29002Concostrina-Zubiri L., Martínez I. & Escudero A. (2018): Lichen-biocrust diversity in a fragmented dryland: Fine scale factors are better predictors than landscape structure. - Science of the Total Environment, 628–629: 882–892.
Biological soil crusts (or biocrusts) are widespread, diverse and important components of drylands sometimes threatened by global change drivers. However, their response to fragmentation processes is poorly known. The aimof this studywas to assess the effects of changing landscape structure, given by land use change and the presence of linear infrastructure (e.g., roads), on the cover and diversity of lichen-biocrusts.We also evaluated the influence of several subrogates of fragment quality, such as soil properties, vascular plant community structure and topography. Biocrust cover and diversitywere measured in 50 remnants of aMediterranean shrubland. The fragments varied in size, connectivity and distance to a road, but also in plant and soil attributes, topography and fragment history. We applied general linear and mixed models to assess the effects of environmental variables on biocrust communities. Biocrust cover, richness and species composition were mostly unresponsive to changes in landscape structure, while connectivity and distance to the road decreased species diversity. Soil properties better explained the variation in biocrust cover and diversity. Changes in plant community and biocrust community composition were coupled. We also identified several biocrust species with strong capacity to reflect landscape structure. Our findings suggest that landscape structure needs to be evaluated jointly with other environmental factors to fully understand the consequences of fragmentation processes on biocrust communities and the subsequent implications for their functional role in drylands.
29001Vannini A., Paoli L., Vichi M., Bačkor M., Bačkorová M. & Loppi S. (2018): Toxicity of Diclofenac in the Fern Azolla filiculoides and the Lichen Xanthoria parietina. - Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 100: 430–437.
This study investigated the occurrence of toxicity, expressed as damage to the photosynthetic apparatus, in the aquatic fern Azolla filiculoides and the lichen Xanthoria parietina following treatments with diclofenac at different concentrations (0.1, 1, 10 and 100 mg/L) and different exposure times (24, 48, 72 and 240 h). Measurements of photosynthetic efficiency, chlorophyll content and chlorophyll degradation indicated dose- and time-dependent toxicity, since significant differences with control samples as well as among treatments, emerged mainly for the highest concentration (100 mg/L) and the longest time (240 h). In addition, also the mycobiont of the lichen X. parietina showed similar toxic effects, expressed as ergosterol content. The absence of relevant alterations at the lowest concentration (0.1 mg/L) suggested a very limited susceptibility of these species to environmentally relevant levels of this pharmaceutical. Keywords: Chlorophyll · Exposure · Ergosterol · Pharmaceuticals · Photosynthesis.
29000van der Pluijm A. (2017): Rinodina biloculata, een voor Nederland nieuw, oceanisch korstmos in een Duitse-dotstruweel in de Biesbosch. - Buxbaumiella, 110: 7–11.
Rinodina biloculata (Orcularia insperata), an oceanic lichen new to the Netherlands, in thickets of Salix dasyclados in the Biesboch.
28999van der Kolk H.-J. (2014): Buxbaumia aphylla (kaboutermos) op de begraafplaatsen van Elspeet en Rhenen. - Buxbaumiella, 99: 32–37.
Buxbaumia aphylla at the graveyards near Elspeet and Rhenen. [many associated lichens listed]
28998Sparrius L., Aptroot A., Timmerman H. & Toetenel H. (2014): De overleving van aangevoerde korstmossen. - Buxbaumiella, 99: 25–31.
On the survival of introduced lichen species.
28997van der Kolk H. (2014): Bijzondere grondbewonende lichenen langs het spoor bij Ede. - Buxbaumiella, 99: 20–24.
Rare terrestrial lichens along the railway near Ede.
28996Timmerman H. (2014): Graphis scripta (gewoon schriftmos) in de polder Kolonisatie door een 'oud bos-indicator' van jonge kleibossen in Flevoland. - Buxbaumiella, 99: 14–19.
Graphis scripta in the polder, the colonization of an ancient woodland-indicator of secondary forests on clay soil in the province of Flevoland in the Netherlands.
28995Ketner-Oostra R. (2014): Herstel van korstmosrijke duinen op Terschelling door beheersingrepen. - Buxbaumiella, 99: 1–13.
Management to restore lichen-rich coastal dunes in the Wadden distict (the Netherlands).
28994Spier L. & Brand M. (2014): Phaeophyscia nigricans (Flörke) Moberg – ‘To be or not to be’, dat is de vraag. - Buxbaumiella, 100: 46–48.
Phaeophyscia nigricans (Flörke) Moberg –‘To be or not to be’, that is the question.
28993van der Pluijm A. (2014): Graphina anguina (doolhof-schriftmos) terug in Nederland, Phaeographis dendritica (witte runenkorst) breidt zich uit. - Buxbaumiella, 100: 39–46.
Rediscovery of the atlantic Graphina anguina in the Netherlands, on the Esscheplaat along the Hollands Diep, and Phaeographis dendritica expands its range.
28992Sparrius L. (2014): Trends van epifytische korstmossen op basis van waarnemingenlijsten. - Buxbaumiella, 100: 31–38.
28991Sparrius L. & Timmerman H. (2014): Lichenologische excursies op herhaling: een vergelijking van de situatie op de Noord-Veluwe, 1960-2014. - Buxbaumiella, 100: 4–7.
The lichen flora of three excursion-sites in the northern part of the Veluwe (Gelderland) compared to finds in the period 1960-1995.
28990Sparrius L. & Sytsma M. (2014): Oxneria huculica, dragonderdooiermos, nieuw voor Nederland. - Buxbaumiella, 100: 25–27.
Oxneria huculica new to The Netherlands.
28989Toetenel H. (2014): Witte hokken zijn soms zo wit nog niet. - Buxbaumiella, 101: 48–50.
White areas on distribution maps are sometimes not so white as it seems.
28988Spier L. (2014): Caloplaca diffusa Vondrák & Llimona, een nieuw korstvormig licheen voor Nederland. - Buxbaumiella, 101: 45–47.
Caloplaca diffusa Vondrák & Llimona, a new crustose lichen to the Netherlands.
28987Spier L. & van Dobben H. (2015): Diploschistes muscorum (Scop.) R.Sant. (duindaalder) verdwaald?. - Buxbaumiella, 102: 34–35.
Diploschistes muscorum (Scop.) R.Sant. got lost?
28986van der Kolk H. (2015): Thelocarpon pallidum, een kleurloze stuifmeelkorst definitief in Nederland. - Buxbaumiella, 102: 31–34.
Thelocarpon pallidum, a colorless Thelocarpon new to The Netherlands.
28985Spier L. (2015): Aanvulling op Caloplaca diffusa, een nieuw korstvormig licheen voor Nederland. - Buxbaumiella, 102: 30–31.
Additional information on Caloplaca diffusa, a new crustose lichen to The Netherlands.
28984Aptroot A. (2015): In Memoriam Uwe de Bruyn. - Buxbaumiella, 103: 52.
Necrolog [in Dutch]
28983Spier L. (2015): Lecidella elaeochroma (Ach.) M. Choisy (gewoon purperschaaltje) als kameleon. - Buxbaumiella, 103: 27–31.
Lecidella elaeochroma (Ach.) M. Choisy as chameleon.
28982van der Kolk H. (2015): Twee korstmosparasieten, Libertiella fennica en Taeniolella beschiana, nieuw in Nederland. - Buxbaumiella, 103: 24–26.
Two lichenicolous fungi, Libertiella fennica and Taeniolella beschiana, new to the Netherlands.
28981Spier L. (2015): Kauwgommos (Diploicia canescens) in meerdere smaken?. - Buxbaumiella, 104: 25–27.
Kauwgummos (Diploicia canescens) in different tastes?
28980Sparrius L., Aptroot A. & van Herk K. (2015): Ecologische indicatiewaarden voor korstmossen en een vergelijking met mossen en vaatplanten. - Buxbaumiella, 104: 18–24.
Ecological indicator values for lichens and a comparison with bryophytes and vascular plants.
28979Spier L. (2015): Punctelia perreticulata (Räsänen) G. Wilh. & Ladd, een nieuw stippelschildmos voor Nederland. - Buxbaumiella, 104: 16–18.
Punctelia perreticulata (Räsänen) G. Wilh. & Ladd, new to the Netherlands.
28978Perlmutter G.B., Blank G.B., Wentworth T.R., Lowman M.D., Neufeld H.S. & Rivas Plata E. (2018): Highway pollution effects on microhabitat community structure of corticolous lichens. - Bryologist, 121(1): 1–13.
We studied lichen communities on bole and base tree trunk segments along forest edge-to-interior gradients on opposite sides of a major highway and a control site in central North Carolina, U.S.A., to investigate if these two communities differ and if so, do they differ in response to highway pollution. At each site we measured various environmental parameters including ambient air NO2 concentrations, and sampled lichens on 5–7 trees along each of five parallel transects established at the forest edge and at 25, 60, 100 and 150 m into the forest. We compared lichen communities between the two trunk segments via species richness and composition by habit, photobiont type, and reproductive strategy. We then ran dual (bole and base) NMS ordinations with subsequent correlation/regression analyses to explore/test relationships of lichen parameters with environmental variables among the 15 sample transects combined. Species richness was similar between trunk segments at transect and site levels as well as overall. Bole and base communities were more compositionally similar to each other at the highway sites than they were at the control site, based on Bray-Curtis similarity indices (BC). Tree base communities differed in terms of functional groupings, with greater proportions of squamulose, cyanolichen and sterile species than found in tree bole communities, but varyingly so among sites. Patterns of bole-base BC values with distance from the forest edge were not apparent in any of the sites. Ordination analyses resulted in Axis 1 representing most of the variation for each trunk segment. Along this axis, correlations were similar between boles and bases, with the strongest ones involving lichen species richness (negative) and NO2 concentrations (positive); notably weak correlations involved tree species number, canopy cover and DBH. Similar patterns were found when lichen species number was correlated with environmental parameters directly, with NO2 concentration correlating strongest at each trunk segment. Among functional groups, % crustose and % fertile species on bases correlated significantly with NO2. Lichen species–NO2 relationships on boles and bases were both found to be highly significant quadratic relationships with base lichen richness being stronger. Keywords: Lichen biodiversity, NO2, NMS ordination, tree base, tree bole.
28977Xavier-Leite A.B., Cáceres M.E.S., Goto B.T. & Lücking R. (2018): The genus Gyalideopsis (lichenized Ascomycota: Gomphillaceae) in Brazil: updated checklist, key to species, and two novel taxa with unique hyphophores. - Bryologist, 121(1): 32–40.
We provide a checklist and a key to the 26 species and one infraspecific taxon of the genus Gyalideopsis (Gomphillaceae) currently known from Brazil, including two species with unique hyphophores described as new to science herein: G. aptrootii Xavier-Leite, M.Cáceres & Lücking sp. nov., characterized by adnate, crescent-shaped hyphophores with moniliform diahyphae and broadly sessile, dark grey-brown apothecia with single, muriform, rather small ascospores; and G. marcellii Xavier-Leite, M.Cáceres & Lücking sp. nov., with mussel-shaped hyphophores similar to those of G. haliotidiformis but differing in the filiform diahyphae. The other taxa known from Brazil are: G. aequatoriana Kalb & Vězda, G. altamirensis Lücking & Umaña, G. applanata Herrera-Campos & Lücking, G. argentea (Mont.) Kalb & Vězda, G. brevipilosa (Kalb & Vězda) Lücking, Sérus. & Vězda, G. cochlearifera Lücking & Sérus., G. confluens Kalb & Vězda, G. ellipsoidea A.A.Menezes, M.Cáceres & Aptroot, G. epithallina Lücking, G. glauca (P.Karst.) Lücking, Sérus. & Vězda, G. haliotidiformis Kalb & Vězda, G. intermedia Lücking, G. kalbii Vězda, G. lambinonii Vězda, G. lecideina Kalb & Vězda, G. palmata Kalb & Vězda, G. robusta Kalb & Vězda, G. rostrata Kalb & Vězda, G. rubescens Vězda, G. rubrofusca Kalb & Vězda, G. vainioi Kalb & Vězda, G. verruculosa Vězda & Hafellner, G. vezdae Kalb, G. vulgaris (Müll.Arg.) Lücking f. vulgaris, and G. vulgaris f. albopruinosa Lücking. Keywords: Corticolous, foliicolous, lichenicolous, muscicolous, saxicolous, terricolous.
28976van den Broeck D., Tehler A., Razafindrahaja T. & Ertz D. (2017): Four new species of Arthothelium (Arthoniales, Ascomycetes) from Africa and Socotra. - Phytotaxa, 331(1): 51–64.
Four species of Arthothelium from Africa and Socotra are described as new to science: Arthothelium atrorubrum from Madagascar, characterized by irregularly rounded blackish ascomata with a deeply red hypothecium and submuriform ascospores; Arthothelium aurantiacopruinosum from the Democratic Republic of the Congo, characterized by black, irregularly rounded to stellate, orange pruinose ascomata and muriform ascospores with two larger terminal cells; Arthothelium frischianum from Madagascar, characterized by brownish-black minute irregular ascomata with remnants of thallus and muriform ascospores with one larger terminal cell; Arthothelium miesii from Socotra (Yemen), characterized by a thick thallus, immersed, stellate to cerebriform, brownish, greyish pruinose ascomata and submuriform ascospores. A key to all reported species of Arthothelium from tropical Africa (South Africa excluded) and Socotra is provided. Keywords: Arthoniales, Ascomycetes, Fungi.
28975Dantas J.O., Alves E.S., Lücking R. & Cáceres M.E.S. (2017): Three new species of Graphidaceae (lichenized Ascomycota) from the semi-arid region of northeast Brazil. - Phytotaxa, 331(2): 289–294.
Three new lichenized fungal species in the family Graphidaceae are described from Northeast Brazil. Graphis alba has lirellae with a conspicuous white cover, eventually becoming striate, small, (sub-)muriform ascospores, and stictic acid. Halegrapha redonographoides features somewhat pseudostromatic ascomata with immersed lirellae, a completely carbonized excipulum, and small, submuriform ascospores, in combination with a norstictic acid chemistry. Thelotrema pachysporoides has an ecorticate, white thallus and produces brown, 7–13-septate, 25–35 × 7–10 μm large ascospores. The new species were found in an isolated remnant of Caatinga vegetation, at Fazenda Santa Maria da Lage, Poço Verde, Sergipe state, with additional material of one of the species also detected in the state of Tocantins. Key words: Graphis, Halegrapha, Thelotrema, Caatinga, Cerrado, Sergipe, Tocantins.
28974Kalb J. & Kalb K. (2017): New lichen species from Thailand, new combinations and new additions to the Thai lichen biota. - Phytotaxa, 332(2): 141–156.
Several collecting trips by the authors (alone or together) over the last ten years in twenty-one provinces of Thailand afforded new additions to the most recent Thai lichen checklist. These are from seven families with an emphasis on the Graphidaceae reflecting the current interest of the authors. Three species are described as new to science: Glaucotrema palaeoprotocetraricum which differs from G. thailandicum in having larger ascospores and producing protocetraric acid, Platygramme subcalubrosa which differs from P. calubrosa in having non-pruinose labia and discs and smaller, less-septate ascospores and Ramonia minima, which differs from R. kandleri in having smaller ascomata, a lower hymenium and a partly brown to blackish exciple. Constrictolumina leucostoma is a new finding for the Palaeotropics and the genera Pseudotopeliopsis, Ramonia and Sclerophyton are new reports for Thailand. New records of Thai species of Hemithecium are transferred to Allographa and Graphis. This necessitated the following new combinations: Allographa stictilabiata (≡ Gra­phina stictilabiata), Graphis aphaneomicrospora (≡ Hemithecium aphaneomicrosporum) , G. balaghatensis (≡ Hemithecium balaghatense) and Graphis indica (a new name for Hemithecium norsticticum). Further new combinations include Glaucotrema protocetraricum (≡ Ocellularia protocetrarica) and Traponora varians (≡ Lecidea varians). Acanthothecis consocians, Caloplaca bassiae, Chapsa pulchra, Leucodecton occultum, Phaeographopsis palaeotropica, Platygramme australiensis, P. commutabilis, P. discurrens, Sclerophyton seriale, Psudotopeliopsis longisporum, Traponora macrospora and Trinathotrema stictideum are further new additions to the Thai lichen biota. Working keys are presented to all known species of Phaeographopsis and Trinathotrema and to the Thai species of Platygramme. Keywords: Algae, Graphidaceae, Gyalectaceae, Lecanoraceae, Opegraphaceae, South-East Asia, Stictidaceae, Taxonomy, Teloschistaceae, Trypetheliaceae, USA.
28973Sun Z.-S. & Zhao Z.-T. (2018): A new species of Pertusaria (Pertusariaceae, Ascomycota) from Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of China. - Phytotaxa, 333(1): 143–146.
A species of Pertusaria, described here as new to science, is based on material collected from Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, Southwestern China. The new species, Pertusaria tibetensis Z.S. Sun has broad lecanorate verrucae, pinkish pruinose discs, 1- spored asci and contains norstictic acid. Key words: Pertusaria, Ascomycota, lichenized fungi, China.
28972Meysurova A.F., Notov A.A. & Pungin A.V. (2018): Photosynthetic pigments in Hypogymnia physodes with different metal contents. - Journal of Applied Spectroscopy, 84(6): 1037–1043.
[Translated from the Russian original published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Spektroskopii, Vol. 84, No. 6, pp. 961–968, 2017] Chlorophyll a and b contents in Hypogymnia physodes specimens collected from various economic areas and natural complexes of Tver Region were found to differ substantially using a spectrophotometric method, showing that the lichen photosynthetic system is highly adaptable. The chlorophyll b content was linked primarily to adaptation to specifi c environmental features in various plant communities. The chlorophyll a content changed to provide the necessary compensatory responses under technogenic stress. A total of 15 metals (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Ti, V, and Zn) were detected in H. physodes samples using inductively coupled plasma atomicemission spectroscopy (ICP AES). The most widespread of them were Fe, Al, and Ti. Signifi cant correlations among the concentrations of these metals and the chlorophyll a content were revealed. Keywords: photosynthetic pigments, epiphytic lichens, Hypogymnia physodes, inductively coupled plasma atomic-emission spectroscopy, spectrophotometric method, bioindication, metals, ecosystems, anthropogenically transformed areas, Tver Region.
28971Mróz T., Szufa K., Frontasyeva M.V., Tselmovich V., Ostrovnaya T., Kornaś A., Olech M.A., Mietelski J.W. & Brudecki K. (2018): Determination of element composition and extraterrestrial material occurrence in moss and lichen samples from King George Island (Antarctica) using reactor neutron activation analysis and SEM microscopy. - Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 25: 436–446.
Seven lichens (Usnea antarctica and U. aurantiacoatra) and nine moss samples (Sanionia uncinata) collected in King George Island were analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis, and concentration of major and trace elements was calculated. For some elements, the concentrations observed in moss samples were higher than corresponding values reported from other sites in the Antarctica, but in the lichens, these were in the same range of concentrations. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and statistical analysis showed large influence of volcanic-origin particles. Also, the interplanetary cosmic particles (ICP) were observed in investigated samples, as mosses and lichens are good collectors of ICP and micrometeorites. Keywords: Antarctica; Moss; Lichen; Biomonitoring; Space dus;t Neutron activation analysis; SEM microscopy.
28970Pankratov T.A. (2018): Bacterial complexes of Khibiny Mountains lichens revealed in Cladonia uncialis, C. portentosa, Alectoria ochroleuca, and Nephroma arcticum. - Microbiology, 87(1): 79–88.
Fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to investigate microbial communities of four lichen species collected in the Murmansk province. The maximal bacterial abundance was shown to depend on both the lichen species and the part of the thallus. Predominant groups of bacteria were revealed: Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria. Criteria for assessment the facultative and obligatory presence of bacteria in lichen microbial communities were established, and approaches to classification of the lichen microbial communities were proposed based on the interdependence of various bacterial groups. Keywords: lichens, endophytic and epiphytic bacteria, symbiotic bacteria, Arctic ecosystems, Acidobacteria. [Original Russian Text published in Mikrobiologiya, 2018, Vol. 87, No. 1, pp. 70–78]
28969Upadhyay S., Jugran A.K., Joshi Y., Suyal R. & Rawal R.S. (2018): Ecological variables influencing the diversity and distribution of macrolichens colonizing Quercus leucotrichophora in Uttarakhand forest. - Journal of Mountain Science, 15(2): 307–318.
Ecological variables play a significant role in determining the diversity and distribution of any living organism on earth. Lichens are not exceptional and are quite sensitive in comparison to other organisms; hence the present study focuses on the impact of ecological variables on the diversity and distribution of epiphytic macrolichens colonizing Quercus leucotrichophora across eight different sites (50 m × 50 m) in Thal Ke Dhar forest, Kumaun Himalaya, Uttarakhand, India. For sampling of macrolichens, 200 trees (25 trees from each site) of Q. leucotrichophora were selected from each site and five quadrats of 5 cm × 10 cm (1000 quadrats in totality) were drawn at the tree trunk. From all the sampled trees, a total of 54 species of epiphytic macrolichens belonging to 18 genera and five families were recorded. Various ecological variables, namely altitude, aspect, slope, diameter at breast height (DBH), and lopping percent (partial cutting of the twigs as disturbance), were also analyzed to investigate their influence on macrolichen species composition and distribution pattern in the study area. For the determination of relationships between these variables, statistical analysis, namely Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient, Polynomial regression analysis and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were performed. Out of all variables, lopping was significantly correlated to species richness of epiphytic macrolichens (0.712*, p<0.05) and it was confirmed by Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient. Despite of having high anthropogenic pressure or impact through lopping, the maximum number of macrolichen species was recorded at elevation 2267 meter above sea level (m asl). The present study revealed that besides other ecological variables, lopping practices can act as a key parameter in controlling the diversity and distribution not only of epiphytic macrolichens but also of other life forms such as bryophytes, pteridophytes, insects, birds etc. and can be either negatively or positively correlated. Keywords: Conservation; Epiphytic macrolichens; Kumaun Himalaya; Lopping; Quercus; Banj oak.
28968Zakrzewska M. & Klimek B. (2018): Trace element concentrations in tree leaves and lichen collected along a metal pollution gradient near Olkusz (southern Poland). - Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 100: 245–249.
The aim of the study was to assess the metal pollution in the vicinity of the Bukowno smelter near Olkusz in southern Poland. Birch and oak leaves, pine needles and a lichen Hypogymnia physodes, overgrowing pine bark were collected at stands at different distances from the smelter and analysed for cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) content. Concentrations of metals in the lichen were usually higher than in the tree leaves/needles and decreased with distance from the smelter, apart from the Cu content. The strongest correlation was noticed between Cd and Pb concentrations, which indicates a common pollution source (the smelter). Our results show that birch leaves can be potentially useful as a bioindicator of Zn air pollution since this species was shown to accumulate high amounts of zinc, related to environmental pollution with that metal, in their leaves. Keywords: Air pollution · Atomic absorption spectrometry (ASA) · Bioindicator · Environmental monitoring · Hypogymnia physodes.
28967Fabri‑Jr R., Krause M., Dalfior B.M., Salles R.C., de Freitas A.C., da Silva H.E., Licinio M.V.V.J., Brandão G.P. & Carneiro M.T.W.D. (2018): Trace elements in soil, lichens, and mosses from Fildes Peninsula, Antarctica: spatial distribution and possible origins. - Environmental Earth Sciences, 77:124 [10 p.].
Antarctica is a region of great scientific interest, and several countries have scientific stations installed in that place. The exploration of Antarctica continent may be causing an impact on the environment. So, this study aims to evaluate the distribution of Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, and V through the analysis of soil, lichens, and mosses from Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, Antarctica. Soil, lichens, and mosses samples were obtained from 13 points along the entire length of Fildes Peninsula, and the trace elements were determined by ICP OES. The concentration ranges (μg/g) were: Soil—Cr 5.92–28.96; Cu 81.59–123.68; Ni 20.11–41.07; Zn 43.25–73.21; V 123.52–206.06; Lichens—Cr 0.76–2.12; Cu 0.74–16.79; Ni < LD-1.88; Zn 4.97–12.06; V 0.96–20.95; Mosses—Cr 2.03–14.74; Cu 27.09–59.64; Ni 2.15–13.71; Zn 13.16–36.69; V 15.79–89.23. In general, these concentrations can be associated with several factors since this region presents intense human occupation and so the use of fossil fuels can be major source of the trace elements investigated. Keywords: Soil · Mosses · Lichens · Antarctic · Trace elements · ICP OES.
28966Zheng Y., Xiao C.-J., Guo K., Wang Y., Liu Y., Luo S.-H., Li X.-N. & Li S.-H. (2018): Lobarioid A, unusual antibacterial depsidone possessing an eight-membered diether ring from the edible lichen Lobaria sp.. - Tetrahedron Letters, 59(8): 743–746.
Lobarioid A (1), an unusual depsidone possessing an eight-membered diether ring, was isolated from the edible lichen Lobaria sp. Its structure was elucidated by extensive NMR, MS, IR and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Compound 1 exhibited antibacterial activity against three strains of gram-positive bacteria.
28965Phinney N.H., Asplund J. & Gauslaa Y. (2018): Rapid resurrection of chlorolichens in humid air: specific thallus mass drives rehydration and reactivation kinetics. - Environmental and Experimental Botany, 148: 184–191.
Identifying lichen traits that influence hydration and photosynthetic reactivation kinetics in humid air provides insight into niche preferences. Water vapor uptake and concurring reactivation of PSII efficiency (Fv/Fm) were monitored at high temporal resolution by means of programmed balance measurements and chlorophyll fluorescence imaging during 18 h trial periods in high relative humidity (RH). Desiccated, thin and/or highly branched forest epiphytes began to reactivate PSII in thallus apices and margins within two minutes of exposure to high RH. Specific thallus mass (STM) was a strong predictor of water vapor uptake rates across species and specimens. The forest epiphytes displaying the lowest STM reached the highest levels of saturation and showed the most rapid PSII reactivation. Thicker species from sun-exposed habitats required up to 11 times longer in high RH to reach peak PSII reactivation, particularly lichens collected from open, exposed rocks. There was a clear trade-off between water storage capacity and rapid saturation from water vapor/PSII reactivation. Thin chlorolichen growth forms are thus well-adapted to exploit humid air, while thick ones likely rely on liquid water. Keywords: Chlorophyll fluorescence imaging; Functional traits; PSII reactivation; Relative water content; Hydration; Poikilohydry.
28964Wang H., Yang T., Cheng X., Kwong S., Liu C., An R., Li G., Wang X. & Wang C. (2018): Simultaneous determination of usnic, diffractaic, evernic and barbatic acids in rat plasma by ultra‐high‐performance liquid chromatography–quadrupole exactive Orbitrap mass spectrome try and its application to pharmacokinetic studies. - Biomedical Chromatography, 32(3): e4123 [12 p.].
Usnea longissima Ach. (Usnea) is used in pharmaceuticals, food and cosmetics. Evernic acid (EA), barbatic acid (BA), diffractaic acid (DA) and usnic acid (UA) are the most typical ingredients in U. longissima and exert a wide variety of biological functions. The study aimed to develop a sensitive method for simultaneous analysis of EA, BA, DA and UA in rat plasma and was applied to pharmacokinetic studies after consumption of UA and ethanol extract from U. longissima (UE). The samples were separated on a BEH C18 column by gradient elution with 0.5% formic acid in water and in methanol. The relative molecular masses of analytes were obtained in full-scan range from 50.0 to 750.0 m/z under negative ionization mode by UPLC-Q-Exactive Orbitrap MS. All validation parameters, such as lower limit of quantitation, linearity, specificity, precision, accuracy, extraction recovery, matrix effect and stability, were within acceptable ranges and the method was appropriate for biological specimen analysis. The pharmacokinetic results indicated that the absolute bioavailabilities of UA after oral administration of UA and UE reached 69.2 and 146.9%, respectively. Compared with UA in UE, the relative bioavailability of DA, BA and EA reached 103.7, 10.4 and 0.7% after oral administration of UE. Keywords: depsides, dibenzofuran derivatives, pharmacokinetics, UPLC‐Q‐Exactive Orbitrap MS, Usnea longissima Ach, usnic acid.
28963Strengbom J., Axelsson E.P., Lundmark T. & Nordin A. (2018): Trade-offs in the multi- use potential of managed boreal forests. - Journal of Applied Ecology, 55: 958–966.
Implementing multi-use forest management to account for both commercial and non-commercial ecosystem services is gaining increased global recognition. Despite its spatial extent, and great economic and ecological values, few studies have evaluated the boreal forest and its management to assess the potential for simultaneous delivery of a suite of ecosystem services. Using data from a Swedish long-term experiment, this study explores how biodiversity of the ground vegetation and potential delivery of multiple ecosystem services (timber production, carbon [C] storage and non-timber forest products) are influenced by two common silvicultural practices (thinning, fertilization and their interaction). Diversity (diversity indices and species richness) of the ground vegetation was higher in thinned than in unthinned forest, a result attributable in part to six species of lichens that only occurred in thinned forest. In addition, supply of lichens for reindeer forage was three times higher in thinned forest. Fertilization negatively affected the lingonberry shrub (Vaccinium vitis-idaea). Timber production increased with fertilization, but decreased with thinning. The potential for C storage was highest in fertilized forests, which, apart from having the highest timber production, also supported the highest standing tree biomass. The silvicultural practices evaluated induced trade-offs among the ecosystem features studied as thinning increased biodiversity of the ground vegetation, production potential of wild berries and lichens, but reduced timber production and the potential for C storage. Fertilization had the opposite effect, promoting the potential for C storage at the expense of biodiversity and the ecosystem services delivered by the ground vegetation. Synthesis and applications. Increased multi-use potential is a common goal for forest management in many parts of the world. Our result shows that commonly used silvicultural practices can be used to determine the multi-use output, and might be applied to maintain, or even increase the multi-use potential of the boreal forest biome. Nevertheless, trade-offs among values were common, indicating that the multi-use potential will be limited at the site level. Allowing management objectives to vary across the landscape might, in such cases, be a preferable way to achieve high multi-use potential. Keywords: biodiversity, carbon storage, climate change, forest use, multi-use, non-timber forest products, reindeer forage, silvicultural, sustainable forest management, timber production.
28962Ghiloufi W. & Chaieb M. (2018): Differential effects of the crustose Diploschistes diacapsis and the squamulose Fulgensia bracteata on the establishment of a Mediterranean grass species. - African Journal of Ecology, 56(1): 109–115.
The interest of the scientific community in biological soil crusts has grown exponentially over the last decades. One of the scientific research interests is the study of the effect of these crusts on plant establishment. Findings in this topic have been controversial, and some differences were attributed to crust types. Biological soil crusts dominated by lichens are common components of Stipa tenacissima steppes in arid and semi-arid environments of the southern Mediterranean. In the current study, we conducted growth chamber experiments to investigate the differential effects of two lichen species with continuous crustose thalli (Diploschistes diacapsis) and with squamulose semicontinuous thalli (Fulgensia bracteata) on seed germination, root penetration, shoot emergence and seed viability of the tussock grass species S. tenacissima. Our results showed that under laboratory conditions, two distinct lichen species had significantly different effects on the establishment of S. tenacissima. Our findings clearly demonstrated that D. diacapsis significantly decreased germination, root penetration and shoot emergence of S. tenacissima compared to F. bracteata. This can be related to differences in morphological and physiological characteristics between crustose and squamulose lichens. Overall, we suggest that D. diacapsis and crustose lichens generally can act as natural barrier to the establishment of S. tenacissima. Key words: Diploschistes diacapsis, Fulgensia bracteata, germination, root penetration, shoot emergence, Stipa tenacissima.
28961Asplund J., Gauslaa Y. & Merinero S. (2018): Low synthesis of secondary compounds in the lichen Lobaria pulmonaria infected by the lichenicolous fungus Plectocarpon lichenum. - New Phytologist, 217: 1397–1400.
Key words: carbon-based secondary compounds (CBSCs), fungal parasites, lichens, parasitism, relative growth rate (RGR), symbiosis.
28960Brooker R.W., Brewer M.J., Britton A.J., Eastwood A., Ellis C., Gimona A., Poggio L. & Genney D.R. (2018): Tiny niches and translocations: The challenge of identifying suitable recipient sites for small and immobile species. - Journal of Applied Ecology, 55: 621–630.
Assisted colonisation, one form of species translocation, has been proposed as a tool for helping species to track suitable conditions in a changing climate. There are considerable practical challenges associated with it, including predicting where to place translocated individuals. This problem may be particularly big for small and immobile species, where small-scale microenvironmental conditions de-couple them from environmental conditions as projected in large-scale climate models. To investigate this problem, we developed a survey-based model to predict the occurrence of our target species, the fruticose terricolous arctic-alpine lichen, Flavocetraria nivalis, within the Cairngorm Mountains. We then undertook an experimental translocation of this species. A second model, using variables that were significant in the survey-based model, was only fair at predicting the initial pattern of survival at the recipient site. However, model fit of the translocation survival model improved over time as the distribution of surviving individuals more accurately reflected the distribution of suitable environmental conditions. In addition, model predictive power increased with the addition of data on microclimatic conditions at recipient plots. Synthesis and applications. Our results demonstrate that, for species which respond strongly to local environmental conditions, are immobile and, to some extent, decoupled from larger scale climates, it may be difficult to build a priori accurate predictive models of habitat suitability. In these cases, a combination of modelling and expert judgement, along with the movement of substantial numbers of transplants, may be the appropriate options for maximising the success of assisted colonisation. Keywords: arctic-alpine, assisted colonisation, climate change, Flavocetraria nivalis, immobile species, lichens, microclimate, modelling, translocated species, translocation.
