 km north of the study region. Overall, our study contributes to a more adequate placement of the Bulgarian dry grasslands in the European syntaxonomic system and provides valuable data for large-scale analyses of biodiversity patterns. Keywords: bryophyte, Calluno-Ulicetea, conservation, European Dry Grassland Group (EDGG), Festuco-Brometea, high nature value grassland, Koelerio-Corynephoretea, lichen, nomenclatural revi-sion, species richness, vascular plant, vegetation classification.
28657Wolff C., Gilhaus K., Hölzel N. & Schneider S. (2017): Status and restoration potential of heathlands and sand grasslands in the southwest of Luxembourg. - Tuexenia, 37: 179–200.
In Europe, semi-natural nutrient-poor ecosystems such as sand grasslands and heathlands have shown extreme declines in surface area and species richness within the last century. The remaining sites are hence of high conservation value. This study analysed the vascular plant species inventory of established and recently restored heathlands and sand grasslands in the southwest of Luxembourg. Analyses to explain differences in vegetation composition between “old” (remnant sites or sites restored a long time ago) and “new” (recently restored) sites in relation to environmental variables were carried out with DCAs and ANOVA/Mann-Whitney-U tests, respectively. The vegetation of old heathlands had few character species of typical heathland communities (Calluno-Ulicetea, Nardetalia), whereas new heathland sites were preponderantly marked by taxa of meso- or eutrophic grasslands and ruderal communities. New heathland sites mainly differed from old sites by higher soil phosphorus contents. Sand grassland vegetation was species-rich and composed by species of the Sedo-Scleranthetea and Festuco- Brometea. With increasing age of the sites, vegetation composition shifted to grass dominance with species of the Molinio-Arrhenateretea. New sand grasslands differed from old sand grasslands by higher soil pH, higher soil potassium content and lower graminoid cover. The differences between new and old sites of both habitat types could mainly be explained by successional processes or were a result of topsoil removal. In some cases, former anthropogenic impact at or in close proximity of restored sites resulted in unsuitable conditions, such as alkaline soil on former landfill sites or highly eutrophic soil due to intensive agriculture. Future management options for the study sites are discussed. Keywords: Calluna vulgaris, Calluno-Ulicetea, conservation, habitat management, Sedo-Scleranthetea, topsoil removal.
28656Hüllbusch E., Brandt L.M., Ende P. & Dengler J. (2016): Little vegetation change during two decades in a dry grassland complex in the Biosphere Reserve Schorfheide-Chorin (NE Germany). - Tuexenia, 36: 395–412.
In many regions of Central Europe, semi-natural grasslands have experienced severe vegetation changes, e.g. compositional change and overall species loss, because of land use changes, atmospheric nitrogen input and also climate change. Here we analysed the vegetation change in a dry grassland complex (Gabower Hänge) in the Biosphere Reserve Schorfheide-Chorin (NE Brandenburg, Germany), one of the driest regions of the country. We resampled four 10 m² plots of each of four typical alliances (Festucion valesiacae, Koelerion glaucae, Armerion elongatae, Arrhenatherion elatioris) about 20 years after their original sampling with a recovery accuracy of approx. 10 m. The cover of vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens was recorded in both samplings. The overall compositional change was analysed with a detrended correpondence analysis (DCA). To interpret this change, we calculated unweighted mean Ellenberg indicator values for old and new plots. Furthermore we tested differences in constancy of individual species between old and new plots as well as differences in species richness, cover of herb and cryptogam layer, ecological indicator values and unweighted proportion of species groups (vascular plants, bryophytes, lichens), floristic status (native or not), life forms, CSR-strategy types and Red List species. The results of the ordination indicated no significant vegetation change, but revealed tendencies towards more nutrient-rich conditions. Ellenberg indicator values for nutrients and soil reaction were significantly correlated with the axes of the ordination. There were 28 species exclu-sively found in the new plots and 45 species of the old plots missing. While no species decreased signif-icantly, there were seven species that increased significantly. Mean species richness was significantly increased in the new plots. There were no significant differences in mean Ellenberg indicator values. Proportions of vascular plants, neophytes, hemicryptophytes and CS-strategists decreased. We conclude that overall vegetation changes are small, indicating that the dry grassland complex at the Gabower Hänge is still in a good state and of high conservation value. This relative stability over time compared to the situation in many other dry grasslands throughout temperate Europe is likely attributable to low nitrogen deposition and the dryness of the local climate. However, the detected tendency towards more nutrient-rich conditions should be taken into account in future management. Keywords: Armerion elongatae, Arrhenatherion elatioris, CSR-strategy, Ellenberg indicator value, Festucion valesiacae, Koelerion glaucae, re-visitation study, semi-permanent plot, species richness, vegetation dynamics.
28655Kuzemko A.A., Becker T., Didukh Y.P., Ardelean. I.V., Becker U., Beldean M., Dolnik C., Jeschke M., Naqinezhad A., Uğurlu E., Ünal A., Vassilev K., Vorona E.I., Yavorska O.H. & Dengler J. (2014): Dry grassland vegetation of Central Podolia (Ukraine) – a preliminary overview of its syntaxonomy, ecology and biodiversity. - Tuexenia, 34: 391–430.
We present the data of the 2nd research expedition of the European Dry Grassland Group (EDGG), which was conducted in 2010 in Central Podolia, Ukraine. The aim was to collect plot data to compare Ukrainian dry grasslands with those of other parts of Europe in terms of syntaxonomy and biodiversity. We sampled 21 nested-plot series (0.0001–100 m²) and 184 normal plots (10 m²) covering the full variety of dry grassland types occurring in the study region. For all plots, we recorded species composition of terrestrial vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens, while for the 226 10-m² plots we estimated and measured percentage cover of all species, structural, topographic, soil and landuse parameters. The 10-m² plots were used for phytosociological classification based on iteratively refined TWINSPAN classification as well as for DCA ordination. Differences between the derived vegetation types with respect to environmental conditions and species richness were assessed with ANOVAs. We assigned our plots to nine association-level units but refrained from placing them into formal associations with two exceptions. In the study area, dry grasslands of the Festuco-Brometea were far more common than those of the Koelerio-Corynephoretea. Among the Festuco-Brometea, xeric Festucetalia valesiacae grasslands were more frequent and represented by the Festucion valesiacae (2 associations, including the Allio taurici-Dichanthietum ischaemi ass. nova) and the Stipion lessingianae (1) compared to the Brachypodietalia pinnati with the Agrostio vinealis-Avenulion schellianae (3). The Koelerio- Corynephoretea were represented by three associations, each from a different order and alliance: basiphilous outcrops (Alysso alyssoidis-Sedetalia: Alysso alyssoidis-Sedion?), acidophilous outcrops (Sedo-Scleranthetalia: Veronico dillenii-Sedion albi?) and mesoxeric sandy grasslands (Trifolio arvensis- Festucetalia ovinae: Agrostion vinealis). We discuss the issue of the mesoxeric order Galietalia veri placed within the Molinio-Arrhenatheretea by Ukrainian authors and conclude that the content of that order would probably be better placed in the mesoxeric orders of the Koelerio-Corynephoretea and Festuco-Brometea. Other syntaxonomic questions could not be solved with our geographically limited dataset and await a supraregional analysis, e.g. whether the Ukrainian outcrop communities should be assigned to the same alliances as known from Central Europe or rather represent new vicariant units. The analysis of the biodiversity patterns showed that at a grain size of 10 m², Podolian Koelerio- Corynephoretea communities were overall richer than Festuco-Brometea communities (46.4 vs. 40.6 species). This difference was due to the Koelerio-Corynephoretea containing twice as many bryophytes and nine times more lichens, while vascular plant species richness did not differ significantly between classes. The orders within the classes showed no real differences in species richness. The richness patterns observed in Podolia were almost the opposite of those usually found in dry grasslands, where Brachypodietalia pinnati are richer than Festucetalia valesiacae, and these richer than stands of the Koelerio-Corynpehoretea – and we do not have a good explanation for these idiosyncrasies. In conclusion, Podolian dry grasslands behave quite unexpectedly regarding biodiversity, and their syntaxonomy is still poorly understood. These knowledge gaps can only be addressed with supra-national analyses based on comprehensive datasets. Keywords: bryophyte, conservation, European Dry Grassland Group, Festuco-Brometea, Galietalia veri, Koelerio-Corynephoretea, lichen, nomenclatural revision, species richness, vegetation classification
28654Fischer A., Michler B., Fischer H.S., Brunner G., Hösch S., Schultes A. & Titze P. (2015): Flechtenreiche Kiefernwälder in Bayern: Entwicklung und Zukunft [Central European lichen pine forests in Bavaria: historical development and future]. - Tuexenia, 35: 9–29.
During the past centuries Central European lichen pine forests were wide spread in Bavaria mainly on sandy acidic soils, especially around the city of Nürnberg and in the mountain ranges in the east of Bavaria. Because this forest type is considered to be endangered we asked the following questions: (1) Did the species composition of this forest type change during the past decades and if yes, how? (2) Did the area covered by this forest type decrease in the past decades? (3) What are the main drivers of a change and what are the appropriate measures to protect this forest type in the future? We collected 2,363 historic phytosociological relevés of pine-dominated forest stands from Bavaria. Using multivariate statistics we filtered 216 relevés which represent the lichen pine forests as they had been described between mid and end of the 20th century. This set of relevés now may be used as a benchmark of the floristic quality of this forest type. 30 terricolous lichen species are represented in this set of relevés, most of them belonging to the genus Cladonia. Cover degree of lichens ranged from 0.1 to 81%; in 50% of the relevés lichen cover was larger than 18%, in 25% larger than 38%. Thus the scientific name “Cladonio-Pinetum”, used for this forest type, was really meaningful at that time. We were able to exactly identify the localities of 85 historic relevés from the time period 1980 to 1996 and to re-collect relevés there. Cover degree of lichens decreased strongly, while cover degree of bryophytes increased strongly. All these stands can no longer be called “Cladonio-Pinetum”. This holds true for managed forests as well as for forests without any forest management since 1993 (“Natur-waldreservat”). In a certain area close to the city of Nürnberg the area covered with this forest type decreased by about 90%. The study shows that lichen-rich pine forests in Bavaria are severely retreating. The main reasons are the abandonment of the former litter (and lichen) collection (dropped N-export) and strong N-import via the atmosphere. Without adapted protection management also the last patches of this forest type will disappear soon, regardless of whether used by forestry or not. Re-introduction of litter raking (nutrient export) is the one. While in the past many lichens were growing around the cleared places and were able to recolonize such places soon, these lichens nowadays usually are rare or even missing. Therefore, on the litter raking places the remaining few lichens nowadays have to be collected before extraction procedure, dried, ground up and “seeded” on the newly open sandy places. Keywords: Central European lichen pine forests, Cladonio-Pinetum, conservation, endangerment.
28653Günzl B. (2005): Erdflechtengesellschaften der Klasse Ceratodonto-Polytrichetea piliferi in Nordhessen - aktuelle Erfassung und Gliederung. - Tuexenia, 25: 317–339.
Lichen communities of the class Ceratodonto-Polytrichetea piliferi in North Hesse - a current inventory and floristic differentiation. Terricolous lichen communities on more or less acidic soils in northern Hesse (Germany) belong to order Peltigeretalia of the class Ceratodonto-Polytrichetea piliferi. Three alliances of this class can be differentiated. - The Baeomycion rosei includes pioneer communities that occur on open sites, such as heathlands cleared by hoeing. - Communities of reindeer lichens (e.g. Cladonia arbúsculo) and other fruticose species belong to the alliance Cladonion arbusculae. They occur in heathlands, woodlands or on volcanic rocks and represent the terminal stages of lichen succession. Some communities of this alliance are also dominated by subulate Cladonias with soredia. This vegetation type constitutes successio- nal stages of intermediate character. - The alliance Cladonion rei is typical for ruderal sites, such as around mines. Its communities are also dominated by subulate and sorediate Cladonias. Most of the lichen communities are rare both in northern Hesse as well as in the whole of Germany. This underlines the necessity to provide special protection to terricolous lichen vegetation. Suitable protective measures are specified. Keywords: Terricolous lichen communities, lichen conservation, succession, classification, Peltigeretalia, Germany.
28652Weckesser M. (2004): Stammepiphyten in einem Karpatenbirken-Fichten-Moorwald im Hochharz. - Tuexenia, 24: 207–213.
Epiphytes in a peat woodland of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Carpathian birch (Betula pubescens subsp. carpatica) in the Harz Mountains. Studies on epiphytic vegetation were carried out on a site of 1 ha in a mixed forest of norway spruce (Picea abies) and Carpathian birch (Betula pubescens subsp. carpatica). The study site is situated in the Harz Mountains at the eastern slope of mount Bruchberg in an altitude of 900 m. On the study site 35 epiphytic species were recorded. The epiphytic flora is dominated by lichens and contains such remarkable species as Mycoblastus sanguinarius, Hypogymnia farinacea and Parmeliopsis hyperopta. The community of epiphytes on spruce is described as Lecanoretum pytireae whereas on birch the Parmelietum furfuraceae dominated. Keywords: Carpathian birch, epiphytic lichens, forest nature reserves, Harz Mountains, Norway spruce.
28651Günzl B. (2001): Die Bunte-Erdflechten-Gesellschaft (Toninio-Psoretum decipientis Stodiek 1937) in Nordhessen - aktuelle Erfassung und Gliederung. - Tuexenia, 21: 179–191.
The lichen community Toninio-Psoretum decipientis in North Hessen - current inventory and floristic differentiation. Described are epigeous liehen communities of limestone grassland and rocks in North Hessen (Germany), with particular reference to the association Toninio-Psoretum decipientis, which at present occurs only rarely in the area. Two subassociations of the Toninio-Psoretum decipientis can be differentiated. The typical subassociation occurs very seldom and can mostly be found on soils over gypsum. The Pel tigera subassociation is richer in species and colonizes soils on gypsum as well as dolomite. The succession of the epigeous lichen communities can be determined from the arrangement of vegetation units in a table. The vegetation units range from pioneer communities to degeneration stages. Keywords: Epigeous lichen communities, North Hessen (Germany), succession, Toninio-Psoretum decipientis.
28650Roscher C. & Heinrich W. (2001): Die Halbtrockenrasen der Orlasenke (Thüringen) unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Sesleria albicans -reichen Ausbildungen. - Tuexenia, 21: 113–121.
The limestone grasslands of the Orlasenke (Thuringia) with special consideration of communities with Sesleria albicans. The limestone grasslands of the Zechstein area in the depression of the river Orla (Orlasenke, eastern Thuringia) are mentioned repeatedly in the literature for their floristic composition and importance for conservation. So far a detailed description of the vegetation units is missing. In the present study the limestone grasslands are characterised using 168 vegetation releves. No assignments are made at the association level. An A c i n o s a r v e n s i s - M e s o b r o m i o n community is to be discriminated from a Trifolium p r a t e n s e - M e s o b r o m i o n community, in which two subunits are distinguished, one with Sesleria albicans and one with A r r h e n a t h e r u m e l a ti u s . A comparison of limestone grasslands rich in Sesleria albicans , for various landscape units, is made using releves by other authors. This shows the regional differences. The Sesleria albicans grassland of the Orlasenke is only a particular form within the E u - M e s o b r o m i o n , which has already been described several times from other regions. Keywords: M e s o b r o m i o n , Sesleria albicans , Orlasenke, Thuringia, regional comparison. Various macrolichens listed from the relevés.
28649Hemp A. (2001): Die Dolomitsand-Trockenrasen (Helichryso-Festucetum) der Frankenalb . - Tuexenia, 21: 91–112.
Xerotherm grassland on dolomite sands {Helichryso-Festucetum) in the Frankenalb The floristic composition of the Helichryso-Festucetum and its most important adjacent plant communities is described, based on 277 vegetation relevés. The Helichryso-Festucetum possesses one character species ( O r o b a n c h e c o e r u l e s c e n s ), which is restricted in Germany to the northern Frankenalb, and several regional character species. Therefore, delimitation from the Pulsatillo-Caricetum as a distinct association is possible. While the Helichryso-Festucetum is restricted to dolomite sands, the Pulsatillo Caricetum was found on steeper loamy slopes in deeply incised valleys near rocks. The Helichryso-Festucetum is divided into four sub-communities: The sub-association with Alyssum alyssoides has a high share of therophytes. Species-poor initial stages on freshly disturbed sites with loose syrozem belong to this community. The typical sub-association grows on thin, sandy brown soils and rendzinas. Stands with Poa angustifolia are degraded stages of the Helichryso-Festucetum. In addition, two geographical vicariants can be distinguished: a vicariant in the Wiesentalb with Festuca rupicola and Asperula cynanchica and a vicariant in the Pegnitzalb, in which F e s t u c a r u p i c o l a is displaced by a Festuca ovina microspecies not yet identified. Based on distribution maps, it is shown that the Helichryso-Festucetum is restricted to the northern Frankenalb, especially to the lower dolomitic areas of the Pegnitzalb and adjacent parts of the Wiesentalb. This is due to the special geology of this part of the Frankenalb. Helichryso-Festucetum is habitat of a specific fauna as well. It possesses a typical grasshopper coenosis with two character species that are restricted in the Dolomitkuppenalb to this plant Community: Psophus stridulus and S t e n o b o t h r u s n i g r o m a c u l a t u s . Because the Helichryso-Festucetum covers only small areas and directly borders agrarian areas in most cases, it needs special protection for its partly highly endangered flora and fauna. Keywords: H e li c h r y s o - F e s t u c e t u m , P u l s a till o - C a r i c e t u m h u m ili s , X e r o h r o m i o n , dolomite, Frankenalb. Cladonia and Peltigera species listed from réléves (det. H.Döring, O.Vitikainen, and respectively).
