32582Pacé M., Paré D., Fenton N.J. & Bergeron Y. (2020): Effects of lichen, Sphagnum spp. and feathermoss leachates on jack pine and black spruce seedling growth. - Plant and Soil, 452: 441–455. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-020-04587-0.
Aim The main objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of leachates from three typical boreal forest ground layers on young tree growth and to explore the linkages between the chemical composition of the leachates, tree growth, the allocation between belowground and aboveground parts, and ectomycorrhizal colonization. Methods An original 6-month greenhouse experiment was set up to investigate (i) the effects of lichen (Cladonia spp.) and feather moss (Pleurozium schreberii [Brid.] Mitt.) leachates on jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) growth and (ii) the effects of feather moss and Sphagnum spp. leachates on black spruce (Picea mariana [Mill.] B.S.P.) growth. Results Belowground growth and root allocation was reduced by lichen leachates in 2-year-old pine seedlings, while the impact was significant on both below- and aboveground growth in 6-month-old pine seedlings. A substance having the same migration time as usnic acid was detected in the lichen leachates by highperformance liquid chromatography. Sphagnum spp. and feather moss leachates were not found to have any effect on black spruce seedling growth, despite a higher supply of dissolved inorganic N in the feather moss leachates compared to the leachates of Sphagnum spp. and the control. Conclusions These results demonstrate that ground layer composition plays a crucial role in shaping the plant community in boreal ecosystems by influencing the chemical composition of the soil solution. They suggest that chemical interference may be another mechanism by which lichens promote the self-perpetuation of open woodlands in the closed-crown boreal forest. Keywords: Allelopathy . Forest productivity . Ground layer . Regeneration failure . Soil solution . Usnic acid.
32581Szczepańska K., Urbaniak J. & Śliwa L. (2020): Taxonomic recognition of some species-level lineages circumscribed in nominal Rhizoplaca subdiscrepans s. lat. (Lecanoraceae, Ascomycota). - PeerJ, 8: e9555 [27 p.]. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.9555.
Background. Rhizoplaca subdiscrepans (Nyl.) R. Sant., a saxicolous, placodioid lichen, is considered to have a worldwide distribution in warm-temperate to boreal-arctic areas in Asia, Europe and North America. However, recent studies have revealed that this species includes five unrecognized species-level lineages`subd A, B, C, D and E'. During research focused on the diversity of saxicolous lichens in mountainous areas of southern Poland, some interesting representatives of the genus Rhizoplaca were found. The main aim of our study was to determine the taxonomic status of the collected specimens by means of molecular tools and a comparative analysis of similar herbarium materials. Methods. Detailed morphological, anatomical and chemical examinations of reference material from Asia, Europe and North and South America focused primarily on a selected group of lecanoroid taxa with a placodioid thallus. In addition, 21 new generated sequences representing Lecanora pseudomellea, Protoparmeliopsis muralis, Rhizoplaca opiniconensis, R. subdiscrepans s. lat. and R. phaedrophthalma were selected for molecular study using the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS rDNA), together with 95 available GenBank sequences mainly from the genus Rhizoplaca. Results. Polish specimens that clustered with members of a potential species-level lineage `subd E' of Rhizoplaca subdiscrepans complex were recovered. Comprehensive analyses of the lichen group led us to the conclusion that lineage `subd E' represents R. subdiscrepans s. str. and that the taxon appears to have a limited geographical distribution and specific habitat preferences. Furthermore, some of the recently defined species candidates within R. subdiscrepans s. lat.`subd D' and `subd A'should be assigned to two previously known species of Rhizoplaca, namely R. opiniconensis (Brodo) Leavitt, Zhao Xin & Lumbsch and R. phaedrophthalma (Poelt) Leavitt, Zhao Xin & Lumbsch, respectively. These two species are characterized by phenotypic features observed as well in analyzed specimens representing lineages 'subd D' and 'subd A'. Moreover, the representatives of these lineages demonstrate some differences in occupied habitat and geographical range that also correspond with the indicated species. Additionally, it was found that Lecanora pseudomellea B.D. Ryan is a strongly supported monophyletic lineage within Rhizoplaca, and therefore an appropriate new combination for the species is proposed.
32580Martellos S., d’Agostino M., Chiarucci A., Nimis P.L. & Nascimbene J. (2020): Lichen distribution patterns in the ecoregions of Italy. - Diversity, 12(8): 294 [21 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/d12080294.
An outline of the main distribution patterns of lichens in the ecoregions of Italy, accounting for their climatic, geographic, and environmental features, is still missing. On the basis of a GIS-based analysis, we summarized: (1) the main features (e.g., surface, climate, landscape, topographic heterogeneity, bedrock, eutrophication) of the 9 ecoregions adopted in ITALIC, the information system on Italian lichens, and (2) the patterns of richness, functional traits, and ecological requirements of lichens in the ecoregions. Our GIS-based analysis describes for the first time the main features of the 9 ecoregions adopted in ITALIC, highlighting differences which could explain the main lichen patterns. Overall, the exploration of the Italian lichen biota is still a work in progress, some regions being still underexplored, especially in the South, with new taxa being reported every year. Our research could provide a baseline for further advancements in the understanding of species richness and community composition of Italian lichens, at a regional scale. View Full-Text Keywords: climate; exploration; GIS; ITALIC; lichen functional traits; spatial analysis; species richness pattern.
32579Tang J.-Y., Wu K.-H., Wang Y.-Y., Farooqi A.A., Huang H.-W., Yuan S.-S.F., Jian R.-I., Tsao L.-Y., Chen P.-A., Chang F.-R., Cheng Y.-B., Hu H.-C. & Chang H.-W. (2020): Methanol extract of Usnea barbata induces cell killing, apoptosis, and DNA damage against oral cancer cells through oxidative stress. - Antioxidants, 9: 694 [18 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9080694.
Some lichens provide the resources of common traditional medicines and show anticancer effects. However, the anticancer effect of Usnproliea barbata (U. barbata) is rarely investigated, especially for oral cancer cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the cell killing function of methanol extracts of U. barbata (MEUB) against oral cancer cells. MEUB shows preferential killing against a number of oral cancer cell lines (Ca9-22, OECM-1, CAL 27, HSC3, and SCC9) but rarely affects normal oral cell lines (HGF-1). Ca9-22 and OECM-1 cells display the highest sensitivity to MEUB and were chosen for concentration effect and time course experiments to address its cytotoxic mechanisms. MEUB induces apoptosis of oral cancer cells in terms of the findings from flow cytometric assays and Western blotting, such as subG1 accumulation, annexin V detection, and pancaspase activation as well as poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage. MEUB induces oxidative stress and DNA damage of oral cancer cells following flow cytometric assays, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS)/mitochondrial superoxide (MitoSOX) production, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) depletion as well as overexpression of γH2AX and 8-oxo-2′deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG). All MEUB-induced changes in oral cancer cells were triggered by oxidative stress which was validated by pretreatment with antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC). In conclusion, MEUB causes preferential killing of oral cancer cells and is associated with oxidative stress, apoptosis, and DNA damage. Keywords: lichen; natural product; preferential killing; oxidative stress; apoptosis; DNA damage.
32578Harding L.E., Bourbonnais M., Cook A.T., Spribille T., Wagner V. & Darimont C. (2020): No statistical support for wolf control and maternal penning as conservation measures for endangered mountain caribou. - Biodiversity and Conservation, 29: 3051–3060. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-020-02008-3.
Mountain caribou, a behaviourally and genetically distinct set of ecotypes of the Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) restricted to the mountains of western Canada, have undergone severe population declines in recent decades. Although a broad consensus exists that the ultimate driver of these declines has been the reduction of habitat upon which mountain caribou depend, research and policy attention has increasingly focused on predation. Recently, Serrouya et al. (Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 116:6181–6186, 2019) analysed population dynamics data from 18 subpopulations in British Columbia and Alberta, Canada, subject to different treatments and ‘controls’, and concluded that lethal wolf control and maternal caribou penning provide the most effective ways to stabilize population declines. Here we show that this inference was based on an unbalanced analytical approach that omitted a null scenario, excluded potentially confounding variables and employed irreproducible habitat alteration metrics. Our reanalysis of available data shows that ecotype identity is a better predictor of population trends than any adaptive management treatments considered by Serrouya et al. Disparate behavioural characteristics and responses to industrial disturbance among ecotypes suggest it may be incorrect to assume that adaptive management strategies that might benefit one ecotype are transferable to another. Keywords: Adaptive management;  Bottom-up processes;  British Columbia;  Canada;  Conservation;  Ecotype;  Habitat;  Mountain caribou;  Rebuttal;  Statistics;  Wolf.
32577Jiang L.-Q., An D.-F., Zhang K., Li G.-D., Wang X.-Y., Lang L., Jiang M-G., Wang L.-S., Jiang C.-L. & Jiang Y. (2020): Nakamurella albus sp. nov.: A novel actinobacterium isolated from a lichen sample. - Current Microbiology, 77: 1896–1901. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00284-020-01928-1.
A novel actinobacterium, YIM 132087T, isolated from Lepraria sp. lichen collected from Yunnan province, south-west PR China. Cells are Gram-stain-positive, catalase-positive and oxidase-negative, aerobic, non-motile and short rod-shaped. Colonies are asporogenous, circular and white brown in colour. Optimal growth occured at 15−35 °C (optimum 28 °C), at pH 5.0−9.0 (optimum pH 6.0), and in the presence of 3% NaCl (w/v). The DNA G+C content of strain YIM 132087T based on the draft genome sequence was 71.3 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences suggested that strain YIM 132087T belonged to the genus Nakamurella and exhibited high levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Nakamurella endophytica CGMCC 4.7038T (97.9%) and Nakamurella intestinalis NBRC 111844T (97.2%). The DNA– DNA hybridization values between strain YIM 132087T and its closest relatives are lower than 26%. Strain YIM 132087T had meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic cell-wall diamino acid, and MK-8(H4) as the predominant menaquinone. Predominant cellular fatty acids (> 10%) were iso-C16:0, iso-C15:0, C16: 0 and anteiso-C15:0. The polar lipid profile were found to be diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, three unknown phospholipids, one unknown aminophospholipid and one unknown lipid. Based on phenotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic analysis, strain YIM 132087T belongs to the genus Nakamurella and represents a novel species of the genus Nakamurella, for which the name Nakamurella albus sp. nov., with type strain YIM 132087T (=CGMCC 4.7629T =NBRC 114017T), is proposed.
32576Jiang L., An D., Wang X., Zhang K., Li G., Lang L., Wang L., Jiang C. & Jiang Y. (2020): Methylobacterium planium sp. nov., isolated from a lichen sample. - Archives of Microbiology, 202: 1709–1715. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00203-020-01881-4.
A novel bacterial strain, designated YIM 132548 T, was isolated from Lepraria sp. lichen collected from Yunnan province, south-west PR China. The organism was Gram-stain negative, aerobic and methylotrophic. The cell was catalase positive and oxidase negative, asporogenous, rod-shaped and motile with three polar flagella. The strain could grow at 15–30 °C (optimum, 20 °C), at pH 6.0–9.0 (optimum, pH 7.0) and does not grow in the presence of NaCl. According to the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain YIM 132548 T showed high levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Methylobacterium soli YIM 48816 T (97.6%) and Methylobacterium durans NBRC 112876 T (97.3%), less than 97.0% with other validly named type strains of the genus Methylobacterium. Ubiquinone Q-10 was the predominant respiratory ubiquinone. The predominant cellular fatty acid was identified as summed feature 8 ( C18:1ω7c). The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine. The DNA G + C content of the draft genome sequence is 70.2 mol%. The average nucleotide identity and digital DNA–DNA hybridizations values of strain YIM 132548 T with M. soli YIM 48816 T and M. durans NBRC 112876 T were 87.0% and 82.0%, 40.6% and 27.2% based on draft genome sequences, respectively. On the basis of phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic, phenotypic and genomic data, strain YIM 132548 T is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Methylobacterium, for which the name Methylobacterium planium sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM 132548 T (= CGMCC 1.17323 T = NBRC 114056 T). Keywords: Methylobacterium planium · New species · Lepraria sp. lichen.
32575Schellenberg J. & Bergmeier E. (2020): Heathland plant species composition and vegetation structures reflect soil-related paths of development and site history. - Applied Vegetation Science, 23: 386–405. https://doi.org/10.1111/avsc.12489.
Questions: To improve our knowledge on how environmental conditions determine the development of high-value Calluna vulgaris heathland habitats, we studied the floristic and structural characteristics of heathland plant communities across North Germany and how they are influenced by edaphic, climatic and management factors. We ask how heathland development is related to these factors and what are the implications for conservation management and restoration. Location: North German Plain. Methods: We collected 350 relevés in 18 dry Calluna heathland areas. Plant communities were classified using Isopam, and Redundancy Analysis (RDA) determined effects of environmental conditions. Potential pathways of development and the nature conservation status of the communities were identified on a multifactorial basis. Results: We found nine floristically and structurally distinct heathland plant communities. Heathland vegetation showed distinct patterns along Calluna age development stages and environmental conditions. Soil conditions and related effects of long-term site history and recent management turned out to be the predominant factors influencing species composition and diversity, resulting in three potential heathland succession pathways. Mosaic-like communities with particularly high taxonomic diversity and conservation value occurred on early-successional inland dunes or as regeneration stage growing on nutrient-poor sandy soils without humus accumulation. Conclusions: The study reveals fundamental differences between historically farmed heathland in the oceanic Northwest and former military training areas mainly in northeastern Germany with consequences for restoration ecology. Present nature conservation criteria turned out to be insufficient in predicting habitat quality, as lichens are frequently disregarded. Our findings highlight the need for intense soil disturbance to maintain early-stage soil conditions and a diverse Calluna growth-phase composition, as these factors essentially determine species richness in lowland heaths. Keywords: Calluna vulgaris, heath development, heather, heathland, heathland history, historical heathland, lowland heath military training, phytodiversity, succession, vegetation classification, vegetation dynamics.
32574Lee B.G. & Hur J.-S. (2020): A new lichenized fungus, Lecanora baekdudaeganensis, from South Korea, with a taxonomic key for Korean Lecanora species. - MycoKeys, 70: 39–58. https://doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.70.51569.
Lecanora baekdudaeganensis Lee & Hur is described as a new lichenized fungus from Baekdudaegan Mountains, South Korea. The new species is classified into the Lecanora subfusca group – allophana type and distinguishable from Lecanora imshaugii Brodo by a darker thallus, brownish disc, K–insoluble granules on the surface of the epihymenium, shorter hypothecium, and the presence of oil droplets in the apothecial section. Molecular analyses employing internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and mitochondrial small subunit (mtSSU) sequences strongly support Lecanora baekdudaeganensis as a distinct species in the genus Lecanora. A surrogate key is provided to assist in the identification of all 52 taxa in the genus Lecanora of Korea. Keywords: biodiversity, Lecanoraceae, phorophyte, phylogeny, taxonomy.
32573Lücking R., Aime M.C., Robbertse B., Miller A.N., Ariyawansa H.A., Aoki T., Cardinali G., Crous P.W., Druzhinina I.S., Geiser D.M., Hawksworth D.L., Hyde K.D., Irinyi L., Jeewon R., Johnston P.R., Kirk P.M., Malosso E., May T.W., Meyer W., Öpik M., Robert V., Stadler M., Thines M., Vu D., Yurkov A.M., Zhang N. & Schoch C.L. (2020): Unambiguous identification of fungi: where do we stand and how accurate and precise is fungal DNA barcoding?. - IMA Fungus, 11: 14 [32 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s43008-020-00033-z.
True fungi (Fungi) and fungus-like organisms (e.g. Mycetozoa, Oomycota) constitute the second largest group of organisms based on global richness estimates, with around 3 million predicted species. Compared to plants and animals, fungi have simple body plans with often morphologically and ecologically obscure structures. This poses challenges for accurate and precise identifications. Here we provide a conceptual framework for the identification of fungi, encouraging the approach of integrative (polyphasic) taxonomy for species delimitation, i.e. the combination of genealogy (phylogeny), phenotype (including autecology), and reproductive biology (when feasible). This allows objective evaluation of diagnostic characters, either phenotypic or molecular or both. Verification of identifications is crucial but often neglected. Because of clade-specific evolutionary histories, there is currently no single tool for the identification of fungi, although DNA barcoding using the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) remains a first diagnosis, particularly in metabarcoding studies. Secondary DNA barcodes are increasingly implemented for groups where ITS does not provide sufficient precision. Issues of pairwise sequence similarity-based identifications and OTU clustering are discussed, and multiple sequence alignment-based phylogenetic approaches with subsequent verification are recommended as more accurate alternatives. In metabarcoding approaches, the trade-off between speed and accuracy and precision of molecular identifications must be carefully considered. Intragenomic variation of the ITS and other barcoding markers should be properly documented, as phylotype diversity is not necessarily a proxy of species richness. Important strategies to improve molecular identification of fungi are: (1) broadly document intraspecific and intragenomic variation of barcoding markers; (2) substantially expand sequence repositories, focusing on undersampled clades and missing taxa; (3) improve curation of sequence labels in primary repositories and substantially increase the number of sequences based on verified material; (4) link sequence data to digital information of voucher specimens including imagery. In parallel, technological improvements to genome sequencing offer promising alternatives to DNA barcoding in the future. Despite the prevalence of DNA-based fungal taxonomy, phenotype-based approaches remain an important strategy to catalog the global diversity of fungi and establish initial species hypotheses. Keywords: COX1, COX2, Oxford Nanopore technologies, PacBio, RPB2, Read placement, Species concepts, TEF1.
32572Rai H., Khare R., Gupta S., Upreti D.K., Gupta R.K., Behera B.C. & Sharma P.K. (2020): Lichen colonization on unusual man-made substratum in Western Himalaya. - National Academy Science Letters, 43(4): 371–374. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40009-019-00869-z.
The lichens along with their natural substratum colonize a variety of man-made substratum. After about half a century of lichenological research in India, there has been no record of lichen colonization on the man-made artificial substratum. The authors here for the first time report colonization of five species of lichens on three samples from two unusual habitats—iron railway sleepers—Heterodermia galactophylla (Tuck.) W.L. Culb. and abandoned woolen socks—Xanthoparmelia bellatula (Kurok. & Filson) Elix & J. Johnst., Physcia gomukhensis D.D. Awasthi & S.R. Singh, Xanthoparmelia congensis (J. Steiner) Hale and Xanthoria candelaria (L.) Th. Fr. in western Himalaya. Two supplementary tables (S1 and S2) are provided, giving details of collection sites and lichen species identified in each sample. The study revealed the extended geographical distribution of the two lichen species, i.e., Heterodermia galactophylla (Tuck.) W.L. Culb and Physcia gomukhensis D.D. Awasthi & S.R. Singh, highlighting the importance of such studies of unusual habitats in lichen diversity and preparation of their inventories. Keywords: Abandon textile; Endemic; Lichenized fungi; Railway slippers; Western Himalaya.
32571Herzig R., Schindler C., Urech M., Rihm B., Lötscher H. & Thomann G. (2020): Recalibration and validation of the Swiss lichen bioindication methods for air quality assessment. - Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 27: 28795–28810. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09732-x.
The aim of this study was to recalibrate the Swiss lichen bioindication methods, developed and calibrated with air pollution data 30 years ago. Since then, levels of air pollution have considerably decreased, and the mix of pollutants has changed due to successful emission control in Switzerland and neighboring countries. In particular, there has been a change from a sulfur- and acid-dominated to a more nitrogen-dominated pollution mix of NH3/NOx and ozone, resulting in increased pH levels. This allowed a recolonization and change in abundance and composition of the epiphytic lichen vegetation, indicating an improved air quality in Switzerland. The existing indices of atmospheric pollution or purity IAP18 and IAPBR developed 30 years ago showed good longitudinal correlations with air pollutant levels until the end of the last century, but a growing drift was observed in some regions over the last 15 years. This called for a method recalibration with more recent air pollution data. Data from a total of 7178 trees from 22 Swiss regions grouped into 1331 homogenous plots and covering the period 1994 to 2017 were averaged by year within plots. Three pollutant-specific lichen indices were newly established, one for primary pollutants (NO2, PM10, SO2), one for ozone (AOT40f), and one for ammonia (NH3). These pollutant-specific lichen indices were derived from linear regression models with lichen variables and a linear time trend variable as predictors, using time-dependent coefficients. Parameters were selected using the Lasso method. The primary pollutant lichen index showed a coefficient of determination R2 of 0.86 in the model with NO2, PM10, and SO2 as predictor variables, whereas corresponding models with other predictor variables (i.e., NH3, AOT40f, and meteorological variables) were of considerably lower fit. Regionalized lichen models for three larger Swiss regions revealed even better results, compared with the unified Swiss models. The best regionalized ozone and ammonia lichen indices reached an R2 of 0.88 and 0.71, respectively. Keywords: Air pollution . Lichen bioidication . Primary pollutants lichen index . Ozone lichen index . Ammonia lichen index . Index of atmospheric purity (IAP).
32570Amigo J., San Martín C., Ramírez C. & Álvarez M. (2017): Nomenclatural revision and syntaxonomical proposal for wetland peat vegetation in the Valdivian-Magellanian region. - Lazaroa, 38(2): 165–187. http://dx.doi.org/10.5209/LAZA.56343.
Keywords: Argentina; Chile; cushion bogs; Sphagnum bogs; phytosociology; Myrteolo-Sphagnetea; peatlands. Five macrolichen taxa identified and listed from phytosociological relevés (4 Cladonia spp., Thamnolia vermicularis).
32569Урбанавичене И.Н. & Урбанавичюс Г.П. [Urbanavichene I.N. & Urbanavichus G.P.] (2020): Gyalecta ophiospora (Gyalectaceae) - новый вид для лихенофлоры Центральной России (Республика Мордовия) [Gyalecta ophiospora (Gyalectaceae), a new species to the lichen biota of the Central Russia (Republic of Mordovia)]. - Ботанический журнал [Botanicheskii Zhurnal], 105(4): 384–386. .
[in Russian with English summary:] The lichen species Gyalecta ophiospora previously unknown from the Central Russia was found in the Mordovskiy Reserve, Temnikov District, Republic of Mordovia. Data on the habitat, ecology and distribution of the species in Russia and in the world are provided. Keywords: Gyalecta ophiospora, new record, ecology, distribution, Republic of Mordovia, Middle Russia.
32568Макрый Т.В. [Makryi T.V.] (2020): Интересная находка нового для Евразии североамериканского лишайника Placidium californicum (Verrucariaceae) [An interesting finding of a new for Eurasia North American lichen species Placidium californicum (Verrucariaceae)]. - Turczaninowia, 2: 59–63. http://turczaninowia.asu.ru/article/view/8101/6664.
[in Russian with English summary:] The description and location of the new to Eurasia lichen species Placidium californicum Breuss, found in the steppe ecotope in “Orenburgskii” Nature State Reserve (Orenburg Region, Russia) are reported. The species is very much similar to P. squamulosum (Ach.) Breuss, differing from it in subglobose spores with thickened walls, thinner rhizohyphae, 3.5–4.5 μm thick (in P. squamulosum 4.5–6.5 μm thick), and the absent or not clearly developed lower cortex. Based on all the currently known locations, a map of distribution of P. californicum has been compiled. The chorology issues and the ecological features are discussed. The lichen is found in arid and subarid areas of the temperate zone; it inhabits mainly in grassy and shrubby phytocenoses (steppes, prairies, deserts) on mineral (sandy and clay-sandy) substrates enriched with various salts, including carbonate, gypsum-containing and slightly saline soils. Keywords: Europe, lichen, Placidium californicum, Reserve “Orenburgskii”, Russia, steppe.
32567Filippova N., Arefyev S., Zvyagina E., Kapitonov V., Makarova T., Mukhin V., Sedelnikova N., Stavishenko I., Shiryaev A., Tolpysheva T., Ryabitseva N. & Paukov A. (2020): Fungal literature records database of the Northern West Siberia (Russia). - Biodiversity Data Journal, 8: e52963. doi: 10.3897/BDJ.8.e52963 [24 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.8.e52963.
Mycological research in the Northern part of West Siberia has now become sufficient for review and digitisation as over 460 scientific works have been completed mainly since the beginning of the 20th century. The history of research in the region started from isolated studies at the beginning of the 20th century, but regular and systematic research started from the 1970s. Over the following decades, several dozens of researchers have worked in the area, but the reported occurrences were scattered amongst a broad variety of publications, mainly hardly available. The great need in digitisation and accumulation of fungal records reported in published literature in a standardised regional database has now become evident. The «Fungal records database of the Northern West Siberia» (FuNWS) was initiated in 2016 according to contemporary biodiversity data standards (Darwin Core), to be compatible and accessible by the broad research community. The database has been supplemented ever since by the collective effort of specialists working in the area. According to the database summary report, there are 3358 fungal and fungus-like species revealed in the Northern West Siberia at present. The richest in species number classes are Agaricomycetes (60%) and Lecanoromycetes (33%) with a total of 25 classes represented. The FuNWS database was uploaded to Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) (Ygra State University Biological Collection publisher) on 11 November 2017 (earlier titled «Fungal Records Database of Yugra, FReDY») to provide open access to the data and its reusability (Filippova et al. 2020).
32566 Tang R., Yin A.-C. & Zhao Z.-T. (2020): Haematomma rubidum sp. nov. from China. - Mycotaxon, 135(2): 425–429. https://doi.org/10.5248/135.425.
Haematomma rubidum from southern China is described as new species characterized by convex apothecia with thin whitish margins that become hidden in age; submuriform ascospores with 15–21 transverse and 0–3 longitudinal septa; and a thallus containing atranorin and russulone but lacking dibenzofurans or xanthones. Photographs of the new species accompany a detailed taxonomic description. Keywords: East Asia, Haematommataceae, lichenized fungi, taxonomy.
32565Szczepańska K. (2020): Carbonea assimilis and Rinodina aspersa, new to Poland. - Mycotaxon, 135(2): 355–363. https://doi.org/10.5248/135.355.
Two saxicolous species of crustose lichens new to Poland, Carbonea assimilis and Rinodina aspersa, were recorded from the SW part of the country where there is an abundance of different rock formations, including natural outcrops of volcanic rocks. The characteristics of these species, as well as their ecology and geographical distribution, are provided and briefly discussed. Key words: Ascomycota, Lecanoraceae, Physciaceae, taxonomy.
32564Gupta P., Randive P., Nayaka S., Daimari R.. Joseph S. & Janarthanam M.K. (2020): New records of graphidoid and thelotremoid lichens from India. - Mycotaxon, 135(2): 345–354. https://doi.org/10.5248/135.345.
Chapsa cinchonarum, C. farinosa, Diorygma sticticum, Fissurina albocinerea, Graphis bungartzii, G. discarpa, G. nigririmis, Ocellularia alba, Phaeographis pseudostromatica, Sarcographa verrucosa, and Thelotrema crassisporum are described and illustrated as new records for India. Key words: lichenized fungi, Graphidaceae, Ostropales, taxonomy.
32563Selva S.B. & McMullin R.T. (2020): An update of G.K. Merrill’s 1909 “Lichen notes no. 14”. - Mycotaxon, 135(2): 333–337. https://doi.org/10.5248/135.333.
G.K. Merrill proposed three new Calicium taxa that have largely been absent from North American lichen literature since their publication in The Bryologist in 1909. Calicium obscurum [≡ Chaenotheca obscura], which colonizes the basidiocarps of Trichaptum abietinum, predates the use of Chaenotheca balsamconensis. Calicium minutissimum was reintroduced as a member of the North American calicioid biota in 1999. Calicium curtisii var. splendidulum [as "splendidula"] is within the range of morphological variation of Phaeocalicium curtisii and does not warrant varietal status. Key words: Caliciales, Maine, pin fungi, stubble lichens.
32562Kazemi S.S., Mehregan I., Asri Y., Saadatmand S. & Sipman H.J.M. (2020): Four new Lepraria species for Iran, with a key to all Iranian species. - Mycotaxon, 135(2): 235–244. https://doi.org/10.5248/135.235.
Lepraria eburnea, L. ecorticata, L. jackii, and L. leuckertiana, found in deciduous forests in Golestan province, are recorded for the first time from Iran. Descriptions and illustrations of all four species and a key to all Lepraria species known from Iran are provided. Key words: Hyrcanian forest, leprose lichens, sterile lichens.
32561Lutsak T., Fernández-Mendoza F., Kirika P., Wondafrash M. & Printzen C. (2020): Coalescence-based species delimitation using genome-wide data reveals hidden diversity in a cosmopolitan group of lichens. - Organisms Diversity and Evolution, 20: 189–218. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13127-019-00424-0.
Although there is an abundance of species delimitation methods on the market, most approaches depend on predefined assignment of specimens to species or populations. Assignment-free methods, which can simultaneously infer boundaries and relationships among species, are of high importance in cases, when correct pre-assignment is difficult or not at all possible. In this study, we use assignment-free multispecies coalescent-based species delimitation (STACEY, tr2-delimitation, and BP&P), phylogenetic methods, and clustering algorithms to investigate the inter- and infraspecific relationships within a common and widespread group of lichens with contentious species boundaries. The Cetraria aculeata group presents a good example of extreme morphological variability and unclear species delimitation in lichens. Based on DNA-sequence data from 26 fungal loci and 10 microsatellite loci, as well as morphological and chemical data, our results provide evidence for the occurrence of five different taxa within the group and highlight the difficulties of morphologically distinguishing these species. We discovered a separate lineage (clade C) within C. aculeata s. str., which does not fully coincide with any of the a priori identified species C. aculeata, C. crespoae, or C. steppae and conclude that this clade constitutes a semi-cryptic, genetically isolated lineage within C. aculeata.We recognize this lineage at subspecific rank as C. aculeata subsp. steppae and synonymize Cetraria crespoae with C. aculeata subsp. aculeata. Epitypes are designated for all involved names to stabilize their usage. The PKS8 gene locus is recommended as a barcode for the separation of C. aculeata subsp. aculeata and subsp. steppae. We demonstrate the potential use of microsatellite data for species delimitation in lichens that might offer an alternative insight or be used to test species delimitation hypotheses, when dealing with closely related or potentially cryptic species. Our results also confirm the presence of an undescribed sister lineage to C. odontella previously misidentified as C. muricata and extend the known range of this lineage to Central Asia (Altay Mts.) and the Central European Alps (France, Switzerland), which calls for a critical reappraisal of records of C. aculeata and C. muricata from these mountain ranges. Keywords: Cetraria . Coalescent . Lichens . Phylogenomics . Species delimitation . Cryptic species . Microsatellites.
32560Lendemer J.C. & Allen J.L. (2020): A revision of Hypotrachyna subgenus Parmelinopsis (Parmeliaceae) in eastern North America. - Bryologist, 123(2): 265–332. DOI: 10.1639/0007-2745-123.2.265.
A taxonomic revision of Hypotrachyna subgenus Parmelinopsis in eastern North America is presented based on molecular phylogenetic analyses of ITS and mtSSU data, extensive field observation and analyses of chemical and morphological data. Each species is described, illustrated with photographs, and the distribution in the region is mapped. An identification key is also presented. Eleven species are recognized: H. afrorevoluta, H. appalachensis, H. britannica, H. cryptochlora, H. horrescens, H. kauffmaniana, H. minarum, H. mcmulliniana, H. revoluta, H. showmanii and H. spumosa. Extensive discussion of prior studies is provided, particularly with respect to the delimitation of H. afrorevoluta and H. revoluta. Hypotrachyna kauffmaniana is described from the central and southern Appalachian Mountains and separated from H. afrorevoluta and H. revoluta by its ascending secondary lobes and pustulose soralia that are primarily confined to the secondary lobes. Hypotrachyna horrescens is shown to correspond to a taxon with narrow lobed, small thalli with ciliate isidia. Hypotrachyna mcmulliniana is described from material collected throughout southeastern North America that is chemically identical to H. horrescens but differs in having larger thalli and sparsely ciliate isidia. Hypotrachyna appalachensis is described to accommodate material previously referred to H. minarum but that differs in the production of 4,5-di-O-methylhiascic acid in high concentrations (vs. absent or present as a trace in H. minarum). Hypotrachyna britannica is reported for the first time from North America. Keywords: Appalachian Mountains, biogeography, chemistry, Coastal Plain, lichen substances, monograph, pustules, soredia.
32559McMullin R.T., McCune B. & Lendemer J.C. (2020): Bacidia gigantensis (Ramalinaceae), a new species with homosekikaic acid from the north shore of Lake Superior in Ontario, Canada. - Bryologist, 123(2): 215–224. DOI: 10.1639/0007-2745-123.2.215.
Bacidia gigantensis, a green to greenish-brown, sorediate, crustose to microsquamulose lichen is described as new to science. It is corticolous on mature Thuja occidentalis trees throughout Sleeping Giant Provincial Park on the Sibley Peninsula along the north shore of Lake Superior, Ontario. The species is unusual within Bacidia due to the production of asexual propagules and homosekikaic acid. Placement in Bacidia is based on the characters of the sexual reproductive structures (biatorine apothecia with a true exciple, Bacidia-type asci, and sigmoid, acicular, ascospores), ITS sequence data and molecular phylogenetic analyses of mtSSU sequence data. The latter also inferred a relationship to Bacidiopsora, a tropical genus that has been proposed for synonymy with Bacidia and includes other species with similar chemistries. Keywords: Biodiversity, boreal forest, Boundary Waters, endemism, Great Lakes Region, Ontario Parks, Tuckerman Workshop.
32558McMullin R.T., McCune B. & Lendemer J.C. (2020): Bacidia gigantensis (Ramalinaceae), a new species with homosekikaic acid from the north shore of Lake Superior in Ontario, Canada. - Bryologist, 123(2): 215–224. DOI: 10.1639/0007-2745-123.2.215.
Bacidia gigantensis, a green to greenish-brown, sorediate, crustose to microsquamulose lichen is described as new to science. It is corticolous on mature Thuja occidentalis trees throughout Sleeping Giant Provincial Park on the Sibley Peninsula along the north shore of Lake Superior, Ontario. The species is unusual within Bacidia due to the production of asexual propagules and homosekikaic acid. Placement in Bacidia is based on the characters of the sexual reproductive structures (biatorine apothecia with a true exciple, Bacidia-type asci, and sigmoid, acicular, ascospores), ITS sequence data and molecular phylogenetic analyses of mtSSU sequence data. The latter also inferred a relationship to Bacidiopsora, a tropical genus that has been proposed for synonymy with Bacidia and includes other species with similar chemistries. Keywords: Biodiversity, boreal forest, Boundary Waters, endemism, Great Lakes Region, Ontario Parks, Tuckerman Workshop.
32557Lendemer J.C. (2020): Recent literature on lichens—257. - Bryologist, 123(2): 363–376. DOI: 10.1639/0007-2745-123.2.363.
Bibliography
32556Stone D., Gordon M. & McCune B. (2020): Pseudocyphellaria holarctica (Lobariaceae) specimens from Oregon are referable to P. hawaiiensis. - Bryologist, 123(2): 260–264. DOI: 10.1639/0007-2745-123.2.260.
Pseudocyphellaria holarctica McCune, Lücking & Moncada was recently described as having a North American and Russian Far East distribution, based on specimens collected from eastern Asia, Alaska and Oregon. However, the single sequence representing a collection from Oregon in this study actually was from a specimen collected in Alaska. To clarify the range of this species we obtained ITS sequences for all specimens identified as P. holarctica from Oregon examined in the original study, as well as 23 putative P. hawaiiensis collections from Oregon. Analysis of ITS regions of these specimens indicated that all were assignable to P. hawaiiensis rather than to P. holarctica. No specimens of P. holarctica are known from Oregon, California or Washington. Keywords: Pseudocyphellaria crocata group, P. hawaiiensis, lichen systematics, Alaska.
32555Gockman O., Selva S.B. & McMullin R.T. (2020): Calicioid lichens and fungi of Minnesota, U.S.A.: Including two new species, Chaenothecopsis jordaniana and C. penningtonensis (Mycocaliciaceae). - Bryologist, 123(2): 235–259. DOI: 10.1639/0007-2745-123.2.235.
Sixty-four species of calicioid lichens and fungi are reported from the state of Minnesota, which is located in the upper Midwest of the United States. Chaenothecopsis jordaniana and C. penningtonensis are new to science, Calicium denigratum is reported for the first time from the United States, and an additional 23 species are reported for the first time from the state. As the first comprehensive calicioid flora from the central part of North America, significant range extensions are also reported for eight species that were previously only known from eastern or western states and provinces. Information on previously published works and locations, community preferences and habitat ecology are provided for each species, as is an identification key to all species. Keywords: Biodiversity, habitat ecology, identification key, Midwestern taxa, taxonomy.
32554Hoffman J.R. & Lendemer J.C. (2020): Caloplaca edwardiana (Teloschistaceae, lichenized Ascomycetes), a new crustose species from the southern Appalachian Mountains of eastern North America. - Bryologist, 123(2): 225–234. DOI: 10.1639/0007-2745-123.2.225.
Caloplaca edwardiana is described as new to science from collections made on calcareous rock outcrops in the southern Appalachian Mountains of eastern North America (Alabama, Georgia and Tennessee). The species appears to be rare and locally endemic, currently only known from five locations. As an endolithic species without anthraquinones, C. edwardiana likely belongs within the Caloplaca subgroup Pyrenodesmia. Keywords: Biogeography, biodiversity hotspot, Caloplaca oblongula, C. alociza, calciphiles, dolomite.
32553Dřevojan P., Hájková P., Hradílek Z., Kosorínová M., Lukáč M. & Palice Z. (2020): Zajímavé bryoforistické nálezy XXXIII [Interesting bryofloristic records, XXXIII]. - Bryonora, 65: 28–31. .
[in Czech] A note on fertile specimen of Phlyctis argena as an associate lichen in the comment under the liverwort Frullania fragilifolia.
32552Aleksanyan A., Biurrun I., Belonovskaya E., Cykowska-Marzencka B., Berastegi A., Hilpold A., Kirschner P., Mayrhofer H., Shyriaieva D., Vynokurov D., Becker T., Becker U., Dembicz I., Fayvush G., Frank D., Magnes M., García-Mijangos I., Oganesian M., Palpurina S., Ünal A., Vasheniak Yu. & Dengler J. (2020): Biodiversity of dry grasslands in Armenia: First results from the 13th EDGG Field Workshop in Armenia. - Palaearctic Grasslands, 46: 12–51. DOI: 10.21570/EDGG.PG.46.12-51.
The 13th EDGG Field Workshop was conducted from the 26 June to 6 July 2019 in Armenia. The Field Workshop had two main aims: (a) to analyse the biodiversity patterns of the Armenian grasslands across multiple taxonomic groups and grain sizes, and (b) to study the syntaxonomic position of these grasslands in a general European context. We conducted our sampling in 16 sites that ensured good geographical coverage across the country. In total, we sampled 29 EDGG Biodiversity Plots (nested-plot series of 0.0001 to 100 m²) and 53 additional 10-m2 plots. Data of orthopteroid insects (Orthoptera and Mantodea) were recorded in 42 100-m² plots. We found mean total species richness values of the vegetation of 7.5 species in 0.01 m², 31.9 species in 1 m² and 51.3 species in 10 m². The richest grasslands for vascular plants were meso-xeric grasslands with up to 35 species in 0.1 m² and 80 in 10 m². Maximum orthopteroid rich-ness in 100 m² was 14. Syntaxonomically, the majority of stands appear to belong to the class Festuco-Brometea, with the orders Brachy-podietalia pinnati (meso-xeric), Festucetalia valesiacae (xeric, non-rocky) and an unknown order of rocky dry grasslands. By contrast, the thorn-cushion communities (probably Onobrychidetea cornutae), the scree communities and the dry grasslands of lower elevations rich in annuals and chamaephytes (probably largely Astragalo-Brometea), do not fit to any vegetation class described in Europe. We found two species new to Armenia – the moss Syntrichia papillosissima and the lichen Aspicilia hispida. Our data demonstrate that Armenia is one of the Palaearctic hotspots of fine grain plant diversity. Both diversity patterns and syntaxonomy warrant in-depth studies, which are now possible with our comprehensive dataset. Keywords: Armenia; biodiversity; bryophyte, dry grassland; lichen; Mantodea; nested plot; Orthoptera; species richness; syntaxonomy; vascular plant.
32551Piepenbring M., Maciá-Vicente J.G., Codjia J.E.I., Glatthorn C., Kirk P., Meswaet Y., Minter D., Olou B.A., Reschke K., Schmidt M. & Yorou N.S. (2020): Mapping mycological ignorance – checklists and diversity patterns of fungi known for West Africa. - IMA Fungus, 11: 13 [22 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s43008-020-00034-y.
Scientific information about biodiversity distribution is indispensable for nature conservation and sustainable management of natural resources. For several groups of animals and plants, such data are available, but for fungi, especially in tropical regions like West Africa, they are mostly missing. Here, information for West African countries about species diversity of fungi and fungus-like organisms (other organisms traditionally studied by mycologists) is compiled from literature and analysed in its historical context for the first time. More than 16,000 records of fungi representing 4843 species and infraspecific taxa were found in 860 publications relating to West Africa. Records from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) database (2395 species), and that of the former International Mycological Institute fungal reference collection (IMI) (2526 species) were also considered. The compilation based on literature is more comprehensive than the GBIF and IMI data, although they include 914 and 679 species names, respectively, which are not present in the checklist based on literature. According to data available in literature, knowledge on fungal richness ranges from 19 species (Guinea Bissau) to 1595 (Sierra Leone). In estimating existing species diversity, richness estimators and the Hawksworth 6:1 fungus to plant species ratio were used. Based on the Hawksworth ratio, known fungal diversity in West Africa represents 11.4% of the expected diversity. For six West African countries, however, known fungal species diversity is less than 2%. Incomplete knowledge of fungal diversity is also evident by species accumulation curves not reaching saturation, by 45.3% of the fungal species in the checklist being cited only once for West Africa, and by 66.5% of the fungal species in the checklist reported only for a single country. The documentation of different systematic groups of fungi is very heterogeneous because historically investigations have been sporadic. Recent opportunistic sampling activities in Benin showed that it is not difficult to find specimens representing new country records. Investigation of fungi in West Africa started just over two centuries ago and it is still in an early pioneer phase. To promote proper exploration, the present checklist is provided as a tool to facilitate fungal identification in this region and to aid conceptualisation and justification of future research projects. Documentation of fungal diversity is urgently needed because natural habitats are being lost on a large scale through altered land use and climate change. Keywords: Benin, Countries of West Africa, Fungal diversity, Fungal ecology, History of mycology, Lichens, Phytopathology, No new taxa.
32550Wijayawardene N.N., Hyde K.D., Al-Ani L.K.T., Tedersoo L., Haelewaters D., Rajeshkumar K.C., Zhao R.L., Aptroot A., Leontyev D.V., Saxena R.K., Tokarev Y.S., Dai D.Q., Letcher P.M., Stephenson S.L., Ertz D., Lumbsch H.T., Kukwa M., Issi I.V., Madrid H., Phillips A.J.L., Selbmann L., Pfliegler W.P., Horváth E., Bensch K., Kirk P.M., Kolaříková K., Raja H.A., Radek R., Papp V., Dima V., Ma J, Malosso E., Takamatsu S., Rambold G., Gannibal P.B., Triebel D., Gautam A.K., Avasthi S., Suetrong S., Timdal E., Fryar S.C., Delgado G., Réblová M., Doilom M., Dolatabadi S., Pawłowska J., Humber R.A., Kodsueb R., Sánchez-Castro I., Goto B.T., Silva D.K.A., de Souza F.A., Oehl F., da Silva G.A., Silva I.R., Błaszkowski J., Jobim K., Maia L.C., Barbosa F.R., Fiuza P.O., Divakar P.K., Shenoy B.D., Castañeda-Ruiz R.F., Somrithipol S., Lateef A.A., Karunarathna S.C., Tibpromma S., Mortimer P.E., Wanasinghe D.N., Phookamsak R., Xu J., Wang Y., Tian F., Alvarado P., Li D.W., Kušan I., Matočec N., Maharachchikumbura S.S.N., Papizadeh M., Heredia G., Wartchow F., Bakhshi M., Boehm E., Youssef N., Hustad V.P., Lawrey J.D.,Santiago A.L.C.M.A., Bezerra J.D.P., Souza-Motta C.M., Firmino A.L., Tian Q., Houbraken J., Hongsanan S., Tanaka K., Dissanayake A.J., Monteiro J.S., Grossart H.P., Suija A., Weerakoon G., Etayo J., Tsurykau A., Vázquez V., Mungai P., Damm U., Li Q.R., Zhang H., Boonmee S., Lu Y.Z., Becerra A.G., Kendrick B., Brearley F.Q., Motiejūnaitė J., Sharma B., Khare R., Gaikwad S., Wijesundara D.S.A., Tang L.Z., He M.Q., Flakus A, Rodriguez-Flakus P., Zhurbenko M.P., McKenzie E.H.C., Stadler M., Bhat D.J., Liu J.K., Raza M., Jeewon R., Nassonova E.S., Prieto M., Jayalal R.G.U., Erdoğdu M., Yurkov A., Schnittler M., Shchepin O.N., Novozhilov Y.K., Silva-Filho A.G.S., Liu P., Cavender J.C., Kang Y., Mohammad S., Zhang L.F., Xu R.F., Li Y.M., Dayarathne M.C., Ekanayaka A.H., Wen T.C., Deng C.Y., Pereira O.L., Navathe S., Hawksworth D.L., Fan X.L., Dissanayake L.S., Kuhnert E., Grossart H.P. & Thines M. (2020): 2020 – Outline of Fungi and fungus-like taxa. - Mycosphere, 11(1): 1060–1456. Doi 10.5943/mycosphere/11/1/8.