28959Colesie C., Büdel B., Hurry V. & Green T.G.A. (2018): Can Antarctic lichens acclimatize to changes in temperature?. - Global Change Biology, 24: 1123–1135.
The Antarctic Peninsula, a tundra biome dominated by lichens and bryophytes, is an ecozone undergoing rapid temperature shifts. Such changes may demand a high physiological plasticity of the local lichen species to maintain their role as key drivers in this pristine habitat. This study examines the response of net photosynthesis and respiration to increasing temperatures for three Antarctic lichen species with different ecological response amplitudes. We hypothesize that negative effects caused by increased temperatures can be mitigated by thermal acclimation of respiration and/or photosynthesis. The fully controlled growth chamber experiment simulated intermediate and extreme temperature increases over the time course of 6 weeks. Results showed that, in contrast to our hypothesis, none of the species was able to down-regulate temperature-driven respiratory losses through thermal acclimation of respiration. Instead, severe effects on photobiont vitality demonstrated that temperatures around 15°C mark the upper limit for the two species restricted to the Antarctic, and when mycobiont demands exceeded the photobiont capacity they could not survive within the lichen thallus. In contrast, the widespread lichen species was able to recover its homoeostasis by rapidly increasing net photosynthesis. We conclude that to understand the complete lichen response, acclimation processes of both symbionts, the photo- and the mycobiont, have to be evaluated separately. As a result, we postulate that any acclimation processes in lichen are species-specific. This, together with the high degree of response variability and sensitivity to temperature in different species that co-occur spatially close, complicates any predictions regarding future community composition in the Antarctic. Nevertheless, our results suggest that species with a broad ecological amplitude may be favoured with on-going changes in temperature. Keywords: Antarctica, biological soil crusts, climate warming, lichen, net photosynthesis, thermal acclimation, Usnea aurantiaco-atra.
28958Willner W., Kuzemko A., Dengler J., Chytrý M., Bauer N., Becker T., Biţă-Nicolae C., Botta-Dukát Z., Čarni A., Csiky J., Igić R., Kącki Z., Korotchenko I., Kropf M., Krstivojević-Ćuk M., Krstonošić D., Rédei T., Ruprecht E., Schratt-Ehrendorfer L., Semenishchenkov Y., Stančić Z., Vashenya Y., Vynokurov D. & Janišová M. (2017): A higher-level classification of the Pannonian and western Pontic steppe grasslands (Central and Eastern Europe). - Applied Vegetation Science, 20(1): 143–158.
Questions: What are the main floristic patterns in the Pannonian and western Pontic steppe grasslands? What are the diagnostic species of the major subdivisions of the class Festuco-Brometea (temperate Euro-Siberian dry and semi-dry grasslands)? Location: Carpathian Basin (E Austria, SE Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Romania, Slovenia, N Croatia and N Serbia), Ukraine, S Poland and the Bryansk region of W Russia. Methods: We applied a geographically stratified resampling to a large set of relevés containing at least one indicator species of steppe grasslands. The resulting data set of 17 993 relevés was classified using the TWINSPAN algorithm. We identified groups of clusters that corresponded to the class Festuco-Brometea. After excluding relevés not belonging to our target class, we applied a consensus of three fidelity measures, also taking into account external knowledge, to establish the diagnostic species of the orders of the class. The original TWINSPAN divisions were revised on the basis of these diagnostic species. Results: The TWINSPAN classification revealed soil moisture as the most important environmental factor. Eight out of 16 TWINSPAN groups corresponded to Festuco-Brometea. A total of 80, 32 and 58 species were accepted as diagnostic for the orders Brometalia erecti, Festucetalia valesiacae and Stipo-Festucetalia pallentis, respectively. In the further subdivision of the orders, soil conditions, geographic distribution and altitude could be identified as factors driving the major floristic patterns. Conclusions: We propose the following classification of the Festuco-Brometea in our study area: (1) Brometalia erecti (semi-dry grasslands) with Scabioso ochroleucae-Poion angustifoliae (steppe meadows of the forest zone of E Europe) and Cirsio-Brachypodion pinnati (meadow steppes on deep soils in the forest-steppe zone of E Central and E Europe); (2) Festucetalia valesiacae (grass steppes) with Festucion valesiacae (grass steppes on less developed soils in the forest-steppe zone of E Central and E Europe) and Stipion lessingianae (grass steppes in the steppe zone); (3) Stipo-Festucetalia pallentis (rocky steppes) with Asplenio septentrionalis-Festucion pallentis (rocky steppes on siliceous and intermediate soils), Bromo-Festucion pallentis (thermophilous rocky steppes on calcareous soils), Diantho-Seslerion (dealpine Sesleria caerulea grasslands of the Western Carpathians) and Seslerion rigidae (dealpine Sesleria rigida grasslands of the Romanian Carpathians).
28957Buchholz S., Blick T., Hannig K., Kowarik I., Lemke A., Otte V., Scharon J., Schönhofer A., Teige T., von der Lippe M. & Seitz B. (2016): Biological richness of a large urban cemetery in Berlin. Results of a multi-taxon approach. - Biodiversity Data Journal, 4: e7057. doi: 10.3897/BDJ.4.e7057 [30 p.].
Background: Urban green spaces can harbor a considerable species richness of plants and animals. A few studies on single species groups indicate important habitat functions of cemeteries, but this land use type is clearly understudied compared to parks. Such data are important as they (i) illustrate habitat functions of a specific, but ubiquitous urban land-use type and (ii) may serve as a basis for management approaches. New information: We sampled different groups of plants and animals in the Weißensee Jewish Cemetery in Berlin (WJC) which is one of the largest Jewish cemeteries in Europe. With a total of 608 species of plants and animals, this first multi-taxon survey revealed a considerable biological richness in the WJC. In all, 363 wild-growing vascular plant, 72 lichen and 26 bryophyte taxa were recorded. The sampling also yielded 34 bird and 5 bat species as well as 39 ground beetle, 5 harvestman and 64 spider species. Some species are new records for Berlin. Keywords: bats, Berlin, birds, bryophytes carabids, harvestmen, graveyard, lichens, plants, spiders, urban cemetery.
28956Chacón S. & Tapia F. (2016): Algunas especies saprobias de Dothideomycetes y Lecanoromycetes (Pezizomycotina: Ascomycota) en México. - Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad, 87: 1169–1176.
We present a taxonomic study of six saprophytic ascomycetes, belonging to the orders Hysteriales, Lecanorales and Patellariales with apothecioidascoma. The species: Dactylospora stygia var. tenuispora, Hysteropatella clavispora, Rhizodiscina lignyota y Tryblidaria fenestrata are first recordsfrom Mexico, while D. stygia var. stygia and Patellaria atrata are added to the catalog of known Ascomycota of Veracruz. Relevant illustrationsand photographs of macro and micromorphological characters, as well as a dichotomous key to identify the treated species are included. Keywords: Mexican mycobiota; New locations; New records; Taxonomy.
28955Dorey J.E., Lendemer J.C. & Naczi R.F.C. (2018): Patterns of biodiverse, understudied groups do not mirror those of the surrogate groups that set conservation priorities: a case study from the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain of eastern North America. - Biodiversity and Conservation, 27: 31–51.
We conducted biodiversity inventories of lichens, woody plants, and sedges at 32 sites on the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain of eastern North America between November 2012 and June 2015. Each site comprised a single, uniform habitat, consisting of either Coastal Plain Floodplain forest, Coastal Plain Flatwood swamp, Coastal Plain Oak-Pine forest, Maritime forest, Mixed Mesic Hardwood forest, or Tidal forest. We compared alpha diversity and community assemblages of each organismal group across the sites, and compared selected minimal reserve sets in order to visualize biodiversity patterns and assess whether specific components of vascular plants (sedges and woody plants) serve as an effective surrogate for lichens. Woody plants provide a direct substrate for lichen growth, but there is no significant correlation between the alpha diversity of these groups. For conserving maximal species richness among the studied groups, lichens outperform the sedges and woody plants as the best surrogate group for building minimum reserve sets, even though vascular plants are more commonly used as a surrogate. Likewise, sedge alpha diversity does not correlate with lichens, or with woody plants. Although no group is an effective indicator for high alpha diversity sites of other organisms, a significant correlation between the community assemblages of lichens and woody plants suggests that protecting varied types of plant communities might serve as a workable surrogate for protecting lichens. The lack of congruence between species richness patterns across organismal groups suggests that the mechanisms that shape patterns of diversity are not identical, and that identifying and incorporating specific biodiversity indicators for understudied groups in conservation policy is necessary to ensure their protection. Keywords: Surrogates; Biodiversity indicators; Alpha diversity; Mid-Atlantic; Coastal Plain; Lichens; Vascular plants; Sedges.
28954Malaspina P., Casale M., Malegori C., Hooshyari M., Di Carro M., Magi E. & Giordani P. (2018): Combining spectroscopic techniques and chemometrics for the interpretation of lichen biomonitoring of air pollution. - Chemosphere, 198: 417–424.
A screening evaluation of lichen thalli, based on spectroscopic techniques coupled with chemometrics, is proposed as fast, simple and “green” method for the biomonitoring of air pollution. For two consecutive years, lichen thalli of Pseudevernia furfuracea were exposed for three months in selected sites of Liguria (NW-Italy) according to different levels and types of air pollution. At the end of the exposure period, transplanted thalli were analyzed by a set of monitoring techniques, including Front-Face Fluorescence Spectroscopy (FFFS), Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) and Plant Efficiency Analyser (PEA). Data were compared with values of air pollutants recorded during the exposure period by the Regional Agency for Environmental Protection, in order to relate lichen physiological indicators with the effects of atmospheric concentrations. A chemometric evaluation of the analytical signals, including principal component analysis (PCA) and quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA), was performed; the mean prediction rate of the discriminant models calculated on the FFFS emission spectra ranged from 70 to 75% on the external test sets. Frontface fluorescence spectroscopy proved to be a promising technique for the determination of level and type of pollutants in lichen thalli. Keywords: Lichens; Air pollution; FFFS; NIRS; PEA; Chemometrics.
28953Serafini I., Lombardi L., Reverberi M., Ciccola A., Calà E., Sciubba F., Guiso M., Postorino P., Aceto M. & Bianco A. (2018): New advanced extraction and analytical methods applied to discrimination of different lichen species used for orcein dyed yarns: Preliminary results. - Microchemical Journal, 138: 447–456.
In this paper, the preliminary results of a study aimed to discriminate between the different species of lichens, from which orchil dyes originate, are presented. A multi-analytical approach has been used to analyze several species of lichens, in particular Roccella tinctoria DC, Lasallia pustulata L. and Ochrolechia tartarea L., in an attempt to identify distinguishing markers within different orchil mixtures. In the first part of the research, samples of yarns dyed with the different species, prepared in laboratory after the proper raw lichens treatment, have been subjected to SERS on fiber analyses. Hence an innovative ammonia protocol has been applied to all the specimens. Firstly, in order to evaluate the difference among the different species, HPTLC has been applied to the extracts of dyed yarns and the dye baths. All the spots present on the TLC plates have been analyzed through SERS (HPTLC-SERS), in order to obtain a SERS database of each single compound, fixed on the yarns. Then,HPTLCMS and HPLC-MS experiments have been carried out, in order to deep into the identification of compounds corresponding to each spot. Keywords: Biogeography; Indian Ocean; Lobariaceae; Photomorph; Radiation.
28952Simon A., Goffinet B., Magain N. & Sérusiaux E. (2018): High diversity, high insular endemism and recent origin in the lichen genus Sticta (lichenized Ascomycota, Peltigerales) in Madagascar and the Mascarenes. - Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 122: 15–28.
Lichen biodiversity and its generative evolutionary processes are practically unknown in the MIOI (Madagascar and Indian Ocean Islands) biodiversity hotspot. We sought to test the hypothesis that lichenized fungi in this region have undergone a rapid radiation, following a single colonization event, giving rise to narrow endemics, as is characteristic of other lineages of plants. We extensively sampled specimens of the lichen genus Sticta in the Mascarene archipelago (mainly Réunion) and in Madagascar, mainly in the northern range (Amber Mt and Marojejy Mt) and produced the fungal ITS barcode sequence for 148 thalli. We further produced a four-loci data matrix for 68 of them, representing the diversity and geographical distribution of ITS haplotypes. We reconstructed the phylogenetic relationships within this group, established species boundaries with morphological context, and estimated the date of the most recent common ancestor. Our inferences resolve a robust clade comprising 31 endemic species of Sticta that arose from the diversification following a single recent (c. 11 Mya) colonization event. All but three species have a very restricted range, endemic to either the Mascarene archipelago or a single massif in Madagascar. The first genus of lichens to be studied with molecular data in this region underwent a recent radiation, exhibits micro-endemism, and thus exemplifies the biodiversity characteristics found in other taxa in Madagascar and the Mascarenes. Keywords: Biogeography; Indian Ocean; Lobariaceae; Photomorph; Radiation.
28951Bendiksby M., Reese Næsborg R. & Timdal E. (2018): Xylopsora canopeorum (Umbilicariaceae), a new lichen species from the canopy of Sequoia sempervirens. - MycoKeys, 30: 1–15.
Xylopsora canopeorum Timdal, Reese Næsborg & Bendiksby is described as a new species occupying the crowns of large Sequoia sempervirens trees in California, USA. The new species is supported by morphology, anatomy, secondary chemistry and DNA sequence data. While similar in external appearance to X. friesii, it is distinguished by forming smaller, partly coralloid squamules, by the occurrence of soralia and, in some specimens, by the presence of thamnolic acid in addition to friesiic acid in the thallus. Molecular phylogenetic results are based on nuclear (ITS and LSU) as well as mitochondrial (SSU) ribosomal DNA sequence alignments. Phylogenetic hypotheses obtained using Bayesian Inference, Maximum Likelihood and Maximum Parsimony all support X. canopeorum as a distinct evolutionary lineage belonging to the X. caradocensis–X. friesii clade. Keywords: California, epiphytic, Hypocenomyce, integrative taxonomy, morphology, multiple DNA sequence alignment, phylogeny, redwood forest, TLC.
28950Printzen C., Blanchon D.J., Fryday A.M., de Lange P.J., Houston D.M. & Rolfe J.R. (2017): Lecanora kohu, a new species of Lecanora (lichenised Ascomycota: Lecanoraceae) from the Chatham Islands, New Zealand. - New Zealand Journal of Botany, 55: 439–451.
Lecanora kohu Printzen, Blanchon, Fryday et de Lange is described as new to science from Rangatira (South East Island), Chatham Islands. It is morphologically similar to L. symmicta (Ach.) Ach., from which it is distinguished by the continuous, areolate thallus, immersed apothecia with pale pink to pink-brown discs, and by the presence of atranorin and psoromic acid rather than usnic acid, zeorin and xanthones in the thallus. The new species is so far known only from Rangatira (South East Island), the southernmost of the three main islands of the Chatham Islands group where it was collected twice in 2015 on the bark of Melicytus chathamicus (Violaceae) and on the bark of an undescribed species of Muehlenbeckia (Polygonaceae), M. aff. australis. Using the New Zealand Threat Classification System, the new species has been assessed as ‘Data Deficient’.
28949Rola K. & Osyczka P. (2018): Cryptogamic communities as a useful bioindication tool for estimating the degree of soil pollution with heavy metals. - Ecological Indicators, 88: 454–464.
Lichens and bryophytes have commonly been used as bioindicators of environmental conditions, especially in relation to air quality. However, their diagnostic role in the assessment of soil pollution is relatively poorly recognised. The aim of this study was to find a pattern of cryptogamic biota structure associated with zinc and lead soil pollution and to thereby identify common signal species useful for bioindication purposes. The study area encompassed various types of anthropogenic and semi-natural habitats directly associated with the processing of Zn-Pb ores in southern Poland. Detailed analysis of cryptogamic biota with respect to the chemical parameters of the corresponding soil enabled us to identify three different pollution classes related to the concentration of heavy metals and four distinct groups of ecologically close species with similar responses to the prevailing level of pollution. The significant relationship between soil chemical parameters and cryptogamic biota structure implies the high bioindicative value of the defined lichen and bryophyte assemblages. Consequently, specific sets of distinct species reflecting levels of pollution were instrumental in the development of a practical tool. This approach may constitute a first step in soil quality assessment in a broad landscape scale. It provides an opportunity for preliminary verification of the sites that are potentially the most contaminated and which require further attention, for example, within the framework of restoration projects, reclamation interventions, or conservation strategies. The proposed bioindication approach involves common, widespread lichens and bryophytes, thus increasing the potential for its wide application in post-industrial areas associated with the mining and processing of Zn-Pb ores. Keywords: Lichens; Bryophytes; Cryptogamic biota structure; Zn-Pb ores; Post-industrial areas; Environmental assessment.
28948Wierzchos J., Casero M.C., Artieda C. & Ascaso C. (2018): Endolithic microbial habitats as refuges for life in polyextreme environment of the Atacama Desert. - Current Opinion in Microbiology, 143: 124–131.
The extremely harsh conditions of hyperarid deserts are a true challenge for microbial life. Microorganisms thriving in such polyextreme environments are fascinating as they can tell us more about life, its strategies and its boundaries than other groups of organisms. The Atacama Desert (North Chile) holds two world records of extreme environmental characteristics: the lowest rainfall and greatest surface ultraviolet radiation and total solar irradiance ever measured on Earth. Despite these limiting conditions for life, we recently identified several remarkable examples of endolithic habitats colonized by phototrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms in the hyperarid core of the Atacama Desert.
28947Kłos A., Ziembik Z., Rajfur M., Dołhańczuk-Śródka A., Bochenek Z., Bjerke J.W., Tømmervik H., Zagajewski B., Ziółkowski D., Jerz D., Zielińska M., Krems P., Godyń P., Marciniak M. & Świsłowski P. (2018): Using moss and lichens in biomonitoring of heavy-metal contamination of forest areas in southern and north-eastern Poland. - Science of the Total Environment, 627: 438–449.
In the years 2014–2016 biomonitoring studies were conducted in the forest areas of south and north-eastern Poland: the Karkonosze Mountains, the Beskidy Mountains, the Borecka Forest, the Knyszyńska Forest and the Białowieska Forest. This study used epigeic moss Pleurozium schreberi and epiphytic lichens Hypogymnia physodes. Samples were collected in spring, summer and autumn. Approximately 500 samples of moss and lichens were collected for the study. In the samples, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb concentrations were determined. Based on the obtained results, the studied areas were ranked by extent of heavy-metal deposition: Beskidy > Karkonosze Mountains > forests of north-eastern Poland. Some seasonal changes in concentrations of metals accumulated in moss and lichens were also indicated. There was observed, i.a., an increase in Cd concentration at the beginning of the growing season, which may be related to low emissions during the heating season. Analysis of the surface distribution of deposition of metals in the studied areas showed a significant contribution of nearby territorial emissions and unidentified local emission sources. The contribution of distant emission to Zn, Hg and Pb deposition levels in the Karkonosze and Beskidy region was also indicated.
28946del Hoyo A., Alvarez R., Gasulla F., Casano L.M. & del Campo E.M. (2018): Origin and evolution of chloroplast group I introns in lichen algae. - Journal of Phycology, 54(1): 66–78.
The history of group I introns is characterized by repeated horizontal transfers, even among phylogenetically distant species. The symbiogenetic thalli of lichens are good candidates for the horizontal transfer of genetic material among distantly related organisms, such as fungi and green algae. The main goal of this study was to determine whether there were different trends in intron distribution and properties among Chlorophyte algae based on their phylogenetic relationships and living conditions. Therefore, we investigated the occurrence, distribution and properties of group I introns within the chloroplast LSU rDNA in 87 Chlorophyte algae including lichen and free-living Trebouxiophyceae compared to freeliving non-Trebouxiophyceae species. Overall, our findings showed that there was high diversity of group I introns and homing endonucleases (HEs) between Trebouxiophyceae and non-Trebouxiophyceae Chlorophyte algae, with divergence in their distribution patterns, frequencies and properties. However, the differences between lichen Trebouxiophyceae and free-living Trebouxiophyceae were smaller. An exception was the cL2449 intron, which was closely related to x elements in yeasts. Such introns seem to occur more frequently in lichen Trebouxiophyceae compared to free-living Trebouxiophyceae. Our data suggest that lichenization and maintenance of lichen symbiosis for millions of years of evolution may have facilitated horizontal transfers of specific introns/ HEs between symbionts. The data also suggest that sequencing of more chloroplast genes harboring group I introns in diverse algal groups may help us to understand the group I intron/HE transmission process within these organisms. Key index words: 23S rRNA; Chlorophyta; chloroplast; homing endonuclease; intron; LAGLIDADG; phycobiont; Trebouxiophyceae.
28945Wijayawardene N.N., Hyde K.D., Lumbsch H.T., Liu J.K., Maharachchikumbura S.S.N., Ekanayaka A.H., Tian Q. & Phookamsak R. (2018): Outline of Ascomycota: 2017. - Fungal Diversity, 88: 167–263.
Taxonomic placement of genera have been changing rapidly as taxonomists widely use DNA sequence data in phylogenetic and evolutionary studies. It is essential to update existing databases/outlines based on recent studies, since these sources are widely used as a foundation for other research. In this outline, we merge both asexual and sexual genera into one outline. The phylum Ascomycota comprises of three subphyla viz. Pezizomycotina (including 13 classes, 124 orders and 507 families), Saccharomycotina (including one class, one order and 13 families) and Taphrinomycotina (five classes, five orders and six families). Approximately, 6600 genera have been listed under different taxonomic ranks including auxiliary (intermediate) taxonomic ranks. Keywords: Asexual genera  Classification  Sexual genera  Systematic  Taxonomic ranks.
28944Osyczka P., Boroń P., Lenart-Boroń A. & Rola K. (2018): Modifications in the structure of the lichen Cladonia thallus in the aftermath of habitat contamination and implications for its heavy-metal accumulation capacity. - Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 25(2): 1950–1961.
Phenotypic traits of lichens can be greatly modified by environmental factors. Granulose thalli on soil and podetia, densely covered with granules, referring to common and widespread lichen Cladonia cervicornis subsp. verticillata were found near zinc smelter. The granules are stratified, filled with fungal medulla and heavily encrusted with calcium oxalate weddellite crystals, not observed on regularly developed thalli of the species. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that deformed granulose forms belong to this taxon, showing that the phenotypic plasticity of the lichens of Cladonia can lead to the emergence of features that do not coincide with the taxonomic definition of the species. The heavy-metal accumulation capacity of both granulose and regular form of primary and secondary lichen thallus, in relation to the element content in corresponding substrate, was determined. Granulose-modified thalli accumulate greater amounts of heavy metals than regular ones, meaning that the bioaccumulation property of a given species may be greatly affected by morphological modifications. The granulose forms are also characterised by considerably higher ratios of Cd, Pb and As concentrations in lichen samples in relation to the corresponding substrates than regular ones. This means that collection of variously formed thalli should be avoided in biomonitoring sampling procedures. The results indicate that a substantial part of the element load, in particular zinc, in the examined lichen thalli collected near the smelter originates from atmospheric fallout. Keywords: Lichenized fungi; Phenotypic plasticity; Heavy metals; Bioaccumulation; Oxalate crystals; Biomonitoring; Thallus anatomy.
28943Moon K.H., Nakanishi M., Aptroot A., Kuchitsu N., Futagami Y., Sophearin S. & Kashiwadani H. (2013): Lichens found in Ta Nei Temple and its adjacent areas of Angkor, Siem Reap, Cambodia. - 保存科学 [Science for Conservation], 52: 43–57.
The lichens flora of Angkor, Siem Reap, Cambodia was investigated from 2005 to 2011 with special attention to the Ta Nei temple. So far we have recognized 15 families (including two incertae sedis), 15 genera and 45 species of lichens from the area, and an annotated checklist of them is provided. Among them following 25 species are new records for lichen flora of Cambodia;Agonimia tristicula, Arthonia cinnabarina, Chapsa indica, Coccocarpia erythroxyli, Coenogonium pineti, Dictyonema moorei, Dirinaria consimilis, Fellhanera fuscatula, Flakea papillata, Hyperphyscia granulate, Hyperphyscia syncolla, Laurera benguelensis, Myriotrema compunctum, Nadvornikia sorediate, Parmotrema saccatilobum, Peltula omphaliza, Phyllopsora furfuracea, Porina mastoidea, Porina nuculastrum, Porina papuensis, Pyrenula quassiaecola, Pyxine coralligera, Pyxine meissnerina, Rinodina atrofuscata and Trapelia coarctata.
28942Sun Y., Li J., Zhang Y., Tu Y., Huang C., Tao J., Yang M. & Yang L. (2018): The polysaccharide extracted from Umbilicaria esculenta inhibits proliferation of melanoma cells through ROS-activated mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. - Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 41(1): 57–64.
Melanoma is one of the most aggressive skin cancers with an increasing rate of morbidity. Umbilicaria esculenta is an edible lichen and its main component of extracts—polysaccharide (PUE) has shown significant antitumor effects in a variety of cancer types such as stomach adenocarcinoma. However, whether it has an anti-melanoma effect and the underlying mechanism has not been revealed. In this article, we showed that PUE extracted from Umbilicaria esculenta could inhibit the growth of A875 and A375 melanoma cells but without obvious toxicity to normal vascular endothelial cells. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in A875 cells was significantly elevated when treated with PUE for 24h. In addition, the expression of caspase-3 and -9 also increased as compared to the controlled group which resulted in the apoptosis of A875 melanoma cells. In the meantime, when pre-treated with N-acetylcysteine (NAC), the ROS scavenger, PUE induced apoptosis and cell death could be reversed via suppression of elevated generation of ROS and ROSmediated caspase-9 expression. In summary, our study demonstrated that PUE extracts from Umbilicaria esculenta have a potent anti-melanoma effect through the induction of ROS and caspases-3 and -9. It could provide a promising strategy of melanoma therapy with the components from the extracts of natural and edible plants such as lichen Umbilicaria esculenta. Key words Umbilicaria esculenta; extract; melanoma; reactive oxygen species; caspase.
28941中西 勤 [Nakanishi T.] (2007): 植物界(生薬及び植物)から薬用成分の探索と構造研究 [Search and structural elucidation of medicinal products from the vegetable kingdom (crude drugs and plant materials)]. - Yakugaku Zasshi, 127(12): 1975–1996.
[in Japanese with English abstract:] This review describes chemical and biological studies on natural products achieved by the author for the latest 47 years and its main contents are composed of the following researches of the eight sections, entitled 1) Hopane-type triterpenes from a lichen, Parmelia leucotyliza, 2) Spirostanol and frostanol glycosides from Metanarthecium luteo-viride (Liliaceae), 3) Selective reduction of double bonds: preparation of 22,23-dihydroergosterol from ergosterol, 4) Compositions and structures of fragrant sesquiterpenes from several types of agarwoods, 5) Triterpenes and other components from Meliaceous plants, 6) Constituents of seeds of crude drugs and medicinal plants, 7) Hopane-type triterpene glycosides from a fern, Diplazium subsinuatum, 8) Search and structural elucidation of biologically active components from American plants obtained from United States of America (Oregon and California), Mexico, Guatemala, and Honduras. In this review, many classes of natural products, i.e., terpenoids (mono-, sesqui-, di-, and triterpenoids), steroids, glycosides, saponins, tannins, phenylpropanoids, lignans, flavonoids (flavones, flavonols, flavanones, biflavones, flavan-3-ols, etc.), etc. are dealt with and referred to.
28940Kobayashi K. (2017): A phytosociological study on the moss and lichen communities in Cape Hinode, Antarctica. - 南極資料 (Nankyoku Shiryô) [Antarctic Record], 61: 57–80.
Under the project of the 15th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition, the field investigation was carried out between December 30, 1973 and January 6, 1974 in Cape Hinode. This paper was undertaken to classify and describe the moss and lichen communities in Cape Hinode according to the vegetation concept and method of the Zürich-Montpellier (Z-M) school of phytosociology. The following vegetation units of moss and lichen communities were classified: A. Ceratodontetum purpurei ass. nov.: 1. Subass. of typicum, 2. Subass. of Protoblastenia citrina, 3. Subass. of Protoblastenia citrina-Rinodina olivaceobrunnea, 4. Subass. of Rinodina olivaceobrunnea, 5. Subass. of Alectoria minuscula, 6. Subass. of Alectoria minuscula-Buellia frigida, 7. Subass. of Buellia frigida; B. Buellietum frigidae ass. nov.: 8. Subass. of typicum, 9. Subass. of Caloplaca elegans var. pulvinata; C. Alectorietum minusculae ass. nov.: 10. Subass. of Buellia frigida, 11. Subass. of typicum. Each vegetation unit classified was described with an association table showing floristic composition and data on growing habitat. The distribution of each subassociation was shown on the map. The relationships among 11 classified subassociations were examined using the similarity index. Keywords: phytosociology, association, subassociation, fidelity, classify.
28939Garrido-Benavent I. & Pérez-Ortega S. (2017): Past, present, and future research in bipolar lichen-forming fungi and their photobionts. - American Journal of Botany, 104(11): 1660–1674.
Compared to other organisms, such as vascular plants or mosses, lichen-forming fungi have a high number of species occurring in both northern and southern hemispheres but are largely absent from intermediate, tropical latitudes. For instance, ca. 160 Antarctic species also occur in polar areas or mountainous temperate regions of the northern hemisphere. Early interpretations of this particular distribution pattern were made in terms of vicariance or long-distance dispersal. However, it was not until the emergence of phylogenetics and the possibility of dating past diversifi cation and colonization events that these initial hypotheses started to be evaluated. The premise of a relatively recent colonization of the southern hemisphere by boreal lichens through long-distance dispersal has gained support in recent studies based on either the comparison of genetic affi nities (i.e., tree topology) or more robust, statistical migratory models. Still, the scarcity of such studies and a concern that taxonomic concepts for bipolar lichens are often too broad preclude the generation of sound explanations on the mechanisms and origin of such fascinating disjunct distributions. This review provides an up-to-date overview of bipolar distributions in lichen-forming fungi and their photobionts. Evidence provided by recent, molecular- based studies as well as data on the type of lichen reproduction, dispersal ability, photobiont identity and availability, and habitat preferences are brought together to discuss how and when these distributions originated and their genetic footprints. Ideas for future prospects and research are also discussed. Key words: Antarctica; bipolar distribution; ecological niche; lichens; long-distance dispersal; nrITS; phylogeography; symbiotic interactions; vicariance.
28938Osyczka P. (2018): How many conidia are contained in one pycnidium? Volumetric characteristics of pycnidium and conidial counts estimated for Lichenoconium pyxidatae. - Lichenologist, 50(1): 147-151.
Taxonomic descriptions inevitably reflect the shapes of organisms in reduced form since the dimensions of all possible diagnostic characteristics are routinely considered at the planar level. By contrast the three- dimensional conformations of structures are difficult to define and remain unspecified. At present, it is difficult to assess the importance of volumetric characteristics for diagnostic taxonomy; however, some biological detail might be obtained from spatial data. When the pycnidia of lichenicolous fungi are examined under a microscope, as in the case of Lichenoconium pyxidatae (Oudem.) Petr. & Syd. (Fig. 1A), it is evident that the produc- tion of conidia by a single pycnidium is pro- lific, although hard to quantify. The question as to how many conidia are contained inside one pycnidium may arise. This study reveals previously unknown information about the structure and function of lichenicolous fungi. In particular, it gives an insight into the scale of reproductive effort represented by a single pycnidium, the quantity of conidia produced by conidiogenous cells and the general volu- metric proportions of the wall with con- idiogenous cells, internally generated conidia and empty space between them.
28937Solhaug K.A. (2018): Low-light recovery effects on assessment of photoinhibition with chlorophyll fluorescence in lichens. - Lichenologist, 50(1): 139–145.
Chlorophyll a fluorescence is often used to estimate various types of damage in lichens. In order to optimize the output and improve interpretations of such measurements the protocol for pretreatment and measuring is important. To study the effects of measurement conditions, the lichens Lobaria pulmonaria, L. scrobiculata, Xanthoria parietina and Parmelia sulcata were first stressed by high light intensities at 600 or 1000 μmol photons m−2 s−1 for 4 h. Then various conditions during recovery or pretreatment were used to optimize the detection of more lasting damage. Recovery from photoinhibition was incomplete in darkness, whereas light as low as 0·2 or 1·0 μmol m−2 s−1 resulted in complete recovery if the recovery period was long enough. Additionally, low intensity light given for1·5 h after one day in darkness caused rapid and complete recovery. In conclusion, before measuring maximal PSII efficiency (Fv/Fm) with chlorophyll fluorescence, it is important to let lichens recover in low intensity light and not in darkness, to optimize recovery from photoinhibition; dark adaptation can only be recommended if the photoinhibition status of the lichens is of interest. D1 protein, Lobaria pulmonaria, Lobaria scrobiculata, Parmelia sulcata, photosystem II, Xanthoria parietina
28936Molins A., Moya P., García-Breijo F.J., Reig-Armiñana J. & Barreno E. (2018): A multi-tool approach to assess microalgal diversity in lichens: isolation, Sanger sequencing, HTS and ultrastructural correlations. - Lichenologist, 50(1): 123-138.
