31733Scholz P. (2013): Hochgefährdete Flechten in den Steppenlebensräumen Thüringens. - In: Steppenlebensräume Europas - Gefährdung, Erhaltungsmaßnahmen und Schutz, p. 275–278, Erfurt: Thüringer Ministerium für Landwirtschaft, Forsten, Umwelt und Naturschutz.
[Highly endangered lichens in steppe habitats of Thuringia] Steppe habitats of the Thuringian Basin and its borders harbour a rich diversity of highly endangered lichens. Among them especially the elements of the Toninio-Psorodetum decipientis and related associations are restricted to the most continental parts and some of them are restricted to gypsum soil in addition. At least 20 of them are red-listed in Thuringia or Germany in higher categories. In Central Europe Acarospora placodiiformis occurs only on the southern slopes of the Kyffhäuser Mountains. The distribution of Psora saviczii in Central Europe is concentrated in Thuringia. Therefore Thuringia has a high responsibility for the survival of these species in Germany and in Central Europe. Strategies for maintaining steppe habitats in Thuringia cannot be developed without taking into consideration the very sensitive lichen flora of these habitats.
31732Villella J., Benson S., Carlberg T., Miller J.E.D., Patton R. & Peterson E. (2010): The lichens of the Horseshoe Ranch Wildlife Area. - Bulletin of the California Lichen Society, 17: 9–12.
31731Suija A. (2019): New Estonian records: Lichenicolous fungi. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 56: 137.
31730Melekhin A.V., Davydov D.A., Borovichev E.A., Shalygin S.S. & Konstantinova N.A. (2019): CRIS – service for input, storage and analysis of the biodiversity data of the cryptogams. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 56: 99–108.
Here we describe Cryptogamic Russian Information System (CRIS), a web service cataloguing the biodiversity of cryptogams: cyanobacteria, fungi (including lichens), and bryophytes. CRIS incorporates a wide spectrum of data types, allowing for greater ease of use. It is possible to print the labels for herbarium collections, to input literature references, media files, etc., using CRIS which has a flexible interface and specific technical abilities. Currently, CRIS contains ~ 90,000 herbarium records, including 67,861 records of bryophytes, 12,486 records of lichens and 3,800 records of cyanobacteria. Data analysis of the different taxonomic groups is provided below. Perspectives and directions for the future development of CRIS are discussed. Keywords: biodiversity, herbarium collections, information system, cyanobacteria, lichens, bryophytes.
31729Tarasova V.N., Pystina T.N., Androsova V.I., Sonina A.V., Valekzhanin A.A. & Konoreva L.A. (2019): New records of lichens and allied fungi from Vodlozersky National Park within Arkhangelsk Region (NW Russia). - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 56: 87–98.
The paper presents the results of the ongoing research of lichen diversity in Arkhangelsk Region of Russia, in Vodlozersky National Park which is the largest protected area in the territory of NW Russia. In total, 155 species of lichens and allied fungi are recorded for the first time for the Arkhangelsk part of the Vodlozersky National Park, and 69 species – for the whole mainland area of Arkhangelsk Region. Keywords: lichen diversity, new lichen records.
31728Lõhmus P., Marmor L., Jüriado I., Suija A., Oja E., Degtjarenko P. & Randlane T. (2019): Red List of Estonian lichens: revision in 2019. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 56: 63–76.
The second assessment of the threat status of Estonian lichens based on IUCN system was performed in 2019. The main basis for choosing the species to be currently assessed was the list of legally protected lichens and the list of species assigned to the Red List Categories RE–DD in 2008. Species that had been assessed as Least Concern (LC) in 2008 were not evaluated. Altogether, threat status of 229 lichen species was assessed, among them 181 were assigned to the threatened categories (CR, EN, VU), while no species were assigned to the LC category. Compared to the previous red list, category was deteriorated for 58% and remained the same for 32% of species. In Estonia, threatened lichens inhabit mainly forests (particularly dry boreal and nemoral deciduous stands), alvar grasslands, sand dunes and various saxicolous habitats. Therefore, the most frequent threat factors were forest cutting and overgrowing of alvars and dunes (main threat factor for 96 and 70 species, respectfully). Keywords: IUCN, regional red-listing, status deterioration, threat factors.
31727Darmostuk V.V. & Khodosovtsev A.Ye. (2019): Epibryon kondratyukii sp. nov., a new algicolous fungus, and notes on rare lichenicolous fungi collected in Southern Ukraine. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 56: 109–116.
The new algicolous fungus Epibryon kondratyukii sp. nov. grows on Coccomyxa-like films on leaves of Polytrichum piliferum in Southern Ukraine. The species is characterized by sessile black setose pseudothecia, short 0–2-celled paraphysoids, 8-spored fissitunicate asci and hyaline 0–1-septate ascospores. The lichenicolous fungi Adelococcus interlatens, Ascochyta candelariellicola, Clypeococcum psoromatis, Epithamnolia rangiferinae, Lawalreea lecanorae, Llimoniella adnata, Merismatium decolorans, Sphaerellothecium cladoniae, Stigmidium bellemerei, S. ramalinae and Weddellomyces epicallopisma are new to the mycobiota of the Ukraine. Cladonia foliacea is a new host for Epithamnolia rangiferinae, Lecidea fuscoatra for Katherinomyces cetrariae, and Flavoplaca austrocitrina for Weddellomyces epicallopisma. Keywords: Ascochyta, Epibryon, Epithamnolia, Katherinomyces.
31726Brunbjerg A.K., Bruun H.H., Brøndum L., Classen A.T., Dalby L., Fog K., Frøslev T.G., Goldberg I., Hansen A.J., Hansen M.D.D., Høye T.T., Illum A.A., Læssøe T., Newman G.S., Skipper L., Søchting U. & Ejrnæs R. (2019): A systematic survey of regional multi‑taxon biodiversity: evaluating strategies and coverage. - BMC Ecology, 19:43 [15 p.].
Background: In light of the biodiversity crisis and our limited ability to explain variation in biodiversity, tools to quantify spatial and temporal variation in biodiversity and its underlying drivers are critically needed. Inspired by the recently published ecospace framework, we developed and tested a sampling design for environmental and biotic mapping. We selected 130 study sites (40 × 40 m) across Denmark using stratified random sampling along the major environmental gradients underlying biotic variation. Using standardized methods, we collected site species data on vascular plants, bryophytes, macrofungi, lichens, gastropods and arthropods. To evaluate sampling efficiency, we calculated regional coverage (relative to the known species number per taxonomic group), and site scale coverage (i.e., sample completeness per taxonomic group at each site). To extend taxonomic coverage to organisms that are difficult to sample by classical inventories (e.g., nematodes and non-fruiting fungi), we collected soil for metabarcoding. Finally, to assess site conditions, we mapped abiotic conditions, biotic resources and habitat continuity. Results: Despite the 130 study sites only covering a minute fraction (0.0005%) of the total Danish terrestrial area, we found 1774 species of macrofungi (54% of the Danish fungal species pool), 663 vascular plant species (42%), 254 bryophyte species (41%) and 200 lichen species (19%). For arthropods, we observed 330 spider species (58%), 123 carabid beetle species (37%) and 99 hoverfly species (33%). Overall, sample coverage was remarkably high across taxonomic groups and sufficient to capture substantial spatial variation in biodiversity across Denmark. This inventory is nationally unprecedented in detail and resulted in the discovery of 143 species with no previous record for Denmark. Comparison between plant OTUs detected in soil DNA and observed plant species confirmed the usefulness of carefully curated environmental DNA-data. Correlations among species richness for taxonomic groups were predominantly positive, but did not correlate well among all taxa suggesting differential and complex biotic responses to environmental variation. Conclusions: We successfully and adequately sampled a wide range of diverse taxa along key environmental gradients across Denmark using an approach that includes multi-taxon biodiversity assessment and ecospace mapping. Our approach is applicable to assessments of biodiversity in other regions and biomes where species are structured along environmental gradient. Keywords: Abiotic gradients, Biotic factors, Continuity, Denmark, Disturbance, eDNA, Moisture, Productivity.
31725Nystuen K.O., Sundsdal K., Opedal Ø.H., Holien H., Strimbeck G.R. & Graae B.J. (2019): Lichens facilitate seedling recruitment in alpine heath. - Journal of Vegetation Science, 30: 868–880.
Questions: How do mat thickness, physical structure and allelopathic properties of terricolous mat‐forming lichens affect recruitment of vascular plants in dwarf‐shrub and lichen heath vegetation? Location: The mountains of Dovrefjell, central Norway. Methods: In autumn, seeds of ten vascular plant species were collected and sown in a common garden experiment with mats of six lichen species and bare soil controls as experimental treatments. We recorded growing season soil temperature and moisture, and seedling recruitment and growth after one year. The effect of lichen secondary compounds on germination was tested in a growth chamber experiment and compared to the lichen–plant interactions detected under field conditions. Results: The lichen mats buffered extreme soil temperatures and soil drying in dry weather, with soils below the thickest mats (Cladonia stellaris and C. rangiferina) experiencing the lowest temperature fluctuations. Seedling recruitment and seedling growth in the field and seed germination in the lab were species‐specific. Seedling recruitment rates were overall higher within lichen mats than on bare soil, but the c. 6.5‐cm‐thick mats of C. stellaris reduced recruitment of many species. The lab experiment suggested no overall strong effect of lichen allelopathy on seed germination, and effects on seed germination were only moderately correlated with the lichen–plant interactions observed for seedling recruitment in the field. Conclusions: In harsh environments like alpine dwarf‐shrub and lichen heaths, the presence of lichens and the resulting amelioration of the microclimate seem more important for vascular plant recruitment than are allelopathic effects often reported in lab experiments. We might therefore expect most terricolous lichens, depending on the plant species in focus, to facilitate rather than hamper the early stages of plant recruitment into lichen‐dominated arctic‐alpine heath vegetation. Keywords: Alectoria, Cetraria, Cladonia heath, Flavocetraria, ground lichen, lichen secondary metabolites, lichen–plant interaction, microclimate, seedling emergence, soil moisture, Stereocaulon, tundra, vascular plant colonization.
31724Kaufmann S., Weinrich T., Hauck M. & Leuschner C. (2019): Vertical variation in epiphytic cryptogam species richness and composition in a primeval Fagus sylvatica forest. - Journal of Vegetation Science, 30: 881–892.
Question: Biodiversity surveys of epiphytic bryophytes and lichens on standing trees are mostly restricted to the lowermost 2 m, since sampling above this level is timeconsuming and therefore expensive. However, sampling only the stem base is likely to result in underestimation of forest epiphyte diversity, because microclimate and physico‐chemical site conditions, both of which vary with height above the ground, play important roles for poikilohydric organisms. We investigate variation in epiphyte diversity and composition along the vertical gradient in forests and discuss factors that may potentially account for height‐dependent distribution patterns. Location: Montane primeval beech forest Havešová in the Carpathians, eastern Slovakia. Methods: Ten circular plots, each 500 m2, were selected randomly in an area severely affected by windfall. Epiphytes were sampled along the stems of recently uprooted trees, from base to the canopy. Mean Ellenberg indicator values (EIV) for light, moisture, acidity and nitrogen availability were used as surrogate variables for environmental interpretation of compositional patterns for sampling segments of 2 m along the stem. Results: By sampling only the lowest 2 m, 10% of the total bryophyte and 48% of the lichen species would have been missed. We detected systematic patterns of compositional variation for both groups along the vertical gradient. While pleurocarpous mosses and liverworts were mostly restricted to the stem base, acrocarpous mosses and crustose lichens occurred along the stem almost to the top. Foliose and fruticose lichens were concentrated at intermediate heights and in the upper canopy. Patterns of variation in EIVs suggested that increasing light availability, decreasing moisture and increasing inputs of acidic and nitrous substances are responsible for the compositional shifts along the vertical gradient. Conclusions: Sampling only the stem base implies severe underestimation of the epiphyte diversity in temperate broad‐leaved forests. The middle and the upper parts of tree stems have distinctive compositions of epiphytic cryptogams, because microclimate and physico‐chemical site factors vary with height above the ground. Keywords: acidity, bryophytes, canopy, Ellenberg indicator values, Fagus sylvatica, lichens, light, moisture, primeval forests, species composition, vertical gradient.
31723Stenroos S., Pino-Bodas R. & Ahti T. (2019): Rexiella, a new name for Rexia S. Stenroos, Pino-Bodas & Ahti (2018), non Rexia D. A. Casamatta, S. R. Gomez & J. R. Johansen (2006). - Cladistics, 35: 603.
Corrigendum. A new generic name, Rexiella, is published to replace the recently published name Rexia S. Stenroos, Pino-Bodas and Ahti, which turned out to be an illegitimate later homonym of the cyanobacterial genus Rexia D. A. Casamatta, S. R. Gomez and J. R. Johansen.
31722Adams L.G., Farnell R., Oakley M.P., Jung T.S., Larocque L.L., Lortie G.M., Mclelland J., Reid M.E., Roffler G.H. & Russell D.E. (2019): Evaluation of maternal penning to improve calf survival in the Chisana Caribou Herd. - Wildlife Monographs, 204: 5–46.
Key words: Alaska, body mass, calf mortality, caribou, maternal penning, natality, population dynamics, population recovery, predation, Rangifer tarandus, sex ratio, survival, Yukon. [p. 14:] "Animal care and monitoring during captivity.—We provided caribou ad libitum a commercial pelleted ration formulated specifically for caribou (Barboza and Parker 2006, Thompson and Barboza 2014; ¯x = 2.9 kg dry/adult caribou/day) and terrestrial lichens ( ¯x = 0.5 kg dry/adult caribou/day) in plywood feeding troughs each morning and evening. Lichens were predominantly Cladonia arbuscula, C. mitis, and C. stellaris collected elsewhere and transported to pen facilities. Caribou also consumed native forages available within the pen." [p. 24:] "Diets of adult females in captivity.—Adult females placed in captivity quickly accepted the pelleted ration. Based on microhistological analyses of feces in 2006, the commercial feed constituted about 27% of the diet of females in the pen following their first week in captivity (Fig. 13A). The addition of the pelleted feed to their diets primarily resulted in a reduction in the proportion of lichen, which constituted 70% of the diet of free‐ranging caribou (Fig. 13A), even though we provided 0.5 kg dry lichen/caribou/day on average and additional lichen was naturally available in the pen."
31721Rodríguez-Peñate A.E., Escudero A., Martínez I. & Madrigal-González J. (2019): Unveiling annual growth chronologies from inter-nodal branch elongations in a fruticose lichen in southern Europe. - Fungal Biology, 123(11): 824–829.
Techniques for retrospective analysis of size dynamics at annual resolution remain poorly developed in lichens in general, and fruticose lichens in particular. Only a few attempts in very high latitudes suggested that growth might be studied as a chronosequence of inter-nodal branch elongations. Here we evaluated, for the first time, this hypothesis in a dry Mediterranean environment using the lichen Cladonia rangiformis as a case study. Mixed models supported a strong positive relationship between humidity measured as precipitation/PET and inter-nodal branch elongations. Importantly, model selection suggested that (i) the number of intermodal elongations were a major determinant of stem elongation, and (ii) a second-order temporal autocorrelation denoted legacies of environmental influences at least over the next 2 y. The strong growth–humidity relationship, along with the potential legacies observed, support the idea that inter-nodal branch elongations could be used to reconstruct growth chronologies at annual resolution in drylands. This finding highlights the high vulnerability of these organisms to rising aridity, and opens a new venue for climate reconstruction and other potential applications in Ecology and Earth Science disciplines. Keywords: Aridity; Cladonia rangiformis; Climate change; Fruticose lichens; Legacies; Lichenometry.
31720Mallavadhani U.V., Tirupathamma R.S., Sagarika G. & Ramakrishna S. (2019): Isolation, chemical modification, and anticancer activity of major metabolites of the lichen Parmotrema mesotropum. - Chemistry of Natural Compounds, 55(5): 825–831.
Extensive chromatographic purification of the chloroform–methanol (1:1) extract of the lichen Parmotrema mesotropum led to the isolation of methyl hematommate (1), methyl-2,4-dihydroxy-3,6-dimethylbenzoate (2), orcinol (3), and atranorin (4). The two major metabolites (1 and 2) were subjected to chemical modification and a total of 15 analogues were synthesized. The synthesized analogues and their parent compounds were evaluated for their anticancer potential against a panel of five human cancer cell lines. Among the tested samples, compound 1g showed potent activity against three cancer cell lines, namely DU145 (IC50 20.07 μM), MCF-7 (IC50 20.94 μM), and U87MG (IC50 25.32 μM). This compound can be considered as lead a molecule for further development. Keywords: Lichen, Parmotrema mesotropum, methyl hematommate, methyl 2,4-dihydroxy-3,6-dimethylbenzoate, synthetic analogues, anticancer activity.
31719Minelli A. (2019): The galaxy of the non‑Linnaean nomenclature. - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences, 41: 31 [20 p.].
Contrary to the traditional claim that needs for unambiguous communication about animal and plant species are best served by a single set of names (Linnaean nomenclature) ruled by international Codes, I suggest that a more diversified system is required, especially to cope with problems emerging from aggregation of biodiversity data in large databases. Departures from Linnaean nomenclature are sometimes intentional, but there are also other, less obvious but widespread forms of not Code-compliant grey nomenclature. A first problem is due to the circumstance that the Codes are intended to rule over the way names are applied to species and other taxonomic units, whereas users of taxonomy need names to be applied to specimens. For different reasons, it is often impossible to refer a specimen with certainty to a named species, and in those cases an open nomenclature is employed. Second, molecular taxonomy leads to the discovery of clusters of gene sequence diversity not necessarily equivalent to the species recognized and named by taxonomists. Those clusters are mostly indicated with informal names or formulas that challenge comparison between different publications or databases. In several instances, it is not even clear if a formula refers to an individual voucher specimen, or is a provisional species name. The use of non-Linnaean names and formulas must be revised and strengthened by fixing standard formats for the different kinds of objects or hypotheses and providing permanent association of ‘grey names’ with standardized source information such as author and year. In the context of a broad-scope revisitation of aims and scope of scientific nomenclature, it may be worth rethinking if natural objects like plant galls and lichens, although other than the ‘single-entity’ objects traditionally covered by biological classifications, may nevertheless deserve taxonomic names. Keywords: Open nomenclature · Grey nomenclature · Data aggregation · Taxonomic concept · Rules for non-Linnaean nomenclature · Lichen names · Plant gall names.
31718杨美霞 王欣宇 刘栋 张雁云 李丽娟 银安城 王立松 [Yang M.-X., Wang X.-Y., Liu D., Zhang Y.-Y., Li L.-J., Yin A.C. & Wang L.-S.] (2018): 中国食药用地衣资源综述 [Evaluation of edible and medicinal lichen resources in China]. - Mycosystema, 37(7): 819–837.
[in Chinese with English abstract: ] Utilization of edible and medicinal lichen in China has a long history. Textual research of Chinese ancient and modern literatures and investigation of folk usages proved that lichen species used as medicine in China totalled 130 species belonging to 16 families and 43 genera, and as food 31 species belonging to seven families and 14 genera. A proposal concerning protection of the species with narrow distribution in special ecological environment, having important scientific significance is put forward. Key words: lichen; medicinal use; edible species; resource investigation.
31717Marthinsen G., Rui S. & Timdal E. (2019): OLICH: A reference library of DNA barcodes for Nordic lichens. - Biodiversity Data Journal, 7: e36252 [146 p.].
Background: DNA barcodes are increasingly being used for species identification amongst the lichenised fungi. This paper presents a dataset aiming to provide an authoritative DNA barcode sequence library for a wide array of Nordic lichens. New information: We present 1324 DNA barcode sequences (nrITS) for 507 species in 175 genera and 25 orders. Thirty-eight species are new to GenBank and, for 25 additional species, ITS sequences are here presented for the first time. The dataset covers 20–21% of the Nordic lichenised species. Barcode gap analyses are given and discussed for the three genera Cladonia, Ramalina and Umbilicaria. The new combination Bryobilimbia fissuriseda (Poelt) Timdal, Marthinsen & Rui is proposed for Mycobilimbia fissuriseda and Nordic material of the species, currently referred to as Pseudocyphellaria crocata and Psoroma tenue ssp. boreale, are shown to belong in Pseudocyphellaria citrina and Psoroma cinnamomeum, respectively.
31716Temu S.G., Clerc P., Tibell L., Tibuhwa D.D. & Tibell S. (2019): Phylogeny of the subgenus Eumitria in Tanzania. - Mycology, 10(4): 250–260.
Several Usnea species in subgenus Eumitria (Parmeliaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) have been described from East Africa in the past decades. These have been based on morphology and chemistry data while molecular studies remain very limited. In this paper we are for the first time publishing phylogenetic analyses along with morphological and chemical data for Eumitria. A total of 62 new sequences of Eumitria (26 ITS, 20 nuLSU, 6 MCM7, 10 RPB1) were generated in this study. nuLSU, MCM7 and RPB1 sequences are here for the first time reported for U. baileyi. A phylogeny of subgenus Eumitria from Tanzania based on Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses of a concatenated four-loci data set is presented, confirming the monophyly of Eumitria. Further, secondary chemistry and variation in characters, such as the pigmentation of the central axis and branch shape were investigated. Keywords: Lichens; molecular phylogeny; morphology; secondary chemistry.
31715Singh P. & Singh K.P. (2019): Buelliella indica (Dothideomycetes), a new lichenicolous species from India. - Acta Botanica Hungarica, 61: 435–439.
A new lichenicolous fungus Buelliella indica colonising on the thallus of Graphis longiramea is described from the state of Nagaland, a part of the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot region in India. It is characterised by its brown epihymenium, much smaller ascospores with dimensions of 11.5–13.8 × 4.8–6 μm and the new host Graphis. Key words: Buelliella, India, lichenicolous fungi, taxonomy.
31714Kondratyuk S., Lőkös L., Farkas E., Jang S.-H., Liu D., Halda J., Persson P.-E., Hansson M., Kärnefelt I., Thell A., Fačkovcová Z., Yamamoto Y. & Hur J.-S. (2019): New and noteworthy lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi 9. - Acta Botanica Hungarica, 61: 325–367.
The new for science genus Loekoeslaszloa S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur, confirmed by three gene phylogeny of the subfamily Teloschistoideae of the Teloschistaceae based on nrITS, nrLSU and mtSSU sequences, and ten new to science species from Eastern Asia, i.e. from South Korea: Bacidina loekoesiana S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur, Fauriea jejuensis S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, Gyalecta ulleungdoensis S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, Loekoeslaszloa huriana S. Y. Kondr., Orientophila dodongana S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, O. imjadoensis S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, O. incheonensis S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, Oxneriopsis taehaensis S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, Yoshimuria ivanpisutiana S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur and Y. seokpoensis S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur are described, illustrated and compared with closely related taxa. Molecular data for the recently described species Flavoplaca laszloana are for the first time provided. Position of Tassiloa magellanica in the subfamily Teloschistoideae as well as Yoshimuria stipitata in the Ikaerioideae ad int. is for the first time illustrated. An identification key to Fauriea species (including six species, i.e.: F. chujaensis, F. jejuensis, F. orientochinensis, F. patwolseleyae, F. tabidella and F. yonaguniensis), a key to Orientophila species of the Eastern Asian region (of the Orientophila loekoesii and the O. diffluens groups), and a key to Yoshimuria and Loekoeslaszloa species of the Eastern Asian region (including four species, i.e.: Y. galbina, Y. ivanpisutiana, Y. seokpoensis, and Y. spodoplaca, as well as Loekoeslaszloa geumohdoensis and L. huriana) are presented. Seven new combinations, i.e. Fauriea patwolseleyae (basionym: Caloplaca patwolseleyae S. Y. Kondr., U. Jayalal et J.-S. Hur), Fauriea tabidella (basionym: Lecanora tabidella Nyl.), Loekoeslaszloa geumohdoensis (basionym: Mikhtomia geumohdoensis S. Y. Kondr., D. Liu et Hur), Niesslia coarctatae (basionym: Stigmidium coarctatae S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur), Opeltia epiphyta (basionym: Caloplaca epiphyta Lynge), Tassiloa magellanica (basionym: Caloplaca magellanica Søchting et Sancho) and Yoshimuria stipitata (basionym: Caloplaca stipitata Wetmore) are proposed. Yoshimuria galbina and Lecanora ussuriensis are for the first time recorded from Japan. Key words: Bacidina, Fauriea, Gyalecta, Loekoeslaszloa, new clade, new species, Niesslia, Orientophila, Oxneriopsis, taxonomy, Yoshimuria.
31713Kondratyuk S., Lőkös L., Farkas E., Jang S.-H., Liu D., Halda J., Persson P.-E., Hansson M., Kärnefelt I., Thell A. & Hur J.-S. (2019): Three new genera of the [sic!] Ramalinaceae (lichen-forming Ascomycota) and the phenomenon of presence of ‘extraneous mycobiont DNA’ in lichen associations. - Acta Botanica Hungarica, 61: 275–323.
Three new genera Coppinsidea, Vandenboomia and Wolseleyidea are described and the genera Ivanpisutia, Lecaniella and Myrionora are resurrected on the basis of a phylogenetic analysis of multi-locus sequence data of the Ramalinaceae including the nuclear protein-coding marker rpb2, the internal transcribed spacer and a fragment of the small mitochondrial subunit. The genus Hertelidea was positioned within the Ramalina clade of the phylogenetic tree of the Ramalinaceae. Bacidia sipmanii, Phyllopsora chlorophaea, P. castaneocincta and Ramalina subbreviuscula were recorded from South Korea for the first time here confirming by molecular data, too. Forty-eight new combinations are proposed: Bacidia alnetorum (basionym: Biatora alnetorum S. Ekman et Tønsberg), Biatora amazonica (basionym: Phyllopsora amazonica Kistenich et Timdal), Biatora cuyabensis (basionym: Lecidea cuyabensis Malme), Biatora halei (basionym: Pannaria halei Tuck.), Biatora kalbii (basionym: Phyllopsora kalbii Brako), Biatora subhispidula (basionym: Psoroma subhispidulum Nyl.), Coppinsidea alba (basionym: Catillaria alba Coppins et Vězda), Coppinsidea aphana (basionym: Lecidea aphana Nyl.), Coppinsidea croatica (basionym: Catillaria croatica Zahlbr.), Coppinsidea fuscoviridis (basionym: Bilimbia fuscoviridis Anzi), Coppinsidea pallens (basionym: Bilimbia pallens Kullh.), Coppinsidea ropalosporoides (basionym: Gyalidea ropalosporoides S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur), Coppinsidea scotinodes (basionym: Lecidea scotinodes Nyl.), Coppinsidea sphaerella (basionym: Lecidea sphaerella Hedl.), Ivanpisutia hypophaea (basionym: Biatora hypophaea Printzen et Tønsberg), Ivanpisutia ocelliformis (basionym: Lecidea ocelliformis Nyl.), Lecaniella belgica (basionym: Lecania belgica van den Boom et Reese Naesb.), Lecaniella cyrtellina (basionym: Lecanora cyrtellina Nyl.), Lecaniella dubitans (basionym: Lecidea dubitans Nyl.), Lecaniella erysibe (basionym: Lichen erysibe Ach.), Lecaniella hutchinsiae (basionym: Lecanora hutchinsiae Nyl.), Lecaniella naegelii (basionym: Biatora naegelii Hepp), Lecaniella prasinoides (basionym: Lecania prasinoides Elenkin), Lecaniella sylvestris (basionym: Biatora sylvestris Arnold), Lecaniella tenera (basionym: Scoliciosporum tenerum Lönnr.), Mycobilimbia albohyalina (basionym: Lecidea anomala f. albohyalina Nyl.), Mycobilimbia cinchonarum (basionym: Triclinum cinchonarum Fée), Mycobilimbia concinna (basionym: Phyllopsora concinna Kistenich et Timdal), Mycobilimbia ramea (basionym: Bacidina ramea S. Ekman), Mycobilimbia siamensis (basionym: Phyllopsora siamensis Kistenich et Timdal), Myrionora australis (basionym: Biatora australis Rodr. Flakus et Printzen), Myrionora ementiens (basionym: Lecidea ementiens Nyl.), Myrionora flavopunctata (basionym: Lecanora flavopunctata Tønsberg), Myrionora globulosa (basionym: Lecidea globulosa Flörke), Myrionora hemipolia (basionym: Lecidea arceutina f. hemipolia Nyl.), Myrionora lignimollis (basionym: Biatora ligni-mollis T. Sprib. et Printzen), Myrionora malcolmii (basionym: Phyllopsora malcolmii Vězda et Kalb), Myrionora vacciniicola (basionym: Lecidea vacciniicola Tønsberg), Phyllopsora agonimioides (basionym: Coenogonium agonimioides J. P. Halda, S.-O. Oh et J.-S. Hur), Phyllopsora sunchonensis (basionym: Agonimia sunchonensis S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur), Vandenboomia chlorotiza (basionym: Lecidea chlorotiza Nyl.), Vandenboomia falcata (basionym: Lecania falcata van den Boom, M. Brand, Coppins, Magain et Sérus.), Wolseleyidea africana (basionym: Phyllopsora africana Timdal et Krog), Wolseleyidea byssiseda (basionym: Lecidea byssiseda Nyl. ex Hue), Wolseleyidea canoumbrina (basionym: Lecidea canoumbrina Vain.), Wolseleyidea furfurella (basionym: Phyllopsora furfurella Kistenich et Timdal), Wolseleyidea ochroxantha (basionym: Lecidea ochroxantha Nyl.), and Wolseleyidea swinscowii (basionym: Phyllopsora swinscowii Timdal et Krog). The combination Biatora longispora (Degel.) Lendemer et Printzen is validated here. The new names Biatora vezdana for Lecania furfuracea Vĕzda and Coppinsidea vainioana for Lecidea sphaeroidiza Vain. are proposed. The phenomenon of presence of ‘extraneous mycobiont DNA’ in lichen association, i.e. DNA, belonging neither to mycobiont nor photobiont or to endophytic fungi is for the first time illustrated. So the presence of nrITS and mtSSU sequences of crustose lichen Coppinsidea ropalosporoides in thalli of crustose Verrucaria margacea and foliose Kashiwadia orientalis, as well as nrITS of Phyllopsora sp. KoLRI in Agonimia pacifica and Biatora longispora, or nrITS and mtSSU of Biatora longispora in thalli of Agonimia pacifica, Oxneriopsis oxneri and Pyxine limbulata, Ivanpisutia oxneri in thalli of Rinodina xanthophaea, etc. is documented. Scarce cases of presence of ‘extraneous mycobiont DNA’ in representatives of the Teloschistaceae, Physciaceae known from literature data are discussed, too. Key words: Agonimia, Bacidia, Biatora, Coppinsidea, Ivanpisutia, Lecania, Lecaniella, Mycobilimbia, Myrionora, Phyllopsora, phylogeny, taxonomy, Vandenboomia, Wolseleyidea.
31712Soto-Medina E., Lücking R., Silverstone-Sopkin P.A. & Torres A.M. (2019): Changes in functional and taxonomic diversity and composition of corticolous lichens in an altitudinal gradient in Colombia. - Cryptogamie, Mycologie, 40(6): 97–115.
The variation of the diversity, composition, functional diversity and species richness of lichen communities along an altitudinal gradient in the Chocó biogeographic region of the department of Valle del Cauca, Colombia, is evaluated basing on 2732 samples belonging to 690 species of corticolous lichens. The dominant families were Graphidaceae, Parmeliaceae, Lobariaceae and Pyrenulaceae. Alpha lichen diversity showed a concave pattern with respect to altitude, and the zones at low and high elevations had greater diversity. Beta diversity and total richness estimated by rarefaction for locality presented a bell-shaped pattern, with a peak at 1600 m. Lichen functional traits strongly changed with the increase of altitude. Functional diversity presented the same pattern of total richness estimated by rarefaction. These results suggest that the lichen communities of the altitudinal extremes are structured by a strong environmental filter effect, while in the intermediate zones there is an overlap of functional traits, which is reflected in both a high functional and taxonomic diversity. The results suggest that the functional traits used are good substitutes for species to study altitudinal patterns. The high number of indicator species for the altitudinal extremes implies that in a context of climate change, these zones will be more susceptible to the loss of species. Key words: Chocó, Rao, functional diversity, rarefaction, traits, elevation, mid-domain effect.
31711Haugan R. & Timdal E. (2019): Peltigera wulingensis new to Europe. - Graphis Scripta, 31(6): 47–53.
The lichen species Peltigera wulingensis is reported as new to Europe from a single locality in the Gudbrandsdalen valley, southeast Norway. The species was previously known from China (Hebei), Canada (Ontario and Quebec), and Russia (Krasnoyarsk region). In Norway, it grows on moss carpets on schistose, somewhat calcareous rock outcrops in open habitat along the shore of a major river. The specimen was first identified by the DNA barcode marker (nrITS), and the identification was confirmed by the morphology (phyllidiate lobe margin, tomentose lobe ends, and no lichen substances in the thallus).
31710Lewis C.J. & Schultz M. (2019): Lempholemma syreniarum (Lichinaceae), a new species from Ontario, Canada. - Bryologist, 122(3): 423–429.
Lempholemma syreniarum is described from Ontario, Canada in North America. The new species grows on the bark of deciduous tree bases that are seasonally flooded. In seasonally dry periods, its black areolate thallus, typically with numerous light brown apothecia, is easily seen on tree bases and root flares but is underwater during most other parts of the year. A key is given aiding identification of small crustose-squamulose and corticolous cyanolichens with simple ascospores. Keywords: Lempholemma, Lichinaceae, Nostoc, Ontario, Great Lakes region, taxonomy.
31709Liberati L., Messerli S., Matteodo M. & Vittoz P. (2019): Contrasting impacts of climate change on the vegetation of windy ridges and snowbeds in the Swiss Alps. - Alpine Botany, 129: 95–105.
The impacts of climate change on alpine summit floras have been widely investigated. However, only few studies included alpine grasslands and generally concluded that snowbeds, with a long snow cover duration and a short growing season, and windy ridges, with a short snow cover duration and strong winter frosts, are the most sensitive alpine grasslands. However, these habitats were mostly investigated in different regions, where local factors (e.g. nitrogen deposition, grazing) can co-vary with climate changes, potentially obscuring differences between habitats. Here, we focused on the Zermatt region (Swiss Alps) to investigate the impacts of climate change on snowbeds and windy ridges. Forty-three exhaustive historical plant inventories on windy ridges (acidophilic or basophilic) and 31 inventories in snowbeds (typical or wet) were repeated in quasi-permanent plots after approximately 23 years. Historical and recent records were compared with the Simpson index, Bray–Curtis dissimilarity, a PCA, ecological indicator values and the frequency and cover changes of species. There was a general increase in α-diversity and a decrease in β-diversity (homogenisation). Most of the new species in the plots were generalists from surrounding grasslands. The plant composition tended to be more thermophilous on acidophilic windy ridges and in typical snowbeds. The flora of acidophilic windy ridges became more similar to that of basophilic windy ridges and more eutrophic. We interpreted this as possibly arising from fertilisation by the aeolian dust deposition coming from the expanding glacial moraine in the valley. In snowbeds, the species indicated increasingly drier conditions, especially in wet snowbeds. Warming climate induces lower snowfall and earlier snowmelt, leading to a shorter snow cover duration. Hence, wet snowbeds are certainly among the most threatened plant communities by climate change in the Alps. Keywords: Salicion herbaceae · Elynion · Snow cover · Temperature · Quasi-permanent plots · Vegetation dynamics · Switzerland. [p. 98:] "Our data showed extremely strong differences in the frequency and composition of lichens between historical and recent data on windy ridges. Added to the fact that many occurrences in the historical data set were identified only at the genus level, we had to conclude that the historical data were most likely not complete enough for a valid comparison. Hence, lichens were not included in the analyses."