This article provides an outline of the classification of the kingdom Fungi (including fossil fungi. i.e. dispersed spores, mycelia, sporophores, mycorrhizas). We treat 19 phyla of fungi. These are Aphelidiomycota, Ascomycota, Basidiobolomycota, Basidiomycota, Blastocladiomycota, Calcarisporiellomycota, Caulochytriomycota, Chytridiomycota, Entomophthoromycota, Entorrhizomycota, Glomeromycota, Kickxellomycota, Monoblepharomycota, Mortierellomycota, Mucoromycota, Neocallimastigomycota, Olpidiomycota, Rozellomycota and Zoopagomycota. The placement of all fungal genera is provided at the class-, order- and family-level. The described number of species per genus is also given. Notes are provided of taxa for which recent changes or disagreements have been presented. Fungus-like taxa that were traditionally treated as fungi are also incorporated in this outline (i.e. Eumycetozoa, Dictyosteliomycetes, Ceratiomyxomycetes and Myxomycetes). Four new taxa are introduced: Amblyosporida ord. nov. Neopereziida ord. nov. and Ovavesiculida ord. nov. in Rozellomycota, and Protosporangiaceae fam. nov. in Dictyosteliomycetes. Two different classifications (in outline section and in discussion) are provided for Glomeromycota and Leotiomycetes based on recent studies. The phylogenetic reconstruction of a four-gene dataset (18S and 28S rRNA, RPB1, RPB2) of 433 taxa is presented, including all currently described orders of fungi. Keywords – Four new taxa – Ascomycota – Amblyosporida ord. nov. – Basal clades – Basidiomycota – Classification – Emendation – Microsporidia – Neopereziida ord. nov. – Ovavesiculida ord. nov. – Protosporangiaceae fam. nov. – Redonographaceae stat nov.
32549Nayaka S., Joseph S., Ngangom R., Tilotama K. & Arnold P.K. (2020): Preliminary studies on the lichens growing in FEEDS campus and SB garden in Manipur, India. - Studies in Fungi, 5(1): 392–399. Doi 10.5943/sif/5/1/20.
In our continuous effort to explore the lichens in new and interesting areas FEEDS campus and SBG garden located in Manipur, a north-eastern state of India are surveyed. The study resulted in 47 species in FEEDS campus and 80 species in SB garden respectively, while both areas shared 22 species in common. The crustose lichens were more dominant in the area represented by Graphidaceae (16 spp.) and Pyrenulaceae (15 spp.). The species composition in both the sites represented photophilic communities such as graphidaceous, physcioid and parmelioid lichens. FEEDS campus had open areas with cultivated plants where as SBG garden had semi-evergreen forest at its initial stage of succession. The study also added 55 lichen species as new distributional records to Manipur. Key words – Biodiversity – Lichenized fungi – Mycobiota – North-east India – Taxonomy.
32548Tufan-Cetin O. (2020): Determination of compositional differences of lichens on Pinus brutia in different environmental conditions. - Journal of Environmental Biology, 41: 735–744. http://doi.org/10.22438/jeb/41/4/MRN-1301.
Epiphytic lichens are biological indicators, which can give information about the environmental changes of the ecosystem. The differences in richness and community compositions of lichens can indicate the environmental quality of their location. This study was done in order to examine the possible differences in richness and in community composition of lichens that may have occurred in the research area, Kurşunlu Waterfall Nature Park and surroundings. Kurşunlu Waterfall Nature Park and surroundings was divided into 4 sections; natural area near brook, natural pine forest area, planted pine forest area and agricultural greenhouses area. The study was planned to focus on epiphytic lichens living on Pinus brutia Ten. trees. European Guideline, which is a standardized method to assess lichen diversity (LDV) on tree bark for monitoring environmental stress, was used for monitoring quality of four different environmental conditions with lichens. In order to determine the differences of lichen community composition of these four conditions, some statistical analyses were performed. Lichen richness of planted pine forest area was found poorer and statistically different than the other areas. In addition, the lichen community composition of natural pine forest area was found significantly different than the agricultural greenhouse area and the natural area near brook, partly different than the planted pine forest area. Statistical evaluations indicate that the natural pine forest area had natural or semi-natural habitat characteristics and there was no or less eutrophication in this region. Also it showed that other areas were affected by the presence of human damage and eutrophic pollution load in the environment. This eutrophic pollution load was related to non-ecological agriculture applications around the park. This study proves that epiphytic lichens change their community composition by adapting to changes in environmental conditions. Also this study showed that lichens are strong indicators of environmental quality. Keywords: Antalya, Diversity, Lichenized Fungi, Lichens, Pinus brutia, Turkey.
32547Sujetovienė G., Gasauskaitė K. & Žaltauskaitė J. (2019): Toxicity of a phenoxy herbicide on the lichen Ramalina fraxinea. - Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry, 101: 457–507. https://doi.org/10.1080/02772248.2020.1747466.
2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid has been widely used as herbicide in the United States and Europe. This study aims to quantify its effects at concentrations of 0–100 mg/L for up to 48 h on the physiological status of the lichen Ramalina fraxinea. 2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid exposure induced a reduction in the maximum capacity of PSII, in chlorophyll content along with chlorophyll degradation, and in adverse effects on cell membrane integrity, and induced oxidative stress in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Keywords: Lichen, MCPA, oxidative stress, photosynthesis.
32546Marshall A.J., Blanchon D.J., Lücking R., de Lange T.J.P. & de Lange P.J. (2020): A new Ocellularia (lichenized Ascomycota: Graphidaceae) from New Zealand indicates small-scale differentiation of an Australasian species complex. - New Zealand Journal of Botany, 58(3): 223–235. https://doi.org/10.1080/0028825X.2019.1701504.
Ocellularia (Graphidaceae) is a genus of crustose lichens comprising c.200 species, four known from Australia and New Zealand. Based on recent collections from northern North Island, we describe a fifth species Ocellularia jacinda-arderniae, which is a member of the O. bicuspidata complex. This complex is characterised by peculiar, appendiculate ascospores and a psoromic acid chemistry. Two further undescribed species of this complex, one from North Island and one from South Island, are discussed but left undescribed pending further study. Based on our findings, we provide a revised assessment of New Zealand Ocellularia. Of the four species included in the most recent Flora of New Zealand Lichens from 2007, three do not belong in that genus and the identification of the fourth is incorrect; instead, the following four taxa are recognised: O. jacinda-arderniae, O. aff. dolichotata, O. aff. bicuspidata (a) (South Island; OTA 58820) and O. aff. bicuspidata (b) (North Island; UNITEC 10818). This leads to the somewhat unusual situation that a presumably known genus biota in New Zealand is entirely replaced by names of a new species and three provisional identifications. The following new combination is introduced: Schizotrema concentricum (Stirt.) Lücking comb. nov. In addition, the name Thelotrema manosporum (C. Knight.) Hellb. is given as the correct name for the New Zealand taxon previously identified as T. monosporum Nyl., and the name T. monosporoides Nyl. [syn.: O. monosporoides (Nyl.) Hale] is established as a taxonomic synonym of T. manosporum, leaving two New Zealand species of Thelotrema with large, brown ascospores, namely T. manosporum and T. saxatile C. Knight. The situation of the genus Ocellularia highlights the need for detailed taxonomic revision of understudied lichen groups in New Zealand, especially as these and related genera in the Graphidaceae are excellent indicators of forest health and can be used for monitoring purposes. Keywords: Ocellularia , Thelotrema , Ocellularia jacinda-arderniae , new species, lichen taxonomy, New Zealand mycobiota.
32545Salehi S., Mielke C. & Rogass C. (2020): Mapping ultramafic complexes using airborne imaging spectroscopy and spaceborne data in Arctic regions with abundant lichen cover, a case study from the Niaqornarssuit complex in South West Greenland. - European Journal of Remote Sensing, 53(1): 156–175. https://doi.org/10.1080/22797254.2020.1760733.
This study investigates the usage of HyMAP airborne hyperspectral and Sentinel-2, ASTER and Landsat-8 OLI spaceborne multispectral data for detailed mapping of mineral resources in the Arctic. The EnMAP Geological Mapper (EnGeoMAP) and Iterative Spectral Mixture Analysis (ISMA) approaches are tested for mapping of mafic-ultramafic rocks in areas covered by abundant lichen. Using the Structural Similarity Index Measure (SSIM), the output classification results from airborne data are quantitatively compared to the available geological map and to the HyMAP reference data in case of using spaceborne dataset. Results demonstrate the capability of both airborne and spaceborne data to provide large-scale reconnaissance mapping of geologic materials over vast arctic regions where field access is limited. The distributions of three ultramafic units (dunite, peridotite, pyroxenite) and one mafic unit (gabbro) are mapped based on analyzing specific visible and near-infrared and short-wave-infrared spectral features. The extent of peridotite and dunite units mapped using both approaches is consistent with geological map, whereas pyroxenite abundance maps show different patterns in their distribution as compared to the geological map. The results suggest that EnGeoMAP method has a better performance than ISMA method for mapping the dunite unit, whilst ISMA performs better for mapping peridotite and pyroxenite rocks. Keywords: Spectroscopy, mineral mapping, lichen, unmixing, ultramafic, arctic, non-invasive.
32544Aartsma P., Asplund J., Odland A., Reinhardt S. & Renssen H. (2020): Surface albedo of alpine lichen heaths and shrub vegetation. - Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, 52(1): 312–322. https://doi.org/10.1080/15230430.2020.1778890.
Lichen heaths are declining in abundance while shrubs are increasing their range in alpine and arctic areas due to climate change. This can have a large impact on the surface albedo of these areas. The aim of this article is to quantify the difference in albedo between lichen heaths and shrub-dominated vegetation and the variability within lichen heaths. Several environmental conditions that can influence the albedo measurements are considered. We measured the albedo of twenty lichen- and shrub-dominated plots on an alpine mountain area in southern Norway in the summer of 2018 with two radiometers using a paired plot design. With this design, we ensured similar weather conditions, aspects, and zenith angles between the paired lichen- and shrub-dominated plots. In addition, we collected patches of Cladonia stellaris and Flavocetraria nivalis to measure their albedo. The average difference in albedo between the lichen- and shrub-dominated plots is 0.124. The albedo of the lichen-dominated plots varies between 0.227 and 0.284, and that of the shrub-dominated plots varies between 0.115 and 0.148. This variation in albedo is explained by differences in aspect and vegetation composition. Further studies should focus on the consequences of this decrease in albedo for the microclimate in alpine and arctic areas. Keywords: Lichen, shrub, Betula nana , albedo, alpine tundra.
32543Fryday A.M. (2020): Ramalina flaccidissima (Ramalinaceae) is the correct name for the lichen taxon currently known as R. terebrata. - New Zealand Journal of Botany, 58(3): 268–274. https://doi.org/10.1080/0028825X.2020.1734031 .
The two frequent Ramalina species in southern South America are R. laevigata Fr., which has abundant apothecia, and R. terebrata Hook. f. & Taylor, which lacks apothecia but has abundant sorediate pseudocyphellae. However, two other taxa that predate Hooker and Taylor’s name were described from the Falkland Islands. These names are investigated here and R. flaccidissima Bory is shown to be the correct name for R. terebrata. Keywords: Falkland Islands, lichens, nomenclature, Physcia sepiacea , Southern South America.
32542Matthews J.A., Haselberger S., Hill J.L., Owen G., Winkler S., Hiemstra J.F. & Hallang H. (2020): Snow-avalanche boulder fans in Jotunheimen, southern Norway: Schmidt-hammer exposure-age dating, geomorphometrics, dynamics and evolution. - Geografiska Annaler: Series A, Physical Geography, 102(2): 118–140. https://doi.org/10.1080/04353676.2020.1762365 .
Eleven snow-avalanche boulder fans were dated from two high-alpine sites in Jotunheimen using Schmidt-hammer exposure-age dating (SHD) and lichenometry. Average exposure ages of the surface boulders ranged from 2285 ± 725 to 7445 ± 1020 years and demonstrate the potential of SHD for dating active landforms and diachronous surfaces. Application of GIS-based morphometric analyses showed that the volume of rock material within 10 of the fans is accounted for by 16–68% of the combined volume of their respective bedrock chutes and transport zones. It is inferred that the fans were deposited entirely within the Holocene, mainly within the early- to mid Holocene, by frequent avalanches carrying very small debris loads. Relatively small transport-zone volumes are consistent with avalanches of low erosivity. Excess chute volumes appear to represent subaerial erosion in the Younger Dryas and possibly earlier. Debris supply to the fans was likely enhanced by early-Holocene paraglacial processes following deglaciation, and by later permafrost degradation associated with the mid-Holocene Thermal Maximum. The latter, together with the youngest SHD age from one of the fans, may presage a similar increase in geomorphic activity in response to current warming trends. Keywords: Snow avalanche boulder fans, Schmidt hammer exposure age dating, high alpine permafrost degradation, paraglaciation, periglacial geomorphology, Holocene.
32541Jacobson S., Högbom L. & Ring E. (2020): Long-term responses of understory vegetation in boreal Scots pine stands after nitrogen fertilization. - Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 35: 139–146. https://doi.org/10.1080/02827581.2020.1761996.
Nitrogen fertilization can increase above- and belowground forest growth and carbon storage in low nitrogen (N) environments. However, it may also induce changes in other parts of the ecosystem, such as altered composition and diversity of the ground vegetation. These changes may occur, for example, because of increased availability of nitrogen and light depletion due to a denser tree canopy. We studied vegetation changes at 11 experimental sites in Pinus sylvestris stands with low N-deposition, along a south–north gradient in Sweden. We estimated the relative cover of individual species and the data were analysed with a linear model, using total amount of fertilizer-N added, years since last fertilization, site and site index as independent variables. The relative cover of the dominant dwarf shrubs (Vaccinium myrtillus and Vaccinium vitis-idaea) increased following fertilization. In the bottom layer, N significantly increased the total cover of two of the three dominant species (Pleurozium schreberi and Dicranum spp.). For the third species (Hylocomium splendens) no detectable effect was found. For lichens as a group, the cover decreased following N fertilization. No effect of N fertilization on species diversity was detected at any of the sites, and the forest vegetation types remained unchanged. Keywords: Bryophytes, dwarf shrubs, lichens, Pinus sylvestris , species diversity.
32540van den Boom P.P.G. (2013): Two lichenicolous fungi, Arthonia coronata and Graphium aphthosae, new for Germany. - Österreichische Zeitschrift für Pilzkunde, 22: 163–164. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/OestZPilz_22_0163-0164.pdf.
Two lichenicolous species, Arthonia coronata and Graphium aphthosae, are reported for Germany for the first time. Key words: Lichenicolous Ascomycotina. – New records. – Mycota of Germany.
32539van den Boom P.P.G. & Sipman H.J.M. (2014): Lichens from the Dominican Republic collected in 2008. - Österreichische Zeitschrift für Pilzkunde, 23: 153–169. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/OestZPilz_23_0153-0169.pdf.
As the result of a study visit in 2008 to the north of the Dominican Republic, 175 lichen species are recorded, including the rarely reported Bulbothrix bulbillosa, Chapsa rubropulveracea, Coenogonium kalbii, Cratiria americana, Graphis immersella and Megalaria granulosa. A new Porina species, P. tomentosa, is described. Some notes on ecology, morphology and literature are added. Key words: tropical lichens, new records, rare species, new species, biodiversity. – Mycota of West Indies, Hispaniola.
32538Breuss O. (1993): Zwei neue Flechtenarten aus der Türkei. - Österreichische Zeitschrift für Pilzkunde, 2: 7–10. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/OestZPilz_2_0007-0010.pdf.
Catapyrenium endocarpoides and Placopyrenium bucekii var. triseptatum from Turkey are described as new. C. endocarpoides is characterized by its epilithic habit, short rhizines, a cellular medullary tissue, and clavate asci with broadly ellipsoidal spores. P. bucekii var. triseptatum is recognized by up to 4-celled spores (1 - or 2-celled in the type variety). Both taxa are yet known only from Turkey. Key words: Lichenized Ascomycetes, Verrucariales, Verrucariaceae, Catapyrenium endocarpoides, spec, nova, Placopyrenium bucekii var. triseptatum, var. nova. - Systematics, taxonomy. - Mycoflora of Turkey, Asia.
32537Breuss O. (1995): Bemerkungen zur Sektion Polyrhizion der Flechtengattung Dermatocarpon (Verrucariaceae). - Österreichische Zeitschrift für Pilzkunde, 4: 137–145. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/OestZPilz_4_0137-0145.pdf.
Dermatocarpon schaechtelinii WERNER, a forgotten species described from Morocco, is reported for the first time from Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain) and the Mongolian People's Republic. It is closely related to D. pellitum from which it differs mainly by anatomical characters of the medullary tissue and the lower cortex. The taxonomically important features of a further three species (D. vellereum, D. moulinsii, and D. reticulatum) are outlined. Dermatocarpon pellitum (POELT & WlRTH) BREUSS is proposed as a new combination. A provisional key to the species of Dermatocarpon sect. Polyrhizion is provided. Key words: Pyrenocarpous lichens, Verrucariaceae, Dermatocarpon sect. Polyrhizion. - Systematics, taxonomy.
32536Berger F. & Etayo J. (1998): Beiträge zur Flechtenflora der Kanarischen Inseln. V. Saxicole und muscicole Arten von der Insel La Palma. - Österreichische Zeitschrift für Pilzkunde, 7: 203–213. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/OestZPilz_7_0065-0090.pdf.
A list of epilithic and muscicolous lichen species from the island of La Palma is given. The following taxa are reported as new for Macaronesia: Acarospora heppii, Acarospora veronensis, Aspicilia simoensis, Bacidia arnoldiana, Buellia uberior, Caloplaca tiroliensis, Candelariella placodizans, Carbonea aggregantula on Lecanora polytropa, Catillaria lenticularis, Cercidospora verrucosaria on Megaspora verrucosa, Ephebe hispidula, Lecania hutchinsiae, Lecidea leprosolimbata, Lecidella bullata, Leptogium intermedium, Leptogium schraderi, Micarea lithinella, Polycoccum arnoldii on Rhizocarpon, Psilolechia leprosa, Rhizocarpon distinctum, Rhizocarpon subgeminatum, Scoliciosporum umbrinum var. compactum, Staurothele lesdainiana, Verrucaria sphaerospora, Tephromela atra var. deplanata, Thermutis velutina, Verrucaria sphaerospora and Verrucaria macrostoma. New for the Canary Islands are: Anomalographis madeirensis, Bacidia scopulicola, Cecidonia umbonella on Lecidea lactea, Lecanora intricata, Lecidella scabra, Ochrolechia androgyna, Opegrapha lithyrga, Opegrapha mougeotii, Physconia venusta. Rhizocarpon petraeum, Spilonema paradoxum and Tremolecia atrata. Finally a list of muscicolous taxa from the peaks of Caldera de Taburiente is included.
32535Pilzer I., Breuss O. & Krisai-Greilhuber I. (2015): Eine qualitative Aufnahme von Flechten im Wiener Zentralfriedhof (Österreich) - mit einer Liste der bisher aus Wien bekannten Flechten. - Österreichische Zeitschrift für Pilzkunde, 24: 181–196. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/OestZPilz_24_0181-0196.pdf.
49 lichen species are listed for a cemetery in the city of Vienna, Austria. Alltogether 21 species, namely Bilimbia sabuletorum, Caloplaca flavocitrina, Catillaria lenticularis, C. nigroclavata, Lecania cyrtella, L. erysibe, L. fuscella, L. naegelii, L. sordida, Lecanora semipallida, Lecidella achristotera, Lempholemma polyanthes, Lepraria finkii, Verrucaria asperula, V. breussii, V. furfuracea, V. fusca, V. glaucovirens, V. macrostoma, V. ochrostoma and V. tectorum, are recorded for the first time from Vienna. Lecania sordida and Verrucaria breussii are new to Austria. A checklist for all 178 lichen species yet reported from Vienna is added. Key words: Lichenized Ascomycota, urban lichens. – New records, checklist. – Mycobiota of Vienna, Austria.
32534Türk R. & Franz W.R. (2018): Ein Beitrag zur Flechtenflora und zum Vorkommen von Dolichousnea longissima (Syn.: Usnea longissima) im Unteren Mölltal (Kärnten, Österreich). - Carinthia II, 208/128: 151–176. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/CAR_208_128_0151-0176.pdf.
In the course of excursions in the summit area of the Danielsberg in Zandlacher Boden and in Teuchlbach Valley (all in the Reisseck district of the Lower Mölltal region) a total of 213 lichens were found. In the Zandlacher Boden area it was possible to document both a number of almost untouched habitats and also further occurrences of the extremely rare and protected shrub lichen Dolichousnea longissima (Syn.: Usnea longissima, Old Man’s Beard or Methuselah’s Beard Lichen). In order to protect the habitat of this rare lichen, which is of national significance, the Carinthian provincial government’s office, department for environment, water and nature conservation (Division 8), has concluded with the landowners a long-term NABL non-utilization agreement for 14 hectares of forest land. New to the lichen flora of Carinthia, Austria is Lepraria obtusatica. Keywords: Lichenes, Dolichousnea longissima (Syn.: Usnea longissima), protective measures, Mölltal, Danielsberg, Zandlacher Boden, Teuchlbach Valley.
32533Gerstberger P. (2020): Neufunde von Equisetum variegatum und Osmunda regalis bei Bayreuth. - RegnitzFlora - Mitteilungen des Vereins zur Erforschung der Flora des Regnitzgebietes, 10: 35–37. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/RegnitzFlora_10_0035-0037.pdf.
Germany; floristice; p. 37: "Weitere bemerkenswerte Pflanzen der Rödensdorfer Sandgrube sind: Spergula morisonii, Utricularia australis (im Flachweiher am Grund der Sandgrube), Lycopodiella inundata, Huperzia selago (pers. Mitt.: Martin Feulner) sowie die Flechten Cladonia cervicornis, Cladonia ciliata, Cladonia floerkeana und Cladonia uncialis."
32532Egelkraut D., Barthelemy H. & Olofsson J. (2020): Reindeer trampling promotes vegetation changes in tundra heathlands: Results from a simulation experiment. - Journal of Vegetation Science, 31: 476–486. https://doi.org/10.1111/jvs.12871.
Question: Herbivores exert strong influences on vegetation through activities such as trampling, defoliation, and fertilization. The combined effect of these activities on plant performance may cause dramatic vegetation shifts. Because herbivore pressures and the relative importance of their different activities are not equally distributed across the landscape, it is important to understand their isolated effect. One example of an herbivore-induced vegetation shift is the reindeer-driven transition from a subarctic tundra vegetation dominated by dwarf shrubs into a more productive, graminoid-dominated state. Here, we asked how each of the grazing activities by reindeer separately and combined shape vegetation composition. Location: Nordreisa, Norway. Methods: We used a field experiment over six summers to study the separate and interacting effects of reindeer trampling, defoliation, addition of faeces and removal of moss on tundra heath vegetation, and to identify which of these factors were most important in driving the plant community towards a graminoid-dominated state. Results: The combination of all treatments resulted in the strongest changes in vegetation, but trampling was the single most important factor altering the vegetation composition by reducing the abundance of both evergreen and deciduous dwarf shrubs. In contrast to what was expected, none of our treatments, separate or combined, resulted in an increased abundance of graminoids in 5 years, although such rapid vegetation changes have been observed in the field in similar environmental conditions. Conclusions: Trampling is the key process by which reindeer influence the abundance of functional groups, but only many processes combined result in strong changes in community composition. Moreover, additional factors not included in this experiment, such as urine, may be important in causing a state shift to a graminoid-dominated community. Keywords: defoliation, fertilization, grazing simulation, herbivory, Rangifer tarandus, shrubification, trampling, vegetation shifts.
32531Kupreev V.E., Semenishchenkov Yu.A., Teleganova V.V. & Muchnik E.E. (2020): Ecological and floristic features of pioneer grass vegetation on automorphic sandy soils as a pine-forest recovery phase in the southern part of the nonchernozem zone of Russia. - Contemporary Problems of Ecology, 13(1): 20–35. https://doi.org/10.1134/S1995425520010059.
[translalation; original Russian text published in Sibirskii Ekologicheskii Zhurnal, 2020, No. 1, pp. 26–45] This article addresses the phytocoenotic diversity of psammophytic grass communities in the southern part of the nonchernozem zone of Russia, where the restoration of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is either ongoing or potentially possible. Community structure and composition formation trends developing under the influence of key environmental and coenotic factors have been identified. The studies were carried out in Bryansk, Kaluga, and Smolensk oblasts in 2010–2018; over 150 geobotanical releves of psammophytic grass communities have been produced. This vegetation belongs to the class Koelerio-Corynephoretea Klika 1931, which combines dry grasslands on sandy soils and rocky outcrops in the temperate and boreal zones of Europe, on islands of the North Atlantic, and in Greenland. Differences between environmental regimes of various habitats occupied by psammophytic communities have been identified. In most cases, the environmental amplitudes of syntaxonomic units vary significantly by the three key edaphic factors (moisture, soil reaction, and soil richness in mineral nitrogen) and form pretty compact environmental spaces: within each syntaxon, numerical values of the above factors, expressed in score points, normally vary within a narrow range. Regression analysis has established that the species richness of psammophytic communities depends statistically significantly only on the mineral nitrogen supply and soil moisture. Based on the statistical analysis results, the number of Pinus sylvestris plants of any age does not depend on the species richness in the community, total projective cover of the grass stand (excluding the Scots pine), separately calculated moss and lichen projective covers, and average numerical values of environmental factors identified by H. Ellenberg in the community. It is established that numbers of pine trees on study sites depend on only one factor: distance from the diaspora source determining the invasion possibility. The data on the phytocoenotic and floristic diversity of the psammophytic grass vegetation are to be incorporated into the unified database on the southern part of the nonchernozem zone of Russia to identify environmental and botanical–geographical features of this plant community type in the region. Keywords: psammophytic vegetation, floristic classification, pine restoration, southern part of the nonchernozem zone of Russia.
32530Kalugina O.V., Shergina O.V. & Mikhailova T.A. (2020): Ecological condition of natural forests located within the territory of a large industrial center, Eastern Siberia, Russia. - Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 27: 22400–22413. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-08718-z.
Forest surveys were conducted in 2015–2018 on 12 sample plots (SPs), located in different districts of the city of Bratsk, a large industrial center of Eastern Siberia. The ecological state of natural forests preserved within the city’s territory was estimated by a set parameters of pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees, understory vegetation, moss-and-lichen cover, and soil. Significant changes in the parameters caused by technogenic pollution and a high recreational load on the soil cover have been revealed. The high level of technogenic pollution of urban forests is evidenced by the accumulation of pollutants (sulfur, heavy metals, PAH) in the needles of pine trees and soil horizons, changes in the ratios of elements-pollutants and elements-nutrients in plants and soils, shift in the acid-base balance of the soil solution to alkalinity. A high recreational load on urban forest soils is indicated by many negative changes: a decrease in the thickness of the forest litter or its complete destruction; violation of the natural structure of the upper horizons due to increase in physical clay content, stony content, and anthropogenic inclusions; significant increase in soil density, and decrease in humidity, porosity, and aeration. The impact of a complex of negative factors also leads to a decrease in the species diversity of the understory vegetation, mosses, lichens, and an increase in the number of ruderal species in the herbaceous vegetation. The biggest negative changes in the parameters of forest ecosystems have been found in Tsentralny district of the city, located in close proximity (from 2 to 8 km) to a large aluminum smelter and timber industry complex. Lesspronounced negative changes in parameters were found in samples taken in the Padunsky district, located 25 km from the emission source, and the smallest changes in the parameters were found in Pravoberezhny district, 45 km away from the emission sources. The main recommendations for improving the condition of forests in all areas of the city are as follows: planning a roadpath network, restoring the fertile soil layer, sodding open areas of soil with herbaceous vegetation, and selecting an assortment of trees and shrub plants that are resistant to industrial pollution and recreational stress. Keywords: Urban forests . Technogenic pollution . Recreational load . Pinus sylvestris .Understory vegetation .Moss-and-lichen cover . Soil.
32529Bellenger J.P., Darnajoux R., Zhang X. &. Kraepiel A.M.L (2020): Biological nitrogen fixation by alternative nitrogenases in terrestrial ecosystems: a review. - Biogeochemistry, 149: 53–73. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10533-020-00666-7.
Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), a key reaction of the nitrogen cycle, is catalyzed by the enzyme nitrogenase. The best studied isoform of this metalloenzyme requires molybdenum (Mo) at its active center to reduce atmospheric dinitrogen (N2) into bioavailable ammonium. The Mo-dependent nitrogenase is found in all diazotrophs and is the only nitrogenase reported in diazotrophs that form N2- fixing symbioses with higher plants. In addition to the canonical Mo nitrogenase, two alternative nitrogenases, which use either vanadium (V) or iron (Fe) instead of Mo are known to fix nitrogen. They have been identified in ecologically important groups including free-living bacteria in soils and freshwaters and as symbionts of certain cryptogamic covers. Despite the discovery of these alternative isoforms more than 40 years ago, BNF is still believed to primarily rely on Mo. Here, we review existing studies on alternative nitrogenases in terrestrial settings, spanning inland forests to coastal ecosystems. These studies show frequent Mo limitation of BNF, ubiquitous distribution of alternative nitrogenase genes and significant contributions of alternative nitrogenases to N2 fixation in ecosystems ranging from the tropics to the subarctic. The effect of temperature on nitrogenase isoform activity and regulation is also discussed. We present recently developed methods for measuring alternative nitrogenase activity in the field and discuss the associated analytical challenges. Finally, we discuss how the enzymatic diversity of nitrogenase forces a re-examination of existing knowledge gaps and our understanding of BNF in nature. Keywords: Biological nitrogen fixation;  Terrestrial ecosystems;  Nitrogenase;  Alternative nitrogenases;  Molybdenum;  Vanadium;  Iron-only.
32528Babić D., Skoko B., Franić Z., Senčar J., Šoštarić M., Petroci L., Avdić M., Kovačić M., Branica G., Petrinec B., Bituh T., Franulović I. & Marović G. (2020): Baseline radioecological data for the soil and selected bioindicator organisms in the temperate forest of Plitvice Lakes National Park, Croatia. - Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 27: 21040–21056. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-08369-0.
The aim of this study was to provide baseline radioecological data for the temperate forest ecosystem in Plitvice Lakes National Park. Emphasis was placed on the determination of naturally occurring radionuclides since there is an acknowledged lack of data for these radionuclides in non-accident conditions in wildlife, even for bioindicator organisms. Activity concentrations of 238U, 226Ra, 210Pb, 232Th, 40K, 134Cs, and 137Cs were measured by gamma spectrometry in soil and bioindicators: earthworms, conifer needles, mosses, and lichens. From the measured activity concentrations, concentration ratios were calculated to quantify the transfer of these radionuclides from soil to bioindicators. Our results show that soil activity concentrations are biased toward results from other studies conducted within the Dinaric mountain region. However, in moss and lichen samples, we measured higher activity concentrations of 226Ra and lower activity concentrations of 40K and 137Cs in comparison to similar studies. Also, we estimated lower concentration ratios for all radionuclides from soil to these organisms, except for 210Pb, in comparison to generic values. The transfer of 238U was generally low for all of the bioindicator organisms. For conifer needles, a correlation was found between activity concentrations of 226Ra and 137Cs in soil and related concentration ratios. Correlation was also found between the activity concentration of 40K in soil and transfer of 40K and 137Cs to mosses and lichens. A comparison with literature data highlighted the lack of 226Ra related concentration ratios for conifer trees and especially for earthworms. Therefore, the results of this study could supplement the sparse data currently available on radionuclide background data in similar ecosystems and related soil-to-wildlife transfer of radionuclides. Dose rate assessments, performed by the ERICA Tool, estimated that 96% of the overall exposure of wildlife in the Park area is due to the background dose rates, while 0.06 μGy h−1 on average can be attributed as an incremental dose rate from 134Cs and 137Cs. Keywords: Uranium . Thorium . Radium . Plant . Soil . Background . Radionuclide . Radioecology.
32527Knudsen K. & Kocourková J. (2020): Acarospora scottii and Sarcogyne paradoxa spp. nov. from North America. - Mycotaxon, 135: 453–463. https://doi.org/10.5248/135.453.
Acarospora scottii, a facultative lichenicolous lichen on crustose lichens, is described and typified from Minnesota. Sarcogyne paradoxa, which is described and typified from California, grows as an endolithic lichen or as a lichenicolous fungus endokapylic in crustose lichens. Key words—Acarospora americana, Acarosporaceae, New Mexico, Polysporina, taxonomy.
32526Elrhzaoui G., Divakar P.K., Crespo A., Tahiri H., El Alaoui-Faris F.E. & Khellouk R. (2019): Spatial mapping of heavy metals using lichen bioaccumulation capacity to assess air contamination in Morocco. - Cryptogam Biodiversity and Assessment, 4(1): 19–24. https://doi.org/10.21756/cab.v4i1.2.
Spatial mapping of the distribution of heavy metals was performed with the Inverse Distance Weighted technique (IDW) of ArcGis-10 information system (GIS).We propose an innovative study based on information system technology and lichen biomonitoring to assess air pollution. The results demonstrated that the contamination of heavy metals (HM) fluctuates with certain hotspots with a high concentration of Cr, Pd, Cu, Cr, and Fe.The spatial mapping showed that “SidiYayha El Gharb” is the most contaminated area not only due to lithogenic sources but also from industries and traffic. Spatial mapping shows that the environment is highly affected by industrial discharges, and remediation activities should be carried out urgently to prevent serious health problems and ecological disasters. Keywords: Air pollution, Inverse Distance Weighted technique (IDW), Lichens, Spatial mapping.
32525Schwarz M. (2020): Ein Fund der Ockerfrüchtigen Zeichenflechte (Alyxoria ochrocheila [Nyl.] Ertz & Tehler) in Nordrhein-Westfalen, neu für die Nordeifel und den Nationalpark Eifel. - Jahrbuch des Bochumer Botanischen Vereins, 11: 171–174. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Jahrb-Bochumer-Bot-Ver_11_0171-0174.pdf.
A new occurence of Alyxoria ochrocheila in the Eifel National Park and North Rhine-Westphalia. Alyxoria ochrocheila was found on Fraxinus excelsior in North Rhine-Westphalia in the valley of the small stream Erkensruhr close to Hirschrott in the Eifel National Park. This represents a new record for the North Eifel and the Eifel National Park and is likely connected to increased warming due global climate change.
32524Jagel A., Buch C. & Schmidt C. (2020): Artenvielfalt auf einer Obstwiese – Eine Bestandsaufnahme in Bochum/Nordrhein-Westfalen. - Jahrbuch des Bochumer Botanischen Vereins, 11: 96–170. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Jahrb-Bochumer-Bot-Ver_11_0096-0170.pdf.
Biodiversity in an orchard – an inventory in Bochum (North Rhine-Westphalia/Germany) From May 2018 to July 2019, flora, fauna and funga were recorded on a 0.5 ha large orchard on Schattbachstraße in Bochum-Querenburg/Laer. The list of species should serve as the basis for being able to analyze changes in the number of species and their composition in a later investigation. These changes are made by transforming the fallow grassland with occasional grazing and mowing (twice per year) into a tall oatgrass meadow in the sense of a “historic meadow”. A total of 710 species were identified, including 183 plant species (168 vascular plants, 13 mosses, 2 algae), 32 fungus species, 13 lichen species and 482 animal species. In the case of animals, the focus was on insects (400 species), in particular the proportion of pollinators (158 species, 40 %). Due to the transformation process from grassland into a flowery meadow, positive changes are most likely to be expected in this group. The pollinators are analyzed with regard to their flower visits and the most important plant species on which they were observed. In addition to the fruit trees, five herbaceous species (Senecio jacobaea, Heracleum sphondylium, Daucus carota, Anthriscus sylvestris and Cirsium arvense), each with 20 or more different pollinators, turned out to be the most visited species. Pollination is dominated by 38 % hymenoptera species, followed by the true flies (Diptera, 26 %), beetles (Coleoptera, 18 %) and butterflies (Lepidoptera, 18 %). The proportions of the endangered species with 9 (1.7 %) (additionally 9 species from the pre-warning list) and the Neobiota with 32 species (4.5 %, 19 neophytes, 10 of which are volatile, and 13 animal species) are relatively low. The selected development measures of the meadow, which in addition to mowing also include sowing, are explained and number of species and prospects of success are also discussed against the background of climatic changes.
32523Bomble F.W. (2020): Exkursion: Städteregion Aachen, Aachen, Moose und Flechten auf dem Westfriedhof. - Jahrbuch des Bochumer Botanischen Vereins, 11: 204–205. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Jahrb-Bochumer-Bot-Ver_11_0204-0205.pdf.
Report on excursion
32522Stapper N. & Niehuis V. (2020): Exkursion: Bochum-Querenburg, Moose und Flechten an der Ruhr-Universität. - Jahrbuch des Bochumer Botanischen Vereins, 11: 177–178. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Jahrb-Bochumer-Bot-Ver_11_0177-0178.pdf.
Report on excursion
32521Bomble F.W. (2020): Parmotrema perlatum – Breitlappige Schüsselflechte (Parmeliaceae), Flechte des Jahres 2019. - Jahrbuch des Bochumer Botanischen Vereins, 11: 324–330. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Jahrb-Bochumer-Bot-Ver_11_0324-0330.pdf.
32520Çıplak E.S. & Akoğlu K.G. (2020): Enzymatic activity as a measure of total microbial activity on historical stone. - Heritage, 3(3): 671–681. https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3030038.
Stones of historical monuments exposed to the open air deteriorate over the course of time depending on physical, chemical, and biological factors acting in co-association. Among the biological factors, microorganisms play a key role in the deterioration process of stones. Detecting the level of microbial activity on stones is an essential step in diagnostic and monitoring studies of stone biodeterioration, and aids in controlling the performance of treatments applied to the stones. Therefore, this study aimed to develop a practical and rapid method for the determination of microbial activity on historical stones and use this method on the Mount Nemrut monuments (MNMs) (Adiyaman, Turkey). For that purpose, the fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis method, frequently employed for soil environments, was adapted for the estimation and assessment of total microbial activity to understand whether microorganisms posed a potential risk for the biodeterioration of the limestones and sandstones of the MNMs. The traditional plate count method was also applied simultaneously to the same stone samples to compare and assist in the interpretation of the results of the FDA hydrolysis method, which relies on the quantitative determination of bacterial and fungal colonies in nutrient agar and malt extract agar medium, respectively. The results of the FDA hydrolysis and plate count methods showed consistency. The total microbial activity determined by the FDA hydrolysis method was low for both types of stone samples. In addition, the plate count method showed low bacterial and fungal counts on all of the samples. This revealed that microbial activity did not play an important role in the stone deterioration process on the MNMs, although di erent lichen species were frequently observed on both the sandstones and the limestones. Hence, further investigation must be undertaken for determination of their long-term behavior and e ects on the stones of the MNMs. On the other hand, the results of the FDA hydrolysis and plate count methods showed correlation. Lower bacterial counts were observed when lower enzymatic activity was observed in the stone samples, and likewise, higher bacterial counts were observed when higher enzymatic activity was observed. Consequently, the application of the FDA hydrolysis method was determined to be reliable for the estimation of total microbial activity on historical stones. The method had obvious advantages in terms of its rapid measurement rate and sensitivity, even on small samples. Keywords: biodeterioration; microorganisms; microbial activity; plate count method; fluorescein diacetate (FDA); historical stone; Mount Nemrut monuments;World Heritage Site.
32519Christensen S.N. (2020): Lichens of Pinus sylvestris stands in Makedonia and Thraki, Northern Greece. - Herzogia, 33: 75–89. .
The species composition and phytogeography of 66 species recorded from Pinus sylvestris stands are briefly discussed. Bryoria furcellata, Cliostomum griffithii, Fuscidea cyathoides and Lecidea nylanderi are new to Greece, nine species are new to the province of Makedonia and eleven are new to Thraki. Key words: Biodiversity, Balkan Peninsula, Mt Orvilos, Mt Voras, Mt Vrondous, Rodopi Mts.
32518Christensen S.N. (2020): New or rarely reported lichens for Thraki, Greece II. - Herzogia, 33: 68–74. .
Thirty-eight species are reported from Thraki, of which Thyrea girardii is new to Greece, and 25 are new to Thraki. Lichens on Alnus glutinosa in Greece are reported for the first time. Key words: Alnus glutinosa, cyanophilic lichens, Rodopi Mts.
32517Nagy J., Németh Cs., Dima B. & Papp V. (2020): Lichenomphalia meridionalis, an agaricoid basidiolichen species new to Central Europe. - Herzogia, 33: 25–33. .
A new finding of the agaricoid basidiolichen, Lichenomphalia meridionalis is reported from Hungary (Central Europe). This species was originally known only from the Mediterranean regions of Europe, but recently it has also been found in Japan. The nrITS and nuLSU (28S) rDNA sequences, macro- and, microscopical characteristics and photographs of the Hungarian specimen are given. Key words: Basidiomycota, Hygrophoraceae, phylogeny, ITS, LSU.
32516Himelbrant D., Stepanchikova I., Korolev K., Motiejūnaitė J. & Petrenko D. (2020): Forty species of lichens, lichenicolous and calicioid fungi new for the Kaliningrad region (former Ostpreußen) with additional noteworthy records. - Herzogia, 33: 34–56. .
The most important results of lichenological fieldwork in the northern part of the Kaliningrad region (former Ostpreußen), conducted in 2019, are reported. Forty species are new to the Kaliningrad region, of which Fuscidea lightfootii and Xanthoparmelia mougeotii are also new to Russia. Jamesiella anastomosans and Reichlingia leopoldii were otherwise known in Russia only from the Caucasus. Also treated are another sixteen species which are rare or protected in the region, or are indicators of biologically valuable forests. The most diverse and valuable fraction of the lichen diversity in the northern part of the Kaliningrad region was observed in the remnants of old-growth Norway spruce-broadleaved, broadleaved, and black alder forests, as well as in old-growth broadleaved alleys and manor parks. Key words: Lichenized fungi, biodiversity, indicator species, old-growth forests, biologically valuable forests, Baltic region, Russia.
32515Gheza G., Ottonello M., Nascimbene J. & Mayrhofer H. (2020): The genus Cladonia in western Liguria (Northern Italy). - Herzogia, 33: 57–67. .
The genus Cladonia (Cladoniaceae, Lecanorales, lichenized Ascomycota) has been surveyed in 44 sites in the province of Imperia in western Liguria. Of 36 taxa recorded, Cladonia dimorpha and C. pseudopityrea are new to northern Italy, and C. cryptochlorophaea, C. pleurota, C. polydactyla and C. rei are new to Liguria; interesting are also records provided for C. arbuscula, C. incrassata and C. mediterranea. The most widespread species are C. chlorophaea, C. pyxidata, C. ramulosa and C. rangiformis. Data on ecology and chemistry of the species are given. Key words: Cladoniaceae, lichen biogeography, lichen floristics, macrolichens, Mediterranean region, TLC.
32514Borgato L., Fryday A.M. & Ertz D. (2020): Preliminary checklist of the lichens and lichenicolous fungi of Martinique, with 144 new records. - Herzogia, 33: 139–178. .
Martinique is a French island that is part of the Lesser Antilles archipelago in the Caribbean Sea. A preliminary checklist of the lichens and lichenicolous fungi known from this island is published for the first time. We report 247 lichens and four lichenicolous fungi, among which 87 taxa were already recorded in literature reports, whereas 144 additional species are here reported for the first time from studies of the collections stored in the herbaria of the Michigan State University (MSC) and the Meise Botanic Garden (BR), or from the databases of the herbaria of the Duke (DUKE) and Uppsala (UPS) universities. Arthonia arthoniicola is reported for the first time from the Neotropics. An additional 16 species from the same collections, for which the identification is uncertain, are also mentioned. Key words: Lesser Antilles, biodiversity, tropical forest, France, taxonomy, Caribbean Neotropics.
32513El Mokni R. & Clerc P. (2020): Two new N-African records in the genus Usnea (Parmeliaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) from Kroumiria, NW Tunisia. - Herzogia, 33: 257–261. .