28648Walentowski H. (1993): Der Vegetationskomplex des Basalt-Blockmeeres am Südosthang des Bauersberges bei Bischofsheim (Lange Rhön, Bayern). - Tuexenia, 13: 257–281.
The southern slope of the, basaltic “Bauersberg” in the montane belt of the “Lange Rhön” is analysed for its flora and vegetation, especially on extensive rocky places with extreme conditions for plant life. These show a typical pattern of vegetation distribution, even in comparison with other regions. Because of the isolation in the landscape of open rocky places, they both offer a refuge for glacial relicts and pose a genetic requirement for the evolution of endemic organisms. Communities of epilithic lichens grow mostly on the rocks in the centre of the rubble slope of the “Bauersberg”. Each rock shows a typical pattern of lichen communities: the Lecideetum lithophilae grows on horizontal surfaces, the Lecanoretum sordidae on vertical surfaces and the Lecideetum lucidae on the undersides, protected from rainfall. Communities of epilithic mosses grow mostly in more humid, shaded margins. Their vegetation pattern is related to the different conditions along the slope: In the centre grow only the small cushions of the Grimmietum ovatae; if it is a little more humid, it is replaced by the Andreetum petrophilae. Extensive blankets of the Rhacomitrietum lanuginosi grow in the clearly more humid area at the base slope. The most shaded epilithic habitats are, finally, occupied by blankets of the Grimmietum hartmanii and the Isothecietum myuri. Communities of phanerogams avoid the centre of the rubble slope, except the Asplenietum septentrionalis and some shrub and tree “islands“ with Sambuco-Salicion and Corylus avellana-communities and the Querco-Tilietum platyphylli. On sunny margins the Hieracium sylvaticum-community grows in front of a fragmentar Betulo-Quercetum petraeae. On shady margins the Epilobio-Geranietum robertiani grows, with Cynoglossum germanicum as a small belt in front of the zonal beechwood (Galio odorati-Fage turn with Dentaria bulbifera).
28647Schmidt M. (1994): Kalkmagerrasen- und Felsband-Gesellschaften im mittleren Werratal. - Tuexenia, 14: 113–137.
The vegetation of limestone grassland and rock-ledge swards is described in the middle part of the Werra-valley (Thuringia). Sesleria varia screes (Seslerio-Xerobromenion, Seslerio-Mesobromenion) appear mostly on steep, primarily forest-free areas. Their different floristical composition depends on height, dynamical processes and depth of the soils. The Gentiano-Koelerietum (Eu-Mesobromenion), which replaces former woodland, has been arisen through grazing. It is divided into three subassociations according to edaphic factors. Festucion pallentis communities grow on south-facing ledges of steep rocks in contact with these limestone grasslands. Several taxa of lichens (Cladonia pocillum, C. pyxidata, C. rangiformis, C. furcata ssp. subrangiformis, C. symphycarpa, Peltigera rufescens, Fulgensia fulgens, Toninia caeruleonicricans auct.) listed from the phytosociological relevés.
28646Spranger E. & Türk W. (1993): Die Halbtrockenrasen (Mesobromion erecti Br.-Bl. et Moor 1938) der Muschelkalkstandorte NW-Oberfrankens im Rahmen ihrer Kontakt- und Folgegesellschaften. - Tuexenia, 13: 203–245.
The vegetation in the areas of "Muschelkalk” (limestone) in the nothernwest parts of Oberfranken (Northern Bavaria) is described phytosociologically and documented with maps. Numerous lichens listed from the relevés.
28645Türk W. (1994): Das „Höllental“ im Frankenwald - Flora und Vegetation eines floristisch bemerkenswerten Mittelgebirgstales. - Tuexenia, 14: 17–52.
"unter Mitarbeit von Werner Gräsle, Lydia Knaus (Kiel) und Erich Spranger (Bayreuth)". This paper summerizes studies about flora (vascular plants, mosses, lichens) and vegetation of the “Hollental” in the north of the Frankenwald Mts. The valley bottom and the slopes are dominated by montane species and vegetation units. Remarkable is the steep, south-exposed “central xerothermic vegetation complex” in the middle of the valley. It is characterized on the one hand by a great number of helio- philic species with a southern or a southeastern distribution, on the other hand by boreal species. Both groups can be considered relicts of the Early and Middle Holocene before beech became the dominant tree in Central Europe.
28644Günzl B. (1999): Einfluß von Nutzung und Struktur der Fichtenwälder des Hochharzes auf die epiphytische Flechtenflora. - Tuexenia, 19: 127–151.
Influence of forestry and structure on the epiphytic lichen flora in spruce forests in the „Hochharz“. The object of this study is the epiphytic lichen flora occurring in spruce forests of varied structure in the „Hochharz“. The following forest types are compared: uniform forests of one age class, selectively logged forests of a more varied structure, and verticaly-structured forests not used for a longer period of time. There are rather small differences in the number of species. Many lichen species of this area, however, show clear differences in average cover in the examined structural types. The most suitable structure type for epiphytic lichens is the forest not used for forestry. Because of the highly varied structure, they show the greatest diversity of habitats and therefore the greatest variety of lichen species. To complete this study, the epiphytic lichen communities of the regions are introduced. In addition to this, information is given on how the location of the epiphytic lichens on the treetrunks (exposition and high above ground) influenced their growth. Keywords: Epiphytic lichen communities, epiphytic lichen flora, forest structure, spruce forest.
28643Litterski B. (1997): Zur Ausbreitung epiphytischer Flechtenarten in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. - Tuexenia, 17: 341–347.
Expansion of epiphytic lichens in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (Germany). Several lichen species have recently become more frequent and in some cases even extended their distribution. The spread of some hemerophilous lichens in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern are discussed. Anisomeridium nyssaegenum , Strangospora moriformis and Thellomma ocellatum are reported from Mecklenburg-Vorpommern for the first time. Keywords: lichens, dispersal, hemerophil, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.
28642Geringhoff H. & Daniëls F.J.A. (1998): Vegetationskundliche Untersuchungen zu Zwergstrauch-Heiden in Gebirgslagen der Tschechischen Republik. - Tuexenia, 18: 103–117.
Phytosociological investigations of dwarf-shrub heath communities in mountainous regions of the Czech Republic. This paper discusses the syntaxonomy and synecology of dwarf-shrub heath communities in the mountains of the Czech Republic, based on 96 releves. The wind-exposed Hieracium alpinum-Calluna vulgaris coenon occurs in the Krkonoše Mountains where it is mainly found in the uppermost regions in primary habitats. It is characterised by many arctic-alpine and high-montane species, and is classified within the Loiseleurio - Vaccinion ( Loiseleurio - Vaccinietea ). The other vegetation types, Arnico-Callunetum, Vaccinio-Callunetum, Aulacomnium palustre - Vaccinium uliginosum coenon and Oxycocco Callunetum, are mainly found on secondary sites and belong to the Vaccinion myrtilli ( Calluno-Ulicetea ). The Arnico-Callunetum is characterised by many Nardetalia species. Thus this association probably has developed from grassland communities, which were formerly used as pastures. The Vaccinio-Callunetum is found in different habitats, such as stony sites and along roadsides. Vaccinium species are dominant, on the stony sites and Calluna vulgaris along roadsides. The Aulacomnium palustre-Vaccinium uliginosum coenon occurs in habitats with stagnant or laterally moving soil water, in the Bohemian Forest and Krkonoše Mountains. The Oxycocco-Callunetum is characterised by Oxycocco-Sphagnetea species and occurs on turf in drained peatland in the Bohemian Forest and Erzgebirge Mountains. Keywords: Bryophytes, heathland, Lichens, Loiseleurio-Vaccinion , synecology, syntaxonomy, Vaccinion myrtilli. [Lichens from relevés identified by T. Ahti]
28641Hauck M. (1998): Die Flechtenflora der Gemeinde Amt Neuhaus (Nordost-Niedersachsen). - Tuexenia, 18: 451–461.
The lichen flora of the district of Amt Neuhaus (Northeastern Lower Saxony/Germany). After investigations about the lichen flora of the district of Harburg by ERNST et al. (1990) and FEUERER & ERNST (1993) results of a lichen mapping in a further area within the lowlands of Lower Saxony are presented. In the district of Amt Neuhaus, which is located in the Elbe valley in Northern Germany, a total of 148 lichen species and two lichenicolous fungi was recorded. The special importance of the sanddunes of the investigation area for epigeic lichens and of the woodland area Rens for epiphytes is emphasized. Keywords: lichen flora, grid mapping, Germany, Lower Saxony.
28640Snäll T., Johansson V., Jönsson M., Ortiz C., Hammar T., Caruso A., Svensson M. & Stendahl J. (2017): Transient trade-off between climate benefit and biodiversity loss of harvesting stumps for bioenergy. - Global Change Biology Bioenergy, 9: 1751–1763.
To replace fossil fuel and thereby mitigate climate change, harvesting of wood such as stumps for bioenergy will likely increase. Coarse deadwood is an important resource for biodiversity and stumps comprise the main part of the coarse deadwood in managed forests. We provide the first integrated analysis of the long-term climate and biodiversity impacts of a whole landscape. We simultaneously project climate and biodiversity impacts of harvesting stumps to substitute for fossil coal, assuming scenarios with different proportions of the landscape with stump harvest (10, 50, 80%) the coming 50 years. A life cycle approach was used to calculate future global temperature changes and future metapopulation changes in six epixylic lichens. Metapopulation dynamics were projected using colonization and extinction models based on times series data. Harvesting stumps from ≥50% of the clear-cut forest land benefits climate with a net global temperature reduction >0.5·10−9 K ha−1 after 50 years if assuming substitution of fossil coal. For all scenarios, using stump bioenergy leads to immediate (within 1 year) reductions in temperature of 50% compared to using fossil coal, increasing to 70% reduction after 50 years. However, large-scale stump harvest inflicted substantial metapopulation declines for five of six lichens. High stump harvest levels (≥50%) put common lichens at risk of becoming red-listed following the IUCN criteria. The net temperature reduction (cooling effect) from substituting fossil coal with stumps harvested for bioenergy increased over time, while lichen metapopulations stabilized at lower equilibria after two to three decades. This indicates that trade-offs between climate and metapopulations of commons species are transient, where climate benefits become more prevalent in the long term. As both objectives are important for meeting (inter-)national climate and biodiversity targets, integrated analyses such as this should be encouraged and urged to guide policymaking about large-scale implementation of stump harvest. Keywords: deadwood, epixylic lichens, harvest residues, life cycle assessment, metapopulation dynamics, net global temperature change.
28639Selbmann L., Onofri S., Coleine C., Buzzini P., Canini F. & Zucconi L. (2017): Effect of environmental parameters on biodiversity of the fungal component in lithic Antarctic communities. - Extremophiles, 21: 1069–1080.
A wide sampling of rocks, colonized by microbial epi–endolithic communities, was performed along an altitudinal gradient from sea level to 3600 m asl and sea distance from the coast to 100 km inland along the Victoria Land Coast, Antarctica. Seventy-two rock samples of different typology, representative of the entire survey, were selected and studied using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis to compare variation in fungal diversity according to environmental conditions along this altitudinal and sea distance transect. Lichenized fungi were largely predominant in all the samples studied and the biodiversity was heavily influenced even by minimal local variations. The n-MDS analysis showed that altitude and sea distance affect fungal biodiversity, while sandstone allows the communities to maintain high biodiversity indices. The Pareto-Lorenz curves indicate that all the communities analyzed are highly adapted to extreme conditions but scarcely resilient, so any external perturbation may have irreversible effects on these fragile ecosystems. Keywords: Antarctic · Climate change · DGGE · Endolithic communities · Fungi.
28638Cieśliński S. (2000): Białe Ługi Reserve: a refuge of the forest lichen flora of the Góry Świętokrzyskie Mountains. - Fragmenta Floristica et Geobotanica, 45: 485–492.
The study presents the state of lichen flora in the Białe Ługi peatbog reserve, with special attention to very rare and engendered lichens species of Poland persisting in the reserve. The reserve has been protected since 1959, and is a refuge of forest lichen flora. Keywords: lichens, relicts of primeval forest, Poland.
28637Kukwa M. (2000): Lepraria lesdainii, a lichen species new to Poland. - Fragmenta Floristica et Geobotanica, 45: 534–536.
28636Kukwa M. (2000): Some new and noteworthy lichenicolous fungi to Ukraine. - Fragmenta Floristica et Geobotanica, 45: 532–534.
28635Jando K., Kowalewska A. & Kukwa M. (2000): The first records of two lichenicolous fungi, Lichenoconium pyxidatae and Taeniolella beschiana, in Poland. - Fragmenta Floristica et Geobotanica, 45: 529–532.
28634Matwiejuk A. (2008): Nowe stanowisko Rhizocarpon geographicum (Rhizocarpaceae) w Polsce północnowschodniej [A new locality of Rhizocarpon geographicum (Rhizocarpaceae) in NE Poland]. - Fragmenta Floristica et Geobotanica Polonica, 15(2): 345–347.
Rhizocarpon geographicum (L.) DC. is a very rare species in lowland Poland. In 2006, this species was found in Boćki (NE Poland), in cemetery on the stone gravestone. This is the fourteenth locality of this species in Norh-Eastern Poland.
28633Krzewicka B. (2004): Porosty Hali Gąsienicowej w Tatrach Wysokich. Część I. [Lichens of the Hala Gąsienicowa alpine meadow in the High Tatra Mountains. Part I]. - Fragmenta Floristica et Geobotanica Polonica, 11: 365–370.
The paper contains a list of 71 lichen species, with their updated localities, from the area of the High Tatra Mountains on Hala Gąsienicowa alpine meadow. Umbilicaria lyngei was reported as a new from Central Europe. Brodoa atrofusca, Lepraria elobata and Placynthiella dasaea were recorded in the Polish Tatra Mts for the first time. Key words: lichens, distribution, Polish Tatra Mts.
28632Węgrzyn M. (2004): Porosty epifityczne, epiksyliczne i epigeiczne piętra kosodrzewiny na Babiej Górze. [The epiphytic, epixylic and terricolous lichens in the dwarf pine belt in the Babia Góra massif]. - Fragmenta Floristica et Geobotanica Polonica, 11: 355–363.
The paper contains a list of 69 lichens species, with their updated localities, which were found by the author in the dwarf pine belt in the Babia Góra Mt. in years: 1998–2001. Among the listed species, 20 are new to the Babia Góra Mt. The list contains 15 endangered species included in the “red list of endangered lichens in Poland”. Key words: lichens, distribution, Babia Góra Mt., West Carpathians, Poland.
28631Śliwa L. & Krzewicka B. (2004): Porosty rezerwatu Bukowiec (Pogórze Wiśnickie). [Lichens of the Bukowiec Nature Reserve (Pogórze Wiśnickie Foothills)]. - Fragmenta Floristica et Geobotanica Polonica, 11: 171–175.
Lichenological characteristics of the Bukowiec Nature Reserve is presented. There were 33 taxa of lichens found in the reserve and in its close surroundings. These are mostly the species resistant to air pollution, which are currently spreading up, e.g. Hypocenomyce caradocensis, H. scalaris, Lecanora conizaeoides, Pseudosagedia aenea, Scoliciosporum chlorococcum. The most interesting species occurring in the studied area are: Chaenotheca xyloxena, Dimerella pineti, Micarea misella, Lepraria elobata, Placynthiella dasaea, Trapelia involuta, and Trapeliopsis viridescens. KEY WORDS: lichens, Bukowiec Nature Reserve, Pogórze Wiśnickie Foothill, S Poland.
28630Węgrzyn M. (2002): Nowe stanowiska Fellhanera subtilis (Pilocarpaceae, Lichenes) na południu Polski [New records of Fellhanera subtilis (Pilocarpaceae, Lichenes) in southern Poland]. - Fragmenta Floristica et Geobotanica Polonica, 9: 388–389.
During research of lichens in the Babia Góra massif a new localities of Fellhanera subtilis (Ve ˇzda) Dieder. & Sérus occurring on Vaccinium myrtillus branches were found. In Poland the species was till now recorded from northern part of the country (Słowin´ski National Park, Tuchola Forest) and from the Gorce Mts (Western Carpathians).
28629Kolanko K. & Matwiejuk A. (2001): Porosty Królowego Mostu i jego okolic w Puszczy Knyszyńskiej [Lichens of Królowy Most and its environs in Puszcza Knyszyńska Forest (north-eastern Poland)]. - Fragmenta Floristica et Geobotanica Polonica, 8: 237–244.
A list of 97 lichen taxa collected in Królowy Most and its environs in the Knyszyńska Puszcza Forest in north eastern Poland is presented. 17 species are considered to be threatened in Poland. Keywords: lichens, floristics, Knyszyńska Forest, Poland.
28628Krzewicka B. (2000): Wyginięcie rzadkiego gatunku porostu Lasallia pustulata w rezerwacie “Prządki” koło Krosna (Pogórze Dynowskie) [Extinction of rare lichen species Lasallia pustulata in “Prządki” nature reserve near Krosno (Dynowskie Upland)]. - Fragmenta Floristica et Geobotanica Polonica, 7: 382–385.