31708Malíček J., Palice Z., Vondrák J., Kostovčík M., Lenzová V. & Hofmeister J. (2019): Lichens in old‑growth and managed mountain spruce forests in the Czech Republic: assessment of biodiversity, functional traits and bioindicators. - Biodiversity and Conservation, 28: 3497–3528.
Natural spruce forests are restricted to the highest mountain ranges in the Czech Republic. Spruce is also the commonest tree species in managed forests. Owing to a massive decline of spruce forests in Central Europe, caused by recent climatic fluctuations and disturbances, the lichen diversity and species composition was compared between ten representative natural mountain old-growth forests in the Czech Republic and their counterparts in mature managed forests. The old-growth forests are characterized by a higher species richness, abundance, number of Red-listed species, functional, taxonomic and phylogenetic diversities. Plots with the highest species richness are situated in the Šumava Mountains, an area with a relatively low sulphur deposition in the past. Bioindication analysis searching for lichen indicators supported several species (e.g. Xylographa vitiligo, Chaenotheca sphaerocephala) and genera (e.g. Calicium, Xylographa) with a strong preference for oldgrowth forests. Analysis of lichen functional traits revealed a higher abundance of species with a vegetative reproduction in managed forests that may be explained by a higher efficiency in colonization by young successional stages. Lichens with stalked apothecia, pigmented ascospores and large ascospores are more frequent in old-growth forests. Our results are briefly discussed in terms of nature conservation, focusing on national refugees of old-growth forest species, biodiversity hot-spots, practical use of indicator species and representative measures for an evaluation of forest quality. Keywords: Functional diversity · Functional traits · Phylogenetic diversity · Species richness · Substrate specialists · Taxonomic diversity.
31707Poengsungnoen V., Buaruang K., Vongshewarat K., Sangvichien E., Boonpragob K., Mongkolsuk P. & Lumbsch H.T. (2019): Three new crustose lichens from Thailand. - Bryologist, 122(3): 451–456.
Three corticolous crustose lichens are described from Thailand as new to science. Astrochapsa elongata Poengs. & Lumbsch is characterized by elongated apothecia, a clear hymenium, submuriform ascospores and the lack of secondary metabolites. Graphis khaoyaiensis Poengs. & Lumbsch is characterized by a laterally carbonized exciple, striate labia, a clear hymenium, muriform ascospores and the absence of secondary metabolites, differing from Graphis dichotoma in having smaller ascospores, and not radiately branched ascomata. Phlyctis sirindhorniae Poengs., Vongshew. & Lumbsch is distinguished by apothecia being solitary or sometimes aggregate or fused into groups, muriform ascospores and the presence of norstictic acid, differing from P. agelaea in having larger apothecia and more ascospores per ascus. Descriptions of the new species are provided and discussions on similar species. Keywords: Diversity, lichenized fungi, morphology, taxonomy, tropical lichens.
31706Ure J.D. & Stanton D.E. (2019): Co-dominant anatomically disparate lichens converge in hydrological functional traits. - Bryologist, 122(3): 463–470.
Epiphytic lichens play a key hydrological role in ecosystems by intercepting and retaining water. These attributes can be characterized at an individual thallus scale by considering the retention and loss rates of water, themselves influenced by growth form and anatomy. We compared the hydrological attributes (water-holding capacity and standard drying rate) of two common northern temperate-boreal lichen genera, Evernia and Usnea, which differ greatly in internal anatomy. Despite conspicuous morphological and anatomical differences between the taxa that were hypothesized to affect thallus-water dynamics, their hydrological traits were found to be remarkably similar. This suggests either limited influence of internal anatomy on these ecologically relevant traits or convergence in hydrological attributes in co-occurring taxa. Keywords: Macrolichen, epiphyte, fruticose lichen, water-holding capacity, specific thallus mass.
31705Brodo I.M. & Tønsberg T. (2019): Opegrapha halophila (Opegraphaceae), a new lichen species from coastal British Columbia, Canada, and Alaska, U.S.A.. - Bryologist, 122(3): 457–462.
Opegrapha halophila Brodo & Tønsberg is described based on material from British Columbia, Canada, and Alaska, U.S.A. It is distinctive due to its lirellate apothecia, the (mainly) discrete soralia, the production of roccellic/angardianic acid, and its habitat on coastal rocks in the salt spray zone. A key to sorediate species of Opegrapha is provided. Keywords: Enterographa zonata, Gyrographa gyrocarpa, Pacific Northwest, sterile crusts, saxicolous crusts, maritime lichens, fatty acids, Haida Gwaii, Kuiu Island.
31704Brodo I.M., Haldeman M. & Malíček J. (2019): Notes on species of the Lecanora albella group (Lecanoraceae) from North America and Europe. - Bryologist, 122(3): 430–450.
Lecanora excludens (syn. L. septentrionalis) is reported as new for North America from Oregon. The synonymy of the two names is discussed. Lecanora intumescens, with two new synonyms: L. hispanica and L. krempelhuberi, is reported from Idaho and confirmed as new for the United States. Additional localities and range extensions for L. albella s.l., L. cateilea and L. carpinea are given. Lecanora carpinea is newly reported for Ontario, Newfoundland and Nova Scotia. Lecanora protervula is shown to be the oldest name at the species level for what has been called Lecanora subpallens Zahlbr. (syn. L. caesiorubella subsp. prolifera, L. caesiorubella subsp. lathamii). Lecanora caesiorubella subsp. saximontana is confirmed for Canada from Alberta, Manitoba and Ontario, and L. cateilea f. pallidotestacea is new for North America. The presence of taxonomically important fatty acids and zeorin are newly noted for some species or subspecies in the group. An argument is made for the appropriateness of using the category of subspecies for geographically meaningful chemotypes in L. caesiorubella, at least in North America, but the presence or absence of norstictic acid is not found to be taxonomically important in L. albella. A key to the North American species of the L. albella group is also provided. Keywords: Lichen taxonomy, chemosystematics, key, Lecanora pallida, Canada, United States of America.
31703Lendemer J.C. (2019): Recent literature on lichens—254. - Bryologist, 122(3): 525–536.
bibliography
31702Søchting U. & Arup U. (2018): Marchantiana asserigena comb. nov., a possible European immigrant from Australia. - Graphis Scripta, 30(6): 115–120.
Caloplaca asserigena is known to have a secondary compound different from other species of Teloschistaceae in the Northern Hemisphere. Studies of the secondary chemistry of the Australian Teloschistaceae have revealed the same compound to be present in Marchantiana michelagoensis and Caloplaca marchantiorum. Subsequent molecular studies based on three genes support the affinity of C. asserigena and M. michelagoensis. Accordingly, the species is tentatively included in the genus Marchantiana. Marchantiana asserigena, which was earlier regarded as extinct in Denmark, has been found to be widespread on very thin twigs of dwarf shrubs in Danish heathlands.
31701U’Ren J.M., Lutzoni F., Miadlikowska J., Zimmerman N.B., Carbone I., May G. & Arnold A.E. (2019): Host availability drives distributions of fungal endophytes in the imperilled boreal realm. - Nature Ecology and Evolution, 3: 1430–1437.
Boreal forests represent the world’s largest terrestrial biome and provide ecosystem services of global importance. Highly imperilled by climate change, these forests host Earth’s greatest phylogenetic diversity of endophytes, a hyperdiverse group of symbionts that are defined by their occurrence within living, symptomless plant and lichen tissues. Endophytes shape the ecological and evolutionary trajectories of plants and are therefore key to the function and resilience of terrestrial ecosystems. A critical step in linking the ecological functions of endophytes with those of their hosts is to understand the distributions of these symbionts at the global scale; however, turnover in host taxa with geography and climate can confound insights into endophyte biogeography. As a result, global drivers of endophyte diversity and distributions are not known. Here, we leverage sampling from phylogenetically diverse boreal plants and lichens across North America and Eurasia to show that host filtering in distinctive environments, rather than turnover with geographical or environmental distance, is the main determinant of the community composition and diversity of endophytes. We reveal the distinctiveness of boreal endophytes relative to soil fungi worldwide and endophytes from diverse temperate biomes, highlighting a high degree of global endemism. Overall, the distributions of endophytes are directly linked to the availability of compatible hosts, highlighting the role of biotic interactions in shaping fungal communities across large spatial scales, and the threat that climate change poses to biological diversity and function in the imperilled boreal realm.
31700Fischer A., Fickert T., Schwaizer G., Patzelt G. & Groß G. (2019): Vegetation dynamics in Alpine glacier forelands tackled from space. - Scientific Reports, 9: 13918 [13 p.].
Monitoring of plant succession in glacier forelands has so far been restricted to field sampling. In this study, in situ vegetation sampling along a chronosequence between Little Ice Age (LIA) maximum extent and the recent glacier terminus at Jamtalferner in the Austrian Alps is compared to time series of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) calculated from 13 Landsat scenes (1985–2016). The glacier terminus positions at 16 dates between the LIA maximum and 2015 were analysed from historical maps, orthophotos and LiDAR images. We sampled plots of different ages since deglaciation, from very recent to approx. 150 years: after 100 years, roughly 80% of the ground is covered by plants and ground cover does not increase significantly thereafter. The number of species increases from 10–20 species on young sites to 40–50 species after 100 years. The NDVI increases with the time of exposure from a mean of 0.11 for 1985–1991 to 0.20 in 2009 and 0.27 in 2016. As the increase in ground cover is clearly reproduced by the NDVI (R² ground cover/NDVI 0.84) – even for sparsely vegetated areas –, we see a great potential of satellite-borne NDVI to perform regional characterizations of glacier forelands for hydrological, ecological and hazard management-related applications. 3 terricolous macrolichens distinguished (Alectoria ochroleuca, Cetraria islandica, Stereocaulon alpinum) and listed in Table S3. Proportionality of lichens shown in pie-graphs in Fig. 4 (PCA scatter plot of the chronosequence samples in the glacier foreland of Jamtalferner).
31699Vargas Castillo R. (2018): Lichens on the edge: Studying the lichens at the Union Glacier. - Advances in Chilean Antarctic Science, 4: 11–12.
Continental Antarctica presents a range of extreme environments where only the most adapted organisms can survive. Although it is mostly microorganisms which can withstand these conditions, lichens are among the few macroscopic organisms present inland in continental Antarctica. A recent exploration on the surroundings of the Union Glacier base opened a window on a so far little known diversity of species.
31698Ekman S., Svensson M., Westberg M. & Zamora J.C. (2019): Additions to the lichen flora of Fennoscandia III. - Graphis Scripta, 31(5): 34–46.
Six lichen-forming fungi, Ameliella grisea, Bacidina mendax, B. modesta, Biatora chrysanthoides, B. radicicola and Micarea sambuci, as well as seven lichenicolous fungi, Adelococcus alpestris, Heteroacanthella ellipsospora, Llimoniella catapyrenii, Sphaerellothecium siphulae, Tremella christiansenii, T. macrobasidiata and T. tuckerae, are reported for the first time from Sweden. Bacidina mendax and Biatora radicicola are also reported as new to Norway and Bacidina indigens is reported as new to Finland. The new combination Bacidina modesta (Zwackh ex Vain.) S. Ekman is proposed and Raphiospora viridescens, a synonym of Bacidia bagliettoana that has been misused for Bacidina indigens, is lectotypified.
31697Beck A., Bechteler J., Casanova-Katny A. & Dzhilyanova I. (2019): The pioneer lichen Placopsis in maritime Antarctica: Genetic diversity of their mycobionts and green algal symbionts, and their correlation with deglaciation time. - Symbiosis, 79: 1–24.
Since ice-free areas in Antarctica are predicted to increase by up to 25% before the end of this century, lichens such as the genus Placopsis will be important colonizers of these newly available grounds and will still be present in later successional stages of the lichen community. The main symbionts of Placopsis species are examined for 56 specimens collected from the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica using molecular (fungal and algal nrITS, fungal RPB1, algal rbcL sequences) and morphological methods. The specimens were collected from soils with different deglaciation times. Eight uni-algal photobiont cultures were obtained and analysed from two specimens. Placopsis antarctica and P. contortuplicata proved to be monophyletic and are sister species, only the former producing vegetative diaspores (soredia). Both share the same photobiont pool and are lichenized with two closely related species, Stichococcus antarcticus and S. allas. Two haplotypes of S. antarcticus are restricted to areas deglaciated for more than 5000 years and the volcanic Deception Island indicating a shift in the photobionts of Placopsis in the course of the soil and lichen community development. These photobiont haplotypes exhibit different ecological preferences, possibly leading to adaptation of the symbiotic entity to changing environmental conditions. Keywords: Selectivity . Phylogeny . Stichococcus . Climate Change . Haplotypes.
31696Ranius T., Hämäläinen A., Sjögren J., Hiron M., Jonason D., Kubart A., Schroeder M., Dahlberg A., Thor G. & Jonsell M. (2019): The evolutionary species pool concept does not explain occurrence patterns of dead‑wood‑dependent organisms: implications for logging residue extraction. - Oecologia, 191: 241–252.
Emulation of natural disturbances is often regarded as a key measure to make forestry biodiversity-oriented. Consequently, extraction of logging residues is assumed to have little negative effect in comparison to extraction of dead wood mainly formed at natural disturbances. This is consistent with the evolutionary species pool hypothesis, which suggests that most species are evolutionary adapted to the naturally most abundant habitats. We tested this hypothesis for dead-wood-dependent macrofungi, lichens, and beetles in a boreal forest landscape in central Sweden, assuming that species are adapted to conditions similar to today’s unmanaged forest. No occurrence patterns, for the species groups which we investigated, were consistent with the hypothesis. Overall, stumps and snags had the highest habitat quality (measured as average population density with equal weight given to each species) and fine woody debris the lowest, which was unexpected, since stumps were the rarest dead-wood type in unmanaged forest. We conclude that the evolutionary species pool concept did not explain patterns of species’ occurrences, and for two reasons, the concept is not reliable as a general rule of thumb: (1) what constitute habitats harbouring different species communities can only be understood from habitat-specific studies and (2) the suitability of habitats is affected by their biophysical characteristics. Thus, emulation of natural disturbances may promote biodiversity, but empirical studies are needed for each habitat to understand how natural disturbances should be emulated. We also conclude that stump extraction for bioenergy is associated with larger risks for biodiversity than fine woody debris extraction. Keywords: Beetles; Fungi; Lichens; Slash; Woody debris.
31695Şenol Z.M., Gül Ü.D. & Şimşek S. (2019): Assessment of Pb2+ removal capacity of lichen (Evernia prunastri): application of adsorption kinetic, isotherm models, and thermodynamics. - Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 26: 27002–27013.
Biological materials play a significant role in the treatment of heavy metal-contaminated soil and wastewater. In this study, the Pb2+ biosorption potential of lichen Evernia prunastri, extensively available at a forest in Bilecik-Turkey, was investigated at batch-scale level. The optimal conditions were determined and the adsorption isotherms, kinetics, and thermodynamic calculations were also done. In order to have detailed knowledge about metal biosorption, SEM, FTIR, and BET analyses were carried out before and after the biosorption process. The optimal pH was found pH 4 and the maximum metal uptake capacity was found as 0.067 mol kg−1. The results of this study indicate that the lichen was effectively applied to the removal of Pb2+ process as an inexpensive biosorbent from industrial wastewater. Keywords: Biosorption; Lichen; Pb2+; Wastewater treatment.
31694Gamrat R., Gałczyńska M., Sotek Z. & Stasińska M. (2019): The impact of neighbouring ecosystems on species composition in the ecotone of small forest plots: case study in Choszczno Forest Inspectorate in NW Poland. - Russian Journal of Ecology, 50(5): 465–473.
The aim of the study was to verify a hypothesis that the proximity of different ecosystems have an impact on the richness of flora in three forest patches in the Choszczno Forest Inspectorate (West Pomeranian Province in NW Poland). Between 2013–2015, the survey involved three areas with different adjacent ecosystems: forest, built−up area, and grassland. At each object we analyzed four test plots consisting of inner, middle and outer zones. The composition of tree, shrub, herbaceous, moss and lichen species was determined in each object, plot and zone. It was shown that adjacent ecosystems influenced the richness of flora in the analyzed forest areas. Differences in the numbers of species and in their habitat affiliation were also found between ecotone zones. The outer ecotone zone had the richest flora composition, particularly in terms of grassland species – present in 12 zones of all three objects. Keywords: diversity, grassland, rural buildings, West Pomeranian Province.
31693Bird A., Watmough S.A., Carson M.A., Basiliko N. & McDonough A. (2019): Nitrogen retention of terricolous lichens in a Northern Alberta jack pine forest. - Ecosystems, 22: 1308–1324.
The Athabasca Oil Sands in Alberta, Canada, is one of the largest point sources of nitrogen oxides in Canada. There are concerns that elevated nitrogen (N) deposition will adversely impact forest ecosystems located downwind of emission sources. The role of the forest floor in regulating these potential eutrophication effects was investigated following a 5-year enrichment study in which N was applied as NH4NO3 above the canopy of a jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb) stand in northern Alberta close to Fort McMurray at rates ranging from 5 to 25 kg N ha-1 y-1 in addition to background deposition of approximately 2 kg N ha-1 y-1. Chemical analysis of lichen mats revealed that the N concentration in the apical (upper) lichen tissue and necrotic tissue increased with treatment. When expressed as a N pool, the fibric–humic material held the largest quantity of N across all treatments due to its relatively large mass (172–214 kg N ha-1), but there was no significant treatment effect. Soil net N mineralization and net nitrification rates did not differ among N treatments after five years of application. A 15N tracer applied to the forest floor showed that N is initially absorbed by the apical lichen (16.6% recovery), FH material (29.4% recovery), and the foliage of the vascular plant Vaccinium myrtilloides (31.7% recovery) in particular. After 2 years, the FH 15N pool size was elevated and all other measured pools were depleted, indicating a slow transfer of N to the FH material. Applied 15N was not detectable in mineral soil. The microbial functional gene ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) responsible for catalyzing the first step in nitrification was undetectable using PCR screening of mineral soil microbial communities in all treatments, and broad fungal/bacterial qPCR assays revealed a weak treatment effect on fungal: bacterial ratios in mineral soil with decreasing relative fungal abundance under higher N deposition. This work suggests that terricolous lichen mats, which form the majority of ground cover in upland jack pine systems, have a large capacity to effectively retain elevated N deposition in soil humus. Key words: nitrogen; oil sands; eutrophication; lichens; nitrogen saturation.
31692Khadhri A., Mendili M., Araújo M.A.M. & Seaward M.R.D. (2019): Comparative study of secondary metabolites and bioactive properties of the lichen Cladonia foliacea with and without the lichenicolous fungus Heterocephalacria bachmannii. - Symbiosis, 79: 25–31.
The phenolic, flavonoid, tannin and proanthocyanidin content of the lichen Cladonia foliacea with and without its lichenicolous fungus Heterocephalacria (Syzygospora) bachmannii was investigated. The phenolic compounds were quantified in organic extracts using ultrasonic extraction (acetone and methanol) and in milled material (the ground material diluted with microcrystalline cellulose). The total phenolic content depended on the solvent polarity, the extraction technique and the species. The results demonstrated that the highest total phenolic content was recorded in untreated milled material (935.75 μg GAE/g DW) of H. bachmannii plus C. foliacea, followed by C. foliacea (668.29 μg GAE/g DW). The antioxidant activities were evaluated by the in vitro scavenging capacity, iron reducing power, and iron chelating power. The results showed that the highest scavenging capacity were obtained in methanol extracts of C. foliacea with IC50 = 0.015 mg/mL, followed by methanolic extract of H. bachmannii plus C. foliacea that had a scavenging capacity and iron reducing power of (IC50 = 0.030 mg/mL and IC50 = 0.054 mg/mL, respectively). The milled material showed the highest iron chelating power (IC50 = 0.279 mg/mL). We conclude that Cladonia foliacea when parasitized by H. bachmannii possesses a high antioxidant potential in the methanolic extract. Acetone and methanol extracts, showed that extracts from lichen plus lichenicolous fungus contained different and possibly more effective bioactive molecules than the lichen alone. These included phenolic acids, alkanes and aromatic compounds. This is the first study to investigate the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of a lichenicolous fungus, albeit based on differences between the lichen with and without the mycoparasite H. bachmannii. Keywords: Antioxidant capacity . FTIR . 1H NMR . Phenolic compounds . QUENCHER approach . Secondary metabolites . Syzygospora bachmannii .Tunisia.
31691Hilpold A., Seeber J., Fontana V., Niedrist G., Rief A., Steinwandter M., Tasser E. & Tappeiner U. (2018): Decline of rare and specialist species across multiple taxonomic groups after grassland intensification and abandonment. - Biodiversity and Conservation, 27: 3729–3744.
Traditionally managed mountain grasslands are declining as a result of abandonment or intensification of management. Based on a common chronosequence approach we investigated species compositions of 16 taxonomic groups on traditionally managed dry pastures, fertilized and irrigated hay meadows, and abandoned grasslands (larch forests). We included faunal above- and below-ground biodiversity as well as species traits (mainly rarity and habitat specificity) in our analyses. The larch forests showed the highest species number (345 species), with slightly less species in pastures (290 species) and much less in hay meadows (163 species). The proportion of rare species was highest in the pastures and lowest in hay meadows. Similar patterns were found for specialist species, i.e. species with a high habitat specificity. After abandonment, larch forests harbor a higher number of pasture species than hay meadows. These overall trends were mainly supported by spiders and vascular plants. Lichens, bryophytes and carabid beetles showed partly contrasting trends. These findings stress the importance to include a wide range of taxonomic groups in conservation studies. All in all, both abandonment and intensification had similar negative impacts on biodiversity in our study, underlining the high conservation value of InnerAlpine dry pastures. Keywords: Biodiversity survey · Land-use change · Multi-taxon study · Trait-based approach · Biodiversity conservation.
31690Benítez Á., Aragón G. & Prieto M. (2019): Lichen diversity on tree trunks in tropical dry forests is highly influenced by host tree traits. - Biodiversity and Conservation, 28: 2909–2929.
Tropical dry forests have been recognized as one of the most threatened ecosystems in the world due to deforestation. These ecosystems harbour a high endemicity of epiphytes, which play a major role in the functioning of the forests. Lichens constitute an important fraction of the epiphytes. These poikilohydric organisms respond drastically to disturbance, which is strongly linked to humidity and light availability. We hypothesized that richness and species composition of lichens would be related to differences in forest structure (e.g., canopy openness) promoted by deforestation, and by host tree characteristics, due to the fact that dry forests generally have poor microclimatic stratification and low diversity of tree species. In this study, we assessed the richness and composition of epiphytic lichens on the trunks of 513 trees in undisturbed and disturbed dry forests of southern Ecuador. Both lichen composition and richness were highly correlated with tree species and host tree traits such as bark structure and tree diameter. Additionally, epiphytic lichen diversity was related to canopy cover and tree richness at different disturbance levels. We conclude that epiphytic lichen communities in seasonal dry tropical forests of Ecuador are mainly limited by host tree traits and tree species. Loss of epiphytic lichen species in the studied forests is particularly due to loss of host trees such as Cochlospermum vitifolium and Eriotheca ruizii, that maintain high species richness. Keywords: Bark texture · Ecuador · Epiphytic communities · Forest disturbance · Lichens · Tree species.
31689Allen J.L., McMullin R.T., Tripp E.A. & Lendemer J.C. (2019): Lichen conservation in North America: a review of current practices and research in Canada and the United States. - Biodiversity and Conservation, 28: 3103–3138.
Lichens are diverse symbiotic organisms that contribute essential functions to ecosystems worldwide. Generally, lichens are under-represented in conservation assessments and implementation when compared to other groups of organisms (e.g., plants and vertebrates). However, some progress has been made towards better conservation of lichens in recent decades. Here we review the current state of lichen conservation in Canada and the United States, a region that includes nearly 6000 species of lichens. Through detailed case studies, we document threats and declines of diversity and abundance, then review the legal frameworks that exist to protect lichens at different spatial scales in both countries. We highlight progress in effectively using ‘Big Data’ to inform conservation, monitoring rare and endangered species, expanding the professional capacity of lichenologists, and building interdisciplinary networks between scientists and the broader community of conservation and resource managers. Moving forward, there are clear actions that must be taken to accelerate lichen conservation. Keywords: Climate change · Fungi · Habitat loss · Land use · Mycology · Symbiosis.
31688Vondrák J., Urbanavichus G., Palice Z., Malíček J., Urbanavichene I., Kubásek J. & Ellis C. (2019): The epiphytic lichen biota of Caucasian virgin forests: a comparator for European conservation. - Biodiversity and Conservation, 28: 3257–3276.
The north-western Caucasus is exceptional in Europe because of its 1.3 million hectares of unmanaged ‘virgin’ forest. The Caucasus State Nature Reserve protects some 200,000 hectares, but contiguous areas are exposed to forest loss, fragmentation and degradation. Such an extensive region of virgin forest provides a unique opportunity to document diversity along key ecological gradients for an undisturbed system in Europe. Focusing on lichen epiphytes, we surveyed local diversity hot-spots along a 1200 m altitudinal gradient. Our main results are that: (a) species richness is enormously high in 1-hectare plots (between 233 and 358) representing a new baseline for Europe, (b) species composition differs substantially among plots with turnover increasing for difference in altitude. Cumulative species richness along the gradient was 597. More than a half of detected species had an affinity for, or were restricted to either the lower or the uppermost parts of the altitudinal gradient. However, this was related to differences in forest structure, rather than altitude per se. Species richness in plots increased significantly with the proportion of sparse/open forest. Length of an ecotone line, number of available tree and shrub species and number of dominant tree species also tend to increase species richness. These four variables had higher values at the lower and upper parts of the gradient, than at mid-altitudes, explaining a bimodal relationship of species richness with altitude. We conclude that loss of forest habitat at the lower and upper margins of the altitudinal gradient will cause the most significant decline in epiphytic lichen diversity. Keywords: Altitudinal gradient · Diversity hot-spots · Species richness · Forest structure · Habitat conservation.
31687Yakovchenko L.S., Davydov E.A., Paukov A.G. & Ohmura Y. (2019): New records of lichens from the Russian Far East. I. Fuscidea submollis and other arctic-alpine species. - Turczaninowia, 22(3): 91–96.
Fuscidea submollis Mas. Inoue is reported for the first time from the Russian Far East. Distinctive features of the taxon are discussed, and a comparison with known saxicolous Fuscidea V. Wirth & Vězda species with amyloid medulla is made. Three arctic-alpine species: Sporastatia testudinea (Ach.) A. Massal., Buellia concinna Th. Fr., Amygdalaria panaeola (Ach.) Hertel et Brodo, and Aspilidea myrinii (Fr.) Hafellner are recorded for the first time in the South Far East from the Sikhote Alin Range (Primorye Territory). Calvitimela aglaea (Sommerf.) Hafellner is reported for the first time from Sikhote Alin Range and Primorye Territory. Keywords: Asia, biogeography, Fuscideaceae, saxicolous lichen community, South Siberia.
31686Lehnert L., Thies B., Trachte K., Achilles S., Osses P., Baumann K., Schmidt J., Samolov E., Jung P., Leinweber P., Karsten U., Büdel B. & Bendix J. (2018): A case study on fog/low stratus occurrence at Las Lomitas, Atacama Desert (Chile) as a water source for biological soil crusts. - Aerosol and Air Quality Research, 18: 254–269.
The Atacama Desert is well known for the high occurrence of large-scale fog (spatial extents: hundreds of kilometers) emerging as low stratus (LST) decks over the Pacific Ocean. By contrast, the small-scale and heterogeneous occurrence of small-scale fog (hundreds of meters) particularly during summers is widely unconsidered. However, these events are important for the local vegetation and particularly for the biological soil crusts (BSC) that are widely distributed in this extreme ecosystem. Consequently, a case study in a typical fog oasis in the Pan de Azúcar National Park was conducted to test the feasibility combining field measurements, drone profiling, remote sensing and numerical modeling (i) to investigate fog-type specific differences regarding dynamics, physical properties and formation, (ii) to test the applicability of remote sensing technology for fog monitoring based on existing low-resolution and a proposed new high-resolution product and (iii) to estimate the related fog water input to BSCs. Two types of fog were observed. The well-known fog/LST deck emerging from the Pacific Ocean with high water path and large spatial extent was the first type. Fog of the second type was patchier, small-scale and not necessarily connected to the LST over the ocean. Instead, fog formation of the second type was related to thermal breeze systems, which produced shallow clouds containing less water than those of type 1. In general, such small-scale fog events were not captured well by existing remote sensing products but could be detected with the proposed new high-resolution product which provided promising results. Both fog types were important water resources for the BSCs, with approximately 8% to 24% of the fog water flux available to the BSCs at the surface. The results indicated the feasibility of the proposed methods’ pool to estimate the water budget of BSCs with a high spatial resolution in the future. Keywords: Orographic fog; Landsat; WRF-modeling; Biological soil crusts; Vertical fog droplet spectra.
31685Williams L., Borchhardt N., Colesie C., Baum C., Komsic-Buchmann K., Rippin M., Becker B., Karsten U. & Büdel B. (2017): Biological soil crusts of Arctic Svalbard and of Livingston Island, Antarctica. - Polar Biology, 40: 399–411.
Biological soil crusts (BSCs) occur in arid and semi-arid regions worldwide including the Polar Regions. They are important ecosystem engineers, and their composition and areal coverage should be understood before assessing key current functional questions such as their role in biogeochemical nutrient cycles and possible climate change scenarios. Our aim was to investigate the variability of BSCs from Arctic Svalbard and the Antarctic Island, Livingston, using vegetation surveys based on classification by functional group. An additional aim was to describe the structure of BSCs and represent a classification system that can be used in future studies to provide a fast and efficient way to define vegetation type and areal coverage. Firstly, this study demonstrates huge areas occupied by BSCs in Arctic Svalbard, with up to 90 % of soil surface covered, dominated by bryophytes and cyanobacteria, and showing an unexpectedly high variability in many areas. Livingston Island has lower percentage coverage, up to 55 %, but is dominated by lichens. Our findings show that both Polar Regions have varied BSC coverage, within the sites and between them, especially considering their harsh climates and latitudinal positions. Secondly, we have classified the BSCs of both areas into a system that describes the dominant functional groups and local geography, creating a simple scheme that allows easy identification of the prevailing vegetation type. Our results represent the first contribution to the description of BSCs based on their functional group composition in Polar Regions. Keywords: Biological soil crusts (BSCs);  Vegetation; Functional groups;  Svalbard;  Livingston Island.
31684Bilovitz P.O., Tutzer V., Wallner A., Nascimbene J. & Mayrhofer H. (2014): Terricolous lichens in the glacier forefield of the Matscherferner (Eastern Alps, South Tyrol, Italy). - Acta ZooBot Austria, 150/151: 197–202.
Two sampling sites were established at increasing distance from the glacier to investigate lichen communities on soil, plant debris and terricolous mosses in the glacier forefield of the Matscherferner. The survey yielded 34 lichen species and one lichenicolous fungus. In addition, 19 lichen species and one lichenicolous fungus were found by collecting at random, outside the two sampling sites. Keywords: Lichenized ascomycetes, biodiversity, ecology, flora, floristics, Alps, alpine belt, glacier retreat.
31683Zheng L.-J., Maier S., Grube M., Türk R., Gruber J.P. & Peer T. (2014): Alpine biological soil crusts on the Hochtor (Grossglockner high alpine route, Hohe Tauern, Austria): soils, function and biodiversity. - Acta ZooBot Austria, 150/151: 175–196.
The Plattenkar, to the east of the Hochtor in the Hohe Tauern, is characterized by numerous karstic forms and by large areas of biological soil crusts (BSCs). BSCs were investigated in a comparative approach as a part of the international SCIN-project. The present study describes the predominant soil types (on fine weathered Rauwacke), compares the chemical and physical characteristics of BSC and underlying soil, and discusses the effects of BSCs on the composition of vascular plants. The most important factors characterizing the soil types in the study area are the BSC layer (composed primarily of microorganisms and lichens), eolian deposits, hydromorphic processes, and slides that lead to buried horizons. Finally, a new soil type “Biogene Krusten-Rendzina” is proposed. We also provide an overview of vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens that cover the BSC layer. The predominant phyla of bacteria and microfungi are presented for the first time from alpine BSCs on the Hochtor, and their ecosystem services such as nitrogen fixation and dissimilatory Fe(III) reduction are addressed. Keywords: Soil types, soil characteristics, Biogene Krusten-Rendzina, vascular plants, bryophytes, lichens, bacteria, microfungi.
31682Zschacke H. (1905): Vorarbeiten zu einer Moosflora des Herzogtums Anhalt. II. Die Moose des Nordostharzes. - Verhandlungen des Botanischen Vereins Berlin Brandenburg, 47: 223–316.
Germany; lichens occassionally mentioned within text; at p. 315-316 appendix amended with a comprehensive list of lichens of N Harz ("Verzeichnis der von mir 1905 im Nordost-Harze und in seinem vorlande gesammelten Flechten")
31681Bültmann H. & Daniëls F.J.A. (2009): Die Flechtenflora des Naturschutzgebiets „Heiliges Meer“ bei Hopsten (Kreis Steinfurt), im Jahr 2009 unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der corticolen, lignicolen und terricolen Arten. - Abhandlungen aus dem Westfälischen Museum für Naturkunde, 71(4): 71–90.
Die corticolen, lignicolen und terricolen Arten des Naturschutzgebietes „Heiliges Meer“ wurden im März 2009 aufgenommen und eine kommentierte Artenliste aller bisher aus dem Gebiet nachgewiesenen Arten zusammengestellt. In der vorliegenden Kartierung wurden 64 corticole, lignicole und terricole Arten nachgewiesen von jetzt insgesamt 95 für das Gebiet beschriebenen (dazu kommen bisher 21 nachgewiesene saxicole Flechten). Die im Gebiet gefundenen Flechtengesellschaften werden kurz umrissen. Gegenüber den Bearbeitungen von MUHLE (1967) und WOELM (1985) wurden 20 corticole, lignicole oder terricole Arten neu entdeckt, davon 14 auch neu für das Messtischblatt (MTB). Dreißig in den beiden anderen Arbeiten genannte Arten wurden dagegen nicht gefunden. Die Arealspektren zeigen im Vergleich zu 1967 und 1985 einen deutlichen Anstieg in der Artenzahl der corticolen Flechten mit mitteleuropäisch-mediterranem Arealtyp. Auch die Zeigerwerte ergeben eine geringfügige Erhöhung der Temperaturzahl. Eindeutig ist ebenfalls die Zunahme der nitrophytischen corticolen Arten v. a. hinsichtlich ihrer Häufigkeit. Für die Erdflechten der Heiden und Sandtrockenrasen wurde dagegen bereits 1985 eine Abnahme der Abundanz beschrieben, ein Trend, der sich bis heute fortsetzt. Klimaerwärmung, Eutrophierung oder Veränderungen im Pflegeregime können hier die Ursache sein.
31680Geringhoff H.J.T. & Daniëls F.J.A. (2003): Zur Syntaxonomie des Vaccinio-Callunetum Büker 1942 unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Bestände im Rothaargebirge. - Abhandlungen aus dem Westfälischen Museum für Naturkunde, 65(3): 3–79 [+ Tabs 2–13].
31679Krain V. (2003): Vegetationsökologische Untersuchungen zur calciphytischen Gesteinsflechtenvegetation des nordöstlichen Sauerlandes und zentralen Münsterlandes. - Abhandlungen aus dem Westfälischen Museum für Naturkunde, 65(4): 3–64.