Usnea articulata and U. esperantiana are reported as new to Tunisia. Our recent discoveries constitute further records for the south shore of the Mediterranean. Both records are from mixed oak forests (Quercus canariensis Willd. and Q. suber L.) within the Kroumiria region of NW Tunisia. Keywords: Oak forests, macrolichens, Lecanoromycetidae, chorology.
32512Fryday A.M., Medeiros I.D., Siebert S.J., Pope N. & Rajakaruna N. (2020): Burrowsia, a new genus of lichenized fungi (Caliciaceae), plus the new species B. cataractae and Scoliciosporum fabisporum, from Mpumalanga, South Africa. - South African Journal of Botany, 132: 471–481. .
The new genus Burrowsia (Caliciaceae) is proposed to accommodate the new species B. cataractae, which is known from only a single locality in Mpumalanga, South Africa. Burrowsia is characterized by its pigmented, submuriform ascospores and ascus with an apical tube structure, and also by its DNA sequence data that place it outside related buellioid genera. We also describe the new species Scoliciosporum fabisporum, also known from a single locality in Mpumalanga, which differs from all other species of that genus in having distinctive kidney-shaped, 01-septate ascospores. It is most closely related to the Northern Hemisphere species S. intrusum, which is here confirmed by molecular data as belonging to this genus in a well-supported Scoliciosporaceae. The potential of the region to yield additional novel lichen taxa is explored. Keywords: Endemic species; Lichens; New taxa; Scoliciosporaceae; Ultramafic rocks.
32511Sinha G.P. & Gupta P. (2017): Studies on microlichens of Sikkim, Eastern Himalaya, India. - Nelumbo, 59(1): 80–94. DOI : 10.20324/nelumbo/v59/2017/115983.
The paper reports the occurrence of 266 species of microlichens from the state of Sikkim, India. Four species viz. Acarospora molybdina (Ach.) Trevis., Calvitimela aglaea (Sommerf.) Hafellner, Ochrolechia parella (L.) A. Massal. and Porpidia flavicunda (Ach.) Gowan are new records for Indian lichen flora and Acarospora bullata Anzi, Diploschistes muscorum (Scop.) R. Sant., Lecidella stigmatea (Ach.) Hertel & Leuckert and Sclerophora pallida (Pers.) Y.J. Yao & Spooner are new to Sikkim. Keywords: Eastern Himalaya, Lichen biota, New records, Sikkim.
32510Degtjarenko P. & Moisejevs R. (2020): Revision of the genus Cetrelia (lichenised Ascomycota) in Latvia. - Botanica, 26(1): 88–94. https://doi.org/10.2478/botlit-2020-0008.
All available specimens (98) of the genus Cetrelia from Latvia (Northern Europe) in the Herbaria DAU and RIG were revised. Cetrelia cetrarioides, C. olivetorum and C. monachorum were confirmed to occur in the country. The last taxon is new to Latvia. Distribution maps and habitat preferences of all three species in Latvia were presented, and their conservation status was discussed. Keywords: cetrarioid lichens, Cetrelia monachorum, chemotypes, conservation, new record, Parmeliaceae.
32509Hansen C.J., Lendemer J.C., Tripp E.A., Allen J.L., Buck W.R., England J.K., Harris R.C., Howe N.M., Mullin R.T. & Waters D.P. (2020): Lichens and allied fungi of Central Alabama, U.S.A.: Survey results from the 26th Tuckerman Workshop. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 19: 36–57. .
In the spring of 2017, the 26th Tuckerman Workshop was held in central Alabama, based in Columbiana. Participants collected lichens from six unique sites across the hills of central Alabama. An account of the lichens collected from five of those sites are presented here. A total of 274 species from 118 genera are reported from the region based on field collections of the workshop participants. The high levels of diversity documented are equal to or greater than the diversity found in other areas inventoried in southern Appalachian Mountain habitats in northern and central Alabama. There are 31 lichenized and lichenicolous taxa newly reported for the State of Alabama: Abrothallus hypotrachynae (host: Hypotrachyna), Arthonia stevensoniana (host: Haematomma), Aspicilia laevata, Asterothyrium decipiens, Bacidina delicata, Byssoloma maderense, Canoparmelia amazonica, Carbonea latypizodes, Carbonicola anthracophila, Catillaria nigroclavata, Chrysothrix insulizans, Dictyomeridium amylosporum, Fellhanera silicis, Fuscidea arcuatula, Graphis lineola, Haematomma guyanense, Homostegia hertelii (host: Flavoparmelia baltimorensis), Ionaspis alba, Loxospora confusa, Parmotrema neotropicum, Pseudosagedia guentheri, Psilolechia lucida, Ramonia microspora, Rinodina dolichospora, Schismatomma glaucescens, Skyttea lecanorae (host: Lecanora louisianae), Thelopsis rubella, Thelotrema lathraeum, Tricharia cuneata, Usnea cornuta and Vainionora americana. In addition, an incompletely determined specimen of Coniarthonia was collected, making this a new genus report for the state. Keywords. – Biodiversity, conservation, lichenology, mycology, southeastern United States.
32508Svensson M., Vicente R. & Westberg M. (2020): Additions to the lichen flora of Fennoscandia IV. - Graphis Scripta, 32(3): 52–62. http://nhm2.uio.no/botanisk/lav/Graphis/32_3/GS_32_52.pdf.
We report the three lichen-forming fungi Candelariella subdeflexa, Lecidea strasseri and Stereocaulon cephalocrustatum and the lichenicolous fungus Endococcus umbilicariae from Sweden for the first time. We also confirm Pertusaria coriacea from Sweden and present a full description of L. strasseri, based on Fennoscandian specimens.
32507Hyde K.D., Dong Y., Phookamsak R., Jeewon R., Bhat D.J., Jones E.B.G., Liu N.-G., Abeywickrama P.D., Mapook A., Wei D., Perera R.H., Manawasinghe I.S., Pem D., Bundhun D., Karunarathna A., Ekanayaka A.H., Bao D.-F., Li J., Samarakoon M.C., Chaiwan N., Lin C.-G., Phutthacharoen K., Zhang S., Senanayake I.C., Goonasekara I.D., Thambugala K.M., Phukhamsakda C., Tennakoon D.S., Jiang H.-B., Yang J., Zeng M., Huanraluek N., Liu J.-K.(J.), Wijesinghe S.N., Tian Q., Tibpromma S., Brahmanage R.S., Boonmee S., Huang S.-K., Thiyagaraja V., Lu Y., Jayawardena R.S., Dong W., Yang E.-F., Singh S.K., Singh S.M., Rana S., Lad S.S., Anand G., Devadatha B., Niranjan M., Sarma V.V., Liimatainen K., Aguirre-Hudson B., Niskanen T., Overall A., Alvarenga R.L.M., Gibertoni T.B., Pfliegler W.P., Horváth E., Imre A., Alves A.L., da Silva Santos A.C., Tiago P.V., Bulgakov T.S., Wanasinghe D.N., Bahkali A.H., Doilom M., Elgorban A.M., Maharachchikumbura S.S.N., Rajeshkumar K.C., Haelewaters D., Mortimer P.E., Zhao Q., Lumyong S., Xu J. & Sheng J. (2020): Fungal diversity notes 1151–1276: taxonomic and phylogenetic contributions on genera and species of fungal taxa. - Fungal Diversity, 100: 5–277. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13225-020-00439-5.
Fungal diversity notes is one of the important journal series of fungal taxonomy that provide detailed descriptions and illustrations of new fungal taxa, as well as providing new information of fungal taxa worldwide. This article is the 11th contribution to the fungal diversity notes series, in which 126 taxa distributed in two phyla, six classes, 24 orders and 55 families are described and illustrated. Taxa in this study were mainly collected from Italy by Erio Camporesi and also collected from China, India and Thailand, as well as in some other European, North American and South American countries. Taxa described in the present study include two new families, 12 new genera, 82 new species, five new combinations and 25 new records on new hosts and new geographical distributions as well as sexual-asexual reports. The two new families are Eriomycetaceae (Dothideomycetes, family incertae sedis) and Fasciatisporaceae (Xylariales, Sordariomycetes). The twelve new genera comprise Bhagirathimyces (Phaeosphaeriaceae), Camporesiomyces (Tubeufiaceae), Eriocamporesia (Cryphonectriaceae), Eriomyces (Eriomycetaceae), Neomonodictys (Pleurotheciaceae), Paraloratospora (Phaeosphaeriaceae), Paramonodictys (Parabambusicolaceae), Pseudoconlarium (Diaporthomycetidae, genus incertae sedis), Pseudomurilentithecium (Lentitheciaceae), Setoapiospora (Muyocopronaceae), Srinivasanomyces (Vibrisseaceae) and Xenoanthostomella (Xylariales, genera incertae sedis). The 82 new species comprise Acremonium chiangraiense, Adustochaete nivea, Angustimassarina camporesii, Bhagirathimyces himalayensis, Brunneoclavispora camporesii, Camarosporidiella camporesii, Camporesiomyces mali, Camposporium appendiculatum, Camposporium multiseptatum, Camposporium septatum, Canalisporium aquaticium, Clonostachys eriocamporesiana, Clonostachys eriocamporesii, Colletotrichum hederiicola, Coniochaeta vineae, Conioscypha verrucosa, Cortinarius ainsworthii, Cortinarius aurae, Cortinarius britannicus, Cortinarius heatherae, Cortinarius scoticus, Cortinarius subsaniosus, Cytospora fusispora, Cytospora rosigena, Diaporthe camporesii, Diaporthe nigra, Diatrypella yunnanensis, Dictyosporium muriformis, Didymella camporesii, Diutina bernali, Diutina sipiczkii, Eriocamporesia aurantia, Eriomyces heveae, Ernakulamia tanakae, Falciformispora uttaraditensis, Fasciatispora cocoes, Foliophoma camporesii, Fuscostagonospora camporesii, Helvella subtinta, Kalmusia erioi, Keissleriella camporesiana, Keissleriella camporesii, Lanspora cylindrospora, Loratospora arezzoensis, Mariannaea atlantica, Melanographium phoenicis, Montagnula camporesii, Neodidymelliopsis camporesii, Neokalmusia kunmingensis, Neoleptosporella camporesiana, Neomonodictys muriformis, Neomyrmecridium guizhouense, Neosetophoma camporesii, Paraloratospora camporesii, Paramonodictys solitarius, Periconia palmicola, Plenodomus triseptatus, Pseudocamarosporium camporesii, Pseudocercospora maetaengensis, Pseudochaetosphaeronema kunmingense, Pseudoconlarium punctiforme, Pseudodactylaria camporesiana, Pseudomurilentithecium camporesii, Pseudotetraploa rajmachiensis, Pseudotruncatella camporesii, Rhexocercosporidium senecionis, Rhytidhysteron camporesii, Rhytidhysteron erioi, Septoriella camporesii, Setoapiospora thailandica, Srinivasanomyces kangrensis, Tetraploa dwibahubeeja, Tetraploa pseudoaristata, Tetraploa thrayabahubeeja, Torula camporesii, Tremateia camporesii, Tremateia lamiacearum, Uzbekistanica pruni, Verruconis mangrovei, Wilcoxina verruculosa, Xenoanthostomella chromolaenae and Xenodidymella camporesii. The five new combinations are Camporesiomyces patagoniensis, Camporesiomyces vaccinia, Camposporium lycopodiellae, Paraloratospora gahniae and Rhexocercosporidium microsporum. The 22 new records on host and geographical distribution comprise Arthrinium marii, Ascochyta medicaginicola, Ascochyta pisi, Astrocystis bambusicola, Camposporium pellucidum, Dendryphiella phitsanulokensis, Diaporthe foeniculina, Didymella macrostoma, Diplodia mutila, Diplodia seriata, Heterosphaeria patella, Hysterobrevium constrictum, Neodidymelliopsis ranunculi, Neovaginatispora fuckelii, Nothophoma quercina, Occultibambusa bambusae, Phaeosphaeria chinensis, Pseudopestalotiopsis theae, Pyxine berteriana, Tetraploa sasicola, Torula gaodangensis and Wojnowiciella dactylidis. In addition, the sexual morphs of Dissoconium eucalypti and Phaeosphaeriopsis pseudoagavacearum are reported from Laurus nobilis and Yucca gloriosa in Italy, respectively. The holomorph of Diaporthe cynaroidis is also reported for the first time. Keywords: 96 new taxa · Agaricomycetes · Ascomycota · Basidiomycota · Dothideomycetes · Lecanoromycetes · Leotiomycetes · Pezizomycetes · Phylogeny · Saccharomycetes · Taxonomy.
32506Favero-Longo S.E. & Viles H.A. (2020): A review of the nature, role and control of lithobionts on stone cultural heritage: weighing‑up and managing biodeterioration and bioprotection. - World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 36: 100 [18 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11274-020-02878-3.
Lithobionts (rock-dwelling organisms) have been recognized as agents of aesthetic and physico-chemical deterioration of stonework. In consequence, their removal from cultural heritage stone surfaces (CHSS) is widely considered a necessary step in conservation interventions. On the other hand, lithobiontic communities, including microbial biofilms (‘biological patinas’), can help integrate CHSS with their environmental setting and enhance biodiversity. Moreover, in some cases bioprotective effects have been reported and even interpreted as potential biotechnological solutions for conservation. This paper reviews the plethora of traditional and innovative methodologies to characterize lithobionts on CHSS in terms of biodiversity, interaction with the stone substrate and impacts on durability. In order to develop the best management and conservation strategies for CHSS, such diagnosis should be acquired on a case-by-case basis, as generalized approaches are unlikely to be suitable for all lithobionts, lithologies, environmental and cultural contexts or types of stonework. Strategies to control biodeteriogenic lithobionts on CHSS should similarly be based on experimental evaluation of their efficacy, including long-term monitoring of the effects on bioreceptivity, and of their environmental safety. This review examines what is known about the efficacy of control methods based on traditional-commercial biocides, as well as those based on innovative application of substances of plant and microbial origin, and physical techniques. A framework for providing a balanced scientific assessment of the role of lithobionts on CHSS and integrating this knowledge into management and conservation decision-making is presented.
32505LaGreca S. (2020): Two unusual secondary products new to Ramalina. - Graphis Scripta, 32(2): 48–51. http://nhm2.uio.no/botanisk/lav/Graphis/32_2/GS_32_48.pdf.
The lactone homoheveadride, and a similar, fatty-acid-like substance (informally called pseudoconhomo-heveadride), are reported for the first time from Ramalina siliquosa (Huds.) A.L. Sm. Rf classes and other TLC information for standard solvent systems are given for both pseudoconhomoheveadride and another similar, fatty-acid-like substance, informally called conhomoheveadride. A brief literature review of these secondary products is provided.
32504Jiang L., Li T., Jenkins J., Hu Y., Brueck C.L., Pei H. & Betenbaugh M.J. (2020): Evidence for a mutualistic relationship between the cyanobacteria Nostoc and fungi Aspergilli in different environments. - Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 104: 6413–6426. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-020-10663-3.
Symbiotic partnerships are widespread in nature and in industrial applications yet there are limited examples of laboratory communities. Therefore, using common photobionts and mycobionts similar to those in natural lichens, we create an artificial lichen-like symbiosis. While Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus niger could not obtain nutrients from the green algae, Chlorella, and Scenedesmus, the cyanobacteria Nostoc sp. PCC 6720 was able to support fungal growth and also elevated the accumulation of total biomass. The Nostoc–Aspergillus co-cultures grew on light and CO2 in an inorganic BG11 liquid medium without any external organic carbon and fungal mycelia were observed to peripherally contact with the Nostoc cells in liquid and on solid media at lower cell densities. Overall biomass levels were reduced after implementing physical barriers to indicate that physical contact between cyanobacteria and heterotrophic microbes may promote symbiotic growth. The synthetic Nostoc–Aspergillus nidulans co-cultures also exhibited robust growth and stability when cultivated in wastewater over days to weeks in a semi-continuous manner when compared with axenic cultivation of either species. These Nostoc-Aspergillus consortia reveal species-dependent and mutually beneficial design principles that can yield stable lichen-like co-cultures and provide insights into microbial communities that can facilitate sustainability studies and broader applications in the future. Key Points: • Artificial lichen-like symbiosis was built with wild-type cyanobacteria and fungi. • Physical barriers decreased biomass production from artificial lichen co-cultures. • Artificial lichen adapted to grow and survive in wastewater for 5 weeks.
32503Masumoto H. & Degawa Y. (2020): Bryoclavula phycophila gen. et sp. nov. belonging to a novel lichenized lineage in Cantharellales (Basidiomycota). - Mycological Progress, 19: 705–714. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11557-020-01588-2.
A new clavarioid, lichenized basidiomycete, Bryoclavula phycophila gen. et sp. nov., is described from Japan based on morphological observations and molecular phylogenetic analyses. Although the fruiting bodies were dispersed on unidentified senescent bryophytes growing on a moist rock surface, the hyphae were not associated with the bryophyte cells. Instead, we confirmed that the hyphae loosely surrounded spherical algal cells present on the surface of bryophytes to form an undifferentiated thallus. The observations by transmission electron microscopy revealed that the alga had a pyrenoid. Morphological characters of B. phycophila were similar to those of lichenized species in the genus Multiclavula, but the new species differs from the latter in that it does not form a globular or bulbil-like thallus. Molecular sequence data of the large subunit of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene showed that the species was placed in a new lineage in the order Cantharellales, clearly independent from the genus Multiclavula. A multispore isolate of B. phycophila was successfully established and the brief cultural characteristics are described. Keywords: Culture . Lichenized basidiomycetes . Molecular phylogeny . New taxon . Taxonomy . TEM.
32502Tan M.A., Castro S.G., Oliva P.M.P., Yap P.R.J., Nakayama A., Magpantay H.D. & dela Cruz T.E.E. (2020): Biodiscovery of antibacterial constituents from the endolichenic fungi isolated from Parmotrema rampoddense. - 3 Biotech, 10:212 [7 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13205-020-02213-5.
A total of nine endolichenic fungi were isolated from the foliose lichen Parmotrema rampoddense (Nyl.) Hale. Of the nine endolichenic fungi, three taxa (Fusarium proliferatum, Nemania primolutea, Daldinia eschsholtzii) showed antibacterial activities as determined by the disk diffusion assay against ESKAPE bacterial pathogens. Fusarium proliferatum gave the most active fungal extract with zone of inhibition values of 15 mm and 19 mm against E. faecalis and S. aureus, respectively. Further chromatographic purification of the F. proliferatum ethyl acetate extract led to the isolation and identification of bis(2-ethylhexyl)terephthalate (1), acetyl tributyl citrate (2), and fusarubin (3). Acetyl tributyl citrate (2) exhibited moderate antibacterial activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. Keywords: Endolichenic fungi · Foliose lichen · Fusarium · Parmotrema.
32501Hasairin A., Pasaribu N. & Siregar R. (2020): Accumulation of lead (Pb) in the lichen thallus of Mahogany trees in Medan city road. - Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 231: 256 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-020-04625-8.
Rapid growth of vehicles in Medan, Indonesia, is one of the causes in the increasing of air pollution, in which approximately 85% is contributed merely by vehicles. On the other hand, the use of lead-based fuel in motor vehicle increases the air contamination in Medan. This study aimed to obtain an accumulation of lead (Pb) in the thallus of lichens in mahogany trees in four different locations in Medan, Sumatera Utara, Indonesia, in which the lichens act as a bioindicator of air contamination as well as measuring the lichen’s lead correlation and traffic densities. Purposive sampling location was determined based on the traffic density level with different air pollutions; the location which was far from traffic circulation was used as the control. The analysis of Pb was conducted using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). The data were analyzed descriptively to discover and compare Pb accumulation between each location with different traffic density levels. The result showed that there were 11 species of 7 genera and 7 families with two types of the thallus (foliose and crustose) in mahogany trees. The traffic density level influenced the diversity of lichens as the traffic density was quite significant with the number of lichen types. The levels of Pb and traffic density correlated very significantly at the level of α=0.01 for Parmelia saxatilis, Lepraria incana, and Pertusaria amara type, while Opegrapha atra had a significant correlation. The accumulation of Pb in the thallus of Pertusaria amara ranged from 5.23 to 15.07 μg/g, whereas medium in Lepraria incana ranged from 1.19 to 4.88 μg/g. Thus, Pertusaria amara which had greater Pb level than Lepraria incana had the potential as a resistant bioindicator. The correlation analysis of Pb levels and traffic density showed that Pertusaria amara had a significantly high correlation compared with Parmelia plumbea, Parmelia glabratula, and Graphis scripta. Furthermore, Lecanora conizaeoides was a tolerant bioindicator of air pollution whereas Parmelia saxatilis had the potential to be a tolerant bioindicator. Keywords: Accumulation of Pb . Thallus . Lichens . Tree stands.
32500Rassabina A.E., Gurjanov O.P., Beckett R.P. & Minibayeva F.V. (2020): Melanins from the lichens Cetraria islandica and Pseudevernia furfuracea: Structural features and physicochemical properties. - Biochemistry (Moscow), 85(5): 623–628. DOI: 10.1134/S0006297920050119.
[Translation of the original Russian text published in Biokhimiya, 2020, Vol. 85, No. 5, pp. 729–735.] Lichens are symbiotic photosynthesizing organisms with thalli formed by fungi and algae/cyanobacteria that possess high stress tolerance. One of the factors that contributes to the ability of a lichen to tolerate harsh environmental conditions is the presence of unique metabolites, including high molecular weight dark pigments termed melanins. The chemical composition and structure of lichen melanins remain poorly studied. We analyzed the elemental composition, the main functional groups, and the physicochemical properties of melanin extracted from Cetraria islandica and Pseudevernia furfuracea lichens. Based on the C/N ratio, this pigment is allomelanin. We also identified functional groups that provide photoprotective and antioxidant properties of melanin. Melanin synthesis might be an essential defense mechanism contributing to the survival of lichens under exposure to UV radiation. Keywords: melanin, lichen, IR spectroscopy, photoprotection, antioxidant activity.
32499Klamerus-Iwan A., Kozłowski R., Przybylska J., Solarz W. & Sikora W. (2020): Variability of water storage capacity in three lichen species. - Biologia, 75: 899–906. https://doi.org/10.2478/s11756-020-00437-7.
As poikilohydric organisms, lichens are capable of storing significant amounts of atmospheric water. Epiphytes that intercept rainfall change the amount and chemical composition of throughfall water, affecting water balance and microclimate of forest ecosystems. The aim of the study was to investigate the differences in the process of changes/increase in the amount of water in three lichen species: Evernia prunastri, Hypogymnia tubulosa and Platismatia glauca. In the experiment, conducted under laboratory conditions, samples of thalli were wetted with constant doses of water and weighed in order to determine the amount of water storage capacity from simulated rainfall.The studied lichen species differed in terms of process dynamics and values of water storage capacity, probably due to the morphological structure of thalli. Average water retention was the highest in Platismatia glauca (33.58 %), lower in Evernia prunastri (19.77 %) and the lowest in Hypogymnia tubulosa (15.38 %). Analyzed taxa with larger water storage capacity are also known to be more sensitive to air pollution. Keywords: Ecohydrology . Epiphyte . Forest retention . Pollution . Rainfall . Water storage capacity.
32498Veres K., Farkas E. & Csintalan Z. (2020): The bright and shaded side of duneland life: the photosynthetic response of lichens to seasonal changes is species-specific. - Mycological Progress, 19: 629–641. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11557-020-01584-6.
Terricolous lichens are relevant associates of biological soil crusts in arid and semiarid environments. Dunes are ecosystems of highconservationinterest, because of their unique, vulnerable and threatened features. Thefunctionof lichens isaffected bythe changing seasons and different microhabitat conditions. At the same time, inland dunes are less investigated areas from the terricolous lichens point of view. We explored the effect of seasonal variation and different micro-environmental conditions (aspect) on the metabolic activity of five terricolous lichen species, representing various growth forms, in temperate semiarid grasslands. Populations of Cladonia foliacea, C. furcata, C. pyxidata group, Diploschistes muscorum and Thalloidima physaroides were investigated. Thalli sampled from the south-west and north-east facing microhabitats were studied by chlorophyll fluorescenceanalysisfor 2 years. The present study aimstounderstandhow changingclimate (during the year) and aspect affectphotosyntheticactivityandphotoprotection.Microclimaticdatawerealsocontinuouslyrecordedtorevealthebackground ofthedifferencebetweenmicrohabitattypes.Asaresult,theairtemperature,photosyntheticallyactiveradiation,soiltemperature andvapourpressuredeficitweresignificantlyhigheronsouth-westthanonnorth-eastfacingmicrosites,whererelativehumidity and water content of soil proved to be considerably higher. Higher photosynthetic activity, as well as a higher level of photoprotection,wasdetectedinlichens fromnorth-east-oriented micrositescomparedwithsouth-westpopulations.Inaddition, the difference between sun and shade populations varied seasonally. Since a species-specific response to both aspect and season was detected, we propose to investigate more than one species of different growth forms, to reveal the response of lichens to the changing environment in space and time. Keywords: Terricolous lichens . Aspect . Microclimate . Photosynthetic activity . Photoprotection . Temperate semiarid sandy grassland.
32497Heggenes J., Fagertun C., Odland A. & Bjerketvedt D.K. (2020): Soft resilience: moisture‑dependent lichen elasticity buffer herbivore trampling in cold alpine‑tundra ecosystems. - Polar Biology, 43: 789–799. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00300-020-02685-4.
Herbivores may have extensive top-down effects in open grazing ecosystems, generating vegetation changes by grazing and trampling. Trampling effects are understudied, but may be a major ecological factor. In cold alpine-Arctic ecosystems grazing and trampling by wild tundra reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) may be particularly important in lichen-dominated heaths. Dry lichen are crushed by trampling, and it is estimated that volume loss of lichen trampled may be considerably larger than lichen volume eaten by reindeer. Humidity affects lichen pliability and elasticity, and thereby resilience to trampling. Although crucial for estimating lichen vegetation trampling loss, the relationship between humidity and lichen elasticity is not well known. We collected samples of three lichen species in natura and in factorial experiments tested effects of species, levels of humidity (25, 70, 80, 90 and 100% RH) and temperatures (5 and 25 °C), on resilience to trampling (pressure resistance). The humidity:species interaction was the strongest factor increasing pressure resilience with increasing humidity, whereas temperature had small or no effects. Lichen elasticity increased rapidly above 70% RH. Consequently, when estimating lichen resources and potential trampling loss, number of dry days (less than 70% RH) should be estimated. This also has important ramifications for effects of climate change on the sustainability of reindeer populations. Keywords: Trampling · Lichen · Resilience · Humidity · Elasticity.
32496Hoffman J.R., Ohmura Y. & Lendemer J.C. (2020): Combing for beach broccoli: surveys of the endemic macrolichen Cladonia submitis determines endangered status under IUCN guidelines. - Biodiversity and Conservation, 29: 2439–2456. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-020-01983-x.
The global decline in biodiversity has invigorated the field of conservation biology, leading to investigation of species at risk of extinction in hopes of generating effective conservation strategies. Some highly diverse taxa, such as lichens, have received considerably less conservation attention, compared to plants and vertebrates. Here we add present the results of a comprehensive demographic survey and IUCN risk assessment of Cladonia submitis, a conspicuous macrolichen endemic to the Mid-Atlantic coast of eastern North America, across the core of its range. While it was found at several new locations, we found the species had disappeared from many locations where it once occurred. This decline, in conjunction with its restricted range, supports a status of Endangered under IUCN guidelines. While fire and sea level rise likely pose threats to the species, the most immediate threat is urbanization and alteration of coastal dunes. This evaluation does not consider collections from Japan and Sakhalin Island which have been assigned as C. submitis, due to differences in range, habitat and morphology that suggest this identification is inaccurate. In the absence of a proper taxonomic assessment or phylogenetic study to answer this question of identity, Japanese specimens could not be considered in this assessment. Altogether, this study provides a basis for effective management strategies of this charismatic species whose core range consists of the densely populated region between the American cities of Boston and Washington, D.C. Keywords: Conservation; Dunes; Pine barrens; North America; Japan; Cladoniaceae.
32495McKenzie S.K., Walston R.F. & Allen J.L. (2020): Complete, high-quality genomes from long-read metagenomic sequencing of two wolf lichen thalli reveals enigmatic genome architecture. - Genomics, 112: 3150–3156. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ygeno.2020.06.006.
Fungal genomes display incredible levels of complexity and diversity, and are exceptional study systems for genome evolution. Here we used the Oxford Nanopore MinION sequencing platform to generate high-quality fungal genomes from complex metagenomic samples of lichen thalli. We sequenced two wolf lichens using one flow cell per sample, generating 17.1 Gbps for Letharia lupina and 14.3 Gbps for Letharia columbiana. The resulting L. lupina genome is one of the most contiguous lichen genomes available to date, with 49.2 Mbp contained on 31 contigs. The L. columbiana genome, while less contiguous, is still relatively high quality, with 52.3 Mbp on a total of 161 contigs. Each thallus for both species contained multiple distinct haplotypes, a phenomenon that has rarely been empirically demonstrated. The Oxford Nanopore sequencing technologies are robust and effective when applied to complex symbioses, and have the potential to fundamentally transform our understanding of fungal genetics. Keywords: Long-read sequencing; Metagenomics; Comparative genomics; Lichenized fungi; Symbiosis.
32494García R., Magnin L., Miotti L. & Barrientos G. (2020): Lichens growing on human bone remains: A case study from continental Patagonia (Deseado Massif, Santa Cruz, Argentina). - Journal of King Saud University – Science, 32: 2219–2221. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jksus.2020.02.029.
Lichens are organisms capable of colonizing almost every type of materials, provided they are stable and have sufficient exposure to light. The growing of lichens on bone surface is rare, due to the speed to which this substrate is weathered and destroyed. For the most part, documented cases occur in extreme environments, such as the Arctic and Antarctic, where bone elements remain unaltered for long periods, although they have also been found in other latitudes. The aim of this paper is to describe the taxonomic diversity of the lichens growing on a set of human bones recovered at a looted Late Holocene aboriginal cairn burial (chenque) in southern continental Patagonia (Piedra Museo archaeological locality, Deseado Massif, Santa Cruz, Argentina). In the analyzed bone assemblage (NISP = 56), a total of 63 lichen thalli were recorded. They were assigned to seven different species, except one case that could only be determined at the genus level. This is the first well-described record of lichen flora growing on human bone remains for South America, having important implications for both archaeological and forensic sciences. Keywords: Human bone remains; Psiloparmelia; Archaeology; Hunter-gatherers; Patagonia.
32493Masumoto H. & Degawa Y. (2020): Multiclavula petricola sp. nov. (Cantharellales, Basidiomycota), a new clavarioid and lichenized fungus growing on rocks. - Mycoscience, 61: 155–159. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.myc.2020.03.004.
Multiclavula petricola is described as a new species based on morphological characters, its unique habitat on rocks, and the result of molecular phylogenetic analyses of the sequence of internal transcribed spacer of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. The fruiting bodies of M. petricola were dispersed on wet rock surface with numerous lichenized globules. The globular thallus was organized by several green algal photobiont cells with pyrenoids surrounded by mycobiont hyphae. The phylogenetic analyses indicated that its affiliation was in Multiclavula. The basidiospores of M. petricola germinated on water agar, and the brief descriptions of the colony morphology are also provided. Keywords: Culture; New species; Saxicolous; Taxonomy.
32492Borgato L. & Ertz D. (2020): Cryptothecia aleurodes (Arthoniaceae), a misunderstood species. - Phytotaxa, 449(1): 90–94. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.449.1.9.
Cryptothecia aleurodes was considered to be a widespread, rare tropical lichen having white ascigerous areas and a crustose whitish-grey thallus containing norstictic acid. A revision of its type specimen from Guadeloupe and the study of recent specimens from Martinique proved that the species has been misunderstood. In this paper, Cryptothecia aleurodes is shown to have a K– and C+ red thallus containing notably gyrophoric acid as major secondary metabolite but lacking norstictic acid. A detailed description and illustrations are provided. The species is known with certainty only from the Caribbean and has probably a Neotropical distribution. Previous reports of C. aleurodes from the Seychelles and Thailand are shown to be misidentifications and reports from India are considered dubious. Keywords: Arthoniales, Caribbean, lichens, gyrophoric acid, taxonomy.
32491Bajpai R., Nayaka S. & Upreti D.K. (2018): Extended distribution of lichen genera Heiomasia and Herpothallon in India. - Phytotaxonomy, 17[2017]: 31–38. .
Extended distribution of seven species of Herpothallon: H. echinatum, H. granulare, H. granulosum, H. isidiatum, H. minutum. H. philippinum, and H. sticticum are provided. Earlier these species were known from limited localities in parts of north-east India, coastal West Bengal or Andaman Islands and currently they are also recorded from south India, especially Western Ghats, Madhya Pradesh and Uttarakhand. Present study is based on observation of large number of specimens annotated as 'sterile specimen' and preserved at CSIR-National Botanical Research Institute herbarium (LWG). An updated key to the 45 species of Herpothallon and three species of Heiomasia so far known from the world is also provided. Key Words: Herpothallon; Heiomasia; India; lichenized fungi; Arthoniaceae world key.
32490Kossowska M. & Szczepańska K. (2020): Lichenized and lichenicolous fungi of basaltoid rocks in Lower Silesia (SW Poland). - Herzogia, 33: 9–24. .
We present the results of lichenological studies conducted on 12 natural and anthropogenic outcrops of basaltoid rock within four physiogeographical units (mesoregions) of the Sudety Mountains and their foothills. In total, 92 taxa of lichens and six of lichenicolous fungi were recorded. The basaltoid rocks turned out to be a refuge for lichen biodiversity, including a number of rare and in Poland endangered species, e.g. Caloplaca chlorina, C. subpallida, Lasallia pustulata, Lecanora orosthea, L. pannonica, L. subaurea, Ramalina capitata, Rhizocarpon geminatum, Rimularia furvella and Stereocaulon pileatum. In the four analysed mesoregions, the lichen biota of basaltoid rocks were quite homogeneous with Sørensen-Dice similarity coefficients ranging from 53 to 68 %. However, individual mesoregions differed in the overall number of lichens, species composition and the number of exclusive species. Among the most frequent taxa, there was a distinct group which includes species that are characteristic for either neutral to basic substrata (Lecidella scabra) and mineral- or metal-rich rocks (Caloplaca subpallida, Lecanora rupicola, Lecidea fuscoatra, Rhizocarpon distinctum). These species, together with Trapelia placodioides, were present in all four mesoregions and may be considered typical for Lower Silesian basaltoids. Keywords: Epilithic lichens, biodiversity, Sudety Mountains, Central Europe, basalt, basanite.
32489Knudsen K. & Kocourková J. (2020): Two poorly-known species of European Acarospora (Acarosporaceae). - Herzogia, 33: 1–8. .
The European species Acarospora franconica and Acarospora helvetica are revised. Acarospora franconica is a lowland species of central Europe collected on sandstone and volcanic rock. It is reported as new for the Czech Republic. Acarospora helvetica is a montane species which occurs on basic and intermediate siliceous rock. Acarospora helvetica was described and reported from Switzerland and France by A. H. Magnusson and is reported new for Austria, Greece, Italy and Germany. Lectotypes are designated for A. austriaca, A. franconica and A. helvetica. Acarospora austriaca is a synonym of A. helvetica. Key words: Acarospora rehmii, biodiversity, serpentinite, taxonomy.
32488Urbanavichus G., Vondrák J., Urbanavichene I., Palice Z. & Malíček J. (2020): Lichens and allied non-lichenized fungi of virgin forests in the Caucasus State Nature Biosphere Reserve (Western Caucasus, Russia). - Herzogia, 33: 90–138. .
We report on 659 epiphytic and epixylic species recorded from seven one-hectare plots established along an altitudinal gradient in a virgin forest of the Caucasus State Nature Biosphere Reserve. A total of 564 species are lichens, 61 are lichenicolous fungi and 34 are allied non- or facultatively lichenized fungi. one hundred forty – nine species (116 lichens, 17 lichenicolous and 16 saprophytic fungi) are new to the Northern Caucasus, including 133 species (104 lichens, 15 lichenicolous and 14 saprophytic fungi) that are new to the Caucasus Mountains. Fifty species are reported from Russia for the first time: 37 lichens (Andreiomyces obtusaticus, Bacidina mendax, Biatora aegrefaciens, B. bacidioides, B. chrysanthoides, Biatorella dryophila, Buellia iberica, Cliostomum haematommatis, Endohyalina ericina, Fellhanera christiansenii, Gyalidea minuta, Japewia aliphatica, Lecanora barkmaniana, L. subravida, Lecidea strasseri, Leptogium hibernicum, Lithothelium hyalosporum, L. phaeosporum, L. septemseptatum, Loxospora cristinae, Melanelixia epilosa, Micarea nowakii, M. perparvula, Opegrapha trochodes, Orcularia insperata, Parvoplaca servitiana, Phylloblastia inexpectata, Psoroglaena stigonemoides, Ptychographa xylographoides, Ramonia dictyospora, R. luteola, Rinodina polysporoides, Thelopsis flaveola, Topelia jasonhurii, Verrucaria hegetschweileri, Wadeana minuta, Waynea giraltiae), nine lichenicolous fungi (Arthonia vorsoeensis, Didymocyrtis melanelixiae, Epigloea urosperma, Muellerella polyspora, Phacographa zwackhii, Pronectria pilosa, Rhymbocarpus pubescens, Taeniolella friesii, Unguiculariopsis acrocordiae) and four nonlichenized saprophytic fungi (Cyrtidula major, Karschia cezannei, Kirschsteiniothelia recessa, Pseudotryblidium neesii). The ratio of macrolichens ranges between 26.5 – 40 % and rises with elevation. Lichens with a trentepohlioid photobiont are represented by 15–51 species per plot and their species richness decreases with elevation. The species richness of cyanolichens is substantial in all plots (15–28 species) reflecting a negligible effect of acidification/air pollution. Low species richness and low abundances of nitrophilous species indicate insignificant uptake of nitrogen emissions. Beech and fir are the most preferred phorophytes, but the vast majority of lichen species have low substrate specificity. Species richness per plots ranged between 236 and 379. The highest richness was found in a plot outside the Caucasian Reserve and we recommend its inclusion into the protected area. Key words: Biodiversity, epiphytes, hot-spots, lichen inventory, lichenized and lichenicolous fungi.
32487Hillman A.C. & Nielsen S.E. (2020): Quantification of lichen cover and biomass using field data, airborne laser scanning and high spatial resolution optical data—A case study from a Canadian boreal pine forest. - Forests, 11(6): 682 [14 p.]; doi:10.3390/f11060682. https://doi.org/10.3390/f11060682.
Ground-dwelling macrolichens dominate the forest floor of mature upland pine stands in the boreal forest. Understanding patterns of lichen abundance, as well as environmental characteristics associated with lichen growth, is key to managing lichens as a forage resource for threatened woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou). The spectral signature of light-coloured lichen distinguishes it from green vegetation, potentially allowing for mapping of lichen abundance using multi-spectral imagery, while canopy structure measured from airborne laser scanning (ALS) of forest openings can indirectly map lichen habitat. Here, we test the use of high-resolution KOMPSAT (Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite-3) imagery (280 cm resolution) and forest structural characteristics derived from ALS to predict lichen biomass in an upland jack pine forest in Northeastern Alberta, Canada. We quantified in the field lichen abundance (cover and biomass) in mature jack pine stands across low, moderate, and high canopy cover. We then used generalized linear models to relate lichen abundance to spectral data from KOMPSAT and structural metrics from ALS. Model selection suggested that lichen abundance was best predicted by canopy cover (ALS points > 1.37 m) and to a lesser extent blue spectral data from KOMPSAT. Lichen biomass was low at plots with high canopy cover (98.96 g/m2), while almost doubling for plots with low canopy cover (186.30 g/m2). Overall the model fit predicting lichen biomass was good (R2 c = 0.35), with maps predicting lichen biomass from spectral and structural data illustrating strong spatial variations. High-resolution mapping of ground lichen can provide information on lichen abundance that can be of value for management of forage resources for woodland caribou. We suggest that this approach could be used to map lichen biomass for other regions. Keywords: lichen; biomass; pine; remote sensing; woodland caribou.
32486Sofron J. (1981): Přirozené smrčiny západních a jihozápadních Čech. - Studie ČSAV, 1981/7: 1–127. .
Natural spruce forests in W and SW Bohemia, Czech Republic; several lichens recorded in phytosociological relevés.
32485Pišút I. (1990): Zur Verbreitung einiger Flechten in Mitteleuropa. - Biológia, Bratislava, 45: 685−692. .
Preparing the Czechoslovak Red Book of endangered plants, unknown localities of 20 rare, overlooked or phytogeographicaly significant lichens from Czechoslovakia, Poland and Ukraine were stated in some Czechoslovak botanical collections. The results are presented together with a few new actual findings. Key words: lichens, phytogeography, Central Europe, Red book of endangered plants.
32484Lisická E. (1981): O výskyte lišajníka Cyphelium sessile (Pers. ex Mérat) Trevis. v Československu. Über das Vorkommen der Flechtenart Cyphelium sessile (Pers. ex Mérat) Trevis. in der Tschechoslowakei. - Zprávy Československé Botanické Společnosti, Praha, 16: 58−60. .
Acolium sessile
32483Mishra G.K., Nayaka S., Upreti D.K. & Kondratyuk S.Y. (2018): Species and chemical diversity in lichen family Teloschistaceae, and their bioprospecting potential: A review in Indian context. - Cryptogam Biodiversity and Assessment, 3(2): 8–22. .
Teloschistaceae is one of the largest families of lichenized fungi in the world with more than a thousand species. In India, the family is represented by 111 species under 35 genera. Most of the species of the family are bright yellow, orange or red due to the presence of anthraquinone pigments. Parietin is the most common pigment found in the family that acts as a light screening agent for the lichen. In this article, both species and chemical diversity within Teloschistaceae occurring in India are discussed. Further, the utilization of some species of the family such as Teloschistes flavicans, Massjukiella candelaria, Rusavskia elegans, Oxneria huculica, and Xanthoria parietina in bioprospection studies are documented.
32482van der Kolk H.-J. (2020): Acarospora subrufula (randsteenschubje) nieuw in Nederland [Acarospora subrufula new in the Netherlands]. - Buxbaumiella, 118: 4–5. .
[in Dutch with English abstract:] Acarospora subrufula was found for the first time in the Netherlands on a south exposed granite stone on a former sea dike. Acarospora subrufula is accompanied by other lichens that are rare in the Netherlands and are typical for cracks in granite: Sarcogyne clavus and Sarcogyne privigna. The location is more than 500 km away from the nearest growth sites of Acarospora subrufula in Southwest England and Northwest France.
32481van der Kolk H.-J. (2020): Laetisaria lichenicola, Stigmidium squamariae en Xenonectriella subimperspicua nieuw in Nederland [Laetisaria lichenicola, Stigmidium squamariae and Xenonectriella subimperspicua new in the Netherlands]. - Buxbaumiella, 118: 1–4. .
[in Dutch with English abstract:] The lichenicolous fungi Laetisaria lichenicola, Stigmidium squamariae and Xenonectriella subimperspicua are reported for the first time in the Netherlands. Laetisaria lichenicola is likely an overlooked species growing on Physcia tenella and Physcia adscendens. Stigmidium squamariae forms minute perithecia and was found at four locations on the apothecia of Lecanora muralis. Xenonectriella subimperspicua was found at one location on bleached lobes of Parmelia saxatilis.
32480Magnes M., Kirschner P., Janišová M., Mayrhofer H., Berg C., Mora A., Afif E., Willner W., Belonovskaya E., Berastegi A., Cancellieri L., García-Mijangos I., Guarino R., Kuzemko A., Mašić E., Rötzer H., Stanišić M., Vynokurov D., Dembicz I., Biurrun I. & Dengler J. (2020): On the trails of Josias Braun-Blanquet – changes in the grasslands of the inneralpine dry valleys during the last 70 years. First results from the 11th EDGG Field Workshop in Austria. - Palaearctic Grasslands, 45: 34–58. DOI: 10.21570/EDGG.PG.45.34-58.
The 11th EDGG Field Workshop was held from 6 to 13 July 2018 in Austria. Its aim was to revisit dry grasslands in the inneral-pine dry valleys of Austria that were investigated in the late 1950s by Braun-Blanquet and to collect high-quality biodiversity data from these. Sampling was carried out in the Styrian Mur Valley, the Virgen Valley in East Tyrol, the Upper Inn Valley in the Austrian Eastern Alps, and Griffen in Carinthia. In total, we sampled 15 EDGG biodiversity plots and 37 additional 10 m2 plots. Butterfly data were record-ed in four biodiversity plots and two additional plots. We found maximum richness values of 49, 68 and 95 vascular plant species on 1, 10 and 100 m², while the corresponding values for the complete terrestrial vegetation were 56, 73 and 106 species. Maximum butterfly richness was 19, but it was in general quite low, and generalists dominated. Some of the areas originally studied by Braun-Blanquet were no longer dry grasslands and only a few sites remained largely unchanged. Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) showed profound changes between the old (1950s and 1980s) and our current plots. Without grazing or other human land management activities, only very small cores of rocky dry grassland could survive in the comparatively humid Austrian inneralpine valleys. Finally, the sampled data raise questions about the syntaxonomic position of some of the grasslands, which needs to be addressed in a more comprehensive study, which is planned as the next step. Keywords: Austria; biodiversity; bryophyte; butterfly; dry grassland; Eurasian Dry Grassland Group (EDGG); inneralpine dry valley; lichen; nested plot; species richness; syntaxonomy; vascular plant.