Lasallia pustulata is rare species in Poland (it has been hitherto recorded from very few localities). The species has its eastern limit of distribution in the Sudety Mts. Unfortunately, its easternmost locality in “Prządki” nature reserve (Dynowskie Foreland – Pogórze Dynowskie) is at present extinct.
28627Kukwa M. (2000): Stanowiska Trapeliopsis pseudogranulosa (Trapeliaceae, Ascomycota lichenisati) na północy Polski [Localities of Trapeliopsis pseudogranulosa (Trapeliaceae, Ascomycota lichenisati) in northern Poland]. - Fragmenta Floristica et Geobotanica Polonica, 7: 380–382.
Up to now Trapeliopsis pseudogranulosa Coppins & P. James has been reported only in the South Poland. Four localities of that species were found in the lowlands (North Poland) during the field and herbarium researches. It occurred on soil in beech forests in shaded and humid situations. This species is probably more common, but it was overlooked in the field and mistaken with similar taxa (e.g. T. aeneofusca).
28626Kukwa M. (2000): Rodzaj Placynthiella (Trapeliaceae, Ascomycota lichenisati) w Polsce [The genus Placynthiella (Trapeliaceae, Ascomycota lichenisati) in Poland]. - Fragmenta Floristica et Geobotanica Polonica, 7: 299–304.
Up to now four species of the genus Placynthiella Elenkin were found in Poland. Key to all known species of the genus is given. Also descriptions of them are presented. Keywords: crustose lichens, Placynthiella, Poland.
28625Kukwa M. (2000): Porosty i grzyby naporostowe zachodniej cze˛s´ci Pojezierza Iławskiego (Polska północna) [Lichens and lichenicolous fungi of western part of the Pojezierze Iławskie Lakeland (north Poland)]. - Fragmenta Floristica et Geobotanica Polonica, 7: 281–297.
List of 252 lichen taxa is presented. About 70 of species are rare in northern Poland. Placynthiella dasaea and Micarea botryoides were reported as new to Polish lichenflora from the investigated area. Also 11 species of lichenicolous fungi were found. Keywords: lichens, lichenicolous fungi, distribution, Pojezierze Iławskie lakeland, Poland.
28624Kiszka J. (2000): Nowe dla Pienin gatunki porostów. Cz. II [New lichen species in the Pieniny Mts. Part II]. - Fragmenta Floristica et Geobotanica Polonica, 7: 277–279.
Nineteen species of lichen are reported for the first time from the Pieniny Mts in the Polish West Carpathians. The data on habitat for each species are provided. Keywords: Lichens, distribution, Pieniny Mts, West Carpathians, Poland.
28623Musielińska R. & Bąbelewska A. (2014): Nowe stanowisko Usnea hirta (Usneaceae) w środkowej Polsce [New locality of Usnea hirta (Usneaceae) in Central Poland]. - Fragmenta Floristica et Geobotanica Polonica, 21(1): 169–171.
28622Owczarek-Kościelniak M. (2017): Życie na skałach i jego konsekwencje [Life on rocks and its consequences]. - Fragmenta Floristica et Geobotanica Polonica, 24(1): 3–16.
[a review on lithobionts and biodeterioration; in Polish with English abstract:] Over the centuries stone has been one of the most popular raw materials, used for construction as well as for art. For years it was believed that the factors responsible for weakening and degradation of stone are mainly abiotic ones such as UV radiation, winter conditions and water. With increased interest in organisms inhabiting extreme habitats, more and more data have been gathered on a number of organisms capable of colonizing stone. Detailed research has yielded information on the true role that these rock-inhabiting organisms play in the transformation of stone material. The article reviews the development and functioning of bacteria, cyanobacteria, algae, lichenized and non-lichenized fungi, mosses and higher plants on rock, with special attention to building and decorative stone, together with detailed information on the deteriorative action that these organisms exert on the inhabited substrate. Key words: biodeterioration, bioleaching, biotransformation, lithobionts, stone.
28621Kubiak D., Biedunkiewicz A. & Balczun A. (2017): Diversity of lichens in forest communi- ties of the “Pupy” nature reserve in the Puszcza Piska Forest (ne Poland). - Polish Journal of Natural Sciences, 32(2): 297–310.
Thepaper presents theresults of lichenologicalresearch conductedinthe “Pupy”Forest Nature Reserve (NE Poland). The aim of the study was to investigate the species composition of lichens and todeterminethe roleand importanceof forestplant communitiestothe diversityofthese organisms. Field studies were carried out at sevenstudy sites (plots), each with an area of 0.1 ha. The plots were selected within the most typical and representative forest communities of the reserve. A total of 95 lichenspecies wereidentified. The studies have shown that natural forest communities,inparticular oak-linden-hornbeam forest and wet mixed spruce-oak forest are distinguished by a much higher diversity of lichens compared to secondary forest stands (pine and spruce monocultures). This is primarilyattributed to the presence of age-differentiatedpopulations of oak trees in these communities.The secondary forest stands do not provide the correct conditions for growth ofmany stenotopic forest lichens, despite the presence of diaspores of this species in its immediate surroundings. In order to protect the populations of valuable lichen species, associated in a particular way with oak trees, one should consider treatments aimed at securing the continuity of oak generations in the reserve. Key words: lichens, primary and secondary forests, old oaks, stenotopic species, Poland.
28620Kiszka J. & Szarek-Łukaszewska G. (2006): Porosty terenów po górnictwie cynkowo-ołowiowym w Bukownie koło Olkusza (Polska południowa) [Lichens on post-mining area in Bukowno near Olkusz (S. Poland)]. - Chrońmy Przyrodę Ojczystą Forum, 4 p..
28619Matwiejuk A. (2017): Lichens of Sokółka (Podlasie, north-eastern Poland). - Polish Journal of Natural Sciences, 32(1): 71–89.
The study presents the results of lichenological researches carried out in Sokółka town (Podlaskie voivodeship, north-eastern Poland). The investigations in the area of Sokółka were carried out in the years 2012–2013, on 50 research stands. In total, 76 species of lichens growing on natural and anthropogenic substrata have been recorded. The distributions of lichens in different urban lands are presented. Among them, protected species and lichens threatened in the country are distinguished. Key words: lichenized fungi, urban area, diversity, podlaskie voivodeship, Poland.
28618Matwiejuk A. & Bohdan A. (2014): New sites of Bryoria capillaris (Ach.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. (Ascolichenes, Parmeliaceae) in the Polish part of the Białowieża Forest. - Steciana, 18(3): 181–185.
The paper presents the results of the research on Bryoria capillaris (Ach.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. in the Polish part of the Białowieża Forest. Two new sites of this species have been found in the managed Białowieża Forest, in Władysław Szafer Reserve. Bryoria capillaris grows on the bark and small branches of Quercus robur and Picea abies. Key words: threatened, lichens, Białowieża Forest, Władysław Szafer Reserve, NE Poland.
28617Matwiejuk A. (2015): Lichens of the Supraśl town (Podlasie, north-eastern Poland). - Steciana, 19(3): 133–142.
A paper presents a list of 89 species found in Supraśl town (Podlasie, NE Poland). The investigations in the area of Supraśl were carried out in 2013–2014, on 41 research stands. Eighteen species are considered to be threatened in Poland. The lichens occur on all substrate types: soil, decaying wood, bark of all trees and shrubs species, boulders, concrete, foundation, mortar, plaster and bryophytes. Valuable components of the lichen biota belong mostly to the group of threatened species not only on the regional, but also on the national scale. There are: Anaptychia ciliaris, Pleurosticta acetabulum, Ramalina fastigiata and others. Key words: lichens, distribution, urban area, north-eastern Poland.
28616Matwiejuk A. & Chojnowska P. (2016): Lichens as indicators of air pollution in Łomża. - Steciana, 20(2): 63–72.
Research using lichens as bioindicators of air pollution has been conducted in the city of Łomża. The presence of indicator species of epiphytic and epilithic lichens has been analysed. A 4-point lichen scale has been developed for the test area, on the basis of which four lichenoindication zones have been determined. The least favourable conditions for lichen growth have been recorded in the city center. Green areas and open spaces are the areas with the most favourable impact of the urban environment on lichen biota. Key words: air pollution, biodiversity, lichens, urban environment.
28615Zaniewski P.T., Topolska K., Kozub Ł., Dembicz I. & Wierzbicka M. (2015): Rezerwat przyrody Puszcza Słupecka jako przykład młodego lasu o wysokim bogactwie gatunkowym porostów. - Studia i Materiały CEPL w Rogowie, 17(44): 84–95.
Puszcza Słupecka Nature Reserve as an example of young forest abundant in lichen species: Puszcza Słupecka Nature Reserve (160.56 ha) is located in a short distance from the capital city of Warsaw, in the Drewnica Forest District of State Forest. It was created in 1993 in order to maintain diverse forest communities. It is known for the presence of many species of vascular plants associated with old forests, despite the fact that its deforestation in the interwar period. Lichenological study in the reserve was conducted in 2010 and 2011. It has shown the occurrence of 99 lichens and lichenicolous fungi, including species rarely observed in Mazovia. It is a high number comparing to the other objects of the region. Such a high number of species is most likely affected by the fact that there are many forest microhabitats within many of forest communities present in the reserve, which originated in a substantial part in the conditions of spontaneous secondary succession. Keywords: Calicium adspersum, Chaenotheca stemonea, Chrysothrix candelaris, old forest indicator species, lichen biota, lichenicolous fungi.
28614Kukwa M. (2010): New and noteworthy species of Lepraria and Leproloma to Ukraine. - Fragmenta Floristica et Geobotanica, 45: 526–529.
28613Zahradníková M., Tønsberg T. & Andersen H. (2017): The taxonomy of the lichen Fuscidea cyathoides (Fuscideaceae, Umbilicariomycetidae, Ascomycota) in Europe. - Lichenologist, 49(6): 547–560.
Based on morphometric and molecular methods, the taxonomy of the infraspecific taxa of Fuscidea cyathoides (Ach.) V. Wirth & Vězda, var. corticola (Fr.) Kalb and var. sorediata (H. Magn.) Poelt, has been assessed. No formal taxonomic recognition should be attributed to the morphological and ecological variation. Accordingly, var. corticola and var. sorediata are synonymized with F. cyathoides var. cyathoides. New synonyms at the specific level are Fuscidea fagicola (Zschacke) Hafellner & Türk and F. stiriaca (A. Massal.) Hafellner. Fuscidea fagicola, Fuscidea stiriaca, infraspecific taxonomy, lichen varieties, molecular phylogeny, secondary chemistry
28612Nadyeina O., Zarabska-Bożejewicz D., Wiedmer A., Cornejo C. & Scheidegger C. (2017): Polymorphic fungus-specific microsatellite markers of Bactrospora dryina reveal multiple colonizations of trees. - Lichenologist, 49(6): 561–577.
Bactrospora dryina is an epiphytic lichen-forming fungus specifically related to old-growth floodplain forests, which have dramatically declined in Europe over the past centuries. In order to promote conservation management of such forest remnants, we aimed to study population genetics of this rare and threatened lichen. The newly developed 16 microsatellite markers are specific for the mycobiont of B. dryina and reliably amplify either single fruiting bodies or a sterile thallus. This allows the use of these markers for the identification of sterile crusts and for quantification of recent dispersal of the species into restored habitats. We tested the markers in 264 samples collected from 10 pedunculate oak trees growing in three localities in north-eastern Switzerland. All markers were polymorphic and showed two to five alleles per locus, and unbiased gene diversity varied from 0·06 to 0·71 over three populations. The relatively low number of alleles in B. dryina is possibly the consequence of colonization of secondary habitats created by forest management. Although oaks were largely covered with a single, continuous B. dryina colony, the microsatellite markers identified single or complex multi-genotype colonizations per tree. For future population genetic studies, we recommend collection of 5–15 specimens from one tree which would enable detection of 60–80% of the multilocus genotypes present. Hierarchical AMOVA revealed high variation (70%) on host trees, and a relatively high differentiation (12%) among the three locations in NE Switzerland indicated limited gene flow between those regions. Thus, the newly developed markers showed their applicability in population genetics at different spatial scales. They will play an important role in monitoring habitat restoration for the conservation of B. dryina and associated forests and riverscapes. Ascomycetes, epiphytic lichen, genetic differentiation, molecular species identification, rare species, Trentepohlia
28611Cornejo C., Derr C. & Dillman K. (2017): Ricasolia amplissima (Lobariaceae): one species, three genotypes and a new taxon from south-eastern Alaska . - Lichenologist, 49(6): 579–596.
The genetic diversity within the foliose form of Ricasolia amplissima from Europe and North America was studied using molecular phylogenetic analysis of the nuclear ITS and RPB2, and mitochondrial SSU. Boundaries between closely related species were also examined using morphological and chemical patterns. Four species of the recently reinstated lichen genus Ricasolia De Not. were phylogenetically verified which necessitated a new combination, Ricasolia japonica (Asah.) Cornejo. Analyses suggest that the generic type taxon R. amplissima (Scop.) De Not. belongs to a species complex that shows two evolutionary centres, one in Europe, North Africa, Asia Minor and the Macaronesian Islands, the other from north-western North America on exposed shores of mainly forested marine islands in south-eastern Alaska, where it shows strong habitat specificity. The Alaskan lineage is very similar to the European lineage but it differs by the lack of scrobiculin and other chemical substances. It is described here as R. amplissima subsp. sheiyi Derr & Dillman. ascomycetes, chemotypes, evolutionary significant unit, lichens, phylogenetic analysis, Ricasolia japonica
28610Aptroot A., Gumboski E.L. & Cáceres da Silva M.E. (2017): Ocean view: a first assessment of the littoral, crustose lichen biota of south Brazil. - Lichenologist, 49(6): 597–605.
The crustose lichen biota of coastal rocks in South Brazil was investigated. Several distinct lichen zones were found: a littoral black zone, a supralittoral yellow zone and a grey zone with species restricted to either exposed granite, dry overhangs, damp overhangs or places subjected to run-off. Dendrographa austrosorediata is newly described, with a crustose, flat to partly curling up or blister-like thallus which is much dissected, whitish grey, 0·1–0·2 mm thick; surface minutely densely cracked, rimose, with cracks intersecting at each c. 0·1 mm; soredia whitish to bluish grey but asymmetrically blackened in the direction facing the light, originating on the thallus surface, in initially discrete convex soralia. The phylogenetic position of this new species was traced by molecular methods. Stigmidium marinum, generally regarded as a lichenicolous fungus, was found as a free-living lichen, thousands of kilometres away from the nearest known occurrence of any purported host. Dendrographa, maritime, saxicolous, Stigmidium
28609Aptroot A. & Cáceres M.E.S. (2017): New Arthoniales from Amapá (Amazonian North Brazil) show unexpected relationships. - Lichenologist, 49(6): 607–615.
Recent field trips to Amapá and the adjacent states of Amazonas and Pará uncovered unknown lichen species with unexpected relationships. The following new species of Arthoniales are described, mainly from Amapá in North Brazil: Neosergipea hyphosa, a corticolous species with an olive-green thallus, central part verrucose, marginal zone of 5–10 mm wide consisting of procumbent branching rhizohyphae, surrounded by a pinkish brown hyphal prothallus c. 3 mm wide into which the rhizohyphae protrude, globose ascomata, c. 0·1 mm diam., arranged in stromatoid groups of 5–15, with hyaline walls, without ascospores; Neosergipea septoconidiata, a corticolous species with a bluish grey thallus and bright orange, mostly conical pycnidia with fluffy hyphal surface, hyaline conidia, 3–6-septate, filiform, 12–23×1·5–2·0μm, with rounded ends; Nyungwea pycnidiata, from a termite nest on a tree, with abundant pycnidia that are whitish, papillate, smooth, c. 0·1–0·2mm diam., c. 0·2–0·4mm high, at the base covered by thallus, and hyaline conidia that are simple, ellipsoid, 2·5–4·0×1·5–2·0μm; and Opegrapha ramisorediata, a corticolous species with a thallus with initially rounded soralia that soon cover the complete thallus with a layer of fine yellowish green branched soredia, and containing gyrophoric acid. Apothecia are not known from any of these species but sequencing elucidated their generic affiliation. The genera Neosergipea and Nyungwea were previously monotypic and Nyungwea was known only from Africa. Nyungwea anguinella (Nyl.) Aptroot comb. nov. is a further new species in the latter genus, and through these two extra species we now know about the morphology of the pycnidia and apothecia of Nyungwea, which were unknown in the type species (a sterile crust). Amazonas, corticolous, lichen, Neosergipea, Nyungwea, Opegrapha, Pará
28608Sheard J.W., Ezhkin A.K., Galanina I.A., Himelbrant D., Kuznetsova E., Shimizu A., Stepanchikova I., Thor G., Tønsberg T., Yakovchenko L. & Spribille T. (2017): The lichen genus Rinodina (Physciaceae, Caliciales) in north-eastern Asia. - Lichenologist, 49(6): 617–672.