Lichen thalli represent the most conspicuous examples of fungal-algal interactions. Studies that describe phycobiont diversity within entire thalli are based mainly on Sanger sequencing. In some lichen species, this technique could underestimate the intrathalline coexistence of multiple microalgae. In this study different multi-tool approaches were applied to two lichen taxa, Circinaria hispida and Flavoparmelia soredians, to detect algal coexistence. Here, we combined Sanger sequencing, a specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primer, 454-pyrosequencing, phycobiont isolation and ultrastructural characterization. Furthermore, we compared pyrenoid ultrastructural features of lichenized phycobionts with microalgae isolated in culture. An improved methodology was used to isolate and propagate phycobionts which, in combination with fast genetic identification, resulted in a considerable reduction in time and cost to complete the process. This isolation method, coupled with a specific PCR primer, allowed for the detection of coexisting algae in C. hispida (four Trebouxia lineages). 454-pyrosequencing detected only a fraction of such diversity, while Sanger sequencing identified only the primary phycobiont. Ultrastructural features of the isolated algae were observed by transmission electron microscopy; the maintenance of the pyrenoid characteristics suggested the existence of different Trebouxia lineages. In F. soredians a single Trebouxia lineage was identified using all these approaches. In cases of lichens with algal coexistence, a combination of different molecular and ultrastructural approaches may be required to reveal the underlying algal diversity within a single thallus. The approach proposed in this study provides information about the relationship between molecular and ultrastructural data, and represents an improvement in the delimitation of taxonomic features which is needed to recognize intrathalline Trebouxia diversity. coexistence, propagation, Trebouxia photobionts, 454-pyrosequencing
28935Cornejo C. & Scheidegger C. (2018): Estimating the timescale of Lobaria diversification. - Lichenologist, 50(1): 113-121.
Using an ITS mutation rate as calibration reference, a three-locus timetree was generated for the genus Lobaria and its most important clades. The timetree resolved most clades with strong support and gave an estimate of the diversification time for Lobaria during the early Oligocene. A fossil impression from a 12–24 million-year-old Miocene deposit is hypothesized here to belong to an ancestral Lobaria species. Additionally, the age estimate indicates that the paleoclimate and the closing or opening of the Bering Strait played a major role in shaping the current distribution of most Lobaria species. It is hypothesized that the Bering land bridge acted as a major highway during warm-temperate climate periods, but as a barrier during Arctic climate times. ascomycetes, Bering land bridge, disjunction, fossil impression, lichens, mutation rate, time-calibrated phylogeny
28934Purvis O.W., Fernández-Brime S., Westberg M. & Wedin M. (2018): Myriospora, a genus newly reported for Antarctica with a worldwide key to the species. - Lichenologist, 50(1): 89-99.
Myriospora signyensis Purvis, Fdez-Brime, M. Westb. & Wedin is described from Signy Island, South Orkney Islands, Antarctica, where it occurs predominantly on quartz mica schist. This represents the first record of the genus for Antarctica. The distinctive interrupted photobiont arrangement places it within the genus Myriospora (formerly known as the ‘Acarospora’ smaragdula group, or Silobia). The new species is characterized by having large, distinctly elevated, sessile apothecia with a prominent margin and a thallus that is usually lobed at the margins and variously orange-red, rust-coloured or brown-pigmented. Molecular phylogenetic analyses inferred with strong support that M. signyensis is closely related to M. scabrida which is similar in having a lobed, imbricate thallus with large and frequently somewhat raised apothecia, but which differs in never being rusty red, by frequently having a larger number of apothecia per areole/squamule and by having a thick and distinctive thalline epinecral layer. Myriospora signyensis is otherwise most similar to M. dilatata but the thallus of M. dilatata is never imbricate-lobate and the ascomata of M. signyensis have larger and more distinctly raised and sessile apothecia. A worldwide key to the 10 species currently recognized in the genus is presented. Acarosporaceae, lichenized fungus, refugia, taxonomy
28933Zhang Y.Y., Wang X.Y., Liu D., Shi H.X., Yang M.X., Li L.J. & Wang L.S. (2018): New species and new records of Ophioparmaceae (lichenized Ascomycota) from China. - Lichenologist, 50(1): 89-99.
The lichen family Ophioparmaceae contains three genera: Boreoplaca, Hypocenomyce and Ophioparma. The genus Hypocenomyce is reported here for the first time for China, being represented by the species Hypocenomyce scalaris which is distributed in south-western China. For the genus Ophioparma, one new species is described in this paper, namely Ophioparma pruinosa Li S. Wang & Y. Y. Zhang sp. nov., which is characterized by a pruinose thallus and the presence of usnic acid. Ophioparma araucariae is also reported as new for the Chinese lichen biota. Previous reports of O. lapponica in China are recognized as misidentifications of O. ventosa. Descriptions, keys and phylograms are provided for these species. alpine zone, haemoventosin, lichen diversity, taxonomy
28932Aptroot A., Sipman H.J.M., Mercado Diaz J.A., Mendonça de Oliveira C., Feuerstein S.C., Cunha-Dias I.P.R., Pereira T.A. & Cáceres da Silva M.E. (2018): Eight new species of Pyrenulaceae from the Neotropics, with a key to 3-septate Pyrgillus species. - Lichenologist, 50(1): 77-87.
Eight new species of Pyrenulaceae are described as new to science from Brazil, Guyana and Puerto Rico. Pyrenula sanguineomeandrata Aptroot & Mercado Diaz (with a thallus with red, KOH+ purple pigmentation of lines or a reticulum, simple ascomata with vertical ostioles, a deep red inspersed, KOH+ orange hamathecium, and dark brown 3-septate ascospores 25–29 × 10–12 μm) and P. sanguineostiolata Aptroot & Mercado Diaz (with a thallus with deeply immersed simple ascomata with vertical ostioles, which are superficial and bright red, and 3-septate ascospores 25–28×9–12μm) are described from submontane evergreen forests in Puerto Rico. Pyrenula biseptata Aptroot & M. Cáceres (with simple ascomata with vertical ostioles, an inspersed hamathecium and 2-septate ascospores 11–12 × 4·5–5·0 μm) and P. xanthinspersa Aptroot & M. Cáceres (with an ecorticate thallus containing lichexanthone, simple ascomata with vertical ostioles, not inspersed hamathecium and 3-septate ascospores 14–17 × 6·0–7·5 μm) are described from rainforest in Amazonian Brazil. Pyrenula subvariabilis Aptroot & Sipman (with fused ascomata with lateral ostioles and submuriform ascospores 17–20(–25)×6–9μm) and Sulcopyrenula biseriata Aptroot & Sipman (with a thallus containing lichexanthone, simple ascomata with lateral ostioles and lozenge-shaped ascospores with 8 locules, (13–)15–17(–20) × 8–10 (width) × 6–7 (thickness) μm) are described from savannahs in Guyana. Special attention is paid to the genus Pyrgillus: two new species from the 3-septate core group of this small genus are described from Brazil, viz. P. aurantiacus Aptroot & M. Cáceres (with a corticate thallus containing lichexanthone, mazaedium with orange, KOH+ violet, UV+ red pruina and ascospores of 13–16×6·0–7·5μm) and P. rufus Aptroot & M. Cáceres (with a corticate thallus containing lichexanthone, mazaedium with dark red, KOH+ orange, UV+ red pruina and ascospores of 15·0–17·5 × 5·0–6·5 μm). An updated key to the 3-septate species of Pyrgillus is provided. Brazil, Guyana, lichen, Puerto Rico, Pyrenula, Sulcopyrenula
28931Onut-Brännström I., Johannesson H. & Tibell L. (2018): Thamnolia tundrae sp. nov., a cryptic species and putative glacial relict. - Lichenologist, 50(1): 59-75.
The lichen species of the genus Thamnolia, with their striking wormlike thalli and frequent occurrence in arctic and tundra environments, have often been debated with regard to the use of chemistry in lichen taxonomy. Phylogenetic studies have arrived at different conclusions as to the recognition of species in the genus, but in a recent study based on the analyses of six nuclear markers (genes or noncoding regions) of a worldwide sample of Thamnolia, we showed the existence of three well-supported lineages with two different chemistries and geographical distributions. Here, we present two analyses based on ITS and three markers, respectively, which were extended from the study mentioned above to include type specimens and additional Thamnolia strains and taxa. In these analyses the same three clades were retrieved. A putative DEAD-box helicase is used here for the first time as an informative phylogenetic marker to provide taxonomic resolution at species level. The distribution of morphological and chemical characters across the phylogeny was analyzed and it was concluded that three morphologically cryptic, but genetically well supported, species occur: T. vermicularis s. str., T. subuliformis s. str. and T. tundrae sp. nov. Thamnolia vermicularis s. str. contains individuals with uniform secondary chemistry (producing thamnolic acid) and a rather limited distribution in the European Alps, Tatra Mts and the Western Carpathians, a distribution which might result from glacial survival in an adjacent refugium/refugia. Thamnolia subuliformis s. str. is widely distributed in all hemispheres and the samples contain two chemotypes (either with thamnolic or squamatic acids). Thamnolia tundrae is described as new; it produces baeomycesic and squamatic acids, and has a distribution limited to the arctic tundra of Eurasia extending to the Aleutian Islands in North America. It may have survived the latest glaciation in coastal refugia near its present distribution. Thus, secondary chemistry alone is not suitable for characterizing species in Thamnolia, secondary chemistry and geographical origin are informative, and the ITS region can be confidently used for species recognition. Nomenclatural notes are given on several other names that have been used in Thamnolia. lichens, molecular phylogeny, new species, nomenclature, secondary chemistry, taxonomy
28930Czarnota P. & Guzow-Krzeminska B. (2018): Bacidina mendax sp. nov., a new widespread species in Central Europe, together with a new combination within the genus Bacidina. - Lichenologist, 50(1): 43-57.
Bacidina mendax, described here as a new lichen species, appears to be common and widespread, at least in Central Europe. Analyses of the ITS rDNA region and the morphology of specimens showed an intraspecific variation in the new taxon. It differs from B. neosquamulosa in the lack of a subsquamulose thallus, and from B. caligans in its longer and only slightly curved to apically hooked conidia and lack of a granular (sorediate) thallus. Since ITS rDNA data support the inclusion of Bacidia pycnidiata Czarnota & Coppins in the genus Bacidina, a new combination is proposed. ITS rDNA, lichen taxonomy, lichenized fungi, molecular phylogeny
28929Orange A. (2018): A new species-level taxonomy for Trapelia (Trapeliaceae, Ostropomycetidae) with special reference to Great Britain and the Falkland Islands. - Lichenologist, 50(1): 3-42.
Trapelia is a small genus of worldwide distribution. Trapelia coarctata has long been regarded as a morphologically variable species and phylogenetic studies have suggested that it is non- monophyletic, or at least that species are frequently misidentified. The phylogenetic relationships of freshly-collected material of Trapelia were studied using ITS, mitochondrial SSU rDNA and to a small extent also beta-tubulin sequence data, together with chemical and morphological characters. Sequence data combined with morphology and chemistry confirm that the diversity of the genus at species-level has been underestimated. Trapelia coarctata is defined in a more restricted way and many specimens previously referable to this taxon are assigned to the reinstated species T. elacista, which differs in subtle morphological characters including a crack separating the thallus and apothecium in well-developed thalli. Trapelia involuta is reinstated as a separate, though closely related, species to T. glebulosa based on sequence data, morphology and chemistry, and is lectotypified. Trapelia collaris is a distinctive species described as new from Great Britain which has an extensive, cracked thallus with abruptly thickening marginal areoles arising on an inconspicuous prothallus, relatively small apothecia (rarely exceeding 300μm diameter) and contains 5-O-methylhiascic acid as the major secondary substance. Trapelia obtegens is shown to include frequent non-sorediate morphs which have doubtless been misidentified as other species. The number of species of Trapelia considered to occur in Europe is thus raised from five to eight. The genus is newly reported for the Falkland Islands where seven species occur: T. coarctata, T. placodioides, T. sitiens sp. nov. (with a thin, extensive thallus, sessile apothecia, 5-O-methylhiascic acid as the major secondary substance and the presence of conidiomata), T. tristis sp. nov. (with relatively small apothecia up to 460 μm diameter, presence of gyrophoric acid as the major substance and an absence of conidiomata) and three unidentified species represented by very sparse material. All the species studied, with the possible exception of the three unidentified species, can usually be distinguished by morphological features, particularly the method of development of the thallus and the shape and distribution of the areoles, but morphological variation in response to microhabitat variation is likely to make a proportion of specimens difficult to assign to species in the absence of sequence data. beta-tubulin, early colonizers, Germany, ITS, lichens, mine spoil, mtSSU, streams, taxonomy
28928Crittenden P. (2018): Editorial. - Lichenologist, 50(1): 1-2.
The British Lichen Society celebrated its fiftieth anniversary in 2008. However, although The Lichenologist was launched in the same year as the Society it has only now reached its fiftieth volume because the first few volumes spanned several years. To mark the publication of Volume 50 (Part 1) I thought that it would be of interest to look back at the authors who contributed to Volume 1 and to briefly consider the legacies that they have left to present day lichenology. The contributors to the first volume, listed in order of appearance together with the number of papers that they published in brackets, were as follows: J. H. Tallis (3), A. E. Wade (7), T. D. V. Swinscow (4), J. R. Laundon (2), P. W. James (4), J. L. Gilbert (1), G. D. Scott (2), R. B. Ivimey- Cook (1), F. H. Brightman (1), U. K. Duncan (1), K. A. Kershaw (2), D. C. Smith (1) and M. E. Hale (1).
28927Ruete A., Jönsson M.T. & Snäll T. (2018): Conservation benefits of international Aichi protection and restoration targets for future epiphyte metapopulations. - Journal of Applied Ecology, 55: 118–128.
More than half way towards the deadline for 2020 Aichi targets, a key question is whether the metapopulation dynamics of dispersal-restricted habitat specialists can be sustained under current international targets of protection and restoration. We present the first metapopulation projections under scenarios of multiple Aichi biodiversity targets of protecting high-quality habitats and restoring suboptimal quality habitats under management. We simulate 200 years of metapopulation dynamics of nine old-growth beech (Fagus sylvatica)-associated epiphytic lichens, under a range of protection and restoration scenarios in a realistic landscape realm. Protection was generally more efficient than restoration, where protection resulted in a constant increase in occupancy over time. However, projections showed that substantial increments in the number of occupied protected beech stands will most likely occur within the next 100–200 years. The time frame was dependent on species-specific dispersal restriction, occupancy levels at onset and forest-age requirements. Suboptimally restored beech stands increased lichen metapopulation sizes over a transient period and shortened the time for dispersal-restricted species to reach higher occupancy levels inside protected areas of the landscape (c. 85– 125 years). Synthesis and applications. Based on projections of metapopulation dynamics of species associated with old-growth forest, we argue that a combination of protection and restoration with the shortest possible time frame for increasing occupancy is the safest strategy. This is especially important under climatic and socio-political changes that are unforeseeable over centuries. If choosing between conservation strategies, highest priority should be given to increased protection because it means larger metapopulation sizes of these species on the long term. Keywords: Aichi, biodiversity targets, conservation planning, epiphytes, fragmentation, lichens, metapopulations, protected areas, restoration, scenario projections.
28926Staiger B. (2002): Die Flechtenfamilie Graphidaceae. Studien in Richtung einer natürlicheren Gliederung. - Bibl. Lichenol., 95: 1-526.
Using chemical, morphological, anatomical, and molecular data, the system of spore-based genera hitherto used in the Graphidaceae is replaced with a more natural generic circumscription. Seventeen previously described genera are accepted or reintroduced and two new genera are proposed. New: Acanthothecis africana Staiger & Kalb sp. nov. (Kenya), A. aurantiaca (Müll. Arg.) Staiger & Kalb comb. nov., A. dialeuca (Kremp.) Staiger & Kalb comb. nov., A. rosea (Vainio) Staiger & Kalb comb. nov., A. socotrina (Müll. Arg.) Staiger & Kalb comb. nov., A. subclavulifera Staiger & Kalb sp. nov. (Guatemala), Chroodiscus brasilianus (Hale) Staiger & Kalb comb. nov., Anomomorpha aggregans (Nyl.) comb. nov., A. sordida sp. nov. (Brazil), Carbacanthographis Staiger & Kalb gen. nov., C. amicta (Nyl.) Staiger & Kalb comb. nov., C. candidata (Nyl.) Staiger & Kalb comb. nov., C. chionophora (Redinger) Staiger & Kalb comb. nov., C. crassa (Müll. Arg.) Staiger & Kalb comb. nov., C. inspersa sp. nov. (Brazil), C. marcescens (Fée) Staiger & Kalb comb. nov., C. stictica Staiger & Kalb sp. nov. (Brazil), C. subalbotecta Staiger & Kalb sp. nov. (Brazil), Fissurina albocinerea (Vainio) comb. nov., F. alboscripta (Coppins & P. James) comb. nov., F. cingalina (Nyl.) comb. nov., F. columbina (Tuck.) comb. nov., F. comparimuralis sp. nov. (Brazil), F. globulifica (Nyl.) comb. nov., F. marginata sp. nov. (Australia, Africa [Reunion Islands], Ecuador), F. rubiginosa (Fée) comb. nov., F. subnitidula (Nyl.) comb. nov., F. tachygrapha (Nyl.) comb. nov., F. glauca (Müll. Arg.) comb. nov., F. humilis (Vainio) comb. nov., F. rufula (Mont.) comb. nov., F. canlaonensis (Vainio) comb. nov., F. dumastioides (Fink) comb. nov., Glyphis subgen. Pallidoglyphis subgen. nov., G. dictyospora sp. nov. (Kenya), G. montoensis (Archer) comb. nov., G. scyphulifera (Ach.) comb. nov., G. substriatula (Nyl.) comb. nov., Graphis albotecta (Redinger) comb. nov., G. alpestris (Zahlbr.) comb. nov., G. aquilonia (Archer) comb. nov., G. britannica nom. nov. (for "Graphina anguina" auct. europ), G. crystallifera (Redinger) comb. nov., G. hyphosa sp. nov. (Brazil), G. muscicola (Kalb) comb. nov., G. vestitoides (Fink) comb. nov., Gymnographa cyclospora (Müll. Arg.) comb. nov., G. eludens (Stirton) comb. nov., G. heterospora (Nyl.) comb. nov., Hemithecium subgen. Leucogramma subgen. nov., H. chapadanum (Redinger) comb. nov, H. chlorocarpoides (Nyl.) comb. nov., H. implicatum (Fée) comb. nov., H. laubertianum (Fée) comb. nov., H. oryzaeforme (Fée) comb. nov., H. rufopallidum (Vainio) comb. nov., Leiorreuma dilatatum (Vainio) comb. nov., L. ellipticum (Müll. Arg.) comb. nov., L. exaltatum (Mont. & v. d. Bosch) comb. nov., L. hypomelaenum (Müll. Arg.) comb. nov., L. lyellii (Sm.) comb. nov., L. patellulum (Fée) comb. nov., L. sericeum (Eschw.) comb. nov., Phaeographis amazonica sp. nov. (Brazil), P. caesiodisca sp. nov. ( Brazil), P. epruinosa (Redinger) comb. nov., P. fusca sp. nov. (Brazil, Dominican Republic), P. intricans (Nyl.) comb. nov., P. kalbii sp. nov. (Brazil, Costa Rica, Kenya), P. lecanographa (Nyl.) comb. nov., P. leprieurii (Mont.) comb. nov., P. scalpturata (Ach.) comb. nov., Platygramme australiensis Staiger & Matthes-Leicht sp. nov., P. colubrosa (Nyl.) comb. nov., P. discurrens (Nyl.) comb. nov., P. muelleri (Archer) comb. nov., P. pachyspora (Redinger) comb. nov., P. praestans (Müll. Arg.) comb. nov., Platythecium gen. nov., P. acutisporum sp. nov. (Brazil), P. allosporellum (Nyl.) comb. nov., P. colliculosum (Mont.) comb. nov., P. dimorphodes (Nyl.) comb. nov., P. grammitis (Fée) comb. nov., P. inspersum sp. nov. (Brazil), P. leiogramma (Nyl.) comb. nov., P. serpentinellum (Nyl.) comb. nov., P. sphaerosporellum (Nyl.) comb. nov., Sarcographa ramificans (Kremp.) comb. nov., Thalloloma anguinaeforme (Vainio) comb. nov., T. astroideum (Müll. Arg.) comb. nov., T. buriticum (Redinger) comb. nov., T. cinnabarinum (Fée) comb. nov., T. deplanatum (Nyl.) comb. nov., T. haemographum (Nyl.) comb. nov., T. halonatum sp. nov. (Brazil), T. hypoleptum (Nyl.) comb. nov., T. isidiosum sp. nov. (Papua New Guinea), T. janeirense sp. nov. (Brazil), T. rhodastrum (Redinger) comb. nov., Thecaria montagnei (v. d. Bosch) comb. nov.
28925Joshi S., Upreti D.K. & Hur J.-S. (2017): Key to the lichen families Pyrenulaceae and Trypetheliaceae in Vietnam, with eight new records. - Mycotaxon, 132(4): 957-969.
An identification key is presented for the members of the lichen families Pyrenulaceae and Trypetheliaceae in Vietnam. Eight pyrenocarpous species (in Anthracothecium, Astrothelium, Lithothelium, and Pyrenula) collected from Nam Cat Tien National Park, are new records for Vietnam. Taxonomic characters of the species are given along with ecology, distribution, and illustrations. Key words—Bathelium, Nigrovothelium, taxonomy, Trypethelium.
28924Miao C.-C, Zhao X.-X., Zhao Z.-T., Shahidin H. & Zhang L.-L. (2017): Huneckia pollinii and Flavoplaca oasis newly recorded from China. - Mycotaxon, 132(4): 895-901.
Huneckia pollinii and Flavoplaca oasis are described and illustrated from Chinese specimens. The two species and the genus Huneckia are recorded for the first time from China. Keywords—Asia, lichens, taxonomy, Teloschistaceae.
28923Knudsen K., Kocourková J. & Schiefelbein U. (2017): New reports of Myriospora (Acarosporaceae) from Europe. - Mycotaxon, 132(4): 857-865.
Myriospora dilatata is newly reported for the Czech Republic and M. myochroa new for Italy. Myriospora rufescens was rediscovered in Germany almost 100 years after its first collection. A neotype is designated for Acarospora fusca, which is recognized as a synonym of M. rufescens. Key words—Myriospora hassei, Silobia, Trimmatothelopsis.
28922Cao S., He J., Zhang F., Tian H., Liu C., Wang H. & Zhou Q. (2017): Baeomyces lotiformis sp. nov. from China. - Mycotaxon, 132(4): 831-837.
A new species of lichenized fungus, Baeomyces lotiformis, is described and illustrated. It is distinguished by its short podetia and wide apothecium discs, and its affinity was confirmed by ITS sequence analysis. Key words—Ascomycota, Baeomycetaceae, chemistry, molecular systematics, morphology.
28921Ertz D. Christnach C., Wedin M. & Diederich P. (2005): A World Monograph of the Genus Plectocarpon (Roccellaceae, Arthoniales). - Bibl. Lichenol., 91: 1-155.
Recognition of 32 species with keys; most are lichenicolous on thalli of Lobariaceae and Nephromataceae. New: Plectocarpon bunodophori Wedin, Ertz & Diederich sp. nov. (Australia, New Zealand), P. concentricum Ertz, Diederich & Wedin sp. nov. (New Zealand), P. coppinsii Ertz & Diederich sp. nov. (Chile), P. crystalliferum Christnach, Ertz & Diederich sp. nov. (La Réunion), P. gallowayi (S. Kondratyuk) Ertz & Diederich comb. nov., P. latisporum Ertz, Diederich & Wedin sp. nov. (Argentina, Chile), P. leuckertii (S. Kondratyuk & D. J. Galloway) Ertz & Diederich comb. nov., P. melanohaleae Ertz & Diederich sp. nov. (Chile), P. obtectum Ertz & Diederich sp. nov. (Chile), P. opegraphoideum Christnach, Ertz, Diederich & Wedin sp. nov. (New Zealand), P. pseudoleuckertii Diederich, Ertz & Wedin sp. nov. (Argentina, Chile), P. serusiauxii Ertz & Diederich sp. nov. (La Réunion), P. sticticola Ertz, Wedin & Diederich sp. nov. (New Zealand), P. tibellii Ertz & Diederich sp. nov. (New Zealand), P. triebeliae Diederich & Ertz sp. nov. (USA, Minnesota), P. venustum Ertz, Coppins & Diederich sp. nov. (Chile), P. violaceum Ertz, R. Sant., Diederich & Wedin sp. nov. (Chile, Argentina), Arthonia sampaianae (Diederich & Etayo) Ertz & Diederich comb. nov., Enterographa epiphylla (Sérus.) Ertz, Diederich & Sparrius comb. nov., E. punctata Ertz & Diederich sp. nov. (Sri Lanka), O. phaeophysciae R. Sant., Diederich, Ertz & Christnach sp. nov. (Russia), Perigrapha nitida Ertz, Diederich, Christnach & Wedin sp. nov. (New Zealand, Australia), Sigridea labyrinthica (Follmann) Ertz & Diederich comb. nov.
28920Hafellner J. (2004): A further evolutionary lineage to lichenicolous growth in Physciaceae (Lecanorales). - Bibl. Lichenol., 88: 175-186.
A reinvestigation of Buellia adjuncta and a study of another lichenicolous discomycete led to the conclusion that both belong to the genus Amandinea. The generic position of both taxa is established on characters of ascomata and pycnidia. Obligatory lichenicolous growth is reported for the first time in Amandinea. The neotropical lichenicolous A. deminuta is described as new (type host: Caloplaca felipponei). It is similar in its autecology to the holarctic Buellia adjuncta (type host: Lecanora straminea), as it is restricted to coastal rocks and does not develop a visible thallus but lives as a parasymbiont on a lecanoraiean host lichen. The new combination Amandinea adjuncta (Th. Fr.) Hafellner is proposed. A key for lichenicolous buellioid Physciaceae with endokapylic thalli is presented
28919Atienza V. (2002): Two new species of Minutoexcipula (mitosporic fungi) from Spain. - Bibl. Lichenol., 82: 141-152.
Two new species of Minutoexcipula (mitosporic fungi) are described and illustrated, M. mariana and M. calatayudii, M. mariana grows on thalli of Pertusaria heterochroa and is known from two collections made in the “Parque Natural Devesa-Albufera” (Valencia, Spain). Minutoexcipula calatayudii grows on thalli of Hypogymnia tubulosa and it is known only from the type locality (Badajoz, Spain). The separation of this two new species from Minutoexcipula tuckerae and M. tuerkii is discussed. A key and a table summarising their differences is also included
28918Malíček J. & Vondrák J. (2017): Středoevropské pralesy a lišejníky II. Biodiverzita a srovnávání lokalit. - Živa, 6/2017: 290-293.
Většina studií lišejníkové diverzity značně podhodnocuje její současnou druhovou bohatost. Proto jsme vyvinuli nové metody, kterými lze získat kompletnější seznam druhů obývajících dané území a jejichž výsledky lze vzájemně srovnávat – a tento přístup jsme uplatnili při výzkumu pralesovitých porostů v České republice, v Karpatech na Ukrajině a na Kavkaze. Celkové srovnání výsledků vedlo k některým doporučením z hlediska ochranářských opatření a k výběru druhů lišejníků jako vhodných indikátorů pralesovitých bukových a smrkových porostů ve střední Evropě. [Most studies into lichen diversity strongly underestimate actual species richness. We have developed new methods for obtai­ning more complete species lists, whose results are comparable to each other, and applied this approach to research into old-growth forests in the Czech Republic, the Ukrainian Carpathians and the Caucasus. The overall comparison resulted in several recommendations for nature protection and a selection of suitable species indicators of Central European old-growth beech and spruce forests.]
28917Hoffmann N. & Hafellner J. (2000): Eine Revision der lichenicolen Arten der Sammelgattungen Guignardia und Physalospora. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 77: 1-190.
28916Cáceres M.E.S., Maia L.C. & Lücking R. (2000): Foliicolous lichens and their lichenicolous fungi in the atlantic rainforest of Brazil: diversity, ecogeography and conservation. - In: Schroeter, B., Schlensog, M., Green, T.G.A. (eds.): New Aspects in Cryptogamic Research. Contributions in Honour of Ludger Kappen. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 75: 47-70.
Based on a floristic survey in the state of Pernambuco, we present a synopsis of the foliicolous lichen flora of the Atlantic rainforest of Brazil. The Atlantic rainforest exhibits less species richness than the Amazon and the Central American rainforests, which can be explained by its drier climate and, in part, subtropical character. Even so, 191 species of foliicolous lichens and 19 associated Hchenicolous fungi were found in Pernambuco, and the Atlantic rainforest as a whole shelters 282 and 37 species, respectively. Of the foliicolous lichens, 73-87% are shared with the Amazon and the Central American rainforests, and two thirds show a wide intercontinental distribution. Consequently, subtle bio- geographical differenciations, such as those exhibited by higher plants or animals. are not evident. Well-documented taxa considered endemic to the area, like Bapalmuia consanguinea (MÜLL. .ARG.) KALB & LÜCKING and Byssolecania vezdae KALB & LÜCKING, are few in number. Along the Atlantic rainforest, a humidity gradient from south to northeast, correlated with differences in vegetation structure, follows a drop in foliicolous lichen species richness. Accordingly, the foliicolous lichen flora of the northeast, as in Pernambuco, is dominated by species tolerating the presence of a distinct dry season. As a consequence. species associations are different from and less distinct than those found in wet rainforests. The high degree of deforestation and degradation of the Atlantic rainforest, particularly in the northeast, causes a drastical, stochastically influenced decrease of foliicolous lichen species richness in isolated forest remnants. It is concluded that only the integrative consideration of these forest remnants can provide a base for the conservation of as much of the original biodiversity of the Atlantic rainforest as possible
28915Louwhoff S.H.J.J. & Elix J.A. (1999): Parmotrema and allied lichen genera in Papua New Guinea. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 73: 1-152.
Canomaculina, Papua New Guinea, Parmeliaceae, Parmotrema, Rimelia, descriptions for 50 species of Parmotrema, 1 species of Canomaculina, and 3 species of Rimelia. New: Parmotrema kurokawianum sp. nov., P. malonprotocetraricum sp. nov., P. menyamyaense sp. nov., P. sipmanii sp. nov., P. verrucatum sp. nov., P. watutense sp. nov.
28914Fries T.M. (1867): Lichenes Spitsbergenses. - Kongl. Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar, N.F., Stockholm, 7(1)/2: 1–53.
Svalbard; Caloplaca jungermanniae subsp. subolivacea ssp. nov., Gyrophora anthracina ssp. discolor ssp. nov., Toninia conjungens sp. nov., Biatora collodea sp. nov., Lecanora(?) coriacea sp. nov., Lecidea pullulans sp. nov., Lecidea elata ssp. scrobiculata spp. nov., Lecidea impavida sp. nov. (= Lambiella impavida), Lecidea associata sp. nov. (lichenicole on Lecanora tartarea), Sporastatia morio ssp. tenuirimata ssp. nov., Buellia vilis sp. nov., Arthonia excentrica sp. nov., Verrucaria extrema sp. nov.., V. rejecta sp. nov., Arthopyrenia conspurcans sp. nov. (lichenicole on Psora rubiformis)
28913Zetterstedt J.E. (1867): Om vegetationen i de högländtaste trakterna af Småland. - Kongl. Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar, N.F., Stockholm, 6(2)[1866]: 1–37.
Sweden, vegetation, lichens at p. 30-31
28912Nylander W. (1856): Om den systematiska skillnaden emellan svampar och lafvar. - Öfversigt af Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar [Stockholm], 12[1855]: 7–11.
28911Fries T.M. (1856): Om Ukräns Laf-Vegetation. - Öfversigt af Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar [Stockholm], 12[1855]: 13–20.
Ukraine; Biatora polychroa sp. nov., Trachylia lucida sp. nov.
28910Fries T.M. (1857): Observationes LichenoIogicae. - Öfversigt af Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar [Stockholm], 13[1856]: 123–130.
28909Stenhammar [C.] (1857): Ny exsiccatsamling af svenska lichener. - Öfversigt af Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar [Stockholm], 13[1856]: 171–172.
28908Åkerman J. (1858): Om utbredningen af Iaf-arten Biatora cinnabarina i Skandinavien. - Öfversigt af Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar [Stockholm], 14[1857]: 333–335.
28907Stenhammar [C.] (1858): Bidrag till Gottlands och Ölands Laf-flora.. - Öfversigt af Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar [Stockholm], 14/4[1857]: 109–122.
Sweden; Verrucaria depressa sp. nov., Verrucaria nidulans sp. nov.