32479Kondratyuk S.Y., Lőkös L., Farkas E., Kärnefelt I., Thell A., Yamamoto Y. & Hur J.-S. (2020): Three new genera of the Teloschistaceae proved by three gene phylogeny. - Acta Botanica Hungarica, 62: 109–136. https://doi.org/10.1556/034.62.2020.1-2.7 .
Three new for science genera, i.e.: Erichansenia S. Y. Kondr., Kärnefelt et A. Thell for the ‘Caloplaca’ epithallina group of the subfamily Xanthorioideae, as well as Lendemeriella S. Y. Kondr. for the Caloplaca reptans group, and Pisutiella S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et E. Farkas for the Caloplaca conversa group of the subfamily Caloplacoideae of the Teloschistaceae, are described on the basis of results of the three gene phylogeny of the Teloschistaceae based on nrITS, nrLSU and mtSSU sequences. Twenty-seven new combinations, i.e.: Erichansenia epithallina (for Caloplaca epithallina Lynge), Erichansenia cryodesertorum (for Shackletonia cryodesertorum Garrido-Ben., Søchting et Pérez-Ort.), Erichansenia sauronii (for Caloplaca sauronii Søchting et Øvstedal), Fauriea mandshuriaensis (for Caloplaca mandshuriaensis S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur), Fauriea trassii (for Caloplaca trassii Galanina et S. Y. Kondr.), Lendemeriella borealis (for Lecanora pyracea f. borealis Vain.), Lendemeriella dakotensis (for Caloplaca dakotensis Wetmore), Lendemeriella exsecuta (for Lecanora exsecuta Nyl.), Lendemeriella lucifuga (for Caloplaca lucifuga G. Thor), Lendemeriella nivalis (for Zeora nivalis Körb.), Lendemeriella reptans (for Caloplaca reptans Lendemer et B. P. Hodk.), Lendemeriella sorocarpa (for Placodium sorocarpum Vain.), Lendemeriella tornoensis (for Caloplaca tornoensis H. Magn.), Pisutiella congrediens (for Lecanora congrediens Nyl.), Pisutiella conversa (for Callopisma conversum Kremp.), Pisutiella furax (for Caloplaca furax Egea et Llimona), Pisutiella grimmiae (for Lecanora grimmiae Nyl.), Pisutiella ivanpisutii (for Caloplaca ivanpisutii S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et Hur), Pisutiella phaeothamnos (for Caloplaca phaeothamnos K. Kalb et J. Poelt), Pyrenodesmia aetnensis (for Caloplaca aetnensis B. de Lesd.), Pyrenodesmia albolutescens (for Lecanora albolutescens Nyl.), Pyrenodesmia aractina (for Parmelia aractina Fr.), Pyrenodesmia atroflava (for Lecidea atroflava Turner), Pyrenodesmia bicolor (for Caloplaca bicolor H. Magn.), Pyrenodesmia molariformis (for Caloplaca molariformis Frolov, Vondrák, Nadyeina et Khodos.), Pyrenodesmia neotaurica (for Caloplaca neotaurica Vondrák, Khodos., Arup et Søchting), Pyrenodesmia peliophylla (for Placodium peliophyllum Tuck.) are proposed based on results from a combined phylogenetic analysis using nrITS, nrLSU and mtSSU gene sequences. Key words: Caloplaca, Caloplacoideae, Erichansenia, Lendemeriella, Pisutiella, Shackletonia, Xanthorioideae.
32478 KondratyukS.Y., Upreti D.K., Mishra G.K., Nayaka S., Ingle K.K., Orlov O.O., Kondratiuk A.S., Lőkös L., Farkas E., Woo J.-J. & Hur J.-S. (2020): New and noteworthy lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi 10. - Acta Botanica Hungarica, 62: 69–108. https://doi.org/10.1556/034.62.2020.1-2.6.
Eight species, new for science, i.e.: Lobothallia gangwondoana S. Y. Kondr., J.-J. Woo et J.-S. Hur and Phyllopsora dodongensis S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur from South Korea, Eastern Asia, Ioplaca rinodinoides S. Y. Kondr., K. K. Ingle, D. K. Upreti et S. Nayaka, Letrouitia assamana S. Y. Kondr., G. K. Mishra et D. K. Upreti, and Rusavskia indochinensis S. Y. Kondr., D. K. Upreti et S. Nayaka from India and China, South Asia, Caloplaca orloviana S. Y. Kondr. and Rusavskia drevlyanica S. Y. Kondr. et O. O. Orlov from Ukraine, Eastern Europe, as well as Xanthoria ibizaensis S. Y. Kondr. et A. S. Kondr. from Ibiza Island, Spain, Mediterranean Europe, are described, illustrated and compared with closely related taxa. Fominiella tenerifensis S. Y. Kondr., Kärnefelt, A. Thell et Feuerer is for the first time recorded from Mediterranean Europe, Huriella loekoesiana S. Y. Kondr. et Upreti is provided from Russia for the first time, and H. pohangensis S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur for the first time from China, Phoma candelariellae Z. Kocakaya et Halıcı is new to Ukraine, and Staurothele frustulenta Vain. is recorded from the Forest Zone of Ukraine for the first time. Twelve new combinations, i.e.: Bryostigma apotheciorum (for Sphaeria apotheciorum A. Massal.), Bryostigma biatoricola (for Arthonia biatoricola Ihlen et Owe-Larss.), Bryostigma dokdoense (for Arthonia dokdoensis S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös, B. G. Lee, J.-J. Woo et J.-S. Hur), Bryostigma epiphyscium (for Arthonia epiphyscia Nyl.), Bryostigma lobariellae (for Arthonia lobariellae Etayo), Bryostigma lapidicola (for Lecidea lapidicola Taylor), Bryostigma molendoi (for Tichothecium molendoi Heufl. ex Arnold), Bryostigma neglectulum (for Arthonia neglectula Nyl.), Bryostigma parietinarium (for Arthonia parietinaria Hafellner et Fleischhacker), Bryostigma peltigerinum (for Arthonia vagans var. peltigerina Almq.), Bryostigma phaeophysciae (for Arthonia phaeophysciae Grube et Matzer), Bryostigma stereocaulinum (for Arthonia nephromiaria var. stereocaulina Ohlert), are proposed based on results of combined phylogenetic analysis based on mtSSU and RPB2 gene sequences. Thirty-one new combinations for members of the genus Polyozosia (i.e.: Polyozosia actophila (for Lecanora actophila Wedd.), Polyozosia agardhiana (for Lecanora agardhiana Ach.), Polyozosia altunica (for Myriolecis altunica R. Mamut et A. Abbas), Polyozosia antiqua (for Lecanora antiqua J. R. Laundon), Polyozosia bandolensis (for Lecanora bandolensis B. de Lesd.), Polyozosia behringii (for Lecanora behringii Nyl.), Polyozosia caesioalutacea (for Lecanora caesioalutacea H. Magn.), Polyozosia carlottiana (for Lecanora carlottiana C. J. Lewis et Śliwa), Polyozosia congesta (for Lecanora congesta Clauzade et Vězda), Polyozosia eurycarpa (for Lecanora eurycarpa Poelt, Leuckert et Cl. Roux), Polyozosia expectans (Lecanora expectans Darb.), Polyozosia flowersiana (Lecanora flowersiana H. Magn.), Polyozosia fugiens (for Lecanora fugiens Nyl.), Polyozosia invadens (for Lecanora invadens H. Magn.), Polyozosia juniperina (for Lecanora juniperina Śliwa), Polyozosia latzelii (for Lecanora latzelii Zahlbr.), Polyozosia liguriensis (for Lecanora liguriensis B. de Lesd.), Polyozosia massei (for Myriolecis massei M. Bertrand et J.-Y. Monnat), Polyozosia mons-nivis (for Lecanora mons-nivis Darb.), Polyozosia oyensis (for Lecanora oyensis M.-P. Bertrand et Cl. Roux), Polyozosia percrenata (for Lecanora percrenata H. Magn.), Polyozosia persimilis (for Lecanora hagenii subsp. persimilis Th. Fr.), Polyozosia poeltiana (for Lecanora poeltiana Clauzade et Cl. Roux), Polyozosia prominens (for Lecanora prominens Clauzade et Vězda), Polyozosia prophetae-eliae (for Lecanora prophetae-eliae Sipman), Polyozosia salina (for Lecanora salina H. Magn.), Polyozosia schofieldii (for Lecanora schofieldii Brodo), Polyozosia sverdrupiana (for Lecanora sverdrupiana Øvstedal), Polyozosia torrida (for Lecanora torrida Vain.), Polyozosia wetmorei (for Lecanora wetmorei Śliwa), Polyozosia zosterae (for Lecanora subfusca ? zosterae Ach.)) are proposed.
32477Kondratiuk T.O., Beregova T.V., Parnikoza I.Yu., Kondratyuk S.Y. & Thell A. (2020): Microscopic fungi of lithobiont communities of Argentine Islands Region: Data from the 22nd Ukrainian Antarctic Expedition. - Acta Botanica Hungarica, 62: 49–68. https://doi.org/10.1556/034.62.2020.1-2.5.
The identification of the diversity of microscopic fungi of lithobiont communities of the Argentine Islands in specimens collected during the 22nd Ukrainian Antarctic Expedition was the purpose of this work. Samples of rock, soil, mosses and lichens of rock micro-habitats of “Crustose lichen sub-formation and fruticose lichen and moss cushion sub-formation” were used in the work. These samples were used for extracting and cultivation of filamentous fungi on dense nutrient media. Determination of physiological and biochemical characteristics and identification of yeast-like fungi were performed using a microbiological analyser ‘Vitek-2’ (‘Bio Merieux’, France). Cultivation of microorganisms was carried out at temperatures from +2 to +37 °C. In results cultures of microscopic fungi of Zygomycota (Mucor circinelloides), Ascomycota (species of the genera cf. Thelebolus, Talaromyces), representatives of the Anamorphic fungi group (Geomyces pannorum, species of the genera Alternaria, Acremonium, Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Cladosporium) were isolated from Antarctic samples. Microscopic fungi Penicillium spp. were dominated after the frequency in the studied samples (54.5%). Rhodotorula rubra and Candida sp. among isolated yeast fungi, and dark pigmented fungi represented by Aureobasidium pullulans and Exophiala spp. were identified. The biological properties of a number of isolated fungi (the potential ability to synthesise important biologically active substances: melanins, carotenoids, lipids) are characterised. Mycobiota of rock communities of Argentine Islands is rich on filamentous and yeast fungi similarly to other regions of Antarctica. A number of fungi investigated are potentially able to synthesise biologically active substances. The dark pigmented species of the genera Cladosporium, Exophiala, Aureobasidium pullulans, capable of melanin synthesis; ‘red’ yeast Rhodotorula rubra (carotenoid producers and resistant to toxic metals); Mucor circinelloides and Geomyces pannorum, lipid producers, are among these fungi. Yeast-like fungi assimilated a wide range of carbohydrates, which will allow them to be further used for cultivation in laboratory and process conditions. The collection of technologically promising strains of microorganisms, part of the Culture Collection of Fungi at Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv (Ukraine), is updated with isolated species (strains) of filamentous fungi and yeast – potential producers of biologically active substances, obtained within this study. Key words: Argentine Islands, lithobiont communities, microscopic fungi, species diversity.
32476Farkas E., Biró B., Szabó K., Veres K., Csintalan Zs. & Engel R. (2020): The amount of lichen secondary metabolites in Cladonia foliacea (Cladoniaceae, lichenised Ascomycota). - Acta Botanica Hungarica, 62: 33–48. https://doi.org/10.1556/034.62.2020.1-2.4 .
The terricolous species Cladonia foliacea (Cladoniaceae, lichenised Ascomycota) widely distributed in open, dry lowland steppe and rocky mountain grassland vegetation in Europe was chosen as a potential test organism for ecological experiments, since their thalli are producing cortical solar radiation-protective and UV screening pigment dibenzofuran usnic acid and medullary secondary substance depsidone fumarprotocetraric acid. Significant seasonal differences were found in the amounts of lichen secondary metabolites analysed by HPTLC and HPLC-PDA between summer and winter collected thalli in sandy grassland area in Hungary. The concentrations of usnic acid varied between 7.34 and 15.52 mg/g in summer collected samples and 13.90 and 21.61 mg/g in winter collected ones. A comparable amount (11.61±0.29 mg/g) was measured in pulverised samples. The concentrations of fumarprotocetraric acid varied between 0.60 and 3.01 mg/g in summer collected samples and 2.26 and 5.81 mg/g in winter collected thalli. A comparable amount (2.45±0.21 mg/g) was found in pulverised samples. The range of concentration values is comparable with data known from lichens. A higher amount of usnic acid is produced in winter probably to ensure sufficient protection also for summer. The fumarprotocetraric acid content of the medulla might contribute to the solar irradiation reflecting role of the pale lower surface lobes turning upwards in dry condition. Key words: acetone rinsing, chlorolichens, fumarprotocetraric acid, high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector (HPLC-PDA), seasonal differences, usnic acid.
32475Farkas E. (2020): Notes and schedae to Lichenes Delicati Exsiccati Editae in memoriam Antonín Vězda (1920–2008), Fasc. 5. - Acta Botanica Hungarica, 62: 23–32. https://doi.org/10.1556/034.62.2020.1-2.3.
Lichenes Delicati Exsiccati Editae of little, fine, special lichens is edited in honour of Antonín Vězda (1920–2008). The fifth fascicle of the exsiccate is consisted of 20 species of lichens and lichenicolous fungi and distributed to 12 lichen herbaria of the world. Collectors are K. Buaruang, D. Kalb, K. Kalb, G. E. Lee, L. Lőkös, A. Mertens, W. Polyiam, T. Pócs, W. Saipunkaew, D. Tang, N. Varga and E. Farkas. Key words: exsiccate, lichenicolous fungi, lichens.
32474Navarro-Rosinés P. (1992): Els líquens i els fongs liquenícoles dels substrats carbonatats de Catalunya meridional. - Doctoral thesis, Universitat de Barcelona, Facultat de Biologia, Departament de Biologia Vegetal, 459 pp. http://www.tdx.cat/TDX-0408108-133724.
Spain
32473任强 张丽花 [Ren Q. & Zhang L.-H.] (2018): 中国北方野粮衣属地衣分类学研究 [Taxonomic studies on the genus Circinaria in northern China]. - Mycosystema, 37(7): 865–880. DOI: 10.13346/j.mycosystema.180044.
[in Chinese with English abstract: ] The present studies of the genus Circinaria in northern China were based on morphological, chemical and ecological characters. More than 400 specimens collected from eleven provinces in northern China were examined. Twelve species are recognized. Six new combinations in the genus Circinaria are presented. Aspicilia maculata f. subochracea is upgraded to species level. Circinaria hispida and C. schafeevii are new records to China. Lecanora tortuosa var. ferruginea, L. tortuosa var. simplicior and L. tortuosa var. perfecta are synonymized with Circinaria tortuosa. Illustrations and an identification key to the species known in Northern China are provided. Key words: Megasporaceae, Ascomycota, Pertusariales, Lecanoromycetes.
32472Masson D. & Magain N. (2020): Ascospore size declines with elevation in two tropical parmelioid lichens. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 65(1): 227–237. https://doi.org/10.35535/pfsyst-2020-0018.
Spore size and shape are biometric parameters frequently used in lichen taxonomy, especially in species characterization. However, the influence of environmental factors on the intraspecific variability of these characters remains very little investigated in lichenology. The elevational variation in spore length, width, volume and shape (length/ width ratio) of two species of the genus Hypotrachyna (H. aff. damaziana et H. altorum) occurring on Réunion Island (Indian Ocean) were studied. Spore length, width and volume significantly decrease with elevation in H. aff. damaziana, and spore width and volume also significantly decrease with elevation in H. altorum. There is no relation between spore shape and elevation in either of the two species. A significant correlation was further observed between the intra-individual variability in spore size of H. aff. damaziana and elevation. For this species, inter-individual variability in spore volume is also correlated with mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation of the sampling locations, and spore width and length are correlated with mean annual temperature. Key words: Ascomycota, Parmeliaceae, Hypotrachyna, Réunion Island, spore morphometry, intraspecific variation.
32471Goward T. & Myllys L. (2020): Gowardia zebrina sp. nov., a new species in a little-known genus of arctic-alpine lichens (Parmeliaceae). - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 65(1): 219–226. .
The fruticose lichen genus Gowardia (Parmeliaceae) was recently segregated from Alectoria based on phylogeny, morphology, secondary chemistry, ecology and distribution. As currently circumscribed, Gowardia comprises two wide-ranging species of arctic-alpine regions. Here we describe a third species, G. zebrina sp. nov., apparently endemic to subalpine regions in mountainous northwestern North America. Gowardia zebrina differs from other species in the genus by its combined subpendent habit, uniformly capillary branches, predominantly isotomic branching, pale-and-dark banding of the terminal branches, and epiphytic ecology. Morphological examination of North American herbarium specimens filed under A. nigricans suggests the existence of several additional undescribed species of Gowardia. A brief overview of morphological diversity in these species is given, shedding new light on the question of whether Gowardia should be subsumed under Alectoria, as some have suggested, or is more appropriately recognized as a distinct genus. Key words: Alectoria, Alpine, British Columbia, Gowardia, lichen, taxonomy.
32470Miadlikowska J., Magain N., Buck W.R., Vargas Castillo R., Barlow G.T., Pardo-De la Hoz C.J., LaGreca S. & Lutzoni F. (2020): Peltigera hydrophila (Lecanoromycetes, Ascomycota), a new semi-aquatic cyanolichen species from Chile. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 65(1): 210–218. https://doi.org/10.35535/pfsyst-2020-0016.
Peltigera hydrophila, a new species from Chile tentatively distinguished based on phylogenetic evidence but not yet named, is formally described here. Morphological differences (e.g., non-tomentose thallus) and habitat preferences (semi-aquatic) corroborate molecular and phylogenetic distinctiveness of this early diverging lineage in section Peltigera. Due to overlapping ecological ranges, P. hydrophila shares some morphological traits with aquatic species from the phylogenetically unrelated section Hydrothyriae. Key words: cyanolichen, cyanobiont, Nostoc, mycobiont, symbiosis, taxonomy.
32469Kistenich S., Bendiksby M., Weerakoon G. & Timdal E. (2020): A revision of the genus Aciculopsora (Ramalinaceae), with the description of one new species and one new combination. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 65(1): 200–209. https://doi.org/10.35535/pfsyst-2020-0015.
The tropical lichen genus Aciculopsora is still very poorly collected. Only eleven collections are known worldwide. We present a molecular phylogenetic tree based on mtSSU and nrITS sequence data from six Aciculopsora specimens. Our results corroborate the monophyly of the genus. We conclude that Aciculopsora consists of three species: A. cinerea, A. longispora comb. nov. (≡ Phyllopsora longispora, = A. salmonea syn. nov.) and A. srilankensis sp. nov. Aciculopsora cinerea occurs in Brazil, A. longispora in Argentina, Costa Rica, Ecuador, and Kenya, and A. srilankensis in Sri Lanka. As such, the genus is new for the Paleotropics, Argentina and Ecuador. Key words: Argentina, Ecuador, Galapagos, Phyllopsora, rainforest, Sri Lanka, taxonomy, tropics.
32468Sparrius L., Tehler A. & Kalb K. (2020): New species of Enterographa and Fulvophyton from Malaysia and Mexico. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 65(1): 185–188. https://doi.org/10.35535/pfsyst-2020-0013.
A new species of Enterographa (Arthoniales: Roccellaceae) is described. E. kinabaluensis from Kota Kinabalu is characterized by the presence of punctiform soralia and norstictic acid. The saxicolous Fulvophyton serusiauxii is described from coastal Mexico and differs from the corticolous F. klementii in having much smaller ascospores. Key words: taxonomy, Roccellaceae, Opegraphaceae, Roccellographaceae, Arthoniales.
32467Magain N., Goffinet B., Simon A., Seelan J.S.S., Medeiros I.D., Lutzoni F. & Miadlikowska J. (2020): Peltigera serusiauxii (Lecanoromycetes, Ascomycota), a new species from Papua New Guinea and Malaysia. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 65(1): 139–146. https://doi.org/10.35535/pfsyst-2020-0009.
Peltigera serusiauxii is proposed here as a new species from Papua New Guinea and Sabah, northern Borneo (Malaysia). The species belongs to the polydactyloid clade of section Polydactylon. Because of its large thalli with a glabrous upper surface, this species was previously identified as P. dolichorhiza, but it differs by its polydactylon-type lower surface and the high amount of dolichorrhizin. It appears to be a strict specialist in its association with Nostoc phylogroup IX throughout its known distribution. This is one of many undescribed species remaining to be formally described within the genus Peltigera, especially in Asia and Australasia. Key words: Fungi, lichens, Nostoc, phylogeny, rbcLX, systematics.
32466Lebreton E. & Aptroot A. (2020): Enterographa serusiauxii, a new foliicolous lichen species from Guadeloupe. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 65(1): 131–133. https://doi.org/10.35535/pfsyst-2020-0007.
The new species Enterographa serusiauxii (crustose Roccellaceae, lichenized Ascomycetes) is described from Guadeloupe. It grows abundantly on leaves of Garcinia humilis and Calophyllum calaba in coastal vegetation. It was already collected in the previous century by Le Gallo, but these specimens were only identified recently by us. In 2019 it was recollected in the type locality by the first author. Key words: Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles, foliicolous, Roccellaceae, Enterographa.
32465Sipman H.J.M. & Aptroot A. (2020): Ikaeria serusiauxii, a new Caloplaca-like lichen from Macaronesia and mainland Portugal, with a lichen checklist for Porto Santo. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 65(1): 120–130. https://doi.org/10.35535/pfsyst-2020-0006.
The new species Ikaeria serusiauxii (Teloschistaceae, lichenized Ascomycetes) is described from the Madeira Archipelago, Canary Islands and continental Portugal. It is a crustose lichen on twigs and branches of trees and shrubs in xerophytic maritime vegetation. Superficially it is similar to Caloplaca cerina and C. haematites, from which it differs by the often black apothecium margin, very thick spore septa, black pycnidium ostioles, and the presence of the pigment Cinereorufa-green instead of Sedifolia-grey. ITS sequences suggest Ikaeria aurantiellina (syn. Caloplaca aegatica) as the closest relative. Added is a preliminary lichen checklist for Porto Santo (Madeira Archipelago, Macaronesia). Key words: Taxonomy, lichens, diversity, island biology.
32464Moncada B., Lücking R. & Lumbsch H.T. (2020): Rewriting the evolutionary history of the lichen genus Sticta (Ascomycota: Peltigeraceae subfam. Lobarioideae) in the Hawaiian islands. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 65(1): 95–119. https://doi.org/10.35535/pfsyst-2020-0005.
Hawaiian lichen species have been thought to be widespread, with low endemism. Nine species of the genus Sticta (Peltigeraceae subfamily Lobarioideae) have previously been reported for Hawaii, all supposedly cosmopolitan or Pantropical or widespread in the Paleotropics except for the putative endemic S. plumbicolor. This study is the first one employing a molecular phylogenetic approach to Hawaiian Sticta, elucidating the relationships of these conspicuous and ecologically important macrolichens. We sequenced the ITS fungal barcoding locus and used a maximum likelihood approach to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships of Hawaiian Sticta from a large dataset of more than 200 species. Thirteen species were identified among Hawaiian Sticta, four more than previously recorded. Of these, seven are new to science and putatively endemic to Hawaii. Only four previously reported species were confirmed: S. fuliginosa, S. limbata, S. plumbicolor and S. tomentosa. Together with S. plumbicolor and S. scabrosa subsp. hawaiiensis (described elsewhere), putative endemism in Hawaiian Sticta is estimated at 69%. The 13 species correspond to nine or ten colonization events, predominantly from the Australasian realm. Thus, the evolutionary history of Sticta lichens in the Hawaiian archipelago is very different from what has been assumed, and matches that of other organisms in many aspects. The seven new species, all with cyanobacterial photobionts, are Sticta acyphellata, a small, stipitate Sticta with isidia and lacking cyphellae; S. antoniana, a mid-sized Sticta with abundant marginal lobules, apothecia, and a thick, grey-brown lower tomentum ending abruptly to leave a bare marginal zone; S. emmanueliana, a small, shortly stipitate Sticta forming small lobes with marginal isidia and black cilia; S. flynnii, a small, shortly stipitate Sticta with largely unbranched thallus with marginal isidia and a veined underside producing large, irregular cyphellae; S. hawaiiensis, a small Sticta with a suborbicular thallus with laminal isidia, conspicuous white cilia, and papillae on the membrane of the cyphellae; S. smithii, a small, stipitate Sticta with marginal, flattened isidia and small cyphellae; and S. waikamoi, a small to mid-sized Sticta with a much-branched thallus with slightly canaliculate lobes and marginal, dark isidia, and a thick, dark brown lower tomentum with strongly contrasting whitish cyphellae. Key words: Hawaiian archipelago, endemism, island biogeography.
32463Simon A., Lücking R., Moncada B., Mercado-Díaz J.A., Bungartz F., Cáceres M.E.S., Gumboski E.L., Martins S.M.A., Spielmann A., Parker D. & Goffinet B. (2020): Emmanuelia, a new genus of lobarioid lichen-forming fungi (Ascomycota: Peltigerales): phylogeny and synopsis of accepted species. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 65(1): 79–64. https://doi.org/10.35535/pfsyst-2020-0004.
The former family Lobariaceae, now included in Peltigeraceae as subfamily Lobarioideae, has undergone substantial changes in its generic classification in recent years, based on phylogenetic inferences highlighting the polyphyly of the speciose genera Lobaria, Pseudocyphellaria and Sticta. Here we introduce the new genus Emmanuelia, named in honor of Prof. Emmanuël Sérusiaux for his extensive work on the Peltigerales. Emmanuelia currently comprises twelve species. It is superficially similar to the lobarioid genus Ricasolia, but differs by its apothecia, rimmed by overarching and often crenulate to lobulate margins, with the parathecium (proper excipulum) and the amphithecium (thalline excipulum formed by the thallus cortex) apically separated and of a different structure. Also, ascospore dimensions and shape differ between the two genera, with the ascospores of Emmanuelia being longer and narrower. Molecular phylogenetic analyses using DNA nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) and the small subunit of mitochondrial ribosomal DNA (mtSSU) confirm that Emmanuelia belongs to the Lobaria s.lat. clade and forms a monophyletic group sister to the lineage consisting of Dendriscosticta, Lobariella and Yoshimuriella. None of the available generic names of lobarioid lichens can be applied to this group, and consequently a new name is proposed for this new genus, which is typified with E. ravenelii comb. nov. Eleven other species are transferred to Emmanuelia: E. americana comb. nov., E. conformis comb. nov., E. cuprea comb. nov., E. elaeodes comb. nov., E. erosa comb. nov., E. excisa comb. nov., E. lobulifera comb. nov., E. ornata comb. nov., E. patinifera comb. nov., E. pseudolivacea comb. nov. and E. tenuis comb. nov. The genus is represented in North America by three species, including E. lobulifera, which is resurrected from synonymy with E. (Lobaria) tenuis, a South American species, and E. ornata, whose populations were previously treated under E. (Lobaria) ravenelii. Key words: Brazil, Dendriscocaulon, Lobarioideae, Neotropics, Peltigeraceae, Ricasolia, taxonomy, USA.
32462Diederich P. & Ertz D. (2020): First checklist of lichens and lichenicolous fungi from Mauritius, with phylogenetic analyses and description of new taxa. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 65(1): 13–75. https://doi.org/10.35535/pfsyst-2020-0003.
A first checklist of the lichens and lichenicolous fungi from the Republic of Mauritius is presented. It is based on older literature reports and on collections made by the authors, mainly in 2016, from the isles of Mauritius and Rodrigues. A total of 216 species are accepted, either as relevant specimens have recently been critically studied or revised by lichen taxonomists, or as we have collected and identified such material ourselves. A further 226 taxa have been reported from Mauritius but are not accepted here, either as no relevant herbarium material has recently been examined, or as previous records are dubious or erroneous; 111 taxa have been newly described from Mauritius in the past, plus 12 of which the Mauritian origin is dubious. Here we report 56 taxa as new for the island of Mauritius, and we describe two new genera (Baidera, Serusiauxia) and eight new species (Baidera mauritiana, Biatoropsis millanesiana, Chapsa alletii, Collemopsidium mauritiae, Nyungwea pyneei, Porina florensii, Pyrenula muriciliata, Serusiauxia inexpectata). Two new combinations are proposed: Loekoesia apostatica (≡ Lecanora apostatica) and Sticta flavireagens (≡ Stictina flavireagens). Phylogenetic analyses are presented for species of Arthoniales, Biatoropsis, Porinaceae, Pyrenulaceae and Teloschistales. Key words: Arthoniales, Biatoropsis, Indian Ocean, Porinaceae, Pyrenulaceae, Rodrigues, Teloschistales.
32461Singh P. & Singh K. (2020): New combinations and synonyms in Graphidaceae (lichenized Ascomycota) from India. - Lichenologist, 52(3): 251-256. doi:10.1017/S0024282920000043.
Graphidaceae, the largest crustose family within Ostropales com- prising more than 2000 species (Lücking et al. 2016), is widely dis- tributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Since 2002, the taxonomy of the family has undergone major changes and, as a result, a large number of new genera have been established and several old genera resurrected based mainly on molecular stud- ies (Staiger et al. 2006; Rivas Plata et al. 2012, 2013; Lücking et al. 2013; Lumbsch et al. 2014). Graphidaceae is now well circum- scribed in terms of generic classification and species delimitation. In earlier publications, Singh & Swarnlatha (2009) and Singh & Singh (2017a) made several new combinations for Indian taxa. In the present paper a further five new combinations are proposed which are the result of our continuing study on Indian graphidioid Graphidaceae and examination of more type specimens preserved at Agarkar Research Institute, Pune, India (AMH), Botanical Survey of India, Allahabad (BSA), the Natural History Museum, London (BM), Conservatorie et Jardin botaniques de la Ville de Genève (G), Finnish Museum of Natural History, University of Helsinki, Finland (H-NYL), and National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow (LWG). The new combinations include: Carbacanthographis garoana, Diorygma occultum, Fissurina leuco- carpoides, F. parvicarpa and Pallidogramme canarensis. In addition, seven names are synonymized viz. Diorygma indicum under D. aeolum, Fissurina shivamoggensis under F. leucocarpoides, Graphis andamanica, G. longissima and G. sitapurensis to G. flavovirens, G. kollaimalaiensis under G nigrocarpa, and Phaeographina naka- nishii under Schistophoron tenue. Type specimens deposited in AMH, BM, BSA, G, H and LWG were examined morphologically, anatomically and chemically. Morphological characters of thalli (reproductive structures, colour, size and shape) were observed using a Nikon SMZ 1500 stereomicro- scope. Thin hand-cut sections of thalli and ascomata were examined, mounted in an aqueous solution of KOH. All anatomical measure- ments were made in water mounts and examined using a Nikon Eclipse 50i compound microscope. Ascospores were mounted in water for measurements and stained with Lugol’s solution to check the amyloid reaction. Secondary metabolites were identified by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) using solvent A (180 toluene: 45 dioxane: 5 acetic acid), following Orange et al. (2001)
32460Crittenden P. (2020): Kenneth A Kershaw FRSC (1930–2019). - Lichenologist, 52(3): 183-185. doi:10.1017/S0024282920000195.
Kenneth Andrew Kershaw, an active BLS member during the early years of the Society, died on 30 December 2019 aged 89. Ken made outstanding contributions to lichen ecophysiology and his publications remain the seminal works in several areas of the subject
32459Hill D. (2020): Images of the Lichen Genus Caloplaca, 4 Volumes By Felix Schumm and Andre Aptroot. 2019. Published by Felix Schumm, Mozartstrasse 9, 73117 Wangen, Germany. Pp. 2733. Numerous plates. 159 × 218 mm. Available from Amazon $463.93 or The Book Repository £329.70 (published by Print on Demand). - Lichenologist, 52(3): 259-259. doi:10.1017/S0024282920000158.
book review
32458Sanders W. & Llop E. (2020): Gyalectidium minus Sérus., new to oceanic western Europe in the first reported foliicolous lichen community of continental Portugal. - Lichenologist, 52(3): 247-249. doi:10.1017/S0024282920000080.
During a pre-congress excursion (23 July 2019) to the Sintra mountain range, led by the organizers of the XXII Symposium of Cryptogamic Botany, we found foliicolous (epiphyllous) lichens growing abundantly in the ‘enchanted forest’ of Peninha (38°46′ 9.06′′ N, 9°27′ 32.27′′ W), c. 40 km north-west of Lisbon. Foliicolous lichen communities are principally tropical but do occur to a limited extent in subtropical and oceanic-temperate regions where high humidity, relatively mild conditions, and adequate non-deciduous leaf substrata are found (Santesson 1952; Lücking 2008). In Europe, foliicolous lichen communities are mainly restricted to highly localized microsites, particularly protected gorges and ravines. Such localities have been reported within, and north and south of, the Pyrenees (Vězda & Vivant 1972; Sérusiaux 1993; van den Boom & Sérusiaux 1996; Llop & Gómez-Bolea 2006, 2009), in southern Italy (Puntillo et al. 2000) and in the Black Forest (Lücking et al. 2009). While foliico- lous lichen communities are known from the laurisilva forests of Madeira and the Azores, previous reports from continental Portugal appear limited to a collection of Byssoloma subdiscor- dans (Nyl.) P. James on cycad leaves in Monserrate Park, Sintra (as B. rotuliforme; Santesson 1952). Other foliicolous species from continental Portugal have been cited mainly on bark sub- strata (Santesson 1952; Sérusiaux 1996, 1998; Breuss 2016). The presence of a foliicolous lichen community at the Peninha site is hardly surprising. The north-eastern-facing forested slope is bathed in mist-laden winds from the Atlantic, strongly reminis- cent of the wet Macaronesian laurisilva forests. Amidst a profuse cover of Hedera helix ssp. canariensis (Willd.) Cout., the predom- inant tree supporting the foliicolous lichens is also strikingly simi- lar in appearance to those of the laurisilva forest. However, while diverse indigenous tree species comprise laurisilva, the ‘enchanted forest’ of Peninha is principally just Pittosporum undulatum Vent., an Australian tree introduced to the area in the 19th cen- tury. The Serra de Sintra itself has a unique microclimate and a considerable degree of autochthonous biological diversity and endemism, owing to its substantial elevation (to 528m) and exposure to year-round Atlantic fog that effectively doubles the moisture supplied by precipitation (Pinto da Silva et al. 1991).
32457Larsen H.M.E., Hansen E.S., Nord-Larsen T. & Rasmussen H.N. (2020): Deciduous trees as lichen phorophytes: Biodiversity and colonization patterns under common garden conditions. - Lichenologist, 52(3): 221–232. doi:10.1017/S0024282920000018.
Common gardens are experimental plantations for comparing the performance of tree species while eliminating many of the variables that prevail in natural tree stands. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biodiversity of corticolous lichens on Danish tree species (Acer pseudoplatanus, Alnus glutinosa, Betula pendula, Fagus sylvatica, Fraxinus excelsior, Quercus robur and Tilia cordata) under common garden conditions and to examine the height distribution of particular lichen species. Observations were recorded through regular sampling of at least 36 lichen species on the main stems (from the base of the stem to the treetops) of 44-year-old trees at four common garden sites. Acer pseudoplatanus and Fraxinus excelsior had the greatest lichen species richness and Shannon diversity values while these measures were significantly lower for Betula pendula and Fagus sylvatica. The distribution of lichen species appeared biased among tree species. The general lichen distribution and relative sample height were weakly related (nonmetric multidimensional scaling). However, single lichen species showed a clear differential distribution along the tree stem (P<0.001, non-parametric multiplicative regression and logistic log-binomial regression). Lepraria incana, Pseudosagedia aenea and Arthonia atra were mainly found at the stem base while Lecanora carpinea, L. chlarotera, Lecidella elaeochroma, Physcia tenella and Xanthoria parietina, were most abundant at around 70% of the total tree height. The differential distribution of single lichen species presumably reflects different specific requirements during spore germination and thallus growth. By isolating the unique effect of key variables (tree species and height), this study contributes to the knowledge base of corticolous lichen ecology. Key words: bark ecology, common garden experiment, distribution pattern, epiphyte.
32456Weerakoon G., Wolseley P., Will-Wolf, S. & Wijeyaratne C. (2020): Corticolous lichen species as indicators of disturbed/undisturbed vegetation types in the central mountains of Sri Lanka. - Lichenologist, 52(3): 233-245. doi:10.1017/S0024282920000109.
Corticolous lichens in the central mountains of Sri Lanka differ with vegetation type, disturbance and climate. All growth forms of lichens were studied in 42 plots (six plots × seven vegetation types), yielding 124 species. Lichen species diversity varied with number of tree species per plot (correlations) and differed with disturbance group, vegetation type and climate zone (general linear models). Lichen community composition (estimated cover of 74 species each at ≥ 3 plots) varied along two ordination gradients secondarily correlated with disturbance (nonmetric multidimensional scaling, NMS). Undisturbed and disturbed plots (mostly grouped by vegetation type) were divided along NMS axis 1, correlating with distance to undisturbed forest. Longest-disturbed plots differed from all others along NMS axis 2 and were correlated with canopy cover. Climate was weakly reflected on the ordination as the proximity of two plot clusters in montane vegetation types. Indicator species analyses (ISA) of lichen cover by plot identified 60 strong indicator species (indicator value ≥ 50%, P < 0.015). Fifty- seven species were indicators for individual vegetation types (28 of them for undisturbed types); three were for a disturbance group only; 11 were also for a disturbance group or climate zone. Most species strongly driving ordination patterns were also ISA indicators. Most lichens were crustose (39, with 24 in the Graphidaceae). Each vegetation type had at least one indicator with trentepohliod algae (increasing for undisturbed plots) and one with chlorococcoid algae. Two visually distinct indicator species, three genera and two multigenus groups will be useful to parataxonomists in forest evaluation. epiphytic lichens, Knuckles Mountain, lichen indicators, tropical forests
32455Fryday A. (2020): Bryophytes and Lichens of Letterewe By Oliver Moore. 2019. Ross-shire, Scotland: Letterewe Estate. Pp. 343. Design: IBO, Irma Boom, Eva van Bemmelen. Dimensions 6.75 × 8.75 in. (17.15 × 22.2 cm), weight 1.7 lb (0.78 kg). ISBN 978-90-824953-1-7. Hardback. Price: £50 postage. To order: Email mkamstra@ubmc.nl. - Lichenologist, 52(3): 257-258. doi:10.1017/S0024282920000146.
Book review
32454Ludwig L., Kantvilas G., Nilsen A., Orlovich D., Ohmura Y., Summerfield T., Wilk K. & Lord J. (2020): A molecular-genetic reassessment of the circumscription of the lichen genus Icmadophila. - Lichenologist, 52(3): 213-220. doi:10.1017/S0024282920000122.
The circumscription of the lichenized ascomycete genus Icmadophila Trevis. in the family Icmadophilaceae Triebel was investigated. Sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and large subunit of nuclear ribosomal DNA (nuLSU) were generated for the five Icmadophila species and additional members of Icmadophilaceae from the genera Dibaeis, Endocena, Knightiella, Siphula, Siphulella and Thamnolia. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that three Icmadophila species are closely related: the type, I. ericetorum (L.) Zahlbr., which is widespread in Eurasia and North America, I. aversa (Nyl.) Rambold & Hertel from Central and South America, and I. japonica (Zahlbr.) Rambold & Hertel, which is restricted to Far East Russia and Japan. The genus Knightiella Müll. Arg. is reinstated to accommodate I. splachnirima (Hook.f. & Taylor) D. J. Galloway emend. L. Ludw., which occurs in New Zealand and Australia. Two further species of Knightiella, K. eucalypti (Kantvilas) Kantvilas and K. queenslandica Kantvilas, are found to be unrelated to K. splachnirima, and are accom- modated in two newly described genera, Knightiellastrum and Siphulopsis respectively. Knightiellastrum L. Ludw. & Kantvilas is character- ized by a squamulose, erhizinate, whitish to pale grey thallus with a green, coccoid photobiont and by containing thamnolic acid. Siphulopsis Kantvilas & A. R. Nilsen is similarly characterized by an erhizinate, whitish to pale grey thallus, with a green, coccoid photobiont and con- taining thamnolic acid, but is instead fruticose. This study reveals considerable diversity within Australasian Icmadophilaceae; ongoing work in the Southern Hemisphere and tropical regions may reveal additional species in this family and clarify the relationships of these newly described genera. Glossodium, Icmadophilaceae, Knightiella, Knightiellastrum eucalypti, Siphula decumbens group, Siphulopsis queenslandica
32453LaGreca S., Lumbsch H., Kukwa M., Wei X., Han J., Moon K., Kashiwadani H., Aptroot A. & Leavitt S. (2020): A molecular phylogenetic evaluation of the Ramalina siliquosa complex, with notes on species circumscription and relationships within Ramalina. - Lichenologist, 52(3): 197-211. doi:10.1017/S0024282920000110.
Lichens of the Ramalina siliquosa complex dominate seashore cliffs in Europe and South-East Asia, but their taxonomy has been vigorously debated for over a century. On many cliffs, they exhibit a bewildering zonation of chemotypes that resembles the classic zonation of organ- isms that occupy the littoral zone below. Do the chemotypes represent separate species, or infraspecific variation? To better understand the systematics of this group, sequences from four genetic loci (ITS, IGS, RPB1 and RPB2) were obtained for 59 samples from Denmark, France, Iceland, Norway, UK, Japan and Korea, including all major chemotypes. Maximum likelihood analysis of these sequences, together with sequences from 36 other Ramalina species, reveals that the complex comprises two distinct phylogenetic lineages, each including multiple chemotypes. These two putative species-level lineages correspond to the currently accepted taxa R. cuspidata and R. siliquosa. There is no evidence that these two taxa are phylogenetic sister species. Consequently, the explanation of this chemotype complex as an example of ‘sibling speciation’ is rejected. Specimens traditionally called ‘R. siliquosa’ from South-East Asia form a third clade, identified here as R. semicuspidata, with an additional, divaricatic acid chemotype. Other results include a robustly supported clade of Ramalina species that produce medullary depsides and depsidones; this clade includes another well-supported clade of south-eastern United States coastal plain and tropical Ramalina species. By contrast, large, strap-shaped Ramalina species that lack medullary depsides and depsidones occur in separate lineages. In addition, close relationships between the following groups of species are indicated: R. farinacea with R. sub- farinacea; R. fraxinea with R. leptocarpha, R. menziesii and R. subleptocarpha; R. sinensis with R. unifolia. Furthermore, a new, variolaric acid-only chemotype is reported for R. farinacea, and a new, acid-deficient chemotype is reported for a more broadly circumscribed R. culbersoniorum Lecanoromycetes, lichens, phylogeny, Ramalinaceae, systematics, taxonomy
32452Kantvilas G., Gueidan C. & Tehler A. (2020): The strange case of Ocellomma rediuntum (Arthoniales: Roccellaceae) in Australia: A remarkably disjunct lichen. - Lichenologist, 52(3): 187-195. doi:10.1017/S0024282920000092.
The new combination Ocellomma rediuntum (Stizenb. ex Hasse) Kantvilas, Gueidan & Tehler is proposed, supported by morphological, anatomical and molecular data. Hitherto known only from the Californian coast, this species is here recorded for Kangaroo Island (South Australia), Victoria and Tasmania. It is described and illustrated from Australian collections. The ecology of the species and its remarkable distribution are discussed. distribution, Kangaroo Island, lichens, Schismatomma, Tasmania, taxonomy, Victoria
32451Halda J.P., Janeček V.P. & Horák J. (2020): Important part of urban biodiversity: Lichens in cemeteries are influenced by the settlement hierarchy and substrate quality. - Urban Forestry & Urban Greening , 53 (2020) 126742. .