Rinodina is a widespread, polyphyletic genus of crustose Physciaceae with c. 300 species worldwide. A major missing link in understanding its global biogeography has been eastern Asia where the genus has never been systematically revised. Here we review specimen and literature records for Rinodina for north-eastern Asia (Russian Far East, Japan and the Korean Peninsula) and recognize 43 species. We describe two species, R. hypobadia and R. orientalis, as new to science. Rinodina hypobadia is distinguished by its pigmented hypothecium, Dirinaria-type ascospores and pannarin in both thallus and epihymenium. Rinodina orientalis is characterized by its erumpent apothecia that remain broadly attached, with discs sometimes becoming convex and excluding the thalline margins, ascospores belonging to the Physcia-type and secondary metabolites absent. Nine other species are reported from the region for the first time. These include R. dolichospora, R. freyi, R. metaboliza, R. sicula, R. subminuta and R. willeyi. Of particular biogeographical interest are three additional new records that have western North American– eastern Asian distributions: the corticolous species R. endospora, R. macrospora and R. megistospora. Six species have the better known eastern North American–eastern Asian distributions: R. ascociscana (syn. R. akagiensis, R. melancholica), R. buckii, R. chrysidiata, R. subminuta, R. tenuis (syn. R. adirondackii) and R. willeyi, and two have eastern North American–eastern Asian–European distributions: R. excrescens and R. moziana (syn. R. destituta, R. vezdae). Our study begins to close one of the largest gaps in our knowledge of circumboreal species distributions in Rinodina and, together with previous studies in North America and Europe, provides new insights into circumboreal crustose lichen biogeography. Rinodina cinereovirens (syn. R. turfacea var. cinereovirens) is also reported as new to North America. biogeography, disjunctions, lichenized Ascomycetes, new species, synonyms, vicariance
28607Lücking R., Moncada B. & Smith C.W. (2017): The genus Lobariella (Ascomycota: Lobariaceae) in Hawaii: late colonization, high inferred endemism and three new species resulting from “micro-radiation”. - Lichenologist, 49(6): 673–691.
We assessed the taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships of Hawaiian species of the neotropical genus Lobariella. A single species was previously reported from the archipelago, the widespread neotropical L. crenulata. We targeted three loci of the mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal rDNA gene cistron (mtSSU, nuLSU, ITS) and also performed a molecular clock analysis. Our results show that L. crenulata s. str. is seemingly present in the archipelago based on older herbarium collections. However, Hawaiian Lobariella includes three additional, presumably endemic, species unrelated to L. crenulata and new to science: L. flynniana Lücking, Moncada & C. W. Sm., with richly branched marginal phyllidia giving the thallus a fruticose appearance; L. robusta Lücking, Moncada & C. W. Sm., with a rather thick thallus and abundant, large, laminal phyllidia; and L. sandwicensis Lücking, Moncada & C. W. Sm., with a delicate thallus producing apothecia. Lobariella flynniana represents a novel morphotype within the genus, thus far known only from Hawaii. All three species are very closely related, forming a well-supported, monophyletic clade in spite of their morphological differences, suggesting local micro-radiation. Molecular clock analysis indicates that this clade colonized the islands between 1–8 mya and diverged between 0–2 mya. We interpret recent colonization as one of the main reasons why this clade has not diversified further. Kokee State Park, lichen, Neotropics, Pseudocyphellaria, taxonomy, Waikamoi Reserve, Waimea District
28606Kärnefelt I.E., Arup U. & Lindblom L. (1995): Xanthoria capensis (Teloschistaceae), a new endemic species in the Cape Flora Kingdom. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 57: 253-264.
The new species Xanthoria capensis is described from southern Africa and its relation to Xanthoria mandschurica (Zahlbr.) Asahina, Xanthoria ligulata (Koerb.) PJames, and Xanthoria resendei Poelt & Tavares is discussed. Xanthoria capensis resembles Xanthoria mandschurica but differs in the wider and flatter lobes, the bright yellow colour, slightly smaller pycnoconidia, thicker hyme- nium, and the thicker apothecial margin. The most important character, however, is the structure of the paraphyses, which are often branched, sometimes with up to six branches, and have narrower paraphysis tips. Xanthoria capensis mainly occurs on seashore rocks and appears to be endemic to southern Africa. Xanthoria capensis and the allied species are illustrated
28605Huneck S. (1995): Lichen substances from subfossil and recent Umbilicaria cylindrica. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 57: 231-239.
Subfossil and recent thalli of the lichen Umbilicaria cylindrica from Greenland and other localities have been analysed for their secondary metabolites. Both appeared to belong to the same chemical strain
28604Rousk K., Sorensen P.L. & Michelsen A. (2017): Nitrogen fixation in the High Arctic: a source of ‘new’ nitrogen?. - Biogeochemistry, 136: 213–222.
Biological nitrogen (N2) fixation performed by diazotrophs (N2 fixing bacteria) is thought to be one of the main sources of plant available N in pristine ecosystems like arctic tundra. However, direct evidence of a transfer of fixed N2 to non-diazotroph associated plants is lacking to date. Here, we present results from an in situ 15N–N2 labelling study in the High Arctic. Three dominant vegetation types (organic crust composed of free-living cyanobacteria, mosses, cotton grass) were subjected to acetylene reduction assays (ARA) performed regularly throughout the growing season, as well as 15N–N2 incubations. The 15N-label was followed into the dominant N2 fixer associations, soil, soil microbial biomass and nondiazotroph associated plants three days and three weeks after labelling. Mosses contributed most to habitat N2 fixation throughout the measuring campaigns, and N2 fixation activity was highest at the beginning of the growing season in all plots. Fixed 15N–N2 became quickly (within 3 days) available to non-diazotroph associated plants in all investigated vegetation types, proving that N2 fixation is an actual source of available N in pristine ecosystems. Keywords: Acetylene reduction;  Arctic; Bryophytes;  Nitrogen isotopes;  Cyanobacteria; Nitrogen fixation;  Stable isotopes;  Tundra.
28603Jönsson M.T., Ruete A., Kellner O., Gunnarsson U. & Snäll T. (2017): Will forest conservation areas protect functionally important diversity of fungi and lichens over time?. - Biodiversity and Conservation, 26: 2547–2567.
Incorporating functional values in biodiversity monitoring systems could add novel perspectives of the status of biodiversity in conservation areas. Stable frequencies of large foliose nitrogen-fixing cyanolichens likely have positive effects on the nitrogen budget of forests and provide food, material and shelter for invertebrates, gastropods and birds. Stable volumes of deadwood and frequencies of associated fungi provide an important supporting function for ecosystem services such as nutrient cycling, carbon storage and soil formation. Based on regional monitoring data from boreal old-growth forest nature reserves and key habitats, we tested for changes in the frequency of various functionally important substrates and species over time. We detected significant reductions in the frequency of indicator cyanolichens occurring on deciduous trees already after 10 years in key habitats, despite non-significant changes in their host substrates. Frequencies of indicator pendulous lichens Alectoria sarmentosa and Bryoria nadvornikiana had also decreased in key habitats, despite overall stable volumes of large conifer host trees. Lichen reductions were more pronounced in the smaller key habitats compared to the larger formally protected nature reserves, likely due to degrading fragmentation and isolation effects. In contrast to these lichens, the average frequencies of old-growth forest indicator fungi decaying coniferous deadwood and common fungi on deciduous trees (Fomes fomentarius) and coniferous trees (Fomitopsis pinicola) remained unchanged. The studied cyanolichens and fruiting fungi generally had similar extinction rates over 10 years, whilst only cyanolichens had substantially lower colonization rates. Amid a severely fragmented landscape, conservation areas seem to struggle in preserving some of the basic old-growth forest values. Keywords: Biomonitoring; Cryptogams; Ecosystem; function; Functional groups; Indicator species; Protected areas.
28602Prokopiev I.A., Shavarda A.L., Filippova G.V. & Shein A.A. (2017): Application of high-performance liquid chromatography to the determination of the concentration of lichen secondary metabolites. - Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 72(11): 1178–1183.
[Original Russian Text published in Zhurnal Analiticheskoi Khimii, 2017, Vol. 72, No. 11, pp. 1025–1031] Preparative isolation of aromatic metabolites from lichens of the Cladonia genus (C. stellaris, C. arbuscula, C. amaurocraea, and C. rangiferina) growing in Central Yakutia was carried out. Identification by IR, UV, and time-of-flight mass spectrometry has shown that the isolated compounds belong to the group of lichen substances. It was shown that the component composition of the studied lichens corresponds to the previously described one. At the same time, the concentration of perlatolic and barbatic acids in C. stellaris and C. amaurocrae lichens, respectively, growing in Central Yakutia found by HPLC is higher than in similar types of temperate climatic zones. Keywords: lichen substances, preparative flash chromatography, HPLC, mass spectrometry, Cladonia genus, Yakutia.
28601Betleja L. & Kościelniak R. (2017): Profesor Józef Kiszka (1939–2007) – badacz Bieszczadów i Pogórza Przemyskiego – wspomnienia w dziesiątą rocznicę śmierci [In memory of Professor Józef Kiszka (1939–2007) – a researcher studying the Bieszczady Mts and the Przemyskie Foothills – on the tenth anniversary of his death]. - Roczniki Bieszczadzkie, 25: 13–20.
28600Kościelniak R., Chachula P. & Kozik J. (2017): Sclerophora coniophaea – bardzo rzadki w Europie Środkowej porost odszukany ponownie w Bieszczadach [Sclerophora coniophaea – very rare lichen in Central Europe discovered again in the Bieszczady Mts.]. - Roczniki Bieszczadzkie, 25: 403–409.
[in Polish with English abstract and summary:] The paper presents a new locality of Sclerophora coniophaea, found in the area of the Bieszczady National Park, in anthropogenic environment, in a non-existent part of the village of Suche Rzeki. The substrate for the thalli of this lichenized fungus is bark of an old pear-tree (Pyrus sp.). It is the third record of this lichen species in Poland. A map of its distribution is included in the paper. Key words: lichenized fungi, new record, rare species, Bieszczady National Park.
28599Kościelniak R., Betleja L. & Baran D. (2016): Multiclavula mucida – epiksyliczny porost naturalnych lasów w Polsce południowo-wschodniej [Multiclavula mucida – an epixylic lichen of natural forests in south-eastern Poland]. - Roczniki Bieszczadzkie, 24: 47–52.
[in Polish wit English abstract and summary:] The paper presents two new localities of Multiclavula mucida in the Polish Eastern Carpathians as well as detailed data on its localities in the Bieszczady National Park. Altogether five localities of this species have been reported from natural or primeval forests in the Polish Eastern Carpathians. Key words: lichenized fungi, Polish Eastern Carpathians, forest naturalness indicators.
28598Pirogov M., Tasenkevich L. & Szaravara S. (2015): Notatki o biocie epilitycznych i epigeicznych porostów Parku Narodowego Beskidy Skolskie [Notes on epilitic and epigeic lichens in the National Nature Park Skolivs’ki Beskydy]. - Roczniki Bieszczadzkie, 23: 81–93.
[in Polish with English abstract and summary:] A list of 44 species of lichens and 3 lichenicolous fungi, collected in the years 2011 and 2013 within the territory of National Nature Park ‘Skolivs’ki Beskydy’ is presented in the paper. There are 30 species new to the lichen biota of the Park. New for Ukraine are: Opegrapha gyrocarpa, Porpidia tuberculosa and Pertusaria pertusa var. rupestris, while some other species were rarely noted in this country. Two species of lichenicolous fungi – Cercidospora epipolytropa and Stigmidium squamariae – were found the second time. Five rare species collected in the Park – Caloplaca lithophila, Cercidospora epipolytropa, Opegrapha lithyrga, Porpidia flavicunda and Stigmidium squamariae – are known only from the Ukrainian part of Eastern Carpathians. Key words: lichens, lichenicolous fungi, Ukrainian Carpathians, Eastern Beskidy Mts.
28597Kościelniak R. & Betleja L. (2015): Stanowisko Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) w dolinie potoku Smorż k. Ustrzyk Dolnych jako przejaw rekolonizacji bieszczadzkich lasów przez ten gatunek [Locality of Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) in the Smorż stream valley near Ustrzyki Dolne as an indication of recolonisation of the Bieszczady forests by this species]. - Roczniki Bieszczadzkie, 23: 71–80.
[in Polish with English abstract and summary:] The paper presents a new locality of Lobaria pulmonaria in the Polish Eastern Carpathians. The species had not been recorded in this place before. Its nearest known localities are situated over 20 km to the north and to the east. Because fertile thalli were recorded, it might be supposed that thanks to ascospores long-distance dispersal occurred. Such isolated localities should be treated as important refugia and legally protected. Key words: lichenized fungi, Polish Eastern Carpathians, ecological continuity, apothecia, long-distance dispersal.
28596Henssen A. (1995): Psoroglaena costaricensis, a new lichen from Costa Rica, and remarks on other taxa of the genus Psoroglaena (Verrucariaceae). - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 57: 199-210.
Psoroglaena costaricensis Henssen spec. nova is described from bark in southern Costa Rica. The new species is characterized by a filamentous thallus with terete, diverging lobes and muriform ascospores with numerous cells. The new combination Psoroglaena stigonemoides (Orange) Henssen is made. The yellow- green photobiont in Psoroglaena species is apparently a filamentous cyanobacterium, possibly belonging to an undescribed genus of the Prochlorales. The delimitation of the amended genus Psoroglaena is discussed
28595Diederich P. & Scholz P. (1995): New or interesting lichenicolous fungi. 5.* - Sclerococcum leuckertii spec, nova (Deuteromycotina) . - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 57: 113-116.
Sclerococcum leuckertii Diederich & P.Scholz spec, nova grows on Buellia aethalea in Denmark, Germany and Sweden, and differs from S. sphaerale by mainly 2-3-celled, greenish brown, verruculose conidia
28594David J.C. & Hawksworth D.L. (1995): Lichens of Mauritius I: some new species and records. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 57: 93-111.
The results of an investigation of a collection of lichens made in Mauritius are presented. The survey, the first to be published for the island for 86 years, includes 19 new records for Mauritius or the Mascarenes and 5 species new to science: Cladonia , Mycornierothelia leuckertii, Ocellularia Pertusaria hymenelioides and Pertusaria muricata. The chemical and phyto geo- graphical aspects of the lichens found are commented on
28593Urbanavichus G.P. & Urbanavichene I.N. (2017): Contribution to the lichen flora of Erzi Nature Reserve, Republic of Ingushetia, North Caucasus, Russia. - Willdenowia, 47(3): 227–236.
As a result of lichenological exploration of the Erzi Nature Reserve in the Republic of Ingushetia, North Caucasus, Russia, we report 266 species of lichenized fungi, 13 of lichenicolous fungi and seven of non-lichenized saprophytic fungi, representing 115 genera. Twenty-three species are recorded for the first time for North Caucasus, of which 16 are new for the Caucasus and ten are new for Russia (Arthonia protoparmeliopseos, Aspicilia viridescens, Buellia abstracta, Lecidella viridans, Micarea soralifera, Rinodina straussii, R. tunicata, R. zwackhiana, Schizoxylon alboatrum and Verrucaria fuscoatroides). Of the 16 species new for the Caucasus, seven are recorded for the first time for Asia (Buellia abstracta, Micarea nigella, M. soralifera, Ramonia chrysophaea, Rinodina tunicata, Schizoxylon alboatrum and Verrucaria elevata). In addition, two taxa listed in the Red Data Book of Russia are recorded: Leptogium burnetiae and Usnea florida. Key words: Caucasus, checklist, conservation, diversity, Erzi Nature Reserve, lichens, new records, Republic of Ingushetia, Russia.
28592Johnsen J.I. & Tønsberg T. (2016): Fjordkrinslav Hypotrachyna aff. taylorensis, en for Norge og Fennoskandia ny bladlav [Hypotrachyna aff. taylorensis, a foliose lichen new to Fennoscandia from Norway]. - Blyttia, 74: 252–255.
[in Norwegian with English abstract:] A foliose lichen apparently previously not known from Fennoscandia has been collected in southwestern Norway. The lichen belongs to Hypotrachyna s. lat. but has so far not been possible to assign conclusively to species. It resembles H. taylorensis (M.E. Mitch.) Hale (a species occurring, e.g., in Great Britain and Ireland) in the production of evernic and lecanoric acids, but is, unlike type material of that species, sorediate. The species is known from one locality close to the fjord in Rogaland, Vindafjord, in the southwesternmost part of the country, and has been found corticolous on Alnus glutinosa, Betula pubescens, Ilex aquifolia and Sorbus aucuparia.
28591Tønsberg T. (2016): Laven Fellhanera duplex ny for Norge og Fennoskandia [The lichen Fellhanera duplex new to Norway and Fennoscandia]. - Blyttia, 74: 267–268.
[in Norwegian with English abstract:] Fellhanera duplex was recently found new to Fennoscandia in Bergen, Norway. It grew on mossy trunks of Alnus glutinosa near a small stream in a SE-facing slope with scattered, deciduous trees.
28590Brodo I.M. & Henssen A. (1995): A new isidiate crustose lichen in northwestern North America. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 58: 27-41.
A corticolous crustose lichen having long isidia was found to be common along the west coast of North America from northern California to Alaska, but is apparently undescribed. Fertile specimens with relatively few isidia are also frequently seen. Its developmental anatomy and chemistry have shown it to be distinct from Loxospora, which it resembles in many respects. It is therefore classified here as a new genus and species: Loxosporopsis Henssen and Loxosporopsis corallifera Brodo, Henssen & Imshaug. Ascocarp ontogeny, divaricatic acid, gyrophoric acid, Loxospora, Loxosporopsis, morphology. North America
28589Ahti T. & Stenroos S. (1995): New species of Cladonia from Brazil. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 57: 9-18.
The new lichen species Cladonia bahiana Ahti, C. fis si- dens Ahti & Marcelli, C. ibitipocae Ahti & Stenroos and C. metami- niata Stenroos & Ahti are described, including their secondary compounds. All of them are found in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil
28588Sverdrup-Thygeson A., Evju M., Gough L., Bratli H., Haugan R. & Nordén B. (2015): Overvåking av sjeldne og rødlistede lav på gamle eiker – lærdommer fra et pilotstudium [Monitoring rare and red-listed lichens on old oaks – lessons from a pilot study]. - Blyttia, 73: 57–63.