Zusammenfassung: Die calciphytische Gesteinsfiechtenvegetation des nordöstlichen Sauerlandes und des zentralen Münsterlandes wurde erstmals systematisch vegetationsökologisch untersucht und mit 221 Vegetationsaufnahmen dokumentiert. Die Bearbeitung erfolgte nach der Methode von Braun-Blanquet. Für die phytosoziologische Einordnung fragmentarisch entwickelter Flechtenvegetation fand erstmals die Methode der deduktiven Klassifikation (KoPECKY & HEJNY 1978, KoPECKY 1992; Derivat- /Basalgesellschaft) Verwendung. Die Standortanalyse erfolgte auf Basis der durch TWINSPAN (HILL 1979) abgesicherten Vegetationsaufnahmen. Es werden 12 Vegetationstypen vorgestellt. Zehn dieser Coena sind der Klasse Verrucarietea nigrescentis Wirth 1980 zuzuordnen. Der Verband Aspicilion calcareae Albertson 1946 ex Roux 1978 wird durch zwei Basalgesellschaften vertreten, die Bsg. Aspicilia contorta - [Aspicilion calcareae] und die Bsg. Aspicilia calcarea - [Aspicilion calcareae]. Diese Basalgesellschaften stellen fragmentarische Ausbildungen des Aspicilietum contortae Kaiser 1926 ex Klement 1955 bzw. des Aspicilietum calcareae (Du Rietz 1925) Klement 1955 em. Roux 1978 dar. Dem Verband Caloplacion decipientis Klement 1955 sind folgende Gesellschaften zugehörig: Das Caloplacetum teicholytae Wilmanns 1966. Gut entwickelte Bestände dieses Vegetationstyps sind nur im kernmünsterländischen Teil des Untersuchungsraumes zu finden. Das Physcio nigricantis - Candelarielletum mediantis Nowak 1960 in einer typischen Variante sowie einer Variante von Lecanora muralis. Das Caloplacetum saxicolae (Du Rietz 1925) Kaiser 1926, die Dg. (Derivatgesellschaft) Lecanora albescens [Caloplacion decipientis], die Bsg. Caloplaca fiavescens - [Caloplacion decipientis], die Gesellschaft von Lecania erysibe und Verrucaria muralis, das Caloplacetum citrinae (Galle 1930) Beschel 1950 und das Verrucario velanae - Caloplacetum xantholytae Nowak 1960. Dagegen ist die für schattige Massenkalkfelsen typische Gesellschaft von Bagliettoa steineri und Catillaria lenticularis in die Klasse Protoblastenietae immersae Roux 1978 prov. einzuordnen, ebenso das Gyalectetum jenensis Kaiser em. Roux & Wirth 1978.
31678Muhle H. (1967): Zur Flechtenflora des Naturschutzgebietes „Heiliges Meer" bei Hopsten (Westfalen). - Abhandlungen aus dem Westfälischen Museum für Naturkunde, 29(2): 40–45.
Zusammenfassung: 73 Flechtenarten wurden in einem ca. 60 ha großen, diluvialen Sandgebiet mit eingestreuten Seen - z. T. rezente Nachsackungserscheinungen des bedeckten Karstes - wenige km nördlich vom Nordwesten (Kälberberg) des Teutoburger Waldes beobachtet.
31677Kleinebecker T., Vogel A. & Hölzel N. (2008): Die Vegetation ombrotropher Moore Südpatagoniens. - Abhandlungen aus dem Westfälischen Museum für Naturkunde, 70: 439–452.
This paper gives an overview of South-Patagonian ombrotrophic peatland vegetation and summarizes floristic and ecological features of the major vegetation types. The most important coenocline in South Patagonian ombrotrophic bog vegetation is reflected by a gradient of continentality ranging from pacific blanket bogs dominated by cushion-building vascular plants via an ecotonal mixed type to Sphagnum-dominated continental raised bogs. Climatic constraints as well as biogeochemical peat characteristics significantly change along this gradient. At a local scale, South Patagonian bog vegetation shows a distinct variation along edaphic moisture gradients which is very similar to north-hemispherical ombrotrophic bog types. 8 lichen taxa are mentioned in the species list.
31676Ketner-Oostra R. & Sýkora K.V. (2008): Succession in lichen-rich vegetation in coastal dunes between 1995 and 2005. - Abhandlungen aus dem Westfälischen Museum für Naturkunde, 70: 125–142.
Succession in lichen-rich stages of primary succession in calcium-poor coastal sand dunes was monitored from 1995 to 2005. The changes from lichen-rich to mossdominated stages in Corynephorus canescens grassland were related to acidification in connection with ageing of calcium-poor dune soil. Lichen diversity decreased and the terrestrial growing usually epiphytic species disappeared. The final stage in succession in the Violo-Corynephoretum (V.-C.) with mats of Cladina portentosa changed very slowly and this stage needs protection, especially from grazing, as it is a very vulnerable, and, if fragmented, it will be replaced by the neophytic moss Campylopus introflexus. Lichen diversity was neither restored by superficial cutting of sods in moss-encroached vegetation nor by fire in graminoid encroached V.-C. The best option in maintaining lichen vegetation in the V.-C. is to allow sand with a relatively high CaCO3 content to blow in. For sustainable conservation, formation of new dune ridges by natural processes is optimal or even necessary.
31675Sipman H. (2008): A remarkable new lichen from the Netherlands Antilles, Eremothecella microcephalica. - Abhandlungen aus dem Westfälischen Museum für Naturkunde, 70: 465–469.
A description is presented for the new species of lichenized ascomycetes, Eremothecella microcephalica, and its affinity is discussed. The new species was discovered on the Windward Antilles, tropical America, and is characterised by rounded macropycnidia and microcephalic ascospores. Keywords: Arthoniomycetes, taxonomy, Caribbean, lichenized fungi, new species.
31674Türk R. (2017): Flechten: Eine verborgene Dreierbeziehung. Superorganismus "Flechte". - Natur und Land, 103(2): 20–24.
Popular paper
31673Dittmann T., Heinken T. & Schmidt M. (2018): Die Wälder von Magdeburgerforth (Fläming, Sachsen-Anhalt) – eine Wiederholungsuntersuchung nach sechs Jahrzehnten. - Tuexenia, 38: 11–42.
Between 1948 and 1950 the German phytosociologist Harro Passarge conducted 120 relevés in a 2,200 ha large forest area near Magdeburgerforth (Fläming, Saxony-Anhalt, NE Germany). The study area is characterized by a remarkable diversity of forest communities of the alliances Agrostio- Quercion petraeae, Alnion glutinosae, Alnion incanae, Carpinion betuli, Dicrano-Pinion and Quercion roboris. Because of this broad ecological spectrum, and because many processes which impact Central European forests today (nitrogen deposition, climate change) were not noticeable at the date of the first survey, it provides a good opportunity for a resurvey study after 60 years. As the position of Passarge’s relevés were not marked in a map, in the 2014 resurvey we sampled the most similar forest stands within a search area defined by the forest compartment and the Passarge vegetation map. In this way, 97 (81%) of the relevés could be repeated. Vegetation change was analysed by NMDS ordination and the comparison of α diversity, Ellenberg indicator values and linkage to forest habitats of species from both censuses, as well as by the identification of winner and loser species. Although, due to the methodology, only the smallest possible vegetation change was indicated, we nevertheless gained results which conform to those of resurveys based on quasi-permanent plots. The main trends (eutrophication, succession after management change, loss of plant species that are lightdemanding and linked to oligotrophic sites, spread of nitrophilous and mesophilous forest species, immigration of neophytes, no general decline in species richness) are in agreement with the results of several other resurvey studies in Central and Western European forests. Because of the wide spectrum of habitats within the study area (from wet to dry, as well as from acidic and nutrient-poor to relatively base-rich) we could demonstrate more clearly than in previous studies that the resilience of forests to vegetation change differs strongly according to the initial forest type, and that different drivers of temporal changes are active. Mesophilous forests (Stellario-Carpinetum and Luzulo-Quercetum) turned out to be relatively stable, while Circaeo-Alnetum forests also showed few signs of environmental change despite some species turnover. In contrast, forests of nutrient-poor habitats (Sphagno-Alnetum, Betulo- Quercetum, Dicrano-Pinion) were characterized by many loser species and a strong tendency towards eutrophication. Thermophilous forests and lichen-pine forests, which are especially dependent on historical forest management techniques, largely disappeared. Keywords: initial site conditions, nitrogen deposition, past land use, quasi-permanent plots, vegetation change, winner and loser species.
31672Stix S. & Erschbamer B. (2018): Zunahme der Artenvielfalt in zentralalpinen Mooren. - Tuexenia, 38: 251–267.
Fens with their specialized plant communities are strictly protected in Europe. However, solid baseline data on fen development in relation to climate and landuse changes are hardly available. In order to close these gaps, long term studies are needed. This study investigates changes of fen vegetation at two locations in the Central Alps (inner Ötz valley, Tyrol, Austria) by comparing relevés from 1971 and 2014. In both fens species diversity increased. One former fen developed into a raised bog till 2014. Species number doubled, presumably cause of spatial differentiated vegetation development. The other location is characterized by two plant communities: the Amblystegio intermedii-Scirpetum austriaci where species number doubled within 40 years, and the Caricetum goodenowii which hardly changed. Species composition of both sites changed, but not with a trend to raised bog character. Since autogenic processes of vegetation development in fens need time, it can be hypothesized that allogenic processes or a mixture of both processes caused the detected species composition changes. Climate and landuse changes, especially climate warming and changes in pasture and forestry use and ski tourism with the therefore taken physical alterations, may be the most important driving forces. Keywords: Central Alps, climate, fen, landuse, species diversity, vegetation change.
31671Zięba A., Różański W. & Szwagrzyk J. (2018): Syntaxonomy of relic Swiss stone pine (Pinus cembra) forests in the Tatra Mountains. - Tuexenia, 38: 155–176.
Pinus cembra forests in the Tatra Mountains were studied by MYCZKOWSKI (1970) and WOJTERSKA et al. (2004), and this research led to a description of a separate forest association called Cembro-Piceetum Myczkowski 1970 or, according to WOJTERSKA et al. (2004), Larici-Pinetum cembrae (Pallmann et Haffter 1933) Ellenberg 1963. However, due to insufficient data, the syntaxo-nomical status of Swiss stone pine forests remained arguable. Therefore, the aim of this study was to verify the syntaxonomical status of P. cembra forests in the Tatra as well as to check the possible oc-currence of these forests in the Western Tatra and on calcareous bedrock, which was omitted in earlier studies. We made 108 relevés based on the Braun-Blanquet method throughout the entire range of P. cembra. Data collected in the field were numerically analysed based on the modified Marczewski and Steinhaus similarity model. The classification was done for the qualitative and quantitative data using cluster analysis UPGMA. Each relevé was classified fourfold and identified based on the index of phytosociological agreement (IPA). Characteristic and differential species were identified by species percentage frequency, fidelity, cover ratio and dominance ratio. We determined two main syntaxonomi-cal units of relic Swiss stone pine forests, Vaccinio-Pinetum cembrae (Pallmann & Haffter 1933) Ober-dorfer 1962 and, on calcareous ground, Swertio perennis-Pinetum cembrae ass. nov. The Vaccinio-Pinetum cembrae was divided into two subassociations and three variants, while the Swertio perennis-Pinetum cembrae occurred in two variants. To establish their syntaxonomical status, data collected in the field were compared with relevés collected from the Tatra upper montane Picea abies forests, Tatra Pinus mugo shrubs, and Alpine P. cembra forests. Results of similarity analyses showed that relic P. cembra forests in the Tatra growing on granite bedrock are a distinct plant association, different from the Plagiothecio-Piceetum, and should be treated as one Swiss stone pine forest association Vaccinio-Pinetum cembrae, common to the Alps and to the Tatra. Furthermore, this study documented the occur-rence of P. cembra forests in the Western Tatra. Keywords: Vaccinio-Pinetum cembrae, Swertio perennis-Pinetum cembrae, phytosociology, Tatra Mountains, Central European upper montane forests, numerical classification.
31670Didukh Y.P. & Vasheniak Yu.A. (2018): Vegetation of limestone outcrops in Western and Central Podillia (Ukraine). - Tuexenia, 38: 419–444.
This article characterises limestone outcrop vegetation. Such communities grow on limestone, chalk, gypsum and other kinds of rocks of the Devon and Paleogene period dispersed throughout Western and Central Podillia. The relief, geological structure, soil, distribution factors caused by climate, specificity and diversity of the communities and their particular floristic qualities are highlighted. The history of phytocoenological investigations of limestone outcrop communities in Ukraine is also shown. Syntaxonomical and ecological assessments with critical analyses and evaluations of 118 relevés, including bryophytes and lichens, were conducted based on scientific papers. Research activity involved the formation of a database with the help of TURBOVEG, processing the data with JUICE and creating clusters with the help of the Modified TWINSPAN algorithm and OptimClass. The resulting communities were assigned to two classes: the class Festuco-Brometea (order Brachypodietalia pinnati, alliance Cirsio-Brachypodion pinnati [Orchido militaris-Seslerietum heufleranae, Ranunculo zapalowiczi- Helictotrichetum desertori] and order Stipo pulcherrimae-Festucetalia pallentis, alliance Galio campanulati- Poion versicoloris [Schivereckio podolicae-Seselietum libanotidis, Poetum versicoloris]) and the class Sedo-Scleranthetea (order Alysso-Sedetalia, alliance Alysso-Sedion [Bryo argentei-Ajugetum chiae, Aurinio saxatilis-Allietum podolici]). Characteristics of the syntaxa are given, especially in case of newly described syntaxa. Syntaxonomical assignments were based on our preliminary results and need to be integrated into the comprehensive analyses of data from different countries. Based on the ECODID database (DIDUKH 2011), we considered 12 environmental factors to justify the position and assessment of syntaxa along environmental scales. Finally, some disputable questions regarding the syntaxonomical position of limestone outcrop communities are discussed. Keywords: dry grassland, Festuco-Brometea, Sedo-Scleranthetea, vegetation classification, Ukraine.
31669Neuwinger I. (1965): Die Vegetations und Bodenaufnahme als Beitrag zur Abgenzung von Standortseinheiten. - Mitteilungen der forstlichen Bundes-Versuchsanstalt Wien, 66: 129–158.
The Vegetation and Soil Record as a Contribution to the Delimitation of Site Units
31668Mayer R. & Erschbamer B. (2012): Lärchen-Zirbenwälder und Zwergstrauch-heiden. - Publikationen Alpine Forschungsstelle Obergurgl, 2: 99–123.
Cembran pine forests and dwarf shrub heaths are characteristic plant communities in the subalpine zone of the inner Oetz valley. In Obergurgl, a homogenously structured pine forest consists of old pines (Pinus cembra) in the terminal stage. The community was defined as Vaccinio-Pinetum cembrae nardetosum. According to tree crown cover and altitude, two variants were distinguished: a variant with Oxalis acetosella (higher tree crown cover, ≤2060 m a.s.l.) and a variant with Loiseleuria procumbens (lower tree crown cover, ≥2100 m a.s.l). The dwarf shrub heaths can be differentiated by canopy height and microrelief. They were attributed to the Rhododendretum ferruginei in troughs and the Loiseleurio-Cetrarietum on wind-exposed edges. Additionally, species composition and number of three dwarf shrub communities were studied for nine years (2000–2008) in 1-m² permanent plots. With the exception of the wind-exposed Loiseleurio-Cetrarietum, significant changes were detected in the dwarf shrub communities, probably caused by global climate warming, atmospheric nitrogen deposition and skiing.
31667Marstaller R. (2002): Die Moosgesellschaften des Schieferbergbaugebietes „Ausdauer“ bei Probstzella, Kreis Saalfeld-Rudolstadt. 93. Beitrag zur Moosvegetation Thüringens. - Hercynia, N.F., 35: 235–251.
The bryophyte communities of the slate mining territory „Ausdauer“ near Probstzella, district Saalfeld-Rudolstadt. 93th contribution to the bryophyte vegetation of Thuringia. Bryosociology; numerous associated lichens listed.
31666Hartl H. (1978): Vegetationskarte der Großfragant (Hohe Tauern). - Carinthia II, 168/88: 339–367.
Austria; lichens identified by R.Türk
31665Benzing A. & Bibinger H. (1968): Vegetationskundliche Notizen über das Blindensee-Moor (Mittlerer Schwarzwald). - Mitteilungen des Badischen Landesvereins für Naturkunde und Naturschutz e.V. Freiburg i. Br., N.F., 9(4): 741–754.
peat-bog vegetation; numerous lichens listed
31664Silberberger I. (1992): Vegetation der nordöstlichen Kitzbüheler Alpen (subalpine und alpine Stufe) (Österreich). - Berichte des naturwissenschaftlichen-medizinischen Verein Innsbruck, 79: 103–122.
Phytocenology; macrolichens included
31663Burgstaller B. & Schiffer R. (1995): Die aktuelle Vegetation des Gebietes um den Rifflsee (Pitztal, Nordtirol). - Berichte des naturwissenschaftlichen-medizinischen Verein Innsbruck, 82: 79–94.
The current Vegetation of the Area around Lake "Rifflsee" (Pitztal, Northern Tyrol). The paper includes data on high-montane Vegetation including macrolichens.
31662Schiffner V. (1886): Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Moosflora Böhmens. - Lotos, N.F., 7: 111–145.
Czech Republic, Praha; Pycnothelia papillaria (as Cladonia p.) listed as an associate to the liverwort Jungermannia bicrenata (p. 117; "bei den Steinbrüchen hinter Wolschan")
31661Bhattacharya D., Friedl T. & Damberger S. (1996): Nuclear-encoded rDNA group I introns: origin and phylogenetic relationships of insertion site lineages in the green algae. - Molecular Biology and Evolution, 13(7): 978–989.
Group I introns are widespread in eukaryotic organelles and nuclear-encoded ribosomal DNAs (rDNAs). The green algae are particularly rich in rDNA group I introns. To better understand the origins and phylogenetic relationships of green algal nuclear-encoded small subunit rDNA group I introns, a secondary structure-based alignment was constructed with available intron sequences and 11 new subgroup ICI and three new subgroup IB3 intron sequences determined from members of the Trebouxiophyceae (common phycobiont components of lichen) and the Ulvophyceae. Phylogenetic analyses using a weighted maximum-parsimony method showed that most group I introns form distinct lineages defined by insertion sites within the SSU rDNA. The comparison of topologies defining the phylogenetic relationships of 12 members of the 1512 group I intron insertion site lineage (position relative to the E. coli SSU rDNA coding region) with that of the host cells (i.e., SSU rDNAs) that contain these introns provided insights into the possible origin, stability, loss, and lateral transfer of ICI group I introns. The phylogenetic data were consistent with a viral origin of the 1512 group I intron in the green algae. This intron appears to have originated, minimally, within the SSU rDNA of the common ancestor of the trebouxiophytes and has subsequently been vertically inherited within this algal lineage with loss of the intron in some taxa. The phylogenetic analyses also suggested that the 1512 intron was laterally transferred among later-diverging trebouxiophytes; these algal taxa may have coexisted in a developing lichen thallus, thus facilitating cell-to-cell contact and the lateral transfer. Comparison of available group I intron sequences from the nuclear-encoded SSU rDNA of phycobiont and mycobiont components of lichens demonstrated that these sequences have independent origins and are not the result of lateral transfer from one component to the other.
31660Warshan D., Liaimer A., Pederson E., Kim S.Y., Shapiro N., Woyke T., Altermark B., Pawlowski K., Weyman P.D., Dupont C.L. & Rasmussen U. (2018): Genomic changes associated with the evolutionary transitions of Nostoc to a plant symbiont. - Molecular Biology and Evolution, 35(5): 1160–1175.
Cyanobacteria belonging to the genus Nostoc comprise free-living strains and also facultative plant symbionts. Symbiotic strains can enter into symbiosis with taxonomically diverse range of host plants. Little is known about genomic changes associated with evolutionary transition of Nostoc from free-living to plant symbiont. Here, we compared the genomes derived from 11 symbiotic Nostoc strains isolated from different host plants and infer phylogenetic relationships between strains. Phylogenetic reconstructions of 89 Nostocales showed that symbiotic Nostoc strains with a broad host range, entering epiphytic and intracellular or extracellular endophytic interactions, form a monophyletic clade indicating a common evolutionary history. A polyphyletic origin was found for Nostoc strains which enter only extracellular symbioses, and inference of transfer events implied that this trait was likely acquired several times in the evolution of the Nostocales. Symbiotic Nostoc strains showed enriched functions in transport and metabolism of organic sulfur, chemotaxis and motility, as well as the uptake of phosphate, branched-chain amino acids, and ammonium. The genomes of the intracellular clade differ from that of other Nostoc strains, with a gain/enrichment of genes encoding proteins to generate l-methionine from sulfite and pathways for the degradation of the plant metabolites vanillin and vanillate, and of the macromolecule xylan present in plant cell walls. These compounds could function as C-sources for members of the intracellular clade. Molecular clock analysis indicated that the intracellular clade emerged ca. 600 Ma, suggesting that intracellular Nostoc symbioses predate the origin of land plants and the emergence of their extant hosts. Key words: cyanobacteria, symbiosis, evolution, plant–microbe interaction.
31659Rama Krishna B., Ramakrishna S., Rajendra S., Madhusudana K. & Mallavadhani U.V. (2019): Synthesis of some novel orsellinates and lecanoric acid related depsides as α-glucosidase inhibitors. - Journal of Asian Natural Products Research, 21(10): 1013–1027.
Sixteen novel orsellinic esters (6a-l, 7a-d) along with four lecanoric acid related depsides (3a-c, 4) were synthesized and confirmed their structures by spectroscopic data (1H, 13C & HRMS). The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their in vitro α-glucosidase (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) inhibitory potential. Among the tested compounds, 3c (IC50: 140.9 μM) and 6c (IC50: 203.9 μM) displayed potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and found more active than the standard drug acarbose (IC50: 686.6 μM). Both the test compounds were subjected to in vivo antihyperglycemic activity using sucrose loaded model in Wistar rats and found compound 3c exhibited significant reduction in glucose levels.
31658Bayazıt G., Gül Ü.D. & Ünal D. (2019): Biosorption of Acid Red P-2BX by lichens as low-cost biosorbents. - International Journal of Environmental Studies, 76(4): 608–615.
The aim of this study is to examine the dye biosorption properties of lichen species called Cladonia convoluta and Evernia prunastri. Since lichens are extensively found in the environment, their suitability as a cheap adsorbent has been investigated in this study. The optimal parameters for textile dye biosorption were also determined. The dried lichen biomass showed better dye biosorption capacity than ash lichen biomass. C. convoluta had better dye biosorption capacity than E. prunastri. Dye biosorption rate was found as 71.41% at optimal conditions. This study concluded that C. convoluta was a successful and cheap biosorbent for treatment of water contaminated by Acid Red P-2BX dye. Keywords: Acid Red P-2BX, biosorption, lichen, wastewater treatment.
31657Demková L., Árvay J., Bobul’ská L., Hauptvogl M. & Michalko M. (2019): Activity of the soil enzymes and moss and lichen biomonitoring method used for the evaluation of soil and air pollution from tailing pond in Nižná Slaná (Slovakia). - Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A, 54(6): 495–507.
The surrounding of the poorly maintained tailing ponds is endangered by the toxic substances and represents a serious risk for the health of the local population. The aim of the study was to determine the soil pollution by the hazardous elements (As, Cr, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) around the tailing pond using contamination factor (Cf), degree of contamination (Cd) and pollution load index (PLI). The health and the condition of soil were evaluated by soil enzyme activity (urease, acid and alkaline phosphatase, florescein diacetate, and ß-glucosidase). The spreading of the airborne hazardous elements from the body of the tailing pond was evaluated by moss and lichen bag technique and relative accumulation factor was used for the result expression. Cd, Fe, and Mn in soils reached above the limit values at all sampling sites. According to the degree of contamination (Cd), the soils at the sampling area were very high contaminated by As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, and Pb. The most part of the assessed area was according to the PLI values extremely polluted. The air pollution was the most serious around the tailing pond, but serious levels of some hazardous elements were determined also in the remote distances. Keywords: Air pollution and soil pollution, tailing pond, environmental pollution indices, soil enzyme activity, moss and lichen bag technique.
31656Rodríguez-Quiel E.E., Mendieta-Leiva G. & Bader M.Y. (2019): Elevational patterns of bryophyte and lichen biomass differ among substrates in the tropical montane forest of Baru Volcano, Panama. - Journal of Bryology, 41(2): 95–106.
Tropical montane forests support a high abundance and diversity of bryophytes and lichens on different substrates. However, quantitative information about how their biomass and water-holding capacity change with elevation is scarce. The current project assessed variation in the biomass and water-holding capacity of bryophytes and lichens on Baru Volcano, Panama. Methods: On the western slope, the bryophyte and lichen layer was collected from 600 cm2 plots on six substrate types with four replications at eight elevations along a gradient from 1900 to 3300 m a.s.l. We recorded the thickness, water-holding capacity and biomass of all samples, as well as environmental parameters. Key results: At lower elevations substrates had a similar biomass and water-holding capacity per area, but with increasing elevation terricolous substrates showed the strongest increase (highest values at 3100 m). These patterns are associated with climatic variation along the gradient. At the highest elevations, the forest was of low stature and more light reached the forest floor. Also at these high elevations fog provides a daily wetting of the bryophytes and lichens. At lower elevations the water supply is increasingly in the form of rain, which is less frequent than the fog. Conclusions: The apparent strong coupling of biomass variations to precipitation regimes implies a high sensitivity of the bryophytes and lichens to climatic warming and changes in the cloud base elevation. Furthermore our data suggest that the importance of bryophytes and lichens for regulating ecosystem water fluxes increases with elevation, which underlines the necessity to conserve intact montane forests. Keywords: Biomass; bryophytes; elevational gradient; hydrology; lichens; tropical montane cloud forest; waterholding capacity.
31655Milne D. (2019): Notes on ‘Lichen’. - Textual Practice, 33(6): 883–900.
‘Notes on “Lichen”’ develops a lichenised homage to Susan Sontag’s ‘Notes on “Camp”’, rewilding Sontag’s essay to suggest a poetics of Lichen, a poetics associated symbiotically with the manifestos of Donna Haraway. This Lichen poetics engages with questions of symbiosis and solidarity, mutualism and collective voicing, sketching the turn away from humanist poetics as a critical characteristic of contemporary ecopoetics. From Conceptual Art to contemporary pop, lichen perspectives are gleaned. The attempt is made to rewild earlier conceptual formations, to recycle and repurpose shifts in contemporary taste and their associated politics. New faultlines in contemporary biopolitics are outlined. A chorus of micro-political shifts and transpositions are sketched, revealing emergent and potential turning-points in the rewilding of textual practice. Keywords: Susan Sontag, Donna Haraway, Lichen poetics, symbiosis, ecopoetics.
31654Paz-Bermúdez G. & Etayo J. (2019): On three lichenicolous species on Roccella montagnei from Angola with a description of the new species Lecanographa rosea (Lecanographaceae) and a key to the lichenicolous fungi growing on Roccella (Roccellaceae). - Nova Hedwigia, 108: 547–554.
Three species of lichenicolous fungi have been found growing on Roccella montagnei in Angola: Lecanographa imitans, Milospium graphideorum, and the newly described Lecanographa rosea, a species with pinkish ascomata, a poorly developed exciple and hyaline, 3-septate ascospores. A revised key of all known, lichenicolous fungi growing on Roccella is provided. Key words: Africa; fungi; Lecanographa imitans; Milospium graphideorum; taxonomy.
31653Moisejevs R., Motiejūnaité J. & Lõhmus P. (2019): Lichen assemblages on Scots pine stumps and fine woody debris in hemiboreal post-harvest sites: the impact of site age and green tree retention. - Nova Hedwigia, 109: 247–266.
Retention of live trees and dead wood structures in clear-cut sites is a common sylviculture measure for biodiversity purposes. We studied lichen assemblages on pine stumps and fine woody debris (FWD) in 16 post-cut (4–6 and 9–11 yr. old) dry boreal pine stands in Latvia to explore what type of substrata and stand-scale characters (e. g., retention level, time since harvest) are related to lichen species richness and differences in composition. We found 48 lichen species on stumps and 43 species on FWD. Majority of the species (except Cladonia parasitica) were common lichens of coniferous forests in hemiboreal regions. Time since harvest and retention level had positive impacts on richness on stumps, but not on FWD. Increase in total species richness on stumps in older post-harvest sites compared to the younger ones was strong and relatively rapid. Notwithstanding species richness, assemblages on FWD and on stumps were distinct between older and younger cut sites. The impact of time also emerged when assemblages on vertical and horizontal stump surfaces were separated. We conclude that pine stumps are important to lichen richness and post-harvest recovery of the epixylic lichen biota, especially in the face of alarming scarcity of snags and logs in cut-over sites in Latvia, where dead wood legacies (particularly snags) are not retained in sufficient amount. Key words: coarse woody debris; epixylic; species diversity; logging; Latvia.
31652Lücking R. (2019): Stop the abuse of time! Strict temporal banding is not the future of rank-based classifications in fungi (including lichens) and other organisms. - Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, 38(3): 199–253.
Classification is the most important approach to cataloging biological diversity. It serves as a principal means of communication between scientific disciplines, as well as between scientists on one hand and lawmakers and the public on the other. Up to the present, classification of plants, fungi, and animals follows the fundamental principles laid out more than 250 years ago by Linnaeus, with less changes in the formalistic approach although with somewhat diverging rules for plants and fungi on one hand and animals on the other. Linnean classifications obey two fundamental rules, the binomial as basic format for species names, including a genus-level name and a specific epithet, and rank-based higher classifications, with the main ranks encompassing genus, family, order, class, phylum (division), and kingdom. Given that molecular phylogenies have reshaped our understanding of natural relationships between organisms, and following the cladistic principle of monophyly which defines groups but not ranks, it has been repeatedly argued that rank assignments are artificial and subjective, with the suggestion to either abandon rank-based classifications altogether or apply more objective criteria to determine ranks. The most fundamental of such approaches has been the correlation of rank with geological (evolutionary) age, first established by Hennig in the middle of the past century and around the turn of the millenium formalized as “temporal banding,” based on the advent of the molecular clock. While initially the temporal banding approach received less attention, in the past ten years several major studies mostly in vertebrates (birds, mammals) and fungi (chiefly lichenized lineages) have proposed novel classifications based on a strict temporal banding approach, partly with highly disruptive results. In this paper, the temporal banding approach is critically revised, pointing out strengths and flaws, and “best practice” recommendations are given how to employ this technique properly and with care to improve existing classifications while avoiding unnecessary disruptions. A main conclusion is that taxa recognized at the same rank do not have to be comparable in age, diversity, or disparity, or any other single criterion, but their ranking should follow integrative principles that best reflect their individual evolutionary history. In a critical appraisal of changes to the classification of Lecanoromycetes (lichenized Fungi) proposed based on temporal banding, the following amendments are accepted: Ostropales split into Graphidales, Gyalectales, Ostropales s.str., and Thelenellales; Arctomiales, Hymeneliales, and Trapeliales subsumed under Baeomycetales; Letrouitiaceae subsumed under Brigantiaeaceae; Lobariaceae and Nephromataceae subsumed under Peltigeraceae; Miltideaceae subsumed under Agyriaceae, and Protoparmeloideae and Austromelanelixia as new subfamily and genus within Parmeliaceae. The following changes are not accepted: Rhizocarpales split into Rhizocarpales s.str. and Sporastatiales (no information gain); Sarrameanales split into Sarrameanales s.str. and Schaereriales (no information gain); Carbonicolaceae subsumed under Lecanoraceae (topological conflict); Graphidaceae split into Diploschistaceae, Fissurinaceae, Graphidaceae s.str., Thelotremataceae (no information gain, topological conflict); Ochrolechiaceae split into Ochrolechiaceae s.str., Varicellariaceae, and Variolariaceae (no information gain, nomenclaturally incorrect); Porinaceae replaced by Trichotheliaceae (nomenclaturally incorrect); Ramalinaceae split into Biatoraceae and Ramalinaceae s.str. (no information gain, topological conflict); Stereocaulaceae subsumed under Cladoniaceae (nomenclaturally incorrect); Thrombiaceae subsumed under Protothelenellaceae (topological conflict); and all proposed genus level synonymies in Parmeliaceae. New fungal taxa: The new order Odontotrematales Lücking ordo nov. is established for the family Odontotremataceae s.str., based on topological grounds. Keywords: Aves; Bromeliaceae; Bryopsida; Cactaceae; Cebidae; Dendrobatidae; Diptera; Drosophila; Gregg’s paradox; Hominidae; Icmadophilaceae; Insecta; Iguanidae; lichens; Magnoliopsida; Mammalia; Megalospora; Metazoa; Oropogon; paraphyly; Parmotrema; Plantae; Teloschistaceae; Usnea; Xanthoparmelia.
31651Evans D.J.A., Guðmundsson S., Vautrey J.L., Fearnyough K. & Southworth W.G. (2019): Testing lichenometric techniques in the production of a new growth-rate (curve) for the Breiðamerkurjökull foreland, Iceland, and the analysis of potential climatic drivers of glacier recession. - Geografiska Annaler: Series A, Physical Geography, 101(3): 225–248.
Independent dating of closely-spaced moraines on the west Breiðamerkurjökull foreland is used to test the accuracy of the size frequency (SF) and largest lichen (5LL) lichenometric dating techniques. The 5LL technique derived the most accurate ages for three undated moraines within the dated sequence but growth rates and lag times produced by the two methods (5LL = 0.71 mm yr−1 and 11 years; SF = 0.64 mm yr−1 and 7 years) were not significantly different. We therefore reject previous conclusions that any one technique is demonstrably inferior to the other, at least for dating glacial landforms created over the last 130 years in SE Iceland. Comparisons of climate trends and recession rates indicate that air temperature anomalies, particularly those of the summer, are the strongest driver of glacier retreat. No clear relationship between NAO trends and glacier retreat were identified, although a positive and/or rising trend in NAO is associated with the slowing of ice retreat overall, and the marked readvances of the mid-1950s, mid-1970s and mid-1990s are all coincident with positive and/or rising NAO 5yr moving averages. Summer and annual temperature trends, not the NAO, clearly show that recent accelerated global warming is driving the marked recession of the period 1995–2015. Over the last 100 years temperature has been the major driver of glacier terminus oscillations at west Breiðamerkurjökull but it is clear that extreme decreases in winter precipitation (i.e. 1960–1973) have the potential to increase retreat rates significantly even during times of below average annual temperatures. Keywords: Lichenometry, glacier retreat, Breiðamerkurjökull, historical glacier-climate relations.
31650Esslinger T.L. (2019): A cumulative checklist for the lichen-forming, lichenicolous and allied fungi of the continental United States and Canada, version 23. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 18: 102–378.
Version 23 of the checklist of lichen-forming, lichenicolous and allied fungi occurring in North America north of Mexico is presented. It includes a total of 5,618 species in 766 genera, with an additional 44 subspecies, 45 varieties, and 3 forms. The total species number includes 631 lichenicolous fungi, 107 saprophytic fungi related to lichens or to lichenicolous fungi, and another 63 species of varying and/or uncertain biological status. Keywords. – Canada, floristics, lichens, nomenclature, United States.
31649Wiersma Y.F. & McMullin R.T. (2019): Out with proxies, in with biodiversity. - Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 17(7): 371–373.