Cities, towns and villages are important places with almost specific greening in comparison with open landscapes. Cemeteries are one of the most common land-use types in Central European settlements; however, they are still rather marginal regarding their total extent. In this study, we focused on the diversity of lichens in these important artificial habitats. Our study was done in the Czech Republic and we analyzed 164 substrates (trees and gravestones) in 19 cemeteries located in a city, a town and in villages between them. Our results reveal that the majority of 65 species of lichens were rock-dwellers, preferring silicate substrates. Notably, ten species were red-listed. We found greater species richness in the town cemeteries, followed by village cemeteries, with those in the city most species-poor. Gravestones hosted a significantly higher number of lichen species than did trees. For tree-associated species, broadleaf species supported greater lichen species richness than did conifers. For rock-dwelling species, sandstone gravestones supported greatest lichen species richness, while those of concrete hosted the fewest species. The results of this study indicate that cemeteries are important habitats for lichen diversity in human settlements. Cemeteries hosted a diverse community of lichens, including a number of threatened species. Even though trees were not as species rich as gravestones, they did support a different community of lichens in these cemeteries, suggesting that trees, particularly broadleaf species, provide important habitat in cemeteries to support a diverse lichen community. Planting of broadleaf trees and especially the retention and management of existing trees appears to be one of the most important management considerations for cemeteries to support diverse lichen communities
32450van den Boom P.P.G., Guzow-Krzemińska B. & Kukwa M. (2020): Two new Micarea species (Pilocarpaceae) from Western Europe. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 65(1): 189–199. https://doi.org/10.35535/pfsyst-2020-0014.
Two new Micarea species, M. minuta and M. pseudotsugae, are described from the Netherlands based on morphological, chemical and molecular data. Micarea minuta belongs to the M. denigrata group and can be distinguished from other similar species of this group by its small apothecia, Sedifolia-grey pigment in the epihymenium, mostly 1-septate and small ascospores, 40–80 μm wide mesopycnidia, and the lack of secondary lichen metabolites detectable by thin-layer chromatography. Micarea pseudotsugae is a member of the M. prasina group and is characterized by an areolate, granular to subsquamulose thallus, the presence of methoxymicareic acid, the lack of Sedifolia-grey pigment, the presence of crystals (visible in polarized light) in the apothecia only, and one type of conidia (mesoconidia). The phylogenetic position of the newly described species was studied based on mtSSU rDNA marker analysis; M. minuta was found to be closely related to M. denigrata, M. nitschkeana and M. subnigrata, while M. pseudotsugae was found to be closely related to M. byssacea and M. laeta. Notes on secondary chemistry, ecology, distribution and phylogeny are given. Key words: Ascomycota, corticolous species, Lecanorales, lichens, molecular phylogenetics, secondary chemistry, taxonomy.
32449van den Boom P.P.G. & Magain N. (2020): Three new lichen species from Macaronesia belonging in Ramalinaceae, with the description of a new genus. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 65(1): 167–175. https://doi.org/10.35535/pfsyst-2020-0011.
Tylocliostomum is described as a new genus and T. viridifarinosum as a new species. Two Bacidina species, B. pallidocarpa and B. violacea, are also described as new to science. They all occur in Macaronesia (Azores, Madeira). Key words: Ascomycota, Lecanorales, Tylothallia, type species, molecular phylogenetics.
32448Fernández-Brime S., Gaya E., Llimona X., Wedin M. & Navarro-Rosinés P. (2020): Rhagadodidymellopsis endocarpi gen. et sp. nov. and Arthopyrenia symbiotica (Dothideomyceta), two lichenicolous fungi growing on Endocarpon species. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 65(1): 176–184. https://doi.org/10.35535/pfsyst-2020-0012.
The lichenicolous fungus Rhagadodidymellopsis endocarpi (Dothideomyceta) growing on the thallus of the terricolous lichen Endocarpon pusillum is described from Spain and Australia as new to science. The new genus and species is compared with other taxa from the genera Didymellopsis and Zwackhiomyces (Xanthopyreniaceae, Collemopsidiales, Dothideomyceta), in particular with D. perigena, a species also having hyaline didymospores and also growing on Endocarpon. Rhagadodidymellopsis endocarpi is characterized by its almost completely superficial stromatic ascomata with a coarse and irregular surface, and an ascomatal wall of very irregular thickness, and ascospores smaller than those of D. perigena. We also compare the new species with other Endocarpon parasites, including Arthopyrenia symbiotica. This is a misunderstood species, originally described as Verrucaria symbiotica, which we also discuss in detail in this study. Key words: Australia, new species, lichenicolous, Ascomycota, Spain, taxonomy.
32447Burel J. & Jindřich O. (2014): Mykologický průzkum NPR Koda v CHKO Český kras [Mycological research in the Koda National Nature Reserve in the Český kras/Bohemian Karst Protected Landscape Area (CHKO)]. - Bohemia centralis, 32: 155–188. http://strednicechy.ochranaprirody.cz/res/archive/351/046996.pdf?seek=1490195789.
In addition to numerous non-lichenized macrofungi one lichenized basidiomycete - Lichenomphalia umbellifera - reported from the karst area in Central Bohemia.
32446Tondl F. (1989): Omphalina hudsoniana nebo Phytoconis viridis ?. - Mykologické listy, 37: 13–15. .
basidiolichens; Slovakia
32445Esslinger T.L., Leavitt S.D. & McCune B. (2020): Two closely related but morphologically disparate new species of Physcia from western North America. - Bryologist, 123(2): 204–214. .
Two new species belonging to the common and widespread lichen genus Physcia are described from western North America. One of these, P. occidentalis, is an obligately saxicolous species that reproduces by fragmentation, primarily through the production of largely terminal blastidia. Only a single very immature apothecium was observed among all collections. The species occurs from British Columbia to California, with outliers in Colorado. The other species, P. rhizinata, is a corticolous, typically fertile species lacking asexual propagules, and has often been confused with P. stellaris. It is presently known only from California. The close evolutionary relationship of these morphologically dissimilar taxa highlights the currently limited understanding of factors that lead to phenotypic divergence in lichen symbioses. Keywords: Physciaceae, phytogeography, California, western North America, lichen systematics.
32444Du Z.-Y., Zienkiewicz K., Vande Pol N., Ostrom N.E., Benning C. & Bonito G.M. (2019): Algal-fungal symbiosis leads to photosynthetic mycelium. - eLife, 8: e47815 [22 p.]. https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.47815.
Mutualistic interactions between free-living algae and fungi are widespread in nature and are hypothesized to have facilitated the evolution of land plants and lichens. In all known algalfungal mutualisms, including lichens, algal cells remain external to fungal cells. Here, we report on an algal–fungal interaction in which Nannochloropsis oceanica algal cells become internalized within the hyphae of the fungus Mortierella elongata. This apparent symbiosis begins with close physical contact and nutrient exchange, including carbon and nitrogen transfer between fungal and algal cells as demonstrated by isotope tracer experiments. This mutualism appears to be stable, as both partners remain physiologically active over months of co-cultivation, leading to the eventual internalization of photosynthetic algal cells, which persist to function, grow and divide within fungal hyphae. Nannochloropsis and Mortierella are biotechnologically important species for lipids and biofuel production, with available genomes and molecular tool kits. Based on the current observations, they provide unique opportunities for studying fungal-algal mutualisms including mechanisms leading to endosymbiosis.
32443Thompson K.M. & Colbert J.T. (2020): Lichens of Iowa’s White Pine Hollow State Preserve. - Evansia, 37(2): 31–49. .
A lichen diversity survey of White Pine Hollow State Preserve in Dubuque County, Iowa, revealed the presence of 117 different lichens including 13 previously unrecorded for the state of Iowa, 72 previously unrecorded for Dubuque County, and one recorded in Iowa on only one prior occasion. This increases the number of lichens reported for the state of Iowa to a total of 478 and the number recorded for White Pine Hollow to 123. Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm., an old-growth specialist that is facing declines around the globe, was not amongst the lichens observed although one of the last known collections (1901) of this lichen in Iowa occurred at White Pine Hollow. Efforts to propagate L. pulmonaria in a greenhouse setting as a means of providing insight to whether a reintroduction might be feasible were unsuccessful. Key words: Iowa lichens, White Pine Hollow State Preserve, Lobaria pulmonaria, lichen reintroduction, lichen conservation.
32442Padgett T., Arsenault A. & McMullin R.T. (2020): Chaenotheca brachypoda and Sclerophora peronella, two calicioid lichens new to Newfoundland and Labrador from Terra Nova National Park. - Evansia, 37(2): 61–70. .
During lichen surveys conducted in Terra Nova National Park, Newfoundland and Labrador, two new calicioid lichen species for the province were discovered, increasing the number of known calicioid species in the province to 35. One of the species, Chaenotheca brachypoda, was previously known in the Maritimes provinces, Ontario, and British Columbia within Canada. The other species, Sclerophora peronella, was known from Nova Scotia, Quebec, and British Columbia within Canada and is listed under Schedule 1 of the Canadian Species At Risk Act as Special Concern. A key to the calicioids of Newfoundland and Labrador is provided. Additional survey efforts should be made in the rest of the province to better understand each species’ distribution. Key words. Atlantic Canada; biogeography; Caliciales; key; species-at-risk.
32441Burningham H. & Knight J. (2020): Biological zonation and bedrock strength on a high energy granite shore platform. - Journal of Coastal Research, 95: 23–28. .
Many studies have shown that downwearing of rock shore platforms results from interactions between biological and geomorphological processes, but the relative roles of biological, lithological and external (wave hydraulic action) in shaping rock shore platforms have not been examined in detail. This is important, however, because surface organisms can both increase and decrease rates of platform downwearing by biological weathering and bioprotection, respectively. This study presents biological and geomorphological results from a high energy shoreline in northwest Ireland. Here, the 50-100 m wide granite shore platform has a slope of ~1:6 and extends from 7-9 m above the level of mean high water springs to ~2 m below mean low water. Organisms attached to the bedrock surface were surveyed by the quadrat method along two shore-normal topographic transects. At each quadrat site, bedrock hardness was measured using an Equotip instrument. Results show clear ecological zonation that can be directly related to the tidal frame. There is very little evidence for cross-shore changes in bedrock hardness. Elevation is the most significant driving factor for the presence of different species, but bedrock hardness is only associated with the abundance of specific species such as barnacles, demonstrating complexity in biogeomorphological relationships at local scales. Key words: Algae, bedrock hardness, Ireland, lichen, rock coast, shore platform.
32440Rassabina A.E., Gurjanov O.P., Beckett R.P. & Minibayeva F.V. (2020): Melanins from the lichens Cetraria islandica and Pseudevernia furfuracea: structural features and physicochemical properties. - Biochemistry (Moscow), 85(5): 623–628. https://doi.org/10.1134/S0006297920050119.
[Translation of Russian Text published in Biokhimiya, 2020, Vol. 85, No. 5, pp. 729–735] Lichens are symbiotic photosynthesizing organisms with thalli formed by fungi and algae/cyanobacteria that pos sess high stress tolerance. One of the factors that contributes to the ability of a lichen to tolerate harsh environmental con ditions is the presence of unique metabolites, including highmolecularweight dark pigments termed melanins. The chem ical composition and structure of lichen melanins remain poorly studied. We analyzed the elemental composition, the main functional groups, and the physicochemical properties of melanin extracted from Cetraria islandica and Pseudevernia fur furacea lichens. Based on the C/N ratio, this pigment is allomelanin. We also identified functional groups that provide pho toprotective and antioxidant properties of melanin. Melanin synthesis might be an essential defense mechanism contribut ing to the survival of lichens under exposure to UV radiation. Keywords: melanin, lichen, IR spectroscopy, photoprotection, antioxidant activity.
32439Zeybek U. & Yıldız A. (2000): Untersuchungen über die nordost-anatolischen Flechten Lobaria scrobiculata und L. pulmonaria [Studies on the Northeast Anatolian lichens Lobaria scrobiculata and L. pulmonaria]. - Scientia Pharmaceutica, 68(3): 317–321. https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.aut-00-29.
The secondary metabolites in Lobaria pulmonaria and L. scrobiculata collected in northeast Anatolia are studied using HPLC. Constictic, nortictic and stictic acids are the major components in L. pulmonaria; in addition connorstictic, cryptostictic, and menegazziaic acids are present as minor constituents. In L. scrobiculata constictic, stictic, and usnic acids and m- scrobiculin are the major compounds; while cryptostictic and norstictic acids, and p- scrobiculin are present as minors. Keywords: Lichens; Lobaria; lichen substances; HPLC.
32438El-Garawani I., Emam M., Elkhateeb W., El-Seedi H., Khalifa S., Oshiba S., Abou-Ghanima S. & Daba G. (2020): In vitro antigenotoxic, antihelminthic and antioxidant potentials based on the extracted metabolites from lichen, Candelariella vitellina. - Pharmaceutics, 12: 477 [22 p.] doi:10.3390/pharmaceutics12050477. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12050477.
Lichens have recently received great attention due to their pharmacological potentials. The antigenotoxic potential of C. vitellina extract (25 and 50 g/mL) was assessed in normal human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBL) against Mitomycin C (MMC) co-treatments. Flow cytometric analyses of cell cycle distribution, as well as apoptosis (Annexin V/PI), revealed that the extract had significantly (p  0.05) ameliorated the MMC toxicity by reducing the apoptotic cells and normalized the cell cycle phases. C. vitellina exhibited antigenotoxicity by ameliorating the diminished mitotic index and DNA single-strand breaks caused by MMC. Herein, the hydromethanolic extract (80%) of Candelariella vitellina (Japan) lichen, exhibited very low cytotoxicity towards normal human peripheral lymphocytes (HPBL) with IC50 >1000 g/mL. In order to explore the antihelminthic e ect, Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces were used in vitro. Eosin staining revealed significant (p  0.05) dose and time-dependent scolicidal e ects of the extract confirmed by degenerative alterations as observed by electron scan microscopy. Furthermore, primary and secondary metabolites were investigated using GC-MS and qualitative HPLC, revealing the presence of sugars, alcohols, di erent phenolic acids and light flavonoids. Significant antioxidant capacities were also demonstrated by DPPH radical-scavenging assay. In conclusion, the promising antigenotoxic, antihelminthic and antioxidant potentials of C. vitellina extract encourage further studies to evaluate its possible therapeutic potency. Keywords: antihelminthic; antioxidant; apoptosis; Candelariella vitellina metabolites; DNA damage; HPLC; GC-MS.
32437Paquette H.A. & McMullin R.T. (2020): Macrolichens of Forillon National Park, Quebec, Canada. - Northeastern Naturalist, 27(Monograph 16): 1–35. .
In Canada, detailed knowledge of the macrolichen biota in national parks is surprisingly sparse. Forillon National Park (Forillon) in Quebec, Canada, is an example, with no previously published accounts of lichens. To fill this knowledge gap, we conducted a survey of the macrolichens in the park and reviewed past collections to establish a baseline list of species. We report 140 taxa from Forillon (139 species and 2 subspecies, in 39 genera). Notable species include: Melanohalea exasperata, a first record for Canada; Scytinium teretiusculum, a first record for Quebec; Parmelia fertilis, a northern range extension; Hypogymnia subobscura, a species with an Arctic affinity; and Bryoria salazinica, Cladonia labradorica, and Leptogium acadiense, which are endemic to northeastern North America and infrequently collected. We provide an annotated list of species and an identification key to the macrolichen species of Forillon.
32436Lavoie C., Renaudin M., McMullin R.T., Gagnon J., Roy C., Beaulieu M.-E., Bellenger J.P. & Villarreal J.C. (2020): Extremely low genetic diversity of Stigonema associated with Stereocaulon in eastern Canada. - Bryologist, 123(2): 188–203. .
Stigomena is a genus of cyanobacteria that is often the photobiont associated with the lichen genus Stereocaulon. To elucidate the evolutionary relationships between Stereocaulon and Stigonema and assess whether there is specificity or selectivity at the ecosystem or species levels, we performed phylogenetic analyses on specimens collected throughout Eastern Canada. We generated ITS sequences from the fungal component of the symbiosis and sequences from the operon rbcL-rbcX and the trnL intron from the cyanobacteria of seventy specimens of Stereocaulon. Our ITS results revealed that at least forty Stereocaulon specimens are in 16 distinct species clades (OTUs) and morphologically defined species tend to be paraphyletic. In addition, two genera of cyanobacteria, Stigonema and Nostoc, were detected among the samples and the former is the most common symbiont associated with Stereocaulon. We discovered that nearly invariable Stigonema sequences (rbcL-rbcX) occur across 2,000 km of sampling from temperate to arctic biomes. The lack of geographic structure or species-level specificity for Stigonema suggest a high co-dispersal capability of the cyanobacteria with the ascomycete and selectivity towards a small number of very similar Stigonema haplotypes across eastern Canada. Keywords: Coevolution, nitrogen fixation, Nordic ecosystems, symbiosis, phylogenetic diversity, specificity.
32435Antony A.C., George S., Chandran S. & Sebastian A. (2020): Lichens as a source and indicator of agrochemicals. - In: Prasad M.N.V. (ed.), Agrochemicals Detection, Treatment and Remediation, p. 241–261, Butterworth-Heinemann. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-103017-2.00010-6.
India; Chapter in Book
32434Shukla I., Azmi L., Rao C.V., Jawaid T., Kamal M., Awaad A.S., Alqasoumi S.I., Alkhamees O.A. & Alsanad S.M. (2020): Hepatoprotective activity of depsidone enriched Cladonia rangiferina extract against alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity targeting cytochrome P450 2E1 induced oxidative damage. - Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, 28: 519–527. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsps.2020.03.003.
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a broad-spectrum disorder, covering fatty liver, cirrhosis, alcoholic hepatitis and in extreme untreated condition hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) may also develop. Cladonia rangiferina (CR) is a class of lichen having a broad spectrum of pharmacological activity. It is used like traditional natural sources in ancient times in India, China, Sri Lanka, etc. Folkloric record about CR has reported their use as an antimicrobial, antitumor, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory activities, etc. Hence, the present study was requested to ascertain the effect of the ethanolic extract of Cladonia rangiferina (CRE) on alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity. The animals were evaluated for the estimation of the liver in vivo biochemical antioxidant parameters. The liver tissues were further evaluated histopathologically and western blotting examination for localization of apoptotic gene expression that plays a pivotal role in hepatotoxicity. The results of this study reveal that CRE proves to be helpful in the treatment of alcoholinduced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress. Results of different markers have shown that among all, CRE has demonstrated the best hepatoprotective activity. These observations say about the importance of the components of the extract. The ameliorative action of CRE in alcoholic liver damage may exist due to antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic activities. Keywords: Hepatotoxicity; Cladonia rangiferina; Inflammation; Apoptosis.
32433Olleck M., Reger B. & Ewald J. (2020): Plant indicators for Folic Histosols in mountain forests of the Calcareous Alps. - Applied Vegetation Science, 23: 285–296. https://doi.org/10.1111/avsc.12470.
Questions: Although thick forest floors overlying unweathered bedrock are important resources for mountain forests' functioning, their actual distribution is poorly known and difficult to delimit in the field. We therefore asked: (a) What is the specific composition of vegetation growing on Folic Histosols; (b) can indicator plants be used to detect Folic Histosols in mountain forests; (c) what do functional traits of plant indicators tell about the ecological properties of Folic Histosols? Location: Northern Calcareous Alps, south Germany. Methods: Based on representative stratified sampling of joint vegetation plots and soil profile descriptions, we estimated the frequency and thickness of Folic Histosols, determined the proportion of compositional variation specifically attributable to forest floor thickness using ordination, applied Indicator Species Analysis and searched for typical traits and ecological requirements of indicator species. Results: The co-existence of acidophilic and calciphytic plants is typical for the tessellated occurrence and the successional origin of Folic Histosols. In the study region, the detection of Folic Histosols on pure limestone or dolomite by ground vegetation works very well. Particularly acidophilic plants are suitable indicators for thick forest floors. The indicator value of bryophytes and Ericaceae for Folic Histosols is likely related to the colonization of rotten wood. Folic Histosol indicator species are widely spread in the allocation to sociology group, which ranges from open landscapes to dark forests and reflects successional origin. Conclusions: In mountain forests on carbonate bedrock, thick humus layers often occur next to bare rock. This tessellated structure can also be detected in the ground vegetation, where acidophilic and calciphytic plants occur side by side. Thick Folic Histosols in late successional forests are dominated by acidophilic plants colonizing rotten wood. Thus, the detection of Folic Histosols by understorey species is an easy and cost-effective possibility and one key to protect these vulnerable forest sites. Keywords: Bavarian Alps, forest floor, indicator species analysis, partial ordination, Tangel humus, variance partitioning. [p. 289: ] "Out of the 15 observed lichen taxa only one, Cladonia furcata agg., was typical for FHs, and the majority was allocated to the “others” group."
32432Benvenutto-Vargas V.P. & Ochoa-Hueso R. (2020): Effects of nitrogen deposition on the spatial pattern of biocrusts and soil microbial activity in a semi-arid Mediterranean shrubland. - Functional Ecology, 34: 923–937. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2435.13512.
Human activities have doubled, or even tripled, the amount of nitrogen (N) fixed globally, which alters the functioning and reduces the biodiversity of terrestrial ecosystems. 2. In this study, we used a 10-year N addition experiment in a semi-arid Mediterranean shrubland in central Spain to evaluate the effects of increased N deposition on biocrust cover, soil microbial enzymatic activity and their spatial patterns. We collected highly replicated, spatially explicit data to carry out Moran's I correlograms at the plot level and used linear mixed models to evaluate the effects of N addition on cover, microbial activity and Moran's I values for each distance class of correlograms. 3. High N deposition (50 kg N ha−1 year−1) reduced the cover of the foliose lichen Cladonia foliacea, an important component of biocrusts, and generated significant alterations and losses of the spatial pattern of biocrusts and soil microbial enzymatic activity. Furthermore, we found indication that N addition altered the relationship between biocrust cover and microbial enzymatic activity, suggesting that the presence of well-developed biocrust communities modulates the effects of high N deposition on soil microbial activity. 4. Synthesis. Overall, our study suggests that an increase in N deposition may have important consequences for the structure and functioning of Mediterranean ecosystems and that some of these consequences may be due to alterations in the way in which different soil communities (e.g. moss-lichen biocrusts and soil microorganisms) interact with one another. Keywords: biocrusts, extracellular enzymatic activities, Mediterranean ecosystems, nitrogen deposition, spatial patterns.
32431Sabater A.M., Ward H.C., Hill T.C., Gornall J.L., Wade T.J., Evans J.G., Prieto-Blanco A., Disney M., Phoenix G.K., Williams M., Huntley B., Baxter R., Mencuccini M. & Poyatos R. (2020): Transpiration from subarctic deciduous woodlands: Environmental controls and contribution to ekosystém evapotranspiration. - Ecohydrology, 13: e2190 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1002/eco.2190.
Potential land–climate feedbacks in subarctic regions, where rapid warming is driving forest expansion into the tundra, may be mediated by differences in transpiration of different plant functional types. Here, we assess the environmental controls of overstorey transpiration and its relevance for ecosystem evapotranspiration in subarctic deciduous woodlands. We measured overstorey transpiration of mountain birch canopies and ecosystem evapotranspiration in two locations in northern Fennoscandia, having dense (Abisko) and sparse (Kevo) overstories. For Kevo, we also upscale chamber-measured understorey evapotranspiration from shrubs and lichen using a detailed land cover map. Subdaily evaporative fluxes were not affected by soil moisture and showed similar controls by vapour pressure deficit and radiation across sites. At the daily timescale, increases in evaporative demand led to proportionally higher contributions of overstorey transpiration to ecosystem evapotranspiration. For the entire growing season, the overstorey transpired 33% of ecosystem evapotranspiration in Abisko and only 16% in Kevo. At this latter site, the understorey had a higher leaf area index and contributed more to ecosystem evapotranspiration compared with the overstorey birch canopy. In Abisko, growing season evapotranspiration was 27% higher than precipitation, consistent with a gradual soil moisture depletion over the summer. Our results show that overstorey canopy transpiration in subarctic deciduous woodlands is not the dominant evaporative flux. However, given the observed environmental sensitivity of evapotranspiration components, the role of deciduous trees in driving ecosystem evapotranspiration may increase with the predicted increases in tree cover and evaporative demand across subarctic regions. Keywords: arctic, branch cuvettes, eddy covariance, evapotranspiration partitioning, mountain birch, tundra, understorey.
32430Juottonen H., Männistö M., Tiirola M. & Kytöviita M.-M. (2020): Cryptogams signify key transitions of bacteria and fungi in Arctic sand dune succession. - New Phytologist, 226: 1836–1849. .
 Primary succession models focus on aboveground vascular plants. However, the prevalence of mosses and lichens, that is cryptogams, suggests they play a role in soil successions. Here, we explore whether effects of cryptogams on belowground microbes can facilitate progressive shifts in sand dune succession.  We linked aboveground vegetation, belowground bacterial and fungal communities, and soil chemical properties in six successional stages in Arctic inland sand dunes: bare sand, grass, moss, lichen, ericoid heath and mountain birch forest.  Compared with the bare sand and grass stages, microbial biomass and the proportion of fungi increased in the moss stage, and later stage microbial groups appeared despite the absence of their host plants. Microbial communities of the lichen stage resembled the communities in the vascular plant stages. Bacterial communities correlated better with soil chemical variables than with vegetation and vice versa for fungal communities. The correlation of fungi with vegetation increased with vascular vegetation.  Distinct bacterial and fungal patterns of biomass, richness and plant–microbe interactions showed that the aboveground vegetation change structured the bacterial and fungal community differently. The asynchrony of aboveground vs belowground changes suggests that cryptogams can drive succession towards vascular plant dominance through microbially mediated facilitation in eroded Arctic soil. Key words: Arctic soil, bacterial community, cryptogam, erosion, fungal community, Polytrichum, primary succession, sand dune.
32429Woo J.-J., Lücking R., Oh S.-Y., Jeun Y.-C. & Hur J.-C. (2020): Two new foliicolous species of Strigula (Strigulaceae, Strigulales) in Korea offer insight in phorophyte-dependent variation of thallus morphology. - Phytotaxa, 443(1): 1–12. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.443.1.1.
Foliicolous lichens grow on the surface of living leaves in tropical and subtropical forests. Compared to a large number of species of foliicolous lichens reported from other regions in tropical and subtropical Asia, only six species of the otherwise abundant genus Strigula have been registered from South Korea so far. Three of these, morphologically identified as S. concreta, S. macrocarpa, and S. smaragdula, had previously been shown to share near-identical ITS sequences, casting doubt about the usefulness of this marker for species delimitation in the genus Strigula. To shed light on this conundrum, we surveyed the diversity of the genus Strigula in the Gotjawal forest area on Jeju Island south of mainland Korea, where the climate and vegetation are suitable for foliicolous lichens. As the result of a combined analysis of phenotype and molecular data of the ITS fungal barcoding marker, we found that material morphologically similar to known species formed two strongly supported clades, representing two species new to science, S. depressa Woo, Lücking & Hur sp. nov. and S. multiformis Woo, Lücking & Hur sp. nov., which are described herein. Strigula multiformis included the four previously sequenced specimens identified as S. concreta, S. macrocarpa, and S. smaragdula. A detailed analysis of morphological and anatomical characters revealed that all specimens of S. multiformis were anatomically uniform but varied in thallus morphology, mostly resembling S. smaragdula but with some forms similar to S. concreta and S. macrocarpa, explaining the previous misidentifications. This variation was found to be driven by leaf characters of the phorophyte species, as these apparently influence the morphology of the subcuticular thalli. Keywords: Evergreen broad-leaved forest, Foliicolous lichens, Gotjawal forest, Jeju Island, Strigula.
32428Haridas S., Albert R., Binder M., Bloem J., LaButti K., Salamov A., Andreopoulos B., Baker S.E., Barry K., Bills G., Bluhm B.H., Cannon C., Castanera R., Culley D.E., Daum C., Ezra D., González J.B., Henrissat B., Kuo A., Liang C., Lipzen A., Lutzoni F., Magnuson J., Mondo S.J., Nolan M., Ohm R.A., Pangilinan J., Park H.J., Ramírez L., Alfaro M., Sun H., Tritt A., Yoshinaga Y., Zwiers L.H., Turgeon B.G., Goodwin S.B., Spatafora J.W., Crous P.W. & Grigoriev I.V. (2020): 101 Dothideomycetes genomes: A test case for predicting lifestyles and emergence of pathogens. - Studies in Mycology, 96: 141–153. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.simyco.2020.01.003.
Dothideomycetes is the largest class of kingdom Fungi and comprises an incredible diversity of lifestyles, many of which have evolved multiple times. Plant pathogens represent a major ecological niche of the class Dothideomycetes and they are known to infect most major food crops and feedstocks for biomass and biofuel production. Studying the ecology and evolution of Dothideomycetes has significant implications for our fundamental understanding of fungal evolution, their adaptation to stress and host specificity, and practical implications with regard to the effects of climate change and on the food, feed, and livestock elements of the agro-economy. In this study, we present the first large-scale, whole-genome comparison of 101 Dothideomycetes introducing 55 newly sequenced species. The availability of wholegenome data produced a high-confidence phylogeny leading to reclassification of 25 organisms, provided a clearer picture of the relationships among the various families, and indicated that pathogenicity evolved multiple times within this class. We also identified gene family expansions and contractions across the Dothideomycetes phylogeny linked to ecological niches providing insights into genome evolution and adaptation across this group. Using machine-learning methods we classified fungi into lifestyle classes with >95 % accuracy and identified a small number of gene families that positively correlated with these distinctions. This can become a valuable tool for genome-based prediction of species lifestyle, especially for rarely seen and poorly studied species. Key words: Fungal evolution, Genome-based prediction, Machine-learning, New taxa.
32427Expósito J.R., Coello A.J., Barreno E., Casano L.M. & Catalá M. (2020): Endogenous NO is involved in dissimilar responses to rehydration and Pb(NO3)2 in Ramalina farinacea thalli and its isolated phycobionts. - Microbial Ecology, 79: 604–616. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00248-019-01427-2.
Lichens undergo desiccation/rehydration cycles and are permeable to heavy metals, which induce free radicals. Nitrogen monoxide (NO) regulates important cellular functions, but the research on lichen NO is still very scarce. In Ramalina farinacea thalli, NO seems to be involved in the peroxidative damage caused by air pollution, antioxidant defence and regulation of lipid peroxidation and photosynthesis. Our hypothesis is that NO also has a critical role during the rehydration and in the responses to lead of its isolated phycobionts (Trebouxia sp. TR9 and Trebouxia jamesii). Therefore, we studied the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, lipid peroxidation and chlorophyll autofluorescence during rehydration of thalli and isolated microalgae in the presence of a NO scavenger and Pb(NO3)2. During rehydration, NO scavenging modulates free radical release and chlorophyll autofluorescence but not lipid peroxidation in both thalli and phycobionts. Pb(NO3)2 reduced free radical release (hormetic effect) both in the whole thallus and in microalgae. However, only in TR9, the ROS production, chlorophyll autofluorescence and lipid peroxidation were dependent on NO. In conclusion, Pb hormetic effect seems to depend on NO solely in TR9, while is doubtful for T. jamesii and the whole thalli. Keywords: Heavy metals . Lichen . Microalgae . Nitric oxide . Rehydration . Free radicals.
32426Fortuna L., Incerti G., Da Re D., Mazzilis D. & Tretiach M. (2020): Validation of particulate dispersion models by native lichens as point receptors: a case study from NE Italy. - Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 27: 13384–13395. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-07859-5.
Atmospheric dispersion model (ADM) simulations are increasingly used as management tools in air pollution monitoring programs, even in the absence of proper validation. Biomonitors can provide important information for ADM validation, but an open question is their temporal frame of application, particularly when native organisms are used. In this study, we tested two alternative ADMsimulating the total suspended particulate (TSP) released by a coal power station, against the element content of two native lichens collected at 40 sites, integrated by soil samples. The ADM simulations differed by the time references: the 6- month period preceding lichen sampling, approximately corresponding to the estimated age of the samples (Mod. A), and the whole year 2005, representative of the local average conditions and used in the plant authorization processes (Mod. B). A generalized regression model analysis clearly showed that the Cr, Pb and V content of lichen samples was spatially associated to the outcomes of Mod. A, but not with Mod. B. Interestingly, the Cr content of lichen samples consistently correlated to TSP concentration predicted by Mod. A along two transects placed downwind from the coal power station. This result was corroborated by an air particulate matter sampling which pointed out that air Cr concentrations increased during the operative period of the source. Overall, our results suggest that lichen bioaccumulation data can proficiently be used to validate ADM simulations if the exposure time of the biological samples is consistent with the temporal domain of the ADM simulations. Keywords: Air pollution . Dispersion models . Bioaccumulation . Enrichment factor . Exposure time . Lichen growth.
32425Liira J., Suija A. & Jüriado I. (2020): Habitat and host specificity of epiphytic lichens in a rural landscape: cultural heritage habitats as refugia. - Biodiversity and Conservation, 29: 2141–2160. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-020-01955-1.
We hypothesize that many epiphytic lichens colonize trees in planted cultural heritage sites and persist as large-scale species meta-pools in historic rural landscape, while epiphytic biodiversity is threatened by the timber oriented forest management. We performed a stratified survey of epiphytic lichen species pools on ten common tree species in three contrasting habitat types across 19 Estonian landscapes. The meta-pools were examined at local and regional scales. The response differences between two ecological subsets—common forest-dwellers and conservation indicators—were assessed. Tree species in parks and corridors hosted more lichen species than they did in production forests. For common forestdwelling lichens the local species pool size was similar in all habitat types, while their regional pool was larger in forests and parks. On the contrary, for conservation indicator lichens the local pool size was the largest in corridors and regional pool size was the same in all habitats. Habitat type and tree species equally shaped the composition of the regional pool. Lichens were the most host-tree-specific in forests and had the widest host-tree niche in corridors. Broad-leaved tree species supported the largest regional species pools only in forest, while Betula and Pinus with Larix did in corridors. Lichen pools on Populus tremula were consistently the smallest. As the habitat quality of contemporary forests is too low for epiphytic lichens, cultural heritage sites should be considered as refugia in biodiversity conservation networks. Forestry and rural greening should emphasise stand diversification, ensuring the continuity of micro-habitats. Indicator lichen classifications require forest-oriented refinements. Keywords: Ecological indicators · Forest biodiversity · Habitat loss · National historic heritage · Novel habitats · Sustainable rural development.
32424Hanke F., Mooij B.J.A., Ariese F. & Böttger U. (2019): The evaluation of time‐resolved Raman spectroscopy for the suppression of background fluorescence from space‐relevant samples. - Ecosphere, 50(7): 969–982. https://doi.org/10.1002/jrs.5586.
One of the primary goals in space research is the search for signs of extant or extinct extraterrestrial life, and Raman spectroscopy can play a role in this field. Raman spectrometers are planned for future missions to Mars and possibly the Moon to identify the mineralogical surface composition and potentially existing organic compounds (especially on Mars). However, a major challenge in Raman spectroscopy, especially in the visible range, is the strong fluorescence background. Time‐resolved Raman spectroscopy (TRRS) can provide selective detection of Raman signals over the generally longer living fluorescence. This study investigates the potential of a TRRS system, using 3‐ps, 440‐nm laser pulses and time‐gated detection with an intensified chargecoupled device (CCD) camera. Test samples were the lichen Xanthoria elegans as an extraterrestrial life analogue, and a lunar regolith analogue material (LRS) as a planetary surface analogue. The TRRS technique is evaluated by comparing gated to nongated Raman spectroscopy using different detectors but with otherwise the same instrument and identical measurement conditions. The gated spectra of X. elegans showed significant signal‐to‐noise ratio (SNR) improvements compared to the nongated spectra. The visible Raman lines could be assigned to the photoprotective pigment parietin. For the LRS sample, measurement spots with a good SNR in the nongated spectrum were not significantly improved by measuring in gated mode. However, spots dominated by fluorescence showed significant improvement in gated mode because of fluorescence suppression. Minerals such as plagioclase, diopside, olivine, apatite, and a carbonate mineral were detected. In most cases, TRRS provided better results compared to nongated measurements, demonstrating the suitability for future space‐exploration missions. Keywords: fluorescence rejection, lunar regolith analogue material, space exploration, time‐resolved Raman spectroscopy, Xanthoria elegans.
32423Kooijman A., Morriën E., Jagers op Akkerhuis G., Missong A., Bol R., Klumpp E., van Hall R., van Til M., Kalbitz K. & Bloem J. (2020): Resilience in coastal dune grasslands: pH and soil organic matter effects on P nutrition, plant strategies, and soil communities. - Ecosphere, 11(5):e03112 [43 p.]. doi:10.1002/ecs2.3112. .
Soil organic matter (SOM) and pH are key ecosystem drivers, influencing resilience to environmental change. We tested the separate effects of pH and SOM on nutrient availability, plant strategies, and soil community composition in calcareous and acidic Grey dunes (H2130) with low, intermediate, and/or high SOM, which differ in sensitivity to high atmospheric N deposition. Soil organic matter was mainly important for biomass parameters of plants, microbes, and soil animals, and for microarthropod diversity and network complexity. However, differences in pH led to fundamental differences in P availability and plant strategies, which overruled the normal soil community patterns, and influenced resilience to N deposition. In calcareous dunes with low grass-encroachment, P availability was low despite high amounts of inorganic P, due to low solubility of calcium phosphates and strong P sorption to Fe oxides at high pH. Calcareous dunes were dominated by low-competitive arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) plants, which profit from mycorrhiza especially at low P. In acidic dunes with high grass-encroachment, P availability increased as calcium phosphates dissolved and P sorption weakened with the shift from Fe oxides to Fe-OM complexes. Weakly sorbed and colloidal P increased, and at least part of the sorbed P was organic. Acidic dunes were dominated by nonmycorrhizal (NM) plants, which increase P uptake through exudation of carboxylates and phosphatase enzymes, which release weakly sorbed P, and disintegrate labile organic P. The shifts in P availability and plant strategies also changed the soil community. Contrary to expectations, the bacterial pathway was more important in acidic than in calcareous dunes, possibly due to exudation of carboxylates and phosphatases by NM plants, which serve as bacterial food resource. Also, the fungal AM pathway was enhanced in calcareous dunes, and fungal feeders more abundant, due to the presence of AM fungi. The changes in soil communities in turn reduced expected differences in N cycling between calcareous and acidic dunes. Our results show that SOM and pH are important, but separate ecosystem drivers in Grey dunes. Differences in resilience to N deposition are mainly due to pH effects on P availability and plant strategies, which in turn overruled soil community patterns. Key words: arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) plants; atmospheric N deposition; bacteria; fungi; Grey dunes H2130; iron; nonmycorrhizal (NM) plants; soil community network. Three Cladonia species listed in Table 2. [p. 36: ] "In areas with low N deposition along the Baltic Sea, Carex arenaria showed N:P ratios of 7–8 g/g, which points to high P supply, but N-limited growth conditions (Remke et al. 2009a, b). In such areas, C. arenaria was present in small amounts, and the vegetation dominated by lichens."
32422Stavrova N.I., Gorshkov V.V., Katjutin P.N. & Bakkal I.Ju. (2020): The structure of northern Siberian spruce–Scots pine forests at different stages of post-fire succession. - Forests, 11: 588 [23 p.] doi:10.3390/f11050558. .
The process of post-fire recovery in mixed Siberian spruce–Scots pine forests (Picea obovata Ledeb.-Pinus sylvestris L.), typical for the European North-West, was studied in the Kola peninsula (Russia). We used the spatial–temporal approach to reveal the size structure (diameter at breast height (DBH) distribution) and vital state of Siberian spruce and Scots pine stands, tree regeneration and species structure of the dwarf shrub–herb and lichen–moss layers at different stages of post-fire succession (8–380 years after the fire). It was found that in both forest-forming species, the process of stand stratification results in the allocation of two size groups of trees. In Siberian spruce, these groups persist throughout the succession. In Scots pine, DBH distributions become more homogeneous at the middle of succession (150–200 years after the fire) due to the extinction of small-size individuals. Siberian spruce stands are dominated by moderately and strongly weakened trees at all succession stages. The vitality status of Scots pine stands is higher compared to Siberian spruce up to 150 years after a fire. The dynamics of regeneration activity is similar in both species, with a minimum at the middle of the restoration period. The results indicate that in Siberian spruce–Scots pine forests, the stand structure and regeneration activity differs substantially in the first half of succession (up to 200 years after the fire) and become similar in the late-succession community. The study of lower layers revealed that the cover of moss–lichen and dwarf shrub–herb layers stabilize 150 years after a fire. Changes in species structure in both layers are observed until the late stage of succession. The originality of the structure and dynamics of mixed Siberian spruce–Scots pine forests is revealed based on a comparison with pure Siberian spruce forests in the same region. Keywords: northern taiga; Kola peninsula; Siberian spruce–Scots pine forest; post-fire recovery; tree layer; tree regeneration; dwarf shrub and herb layer; moss–lichen layer; size structure; vitality structure; species structure. [pp. 16-17:] "From 80 to 200 years after a fire, the total cover of lichens was significantly lower than in the previous period, averaging 4% (Figure 8a). Three hundred and eighty years after a fire, their cover increased to 17%. From 80 to 200 years, the cover of lichens of the genus Cladonia was 2.5–3%; in the late succession community, it increased to 16%, mainly due to the expansion of Cladonia rangiferina and C. stellaris (Table 6). The lichen Nephroma arcticum was represented in communities with a post-fire age of 150–380 years and had a cover of 0.5% to 2%. The average number of epigeous lichens and mosses on an area of 1 m2 at the initial stage of recovery (at the age post-fire of eight years) is 6.4 species, and reaches a maximum of 10.5 species at the post-fire age of 15 years (Figure 8b). At 80–200 years after a fire, the number of species in the moss–lichen layer is reduced to 4.7 and increases in the late-succession forest to 7.5. The distribution of species’ covers at the post-fire age of 15 years has the highest Pielou’s index (E = 0.75), which means a high uniformity of species cover proportions. The moss–lichen cover in forests burned 80–200 years ago is characterized by low Pielou’s index values (E = 0.3–0.4) and the monodominance of green moss Pleurozium schreberi. The index value at the late stage of succession (E = 0.55) indicates a decrease in the Pleurozium schreberi dominance and an increase in the evenness of species coverages." [p. 19: ] "A maximal number of species and structure of species coverings with a higher evenness in Siberian spruce–Scots pine forests were registered in two periods (15–20 years and ca 300 years after a fire). This was associated with a high diversity of microhabitats, with a disturbed cover that could be populated by mosses and lichens in open post-fire areas and in the late succession community after a transition to gap dynamics."
32421Spribille T., Tagirdzhanova G., Goyette S., Tuovinen V., Case R. & Zandberg W.F. (2020): 3D biofilms: in search of the polysaccharides holding together lichen symbioses. - FEMS Microbiology Letters, 367(5): fnaa023 [17 p.] doi: 10.1093/femsle/fnaa023. .
Stable, long-term interactions between fungi and algae or cyanobacteria, collectively known as lichens, have repeatedly evolved complex architectures with little resemblance to their component parts. Lacking any central scaffold, the shapes they assume are casts of secreted polymers that cement cells into place, determine the angle of phototropic exposure and regulate water relations. A growing body of evidence suggests that many lichen extracellular polymer matrices harbor unicellular, non-photosynthesizing organisms (UNPOs) not traditionally recognized as lichen symbionts. Understanding organismal input and uptake in this layer is key to interpreting the role UNPOs play in lichen biology. Here, we review both polysaccharide composition determined from whole, pulverized lichens and UNPOs reported from lichens to date. Most reported polysaccharides are thought to be structural cell wall components. The composition of the extracellular matrix is not definitively known. Several lines of evidence suggest some acidic polysaccharides have evaded detection in routine analysis of neutral sugars and may be involved in the extracellular matrix. UNPOs reported from lichens include diverse bacteria and yeasts for which secreted polysaccharides play important biological roles. We conclude by proposing testable hypotheses on the role that symbiont give-and-take in this layer could play in determining or modifying lichen symbiotic outcomes. Keywords: alga; bacteria; EPS; exopolysaccharide; fungus; glucan; mannan; Rhizobiales; yeast; uronic acid.
32420Armstrong R.A. (2020): Growth curve of the crustose lichen Ochrolechia parella obtained from marginal growth rings. - Annales Botanici Fennici, 57: 115–123. https://doi.org/10.5735/085.057.0116.
Thalli of the crustose lichen Ochrolechia parella have marginal ‘growth rings’ enabling rapid estimation of radial growth rates (RaGR) over successive years. I obtained a growth curve, viz. changes in RaGR with thallus size, from rings of two populations of O. parella and in one population, and compared the growth curves obtained from rings and by measuring growth directly. Both methods revealed that RaGR in O. parella increased with thallus size in smaller thalli becoming more constant in larger thalli, a growth curve similar to that of foliose and placodioid species rather than crustose lichens such as Rhizocarpon geographicum in which growth declines in larger thalli. In O. parella the marginal zone comprises a layer of confluent areolae which may be better able to support and maintain a more constant growth rate compared with R. geographicum in which the marginal areolae are often isolated and scattered.
32419Malíček J. & Koukol O. (2020): Epifytické organismy – otrlí bojovníci s hlubokým citem pro životní prostředí. - Živa, 2/2020: XXXIV-XXXVI. https://ziva.avcr.cz/files/ziva/pdf/epifyticke-organismy-otrli-bojovnici-s-hlubokym-ci.pdf.