28906Lönnroth K.J. (1858): Till Gotlands Laf-Flora. - Öfversigt af Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar [Stockholm], 14/1[1857]: 1–9.
28905Lönnroth K.J. (1859): Nya Skandinaviska laf-arter. - Öfversigt af Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar [Stockholm], 15[1858]: 273–285.
28904Hellbom P.J. (1883): Berättelse om en för lichenologiska forskningar i Norrland företagen resa under sommaren 1881. - Öfversigt af Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar [Stockholm], 39/5[1882]: 69–88.
28903Öhrstedt G. (1917): Usnea longissima Acharius (1810). - Botaniska Notiser, 1917/4: 203–204.
28902Hulting J. (1917): Lichenes nonnulli Scandinaviae. VI. - Botaniska Notiser, 1917/1: 41–42.
28901Hulting J. (1915): Lichenes nonnulli Scandinaviae. V. - Botaniska Notiser, 1915/2: 61–64.
Sweden; Lecidea sparsilis Nyl. sp. nov.
28900Molér W. (1913): Nephroma lusitanicum Schaer. på Gotland. - Botaniska Notiser, 1913/2: 81.
28899Norman J.M. (1902): Nephroma arcticum. - Botaniska Notiser, 1902/5: 214.
28898Norman J.M. (1902): Om Tholurna dissimilis Norm.. - Botaniska Notiser, 1902/5: 214.
28897Kajanus B. (1911): Über die systematische Stellung der Flechtengattung Stereocaulon. - Botaniska Notiser, 1911/2: 83–90.
28896Lång G. (1912): Några sällsynta eller för Sverige nya Cladonia-arter. - Botaniska Notiser, 1912/1: 33–37.
Sweden, Cladonia
28895Nilson B. (1903): Zur Entwickelungsgeschichte, Morphologie und Systematik der Flechten. - Botaniska Notiser, 1903/1: 1–33.
28894Hulting J. (1910): Lichenes nonnulli Scandinaviae. IV. - Botaniska Notiser, 1910/6: 303–306.
Sweden; Lecidea margaritella sp. nov.
28893Vestergren T. (1902): Om den olikformiga snöbetäckningens inflytande på vegetationen i Sarjekfjällen. - Botaniska Notiser, 1902/6: 241–268.
Sweden; vegetation; lichens det. T. Hedlund
28892Nilson B. (1902): Peltigera spuria (Ach.) DC. och dess arträttighet. - Botaniska Notiser, 1902/6: 283–286.
28891Malme G.O.A. (1901): Några drag af lafvarnas inbördes kamp för tillvaron. - Botaniska Notiser, 1901/4: 163–179.
28890Sernander R. (1901): Om de buskartade lafvarnes hapterer. - Botaniska Notiser, 1901/1-2: 21–32 & 107–114.
28889Svendsen C.J. (1899): Ueber ein auf Flechten schmarotzendes Sclerotium. - Botaniska Notiser, 1899/5: 219–228.
lichenicolous fungi; Sclerotium lichenicola sp. nov.
28888Hulting J. (1899): Några ord om Fagus silvatica L. och lafvegetationen på densamma. - Botaniska Notiser, 1899/5: 229–237.
Sweden; lichens on beech; Lecidea inundata f. nigricolor Hulting f. nov.
28887Stenhammar C. (1863): Öfversigt af de vigtigaste Laf-former, som innehålles i femte och sjette fasciklarne af "Lichenes Sueciae exsiccati". - Öfversigt af kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar [Stockholm], 19[1862/9]: 471–478.
28886Fries T.M. (1862): Bidrag till utredandet af Skandinaviska Laf-arternas Synonymik. - Öfversigt af kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar [Stockholm], 18[1861/2]: 93–110.
28885Nylander W. (1861): Novitiae quaedam Licheneae Norvegieae. - Öfversigt af kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar [Stockholm], 17[1860/6]: 295–297.
Norway; Nephromium expallidum sp. nov., Verrucaria subumbrina sp. nov., Verrucaria methoria sp. nov., Pannaria praetermissa sp. nov., Lecanora rhypariza sp. nov., Lecidea squalescens sp. nov., Lecidea ochrococca sp. nov.
28884Stenhammar [C.] (1860): Fortsatt exsiccat-samling af Svenska lafarter. - Öfversigt af kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar [Stockholm], 16[1859/6]: 293–297.
28883McMullin R.T., Gagnon J., Anderson F., Buck W.R., Clayden S.R., Dorin B.C., Fryday A., Guccion J.G., Harris R.C., Hinds J., Isabel C., Ladd D., Lay E., Lendemer J.C., Maloles J.R., Roy C. & Waters D.P. (2017): One hundred new provincial, national, and continental lichen and allied fungi records from Parc National de la Gaspésie, Québec, Canada. - Northeastern Naturalist, 24(4): 446–466.
We report 100 lichen and allied fungi species for the first time from Québec, Canada. Six of these species are new to North America: Arthonia subastroidea, Biatora mendax, Cornutispora pyramidalis, Gyalecta hypoleuca, Taeniolella pertusariicola, and Varicellaria lactea. Six additional species are new to Canada: Cecidonia xenophana, Lecidea commaculans, L. herteliana, Polycoccum sporastatiae, Scoliciosporum intrusum, and Stereocaulon leucophaeopsis. All collections are from parc national de la Gaspésie on the Gaspé Peninsula in eastern Québec. Our collections were made between 2012 and 2017, primarily during Crum and Tuckerman Workshops. We provide diagnostic descriptions of all species that are new continental or national records. Our results demonstrate the park's rich and unexplored biodiversity and conservation importance, and contribute to a better understanding of the lichen and allied fungus biota of Canada and North America.
28882Fries T.M. (1865): Bidrag till Skandinaviens Lafflora. - Öfversigt af Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar, 1864/5: 269-277.
Sweden, Norway; Arthothelium scandinavicum sp. nov., Belonia incarnata Th. Fr. et Graewe sp. nov., Polyblastia agraria sp. nov., Verrucaria obscura sp. nov., Leptogium tetrasporum sp. nov.,
28881Hellbom P.J. (1866): Lichenologiska Anteckningar från en resa i Lule Lappmark sommaren 1864. - Öfversigt af Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar [Stockholm], 22/6[1865]: 451-477.
28880Stenhammar C. (1866): Bidrag till några af de i Lichenes Suecise Exsiccati, Fasc. VII och VIII utgifna lafarters synonymi och historia. - Öfversigt af Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar [Stockholm], 22/4[1865]: 231-237.
28879Hellbom P.J. (1867): Kort redogörelse för de lichenologiska undersökningarne i Nerike under år 1866. - Öfversigt af Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar, 1866/8: 199-209.
28878Sternberg S. (1869): Om användandet af Lafvar såsom material för framställning af Drufsocker och Alkohol. - Öfversigt af Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar, 1868/1: 17-28.
28877Hellbom P.J. (1868): Rariores Lichenum species, quas in Nericia invenit. - Öfversigt af Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar, 24/5[1867]: 267-278.
Scalidium ophiosporum gen. et spec. nov.; Bilimbia rufidula Graewe sp. nov., Biatorina versicolor sp. nov., Biatora helvola Körber (sp. nov.), Microglena [sic!] wallrothiana sp. nov., M. nericiensis sp. nov., Tomasellia bituminea sp. nov.
28876Blomberg O.G. (1868): Bidrag till kännedomen om Kinnekulles Lafvegetation. - Öfversigt af Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar, 1867/4: 115-125.
28875Almquist S. (1870): Berättelse om en resa i Jämtland sommaren 1868. - Öfversigt af Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar, 1869/3: 435-454.
28874Almquist S. (1874): Berättelse om en resa i Ångermanland, Medelpad och Jämtland sommaren 1873. - Öfversigt af Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar, 1874/3: 75-93.
28873Hellbom P.J. (1875): Bidrag till Lule Lappmarks lafflora. - Öfversigt af Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar, 1875/3: 49-82.
28872Theorin P.G.E. (1875): Ombergs Lafvegetation. - Öfversigt af Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar, 1875/1: 139-157.
28871Malme G.O.A. (1895): Lichenologiska notiser. IV. Adjumenta ad Lichenographiam Sueciæ meridionalis. - Botaniska Notiser, 1895: 207-213.
Caloplaca perfida sp. nov., Lecidea enalliza var. subplana var. nov.
28870Malme G.O.A. (1895): Lichenologiska notiser. III. Bidrag till södra Sveriges lafflora. - Botaniska Notiser, 1895: 137-146.
28869Hulting J. (1897): Lichenes nonnulli Scandinaviae. III. - Botaniska Notiser, 1897: 215-218.
28868Malme G.O.A. (1896): Lichenologiska notiser. V. Bidrag till kännedomen om de sydsvenska Rinodina-arterna af sophodes-gruppen. - Botaniska Notiser, 1896: 173-183.
28867Nyman E. (1895): En Moriola-liknande laf. - Botaniska Notiser, 1895: 242-244.
28866Nyman E. (1895): Några ord om Åreskutans fjällhed. - Botaniska Notiser, 1895: 121-125.
28865Hedlund T. (1892): Tillägg till "Några ord om substratets betydelse for lafvarne". - Botaniska Notiser, 1892: 183.
28864Sernander R. (1892): Ytterligare några ord om substratets betydelse för lafvarne. - Botaniska Notiser, 1892: 253-258.
28863Theorin P.G.E. (1892): Några lafväxtställen. - Botaniska Notiser, 1892: 49-55.
28862Th. Fr. [Fries T.M.] (1857): Lichenes Sueciae Exsiccati. Editio altera, fasciculus I. Curante Chr. Stenhammar. 4:o. 1856. - Botaniska Notiser, 1857: 69-71.
28861Norman J.M. (1868): Lichenes Finmarkici novi. - Botaniska Notiser, 1868: 191-193.
Norway, Finnmark; Lecanora cribriformis sp. nov., Verrucaria philaea sp. nov., Arthopyrenia naevoides sp. nov., Arthopyrenia coepulona sp. nov., Leptorhaphis deformis sp. nov., Coniothele perquisita gen. et sp. nov., Glomerilla subtilis gen. et sp. nov.
28860Norman J.M. (1867): Novae lichenum species. - Botaniska Notiser, 1867: 86-88.
Norway; Biatorella conspurcans sp. nov., Lecidea (Boloplaca) epiploica sp. nov., Verrucaria xyloxena sp. nov., Verrucaria (Cisternula) trachinoides sp. nov., Microthelia atramentea sp. nov.
28859Blomberg O.G. (1871): Tillägg till artikeln "Bidrag till kännedomen om Bohuslänska skärens lafflora". - Botaniska Notiser, 1871: 117-120.
28858Blomberg O.G. (1868): 2. Bidrag till kännedomen om Bohuslänska skärens lafflora. - Botaniska Notiser, 1868: 176-182.
28857Blomberg O.G. (1895): Bidrag till kännedomen om lafvarnas utbredning m.m. i Skandinavien. - Botaniska Notiser, 1895: 89-106.
28856Norman J.M. (1893): Nephromium lusitanicum (Schaer.). - Botaniska Notiser, 1893: 214-215.
28855Malme G.O.A. (1892): Lichenologiska notiser. I—II. - Botaniska Notiser, 1892: 125-132.
28854Hedlund T. (1892): Några ord om substratets betydelse for lafvarne. - Botaniska Notiser, 1892: 133-142.
28853Hulting J. (1892): Lichenes nonnulli Scandinaviae. II. - Botaniska Notiser, 1892: 121-124.
Sweden; Lecidea ostrogothensis Nyl. sp. nov.
28852Hulting J. (1875): Bidrag till kännedomen om Bohusläns lafvegetation. - Botaniska Notiser, 1875: 44-48 & 65-70.
Sweden; Bohuslän.
28851Tingstad L., Gjerde I., Dahlberg A. & Grytnes J.A. (2017): The influence of spatial scales on Red List composition: Forest species in Fennoscandia. - Global Ecology and Conservation, 11: 247–297.
National Red Lists are widely used prioritizing tools for nature conservation. However, status and trends of species vary with scale, and accounting for a larger spatial scale may provide complementary perspectives for nature conservation.We investigate effects of upscaling and influence of wider-scale distribution patterns for composition of Red Lists. We collated nationally red-listed forest species in Norway, Sweden and Finland, and extracted “Candidates for a Fennoscandian Red List” (CFRL), defined as species red-listed where they appear in the region. For each country, we compared composition of organism groups and forest type associations of species that were national CFRL to the nationally red-listed species not CFRL. European distribution patterns were compared to investigate how broader-scale distribution is reflected in national Red Lists. Among the 4830 nationally red-listed forest species in Fennoscandia, 58% were CFRL. The fraction of species in the different forest type and species groups differed significantly between the two spatial scales for several groups, although the overall differences in composition were relatively small. Red-listed species had more confined distribution patterns, suggesting that many nationally red-listed species owe their status to being at the edge of their distribution range. An up-scaling had a large effect on which species designated to a Red List, but a relatively small impact on which organism groups or forest types that contained most red-listed species. A regional perspective generated by compilation of national Red Lists can give valuable complementary information on the status of species and effects of scale. Keywords: National Red List; Fennoscandia; Conservation priorities; Forest; Scale; Regional perspective.
28850Bürgi-Meyer K. & Dietrich M. (2016): Ein weiterer Fund von Peltula farinosa Büdel auf dem europäischen Festland. Peltula farinosa als Begleitart im Peltuletum euplocae Wirth 1972 auf Amphibolit der Ivrea Zone (Kanton Tessin, Schweiz). - Meylania, 57: 35–44.
We report the first discovery of the cyanobacterial lichen Peltula farinosa Büdel in Switzerland. It is the second find of this species on mainland Europe. P. farinosa Büdel grows within the lichen community Peltuletum euplocae Wirth 1972 situated in the Canton of Ticino. Peltula farinosa Büdel and P. euploca (Ach.) Poelt are described and illustrated. In addition, we present ecological and other field observations.
28849Groner U. (2016): Placynthium pannariellum – eine kleine, in der Schweiz bisher unbekannte Cyanoflechte. - Meylania, 57: 29–34.
Placynthium pannariellum, a small cyanolichen, is rather widespread in northern countries, but observations from Central Europe are rare. A collection made a few months ago in the Muota Valley, Swiss Prealps, obviously is the first record for Switzerland. The paper presents information about species characteristics, ecology and the currently known distribution.
28848Schnyder N. & Stofer S. (2016): FlorApp – ein neues Erfassungswerkzeug für Moose und Flechten. - Meylania, 58: 23–25.
28847Dietrich M. (2017): Lecania subfuscula und Psorotichia lutophila neu für die Schweiz – Weitere Entdeckungen im Flechtenherbar von Anton Gisler (1820–1888). - Meylania, 59: 5–9.
Beside the huge collection from the canton of Uri, the lichen herbarium of the excellent naturalist Anton Gisler (1820–1888) also comprises specimens from other cantons and from aboard. They originate mainly from Carl Hegetschweiler, Philipp Hepp and Johannes Müller-Aargau. In the frame of the investigation of the terricolous crustose and gelatinous lichens, two species new to Switzerland were detected. Both of them, Lecania subfuscula on Mount Pilatus in the Canton of Nidwalden and Psorotichia lutophila at the Albis in the Canton of Zurich, were collectet in the 19th century by C. Hegetschweiler.
28846Wei X.-L., Leavitt S.D., Huang J.-P., Esslinger T.L., Wang L.-S., Moncada B., Lücking R., Divakar P.K. & Lumbsch H.T. (2017): Parallel Miocene-dominated diversification of the lichen-forming fungal genus Oropogon (Ascomycota: Parmeliaceae) in different continents. - Taxon, 66(6): 1269–1281.
Lineages with broad, intercontinental distributions can provide insight into factors that influence diversity across both temporal and geographic scales. Lichens are well known for distinct biogeographic distribution patterns, including a high number of lineages with intercontinental distributions. The lichen-forming fungal genus Oropogon, from one of the largest families of lichen-forming ascomycetes, Parmeliaceae, occurs in both Asia and the Neotropics. How this genus obtained this disjunct distribution is not currently known. To better understand factors shaping diversity in Oropogon, we (i) estimated the timing of diversification of major clades within this genus; (ii) inferred the historical biogeography of Oropogon; and (iii) identified factors that potentially affected the distribution and evolution of this genus. Our results suggest that the genus originally radiated during the early Miocene, with subsequent diversification events occurring during the middle Miocene. Ancestral area reconstructions for Oropogon suggest that the genus was either widespread with subsequent separate diversification in Asia and America or originated in the New World (America), with subsequent migration to Asia. We hypothesize that the Mi-1 glaciation impacted diversification of Oropogon species in Asia, and that the rise of major mountain ranges, such as the Himalayas, helped promote diversification in Oropogon in the Old World. Keywords biogeography; molecular evolution; molecular systematics; Oropogon; substitution rate.
28845Davydov E.A., Peršoh D. & Rambold G. (2017): Umbilicariaceae (lichenized Ascomycota) – Trait evolution and a new generic concept. - Taxon, 66(6): 1282–1303.
To reconstruct hypotheses on the evolution of Umbilicariaceae, 644 sequences from three independent DNA regions were used, 433 of which were newly produced. The study includes a representative fraction (presumably about 80%) of the known species diversity of the Umbilicariaceae s.str. and is based on the phylograms obtained using maximum likelihood and a Bayesian phylogenetic inference framework. The analyses resulted in the recognition of eight well-supported clades, delimited by a combination of morphological and chemical features. None of the previous classifications within Umbilicariaceae s.str. were supported by the phylogenetic analyses. The distribution of the diagnostic morphological and chemical traits against the molecular phylogenetic topology revealed the following patterns of evolution: (1) Rhizinomorphs were gained at least four times independently and are lacking in most clades grouping in the proximity of Lasallia. (2) Asexual reproductive structures, i.e., thalloconidia and lichenized dispersal units, appear more or less mutually exclusive, being restricted to different clades. Two major ontogenetic types of thalloconidial development (thallobred versus rhizinobred) exist, reflecting their non-homologous origin. Both types of thalloconidial formation were gained multiple times. (3) “Gyrodisc-omphalodisc” apothecia are plesiomorphic in Umbilicariaceae. The apothecial type is a relatively variable trait, because the main types of apothecia switched at least six times in evolution. Multiple evolutionary changes from the gyrodiscs to leiodiscs, by reduction of carbonized hymenial structures, seem likely. (4) Ascospore characters, such as spore number per ascus, spore size, and septation type and degree are strongly correlated. Eight non-septate small ascospores per ascus represent a plesiomorphic trait. The results indicate parallel evolutionary trends from “gyrodisc-omphalodisc” to leiodisc apothecia, from octospory to mono- or bispory and from unicellular to multicellular-muriform ascospores. The other types of apothecia and ascospores evolved multiple times. This suggests that the concept of Umbilicariaceae s.str. has to be refined. The new classification includes eight subgenera in the only genus Umbilicaria: subg. Actinogyra (type: U. muehlenbergii), subg. Agyrophora (type: A. atropruinosa), subg. Floccularia subg. nov. (type: U. deusta), subg. Gyrophora (type: U. vellea), subg. Iwatakia subg. nov. (type: U. esculenta), subg. Lasallia (type: L. pustulata), subg. Umbilicaria (type: U. hyperborea), and subg. Umbilicariopsis subg. nov. (type: Umbilicaria polyrhiza). Furthermore, four new combinations are proposed: Umbilicaria daliensis comb. nov., U. hispanica comb. nov., U. sinorientalis comb. nov., U. xizangensis comb. nov. Kewwords apothecia; ascospores; classification; likelihood; morphology; mtLSU; nrITS/5.8S; nrSSU nrDNA; RPB2; rhizinomorphs; thalloconidia.
28844Arcadia L. in & Vondrák J. (2017): (2563) Proposal to conserve the name Lichen ferrugineus (Blastenia ferruginea) with a conserved type (Teloschistaceae, lichenised Ascomycota). - Taxon, 66(6): 1467–1468.
28843Pejin B., Iodice C., Bogdanović G., Kojić V. & Tešević V. (2017): Stictic acid inhibits cell growth of human colon adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells. - Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 10: S1240–S1242.
The growth inhibition of stictic acid, a secondary metabolite isolated from the lichen Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm. (Lobariaceae), was evaluated in vitro on three human cell lines for the first time. The cell lines HT-29 and MCF-7 were utilized for measuring the activity of stictic acid against cancer cells, while the cell line MRC-5 was selected for estimation of its effect on normal cells. The results suggest a moderate anticancer activity (IC50 value for the cell line HT-29 was 29.29 μg/ml) and a low growth inhibition on nonmalignant cells (IC50 value for the cell line MRC-5 was 2478.40 μg/ml) of stictic acid. This natural product can be considered as a promising lead compound for the design of novel human colon adenocarcinoma drugs. Keywords: Lobaria pulmonaria; β-Orcinol depsidone; MTT growth inhibition assay; Human colon; adenocarcinoma.
28842Galindo J.L.G., García B.F., Torres A., Galindo J.C.G., Romagni J.G. & Macías F.A. (2017): The joint action in the bioactivity studies of Antarctic lichen Umbilicaria antarctica: Synergic-biodirected isolation in a preliminary holistic ecological study. - Phytochemistry Letters, 20: 433–442.
Antarctica is one of the world’s most inaccessible regions. This area is also unique in that it has a terrestrial biota dominated by non-vascular plants, of which lichens and mosses are typically the dominant life-forms. A phytochemical study of Antarctic lichen (Umbilicaria antarctica) collected from maritime Antarctica has been carried out. The hexane, acetone and butanol extracts have been subjected to a preliminary general bioactivity test using wheat etiolated coleoptiles. A chromatographic study of the acetone extract was performed and seven known compounds were isolated. The general bioactivity of the compounds on etiolated wheat coleoptile has been assessed and joint action studies on mixtures of the compounds were carried out  a methodology that may be the way to a holistic approach in the ecological studies of lichens. The results corroborated the activity exhibited by the original fractions, which in turn support the use of this bioassay to determine joint interactions responsible for the bioactivity shown by U. antarctica. Keywords: Allelopathy; Antarctica; Polyols; Phenolic compounds; Coleoptile bioassay; Additive interactions.
28841Magain N., Miadlikowska J., Mueller O., Gajdeczka M., Truong C., Salamov A.A., Dubchak I., Grigoriev I.V., Goffinet B., Sérusiaux E. & Lutzoni F. (2017): Conserved genomic collinearity as a source of broadly applicable, fast evolving, markers to resolve species complexes: A case study using the lichen-forming genus Peltigera section Polydactylon. - Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 117: 10–29.
Synteny can be maintained for certain genomic regions across broad phylogenetic groups. In these homologous genomic regions, sites that are under relaxed purifying selection, such as intergenic regions, could be used broadly as markers for population genetic and phylogenetic studies on species complexes. To explore the potential of this approach, we found 125 Collinear Orthologous Regions (COR) ranging from 1 to >10 kb across nine genomes representing the Lecanoromycetes and Eurotiomycetes (Pezizomycotina, Ascomycota). Twenty-six of these COR were found in all 24 eurotiomycete genomes surveyed for this study. Given the high abundance and availability of fungal genomes we believe this approach could be adopted for other large groups of fungi outside the Pezizomycotina. As a proof of concept, we selected three Collinear Orthologous Regions (COR1b, COR3, and COR16), based on synteny analyses of several genomes representing three classes of Ascomycota: Eurotiomycetes, Lecanoromycetes, and Lichinomycetes. COR16, for example, was found across these three classes of fungi. Here we compare the resolving power of these three new markers with five loci commonly used in phylogenetic studies of fungi, using section Polydactylon of the cyanolichen-forming genus Peltigera (Lecanoromycetes) – a clade with several challenging species complexes. Sequence data were subjected to three species discovery and two validating methods. COR markers substantially increased phylogenetic resolution and confidence, and highly contributed to species delimitation. The level of phylogenetic signal provided by each of the COR markers was higher than the commonly used fungal barcode ITS. High cryptic diversity was revealed by all methods. As redefined here, most species represent lineages that have relatively narrower, and more homogeneous biogeographical ranges than previously understood. The scabrosoid clade consists of ten species, seven of which are new. For the dolichorhizoid clade, twenty-two new species were discovered for a total of twenty-nine species in this clade. Keywords: Synteny; Intergenic spacers; Species delimitation; Species discovery; Species validation; Lichen-forming fungi.
28840Maurya I.K., Singh S., Tewari R., Tripathi M., Upadhyay S. & Joshi Y. (2018): Antimicrobial activity of Bulbothrix setschwanensis (Zahlbr.) Hale lichen by cell wall disruption of Staphylococcus aureus and Cryptococcus neoformans. - Microbial Pathogenesis, 115: 12–18.
In the present study, antimicrobial activity of a common Himalayan lichen viz. Bulbothrix setschwanensis (Zahlbr.) Hale extract in three common solvents (acetone, chloroform and methanol) was evaluated against six bacterial and seven fungal clinical strains. The acetone extract showed promising antimicrobial activity against S. aureus (1.56 mg/mL) and C. neoformans (6.25 mg/mL). Further, GC-MS analysis revealed 2,3-bis(2-methylpentanoyloxy)propyl 2-methylpentanoate and Ethyl 2-[(2R,3R,4aR,8aS)-3-hydroxy-2,3,4,4a,6,7,8,8a-octahydropyrano [3,2-b]pyran-2-yl]acetate as the predominant compounds. The combination of acetone extract with antibacterial drugs [kanamycin (KAN), rifampicin (RIF)] and antifungal drugs [amphotericin B (Amp B) and fluconazole (FLC)] showed lysis of S. aureus and C. neoformans at non-inhibitory concentration (FICI values were 0.31 for KAN, 0.18 for RIF, 0.37 for Amp B and 0.30 for FLC, respectively). Notably, the acetone extract confirmed cell wall damage of both S. aureus and C. neoformans cells and was clearly visualized under scanning electron microscopy (SEM), flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Besides this, the three extracts also have less significant cytotoxic activity at MIC concentrations against mammalian cells (HEK-293 and HeLa). This study for the first time suggests that the chemical compounds present in the acetone extract of B. setschwanensis could be used against S. aureus and C. neoformans infections. Keywords: Lichen; Antibacterial; Antifungal; Checkerboard assay; Mechanistic study; Mammalian cytotoxicity.
28839Araújo H.D.A., Silva L.R.S., Siqueira W.N., Fonseca C.S.M., Silva N.H., Melo A.M.M.A., Martins M.C.B. & Lima V.L.M. (2018): Toxicity of usnic acid from Cladonia substellata (lichen) to embryos and adults of Biomphalaria glabrata. - Acta Tropica, 179: 39–43.
This study reports the molluscicidal activity of usnic acid isolated from Cladonia substellata Vanio (lichen) on embryos at various stages of development and in adult mollusks of Biomphalaria glabrata. The toxicity of usnic acid was also evaluated through Artemia salina larvae mortality. Usnic acid was extracted with diethyl ether, isolated, purified, and its structure confirmed by analyzing the spectra of proton nuclear magnetic resonance. LC90 for 24 h of exposure were 1.62, 4.45, 5.36, and 4.49 μg mL−1 for blastula, gastrula, trocophore, and veliger embryonic stages, respectively, and 3.45 μg mL−1 for adult snails; LC50 of usnic acid against A. salina was 2.46 μg mL−1. LC90 assessed 7 days after exposure was 2.56 μg mL−1 for adult mollusks. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that under laboratory conditions usnic acid has teratogenic and molluscicide potential to control the aquatic snail B. glabrata and may prove to be a promising candidate in the search for new molluscicide agents, but further detailed studies on its molluscicidal effect and possible environmental effects are needed. Keywords: Biomphalaria glabrata; Embriotoxicity; Molluscicidal aktivity; Natural product of lichen; Neglected diseases; Environmental toxicity.
28838Larrieu L., Gosselin F., Archaux F., Chevalier R., Corriol G., Dauffy-Richard E., Deconchat M., Gosselin M., Ladet S., Savoie J.M., Tillon L. & Bouget C. (2018): Cost-efficiency of cross-taxon surrogates in temperate forests. - Ecological Indicators , 87: 56–65.
Cross-taxon surrogacy (between-taxon similarities in species patterns) can help conservation biologists to design simplified, standardized and efficient tools for biodiversity monitoring. Our study aims to identify potential sets of indicator taxa to be recommended in temperate forests. We focused on nine forest taxa: vascular plants, bryophytes, saproxylic beetles, polypores, lichens, ground beetles, hoverflies, birds and bats. We assessed crosstaxon congruence patterns, in terms of both alpha and beta-diversity, using empirical biodiversity data from 206 plots in ten French forested areas. We evaluated the cost-efficiency of potential surrogate taxa using both strictly encoded expert knowledge and results of this study. The most congruent taxa in alpha-diversity were bryophytes (with bats and polypores), and ground beetles (with bats and saproxylic beetles), though levels of covariation were mostly weak. The most congruent taxon in beta-diversity was vascular plants (with bryophytes, ground beetles, lichens and forest birds). Contrary to our expectations, the subsets of forest species within a given taxon exhibited a lower surrogacy than the taxon as a whole. Four categories of taxa were delineated based on costefficiency scores – from costless but ineffective (bats and ground beetles) to costly but effective (saproxylic beetles and polypores). No single taxon was firmly identified as a relevant surrogate for other taxa; using a set of two or three taxa drastically increased surrogacy, compared with single-taxon approaches. Saproxylic beetles associated with vascular plants, or with both vascular plants and birds, seemed to be the most cost-efficient associations. Further research is required to up-scale our results from the short-term, local scale to the long-term, landscape scale in European temperate forests. Keywords: Biodiversity assessment; Cross-taxon congruence; Species richness; Species composition.
28837Chialvo C.H.S., Chialvo P., Holland J.D., Anderson T.J., Breinholt J.W., Kawahara A.Y., Zhou X., Liu S. & Zaspel J.M. (2018): A phylogenomic analysis of lichen-feeding tiger moths uncovers evolutionary origins of host chemical sequestration. - Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 121: 23–34.
Host species utilize a variety of defenses to deter feeding, including secondary chemicals. Some phytophagous insects have evolved tolerance to these chemical defenses, and can sequester secondary defense compounds for use against their own predators and parasitoids. While numerous studies have examined plant-insect interactions, little is known about lichen-insect interactions. Our study focused on reconstructing the evolution of lichen phenolic sequestration in the tiger moth tribe Lithosiini (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae), the most diverse lineage of lichen-feeding moths, with 3000 described species. We built an RNA-Seq dataset and examined the adult metabolome for the presence of lichen-derived phenolics. Using the transcriptomic dataset, we recover a well-resolved phylogeny of the Lithosiini, and determine that the metabolomes within species are more similar than those among species. Results from an initial ancestral state reconstruction suggest that the ability to sequester phenolics produced by a single chemical pathway preceded generalist sequestration of phenolics produced by multiple chemical pathways. We conclude that phenolics are consistently and selectively sequestered within Lithosiini. Furthermore, sequestration of compounds from a single chemical pathway may represent a synapomorphy of the tribe, and the ability to sequester phenolics produced by multiple pathways arose later. These findings expand on our understanding of the interactions between Lepidoptera and their lichen hosts. Keywords: Metabolomics; Transcriptomics; Lichenivory; Ancestral state reconstruction; Lichen moths; Allelochemicals.
28836Kim J.-T., Choi Y.-J., Barghi M., Yoon Y.-J., Kim J.-H., Kim J.H. & Chang Y.-S. (2018): Occurrence and distribution of old and new halogenated flame retardants in mosses and lichens from the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. - Environmental Pollution, 235: 302–311.
The spatial distribution of old and new halogenated flame retardants (HFRs), including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), and Dechlorane Plus (DPs) and related compounds (Dechloranes), were investigated in the South Shetland Islands of Antarctica, employing mosses (Andreaea depressinervis and Sanionia uncinata) and lichens (Himantormia lugubris and Usnea antarctica) as bioindicators. The levels of PBDEs, HBCDs, and Dechloranes ranged from 3.2 to 71.5, 0.63–960, and 2.04–2400 pg/g dw (dry weight) in the mosses, and from 1.5 to 188, 0.1–21.1, and 1.0–83.8 pg/g dw in the lichens, respectively. HFRs were detected in all of the collected samples, even in those from the remote regions. The dominance of high brominated-BDE, anti-DP fraction, and HBCD diastereomeric ratio in the samples from remote regions suggested the long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT) of the HFRs. The relatively high HBCDs and Dechloranes contamination and their similar chemical profile with commercial products in the vicinity of Antarctic research stations indicated that human activities might act as local sources, while PBDEs appeared to be more influenced by LRAT and bioaccumulation rather than local emission. Lastly, the relatively high HFR levels and dominance of more brominated BDEs at the Narębski Point and in the wet lowlands suggested that penguin colonies and melting glacier water could be secondary HFR sources in Antarctica. The HFR levels differed by sample species, suggesting that further research on the factors associated with the HFR accumulation in the different species is necessary. This study firstly reports the alternative HFR levels in a wide area of the Antarctica, which could improve our understanding of the source, transport, and fate of the HFRs. Keywords: Halogenated flame retardants; Antarctica; Hexabromocyclododecanes; Dechloranes; Long-range transport.