Correspondence / forum; Reply to criticism by Janssen P., Bergès L., Fuhr M. & Paillet Y. (2019): Do not drop OLD for NEW: conservation needs both forest continuity and stand maturity. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 17(7): 370–371. "Janssen et al. suggest that lichens are not the best indicators because some species are not dispersal limited and mainly respond to tree-level characteristics. We disagree; many lichens appear to be dispersal limited (Goward 1994; Sillett et al. 2000; Goward and Arsenault 2018). Indeed, Nordén and Appelqvist (2001) – one of the references cited by Janssen et al. – provided no empirical evidence that lichens are dispersal limited; in their literature review, they suggested that lichens used to measure forest continuity may be present in overmature stands in recent forests and, as such, may be unsuitable indicators of continuity. While this may be true, no lichens were tested. Moreover, as we previously stated, there are many variables in addition to continuity that influence species composition, and we are interested in the species present, not in how well those species indicate continuity. More recently, Goward and Arsenault (2018) showed that the colonization of calicioid lichens and fungi (the species we proposed as some of the best indicators) continues in old-growth forests in British Columbia over 500 years after establishment. This would not occur without dispersal limitation. Even if these lichen species were not dispersal limited, dispersal capabilities remain another variable that can confound conservation efforts and another reason to focus on the presence of unique biodiversity."
31648Kaiser E. (1944): Die Steppenheiden des mainfränkischen Welienkalkes zwischen Würzburg und dem Spessart. - Berichte der Bayerischen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 28: 125–180.
steppe-like xerotherms; numerous calciphilous lichens listed
31647Suessenguth K. (1949): Zur Flora des Gebietes der Berliner Hütte in den Zillertaler Alpen. - Berichte der Bayerischen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 29: 72–82.
Alps; more than dozen lichens listed (p. 75; identified by F. Mattick)
31646Dürhammer O. (2009): Kartierung von Kryptogamen im Zeitalter von GPS und modernen Eingabeprogrammen. - Berichte der Bayerischen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 79: 79–88.
Modern methods of biological data mapping in the field are shown instance of some kryptogamic groups. The individual techniques have advantages and disadvantages. But for all that advancements the old technique with paper and pencil is propagated. The described improved method to take notes in the field with selective use of GPS-appliance is demonstrated as to be timesaving. The technique allows to concentrate on the species.
31645Ходосовцев О.Є., Бойко М.Ф., Громакова А.Б., Малюга Н.Г. & Дармостук В.В. [Khodosovtsev A.Ye., Boiko M.F., Gromakova A.B., Maliuga N.G. & Darmostuk V.V.] (2019): Сергій Якович Кондратюк: 60 років з дня народження [Sergei Y. Kondratyuk: 60th birthday]. - Чорноморський ботанічний журнал [Chornomorski Botanical Journal], 15(2): 202–213.
[in Ukrainian] anniversary, list of taxa (co-)described by Kondratyuk amended.
31644Ходосовцев О.Є., Дармостук В.В., Мойсієнко I.I., Захарова М.Я. & Деркач О.М. [Khodosovtsev A.Ye., Darmostuk V.V., Moysiyenko I.I., Zakharova M.Ya. & Derkach O.M.] (2019): Fulgensia desertorum (Teloschistales, Teloschistaceae) та інші вразливі лишайники в угрупованні Toninio-Psoretum decipientis [Fulgensia desertorum (Teloschistales, Ascomycota) and other rare species in the association Toninio-Psoretum decipientis]. - Український Ботанічний Журнал [Ukrainian Botanical Journal], 76(3): 236–242.
[in Ukrainian with English abstract: ] The second record of Fulgensia desertorum in Ukraine is reported. The lichen was found on loess outcrops along the right bank of the Bug River estuary (between villages Kotylyne and Prybuzke, Ochakiv District, Mykolaiv Region). It was observed on a gentle northern slope of the ravine near a cliff. The extent of its occurrence was calculated as 0.01 ha and its area of occupancy – 25 ha. Fulgensia desertorum was found in xerophytic association Toninio-Psoretum decipientis, which is newly reported for Ukraine. These communities occupy disjunct areas on open landscapes without plant cover along the right bank of the Dnipro-Bug estuary. In total, F. desertorum, sixteen species of lichens and lichenicolous fungi were recorded. Among them, Squamarina lentigera is listed in the Red Data Book of Ukraine and Psora decipiens is a candidate for inclusion in the next edition of the Red Data Book of Ukraine. Endocarpon pusillum, Fulgensia fulgens, and Megaspora verrucosa are rare lichen species which need to be protected at the regional level. Lichenicolous fungi Lichenohendersonia squamarinae on Squamarina lentigera, Didymellopsis perigena on Megaspora verrucosa are the first reports in Mykolaiv Region. Didymocyrtis cladoniicola is found for the first time on Fulgensia desertorum. The association Toninio-Psoretum decipientis is in urgent need of inclusion into the new edition of the Green Data Book of Ukraine. This association is a component of the habitat E1.2D21 – Sarmatic loess steppes (EUNIS). This habitat includes vascular plant communities of the union Festucion valesiacae as well. Prybuzki Reserve of regional level (zakaznyk) is proposed to be established for conservation of lichen species Fulgensia desertorum, Squamarina lentigera, as well as the threatened lichen community Toninio-Psoretum decipientis and the habitat of the Sarmatic loess steppes in general. Keywords: conservation, Dnipro-Bug estuary, habitats, loess cliffs, Festucion valesiacae, Red Data Book of Ukraine, Psoretea decipientis.
31643Дармостук В.В. [Darmostuk V.V.] (2019): До вивчення ліхенофільної мікобіоти України: рід Zwackhiomyces (Xanthopyreniaceae, Collemopsidiales) [Additions to the lichenicolous mycobiota of Ukraine: the genus Zwackhiomyces (Xanthopyreniaceae, Collemopsidiales)]. - Український Ботанічний Журнал [Ukrainian Botanical Journal], 76(4): 301–315.
[in Ukrainian with English abstract: ] A taxonomic revision of the genus Zwackhiomyces in Ukraine is provided. The genus is characterized by globose to pyriform ascomata, brown wall pigments deposited between the cells, branched and anastomosing interascal filaments, fissitunicate asci and 0–1-sepate hyaline ascospores. Previously, ten species of Zwackhiomyces were known in Ukraine. They are Z. berengerianus, Z. calcariae, Z. cervinae, Z. coepulonus, Z. diederichii, Z. dispersus, Z. lecanorae, Z. lithoiceae, Z. polischukii, and Z. sphinctriniformis. Three species, Zwackhiomyces calcisedus, Z. inconspicuus, and Z. macrosporus, are for the first time reported in the country. Zwackhiomyces dispersus is a new record for the plain part of Ukraine. All species of these lichenicolous fungi were found on 10 different host genera. Rinodina calcarea is a new host species for Z. inconspicuus. All examined species have commensal life strategies, and infection does not cause any visible damage or discoloration of the host thallus and apothecia. Zwackhiomyces lecanorae and Z. inconspicuus can grow on several different host genera. Other species show strict host specificity. Two species, Z. coepulonus and Z. lecanorae, are apparently widespread in Ukraine. Description, host lichen species, data about distribution, examined specimens and notes are provided for each species. An original key to species of Zwackhiomyces in Ukraine is proposed. Keywords: lichenicolous life strategy, new records, phycoparasites.
31642Janssen P., Bergès L., Fuhr M. & Paillet Y. (2019): Do not drop OLD for NEW: conservation needs both forest continuity and stand maturity. - Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 17(7): 370–371.
Correspondence / forum; criticism of the paper: McMullin R.T. & Wiersma Y.F. (2019): Out with OLD growth, in with ecological continNEWity: new perspectives on forest conservation. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 17(3):176–181. "The use of forest continuity as a criterion for biodiversity conservation depends on reliable methods and sources, notably involving maps depicting historical land uses. Although the use of lichens as potential indicators of ancientness remains largely unexplored, we are not convinced that this taxon would be the best candidate (Dittrich et al. 2013; Ódor et al. 2013). Indeed, lichen species, at least epiphytic ones, largely depend on tree characteristics, notably tree diameters and deadwood (Nascimbene et al. 2013), which are stand maturity attributes. Moreover, the dispersal ability of these species remains unclear, and several specialized species have been found to benefit from long-distance dispersal events (Nordén and Appelqvist 2001; Werth et al. 2006). We therefore believe that the proposed lichen-based index for quantifying the relative value of forests could be better suited to identify overmature stands in ancient forests. Also, because their approach focused on lichens, we feel that McMullin and Wiersma overlooked research on the link between ancientness and other taxa over the past six decades in Europe and North America. In particular, numerous studies have highlighted clear links between forest continuity and vascular plants (Verheyen et al. 2003; Flinn and Vellend 2005), a taxonomic group that – relative to lichens – is much more accessible to forest managers, and many regional lists of ancient forest plant species have been developed (Hermy et al. 1999; Bergès et al. 2016). To maximize the effectiveness of conservation measures, we thus encourage further research efforts that aim to disentangle the relative influence of forest continuity and stand maturity on forest biodiversity."
31641Pasiche-Lisboa C.J., Booth T., Belland R.J. & Piercey-Normore M.D. (2019): Moss and lichen asexual propagule dispersal may help to maintain the extant community in boreal forests. - Ecosphere, 10(9):e02823 [13 p.].
Asexual propagules produced by mosses and lichens may help to maintain their community composition in boreal forests. Understanding the factors affecting the deposition of asexual propagules and their link with the community composition may reveal how the community is maintained. The goal of this study was to understand how weather, the community of lichens and mosses, the dominant tree species in a stand, substrata, and tree aspect influenced and were linked to the deposition of asexual propagules (quantity, size, and type) in boreal forests. Species richness and cover were assessed for the substrata within the tree stands. Traps attached to trees and the ground (substrata) in balsam fir‐, white spruce‐, and poplar‐dominated stands were used to capture asexual propagules. Species and quantity of trapped asexual propagules were linked to the species richness and cover of the extant community. Propagules captured were dominated by lichen thallus fragments and were smaller and in higher quantities during colder times of the year, and in higher quantities and smaller sizes mostly on trees of conifer stands. Moss propagules were captured in low quantities compared to lichen propagules, on the forest floor, but mostly during warmer times of the year. The dispersal of mosses and lichen asexual propagules helps to maintain and is linked to their community in boreal forests. The linkage between asexual propagule deposition and the community (richness and abundance) was observed among lichen and moss communities on poplar trees, conifer trees, or the forest floor of boreal forest stands. Key words: cryptogams; fungal dispersal; plant dispersal; propagule dispersal.
31640Prokop′ev I.A. & Filippova G.V. (2019): Antioxidant activity of secondary metabolites from Cladonia lichens. - Chemistry of Natural Compounds, 55(5): 495–497.
[Translated from the Russian original published in Khimiya Prirodnykh Soedinenii, No. 5, September–October, 2019, pp. 813–814.]
31639Voříšková J., Elberling B. & Priemé A. (2019): Fast response of fungal and prokaryotic communities to climate change manipulation in two contrasting tundra soils. - Environmental Microbiome, 14:6 [15 p.].
[part of discussion at p. 10:] "Fungal community composition on order and phylum levels differed substantially between the dry and the wet sites (Fig. 2). At the dry site, the majority of identified sequences belonged to Ascomycota with the most abundant order Helotiales reported as a dominant fungal group in Arctic soils [28, 30, 89]. Interestingly, Basidiomycota dominated the wet site (Fig. 2). With respect to functional groups, ectomycorrhizal fungi showed highest relative abundance at both sites, followed by lichenized fungi at the dry site and saprotrophic fungi at the wet site (Fig. 4), which is in accordance with a study from Alaskan tundra [41]. We conclude that ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungi were more abundant at the wet site whereas conditions at the dry site favored lichenized fungi (Fig. 4a). However, taking fungal biomass at the individual sites into consideration, the dry site harbored a higher amount of ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungi compared to the wet site (Fig. 4b), despite their lower sequence proportion. The higher proportion of lichenized fungi in dry tundra and almost no occurrence in wet tundra are likely due to denser vascular vegetation at the wet site, which outcompeted lichens preferring poorly vegetated habitats [25]."
31638Kalb K. & Schumm F. (2019): A new synonym and a new species in the lichen genus Dirinaria. - Archive for Lichenology, 13: 1–4.
A restudy of two lichen taxa described by de Lesdain from Cuba revealed one later synonym of Dirinaria purpurascens and a new species, Dirinaria flavida, the primary species of D. flava.
31637Aptroot A. & Stapper N.J. (2019): Szczawinskia tsugae in Deutschland gefunden, eine für Europa neue Flechte. - Archive for Lichenology, 14: 1–6.
In 2018, Szczawinskia tsugae A. Funk was detected on the trunk of a field maple tree (Acer campestre) during the inventory of epiphytic lichens as part of a permanent forest monitoring program in Baden-Württemberg (Germany).
31636Bystrek J. & Leśniewska J. (2018): Usnea jørgenseniana Bystr. & Leśniewska sp. nova Usnea (subgen. Usnea, Parmeliaceae) in Sweden. - Annales Universitatis Marie Curie-Skłodowska, Sectio C - Biologia [Lublin], 73: 31–39.
Usnea jørgenseniana Bystr. & Leśniewska sp. nova, an epixilic species of bushy Usnea (Parmeliaceae) in Sweden, is similar to U. hirta var. minutissima (Mer.) Bystr., but the similarity to U. hirta is apparent. U. jørgenseniana is not a species from the foveatae Mot. section. The lack of soralia and a very small thallus (0.3–2.0 cm) makes it difficult to locate U. jørgenseniana in the section Comosae Mot. It colonizes exceptionally unfavorable climatic conditions, a coprophilous species. Collected by G. Ohrstedt in 1937. Dozens of specimens from one position. Keywords: Usnea jørgenseniana Bystr. & Leśniewska sp. nova, (Ascolichenes), taxonomy.
31635Szatala Ö. (1915): Peltigera erumpens (Tayl.) Wainio Magyarország zuzmóflórájában – Peltigera erumpens (Tayl.) Wainio in der Flechtenflora von Ungarn. - Magyar Botanikai Lapok, 14: 281–282.
Hungary; Peltigera didactyla
31634Schneider T. (1941): Zur Flechtenflora der Schwellenburg. - Mittheilungen des Thüringischen Botanischen Vereins, N.F., 47: 140–150.
31633Senft E. (1907): Über eigentümliche Gebilde in dem Thallus der Flechte Physma dalmaticum A. Zahlbr.. - Sitzungsberichte Kaiserliche Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse, Abt. I, 116: 429–438.
31632Schneider T. (1936): Cladonia alpestris (L) Rabenh. Wain, im Thüringer Wald!. - Mittheilungen des Thüringischen Botanischen Vereins, N.F., 43: 19–22.
Thuringia; Cladonia stellaris
31631Schubert R. (1974): Übersicht über die Pflanzengesellschaften des südlichen Teiles der DDR VIII. Basiphile Trocken- und Halbtrockenrasen. - Hercynia, 11: 22–46.
syntaxonomy
31630Schubert R. (1974): Übersicht über die Pflanzengesellschaften des südlichen Teiles der DDR IX. Mauerpfefferreiche Pionierfluren. - Hercynia, 11: 201–214.
syntaxonomy
31629Steiner J. (1900): Lichenes. – In: Fritsch K., Beiträge zur Flora von Constantinopel. Bearbeitung der von J. Nemetz in den Jahren 1894–1897 in den Umgebungen von Constantinopel gesammelten Pflanzen. I. Kryptogamen. - Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe, 68: 222–238.
Turkey; new taxa: Ramalina nuda, Rinodina subrufa, Caloplaca (sect. Blastenia) ochronigra, Lecanora luteorufa, Lecanora (sect. Aspicilia) connectens, Haematomma nemetzi, Buellia scutariensis, Catocarpon simillimum var. subplumbeum, Secoliga denigrata, Arthonia turcica, Pharcidia leptaleae.
31628Krumbiegel A. & Otto B. (1999): Die Vegetation der Abraumhalden des Steinkohlentiefbaues nördlich von Wettin (Saalkreis, Sachsen-Anhalt). - Hercynia, N.F., 32: 251–274.
Keywords: coal mine spoils, primary succession, woody vegetation, dry and semi dry grassland vegetation.
31627Osswald L. (1896): Aus dem Leben Wallroth's. - Mittheilungen des Thüringischen Botanischen Vereins, N.F., 9: 14–27.
biography; Wallroth
31626Quelle F. (1904): Die Kryptogamen in Thals „Sylva Hercynia“. - Mittheilungen des Thüringischen Botanischen Vereins, N.F., 19: 49–59.
31625Hasslinger J. (1904): Die Wirkung der Dürre des Sommers 1904 auf die Pflanzen Prags. - Lotos, 52: 142–148.
Czech Republic, Prague; one lichen listed among herbs (Cladonia pyxidata)
31624Schütt B. (1932): Die Beziehungen zwischen Atmung und Temperatur bei der Renntierflechte. - Abhandlungen des naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins Bremen, 22: 267–270.
Cladonia (Cladina), Lobaria; ecophysiology
31623Schütt B. (1931): Flechtenstoffe in Cladonien. (I.) Cladonia mitis Sandst. CI. exs. 55. - Abhandlungen des naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins Bremen, 22: 87–90.
Cladonia; chemistry
31622Schütt B. (1931): Flechtenstoffe in Cladonien. (II.). - Abhandlungen des naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins Bremen, 22: 183–192.
Cladonia; chemistry
31621Osswald L. & Quelle F. (1907): Beiträge zu einer Flechtenflora des Harzes und Nordthüringens. - Mittheilungen des Thüringischen Botanischen Vereins, N.F., 22: 8–25.
Germany, Thuringia
31620Szatala Ö. (1943): Lichenes. – In: Rechinger K.H., Flora Aegaea. Flora der Inseln und Halbinseln des ägäischen Meeres. - Denkschriften der Akademie der Wissenschaften, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe, 105: 16–58.
Greece
31619Halácsy E. v. (1894): Botanische Ergebnisse einer im Auftrage der hohen kaiserl. Akademie der Wissenschaften unternommenen Forschungsreise in Griechenland. IV. Beitrag zur Flora von Achaia und Arcadien. - Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe, 61: 487–535.
Greece; chapter on lichens (and lichenicolous fungi): 'Flechten' by J. Steiner at p. 521-533; new taxa: Diploschistes violarius f. graecus J.Steiner f.nov., Pertusaria subinquinata J.Steiner sp. nov., Lecidea halacsyi J.Steiner sp. nov., Biatorina (Catillaria) pleiospora J.Steiner sp. nov., Melaspilea oleae J.Steiner sp. nov., Verrucaria (sect. Lithoicea) margacea var. latericola J.Steiner var. nov., Verrucaria (sect. Amphoridium) tetanocarpa J.Steiner sp. nov., Muellerella dilatata J.Steiner sp. nov.
31618Halácsy E. v. (1894): Botanische Ergebnisse einer im Auftrage der hohen kaiserl. Akademie der Wissenschaften unternommenen Forschungsreise in Griechenland. III. Beitrag zur Flora von Thessalien. - Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe, 61: 467–486.
Greece; chapter on lichens (and lichenicolous fungi): 'Flechten' by J. Steiner at p. 484-485
31617Halácsy E. v. (1894): Botanische Ergebnisse einer im Auftrage der hohen kaiserl. Akademie der Wissenschaften unternommenen Forschungsreise in Griechenland. II. Beitrag zur Flora von Aetholien und Acarnanien . - Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe, 61: 309–322.
Greece; chapter on lichens (and lichenicolous fungi): 'Flechten' by J. Steiner at p. 319-320; new taxon: Caloplaca (Pyrenodesmia) intercedens f. minuta J.Steiner
31616Halácsy E. v. (1894): Botanische Ergebnisse einer im Auftrage der hohen kaiserl. Akademie der Wissenschaften unternommenen Forschungsreise in Griechenland. I. Beitrag zur Flora von Epirus. - Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe, 61: 217–268.
Greece; chapter on lichens (and lichenicolous fungi): 'Flechten' by J. Steiner at p. 292-296; new taxa: Caloplaca (Pyrenodesmia) intercedens var. albomarginata J.Steiner var. nov., Lecanora (Aspicilia) hartliana J.Steiner sp. nov.; Cercidospora transmutans J.Steiner sp. nov.
31615Markgraf F. (1931): Pflanzen aus Albanien 1928. - Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe, 102: 317–360.
Albania; part on lichens (identified by J. Hillmann) at p. 323-325
31614Neumann P. & Dolnik C. (2018): Lobaria pulmonaria – die Echte Lungenflechte – und andere bemerkenswerte Flechtenfunde aus Schleswig-Holstein. - Kieler Notizen zur Pflanzenkunde, 43: 133–143.
The Tree Lungwort (Lobaria pulmonaria) and other noteworthy lichens from Schleswig-Holstein. The Tree Lungwort (Lobaria pulmonaria) belongs to the highly protected species of Germa-ny and is in critical danger to beome extinct in Schleswig-Holstein. Recently, a historically known population was refound near the citty of Flensburg. The crustouse lichen Agonimia tristicula is reported for the first time for the the federal state of Schleswig-Holstein. Also several records of other rare lichen species are made.
31613Dolnik C. & Dengler J. (2001): Scholz, P. (2000): Katalog der Flechten und flechtenbewohnenden Pilze Deutschlands(= Schriftenreihe für Vegetationskunde 31). - 298 S., Landwirtschaftsverlag, Münster, ISBN 3-7843-3501-2, DM 29,80. - Kieler Notizen zur Pflanzenkunde in Schleswig-Holstein und Hamburg, 29: 127–129.
Book review
31612Dengler J. (2001): Litterski, B. ( 1999): Pflanzengeographische und ökologische Bewertung der Flechtenflora Mecklenburg-Vorpommerns (= Dissertationes Botanicae 307).- V+ 391 S. + I Kt., J. Cramer, Berlin [u.a.], ISBN 3-443-64219-5, DM 90,-. - Kieler Notizen zur Pflanzenkunde in Schleswig-Holstein und Hamburg, 29: 124.
Book review
31611Hejl E. & Türk R. (2016): The Christmas Landslide at Mt. Hundstein (Lungau, Austria) in 1768: myth or historical fact?. - Jahrbuch der Geologischen Bundesanstalt, 156: 85–95.
The landslide at Mt. Hundstein, which is supposed to have occurred during the Holy Night of 1768, is documented by the Lungau monograph of Ignaz von Kürsinger (1795–1861) which has been published in 1853. The event is generally taken as historical fact, and is taught as such in the elementary schools of Lungau. It is also narrated by a local book of folktales, which has been printed in several editions since 1922. A careful examination of the story reveals some contradictions between the different narrations, as well as between the narrations on the one hand and the local geological situation on the other hand. Most probably, the landslide story underwent a certain mythification during the first decades after the event, and was progressively modified by imaginative additions. Thus, the original testimonies of the witnesses became altered. Lichenometric and geological investigations on the spot show, that the landslide was much smaller than it is suggested by the ancient reports and tales. The landslide deposits sensu stricto occupy only a small area at the bottom of the Ödkar, at an altitude between 2,050 and 2,140 m. Re-deposited boulders of the avalanche-fan at the bottom of the Lignitz valley are mainly elder than the event of 1768 and are not the result of the historical landslide. The statement that a portion of the Hundstein has fallen to the other side of the mountain ridge, i.e. down to the Weisspriach valley, is an outcome of pure imagination or even a lie. The traditional story of the Christmas Landslide may be considered as a mythified synthesis of true observations, speculations, religious expectations, dishonest exaggerations, and narrative alterations.
31610Svensson M. & Owe-Larsson B. (2019): Taxonomic notes on saxicolous lecideoid lichens (Ascomycota, Lecanoromycetes), mainly from Fennoscandia. - Phytotaxa, 416(1): 43–50.
Lecideoid lichen-forming fungi are a large, heterogeneous assemblage including numerous taxa of unclear status. We revise five saxicolous lecideoid taxa described or reported from Fennoscandia. Carbonea nivaria was found to be a distinct species and a first full modern description is given here. It is only known from the Austrian Alps, with later records from Sweden being based on misidentifications. We found that four other taxa are synonyms of previously recognized species: Lecidea distensa (= Miriquidica leucophaea), L. haemensis (= Bryobilimbia ahlesii), L. rhizocarpoides (= Schaereria fuscocinerea) and L. satakuntensis (= Miriquidica plumbeoatra). Lectotypes are designated for the basionyms Lecidea distensa, L. haemensis, L. satakuntensis and Lecidella nivaria. Keywords: Bryobilimbia; Carbonea; Miriquidica; Schaereria, Fungi, Lichens.
31609Singh G., Kukwa M., Dal Grande F., Łubek A., Otte J. & Schmitt I. (2019): A glimpse into genetic diversity and symbiont interaction patterns in lichen communities from areas with different disturbance histories in Białowieża forest, Poland. - Microorganisms, 7(9): 335 [17 p.].
Anthropogenic disturbances can have strong impacts on lichen communities, as well as on individual species of lichenized fungi. Traditionally, lichen monitoring studies are based on the presence and abundance of fungal morphospecies. However, the photobionts, as well photobiont mycobiont interactions also contribute to the structure, composition, and resilience of lichen communities. Here we assess the genetic diversity and interaction patterns of algal and fungal partners in lichen communities along an anthropogenic disturbance gradient in Białowieża Forest (Poland). We sampled a total of 224 lichen thalli in a protected, a managed, and a disturbed area of the forest, and sequenced internal transcribed spacer (ITS) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of both, fungal and algal partners. Sequence clustering using a 97% similarity threshold resulted in 46 fungal and 23 green algal operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Most of the recovered photobiont OTUs (14 out of 23) had no similar hit in the NCBI-BLAST search, suggesting that even in well studied regions, such as central Europe, a lot of photobiont diversity is yet undiscovered. If a mycobiont was present at more than one site, it was typically associated with the same photobiont OTU(s). Generalist species, i.e., taxa that associate with multiple symbiont partners, occurred in all three disturbance regimes, suggesting that such taxa have few limitations in colonizing or persisting in disturbed areas. Trebouxia jamesii associated with 53% of the fungal OTUs, and was generally the most common photobiont OTU in all areas, implying that lichens that associate with this symbiont are not limited by the availability of compatible photobionts in Central European forests, regardless of land use intensity. Keywords: barcoding; biological indicators; ITS; managed forests; species interaction network; photobiont.
31608Bacaro G., Tordoni E., Martellos S., Maccherini S., Marignani M., Muggia L., Petruzzellis F., Napolitano R., Da Re D., Guidi T., Benesperi R., Gonnelli V. & Lastrucci L. (2019): Cross taxon congruence between lichens and vascular plants in a riparian ecosystem. - Diversity, 11(8): 133 [20 p.].
Despite that congruence across taxa has been proved as an effective tool to provide insights into the processes structuring the spatial distribution of taxonomic groups and is useful for conservation purposes, only a few studies on cross-taxon congruence focused on freshwater ecosystems and on the relations among vascular plants and lichens. We hypothesized here that, since vascular plants could be good surrogates of lichens in these ecosystems, it would be possible to assess the overall biodiversity of riparian habitats using plant data only. In this frame, we explored the relationship between (a) species richness and (b) community composition of plants and lichens in a wetland area located in central Italy to (i) assess whether vascular plants are good surrogates of lichens and (ii) to test the congruence of patterns of species richness and composition among plants and lichens along an ecological gradient. The general performance of plant species richness per se, as a biodiversity surrogate of lichens, had poor results. Nonetheless, the congruence in compositional patterns between lichens and vascular plants varied across habitats and was influenced by the characteristics of the vegetation. In general, we discussed how the strength of the studied relationships could be influenced by characteristics of the data (presence/absence vs. abundance), by the spatial scale, and by the features of the habitats. Overall, our data confirm that the more diverse and structurally complex the vegetation is, the more diverse are the lichen communities it hosts. Keywords: biodiversity; co-correspondence analysis; conservation planning; surrogate taxon.
31607Hassan S.T.S., Šudomová M., Berchová-Bímová K., Gowrishankar S. & Rengasamy K.R.R. (2018): Antimycobacterial, enzyme inhibition, and molecular interaction studies of psoromic acid in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Ecacy and safety investigations. - Journal of Clinical Medicine, 7: 226 [14 p.].
The current study explores the antimycobacterial efficacy of lichen-derived psoromic acid (PA) against clinical strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb). Additionally, the inhibitory efficacy of PA against two critical enzymes associated with M.tb, namely, UDP-galactopyranose mutase (UGM) and arylamine-N-acetyltransferase (TBNAT), as drug targets for antituberculosis therapy were determined. PA showed a profound inhibitory effect towards all the M.tb strains tested, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging between 3.2 and 4.1 M, and selectivity indices (SIs) ranging between 18.3 and 23.4. On the other hand, the standard drug isoniazid (INH) displayed comparably high MIC values (varying from 5.4 to 5.8 M) as well as low SI values (13.0–13.9). Interestingly, PA did not exhibit any cytotoxic effects on a human liver hepatocellular carcinoma cell line even at the highest concentration tested (75 M). PA demonstrated remarkable suppressing propensity against UGM compared to standard uridine-5'-diphosphate (UDP), with 85.8 and 99.3% of inhibition, respectively. In addition, PA also exerted phenomenal inhibitory efficacy (half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value = 8.7 M, and 77.4% inhibition) against TBNAT compared with standard INH (IC50 value = 6.2 M and 96.3% inhibition). Furthermore, in silico analysis validated the outcomes of in vitro assays, as the molecular interactions of PA with the active sites of UGM and TBNAT were unveiled using molecular docking and structure–activity relationship studies. Concomitantly, our findings present PA as an effective and safe natural drug plausible for use in controlling tuberculosis infections. Keywords: psoromic acid; arylamine N-acetyltransferase; UDP-galactopyranose mutase; antitubercular drug; drug resistance; drug design.
31606Hassan S.T.S., Šudomová M., Berchová-Bímová K., Šmejkal K. & Echeverría J. (2019): Psoromic acid, a lichen-derived molecule, inhibits the replication of HSV-1 and HSV-2, and inactivates HSV-1 DNA polymerase: Shedding light on antiherpetic properties. - Molecules, 24: 2912 [12 p.].
Psoromic acid (PA), a bioactive lichen-derived compound, was investigated for its inhibitory properties against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2), along with the inhibitory e ect on HSV-1 DNA polymerase, which is a key enzyme that plays an essential role in HSV-1 replication cycle. PA was found to notably inhibit HSV-1 replication (50% inhibitory concentration (IC50): 1.9 M; selectivity index (SI): 163.2) compared with the standard drug acyclovir (ACV) (IC50: 2.6 M; SI: 119.2). The combination of PA with ACV has led to potent inhibitory activity against HSV-1 replication (IC50: 1.1 M; SI: 281.8) compared with that of ACV. Moreover, PA displayed equivalent inhibitory action against HSV-2 replication (50% e ective concentration (EC50): 2.7 M; SI: 114.8) compared with that of ACV (EC50: 2.8 M; SI: 110.7). The inhibition potency of PA in combination with ACV against HSV-2 replication was also detected (EC50: 1.8 M; SI: 172.2). Further, PA was observed to e ectively inhibit HSV-1 DNA polymerase (as a non-nucleoside inhibitor) with respect to dTTP incorporation in a competitive inhibition mode (half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50): 0.7 M; inhibition constant (Ki): 0.3 M) compared with reference drugs aphidicolin (IC50: 0.8 M; Ki: 0.4 M) and ACV triphosphate (ACV-TP) (IC50: 0.9 M; Ki: 0.5 M). It is noteworthy that the mechanism by which PA-induced anti-HSV-1 activity was related to its inhibitory action against HSV-1 DNA polymerase. Furthermore, the outcomes of in vitro experiments were authenticated using molecular docking analyses, as the molecular interactions of PA with the active sites of HSV-1 DNA polymerase and HSV-2 protease (an essential enzyme required for HSV-2 replication) were revealed. Since this is a first report on the above-mentioned properties, we can conclude that PA might be a future drug for the treatment of HSV infections as well as a promising lead molecule for further anti-HSV drug design. Keywords: antiherpetic; anti-enzymatic properties; lichen metabolites; HSV; HSV replication; psoromic acid.
31605Liu D. & Hur J.-S. (2019): Revision of the lichen genus Phaeophyscia and allied atranorin absent taxa (Physciaceae) in South Korea. - Microorganisms, 7(8): 242 [23 p.].
The genus Phaeophyscia Moberg, which belongs to the family Physciaceae, includes about 50 species, with 17 species reported in South Korea. This genus is characterized by a foliose thallus, Physcia/Pachysporaria-type ascospores, a paraplectenchymatous-type lower cortex, and lacking atranorin. In this study, about 650 specimens of Phaeophyscia aligned with the atranorin-absent groups collected from South Korea were re-examined. The taxonomy of these groups in South Korea requires revision based on the analyses of the morphology, chemistry, and molecular phylogeny. We infer that (1) each genus of the main foliose groups of Physciaceae forms a monophyletic clade, which also supports the separation of Phaeophyscia species with a prosoplectenchymatous lower cortex into the genus Physciella; (2) three atranorin-lacking genera were confirmed in South Korea: Hyperphyscia, Phaeophyscia, and Physciella, including a new combination named Physciella poeltii (Frey) D. Liu and J.S. Hur, and three new records from South Korea of Phaeophyscia hunana, P. leana, and P. sonorae; and (3) four species should be excluded from the lichen flora of South Korea: Hyperphyscia adglutinata, Phaeophyscia endococcina, Phaeophyscia erythrocardia, and Phaeophyscia imbricata. Keywords: taxonomy; Hyperphyscia; Physciella; phylogeny.
31604Pallas J., Bültmann H. & Scheuerer M. (1996): Cladonia stygia (Fr.) Ruoss und Cladonia stellaris (Opiz) Pouzar & Vězda in der Oberpfalz. - Berichte der Bayerischen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 66/67: 314–315.
31603Hansen E.S. (2018): Contribution to the lichen biota of South West Greenland. Ivittuut area. - Botanica, 24(2): 142–149.
The paper lists 180 lichen taxa from Ivittuut area, South West Greenland. Nine lichen taxa are new to South West Greenland, viz. Aspicilia aquatica, A. berntii, Candelariella dispersa, Cephalophysis leucospila, Endocarpon pulvinatum, Ionaspis suaveolens, Lecanora atromarginata, Thelidium pyrenophorum and Vestergrenopsis elaeina. Keywords: Arctic region, diversity, lichens.
31602Sharma S., Raina A.K. & Upreti D.K. (2019): Lichen diversity of Padder Valley Kishtwar (J&K), India. - Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 11(2): 511–515.
Lichens are one of the most successful group of organisms and form an important as-pect of biodiversity of any region. But still lichens are under explored in most of regions. The present work has been carried out in Padder Valley, Kishtwar, Jammu and Kashmir (J&K). A thorough survey of the lichen diversity from all the possible habitats was con-ducted in the study area which indicated the presence of 110 species belonging to 54 genera and 23 families. Parmiliaceae has been recorded as the largest family (16 genera, 27 species) and is followed by Physciaceae (8 genera, 14 species). Four families have been observed to be monotypic. Lecanora has been recorded as dominant genera with 7 species followed by Peltigera with 5 species. Corticolous was most preferred substratum exhibited by 61 species while foliose was the most dominant type of growth form represented by 52 species. The study has added 94 lichen taxa as new records for district Kishtwar and is first of its kind in Padder Valley, J&K. Keywords: Corticolous, Foliose, Kishtwar, Lichen diversity, Padder valley, Parmeliaceae.
31601Mishra G.K. & Upreti D.K. (2016): Diversity and distribution of macro-lichen in Kumaun Himalaya, Uttarakhand. - International Journal of Advanced Research, 4(2): 912–925.