32418Cross A. & Sanderson N. (2012): A fallen beech in ancient pasture woodland in the New Forest, Hampshire. - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 111: 54–60. .
England; 68 lichens and lichenicolous fungi recorded from a fallen Fagus sylvatica.
32417Bialosuknia M.W. (1909): Sur un nouveau genre de Pleurococcacées. - Bulletin de la Société de Genève, Sér. II, 1: 101–104. https://img.algaebase.org/pdf/AC11010B118201BBF4ixW36B2CCF/50348.pdf.
A green alga Diplosphaera chodatii isolated from the lichen Ochrolechia tartarea is described as a new genus and species.
32416Lan Y. & Huang F. (2020): The complete mitochondrial Genome of the lichenized fungi Usnea jiangxiensis (Ascomycota: Parmeliaceae). - Mitochondrial DNA Part B, 5(2): 1477–1478. https://doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2020.1742224.
Usnea is a genus of lichenized Ascomycete that grows in moist mountain areas. It is a food for wild animals and can also be used as medicine. We describe the complete mitochondrial genome of the lichenized fungi Usnea jiangxiensis. It is a circular molecule of 62,531 bp in size, and all genes show the typical gene arrangement conforming to the mold consensus. The mitochondrial genome sequence of U. jiangxiensis and other eight species were used for phylogenetic analysis by the maximum likelihood method. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that U. jiangxiensis most closely related to U. ceratina. The complete chloroplast genomes of U. jiangxiensis would be useful for future investigation of genetics, evolution and clinical identification of Usnea species. Keywords: Usnea jiangxiensis; mitochondrial genome; Ascomycota.
32415Vondrák J., Frolov I., Košnar J., Arup U., Veselská T., Halıcı G., Malíček J. & Søchting U. (2020): Substrate switches, phenotypic innovations and allopatric speciation formed taxonomic diversity within the lichen genus Blastenia. - Journal of Systematics and Evolution, 135(3): 295–330. .
Blastenia is a widely distributed lichen genus in Teloschistaceae. We reconstructed its phylogeny in order to test species delimitation and to find evolutionary drivers forming recent Blastenia diversity. The origin of Blastenia is dated to the early Tertiary period, but later diversification events are distinctly younger.We recognized 24 species (plus 2 subspecies) within 6 infrageneric groups. Each species strongly prefers a single type of substrate (17 species occur on organic substrates, 7 on siliceous rock), and most infrageneric groups also show a clear substrate preference. All infrageneric groups tend to have the Mediterranean and Macaronesian distribution, but some epiphytic species have much larger geographic ranges and some evolved after a long‐distance dispersal outside the region. Chlorinated and nonchlorinated anthraquinone chemosyndromes co‐occur in apothecia of most species, but the chemotype has been secondarily reduced in some lineages. One infrageneric group has a marked reduction in apothecial size, associated with a substrate shift to twigs. Only seven species have vegetative diaspores; they also produce apothecia but have smaller ascospores. Genome sizes (22‒35 Mb in Blastenia) are significantly higher in epilithic species. Within‐species genetic variation is low in widely distributed species but high in some epilithic species with small geographical ranges. New taxa are: B. afroalpina, B. anatolica, B. caucasica, B. gennargentuae, B. herbidella subsp. acidophila, B. lauri, B. monticola, B. palmae, B. psychrophila, B. purpurea, B. relicta, B. remota, B. xerothermica, and B. xerothermica subsp. macaronesica. New combinations are: B. festivella and B. subathallina; both names and B. catalinae are lectotypified. Key words: anthraquinones, genome size, long‐distance dispersal, Mediterranean–Macaronesian diversity hot‐spot, Teloschistaceae, vegetative diaspores.
32414Zheng X.-J. & Ren Q. (2020): Three Rinodina species new to China. - Mycotaxon, 135: 195–201. .
Rinodina ascociscana, R. subminuta, and R. trevisanii are reported as new to China. A detailed description of each species is provided, and comparisons with related species are made. Key words—Ascomycota, lichenized fungi, Physciaceae.
32413Spribille T., Fryday A.M., Pérez-Ortega S., Svensson M., Tønsberg T., Ekman S., Holien H., Resl P., Schneider K., Stabentheiner E., Thüs H., Vondrák J. & Sharman L. (2020): Lichens and associated fungi from Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska. - Lichenologist, 52: 61–181. doi:10.1017/S0024282920000079. https://www.cambridge.org/core/services/aop-cambridge-core/content/view/F0E2D8740215588534FCA3477CBF05B5/S0024282920000079a.pdf/lichens_and_associated_fungi_from_glacier_bay_national_park_alaska.pdf.
Lichens are widely acknowledged to be a key component of high latitude ecosystems. However, the time investment needed for full inventories and the lack of taxonomic identification resources for crustose lichen and lichenicolous fungal diversity have hampered efforts to fully gauge the depth of species richness in these ecosystems. Using a combination of classical field inventory and extensive deployment of chemical and molecular analysis, we assessed the diversity of lichens and associated fungi in Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska (USA), a mixed landscape of coastal boreal rainforest and early successional low elevation habitats deglaciated after the Little Ice Age. We collected nearly 5000 specimens and found a total of 947 taxa, including 831 taxa of lichen-forming and 96 taxa of lichenicolous fungi together with 20 taxa of saprotrophic fungi typically included in lichen studies. A total of 98 species (10.3% of those detected) could not be assigned to known species and of those, two genera and 27 species are described here as new to science: Atrophysma cyanomelanos gen. et sp. nov., Bacidina circumpulla, Biatora marmorea, Carneothele sphagnicola gen. et sp. nov., Cirrenalia lichenicola, Corticifraga nephromatis, Fuscidea muskeg, Fuscopannaria dillmaniae, Halecania athallina, Hydropunctaria alaskana, Lambiella aliphatica, Lecania hydrophobica, Lecanora viridipruinosa, Lecidea griseomarginata, L. streveleri, Miriquidica gyrizans, Niesslia peltigerae, Ochrolechia cooperi, Placynthium glaciale, Porpidia seakensis, Rhizocarpon haidense, Sagiolechia phaeospora, Sclerococcum fissurinae, Spilonema maritimum, Thelocarpon immersum, Toensbergia blastidiata and Xenonectriella nephromatis. An additional 71 ‘known unknown’ species are cursorily described. Four new combinations are made: Lepra subvelata (G. K. Merr.) T. Sprib., Ochrolechia minuta (Degel.) T. Sprib., Steineropsis laceratula (Hue) T. Sprib. & Ekman and Toensbergia geminipara (Th. Fr.) T. Sprib. & Resl. Thirty-eight taxa are new to North America and 93 additional taxa new to Alaska. We use four to eight DNA loci to validate the placement of ten of the new species in the orders Baeomycetales, Ostropales, Lecanorales, Peltigerales, Pertusariales and the broader class Lecanoromycetes with maximum likelihood analyses. We present a total of 280 new fungal DNA sequences. The lichen inventory from Glacier Bay National Park represents the second largest number of lichens and associated fungi documented from an area of comparable size and the largest to date in North America. Coming from almost 60°N, these results again underline the potential for high lichen diversity in high latitude ecosystems. Key words: biodiversity, evolution, floristics, key, latitudinal diversity gradient, molecular, new species, phylogenetics, symbiosis, taxonomy, temperate rainforest.
32412Davydov E.A., Ahti T. & Sennikov A.N. (2020): The nomenclatural history of Umbilicaria spodochroa and nomenclatural corrections in Umbilicariaceae . - Mycotaxon, 135: 131–141. .
The name Umbilicaria spodochroa is currently applied to a species with an oceanic distribution in Europe and East Asia. The upper surface of its thallus is grey to dark brown, apothecia are omphalodiscs with prominent central umbilicus-like buttons. Its designated type and other original material are referred to U. hirsuta. Conservation is required to retain this name in current use. The nomenclatural history of U. spodochroa is presented to serve as the background for its conservation. The subgeneric nomenclature of Umbilicaria is revised and one new name (U. subg. Papillophora) is proposed to replace the illegitimate U. subg. Gyrophora. The status of many new names published by G.F. Hoffmann in his “Deutschlands Flora” (1796) is discussed and their nomenclatural validity is supported. Key words—conservation, Ehrhart, historical collections, Hoffmann, typification Introduction.
32411Diederich P., Zhurbenko M.P., Kuznetsov A.N. & van den Boom P. (2020): Trimmatostroma commonii, a new lichenicolous hyphomycete inhabiting Graphidaceae hosts. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 57: 33–36. .
The new lichenicolous hyphomycete Trimmatostroma commonii is described from Réunion, the USA (Florida) and Vietnam. It strongly resembles the generic type T. salicis, from which it is distinguished by much looser conidiomatal tufts, less septate conidia and the lichenicolous habitat, growing over species of Graphidaceae in the tropics.
32410Czarnota P. & Tanona M. (2020): Species of lichenized Ascomycota new to Polish Western Carpathians and rare in whole Carpathians. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 57: 21–32. https://doi.org/10.12697/fce.2020.57.04.
Five species of lichen-forming fungi not reported yet or rare in the Carpathians have been found during lichenological researches by authors in the Tatra Mts and the Gorce Mts. Of these, Tetramelas chloroleucus has not been recorded in Poland since 19th century and, similarly to Gyalecta russula, has been found for the first time in the Polish part of the Carpathians. Absconditella celata has been discovered in the Polish Western Carpathians. Fellhanera gyrophorica has never been listed before in the Western Carpathians and Epigloea bactrospora in whole Carpathians. Notes on the taxonomy, habitat and worldwide distribution of these species (including maps of their ranges in Europe) are accompanied by photo plates illustrating their morphology and anatomy. Keywords: biodiversity, Carpathians, lichens, rare species, new records, lichen checklist.
32409Zhurbenko M., Enkhtuya O. & Javkhlan S. (2020): Additions to the checklist of lichenicolous fungi of Mongolia. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 57: 9–20. https://doi.org/10.12697/fce.2020.57.03.
Seventy-four species of lichenicolous fungi, including two species of lichenicolous lichens, are reported from Mongolia. Arthonia xanthoparmeliarum, Katherinomyces cetrariae s. lat. and Lichenochora arctica are newly reported for Asia. Arthonia epiphyscia, A. excentrica, A. molendoi, Carbonea vitellinaria, Cercidospora xanthoriae, Didymocyrtis rhizoplacae, Endococcus propinquus, Intralichen christiansenii, Lichenochora caloplacae, L. rinodinae, Lichenodiplis lecanorae, Lichenostigma dimelaenae, L. triseptatum, Niesslia peltigericola, Polycoccum trypethelioides, Rhymbocarpus neglectus, Sphaerellothecium phaeorrhizae, S. propinquellum, Stigmidium xanthoparmeliarum, Taeniolella pertusariicola and Tetramelas phaeophysciae are reported new to Mongolia. The occurrence of Stigmidium psorae in Mongolia is confirmed. Flavocetraria and Rhizoplaca are reported as new host genera for Katherinomyces cetrariae s. lat. Keywords: lichen parasites, biodiversity, biogeography, Central Asia.
32408Urbanavichus G. & Urbanavichene I. (2020): Four lichen species new for Russia. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 57: 5–8. https://doi.org/10.12697/fce.2020.57.02.
Four lichen species, Biatora chrysanthoides collected from Kostroma Region, Gyalidea minuta from Nizhnii Novgorod Region and Polyblastia borealis and Thelocarpon saxicola from Murmansk Region, are reported for the first time for Russia. Comments on their habitats, substrates, key anatomical features and world distribution are provided for each species. Keywords: lichens, new records, Russia.
32407Khodosovtsev A.Ye. & Darmostuk V.V. (2020): Lichens and lichenicolous fungi of Khortytsia Island (Ukraine). - Чорноморський ботанічний журнал [Chornomorski Botanical Journal], 16(1): 74–80. .
80 species of lichens and 12 species of lichenicolous fungi were found on Khortytsia Island. The lichen Verrucaria fusconigrescens is for the first time reported for the continental part of Ukraine. Lichens Acarospora insolata, Bacidia fuscoviridis, Caloplaca chlorina, C. soralifera, C. xerica, Dermatocarpon miniatum, Lecanora argopholis, L. orosthea, L. swartzii, Lobothallia alphoplaca, Monerolechia badia, Rhizocarpon lecanorinum, Xanthocarpia crenulatella, Xanthoparmelia loxodes and lichenicolous fungi Abrothallus caerulescens, Lichenostigma elongatum, Marchandiomyces corallinus, Polycoccum pulvinatum, Stigmidium xanthoparmeliarum, Zwackhiomyces lithoiceae are reported for first time for Zaporizhzhia Region. Melanelixia fuliginosa, Protoparmelia badia and Evernia mesomorpha were erroneously reported for Khortytsia Island and therefore should be excluded from the list of species. Of the recorded lichens, two species, Lassalia pustulata and Xanthoparmelia camtschadalis, are included into the Red Data Book of Ukraine. Verrucaria fusconigrescens is a new host for Zwackhiomyces lithoiceae. Key words: Ukrainian crystalline shield, granite, Zaporizhzhia, Dnipro river.
32406Fernández-Brime S., Muggia L., Maier S., Grube M. & Wedin M. (2019): Bacterial communities in an optional lichen symbiosis are determined by substrate, not algal photobionts. - FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 95: fiz012 [11 p.] doi: 10.1093/femsec/fiz012. .
Borderline lichens are simple mutualistic symbioses between fungi and algae, where the fungi form loose mycelia interweaving algal cells, instead of forming a lichen thallus. Schizoxylon albescens shows two nutritional modes: it can either live as a borderline lichen on Populus tremula bark or as a saprotroph on Populus wood. This enables us to investigate the microbiota diversity in simple fungal–algal associations and to study the impact of lichenization on the structure of bacterial communities. We sampled three areas in Sweden covering the distribution of Schizoxylon, and using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and fluorescence in situ hybridization we characterized the associated microbiota. Bacterial communities in lichenized and saprotrophic Schizoxylon were clearly distinct, but when comparing the microbiota with the respective substrates, only the fruiting bodies show clear differences in composition and abundance from the communities in the substrates. The colonization by either lichenized or saprotrophic mycelia of Schizoxylon did not significantly influence the microbiota in the substrate. This suggests that in a morphologically simple form of lichenization, as represented by the Schizoxylon–Coccomyxa system, algal–fungal interactions do not significantly influence bacterial communities, but a more complex structure of the lichen thallus is likely required for hosting specific microbiota. Keywords: Coccomyxa; FISH; fungal life style; metabarcoding; microbiota; Schizoxylon.
32405Oh S.-Y., Yang J.H., Woo J.-J., Oh S.-O. & Hur J.-S. (2020): Diversity and distribution patterns of endolichenic fungi in Jeju Island, South Korea. - Sustainability, 12: 3769 [19 p.]. doi:10.3390/su12093769. .
Lichens are symbiotic organisms containing diverse microorganisms. Endolichenic fungi (ELF) are one of the inhabitants living in lichen thalli, and have potential ecological and industrial applications due to their various secondary metabolites. As the function of endophytic fungi on the plant ecology and ecosystem sustainability, ELF may have an influence on the lichen diversity and the ecosystem, functioning similarly to the influence of endophytic fungi on plant ecology and ecosystem sustainability, which suggests the importance of understanding the diversity and community pattern of ELF. In this study, we investigated the diversity and the factors influencing the community structure of ELF in Jeju Island, South Korea by analyzing 619 fungal isolates from 79 lichen samples in Jeju Island. A total of 112 ELF species was identified and the most common species belonged to Xylariales in Sordariomycetes. The richness and community structure of ELF were significantly influenced by the host taxonomy, together with the photobiont types and environmental factors. Our results suggest that various lichen species in more diverse environments need to be analyzed to expand our knowledge of the diversity and ecology of ELF. Keywords: algae; cyanobacteria; Daldinia; host specificity; lichen; Oreum; photobiont; Sordariomycetes; Xylariales.
32404Szwed M., Kozłowski R. & Żukowski W. (2020): Assessment of air quality in the south-western part of the Świętokrzyskie Mountains based on selected indicators. - Forests, 11: 499 [16 p.]. doi:10.3390/f11050499. .
This article presents the results of research on the air quality which was under the anthropogenic impact of the cement and lime industry in the Świętokrzyskie Mountains for many years. Research using geo- and bio-indicators was carried out at fixed measuring points in the years 2016–2018. Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. and two-year old Scots pine needles Pinus sylvestris L. were used for bioindication research. Physico-chemical properties of precipitation were developed on the basis of research conducted at the Jan Kochanowski University’s field research station located on the Malik Mt. Increased pH and specific electrolytic conductivity (EC) of precipitation, as well as variable concentrations of heavy metals throughout a year were found. Analysis of the chemical properties of transplanted lichens and pine needles confirmed the presence of elements from the cement and lime industry sector located in the Białe Zagłębie. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the needles’ surface revealed morphologic changes resulting from pollution of stoma opening and closing by small solid particles of anthropogenic origins, disturbing gas exchange. Keywords: air pollution; biomonitoring; trace elements; Scots pine needles; lichen Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl.
32403Ellis C. & Myllys L. (2020): Editorial. - Lichenologist, 52(1): 1. doi:10.1017/S0024282919000495. https://www.cambridge.org/core/services/aop-cambridge-core/content/view/FAB1B578968FD6BF3B78266D0CF6D114/S0024282919000495a.pdf/editorial.pdf.
Editorial by the new editors of the Lichenologist
32402Nimis P.L. (2016): The Lichens of Italy. A second annotated catalogue. - EUT, Trieste, 740 p. .
32401Pröschold & Darienko T. (2020): The green puzzle Stichococcus (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta): New generic and species concept among this widely distributed genus. - Phytotaxa, 441(2): 113–142. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.441.2.2.
Phylogenetic analyses have revealed that the traditional order Prasiolales, which contains filamentous and pseudoparenchymatous genera Prasiola and Rosenvingiella with complex life cycle, also contains taxa of more simple morphology such as coccoids like Pseudochlorella and Edaphochlorella or rod-like organisms like Stichococcus and Pseudostichococcus (called Prasiola clade of the Trebouxiophyceae). Recent studies have shown a high biodiversity among these organisms and questioned the traditional generic and species concept. We studied 34 strains assigned as Stichococcus, Pseudostichococcus, Diplosphaera and Desmocococcus. Phylogenetic analyses using a multigene approach revealed that these strains belong to eight independent lineages within the Prasiola clade of the Trebouxiophyceae. For testing if these lineages represent genera, we studied the secondary structures of SSU and ITS rDNA sequences to find genetic synapomorphies. The secondary structure of the V9 region of SSU is diagnostic to support the proposal for separation of eight genera. The complex taxonomic history was summarized and revised. The ITS-2/CBC approach was used for species delimitation. Considering all these results, we revised the genera Stichococcus, Pseudostichococcus, Diplosphaera and Desmococcus and proposed four new genera and four new species for the science community. The usage of the V9 region and the ITS-2 barcodes discovered potential new species among the Stichococcus-like organisms in culture-independent studies. Keywords: Stichococcus; Diplosphaera; Pseudostichococcus; Desmococcus; molecular phylogeny; integrative approach; systematics; terrestrial algae; lichen photobionts; generic and species concept.
32400Gockman O.T., Thayer J.W. & Henderson B. (2020): Contributions to the lichen flora of Minnesota: New records for lichens and lichenicolous fungi. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 19: 14–35. .
Twenty-three species in 18 genera are reported as new for the state of Minnesota: Abrothallus pezizicola, Arthrorhaphis grisea, Bryoria kockiana, Cetraria laevigata, Dactylospora amygdalariae, D. pertusariicola, Enchylium expansum, Homostegia piggotii, Inoderma byssaceum, Lepraria cryophila, L. disjuncta, L. membranacea, L. vouauxii, Parmotrema perlatum, Plectocarpon peltigerae, Raesaenenia huuskonenii, Rhizocarpon lecanorinum, Sporodophoron americanum, Tremella cladoniae, Umbilicaria hirsuta, Usnea dasaea, U. entoviolata, and Xenonectriella leptaleae. Distribution maps and characteristics useful for identification are provided for most species. Keywords. – Appalachian-Great Lakes, arctic-alpine, rare species, North America, biogeography, Midwestern United States, range extensions.
32399Bailey F.M. (1900): Contributions to the flora of Queensland. Lichens [Order Lichenes]. - Queensland Agricultural Journal, 5[1899]: 37–42 & 484–488. .
Australia; more than hundred of lichens treated by James Stirton and many of them are described as new: Lecanora rutilescens Stirt., Lecanora alligata Stirt., Lecidea (Buellia) subrepleta Stirt., Lecidea (Buellia) subconnexa Stirt., Lecidea (Buellia) restituta Stirt., Pyxine obscurior Stirt., Arthonia subcondita Stirt., Verrucaria coarctata Stirt., Arthonia conspersula Stirt., Trypethelium exiguellum Stirt., Parmelia ablata Stirt., Physcia excelsior Stirt., Lecidea subcaerulea Stirt., Collema hypolasium Stirt., Collema gwytheri Stirt., Parmelia hypoxantha Stirt., Pannaria elatior Stirt., Pannaria terrestris Stirt., Placodium clavigerum Stirt., Lecanora subpurpurea Stirt., Lecanora phaeoplaca Stirt., Lecidea vinicolor Stirt., Lecidea glomerella Stirt., Lecidea placomorpha Stirt., Lecidea sanguineolenta Stirt., Lecidea nodulosa Stirt., Graphis subvelata Stirt., Arthonia albofarinosa Stirt., Verrucaria fibrata Stirt.
32398Lawrey J.D., Sikaroodi M., Gillevet P.M. & Diederich P. (2020): A new species of bulbil-forming lichenicolous fungi represents an isolated clade in the Cantharellales. - Bryologist, 123(2): 155–162. .
Lichenicolous species are widely distributed in the Basidiomycota, and many are known to produce sclerotia or bulbils with few additional structures to permit taxonomic placement. The Cantharellales include many of these species and we here describe a new genus and species discovered in Austria that grows over Physcia aipolia and P. stellaris and forms minute dark reddish brown bulbils reminiscent of Ceratobasidium bulbillifaciens but much smaller in size. We obtained sequences of ITS and nuLSU rDNA representing the herbarium specimen of the species, and initial searches in GenBank indicated it was a member of the Cantharellales, with closest relatives in the genus Minimedusa. We inferred its phylogenetic placement in the order using an existing dataset that included all known lichenicolous species, augmented by sequences obtained by BLAST searches in GenBank. Our results indicate that the unknown is not closely related to any described lichenicolous species or to any other described bulbilliferous species in the order. Based on these results, we are now establishing a new genus and species, Bergerella atrofusca, in the Cantharellales family Hydnaceae. Key words: Basidiomycota, Clavulinaceae, fungi, mycoparasitism, phylogenetics, nomenclature, taxonomy.
32397Cáceres M.E.S., Lücking R., Schumm F. & Aptroot A. (2020): A lichenized family yields another renegade lineage: Papilionovela albothallina is the first non-lichenized, saprobic member of Graphidaceae subfam. Graphidoideae. - Bryologist, 123(2): 144–154. .
The non-lichenized, monospecific genus Papilionovela Aptroot, originally described from rain forest in Papua New Guinea, is reported here from several locations in Caatinga vegetation in Sergipe, Brazil. Phylogenetic analysis of the nuLSU marker within a three-locus phylogeny, as well as separate analysis of the fungal ITS barcoding marker, place Papilionovela in the Graphidaceae, subfamily Graphidoideae, with strong support. Within that subfamily, the genus clusters within tribe Wirthiotremateae, close to the Acanthothecis peplophora group and Carbacanthographis, albeit without support. We also reanalyzed the phylogenetic placement of two other, non-lichenized fungi previously associated with Graphidaceae, namely Furcaspora eucalypti and Rubikia evansii, and found them to form a separate, early diverging lineage in the family, here formally described as a new subfamily, Rubikioideae. Papilionovela is thus the first non-lichenized, saprobic lineage within the core Graphidaceae (subfamily Graphidoideae), providing a further independent, unequivocal case of delichenization within the order Ostropales. Key words. Brazil, corticolous, delichenization, saprobic, Papua New Guinea, Ascomycota.
32396Lendemer J.C. (2016): Herteliana schuyleriana (Squamarinaceae), a new crustose lichen widespread in the Appalachian Mountains of eastern North America. - Bartonia, 69: 62–76. .
Herteliana schuyleriana is described as new to science based on collections from throughout the Appalachian Mountains of eastern North America. Taxonomic placement is inferred from molecular phylogenic analysis of mtSSU sequence data that recovered the taxon as sister to the type species of Herteliana, H. gagei, and strongly supported these taxa as embedded within the Squamarinaceae. The new species is characterized by its occurrence on non-calcareous shaded rocks in inland forested habitats (vs. exposed maritime oceanic habitats), its greenish-blue crustose thallus, presence of abundant blastidia on the thallus surface, frequent sterility, and by the production of roccellic/angardianic acid together with occasional trace amounts of psoromic acid as accessories to atranorin.
32395Chagnon C. & Boudreau S. (2019): Shrub canopy induces a decline in lichen abundance and diversity in Nunavik (Québec, Canada). - Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, 51(1): 521–532. https://doi.org/10.1080/15230430.2019.1688751.
Lichens are an important component of biodiversity in northern ecosystems and are involved in diverse ecological processes. They contribute to nutrient availability through nitrogen fixation, are a substantial part of caribou winter diet, and influence global climate by increasing land surface albedo. Over the last decades, increased primary productivity in northern ecosystems, mainly associated with the expansion of shrub species, has led to a decline of lichen-dominated areas. We evaluated the impacts of shrubs on lichens by comparing lichen communities in the open environment and underneath dwarf birch (Betula glandulosa) canopy in Nunavik, Canada. Our results showed a decrease in abundance, richness and evenness and a shift in community composition between open areas and understory. These changes were mainly induced by the presence of a shrub canopy rather than by its characteristics, because shrub height and canopy closure had little effect. Richness and evenness dropped from shrub edge to shrub center, suggesting that the intensity of the decline was positively correlated to the time spent under the shrub canopy. Important changes in lichen communities are therefore expected to occur with further shrub expansion and may have substantial unfavorable implications for global climate and ecosystem functioning. Keywords: Climate change; lichens; northern ecosystems; shrub expansion.
32394Rettig J. (2018): Bemerkenswerte Funde von Flechten und Kleinpilzen in Ostthüringen – II [Remarkable lichens and allied fungi records for East Thuringia (Germany) – II]. - Mauritiana (Altenburg), 35: 10–33. .
Records of some lichenized, lichenicolous and saprophytic fungi are presented, which are rare in Thuringia or whose distribution is insufficiently known. Intralichen christiansenii, Lecania suavis and Verrucaria murina are reported in Thuringia for the first time. Erythricium aurantiacum is new for Saxony. Micarea globulosella lost in Germany, it was rediscovered. Keywords: lichen floristic, lichenicolous fungi, new discovery, red list, Thuringia.
32393Hafellner J., Lange O.L. & Wirth V. (2010): Roman Türk – Notizen zu Leben und Werk anlässlich seines 65. Geburtstages. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica , 104: 9–36. .
Roman Türk – remarks on his life and literary work on occasion of his 65th birthday. – The biography of Roman Türk is shortly outlined. A bibliography up to 2009/10 is compiled. Key words: Air pollution, Alps, Antarctica, biography, bibliography, biodiversity, lichens, ecophysiology.
32392Nguyen T.T.L., Danova A., Truong T.L., Chavasiri W., Nguyen K.P.P. & Huynh B.L.C. (2020): Chemical constituents of chloroform extract from the lichen Ramalina peruviana Arch [sic!] (Ramalinaceae) . - Vietnam Journal of Chemistry, 58(2): 231–236. DOI: 10.1002/vjch.201900172.
From the chloroform extract of the lichen Ramalina peruviana Ach. (Ramalinaceae), collected at Cau Dat farm, Lam Dong province, Vietnam, eight organic compounds had been isolated: nonadecan-1-ol (1); nonadecenoic acid (2); (+)-(12R)-usnic acid (3); three monophenolic compounds- rhizonic acid (4), divarinolmonomethylether (5) and divaricatinic acid (6); and two depsides- decarboxy-2'-O-methyldivaricatic acid (7) and sekikaic acid (8). The chemical structure of these compounds was elucidated by spectroscopic analysis as well as high resolution ESI–MS analysis and comparison with those reported in the literature. Among these compounds, (1), (2), (4), (5) and (7) were the first time known in the Ramalina genus. Although compound (7) was detected in the lichen Neofuscelia depsidella by chromatographic comparisons with authentic material that was synthesized by condensation of the benzoic acid and 3-methoxyl-5-propylphenol but it is isolated in the nature for the first time. The results of determining the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of four isolated compounds show that the α-glucosidase inhibitory effect of (8) was the best with IC50 values in 136.62 μg/mL (compared with the control acarbose IC50 93.63 μg/mL). Keywords. Ramalina peruviana Ach., Parmeliaceae, lichen, α-glucosidase.
32391Vannini A., Canali G., Pica M., Nali C. & Loppi S. (2020): The water content drives the susceptibility of the lichen Evernia prunastri and the moss Brachythecium sp. to high ozone concentrations. - Biology, 9: 90 [10 p.]. doi:10.3390/biology9050090. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology9050090.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the tolerance of lichens (Evernia prunastri) and mosses (Brachythecium sp.) to short-term (1 h), acute (1 ppm) O3 fumigation under different hydration states (dry, <10% water content, metabolism almost inactive; wet, >200% water content, metabolism fully active). We hypothesized that stronger damage would occur following exposure under wet conditions. In addition, we checked for the effect of recovery (1 week) after the exposure. Ozone fumigation negatively affected the content of chlorophyll only in wet samples, but in the moss, such a difference was no longer evident after one week of recovery. Photosynthetic efficiency was always impaired by O3 exposure, irrespective of the dry or wet state, and also after one week of recovery, but the effect was much stronger in wet samples. The antioxidant power was increased in wet moss and in dry lichen, while a decrease was found for wet lichens after 1 week. Our results confirm that the tolerance to O3 of lichens and mosses may be determined by their low water content, which is the case during the peaks of O3 occurring during the Mediterranean summer. The role of antioxidant power as a mechanism of resistance to high O3 concentrations needs to be further investigated. Keywords: antioxidants; chlorophyll; cryptogams; hydration state; photosynthesis.
32390Holloway P. & Field R. (2020): Can rock-rubble groynes support similar intertidal ecological communities to natural rocky shores?. - Land, 9: 131 [17 p.]. doi:10.3390/land9050131. https://doi.org/10.3390/land9050131.
Despite the global implementation of rock-rubble groyne structures, there is limited research investigating their ecology, much less than for other artificial coastal structures. Here we compare the intertidal ecology of urban (or semi-urban) rock-rubble groynes and more rural natural rocky shores for three areas of the UK coastline. We collected richness and abundance data for 771 quadrats across three counties, finding a total of 81 species, with 48 species on the groynes and 71 species on the natural rocky shores. We performed three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) on both richness and abundance data, running parallel analysis for rock and rock-pool habitats. We also performed detrended correspondence analysis on all species to identify patterns in community structure. On rock surfaces, we found similar richness and abundance across structures for algae, higher diversity and abundance for lichen and mobile animals on natural shores, and higher numbers of sessile animals on groynes. Rock-pool habitats were depauperate on groynes for all species groups except for sessile animals, relative to natural shores. Only a slight di erentiation between groyne and natural shore communities was observed, while groynes supported higher abundances of some ‘at risk’ species than natural shores. Furthermore, groynes did not di er substantially from natural shores in terms of their presence and abundance of species not native to the area. We conclude that groynes host similar ecological communities to those found on natural shores, but di erences do exist, particularly with respect to rock-pool habitats. Keywords: biodiversity; non-native species; protected species; range expansion; species distributions.
32389Ignatenko R.V., Tarasova V.N. & Markovskaya E.F. (2020): Ontogenesis of the lichen Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm. in plant communities of the boreal zone. - Russian Journal of Developmental Biology, 51(2): 115–124. DOI: 10.1134/S1062360420020046.
[translation of the original Russian Text published in Ontogenez, 2020, Vol. 51, No. 2, pp. 132–142] The paper describes the ontogenesis of the epiphytic lichen Lobaria pulmonaria. The studies were carried out in the Karelian forest communities with the period since the last disturbance ranging from 80 to 450 years. Based on the concept of a discrete description of plants and lichens, four periods and 14 age-related states have been distinguished in L. pulmonaria’s ontogenesis. Each ontogenetic state of L. pulmonaria is characterized by a certain thallus size as well as by the presence and the level of development of vegetative diaspores and apothecia on the thallus surface. The possible variants of the species ontogenesis are described. Keywords: ontogenesis, lichens, Lobaria pulmonaria.
32388Zhang Y.-Y., Wang X.-Y., Li L.-J., Printzen C., Timdal E., Niu D.-L., Yin A.-C., Wang S.-Q. & Wang L.-S. (2020): Squamarina (lichenised fungi) species described from China belong to at least three unrelated genera. - MycoKeys, 66: 135–157. https://doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.66.39057.
New collections of six Squamarina species from type localities in China were studied. The comparison of morphological characteristics and secondary metabolites with those of the type specimens and phylogenetic analyses suggest that S. callichroa and S. pachyphylla belong to Rhizoplaca, S. semisterilis belongs to Lobothallia and S. chondroderma should be retained in Lecanora temporarily. Only two species, S. kansuensis and S. oleosa, remain in Squamarina. The new combinations Lobothallia semisterilis (H. Magn.) Y. Y. Zhang, Rhizoplaca callichroa (Zahlbr.) Y. Y. Zhang and R. pachyphylla (H. Magn.) Y. Y. Zhang are proposed. Detailed descriptions to aid the identification of these species, distributions and phylogenetic trees, based on multiple collections, are presented. The generic concept of Squamarina is recircumscribed in this study. Keywords: Squamarinaceae, Petroplaca, Rhizoplaca, Lobothallia, Lecanora, type study.
32387Ohmura Y. (2020): New localities of Ropalospora phaeoplaca in Japan and Far East of Russia with ITS nrDNA sequences. - Bulletin of the National Science Museum. Series B, Botany [Tokyo], 46(1): 1–7. .
Six localities from Honshu in Japan and one from Primorye Territory in Far East of Russia are newly added for the distribution of Ropalospora phaeoplaca. Although this species is known from main land of China, Taiwan, Korea and Far East of Russia, only the type locality was known in Japan before the present report. The ITS nrDNA region was sequenced from the fresh materials using in this study, and the maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree is also presented. The tree shows that the samples of R. phaeoplaca formed a monophyletic clade that is a sister to the clade of R. viridis, and they are sister to R. lugubris clade. Although R. chlorantha is considered to be closely related to R. phaeoplaca, the ITS nrDNA sequence could not be obtained in this study. Key words: Ascomycota, distribution, eastern Asia, lichenized fungi, phylogeny, Ropalosporaceae.
32386Khare R., Upreti D.K., Haq M.U. & Behera B.C. (2020): Diversity of lichens in Jammu and Kashmir State. - In: Dar G.H. & Khuroo A.A. (eds), Biodiversity of the Himalaya: Jammu and Kashmir State, Topics in Biodiversity and Conservation 18, p. 343–377, Springer Nature Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-32-9174-4_15.
Lichen survey in Jammu and Kashmir State was initiated during the early 1930s, but detailed explorations started in 1949. The present chapter reports occurrence of 424 species of lichens in the State, belonging to 126 genera in 38 families; these represent ˃ 18% of total lichen species reported so far from India. Parmeliaceae is the largest family with 73 species, followed by Lecanoraceae with 53 species, Physciaceae with 48 species and Teloschistaceae with 36 species. Buellia, Caloplaca, Cladonia, Lecanora, Parmotrema, Phaeophyscia, Physcia, Peltigera and Ramalina are the most common genera in the State, while more than 30 genera show restricted occurrence. Equally, there is diversity in growth forms: 178 species being crustose, 159 foliose, 28 fruticose, 23 dimorphic, 32 squamulose and 4 leprose. Most of the species (240) are corticolous (bark inhabiting), followed by 163 saxicolous (rock inhabiting), 46 terricolous (soil inhabiting), 21 muscicolous (moss inhabiting) and a single foliicolous (on leaves) species. Out of 22 districts of the state, Anantnag reveals the maximum (128) lichen species, followed by Doda (with 112 species), Baramulla and Srinagar (with 70 species each), Leh (with 66 species) and Kishtwar (with 36 species), while other districts show lower/poor lichen diversity. Extensive exploration for lichens in little- and unexplored districts will add to the number of lichen taxa reported herein. Keywords: Lichens · Diversity · Jammu and Kashmir · Western Himalaya · Parmeliaceae.
32385Czernyadjeva I.V., Afonina O.M., Davydov E.A., Doroshina G.Ya., Dugarova O.D., Etylina A.S., Filippov I.V., Freydin G.L., Galanina O.V., Himelbrant D.E., Ignatov M.S., Ignatova E.A., Kotkova V.M., Kukurichkin G.M., Kuragina N.S., Kuzmina E.Yu., Lapshina E.D., Lavrentiev M.V., Makuha Ju.A., Moroz E.L., Notov A.A., Novozhilov Yu.K., Popov S.Yu., Popova N.N., Potemkin A.D., Stepanchikova I.S., Storozhenko Yu.V., Tubanova D.Ya., Vlasenko V.A., Yakovchenko L.S. & Zyatnina M.V. (2020): New cryptogamic records. 5. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 54(1): 261–286. https://www.binran.ru/files/journals/NSNR/2020_54/NSNR_2020_54(1)_Czernyadjeva_et_al.pdf.
First records of Myxomycetes for the Republic of Belarus, Basidiomycetes for the Novosibirsk and Volgograd regions, the Republic of Altai, lichens and lichenicolous fungi for the Tver Region, the republics of Altai and Tyva, bryophytes for Novaya Zemlya, the Pskov, Tula and Saratov regions, the Republic of Ingushetia, the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area — Yugra, the Republic of Buryatia, the New Siberian Islands Archipelago, the Peninsula and excluded lichens for the Republic of Altai are presented. Data on localities, habitats, substrates and herbarium specimens of all species are provided. Keywords: Arthopyrenia analepta, Athelia arachnoidea, Bactrospora dryina, Brachytecium campestre, Brachythecium irinae, Bryum rubens, Buglossoporus quercinus, Carbonea supersparsa, Clastoderma debaryanum, Colloderma oculatum, Cryptocolea imbricata, Echinostelium brooksii, Echinostelium colliculosum, Flexitrichum gracile, Hyphoderma obtusiforme, Licea kleistobolus, Macbrideola cornea, Meesia uliginosa, Miriquidica lulensis, Miriquidica plumbeoatra, Niphotrichum canescens, Oncophorus elongatus, Oxyporus latemarginatus, Palustriella commutata, Paradiacheopsis solitaria, Philonotis americana, Physarum decipiens, Physarum diderma, Physarum gyrosum, Prasanthus suecicus, Protoparmelia cupreobadia, Ptilidium pulcherrimum, Ptychostomum rubens, Pylaisia curviramea, Rhizomnium andrewsianum, Schizoxylon albescens, Scoliciosporum intrusum, Seligeria calcarea, Sistotrema brinkmannii, Sphagnum mirum, Stereum gausapatum, Syntricha caninervis var. astrakhanica, Syntrichia submontana, Thelephora anthocephala, Thelephora caryophyllea, Thelephora penicillata, Thuidium assimile, Timmia sibirica, Tremella cladoniae, Warnstorfia tundrae, Xylodon sambuci, basidiomycetes, lichenicolous fungi, lichens, mosses, mycobiota, myxomycetes, Arkhangelsk Region, Chukotka Peninsula, Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area — Yugra, National Park “Narochansky”, New Siberian Islands Archipelago, Novaya Zemlya, Novosibirsk Region, Pskov Region, Republic of Altai, Republic of Belarus, Republic of Burya tia, Republic of Ingushetia, Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Republic of Tyva, Russia, Saratov Region, Tula Region, Tver Region, Volgo-Akhtubinsk Nature Park, Volgograd Region.
32384Харпухаева Т.М. & Лиштва А.В. [Kharpukhaeva T.M. & Lishtva A.V.] (2020): Материалы к лихенофлоре Баунтовского района Республики Бурятия [Materials to the lichen flora of the Bauntovsky District, Republic of Buryatia]. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 54(1): 149–164. https://www.binran.ru/files/journals/NSNR/2020_54/NSNR_2020_54(1)_Kharpukhaeva_Lishtva.pdf.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] The paper presents data on 248 lichen species from the Bauntovsky District of the Republic of Buryatia, of them 233 are new to the district. Alectoria sarmentosa subsp. vexillifera new to East Siberia, and 6 species new to the Republic of Buryatia — Arthonia didyma, Aspicilia aquatica, Immersaria athroocarpa, Ionaspis lacustris, Ramboldia elabens, and Parmelia asiatica. Very interesting species is an aquatic lichen Collema ramenskii recorded in mountain lakes. Keywords: new records, lichen flora.
32383Frolov I.V. & Gagarina L.V. (2020): Revision of crustose Teloschistaceae (lichenized Ascomycota) from the Russian Far East based on herbarium materials of the Komarov Botanical Institute. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 54(1): 139–148. https://www.binran.ru/publications/novosti-sistematiki-nizshyh-rastenij/2224/9755/.
A revision of 47 specimens of crustose Teloschistaceae (so-called “Caloplaca s. lat.”) from the Russian Far East in the herbarium LE belonging to 21 species is resulted in re-identification of 18 specimens and new records. Blastenia furfuracea from the Kamchatka Peninsula is new to the Russian Far East. Caloplaca fraudans is new to the Kamchatka Peninsula. Records of Blastenia ferruginea, B. hungarica, Caloplaca haematites and Solitaria chrysophthalma are doubtful for the Far East. Placodium haematites var. ussuriense Tomin [≡ Caloplaca haematites var. ussuriensis (Tomin) Zahlbr.] is lectotypified and synonymized under Caloplaca stillicidiorum s. lat. Keywords: Blastenia furfuracea, Caloplaca fraudans, Caloplaca haematites var. ussuriensis, Chukotka, Kamchatka, Primorye Territory.
32382Урбанавичене И.Н. & Урбанавичюс Г.П. [Urbanavichene I.N. & Urbanavichus G.P.] (2020): Дополнения к лихенофлоре заповедника «Кологривский лес» (Костромская область) [Contributions to the lichen flora of the Kologriv Forest Nature Reserve (Kostroma Region)]. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 54(1): 127–138. https://www.binran.ru/files/journals/NSNR/2020_54/NSNR_2020_54(1)_Urbanavichene_Urbanavichus.pdf.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] New data on the lichen flora of the Kologriv Forest Nature Reserve from the cluster Kologrivskiy are provided. The specimens of lichens, lichenicolous fungi and non-lichenized saprophytic fungi were collected from 9 localities mainly in the Sekha River valley in cluster Kologrivskiy in September 2018. Altogether 110 lichen species, 9 non-lichenized saprobic fungi and 2 lichenicolous fungi are recorded for the first time for the nature reserve, including 69 species and 21 genera new for the Kostroma Region. The genus Leptosillia with species L. wienkampii and lichenicolous fungus Opegrapha phaeophysciae are published for the first time for European Russia. Altogether over 20 indicator species and habitat specialists of biologically valuable forests are known from the study area. Moreover 4 species (Leptogium burnetiae, Lobaria pulmonaria, Menegazzia terebrata, Nephromopsis laureri) are included in the Red Data Book of Russia. Keywords: Leptosillia wienkampii, lichens, new records, red listed species, Kostroma Region, Nature Reserve, Russia.
32381Жданов И.С. [Zhdanov I.S.] (2020): К лихенофлоре архипелага Новая Земля (Архангельская область, российская Арктика) [Contributions to the lichen flora of the Novaya Zemlya Archipelago (Arkhangelsk Region, Russian Arctic)]. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 54(1): 117–126. https://www.binran.ru/files/journals/NSNR/2020_54/NSNR_2020_54(1)_Zhdanov.pdf.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] The annotated list of 20 lichen species, based on the author’s collection, is presented. Atla wheldonii is new for Russia, and 16 species are new for Novaya Zemlya Archipelago. Morphology and ecological preferences of the lichen species new for the archipelago are discussed. The history of lichenological investigations in Novaya Zemlya is described. Keywords: lichens, biodiversity, Russia.
32380Gagarina L.V., Chesnokov S.V., Konoreva L.A., Stepanchikova I.S., Yatsyna A.P., Kataeva O.A., Notov A.A. & Zhurbenko M.P. (2020): Lichens of the former manors in the Smolensk Region of Russia. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 54(1): 93–116. https://www.binran.ru/files/journals/NSNR/2020_54/NSNR_2020_54(1)_Gagarina_et_al.pdf.