28835Garrido-Benavent I., de los Ríos A., Fernández-Mendoza F. & Pérez-Ortega S. (2018): No need for stepping stones: Direct, joint dispersal of the lichen-forming fungus Mastodia tessellata (Ascomycota) and its photobiont explains their bipolar distribution. - Journal of Biogeography, 45(1): 213–224.
Aim: The hypotheses proposed to explain the high percentage of bipolar lichens in Antarctica have never been explicitly tested. We used the strictly bipolar, coastal lichenized fungus Mastodia tessellata (Verrucariaceae, Ascomycota) and its photobionts (Prasiola, Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta) as model species to discern whether this extraordinary disjunction originated from vicariance or long-distance dispersal. Location: Coasts of Antarctica, Tierra del Fuego (Chile), Alaska (USA) and British Columbia (Canada). Methods: Based on a comprehensive geographical (315 specimens and 16 populations from Antarctica, Tierra del Fuego and North America) and molecular sampling (three and four loci for the fungus and algae respectively), we implemented explicit Bayesian methods to compare alternative hypotheses of speciation and migration, and performed dating analyses for the fungal and algal partner, in order to infer the timing of the colonization events and the direction of gene flow among distant, disjunct areas. Results: Mastodia tessellata comprises two fungal species which in turn associate with three photobiont lineages along the studied distribution range. Independent estimation of divergence ages for myco- and photobionts indicated a middle to latest Miocene species split in the Southern Hemisphere, and a late Miocene to Pleistocene acquisition of the bipolar distribution. Comparison of migration models and genetic diversity patterns suggested an austral origin for the bipolar species. Main conclusions: The complex evolutionary history of Mastodia tessellata s.l. can be explained by a combination of vicariant and long-distance dispersal mechanisms. We provide novel evidence of a pre-Pleistocene long-term evolution of lichens in Antarctica as well as for bipolar distributions shaped by Southern to Northern Hemisphere migratory routes without the need for stepping stones.
28834Fortuna L., Baracchini E., Adami G. & Tretiach M. (2017): Melanization affects the content of selected elements in parmelioid lichens. - Journal of Chemical Ecology, 43: 1086–1096.
Lichens belonging to Parmeliaceae are highly diversified, butmost of them share an extremely conservedmorphochemical trait: the lower cortex is heavilymelanized. The adaptive value of this character is still uncertain. Melanins are ubiquitous compounds found in most organisms since they fulfil several biological functions including defense against UV radiation, oxidizing agents, microbial stress, and metal complexation. This work aims to establish whether melanization can affect the elemental content of lichen thalli. The relative abundance of macro- (Ca, K and S) and micro- (Fe, Mn and Zn) nutrients in melanized and non-melanized pseudotissues of nine species was first evaluated by a non-destructive micro- X-ray fluorescence elemental analysis on either the upper and lower cortex, and on the internal medulla, which was artificially exposed to the mechanical removal of the lower cortex. Afterwards, the total concentration of the same elements was measured in composite samples by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy after acidic digestion. In order to verify whether Fe and Zn are chemically bound to the melanized pseudotissues, a sequential elution experiment was performed on two species: the two-side heavily melanized Melanelixia glabratula and the one-side lightly melanized Punctelia subrudecta. The content of Fe and Zn was higher in the melanized species than in the non-melanized ones. Species deprived of their melanized lower cortex showed a sharp decrease in Fe but not in Zn, suggesting that the melanized lower cortex is involved in Fe complexation, whereas Zn is homogeneously distributed throughout the thallus. Keywords Bioaccumulation . Fungi . Melanins . Homeostasis . Iron . Zinc.
28833Bernhardt H., Reiss D., Hiesinger H., Hauber E. & Johnsson A. (2017): Debris flow recurrence periods and multi-temporal observations of colluvial fan evolution in central Spitsbergen (Svalbard). - Geomorphology, 296: 132–141.
Fan-shaped accumulations of debris flow deposits are common landforms in polar regions such as Svalbard. Although depositional processes in these environments are of high interest to climate as well as Mars-analog research, several parameters, e.g., debris flow recurrence periods, remain poorly constrained. Here, we present an investigation based on remote sensing as well as in situ data of a ~ 0.4 km2 large colluvial fan in Hanaskogdalen, central Spitsbergen. We analyzed high resolution satellite and aerial images covering five decades from 1961 to 2014 and correlated them with lichenometric dating as well as meteorological data. Image analyses and lichenometry deliver consistent results and show that the recurrence period of large debris flows (≥ 400 m3) is about 5 to 10 years, with smaller flows averaging at two per year in the period from 2008 to 2013. While this is up to two orders of magnitude shorter than previous estimates for Svalbard (80 to 500 years), we found the average volume of ~ 220 m3 per individual flow to be similar to previous estimates for the region. Image data also reveal that an avulsion took place between 1961 and 1976, when the active part of the fan moved from its eastern to its western portion. A case study of the effects of a light rain event (~ 5 mm/day) in the rainy summer of 2013, which triggered a large debris flow, further shows that even light precipitation can trigger major flows. This is made possible by multiple light rain events or gradual snow melt pre-saturating the permafrost ground and has to be taken into account when predicting the likelihood of potentially hazardous mass wasting in polar regions. Furthermore, our findings imply a current net deposition rate on the colluvial fan of ~ 480 m3/year, which is slightly less than the integrated net deposition rate of 576 to 720 m3/year resulting from the current fan volume divided by the 12,500 to 10,000 years since the onset of fan build-up after the area's deglaciation. However, the actual deposition rate, which should increase in a warmer climate including more rain, cannot be constrained due to effects like ongoing toe-cutting of the debris fan and some flows only causing internal redistributions. Keywords: Svalbard; Debris flow; Recurrence period; Colluvial fan.
28832Saine S., Aakala T., Purhonen J., Launis A., Tuovila H., Kosonen T. & Halme P. (2018): Effects of local forest continuity on the diversity of fungi on standing dead pines. - Forest Ecology and Management, 409: 757–765.
Human-induced fragmentation affects forest continuity, i.e. availability of a suitable habitat for the target species over a time period. The dependence of wood-inhabiting fungi on landscape level continuity has been well demonstrated, but the importance of local continuity has remained controversial. In this study, we explored the effects of local forest continuity (microhabitat and stand level) on the diversity of wood-inhabiting fungi on standing dead trunks of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). We studied species richness and community composition of decomposers and Micarea lichens on 70 trunks in 14 forests in central Finland that differed in their state of continuity. We used dendrochronological methods to assess the detailed history of each study trunk, i.e. the microhabitat continuity. The stand continuity was estimated as dead wood diversity and past management intensity (number of stumps). We recorded 107 species (91 decomposers, 16 Micarea lichens), with a total of 510 occurrences. Using generalized linear mixed models, we found that none of the variables explained decomposer species richness, but that Micarea species richness was positively dependent on the time since tree death. Dead wood diversity was the most important variable determining the composition of decomposer communities. For Micarea lichens, the community composition was best explained by the combined effect of years from death, site and dead wood diversity. However, these effects were rather tentative. The results are in line with those of previous studies suggesting the restricted significance of local forest continuity for wood-inhabiting fungi. However, standing dead pines that have been available continuously over long periods seem to be important for species-rich communities of Micarea lichens. Rare specialists (e.g. on veteran trees) may be more sensitive to local continuity, and should be at the center of future research. Keywords: Dead wood continuity; Decomposer; Micarea; Microhabitat continuity; Pinus sylvestris L.; Stand continuity.
28831Casanova Municchia A., Bartoli F., Taniguchi Y., Giordani P. & Caneva G. (2018): Evaluation of the biodeterioration activity of lichens in the Cave Church of Üzümlü (Cappadocia, Turkey) . - International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, 127: 160–169.
The Üzümlü Church is an unusual soft tuff formation located in central Turkey (Cappadocia) dated around the 7th century. The rocks on its external surfaces show a severe erosion with an evident surface detachment. Moreover, the widely distributed black-grey crusts mainly consisting of lichens point out the need of evaluating their deteriorative effects. This research was focused on lichen deterioration by indicating the biodeterioration processes and on selecting the most appropriate preservation treatments suitable for stone conservation. The interaction of lichens with stone was studied by evaluating through microscopic analyses, the spread and the depth of fungal hyphae penetration, and by applying the LPBA Index. The SEM analysis of all fragments shows a dramatic loss of the stone matrix and a dense network of fungal hyphae within the rock. Nevertheless, both the high penetration of fungal hyphae, and the consequent difficulty in their removal without a strong peeling effect, both the relevant loss of the stone matrix and finally the evident reduction of water penetration when crusts are present in the surfaces, advise against their removal. Further chemical treatments of consolidation should be carefully evaluated. Keywords: Biological colonization; Byzantine churches; Fairy chimneys; LPBA index; Stone conservation.
28830Benítez A., Aragón G., González Y. & Prieto M. (2018): Functional traits of epiphytic lichens in response to forest disturbance and as predictors of total richness and diversity. - Ecological Indicators, 86: 18–26.
Epiphytic lichens are good ecological indicators of climatic and environmental changes. The physiology of lichens is related with their morphology and anatomy (traits) and thus the response to changes in the environment could be related with these traits. In this study we evaluate lichen functional traits to understand the mechanisms of community assembly in response to deforestation of tropical montane forests in Ecuador. Based on this, we propose and indicator value as a complement to evaluate the disturbance level of forests. Finally, we evaluate the use of selected functional traits to infer total species richness and diversity of tropical montane forests. We assessed nine different traits related with photobiont type, growth form, reproductive strategy and chemistry of epiphytic lichens on the trunk bases of 240 trees in three types of forests according to a disturbance gradient (primary forests and secondary vegetation). Most functional traits of the lichen communities were related to structural changes (i.e canopy cover and tree diameter) along the forest disturbance gradient. Several functional groups of lichens as cyanolichens, and those with a gelatinose, filamentose and squamulose growth forms and species without secondary compounds were more abundant in primary forests. On the other hand, fruticose, foliose species with narrow lobes, and with lirellae were most abundant in disturbed forest. Growth forms are useful to infer total lichen richness and diversity in montane tropical forests. Based on these results we recommend the use of lichen functional traits as a tool and a complement for conservation studies and forest management. Keywords: Community weighted mean (CWM); Conservation; Ecuador; Growth forms; Indicator species; Tropical montane forests.
28829Xu M., Heidmarsson S., Thorsteinsdottir M., Kreuzer M., Hawkins J., Omarsdottir S. & Olafsdottir E.S. (2018): Authentication of Iceland Moss (Cetraria islandica) by UPLC-QToF-MS chemical profiling and DNA barcoding. - Food Chemistry, 245: 989–996.
The lichen Cetraria islandica or Iceland Moss is commonly consumed as tea, food ingredients (e.g. in soup or bread) and herbal medicines. C. islandica, which has two chemotypes, can be difficult to distinguish from the sister species Cetraria ericetorum. They are collectively referred to as the Cetraria islandica species complex. This study aimed to use an UPLC-QToF-MS chemical profiling together with DNA barcoding to distinguish species and chemotypes of the C. islandica species complex. Our results show that the two chemotypes of C. islandica are clearly distinguishable from each other and from C. ericetorum by the chemometric approach. The RPB2 barcode was able to differentiate C. islandica from C. ericetorum with a barcode gap, but the widely used nrITS barcode failed. Neither of them could discriminate chemotypes of C. islandica. In conclusion, this integrative approach involving chemical profiling and DNA barcoding could be applied for authentication of Iceland Moss materials. Keywords: Cetraria islandica; Cetraria ericetorum; DNA barcoding; Chemical profiling; Authentication.
28828Cecconi E., Incerti G., Capozzi F., Adamo P., Bargagli R., Benesperi R., Candotto Carniel F., Favero-Longo S.E., Giordano S., Puntillo D., Ravera S., Spagnuolo V. & Tretiach M. (2018): Background element content of the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea: A supra-national state of art implemented by novel field data from Italy. - Science of the Total Environment, 622–623: 282–292.
In biomonitoring, the knowledge of background element content (BEC) values is an essential pre-requisite for the correct assessment of pollution levels. Here, we estimated the BEC values of a highly performing biomonitor, the epiphytic lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea, by means of a careful review of literature data, integrated by an extensive field survey. Methodologically homogeneous element content datasets, reflecting different exposure conditions across European and extra-European countries, were compiled and comparatively analysed. Element content in samples collected in remote areas was compared to that of potentially enriched samples, testing differences between medians for 25 elements. This analysis confirmed that the former samples were substantially unaffected by anthropogenic contributions, and their metrics were therefore proposed as a first overview at supra-national background level. We also showed that bioaccumulation studies suffer a huge methodological variability. Limited to original field data, we investigated the background variability of 43 elements in 62 remote Italian sites, characterized in GIS environment for anthropization, land use, climate and lithology at different scale resolution. The relationships between selected environmental descriptors and BEC were tested using Principal Component Regression (PCR) modelling. Elemental composition resulted significantly dependent on land use, climate and lithology. In the case of lithogenic elements, regression models correctly reproduced the lichen content throughout the country at randomly selected sites. Further descriptors should be identified only for As, Co, and V. Through a multivariate approach we also identified three geographically homogeneous macro-regions for which specific BECs were provided for use as reference in biomonitoring applications. Keywords: Air pollution; Baseline; Bioaccumulation; Particulate matter; Pseudevernia furfuracea.
28827Pekkarinen A.-J., Kumpula J. & Tahvonen O. (2017): Parameterization and validation of an ungulate-pasture model. - Ecology and Evolution, 7: 8282–8302.
Ungulate grazing and trampling strongly affect pastures and ecosystems throughout the world. Ecological population models are used for studying these systems and determining the guidelines for sustainable and economically viable management. However, the effect of trampling and other resource wastage is either not taken into account or quantified with data in earlier models. Also, the ability of models to describe the herbivore impact on pastures is usually not validated. We used a detailed model and data to study the level of winter- and summertime lichen wastage by reindeer and the effects of wastage on population sizes and management. We also validated the model with respect to its ability of predicting changes in lichen biomass and compared the actual management in herding districts with model results. The modeling efficiency value (0.75) and visual comparison between the model predictions and data showed that the model was able to describe the changes in lichen pastures caused by reindeer grazing and trampling. At the current lichen biomass levels in the northernmost Finland, the lichen wastage varied from 0 to 1 times the lichen intake during winter and from 6 to 10 times the intake during summer. With a higher value for wastage, reindeer numbers and net revenues were lower in the economically optimal solutions. Higher wastage also favored the use of supplementary feeding in the optimal steady state. Actual reindeer numbers in the districts were higher than in the optimal steady-state solutions for the model in 18 herding districts out of 20. Synthesis and applications. We show that a complex model can be used for analyzing ungulate-pasture dynamics and sustainable management if the model is parameterized and validated for the system. Wastage levels caused by trampling and other causes should be quantified with data as they strongly affect the results and management recommendations. Summertime lichen wastage caused by reindeer is higher than expected, which suggests that seasonal pasture rotation should be used to prevent the heavy trampling of winter lichen pastures during summer. In the present situation, reindeer numbers in northernmost Finland are in most cases higher than in the management solutions given by the model. Keywords: herbivore management, lichen, reindeer, trampling, ungulate, wastage.
28826Barthelemy H., Stark S., Michelsen A. & Olofsson J. (2017): Urine is an important nitrogen source for plants irrespective of vegetation composition in an Arctic tundra: Insights from a 15N-enriched urea tracer experiment. - Journal of Ecology, 106: 367–378.
1. Mammalian herbivores can strongly influence nitrogen (N) cycling and herbivore urine could be a central component of the N cycle in grazed ecosystems. Despite its potential role for ecosystem productivity and functioning, the fate of N derived from urine has rarely been investigated in grazed ecosystems. 2. This study explored the fate of 15N-enriched urea in tundra sites that have been either lightly or intensively grazed by reindeer for more than 50 years. We followed the fate of the 15N applied to the plant canopy, at 2 weeks and 1 year after tracer addition, in the different ecosystem N pools. 3. 15N-urea was rapidly incorporated in cryptogams and in above-ground parts of vascular plants, while the soil microbial pool and plant roots sequestered only a marginal proportion. Furthermore, the litter layer constituted a large sink for the 15N-urea, at least in the short term, indicating a high biological activity in the litter layer and high immobilization in the first phases of organic matter decomposition. 4. Mosses and lichens still constituted the largest sink for the 15N-urea 1 year after tracer addition at both levels of grazing intensity demonstrating their large ability to capture and retain N from urine. Despite large fundamental differences in their traits, deciduous and evergreen shrubs were just as efficient as graminoids in taking up the 15N-urea. The total recovery of 15N-urea was lower in the intensively grazed sites, suggesting that reindeer reduce ecosystem N retention. 5. Synthesis. The rapid incorporation of the applied 15N-urea indicates that arctic plants can take advantage of a pulse of incoming N from urine. In addition, δ15N values of all taxa in the heavily grazed sites converged towards the δ15N values for urine, bringing further evidence that urine is an important N source for plants in grazed tundra ecosystems.
28825阿不都拉.阿巴斯, 拉扎提.努尔太, 库丽娜孜.沙合达提 & Mukhidinov N. [Abbas A., Nurtai L., Sahedat G. & Mukhidinov N.] (2015): 采自哈纳斯的中国地衣新记录属 [A new record of lichen genus from Kanas, China]. - 植物分类与资源学报 [Plant Diversity Resources], 37(4): 423-424.
[in Chinese with English abstract:] A lichen genus, Placynthiella, new to China is reported from Kanas, and a new record of species to China, P. oligotropha is described in detail. The morphological, anatomical and chemical description of this species were given. Photos of the thallus, apothecia, asci and ascospores were also provided.
28824Kachalkin A.V., Glushakova A.M. & Pankratov T.A. (2017): Yeast population of the Kindo peninsula lichens. - Microbiology, 86(6): 786–792.
[Original Russian Text © A.V. Kachalkin, A.M. Glushakova, T.A. Pankratov, 2017, published in Mikrobiologiya, 2017, Vol. 86, No. 6, pp. 762–769] Yeast abundance and species diversity in the lichens collected at the Kindo Peninsula (Karelia) were studied. A total of 14 lichen species analyzed belonged to the genera Bryoria, Cladonia, Hypogymnia, Icmadophila, Nephroma, Peltigera, and Ramalina. Abundance of cultured yeasts in lichens was intermediate between soil and phyllosphere. The average yeast number on lichens was ~2.5 × 103 CFU/g, while it exceeded 8 × 103 CFU/g on plants and reached only 1 × 103 CFU/g in soil. Yeast population of different parts of Cladonia lichens was found to vary significantly in abundance, species diversity, and community structure. The highest yeast abundance and diversity were revealed in the growth zone. Fifteen yeast species were isolated from lichens, including 6 basidiomycetous and 9 ascomycetous ones. Unlike soils and plants, yeast population of lichens consisted mainly of ascomycetous species, with predominance of Candida sphagnicola and anamorphous yeasts of the genus Dothiora. These results show that yeasts from different taxonomic and ecological groups are a necessary component of lichens; conditions favoring the preservation and development of specific yeast communities differing from the typical soil and phyllosphere yeast complexes are formed in the lichens of northern taiga forests. Keywords: yeasts, lichens, lichenosphere, Subarctic areas, MSU White Sea Biological Station, Cladonia, Dothiora.
28823Paoli L., Pinho P., Branquinho C., Loppi S. & Munzi S. (2017): The influence of growth form and substrate on lichen ecophysiological responses along an aridity gradient. - Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 24: 26206–26212.
In this paper, we investigated whether growth form and substrate in lichens influence their physiological responses along an aridity gradient. Thalli of the foliose lichen Parmotrema perlatum and the fruticose lichen Ramalina canariensis were transplanted in selected rural/forested sites of Southern Portugal characterized by a different aridity index. Physiological parameters including photosynthetic performances, assimilation pigments, ergosterol content and sample viability were measured prior to exposure (winter) and after 6-month exposure (summer). Photosynthetic performances were also investigated in common native foliose and fruticose epiphytic lichens and in fruticose terricolous species. Both transplanted and native lichens showed a decrease in photosynthetic performances in summer and lower performances in sites classified as drier and higher performances in humid forested sites. No relevant differences occurred between epiphytic foliose and fruticose growth forms. However, terricolous fruticose samples showed a significant difference in humid and drier sites and between winter and summer, probably due to microclimatic conditions similarly to other biological crusts. Keywords: Biological soil crusts; Chlorophyll a fluorescence; Drought stress; Functional traits; Mediterranean ecosystem; Transplants.
28822Munzi S., Cruz C., Maia R., Máguas C., Perestrello-Ramos M.M. & Branquinho C. (2017): Intra- and inter-specific variations in chitin in lichens along a N-deposition gradient. - Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 24: 28065–28071.
The mechanisms of nitrogen (N) tolerance in lichens are not yet fully understood. Here, we investigated how the increase of chitin content is related with N excess at inter- and intra-specific levels, by using species with differing ecological N tolerances (the tolerant Xanthoria parietina and Parmotrema hypoleucinum and the sensitive Evernia prunastri and Usnea sp.) and thalli of X. parietina and P. hypoleucinum from sites with different availabilities of N of agricultural origin (livestock), as confirmed by lichen N content and δ15N. Nitrogen, chitin (N-containing compound), and ergosterol contents were measured in lichen thalli. Nitrogen and chitin contents were higher in tolerant species than those in sensitive ones (inter-specific level) and in thalli collected from the N-polluted site than in thalli from the clean site (intra-specific level). We suggest that chitin contributes to N stress tolerance in lichens, and that excess N can be partially stored as chitin (non-toxic form) in the cell walls of tolerant species. Keywords: Ammonia; Ammonium; Cell membrane; Cell wall; Ergosterol; Isotopic signature; Stress response; Xanthoria parietina.
28821Ochoa-Hueso R., Mondragon-Cortés T., Concostrina-Zubiri L., Serrano-Grijalva L. & Estébanez B. (2017): Nitrogen deposition reduces the cover of biocrust-forming lichens and soil pigment content in a semiarid Mediterranean shrubland. - Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 24: 26172–26184.
Biocrusts are key drivers of the structure and functioning of drylands and are very sensitive to disturbance, including atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition. We studied the impacts of simulated N deposition on biocrust community composition and soil photosynthetic and photoprotective pigment content after five years of N application in a European semiarid Mediterranean shrubland. The experiment consisted in six experimental blocks with four plots, each receiving 0, 10, 20, or 50 kg NH4NO3-N ha−1 year−1 + 6–7 kg N ha−1 year−1 background. After 5 years of N application, total lichen cover decreased up to 50% compared to control conditions and these changes were only clearly evident when evaluated from a temporal perspective (i.e. as the percentage of change from the first survey in 2008 to the last survey in 2012). In contrast, moss cover did not change in response to N, suggesting that biocrust community alterations operate via species- and functional group-specific effects. Interestingly, between-year variations in biocrust cover tracked variations in autumnal precipitation, showing that these communities are more dynamic than previously thought. Biocrust species alterations in response to N were, however, often secondary when compared to the role of ecologically relevant drivers such as soil pH and shrub cover, which greatly determined the composition and inter-annual dynamics of the biocrust community. Similarly, cyanobacterial abundance and soil pigment concentration were greatly determined by biotic and abiotic interactions, soil pH for pigments, and organic matter content and shrub cover for cyanobacteria. Biocrusts, and particularly the lichen component, are highly sensitive to N deposition and their responses to pollutant N can be best understood when evaluated from a temporal and multivariate perspective, including impacts mediated by interactions with biotic and abiotic drivers. Keywords: Abiotic and biotic interactions . Biocrusts . Mediterranean ecosystems . Nitrogen deposition . Soil pigments . Temporal dynamics.
28820Hyde K.D., Norphanphoun C., Abreu V.P., Bazzicalupo A., Chethana K.W.T., Clericuzio M., Dayarathne M.C., Dissanayake A.J., Ekanayaka A.H., He M.Q., Hongsanan S., Huang S.K., Jayasiri S.C., Jayawardena R.S., Karunarathna A., Konta S., Kušan I., Lee H., Li J.F., Lin C.G., Liu N.G., Lu Y.Z., Luo Z.L., Manawasinghe I.S., Mapook A., Perera R.H., Phookamsak R., Phukhamsakda C., Siedlecki I., Mayra Soares A., Tennakoon D.S., Tian Q., Tibpromma S., Wanasinghe D.N., Xiao Y.P., Yang J., Zeng X.Y., Abdel-Aziz F.A., Li W.J., Senanayake I.C., Shang Q.J., Daranagama D.A., de Silva N.I., Thambugala K.M., Abdel-Wahab M.A., Bahkali A.H., Berbee M.L., Boonmee S., Bhat D.J., Bulgakov T.S., Buyck B., Camporesi E., Castañeda-Ruiz R.F., Chomnunti P., Doilom M., Dovana F., Gibertoni T.B., Jadan M., Jeewon R., Jones E.B.G., Kang J.C., Karunarathna S.C., Lim Y.W., Liu J.K., Liu Z.Y., Plautz Jr. H.L., Lumyong S., Maharachchikumbura S.S.N., Matočec N., McKenzie E.H.C., Mešić A., Miller D., Pawłowska J., Pereira O.L., Promputtha I., Romero A.I., Ryvarden L., Su H.Y., Suetrong S., Tkalčec Z., Vizzini A., Wen T.C., Wisitrassameewong K., Wrzosek M., Xu J.C., Zhao Q., Zhao R.L. & Mortimer P.E. (2017): Fungal diversity notes 603–708: taxonomic and phylogenetic notes on genera and species. - Fungal Diversity, 87: 1–235.
This is the sixth in a series of papers where we bring collaborating mycologists together to produce a set of notes of several taxa of fungi. In this study we introduce a new family Fuscostagonosporaceae in Dothideomycetes. We also introduce the new ascomycete genera Acericola, Castellaniomyces, Dictyosporina and Longitudinalis and new species Acericola italica, Alternariaster trigonosporus, Amarenomyces dactylidis, Angustimassarina coryli, Astrocystis bambusicola, Castellaniomyces rosae, Chaetothyrina artocarpi, Chlamydotubeufia krabiensis, Colletotrichum lauri, Collodiscula chiangraiensis, Curvularia palmicola, Cytospora mali-sylvestris, Dictyocheirospora cheirospora, Dictyosporina ferruginea, Dothiora coronillae, Dothiora spartii, Dyfrolomyces phetchaburiensis, Epicoccum cedri, Epicoccum pruni, Fasciatispora calami, Fuscostagonospora cytisi, Grandibotrys hyalinus, Hermatomyces nabanheensis, Hongkongmyces thailandica, Hysterium rhizophorae, Jahnula guttulaspora, Kirschsteiniothelia rostrata, Koorchalomella salmonispora, Longitudinalis nabanheensis, Lophium zalerioides, Magnibotryascoma mali, Meliola clerodendri-infortunati, Microthyrium chinense, Neodidymelliopsis moricola, Neophaeocryptopus spartii, Nigrograna thymi, Ophiocordyceps cossidarum, Ophiocordyceps issidarum, Ophiosimulans plantaginis, Otidea pruinosa, Otidea stipitata, Paucispora kunmingense, Phaeoisaria microspora, Pleurothecium floriforme, Poaceascoma halophila, Periconia aquatica, Periconia submersa, Phaeosphaeria acaciae, Phaeopoacea muriformis, Pseudopithomyces kunmingnensis, Ramgea ozimecii, Sardiniella celtidis, Seimatosporium italicum, Setoseptoria scirpi, Torula gaodangensis and Vamsapriya breviconidiophora. We also provide an amended account of Rhytidhysteron to include apothecial ascomata and a J+ hymenium. The type species of Ascotrichella hawksworthii (Xylariales genera incertae sedis), Biciliopsis leptogiicola (Sordariomycetes genera incertae sedis), Brooksia tropicalis (Micropeltidaceae), Bryochiton monascus (Teratosphaeriaceae), Bryomyces scapaniae (Pseudoperisporiaceae), Buelliella minimula (Dothideomycetes genera incertae sedis), Carinispora nypae (Pseudoastrosphaeriellaceae), Cocciscia hammeri (Verrucariaceae), Endoxylina astroidea (Diatrypaceae), Exserohilum turcicum (Pleosporaceae), Immotthia hypoxylon (Roussoellaceae), Licopolia franciscana (Vizellaceae), Murispora rubicunda (Amniculicolaceae) and Doratospora guianensis (synonymized under Rizalia guianensis, Trichosphaeriaceae) were reexamined and descriptions, illustrations and discussion on their familial placement are given based on phylogeny and morphological data. New host records or new country reports are provided for Chlamydotubeufia huaikangplaensis, Colletotrichum fioriniae, Diaporthe subclavata, Diatrypella vulgaris, Immersidiscosia eucalypti, Leptoxyphium glochidion, Stemphylium vesicarium, Tetraploa yakushimensis and Xepicula leucotricha. Diaporthe baccae is synonymized under Diaporthe rhusicola. A reference specimen is provided for Periconia minutissima. Updated phylogenetic trees are provided for most families and genera. We introduce the new basidiomycete species Agaricus purpurlesquameus, Agaricus rufusfibrillosus, Lactifluus holophyllus, Lactifluus luteolamellatus, Lactifluus pseudohygrophoroides, Russula benwooii, Russula hypofragilis, Russula obscurozelleri, Russula parapallens, Russula phoenicea, Russula pseudopelargonia, Russula pseudotsugarum, Russula rhodocephala, Russula salishensis, Steccherinum amapaense, Tephrocybella constrictospora, Tyromyces amazonicus and Tyromyces angulatus and provide updated trees to the genera. We also introduce Mortierella formicae in Mortierellales, Mucoromycota and provide an updated phylogenetic tree. Keywords: Ascomycota;  Basidiomycota;  Mucoromycota;  Phylogeny;  Taxonomy.
28819Zahlbruckner A. (1911): Schedae ad «Kryptogamas exsiccatas» editae a Museo Palatino Vindobonensi. Centuria XIX. - Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien, 25: 223–252.
Exsiccate; Calicium ornicolum J.Steiner sp. nov. (Slovenia); Caloplaca fiumana Zahlbr. sp. nov. (Croatia); Ramalina sideriza Zahlbr. sp. nov. (Hawaii); Verrucaria papillosa var. thalassina Zahlbr. var. nov. (France)
28818Cezanne R., Eichler M., Berger F., Brackel W. v., Dolnik C., John V. & Schultz M. (2017): Ergänzungen und Korrekturen zu „Deutsche Namen für Flechten“ I. - Herzogia, 30: 520–523.
Additions and corrections to “German names for lichens” I. In a first supplement to the list of “German names for lichens” ten corrections and 23 additions are made. Key words: Germany, German common names, popular names, vernacular names, lichens, standard list.
28817Pino-Bodas R., Ahti T. & Stenroos S. (2017): Cladoniaceae of the Azores. - Herzogia, 30: 445–462.
Based on material collected from 40 localities on four islands of the Azores, three species of Cladonia are new to Macaronesia: C. conista, C. mauritiana and C. novochlorophaea and four are new to the Azores: C. bellidiflora, C. dimorpha, C. rei and Cladonia sp. In addition, several species are new to individual islands of the archipelago. Cladonia dactylota is new to continental Europe (SW France). Cladonia stereoclada, described from the Azores, is lectotypified. These data are complemented with annotations on species distribution and chemical variations. Uncertain specimens were sequenced to confirm the species identities. Key words: Atlantic islands, biodiversity, lichen-forming fungi, Macaronesia, phylogeny.
28816Hauck M. (2017): Nimis, P. L. 2016. The lichens of Italy. A second annotated catalogue. – Triest: EUT Edizioni Università di Trieste. Hardcover, 740 S. ISBN 978-88-8303-754-2. Preis: 80,00 EUR. - Herzogia, 30: 524.
Book review
28815Ezhkin A.K. & Schumm F. (2017): Heterodermia incana (Physciaceae), a new record for Russia. - Herzogia, 30: 504–508.
We report a new finding of Heterodermia incana, a rare lichen with an otherwise tropical distribution, from Sakhalin Island in the Russian Far East. It is the northernmost record for Heterodermia incana to date. We provide illustrations of its morphological features, an occurrence map and results of HPTLC. Key words: Physciaceae, Podocarpae, rare lichen, Sakhalin.
28814Aptroot A., van Herk C.M. & Sparrius L.B. (2017): Twenty-two years of monitoring the lichen flora of megalithic monuments in the Netherlands. - Herzogia, 30: 483–495.
Over the past 22 years, the lichen flora of 54 megalithic monuments in The Netherlands has been monitored. In 2010, they harboured 133 lichen species. In 1988, 1993, 2000, 2005 and 2010, the lichen flora of all granite monuments were re-examined. Between 1988 and 2010 the number of lichen species per monument increased, especially those that grow normally as epiphytes and nitrophytes or have a southern distribution. Typical species of acidic rock decreased, together with other acidophytic epiphytes, lignicolous and terricolous species. The main driver for the observed changes is the increase in tree cover above and around the monuments. Changes in epiphytic lichen composition largely reflect changes in acid deposition, eutrophication and climate. Key words: Saxicolous lichens, tree cover, granite, lichen ecology.
28813Schiedermayr K. (1877): Gallerie österreichischer Botaniker. XXI. Anton Eleutherius Sauter. - Oesterreichische Botanische Zeitschrift, 27(1): 1-6.