The paper enumerates 246 species of lichens belonging to 45 genera and 13 families from the Kumaun Himalaya Uttarakhand. The study is based on the collection recently made during different field trips in the region. Out of the different districts, Pithoragarh and Bagehswar districts comprised of most of the localities falls under temperate and alpine regions and bears the maximum diversity of foliose lichens. Lichen family Parmeliaceae and Physciaceae are the dominant families in the region. Key words: Lichens, Biodiversity, Taxonomy, Kumaun Himalaya, Uttarakhand.
31600Kekuda T.R.P., Raghavendra H.L. & Vinayaka K.S. (2017): Antimicrobial activity of Heterodermia incana (Stirt.) D.D. Awasthi. - International Journal of Green Pharmacy (Suppl.), 11(3): S568–S574.
Objectives: Lichens represent one of the most successful symbiotic interactions and are formed from a photobiont and a mycobiont. The foliose lichen genus Heterodermia is one of the cosmopolitan lichen genera. The present study was conducted to investigate antibacterial and antifungal activity of Heterodermia incana (Stirt.) D.D. Awasthi, a foliose macrolichen belonging to the family Physciaceae. Materials and Methods: Extraction of dried and powdered lichen was carried out by maceration process. Antibacterial activity of the extract was evaluated against 2 Gram-positive and 2 Gram-negative bacteria by agar well diffusion assay. Antifungal activity of extract was determined against 3 seedborne fungi by poisoned food technique. Results: Extract was effective in inhibiting the growth of all test bacteria in a concentration dependent manner with marked activity against Gram-positive bacteria. Bacillus cereus (zone of inhibition 2.26 ± 0.05 cm) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (zone of inhibition 1.76 ± 0.05 cm) were inhibited to higher extent among Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, respectively, at 10 mg/ml extract concentration. The extract was effective in inhibiting the mycelial growth of test fungi in a concentration dependent manner. Among three fungi, the susceptibility to extract was in the order: Fusarium sp. > Curvularia sp. > Alternaria sp. At extract concentration 1 mg/ml, >60% inhibition of all test fungi was observed. Conclusion: The lichen H. incana is a promising resource of antimicrobial agents. The observed bioactivities could be attributed to the presence of secondary metabolites such as atranorin and zeorin present in the extract. In suitable form, the lichen can be used as anti-infective agent and in the management of seedborne fungal diseases. Key words: Agar well diffusion, antimicrobial, Heterodermia incana, lichens, poisoned food technique.
31599Kekuda P.T.R., Vinayaka K.S. & Sachin M.B. (2018): Chemistry, ethnobotanical uses and biological activities of the lichen genus Heterodermia Trevis. (Physciaceae; Lecanorales; Ascomycota): A comprehensive review. - Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 8(5): 148–155.
Lichens are composite organisms comprised of a photobiont (an alga or a cyanobacterium) and a mycobiont (an ascomycete or basidiomycete fungus) and represent a stable, ecologically obligate symbiotic association. The lichen genus Heterodermia Trevis (Physciaceae; Lecanorales; Ascomycota) is one of the lichen genera distributed worldwide. The thallus is foliose, dichotomously or irregularly branched and the genus Heterodermia differs from other foliose lichen genera in the family Physciaceae mainly on the basis of its prosoplectenchymatous upper cortex in combination with atranorin (a cortical lichen substance). In this review, an attempt is made to compile data (by referring books, journals and various search engines such as Google Scholar, PubMed, and ScienceDirect) available on the chemistry, traditional uses and biological activities of species of Heterodermia. Atranorin and zeorin are the major metabolites found in Heterodermia species. Besides these, salazinic acid and norstictic acid are also found in several Heterodermia species. Heterodermia species are used ethnobotanically as a flavoring agent, in preparation of perfumes and for treatment of wounds and infections. Literature survey revealed the potential of extracts and isolated constituents of Heterodermia species to exhibit biological activities such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, cytotoxic, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, insecticidal, immunomodulatory and anthelmintic activity. Key words: Lichens, Heterodermia, secondary metabolites, ethnobotanical, biological activities.
31598Olson C.L., Jiskra M., Sonke J.E. & Obrist D. (2019): Mercury in tundra vegetation of Alaska: Spatial and temporal dynamics and stable isotope patterns. - Science of the Total Environment, 660: 1502–1512.
Vegetation uptake of atmospheric mercury (Hg) is an important mechanism enhancing atmospheric Hg deposition via litterfall and senescence. We here report Hg concentrations and pool sizes of different plant functional groups and plant species across nine tundra sites in northern Alaska. Significant spatial differences were observed in bulk vegetation Hg concentrations at Toolik Field station (52 ± 9 μg kg−1), Eight Mile Lake Observatory (40 ± 0.2 μg kg−1), and seven sites along a transect from Toolik Field station to the Arctic coast (36 ± 9 μg kg−1). Hg concentrations in non-vascular vegetation including feather and peat moss (58 ± 6 μg kg−1 and 34 ± 2 μg kg−1, respectively) and brown and white lichen (41 ± 2 μg kg−1 and 34 ± 2 μg kg−1, respectively), were three to six times those of vascular plant tissues (8 ± 1 μg kg−1 in dwarf birch leaves and 9 ± 1 μg kg−1 in tussock grass). A high representation of nonvascular vegetation in aboveground biomass resulted in substantial Hg mass contained in tundra aboveground vegetation (29 μg m−2), which fell within the range of foliar Hg mass estimated for forests in the United States (15 to 45 μg m−2) in spite of much shorter growing seasons. Hg stable isotope signatures of different plant species showed that atmospheric Hg(0) was the dominant source of Hg to tundra vegetation. Mass-dependent isotope signatures (δ202Hg) in vegetation relative to atmospheric Hg(0) showed pronounced shifts towards lower values, consistent with previously reported isotopic fractionation during foliar uptake of Hg(0). Mass-independent isotope signatures (Δ199Hg) of lichen were more positive relative to atmospheric Hg(0), indicating either photochemical reduction of Hg(II) or contributions of inorganic Hg(II) from atmospheric deposition and/or dust. Δ199Hg and Δ200Hg values in vascular plant species were similar to atmospheric Hg(0) suggesting that overall photochemical reduction and subsequent re-emission was relatively insignificant in these tundra ecosystems, in agreement with previous Hg(0) ecosystem flux measurements.
31597Teltewskoi A., Michaelis D., Schirrmeister L., Joosten H., Schiefelbein U. & Manthey M. (2019): A robust vegetation-based elevation transfer method for reconstructing Arctic polygon mire palaeo-microtopography. - Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 522: 12–27.
The reconstruction of past environments by means of macrofossil and pollen analysis is commonly based on the modern ecological preferences of the taxa that may have produced these fossils. Here we present a modelling approach, in which we use modern vegetation–surface height relationships to quantify past surface heights in an Arctic ice-wedge polygon mire. Vegetation composition and ground surface height (GSH) were assessed in a polygon mire near Kytalyk (Northeastern Siberia). Cluster analysis revealed five plant communities, which are clearly separated with respect to ground surface height, frost surface height and coverages of open water and vegetation. Based on the composition of modern vegetation we constructed two sets of potential fossil types (plant macrofossils and pollen), an extensive one and a more restricted one to reflect different conditions of preservation and recognisability. We applied Canonical Correspondence Analysis to model the relationships between potential fossil types and measured GSH. Both models show a strong relationship between modelled and measured GSH values and a high accuracy in prediction. Finally, we used the models to predict GSH values for Holocene peat samples and found a fair correspondence with expert-based multi-proxy reconstruction of wetness conditions, even though only a minor part of the encountered fossils were represented in the GSH models, illustrating the robustness of the approach. Our approach can be used to reconstruct palaeoenvironmental conditions in a more objective way and can serve as a template for further palaeoecological studies.
31596Schumm F. (2016): Atlas of Images of Thin Layer Chromatograms of Lichen Substances. Supplement. [Bilderatlas von Dünnschicht­ chromatogrammen von Flechten-Inhaltsstoffen. Ergänzungsband]. - Herstellung und Verlag: Books on Demand GmbH, Norderstedt, 186 pp.
A short time after „F. Schümm & J.A. Elix (2015): Atlas of Images of Thin Layer Chromatograms of Lichen Substances“ was published, I kindly received from Klaus Kalb further purified lichen substances on loan. Most of them came from S. Huneck. This collection contains some rare substances that have not been represented in the 2015 edition of the atlas. These substances are added here. In addition, many substances of Kalb’s collection, that were already treated in the 2015 edition of the atlas, are again included here, now based on purified material. I believe it to be of advantage to have the possibility to compare more than one chromatogram of a given substance. The methods and abbreviations are the same as in the 2015 edition of the atlas and therefore the first pages of that edition are repeated here. As a consequence this supplement can be used without the first edition of 2015
31595Surayot U., Yelithao K., Tabarsa M., Lee D.-H., Palanisamy S., Prabhu N.M., Lee J. & You S. (2019): Structural characterization of a polysaccharide from Certaria [sic!] islandica and assessment of immunostimulatory activity. - Process Biochemistry, 83: 214–221.
In this study, Cetraria islandica polysaccharide (CIPs) was extracted by hot water extraction method and its effect on structural modification of immunomodulatory activities was investigated. This polysaccharide mainly consisted of carbohydrates (97.0%), Sulfate (1.2%) with one type of glucose. The average molecular weight (328.7 × 103 g/mol) was determined by size exclusion chromatography. The structure of the polysaccharide was found to be composed of (1→3) and (1→4)-β-D-glucopyranosyl units. The immunomodulatory activities of the crude polysaccharide and its derivatives, over-sulfated (OS1,2,3) and hydrolyzed (H1,2,3), were tested against NK-92 cells and RAW264.7 cells. The results obtained clearly demonstrated that over-sulfated (OS1,2,3)-treated NK-92 cells induced cytotoxicity in HeLa cells through the expressions of IFN-γ, NKp44, NKp30, and FasL. On the other hand, the hydrolyzed derivatives (H1,2,3) activated RAW264.7 cells through production of nitric oxide (NO) and mRNA expression of iNOS, IL-1, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-12 through the nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) and mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) pathways. Our findings suggest that the presence of sulfate in the polysaccharide played a pivotal role in NK-92 cell however the Mw was a determinant factor in RAW264.7 cell activation, in which both cells were activated through the CR3 and TLR-4 signaling pathways. Keywords: Polysaccharide; Cetraria islandica; Immunomodulation; Natural killer cells (NK-92 cells); RAW264.7 cells.
31594Castaño C., Bonet J.A., Oliva J., Farré G., Martínez de Aragón J., Parladé J., Pera J. & Alday J.G. (2019): Rainfall homogenizes while fruiting increases diversity of spore deposition in Mediterranean conditions. - Fungal Ecology, 41: 279–288.
There is a lack of knowledge regarding the main factors modulating fungal spore deposition in forest ecosystems. We have described the local spatio-temporal dynamics of fungal spore deposition along a single fruiting season and its relation with fruit body emergence and rainfall events. Passive spore traps were weekly sampled during autumn and analysed by metabarcoding of the ITS2 region in combination with qPCR. There were larger compositional changes of deposited spores across sampling weeks than amongst sampling plots. Spore diversity and abundance correlated with mushroom emergence and weekly rainfall. Spore compositional changes were related to rainfall, with lower spatial compositional heterogeneity across plots during weeks with higher rainfall. Soil saprotrophs, and amongst them, puffball species, showed the strongest positive correlation with rainfall across fungal guilds.We saw high fine-scale temporal changes of deposited spores, and both mushroom emergence and rainfall may be important factors driving airborne spore deposition. Keywords: Fungal diversity; Atmospheric diversity; qPCR; DNA barcoding; Spore traps; Dispersion.
31593Lendemer J.C., Keepers K.G., Tripp E.A., Pogoda C.S., McCain C.M. & Kane N.C. (2019): A taxonomically broad metagenomic survey of 339 species spanning 57 families suggests cystobasidiomycete yeasts are not ubiquitous across all lichens. - American Journal of Botany, 106(8): 1090–1095.
Premise: Lichens are fungi that enter into obligate symbioses with photosynthesizing organisms (algae, cyanobacteria). Traditional narratives of lichens as binary symbiont pairs have given way to their recognition as dynamic metacommunities. Basidiomycete yeasts, particularly of the genus Cyphobasidium, have been inferred to be widespread and important components of lichen metacommunities. Yet, the presence of basidiomycete yeasts across a wide diversity of lichen lineages has not previously been tested. Methods: We searched for lichen‐associated cystobasidiomycete yeasts in newly generated metagenomic data from 413 samples of 339 lichen species spanning 57 families and 25 orders. The data set was generated as part of a large‐scale project to study lichen biodiversity gradients in the southern Appalachian Mountains Biodiversity Hotspot of southeastern North America. Results: Our efforts detected cystobasidiomycete yeasts in nine taxa (Bryoria nadvornikiana, Heterodermia leucomelos, Lecidea roseotincta, Opegrapha vulgata, Parmotrema hypotropum, P. subsumptum, Usnea cornuta, U. strigosa, and U. subgracilis), representing 2.7% of all species sampled. Seven of these taxa (78%) are foliose (leaf‐like) or fruticose (shrubby) lichens that belong to families where basidiomycete yeasts have been previously detected. In several of the nine cases, cystobasidiomycete rDNA coverage was comparable to, or greater than, that of the primary lichen fungus single‐copy nuclear genomic rDNA, suggesting sampling artifacts are unlikely to account for our results. Conclusions: Studies from diverse areas of the natural sciences have led to the need to reconceptualize lichens as dynamic metacommunities. However, our failure to detect cystobasidiomycetes in 97.3% (330 species) of the sampled species suggests that basidiomycete yeasts are not ubiquitous in lichens. Key words: Biodiversity inventory; endophyte; lichenicolous; metagenome; obligate symbiont; parasite.
31592Shelyakin M.A., Andreev M.P., Tabalenkova G.N. & Golovko T.K. (2019): Respiratory activity of some lichen species–representatives of Antarctic flora. - Contemporary Problems of Ecology, 12(4): 332–338.
[Translation of original Russian text published in Sibirskii Ekologicheskii Zhurnal, 2019, No. 4, pp. 410–418] Data on the respiratory activity of 12 species of Antarctic lichens are presented. It is found that the respiration of foliose lichens is more intensive than the respiration of fruticose lichens. The O2 uptake rate correlates positively with the nitrogen content in the biomass of thalli and depends on temperature. The thalli O2 uptake rate increased 2.2–2.4 times with a temperature increase from 5 to 15°C. The reaction of respiration upon a further rise in temperature is species-specific. The decrease in the temperature coefficient of respiration (Q10) with a temperature increase to 35°C is most pronounced in the endemic species Usnea aurantiacoatra, which is well-adapted to Antarctic conditions. The calculations show that, in summer, lichens are able to lose an amount of substrate equivalent to 0.8–1.4% of the thallus dry biomass in respiration daily. The total respiration cost of the lichen maintenance under snow during the winter can reach of 30–35% from their biomass. These results extend our knowledge on Antarctic lichens, and prediction their response to climatic change. Keywords: lichens, Antarctica, respiration, nitrogen, temperature.
31591Song J.F., Ru J.X., Liu X.P. & Cui X.Y. (2019): Oxalic acid and succinic acid mediate the weathering process of granite in the cold-temperate forest regions of northeast China. - Eurasian Soil Science, 52(8): 903–915.
Granite is an important soil-forming rock and is widely distributed in the cold-temperate forest area of northeast China, such as northern Greater Hinggan, where its biochemical weathering plays an important role in the formation of local soils. Due to the special latitude and elevation, lichen plays a crucial role in the biochemical weathering of granite here, of which the role of low molecular organic acids (short for organic acids) is of interest. We simulated the concentrations of oxalic acid (OA) and succinic acid (SA) in the local lichens of Northeast China, applied OA or SA (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 mmol L–1) to granite powders for 1 (10 min), 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, or 60 days, and studied the effects of organic acids on the bio-weathering process of granite, such as the dissolution regularity of various ions and the morphological changes of rock surfaces. OA and SA both induced the weathering and dissolving of granite, significantly promoted the release of Na+, K+, Al3+, Fe3+, Mg2+, Mn2+, Ca2+, and SiO 2− 3 SiO32− from granite powders. For the ion dissolution, the effect of OA was stronger than that of SA. Infrared analysis showed that both organic acids did not change the structures of their own groups, and the weathering mechanism was mainly the complexation of organic acids. The results of electron microscopy also presented the dissolution of granite powders by organic acids, and the effects were enhanced as the treatment time increased. After organic acid applications, the concentrations of dissolved ions from the granite powder varied with the type and concentration of organic acids, and treatment time. The concentration of each ion usually reached its maximum at 50 or 40 mmol L–1 OA, and 50 mmol L–1 SA (except for Fe3+ of some treatments). At day 1, the concentrations of SiO 2− 3 SiO32− , Al3+, Fe3+, and Mn2+ treated with OA were higher than those of other times. Compared with SA, OA could dissolve more ions from granite powders, especially at day 1. However, the metal ions dissolved by OA were easy to complex with OA, so the concentrations of ions treated by SA were higher than those of OA, and the ions dissolved by OA would enter into the soils more frequently in OA–metal complexes. Keywords: organic acids, granite, biochemical weathering, ion release, morphological characteristics.
31590Goga M., Kello M., Vilkova M., Petrova K., Backor M., Adlassnig W. & Lang I. (2019): Oxidative stress mediated by gyrophoric acid from the lichen Umbilicaria hirsuta affected apoptosis and stress/survival pathways in HeLa cells. - BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 19:221 [13 p.].
Background: Lichens produce a huge diversity of bioactive compounds with several biological effects. Gyrophoric acid (GA) is found in high concentrations in the common lichen Umbilicaria hirsuta, however evidence for biological activity was limited to anti-proliferative activity described on several cancer cell lines. Methods: We developed and validated a new protocol for GA isolation, resulting in a high yield of highly pure GA (validated by HPLC and NMR) in an easy and time saving manner. Anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activity, oxygen radicals formation and stress/survival proteins activity changes was study by flow cytometry. Results: The highly purified GA showed anti-proliferative activity against HeLa (human cervix carcinoma) and other tumor cells. Moreover, GA threated cells showed a significant increase in caspase-3 activation followed by PARP cleavage, PS externalization and cell cycle changes mediated by oxidative stress. Production of oxygen radicals led to DNA damage and changes in stress/survival pathways activation. Conclusions: GA treatment on HeLa cells clearly indicates ROS production and apoptosis as form of occurred cell death. Moreover, DNA damage and changing activity of stress/survival proteins as p38MAPK, Erk1/2 and Akt mediated by GA treatment confirm pro-apoptotic potential. The pharmacological potential of U. hirsuta derived GA is discussed. Keywords: Gyrophoric acid, Cervical cancer, Apoptosis, Oxidative stress, p38MAPK, Erk1/2, Akt.
31589Sveshnikova N., Yuan T., Warren J.M. & Piercey‑Normore M.D. (2019): Development and validation of a reliable LC–MS/MS method for quantitative analysis of usnic acid in Cladonia uncialis. - BMC Research Notes, 12:550 [6 p.].
Objective: The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a specific and sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass‑spectrometry method for quantification of usnic acid concentration in the lichen, Cladonia uncialis, suit‑ able for detection of relatively small fluctuations of usnic acid concentration in response to environmental changes. Results: The resulting method was fully validated according to international guidelines and demonstrated good selectivity and sensitivity with minor levels of a matrix effect and high accuracy. Keywords: Liquid chromatography tandem mass‑spectrometry, LC–MS/MS, Secondary metabolites, Lichen, Usnic acid, Cladonia uncialis.
31588Samarakoon M.C., Hyde K.D., Hongsanan S., McKenzie E.H.C., Ariyawansa H.A., Promputtha I., Zeng X.-Y., Tian Q. & Liu J.-K. (2019): Divergence time calibrations for ancient lineages of Ascomycota classification based on a modern review of estimations. - Fungal Diversity, 96: 285–346.
Inaccurate taxonomic placement of fossils can lead to the accumulation of errors in molecular clock studies and their generated evolutionary lineages. There are limited fossil data that can be used in divergence time estimations. Therefore, reliable morphological characterization and taxonomical identification of fossil fungi are extremely important. Most fossils of Dothideomycetes and Sordariomycetes are from the early Cenozoic (66–23 Mya), with fewer from the late Mesozoic (174–145 Mya). However, it is hard to distinguish some fossil descriptions as photographs and illustrations are unclear; thus, the validity of using these fossils in calibrations of molecular clocks is problematic. This study brings scattered paleobiological data on selected fossil Ascomycota, using descriptions, fossil images and illustrations, coupled with recent age estimations, and taxonomic and phylogenetic affinity of extant species. As an integrated approach, this study summarizes a historical fossil outline with a reliable minimum age for 16 calibrating points viz. crown of Aigialus, Anzia, Aspergillus, Asterina, Calicium chlorosporum–C. nobile, Capnodiales, Chaenotheca, Colletotrichum, Diaporthales, Meliola, Ophiocordyceps, Microthyriales, Microthyrium, Muyocopron, Pezizomycotina and Stigmatomyces. A scheme of Ascomycota ancient lineages is also provided in order to improve divergence time estimations. Keywords: Fossil fungi; Morphological characterization; Phylogeny; Taxonomy; Two new combinations.
31587Minelli A. (2019): The galaxy of the non‑Linnaean nomenclature. - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences, 41: 31 [20 p.].
Contrary to the traditional claim that needs for unambiguous communication about animal and plant species are best served by a single set of names (Linnaean nomenclature) ruled by international Codes, I suggest that a more diversified system is required, especially to cope with problems emerging from aggregation of biodiversity data in large databases. Departures from Linnaean nomenclature are sometimes intentional, but there are also other, less obvious but widespread forms of not Code-compliant grey nomenclature. A first problem is due to the circumstance that the Codes are intended to rule over the way names are applied to species and other taxonomic units, whereas users of taxonomy need names to be applied to specimens. For different reasons, it is often impossible to refer a specimen with certainty to a named species, and in those cases an open nomenclature is employed. Second, molecular taxonomy leads to the discovery of clusters of gene sequence diversity not necessarily equivalent to the species recognized and named by taxonomists. Those clusters are mostly indicated with informal names or formulas that challenge comparison between different publications or databases. In several instances, it is not even clear if a formula refers to an individual voucher specimen, or is a provisional species name. The use of non-Linnaean names and formulas must be revised and strengthened by fixing standard formats for the different kinds of objects or hypotheses and providing permanent association of ‘grey names’ with standardized source information such as author and year. In the context of a broad-scope revisitation of aims and scope of scientific nomenclature, it may be worth rethinking if natural objects like plant galls and lichens, although other than the ‘single-entity’ objects traditionally covered by biological classifications, may nevertheless deserve taxonomic names. Keywords: Open nomenclature · Grey nomenclature · Data aggregation · Taxonomic concept · Rules for non-Linnaean nomenclature · Lichen names · Plant gall names.
31586Tripp E.A., Lendemer J.C. & McCain C.M. (2019): Habitat quality and disturbance drive lichen species richness in a temperate biodiversity hotspot. - Oecologia, 190: 445–457.
The impacts of disturbance on biodiversity and distributions have been studied in many systems. Yet, comparatively less is known about how lichens–obligate symbiotic organisms–respond to disturbance. Successful establishment and development of lichens require a minimum of two compatible yet usually unrelated species to be present in an environment, suggesting disturbance might be particularly detrimental. To address this gap, we focused on lichens, which are obligate symbiotic organisms that function as hubs of trophic interactions. Our investigation was conducted in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. We conducted complete biodiversity inventories of lichens (all growth forms, reproductive modes, substrates) across 47, 1-ha plots to test classic models of responses to disturbance (e.g., linear, unimodal). Disturbance was quantified in each plot using a standardized suite of habitat quality variables. We additionally quantified woody plant diversity, forest density, rock density, as well as environmental factors (elevation, temperature, precipitation, net primary productivity, slope, aspect) and analyzed their impacts on lichen biodiversity. Our analyses recovered a strong, positive, linear relationship between lichen biodiversity and habitat quality: lower levels of disturbance correlate to higher species diversity. With few exceptions, additional variables failed to significantly explain variation in diversity among plots for the 509 total lichen species, but we caution that total variation in some of these variables was limited in our study area. Strong, detrimental impacts of disturbance on lichen biodiversity raises concerns about conservation and land management practices that fail to incorporate complete estimates of biodiversity, especially from ecologically important organisms such as lichens. Keywords: Biodiversity · Disturbance · Hotspot · Linear · Symbiotic.
31585Degtjarenko P., Jüriado I., Mandel T., Tõrra T., Saag A., Scheidegger C. & Randlane T. (2019): Microsatellite based genetic diversity of the widespread epiphytic lichen Usnea subfloridana (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) in Estonia: comparison of populations from the mainland and an island. - Mycokeys, 58: 27–45.
Understanding the distribution of genetic patterns and structure is an essential target in population genetics and, thereby, important for conservation genetics. The main aim of our study was to investigate the population genetics of Usnea subfloridana, a widespread lichenised fungus, focusing on a comparison of genetic variation of its populations amongst three geographically remote and disconnected regions, in order to determine relationships amongst environmental data, variation in lichen secondary chemistry and microsatellite data in genotyped populations. In all, 928 Usnea thalli from 17 populations were genotyped using seven specific fungal microsatellite markers. Different measures of genetic diversity (allelic richness, private allelic richness, Nei’s unbiased genetic diversity and clonal diversity) were calculated and compared between lichen populations. Our results revealed a low genetic differentiation of U. subfloridana populations amongst three distant areas in Estonia and also a high level of gene flow. The results support suggestion of the long-range vegetative dispersal of subpendulous U. subfloridana via symbiotic propagules (soralia, isidia or fragments of thalli). Our study has also provided evidence that environmental variables, including mean annual temperature and geographical longitude, shape the genetic structure of U. subfloridana populations in Estonia. Additionally, a weak but statistically significant correlation between lichen chemotypes and microsatellite allele distribution was found in genotyped specimens. Keywords: Chemotypes, genetic diversity, environmental factors, lichenised fungi, microsatellites.
31584Liu D., Wang X.Y., Wang L.S., Maekawa N. & Hur J.-S. (2019): Sulzbacheromyces sinensis, an unexpected basidiolichen, was newly discovered from Korean Peninsula and Philippines, with a phylogenetic reconstruction of genus Sulzbacheromyces. - Mycobiology, 47(2): 191–199.
Most of lichens are formed by Ascomycota, less than 1% are lichenized Basidiomycota. The flora investigation of lichenized Ascomycota of South Korea has been well studied in the past three decades; however, prior to this study, none of basidiolichens was discovered. During the recent excursion, an unexpected clavarioid basidiolichen, Sulzbacheromyces sinensis was collected. Morphology and ecology has been recorded in detail. DNA was extracted, and ITS, 18S, 28S nuclear rDNA were generated. In order to further confirm the systematic position of the Korean specimens, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analysis including all the species of the order Lepidostromatales were conducted based on the ITS. As a result, the phylogenetic tree of the order Lepidostromatales was reconstructed, which differed from the previous studies. The inferred phylogenetic tree showed that species of Sulzbacheromyces in three different continents (Asia, South Africa and South America) were separated into three clades with support. In this study, the species worldwide distribution map of Lepidostromatales was illustrated, and S. sinensis had a widest distribution range (paleotropical extend to the Sino-Japanese) than other species (paleotropical or neotropical). Prior to this study, the range of distribution, southernmost and northernmost points and the fruiting time of S. sinensis were recorded, and the genus Sulzbacheromyces was firstly reported from Korean peninsula and Philippines.
31583de Lima E.L., Maia L.C., Martins M.C.B., da Silva N.L., Lücking R. & Cáceres M.E.S. (2019): Five new species of Graphidaceae from the Brazilian Northeast, with notes on Diorygma alagoense. - Bryologist, 122(3): 414–422.
In the past decade Graphidaceae has stood out as one of the families with the highest number of newly described species in Brazil. In this paper we describe further five new species of Graphidaceae found in an enclave of humid forest (Brejo de Altitude) in the Caatinga, and in the Atlantic Forest of Northeast Brazil: Chapsa inspersa E.L.Lima & Lücking, differing from C. dissuta in the inspersed hymenium and larger ascospores with more numerous septa; Cryptoschizotrema minus E.L.Lima & Lücking, differing from C. schizotrema in the distinctly smaller ascospores; Diorygma sophianum E.L.Lima & Lücking, differing from D. junghuhnii in the laterally carbonized excipulum and the slightly larger ascospores, as well as the presence of lichexanthone; Graphis subfiliformis E.L.Lima & Lücking, differing from G. filiformis in the thick, shallowly verrucose thallus and thalline margin of the lirellae and in the larger ascospores; and Sarcographa atlantica E.L.Lima & Lücking, differing from S. astroidea (Vain.) Lücking comb. nov. in the larger ascospores with more numerous septa. We also provide a range and habitat extension for Diorygma alagoense M.Cáceres & Lücking, an enigmatic species with a peculiar chemistry of thallus and ascomata. Keywords: Lichenized fungi, Paraíba, Pernambuco, Restinga, Brejo de Altitude.
31582Sanders W. & de Los Ríos A. (2019): Structural evidence of diffuse growth and parenchymatous cell division in the cortex of the umbilicate lichen Lasallia pustulata. - Lichenologist, 51(4): 393.
31581Kistenich S., Bendiksby M., Ekman S., Cáceres M.E.S., Hernández J.E.M. & Timdal E. (2019): Towards an integrative taxonomy of Phyllopsora (Ramalinaceae). - Lichenologist, 51(4): 323-392.
Species identification in the tropical lichen genus Phyllopsora is generally challenging and is based on ascospore morphology, vegetative dispersal units, thallus structure and secondary chemistry. As several type specimens are in poor condition and difficult to interpret, it is often unclear how these old names fit with the currently used taxonomy. In the present study, we aim to identify species boundaries in Phyllopsora s. str. supported by an integrative approach using multiple sources of evidence. We inves- tigated a substantial amount of herbarium as well as freshly collected material and generated mtSSU and ITS sequence data from most of the described species, including several types. Species delimitation ana- lyses are applied on the gene trees using mPTP and we construct a species tree of both markers with *BEAST, facilitating discussion of species delimitation and sister-relationships. Comparing morphology, chemistry and molecular data, we found that the mPTP analyses split established species repeatedly. Based on our integrative results, we exclude nine species from the genus, resurrect one (P. melanoglauca Zahlbr.), reduce two into synonymy with other Phyllopsora species and describe five as new to science: Phyllopsora amazonica Kistenich & Timdal (which shares the secondary chemistry (atranorin and terpenoid pattern) with P. halei chemotype 1, but differs, e.g., in having smaller areolae that are attached to a thinner, white prothallus, and in having more persistently marginate and less con- vex apothecia), Phyllopsora concinna Kistenich & Timdal (which shares the secondary chemistry (atra- norin and parvifoliellin) with P. parvifoliella and P. rappiana, but differs from both in forming larger isidia, having a white prothallus, apothecial margin paler than the disc, and longer and broader ascos- pores), Phyllopsora furfurella Kistenich & Timdal (which is here segregated from P. furfuracea based on having a white prothallus and in containing skyrin in the hypothecium (K+ red)), Phyllopsora isidosa Kis- tenich & Timdal (which differs from P. byssiseda in forming a more crustose thallus with more delicate isidia, and from P. isidiotyla in forming somewhat coarser, less branched isidia) and Phyllopsora neotinica Kistenich & Timdal (a neotropical species here segregated from the now exclusively paleotropical P. cho- datinica, differing in containing an unknown xanthone (not chodatin)). Lectotypes are designated for Biatora pyrrhomelaena Tuck., Lecidea leucophyllina Nyl., L. pertexta Nyl., and P. brachyspora Müll. Arg. In total, we accept 54 species in the genus Phyllopsora. ITS, lichens, molecular phylogeny, mPTP, mtSSU, species delimitation, tropical rainforest
31580Paukov A.G., Davydov E.A., Nordin A., Roux C., Şenkardeşler A., Sohrabi M., Vondrák J., Frolov I.V., Teptina A.Y. & Shiryaeva A.S. (2019): Three new species, new combinations and a key to known species of Lobothallia (Megasporaceae). - Lichenologist, 51(4), 301-322.
Three species, Lobothallia brachyloba Paukov & I. V. Frolov, L. epiadelpha Paukov & A. Nordin and L. zogtii Paukov & Davydov, from arid regions of Eurasia (Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, China and Mongolia) are described as new to science. Lobothallia brachyloba has flat, firmly attached lobes, immersed apothecia lacking a distinct thalline margin, and contains norstictic acid. Both Lobothallia epiadelpha and L. zogtii contain stictic acid and have a brown thallus and sessile apothecia. Lobothallia epiadelpha initially develops on crustose Circinaria spp, has thick lobes loosely attached to the substratum, and brown apothe- cial discs with constant thalline margins. Lobothallia zogtii is a free-living species with brownish black to jet black apothecial discs surrounded by a receding thalline margin. Lecanora bogdoënsis is synonymized with Lobothallia praeradiosa and Lobothallia helanensis is synonymized with L. subdiffracta. Three new combina- tions,Lobothalliahedinii(H.Magn.)Paukov,A.Nordin&Sohrabi,L.lacteola(Oxner)Şenkardesļer, Paukov, Davydov & Sohrabi, and L. subdiffracta (H. Magn.) Paukov, are proposed. Phylogenetic analyses of Lobothallia brachyloba, L. epiadelpha and L. subdiffracta (ITS, mtSSU) are presented, showing their relationships within Lobothallia. The lectotype of the name Aspicilia lacteola Oxner is designated. A key to 18 species of Lobothallia is provided. Altai, Ascomycota, China, lichenized fungi, Mongolia, new taxa, South Urals, taxonomy
31579Lücking R., Moncada B. & Hawksworth D. (2019): Gone with the wind: Sequencing its type species supports inclusion of Cryptolechia in Gyalecta (Ostropales: Gyalectaceae). - Lichenologist, 51(4), 287-299.
Cryptolechia carneolutea is the type species of the genus Cryptolechia, a rare taxon classified as endangered in the UK, now largely confined to ancient Fraxinus trees. The only tree with abundant growth of the species in one of its strongholds, the Slapton Ley National Nature Reserve in Devon, was blown over in a storm in April 2017, making it possible to collect material for molecular studies and transplant specimens to other Fraxinus trees in the area. The results of the phylogenetic analysis revealed C. carneolutea to be nested within the genus Gyalecta (Gyalectaceae). This further supports a broad circumscription of Gyalecta, after also including species previously placed in Belonia and Pachyphiale as proposed in other recent studies. It might be possible to introduce an alternative genus concept in Gyalectaceae, not schematically based on ascoma type and ascospore number, but presently not enough data are available to proceed with such a novel classification. A review of the taxonomic concept of Cryptolechia demonstrates that this name was used inconsistently in the past, and its possible inclusion in Gyalecta was anticipated by other authors. As the majority of species presently classified in Cryptolechia had been placed in Gyalecta before, only five new combinations are required to provide formal inclusion of all taxa in the latter genus: Gyalecta bicellulata (Kalb) D. Hawksw. & Lücking comb. nov., G. caudata (Kalb) D. Hawksw. & Lücking comb. nov., G. pittieriana (Kalb et al.) D. Hawksw. & Lücking comb. nov., G. saxatilis (Vězda) D. Hawksw. & Lücking comb. nov. and G. stellaris (Müll. Arg.) D. Hawksw. & Lücking comb. nov. We also supersede the previous lectotypification of Parmelia carneolutea Turner with the discovery of the holotype specimen in BM. Devon, Fraxinus, Gyalecta canariensis, Slapton Ley National Nature Reserve
31578Ханов З.М., Урбанавичюс Г.П. & Урбанавичене И.Н. [Khanov Z.M., Urbanavichus G.P. & Urbanavichene I.N.] (2019): Новые виды для лихенофлоры Кабардино-Балкарии (Центральный Кавказ) [New species for the lichen flora of Kabardino-Balkaria (Central Caucasus)]. - Ботанический журнал [Botanicheskii Zhurnal], 104(5): 803–810.