The lichen checklist of the former manors in the Smolensk Region of Russia is presented. It comprises 139 species, including 1 lichenicolous lichen and 4 non-lichenized calicioid fungi. Arthonia didyma, Arthrosporum populorum, Athallia pyracea, Bacidina arnoldiana, Calicium glaucellum, Calogaya decipiens, Candelaria pacifica, Candelariella lutella, Chaenotheca furfuracea, Coenogonium pineti, Eopyrenula leucoplaca, Lecania erysibe, Lecanora compallens, L. expallens, L. umbrina, Melanohalea septentrionalis, Myriolecis hagenii, M. perpruinosa, Parmelina tiliacea, Placynthiella dasaea, P. icmalea, Ramalina europaea, Rinodina sophodes, R. subparieta, Scutula dedicata, Strangospora pinicola, and Trapeliopsis flexuosa are new to the Smolensk Region. Keywords: lichen flora, new records, biodiversity, ecology, list of species.
32379Алвердиева С.М. [Alverdiyeva S.M.] (2020): Первые сведения о лишайниках Хызинского района Азербайджана [The first records of lichens of the Khizi Region (Republic of Azerbaijan)]. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 54(1): 87–92. https://www.binran.ru/files/journals/NSNR/2020_54/NSNR_2020_54(1)_Alverdiyeva.pdf.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] The article provides a list of lichens, based on the identification of samples collected by the author in Khizi Region of Azerbaijan. Altogether 37 species were identified for the first time for the region, including 2 species ― Lepraria finkii and Physcia phaea ― new for the lichen flora of Azerbaijan. Information about substrates, habitats and localities is given for each species. Keywords: new records, distribution, Altyaghach National Park.
32378Darienko T. & Pröschold T. (2017): Toward a monograph of non-marine Ulvophyceae using an integrative approach (Molecular phylogeny and systematics of terrestrial Ulvophyceae II.). - Phytotaxa, 324: 1–41. .
Phylogenetic analyses of SSU rDNA sequences have shown that coccoid and filamentous green algae are distributed among all classes of the Chlorophyta. One of these classes, the Ulvophyceae, mostly contains marine seaweeds and microalgae. However, new studies have shown that there are filamentous and sarcinoid freshwater and terrestrial species (including symbionts in lichens) among the Ulvophyceae, but very little is known about these species. Ultrastructural studies of some of them have confirmed that the flagellar apparatus of zoospores (counterclockwise basal body orientation) is typical for the Ulvophyceae. In addition to ultrastructural features, the presence of a “Codiolum”-stage is characteristic of some members of this algal class. We studied more than 50 strains of freshwater and terrestrial ulvophycean microalgae obtained from the different public culture collection and our own isolates using an integrative approach. Three independent lineages of the Ulvophyceae containing terrestrial species were revealed by these methods. Unexpectedly each of these lineages contained several isolates that morphologically developed a high degree of phenotypic plasticity, and included hidden phylogenetic diversity that let us to the description of several new genera and species. Keywords: CBC concept, ITS-2 Barcode, molecular phylogeny, species delimitation, Ulvophyceae.
32377von Brackel W. (2020): Flechte des Jahres 2020: Die Finger-Scharlachflechte (Cladonia digitata). - Natur und Land, 106: 15. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/nat-land_2020_1_0015.pdf.
Cladonia digitata as the lichen of the year 2020. Photo by W. von Brackel.
32376Pino-Bodas R., Ahti T. & Stenroos S. (2020): Taxonomic notes on Pycnothelia Dufour and Gymnoderma Nyl. (Cladoniaceae) in Madagascan region. - Cryptogamie, Mycologie, 41(5): 109–118. .
This study was focused on two species of lichen-forming fungi from Madagascan Region whose taxonomy has been controversial over the years, Cladonia mascarena Nyl. and Heterodea madagascarea Nyl. While some authors considered C. mascarena to belong to Cladonia, others place it in Pycnothelia Dufour. In this study three loci (ITS rDNA, rpb2 and ef1α) were used to determine the phylogenetic placement of C. mascarena. Our results show that it belongs to Pycnothelia and the combination Pycnothelia mascarena (Nyl.) Nyl. is substantiated. In addition, a key to the genus Pycnothelia is provided. The morphological study of new specimens of Gymnoderma coccocarpum Nyl. and H. madagascarea concluded that these taxa belong to a same species, confirming the extension of Gymnoderma Nyl. to Africa. The overlooked genus Baeoderma Vain. is regarded as a synonym of Gymnoderma, and its type species Baeoderma madagascareum (Nyl.) Vain. is referred to G. coccocarpum. Key words: Cladoniaceae, lichen-forming fungi, genus concepts, phylogeny, Réunion.
32375Li W.-J., McKenzie E.H.C., Liu J.-K., Bhat D.J., Dai D.-Q., Camporesi E., Tian Q., Maharachchikumbura S.S.N., Luo Z.-L., Shang Q.-J., Zhang J.-F., Tangthirasunun N., Karunarathna S.C., Xu J.-C. & Hyde K.D. (2020): Taxonomy and phylogeny of hyaline‑spored coelomycetes. - Fungal Diversity, 100: 279–801. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13225-020-00440-y.
Coelomycete is a general term used for asexual fungi which produce conidia in fruiting bodies: pycnidial, acervular, cupulate, pycnothyria or stromatic conidiomata. The group contains numerous plant pathogenic, saprobic and endophytic species associated with a wide range of hosts. Traditionally, morphological characters and host associations have been used as criteria to identify and classify coelomycetes, and this has resulted in a poor understanding of their generic and species boundaries. DNA based taxonomic studies have provided a better outlook of the phylogenetic and evolutionary trends in coelomycetes. However, the present outcomes represent only a preliminary step towards the understanding of coelomycetes. Many genera have not been revisited since they were first described. The present study revises the classification of the hyaline-spored coelomycetes and provides a modern taxonomic framework based on both morphology and phylogeny. In total, 248 genera were investigated, of which less than 100 are known to have sequence data. Multi-locus sequence data analyses of 28S nrDNA, 18S nrDNA, ITS, RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (rpb2), and part of the translation elongation factor 1-alpha gene (tef1) and β-tubulin (tub2) gene regions were analysed. As a result, three new genera and 23 new species are introduced. In addition, three new links between sexual and asexual genera are provided. There are 138 genera that lack sequence data, and these are treated as Ascomycota, genera incertae sedis. Line drawings and descriptions are provided based on the examination of types and fresh collections and on the literature. Keywords: 26 new taxa · Ascomycota · Asexual morphs · Basidiomycota. Discosiella and Strigula are considered as taxonomic congeneric.
32374Tsurykau A. & Braginets L. (2020): Didymocyrtis epiphyscia (Phaeosphaeriaceae) is new to Kazakhstan and Central Asia. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 57: 1–3. https://doi.org/10.12697/fce.2020.57.01.
Didymocyrtis epiphyscia s. lat. is reported for the first time for Kazakhstan and Central Asia. Anatomical characteristics of studied material are provided. Taxonomic difficulties of the D. epiphyscia complex are discussed. A possibly new lichenicolous Didymocyrtis species (on Parmelia sulcata) with non-guttulate conidia is described, illustrated and discussed. Keywords: biodiversity, distribution, lichenicolous fungi, lichens, new records.
32373Roux C., Bertrand M. & Nordin A. (2016): Aspicilia serenensis Cl. Roux et M. Bertrand sp. nov., espèce nouvelle de lichen (groupe d’A. calcarea, Megasporaceae). - Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, 67: 165–182. .
Aspicilia serenensis Cl. Roux et M. Bertrand sp. nov. is described and compared with A. calcarea (closely related), A. farinosa and A. subfarinosa. A. serenensis differs from these by a distinctly thicker thallus (with a thick medulla), by larger apothecia, without or with thin pruina (except for in the morphotype pruinosa, which is fairly rare) and with the pigment subdepressa–brown in the cortex of the thalline margin, by the slightly longer conidia and by the more orophilous habit. A. grossheimii, also closely related to A. serenensis, differs by its much thicker thallus, the distinctly larger apothecia, the much larger cells of the pigmented thalline margin, the more slender paraphysoids and the smaller spores. A. calcarea var. reagens (Zahlbr.) Szatala is more closely related to A. serenensis than to A. calcarea. A. subfarinosa was wrongly indicated in France (Alpes–de–Haute–Provence) by Şenkardeşler & Sohrabi (2011). Five new combinations, Aspicilia hoffmanniana (R. Sant.) Cl. Roux et Bertrand, Circinaria hoffmanniana (R. Sant) A. Nordin, Circinaria reagens (Zahlbr.) A. Nordin, Circinaria serenensis (Cl. Roux et M. Bertrand) A. Nordin, are introduced.
32372Salgado F., Caballero J., Vargas R., Cornejo A. & Areche C. (2020): Continental and Antarctic Lichens: isolation, identification and molecular modeling of the depside tenuiorin from the Antarctic lichen Umbilicaria antarctica as tau protein inhibitor. - Natural Product Research, 34(5): 646–650. https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2018.1492576.
Alzheimer´s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia involving Aβ and tau protein. So far, AD cure remains elusive, but considering that AD progresses throughout tau pathology, which turns tau protein an appropriate target, besides tau is also included in other neurodegenerative disorders named as tauopathies. Here, we have isolated seventeen compounds belonging to six lichens species. Due to scarce of spectroscopic data of the compound 5,7-dihydroxy-6-methylphthalide, we explained their structural elucidation based on NMR data. In this study, we show that only tenuiorin from Umbilicaria antarctica inhibited 50% of tau 4R at 100 µM. Then, we shown that molecular interactions of tenuiorin with the steric zipper model of the hexapeptide 306VQIVYK311 were studied by docking calculations and the results suggested that tenuiorin forms both hydrogen bonds with lysine and glutamine side chains and forms several hydrophobic interactions with valine and lysine from 306VQIVYK311 motif. Keywords: Alzheimer´s disease; Lichens; Tau protein.
32371Øvstedal D.O., Fryday A.M. & Lewis Smith R.I. (2020): Lecanora muscigena (Lichenized Ascomycota, Lecanorales), a new lichen species in the Lecanora fuscescens group from South Georgia. - New Zealand Journal of Botany, 58(2): 145–152. https://doi.org/10.1080/0028825X.2019.1682625.
Compared to continental Antarctica, the lichen biota of the various subantarctic islands and island groups is poorly documented. Here we describe the new species Lecanora muscigena Øvstedal & Fryday from the subantarctic island of South Georgia from a collection made in 1980 that was previously included as Trapeliopsis sp. A. by Øvstedal & Lewis Smith in their comprehensive account of the Lichens of Antarctica and South Georgia. It is similar to Lecidea globulispora Nyl., which occurs on the nearby Falkland Islands, in having globose ascospores but is clearly distinguished from that species by having a well-developed, creamy-white thallus composed of ±dispersed areoles with effigurate margins containing fumarprotocetraric acid, larger ascospores (c. 7–8 µm diam.) and by its habitat of overgrowing terricolous bryophytes. The new species belongs in the Lecanora fuscescens group, the species of which were usually described in the genus Lecidea due to their poorly developed thalline margin. This group is not congeneric with the type species of Lecanora (L. subfusca (L.) Ach.) but we refrain from erecting a new genus for the group pending a full molecular investigation of its delimitation and systematic position. Keywords: Biatora-type ascus, fumarprotocetraric acid, globose ascospores, subantarctic, taxonomy, identification key.
32370Kościelniak R., Bury D. & Betleja L. (2019): Rzadkie gatunki porostów w otulinie Bieszczadzkiego Parku Narodowego – Nadleśnictwo Stuposiany [Rare lichen species in the buffer zone of the Bieszczady National Park – Stuposiany Forest District]. - Roczniki Bieszczadzkie, 27: 233–243. https://www.bdpn.pl/dokumenty/roczniki/rb27/art09.pdf.
The paper presents localities of 10 very rare lichen species in Poland which are connected with forests of a high level of naturalness. All the presented species are included in the highest categories of the red list of lichens endangered in Poland. They are all protected by law, and four of them are also included in a special protection zone. Key words: lichenized fungi, Polish Eastern Carpathians, forest naturalness indicators, threatened lichens.
32369Kościelniak R. & Betleja L. (2018): Zagrożone zniszczeniem stanowisko Ochrolechia pallescens w Nadleśnictwie Stuposiany [A locality of Ochrolechia pallescens in the Stuposiany Forest District threatened with extinction]. - Roczniki Bieszczadzkie, 26: 267–273. https://www.bdpn.pl/dokumenty/roczniki/rb26/art15.pdf.
The paper presents a new locality of Ochrolechia pallescens situated within the area of the Suposiany forest district in the Bieszczady Mts. In its vicinity there are localities of the most valuable sylvan lichen species in Poland such as Chrysothrix candelaris, Lobaria pulmonaria, Menegazzia terebrata, Parmotrema arnoldii, P. stuppeum, which are threatened with extinction in this place. Therefore, it is highly desirable to incorporate this area to the Bieszczady National Park. Key words: lichenized fungi, Polish Eastern Carpathians, forest naturalness indicators, threatened lichens.
32368Verhoogt K. & van der Kolk H.-J. (2019): Een overzicht van enkele goed herkenbare Nederlandse korstmosparasieten [An overview of some easily identifiable Dutch lichenicolous fungi]. - Buxbaumiella, 115: 47–57. .
[in Dutch with English summary: ] Lichenicolous fungi grow on a wide variety of lichens, but individual species are often strictly host specific. Lichenicolous fungi can be found everywhere, but they are often ignored as they are challenging to identify. However, several species can be identified with high certainty in the field. This article describes 27 lichenicolous fungi that have distinct field characteristics and most of them are common in the Netherlands. This article may contribute to the awareness of lichenicolous fungi and can increase our knowledge on their distribution. We stress that lichenicolous fungi are still poorly studied and therefore microscopic examination of specimens is recommended in most cases.
32367Miranda-González R., Lücking R., Barcenas-Peña A. & Herrera-Campos M.Á. (2020): The new genus Jocatoa (Lecanoromycetes: Graphidaceae) and new insights into subfamily Redonographoideae. - Bryologist, 123(2): 127–143. .
One new genus and two new species of Graphidaceae are described from tropical dry forests of Mexico, based on morphological and molecular data of the mtSSU, nuLSU and ITS markers. The new genus Jocatoa in subfamily Graphidoideae is described to accommodate the species Graphis agminalis (syn.: Medusulina texana), previously known from Colombia and North America. The new genus resembles Diorygma but differs by having simple paraphyses tips that do not form an epithecium. Jocatoa agminalis is similar to Diorygma monophorum but differs by having larger ascospores, hypostictic and stictic acids and by the type of paraphysis tips. In subfamily Redonographoideae, the two new species Gymnographopsis corticicola and Redonographa parvispora are described, representing the first corticolous species in the subfamily. Gymnographopsis corticicola is characterized by the smallest spores in the genus, the presence of norstictic acid, and a rectangular perispore that appears to be a newly recognized character state in fungi. Redonographa parvispora is characterized by warty periphysoids, small ascospores with 3 transverse septa, and norstictic acid. It also frequently develops a rectangular perispore. We present a phylogenetic analysis, based on the markers mtSSU, nuLSU and RPB2, that includes all the genera in the family Graphidaceae, with available sequences, to accommodate the new genus and to validate for the first time the position of Gymnographopsis. Diagnostic anatomical and ecological characters are discussed for Redonographoideae. Gymnographopsis is newly reported to the Northern Hemisphere. Keywords: Chamela Biological Station, lichen systematics, Mexico, North America, rectangular perispore, tropical dry forest.
32366Kanz B., Büdel B., Jung P., Karsten U. & Printzen C. (2020): Biologische Bodenkrusten in der Antarktis. Leben zwischen Eis und Felsen. - Biologie in unserer Zeit, 2/2020 (50): 122–133. DOI:10.1002/ biuz.202010702.
Biological soil crusts in Antarctica: Life between ice and rocks. Despite its adverse environmental conditions and geographical isolation, Antarctica is home to a rich vegetation of lichens, mosses, algae, fungi and bacteria. In the milder areas of the maritime and continental Antarctic, these pioneer species form widely visible biological soil crusts. In drier areas, they occur mainly within the outer rock and upper soil layers. Among the ecological adaptations that enable these species to survive Antarctic conditions, a good dehydration tolerance stands out. Almost nothing is known about the genetic diversity of most species. While some species probably originated in Antarctica, others are relatively late settlers.
32365Mikhailova I.N. (2020): Dynamics of epiphytic lichen communities in the initial period after reduction of emissions from a copper smelter. - Russian Journal of Ecology, 51(1): 38–45. DOI: 10.1134/S1067413620010075.
[Original Russian Text published in Ekologiya, 2020, No. 1, pp. 43–50] Changes in the composition and structure of epiphytic lichen communities have been analyzed over 5 years (2014–2018) after significant reduction of emissions from the Middle Ural Copper Smelter on the basis of annual observations in 22 permanent sampling plots established in spruce–fir forests of the Middle Urals. Despite the almost complete cessation of toxicant input from the atmosphere, increased Cu concentrations in the fir bark and higher bark acidity persist in the vicinity of the smelter. The number of lichen species in the heavily polluted zone rapidly increases (by 1–2 species per year) primarily on account of species with a high colonization potential that are abundant in adjacent biotopes or on other substrates in heavily polluted areas. The level of their toxitolerance is not the critical factor: both tolerant and moderately and highly sensitive species colonize tree trunks. The current community structure in the polluted zone is basically different from that in the background area: explerent species Hypocenomyce caradocensis dominates, while species typical for background spruce–fir forests are rare or absent. Keywords: dynamics, recolonization, recovery, sustainability, elasticity, heavy metals, copper, sulfur dioxide, industrial pollution, community structure, Middle Urals, bark pH.
32364Gustafsson L., Hannerz M., Koivula M., Shorohova E., Vanha-Majamaa I. & Weslien J. (2020): Research on retention forestry in Northern Europe. - Ecological Processes, 9: 3 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13717-019-0208-2.
[A review paper] Retention approaches in forest management are today common in several North European countries, integrated into the clearcutting practice as a way to promote biodiversity and maintain ecosystem functions. Individual green trees and retention patches (tree groups) are retained at final harvest, and deadwood is left at site or created. Here, we review research on retention in Sweden, Finland, Norway, the Baltic States, and NW Russia, with special focus on biodiversity. Following the first publication in 1994, about 180 peer-reviewed articles have been published. We present results from a systematic search of the retention literature, separated into the following topics: buffer zones, retention patches, high stumps, other types of deadwood, European aspen Populus tremula, and cost-efficiency. Russian literature is synthesized separately since studies from this region have so far almost exclusively been published in the Russian language. Furthermore, we describe six ongoing large-scale, replicated experiments with varying retention levels, five in Finland and one in Sweden, and summarize their main results. Among main conclusions for practice from the literature and experiments are that retention patches as large as 0.5 ha and 10-mwide buffers to watercourses are not enough to maintain pre-harvest species composition but survival of forest species is still larger than on conventional clearcuts. Deadwood on clearcuts may present important habitats to saproxylic species, including rare and red-listed ones and a prioritization of tree species per stand is recommended. We identify several important future research directions including switch of focus towards the landscape as well as the species population level. Surveys in parts of European Russia where retention has been unintentionally implemented already for a century would indicate possible future trajectories of biodiversity and their drivers in other regions of Northern Europe. A stronger link to ecological theory would help in study designs and in the formulation of predicted outcomes. Keywords: Biodiversity, Buffer strips, Conservation, Deadwood, Experiments, Forestry, High stumps, Retention patches, Variable retention. [p. 2:] "Beetles were the most common study organisms (39% of studies), followed by lichens and bryophytes (both 16%)."
32363Halbwachs H. (2020): Pilze in Bernsteinwäldern Nordeuropas. - Zeitschrift für Mykologie, 86(1): 121–130. .
[in German with English abstract: ] During the Eocene, ca. 24-47 million years ago, vast forests existed in the Baltic and Bitterfeld areas, which were a cradle of huge amber deposits. So-called amber trees produced copious amounts of resin, which often entombed a great diversity of organisms, predominantly insects. Under rare circumstances, also fungi or fungal material got preserved in the hardening material, which is often washed up along the Baltic coasts or is harvested industrially in Kaliningrad. Most amberised fungi are small ascomycetes, only a few macrofungi have so far been recovered. Interestingly, lichens proliferated during the Paleogene. The causes are probably multifarious, including favourable climates and diversely structured habitats. It remains to be seen whether more fungi will turn up in amber to close obvious gaps in fossil records. Keywords: Fossils, Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Lichens, Baltic, Bitterfeld, Paleogene.
32362Magnin A. (1877): Liste des cryptogames récoltés par MM. Therry et Veuillot pendant l'excursion botanique dans le Bugey. - Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France, 23[1876]: CXLII–CXLVII. .
32361Payot V. (1877): Florule de l'excursionniste aux gorges de la Diozaz. - Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France, 23[1876]: 394–397. .
France; 12 taxa of lichens listed at p. 397
32360Weddell H.A. (1877): Notice monographique sur les Amphiloma de la flora française. - Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France, 23[1876]: 82–99. .
France; monograph; Teloschistaceae
32359Magnin A. (1877): Sur les mousses et les lichens de la partie supérieure de la vallée de l'Ubaye (Basses Alpes). - Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France, 23[1876]: 49–50. .
32358Cornu M. [, Weddell M.-H. & Van Tieghem P.] (1875): Observations [sur le parasitisme, ... des Lichens]. - Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France, 21[1874]: 347–351. .
Not a standard paper but a discussion on parasites/parasymbionts among lichens.
32357Weddell H.-A. (1875): Florule lichénique des laves d'Agde. - Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France, 21[1874]: 330–347. .
France; several new taxa described: Acarospora sordida, Acarospora collemacea, Lecidea (Buellia) cladonema, Verucaria verrucicola, Verrucaria xanthoriae.
32356Roumeguère C. (1875): Quel est le physiologiste qui le premier, au milieu du XVIIIe siècle, a fait connaitre le mode de nutrition des lichens? Documents intéressant l'Histoire de ces végétaux. - Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France, 21[1874]: 195–201. .
Extract from a lecture
32355Roumeguère C. (1875): Correspondance inédite échangée entre Alexandre de Humboldt et Auguste Broussonet, au sujet de l'Histoire Naturelle des Iles Canaries. - Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France, 21[1874]: 154–158. .
Correspondence; notes on lichens included
32354Lefranc E. (1875): Les Roccella et le Rhytiphloea tinctoria de la Méditerranée, par-devant la pourpre de Tyr. - Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France, 21[1874]: 85–95. .
Roccella; lichen dyes
32353Bouteille (1875): [Lettre de M. Bouteille a M. de Schoenefeld]. - Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France, 21[1874]: 59–60. .
A letter; it includes among else a remark on occurence of lichens on glass
32352Fée A. (1875): Matériaux pour une flore lichénologique du Brésil, II. – Les Graphidées. - Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France, 21[1874]: 20–26. .
Brazil; Graphidaceae
32351Rosentreter R., Kaminsky L. & DeBolt A. (2020): If a tree falls in the forest, will its lichens flourish or die?. - Evansia, 37(1): 20–26. .
In 2016, a storm blew over an old growth sand post oak tree (Quercus margarettae) at O’Leno State Park in northern Florida. This event provided access to the entire tree without climbing it. Because the tree was suspended by its branches so it was parallel with the ground, we could easily observe and collect lichens at all former canopy heights. We surveyed the wind-blown tree’s lichens before the species’ composition changes had occurred. Several uncommon lichens were found on this oak. We rated relative abundance of each lichen species on the tree for three consecutive years. To our surprise, many of the lichens were still alive after one or more years, despite being in a lower canopy position and on a different aspect. However, most lichens changed in relative abundance or were reduced in abundance; one species, Parmeliella triptophylla, increased in relative abundance. Five species did not change, while 26 species decreased in abundance. Lichen response was dynamic in both abundance and thallus size. We found many old growth lichen indicators for Florida and this gave us an opportunity to study rarely encountered lichen species. Key words. Biodiversity, forest ecology, oaks, survivorship, Parmeliella triptophylla.
32350McCune B. & Stone D. (2020): Gregorella, a cyanobacterial pioneer on soil, new to North America. - Evansia, 37(1): 15–19. .
Gregorella humida was found in western Oregon, U.S.A. This is a new genus and species for North America, with both fertile and sterile collections. An ITS sequence demonstrated its affinity with European material. This minute, granular to branchedgranular cyanobacterial lichen is a pioneer on recently disturbed soil. The species was previously known from Fennoscandia, the U.K., continental Europe, and Turkey. Key words. Cyanolichens, ITS, Moelleropsis, Oregon, pioneer species.
32349Leavitt S.D. & Smith B. (2020): Baseline population density estimates of ‘Wyoming range lichens’ (Xanthoparmelia wyomingica) relative to mountain goats in the La Sal Mountains, Utah, USA. - Evansia, 37(1): 1–6. .
The La Sal Mountains in eastern Utah, USA, contain the only alpine habitat on the Colorado Plateau in Utah. These unique sky island alpine communities are vulnerable to a wide range of disturbances, including factors associated with the recent introduction of mountain goats (O. americanus). In order to monitor the potential impact of O. americanus, and other disturbances on alpine communities in the La Sals, we provide baseline estimate population densities for ‘Wyoming range lichens’ (Xanthoparmelia wyomingica) at two sites near Mount Laurel. Using the point-centered quarter and the quartered-neighbor methods, we estimate ca. 20 individuals/m2 at both sites. These estimates provide an important baseline for long-term monitoring of vulnerable alpine sites on the Colorado Plateau. Key words. Alpine habitats, Biomonitoring, climate change, Colorado Plateau, distance methods, disturbance.
32348吴园园, 高静, 赵润康, 陈庆芝, 柳燕云, 张佳林, 刘晓迪, 康志娟, 刘爱琴, 刘华杰 [Wu Y.-Y., Gao J., Zhao R.-K., Chen Q.-Z., Liu Y.-Y., Zhang J.-L., Liu X.-D., Kang Z.-J., Liu A.-Q. & Liu H.-J.] (2020): 黑龙江呼中自然保护区高山珊瑚枝假果柄不同部位的元素组成 [Element compositions in different parts of pseudopodetia of Stereocaulon alpinum from Huzhong Natural Reserve, Heilongjiang, China]. - 生命科学研究灾 [Life Science Research], 24(1): 39–46. .
[in Chinese with English abstract: ] Lichen element compositions are a reliable and effective tool for biomonitoring atmospheric element deposition. The lichen age effect is one of the important factors influencing lichen element concentrations. However, this effect is not fully understood for terricolous fruticose lichens. Herein, samples of a fruticose lichen Stereocaulon alpinum from a remote site of Huzhong Natural Reserve, Greater Khingan Mountains of Heilongjiang Province were collected. Fifty-five elements (Ag, Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Dy, Er, Eu, Fe, Gd, Ge, Hg, Ho, K, La, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nb, Nd, Ni, P, Pb, Pr, Rb, S, Sb, Sc, Se, Si, Sm, Sn, Sr, Tb, Th, Ti, Tl, Tm, U, V, Y, Yb, and Zn) were measured and their differences among 3 parts (apical, middle, and base parts) of the pseudopodetia were compared in order to examine the effect of different parts of lichen and elements on lichen element accumulations in the uncontaminated ecological environment. The results showed that concentrations of all elements were in the range of the reported background/baseline values, suggesting a low degree of atmospheric element deposition in the study site. Concentrations of most elements with limited metabolic significance were generally the highest at base part, suggesting a continuous bioaccumulation and a low degree of translocation in the lichen thalli. Concentrations of some nutrients showed little differences among the different parts, or were higher in the apical part than in the middle part. These results suggest a nutrient translocation from the older parts to the younger parts of pseudopodetia. Therefore, in lichen biomonitoring studies, specific parts of lichen should be taken into account based on the interested elements, and to ensure the comparability of data among different surveys, the same parts of the thallus should be selected. Key words: Stereocaulon; element concentration; biomonitoring; atmospheric deposition; fruticose lichens.
32347Ekanayaka A.H., Hyde K.D., Jones E.B.G., Zhao Q. & Bulgakov T.S. (2019): New and known discolichens from Asia and eastern Europe. - Asian Journal of Mycology, 2(1): 48–86. Doi 10.5943/ajom/2/1/2.
In the present study, lichenized discomycete taxa collected from northern Thailand, southern China, the UK, Ukraine and Russia are documented. Taxonomic studies of these taxa were carried out using both morphology and molecular data. Their phylogenetic relationships were inferred using LSU rDNA and ITS rDNA sequence data or combined analysis of these gene regions. Twelve lichenized discomycete taxa are reported in this paper including three new species (viz. Bacidia subareolata, Buellia sublauri-cassiae and Letrouitia magenta) and one reference species (Letrouitia transgressa). Key words – 3 new species – apothecia – Lecanoromycetes – phylogeny – taxonomy – thallus.
32346Cataldo D. & Minissale P. (2013): I licheni terricoli degli ambienti semiaridi costieri di Vendicari area protetta della Sicilia sud-orientale. - Notiziario della Società Lichenologica Italiana, 26: 63–77. .
32345Cataldo D. & Minissale P. (2015): The lichens in a relic wood of Juniperus turbinata Guss. (Pinales Cupressaceae) with a new record for Sicily. - Biodiversity Journal, 6(4): 795–802. .
This paper regards a research conducted on terrestrial and epiphytic lichen flora growing in an extensive juniper bush, Juniperus turbinata Guss. (Pinales Cupressaceae), in southeast Sicily. The flora recorded, although small in number, 29 species in all, includes several species quite rare in Italy or Sicily. One in particular, Heppia adglutinata (Kremp.) A. Massal. is new for Sicily and it is however rather rare in the Mediterranean area. Some considerations about the distribution and ecology of the found species are done. Key words: Epiphytic lichens; terrestrial lichens; Heppia adglutinata; juniper woodland; Mediterranean.
32344Widhelm T.J. (2019): Phylogenomic Systematics of Lichenized Fungi at Multiple Taxonomic Levels. - Thesis, Submitted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Biological Sciences in the Graduate College of the University of Illinois at Chicago, 245 p. .
Our study provides an important case study highlighting the importance of considering independent lines of evidence and analytical approaches for effectively delimiting species in taxonomically challenging groups. An integrative approach incorporating phenotypic characters (secondary metabolite variation, differences in reproductive strategies, and conidial size), analyses of molecular sequence data using Bayesian clustering, ML and BI phylogenetic inference and a coalescent­based species­tree method, and empirical species delimitation analysis in BP&P, provides unprecedented insight into species boundaries and evolutionary relationships in the P. perforatum group. We approached the delimitation of species in two ways. The first employed the Bayesian clustering algorithm STRUCTURE to infer putative populations. This approach was congruent with the concatenated phylogeny, inferring three populations that corresponded with the three major clades A, B, and C (Figure 16). Individuals were then assigned to their population for inferring a *BEAST species tree. This tree was used as a starting topology in BP&P for species delimitation. The three­species scenario was highly supported by all analysis methods (Figure 16). The second approach used a six­species scenario assigning individuals to their traditional circumscribed species to infer a *BEAST species tree (Figure 18). This topology was used as a starting tree in the BP&P species delimitation. This approach supported the distinctiveness of the traditionally recognized taxa P. perforatum, P. hypotropum, P. subrigidum and P. louisianae, while P. preperforatum and P. hypoleucinum were found to be conspecific. Although our results highlight the fact that secondary metabolite variation and differences in reproductive mode can serve as taxonomically relevant characters in Parmotrema, traditional species pair concepts and chemotaxonomy are not reflected in evolutionary relationships. Before secondary chemistry was integrated into the taxonomic treatment of the P. perforatum group, only two species, Parmelia perforata (apotheciate­fertile) and P. hypotropa (sorediate­sterile) were recognized as distinct, based solely on reproductive strategy. However, inclusion of secondary chemical data revealed six diagnosable populations. Culberson (1973) discussed what he considered to be the best taxonomic treatment of species in the P. perforatum group and claimed that all the chemical races of the apotheciate morph were sister species, each with a sorediate counterpart considered a secondary species. Based on this interpretation, he described a number of new species (Culberson 1973)⁠. By incorporating multilocus sequence data, we have added another valuable resource for species delimitation
32343Střelbová M. (2017): Makrolišejníky modřínových porostů na Rokycansku. - Bakalářská práce, Západočeská univerzita v Plzni, Fakulta pedagogická, Centrum biologie, geověd a envigogiky , 60 p + 11 fig.. .
The aim of this study was to explore the diversity of macrolichens in the larch plantations at selected localities in the Rokycany region. By field research, I have detected 48 taxa of macrolichens, which confirms fact, that larch is a exceptional substrate among our woody plants. In addition to common species, a number of endangered species (23) and rare species such as Bryoria capillaris, Flavoparmelia soredians, Nephromopsis laureri, Parmelia barrenoae, Usnea glabrata, U. wasmuthii and two species not yet published from the Czech Republic have been found – Hypotrachyna afrorevoluta and Punctelia borreri. A comparison of recorded species with literature data from our territory and neighboring countries is also included in the study. This work is the first study focused on the lichen recolonisation on larch in the Czech Republic
32342Reding J. (2019): Rock Climbing or Lichen Climbing? How Rock Climbing Impacts Bryophyte and Lichen Communities Within the Red River Gorge. - Thesis Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Science in the Graduate School of The Ohio State University, 99 p. .
Outdoor recreation has consistently been one of America’s greatest pastimes. Recently, the development of rock climbing areas has increased, becoming a $3.8 million industry in the Red River Gorge, Kentucky. This development has been shown to have differing levels of effects on the biota on cliff faces, with difficulty isolating natural effects to anthropogenic ones. The goals of this study are: 1) to determine the best practices of different abundance acquisition methods, determine if they can sense a disturbance gradient, and compare them to in-situ visual estimation, and 2) determine how rock climbing impacts cryptogamic abundance, species richness, and community composition while controlling for environmental factors. Accurately estimating vegetative abundance is a cornerstone of many ecological studies and a variety of methods to collect such data have been developed. In certain situations, for instance determining cryptogam abundance on rock surfaces, study sites can be difficult to access. Determining the best method to use when estimating abundance is an important part of collecting accurate data, gaining data in an efficient way, and limiting exposure to hazardous terrain. Because of this, it is important to understand the different types of methods available and how they compare to one another. Due to the increase in the popularity of rock climbing, understanding the impact of rock climbing is increasingly important, which requires abundance, species richness, and community composition data of cryptogamic communities on rock surfaces. Abundance was estimated using four different approaches: 1) visual cover estimation (total life-form and species-specific cover); 2) visual estimation of total cover from quadrat photographs; 3) unsupervised classification of quadrat photographs using the Interface Definition Language program Environment for Visualizing Images (ENVI); and 4) chlorophyll florescence using a Hansatech pocket PEA. The climbing use intensity, heat load index, and microtopographic variation were estimated for each quadrat. When comparing cover estimation methods, the ENVI method was the most strongly predictive of field visual estimation (R2 = 0.67), closely followed by visual photographic methods (R2 = 0.60). Chlorophyll florescence was not predictive of field visual methods (R2 = 0.09) but provided important insight to the presence of photosynthetic material not visible to the human eye. In-situ visual abundance, photographic visual abundance, and ENVI methods all detected significant differences in abundance across the climbing disturbance gradient. Community composition was significantly impacted (P < 0.01) by rock-climbing, the vertical resource gradient, climbing use intensity, microtopographic variation and heat load. Climbing impact interacted with the vertical resource gradient and the largest impacts on cryptogam abundance were seen at higher elevations on the routes. To minimize the impact of rock climbing, route establishers should avoid bolting to the top of the cliff face, climbers should avoid “topping out”, and climbers should climb as close the line of bolts (or guidebook depicted center of route) as possible
32341Sieteiglesias V., Gonzalez-Burgos E., Bermejo-Bescoś P., Divakar P.K.& Goḿez-Serranillos M.P. (2019): Lichens of Parmelioid Clade as Promising Multitarget Neuroprotective Agents. - Chem. Res. Toxicol., 32: 1165−1177. DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemrestox.9b00010.
Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease are multifactorial disorders which are increasing in incidence and prevalence over the world without existing effective therapies. The search for new multitarget compounds is the latter therapeutic strategy to address these pathological conditions. Lichens have an important and unknown therapeutic value attributed to their unique secondary metabolites. The aim of this study is to evaluate for the first time the in vitro neuroprotective activities and molecular mechanisms underlying methanol extracts of lichens of the parmelioid clade and to characterize major bioactive secondary metabolites responsible for their pharmacological actions. Of the 15 parmelioid lichen species, our results showed that Parmotrema perlatum and Hypotrachyna formosana methanol extracts exhibited high antioxidant activity as evidenced in ORAC, DPPH, and FRAP assays. Then, SH-SY5Y cells were pretreated with methanol extracts (24 h) followed by Fenton reagent exposure (2 h). Pretreatments with these two more antioxidant methanol lichen extracts increased cell viability, reduced intracellular ROS, prevented oxidative stress biomarkers accumulation, and upregulated antioxidant enzyme (CAT, SOD, GR, and GPx) activity compared to Fenton reagent cells. The neuroprotective activity was much higher for H. formosana than for P. perlatum, even equal to or higher than Trolox (reference compound). Moreover, H. formosana extracts inhibited both AChE and BuChE activities in a concentration dependent manner, and P. perlatum only showed concentration dependent activity against AChE. Finally, chemical composition analysis using TLC and HPLC methods revealed that physodic acid, lividic acid, and lichexanthone are major secondary metabolites in H. formosana and stictic acid and constictic acid are in P. perlatum. These results demonstrated that P. perlatum and, specially, H. formosana are promising multitargeted neuroprotective agents due to their antioxidant and AChE and BuChE inhibition activities
32340Backhaus T., Meeßen J., Demets R., Vera J.P. de & Ott S. (2019): Characterization of Viability of the Lichen Buellia frigida After 1.5 Years in Space on the International Space Station. - Astrobiology, 19(2): 233–241. DOI: 10.1089/ast.2018.1894.
The lichen Buellia frigida was exposed to space and simulated Mars analog conditions in the BIOlogy and Mars EXperiment (BIOMEX) project operated outside the International Space Station (ISS) for 1.5 years. To de- termine the effects of the low Earth orbit (LEO) conditions on the lichen symbionts, a LIVE/DEAD staining analysis test was performed. After return from the ISS, the lichen symbionts demonstrated mortality rates of up to 100% for the algal symbiont and up to 97.8% for the fungal symbiont. In contrast, the lichen symbiont controls exhibited mortality rates of 10.3% up to 31.9% for the algal symbiont and 14.5% for the fungal symbiont. The results performed in the BIOMEX Mars simulation experiment on the ISS indicate that the potential for survival and the resistance of the lichen B. frigida to LEO conditions are very low. It is unlikely that Mars could be inhabited by this lichen, even for a limited amount of time, or even not habitable planet for the tested lichen symbionts. Key Words: Astrobiology—BIOMEX—Lichen—Space conditions—Mars analog conditions. Astrobiology 19, 233–241.The lichen Buellia frigida was exposed to space and simulated Mars analog conditions in the BIOlogy and Mars EXperiment (BIOMEX) project operated outside the International Space Station (ISS) for 1.5 years. To de- termine the effects of the low Earth orbit (LEO) conditions on the lichen symbionts, a LIVE/DEAD staining analysis test was performed. After return from the ISS, the lichen symbionts demonstrated mortality rates of up to 100% for the algal symbiont and up to 97.8% for the fungal symbiont. In contrast, the lichen symbiont controls exhibited mortality rates of 10.3% up to 31.9% for the algal symbiont and 14.5% for the fungal symbiont. The results performed in the BIOMEX Mars simulation experiment on the ISS indicate that the potential for survival and the resistance of the lichen B. frigida to LEO conditions are very low. It is unlikely that Mars could be inhabited by this lichen, even for a limited amount of time, or even not habitable planet for the tested lichen symbionts. Key Words: Astrobiology, BIOMEX, Lichen, Space conditions, Mars analog conditions
32339Abas A., Sulaiman N., Adnan N.R., Aziz S.A. & Nawang W.N.S.W. (2019): Using Lichen (Dirinaria sp.) as Bio-Indicator for Airborne Heavy Metal at Selected Industrial Areas in Malaysia. - Environment Asia, 12(3): 85–90. DOI 10.14456/ea.2019.48.
In Malaysia, air pollution still measured using instrumental approach. Hence, this study used lichen as biological indicator to assess air pollution. Study has been conducted in four different locations which are Rumah Tumbuhan, UKM (Control station), Section 51 Industrial Area, Petaling Jaya, Spring Crest Industrial Area, Batu Caves and Nilai Industrial Area, Negeri Sembilan. This study used lichen Dirinaria sp.; an endemic species of tropical country; as the biological indicator. Heavy metal concentrations in lichen samples been analyzed using ICP-OES and number of motor vehicles were recorded for every sampling location. One way ANOVA and Pearson’s correlation used to test the relationship between heavy metals and sampling locations also relationship between heavy metals and motor vehicles. Result shows that heavy metals such as Cr, Fe, Cu, Ni, Zn and Pb have been recorded. One way ANOVA test shows there is significant relationship between heavy metals and sampling locations where F is 2.7728 and P value is 0.0001 (99% significant level). Pearson’s correlation also shows the relationships between all recorded heavy metals with number of motor vehicles where all the P value is < 0.05. This study found that lichen can be used as the alternative approach in determining the heavy metals content in the environment and it also cheaper and time saving rather than using instrumental approach. Heavy metals; Lichen; Air pollution; Environment; Urban ecosystem
32338Abas A., Awang A. & Aiyub K. (2019): Analysis of heavy metal concentration using transplanted lichen Usnea misaminensis at Kota Kinabalu, Sabah (Malaysia). - Applied Ecology and Environmental Research, 18(1): 1175–1182. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15666/aeer/1801_11751182.
Heavy metals were emitted from motor vehicles and industries as part of the effects of rapid urbanization. This study aims to measure the heavy metal concentrations (Cu, Fe, Zn, Pb, Mn, Cr) at Kota Kinabalu, Sabah using transplanted lichen. Samples of Usnea misaminensis were transplanted to the environment of the urban area. The lichen was collected from Mt. Kinabalu Park which is a remote area. Fifteen sampling stations were selected and transplanted lichens were exposed to heavy metals in those stations for about 4-6 weeks. Exposed lichens were analyzed using the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to determine the concentration of heavy metals in each sample. One-way ANOVA also has been used to test whether there is significant variation between heavy metals concentration at Kota Kinabalu, Sabah. The result showed that iron (Fe) has the highest concentration with 84.43 μg/g and chromium (Cr) has the lowest concentration with 0.66 μg/g. A statistical One-way ANOVA test showed that there is a significant variation between heavy metal frequency with P-value is 0.0000 < 0.05. A Tukey test also revealed that Fe has significantly higher concentration compare to the others. These findings prove that the increasing number of motor vehicles will also elevate the concentration of heavy metals in the atmosphere. Transplanted lichen can be the alternative approach in assessing air pollution in Malaysia’s urban area. lichen, air pollution, urban ecosystem, applied ecology, environmental management, Malaysia
32337Abas A., Khalid R.M., Rosandy A.R. & Sulaiman N. (2019): Lichens of Pulau Pangkor, Perak, Malaysia. - The Malaysian Forester, 82 (1): 59–66. .
A total of 12 species of lichens was recorded from the coastal areas of Teluk Nipah, Pulau Pangkor, Perak. The species are Buellia curatellae Malme, Dirinaria confluens (Fr.) D.D. Awasthi, Dirinaria picta (Sw.) Schaer. ex Clem., Chrysothrix xanthina (Vain.) Kalb, Cryptothecia striata G. Thor., Ocellularia perforata (Leight.) Müll. Arg., Parmotrema praesorediosum (Nyl.) Hale, Phaeographis intricans (Nyl.) Staiger, Pyxine berteriana (Fée) Imshaug, Pyrenula pyrenuloides (Mont.) R. C. Harris and Sarcographa labyrinthica (Ach.) Müll. Arg. Lichen, Pangkor Island, symbiotic organism, island ecosystem, environment
32336Rimondi V., Benesperi R., Beutel M.W., Chiarantini L., Costagliola P., Lattanzi P., Medas D. & Morelli G. (2020): Monitoring of airborne mercury: Comparison of different techniques in the Monte Amiata district, southern Tuscany, Italy. - International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(7): 2353 [10 p.] doi:10.3390/ijerph17072353. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072353.
In the present study, mercury (Hg) concentrations were investigated in lichens (Flavoparmelia caperata (L.) Hale, Parmelia saxatilis (L.) Ach., and Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th.Fr.) collected in the surrounding of the dismissed Abbadia San Salvatore Hg mine (Monte Amiata district, Italy). Results were integrated with Hg concentrations in tree barks and literature data of gaseous Hg levels determined by passive air samplers (PASs) in the same area. The ultimate goal was to compare results obtained by the three monitoring techniques to evaluate potential mismatches. Lichens displayed 180–3600 ng/g Hg, and Hg concentrations decreased exponentially with distance from the mine. Mercury concentration was lower than in Pinus nigra barks at the same site. There was a moderate correlation between Hg in lichen and Hg in bark, suggesting similar mechanisms of Hg uptake and residence times. However, correlation with published gaseous Hg concentrations (PASs) was moderate at best (Kendall Tau = 0.4–0.5, p > 0.05). The differences occurred because a) PASs collected gaseous Hg, whereas lichens and barks also picked up particulate Hg, and b) lichens and bark had a dynamic exchange with the atmosphere. Lichen, bark, and PAS outline different and complementary aspects of airborne Hg content and efficient monitoring programs in contaminated areas would benefit from the integration of data from different techniques. Keywords: biomonitoring; airborne pollutants; particulate Hg; lichens; tree barks; passive air samplers; mining area.