28812Tibell L. (1998): Crustose mazaediate lichens and the Mycocaliciaceae in temperate South America. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 71: 1-107.
A taxonomic revision of crustose caliciod lichens and fungi occurring in the a and temperate areas of South America comprising 47 species in 7 genera is presented. Most of the species are lichenized, have passive spore dispersal, and belong to Acroscyphus, Calicium and Cyphelium in Caliciaceae and Chaenotheca in Coniocybaceae. Species in Mycocaliciaceae, included in Chaenothecopsis, Mycocalicium and Phaeocalicium are also frequent. They are parasites or saprobes on vascular plants and algae, or commensalistic on lichens. A few species of Microcalicium in Microcaliciaceae also occur. These lichens and fungi have previously been very neglected in the area. Calicium isabellinum, Chaenotheca australis, C. confusa, Chaenothecopsis arthoniae, C. australis, C. cinerea, C. lecanactidis, Mycocalicium anomalum and Phaeocalicium fuegensis are described as new. Eleven further species are new to South America, and several species are new to Argentina and Chile. Most of the species occur in oldgrowth Nothofagus forests, and are like in other areas sensitive to forest exploitation. A high proportion of the species (74%) also occur in the Northern hemisphere, only three (6%) species are austral, and eight (17%) are endemic. lichens, fungi, ascomycetes, Caliciales, calicioid, South America, taxonomy, new species, biogeography, ecology
28811Holien H. & Tønsberg T. (2017): Cliostomum piceicola, a new lichen species from oldgrowth coniferous forests in northern Europe. - Herzogia, 30: 427–430.
Cliostomum piceicola is described as new to science from old boreal forests in Scandinavia and Russia. It differs from C. corrugatum by the dull and finely warty surface of the thallus, in producing an unidentified, diagnostic lichen substance, by the northern distribution, and the preference for Picea abies in moist, often swampy forest. Key words: Cliostomum, Norway, oldgrowth coniferous forests, Picea abies, Russia, Sweden.
28810Muchnik E. & Konoreva L. (2017): New and noteworthy records of lichens and allied fungi from central European Russia. - Herzogia, 30: 509–514.
Thirteen lichen and allied fungi taxa are treated, of which one (Dactylospora microspora) is recorded for the first time for Russia from Bryansk oblast, two (Gyalideopsis helvetica and Sclerophora amabilis) are new for the European part of Russia, and two (Melaspileella proximella and Trapeliopsis pseudogranulosa) are new for central European Russia. Short notes on their characters and distributions are provided. Key words: Biodiversity, lichenicolous fungi, lichenised Ascomycota, rare species.
28809Yakovchenko L., Galanina I. & Davydov E.A. (2017): Buellia lacteoidea New to Eurasia from Transbaikal Territory (South Siberia, Russia). - Herzogia, 30: 515–519.
Buellia lacteoidea (Physciaceae, lichenized Ascomycetes), hitherto only known from western North America, is reported from the Transbaikal Territory (South Siberia, Russia). A morphological description based on the Russian material is provided. Key words: Physciaceae, new records, distribution, lichen, lichenized fungi.
28808Grünberg H., Cezanne R., Eckstein J., Eichler M., Kempf H., Meinunger L., Preussing M., Putzmann F., Scholz P., Thiel H., Thiemann R. & Hentschel J. (2017): Neue und bemerkenswerte Flechtenfunde in Thüringen. - Herzogia, 30: 463–482.
Records of newly reported, extremely rare or critically endangered lichens for Thuringia are presented. Absconditella lignicola, Acrocordia cavata, Agonimia allobata, A. flabelliformis, A. vouauxii, Alyxoria ochrocheila, Bacidia arceutina, B. trachona, B. viridifarinosa, Bacidina neosquamulosa, Caloplaca luteoalba, Candelariella plumbea, Cyphelium karelicum, Gregorella humida, Lecanactis dilleniana, Lecania sylvestris, Lempholemma isidiodes, Strigula jamesii, Thelenella muscorum, Umbilicaria subglabra and Verruculopsis lecideoides are reported for the first time from Thuringia. Recent records of species previously thought to be extinct are Bacidia rosella, Caloplaca cerina, Heppia lutosa and Parmelina quercina. The regional distribution of Evernia mesomorpha, Chaenotheca brachypoda, Pycnothelia papillaria and Usnea flavocardia is mapped. Key words: Distribution, ecology, Germany, lichen diversity, lichenized fungi, red list, threatened species, Thuringia.
28807Liška J. & Palice Z. (2017): Česká a slovenská lichenologická bibliografie XXX [Czech and Slovak lichenological bibliography, XXX]. - Bryonora, 60: 79–84.
Czech and Slovak lichenological bibliography
28806Malíček J. (2017): Review: Chytrý M., Danihelka J., Kaplan Z. & Pyšek P. [eds] (2017): Flora and vegetation of the Czech Republic. – Springer, Cham. - Bryonora, 60: 77–80.
book review
28805Šoun J., Bouda F., Kocourková J., Malíček J., Palice Z., Peksa O., Svoboda D. & Vondrák J. (2017): Zajímavé nálezy lišejníků z čeledi Parmeliaceae v České republice [Interesting records of lichens of the family Parmeliaceae in the Czech Republic]. - Bryonora, 60: 46–64.
New records of 31 rare and red-listed species of the family Parmeliaceae from the Czech Republic are reported. A major part of these species, including Evernia divaricata, E. mesomorpha, Flavoparmelia soredians, Hypotrachyna revoluta, Parmotrema perlatum and Usnea sp. div., are recently spreading epiphytic lichens positively responding to decreased sulfur dioxide concentrations and climate changes. Other reported species are rare lichens of old-growth forests (Alectoria sarmentosa, Hypogymnia bitteri and H. vittata), rare saxicolous lichens (Allantoparmelia alpicola, Melanohalea infumata and Xanthoparmelia tinctina), or other phytogeographically remarkable lichens (e.g. Letharia vulpina). Hypotrachyna afrorevoluta, H. lividescens and Punctelia borreri are new to the Czech Republic; H. lividescens is new to Central Europe.
28804Malíček J., Berger F., Bouda F., Cezanne R., Eichler M., Halda J.P., Langbehn T., Palice Z., Šoun J., Uhlík P. & Vondrák J. (2017): Lišejníky zaznamenané během bryologicko-lichenologického setkání v Mohelně na Třebíčsku na jaře 2016 [Lichens recorded during the Bryological and Lichenological meeting in Mohelno (Třebíč region, southwestern Moravia) in spring 2016]. - Bryonora, 60: 24–45.
We present a list of 405 lichenized, lichenicolous and lichen-allied fungi recorded on the famous rocky steppe with a serpentinite bedrock called Mohelenská hadcová step and at other localities in the Třebíč region. The steppe was visited regularly by lichenologists during the last 100 years. We confirmed many valuable historical records (e.g. Caloplaca conversa, Harpidium rutilans, Lecanora laatokkaënsis, Lichinella stipatula, Spilonema paradoxum, Toninia cinereovirens) and added several new ones (e.g. Catillaria atomarioides, Lemmopsis arnoldiana, Peccania cernohorskyi and Phaeophyscia pusilloides). A smaller serpentinite site in the surroundings, called Dukovanský mlýn, is also valuable due to the occurrence of a few rare species (Belonia russula, Porpidia nadvornikiana and Rinodina rinodinoides). Other surveyed sites included castle ruins Templštejn with neighbouring granulite rocks and natural oak forests, and Levnov, the type locality of the cyanolichen Pterygiopsis umbilicata occurring on Ca-enriched granulite rocks below the ruin. Our list also includes epiphytic lichens recorded during a detailed survey in a lowland forest at the Lamberk castle ruin in the valley of the river Oslava. One day of research by four lichenologists in a one-hectare plot resulted in findings of 153 epiphytic and epixylic species. Numerous rare and rarely collected crustose lichens were recorded, for example Arthonia endlicheri, Bacidia incompta, B. laurocerasi, Biatora pontica, Buellia violaceofusca, Chaenotheca hispidula, Dendrographa decolorans and Enterographa hutchinsiae
28803Elix J.A. & McCarthy P.M. (1998): Catalogue of the Lichens of the smaller Pacific Islands. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 70: 1-361.
Bibliographic and distributional information are provided for 33 islands/island groups between 40°N and 40°S. A total of 2189 species are listed for all the islands covered, and separate checklists are provided for each island or group
28802Archer A.W. (1997): The Lichen Genus Pertusaria in Australia. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 69: 1-249.
Keys and descriptions for the 128 species are given and the synonymy, chemistry, distribution and ecology of each species is discussed." New: Pertusaria aquilonia A. W. Archer & Elix sp. nov., P. boweniana A.W. Archer & Elix sp. nov., P. complanata A. W. Archer & Elix sp. nov., P. dehiscens var. sekikaica A. W. Archer & Elix var. nov., P. ewersii A. W. Archer & Elix sp. nov., P. georgeana A. W. Archer & Elix sp. nov., P. gundermanica A. W. Archer & Elix sp. nov., P. injuneana A. W. Archer & Elix sp. nov., P. meeana A. W. Archer & Elix sp. nov., P. orarensis A. W. Archer & Elix sp. nov., P. pallida A. W. Archer & Elix sp. nov., P. paradoxica var. tetraspora A. W. Archer & Elix sp. nov., P. pilosula A. W. Archer & Elix sp. nov., P. praetermissa A. W. Archer & Elix sp. nov., P. pseudothwaitesii A. W. Archer & Elix sp. nov., P. salebrosa A. W. Archer & Elix sp. nov., P. sydneyensis A. W. Archer & Elix sp. nov., P. umbricola A. W. Archer & Elix sp. nov., P. xanthodactylina A. W. Archer & Elix sp. nov., P. xenismota A. W. Archer & Elix sp. nov., P. barbatica A. W. Archer & Elix sp. nov., P. nerrigensis A. W. Archer & Elix sp. nov.
28801Rajan V.P., Gunasekaran S., Ramanathan S., Murugaiyah V., Samsudin M.W. & Din L.B. (2016): Biological activities of four Parmotrema species of Malaysian origin and their chemical constituents. - Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 6(8): 36–43.
The present study was carried out to evaluate the antibacterial and antioxidant potential of acetone and methanol extracts of lichen (Parmotrema praesorediosum, P. rampoddense, P. tinctorum and P. reticulatum) and isolated chemical constituents which are praesorediosic acid, protocetraric acid, usnic acid, α–collatolic acid, β–alectoronic acid, atranorin and chloroatranorin. The antibacterial activity was evaluated using broth dilution method. Acetone extracts (except for P. reticulatum) showed good inhibitory activity against S. aureus and B. subtilis with MIC values ranging from 500–125 µg/mL, whereas, no activity was observed for the methanol extracts. Extracts exhibited zero inhibitory activity against E. coli. The antioxidant ability was measured using a DPPH free radical scavenging activity assay. Only methanol extract of P. praesorediosum exhibited more than 50% scavenging activity. Among the isolates, usnic acid exhibited the strongest antibacterial activity against S. aureus and B. subtilis with MIC value 7.81 µg/mL. Praesorediosic acid and protocetraric acid isolates exclusively inhibited E. coli at concentration 125 µg/mL and displayed results exceeding 50% scavenging activity (57.57% and 63.97%, respectively). Hitherto, it is the first evaluation of antibacterial activity on lichens of Malaysian origin and to our knowledge; the first reported study on the biological activity of praesorediosic acid and Parmotrema rampoddense. Key words: Antibacterial activity, antioxidant activity, secondary metabolites, preparative HPLC guided isolation.
28800Payal P. & Sharma M.C. (2016): GC-MS analysis and biological activities of medicinally important lichen: Parmelia perlata. - International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research, 8(12): 1975–1985.
Parmelia perlata colloquially known as Chadeela or Shilapushp belongs to the family Parmeliaceae. In Ayurveda, it is used to treat wounds, infections, inflammation, skin diseases, diarrhoea, dysentery, cough, fever, seminal weakness, amenorrhoea and renal calculi. In view of its medicinal importance we have analyzed this plant using Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry and screened it for its antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. GC-MS analysis of the petether, chloroform and acetone extracts revealed the presence of 49 compounds in each. D:B-Friedo-B':A'neogammacer-5-en-3-ol, (3.beta.)-,D-Friedoolean-14-en-3-one, (+)-Usnic acid, D:A-Friedooleanan-3-one, 5-methyl-1,3benzendiol,5-pentyl-1,3-benzenediol, atranorin, methoxyolivetol and Z-10-tetradecen-1-ol were identified as major compounds. The results of antibacterial study suggested that pet-ether extract is more active against S. grieveces, whereas CHCl3 extract is found to be more active against B. subtilis and E. coli. Acetone extract of this plant showed moderate activity against B. subtilis and E. coli. The results of antifungal activities showed that pet ether and acetone extracts possesses potential activity against P. funiculosam. We have also examined the extracts for their antioxidant potential by DPPH and FRAP total reduction capability methods. Bioactivity assays showed that the acetone extract possess strong free radical scavenging activity (IC50=28 µg) followed by pet ether (IC50=31 µg) and chloroform (IC50=48 µg) extracts. Pet ether extract of this plant also showed strong ferric reducing ability of plasma (O.D. =.340). Keywords: Parmelia perlata, Chadeela, GC-MS analysis, antimicrobial activity, DPPH, FRAP, free radical scavenging activity.
28799Plaza C.M., Pérez de Salazar C., Vizcaya M., Rodríguez-Castillo C.G., Medina-Ramírez G.E. & Plaza R.E. (2017): Potential antifungal activity of Cladonia aff. rappii A. Evans. - Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research, 5(5): 301–309.
Context: Lichen is a self-supporting symbiotic organism composed of a fungus and an algal partner. They have manifold biological activities like antiviral, antibiotic, antioxidant, antitumor, allergenic and inhibition of plant growth. Species of Cladonia, have been studied by its antifungal activity. Aims: To evaluate the antifungal activity determination of Cladonia aff. rappii against five yeasts, four of genus Candida and one Cryptococcus, using water, ethanol and dichloromethane extracts. Methods: The evaluation of the antifungal activity was developed by three diffusion methods such as spot-on-a-lawn, disc diffusion and well diffusion. Additionally, the values of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) were determined. Results: Based on the experimental results obtained, the best antifungal activity was using ethanol extract at 20 mg/mL against Candida albicans, applying the three diffusion methods above mentioned. With ethanol extract, the lower MIC was against Candida glabrata and the lower MFC were with Candida glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis. The dichloromethane extract presented the lowest MIC and MFC against C. neoformans. Not activity was observed with aqueous extract. Conclusions: The present study revealed antifungal and fungicidal activity in the extract of lichen Cladonia aff. rappii. Keywords: Cladonia rappii; difussion methods; lichen; minimum fungicidal concentration; minimal inhibitory concentration.
28798Kantvilas G. (2016): Further additions to the lichen genus Ramboldia (Lecanoraceae) from Australia. - Muelleria, 34: 103–109.
Two lichens new to science are described and illustrated: Ramboldia atromarginata Kantvilas is corticolous in wet sclerophyll forest in Victoria, and R. greeniana Kantvilas is a saxicolous species found chiefly in upland areas of Tasmania. The New Zealand endemic taxon, Lecidea subsericea Zahlbr., is found to be a synonym of Ramboldia stuartii (Hampe) Kantvilas & Elix. Key words: anthraquinone pigments, biodiversity, lichenised ascomycetes, New Zealand, Tasmania, taxonomy, Victoria.
28797McCarthy P.M. & Kantvilas G. (2016): Verrucaria alborimosa, a new maritime lichen from Flinders Island, Tasmania. - Muelleria, 34: 55–58.
Verrucaria alborimosa P.M.McCarthy & Kantvilas (lichenized Ascomycota, Verrucariaceae) is described from coastal limestone in Flinders Island, Tasmania. A key is provided to the 12 marine and maritime species of Verrucaria in Australia. Key words: taxonomy, distribution, coastal.
28796Filson R.B. (1967): Supplementary descriptions for two Victorian desert lichens. - Muelleria, 1(3): 197-202.
28795Filson R.B. (1969): A review of the genera Teloschistes and Xanthoria in the lichen family Teloschistaceae in Australia. - Muelleria, 2(1): 65-115.
The Australian representatives of Teloschistes and Xanthoria are reviewed. Keys and descriptions are given for the ten species and two forms. One new form is described, Teloschistes spinosus forma subteres, and two new combinations are made, Xanthoria ectanea and Teloschistes velifer forma nodulosa. Distribution is fully discussed and maps have been provided with particular emphasis on Victorian occurrences.
28794Filson R.B. (1972): Studies in Australian lichens II. The alpine lichen Thamnolia vermicularis (Sw.) Shaer. [sic!] in Australia. - Muelleria, 2(3): 180-187.
28793Filson R.B. (1974): Studies in Antarctic lichens I: Notes on Caloplaca citrina (Hoffm.) Th.Fr. and Physcia caesia (Hoffm.) Hampe. - Muelleria, 3(1): 1-8.
In a previous paper (Filson, 1966), the author discussed two species of lichen, Parmelia coreyi Dodge & Baker and Pyrenodesmia mawsonii Dodge but at that time he was uncertain of their correct systematic position. In this paper Pyrenodesmia mawsonii Dodge is discussed with the suggestion that it should be treated as a synonym of Caloplaca citrina (Hoffm.) Th.Fr. Three species of Parmelia, P. coreyi Dodge & Baker, P. johnstoni Dodge and P. variolosa Dodge & Baker, are placed in synonymy under Physcia caesia (Hoffm.) Hampe.
28792Filson R.B. (1974): Studies in Antarctic lichens II: Lichens from Windmill Islands, Wilkes Land. - Muelleria, 3(1): 9-36.
The lichen collections from the Windmill Islands are enumerated together with a key and description of each species. Two new species, Buellia soredians and Lecidea andersonii, are described and figured. Figures are provided for those species not already illustrated in the author's The Lichens and Mosses of Mac.Robertson Land (Filson, 1966).
28791Filson R.B. (1975): Studies in Antarctic lichens III: Notes on Rinodina olivaceobrunnea Dodge & Baker, from the Antarctic and moss-inhabiting species of Rinodina from other parts of the world. - Muelleria, 3(2): 117-121.
In a previous paper (Filson 1966: 42) the author referred all the Antarctic moss-inhabiting Rinodina to the one species, Rinodina archaeoides H. Magn. In the present paper the author examines several moss-inhabiting Rinodina species from the Northern Hemisphere and concludes that the Arctic species R. archaeoides is in fact a synonym of the Antarctic species, R. olivaceobrunnea.
28790Filson R.B. (1975): Studies in Antarctic lichens IV: Notes on Umbilicaria aprina Nyl.. - Muelleria, 3(2): 130-140.
28789Filson R.B. (1975): Studies in Antarctic lichens V: Lichenes Antarctici Exsiccati, Fascicle I, with additional notes on the taxonomy of each species. - Muelleria, 3(2): 146-158.
28788Filson R.B. (1987): Studies in Antarctic lichens 6: further notes on Umbilicaria. - Muelleria, 6(5): 335-347.
Five species of Umbilicaria are enumerated for Continental Antarctica, South Shetland Islands, South Orkney Islands and the off-shore islands of the Antarctic continent (Fig. I): U. aprina Nyl., U. cristata Dodge & Baker, U. decussata (Vill.) Zahlbr., U. propagulifera (Vainio) Llano and U. rufidula Hue. A key to species is given and a full description and distribution map of each species is provided. U. antarctica Frey & Lamb and U. dillenii Tuck. var. solida Frey are placed in synonymy under U. rufidula Hue; U. saviczii Llano and Gyrophora korotkeviczii Golubkova are placed in synonymy under U. aprina and Dermatiscum mawsoni Dodge is placed in synonymy under U. decussata. The validity of all other taxa within the Umbilicariaceae described from the region is discussed.
28787Filson R.B. (1976): Australian lichenology: a brief history. - Muelleria, 3(3): 183-190.
28786Weber W.A. (1977): Placynthium (Ach.) S. F. Gray, a genus of lichens previously unreported from Australia. - Muelleria, 3(4): 250.
28785Ford S., Gibson M. & Duke G. (2000): The lichens of Nothofagus cunninghamii-dominated rainforests and Acacia melanoxylon-dominated forests in the Otways, Victoria. - Muelleria, 14: 17-29.
Lichens occurring in rainforests dominated by Nothofagus cunninghamii (Hook.) Oerst. and in forests dominated by Acacia melanoxylon R. Br. were examined in the Otway Ranges, southwest Victoria. A total of 110 species were recorded, 93 occurred in N. cunninghamii rainforests and 67 in A. melanoxylon forests. Fifty of these species were common to both forest types. In total, 17 lichen species are newly reported for Victoria.
28784Kantvilas G. (2002): Agyrium Fr., Bryophagus Nitschke ex Arnold and Racodium Fr., lichen genera previously unrecorded for Australia. - Muelleria, 16: 65-70.
Agyrium rufum (Pers.) Fr. (Agyriaceae), Bryophagus minutissima (Vězda) D. Hawksw. (Gyalectaceae) and Racodium rupestre Pers. (incertae sedis) are recorded from Tasmania, representing the first reports of these lichen genera for Australia. Morphological and anatomical data, as well as information on the distribution and ecology of each species is presented.
28783Mayrhofer H., Kantvilas G. & Ropin K. (1999): The corticolous species of the lichen genus Rinodina (Physciaceae) in temperate Australia. - Muelleria, 12(2): 169-194.
A revision of corticolous and lignicolous species of the genus Rinodina (Ach.) Gray (lichenized Ascomycetes, Physciaceae) in temperate Australia is presented. Eight taxa are treated, of which two are described as new: Rinodina confusa H. Mayrhofer & Kantvilas and R. elixii H. Mayrhofer, Kantvilas & Ropin. The most important characters are outlined briefly and a key to the taxa is provided. Excluded taxa, including Amandinea insperata (Nyl.) H. Mayrhofer & Ropin comb. nov., are also discussed. Rinodina australiensis Müll. Arg., R. conradii Körb. and R. dolichospora Malme are lectotypified.
28782Kantvilas G. & Jørgensen P.M. (1998): Observations on the lichen genus Lempholemma Körb. in Australia. - Muelleria, 11(1): 45-50.
T he genus Lempholemma in Australia comprises the single species, Lempholemma polyanthes (Bernh.) Malme [synonym: L. myriococcum (Ach.) Th. Fr.]. This species is recorded from Tasmania and Victoria, and its morphology, anatomy, distribution and ecology are discussed. A lectotype for L. polyanthes is designated. L. hypolasium (Stirt.) F.M. Bailey is a synonym of Physma byrsaeum (Pers.) Mont. Synalissa cancellata F. Wilson, a further synonym of Lempholemma polyanhes, is neotypified. The genus Synalissa does not appear to occur in Australia.
28781Kantvilas G. & Elix J.A. (1999): Studies on the lichen genus Cladia Nyl. in Tasmania: the C. aggregata complex. - Muelleria, 12(2): 135-162.
The Cladia aggregata complex represents one of the most chemically and morphologically variable groups of lichens in southern Australasia, especially Tasmania. The complex is reviewed and eight species are recognised: the widespread C. aggregara (Sw.) Nyl., C. inflata (F. Wilson) D.J. Galloway and C. schizopora (Nyl.) Nyl.: and five species endemic to Tasmania: C. deformis Kantvilas & Elix sp. nov., C. dumicola Kantvilas & Elix sp. nov., C. moniliformis Kantvilas & Elix, C. mutabilis Kantvilas & Elix sp. nov. and C. oreophila Kantvilas & Elix sp. nov. The species are all characterised by a combination of habit, gross morphology, size of ascospores and conidia, and medullary chemistry. Within C. aggregata itself, six chemical races are identified: barbatic acid, fumarprotocetraric acid, stictic acid, psoromic acid, diffractaic acid and norstictic acid; the last two are not known to occur in Tasmanian species. A revised key to all thirteen species of Cladia Nyl. is provided.
28780Kantvilas G. & Elix J.A. (1999): A new species of Pseudocyphellaria (lichenised fungi), with a key to the Tasmanian species. - Muelleria, 12(2): 217-221.
Pseudocyphellaria soredioglabra Kantvilas and Elix is described. The new species is endemic to Tasmania and differs from its nearest relative, P. glabra (Hook.f. & Taylor) Dodge, its marginally granular-sorediate lobes. A key to all 18 species of Pseudocyphelfaria in Tasmania is provided.
28779Kantvilas G. (1993): Bacidia albidoplumbea (lichenised Ascomycotina) and its taxonomic synomyms. - Muelleria, 8(1): 43-46.
Bacidia albidoplumbea (J .D. Hook. & Taylor) Hellbom, previously considered endemic to New Zealand, is recorded from Tasmania, and additional descriptive data and illustrations are provided. The names of three Tasmanian taxa, B. melasemoides (Jatta) Zahlbr., B. otagensis var. tasmanica (Jatta) Zahlbr., and B. weymouthii (Shirley) Zahlbr., are reduced to synonymy.
28778Kantvilas G. (1994): A revised checklist of the Tasmanian lichen flora. - Muelleria, 8(2): 155-175.
A total of 762 taxa of lichens and lichenicolous fungi in 210 genera are recorded from Tasmania and its offshore islands. A revised list of names of taxa deleted from the census is provided. Seventeen species represent new records for Tasmania.
28777McCarthy P.M. (1993): New records of pyrenocarpous lichens from Australia. - Muelleria, 8(1): 31-36.
Laurera madreporiformis (Eschw.) Riddle, Pyrenula macufaris (Zahlbr.) R. C. Harris, P. rubrostoma R. C. Harris, Staurothele fissa (Taylor) Zwackh, Strigula stigmatella (Ach.) R. C. Harris and Thelenella marginata (Groenh.) Mayrh. are reported from Australia for the first time. New state/territorial records are provided for six other species.
28776McCarthy P.M. (1993): New saxicolous species of Ditremis Clements (Lichenized Ascomycotina, Monoblastiaceae) from New Zealand and Hawaii. - Muelleria, 8(1): 1-4.
Ditremis laevigata McCarthy sp. nov. and D. pacifica McCarthy sp. nov. are described from New Zealand and Hawaii, respectively. A key to the saxicolous species of Ditremis Clements is provided.
28775Mayrhofer H. & McCarthy P.M. (1991): Notes on the lichenized ascomycete genus Thelenella Nyl. in Australia, Southern Africa and on the islands of the Subantarctic and Antarctic. - Muelleria, 7(3): 333-341.
The Australian, South African, Subantarctic and Antarctic records of the lichen genus Thelenella are summarized. Thelenella tasmanica Mayrh. & McCarthy is new to science. The new combination Thelenella mawsonii (Dodge) Mayrh. & McCarthy (syn. Microglaena austrogeorgica D.C. Lindsay) is made for a species closely related to T. kerguelena (Nyl.) Mayrh. Thelenella luridella (Nyl.) Mayrh. and T. brasiliensis (Mull. Arg.) Vainio are reported for the first time from Australia and South Africa, respectively. Additional records are given for T. antarctica (M. Lamb) Eriksson, T. kerguelena, T. luridella, and T. mawsonii. Microglaena tibestiana Werner is a new synonym of T. luridella. A revised key to the saxicolous species of Thelenella is provided.
28774Plaza C.M., Díaz de Torres L.E., Lücking R.K., Vizcaya M. & Medina G.E. (2014): Antioxidant activity, total phenols and flavonoids of lichens from Venezuelan Andes. - Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research, 2(5): 138-147.
Context: The biological potential of lichens has been documented through their use in traditional medicine. Secondary lichen metabolites exert a wide variety of biological actions, including their use as antioxidants. Aims: To evaluate the antioxidant activity, total phenol content, and flavonoids of four lichen fungal taxa collected in Mérida (Venezuela), and statistically evaluate the correlation between the antioxidant activity and the amount of phenols and flavonoids in the samples. Methods: Extracts were prepared with water, ethanol and dichloromethane from Cladonia aff. rappii, Cora aff. glabrata, Peltigera laciniata and Thamnolia vermicularis. The antioxidant capacity assessment was determined using DPPH• radical method and reducing power, with ascorbic acid as control. Total phenols were determined by means of the Folin-Ciocalteu method with gallic acid. Total flavonoids were estimated according to the modified Dowd method, using quercetin as standard. Results: The ethanolic extracts of the tested lichens showed the highest scavenging activity and reducing power compared to water and dichloromethane extracts at 4 mg/mL. The highest antiradical power value was found in ethanolic extract of Peltigera laciniata (2.28 mL/mg) and the lowest in dichloromethane extract of Cora aff. glabrata (0.30 mL/mg). The correlation between antioxidant activity and total phenolic content was moderate. The flavonoids content of ethanolic extracts was highly significant but negative (p < 0.05). There was good correlation in dichloromethane extracts. The ethanolic extract of P. laciniata exhibited the highest antiradical activity despite showing the lowest flavonoid content. Conclusions: The ethanolic extracts of lichens tested showed to have the higher antioxidant activity and may be used as natural sources of new antioxidants. Keywords: Antioxidan; Cladonia; Cora; Peltigera; Thamnolia; Venezuelan lichens.
28773Filson R.B. (1988): The lichen genera Heppia and Peltula in Australia. - Muelleria, 6(6): 495-517.
The Australian species of Heppia and Peltula a re revised. Descriptions and illustrations are presented together with distribution maps for each species. Heppia brisbanensis F. Wilson is placed in synonymy with Heppia lutosa (Ach.) Nyl., Heppia placodizans Zahlbr. is placed in synonymy with Peltula decorticans (Müll. Arg.) R. Filson, Peltula obscurans Nyl. is placed in synonymy with P. euploca (Ach.) Wetmore and the new combination Peltula subglebosa (Müll. Arg.) R. Filson is made for the taxon now known as P. obscurans. Heppia acarosporoides Müll. Arg., H. deserticola Zahlbr. and H. hassei Zahlbr. are placed as synonyms of Peltula subglebosa. Peltula imbricata R. Filson is described as new.
28772Filson R.B. (1981): Studies in Macquarie Island lichens 2: the genera Hypogymnia, Menegazzia, Parmelia and Pseudocyphellaria. - Muelleria, 4(4): 317-331.
The genera Hypogymnia and Menegazzia (Hypogymniaceae), Parmelia (Parmeliaceae) and Pseudocyphellaria (Lobariaceae) are enumerated. Two new species, Parmelia lusitaniensis R. Filson and Parmelia phillipsiana R. Filson, are described. Keys to species and varieties are given where applicable. A full description of each species is provided, together with discussion on affinities, chemical constituents and distribution.
28771Filson R.B. (1986): Studies on Macquarie Island lichens 3: the genus Sphaerophorus. - Muelleria, 6(3): 169-172.
Two species in the genus Sphaerophorus are described and illustrated and a key is provided, with notes on their chemical constituents and distribution maps.
28770Filson R.B. (1981): Studies in Macquarie Island lichens 1: general. - Muelleria, 4(4): 305-316.
28769Filson R.B. & Archer A.W. (1986): Studies in Macquarie Island lichens 4: The genera Cladia and Cladonia. - Muelleria, 6(3): 217-235.
The species of Cladia and Cladonia which occur on Macquarie Island are examined critically and a full description of each is provided. Previous records are discussed and synonomy is given. The chemistry of each species was examined and the results are presented together with a taxonomic key and distribution maps. Cladonia subantarctica Filson & Archer is described as new.
28768McCarthy P.M. (1991): Some pyrenocarpous lichens from Macquarie Island. - Muelleria, 7(3): 343-347.
Five saxicolous pyrenocarpous lichens are reported from Macquarie Island. Verrucaria bubalina McCarthy sp. nov. is described.
28767Scott G.A.M. (1980): Lichens of South Australia. Rex B. Filson and Roderick W. Rogers. Handbooks of the Flora and Fauna of South Australia. Government Printer, South Australia. 1979. 197 pp., 28 b.&w. figures, 16 col. plates, 21 x 15 cm. Price $10.50. - Muelleria, 4(3): 295.
Book review
28766Archer A.W. (1980): A new Australian lichen: Cladonia kuringaiensis. - Muelleria, 4(3): 273-275.
28765Archer A.W. (1984): Three new Australian lichens: Cladonia celata, C. praetermissa and C. wilsonii. - Muelleria, 5(4): 271-275.
28764Ahti T., Stenroos S. & Archer A.W. (1990): Some species of Cladonia, published by J. D. Hooker & T. Taylor from the Southern Hemisphere. - Muelleria, 7(2): 173-177.
The taxonomy and nomenclature of some taxa of Cladonia (Lecanorales, lichen-forming ascomycetes) from the Southern Hemisphere are discussed. Cladonia decurva Taylor ex Church. Bab. & Mitten in J. D. Hooker (nom. inval.) is to be replaced by C. scabriuscula (Delise in Duby) Nyl., C. squamosula Milli. Arg. var. squamosula by C. rigida (J. D. Hooker & Taylor) Hampe var. rigida, C. squamosula var. subsquamosula A. W. Archer by C. rigida var. acuta (Taylor) A. W. Archer, C. campbelliana (Vainio) Gyelnik by C. sarmentosa (J. D. Hooker & Taylor) Dodge and C.jlavescens Vainio by C. ustulata (J. D. Hooker & Taylor) Leighton. C. phyllophora (J. D. Hooker & Taylor) Dodge (nom. illeg.) probably represents an unnamed species close to C. corniculata Ahti & Kashiw. A new combination is C. rigida var. acuta (Taylor) A. W. Archer. A lectotype is selected for C. sarmentosa (J. D. Hooker & Taylor) Leighton. The major phenolic compounds of each taxon are presented.