Based on the material collected in 2018, twenty species and nine genera (Bilimbia, Lathagrium, Lempholemma, Muellerella, Myriolecis, Placynthium, Pyrenodesmia, Thelidium, Variospora, Verrucaria) are reported as new to the lichen flora of the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic. Data on ecology and distribution of these species in the Caucasus are provided. Physcia albinea is reported for the first time in the North Caucasus, and Bilimbia lobulata, Lathagrium undulatum, Lempholemma polyanthes are new for the Central Caucasus. The specimens are kept in the lichenological herbarium LE (St. Petersburg). Keywords: lichens, new records, distribution, Caucasus.
31577Watanuki O., Harada H., Hara K., Kawakami H., Komine M., Wang X.-Y., Wang L.-S. & Fuji S. (2019): Sculptolumina yunnanensis, a new species of Buellia s.l. (lichenized Ascomycota, Caliciaceae) from Yunnan, China. - Bryologist, 122(3): 404–413.
Sculptolumina yunnanensis, a saxicolous lichenized fungus in the family Caliciaceae, is described as new from Yunnan, China. Its morphological characters include: ocher and epilithic thalli, pseudolecanorine or lecideine and sessile apothecia, flat and epruinose apothecial discs, Mischoblastiatype ascospores with funnel-shaped cell lumina and filiform conidia. This is the second saxicolous species in the genus Sculptolumina. A molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed for Sculptolumina, including S. japonica and S. yunnanensis, for the first time. A multilocus phylogeny of Buellia s.l. revealed that Sculptolumina forms a monophyletic clade with high support, and S. japonica and S. yunnanensis have a sister relationship within this clade. Keywords: Biodiversity, taxonomy, Sculptolumina, emendation, multilocus phylogeny, Yuanmou Soil Forest, saxicolous lichen.
31576Pranjić K., Adlassnig W., Peroutka M., Pois W., Mayer E. & Lichtscheidl I.K. (2006): Flora und Ökologie des Hochmoores „Schwarzes Moos" . - Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Österreich, 143: 97–111.
[Flora and ecology of the ombrogenic fen "Schwarzes Moos".] The ombrogenic fen "Schwarzes Moos" ("Black fen") in the north-western Waldviertel (Lower Austria) was partly destroyed by peat extraction and by afforestation. Today, fen vegetation is restricted to the surroundings of a few peat bogs. Parts of the destroyed areas are now covered with ruderal vegetation. From 2001 to 2005 we investigated the flora, vegetation, topography, water and soil chemistry of the last fen areas. We especially addressed the question whether the small remaining fens are able to preserve their specific biodiversity in a heavily disturbed environment. Although fen and ruderal vegetation adjoin closely, a clear border is always visible. Except for one peat bog, no evidence for eutrophication or an invasion of alien species into the intact fen area could be found. The "Schwarzes Moos" is no longer very rich in species, compared to other fens in the Waldviertel. Nevertheless, it is the habitat of some extremely rare species in Austria such as Ledum palustre. Furthermore, we found some highly endangered animal species like the last population of Rana temporaria in the Waldviertel. Keywords: biodiversity, Drosera rotundifolia, Ledum palustre, Lower Austria, peat bog, water chemistry.
31575Andrée A. (1868): Ausflüge im Isergebirge. - Verhandlungen des Botanischen Vereins Berlin Brandenburg, 10: 139–143.
31574Brown R. (1823): Chloris Melvilliana. A list of plants collected in Melville Island, (Latitude 74°—75° N. Longitude 110°—112° W.) in the year of 1820; by the officers of the voyage discovery under the orders of Captain Parry. With characters and descriptions of the new genera and species. - W. Clowes, London, 52 p.
Arctic Canada; lichens (as Lichenosae) listed at p. 47-49; Borrera(?) aurantiaca sp. nov. (= Seirophora aurantiaca), Usnea sphacelata
31573Brown R. (1824): Flora der Melville's Insel. - Flora oder Allgemeine Botanische Zeitung, 1824, Beil. 2: 65–135.
German translation by G. Kunze of the English original "Chloris Melvilliana. A list of plants collected in Melville Island, …)
31572Palacky F. (1842): Die Grafen Kaspar und Franz Sternberg, und ihr Wirken für Wissenschaft und Kunst in Böhmen. - Abhandlungen der mathematisch-naturwissenschaftlichen Classe der königl.- böhmischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften, 5(2): 17–54.
biography
31571Stefańska-Krzaczek E., Staniaszek-Kik M., Szczepańska K. & SzymuraT.H. (2019): Species diversity patterns in managed Scots pine stands in ancient forest sites. - PLoS ONE, 14(7):e0219620 [21 p.].
Continuity in forest habitats is crucial for species diversity and richness. Ancient Scots pine forests are usually under forest management, which disturbs vegetation and causes differentiation in terms of tree stand age. To date, vegetation variability in ancient Scots pine forests has not been examined based on tree stand age classes. In the present study the continuity of a large Scots pine forest complex was investigated, and a system of sampling plots established in five tree stand age classes: initiation stands (4–10 years), young stands (20–35 years), middle-aged stands (45–60 years), pre-mature stands (70–85 years) and mature stands (95–110 years). Species composition, including vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens, on soil, tree trunks, and coarse woody debris, was analyzed. Based on existing classifications systems, forest species and ancient forest species groups were distinguished. In the studied ancient Scots pine forests the species pool and richness were relatively low, and the vegetation consisted mostly of generalist species. Cryptogams, which can grow on diverse substrates, were the most abundant species. Moreover, most species could tolerate both forest and non-forest conditions. Age class forests provided different environmental niches for species. Initiation stands were optimal for terrestrial light-demanding species, and in terms of species composition, initiation stands were most specific. Young stands were most preferred by species on coarse woody debris, and at this stage of stand maturation epiphytic species re-appeared. The oldest stands were not rich in forest specialists, i.e. species of closed forest and ancient forest species. Cryptogams of closed forests inhabited different substrates, and they were not associated only with the oldest stands. The low number of forest specialists in the oldest stands may be a general feature of acidophilus pine forests. However, it may also be a result of the lack of species sources in the vicinity of maturing pine stands. In managed forests a frequent diversity pattern is an increase in a species pool and richness after clear-cut logging. In the present study we obtained higher species pools in initiation and young stands, but richness was similar in all tree stand age classes. This resulted from taking into account species of different substrates (terrestrial, epixylous and epiphytic species) which changed their participation in the vegetation of subsequent stages of tree stand development.
31570Laurer [F.] (1827): Beiträge zur kryptogamischen Flor der Insel Rügen. - Flora oder Allgemeine Botanische Zeitung, 10: 289–299.
31569Treviranus L.C. (1832): [Berichtigungen] Im 15. Bande .... - Flora oder Allgemeine Botanische Zeitung, 15(31): 493–495.
Comment on a paper by E. Eversmann published in 15th Volume of Nov. Acta Ac. N. Cur. dealing with Lichen esculentus (= Lecanora esculenta) and related species.
31568Rehm [H.] (1867): Dritte Beiträge zur Flechten-Flora des Algäu. - Berichte des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins für Schwaben, 19: 89–93.
31567Rehm H. (1863): Beiträge zur Flechten-Flora des Allgäu. - Berichte des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins für Schwaben, 16: 85–128.
31566Rehm H. (1856): Ueber die in einer Gegend der Keuperformation Mittelfrankens vorkommenden Steinflechten. - Oesterreichisches Botanisches Wochenblatt, 6: 12–14 & 20–22.
31565Dornes P. (2006): Die Flechtenflora des Halberges bei Neumorschen (Nordhessen, Fuldatal). - Philippia, 12: 205–208.
The lichen flora of the limestone hill Halberg was mapped. A totally of 41 species could be found, with only 3 epiphytic species. 17 species or 41.5% of the total is listed in the Red Databook as endangered or insuffi cient known. Some species of the rare ‘Bunte-Erdflechten Gesellschaft’ were recorded, though the populations were mostly small. A highlight was the rediscovery of Leptogium biatorinum, thought to be extinct in Germany.
31564Rieber X. (1891): Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Lichenenflora Württembergs und Hohenzollerns. - Jahreshefte des Vereins für vaterländische Naturkunde in Württemberg, 47: 246–270.
31563Rehm [H.] (1864): Weitere Beiträge zur Flechten-Flora des Allgäu. - Berichte des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins für Schwaben, 17: 91–99.
31562Paz-Bermúdez G. & Giralt M. (2010): The Portuguese crustose specimens of the Physciaceae, Caliciaceae excluded, (Lichenized Ascomycetes) in the PO Herbarium. - Sydowia, 62: 105–136.
A revision and nomenclatural update of 190 sheets of crustose specimens in the PO Herbarium is reported. This revision identifies 8 genera and 57 species of Physciaceae, including one species not previously reported from the Iberian Peninsula, Buellia excelsa, and seven species not previously reported from Portugal: Amandinea coniops, Rinodina boleana, R. cana, R. dubyana, R. euskadiensis, R. guzzinii, and R. pityrea. The synonymies of Rinodina lesdainii with R. cana, and of R. atrocinerella var. macrospora with R. occulta are proposed. This revision also reports the chemistry of Buellia hypophana for the first time. Keywords: lichens, Sampaio, Buellia s.l., Rinodina s.l., Portugal.
31561Babington C. (1852): Notice of the Lichens collected by Dr. Sutherland, during the Arctic Voyage of Capt. Penny in the "Lady Franklin". - Hookers Journal of Botany and Kew Garden Miscellany, 4: 276–278.
31560Babington C. (1852): Lichenes Himalayenses : being an Enumeration of the Lichens collected in the Himalaya Mountains by Captain E. Strachey, of the Bengal Engineers, and J. E. Winterbottom, Esq., E.L.S., during the years 1847 and 1848. - Hookers Journal of Botany and Kew Garden Miscellany, 4: 243–252.
31559Babington C. (1851): Lichenes Arctici; collected by Mr. Seemann of the Expedition of Capt. Kellet in H. M. S. Herald, in search after Sir J. Franklin. - Hookers Journal of Botany and Kew Garden Miscellany, 3: 248–250.
31558Walpers G. (1851): Notiz über Lichen esculentus Pall.. - Botanische Zeitung (Berlin), 9: 317–318.
Lecanora esculenta
31557Itzigsohn H. (1850): Die Antheridien und Spermatozoen der Flechten. - Botanische Zeitung (Berlin), 8: 393–394 & 913–919.
31556Plumert J. (1849): Der Kurort Liebwerda und seine Heilquellen im bunzlauer Kreise Böhmens. - G. Haase, Prag, 104 p.
Czech Republic; list of lichens at p. 76-77
31555Bauer P.M. (1859): Uebersicht der in dem Grossherzogthum Hessen beobachteten Flechten. - Bericht der Oberhessischen Gesellschaft für Natur- und Heilkunde, 7: 13–26.
31554Solms-Laubach R. (1863): Verzeichniss der von mir in der Gegend von Braunfels und Laubach gesammelten und bestimmten Lichenen. - Bericht der Oberhessischen Gesellschaft für Natur- und Heilkunde, 10: 66–71.
31553Bagge H. & Metzler [A.] (1865): Flechtenflora von Frankfurt a. M.. - Bericht der Oberhessischen Gesellschaft für Natur- und Heilkunde, 11: 82–92.
31552Uloth W. (1865): Beiträge zur Kenntniss einiger Lichenensporen. - Bericht der Oberhessischen Gesellschaft für Natur- und Heilkunde, 11: 146–154.
31551Uloth W. (1865): Beiträge zur Kryptogamenflora der Wetterau. - Bericht der Oberhessischen Gesellschaft für Natur- und Heilkunde, 11: 92–99.
31550Boll E. (1860): Lichenes. – In: Flora von Mecklenburg in geographischer, geschichtlicher, systematischer, statistischer u.s.w. Hinsicht. - Archiv des Vereins der Freunde der Naturgeschichte in Mecklenburg, 14: 355–362.
31549Krempelhuber [A.] v. (1864): Eine Bemerkung über Biatora campestris Fr.. - Flora oder Allgemeine Botanische Zeitung, 47: 558–559.
Sarcosagium campestre
31548De Bruyn U., Hohmann M.-L., Homm T. & Roller O. (1999): Bryologische und lichenologische Untersuchungen im unteren Lautertal (Biosphärenreservat Pfälzerwald-Nordvogesen) . - Mitteilungen der Pollichia, 86: 69–89.
[Bryological and lichenological investigations in the lower Lauter valley (biosphere reserve Pfälzerwald - Nordvogesen, SW-Germany)]. This paper deals with the lichen and bryophyte flora of the lower Lauter valley and the adjacent area (biosphere reserve Pfälzerwald - Nordvogesen, SW-Germany). Between 1997 and 1999 a total of 171 lichen and 206 bryophyte species have been recorded, several new to the region. Many species are considered rare and threatened in Germany and Rhineland-Palatinate, respectively. The importance of the regions natural as well as extensively used habitats for a rich lichen and bryophyte flora is emphasized. An annotated list of species remarkable for the area is provided.
31547Feßel-Neumann C. & Neumann P. (2017): Ein aktueller Fund des Dreilappigen Peitschenmooses (Bazzania trilobata (L.) Gray) im nördlichen Aukrug. - Kieler Notizen zur Pflanzenkunde, 42: 121–125.
In the forest area »Holtorfer Gehege« (northern Aukrug), a current population of the extremely rare moss [sic!] Bazzania trilobata could be discovered. Vegetation assessments were carried out to obtain a more detailed overview of the plant or moss association respectively, preferred by Bazzania trilobata in the described population. Furthermore, the ecological value of the Aukrug forests is highlighted. In addition Micarea viridileprosa listed from one of the relevés and three rare epiphytic lichen species noted to occur in the area (Lecanactis abietina, Phaeographis inusta, Thelotrema lepadinum) within text.
31546van den Boom P.P.G. (2019): MB 830241 is the correct Mycobank number for Micarea sambuci. - Herzogia, 32(1): 261.
Erratum to the paper: van den Boom P.P.G., Brand A.M., Coppins B.J. & Sérusiaux E. 2018: A new Micarea species from western Europe, belonging in the Micarea denigrata group. – Herzogia 31(1/2): 385–389.
31545Dierschke H. & Becker T. (2008): Die Schwermetall-Vegetation des Harzes - Gliederung, ökologische Bedingungen und syntaxonomische Einordnung . - Tuexenia, 28: 185–227.
For many centuries, the Harz mountains were influenced by intensive mining and/ore processing activities, resulting in spoil heaps and alluvial sediments rich in heavy metals. Therefore, the Harz mountains are a classical area for studies of plant communities with heavy-metal-tolerant species. However, a detailed survey of the vegetation and soil conditions do not exist so far. - We investigated the vegetation (120 relevés) and soil conditions at 23 sites of former mining in the western Harz mountains and its foreland. In total the grasslands are poor in vascular plant species, whereas the character taxa Armeria maritima ssp. halleri, Minuartia verna ssp. hercynica and Silene humilis var. humilis occur in many stands. All relevés have been classified as Armerietum halleri Libbert 1930, differentiated into a Silene-pioneer stage and three subassociations: A. cladonietosum chlorophaeae, A. typicum, and A. achilletosum millefoliae, which can also be interpreted as stages of a primary succession. The A. typicum and A. achilletosum can be subdivided each into a typical and a Cardaminopsis halleri-variant on moist soils. - Within a DCA the vegetation units are separated along the first axis in the sequence mentioned above. This first axis is positively correlated with Ellenberg indicator values for soil reaction, nitrogen and moisture, and with the calcium content in the soil solution, negatively with the content of copper and portions of open stones on the soil surface. The amount of heavy metals is high in all relevés. Both, in the A. cladonietosum and A. typicum, and in the Silene-pioneer stage there are exceptional high concentrations of zinc and copper and the wide heavy-metal/calcium ratios indicate extreme toxic conditions. The lead levels, however, do not differ significantly between different types of vegetation. - A comparison of the actual number of tailing sites with a list of 1928 shows a large decline of heavy-metal stands due to human destruction and natural succession. Measures for conservation and regeneration are discussed. - In the discussion the maintenance of an association Armerietum halleri is recommended. A synoptic table with inclusion of relevés from the literature in Germany supports the concept of a narrow class Violetea calaminariae with communities poor in species. For the remaining single alliance the name Armerion halleri Ernst 1965 is proposed as nomen conservandum. Keywords: Armerietum halleri, Harz mountains, heavy-metal grassland, metallophytes, nature conservation, soil contamination, vegetation ecology, Violetea calaminariae.
31544Mielke U. (1977): Die Wirkung von Luftverunreinigungen auf Pflanzen. - Hercynia, 14: 84–100.
31543Schubert R. (1972): Übersicht über die Pflanzengesellschaften des südlichen Teiles der DDR. III. Wälder. Teil 2. - Hercynia, 9: 106–136.
phytosociology
31542Ellwanger G. (1996): Die Vegetation der Moore des Brockengebietes II. Pflanzengesellschaften ombrotropher Moorbereiche, der Torfstiche und Bruchwälder. - Hercynia, 30: 241–271.
[Vegetation of bogs and fens of the Brocken (Harz mountains, Germany). II. Plant communities of bogs, peat-cuttings and carr vegetation]. Keywords: plant assoziations, Sphagnetalia magellanici, Vaccinio-Piceenion, bog, harz mountains, central Germany.
31541Damm C. (1994): Vegetation und Florenbestand des Brockengebietes. - Hercynia, 29: 5–56.
[Vegetation and Phytogeography of Mt. Broc.ken (Harz, Germany).] Keywords: vegetation, plant associations, Mt. Brocken, central Germany.
31540Richter W. (1966): Die natürliche Begrünung der erzgebirgischen Bergwerkshalden. - Hercynia, 3: 114–146.
31539Zimmermann A (1981): Erica-reiche Silikat-Föhrenwälder in den östlichen Zentralalpen (I): Steiermark und angrenzende Teile Niederösterreichs . - Mitteilungen des naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins für Steiermark, 111: 157–174.
31538Schubert R. (1973): Übersicht über die Pflanzengesellschaften des südlichen Teiles der DDR. VI. Azidiphile Zwergstrauchheiden. - Hercynia, 10: 101–110.
phytosociology; numerous lichens listed
31537Schubert R. (1972): Übersicht über die Pflanzengesellschaften des südlichen Teiles der DDR. III. Wälder Teil 3 . - Hercynia, 9: 197–228.
phytosociology; numerous lichens listed
31536Spenling N. (1964): Das Reichenauer Moor und seine Flora. - Jahrbuch für Landeskunde von Niederösterreich, 36: 17–22.
Upper Austria; peatbog vegetation; list of lichens included
31535Valachovič M. (1994): Variabilität und Verbreitung der Gesellschaften mit Asplenium septentrionale in der Slowakei. - Tuexenia, 14: 139–142.
Slovakia; phytosociology; plant communities on rocks (several macrolichen taxa listed from relevés)
31534John V. (1997): Die Flechten im Herbarium Ludwig Geisenheyner. - Mitteilungen der Pollichia, 84: 49–62.
[The lichens in the Ludwig Geisenheyner herbarium]. Up to now Ludwig Geisenheyner (1841-1926) was unknown as a collector of lichens. His lichen herbarium compounds 400 specimens from Europe. 190 samples have been collected by himself, others by 32 different collectors. 159 specimens are listed, some of these of particular interest to the county of Rhineland-Palatinate. The herbarium is stored at POLL.
31533Beckhaus [C.F.L.] (1856): Beiträge zur Kryptogamen-Flora Westfalens. - Verhandlungen des naturhistorischen Vereines der preussischen Rheinlande, 13: 12–28.
31532Loos G.H. (2015): Exkursion: Bochum-Querenburg, Moose und Flechten der Ruhr-Universität. - Jahrbuch des Bochumer Botanischen Vereins, 6: 70–71.
Report on excursion
31531Sautermeister F.L. (1907): Callopisma cerinellum Nyl.. - Jahreshefte des Vereins für vaterländische Naturkunde in Württemberg, 63: 458–460.
31530Rüggeberg H. (1909-1911): Biologische Beobachtungen. - Jahresbericht der Naturhistorischen Gesellschaft zu Hannover, 60–61: 67–76.
31529Buch C. & Wandelt E. (2013): Exkursion: Bochum-Querenburg, Moose und Flechten an der Ruhr-Universität Bochum. - Jahrbuch des Bochumer Botanischen Vereins, 4: 87–88.
Report on excursion led by G.H. Loos
31528Gerhardt A. & Größer-Hellriegel C. (1983): Untersuchungen zur epiphytischen Flechtenvegetation im Raum Bielefeld . - Berichte des Naturwissenschaftlichen Verein für Bielefeld und Umgegend, 26: 161–206.
31527Vierhapper F. (1906): Aufzählung der von Professor Dr. Oskar Simony im Sommer 1901 in Südbosnien gesammelten Pflanzen. - Mitteilungen des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins an der Universität Wien, 4: 36–64.
Bosnia; lichens (p. 38-43) determined by J. Steiner
31526Loos G.H. (2017): Exkursion: Bochum-Querenburg, Moose und Flechten an der Hochschule Bochum. - Jahrbuch des Bochumer Botanischen Vereins, 8: 130–131.
Report on excursion
31525Loos G.H. (2016): Exkursion: Bochum-Querenburg, Moose und Flechten an der Ruhr-Universität im Bereich Unicenter. - Jahrbuch des Bochumer Botanischen Vereins, 7: 66.
Report on excursion
31524Wächter H.J., Antonowitsch J. & Keiter M. (2016): Der Findlingsgarten in Bielefeld – Geologie, Pionierbewuchs (Moose, Flechten, Gefäßpflanzen) und Gestaltung als öffentlicher Lernort. - Berichte des Naturwissenschaftlichen Verein für Bielefeld und Umgegend, 54: 44–85.
The top area of a recultivated landfill in the northern area of Bielefeld was used to lay out a garden with 100 large glacial erratic blocks as well as 25 local limestone blocks. The erratic blocks were all originally found during excavation work in preparation of the landfill. They have been transported to the area of Bielefeld by the glaciers of the Saale Ice Age (Drenthe stadial). For this paper, the glacial erratics were petrographically described and the current overgrowth of pioneer vegetation (lichens and moss on the blocks and vascular plants on the area around the blocks) was mapped. As a comparison, 6 large erratics from nearby small arrangements that have been exposed at the surface much longer were also mapped. The moss species found on the erratic blocks belong to the Tortuletum muralis Waldheim 1944, a plant society previously described for basic substrates. We propose the thesis that the Tortuletum muralis is also a typical pioneer society for erratic blocks of any composition in Northern Germany, which are freshly excavated from the ground. It is proposed to extensively investigate the moss flora on these stones in the future. The mapping of lichens showed a stock of pioneer species as well as species typically found at eutrophicated sites. This points towards extensive use of the rock garden by visitors and walkers. The surrounding grassland is unfertilized, so the input of nutrients most likely comes from wind and rain, together with external contribution by humans and animals.
31523Buch C. (2018): Exkursion: Bochum-Querenburg, Moose und Flechten an der Ruhr-Universität Bochum. - Jahrbuch des Bochumer Botanischen Vereins, 9: 77–78.
Report on excursion led by G.H. Loos
31522Stolley G. (2003): Die Flechten und flechtenbewohnenden Pilze des Dorfes Neuwittenbek (Kreis Rendsburg-Eckernförde, Bundesland Schleswig-Holstein). - Kieler Notizen zur Pflanzenkunde, 30: 89–130.
The Iichens and lichenicolous fungi ofthe village Neuwittenbek have been exarnined during the last two years (2001 and 2002). As a result the total number of taxa of Iichens and lichenicolous fungi in Neuwittenbek is 104. Of these taxa 95 are Iichens, 8 are lichenicolous fungi and I is a corticolous ascomycete. The 7 Iichen taxa Acarospora macrospora, Aspicilia contorta ssp. hoffmanniana, Caloplaca crenulatella, Lecanora compallens, Lecanora flotowiana, Lecidella carpathica and Verrucaria macrostoma f.furfuracea and the 4 lichenicolous fungi Abrothallus prodiens, Homostegia piggotii, Monodictys cellulosa and Phacopsis oxyspora var. oxyspora are recorded in Schleswig-Holstein (Northem Germany) for the first time. The lichenicolous fungus Anhonia clemens is recorded to the mainland of Schleswig-Holstein for the first time, but is already known from the lsle of Sylt. The lichenicolous fungus Zwackhiomyces lecanorae is recorded to the part Schleswig of the land Schleswig-Holstein for the first time, but is already known to the part Holstein of the land Schleswig-Holstein. Keywords: Iichens. lichenicolous fungi, village Neuwittenbek, Schleswig-Holstein (Northern Germany), first-time records.
31521Gutte P., Herrmann K., Richter I. & Wehr P. (1983): Untersuchungen zur Indikation von Veränderungen der Luftgüteverhältnisse in Leipzig durch wiederholte Kartierung von Lecanora varia (Ehrh.) Ach. s.l.. - Hercynia, 20: 339–347.
31520Beckhaus [C.F.L.] (1856): Erster Nachtrag zu den Beiträgen zur Kryptogamen-Flora von Westphalen (zu I. II. III.). - Verhandlungen des naturhistorischen Vereines der preussischen Rheinlande, 13: 153–157.
31519Marbach B. (1998): Emissionsökologische Flechtenkartierung von Laufen und Umgebung . - Berichte der Bayerischen Akademie für Naturschutz und Landschaftspflege, 22: 163–195.
In the urban area and the surroundings of Laufen a passive mapping of lichens for assessment of air quality has been made 1984 (GOPPEL 1984). According to the VDI guideline 3799 a comparing study concerning this mapping is prepared. Following changes of the lichen flora can be observed: - some species, sensitive to pollutants and already rare 1984 like Cetraria chlorophylla, Cetrelia olivetorum, Imshaugia aleurites, Parmelia acetabulum, Physconia entemxantha and Vulpicida pinastri have vanished from the investigated area - the frequency of acidophytic species like Hypogymnia physodes and Pseudevernia furfuracea has strongly diminished - nitrophytic species especially of the genera Candelariella and Xanthoria have increased as well in frequency as in the number of species - GOPPEL (1984) notices the zone with the highest air pollution in the urban area of Laufen, a reverse situation can be observed in this place, zones with the lowest air pollution can be found around the lake Abtsdorfer See and in the urban area of Laufen. fä the zones of air quality the degrees of pollution have to be characterised as moderate to high. In the investigated area 103 species have been found. Interesting habitats beside light-exposed habitats on trees are the wall of the old quay of the river Salzach near the church ofLaufen and wooden fence posts of pastures and old sheds in the Haarmoos. The unique habitats on old sheds in the Haarmoos with Candelariella coralliza, C. kuusamoensis, Ramalina capitata, Rhizocarpon distinctum and Rhizocarpon geographicum are strongly endangered
31518Beschel R. (1952): Flechten und Moose im St. Peter-Friedhof in Salzburg. - Mitteilungen der Naturwissenschaftlichen Arbeitsgemeinschaft am Haus der Natur Salzburg, 2: 44–51.
31517Beschel R. (1978): Zur Vegetation des Höhleneingangs vom Brunnloch bei Stegenwald im Hagengebirge . - Mitteilungen aus dem Haus der Natur Salzburg, 8: 147–149.
31516Beschel R. (1951): Zur Vegetation des Höhleneinganges im Brunnloch bei Stegenwald (Hagengebirge). - Die Höhle, 2: 25–28.
31515Perktold A. (1865): Verzeichniss der in den Umgebungen von Innsbruck, Lisens und Tarrenz aufgefundenen Lichenen (Flechten), nebst einigen, die aus Südtirol sind mitgetheilt worden. - Veröffentlichungen des Tiroler Landesmuseums Ferdinandeum, 3: 54–59.
31514Egeling G. (1884): Beiträge zur Lichenenflora von Kassel. - Abhandlungen und Bericht des Vereins für Naturkunde Kassel, 31: 45–62.
31513Ivanov D. (2010): Checklist of the lichens and lichenicolous fungi from the Pirin Mountains in Bulgaria. - Berichte des naturwissenschaftlichen-medizinischen Verein Innsbruck, 96: 35–57.
The first checklist of lichen species and lichenicolous fungi of Pirin Mountains, Bulgaria is provided. A species list of 514 taxa (including 509 lichens, 2 lichenicolous fungi and 3 non-lichenized fungi) constitutes the main part of the text. 71 species are newly recorded to the region. The following species are recorded for the first time for Bulgaria: Acarospora scabra, Carbonea vitellinaria, Chaenothecopsis pusilla, Leptogium subtile,Tetramelas chloroleucus, Umbilicaria laevis, Umbilicaria nylanderiana. Keywords: biodiversity, lichens, Pirin Mountains, Bulgaria.
31512Türk R. (1978): Beiträge zur Flechtenflora von Salzburg III: Über einige für Salzburg bemerkenswerte Flechten. - Floristische Mitteilungen aus Salzburg , 5: 24–32.
31511Völsing W. (1882): Der Bau des Apotheciums bei den Lecanoreen und Lecideen. - Bericht der Oberhessischen Gesellschaft für Natur- und Heilkunde , 21: 145–159.
31510Schneider T. (1943): Gyalecta jenensis (Batsch) A. Zahlbr. Feststellungen zur Namensgeschichte einer Lichene. - Mittheilungen des Thüringischen Botanischen Vereins, 51: 237–241.
31509Lumbsch H.T. (2016): Lichen-forming fungi, diversification of. - In: Kliman R.M. (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Biology, p. 305−311, Academic Press, Oxford.
Chapter in book
31508Bianchi E., Benesperi R., Colzi I., Coppi A., Lazzaro L., Paoli L., Papini A., Pignattelli S., Tani C., Vignolini P. & Gonnelli C. (2019): The multi-purpose role of hairiness in the lichens of coastal environments: Insights from Seirophora villosa (Ach.) Frödén. - Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 141: 398–406.
The fruticose epiphytic lichen Seirophora villosa, strictly associated with Juniperus shrublands in the Mediterranean basin, was used to investigate the role of hairiness on a lichen thallus, as a characteristic morphological trait. We evaluated the effect of hair removal on the physiological parameters of a set of samples, during desiccation and on exposure to different salt concentrations. Hairy thalli were less affected by salt, suggesting that during dehydration, the presence of hair protects the thallus from light irradiance, oxidative stresses and the lipid peroxidation generated by free radicals, and could offer passive, but selective, water control. Our results showed that hair could not only increase thallus surface and promote water absorption when availability is low, but could also repel the salt dissolved in water by activating a passive resistance mechanism, by preventing salt entering. Keywords: Antioxidant activity; Chlorophyll a fluorescence; Juniperus shrublands; Hair; MDA; Salt stress.
31507Parviainen A., Casares-Porcel M., Marchesi C. & Garrido C.J. (2019): Lichens as a spatial record of metal air pollution in the industrialized city of Huelva (SW Spain). - Environmental Pollution, 253: 918–929.
Huelva is a highly industrialized city in SW Spain hosting, among others, a Cu smelter, a phosphate fertilizer plant, a power plant, and oil refineries. This study aims to evaluate metal concentrations in lichens as bioindicators of atmospheric pollution in the impacted urban areas. Xanthoria parietina species from Huelva and nearby villages, as well as reference samples from remote, non-contaminated urban areas, were analyzed for trace elements (V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, As, Cd, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Pb, Th, U) using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry; and for major elements (Ca, K, Mg, P, and S) by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry after acid digestion. The metal composition of X. parietina exhibits spatial distribution patterns with extremely elevated concentrations (Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sb, Ba, Pb, U, and S) in the surroundings of the industrial estates to <1 km distance. Mean concentrations were significantly lower in the urban areas >1 km from the pollution sources. However, air pollution persists in the urban areas up to 4 km away, as the mean concentrations of Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sb and S remained considerably elevated in comparison to the reference samples. Though rigorous source apportionment analysis was not the aim of this study, a good positive correlation of our results with metal abundances in ambient particulate matter and in pollution sources points to the Cu smelter as the main source of pollution. Hence, the severe air pollution affecting Huelva and nearby urban areas may be considered a serious health risk to local residents. Keywords: Lichen Xanthoria parietina; Metal emissions; Industrial activity; Cu smelter; Urban area.
31506Chock T., Antoninka A.J., Faist A.M., Bowker M.A., Belnap J. & Barger N.N. (2019): Responses of biological soil crusts to rehabilitation strategies. - Journal of Arid Environments, 163: 77–85.
Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are common to dryland ecosystems and can influence a broad suite of soil ecological functions including stability and surface hydrology. Due to long recovery times following disturbance, there is a clear need for rehabilitation strategies to enhance the recovery of biocrust communities. Essential to biocrust recovery are exopolysaccharides (EPS): secretions comprised mainly of high molecular weight polymers that protect cyanobacteria and other biocrust organisms from harsh environmental conditions. We examined whether biocrust rehabilitation strategies (combinations of inoculation with surface shading and artificial soil stabilization) promote EPS production. To test if responses varied by soil texture, we measured biocrust recovery on two fine-textured soils (clay and sandy clay loam) in a cool desert ecosystem. Shade coupled with inoculum addition resulted in the highest biocrust recovery, especially on clay soils. Independent of rehabilitation strategies, natural recovery of biocrusts occurred more rapidly on clay soils, reflected by greater increases in chlorophyll a (chl a). Chl a, a proxy for cyanobacterial biomass, was correlated to EPS amounts, suggesting that cyanobacteria are significant contributors to EPS production in biocrust development. Despite the role of EPS in biocrust establishment, EPS amounts had negligible effects on soil stability on the fine soil texture. Keywords: Exopolysaccharides; Cyanobacteria; Chlorophyll a; Soil stability; Restoration.
31505Cecconi E., Fortuna L., Pellegrini E., Bertuzzi S., Lorenzini G., Nali C. & Tretiach M. (2019): Beyond ozone-tolerance: Effects of ozone fumigation on trace element and PAH enriched thalli of the lichen biomonitor Pseudevernia furfuracea. - Atmospheric Environment, 210: 132–142.
In this study, the effects of ozone (O3) on the physiology of the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea var. furfuracea previously subjected to field stressing conditions were assessed. Samples collected in a pristine site were exposed for 6 weeks at 3 sites characterized by different pollution, e.g. elemental and PAH depositions (site RU, close to wood-burning house chimneys; site UI, close to cast-ironworks; site CK, in a semi-natural context). Afterwards, samples were transferred to controlled fumigation chambers, where they were either O3-treated for 2 weeks (250 ppb O3 for 5 h day−1, O3+ samples) or not (0 ppb O3, O3− samples). Three physiological markers (Fv/Fm, maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry; MDA, malondialdehyde content; potassium leakage) as well as elemental and PAH concentrations were measured in matched sets of sample replicates at each experimental step. Data were explored by multivariate techniques and the effects of field exposure and fumigation were tested by generalized linear models (GLM). Detrimental effects on MDA and Fv/Fm were observed limited to samples exposed in RU and UI sites. Physiological parameters in O3-treated samples showed heterogeneous variation patterns with respect to field-exposed ones. A recovery of Fv/Fm was observed in RU- and UI-exposed samples, whereas a significant increase of MDA was highlighted limited to CK O3+ and CK O3− samples, possibly related to a “chamber effect”. Overall, the impairment caused by ozonation was limited, proving the strong O3-tolerance of our test species. Interestingly, the content of the most abundant 4-ring PAHs in RU O3+ samples, which underwent the highest field enrichment of PAHs, was significantly lower than that of matched RU O3− samples. This suggested a possible role of ozone in degrading PAHs at thallus level, with interesting interpretative repercussions in the context of transplant-based surveys aimed at evaluating PAH depositions when O3 ground levels are high. Keywords: Air pollution; O3; Bioaccumulation; Malondialdehyde; Chlorophyll a; fluorescence; Potassium leakage.