[in Norwegian with English abstract:] Ancient oaks host a rich and unique diversity of lichenized fungi and wood-decaying fungi, including a number of red-listed species. Old hollow oaks also enjoy a special legal status in Norway, being designated as one of five «Selected Nature Types» under the Norwegian Nature Diversity Act. A national inventory of hollow oaks has been established, but so far targets only the trees themselves, rather than the species inhabiting the trees. In this paper we present a pilot study designed to test the feasibility of monitoring rare and red-listed lichen species associated with such oaks. 24 old oaks were investigated independently but within the same time period, by three lichenologists following a common field protocol. The protocol included a list of relevant species («list-species»). Although it turned out that the time spent looking per tree differed significantly, the result from the three observers did not differ when it came to total number of occurrences of list-species: in total they found slightly below one list-species per tree, with half of the trees having no species. Looking at the individual lichenologists’ lists the difference was much larger: only two trees had identical species lists when comparing the three lichenologists’ observations. The pilot study generated suggestions for improvement both in field protocol and in calibration between observers. Still, even with such improvements our results indicate that it remains a challenging task to achieve the precision necessary for a long-term monitoring of lichen species on old oaks. This is in line with a similar study of lichen monitoring in the UK.
28587Grindeland J.M. (2015): Planteblindhet i norsk skole [Plant blindness in Norwegian school]. - Blyttia, 73: 5–12.
[in Norwegian with English abstract:] Plant blindness is a term applied to the phenomena that people generally are unaware of plants in their local environment, and that people and students often lack an interest in plants. The different Norwegian curricula for mandatory school have all had quite ambitious objectives regarding plant knowledge. In order to examine the level of competence in plant identification achieved by students after mandatory school, 311 students at a teacher education college were asked to name nine plants (sensu Linneaus) from pictures. The results show that some common flowering plants are familiar to the students, but Carex, Solidago virgaurea and a selection of cryptogamous plants are poorly known. The different school curricula from the last century are examined for clues to this lack of knowledge. It is concluded that learning objectives have changed from explicit objectives regarding plant identification early on, to objectives with a broader scope where plant identification is an implicit part. However, these broader objectives are likely to result in variable teaching in different schools, depending on the approach of the teacher. It is suggested that very little explicit learning of floristics results from the newer curricula. Referring to Balmford et al.’s (2002) study of children’s knowledge of Pokemon-cards it is suggested that children’s potential for learning names of plants is substantial given the proper teaching.
28586Hågvar S. (2015): Reetablering av tykt mosedekke på stein: En tjueårig suksesjonshistorie [Re-establishment of a thick moss cover on stone: A twenty-year’s succession history]. - Blyttia, 73: 229–235.
[in Norwegian with English abstract:] This study in Sogndal, Western Norway, describes the succession of lichens and mosses on a stone after removal of a 7 cm thick moss-cover of Racomitrium lanuginosum. Other stones in the area, if exposed by for instance digging, rapidly developed a red cover of the green alga Trentepohlia, but this alga did not colonise the present stone. The surface was probably not clean enough, and it also contained some small, dark moss colonies which had survived beneath the Racomitrium layer. In the absence of Trentepohlia, which generally delays the colonisation of lichens and mosses on stones, small colonies of lichens and mosses were visible after 2 years. The most species-rich phase was after 5–10 years. After 19 years, a continuous moss layer, up to 4 cm thick, had overgrown all lichens. Dominant species were Hypnum cupressiforme and Dicranum scoparium. Patches of Racomitrium was seen after 20 years. This species was expected to finally take over, reducing diversity to a monoculture.
28585Kranabetter J.M., Haeussler S. & Wood C. (2017): Vulnerability of boreal indicators (ground-dwelling beetles, understory plants and ectomycorrhizal fungi) to severe forest soil disturbance. - Forest Ecology and Management, 402: 213–222.
Forest ecosystems can be greatly affected by multiple interacting disturbances, with outcomes that may range from degraded and poorly-functioning to novel but productive ecosystems. We assessed the vulnerability of boreal biotic indicators (epigeic beetles, understory plants, ectomycorrhizal fungi) to compound soil disturbances at 20 years post-logging in northcentral British Columbia (Canada) to examine these issues of ecological integrity. The study was a full factorial experiment with 3 levels of organic matter removal (tree boles only; tree boles + logging slash; tree boles + logging slash + forest floors) and 3 levels of soil compaction (0, 2, 4 cm impression), with a tree species split-plot of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and hybrid white spruce (Picea glauca × engelmannii). There was little effect of soil disturbance on ground-dwelling beetles, particularly beneath pine. Removal of forest floors and, to a lesser degree, compaction significantly altered plant and fungal communities. There was no effect of retaining logging slash but a consistent influence of tree species on biotic communities likely due to initial differences in conifer growth rates. Average community dissimilarity of the 3 guilds from a least disturbed baseline (tree bole removal, no compaction) increased linearly by a small amount (4–6%) with each level of disturbance severity. Some degree of soil disturbance across landscapes can be acceptable in creating regeneration niches for rare and functionally important pioneer species, but we also see losses in ecological integrity, such as the spread of invasive plants, that merit concern in managing these ecosystems. Keywords: Disturbance; Compaction; Whole-tree harvest; Boreal indicators; Hieracium.
28584Yeash E.A., Letwin L., Malek L., Suntres Z., Knudsen K. & Christopher L.P. (2017): Biological activities of undescribed North American lichen species. - Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 97: 4721–4726.
Background: Lichens provide a large array of compounds with the potential for pharmaceutical development. In the present study, extracts from three previously undescribed North American lichen species were examined for antioxidant, antibacterial and anticancer activities. Results: The results from this study demonstrated the following: (i) Acarospora socialis ethanol extract exhibited significant DPPH antioxidant scavenging activities, which were concentration dependent; (ii) acetone and ethyl acetate extracts of Xanthoparmelia mexicana inhibited Gram-positive bacteria but had no effect on Gram-negative bacteria; X. mexicana acetone extract yielded a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 20.9 µg mL−1 against Staphylococcus aureus, and 41.9 µg mL−1 against Enterococcus faecalis; (iii) acetone extract of Lobothallia alphoplaca inhibited growth of cultured breast cancer MCF-7 cells with an effective concentration (EC50) of 87 µg mL−1 ; the MCF-7 cell cycle appears arrested in the G2 phase, whereas the DNA synthesis cell cycle (S) may be inhibited. Conclusion: New lichen species that possess strong biological activities have been identified. These lichens comprise secondary metabolites that possess antioxidant, antibacterial and anticancer properties. Keywords: lichens; North America; biological activities; Acarospora socialis; Xanthoparmelia mexicana; Lobothallia alphoplaca.
28583Le Pogam P., Boustie J., Richomme P., Denis A. & Schinkovitz A. (2017): The inherent matrix properties of lichen metabolites in matrix‐assisted laser desorption ionization time‐of‐flight mass spectrometry. - Rapid Communacations in Mass Spectrometry, 31: 1993–2002.
Rationale: Light‐absorbing secondary metabolites from lichens were recently reported to exhibit promising Laser Desorption Ionization (LDI) properties, enabling their direct detection from crude lichen extracts. In addition, many of them display close structural homologies to commercial Matrix‐Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization (MALDI) matrices, which is incentive for the evaluation of their matrical properties. The current study systematically evaluated the matrix effects of several structural classes of lichen metabolites: monoaromatic compounds, quinone derivatives, dibenzofuran‐related molecules and the shikimate‐derived vulpinic acid. Their matrical properties were tested against a wide range of structurally diverse analytes including alkaloids, coumarins, flavonoids and peptides. Methods: Triplicate automatic positive‐ion mode MALDI analyses were carried out and ionization efficiencies were compared with those of structurally related reference matrices (i.e. DHB, HCCA, dithranol and usnic acid) in terms of (i) analyte absolute intensities and (ii) Matrix Suppressing Effect (MSE) scores. Results: Monoaromatic lichen metabolites revealed matrical properties similar to those of DHB when obtained under comparable experimental conditions. Likewise, anthraquinone metabolites triggered ionization of tested analytes in a similar way to the structurally related dithranol. Finally, dibenzofuran derivatives displayed a broad ionization profile, reminiscent of that of (+)‐usnic acid. Conclusions: Lichen metabolites exhibit interesting MALDI matrix properties, especially for medium and low molecular weight analytes. For many of the tested molecules, matrix ion formation was very limited. This proof‐of‐concept study paves the way for follow‐up investigations to assess the matrix properties of lichen metabolites against a wider array of analytes as well as adapting experimental settings to individually optimize the performance of successfully tested candidates.
28582Rai H., Nag P., Khare R., Upreti D.K. & Gupta R.K. (2017): Twenty-eight new records of lichenized fungi from Nepal: A signature of undiscovered biodiversity in central Himalaya. - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India (Section B: Biological Sciences), 87(4): 1363–1376.
Twenty-eight new records of lichenized fungi have been reported from the community forest of Dadeldhura situated in Mahakali zone of far west Nepal. The species diversity is distributed in 13 families (Acarosporaceae, Arthoniaceae, Caliciaceae, Chrysothrichaceae, Cladoniaceae, Collemataceae, Graphidaceae, Lecanoraceae, Parmeliaceae, Physciaceae, Pyrenulaceae, Ramalinaceae, Verrucariaceae), showing 4 growth forms (squamulose, crustose, foliose and dimorphic) reported from three (soil, bark and rocks) substrata. A brief annotated morpho-taxonomic description of all the 28 species along with their ecology and distribution is given. Photomicrographs of all the described species are provided for visual validation. Taxonomic, growth form and substratum diversity of all 28 described species is discussed. A supplementary conspectus table is provided, giving overview of the phorophyte diversity of corticolous species along with the taxonomy and growth form diversity of described lichen species. The findings have been discussed in light of less explored region in central Himalaya and importance of community forests in Nepal for diversity studies. Keywords: Dadeldhura;  Himalaya;  Lichens; West Nepal.
28581Hansen E.S. (1995): The lichen flora of the Jorgen Bronlund fjord area, northern Greenland. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 57: 187-198.
Based on extensive lichen collecting in the Jorgen Bronlund fjord area in Peary Land, 82°N, 86 species and 2 varieties are reported. Range extensions are given for 45 taxa. An account of the epigeic and epilithic lichen vegetation and of the lichens growing on particular substrates is provided. Information is also given about climate, topography and geology of the investigation area
28580Hafellner J. (2016): Lichenicolous Biota (Nos 231–250). - Fritschiana (Graz), 83: 25–40.
fascicle (20 numbers) of the exsiccata 'Lichenicolous Biota' is published. The issue contains ma-terial of 17 non-lichenized fungal taxa (14 teleomorphs of ascomycetes, 1 anamorphic state of ascomycetes, 2 basidiomycetes), including isotype material of Arthonia parietinaria Hafellner & A.Fleischhacker (no 231), Sphaerellothecium siphulae Zhurb. (no 238), and Sphaerellothecium thamnoliae Zhurb. (no 248) as well as paratype material of Arthonia parietinaria (no 241, 242, 243). Furthermore, collections of the type species of the following genera are distributed: Didymocyrtis (D. consimilis), Karschia (K. tal-cophila), Lichenostigma (L. maureri), Minutoexcipula (M. tuckerae), and Zwackhiomyces (Z. coepulonus)
28579Hafellner J. (2016): Additional records of Gyalideopsis mexicana (lichenized Ascomycota). - Fritschiana (Graz), 83: 41–45.
Gyalideopsis mexicana is recorded for the first time from the Mexican state Sonora. Notes on the available types, on the ecology including the report of facultative lichenicolous growth, and on the overall horizontal and vertical distribution are added
28578Elix J.A. (1996): A Revision of the Lichen Genus Relicina. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 62: 1-150.
The representatives of the lichen genus Relicina are revised. A key and descriptions for the 47 species are given, and the synonymy, chemistry, distribution, ecology and taxonomic affinities of each species are discussed. Eight new species are described: Relicina dentata, R. kurandensis, R. palmata, R. sabahensis, R. segregata, R. sipmanii, R. stipitata and R. vinasii. In addition, Relicitia niuginiensis has been placed in synonymy with R. fijiensis
28577Obermayer W. (2016): Dupla Graecensia Lichenum (2016, numbers 1021–1100). - Fritschiana (Graz), 83: 1–23.
t: The exsiccata 'Dupla Graecensia Lichenum (2016, numbers 1021–1100)' comprises 80 collections (463 specimens) of lichen duplicates from the following 12 countries: Albania (Lezhë district), Australia (state Western Australia), Austria (states Carinthia, Lower Austria, Salzburg, and Styria), Brazil (Mato Grosso), Croatia (Istria), France (region Rhône-Alpes), Germany (states Baden-Württemberg and Bavaria), Greece (Corfu Island and Crete), Italy (regions Friuli - Venezia Giulia and Toscana), Mexico (Chihuahua), Slovenia, and Spain (Mallorca). TLC-investigations were carried out for 13 lichenized taxa. Isotype-specimens of Ramboldia crassithallina (each specimen additionally including an isotype of Ramboldia sorediata) are distributed
28576McCarthy P. M. & Elix J.A. (2017): Five new lichen species (Ascomycota) and a new record from southern New South Wales, Australia. - Telopea, 20: 335-353.
Five lichen species (Ascomycota) are described as new from rocks in coastal and tableland localities of southern New South Wales: Catillaria gerroana P.M.McCarthy & Elix (Catillariaceae), Fellhanera robusta P.M.McCarthy & Elix (Pilocarpaceae), Menegazzia fortuita Elix & P.M.McCarthy (Parmeliaceae), Ramboldia curvispora P.M.McCarthy & Elix (Lecanoraceae) and Sarcogyne maritima P.M.McCarthy & Elix (Acarosporaceae). Arthonia lapidicola (Taylor) Branth & Rostrup (Arthoniaceae) is reported for the first time from Australia
28575Archer A.W. & Elix J.A. (2017): Seven new species of Australian Pertusaria (Pertusariales, lichenised Ascomycota) from New South Wales. - Telopea, 20: 325-333.
Seven new species, Pertusaria albula, P. dharugensis, P. ochrodigitula, P. pinnaculata, P. placocarpa, P. puttyensis and P. scabrida from New South Wales are reported as new to science
28574Elix J.A. & McCarthy P.M. (2017): Six new lichen species (Ascomycota) from Australia. - Telopea, 20: 147-163.
Six lichens (Ascomycota) are described as new from Australia: Bapalmuia rotatilis P.M.McCarthy & Elix (Pilocarpaceae; southern New South Wales), Fellhanera incolorata P.M.McCarthy & Elix (Pilocarpaceae; southern New South Wales), Opegrapha gilmorei P.M.McCarthy & Elix (Opegraphaceae; Bass Strait, Tasmania), Protoparmelia ewersii Elix & P.M.McCarthy (Parmeliaceae; Northern Territory, South Australia), Ramboldia buleensis Elix & P.M.McCarthy (Lecanoraceae; southern New South Wales) and R. subplicatula Elix & P.M.McCarthy (central-western New South Wales)
28573Geedicke I., Schultz M., Rudolph B. & Oldeland J. (2016): Phylogenetic clustering found in lichen but not in plant communities in European heathlands. - Community Ecology , 17(2): 216-224.
28572González Y., Aragón G., Benítez A. & Prieto M. (2017): Changes in soil cryptogamic communities in tropical Ecuadorean páramos. - Community Ecology , 18(1): 11-20.
Altitudinal gradients involve macroclimatic changes that can affect the diversity of several organisms. We tested the effects of elevation and small-scale variables on the diversity and composition of terricolous communities (lichens and bryophytes) in five páramos in southern Ecuador. The altitudinal range considered (from 2700 to 4000 m a.s.l.) is associated with changes in rainfall, temperature and irradiance. At each páramo, forty 40 x 40 cm2 sample plots were randomly selected in similar areas of vegetation (grass páramo) and conservation status. The presence/absence and cover of lichens and bryophytes were recorded in 200 sample plots. A total of 90 species (46 lichens and 44 bryophytes) were identified. Our results showed that total species richness, lichen and bryophyte richness, Simpson’s inverse and Shannon’s index were related to elevation and slope. Nevertheless, the response to elevation was dependent on the organism considered. Thus, meanwhile lichens had their maximum richness at the highest elevation (3930 m a.s.l.), bryophytes had a maximum peak at middle elevation (3300 m a.s.l.). Species composition also differed significantly among the five páramos, especially in bryophytes. We conclude that differences in the elevation of these páramos and small-scale variables such as slope significantly affect the diversity and composition of terricolous communities. Keywords: Altitude, Bryophytes, Cladoniaceae, Climatic conditions, Lichens, Plant cover, Rainfall, Slope.
28571Wunder B. (2012): Flechten in Linz – Fabelhafte Doppelwesen zwischen Autos und grünen Hinterhöfen . - ÖKO·L , 34/1: 3-8.
Popular paper; lichens and traffic; Upper Austria.
28570Rieber X. (1892): Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Lichenenflora Württembergs und Hohenzollerns. I.. - Jahreshefte des Vereins für vaterländische Naturkunde in Württemberg, 48: 248-253.