28763Archer A.W. (1985): Two new lichens: Cladonia bimberiensis and C. weymouthii. - Muelleria, 6(1): 93-95.
Two new lichen species, Cladonia bimberiensis and C. weymouthii, are described and discussed. Both occur in Australia and New Zealand.
28762Archer A.W. (1987): Two new lichens: Cladonia squamosula var. subsquamosula and C. sulcata var. striata with notes on chemotaxonomy within the species. - Muelleria, 6(5): 383-388.
Two new lichen varieties, Cladonia squamosula var. subsquamosula which occurs in Australia and Cladonia sulcata var. striata which occurs in Australia and New Zealand, are described and the chemotaxonomy of all Australian varieties within the two species is discussed. Additional distribution data is reported for C. sulcata var. sulcata and C. sulcata var. wilsonii.
28761Archer A.W. (1989): Two new lichens: Cladonia paeminosa and C. humilis var. bourgeanica. - Muelleria, 7(1): 1-5.
Cladonia paeminosa A.W. Archer and Cladonia humilis (With.) Laundon var. bourgeanica A.W. Archer are described as new. Both taxa contain fumarprotocetraric and bourgeanic acids and occur in Australia. C. humilis var. bourgeanica also occurs in Europe and North and South America.
28760Lendemer J.C. (2017): Recent literature on lichens—247. - Bryologist, 120(4): 537-548.
28759Etayo J. & Aptroot A. (2017): New and interesting lichens from Panama. - Bryologist, 120(4): 501-510.
The following five new species are described from Panama: Anisomeridium trichialis, Arthothelium isidiatum, Astrothelium flavomegaspermum, Mycocalicium chiodectonicola and Polymeridium xanthopleurothecium. In addition, 41 species are reported from Panama for the first time.
28758Lücking R., Moncada B., McCune B., Farkas E., Goffinet B., Parker D., Chaves J.L., Lőkös L., Nelson P.R., Spribille T., Stenroos S., Wheeler T., Yanez-Ayabaca A., Dillman K., Gockman O.T., Goward T., Hollinger J., Tripp E.A., Villella J., Álvaro-Alba W.R., Arango C.J., Cáceres M.E.S., Coca L.F., Printzen C., Rodríguez C., Scharnagl K., Rozzi R., Soto-Medina E. & Yakovchenko L.S. (2017): Pseudocyphellaria crocata (Ascomycota: Lobariaceae) in the Americas is revealed to be thirteen species, and none of them is P. crocata. - Bryologist, 120(4): 441-500.
We provide a phylogenetic revision of the Pseudocyphellaria crocata complex in the Americas. Specimens traditionally identified as P. crocata, based on their cyanobacterial photobiont, yellow pseudocyphellae, at least partially white medulla, and yellow soralia or soralia-like structures, are shown to represent 13 distinct species, forming a monophyletic group divided into four large clades, three comprising one species each and one containing eight species, plus two taxa for which no molecular data are available. Seven species correspond to what was previously recognized as P. crocata and one to P. dozyana, whereas a further one is identified as the sorediate counterpart of the usually apotheciate taxon P. lechleri and another as a pseudosorediate morph of the usually phyllidiate species P. neglecta. Surprisingly, none of the species represents P. crocata s.str., which must therefore be excluded from the American lichen biota. The 13 recognized species include three species new to science and three new combinations: P. citrina (Gyeln.) Lücking, Moncada & S.Stenroos, comb. nov. [bas.: Cyanisticta citrina Gyeln., nom. nov. pro Sticta citrina Pers. nom. illeg.], P. desfontainii (Delise) Vain., P. deyi Lücking, sp. nov., P. dozyana (Mont. & Bosch) D.J.Galloway, P. epiflavoides (Gyeln.) Lücking, Farkas & Lőkös, comb. nov. [bas.: Cyanisticta epiflavoides Gyeln.], P. hawaiiensis H.Magn., P. hillii (C.W.Dodge) D.J.Galloway, P. holarctica McCune, Lücking & Moncada, sp. nov., P. lechleri (Müll. Arg.) Du Rietz, P. neglecta (Müll. Arg.) H.Magn., P. punctata Lendemer, Lücking & Moncada sp. nov., P. sandwicensis (Zahlbr.) Moncada & Lücking, comb. nov. [bas.: Sticta crocata f. sandwicensis Zahlbr.], and P. xanthosticta (Pers.) Moncada & Lücking. Based on sequenced specimens, a neotype is selected for P. citrina and epitypes for P. hawaiiensis, P. lechleri, P. sandwicensis and P. xanthosticta. A key to all sorediate or pseudosorediate species of this complex in the Americas is presented, and all species are described, discussed and illustrated. Keywords: Bayesian Poisson tree processes (bPTP), Pseudocyphellaria gilva, Pseudocyphellaria maculata, Pseudocyphellaria physciospora, species delimitation.
28757Pérez-Ortega S. (2017): [Review:] Hongos liquenícolas de Ecuador. - Bryologist, 120(4): 551-552.
Review on the monograph: Etayo, J. 2017. Hongos Liquenícolas de Ecuador. Opera Lilloana 50: 1–535. Available as free electronic publication (PDF) from http://lillo.org.ar/revis/opera-lilloana/2017-opl-v50.pdf
28756Glew K.A. (1997): Do vascular plant communities influence the structure of alpine lichen communities?. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 68: 177-194.
Six alpine locations were studied, three sites each in the Olympic and North Cascade Mountains, Washington, U.S.A., to determine the effect of vascular plants on the structure of lichen communities. Sites were sampled using a 0.25 nr quadrat along eight 100 m transects/site. Percent cover of lichen species and total percent cover of vascular plants were recorded. Presence/absence of all plant species and bryophytes was determined. Communities in tundra areas with xeric plant associations contained Cetraria islandica, C. ericetorum, Flavocetraria nivalis, F. cucullata, Thamnolia vermicularis, vars. vermicularis and subuliformis, and Cladina mitis. Lichens were strongly associated with plants as a substrate (structure), reflecting the patchiness exhibited by vascular plant distributions. Ericaceous plant and snow bank communities tended to have lower lichen diversity and the dominant lichens were Cladonia spp., Lepraria cacuminum, and Tuckermannopsis subalpina. Krummholz communities displayed an inverse relationship between lichen and vascular plant cover. Peltigera rufescens and P. malacea, typically terricolous, also occurred epiphytically on krummholz vegetation. In general, lichen communities tended to extend over larger areas than plant communities. Vascular plants can be a major factor influencing the structure of alpine lichen communities. alpine lichen communities, snow banks, tundra, U.S.A. (Washington), vascular plant communities
28755Wolseley P. (1997): Response of epiphytic lichens to fire in tropical forests of Thailand. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 68: 165-176.
Fire is a major stimulus of change in seasonal tropical forests, often causing a shift in vegetation from evergreen moist forests to dry deciduous forest and finally to savanna. This shift has been exacerbated by the frequent, often annual, use of fire by man. During a three year project at the Natural History Museum, epiphytic lichen communities of adjacent seasonal evergreen (SEF) and deciduous forests (DDF) in Northern Thailand were sampled and permanent quadrats set up to monitor changes. Quadrats were revisited one year later, following a severe fire season. Changes in lichens in quadrats during 1 year are used to interpret data from 20 randomly selected trees in 50 m2 plots, and to identify lichen taxa sensitive and tolerant of fire, and characteristic of the forest type. Epiphytic lichen components of these plots are given, and the distribution of families in all plots discussed. The distribution of photobionts in all plots is discussed. Field observations of the frequency of highly coloured taxa in the DDF and their absence from the SEF are interpreted with the presence of secondary metabolites in the lichen thallus. The distribution of fruiting bodies and of vegetative propagules is discussed, and the low occurence of sexual reproduction in the DDF are investigated using data to illustrate characteristics of fire-tolerant lichen communities of the DDF, including thallus structure and chemistry, photobionts and reproduction. The spread of species-poor DDF, the loss of SEF and species-rich DDF is discussed
28754Modenesi P., Canepa R. & Tafanelli A. (1997): The structural role of calcium oxalate and medullary architecture in Menegazzia terebrata and Hypogymnia physodes. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 68: 101-110.
The possible role of calcium oxalate deposition related to the medullary architecture in Menegazzia terebrata and Hypogymnia physodes, is studied on the basis of the theory of elasticity. The investigations show that calcium oxalate may have a main structural role providing mechanical stability to a thallus with an internal cavity. H physodes develops the greatest efficiency in the medullary layer in which the crystal-bearing hyphae occur in the directions of the principal stresses, thereby permitting a minimum of material consumption. M. terebrata is characterized by a minor efficiency in saving material
28753Lange O.L. & Green T.G.A. (1997): High thallus water contents can limit photosynthetic productivity of crustose lichens in the field . - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 68: 81-99.
We investigated the occurrence and ecological relevance of photosynthetic depression at high thallus water content (WC) for different lichen species. Laboratory studies under controlled conditions showed clearly depressed net photosynthesis (NP) of water saturated thalli of Fulgensia fulgens, Lecanora muralis, Psora cerebriformis and Xanthoria calcicola. The depression was severe and present at all light levels and temperatures tested. In contrast, Diploschistes muscorum and D. diacapsis had no depression of photosynthesis at high WC. Performance of three of the species under natural condition was studied using a novel automatic ‘klapp-cuvette’ which measured CO2 exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and related microclimate parameters at 30 minute intervals over long periods, L. muralis for more than one year. The response of NP to high WC, for all three species in the field, was almost identical to that found in the laboratory. After thorough wetting, L. muralis and X. calcicola showed long periods of low, constant NP which was independant of light level. Subsequent to such periods of heavily depressed NP, they often had transient peaks of high CO2 uptake as the thalli dried through their optimal WC. In contrast, after substantial wetting in the field, D. muscorum retained high NP which tended to track ambient light levels. Our results demonstrated clearly that the depression in photosynthesis produced by high WC was species specific but, where it was present in laboratory studies, then it was also ecologically important in the field. There was an excellent agreement between laboratory and field studies. Lichens with the depression showed, in nature, severe loss of potential productivity when thoroughly wetted. On average, NP of the epilithic L. muralis on a man-made wall in the Botanical Garden Würzburg was heavily depressed for about 30% of its total time period of photosynthetic activity. However, since this species is a very successful and common lichen, it is clear that photosynthetic depression, on its own, is not a good predictor of overall performance for a species. The discovery of the thallus structures involved in controlling water distribution in the thallus and its effect on CO2 exchange pathways remains an interesting problem for lichen morphologists
28752Crespo A., Bridge P.D., Cubero O.F. & Hawksworth D.L. (1997): Determination of genotypic variability in the lichen-forming fungus Parmelia sulcata . - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 68: 73-79.
A molecular study of 261 samples of Parmelia sulcata from six countries in three continents was carried out. The ITS segment of the rDNA repeated unit of the mycobiont was analysed. Four different ITS fragment lengths, varying from about 580 to 840 base pairs (bp), were detected among different isolates of the species. The two most commonly isolated fragments were 840 and 620 bp fragments which were found in isolates from widely separated sites. The size difference between the two most common fragments is suggested to be due to the presence of a Group I intron at the 3' end of the gene for the small rRNA subunit
28751Ravera S., Vizzini A., Cogoni A., Aleffi M., Assini S., Bergamo Decarli G., Bonini I., von Brackel W., Cheli F., Darmostuk V., Fačkovcová Z., Gavrylenko L., Gheza G., Guttová A., Mayrhofer H., Nascimbene J., Paoli L., Poponessi S., Potenza G., Prosser F., Puddu D., Puntillo D., Rigotti D., Sguazzin F., Tatti A. & Venanzoni R. (2017): Notulae to the Italian flora of algae, bryophytes, fungi and lichens: 4. - Italian Botanist, 4: 76–86.
In this contribution, new data concerning bryophytes, fungi and lichens of the Italian flora are presented. It includes new records and confirmations for the bryophyte genera Campylopus, Paludella, Tortula, and Conocephalum, the fungal genera Agonimia, Buelliella, Entorrhiza, Filicupula, Poronia, and Sporisorium, the lichen genera Cladonia, Dibaeis, Lasallia, and Rhizocarpon. Keywords: Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Bryidae, Marchantiidae, floristic data.
28750Taraškevičius R., Motiejūnaitė J., Zinkutė R., Eigminienė A., Gedminienė L. & Stankevičius Ž. (2017): Similarities anddifferencesingeochemical distribution patternsinepiphytic lichens and topsoils from kindergarten grounds in Vilnius. - Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 183: 152–165.
Topsoil and lichen Phaeophyscia orbicularis were sampled from the grounds of kindergartens (Vilnius, Lithuania) using a side-by-side design and analysed for the total contents of Al, As, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, S, Si, Sr, Ti, V and Zn. Only Si, Mn and Zn were found to retain their positions in sequences arranged in descending order of their mean contents (> 90 mg kg− 1) in topsoil (Si > Al > Ca > K > Fe > Mg > Na > Ti > P > S > Mn > Cl > Zn) and in lichens (Si > Ca > K > S > Al > Fe > P > Mg > Na > Cl > Mn > Ti > Zn). In lichen thalli, unlike in topsoil, nutrients and lithogenic elements formed separate clusters. Results proved that by origin, the elements captured by lichens were not only from the immediate environs, but also from more distant city districts with different soil lithology. However, both in topsoil and in lichens, As, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, V and Zn form together with S and Br clusters of closely related elements indicating that Phaeophyscia orbicularis is a good urban indicator of polluting elements using which total contamination indices of topsoil ZT and of lichens ZL can be calculated. Higher ZT values were detected in the former industrial-residential areas, while ZL values were higher in new residential-commercial areas. The ratio ZT/ZL was found to be useful in revealing areas where pollution is on the increase. The contents of Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, V and Zn in topsoil from the same sites which had been sampled five years ago significantly (p < 0.05) decreased. Locations of Cr, Mn, Ni, V and Zn anomalies were found to have considerably changed, meanwhile Pb, Cu and Mo anomalies were found to be shifting least of all.
28749Vieira J., Matos P., Mexia T., Silva P., Lopes N., Freitas C., Correia O., Santos-Reis M., Branquinho C. & Pinho P. (2018): Green spaces are not all the same for the provision of air purification and climate regulation services: The case of urban parks. - Environmental Research, 160: 306–313.
The growing human population concentrated in urban areas lead to the increase of road traffic and artificial areas, consequently enhancing air pollution and urban heat island effects, among others. These environmental changes affect citizen's health, causing a high number of premature deaths, with considerable social and economic costs. Nature-based solutions are essential to ameliorate those impacts in urban areas. While the mere presence of urban green spaces is pointed as an overarching solution, the relative importance of specific vegetation structure, composition and management to improve the ecosystem services of air purification and climate regulation are overlooked. This avoids the establishment of optimized planning and management procedures for urban green spaces with high spatial resolution and detail. Our aim was to understand the relative contribution of vegetation structure, composition and management for the provision of ecosystem services of air purification and climate regulation in urban green spaces, in particular the case of urban parks. This work was done in a large urban park with different types of vegetation surrounded by urban areas. As indicators of microclimatic effects and of air pollution levels we selected different metrics: lichen diversity and pollutants accumulation in lichens. Among lichen diversity, functional traits related to nutrient and water requirements were used as surrogates of the capacity of vegetation to filter air pollution and to regulate climate, and provide air purification and climate regulation ecosystem services, respectively. This was also obtained with very high spatial resolution which allows detailed spatial planning for optimization of ecosystem services. We found that vegetation type characterized by a more complex structure (trees, shrubs and herbaceous layers) and by the absence of management (pruning, irrigation and fertilization) had a higher capacity to provide the ecosystems services of air purification and climate regulation. By contrast, lawns, which have a less complex structure and are highly managed, were associated to a lower capacity to provide these services. Tree plantations showed an intermediate effect between the other two types of vegetation. Thus, vegetation structure, composition and management are important to optimize green spaces capacity to purify air and regulate climate. Taking this into account green spaces can be managed at high spatial resolutions to optimize these ecosystem services in urban areas and contribute to improve human well-being.
28748Larrieu L., Paillet Y., Winter S., Bütler R., Kraus D., Krumm F., Lachat T., Michel A.K., Regnery B. & Vandekerkhove K. (2018): Tree related microhabitats in temperate and Mediterranean European forests: A hierarchical typology for inventory standardization. - Ecological Indicators, 84: 194–207.
Highlights: • Tree related Microhabitats (TreMs) are key structures for biodiversity. • We propose both a definition and a typology of TreMs, for standardized inventories. • The hierarchical structure of this typology allows multi-purpose uses. • This typology encompasses 7 basic forms, 15 groups and 47 types. • We focus on temperate and Mediterranean European forest ecosystems. Tree related Microhabitats (hereafter TreMs) have been widely recognized as important substrates and structures for biodiversity in both commercial and protected forests and are receiving increasing attention in management, conservation and research. How to record TreMs in forest inventories is a question of recent interest since TreMs represent potential indirect indicators for the specialized species that use them as substrates or habitat at least for a part of their life-cycle. However, there is a wide range of differing interpretations as to what exactly constitutes a TreM and what specific features should be surveyed in the field. In an attempt to harmonize future TreM inventories, we propose a definition and a typology of TreM types borne by living and dead standing trees in temperate and Mediterranean forests in Europe. Our aim is to provide users with definitions which make unequivocal TreM determination possible. Our typology is structured around seven basic forms according to morphological characteristics and biodiversity relevance: i) cavities lato sensu, ii) tree injuries and exposed wood, iii) crown deadwood, iv) excrescences, v) fruiting bodies of saproxylic fungi and fungi-like organisms, vi) epiphytic and epixylic structures, and vii) exudates. The typology is then further detailed into 15 groups and 47 types with a hierarchical structure allowing the typology to be used for different purposes. The typology, along with guidelines for standardized recording we propose, is an unprecedented reference tool to make data on TreMs comparable across different regions, forest types and tree species, and should greatly improve the reliability of TreM monitoring. It provides the basis for compiling these data and may help to improve the reliability of reporting and evaluation of the conservation value of forests. Finally, our work emphasizes the need for further research on TreMs to better understand their dynamics and their link with biodiversity in order to more fully integrate TreM monitoring into forest management. Keywords: Biodiversity conservation; Integrative forest management; Monitoring; Forest inventory; Tree structure; Wildlife habitat.
28747Zhang Z., Zheng Y., Li Y., Bai H., Ma T., Song X., Zhao J. & Gao L. (2018): The effects of sodium usnic acid by topical application on skin wound healing in rats. - Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, 97: 587–593.
Wound healing is the process of repairing and remodeling damaged tissue. This is a public health problem that can influence the survival rate and quality of life of injured people. This attracts the attention of the medical community because it has high health care costs and there is presently a lack of successful therapy. Thus, the application ofnatural ingredients and medicinal plants hasbecome a focus ofresearch. The purpose ofthis study istoinvestigatetheeffectivenessoftopically-appliedsodiumusnicacidonmacroscopicandmicroscopicchanges under dermal injury. These effects were measured using wound contraction experiments, histological analysis, and immunohistochemistry analysis, and gentamicin was used as a positive control medicine. Our results revealed that wound healing rates were higher and re-epithelialized times were shorter with topical application of sodium usnic acid, as compared to the negative control group. Histological results showed treatment with sodium usnic acid caused a reduction in inflammatory cells and an increase in fibroblast proliferation, granulation tissue, vascular regeneration. Sodium usnic acid treatment also resulted in earlier complete re-epithelialization, formation of well-organized bands of collagen, and epidermal keratinization. Furthermore, the levels of VEGF were significantly higher at day 1 post-wounding in those treated with sodium usnic acid. In conclusion, our results indicate that the topical use of sodium usnic acid could promote skin wound healing, and this mechanism might be related to anti-inflammatory effects at the wound site. Keywords: Sodium usnic acid; Wound healing; Histopathology; VEGF.
28746Moore C.M., Catella S.A. & Abbott K.C. (2018): Population dynamics of mutualism and intraspecific density dependence: How θ-logistic density dependence affects mutualistic positive feedback. - Ecological Modelling, 368: 191–197.
Mutualism describes the biological phenomenon where two or more species are reciprocally beneficial, regardless of their ecological intimacy or evolutionary history. Classic theory shows that mutualistic benefit must be relatively weak, or else it overpowers the stabilizing influence of intraspecific competition and leads to unrealistic, unbounded population growth. Interestingly, the conclusion that strong positive interactions lead to runaway population growth is strongly grounded in the behavior of a single model. This model—the Lotka–Volterra competition model with a sign change to generate mutualism rather than competition between species—assumes logistic growth of each species plus a linear interaction term to represent the mutualism. While it is commonly held that the linear interaction term is to blame for the model's unrealistic behavior, we show here that a linear mutualism added to a θ-logistic model of population growth can prevent unbounded growth. We find that when density dependence is decelerating, the benefit of mutualism at equilibrium is greater than when density dependence is accelerating. Although there is a greater benefit, however, decelerating density dependence tends to destabilize populations whereas accelerating density dependence is always stable. We interpret these findings tentatively, but with promise for the understanding of the population ecology of mutualism by generating several predictions relating growth rates of mutualist populations and the strength of mutualistic interaction.
28745Meli M.A., Desideri D., Cantaluppi C., Ceccotto F., Feduzi L. & Roselli C. (2018): Elemental and radiological characterization of commercial Cetraria islandica (L.) Acharius pharmaceutical and food supplementation products. - Science of the Total Environment, 613–614: 1566–1572.
An elemental and radiological characterization was performed on Cetraria islandica (L.) Ach. pharmaceutical and food supplementation products purchased in local specialty shops in Italy. Essential elements (K, Ca, P, S, Cl, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ni, Br, I) and nonessential or toxic elements (Al, Ti, Si, Rb, Sr, As, Cd, Sn, and Pb) were determined by Energy Dispersive Polarized X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry; natural radionuclides (238U, 234U, 230Th, 210Po, 232Th, and 228Th) were determined by alpha spectrometry. The results show that C. islandica, whose nutritional value was assessed referring to recommended nutrient intakes, could serve as an important source of essential elements. Moreover, as expected, lichens concentrate airborne 210Po, whose activity ranged from 132 to 489 Bq kg− 1dw. This value was much higher than those reported by UNSCEAR for leafy vegetables in the world. In addition, total As and Cd were < 1 mg kg− 1dw and Pb mean concentration was 9.25 mg kg− 1dw. Health risks associated with the toxic elements contained in C. islandica (L.) products were calculated using risk estimators. Their contribution to total elemental intake does not appear to pose a threat, but the concentrations of these elements should be continuously monitored to protect consumers against potential adverse health effects.
28744Silva H.A.M.F., Siqueira W.N., Sá J.L.F., Silva L.R.S, Martins M.C.B., Aires A.L., Amâncio F.F., Pereira E.C., Albuquerque M.C.P.A, Melo A.M.M.A. & Silva N.H. (2018): Laboratory assessment of divaricatic acid against Biomphalaria glabrata and Schistosoma mansoni cercariae. - Acta Tropica, 178: 97–102.
In this study, the molluscicidal and antiparasitic activities of divaricatic acid was evaluated, targeting the mollusc Biomphalaria glabrata and cercariae of the helminth Schistosoma mansoni. In addition, the environmental toxicity of divaricatic acid was assessed by bioassay using the microcrustacean Artemia salina. Divaricatic acid showed high toxicity against both adult snails (5 μg/mL) and embryos (20 μg/mL after 6 h of exposure). Similar activity was observed in Schistosoma mansoni cercariae after only a short exposure time (10 μg/mL after 30 min of exposure). The divaricatic acid did not show toxicity in the acute test using Artemia salina at concentrations equal to or below 200 μg/mL. The divaricatic acid proved to be a promising substance for the elimination of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata, an intermediate host of schistosomiasis, as well as the cercariae of the pathogen, while being non-toxic to the Artemia salina at the same concentrations. This is the first experimental observation of the molluscicidal and cercaricide activity of divaricatic acid.
28743Chrastný V., Šillerová H., Vítková M., Francová A., Jehlička J., Kocourková J., Aspholm P.E., Nilsson L.O., Berglen T.F., Jensen H.K.B. & Komárek M. (2018): Unleaded gasoline as a significant source of Pb emissions in the Subarctic. - Chemosphere, 193: 230–236.
After the phasing out of leaded gasoline, Pb emissions to the atmosphere dramatically decreased, and other sources became more significant. The contribution of unleaded gasoline has not been sufficiently recognized; therefore, we evaluated the impact of Pb from unleaded gasoline in a relatively pristine area in Subarctic NE Norway. The influence of different endmembers (Ni slag and concentrate from the Nikel smelter in Russia, PM10 filters, and traffic) on the overall Pb emissions was determined using various environmental samples (snow, lichens, and topsoils) and Pb isotope tracing. We found a strong relationship between Pb in snow and the Ni smelter. However, lichen samples and most of the topsoils were contaminated by Pb originating from the current use of unleaded gasoline originating from Russia. Historical leaded and recent unleaded gasoline are fully distinguishable using Pb isotopes, as unleaded gasoline is characterized by a low radiogenic composition (206Pb/207Pb = 1.098 and 208Pb/206Pb = 2.060) and remains an unneglectable source of Pb in the region.
28742Wieners P.C., Bilger W. & Gauslaa Y. (2018): Carbon-based secondary compounds in the lichen Hypogymnia physodes deter detrivorous woodlice. - Fungal Ecology, 31: 54–58.
Woodlice are not widely recognized as lichen-feeding invertebrates. We sought to discover whether the woodlouse, Porcellio scaber, could feed on the lichen Hypogymnia physodes and if the lichen carbon-based secondary compounds CBSCs would reduce grazing. We cut lichen thalli in two pieces, one was non-destructively rinsed in acetone to remove CBSCs; the other served as a control. Both pieces were fed to woodlice in a choice experiment. The CBSC concentration of individual thalli ranged from 3 to 19%. The woodlice grazed all pieces, but preferred the acetone-rinsed pieces, depending on the amount of CBSCs present in the non-extracted counterpart. The woodlice were not deterred from feeding on samples with CBSC concentrations ≤5%, which corresponded to natural contents in shade-adapted thalli. This suggested that P. scaber tolerates this amount of compounds at least in the short-term. In conclusion, P. scaber can feed on H. physodes, but CBSCs deter them from feeding.
28741Haughian S.R. & Burton P.J. (2018): Microclimate differences above ground-layer vegetation in lichen-dominated pine forests of north-central British Columbia. - Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 249: 100–106.
Lodgepole pine forests of north-central British Columbia have patchy ground-layer vegetation, typically dominated by either fruticose lichens, feathermosses, or ericaceous vascular plants; this patchy structure has been shown to correspond with environmental variables that likely moderate the ground-layer microclimate. To investigate the potential role of microclimate on patterns of dominance of ground-layer functional groups, we recorded temperature and relative humidity above the ground-layer vegetation during 25 summer days over patches dominated by mat-forming lichens, feathermosses, or vascular plants. Data were summarized for raw microclimate attributes and daily water potential of the air, and in terms of modelled equilibrium water content of moss or lichen thalli. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences in the water potential of air above the three patch types under sunny conditions, but not under overcast conditions. Differences in vegetation cover were only associated with differences in atmospheric moisture when using data from sunny periods during the daytime. These data confirm that lichens occupy microclimatic niches that are distinctly drier than those of feathermosses or vascular plants, and corroborate the suggested mechanism by which canopy or soil properties influence these types of ground-layer vegetation. Keywords: Reindeer lichen; Feathermoss; Ground cover; Lodgepole pine; Microclimate; Water potential.
28740Liu S., Liu W., Shi X., Li S., Hu T., Song L. & Wu C. (2018): Dry-hot stress significantly reduced the nitrogenase activity of epiphytic cyanolichen. - Science of The Total Environment, 619–620: 630–637.
Nitrogen (N) fixed by epiphytic cyanolichens (i.e. lichens that contain cyanobacterial symbionts) is thought to be the most important resource of this nutrient in some natural forest ecosystems. Although a great deal of work has been carried out to evaluate the biomass of this group as well as its contribution to ecosystem N budgets, empirical studies are needed to confirm the N input responses by cyanolichens under climate change conditions (dry-hot stress) as well as to determine the factors that control this process. We simulated climate change conditions by transplanting Lobaria retigera, a common cyanolichen in the area, to lower elevations, and measured nitrogenase activity in response to warmer and drier conditions. In addition, we conducted a series of laboratory and greenhouse experiments to determine the dominant factors influencing nitrogenase activity in this species. The results of this study show that mean annual nitrogenase activity at the higher site was 1.5 and 2.4 times that at the simulated warmer and drier (middle and lower) sites, respectively. Combining laboratory experimental conclusions, we show that thallus water content is a key factor determining the nitrogenase activity of L. retigera in early transplantation while insufficient carbon storage resulting from a combination of warming and desiccation was likely responsible for reducing nitrogenase activity in later months of the transplant experiment. The results of this study imply that the negative impact of climate change (dry-hot stress) on ecosystems not only impacts the distribution and growth of species, but also nutrient circles and budgets.
28739Pócs T. (2017): Billbuckia, a new name for Pocsia nom. illeg. (Sematophyllaceae, Bryophyta) versus Pocsia (Verrucariales, Ascomycota). - Phytotaxa, 329(3): 289–290.
28738Aptroot A. & Yazici K. (2017): Lecania sessilisoraliata, a new sorediate lichen species from limestone in Turkey. - Phytotaxa, 328(3): 298–300.
The new species Lecania sessilisoraliata is described from limestone in Burdur in Turkey. This species, close to L. baeomma with has indigo-speckled soralia and is coastal, has very clear discrete soralia with granular soredia. Key words: Burdur, Lecania, Ramalinaceae, lichen, new species, taxonomy.
28737Egea J.M. & Torrente P. (1994): El Género de Hongos Liquenizados Lecanactis (Ascomycotina). - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 54: 1-205.
Taxonomic treatment, including keys, descriptions, illustrations, and distribution maps, for Lecanactis (24 taxa), Lecanographa (27 taxa), and Sipmania (1 species). Includes a generic key for these and other similar genera, some of which have been recently segregated. New: Lecanactis exigua sp. nov., L. latispora sp. nov., L. neozelanica sp. nov., L. spermatospora sp. nov., L. sulphurea sp. nov., L. tibelliana sp. nov., Lecanographa gen. nov., L. abscondita (Th. Fr.) comb. nov., L. aggregata sp. nov., L. amylacea (Ehrh. ex Pers.) comb. nov., L. cretacea (Müll. Arg.) comb. nov., L. dialeuca (Cromb.) comb. nov., L. dimelaenoides (Egea & Torrente) comb. nov., L. farinosa (Hepp) comb. nov., L. farinulenta (Müll. Arg.) comb. nov., L. follmannii (Dodge) comb. nov., L. grumulosa (Duf.) comb. nov., L. hemisphaerica (Laundon) comb. nov., L. hypothallina (Zahlbr.) comb. nov., L. illecebrosula (Müll. Arg.) comb. nov., L. lyncea (Sm.) comb. nov., L. lynceoides (Müll. Arg.) comb. nov., L. microcarpella (Müll. Arg.) comb. nov., L. occidentalis sp. nov., L. subcaesia (Malme) comb. nov., L. subcaesioides sp. nov., L. subcalcarea (Müll. Arg.) comb. nov., L. subdryophila (Follmann & Vezda) comb. nov., L. subgrumulosa (Egea, Torrente & Manrique) comb. nov., L. unghvariensis (Szatala) comb. nov., L. werneri (Faurel, Ozenda & Schotter) comb. nov., Sipmania gen. nov., S. peltata sp. nov.
28736Malíček J. & Mayrhofer H. (2017): Additions to the lichen diversity of Macedonia (FYROM). - Herzogia, 30 (2): 431–444.
Selected localities in Galičica National Park, Matka canyon in the Suva Gora Mountains, Mavrovo National Park, Ohrid Basin, Vardar River valley and Popova Šapka in the Šar Planina Mountains were briefly studied during a field excursion in 2014. Seventy-seven lichenized fungi are reported for the first time from Macedonia (FYROM); eight species (Candelariella aggregata, Halecania viridescens, Lecanora albula, Lepraria diffusa, Normandina acroglypta, Parmelia barrenoae, Sarcogyne fallax and Schaereria corticola) are new to the Balkan Peninsula. Caloplaca substerilis, Fuscopannaria mediterranea, Gyalecta croatica, G. geoica, Leptochidium albociliatum, Lobarina scrobiculata, Protoblastenia lilacina, Sclerophora pallida and Thelopsis rubella represent other remarkable records. An enigmatic collection of an Immersaria, closely resembling I. athroocarpa and possibly representing a new species, is briefly discussed. The present paper brings the total number of lichenized and lichenicolous fungi known for Macedonia to 675 and 22, respectively.
28735Pino-Bodas R., Zhurbenko M.P. & Stenroos S. (2017): Phylogenetic placement within Lecanoromycetes of lichenicolous fungi associated with Cladonia and some other genera. - Persoonia, 10(3): 286–292.