31504Devkota S., Chaudhary R.P., Werth S. & Scheidegger C. (2019): Genetic diversity and structure of the epiphytic foliose lichen Lobaria pindarensis in the Himalayas depends on elevation. - Fungal Ecology, 41: 245–255.
The epiphytic lichen Lobaria pindarensis is a Himalayan endemic species with little information on distribution, genetic diversity and structural complexity. During an intensive survey in the Nepal Himalayas, we collected 1256 thallus fragments from 45 phorophyte species to study their distribution and population genetics along an elevational gradient. We quantified genetic diversity and population structure of each symbiont at 17 fungus specific and 9 alga specific microsatellite loci. The Bayesian clustering identified three and two distinct gene pools for mycobiont and photobiont. We found that genetic diversity, allelic richness and gene pool composition and distribution were significantly influenced by elevation. We discovered both clonally and sexually reproduced repeated genotypes of the symbionts. Keywords: Conservation; Cyanolichen; Genetic structure; Lobariaceae; Microsatellites; Nepal; Population genetics.
31503Kazemi S.S., Mehregan I., Asri Y., Saadatmand S. & Sipman H.J.M. (2019): Three new records of epiphytic lichen species from Iran. - Iranian Journal of Botany, 25(1): 56–60.
The lichen species Bilimbia sabuletorum (Schreb.) Arnold, Canoparmelia crozalsiana (B. de Lesd. ex Harm.) Elix & Hale and Candelaria pacifica M. Westb. & Arup are reported for the first time from Iran; Involved are new reports of two genera for Iran, Bilimbia and Canoparmelia. The species grow as epiphyte in broad-leaved forests in Golestan Province. Characteristics of morphology, habitat and geographic distribution of these species are discussed. Key words: Iran; Golestan; new record; epiphyte; lichen.
31502Paoli L., Benesperi R., Fačkovcová Z., Nascimbene J., Ravera S., Marchetti M., Anselmi B., Landi M., Landi S., Bianchi E., Di Nuzzo L., Lackovičová A., Vannini A., Loppi S. & Guttová A. (2019): Impact of forest management on threatened epiphytic macrolichens: evidence from a Mediterranean mixed oak forest (Italy). - iForest, 12: 383–388.
Forest management practices may heavily affect epiphytic cryptogams. This study was conceived in March 2016, as soon as we were informed about an authorized logging for timber within a Mediterranean mixed oak forest in Tuscany (central Italy), which threatened a large population of the forest macrolichen Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm., composed of hundreds of fertile thalli. Lobaria pulmonaria is often used as an ecological indicator of high quality habitats hosting rare lichens, and in general, cryptogams worthy of conservation. The species has suffered a general decline throughout Europe as a consequence of air pollution and intensive forest management, and currently it is red-listed in several countries, where it is considered also as a “flag species”. We estimated that 40% of the lichen biomass (8.5-12.3 kg ha-1) has been lost due to logging operations (in the core area, up to 1.8 kg every 100 m2), in particular large and fertile thalli. One year after the conclusion of logging operations, the analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence emission (indicator of the photosynthetic performance of the lichen photobionts), revealed a significant reduction of the vitality of the thalli on retained-isolated trees. The article provides issues for conservation in Mediterranean oak forests and outlines the outmost importance of ensuring the safeguard of forest ecosystems hosting fertile populations of this model species, especially in the case of unprotected forests. Keywords: Biomass Loss, Chlorophyll Fluorescence, Flag Species, Legal Protection, Lobaria pulmonaria, Red Lists.
31501Fernández-Fernández J.M., Palacios D., Andrés N., Schimmelpfennig I., Brynjólfsson S., Sancho L.G., Zamorano J.J., Heiðmarsson S., Sæmundsson Þ. & ASTER Team (2019): A multi-proxy approach to Late Holocene fluctuations of Tungnahryggsjökull glaciers in the Tröllaskagi peninsula (northern Iceland). - Science of the Total Environment, 664: 499–517.
The Tröllaskagi Peninsula in northern Iceland hosts more than a hundred small glaciers that have left a rich terrestrial record of Holocene climatic fluctuations in their forelands. Traditionally, it has been assumed thatmost of the Tröllaskagi glaciers reached their Late Holocene maximum extent during the Little Ice Age (LIA). However, there is evidence of slightly more advanced pre-LIA positions. LIA moraines from Iceland have been primary datedmostly through lichenometric dating, but the limitations of this technique do not allowdating of glacial advances prior to the 18th or 19th centuries. The application of 36Cl Cosmic-Ray Exposure (CRE) dating to Tungnahryggsjökullmoraine sequences in Vesturdalur and Austurdalur (central Tröllaskagi) has revealed a number of pre-LIA glacial advances at ~400 and ~700 CE, and a number of LIA advances in the 15th and 17th centuries, the earliest LIA advances dated so far in Tröllaskagi. This technique hence shows that the LIA chronology in Tröllaskagi agreeswith that of other European areas such as the Alps or theMediterranean mountains. The combined use of lichenometric dating, aerial photographs, satellite images and fieldwork shows that the regional colonization lag of the commonly used lichen species Rhizocarpon geographicum is longer than previously assumed. For exploratory purposes, an alternative lichen species (Porpidia soredizodes) has been tested for lichenometric dating, estimating a tentative growth rate of 0.737 mm yr−1.
31500Schulte L., Wetter O., Wilhelm B., Peña J.C., Amann B., Wirth S.B., Carvalho F. & Gómez-Bolea A. (2019): Integration of multi-archive datasets for the development of a fourdimensional paleoflood model of alpine catchments. - Global and Planetary Change, 180: 66–88.
Both natural and documentary evidence of severe and catastrophic floods are of tremendous value for completing multidimensional flood calendars, as well as for mapping the most extreme riverine flooding phenomena in a river basin, over centennial and millennial time scales. Here, the integration of multi-archive flood series from the Hasli-Aare, Lütschine, Kander, Simme, Lombach, and Eistlenbach catchments in the Bernese Alps constitutes a unique approach to the reconstruction of flooding events over the last six centuries and to the development of a temporal-spatial model of past flood behavior. Different types of flood archive, be they of natural or anthropogenic origin, record different processes and legacies of these physical phenomena. In this study, paleoflood records obtained from floodplains (four flood series) and lake sediments (four series), together with documentary data (six series), were analyzed and compared with instrumental measurements (four series) and the profiles of lichenometric-dated flood heights (four series) to i) determine common flood pulses, ii) identify events that are out-of-phase, iii) investigate the sensitivity of the different natural archives to flood drivers and forcing, iv) locate past flooding in an alpine region of 2117 km2, and v) simulate atmospheric modes of climate variability during flood-rich periods from 1400 to 2005 CE. Asynchronous flood response across the sites is attributed to differences in their local hydrologic regimes, influenced by (i) their physiographic parameters, including size, altitude, storage capacity and connectivity of basins, and (ii) their climate parameters, including type, spatial distribution, duration, and intensity of precipitation. The most accurate, continuous series, corresponding to the period from 1400 to 2005 CE, were integrated into a synthetic flood master curve that defines ten dominant flood pulses. Six of these correspond to cooler climate pulses (around 1480, 1570, 1760, 1830, 1850 and 1870 CE), three to intermediate temperatures (around 1410, 1650 and 1710 CE), while the most recent corresponds to the current pulse of Global Warming (2005 CE). Furthermore, five coincide with the positive mode of the Summer North Atlantic Oscillation, characterized by a strong blocking anticyclone between the Scandinavia Peninsula and Great Britain. For two of the most catastrophic flood events in the Bernese Alps (those of 1762 and 1831 CE), the location and magnitude of all the flood records compiled were plotted to provide an accurate mapping of the spatial pattern of flooding. This was then compared to the pattern of atmospheric variability. The comprehensive 4-D picture of paleofloods thus achieved should facilitate an in-depth understanding of the floods and flood forcing in mountain catchments. Keywords: Paleoflood; Natural flood archives; Documentary sources; Multi-proxy; Summer North Atlantic Oscillation; Alps.
31499Rikkinen J., Meinke S.K.L., Grabenhorst H., Gröhn C., Kobbert M., Wunderlich J. & Schmidt A.R. (2018): Calicioid lichens and fungi in amber – Tracing extant lineages back to the Paleogene. - Geobios, 51: 469–479.
Calicioid lichens and fungi are a polyphyletic grouping of tiny ascomycetes that accumulate a persistent spore mass (mazaedium) on top of their usually well-stalked ascomata (‘mazaediate fungi’). In addition to extant forms, six fossils of the group were previously known from European Paleogene amber. Here we report nine new fossils and analyze the preserved features of all fossils to assess their applicability for dating molecular phylogenies. Many fossils are extremely well preserved, allowing detailed comparisons with modern taxa. SEM investigation reveals that even fine details of ascospore wall ultrastructure correspond to those seen in extant specimens. All fossils can confidently be assigned to modern genera: three to Calicium (Caliciaceae, Lecanoromycetes), five to Chaenotheca (Coniocybaceae, Coniocybomy- cetes), six to Chaenothecopsis (Mycocaliciaceae, Eurotiales), and one to Phaeocalicium (Mycocaliciaceae, Eurotiales). Several Calicium and Chaenotheca fossils are assignable to specific lineages within their genera, while the Chaenothecopsis fossils demonstrate the extent of intraspecific variation within one such lineage. Some features in the morphology of Chaenotheca succina nov. sp. seem to be ancestral as they have not been reported from modern species of the genus. Keywords: Amber; Ascomycota; Ecology; Fossil fungi; Resinicolous fungi; Taxonomy.
31498Aguirre-Hudson B. & Spooner B. (2019): Phaeocalicium populneum new to South-East Britain. - Field Mycology, 20(3): 86–90.
31497Rashid Z.M., Mormann M., Steckhan K., Peters A., Esch S. & Hensel A. (2019): Polysaccharides from lichen Xanthoria parietina: 1,4/1,6-α-D-glucans and a highly branched galactomannan with macrophage stimulating activity via Dectin-2 activation. - International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 134: 921–935.
Hot-water soluble polysaccharides H-1-3 and H-2-1 were isolated from the thalli of the lichen Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th. Fr. and purified by ion exchange and gel permeation chromatography. Structure elucidation was mainly based on 2D-NMR and nano-ESI-Q-TOF MS/MS experiments. H-1-3 (13.7 kDa) was shown to be linear α-glucan with α-d-Glcp-(1 → [→[4)-α-d-Glcp-(1]2 → [6)-α-d-Glcp-(1]3 → 4)]n core backbone. The (1,4)- and (1,6)-α-d-Glcp linkages were in a 2:3 M ratio. H-2-1 (525 kDa) was characterized as a complex branched β-galacto-α-mannan with →[6)-α-d-Manp-(1 → [2,6)-α-d-Manp-(1]2 → [2)-α-d-Manp-(1]2→]n core units and main side chains of (1,3)-β-d-Galf linked at O-6 to →2)-α-d-Manp-(1→, together with minor terminal units of 1,4/1,6-α-D -Glcp units attached to the core chain at O-6 position and α-L-Rhap linked to Galf side chain at O-2 position (Manp: Galf: Glcp: Rhap linkage ratio = 9:3:2:1). H-2-1 exerted strong immunoactivity in vitro and activated murine RAW macrophages 264.7 towards significantly increased phagocytosis, TNF-α and IL-1β secretion. These effects are due to an interaction of the galactomannan with the transmembrane pattern-recognition protein Dectin-2 of the macrophages. Keywords: Xanthoria parietina; Dectin-2; Galactomannan; Glucan; Lichen; Mass spectroscopy; Phagocytosis; Polysaccharides; Silver adducts.
31496Černajová I. & Škaloud P. (2019): The first survey of Cystobasidiomycete yeasts in the lichen genus Cladonia; with the description of Lichenozyma pisutiana gen. nov., sp. nov.. - Fungal Biology, 123: 625–637.
The view of lichens as a symbiosis only between a mycobiont and a photobiont has been challenged by discoveries of diverse associated organisms. Specific basidiomycete yeasts in the cortex of a range of macrolichens were hypothesized to influence the lichens' phenotype. The present study explores the occurrence and diversity of cystobasidiomycete yeasts in the lichen genus Cladonia. We obtained seven cultures and 56 additional sequences using specific primers from 27 Cladonia species from all over Europe and performed phylogenetic analyses based on ITS, LSU and SSU rDNA loci. We revealed yeast diversity distinct from any previously reported. Representatives of Cyphobasidiales, Microsporomycetaceae and of an unknown group related to Symmetrospora have been found. We present evidence that the Microsporomycetaceae contains mainly lichen-associated yeasts. Lichenozyma pisutiana is circumscribed here as a new genus and species. We report the first known associations between cystobasidiomycete yeasts and Cladonia (both corticate and ecorticate), and find that the association is geographically widespread in various habitats. Our results also suggest that a great diversity of lichen associated yeasts remains to be discovered. Keywords: Endolichenic fungi; Endothallic fungi; Lichenicolous fungi; Microsporomycetaceae; Third symbiont; Yeast cultures.
31495Anonymus (2019): Recent literature on Australasian lichens. - Australasian Lichenology, 85: 83–84.
bibliography
31494Elix J.A. (2019): The distribution and diversity of buellioid lichens in Australasia. - Australasian Lichenology, 85: 70–82.
An overview is provided of the distribution and diversity of buellioid lichens (Caliciaceae and Physciaceae) in Australasia, including Australia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea and the subantarctic Macquarie Island, Auckland Islands, Campbell Island, Snares Islands and Antipodes Islands. In total, 233 taxa of buellioid lichens have been reported from Australasia, of which 138 (c. 60%) are currently thought to be endemic to the region, suggesting that Australasia is a global centre of diversity of these lichens. The new combinations Amandinea analgifera (Aptroot & Diederich) Elix, A. polyxanthonica (Elix) Elix, A. polyxanthonica var. isidiata (Elix & Kantvilas) Elix, Cratiria lauricassiaeoides (Aptroot) Elix and C. submuriformis (Aptroot & Diederich) Elix are made.
31493Archer A.W. & Elix J.A. (2019): Graphis norfolkensis, a new species in the Australian Graphidaceae (lichenized Ascomycota, Ostropales) from Norfolk Island. - Australasian Lichenology, 85: 67–69.
Graphis norfolkensis, characterized by a completely carbonized proper exciple, small hyaline, muriform ascospores, and the presence of salazinic and protocetraric acids, is described as new to science.
31492McCarthy P.M. & Elix J.A. (2019): Two new corticolous species of Eugeniella (lichenized Ascomycota, Pilocarpaceae) from Norfolk Island, south-western Pacific Ocean. - Australasian Lichenology, 85: 58–66.
Eugeniella pacifica P.M.McCarthy & Elix (Pilocarpaceae) is described as new from bark in Norfolk Island, south-western Pacific Ocean. It is characterized by the preferred substratum, the distinctive, greyish white, verruculose thallus containing stictic acid, and comparatively large, sessile, pseudolecanorine apothecia with a thick, cupulate, proper exciple containing K-soluble granules, but not calcium oxalate, and 3-septate ascospores that are narrowly ellipsoid, shortfusiform or broadly oblong and (10–)13(–15) × (3.5–)4.5(–5) μm. The corticolous E. zeorina P.M.McCarthy & Elix, sp. nov., also from Norfolk Island, is superficially very similar, and most anatomical attributes are almost identical. However, the dark brown hypothecium is thicker, and it merges with and penetrates the excipulum base, the 3(–5)-septate ascospores are elongate-fusiform to narrowly oblong or oblong-fusiform and (14–)20(–28) × (3–)4(–4.5) μm, and the thallus contains substantial quantities of zeorin, in addition to stictic acid. A key is provided to the 13 species of Eugeniella.
31491Elix J.A. & McCarthy P.M. (2019): Rhizocarpon bicolor (lichenized Ascomycota, Rhizocarpaceae), a new species from south-eastern Australia. - Australasian Lichenology, 85: 51–57.
Rhizocarpon bicolor Elix & P.M.McCarthy (Rhizocarpaceae) is described as new from siliceous rocks in south-eastern Australia. It is characterized by the conspicuous black prothallus, a combination of small, dispersed, greenish grey to greyish brown and bright yellow areoles containing bourgeanic acid and rhizocarpic acid, respectively, a non-amyloid medulla, and small, lecideine apothecia developing on the prothallus adjacent to the areoles, with dark greenish blue to dark brown, 1-septate ascospores, 20–35 × 11–18 μm. An updated key is provided to the 18 species in Australia.
31490Elix J.A. & McCarthy P.M. (2019): Trapelia concentrica (lichenized Ascomycota, Trapeliaceae), a new species from south-eastern Australia, with a key to the genus in Australia. - Australasian Lichenology, 85: 46–50.
Trapelia concentrica Elix & P.M.McCarthy (Trapeliaceae) is described as new from siliceous rocks and soil in south-eastern Australia. It is characterized by the inconspicuous, greyish white to dark grey, areolate thallus containing gyrophoric acid and calcium oxalate, and small, immersed to adnate, pseudolecanorine apothecia with white-pruinose discs often surrounded by a series of more-or-less concentric, circular fissures with a white-pruinose upper surface such that the apothecium can appear almost gyrose. A preliminary key to Trapelia in Australia is provided.
31489Elix J.A., Liao L. & Barrow R.A. (2019): The structure of hafellic acid, a new diphenyl ether from the lichen Cratiria subtropica. - Australasian Lichenology, 85: 28–33.
Hafellic acid has been isolated from the lichen Cratiria subtropica, and its structure established by mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy.
31488Archer A.W. & Elix J.A. (2019): Five new species of Pertusaria (Pertusariales, lichenized Ascomycota) from Australia. - Australasian Lichenology, 85: 20–27.
Three new corticolous species of Pertusaria are described from Lord Howe Island, viz. P. insularicola with thiophaninic and 2-O-methylperlatolic acids, P. roccellica with lichexanthone and roccellic acid and P. submaritima with 2’-O-methylperlatolic, confluentic and stictic acids. A new lignicolous species, P. albidopunctata (with 4,5-dichlorolichexanthone), is described from Tasmania, and a new saxicolous species, P. wallingatensis (with 4,5-dichlorolichexanthone and 2-O-methylperlatolic acid), is described from New South Wales.
31487McCarthy P.M. (2019): Placidiopsis parva (lichenized Ascomycota, Verrucariaceae), a new species from siliceous rocks in the Australian Capital Territory. - Australasian Lichenology, 85: 12–15.
Placidiopsis parva P.M.McCarthy (Verrucariaceae) is described from siliceous rocks in the Australian Capital Territory. It is characterized by a blackish, corticate, microsquamulose thallus, a concolorous, hyphal hypothallus, very small but prominent, simple perithecia (0.07–) 0.12(–0.15) mm diam., and 1-septate ascospores measuring (13–)17(–21) × (5.5–)7(–8.5) μm.
31486McCarthy P.M. & Elix J.A. (2019): Arthonia cryptica (Arthoniaceae), a new lichen species from coastal rock in southern New South Wales, Australia. - Australasian Lichenology, 85: 8–11.
Arthonia cryptica sp. nov. (Arthoniaceae) is described from coastal siliceous rock in southern New South Wales. The dull whitish thallus is effuse and patchy, containing a trentepohlioid photobiont, and it lacks lichen substances. Ascomata are blackish, rounded, immarginate and 0.18–0.52 mm wide; the hypothecium is thin, hyaline and inspersed with granules; paraphysoids anastomosing; asci (6–)8-spored, broadly clavate to obpyriform; ascospores colourless, 3-septate, 12–16 × 4–6.5 μm. Pycnidia are black and minutely punctiform, producing ellipsoid or oblong to oblong-obovoid conidia 2.5–6 × 1–2.5 μm.
31485McCarthy P.M. & Elix J.A. (2019): A new saxicolous species of Fellhanera (lichenized Ascomycota, Pilocarpaceae) from eastern New South Wales, Australia. - Australasian Lichenology, 85: 3–7.
Fellhanera pluviosilvestris sp. nov. (Pilocarpaceae) is described from siliceous rock in cooltemperate rainforest in eastern New South Wales, Australia. It has a thin, continuous, greyish brown thallus that lacks lichen substances, medium-sized, sessile, biatorine apothecia with a dull blackish disc and a paler proper margin, a uniformly pale, paraplectenchymatous and cupulate excipulum, a dark brown, K+ orange-brown hypothecium and epihymenium, and (4–)8-spored, Byssoloma-type asci with ellipsoid to oblong, (1–)3-septate ascospores measuring 10–18 × 4.5–7.5 μm.
31484de Lange P., Blanchon D., Knight A., Elix J., Lücking R., Frogley K., Harris A., Cooper J. & Rolfe J. (2018): Conservation status of New Zealand indigenous lichens and lichenicolous fungi, 2018. - New Zealand Threat Classification Series, New Zealand Department of Conservation, 64 p.
The conservation status of 2027 New Zealand lichenised and lichenicolous mycobiota (including unnamed entities designated with informal ‘tag’ names) was assessed using the New Zealand Threat Classification System (NZTCS) criteria of Townsend et al. (2008). This replaces the 2010 assessment of lichen taxa (de Lange et al. 2012; see also www.nztcs.org.nz/#/reports/21). The conservation status categories and criteria applied here are summarised in Section 2, which presents the complete lists of taxa arranged by conservation status. The 2,027 taxa plus 10 that have been removed since the 2010 assessment (de Lange et al. 2012) can also be found at www. nztcs.org.nz/#/reports/55.
31483Stirton J. (1877): Description of recently discovered foreign lichens. - Proceedings of the Philosophical Society of Glasgow, 10: 156–164.
31482Liu S., Li S., Fan X.-Y., Yuan G.-D., Hu T., Shi X.-M., Huang J.-B., Pu X.-Y. & Wu C.-S. (2019): Comparison of two noninvasive methods for measuring the pigment content in foliose macrolichens. - Photosynthesis Research, 141: 245–257.
Chlorophyll content in lichens is routinely used as an accurate indicator of lichen vigor, interspecific differences, and the effect of site-related environmental parameters. Traditional methods of chlorophyll extraction are destructive, time-consuming, expensive, and inoperable, especially when measuring large quantities of chlorophyll. However, non-destructive methods of measurement using portable chlorophyll meters are rarely used for lichens. Considering the characteristics of lichens such as rough blade surface and absence of chlorophyll b in cyanolichens, we compared the non-destructive methods with traditional methods and evaluated their applicability in studying lichen pigment content. Two instruments, SPAD-502 and CCM-300, were used to measure the pigment content of seven foliose lichen species. These pigment readings were compared with those determined using the dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) extraction method. Significant correlations were observed between SPAD/CCM values and pigments (chlorophyll and total carotenoids) extracted from chlorolichens, especially species with a smooth surface. The CCM-300 was more accurate in detecting the pigment content of foliose chlorolichens. However, both instruments showed certain limitations in the determination of pigment content in cyanolichens, especially gelatinous species. For example, CCM-300 often failed to give specific values for some cyanolichen samples, and both instruments showed low measurement accuracy for cyanolichens. Based on the high correlation observed between chlorophyll meter readings and pigments extracted from chlorolichens, equations obtained in this study enabled accurate prediction of pigment content in these lichens. Keywords: CCM-300 · Carotenoids · Chlorophyll · Dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) · Foliose macrolichens · SPAD-502.
31481Flakus A., Etayo J., Pérez-Ortega S., Kukwa M., Palice Z. & Rodriguez-Flakus P. (2019): A new genus, Zhurbenkoa, and a novel nutritional mode revealed in the family Malmideaceae (Lecanoromycetes, Ascomycota). - Mycologia, 111(4): 593–611.
Lichen-inhabiting fungi are highly specialized mycoparasites, commensals or rarely saprotrophs, that are common components of almost every ecosystem, where they develop obligate associations with lichens. Their relevance, however, contrasts with the relatively small number of these fungi described so far. Recent estimates and ongoing studies indicate that a significant fraction of their diversity remains undiscovered and may be expected in tropical regions, in particular in hyperdiverse fog-exposed montane forests. Here, we introduce the new genus Zhurbenkoa, from South America and Europe, for three lichenicolous fungi growing on thalli of the widespread lichen genus Cladonia (Lecanorales). Phylogenetic analyses based on combined sequence data of mt and nuc rDNA obtained from Andean populations (Bolivia) placed Zhurbenkoa as a member of Malmideaceae, a recently introduced family of lichen-forming fungi in the class Lecanoromycetes. Zhurbenkoa is closely related to the genera Savoronala and Sprucidea. The new genus is characterized by the development of grayish brown to almost black apothecia lacking an evident margin, an epihymenium interspersed with crystals (often seen as pruina), a strongly conglutinated hymenium made of noncapitate and sparsely branched paraphyses, a colorless exciple composed of radially arranged hyphae, a Lecanora/Micarea-like ascus type, and aseptate or 1-septate ellipsoidal colorless ascospores. Zhurbenkoa includes two Neotropical (Z. cladoniarum, Z. latispora) and one widespread (Z. epicladonia) species. The lichenicolous trophic mode is documented for the first time in the Malmideaceae, which until now included only lichen-forming associations between fungi and green algae. Key words: Arthonia epicladonia; lichenicolous fungi; Neotropics; Pezizomycotina; phylogenetics; systematics; 4 new taxa.
31480Elix J.A., McCarthy P.M. & Hafellner J. (2019): A new lichenicolous species of Sclerococcum (Dactylosporaceae, Ascomycota) from south-eastern Australia. - Australasian Lichenology, 85: 43–45.
The new lichenicolous species Sclerococcum ewersii, collected on Trapeliopsis in southeastern Australia, is described and illustrated.
31479Elix J.A. & Mayrhofer H. (2019): A new species of Buellia (Calicaceae, Ascomycota) from Ile Matthew, New Caledonia. - Australasian Lichenology, 85: 40–42.
Buellia mackeei Elix & H.Mayrhofer, a saxicolous species with Physconia- then Buellia-type ascospores, bacilliform conidia, and 4,5-dichlorolichexanthone and stictic acid, is described as new to science.
31478Grube U., Mayrhofer H. & Elix J.A. (2019): A further new species of Rinodina (Physciaceae, Ascomycota) from eastern Australia. - Australasian Lichenology, 85: 16–19.
Rinodina arthomelina U.Grube, H.Mayrhofer & Elix, characterized by the presence of thiomelin, arthothelin and zeorin, is described as new to science. A key is provided to the Australasian species of Rinodina containing xanthones and zeorin.
31477Elix J.A., Liao L., Barrow R.A. & Piggott A.M. (2019): The structure of testacein, a new hybrid polyketide-sesquiterpene metabolite from the lichen Notoparmelia testacea. - Australasian Lichenology, 85: 34–39.
Testacein has been isolated from the lichen Notoparmelia testacea and its structure established by mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy.
31476Rambold G., Bensch K., Kirk P.M., Yao Y.-J., Robert V., Sanz V. & Triebel D. (2017): Citation of a taxon name identifier issued by the ICN-recognized registration repositories instead of taxon name author citation. - Taxon, 66(5): 1200–1203.
Problems with taxon name author citation in the running text of scientific articles are outlined. Particularly, the length of author names strings has significantly increased in the last decades, which could be demonstrated by analysis of names in the LIAS database. In addition, ambiguity of author name citation has increased because of variations in author name abbreviation and incomplete or incorrect citation of authors’ names. It is therefore suggested that in non-taxonomic scientific publications, author names should be replaced by taxon name identifiers as issued by registration repositories. The advantage of such approach especially in context with linked open data and semantic network challenges is described. An additional recommendation in Article 46 of the ICN with an example is suggested. Keywords: ICN Art. 46; identifier; name authors; registration repositories; scientific names; taxon names.
31475Mamut R., Li P., Abbas A. & Fu C. (2019): Morphology, chemistry and molecular phylogeny revealed a new species and a new combination of Myriolecis (Lecanoraceae, Ascomycota) from China. - Bryologist, 122(3): 375–383.
Based on molecular data, a new species, Myriolecis altunica, is described, and Lecanora caesioalutacea is placed in the genus Myriolecis (Lecanoraceae, Ascomycota). Myriolecis altunica is characterized by having a continuous, ashy brown thallus, with lobulate margins, apothecia with blackish disc and margin, with the disc whitish pruinose, and the absence of secondary substances. Myriolecis caesioalutacea has an ashy gray thallus and heavily pruinose, almost white apothecia, and contains xanthones (2,7-dichlorlichexanthone). The species was first reported as Lecanora caesioalutacea H.Magn. from Gansu, China, but is here shown to belong in the genus Myriolecis. Phylogenetic analyses based on ITS separately and on a 6-locus combined analysis (ITS, LSU, mtSSU, RPB1, RPB2, MCM7) both support placement of these two species in Myriolecis. The taxa are described and illustrated, and their distribution and ecology are briefly discussed. Keywords: Lecanora, L. dispersa group, lichen, lichen chemistry, taxonomy.
31474Zhurbenko M.P. & Ohmura Y. (2019): New and interesting records of lichenicolous fungi from the TNS herbarium: Part I. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 18: 74–89.
The paper documents 62 species of lichenicolous fungi and one algicolous fungus found in the TNS lichen herbarium. Abrothallus hypotrachynae, Cornutispora pittii, Lichenopeltella cetrariae, L. uncialicola, Phaeospora catolechiae, Polycoccum microcarpum, Sclerococcum porphyreum, Stigmidium joergensenii and S. subcladoniicola are newly reported for Asia; Talpapellis beschiana is newly reported for South America. Additionally, we report new records from the following countries: Australia (Abrothallus cladoniae s.l.), Bhutan (Lichenostigma maureri and Tremella everniae), China (Sclerococcum ahtii and Stigmidium microcarpum), Costa Rica (Karschia talcophila), Dominican Republic (Karschia talcophila), Japan (Abrothallus microspermus, Catillaria stereocaulorum, Cercidospora stereocaulorum, C. trypetheliza, Clypeococcum cetrariae, Endococcus nanellus, Epicladonia stenospora, Epigloe soleiformis, Lasiosphaeriopsis stereocaulicola, Lichenoconium erodens, L. usneae, Lichenopeltella cladoniarum, Nesolechia cetrariicola, Opegrapha stereocaulicola, Phaeospora cf. arctica, Polycoccum trypethelioides, Raesaenenia huuskonenii, Roselliniella cladoniae, Roselliniopsis tartaricola, Sclerococcum ahtii, Stigmidium arthrorhaphidis, S. beringicum, S. hafellneri, S. microcarpum, S. microspilum, S. stereocaulorum, S. tabacinae, Talpapellis beschiana, Tremella everniae and Zwackhiomyces berengerianus), Malaysia (Arthonia stereocaulina and Roselliniella stereocaulorum), Nepal (Corticifraga peltigerae, Epicladonia stenospora, Lichenothelia rugosa and Roselliniella cladoniae), North Korea (Epicladonia stenospora and Roselliniella cladoniae), Papua New Guinea (Catillaria stereocaulorum and Pyrenidium actinellum s.l.), Peru (Polycoccum trypethelioides), South Korea (Clypeococcum cetrariae and Endococcus nanellus), Taiwan (Abrothallus parmeliarum, Epicladonia stenospora, Lichenoconium lecanorae, Nesolechia oxyspora, Pyrenidium actinellum s.l. and Sclerococcum ahtii), Thailand (Nesolechia oxyspora), the U.S.A., all from Hawaii (Plectocarpon cladoniae, Sphaerellothecium cinerascens and Stigmidium subcladoniicola). Additionally, Lichenothelia rugosa and Pyrenidium actinellum s.l. are also new to Hawaii, U.S.A.; Abrothallus peyritschii, Sphaerellothecium minutum and S. cf. parmeliae are new to the Sakhalin Region of Russia. Abrothallus cladoniae s.l. is first reported from Cladia, and Cornutispora pittii from Cladonia. Keywords. – Biodiversity, biogeography, floristics, lichen parasites, natural history collection.
31473Lendemer J.C., Harris R.C. & McMullin R.T. (2019): Studies in Lichens and Lichenicolous fungi – No. 22: The identities of Lecidea deminutula, L. olivacea var. inspersa, L. virginiensis and Thelenella humilis. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 18: 90–101.
Notes on four taxa are presented as part of an effort to resolve the taxonomic status of neglected crustose lichen names based on material from North America. Lecidea deminutula, described from non-calcareous rocks in the Great Smoky Mountains of Tennessee, is placed in synonymy with Lecidella enteroleucella. Lecidea olivacea var. inspersa, described from hardwood bark in the Great Smoky Mountains of Tennessee, is placed in synonymy with Lecidella elaeochroma. Lecidea virginiensis, described from seeping, non-calcareous rocks in West Virginia, is lectotypified and placed in synonymy with Bryobilimbia ahlesii. Thelenella humilis described from non-calcareous rocks in New York is placed in synonymy with Protothelenella corrosa. Keywords. – Floristics, forgotten species, herbaria, morphology, nomenclature, taxonomic innovation.
31472Hawksworth D.L., Ahti T., Myllys L. & Boluda C.G. (2019): (2675) Proposal to conserve Alectoria fuscescens (Bryoria fuscescens), nom. cons., against the additional names Usnea implexa, Alectoria capillaris, A. cana, A. rubens, A. fuscidula, A. degenii, A. forissii, A. ostrobotniae, A. kuemmerleana, A. haynaldiae, A. achariana, A. lanestris, A. prostratosteola, and A. viridescens (Fungi, Ascomycota, Lecanorales, Parmeliaceae). - Taxon, 68(2): 400–402.
nomenclature
31471von Brackel W. (2019): Rote Liste und Gesamtartenliste der Flechten (Lichenes), flechtenbewohnenden und flechtenähnlichen Pilze Bayerns. - Bayerisches Landesamt für Umwelt, Augsburg, 124 p.
Red list and chacklist of lichens, lichenicolous and lichen-allied fungi of Bavaria, Germany.
31470Михайлова В.А., Саитова З.Р. & Ибрагимова А.И. [Mikhailovа V.A., Saitova Y.R. & Ibragimovа A.I.] (2017): Динамика изменения видового состава лихенобиоты Ишимбайского заказника за 2010–2015 гг. [Dynamics of changes in the species composition of the lichen flora of Ishimbay of the reserve for 2010–2015]. - Доклады Башкирского университета [Reports of the Bashkir University], 2(1): 25–29.
[in Russian with English summary: ] The article presents the results of the study of the species composition of the lichen biota of the reserve Ishimbay of the Republic of Bashkortostan for 2010–2015 as a result of studying the biodiversity of lichen biota of us was drawn up a summary list of lichens ishimbayskiy of the reserve, consisting of 72 species. Keywords: lichenbiota, taxonomic analysis, summary list, dynamics, species diversity.