28569Haszlinski F.A. [recte Hazslinszky] (1887): Einige neue oder wenig bekannte Discomyceten. - Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien, 37: 151-168.
few lichen-allied fungi included (e.g. Agyrium rufum)
28568Poelt J. (1949): Zwei Pflanzen nordischer Herkunft neu für Bayern. - Berichte der Bayerischen Botanischen Gesellschaft zur Erforschung der Flora, 29: 69-72.
Germany; Bavaria; associated lichens listed.
28567McCarthy P.M. (2016): Strigula rhodinula comb. nov. (Strigulaceae, Ascomycota) from Marlborough, New Zealand. - Australasian Lichenology, 78: 3-5.
Strigula affinis (A.Massal.) R.C.Harris was reported from limestone in Marlborough, New Zealand, by McCarthy (1993) based on material collected in 1934 by J. Scott Thompson and misplaced in Porina, as P. rhodinula Zahlbr., by Zahlbruckner (1941). However, the now widely accepted circumscription of the exclusively corticolous S. affinis (Roux & Sérusiaux, 2004) and a reassessment of Zahlbruckner's lichen necessitate the new combination Strigula rhodinula (Zahlbr.) P.M.McCarthy. The species is described and illustrated here.
28566McCarthy P.M. & Kantvilas G. (2016): A new species of Anisomeridium (Monoblastiaceae) from Kangaroo Island, South Australia. - Australasian Lichenology, 79: 16-19.
Anisomeridium austroaustraliense sp. nov. (Monoblastiaceae) is described from Allocasuarina-dominated woodland on Kangaroo Island, South Australia. It has an effuse, silvery whitish to pale grey and largely endophloeodal thallus, minute, solitary perithecioid ascomata with a thin involucrellum and a comparatively dark excipulum, and small, hyaline, isolocular, biseriate, 1-septate ascospores.
28565McCarthy P.M. & Elix J.A. (2016): A new species of Mycobilimbia s. lat. (Ascomycota, Lecideaceae) from the Northern Territory, Australia. - Australasian Lichenology, 78: 6-10.
An enigmatic, terricolous lichen collected in the seasonally wet tropics of the Northern Territory, Australia, is described as Mycobilimbia territorialis P.M.McCarthy & Elix, sp. nov. (Lecideaceae).
28564McCarthy P. & Elix J.A. (2016): A new species of Megalaria (lichenized Ascomycota, Ramalinaceae) from north-eastern Queensland, Australia. - Australasian Lichenology, 79: 20-25.
Megalaria coralloidea sp. nov. is described from a fallen log at a rainforest margin in north-eastern Queensland, Australia. It has a well-developed, olive-green, isidiate thallus containing atranorin and zeorin, large, sessile apothecia with a uniformly hyaline, cupulate proper excipulum, a red-brown hypothecium, a nondescript epihymenium, comparatively small, 1-septate ascospores, and pycnidia that are immersed in the apices of isidia.
28563Mayrhofer H., Ropin K. & Elix J.A. (2016): Two new corticolous species of Amandinea (Ascomycota, Physciaceae) from New Zealand. - Australasian Lichenology, 78: 11-17.
Amandinea ornata Ropin, H.Mayrhofer & Elix and A. ropinii H.Mayrhofer & Elix are reported as new to science. In addition, Amandinea lignicola var. australis Elix & Kantvilas and A. pillagaensis Elix & Kantvilas are reported for the first time from New Zealand. A key to the corticolous species of Amandina in New Zealand is provided.
28562Ludwig L.R. (2016): The biogeography of Knightiella splachnirima. - Australasian Lichenology, 78: 46-51.
A comprehensive, geo-referenced compilation of the known global distribution of Knightiella splachnirima is presented, based on herbarium records, literature, and personal observations in New Zealand and Australia (Tasmania and Victoria). Knightiella splachnirima probably is more widely distributed in New Zealand than current records show.
28561Elix J.A. (2016): Two new species of Buellia sens. lat. (Ascomycota, Physciaceae) with pluriseptate ascospores from New Zealand. - Australasian Lichenology, 78: 18-21.
Buellia alectorialica Elix and B. billewersii Elix are reported as new to science. The ascospores of both species have 3 (or occasionally more) septa.
28560Elix J.A. (2016): Seven new species of Buellia sens. lat. (Ascomycota, Physciaceae) from southern mainland Australia. - Australasian Lichenology, 78: 32-45.
Buellia epiaeruginosa Elix, B. ewersii Elix, B. fluviicygnorum Elix, B. macveanii Elix, B. maficola Elix, B. mayrhoferae Elix & Kantvilas and B. pannarina Elix are reported as new to science. In addition, Buellia molonglo Grube & Elix has been shown to be a later synonym of B. halonia (Ach.) Tuck., and Buellia augorum (Arnold) Arnold is recorded from Australia for the first time.
28559Elix J.A. (2016): New species of Gassicurtia and Stigmatochroma (Physciaceae, Ascomycota) from Queensland, Australia. - Australasian Lichenology, 79: 3-9.
Gassicurtia blencoensis Elix, G. capricornica Elix and Stigmatochroma maccarthyi Elix are described as new to science. In addition, Amandinea efflorescens var. pseudohypopelidna is reported for the first time for Australia.
28558Elix J.A. & Mayrhofer H. (2016): Two new species of Buellia sens. lat. (Ascomycota, Physciaceae) from New Zealand with 1-septate ascospores. - Australasian Lichenology, 79: 10-15.
Buellia hypostictella Elix & H.Mayrhofer and B. malcolmii Elix are described as new to science. In addition, Baculifera macromera Elix & Kantvilas, Buellia halonia (Ach.) Tuck. and Rinodinella fertilis (Körb.) Elix are reported for the first time from New Zealand.
28557Elix J.A. & Kantvilas G. (2016): Amandinea coniops (Physciaceae, Ascomycota) and its mimics in Tasmania and New Zealand. - Australasian Lichenology, 78: 22-31.
The status of the widespread species Amandinea coniops (Wahlenb.) M.Choisy ex Scheid. & H.Mayrhofer in Australasia is discussed and found to include an additional three taxa. Amandinea austroconiops Elix & Kantvilas and A. destituta Elix & Kantvilas are described as new to science, and the new combination Amandinea subbadioatra (C.Knight) Elix & Kantvilas is proposed.
28556Elix J.A. & Kantvilas G. (2016): New species and new records of buellioid lichens (Ascomycota, Physciaceae) in Tasmania. - Australasian Lichenology, 79: 26-34.
Buellia austera Elix & Kantvilas, B. fallax Elix & Kantvilas and Endohyalina gillamsensis Elix & Kantvilas are described as new to science. In addition, Buellia cranwelliae Zahlbr. is reported as new to Tasmania and Australia, and the new combination Amandinea nebulosa (Elix & Kantvilas) Elix & Kantvilas is made. A remarkable lichenicolous Arthonia infecting the apothecia of B. austera is also discussed.
28555Blaha J., Mayrhofer H. & Elix J.A. (2016): Five new saxicolous species of Amandinea (Ascomycota, Physciaceae) from New Zealand and southern Australia. - Australasian Lichenology, 79: 35-57.
A. aulianeae H.Mayrhofer & Elix, A variabilis Elix, Blaha & H.Mayrhofer and A. vitellina Blaha, H.Mayrhofer & Elix are described as new to science. Amandinea aulianeae has been found in New Zealand and Norfolk Island, but the other four new species also occur in southern Australia. The new combinations Amandinea decedens (Nyl.) Blaha, H.Mayrhofer & Elix, A. litoralis (Zahlbr.) Elix & H.Mayrhofer and A. otagensis (Zahlbr.) Blaha, H.Mayrhofer & Elix are made. Amandinea litoralis, together with the previously poorly understood A. fuscoatratula (Zahlbr.) Elix and A. nitrophila (Zahlbr.) Elix, are re-circumscribed, and a key to the saxicolous species of Amandinea in New Zealand is provided.
28554Archer A.W. & Elix J.A. (2017): A new species of Diorygma (Graphidaceae, lichenized Ascomycota), and notes on Diaphorographis queenslandica. - Australasian Lichenology, 81: 93-98.
Diorygma streimannii A.W.Archer & Elix, the first species of Diorygma found to contain neotricone, is described as new to science. Contrary to previous reports, Diaphorographis queenslandica Kalb & A.W.Archer contains protocetraric acid.
28553Fryday A.M. (2017): Additions to the lichenized fungi biota of North America and Alaska from collections held in the University of Alaska Museum of the North herbarium (ALA). - Arctic Science, 3: 577–584.
The data presented here are based on examination of collections made in the 1970s mainly by Barbara Murray and held in the University of Alaska Museum of the North herbarium, Fairbanks (ALA). Four species, Micarea inquinans, Placynthium garovaglioi, Protoblastenia lilacina, and Trimmatothele perquisita, are reported for the first time from North America and 10 species, Clauzadea metzleri, Clauzadeana macula, Ionaspis obtecta, Lambiella gyrizans, Lemmopsis arnoldiana, Placynthium tantaleum, Poeltinula cerebrina, Protoblastenia incrustans, Rimularia gibbosa, and Sagiolechia protuberans, are reported for the first time from Alaska. Records of nine other species that are uncommon in Alaska are also reported. Key words: Arctic, new reports, North Slope, Brooks Range, terrestrial biodiversity.
28552Ходосовцев О.Є., Дармостук В.В. & Панченко C.M. [Khodosovtsev A.Ye., Darmostuk V.V. & Panchenko S.M.] (2017): Лишайники національного природного парку «Деснянсько-Старогутський» [Lichens of Desniansko-Starogutsky National Nature Park]. - Чорноморський ботанічний журнал [Chornomorski Botanical Journal], 13(1): 72–86.
146 species of the lichens on Desniansko-Starogutski National Nature Park (Sumy region, Seredyno-Budsky district) were given. Among them Сalicium glaucellum, Chaenotheca laevigata, C. xyloxena, Lecanora compallens, Protoparmelia oleagina, Rinodina efflorescens, Xylographa vitiligo are new species for plain part of Ukraine. 76 species are new for the national park. The Starogutska part of the park is represented by 115 species of the lichens in contrast of Desnjanska part has 80 species only. 126 species of the lichens were corticolous. Low number of the woodland key habitat-indicator lichens related with intensive forestry on this territory to the creation of the national park. Evernia mesomorpha and Punctelia jeckeri are recommended to the Red Data List of the Sumy region. The annotated list of the species is provided. Key words: forest, Desna, Ulutsa, Stara Guta, Sumy region, Ukraine.
28551Клименко В.М. [Klymenko V.M.] (2016): Ліхеноіндикаційна оцінка якості повітря невеликих і середніх міст півдня України [Lichenoindicating assessment of air quality in small and medium-sized towns in southern Ukraine]. - Чорноморський ботанічний журнал [Chornomorski Botanical Journal], 12(2): 191–205.
The results of the study of lihenoindication surface layers of air in small and medium-sized towns of Kherson region: Berislav, Kakhovka, New Kakhovka are presented. Numeric limits of izotoxic lichen indication zones are calculated and their use during the research of lichen indication urban landscapes of Southern Ukraine is recommended. Species composition of epiphytic lichenobiotic groups from the territory of these towns, which has 43 species, are described. In terms of clean air Index the models of the spatial distribution of izotoxic lichenoindicating zones in these areas are calculated. For comparative analysis of the calculated area of izotoxic zones surveyed ranking of the towns for air quality was held. The highest air quality is in Berislav town, and the lowest is in New Kakhovka. The highest air quality of residential landscapes is in residential districts of Kakhovka town, and the lowest is in residential neighborhoods of New Kakhovka town. Keywords: lichen indication, urban landscapes, epiphytic lichens, air pollution.
28550Ходосовцев О.Є., Дармостук В.В. & Назарчук Ю.С. [Khodosovtsev A.Ye., Darmostuk V.V. & Nazarchuk Yu.S.] (2016): Лишайники та ліхенофільні гриби регіонального ландшафтного парку «Тилігульський» (Одеська область, Україна) [Lichens and lichenicolous fungi of the Regional Landscape Park «Tiligulskiy» (Odessa region, Ukraine)]. - Чорноморський ботанічний журнал [Chornomorski Botanical Journal], 12(2): 165–177.
The data on 120 species of lichenized and 12 species of lichenicolous fungi of Regional Landscape Park «Tiligulskiy» (Odessa region)are given. 43 of them are new for the Regional Park and 10 are excluded from list of lichen biota of this territory. Stigmidium mycobilimbiae Cl. Roux, Triebel & Etayo and Toninia subfuscae (Arnold) Timdal are a new species for Ukraine. Opegrapha centrifuga A. Massal. and Stigmidium glebarum (Arnold) Hafellner are secondly reported for the territory of Ukraine. 
28549Овсієнко В.М., Дармостук В.В., Клименко В.М., Бойко М.Ф. & Ходосовцев О.Є. [Ovsiyenko V.M., Darmostuk V.V., Klymenko V.M., Boiko M.F. & Khodosovtsev O.Ye.] (2016): Весняна експедиція з вивчення флори та ліхенобіоти в околицях с. Водяно-Лорине (Миколаївська область, Україна) [Spring expedition to study of the flora and lichen around village Vodiano-Lorine (Mykolaiv region, Ukraine]. - Чорноморський ботанічний журнал [Chornomorski Botanical Journal], 12(2): 214–217.
Ukraine; report from an excursion.
28548Дармостук В.В. & Наумович Г.О. [Darmostuk V.V. & Naumovych G.O.] (2016): Unguiculariopsis ­(Helotiaceae,­ Helotiales) ­– новий рід для мікобіоти України [Unguiculariopsis ­(Helotiaceae,­ Helotiales), ­a ­new ­genus ­for ­the­ mycobiota­ of­ Ukraine]. - Український Ботанічний Журнал [Ukrainian Botanical Journal], 73(4): 378–381.
The genus Unguiculariopsis is reported as new for Ukraine from the valley of the Ingulets River. The description, ecology, localities in Ukraine and distribution data for U. thallophila are provided. This lichenicolous fungus grows on thallus and apothecia of Protoparmeliopsis muralis and is characterized by sessile brown apothecia with hairs, bitunicate 8-­spored asci, 0-­septate ellipsoid ascospores and septate branched paraphyses. Key­words: Unguiculariopsis, Ukraine, Ingulets.
28547Ходосовцев О.Є. & Дармостук В.В. [Khodosovtsev A.Ye. & Darmostuk V.V.] (2017): Нові ­види­ ліхенофільних ­грибів­ для ­України [New­ for ­Ukraine ­records ­of ­lichenicolous­ fungi]. - Український Ботанічний Журнал [Ukrainian Botanical Journal], 74(2): 177–183.
Four new for Ukraine records of lichenicolous fungi from Desnyansko­ Starogutskyi National Nature Park are reported. Cornutispora pyramidalis is a lichenicolous coelomycete with triangular hyaline conidia collected on Parmelia sulcata. Epicladonia stenospora is characterized by one­-septate hyaline conidia in pycnidia on Cladonia foliacea. Heterocephalacria physciacearum is a tremelloid fungus forming pale brown to dark galls on thalli of Physcia stellaris. Refractohilum intermedium is an annelate hyphomycete with hyaline phragmoconidia growing on crustose thalli of Pachyphiale species. The descriptions, illustrations, localities, ecological and distribution data for these species are provided. Keywords: Cornutispora, Epicladonia, Heterocephalacria, Refractohilum.
28546 Bayer T. & Alba N.V. (2017): Temperature optima for growth and photosynthetic processes in Trebouxia erici isolated from an Antarctic lichen and cultivated in a temperature gradient. - Czech Polar Reports, 7: 34–44.
The temperature optimum for photosynthesis and growth of natural populations of Trebouxia erici isolated from an Antarctic lichen (Usnea antarctica) was determined using a long-term cultivation (26 days) at different temperatures. Several chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were used in T. erici cultivated in a liquid medium to assess the effect of cultivation temperature (0, 10, 20 and 30oC). Analysis of time courses of the capacity of photosynthetic processes in PS II (FV/FM), effective quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII), relative fluorescence decline ratio (RFd), and quenching of background chlorophyll fluorescence (qF0) revealed that optimum temperature is between 10 to 20°C. Biomass production evaluated as a total chlorophyll production after 26 days of cultivation was maximal at 20°C. The results are discussed in relation to the data reported by other literature sources for Trebouxia sp. and other algae isolated from chlorolichens Key words: alga, Antarctica, chlorolichens, chlorophyll fluorescence, stress.
28545Zvěřina O., Coufalík P., Barták M. & Komárek J. (2016): Biomonitoring of heavy metals using Usnea antarctica lichens (extended abstract). - Czech Polar Reports, 6: 238–239.
28544Martic L. (2016): Lichen secondary metabolites in Umbilicaria antarctica evaluated by acetone rinsing. - Czech Polar Reports, 6: 186–190.
Study of the extracts from an Antarctic lichen Umbilicaria antarctica was done using a spectrophotometric approach. Secondary compounds were extracted by acetone rinsing from dried thalli of U. antarctica. The extracts were dried out, and diluted in ethanol. Then, spectral absorbance of the extracts were measured within the wavelength of 190700 nm. The spectra of the secondary compounds obtained by acetone rinsing (EAR – re-diluted (ethanol) extract gained during acetone rinsing) were compared with those from untreated thalli (control) and ethanol extract from the thalli of U. antarctica that passed acetone rinsing (ART). Spectral absorbance curves of the extracts gained by acetone rinsing were attributed to different prevailing secondary metabolites: usnic acid, lecanoric acid (U. antarctica). Spectral absorption curves of control thalli exbibited similar shape as ART spectral curves, however, the absorbance in the range of 230-310 nm reached higher values in control than in ART. Spectral absorbance curves from ART showed that a part of secondary metabolites still remained in the thalli. Photosynthetic pigments (carotenoids and chlorophylls) remained uneffected by acetone rinsing. Key words: macrolichen, Antarctics, extracts, absorption spectrum.