Though most of the lichenicolous fungi belong to the Ascomycetes, their phylogenetic placement based on molecular data is lacking for numerous species. In this study the phylogenetic placement of 19 species of lichenicolous fungi was determined using four loci (LSU rDNA, SSU rDNA, ITS rDNA and mtSSU). The phylogenetic analyses revealed that the studied lichenicolous fungi are widespread across the phylogeny of Lecanoromycetes. One species is placed in Acarosporales, Sarcogyne sphaerospora; five species in Dactylosporaceae, Dactylospora ahtii, D. deminuta, D. glaucoides, D. parasitica and Dactylospora sp.; four species belong to Lecanorales, Lichenosticta alcicorniaria, Epicladonia simplex, E. stenospora and Scutula epiblastematica. The genus Epicladonia is polyphyletic and the type E. sandstedei belongs to Leotiomycetes. Phaeopyxis punctum and Bachmanniomyces uncialicola form a well supported clade in the Ostropomycetidae. Epigloea soleiformis is related to Arthrorhaphis and Anzina. Four species are placed in Ostropales, Corticifraga peltigerae, Cryptodiscus epicladonia, C. galaninae and C. cladoniicola comb. nov. (= Lettauia cladoniicola). Three new species are described, Dactylospora ahtii, Cryptodiscus epicladonia and C. galaninae.
28734Duisembecov B.A., Dubovskiy I.M. & Glupov V.V. (2017): Effect of plant secondary metabolites on susceptibility of insects to entomopathogenic microorganisms. - Contemporary Problems of Ecology, 10(3): 286–292.
[Original Russian Text published in Sibirskii Ekologicheskii Zhurnal, 2017, No. 3, pp. 332–340] The effect of a number of plant extracts on the susceptibility of experimental insects to enthomopathogenic microorganisms has been studied. It is shown that the weight of the wax moth Galleria mellonella larvae tends to decrease by 30–50% under the treatments of polar and nonpolar extracts from the ledum sprouts and the reindeer lichen, while the crude hemlock extract had the opposite effect, contributing to the larva weight gain by approximately 30%. The treatment with the reindeer lichen extract causes synergistic effects on mortality from both the nuclear polyhedrosis virus and the fungal infection in the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar and the wax moth, respectively. It has been determined that the main components of this extract are perlatolic acid, usnic acid, and a third component whose exact chemical identity is still unknown. The usnic acid is the most prospective additive component to entomopathogenic microorganisms. The treatment with the usnic acid caused the increase in mortality from the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium robertsii and Beauveria bassiana in the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata and the wax moth. However, the maximum effect occurs only after the treatment with the crude extract, which can be explained by either the combined effects of all the extract components or the change in a range of the properties of the components in the presence of the other crude extract components. Keywords: extracts, reindeer lichen, Colorado potato beetle, resistance, Metarhizium, usnic acid, gypsy moth, wax moth.
28733Seshadri T.R. (1944): A theory of biogenesis of lichen depsides and depsidones. - Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences - Section A, 20(1): 1–14.
Lichen depsides and depsidones are considered to arise from a common source (XIV) which originates from aldol condensation between a hexose and a biose and elimination of water. Oxidation and reduction lead to various modifications of this C8 unit and increase in the length of the sidechain arises from condensation with simple sugars and reduction. Depsides are formed by the combination of two of these units. β-Orcinol derivatives are obtained by nuclear methylation by means of formaldehyde and this reaction in general takes place prior to depside formation though the other possibility is not altogether excluded as far as the left half is concerned Depsidones come last in the evolution; they are based on depsides and require oxidation or dehydrogenation involving position 5 which is para to the activating hydroxyl. Nuclear oxidation without leading to depsidone formation also occurs. Either the 3-or the 5-position is involved and meta depsides result. Oxidation involving the left half is also possible and is represented by diploschistesic acid. The occurrence of orcinol and psoromic acid is attributed to decarboxylation taking place in the plant.
28732Seshadri T.R. & Sankara Subramanian S. (1949): Chemical investigation of Indian lichens. Part IX. Some lichens on sandal trees—Parmelia tinctorum and Usnea japonica. - Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences - Section A, 30: 62–66.
Two lichens are found on the sandal trees of Coorg which do not suffer adverse effects on this account. Parmelia tinctorum was earlier reported to contain atranorin and lecanoric acid; considerable amounts of norstictic acid are now isolated from it. Usnea japonica is reported for the first time in India. Besides usnic and stictic acids already known in this source, barbatolic acid also has now been found to be present in it.
28731Subba Rao V. & Seshadri T.R. (1942): Chemical examination of Indian lichens. Part V. Occurrence of active montagnetol in Roccella montagnei. - Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences - Section A, 15(6): 429–431.
A lower melting sample of montagnetol has been isolated from Roccella montagnei. It gives all the reactions of montagnetol, but differs in having a lower melting point and a different crystal structure, and in being dextrorotatory. Hence it is identified as d-montagnetol. The higher melting compound is the racemic variety having no optical activity. The general results indicate that racemisation takes place even in the plant.
28730Anderson T.J., Wagner D.L., Cooper B.R., McCarty M.E. & Zaspel J.M. (2017): HPLC-MS analysis of lichen-derived metabolites in the life stages of Crambidia cephalica (Grote & Robinson). - Journal of Chemical Ecology, 43: 66–74.
Tiger moths (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae: Arctiini) are notable for their specialized associations with hosts that produce toxic secondary compounds, and are thus an ideal study system for understanding insect-plant interactions and the evolution of antipredatory defense. Likewise, their sister lineage (Arctiinae: Lithosiini) has been documented feeding on algae and lichens, and is known to sequester lichen-derived secondary compounds from the larval to adult stages. Prevalence of lichenivory in this early radiation (ca. 3000 species) may provide clues to the phylogenetic basis for storied chemical sequestration within all tiger moths. Despite the evolutionary significance of this trait, we lack a basic understanding of the extent of lichenivory among lithosiines, and the distribution of sequestered chemicals among life stages. The dynamics of chemical sequestration throughout the lifecycle for the lichen moth Crambidia cephalica were investigated by testing the hypothesis that lichen-derived metabolites are unequally distributed among life stages, and that laboratory-reared C. cephalica have less metabolite diversity than wild-caught individuals. Crambidia cephalica was reared on Physcia, and analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HPLCMS). Several putative lichen-derived metabolites were detected across three life stages, i.e., larval, pupal, and adult, and differences among life stages and lichen host were observed. These results provide evidence that multiple lichen-derived metabolites are sequestered by C. cephalica; some metabolites are retained through adulthood, and others are lost or modified in earlier life stages. The presence of differing lichen-derived metabolites across life stages may indicate functional properties of the metabolites for C. cephalica with regards to chemical protection from antagonists, and other physiological processes. Keywords: Chemical sequestration; Physcia; Lichenivory; Anthraquinone; Chrysophanol; PCA; Lepidoptera; Erebidae; Arctiinae; Lithosiini.
28729Subba Rao V. & Seshadri T.R. (1942): Chemical examination of Indian lichens. Part VI. Constitution of erythrin. - Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences - Section A, 16: 23–28.
The constitution of erythrin has been definitely established. The new important observations now made are as follows: (1) it is not a carboxylic acid; (2) it is optically active; (3) picroerythrin is identical with montagnetol; (4) trimethyl erythrin a compound in which all the phenolic hydroxyl groups are methylated is obtained by the action of diazomethane; (5) on hydrolysis with alcoholic potash the methyl ether yields the ester of dimethyl orsellinic acid and the ester of isoeverninic acid. Consequently, it is concluded that erythrin is the erythrityl ester of lecanoric acid. This is in agreement with the occurrence of lecanoric acid and montagnetol along with erythrin in the lichens.
28728Subba Rao V. & Seshadri T.R. (1941): Chemical investigation of Indian lichens. Part III. The isolation of montagnetol, a new phenolic compound from Roccella montagnei. - Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences - Section A, 13(3): 199–202.
The isolation of a new phenolic compound, ‘Montagnetol’ from the lichenRoccella montagnei and its properties are described. The details of the extraction of a sample of the lichen which contained it as the major component are given.
28727Neelakantan S., Rajagopalan T.R. & Seshadri T.R. (1959): A new synthesis of islandicin and cynodontin. - Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences - Section A, 49(4): 234–240.
2-Methylanthraquinones with the 1∶4-dihydroxy system are conveniently prepared by the persulphate oxidation of the intermediate benzoylbenzoic acids and subsequent ring closure. 2-Methylquinizarin, islandicin and cynodontin have been prepared by this method as typical examples.
28726Neelakantan S., Seshadri T.R. & Sankara Subramanian S. (1956): Chemical investigation of Indian lichens. Part XX. A new synthesis of teloschistin. - Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences - Section A, 44(1): 42–45.
Teloschistin has been prepared from physcion, the essential stage being the ω-bromo compound obtained by the use of N-bromo-succinimide. The higher m.p. of 244–46° is now recorded both for the synthetic and for the natural sample purified through the acetate. Complete methylation of teloschistin requires the use of methyl iodide and silver oxide at the final stage.
28725Burkin A.A., Kononenko G.P. & Tolpysheva T.Yu. (2013): Enzyme immunoassay of usnic acid in lichens . - Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology, 49(3): 315–321.
[Original Russian Text published in Prikladnaya Biokhimiya i Mikrobiologiya, 2013, Vol. 49, No. 3, pp. 322–328] An enzyme immunoassay for usnic acid in lichens was developed, the sensitivity of which was 0.1 μg/g of air-dried material (0.00001%). Polyclonal rabbit antibodies against bovine serum albumin conjugated to (+)-usnic acid under the conditions of formaldehyde condensation made it possible to determine the analyzed substance in solutions at concentrations from 1 ng/mL when it interacts with immobilized gelatin conjugate homologous in the binding mode. Usnic acid in 2–26600 μg/g (0.0002–2.6%) amounts was found in all 236 studied samples of lichens belonging to 53 species and 8 families.
28724Seshadri T.R. & Sankara Subramanian S. (1949): Chemical investigation of Indian lichens. Part X. Chemical components of Teloschistes flavicans. - Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences - Section A, 30: 67–73.
A yellow lichen accompanying Ramalina tayloriana has been identified asTeloschistes flavicans. Besides physcion and a colourless substance, another orange coloured compound melting at 229–30° and having the formula C16H12O6 is now isolated. It is designated ‘Teloschistin’. It resembles physcion closely and its constitution is established as 4∶5-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-2-hydroxymethyl anthraquinone (ω-hydroxy physcion).
28723Meeßen J., Sánchez F.J., Sadowsky A., de la Torre R., Ott S. & de Vera J.-P. (2013): Extremotolerance and resistance of lichens: Comparative studies on five species used in astrobiological research II. Secondary lichen compounds. - Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres, 43(6): 501–526.
Lichens, which are symbioses of a fungus and one or two photoautotrophs, frequently tolerate extreme environmental conditions. This makes them valuable model systems in astrobiological research to fathom the limits and limitations of eukaryotic symbioses. Various studies demonstrated the high resistance of selected extremotolerant lichens towards extreme, non-terrestrial abiotic factors including space exposure, hypervelocity impact simulations as well as space and Martian parameter simulations. This study focusses on the diverse set of secondary lichen compounds (SLCs) that act as photo- and UVR-protective substances. Five lichen species used in present-day astrobiological research were compared: Buellia frigida, Circinaria gyrosa, Rhizocarpon geographicum, Xanthoria elegans, and Pleopsidium chlorophanum. Detailed investigation of secondary substances including photosynthetic pigments was performed for whole lichen thalli but also for axenically cultivated mycobionts and photobionts by methods of UV/VIS-spectrophotometry and two types of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Additionally, a set of chemical tests is presented to confirm the formation of melanic compounds in lichen and mycobiont samples. All investigated lichens reveal various sets of SLCs, except C. gyrosa where only melanin was putatively identified. Such studies will help to assess the contribution of SLCs on lichen extremotolerance, to understand the adaptation of lichens to prevalent abiotic stressors of the respective habitat, and to form a basis for interpreting recent and future astrobiological experiments. As most of the identified SLCs demonstrated a high capacity in absorbing UVR, they may also explain the high resistance of lichens towards non-terrestrial UVR. Keywords: Lichens; Secondary lichen compounds; Melanin; Parietin; Rhizocarpic acid; Extremotolerance; BIOMEX.
28722Mishchenko N.P., Stepanenko L.S., Krivoshchekova O.E. & Maksimov O.B. (1980): Anthraquinones of the lichen Asahinea chrysantha . - Chemistry of Natural Compounds, 16(2): 117–121.
[Translated from the Russian original published in Khimiya Prirodnykh Soedinenii, No. 2, pp. 160–165] From a hexane extract of the dry lichen we have isolated six anthraquinones: chryso- phanol (I), islandicin (II), cynodontin (III), emodin (IV), a tetrahydroxymethyl- anthraquinone (V), and a pentahydroxymethylanthraquinone (VI). The structures of (I) and (IV) were confirmed by direct comparison with authentic samples. The structures of (II) and (III) were established by the aid of UV, IR, PMR, and mass spectra. Pigments (V) and (VI) were isolated from a carbonate extract. Pigment (V): mp > 320°C; UV spectrum (run) 258, 283, 310, 447, 500, 533; mass spectrum: 286 (M+, 100%), 270, 258, 257, 241, 229, 216, 213, 212, 211, 201, 161, 155, 137, 115, 105, 97. Pigment (Vl): mp 315°C; UV spectrum (nm): 247, 261, 302, 500, 540, 565, 578; IR spectrum (cm-1): 1587, 3492; mass spectrum: 302 (M+, 100%), 286, 274, 245, 228, and the metastable ions 248.6, 219.1, and 192.5. The positions of the β-hydroxyls in the molecules of (V) and (Vl) have not been definitively established.
28721Tabacchi R., Tsoupras G. & Allemand P. (1995): Identification of triterpenes from lichens by tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS) . - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 57:429-442.
In lichens, triterpenes are rare compounds present in very low quantity. By tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS), a powerful analytical method that allows the identification of trace compounds even in complicated mixtures, it has been possible to differentiate between some of these compounds and to establish their structure
28720Nimis P.L. & Martellos S. (1995): On the ecology of sorediate lichens in Italy. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 57: 443-457.
The distribution of sorediate lichens in different ecological scenarios is depicted on basis of data obtained from ITALIC, an on-line database on the lichens of Italy. Sorediate species are ca. 15% of the Italian flora. They are most frequent under humid-shaded condiitions and - limited to certain types of substrata - under moderate to high levels of eutrophication. Most of the sorediate species of Italy are relatively rare, only a few are abundant in anthropized habitats. It is suggested that the presence of sorediate species is highest under the same conditions which favour the proliferation of free-living algae
28719Wirth V. & Heklau M. (1995): Die epiphytischen Arten der Flechtengattungen Lepraria und Leproloma in Baden-Württemberg. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 57: 443-457.
The epiphytic species of Lepraria and Leproloma in Baden-Württemberg (SW Germany). - A statistical analysis of altitudinal distribution and substrate choice of the Lepraria species L. eburnea, L incana, L. jackii, L. lobificans, and L. rigidula, and Leproloma vouauxii in Baden-Württemberg was carried out based on more than 1000 samples investigated by thin layer chromatography. Frequency of species diminishes in the order Lepraria incana, L. lobificans, L. rigidula, Leproloma vouauxii, Lepraria jackii, L. eburnea. Significant differences in the altitudinal distribution are evident. Lepraria incana and Leproloma vouauxii are concentrated in colline and submontane areas, Lepraria rigidula and L. eburnea in the montane zone, and L. jackii in the montane and high-montane zone. Lepraria incana is the most frequent species in the northern parts of Baden-Württemberg which are also the more polluted areas, reaching a proportion of 70% of the samples in the northern Rhine valley. In the more elevated regions of the Suabian Forest, the Suabian Alb and Oberschwaben Lepraria rigidula is the most important species, in the southern Black Forest L. jackii. Lepraria lobificans is rather common in nearly all areas. Lepraria incana is found mainly on spruce and oak, often also on pear-trees, L. lobificans on oak, beech, spruce, and ash. Lepraria lobificans is the most important species on ash and almost the only species on common maple. The main substrates of Leproloma vouauxii are apple-tree and pear-tree, whereas Lepraria lobificans, L. jackii and L. eburnea are nearly absent from these phorophytes. Lepraria rigidula is found mainly on beech, pear-trees, oak and spruce. It is the most frequent species on Acer pseudoplatanus and Tilia spec. Lepraria jackii is nearly confined to conifers and decorticated stumps. Lepraria eburnea grows especially on oak, spruce and calcareous substrate
28718Guzow-Krzemińska B., Łubek A., Malíček J., Tønsberg T., Oset M. & Kukwa M. (2017): Lecanora stanislai, a new, sterile, usnic acid containing lichen species from Eurasia and North America. - Phytotaxa, 329(3): 201–211.
Lecanora stainislai is characterized by a very thin sorediate thallus, forming a more or less continuous layer of soredia and by the production of usnic acid and zeorin. It usually grows on smooth bark of trees in forests and is known from the Czech Republic, Norway, Poland, Russia, Ukraine and western North America (Canada, USA). It is chemically similar to the sorediate L. compallens, which however has an episubstratal thallus in non-sorediate parts and often delimited soralia. They have also different phylogenetic positions within the L. symmicta group. Moreover, based on molecular marker analysis the position of L. expallens is resolved within this group for the first time.
28717Seavey F., Seavey J., Gagnon J., Guccion J., Kaminsky B., Pearson J., Podaril A. & Randall B. (2017): The lichens of Dagny Johnson Key Largo Hammock Botanical State Park, Key Largo, Florida, USA. - Bulletin Florida Museum of Natural History, 53(5): 201–268.
In January, 2015, we conducted a lichen inventory of Dagny Johnson Key Largo Hammock Botanical State Park in Key Largo, Florida. The site was divided into four ecologically different zones which included two coastal hardwood hammocks of different maturities, a disturbed exposed site once probably dominated by pines long extirpated and a fully exposed dwarf mangrove zone interspersed with other non-mangrove species. The mature coastal hammock yielded 172 species dominated by the family Graphidaceae, especially the subfamily Fissurinoideae and the tribe Thelotremateae. The most exposed mangrove site produced only 73 species dominated by the families Arthoniaceae, Physciaceae and Lecanoraceae. The park is also compared to two nearby South Florida preserves, Everglades National Park and Fakahatchee Strand Preserve State Park both of which have had recent lichen inventories. A surprisingly high number of species were found to be unique to each preserve suggesting at least some lichens have difficultyin dispersing themselves sexually or asexually over even moderate distances. Foray participants recovered 323 species including 315 lichenized and 8 lichenicolous fungi. Eighteen lichen species and one lichenicolous fungi are described as new to science: Acanthothecis floridensisF. Seavey and J. Seavey sp. nov. Arthonia pseudostromatica F. Seavey and J. Seavey sp. nov., Coenogonium maritimum F. Seavey and J. Seavey sp. nov., Cryptothecia calusarum F. Seavey and J. Seavey sp. nov., Cryptothecia randallii F. Seavey and J. Seavey sp. nov., Cryptothecia submacrocephala F. Seavey and J. Seavey sp. nov., Enterographa johnsoniae F. Seavey and J. Seavey sp. nov., Enterographa keylargoensis F. Seavey and J. Seavey sp. nov., Fissurina albolabiata F. Seavey and J. Seavey sp. nov., Fissurina incisura F. Seavey and J. Seavey sp. nov., Graphis ferrugineodisca F. Seavey and J. Seavey sp. nov., Graphis koltermaniae F. Seavey and J. Seavey sp. nov., Leiorreuma erodens F. Seavey and J. Seavey sp. nov., Phaeographis pseudostromatica F. Seavey and J. Seavey sp. nov., Phaeographis radiata F. Seavey and J. Seavey sp. nov., Platygramme elegantula F. Seavey and J. Seavey sp. nov., Ramalina ramificansF. Seavey and J. Seavey sp. nov., Stirtonia divaricatica F. Seavey and J. Seavey sp. nov. The lichenicolous fungus Enterographa bagliettoae F. Seavey and J. Seavey sp. nov. is also described as new to science. Furthermore, the following 25 lichens are new to the North American lichen checklist: Arthonia microsperma Nyl., Arthonia hypochniza Nyl., Bacidiopsora orizabana (Vain.) Kalb, Baculifera micromera (Vain.) Marbach, Chapsa boninensis (Tat. Matsumoto) Rivas Plata and Mangold, Chapsa paralbida (Riddle) Rivas Plata and Lücking, Chapsa phlyctidioides (Müll. Arg.) Mangold, Coenogonium pyrophthalmum (Mont.) Lücking, Aptroot and Sipman, Graphis bungartzii Barcenas-Peña, Lücking, Herrera-Campos and R. Miranda, Graphis elongata Zenker, Graphis perstriatula Nyl., Graphis pseudoserpens Chaves, Lücking and Umaña, Leucodecton compunctum (Ach.) A. Massal., Leucodecton fissurinu (Hale) A. Frisch, Malmidea cineracea Bruess and Lücking, Mazosia viridescens (Fèe) Aptroot and M. Cáceres, Monoblastia palmicola Riddle, Mycomicrothelia apposita (Nyl.) D. Hawksw., Pertusaia rigida Müll. Arg., Pertusaria subrigida Müll. Arg., Phaeographis dividens (Nyl.) Kr. P. Singh and Swarnalatha, Phaeographis quadrifera (Nyl.) Staiger, Phyllopsora glaucescens (Nyl.) Gotth. Schneider, Stigmatochroma gerontoides (Stirton) Marbach, Stirtonia alba Makhija and Patw., as well as the lichenicolous fungus Arthonia tavaresii Grube and Hafellner. The following keys are provided: updated key to Florida Graphis; North American key to Phaeographis; corrected Neotropical key to Stirtonia, and a world key to Platygramme. In the updated Graphis key Graphis chlorotica A. Massal. is replaced by G. subtenella Müll. Arg. based upon a review of G. chlorotica type material in a recently published manuscript. Therefore, we recommend replacing G. chlorotica with G. subtenella on the North American lichen checklist. Key words: new species; Key Largo, Florida; Dagny Johnson; lichen inventory; lichen identification; lichen photos; biodiversity.
28716Fernández-Moriano C., Gómez-Serranillos M.P. & Crespo A. (2016): Antioxidant potential of lichen species and their secondary metabolites. A systematic review. - Pharmaceutical Biology, 54(1): 1–17.
Pharmacological interest of lichens lies in their capacity to produce bioactive secondary metabolites, being most of them phenolic compounds with reactive hydroxyl groups that confer antioxidant potential through various mechanisms. Increasing incidence and impact of oxidative stress-related diseases (i.e., neurodegenerative disorders) has encouraged the search of new pharmacological strategies to face them. Lichens appear to be a promising source of phenolic compounds in the discovery of natural products exerting antioxidant activity. Objective: The present review thoroughly discusses the available knowledge on antioxidant properties of lichens, including both in vitro and in vivo studies and the parameters assessed so far on lichen constituents. Methods: Literature survey was performed by using as main databases PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, Science Direct, and Recent Literature on Lichens. We reviewed 98 highlighted research articles without date restriction. Results: Current report collects data related to antioxidant activities of more than 75 lichen species (from 18 botanical families) and 65 isolated metabolites. Much information comes from in vitro investigations, such as chemical assays evaluating radical scavenging properties, lipid peroxidation inhibition, and reducing power of lichen species and compounds; similarly, research on cellular substrates and animal models generally measures antioxidant enzymes levels and other antioxidant markers, such as glutathione levels or tissue peroxidation. Conclusion: Since consistent evidence demonstrated the contribution of oxidative stress on the development and progression of several human diseases, reviewed data suggest that some lichen compounds are worthy of further investigation and better understanding of their antioxidant and neuroprotective potentials. Keywords: Antioxidants, neurodegenerative diseases, lichens, oxidative stress, scavenging properties.
28715Dal Grande F., Rolshausen G., Divakar P.K., Crespo A., Otte J., Schleuning M. & Schmitt I. (2018): Environment and host identity structure communities of green algal symbionts in lichens. - New Phytologist, 217(1): 277–289.
 An understanding of how biotic interactions shape species’ distributions is central to predicting host–symbiont responses under climate change. Switches to locally adapted algae have been proposed to be an adaptive strategy of lichen-forming fungi to cope with environmental change. However, it is unclear how lichen photobionts respond to environmental gradients, and whether they play a role in determining the fungal host’s upper and lower elevational limits.  Deep-coverage Illumina DNA metabarcoding was used to track changes in the community composition of Trebouxia algae associated with two phylogenetically closely related, but ecologically divergent fungal hosts along a steep altitudinal gradient in the Mediterranean region.  We detected the presence of multiple Trebouxia species in the majority of thalli. Both altitude and host genetic identity were strong predictors of photobiont community assembly in these two species. The predominantly clonally dispersing fungus showed stronger altitudinal structuring of photobiont communities than the sexually reproducing host. Elevation ranges of the host were not limited by the lack of compatible photobionts.  Our study sheds light on the processes guiding the formation and distribution of specific fungal–algal combinations in the lichen symbiosis. The effect of environmental filtering acting on both symbiotic partners appears to shape the distribution of lichens. Key words: altitude, climate change, elevation gradient, metabarcoding, Nextgeneration sequencing (NGS), range limits, symbiosis, Trebouxia.
28714Seaward M.R.D., Edwards H.G.M. & Farwell D.W. (1995): FT-Raman microscopic studies of Haematomma ochroleucum var. porphyrium. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 57: 395-407.
The FT-Raman spectra of thallus-substratum encrustations of the lichen Haematomma ochroleucum var. porphyrium on 18th century brickwork have been obtained successfully, despite the acknowledged fragility of this species. Spectra from the upper and lower surfaces of the encrustations are different; the spectra from the upper surface contain vibrational features which are assignable to the lichen, whereas those from the lower surface are dominated by bands arising from calcium oxalate and oxalic acid. Other features present in the vibrational spectra are ascribed to phenolic compounds from lichen metabolism
28713Scholz P. (1995): New or interesting records of lichens and lichenicolous fungi from Germany. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 57: 387-394.
New or interesting records of 26 lichens and 11 lichenicolous fungi are reported from Germany. More than 20 are new to various provinces (Bundesländer), mainly Sachsen-Anhalt. Porina interjungens is reported as new to Germany due to the discovery of the missing type of Microglaena (Clathroporina) rivularis which is reduced to synonymy
28712Pintaric M., Türk R. & Peer T. (1995): Vergleichende Untersuchungen über den Ca-, Mg- und K-Gehalt von Flechten und ihrem Substrat von Kalk- und Silikatstandorten. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 57: 363-385.
The total amount of Ca, K and Mg was investigated in terricolous and epiphytic lichens and their substrata collected on calcareous and siliceous sites. In order to determine the proportions of these elements available for the lichens the exchangeable and water soluble amounts of Ca, K and Mg of the substrata (soil and bark) were also measured. - The Ca-content of the terricolous and epiphytic lichens is dependent on the site and the species investigated. The Ca-concentration in lichens from Ca-rich sites is higher than in lichens from siliceous sites. The ability of Ca-retention in the thalli is very different between the species and shows particularly wide variations within the different ecotypes of the same species. A close relation between the Ca-content of the thalli and the Ca-content of the substrata could be found e. g. in the terricolous species Cetraria cucullata (Bellardi) Ach. and Cladonia furcata (Huds.) Schrad. Similar relationships were found in the epiphytic lichens. - The K- content of the lichen thalli is independent of the K-content of the substratum. All lichen species investigated show the trend to a specific, constant K-content. The K-content is different from species to species. Some lichen species, e. g. Peltigera spec., have a higher K-content than other species, independent of the substratum and the site. - The Mg-content of the lichens is dependent on the species and is only slightly influenced by the mineral composition of the site. There is an intraspecific tendency to a constant Mg-content in the thalli. - The vertical distribution of K in the thalli is very clear: The apical parts of the fruticose and pendent thalli always contain more K than the basal parts. Lichens with a corticated, dorsiventral thallus, e. g. Cetraria species contain higher amounts of Ca and Mg in the basal parts. Fruticose, cylindrical thalli without a cortex (Cladonia species) show higher concentrations of Ca and Mg in the apical segments
28711Lumbsch T.H., Dickhäuser A. & Feige G.B. (1995): Systematic studies in the Pertusariales III. Taxonomic position of Thamnochrolechia (lichenized Ascomycetes). - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 57: 355-361.
Thamnochrolechia, an endemic taxon from Papua New Guinea, shows a number of unique characters which support its delimitation at the generic level. In addition, it exhibits the spore structure of Ochrolechia and the amyloid ascus reactions of Pertusaria consistent with its placement in the family Pertusariaceae
28710Kümmerling H. (1995): Neufunde von Flechten in Berlin und Brandenburg. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 57: 347-354.
Cladonia conista is found on several sites in Berlin, where it appears to be rather common, and in Brandenburg. Cladonia cryp- tochlorophaea, C. humilis, C merochlorophaea var. novochlorophaea, C. peziziformis, Parmelia submontana, Thelocarpon lichenicola, Trapelia placodioides and Trapeliopsis pseudogranulosa are further new records from Brandenburg. Diploschistes muscorum is reported for the first time from Berlin
28709Kondratyuk S.Y. & Galloway D.J. (1995): Lichenicolous fungi and chemical patterns in Pseudocyphellaria. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 57: 327-345.
From 53 species of Pseudocyphellaria, out of 107 species examined world-wide, 23 genera and 51 species of lichenicolous fungi are recorded. It appears that lichenicolous fungi occur more frequently on lichens having restricted geographical ranges. The species of Pseudocyphellaria investigated show 17 different chemical patterns. Species with a basic 2-hopane chemistry (which is regarded as an ancestral pattern upon which other more advanced chemical patterns are elaborated) or with two hopanes and depsides, or with two hopanes, depsides and the stictic acid aggregate, tend to have the highest numbers of lichenicolous fungi. Other chemical groupings correlating with high numbers of lichenicolous fungi include: hopane-triol, stictic acid aggregate and pulvinic acid derivatives (P. crocata)', and femene triterpenoids with pulvinic acid pigments (P. aurata). Preliminary results indicate that chemical patterns, geographical distributions, and coevolution of lichenicolous fungi have potential utility in the study of evolutionary relationships in Pseudocyphellaria and possibly more widely in the order Peltigerales. Opegrapha leuckertii and Melaspilea gallowayii are newly described and the new combination Dactylospora orygmaea is proposed
28708Welch D. (2013): The floristics of contrasting grazed-down Scottish moorland sites initially dominated by heather (Calluna vulgaris). - New Journal of Botany, 3(3): 169–177.
p. 172: "Lichens had insufficient cover for plotting in Fig. 2 except at site E3, where the main species, Cladonia impexa and Parmelia physodes, were intimately associated with the Calluna bushes."
28707Knoph J.G. & Mies B. (1995): Beiträge zur Flechtenflora der Kapverdischen Inseln III. Die saxicolen Arten der Gattung Lecidella. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 57: 297-305.
The saxicolous species of Lecidella from the Cape Verde Islands were revised. Three species (Lecidella asema, Lecidella latypiza and Lecidella leuckertiana Knoph Sc Mies spec, nova) were recognized. The new species Lecidella leuckertiana is mainly characterized by a heavily black brown pigmented excipulum and epihymenium, a pale yellowish hypothecium and the content of 2,7- dichloro-6-<9-methylnorlichexanthone and an unknown compound. The taxon must, at present, be regarded as endemic to Cape Verde Islands
28706Welch D. (2016): The floristic changes of Scottish moorland dominated by heather (Calluna vulgaris, Ericaceae) but unburnt for 50 years and kept checked by moderate grazing. - New Journal of Botany, 6(1): 31–42.
p. 37: "Lichens were rare at L1, L2 and O2, never exceeding 2% cover, and are only shown in Fig. 3 for site D2. Here they tolerated the sheep grazing and maintained substantial cover until cattle began to use the site in 2002; they then suffered trampling damage and were reduced to 4% cover by 2010."
28705Verloove F. (2016): Jacques Lambinon (1936-2015) en de Nouvelle Flore de la Belgique. Een terugblik. - Dumortiera, 108: 5–7.
obituary [in Flemish]
28704van den Broeck D. & de Wit D. (2016): Micarea lignaria, een nieuw licheen voor Vlaanderen. - Dumortiera, 110: 26–28.
Micarea lignaria, new for the lichen biota of Flanders. The species was discovered on March 19, 2016 on a border of iron sandstone of the Saint-Lamberts church at Westerlo (prov. of Antwerp). Morphology, habitat, ecology and distribution of the species are described. The species is not very demanding in the choice of substrate but prefers an acid, humid, exposed to shady and mineral-poor environment.
28703van den Broeck D., van Dort K. & de Wit D. (2016): Thelidium zwackhii, nieuw voor Vlaanderen. Met een veldsleutel voor de pyrenocarpe terrestrische lichenen van België. - Dumortiera, 108: 30–32.
Thelidium zwackhii, new for the lichen flora of Flanders. Habitat, ecology and distribution of the species are described. A field key of the terricolous pyrenocarp lichens in Belgium is given.