31469Исмаилов А.Б. & Алиев А.М. [Ismailov A.B. & Aliev A.M.] (2017): Первые результаты изучения компонентного состава лишайников в Дагестане [The first results of studying of component composition of lichens in Dagestan]. - Ботанический вестник Северного Кавказа [Botanical Herald of the North Caucasus], 2017/1: 17–22.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] The component composition of lichens Cladonia gracilis, Cl. subrangiformis, Xanthoparmelia camtschadalis, Cetraria aculeata, Flavocetraria nivalis and Thamnolia vermicularis was studied by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the first time in Dagestan. The specimens were collected at 300 m a.s.l (Cladonia subrangiformis, Xanthoparmelia camtschadalis) and 2530 m a.s.l. (Cladonia gracilis, Cetraria aculeata, Flavocetraria nivalis and Thamnolia vermicularis). A total of 32 substances were discovered in the component composition of all specimens. Among them 15 substances inherent only for high-mountainous specimens and 10 substances were detected only in specimens collected from the foothills. Hydrocarbons were detected only in the component composition of the high-mountainous specimens. The maximum of substances (13) were detected in the extract of Cladonia subrangiformis. The main identified substances are: 2,4-dihydroxy-6-methyl- benzaldehyde (9,5% in extract of Cl. gracilis, 3,6% – Cl. subrangiformis), 2,5-dimethyl-3,4-hexanediol (29,3% – X. camtschadalis), 2,5-Dimethylhydroquinone (9,6% – Cl. gracilis, 1,6% – Cl. subrangiformis), 3-Propionyloxytridecane (29,4% – Cl. subrangiformis), 6-methyl-1-heptanol (24,9% – F. nivalis), Linoleic acid (32,5% – T. vermicularis, 13% – C. aculeata, 10% – F. nivalis, 8,5% – Cl. gracilis, 1,7% – Cl. subrangiformis), Allyl n-octyl ether (34,9% – Cl. subrangiformis), Atraric acid (57,4% – Cl. gracilis, 23,7% – C. aculeata, 18,9% – Cl. subrangiformis, 4,7% – T. vermicularis), Palmitic acid (16% – X. camtschadalis, 10% – T. vermicularis, 2,5% – Cl. subrangi-formis), Butyloxirane (21,4% – X. camtschadalis), α-Pinene (3,2% – Cl. gracilis), Phthalic acid (8,1% – F. nivalis), Styrene (18,2% – F. nivalis, 17,6% – C. aculeata, 9,4% – T. vermicularis, 4,4% – Cl. gracilis). Keywords: lichens, component composition, chromatography-mass spectrometry, Dagestan.
31468Урбанавичюс Г.П. [Urbanavichus G.P.] (2018): Ключи для определения родов макролишайников Северного Кавказа. I. Листоватые, кустистые, чешуйчатые [Identification key to the macrolichens genera of the North Caucasus. I. Foliose, fruticose, squamose]. - Ботанический вестник Северного Кавказа [Botanical Herald of the North Caucasus], 2018/1: 37–54.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] The lichen flora study was carried out in the framework of the project “North Caucasian Lichen Flora: taxonomic structure, diversity, specificity, systematic of individual taxa and contribution to the diversity of the lichen flora of Russia” supported by of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research. The North Caucasus, a part of the Caucasian biodiversity hotspot region, is characterized by the richest lichen flora. At present, about 2030 species (including allied non-lichenized fungi) are recorded in the North Caucasian lichen flora. However, large areas of the North Caucasus, especially in the central and east parts of the region, remain poorly explored. Therefore, extensive researches in various regions of the North Caucasus are very necessary. The lichen flora of any region is strongly influenced by many factors – geography, geology, climate and vegetation. Therefore, it is best to use a key covering a region close to where lichens were collected. Unfortunately, the lack of special guide for the Caucasus has held back the study of Caucasian lichens at the present time. The primary step in the identification of any lichen taxa is the definition of its genus. The dichotomous keys to c. 140 macrolichens genera (foliose, fruticose and squamose), including all taxa that have been reliably reported for the North Caucasus lichen flora, are provided for the first time. These keys are the first stage in creating a manual for identification of lichens known in the North Caucasus. Keywords: lichens, flora, identification, keys, North Caucasus.
31467Урбанавичюс Г.П., Исмаилов А.Б. & Урбанавичене И.Н. [Urbanavichus G.P., Ismailov A.B. & Urbanavichene I.N.] (2016): Сравнительная лихеногеография Западного и Восточного Кавказа. I. Высокогорные известняковые местообитания [Comparative lichenogeography of the Western and Eastern Caucasus. I. High-mountain calcareous habitats]. - Ботанический вестник Северного Кавказа [Botanical Herald of the North Caucasus], 2016/2: 50–67.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] Species diversities and similarities of lichen flora of high-mountain (alpine and subalpine) calcareous habitats from the Western Caucasus (Lagonaki Plateau, Adygeya Republic, Krasnodar Territory) and the Eastern Caucasus (Gunib Plateau, Inner-mountain Dagestan) are compared. Up to date, 452 species in 164 genera and 50 families are known from the the two high-mountain plateaus. There are 141 species, 87 genera and 27 families common for two plateaus. The Lagonaki Plateau at the height 1800–2760 m has 377 species where 236 are specific. The Gunib Plateau at the height 1800–2354 m has 216 species where 75 are specific. The similarities degree of lichen flora between the two plateaus is 31 %. Species of three families Verrucariaceae, Teloschistaceae and Physciaceae compose the lichen flora bullet of two plateaus with gross share above 1/3 of species composition. There are two main groups among revealed lichen species by the pattern of distribution: a) distributed only in highlands (specific highlands) – 190 species in two plateaus; b) prevailing by the height gradient and distributed at the low height (common highlands) – 262 species. The lichen flora specificity increases with the increasing of the height above sea level. The Lagonaki Plateau has 157 mountain species in which 129 are specific. There are also 220 widely used species (108 specific). The Gunib Plateau has 61 mountain species (33 specific) and 115 prevailing species (42 specific). Ground lichen flora species has widely distributed by the height gradient and epilit lichens are limit distributed in high-mountain. The first effect the lichen flora similarity of two plateau largely, the second –there specificity and difference. High proportion of limit distributed and specific mountain epilit lichens shows more self-contained formation of high-mountain lichen component. The high similarity in lichen flora of the plateaus is caused by similarities in calcareous habitats of interlay material – calcarous rock. However the difference of climatic parameters especially in average annual precipitation (the Lagonaki Plateau has about 2000 mm elements in a year; Gunib 620 mm) caused the presence of differential taxons in the lichen flora. Arid and thermophilic lichens from Siberian-Asian, Irano-Turanian and sub-Mediterranean species occur in the Gunib Plateau only. Those are namely in genera Aspicilia, Flavoplaca, Glypholecia, Gyalolechia, Neocatapyrenium, Peltula, Thallinocarpon, Thyrea, Xanthoparmelia. On the other hand, humid and cryophilous lichens (atlantic, central and northern Europe are only known from the Lagonaki Plateau; most of Arthrorhaphidaceae, Hymeneliaceae, Lecideaceae, Pannariaceae, Protothelenellaceae, Thelenellaceae, Thelocarpaceae, Verrucariaceae, etc., and genera Bacidia, Lecanora, Ochrolechia, Polysporina, Porpidia, Scytinium, Tetramelas, etc. Keywords: lichens, high-mountains, calcareous rocks, lichengeography, biodiversity, specifics, Caucasus, Russia.
31466Урбанавичюс Г.П. [Urbanavichus G.P.] (2016): Род Scytinium (Ach.) Gray (Collemataceae, Lichenized Ascomycota) в лихенофлоре Кавказа [The Genus Scytinium (Ach.) Gray (Collemataceae, lichenized Ascomycota) in the lichen flora of the Caucasus]. - Ботанический вестник Северного Кавказа [Botanical Herald of the North Caucasus], 2016/1: 56–71.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] Based on the recent molecular data the genus Scytinium, described in the early 19th century, is reinstated. Therefore, the revision of the status of many species, previously included in the genera Collema and Leptogium, is required. A taxonomic revision of the Caucasian species of the genus Scytinium is provided in the present article. Based on original research and literature data 19 species of the Scytinium are recognized for the lichen flora of the Caucasus. A detailed description of the genus is given; an identification key to all species based on morphological and anatomical characteristics is presented for the first time. The descriptions of species not present in Russian lichenological literature are given. The ecological features and distributional data in the Caucasus, Russia and worldwide are provided for each species. The greatest diversity of species Scytinium is observed in the well-studied Krasnodar territory and Adygeya Republic - fourteen and twelve species, respectively. Keywords: lichens, Scytinium, diversity, taxonomic review, key, Caucasus, Russia.
31465Szczepańska K., Rodriguez-Flakus P., Urbaniak J. & Śliwa L. (2019): Neotypification of Protoparmeliopsis garovaglii and molecular evidence of its occurrence in Poland and South America. - MycoKeys, 57: 31–46.
Protoparmeliopsis garovaglii is a widely distributed placodioid lichen, which develops a distinctly rosette thallus, composed of elongated and strongly inflated to sinuous-plicate lobes. The taxon is characterised by high morphological plasticity and varied composition of secondary metabolites. However, the epithet was never typified. As such, the identity of P. garovaglii, in its strict sense, was unknown for a long time. Our phylogenetic ITS rDNA analyses, including newly generated sequences, show that European (Austria, Poland), North American (USA) and South American (Bolivia, Peru) specimens of P. garovaglii are placed in a strongly supported monophyletic clade, sister to P. muralis. We provide the first molecular evidence of the occurrence of P. garovaglii in South America (Bolivia and Peru) and the second record in Central Europe (Poland) was also provided. Furthermore, we neotypify P. garovaglii and it is reported here for the first time from Poland. Keywords: Geographical distribution, ITS rDNA, lichenised fungi, phylogeny, taxonomy, typification.
31464Guzow-Krzemińska B., Sérusiaux E., van den Boom P.P.G., Brand A.M., Launis A., Łubek A. & Kukwa M. (2019): Understanding the evolution of phenotypical characters in the Micarea prasina group (Pilocarpaceae) and descriptions of six new species within the group. - MycoKeys, 57: 1–30.
Six new Micarea species are described from Europe. Phylogenetic analyses, based on three loci, i.e. mtSSU rDNA, Mcm7 and ITS rDNA and ancestral state reconstructions, were used to evaluate infra-group divisions and the role of secondary metabolites and selected morphological characters on the taxonomy in the M. prasina group. Two main lineages were found within the group. The Micarea micrococca clade consists of twelve species, including the long-known M. micrococca and the newly described M. microsorediata, M. nigra and M. pauli. Within this clade, most species produce methoxymicareic acid, with the exceptions of M. levicula and M. viridileprosa producing gyrophoric acid. The M. prasina clade includes the newly described M. azorica closely related to M. prasina s.str., M. aeruginoprasina sp. nov. and M. isidioprasina sp. nov. The species within this clade are characterised by the production of micareic acid, with the exception of M. herbarum which lacks any detectable substances and M. subviridescens that produces prasinic acid. Based on our reconstructions, it was concluded that the ancestor of the M. prasina group probably had a thallus consisting of goniocysts, which were lost several times during evolution, while isidia and soredia evolved independently at multiple times. Our research supported the view that the ancestor of M. prasina group did not produce any secondary substances, but they were gained independently in different lineages, such as methoxymicareic acid which is restricted to M. micrococca and allied species or micareic acid present in the M. prasina clade. Keywords: Ancestral state reconstruction, lichenised fungi, morphology, mtSSU rDNA, secondary metabolites, taxonomy.
31463Schiefelbein U., Schultz M. & Linders H.-W. (2019): Der Wellenbrecher im Hafen von Norddeich – ein bemerkenswerter Flechtenstandort an der ostfriesischen Nordseeküste. - Drosera, 2014: 1–8.
The breakwater in the harbour of Norddeich – a remarkable habitat of lichens on the East Frisian North Sea coast. – The lichen flora of a breakwater in the ferry port Norddeich in Norden has been studied. 27 lichenized and three lichenicolous fungi have been recorded, among them Candelariella medians, an extremely rare lichen species in Lower Saxony and a probably undescribed Endococcus species, which grows on Rinodina gennarii. The lichen flora is typical for coastal habitats and shows the characteristic vertical zonation observed elsewhere along the German North Sea coast. Furthermore, based on differences in the vertical distribution of the terrestrial species two groups can be differentiated. While the first group of species occurs from the lower part of the wall up to the top of the breakwater, the second group colonizes only the upper part of the wall.
31462Grishin S.Yu., Perepelkina P.A. & Burdukovskii M.L. (2019): Beginning of vegetation succession on lava flows from the 2012–2013 eruption of Tolbachik volcano, Kamchatka. - Russian Journal of Ecology, 50(3): 300–303.
[Translation of original Russian text published in Ekologiya, 2019, No. 3, pp. 226–229] Keywords: colonization, plants, mosses, diaspores, volcanogenic succession, early succession species.
31461Malíček J., Bouda F., Peksa O. & Syrovátková L. (2019): Lišejníky zaznamenané během bryologicko-lichenologických dnů na Broumovsku [Lichens recorded during the bryological and lichenological days in the Broumov region (eastern Bohemia)]. - Bryonora, 63: 13-22.
We present a list of 120 lichen taxa and one lichen-allied fungus recorded in the Broumovsko Protected Landscape Area in September 2018 during the 30th Autumn Days of the Bryological and Lichenological Section of the Czech Botanical Society. We explored mainly acidic and calcareous sandstone rocks in this lichenologically poorly known area. Acidic sandstones harboured, for example, Arthonia arthonioides, Micarea leprosula and Mycoblastus alpinus whereas those of the calcareous rock types harboured Verrucaria hochstetteri. A half-day excursion led to a settling pit with early succession stages occupied by a few rare terricolous/bryophilous species such as Bacidia pycnidiata, Placidiopsis oreades (only one locality in the Czech Republic), Thelocarpon impressellum (the second locality in the Czech Republic), Verrucaria bryoctona and Vezdaea leprosa. The region is quite poor in epiphytic lichens, but several currently spreading species have been recorded, for example Flavoparmelia caperata. Keywords: biodiversity, sandstone rocks, saxicolous lichens.
31460Pozo-Antonio J.S., Barreiro P., González P. & Paz-Bermúdez G. (2019): Nd:YAG and Er:YAG laser cleaning to remove Circinaria hoffmanniana (Lichenes, Ascomycota) from schist located in the Côa Valley Archaeological Park. - International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, 144: 104748 [10 p.].
Keywords: Laser cleaning; Lichenic crust; Nd:YAG; Er:YAG; UNESCO world heritage park; Ckeaning effectiveness; Stone.
31459Carrizo D., Sánchez-García L., Menes R.J. & García-Rodríguez F. (2019): Discriminating sources and preservation of organic matter in surface sediments from five Antarctic lakes in the Fildes Peninsula (King George Island) by lipid biomarkers and compound-specific isotopic analysis. - Science of the Total Environment , 672: 657–668.
Lakes are important paleoenvironmental archives retaining abundant information due to their typical high sedimentation rates and susceptibility to environmental changes. Here, we scrutinize the organic matter (OM) composition, origin and preservation state in surface sediments from five lakes in a remote, warming-sensitive, and poorly explored region partially covered by the retreating Collins Glacier in King George Island (Antarctica), the Fildes Peninsula. Lipid biomarkers of terrestrial origin (i.e. high-molecular weight n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, and n-alkanols; β-sitosterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol) were detected in the five Fildes Lakes, with the smallest basin (i.e., Meltwater) showing a particularly strong moss imprint. Aquatic source indicators such as low C/N and terrestrial over aquatic ratios (TAR), or less negative δ13C values were preferentially found in the mid-sized lakes (i.e., Drake and Ionospheric). Sedimentary carbon in the larger lakes (i.e., Uruguay and Kitezh) displayed a largely biogenic origin (i.e., values of carbon preference index, CPI, ≫1), whereas the three lakes close to Collins Glacier (i.e., Drake, Meltwater, and Ionospheric) showed certain contribution from petrogenic sources (CPI ~ 1). The results suggest that the geochemical signature of the surface sediments in the five Fildes lakes is determined by factors such as the distance to the retreating Collins Glacier, the proximity to the coast, or the lake depth. This study illustrates the forensic interest of combining lipid biomarkers, compound-specific isotopic analysis, and bulk geochemistry to reconstruct paleoenvironments and study climate-sensitive regions. Keywords: Lipids biomarkers; Lakes; Organic matter; Maritime Antarctica; Isotopes. p. 659-660 [2.2. Sample collection]: "Additionally, fresh samples representative of the local vegetation were collected from the lakes surroundings. One sample of moss (Sanionia uncinata), particularly abundant in the northern part of the Fildes Peninsula, was collected from the Drake and Meltwater surroundings; two types of lichens (Lecanora spp., and Placopsis contortuplicata) from the region between the Ionospheric and Uruguay lakes; and one sample of grass (Deschampsia Antarctica) fromthe Kitezh surroundings. All sediment and vegetal samples were stored cold (~4 °C) on solvent-clean polypropylene containers until back at the laboratory, when they were frozen (−20 °C). They were then freeze-dried before geochemical analysis." p. 662 [3.2. Lipid biomarkers in the Fildes Lakes surface sediments]: "The fresh vegetal samples contained n-alkanes spanning fromC11 to C32 with variable profiles depending on the particular species (Fig. S4). The moss sample (Sanionia unciata) exhibited a distinct maximum at C23. The Antarctic grass (Deschampsia antarctica) had its maximum at C31, with relevant peaks also at C23 and C25. The two lichen samples (Placopsis contortuplicata and Lecanora sp.) showed a common maximum at C17, and additional peaks at C21, C22, C23, or C27 (Fig. S4)."
31458Loppi S., Corsini A. & Paoli L. (2019): Estimating environmental contamination and element deposition at an urban area of central Italy. - Urban Science, 3(3): 76 [9 p.].
Air quality monitoring in many urban areas is based on sophisticated and costly equipment to check for the respect of environmental quality standards, but capillary monitoring is often not feasible due to economic constraints. In such cases, the use of living organisms may be very useful to complement the sparse data obtained by physico-chemical measurements. In this study, the bioaccumulation of selected trace elements (Al, As, Cd, Ce, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, S, Sb, Zn) in lichen samples (Evernia prunastri) transplanted for three months at an urban area of Central Italy was investigated to assess the main environmental contaminants, their sources, and the fluxes of element depositions. The results pinpointed Cu and Sb as the main contaminants and suggested a common origin for these two elements from non-exhaust sources of vehicular traffic, such as brake abrasion. Most study sites were, however, found to be subjected to low or moderate environmental contamination, and the lowest contamination corresponded to the main green areas, confirming the important protective role of urban forests against air pollution. Ranges of estimated mean annual element deposition rates in the study area were similar or lower than those reported for other urban areas. Keywords: air pollution; air quality; bioaccumulation; biomonitoring; heavy metals.
31457Winkler A., Caricchi C., Guidotti M., Owczarek M., Macrì P., Nazzari M., Amoroso A., Di Giosa A. & Listrani S. (2019): Combined magnetic, chemical and morphoscopic analyses on lichens from a complex anthropic context in Rome, Italy. - Science of the Total Environment, 690: 1355–1368.
Native and transplanted lichens were analyzed as bioaccumulators of airborne particulate matter (PM) in an eastern district of Rome, Italy, where frequent fraudulent fires are set to recover metals, mostly copper, from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). The presence of native lichens was scarce, due to the drought of spring-summer 2017, thus, sampling was extended to a neighboring area for toughening the dataset to a similar context. The magnetic analyses revealed intense properties connected to the anthropic complexity of the zone, where industrial, traffic and arson-related dusts are emitted and bio-accumulated. Magnetic and chemical analyses were compared, leading to significant linear correlations between the concentration dependent magnetic parameters (susceptibility, saturation magnetization and saturation remanence) and the concentration of heavy metals, among which copper, chrome, lead and zinc. Moreover, selected magnetic particles were chemically and morphologically characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope and Energy Dispersion System microanalyses. Magnetic particles resulted incorporated into the lichens' tissues and their composition, morphology and grain size strongly supported their anthropogenic, mostly combustion-related, origin. Even if, given the complexity of the area, it was not feasible to fully discriminate the multiple anthropogenic sources, magnetic biomonitoring of lichens, especially when combined with microtextural and compositional analyses, confirmed to be an excellent methodology for a rapid characterization of environmental pollution. Keywords: Air pollution; Magnetic biomonitoring; Heavy metals; Particulate matter (PM); Environmental magnetism; Lichens.
31456Landis M.S., Berryman S.D., White E.M., Graney J.R., Edgerton E.S. & Studabaker W.B. (2019): Use of an epiphytic lichen and a novel geostatistical approach to evaluate spatial and temporal changes in atmospheric deposition in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Alberta, Canada. - Science of the Total Environment, 692: 1005–1021.
Temporal and spatial atmospheric deposition trends of elements to the boreal forest surrounding bitumen production operations in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR), Alberta, Canada were investigated as part of a long-term lichen bioindicator study. The study focused on eight elements (sulfur, nitrogen, aluminum, calcium, iron, nickel, strontium, vanadium) that were previously identified as tracers for the major oil sand production sources. Samples of the in situ epiphytic lichen Hypogymnia physodes were collected in 2002, 2004, 2008, 2011, 2014, and 2017 within a ~150 km radius from the center of surface oil sand production operations in the AOSR. Site-specific time series analysis conducted at eight jack pine upland sites that were repeatedly sampled generally showed significant trends of increasing lichen concentrations for fugitive dust linked elements, particularly at near-field (<25 km from a major oil sands production operation) sample locations. Multiple regional scale geostatistical models were developed and evaluated to characterize broad-scale changes in atmospheric deposition based on changes in H. physodes elemental concentrations between 2008 and 2014. Empirical Bayesian kriging and cokriging lichen element concentrations with oil sands mining, bitumen upgrading, coke materials handling, and limestone quarry/crushing influence variables produced spatial interpolation estimates with the lowest validation errors. Gridded zonal mean lichen element concentrations were calculated for the two comprehensive sampling years (2008, 2014) and evaluated for spatial and temporal change. Lichen sulfur concentrations significantly increased in every grid cell within the domain with the largest increases (44–88%) in the central valley in close proximity to the major surface oil sand production operations, while a minor nitrogen concentration decrease (−20%) in a single grid cell was observed. The areal extent of fugitive dust element deposition generally increased with significantly higher deposition to lichens restricted to the outer grids of the enhanced deposition field, reflecting new and expanding surface mining activity. Keywords: Lichen biomonitoring; Cokriging; Hypogymnia physodes; Atmospheric deposition; Time series analysis; Wood Buffalo Environmental Association.
31455Edgin B., Shimp J., Allen D., Cawn J., McClain W.E. & Ebinger J.E. (2004): Vascular flora of Gray’s Post Oak Woodland, Saline County, Illinois. - Southeastern Naturalist, 3(4): 733–744.
Gray's Post Oak Woodland is an open wooded community located on the western edge of the Wabash Border Natural Division about 9 km southeast of Harrisburg, Saline County, IL. Associated with a clayey soil missing most of the surface layer, the trees were stunted and gnarled. Quercus stellata dominated the canopy, accounting for nearly all of the importance value. Although six other tree species were present, few individuals exceeded 15 cm dbh. The open understory contained few saplings, averaged 1520 stems/ha, with young post oaks common. The herbaceous layer was sparse with a bare ground and litter cover of 48.90%. Danthonia spicata dominated, along with various moss and lichen species, some tree seedlings, and Carex spp. p. 738: "Various moss and lichen species were common. When combined, the three common mosses (Ditrichum pallidum [Hedw.] Hampe, Dicranum scoparium Hedw., and Leucobryum glaucum [Hedw.)]Fries) ranked second, accounting for a cover of 5.15% and an IV of 26.0%; while two species of lichens (Cladina subtenuis [Abbayes] Hale & Culb. and Cladonia strepsilis [Ach.] Vain) combined were sixth in IV (6.4%)."
31454Reveal J.L. (2004): No man is an island: The life and times of André Michaux. - Castanea, 69(sp2): 22–68.
Botanical explorers roamed temperate North American colonies long before André Michaux came to the United States. The efforts of these men and women accounted for thousands of new species of plants described in the scientific literature from the early 1500s until 1785 when Michaux arrived to begin his studies that would ultimately result, in 1803, in an abbreviated summary of the region’s known flora. Most of the early collecting efforts concentrated on trees and shrubs of potential ornamental significance or plants of medicinal importance. Introduction of temperate North American plants was well underway by 1600, with a steady flow of natural objects going to Western Europe throughout the seventeenth century. Although broad, general interest in North American plants declined after 1700, the efforts of a few—notably Mark Catesby, John Clayton, John Mitchell, John Bartram, Pehr Kalm, Alexander Garden, Caldwaller Colden and William Bartram—greatly shaped Carl Linnaeus’ understanding of our flora from 1735 until his death in 1778. Therefore, Michaux did not enter into an unexplored wilderness where everything was new but rather a land that required a naturalist with a broad understanding of what was undiscovered still. The focus of this paper is to review the effort of those early naturalists, and to present details of the new methods Michaux brought to field botany: A broad knowledge of plants, a genuine willingness to explore, and a desire (albeit reluctant) to put what he knew into print. Unfortunately, his ultimate product, Flora Boreali-Americana, was myopic in scope and therefore woefully incomplete because Michaux failed to consult the wealth of material collected prior to his own efforts.
31453Jennings W. & Stewart D. (2000): Ecology & evolution of wall-dwelling organisms. - American Biology Teacher, 62(6): 429–435.
Lichens in didactics
31452Nadkarni N.M. (2000): Colonization of stripped branch surfaces by epiphytes in a lower montane cloud forest, Monteverde, Costa Rica. - Biotropica, 32(2): 358–363.
Key words: cloud forest; colonization; Costa Rica; epiphyte; Monteverde; secondary succession.
31451Armaleo D., Müller O., Lutzoni F., Andrésson Ó.S., Blanc G., Bode H.B., Collart F.R., Dal Grande F., Dietrich F., Grigoriev I.V., Joneson S., Kuo A., Larsen P.E., Logsdon J.M. Jr, Lopez D., Martin F., May S.P., McDonald T.R., Merchant S.S., Miao V., Morin E., Oono R., Pellegrini M., Rubinstein N., Sanchez-Puerta M.V., Savelkoul E., Schmitt I., Slot J.C., Soanes D., Szövényi P., Talbot N.J., Veneault-Fourrey C. & Xavier B.B. (2019): The lichen symbiosis re-viewed through the genomes of Cladonia grayi and its algal partner Asterochloris glomerata. - BMC Genomics, 20: 605 [33 p.].
Background: Lichens, encompassing 20,000 known species, are symbioses between specialized fungi (mycobionts), mostly ascomycetes, and unicellular green algae or cyanobacteria (photobionts). Here we describe the first parallel genomic analysis of the mycobiont Cladonia grayi and of its green algal photobiont Asterochloris glomerata. We focus on genes/predicted proteins of potential symbiotic significance, sought by surveying proteins differentially activated during early stages of mycobiont and photobiont interaction in coculture, expanded or contracted protein families, and proteins with differential rates of evolution. Results: A) In coculture, the fungus upregulated small secreted proteins, membrane transport proteins, signal transduction components, extracellular hydrolases and, notably, a ribitol transporter and an ammonium transporter, and the alga activated DNA metabolism, signal transduction, and expression of flagellar components. B) Expanded fungal protein families include heterokaryon incompatibility proteins, polyketide synthases, and a unique set of Gprotein α subunit paralogs. Expanded algal protein families include carbohydrate active enzymes and a specific subclass of cytoplasmic carbonic anhydrases. The alga also appears to have acquired by horizontal gene transfer from prokaryotes novel archaeal ATPases and Desiccation-Related Proteins. Expanded in both symbionts are signal transduction components, ankyrin domain proteins and transcription factors involved in chromatin remodeling and stress responses. The fungal transportome is contracted, as are algal nitrate assimilation genes. C) In the mycobiont, slow-evolving proteins were enriched for components involved in protein translation, translocation and sorting.
31450Palice Z. (2019): Česká a slovenská lichenologická bibliografie XXXI [Czech and Slovak lichenological bibliography XXXI]. - Bryonora, 63: 35–39.
bibliography
31449Otte V. & Rätzel S. (2009): Bemerkenswerte Flechtenfunde aus Brandenburg XII. - Verhandlungen des Botanischen Vereins von Berlin und Brandenburg, 141[2008]: 137–143.
Physcia biziana is recorded for the first time from Germany. First records for the State of Brandenburg (Germany) are Buellia badia and Normandina pulchella. Lecania koerberiana has been rediscovered for Germany and Caloplaca cerinella, Fellhanera bouteillei and Marchandiomyces corallinus for Brandenburg. Further observations of rare lichens, in part critically endangered in Germany, but at least of regional interest, are communicated.
31448Rätzel S., Otte V., de Bruyn U. & Sipman H.J.M. (2006): Bemerkenswerte Flechtenfunde aus Brandenburg (incl. lichenicoler und lichenoider Pilze) X. - Verhandlungen des Botanischen Vereins von Berlin und Brandenburg, 138[2005]: 83–105.
The tenth contribution of this series contains the first German record of Chaenothecopsis savonica and the first records of Agonimia tristicula, Arthrorhaphis aeruginosa, Bacidia adastra, B. neosquamulosa, Chaenotheca phaeocephala, Cyrtidula quercus, Gyalecta truncigena, Gyalideopsis anastomosans, Lecanora conferta, Lecidea plana, Lempholemma chalazanum, Micarea leprosula, M. misella, Opegrapha calcarea, Pachyphiale fagicola, Porina leptalea, Porpidia soredizodes, Ramalina obtusata, Syzygospora physciacearum, Verrucaria macrostoma and V. tectorum in the State of Brandenburg (Germany) and other interesting lichen observations. The species Fellhanera bouteillei, Lecanora horiza, L. xanthostoma, Pertusaria coronata and Rhizocarpon reductum, have been rediscovered in Brandenburg. A number of species are to be deleted from the checklist (OTTE & RÄTZEL 2004) as a result of detailed herbaria and literature studies: Lecania cyrtellina and Punctelia borreri.
31447Otte V., Wagner H.-G., Fürstenow J. & Rätzel S. (2018): Bemerkenswerte Flechtenfunde aus Brandenburg XIV. - Verhandlungen des Botanischen Vereins von Berlin und Brandenburg, 149: 153–171.
The lichens Acarospora peliscypha, Caloplaca limonia, Candelaria pacifica, Cresporhaphis macrospora, Dimerella lutea, Lecanora barkmaniana, Ochrolechia arborea, Opegrapha gyrocarpa, Oxneria huculica, Physcia tribacioides, Punctelia borreri, Reichlingia leopoldii, Thelocarpon pallidum and the gyrophoric acid chemotype of Bryoria implexa as well as the lichenicolous fungi Cercidospora macrospora, Didymosphaeria futilis and Intralichen christiansenii are recorded for the region of Brandenburg and Berlin (Germany) for the first time. First records to Berlin are, moreover, the lichens and lichen-similar fungi Cyrtidula quercus, Leptorhaphis atomaria, Thelocarpon magnussonii, Vezdaea leprosa as well as the lichenicolous fungi Capronia peltigerae, Cladoniicola staurospora, Graphium aphthosae, Hawksworthiana peltigericola, Libertiella malmedyensis, Lichenodiplis lecanorae, Marchandiobasidium aurantiacum, Microcalicium disseminatum, Paranectria oropensis, Pezizella epithallina. Steinia geophana is first recorded with certainty from Berlin. Cliostomum corrugatum, Collema fuscovirens, Stereocaulon paschale were rediscovered to the Brandenburg-Berlin region. Two further observations of Nephromopsis laureri, a species recorded for the northern German lowlands only recently, were done; one of them in the Polish part of the region of Lower Lusatia. Occurrences of Hyperphyscia adglutinata, a species rediscovered recently in the Berlin-Brandenburg region after 200 years of absence, are rapidly increasing in number. Collema fuscovirens was repeatedly found on roofing tiles of concrete of a type previously widely used. Some further observations of rare or rarely recorded species are communicated. Cheiromycina globosa was found far from the northern Brandenburg/western Pomerania region for the first time. Just as most previous collections of this species, this material is associated with apothecia, whose anatomy and spores refer to Lecania koerberiana, which is otherwise not currently reported from Brandenburg. Two previously reported occurrences of Anaptychia ciliaris, a species under legal protection in Germany and critically endangered in Brandenburg, have been annihilated by demolition of their habitats. Keywords: Lichens, lichenicolous fungi, nature conservation, rare species, threatened species, first records, Germany, Poland.
31446Otte V. (1996): Exkursionsbericht "Flechtenexkursion nach Rheinsberg am 17. 3. 1996". - Verhandlungen des Botanischen Vereins von Berlin und Brandenburg, 129: 279–282.
Report on excursion
31445Otte V. (1997): Exkursionsbericht "Flechtenexkursion ins Annatal bei Strausberg am 17. 11. 1996". - Verhandlungen des Botanischen Vereins von Berlin und Brandenburg, 130: 297–299.
Report on excursion
31444Otte V. (1997): Exkursionsbericht "Flechtenexkursion nach Angermünde am 23. 03. 1997". - Verhandlungen des Botanischen Vereins von Berlin und Brandenburg, 130: 301–302.
Report on excursion
31443Otte V. (1998): Exkursionsbericht "Flechtenexkursion nach Boitzenburg in der Uckermark am 23. November 1997". - Verhandlungen des Botanischen Vereins von Berlin und Brandenburg, 131: 219–222.
Report on excursion
31442Otte V. (1999): Exkursionsbericht "Flechtenexkursion in die Niederlausitz am 15. 03. 1998". - Verhandlungen des Botanischen Vereins von Berlin und Brandenburg, 132: 385–386.
Report on excursion
31441Otte V. (1999): Exkursionsbericht "Flechtenexkursion auf den Hohen Barnim am 07. 03. 1999". - Verhandlungen des Botanischen Vereins von Berlin und Brandenburg, 132: 397–399.
Report on excursion
31440Otte V. (2000): Exkursionsbericht "Flechtenexkursion ins nördliche Havelland am 2. April 2000". - Verhandlungen des Botanischen Vereins von Berlin und Brandenburg, 133: 553–556.
Report on excursion
31439Otte V. (2002): Exkursionsbericht "Flechtenexkursion nach Angermünde und Görlsdorf in der Uckermark am 30. 10. 2000". - Verhandlungen des Botanischen Vereins von Berlin und Brandenburg, 134: 241–243.
Report on excursion
31438Otte V. (2002): Exkursionsbericht "Flechtenexkursion in die nördliche Prignitz am 11. 03. 2001". - Verhandlungen des Botanischen Vereins von Berlin und Brandenburg, 134: 245–248.
Report on excursion
31437Otte V. (2002): Exkursionsbericht "Flechtenexkursion in die Mahlheide bei Schernsdorf am 4. 11. 2001". - Verhandlungen des Botanischen Vereins von Berlin und Brandenburg, 135: 283–285.
Report on excursion
31436Otte V. (2003): Exkursionsbericht „Flechtenexkursion zur Spremberger Talsperre am 16. März 2003“. - Verhandlungen des Botanischen Vereins von Berlin und Brandenburg, 136: 401–404.
Report on excursion
31435Otte V., Rohner M.-S. & Schaepe A. (2006): Bericht vom 7. Brandenburgischen Mooskartierungstreffen in Lebus. - Verhandlungen des Botanischen Vereins von Berlin und Brandenburg, 139: 335–341.
Report on bryological excursion (few lichens noted)
31434Otte V. (2007): Bericht über die Flechtenexkursion "auf den Spuren von Gottlob Ludwig Rabenhorst" in die Kleinkrausniker und Rochauer Heide am 25. November 2006. - Verhandlungen des Botanischen Vereins von Berlin und Brandenburg, 140: 183–186.
Report on excursion