28543Sonina A. & Tsunskaya A.A. (2016): Structural and functional adaptations of epilithic lichens of Umbilicaria genus in the White Sea coastal conditions. - Czech Polar Reports, 6: 169–179.
Anatomical and physiological characteristics (width of anatomical layers and the amount of photosynthetic pigments) of two epilithic lichen species Umbilicaria torrefacta (Lightf.) Schrader and U. deusta (L.) have been studied. The study took place on the supralittoral zone on the coast of the White Sea in two points: Kolezhma village and Keret village in 2014 and 2015. Ecological plasticity of mycobiont which contacts the environment and gives a niche to the photobiont have been revealed, based on the analysis of variance in the study of anatomical structures of two different types of habitats and between different samples of the same species. Coastal conditions provide favorable levels of humidity and light for the U. torrefacta and U. deusta species. This allows symbiotic organism to maintain a symbiotrophic balance due to the plasticity of the fungal symbiont which contacts the abiotic environment. At the same time these adaptation mechanisms do not include functional changes, such as photosynthetic apparatus of the autotrophic symbiont, conditions for which are set by the fungal organism. U. deusta and U. torrefacta species only show structural adaptations - the adaptations that follow the path of anatomical structure changes and the relative stability of the physiological parameters. The study shows that anatomical structure of thalli varies more significantly between the two species than within samples of the same species. Key words: coastal zone, lichens of Umbilicaria genus, anatomy, physiology, adaptations.
28542Ošťádal R. & Hazdrová J. (2016): Thallus morphology of two Antarctic foliose lichens evaluated by a digital optical microscopy approach. - Czech Polar Reports, 6: 80–86.
Digital microscopy is an emerging technique that combines the tools of classic light microscopy with a computerized imaging system. The main components of digital microscopy is image formation by optics of the system, image registration by a digital camera, saving of image data in a file format that enables advanced image analysis. In this paper, we bring first data on application of digital microscopy approach in lichen thallus morphology study. Two Antarctic lichen species (Xanthoria elegans, Umbilicaria decussata) with a foliose morphotype of their thallus were studied. Both experimental species had an irregularly round or eliptic shape of a thallus that enabled to measure its diameter. After magnifition, images were taken in dry and fully-hydrated state of thallus in order to evaluate hydration-dependent size changes in thallus size and structures. It has been demonstrated that hydration-dependent size increment depend on thallus size and particular part of thallus. Mean increment of thallus diameter reached 15.1% and 13.8% for X. elegans and U. decussata, respectively. Higher value of diameter increment (26 %) was found for the upper projection area of apothecia, fruiting bodies developed over the upper thallus surface of X. elegans. Size and volume increment in thallus parts is discussed as a consequence of water holding capacity of lichens, and a capability of lichens to hold intra- and extracellular water upon full hydration of a thallus. Finally, a potential of digital microscopy for future studies is discussed as well as some processing techniques such as e.g. metrics of profile lines through 3-D objects like apothecia. Key words: Xanthoria elegans, Umbilicaria decussata, thallus hydration, thallus dimension, morphometry.
28541Medina M.G. & Avalos-Chacon R. (2015): Physiological performance of a foliose macrolichen Umbilicaria antarctica as affected by supplemental UV-B treatment. - Czech Polar Reports, 5: 222–229.
To date, a limited knowledge is available about Umbilicaria antarctica responses when it is exposed high doses of UV-B radiation. It is well established that resistance of Antarctic lichens to natural UV-B levels including increased doses during ozone hole period is high, thanks to numerous photoprotective mechanism. Capacity of the photoprotective processes, however, is not well known This study attempts to determine changes on the photosynthetic efficiency and on the synthesis of UV-B absorbing compounds of U. antarctica when exposed to low photosynthetically active radiation and extremely high intensity of UV-B light: 3.0 W m-2, of UV-B for 3 hours, 6 hours and 7 days. During the experiment, chlorophyll fluorescence was measured to evaluate changes in photosynthetic apparatus of intrathalline alga. After 7 d exposition, amount of UV-B absorbing compounds was evaluated in U. antarctica. Heavy UV-B stress let to an increase in chlorophyll fluorescence kinetics (OJIPs), however, majority of parameters related to functioning of PS II remained unchanged indicating high resistance of U. antarctica to UV-B stress. Potential (FV/FM) and actual (ФPSII) yields of PS II were not affected by the UV-B treatment as well. In majority of cases, heavy UV-B treatment led to a decrease in the amount of UV-B absorbing compounds extracted from treated thalli. Key words: Galindez Island, UV-B, spectral absorption, chlorophyll fluorescence.
28540Casanova-Katny A., Pizarro M., Caballero M.M., Cordero R. & Zúñiga G.E. (2015): Non-structural carbohydrate content in cryptogamic Antarctic species after two years of passive warming on the Fildes Peninsula. - Czech Polar Reports, 5: 88–98.
Cryptogamic vegetation dominates the ice-free areas of the maritime Antarctic. This particular flora grows slowly due to extreme environmental conditions, typically low temperature that may limit growth during a short summer. Over the last 50 years, the Antarctic Peninsula has undergone the highest registered temperature increases in Antarctica. As a consequence of higher temperatures, we hypothesized that lichens and mosses would produce more carbohydrates. To test this, open top chambers (OTCs) were installed in an Usnea-Himantormia community on Fildes Peninsula of King George Island. After two years, lichen thalli and plant tissues were collected to quantify non-structural carbohydrates in three lichens and two mosses. Responses contrasted between species. While non-structural carbohydrates were higher in the OTC for the lichen Himantormia lugubris, the values decreased in the moss Polytrichastrum alpinum. No marked responses to experimental warming were observed in the other three species. A significant species-specific increase in soluble sugar was observed inside the OTCs, while polyols content were not markedly different due to OTC treatment. In general, the obtained results indicate that warming does not increase carbohydrate content in all cryptogams, instead suggesting a strong species-specific response to a scenario of global warming. Further long-term warming experiments are needed to assess the responses of target species in the terrestrial Antarctic ecosystem. Key words: Antarctica, OTC, bryophytes, lichens, carbohydrate metabolism.
28539Estêvāo D.M.M. (2015): Production of UV-B screens and changes in photosynthetic efficiency in Antarctic Nostoc commune colonies and a lichen Xanthoria elegans depend on a dose and duration of UV-B stress. - Czech Polar Reports, 5: 55–68.
The survival of non-vascular autotrophs in the extreme polar conditions and the principles of their high tolerance to extreme physical factors have been intriguing scientists in last decades. Therefore, this study focuses on the capacity of production of UV-B screening pigments in two model Antarctic species, one algal lichen, and colony of a cyanobacterium. Dose-dependent activation of protective mechanisms of Antarctic cyanobacterium (Nostoc commune) and algal lichen (Xanthoria elegans), synthesis of UV-B screening compounds in particular, were studied together with the changes in photosynthetic efficiency induced by a background photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) supplemented with UV-B radiation. The samples were exposed to different doses of UV-B (280–320 nm), low (0.7 W m-2), medium (1.5 W m-2) and high (3.0 W m-2) for 5 days. Untreated samples (control) were shielded from UV-B radiation during experiment. Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and secondary UV-B protective metabolites were analysed in the intervals of 24 h, 48 h and 120 h. Amount of UV-B screening pigments was measured spectrophotometrically using several specific wavelengths in UV-B absorption range. Results showed that if exposed to a low dose of UV-B radiation or a short-term treatment, both species exhibited an increase in UV-B screening pigments to protect the lichen photobiont against UV-B damage. However, if exposed to a high dose of UV-B radiation or a long-term treatment, a decrease of UV-B screening compounds occured. This implies that Antarctic lichen and cyanobacterium can protect themselves against an increase of stress factors ranging within physiological limits, like e.g. increased synthesis of UV-B screening compounds thanks to a thinning of the ozone layer and consequent increase in UV radiation doses incident on Antarctic terrestrial ecosystems. Nevertheless, the likely increased UV-B radiation due to more intense depletion of stratospheric ozone layer may lead to alterations in UV-B tolerance in Antarctic lichens in future. Key words: Chlorophyll fluorescence transient, effective quantum yield, ultraviolet radiation, UV absorbing compounds.
28538Ektova S.N. & Morozova L.M. (2015): Rate of recovery of lichen-dominated tundra vegetation after overgrazing at the Yamal Peninsula. - Czech Polar Reports, 5: 27–32.
Lichens are the most sensitive part of vegetation cover to reindeer grazing. In this study we analyse success of restoration rate of lichen-rich tundra vegetation after ceasing the grazing stress at the Yamal Peninsula. On experimental plots we compare the main parameters of lichen mat (species diversity, total cover, thalii height, biomass, recovery rate) on grazed pastures and fanced sites after 13 years after of its isolation. Our results demonstrate that after intensive overgrazing the lichen species diversity and synusiases structure change very slowly. The rate of the biomass increase of lichens for this period has made 3.8 g m-2 year-1 that makes 3.6% from mass in the year. But this rate is two times lowers than in highly productive lichen communities. Key words: lichen tundra, reindeer pastures, restoration, lichen growth, Yamal.
28537Markovskaya E., Sonina A., Sergienko L., Morosova K. & Elkina N. (2014): Morphological and functional peculiarities of saltmarsh plants and epilithic lichens in tidal conditions of Russian Arctic Seas. - Czech Polar Reports, 4: 168–177.
Ecological plasticity in the tidal zone, specifically the effects of daily and seasonal dynamics of environmental factors on the dominant species of vascular plants and epilithic lichens has been studied. The investigations were conducted on the Pomorian coast of the White Sea (Republic of Karelia) during two growing seasons (2012-2013). The studies of the morphological and anatomical characteristics of dominant individuals in the plant and lichen cover types have been made along the model transect through different substrate types. Determination of plasticity of plants and lichens was made by the method of Cornelissen exploiting coefficient of variation (CV). The obtained data showed that the investigated groups of vascular plants and lichens on the tidal zone on all measured morphological and anatomical parameters have a high level of plasticity. Key words: tidal zone, coefficient of variation, vascular plants, lichens, pollen, anatomy, White Sea.
28536Očenášová P., Barták M. & Hájek J. (2014): Photoinhibition of photosynthesis in Antarctic lichen Usnea antarctica. II. Analysis of non-photochemical quenching mechanisms activated by low to medium light doses. - Czech Polar Reports, 4: 90–99.
The paper focus sensitivity of an Antarctic lichen Usnea antarctica to photoinhibition studied under controlled laboratory conditions. Main emphasis was given to the analysis of quenching mechanisms, i.e. deexcitation pathways of absorbed light energy exploited in non-photochemical processes. Thalli of U. antarctica were collected at the James Ross Island, Antarctica (57°52´57´´ W, 63°48´02´´ S) and transferred in dry state to the Czech Republic. After rewetting in a laboratory, they were exposed to medium light intensities (300, 600 and 1000 mol m-2 s-1 of photosynthetically active radiation) for 6 h. Before and during photoinhibitory treatments, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, photoinhibitory (qI), state 1-2 transition (qT), and energy-dependent quenching (qE) in particular were measured to evaluate dose- and time-dependent changes in these parameters. The results showed that among the components forming non-photochemical quenching (qN), qI contributes to the largest extent to qN, while qE and qT contribute less. This finding differs from our earlier studies made in a short term-, and high lighttreated U. antarctica that found qE together with qI is the most important part of nonphotochemical quenching. Possible explanation is that photoinhibition in PS II in U. antarctica, when induced by low to medium light, activates qE to only limited extend and for a relatively short time (tens of minutes). With prolonged high light treatment lasting several hours, qE tends to be reduced to the values close to zero and qI then forms a major part of qN. Key words: photoinhibitory quenching, state1-2 transition quenching, energy-dependent quenching.
28535Sehnal L., Váczi P. & Barták M. (2014): Effect of temperature and increased concentration of CO2 on growth and photosynthetic activity of polar alga Trebouxia sp.. - Czech Polar Reports, 4: 47–56.
Trebouxia sp., a lichen symbiotic alga, was isolated from lichen Usnea antarctica collected at James Ross Island, Antarctica. After isolation, the alga was cultivated on Bold‘s Basal Medium (BBM-agar) with addition of nitrogen for 12 days. Growth of alga and its photosynthetic properties were studied in relation to increased concentration of CO2 (850±50 ppm) and two cultivation temperature (8 and 12°C). Physiological status of algae was evaluated by chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. Simultaneously, content of pigments and changes in biomass were evaluated during cultivation period. Evaluation of physiological state of Trebouxia sp. was carried out after the end of experiment. Results of chlorophyll fluorescence induction parameters and content of pigments showed that the highest efficiency of primary processes of photosynthesis was found at the treatment with elevated concentration of CO2 and temperature 12°C. In this treatment, potential quantum yield of photochemical processes in photosystem II (FV/FM) was 0.44 and content of Chl a was 5.14 µg ml-1. In contrast, the lowest efficiency of primary processes was found at the treatment with addition of CO2 and temperature 8°C, where value of FV/FM reached 0.37 and content of Chl a was 3.71 µg ml-1. Key words: Trebouxia sp., carbon dioxide, fluorescence of chlorophyll, pigments, Antarctica, lichen.
28534Balarinová K., Váczi P., Barták M., Hazdrová J. & Forbelská M. (2013): Temperature-dependent growth rate and photosynthetic performance of Antarctic symbiotic alga Trebouxia sp. cultivated in a bioreactor. - Czech Polar Reports, 3: 19–27.
Optimum growth temperature of Trebouxia sp. (re-classified as Asterochloris sp. recently), a symbiotic lichenized alga was evaluated using a batch culture cultivated in a bioreactor. The algae were isolated from lichen thalli of Usnea antarctica collected at the James Ross Island, Antarctica in February 2012. The algae were isolated under laboratory conditions and then cultivated on agar medium at 5°C. When sufficiently developed, the algae were suspended in a BBM liquid medium and cultivated in a photobioreactor for 33 days at either 15, or 10°C. During cultivation, optical density (OD) characterizing culture growth, and effective quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII) characterizing photosynthetic performance were measured simultaneously. Thanks to higher PSII values, faster growth was achieved at 10oC than 15oC indicating that Trebouxia sp. might be ranked among psychrotolerant species. Such conclusion is supported also by a higher specific growth rate found during exponential phase of culture growth. The results are discussed and compared to available data on temperaturedependent growth of polar microalgae. Key words: Usnea antarctica, chlorophyll fluorescence, lichen, effective quantum yield, James Ross Island, psychrotolerance, Asterochloris.
28533Sonina A.V. (2012): Epilithic lichens and their morphological adaptations to the conditions of the White and Barents Seas coast (Russian Arctic). - Czech Polar Reports, 2: 109–116.
The main aim of our work was to investigate the biodiversity of coastal lichens, conditions of lichen cover formation, and study the structural and functional adaptations of Lecanora intricata (Ach.) Ach. and L. polytropa (Ehrh. ex Hoffm.) Rabenh. The investigation was carried out during 2008-2012 on cliffs both along the Murmansk (the Barents Sea) coast and the southern and western shores of the White Sea. For the evaluation of species composition, and ecotopic coenotical features of epilithic lichen growing on cliffs, the geobotanical methods have been used. In addition, the anatomical, morphological and biochemical studies of Lecanora intricata and L. polytropa have been made. 91 species have been included in the total list of lichens on the White Sea coast. On the Murmask coast of the Barents Sea, 36 lichen species had revealed. On the coastal territory, the epilithic lichens inhabit the upper littoral and supralittoral zone. The lichen cover is formed by two interacting factors: the water factor (sea) and the terrestrial vegetation. Four lichen zones were distinguished in the all studying territories. They differed by the lichen species composition and effect of the sea. The first lichen’s zone is the intrazonal structure in the complex coastal lichen cover. In Lecanora polytropa and L. intricata, structural and functional features of lichens for adaptation to unstable coastal conditions were identified. The crustose biomorphs were better adapted to temperature and degree of hydration of thalli. Formation of the smallest ascospores is reproductive strategy of epilithic lichens in extreme habitats. High content of usnic acid in the studied lichen thalli allows them to exist in the open areas exposed to solar radiation and provides the biotic regulation that affects the structure of lichen cover. Optimal ratio of algal to fungal components in the thalli of these species is necessary to maintain their life in extreme environments. Key words: Epilithic lichens, morphological adaptations, physiological adaptations, usnic acid.
28532Rai H., Khare R., Nayaka S., Upreti D.K. & Gupta R.K. (2011): Lichen synusiae in East Antarctica (Schirmacher Oasis and Larsemann Hills): substratum and morphological preferences. - Czech Polar Reports, 1: 65–77.
Antarctic terrestrial ecosystems experience some of the most extreme growth conditions, where plant distribution is determined by favourable environmental gradients of temperature and moisture along with micro-topography of habitats. Lichens are among the most tolerant symbiotic organisms which constitute dominant component in the terrestrial biota of Antarctica. There are various studies dealing with patterns of lichen diversity of various regions of Antarctica are done but in east Antarctica such studies are scanty. Lichen synusiae of Schirmacher Oasis and McLeod Island, Larsemann Hills, East Antarctica were studied in order to determine their morphological and substratum affinities. The Lichen synusiae of the study sites was represented by 71 species, 24 genera and 13 families in Schirmacher Oasis and 27 species, 18 genera and 10 families in McLeod Island, Larsemann Hills. Hierarchical cluster analysis of lichen communities on the basis of growth form diversity and substratum occurrence showed that crustose growth form and saxicolous (on rock, stones and moraines) habitat were the most preferred, in both study sites. The study presents a representative account of morphological and substratum preference patterns in lichen synusiae of east Antarctica, which can be of fundamental importance for future lichenological investigation in the region. Key words: crustose, growth form, McLeod Island, Queen Maud Land, saxicolous.
28531Láska K., Barták M., Hájek J., Prošek P. & Bohuslavová O. (2011): Climatic and ecological characteristics of deglaciated area of James Ross Island, Antarctica, with a special respect to vegetation cover. - Czech Polar Reports, 1: 49–62.
Since 2006, year-round measurements of climatic parameters of characteristic ecosystems of James Ross Island, such as (1) coastal vegetation oases, (2) volcanic mesas have been performed by automatic weather stations. Simultaneously, prospection, classification and mapping of vegetation cover have been made annually within the period of Czech Antarctic expeditions lasting from January to March. In this paper, description of the two typical terrestrial ecosystems, characteristics of their microclimate and overview of vegetation cover are given. Daily and monthly means and extreme values of 2-m air temperature, surface temperature and relative humidity are reported for coastal locations and volcanic mesas (300–400 m a.s.l.). Species composition of lichen and moss flora in coastal and mesa locations is characterized and discussed in relation to local topography and microclimate. Key words: microclimate, air temperature, water availability, moss, lichen.
28530Sehnal L., Barták M. & Váczi P. (2014): Comparative study of diurnal changes in photosynthetic activity of the biological soil crust and lichen: effects of abiotic factors (Petuniabukta, Svalbard). - Czech Polar Reports, 4: 158–167.
In polar ecosystems, primary producers have to cope with a very harsh climate that limits the time available for growth and biomass production. In this study, diurnal measurement of photosynthetic processes in biological soil crust and a lichen were carried out in Petuniabukta, Spitsbergen. For field measurements, a method of induced fluorescence of chlorophyll was used. Measurements of photosynthetic activity were taken as repetitive measurements of effective quantum yield of photosystem II (ΦPSII). The short-term field measurements were carried out for 10 days in summer 2014. ΦPSII was recorded each 5 minutes as well as microclimatic data (air temperature, air humidity, photosynthetically active radiation - PAR). The microclimatic parameters were recorded by a datalogger. In general, physiological activity of both biological soil crust and a lichen showed daily courses. Tested lichen was Cladonia rangiferina and the most dominant species in biological soil crust was Nostoc sp. Typically, most of ΦPSII values ranged 0.6 – 0.7 in both model organisms. The results have shown that photosynthetic activity was strongly correlated with all observed abiotic factors in both study objects. Particularly important was the relation found between PAR and ΦPSII in biological soil crust. When the biological soil crust was exposed to high PAR doses of irradiation (about 2300 μmol m-2 s-1) photoinhibition of primary processes of photosynthesis was observed as ΦPSII decrease, while photosynthetic activity of lichen remained at same level. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated increasing that in situ photosynthetic activity increased in both biological soil crust and lichen with a decrease in temperature. Key words: Spitsbergen, lichen, biological soil crusts, photosynthesis, fluorescence, effective quantum yield, Cladonia rangiferina, Nostoc sp.
28529Conti S., Hazdrová J., Hájek J., Očenášová P., Barták M., Skácelová K. & Adamo P. (2014): Comparative analysis of heterogeneity of primary photosynthetic processes within fruticose lichen thalli: Preliminary study of interspecific differences. - Czech Polar Reports, 4: 149–157.
Two species of fruticose lichens from different habitats and of distinct color, Usnea antarctica and Stereocaulon vesuvianum, were compared using chlorophyll fluorescence imaging in order to study the distribution of primary photosynthetic processes within the thalli. The thallus of U. antarctica is yellow with black tips: in this species chlorophyll containing cells were mostly located in the middle region of the thallus and the highest PS II efficiency was detected in the middle to basal region, as shown by the FV/FM and ΦPSII values. No chlorophyll fluorescence was detected in the apical part of the thallus, indicating that little or no photosynthesis takes place in these tissues. The lichen S. vesuvianum is homogeneously pale grayish green and chlorophyll containing cells are distributed along the thallus with maximum concentration in the middle region. In S. vesuvianum, the highest PS II efficiency was detected in the apical to middle region of the thallus, while the basal portion was found to have the lowest efficiency of primary photochemical reactions. Quenching analysis data confirmed the uneven patterns of primary photosynthetic processes within the thalli of these fruticose lichens. Key words: chlorophyll fluorescence, Kautsky kinetics, quenching analysis, Usnea antarctica, Stereocaulon vesuvianum.
28528Mishra A., Hájek J., Tuháčková T., Barták M. & Mishra K.B. (2015): Features of chlorophyll fluorescence transients can be used to investigate low temperature induced effects on photosystem II of algal lichens from polar regions. - Czech Polar Reports, 5: 99–111.
Chlorophyll fluorescence is an effective tool for investigating characteristics of any photosynthesizing organisms and its responses due to different stressors. Here, we have studied a short-term temperature response on three Antarctic green algal lichen species: Umbilicaria antarctica, Xanthoria elegans, and Rhizoplaca melanophtalma. We measured slow chlorophyll fluorescence transients in these Antarctic lichen species during slowely cooling of thallus temperature from 20°C to 5, 0 and -5°C with 20 minute acclimation at each temperature. The measurements were supplemented with saturation pulses for the analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters: maximum yield of PS II photochemistry (FV/FM), effective quantum yield of PS II photochemistry (PSII) and quenching parameters. In response to decreasing thallus temperature, we observed species-specific changes in chlorophyll fluorescence parameters as well as in the shape of the chlorophyll fluorescence transients. We propose that species-specific changes in the slow phase of chlorophyll fluorescence transients can be potentially used as indicators of freezing stress in photosynthetic apparatus of lichen algal photobionts. Key words: Rhizoplaca melanophtalma, Umbilicaria antarctica, Xanthoria elegans, temperature stress.
28527Barták M., Hájek J., Amarillo A.C., Hazdrová J. & Carreras H. (2016): Changes in spectral reflectance of selected Antarctic and South American lichens caused by an artificially-induced absence of secondary compounds. - Czech Polar Reports, 6: 221–230.
Recently, spectral characteristics of lichens are in focus because of increasing number of spectral data applications in remote sensing of treeless polar and alpine regions. Therefore, species-specific spectral reflectance indices are measured in lichen species dominating polar ecosystems. Hydration status of the lichen thalli, as well as the presence of intrathalline secondary metabolites - which are UV-B absorbing compounds - both affects the spectral reflectance curves as well as numeric values of spectral reflectance indices. In the present paper, the reflectance spectra in 380-800 nm was measured in selected lichens to assess the effects of full hydration, and to evaluate the influence of secondary metabolites, they were wash out from lichen thalli with acetone (i.e. acetone rinsing) and then the spectra were also measured. For these experiments, Antarctic (Xanthoria elegans, Leptogium puberulum, Physconia muscigena and Rhizoplaca melanophthalma) and Argentinean lichens from mountain regions (Parmotrema conferendum and Ramalina celastri) were used. Changes in several spectral reflectance indices were evaluated and discussed in relation with hydration status and the absence of secondary metabolites. For the great majority of studied lichens, MCARI (Modified Chlorophyll Absorption in Reflectance Index) was the most effective index to reflect the changes between dry and wet state of thallus. Key words: reflectance indices, secondary metabolites, hydration.
28526Barták M., Hájek J. & Očenášová P. (2012): Photoinhibition of photosynthesis in Antarctic lichen Usnea antarctica. I. Light intensity- and light duration-dependent changes in functioning of photosystem II. - Czech Polar Reports, 2: 42–51.
The paper deals with the differences in sensitivity of Antarctic lichen to photoinhibition. Thalli of Usnea antarctica were collected at the James Ross Island, Antarctica (57°52´57´´W, 63°48´02´´S) and transferred in dry state to the Czech Republic. After rewetting in a laboratory, they were exposed to 2 high light treatments: short-term (30 min), and long-term (6 h). In short-term treatment, the sample were exposed to 1000 and 2000 μmol m-2 s-1 of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). In long-term experiment, PAR of 300, 600, and 1000 μmol m-2 s-1 were used. Photosynthetic efficiency of U. antarctica thalli was monitored by chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, potential (FV/FM) and actual (PSII) quantum yield of photochemical processes in photosystem II in particular. In short-term treatments, the F0, FV and FM signals, as well as the values of FV/FM, and PSII showed light-induced decrease, however substantial recovery after consequent 30 min. in dark. Longer exposition (60 min) to high light led to more pronounced decrease in chlorophyll fluorescence than after 30 min treatment, however dark recovery was faster in the thalli treated before for longer time (60 min). Long-term treatment by high light caused gradual decrease in FV/FM and PSII with the time of exposition. The extent of the decrease was found light dose-dependent. The time course was biphasic for FV/FM but not for PSII. The study showed that wet thalli of Usnea antarctica had high capacity of photoprotective mechanisms to cope well either with short- or long-term high light stress. This might be of particular importance in the field at the James Ross Island, particularly at the begining of growing season when melting water is available and, simultaneously, high light stress may happen on fully sunny days. Key words: chlorophyll fluorescence, high light, potential quantum yield, effective quantum yield.
28525Jupa R., Hájek J., Hazdrová J. & Barták M. (2012): Interspecific differences in photosynthetic efficiency and spectral reflectance in two Umbilicaria species from Svalbard during controlled desiccation. - Czech Polar Reports, 2: 31–41.
This study aimed to evaluate the effective photosynthetic quantum yield (PSII) and the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) for assessment of photosynthetic performance of two Umbilicaria lichens during gradual desiccation of their thalli. U. cylindrica and U. decussata exhibited curvilinear relationship (S-shape curve) of decreasing PSII values with decreasing water potential (WP) of thalli. During initial phase of desiccation (WP from 0 to -10 MPa), no decrease of PSII was apparent, further desiccation (WP from -10 to -20 MPa) led to fast PSII decrease from 0.6 to 0.1 indicating strong inhibition of photosynthetic processes. Critical WP at which photosythetic processes are fully inhibited was found bellow -25 MPa in both lichen species. Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) exhibited curvilinear increase with thalli desiccation (decreasing WP). At full thallus hydration, the PRI reached the value of -0.18 in both species. Under strong dehydration (WP from -20 to -30 MPa), however, U. cylindrica showed somewhat lower value (-0.04) than U.decussata (-0.02 MPa). PRI to WP relationship is discussed and compared to existing evidence from higher plants and poikilohydric organisms. Key words: Quantum yield, water potential, chlorophyll fluorescence, Photochemical Reflectance Index, lichen, water stress.
28524Marečková M. & Barták M. (2016): Effects of short-term low temperature stress on chlorophyll fluorescence transients in Antarctic lichen species. - Czech Polar Reports, 6: 54–65.
Chlorophyll fluorescence is an effective tool for investigating characteristics of any photosynthesizing organisms and its responses due to different stressors. Here, we have studied a short-term temperature response on two Antarctic green algal lichen species: Umbilicaria antarctica, and Physconia muscigena. We measured slow chlorophyll fluorescence transients in the species during slow a cooling of thallus temperature from 20°C to 5°C with a 10 min. acclimation at each temperature in dark. The measurements were supplemented with saturation pulses for the analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters: maximum yield of PS II photochemistry (FV/FM), effective quantum yield of PS II photochemistry (PSII) and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). In response to decreasing thallus temperature, we observed species-specific changes in chlorophyll fluorescence levels P, S, M, T reached during chlorophyll fluorescence transient as well as in the shape of the chlorophyll fluorescence transients. With a decrease in temperature, the time at which M and T chlorophyll fluorescence levels were reached, increased. These changes were attributed to redox state of plastoquinon pool, changes in Calvin-Benson cycle activity, non-photochemical quenching components, state transition in particular. In this study, we present some chlorophyll fluorescence ratios (P/M, M/T, P/T) and chlorophyll fluorescence increase rates (FR1, i.e. O to P, and FR2 - i.e. S to M) as the parameters reflecting direct temperature effects on chloroplastic apparatus of lichen alga sensitively. We proposed that species-specific changes in the slow phase of chlorophyll fluorescence transients could be potentially used as indicators of low temperature effects in photosynthetic apparatus of lichen algal photobionts. Interspecific differences in response to low temperature might be evaluated using the approach as well. Key words: photosynthetic processes, polyphasic kinetics, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, James Ross Island, Galindez Island.
28523Marečková M. & Barták M. (2017): Short-term responses of primary processes in PS II to low temperature are sensitively indicated by fast chlorophyll fluorescence kinetics in Antarctic lichen Dermatocarpon polyphyllizum. - Czech Polar Reports, 7: 74–82.
In this study, we investigated the effects of low temperature on the fast chlorophyll fluorescence transient (OJIP) and OJIP-derived parameters in chlorolichen Dermatocarpon polyphyllizum expossed to a gradually decreasing temperature (22°C, 18°C, 14°C, 12°C, 10°C, 7°C and 4°C). The segments of lichen thalli were exposed to a certain temperature either in dark- and light-adapted state for 10 minutes in order to evaluate the effects on chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. The initial photochemical phase of the transient (O-J) due to reduction of the primary quinone acceptor (QA) was found temperature dependent. The K-step was apparent for the samples measured at the temperature above 12°C, but not below 10oC in light-adapted lichen thalli. With the thallus temperature decrease, majority of the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters derived from OJIP (ET0/RC, Psi_0, and DI0/RC) showed no change in light-adapted samples but a decrease in darkadapted samples. The effects of dark- / light-adaptation of the lichen samples on the OJIP and OJIP-derived parameters was attributed to the differences in production/utilization of high-energy products of primary photochemical processes of photosynthesis in darkand light-adapted state, respectively. The other parameters (ABS/RC, TR0/RC) showed a decrease with thallus temperature decrease both in light- and dark-adapted samples. The results suggest that fast chlorophyll fluorescence trasient is an useful tool to investigate temperature-dependent changes in photosystem II in chlorolichens, their photobionts, respectively. Key words: Chlorophyll fluorescence, fast kinetics, OJIP, K-step, James Ross Island, temperature stress.
28522Halici M.G., Güllü M. & Barták M. (2017): First record of a common endolithic lichenized fungus species Catenarina desolata Søchting, Søgaard & Elvebakk. [sic!] from James Ross Island (Antarctic Peninsula). - Czech Polar Reports, 7: 11–17.
Catenarina desolata, a species which was recently described from southernmost Chile is reported from the Antarctica for the first time. Although it was described as lichenicolous, in James Ross Island, many specimens belonging to this species have non lichenicolous habit. The dubious reports of Caloplaca aff. anchon-phoenicon from James Ross Island actually belong to Catenarina desolata. Collections were evaluated using morphological, anatomical and molecular characteristics (nrITS). The morphological and ecological variations of this species are discussed in this paper. Key words: Antarctica, first report, Southern Hemisphere, lichens, Teloschistaceae.
28521Matus G., Szepesi J., Rózsa P., Lőkös L., Varga N. & Farkas E. (2017): Xanthoparmelia mougeotii (Parmeliaceae, lichenised Ascomycetes) new to the lichen flora of Hungary. - Studia Botanica Hungarica, 48(1): 89–104.
Xanthoparmelia mougeotii is a usnic acid containing, small foliose, sorediate, parmelioid lichen species with a pantemperate distribution. In Europe it occurs in most countries especially in cool, humid, “suboceanic” habitats, mainly on acidic rocks, and rather sporadic in the continental areas, e.g. isolated populations in Slovakia (near Strečno) or in Ukraine (Crimea). Recently another isolated Central European population was discovered in the Zemplén Mts (NE Hungary), approx. 200 km far from the Slovak population. Key words: Hungary, lichen-forming fungi, lichenicolous fungi, Xanthoparmelia.
28520Candan M. (2017): Eight new records of lichenized and lichenicolous fungi from Turkey. - Mycotaxon, 132(3): 575–583.
From Akdağ, Aegean Region, Turkey, four lichenized fungi (Circinaria elmorei, Gyalidea fritzei, Placynthium lismorense, Rhizocarpon atroflavescens subsp. pulverulentum), three lichenicolous lichens (Buellia uberior, Endohyalina brandii, Rhizocarpon vorax), and one lichenicolous fungus (Phaeospora parasitica) are reported for the first time from Turkey. Comments on their habitats, substrata, and key anatomical features and photographs are provided for each species. Key words—Ascomycota, Afyon, Denizli, biodiversity.
28519Lü L. & Zhao Z.-T. (2017): Lecanora subloekoesii sp. nov. and four other species of the L. subfusca group new to China. - Mycotaxon, 132(3): 539–546.
A new species of Lecanora is described from China: L. subloekoesii, which is similar to L. loekoesii but differs by its 8-spored asci. Four species newly recorded from China are discussed: L. chionocarpa, L. hybocarpa, L. praepostera, and L sulcata. A detailed taxonomic description, ecological and chemical characters, and illustrations are provided for the new taxon, and brief comments and illustrations for the newly reported taxa. Keywords—1-septate ascospore, Ascomycota, Lecanorales, Lecanoraceae, usnic acid.