32335Dengler J., Matthews T.J., Steinbauer M.J., Wolfrum S., Boch S., Chiarucci A., Conradi T., Dembicz I., Marcenò C., García‐Mijangos I., Nowak A., Storch D., Ulrich W., Campos J.A., Cancellieri L., Carboni M., Ciaschetti G., De Frenne P., Dolezal J., Dolnik C., Essl F., Fantinato E., Filibeck G., Grytnes J., Guarino R., Güler B., Janišová M., Klichowska E., Kozub Ł., Kuzemko A., Manthey M., Mimet A., Naqinezhad A., Pedersen C., Peet R.K., Pellissier V., Pielech R., Potenza G., Rosati L., Terzi M., Valkó O., Vynokurov D., White H., Winkler M. & Biurrun I. (2020): Species–area relationships in continuous vegetation: Evidence from Palaearctic grasslands. - Journal of Biogeography, 47: 72–86. https://doi.org/10.1111/jbi.13697.
Aim: Species–area relationships (SARs) are fundamental scaling laws in ecology although their shape is still disputed. At larger areas, power laws best represent SARs. Yet, it remains unclear whether SARs follow other shapes at finer spatial grains in continuous vegetation. We asked which function describes SARs best at small grains and explored how sampling methodology or the environment influence SAR shape. Location: Palaearctic grasslands and other non‐forested habitats. Taxa: Vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens. Methods: We used the GrassPlot database, containing standardized vegetation‐plot data from vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens spanning a wide range of grassland types throughout the Palaearctic and including 2,057 nested‐plot series with at least seven grain sizes ranging from 1 cm2 to 1,024 m2. Using nonlinear regression, we assessed the appropriateness of different SAR functions (power, power quadratic, power breakpoint, logarithmic, Michaelis–Menten). Based on AICc, we tested whether the ranking of functions differed among taxonomic groups, methodological settings, biomes or vegetation types. Results: The power function was the most suitable function across the studied taxonomic groups. The superiority of this function increased from lichens to bryophytes to vascular plants to all three taxonomic groups together. The sampling method was highly influential as rooted presence sampling decreased the performance of the power function. By contrast, biome and vegetation type had practically no influence on the superiority of the power law. Main conclusions: We conclude that SARs of sessile organisms at smaller spatial grains are best approximated by a power function. This coincides with several other comprehensive studies of SARs at different grain sizes and for different taxa, thus supporting the general appropriateness of the power function for modelling species diversity over a wide range of grain sizes. The poor performance of the Michaelis– Menten function demonstrates that richness within plant communities generally does not approach any saturation, thus calling into question the concept of minimal area. Key words: logarithmic function, Michaelis–Menten function, minimal area, nested‐plot sampling, nonlinear regression, Palaearctic grassland, plant biodiversity, power law, scaling law, species– area relationship (SAR).
32334Materna J. (2000): Oribatid communities (Acari: Oribatida) inhabiting saxicolous mosses and lichens in the Krkonoše Mts. (Czech Republic). - Pedobiologia, 44: 40–62. .
Key words: Saxicolous mosses and lichens, altitudinal gradient, Oribatida, mountain fauna, community structure.
32333Wagner B. (2018): Lišejníky NPP Jánský vrch u Mostu (SZ Čechy) [Lichens of Jánský vrch Natural Monument near Most (NW Bohemia)]. - Severočeskou přírodou, 50: 91–94. .
A lichenological survey was performed in period 2011-2013. Key words: České středohoří, lichen flora, basaltic tuff, Dimelaena oreina, diversity.
32332Wagner B. (2018): Epifytické lišejníky Dlouhého vrchu u Litoměřic (severní Čechy) [Epiphytic lichens of the hill Dlouhý vrch near Litoměřice (Northem Bohemia)]. - Severočeskou přírodou, 50: 95–102. .
This paper shows recolonization of epiphytic lichens in economic forest and neighbouring pasture. Dlouhý vrch near Litoměřice lies in height 350 to 677 m above sea Jeve! and has seven main hilltops. Spruces trees, oak trees, pine vegetation, beech trees and mixed forest takes turn into rngged terrain. On the forest edges were found the most interesting species of epiphytic lichens. Probably these species are new for the territory České středohoří (Flavoparmelia caperata, Lecanora populicola, Parmelina tinctina, Punctelia jeckeri, Ramalina farinacea). Inside the forest the most interesting lichens were growing on larches (Usnea subfloridana, U. scabrata, U. dasypoga and other). In total, 50 species of epihytic and lignicolous lichens were recorded on the area about 10km2. Key words: České středohoří, Dlouhý vrch, epiphytic lichens, Flavoparmelia caperata, Usnea scabrata.
32331Wagner B. & Ondráček Č. (2018): Nové lokality lišejníku Evernia divaricata v severozápadních Čechách. - Severočeskou přírodou, 50: 72. .
32330Špryňar P., Palice Z. & Soldán Z. (2014): Za mechorosty, lišejníky a cévnatými rostlinami z Karlštejna do Srbska [Botanical excursion from Karlštejn to Srbsko (bryophytes, lichens and vascular plants)]. - Český kras, 40: 33–40. .
Report on excursion; [in Czech with English abstract: ] Two spring botanical excursions in 2013 (on April 6th and May 25th) were aimed to explore a less-known area between the villages of Karlštejn and Srbsko on the right bank of the Berounka River (Central Bohemia). At the beginning we examined ruderal grasslands and man-made habitats near the Karlštejn railway station with many synanthropic plant species. Among others, we recorded common occurrence of an endangered species Saxifraga tridactylites. Then we moved to the Silurian diabase outcrops east of Krupná. In the steppe grasslands, some endangered species were found: lichens Cladonia cariosa, C. peziziformis, C. symphycarpa, moss Tortella squarrosa (syn. Pleurochate squarrosa), flowering plants Bothriochloa ischaemum, Cerastium brachypetalum subsp. brachypetalum, C. pumilum, Lactuca perennis, Medicago minima, Pulsatilla pratensis subsp. bohemica etc. The next locality was situated on Devonian limestone rocks along the railway toward the Srbsko village. Forty-five years ago, this area was proposed (but not established yet) as a nature protected area called „Na Vanovicích“, distinguished by rich vegetation and flora. North-facing rocky slopes are covered with Sesleria caerulea-dominated grasslands, with occurrence of Saxifraga paniculata and Dianthus gratianopolitanus. On the other hand, the dry and warm south- and west-facing slopes are the stands of steppe grasslands Festucion valesiacae with Stipa pennata, Carex humilis, Erysimum crepidifolium, Potentilla incana (syn. P. arenaria) etc. We confirmed also the occurrence of critically endangered Pontic Dragonhead (Dracocephalum austriacum) and strongly endangered species Thesium bavarum, Silene nemoralis and Helianthemum canum. Our find of the endangered lichen species Xanthoria sorediata became the first record for the Bohemian Karst. Then we climbed down to the Myší rokle ravine. This damp and shady habitat is an important stand of lichens (e.g., Gyalecta subclausa, Acrocordia conoidea, Porina linearis, new and noteworthy records for the Bohemian Karst) as well as mosses (e.g., vulnerable moss Seligeria pusilla). After that, we visited the abandoned limestone quarry „Tomáškův lom“, which is an excellent example of natural restoration via ecological succession. One of our last botanical records was the strongly endangered species Saxifraga rosacea subsp. sponhemica growing on the railway embankment in the Srbsko village. In the whole, we recorded 60 taxa of lichens, 58 taxa of bryophytes and 278 taxa of vascular plants.
32329Ondráček Č. & Wagner B. (2017): Stereocaulon alpinum – druhá lokalita v Krušných horách. - Severočeskou přírodou, 49: 130. .
32328Yavuz M. & Çobanoğlu G. (2019): A biomonitoring study on Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th.Fr. in Isparta, Turkey. - Oltenia. Studii şi comunicări. Ştiinţele Naturii, 35(1): 71–80. .
This study aims at determining air quality and potential pollutant sources in Isparta, as well as Gölcük Nature Park, through lichen biomonitoring. The specimens of cosmopolite epiphytic foliose lichen Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th.Fr were sampled from 8 localities in the study area and analysed in an ICP – MS device with reference material, in order to detect Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn elements. The distribution of these airborne elements in the study area was mapped spatially. The results indicate that the elemental sequence of average concentrations measured is Ni > V > Cr > Fe > As > Cu > Al > Zn > Mn > Cd > Pb. Cluster analysis results of the elemental data indicate a strong correlation of the major 3 contaminants in the urban area, which are Ni, V, and Cr. The lichen specimens accumulated maximal concentrations of Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni, Zn within the Nature Park, the rest of the elements in northern and the eastern localities surrounding the city. The elemental pollution in Isparta is higher than expected due to extensive use of coal as fossil fuel in the city, and it seems to be associated with topographic and climatic characteristics of the city. Keywords: airborne elements, lichen, biomonitoring, Isparta.
32327Vicol I. (2019): A review of the distribution of the Mycomicrothelia Keissl. 1936 genus in Romania. - Oltenia. Studii şi comunicări. Ştiinţele Naturii, 35(1): 81–85. .
Recent data on the Mycomicrothelia genus chorology have not been reported for Romania. The information found in literature revealed a low distribution of the Mycomicrothelia genus on Romanian territory. Atmospheric pollution could be a cause of the lack of species belonging to the Mycomicrothelia genus within forests from Romania. In this paper, the worldwide and national chorological data, substrate, taxonomy and cenotaxonomy of Mycomicrothelia genus are presented. As the main conclusion, the Mycomicrothelia genus has not been identified on an extended area from Romania. Keywords: Mycomicrothelia genus, chorology, Romania.
32326Zárate-Arias N., Moreno-Palacios M. & Torres-Benítez A. (2019): Diversidad, especificidad de forófito y preferencias microambientales de líquenes cortícolas de un bosque subandino en la región Centro de Colombia. Diversity, phorophyte specificity and microenvironmental preferences of corticolous lichens in a sub-Andean forest in the Centro region of Colombia. - Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales, 43(169): 737–745. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.18257/raccefyn.886.
Our study aimed at contributing to the knowledge of the composition and diversity, phorophyte specificity, and microenvironmental preferences of corticolous lichens from a forest in the sub-Andean Centro region of Colombia (Ibague-Tolima). We selected 25 individuals from five tree species. We estimated the coverage percentage of each species of lichen and identified the microsite parameters (bark pH and diameter at breast height, DBH), as well as the microclimatic variables (temperature, humidity, and radiation). We estimated the richness and the alpha diversity and we applied multivariate analysis to establish the phorophyte-lichen and lichen-environmental condition relationships. We recorded 21 species grouped in eight families and 14 genera. Arthoniaceae was the family with the greatest coverage and Physciaceae the one with the greatest richness. The most abundant species was Bacidia spp. Trichilia pallida phorophyte had the highest richness and diversity, while Cecropia angustifolia was the most dominant species of lichen. Except Leptogium hanum, which was found in two phorophytes, the other species preferred one single phorophyte. The pH, light intensity, temperature, and DAP were positively correlated to the establishment of lichens. We registered a significant diversity that opens the way to new research useful for preserving these strategic ecosystems of the Andean region in Colombia. Keywords: Lichens; phorophytes; microclimatic; microsite; diversity.
32325Shivarov V.V. (2017): First records of lichenicolous species from the Bulgarian freshwater habitats. - Phytologia Balcanica, 23(3): 349–353. http://www.bio.bas.bg/~phytolbalcan/PDF/23_3/PhytolBalcan_23-3_04_Shivarov.pdf.
Placopyrenium cinereoatratum and Stigmidium rivulorum, lichenicolous lichen and fungus, respectively, are reported for the first time from Bulgaria. Both species are rare or otherwise overlooked worldwide. Descriptions, comments, and illustrations based on Bulgarian specimens are provided. Key words: Bulgaria, freshwater fungi, Mycosphaerellaceae, Pirin Mts, Verrucariaceae.
32324Tzonev R., Valachovič M., Ganeva A., Berešová A., Popgeorgiev G., Gussev C. & Fačkovcová Z. (2019): Low-altitudinal siliceous and base-rich screes: new habitats to Bulgaria from the Habitats Directive. - Phytologia Balcanica, 25(3): 287–294. http://www.bio.bas.bg/~phytolbalcan/PDF/25_3/PhytolBalcan_25-3_07_Tzonev_&_al.pdf.
The study presents recent data on the distribution of two new chasmophytic habitats to Bulgaria. They are low-altitudinal siliceous screes distributed mostly in South Bulgaria, and calcareous screes found mostly in the northern part of the country. Their main characteristics, as well as many typical vascular plants, mosses and lichens are given in the paper. The habitats are included in the Habitats Directive under the names 8150 Medio-European upland siliceous screes and 8160* Medio-European calcareous screes at hill and montane levels. This was the reason to make an attempt at calculating their representativeness in the existing NATURA 2000 sites in Bulgaria by means of field researches, GIS models from the Forestry Database and mapping. Key words: acidic and calcareous geological background, chasmophytic vegetation, NATURA 2000.
32323Potkay A., ten Veldhuis M.‐C., Fan Y., Mattos C.R.C., Ananyev G. & Dismukes G.C. (2020): Water and vapor transport in algal‐fungal lichen: Modeling constrained by laboratory experiments, an application for Flavoparmelia caperata. - Plant, Cell & Environment, 43(4): 945–964. https://doi.org/10.1111/pce.13690.
Algal‐fungal symbionts share water, nutrients, and gases via an architecture unique to lichens. Because lichen activity is controlled by moisture dynamics, understanding water transport is prerequisite to understand their fundamental biology. We propose a model of water distributions within foliose lichens governed by laws of fluid motion. Our model differentiates between water stored in symbionts, on extracellular surfaces, and in distinct morphological layers. We parameterize our model with hydraulic properties inverted from laboratory measurements of Flavoparmelia caperata and validate for wetting and drying. We ask: (1) Where is the bottleneck to water transport? (2) How do hydration and dehydration dynamics differ? and (3) What causes these differences? Resistance to vapor flow is concentrated at thallus surfaces and acts as the bottleneck for equilibrium, while internal resistances are small. The model captures hysteresis in hydration and desiccation, which are shown to be controlled by nonlinearities in hydraulic capacitance. Muting existing nonlinearities slowed drying and accelerated wetting, while exaggerating nonlinearities accelerated drying and slowed wetting. The hydraulic nonlinearity of F. caperata is considerable, which may reflect its preference for humid and stable environments. The model establishes the physical foundation for future investigations of transport of water, gas, and sugar between symbionts. Keywords: Flavoparmelia caperata; Symbiosis; hydraulic limitations; lichen; modeling; water relations.
32322Li A.-H., Yuan F.-X., Groenewald M., Bensch K., Yurkov A.M., Li K., Han P.-J., Guo L.-D., Aime M.C., Sampaio J.P., Jindamorakot S., Turchetti B., Inacio J., Fungsin B., Wang Q.-M. & Bai F.-Y. (2020): Diversity and phylogeny of basidiomycetous yeasts from plant leaves and soil: Proposal of two new orders, three new families, eight new genera and one hundred and seven new species. - Studies in Mycology, 96: 17–140. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.simyco.2020.01.002.
Nearly 500 basidiomycetous yeast species were accepted in the latest edition of The Yeasts: A Taxonomic Study published in 2011. However, this number presents only the tip of the iceberg of yeast species diversity in nature. Possibly more than 99 % of yeast species, as is true for many groups of fungi, are yet unknown and await discovery. Over the past two decades nearly 200 unidentified isolates were obtained during a series of environmental surveys of yeasts in phyllosphere and soils, mainly from China. Among these isolates, 107 new species were identified based on the phylogenetic analyses of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) [D1/D2 domains of the large subunit (LSU), the small subunit (SSU), and the internal transcribed spacer region including the 5.8S rDNA (ITS)] and protein-coding genes [both subunits of DNA polymerase II (RPB1 and RPB2), the translation elongation factor 1-α (TEF1) and the mitochondrial gene cytochrome b (CYTB)], and physiological comparisons. Forty-six of these belong to 16 genera in the Tremellomycetes ( Agaricomycotina ). The other 61 are distributed in 26 genera in the Pucciniomycotina . Here we circumscribe eight new genera, three new families and two new orders based on the multi-locus phylogenetic analyses combined with the clustering optimisation analysis and the predicted similarity thresholds for yeasts and filamentous fungal delimitation at genus and higher ranks. Additionally, as a result of these analyses, three new combinations are proposed and 66 taxa are validated. Key words: Basidiomycetous yeasts, Molecular phylogeny, Species diversity, Taxonomy.
32321Chiarantini L., Rimondi V., Benvenuti M., Beutel M.W., Costagliola P., Gonnelli C., Lattanzi P. & Paolieri M. (2016): Black pine (Pinus nigra) barks as biomonitors of airborne mercury pollution. - Science of the Total Environment, 569–570: 105–113. .
Tree barks are relevant interfaces between plants and the external environment, and can effectively retain airborne particles and elements at their surface. In this paper we have studied the distribution of mercury (Hg) in soils and in black pine (Pinus nigra) barks from the Mt. Amiata Hg district in southern Tuscany (Italy), where past Hg mining and present-day geothermal power plants affect local atmospheric Hg concentration, posing serious environmental concerns. Barks collected in heavily Hg-polluted areas of the district display the highest Hg concentration ever reported in literature (8.6 mg/kg). In comparison, barks of the same species collected in local reference areas and near geothermal power plants showmuch lower (range 19–803 μg/kg) concentrations; even lower concentrations are observed at a “blank” site near the city of Florence (5–98 μg/kg). Results showa general decrease of Hg concentration from bark surface inwards, in accordance with a deposition of airborne Hg, with minor contribution from systemic uptake from soils. Preliminary results indicate that bark Hg concentrations are comparable with values reported for lichens in the same areas, suggesting that tree barks may represent an additional useful tool for biomonitoring of airborne Hg.
32320Vanaja S., Suhashini G., Lakshmi Priya B., Ronaldo Anuf A., Ganesh Moorthy I., Sivakumar N., Al Dhabi N.A., Ponmurugan K. & Shyam Kumar R. (2017): Biology of lichen polysaccharides and its applications – a review. - In: Sivakumar N. & Kannan N.D. (eds), Proceedings of the National Conference on Innovations in Biotechnology [NCIB 2017], School of Biotechnology, MKU, p. 64–75, Nagamalaipudukottai Madurai, Sri Meenakshi Publications. .
[Conference paper] Lichens are symbiotic organisms. The two different organisms involved in the symbiosis is referred as mycobiont which is a fungus and photobiont, which may be an alga or cyanobacteria. Lichens are well known for the production of unique lichen substances, some are potentially useful and biologically active compounds. Traditional and modern techniques were used for isolation and separation of secondary metabolites and polysaccharides from lichens. Freezing and thawing of material in aqueous extract was the traditional methods have been practised for isolation which was followed by dialysis and ethanol precipitation for further purification. Polysaccharides isolated from lichens consist of linear or scarcely substituted α- or β-glucans, galactomannans and few complex heteroglycans. Functions of these polysaccharides mainly depend on the presence of monosaccharides, water solubility, molecular weight, degree of branching, structure and configuration. Monosaccharides of the lichen polysaccharides can be determined using gas chromatography, methylation analysis, 1H and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Lichen polysaccharides exhibits various properties such as anti-tumour, anti-viral, anti-oxidant, immunomodulatory and some biological effects. Lichens have been traditionally used for medicinal purposes throughout the ages, and its benefits have been correlated with their polysaccharide content. In this review, classification of lichens, lichen polysaccharides, extraction and analysis of polysaccharides and its applications were discussed. Keywords: Lichens; Polysaccharides, Galactomannans; Chromatography, NMR spectroscopy; Immunomodulators.
32319Ford M., Blanchon D.J. & de Lange P.J. (2020): Hidden in Plain sight—a new species of lichen Strigula oleistrata (Strigulaceae) from New Zealand. - Trilepidea, 196: 1 & 3–4. .
32318Sierra M.A., Danko D.C., Sandoval T.A., Pishchany G., Moncada B., Kolter R., Mason C.E. & Zambrano M.M. (2020): The microbiomes of seven lichen genera reveal host specificity, a reduced core community and potential as source of antimicrobials . - Frontiers in Microbiology, 11: 398 [12 p.] doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2020.00398. .
The High Andean Paramo ecosystem is a unique neotropical mountain biome considered a diversity and evolutionary hotspot. Lichens, which are complex symbiotic structures that contain diverse commensal microbial communities, are prevalent in Paramos. There they play vital roles in soil formation and mineral fixation. In this study we analyzed the microbiomes of seven lichen genera in Colombian Paramos using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and provide the first description of the bacterial communities associated with Cora and Hypotrachyna lichens. Paramo lichen microbiomes varied in diversity indexes and number of OTUs, but were composed predominantly by the phyla Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia. In the case of Cora and Cladonia, the microbiomes were distinguished based on the identity of the lichen host. While the majority of the lichen-associated microorganisms were not present in all lichens sampled, sixteen taxa shared among this diverse group of lichens suggest a core lichen microbiome that broadens our concept of these symbiotic structures. Additionally, we identified strains producing compounds active against clinically relevant microbial strains. These results indicate that lichen microbiomes from the Paramo ecosystem are diverse and host-specific but share a taxonomic core and can be a source of new bacterial taxa and antimicrobials. Keywords: lichen, microbiome, Paramo ecosystem, antimicrobials, core.
32317Травкин В.П., Корчиков Е.С. & Цуриков А.Г. [Travkin V.P., Korchikov E.S. & Tsurykau A.G.] (2020): Новые находки лишайников и лихенофильных грибов на территории Самарской области [New findings of lichens and lichenicolous fungi on the territory of Samara region]. - Вестник Оренбургского государственного педагогического университета [Vestnik of Orenburg State University], 33(1): 38–47. .
[in Russian with English summary: ] The article provides information on new records of the Samara region red-listed lichen Flavopunctelia soredica in the Trans-Volga territory, as well as on the first records of lichen Strangospora pinicola and lichenicolous fungus Marchandiomyces corallinus within the study area. In Samara region, Flavopunctelia soredica can be found in the Trans-Volga territory in Borskoye, Kinel, Krasnoyarsk, Stavropol districts, and in the city of Samara (Krasnoglinsky city district). Strangospora pinicola was reported in the Trans-Volga territory in the Kinel and Krasnoyarsk districts. Marchandiomyces corallinus was registered in the Trans-Volga territory in Bogatoye, Borskoye, Kinel-Cherkassy and Krasnoyarsk districts. The abundance of Flavopunctelia soredica in the registered localities is constant. The species occurs sporadically and often forms an average projective cover of up to 50% which makes it possible to reassess its conservation status if additional records are found. Genera Strangospora and Marchandiomyces are new for lichen biota of the Samara region. Considering the new records, the lichen biota of Samara region includes 350 species of lichens and 26 species of lichenicolous fungi. Key words: lichens, lichenicolous fungi, Samara region, red-listed species, conservation status.
32316Węgrzyn M.H., Kołodziejczyk J., Fałowska P., Wężyk P., Zięba-Kulawik K., Szostak M., Turowska A., Grzesiak B. & Wietrzyk-Pełka P. (2020): Influence of the environmental factors on the species composition of lichen Scots pine forests as a guide to maintain the community (Bory Tucholskie National Park, Poland). - Global Ecology and Conservation, 22: e01017 [17 p.] https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gecco.2020.e01017. .
Central European lichen Scots pine forests occur in extremely dry and poor sandy areas. This forest type, in terms of phytosociological classification, corresponds to the Cladonio- Pinetum association. This community is protected by European Union’s legislation (Natura 2000 habitat, code 91T0) and needs active protection to be maintained. The presented study was planned based on the conservation activities performed in 2017, which included thinning of the tree stand in selected areas of the lichen Scots pine forest community in the Bory Tucholskie National Park. Thinning effect was documented by the LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data collected in 2017 before thinning and 2018 after thinning. Next we characterized two different forms of Cladonio-Pinetum association (lichen-rich and bryophyte-rich forms) and their relation to local environmental factors. To demonstrate that thinning is beneficial to the lichens we also compared the microclimatic conditions (temperature, humidity and light intensity) in thinned and unthinned areas. Vegetation and organic matter sampling was conducted in 2018 in the 24 sampling plots, each of 100 m2. Microclimatic measurements was done in 2018e2019 in one sampling plots of the thinned area and one additional control plot in the unthinned area. Sampling plots representing lichen-rich community had significantly lower canopy cover, higher number of lichen species, higher lichen cover and lower bryophyte cover in comparison to bryophyte-rich plots. The results showed that the lower canopy cover creates more favorable conditions for the occurrence of lichens, because of increasing the daily amplitudes of temperature, humidity and light intensity. Reduction of the canopy cover may be the easiest method to maintain the lichen pine forests community with high abundance of lichens in the field layer. This is particularly important in relation to the observed disappearance phenomenon of lichen pine forest in Europe. Due to this tendency, it is particularly important to actively protect these plant communities.
32315Santos V.M., Cáceres M.E.S. & Lücking R. (2020): Diversity of foliicolous lichens in isolated montane rainforests (Brejos) of northeastern Brazil and their biogeography in a neotropical context. - Ecological Research, 35: 182–197. .
Foliicolous lichenized fungi (FLF) are widely distributed in tropical forests. The Brazilian Atlantic rainforest, one of the most diverse rainforest biomes, has multiple phyto-physiognomies. Montane forest fragments or forest refuges, so-called “Brejos,” are located within the semiarid Caatinga in Northeast Brazil. Our objective was to determine the FLF diversity within five Brejos and to analyze their biogeographic affinities within the Neotropics. The FLF biota of the Brejos was compared with that of 21 sites belonging to seven other rainforest biomes, ranging from the Atlantic rainforest in Argentina, to montane rainforests in Ecuador, to the Amazonia basin, and rainforests in Central America. One hundred and fifty-six species were identified in the Brejos. This biota is most similar to that of the Atlantic rainforest and eastern Amazonia, while that of western Amazonia is more similar to that of the Andes and rainforests in Central America (Chocó). Multiple species identified in the Brejos have a wide distribution in tropical America, and only 11 are potentially endemic. Few other species have also a restricted distribution. The FLF biota of the Chocó and western Amazon is substantially richer than that of eastern Amazon, the Atlantic rainforest and the Brejos. This suggests that the biota of the latter areas is largely a depauperate subset of the Chocó and the western Amazon region. We argue that the major differences between the two large regions are related to the Pleistocene and Pliocene, when paleoclimatic and geological changes caused the isolation of the Brejos and the temporary fragmentation particularly of eastern Amazonia. Keywords: Fragmentation, Fungi, Lichens, Neotropical rainforests, Palaeo-climate changes.
32314Rastetter V. (1964): Beitrag zur Flechtenflora des Ober-Elsasses. - Mitteilungen des Badischen Landesvereins für Naturkunde und Naturschutz, Freiburg im Breisgau, 8: 621–624. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Mitt-Bad-Landesver-Natkde-Natschutz-Freiburg_NF_8_0621-0624.pdf.
32313Almquist E. (1892): Zur Vegetation Japans mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Lichenen. - Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie, 14: 221–229. .
32312Möllmann G. (1911): Beitrag zur Flechtenflora des Regierungsbezirks Osnabrück . - Jahresbericht des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins Osnabrück, 17: 185–196. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Jber-Natwiss-Ver-Osnabrueck_17_0185-0196.pdf.
32311Boldt C. & Schier T. (1998): Bemerkenswerte Funde epiphytischer Flechten in Hamburg-Altenwerder. - Berichte des Botanischen Vereins zu Hamburg, 18: 109–114. .
32310Oblinger H. (1996): Bartflechten (Usneaceae) im Augsburger Raum . - Berichte des naturwiss. Vereins für Schwaben, Augsburg, 100(3): 55–61. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Ber-Naturwiss-Ver-fuer-Schwaben_100_3_0055-0061.pdf.
32309Oblinger H. (1999): Flechten in und bei Augsburg - vor 100 Jahren (1898) und jetzt (1998) . - Berichte des naturwiss. Vereins für Schwaben, Augsburg, 103: 48–59. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Ber-Naturwiss-Ver-fuer-Schwaben_103_0048-0059.pdf.
32308Bergner W., Hartmann E., Oblinger H. & Seitz W. (1998): Flechtenverbreitung im Augsburger Raum. - Berichte des naturwiss. Vereins für Schwaben, Augsburg, 102: 2–24. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Ber-Naturwiss-Ver-fuer-Schwaben_102_0002-0024.pdf.
32307Döbbeler P. (1980): Phycorella scytonematis (Dothideales), ein neuer Symbiont der Blaualge Scytonema. - Sydowia, 33: 33–38. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Sydowia_33_0033-0038.pdf.
Phycorella scytonematis nov. gen. et sp. (Dothideales) with minute colourless ascomata is described and illustrated. The fungus infects single colls of Scytonema (Cyanophyceae) by haustoria. The symbiosis is interpreted as biotrophic parasitism rather than lichenization, though Scytonema is known as phycobiont in many lichens and lichen-like associations.
32306Notov A.A. (2014): Fruticose lichens: structural diversity, taxonomic characteristics and evolution. - Wulfenia, 21: 21–31. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Wulfenia_21_0021-0031.pdf.
A morphological and taxonomical analysis of fruticose lichens has revealed the main characteristics of their structural diversity. The occurrence rate of the fruticose and similar growth forms in various taxa of the current lichen system has been identified. Various ways of origin have been investigated as well as the main directions of the fruticose growth form evolution. Keywords: lichens, fruticose lichens, growth forms, evolution, biomorphology, morphogenesis, structural diversity.
32305Perez Catán S., Bubach D., Arribére M., Ansaldo M., Kitaura M.J., Scur M.C. & Lirio J.M. (2020): Trace elements baseline levels in Usnea antarctica from Clearwater Mesa, James Ross Island, Antarctica. - Environmental Monitoring and Assessment , 192: 246 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-020-8212-7.
Clearwater Mesa is a pristine area located SE of Croft Bay in James Ross Island, at the northeast of the Antarctic Peninsula. The closest anthropic construction is the summer Mendel station located 25 km to the NE. Clearwater is a remote basalt volcanic mesa, (64° 01′ S, 57° 42′ W) located at ~ 250 m a.s.l., with around 50 small shallow lakes, a well-developed lichens flora and scarce fauna. The mesa offers a good opportunity to use lichens, like Usnea antarctica, as a biomonitor species. The aim of this study was to determine the baseline levels of trace elements in Usnea antarctica and their relationships with geographical parameters and climatological aspects, to use them as reference levels in futures studies. Usnea antarctica was collected in 23 sites in two transects: perpendicular and parallel to the shore. We found high contents of the elements associated with long-distance transport like Sm, La, Sc, Fe, Co, Hg, and Ca. The elements linked to the marine biogenic cycle as Sr, Rb, Cs, K, Na, Sb, As, Se, and Br were less significant. The distance to the sea was the factor that related the element contents. Hg, Se, As, and Br content in Usnea antarctica increased from the inland towards the sea coast. Keywords: Lichen . Biomonitor . Antarctica . Trace elements.
32304Meysurova A.F. & Notov A.A. (2020): Estimated indicator ability of several lichens for ecological monitoring of metals using atomic emission spectral analysis. - Journal of Applied Spectroscopy , 87(1): 83–91. DOI 10.1007/s10812-020-00967-7.
[English translation from the Russian original published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Spektroskopii, Vol. 87, No. 1, pp. 97–107] Distributions of heavy metals and metalloids (HMs) in forest reserves of Tver city districts were studied by ecological monitoring using inductively coupled plasma atomic-emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analysis. A total of 14 HMs were detected in two lichen species (Hypogymnia physodes, Xanthoria parietina); 13, in soil samples. TM spectra were similar in both species at all studied model territories. The TM contents in lichens and soil were different and due to specifi c absorption of ecotoxins by living objects. The nature of HM accumulation and indicator abilities of the lichens depended on the anthropogenic impacts on the territory, ecological factors, and specifi cs of the lichen chemical compositions. Hypogymnia physodes had greater indicator value on anthropogenically impacted territories; X. parietina, in undisturbed phytocenoses. Each of these species could reliably detect Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd, V, and Pb. Sn and Cr were absorbed more by X. parietina; Ni and Co, H. physodes, which should be considered in monitoring studies. Keywords: inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analysis, biomonitoring, heavy metal, metalloid, Hypogymnia physodes, Xanthoria parietina, epiphytic lichen, indicator species, accumulation level.
32303Goppel C. (1984): Emittentenbezogene Flechtenkartierung im Stadtgebiet von Laufen. - Berichte der Bayerischen Akademie für Naturschutz und Landschaftspflege, 8: 4–21. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Ber-Bayer-Akad-f-Natursch-u-Landschaftspfl_8_1984_0004-0021.pdf.
32302Wilmanns O. & Wirth V. (1968): Die Flechtenvegetation der Wutachschlucht. - Mitteilungen des Badischen Landesvereins für Naturkunde und Naturschutz, N.F., Freiburg im Breisgau, 9(4): 725–733. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Mitt-Bad-Landesver-Natkde-Natschutz-Freiburg_NF_9_0725-0733.pdf.
32301Hachenberg W. (1974): Beitrag zur Dortmunder Flechtenflora. - Dortmunder Beiträge zur Landeskunde, 7: 47–52. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Dortmunder-Beitr-Landeskde_7_0047-0052.pdf.
32300Oller Cruz O.J. (2016): Empleo de bioindicadores para determinar la calidad del aire en la ciudad de Tarija en puntos de muestreo de red MoniCA. Use of bioindicators to determine air quality in Tarija city in sampling points of MoniCA network. - Acta Nova, 8(3): 307–321. .
[in Spanish with English abstract: ] The possibility of using active bio monitoring with Vicia faba, Raphanus sativus and passive bio monitoring through mapping lichen in the city of Tarija has not been considered to this date. This type of monitoring is carried out in other cities of Bolivia; but with different climatic and geographical conditions, so its feasibility in Tarija’s territory is unknown. These type of studies are considered an economic alternative with an easy application compared to traditional monitoring process, which could be established as a preliminary study for air quality in smaller cities within the department. Being a subjective study and to be subject to external variables, it has been decided to carry out a comparison with recorded data by the Air Quality Monitoring Network (MoniCA Network). Keywords: Bioindicator, Air Quality, Tarija.
32299Gonzales Vargas N., Luján Pérez M., Navarro Sánchez G. & Flores Mercado R. (2016): Aplicabilidad de líquenes bioindicadores como herramienta de monitoreo de la calidad del aire en la ciudad de Cochabamba. Applicability of bioindicators lichens as monitoring tool for air quality in Cochabamba. - Acta Nova, 7(4): 455–482. .
[in Spanish with English abstract: ] This study was performed in the metropolitan area of Cercado in Cochabamba - Bolivia, using epiphytic lichens as bioindicators of air pollution, through the Index of Atmospheric Purity (IAP) method. The research was carried out in 9 monitoring points, taking Fraxinus americana as the only phorophyte, where 12 species of lichens were found in total. Data of climate parameters, pollutants, coverage and frequency of lichen communities were obtained in each monitoring point, in order to establish a statistical analysis using spearman correlations, cluster and path analysis. It was found that the epiphytic lichens are affected directly by atmospheric pollution (mainly NO2 and PM10) and indirectly by climate parameters and/or geomorphological data. In the case of Cochabamba‟s Valley, the temperature inversion is influenced directly by the minimum temperature of the coldest month and height, increasing pollution in lower areas and thus decreasing lichen communities. The development of IAP was able to identify isocontamination zones by the ArcGis program, where areas with poor air quality were identified in the south and areas with better quality in the north. We identified as more tolerant species to global pollution, C. concolor, P. pachyphylla and P. nubila, while the most sensitive were H. syncolla and T. chrysophthalmus. Key words: Bioindicators, air pollution, lichens, climatic parameters, statistical analysis.
32298Żarnowiec J., Stebel A. & Chmura D. (2020): The alien moss Orthodontium lineare Schwägr. in Poland (East-Central Europe): a summary of nearly 40 years of invasion . - Biological Invasions, 22: 1249–1263. .
Orthodontium lineare, a neophyte of southern origin, was accidentally introduced by human activity to England in 1910. Subsequently it spread to mainland Europe and it continues to move eastward. In Poland, it was discovered in 1980–1981. The present paper shows dot distribution maps at 10-year intervals and discusses the dynamics of its invasion and ecological preferences using statistical methods. In Poland in 2018 it was known in 235 stands. 86.4% of them were located below 300 m a.s.l. and only 10.2% of the sites reached the lower mountain forest belt (maximum altitude 915 m). On every substrate and in all types of habitat, it commonly produced sporophytes (88.6% of the specimens investigated). Most commonly it occurred on rotting wood (38.5% of all records) and the base of tree trunks (33.9%). Rarely it grew on soil (podzolic and acid podzolic brown soils and humus on rocks; in total 19.0%). Most frequently it was found on the dead wood of Pinus sylvestris (31.3% of all records on rotting wood) and Picea abies (23.2%) and on the bases ofP. sylvestris trunks (77.0%).Up to 2018 itwas listed in 13 habitat types, including eight EU habitats (two priority), the most often invaded being seminatural forest (25.8% of all records), boggy woodland (23.4%), mature managed forest developed from old plantations (17.7%), wooded dunes of the Atlantic region (9.7%) and Luzulo-Fagetum beech forest (6.9%). 33 accompanying taxa were found comprising 6 liverworts, 23 mosses and 4 lichens. Of these only 7 species were present in more than 5% of the samples. Keywords: Cryptogamic plant invasion; Adventive moss; Invasive moss; Invasion curve; Distribution map; Ecological preferences.
32297Dai D.-Q., Tang L.-Z., Liu C., Wang H.-B. & Hyde K.D. (2018): Studies on Parmulariaceae I. A phylogeny based on available sequence data; introducing Parmulariales ord. nov., and Hemigraphaceae, Melaspileellaceae and Stictographaceae fam. nov.. - Phytotaxa, 369(2): 63–79. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.369.2.1.
The family Parmulariaceae comprises three polyphyletic genera, but with very little data in GenBank and is presently placed in the order Asterinales. In this study, we re-analyze the available sequence data for taxa of the family and re-examine the type species of Hemigrapha, Inocyclus and Parmularia. The phylogenetic tree generated from maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses of combined LSU-SSU sequence data demonstrate the relationships among Hemigrapha, Inocyclus and Parmularia species, and the relations of Buelliella, Karschia, Labrocarpon, Lembosia, Melaspileella, Melaspileopsis and Stictographa. We introduce Parmulariales ord. nov. to accommodate Parmulariaceae and the order Asterinales accommodates Asterinaceae, Asterotexaceae, Hemigraphaceae fam. nov., Melaspileellaceae fam. nov. and Stictographaceae fam. nov. Notes for each new order and families are provided. We confirm that Asterinaceae sensu lato is distant from Asterinaceae sensu stricto in the phylogenic analysis. The classification presented here is provisional, as more species are needed to recollected and sequenced. We expect further support for our ordinal and familial lineages, as well as further novel lineages. Keywords: 4 new taxa, taxonomy, phylogeny, biotrophs, lichenicolous fungi.
32296Farkas E. & Flakus A. (2016): Trichonectria calopadiicola sp. nov. (Hypocreales, Ascomycota): the second species of the family Bionectriaceae parasitic on foliicolous lichens discovered in Tanzania. - Phytotaxa, 278(3): 281–286. http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.278.3.8.
Trichonectria calopadiicola, a new lichenicolous fungus from tropical Africa is described. The species is the second member of nectrioid fungi known as parasitic on foliicolous lichens. It is characterized by often aggregated, dark reddish brown, subglobose, richly setose perithecia, covered by obtuse, septate, thick-walled setae, and by hyaline, narrowly fusiform, 1-septate ascospores. The mycoparasite causes evident damages in the ascomata of its host. Keywords: Africa, biodiversity, lichenicolous fungi, new species, mycoparasites, phyllosphere, Usambara Mountains.
32295Suija A. & Motiejūnaitė J. (2017): Calycina alstrupii sp. nov. (Pezizellaceae, Helotiales), a new lichenicolous fungus from Norway. - Phytotaxa, 307(2): 113–122. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.307.2.2.
A new species of Calycina, C. alstrupii Suija & Motiejūnaitė, is described based on both morphological and molecular characteristics. The new fungus inhabits thalli of Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm. and is the first proven lichenicolous species of the genus. The new species is compared with closely related taxa of Hyaloscyphaceae s. lato. Key words: Peltigerales, phylogeny, taxonomy.
32294Puy-Alquiza M.J., Gómez-Peralta M., Reyes-Zamudio V., Gregorio-Cipriano M.R., Miranda-Avilés R., Rios-Ureña D.N. & Cortés-Hernández V. (2018): Diversidad de macrolíquenes saxícolas en México: caso de estudio del distrito minero de Guanajuato. Diversity of saxicolous macrolichens in Mexico: case study of the mining district of Guanajuato. - Acta Botánica Mexicana, 123: 37–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.21829/abm123.2018.1246.
[in Spanish with English abstract: ] Background and Aims: The diversity of saxicolous macrolichens in the state of Guanajuato is little known. The available information is limited to isolated notes of collections and species in specialized electronic pages. The objective of this work was to contribute through the development of a floristic list to the knowledge of the diversity of the saxicolous macrolichens in four localities (mountain “La Bufa”, ecological park “El Orito”, panoramic highway “El Pípila” and Sierra de Santa Rosa de Lima). Methods: The specimens were collected and subsequently determined using specialized keys, considering their morphological, anatomical and chemical characteristics. This was based on stereoscopic and composite microscope observations, response to chemical reagents and, in some cases, thin layer chromatography. Finally, descriptions of the species were reviewed and the specimens were compared with those existing in the herbarium EBUM of the Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo. Key results: A list of 42 species is presented for the mining district of Guanajuato, which constitute new records for the studied localities; 23 are new records for Guanajuato and one is new for Mexico. Conclusions: Of the 42 species presented in this study, the family Parmeliaceae is the most representative of the study area, especially the genus Xanthoparmelia with nine species, of which three are new records for the state of Guanajuato and one of them is new for Mexico. The zone of La Bufa with semiwarm climate and the ignimbrita like dominant rock reunites the majority of the registered species. The species of the families Cladoniaceae, Usneaceae, Ramalinaceae and Stereocaulaceae are representative of the zone of Santa Rosa de Lima dominated by a humid climate and the rhyolite tuff-like main rock. Key words: lichen flora, Mexican plateau, new record.
32293Barrera Zubiaga E. & Godínez Álvarez H. (2018): Infiltración en biocostras en una región semiárida del centro de México. Infiltration through biocrusts in a semiarid region of central México. - Terra Latinoamericana, 36(4): 337–343. DOI: https://doi.org/10.28940/terra.v36i4.335.
[in Spanish with English abstract: ] Infiltration alters the ecological processes of arid and semiarid regions because it can cause water accumulation on the surface or water storage in the soil. Thus, it is necessary to study the physical and biological factors that can modify it. One of these factors is biocrusts, communities of cyanobacteria, lichens, and mosses growing on soil surface, which can have positive, negative, or neutral effects. Biocrust impact on infiltration has been poorly studied in our country; there is only one study conducted in grasslands of Durango. In our study we evaluated infiltration through biocrusts in a semiarid region of central Mexico, where we selected two fluvial terraces with different soil textures (i.e., fine-soil and coarse-soil terraces) to measure soil physical and chemical properties, crust cover and species composition, and infiltration in soil with and without crust, in areas without vegetation. Soil from both terraces had high silt percentage, although soil had higher bulk density and lower porosity in the fine-soil terrace. Biocrusts were composed of five genera of cyanobacteria and three genera of lichens. Cyanobacteria cover was similar between terraces, although lichen cover was lower in the fine-soil terrace. The highest infiltration occurred in soil without crust in the fine-soil terrace and in soil with crust in the coarse-soil terrace. These results suggest that the impact of biocrusts on infiltration depends on silt content, soil bulk density, and porosity. It is necessary to evaluate infiltration in other sites such as areas beneath perennial plants and hillslopes to understand biocrust impact on infiltration in this semiarid region. Key words: cyanobacteria; lichens; mesquite shrubland; mosses; Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Valley.
32292Rodríguez E.F., Ramírez A.M., Alvítez E., Pollack L., Leiva S. & Aguirre R. (2017): Catálogo de la liquenobiota de la región La Libertad, Perú. - Arnaldoa, 24(2): 497–522. http://www.scielo.org.pe/pdf/arnal/v24n2/a05v24n2.pdf.
We provide a catalogue of 192 species of lichens, arranged in 28 families and 60 genera existing in La Libertad Region, Peru. The study was based on a review of material preferably deposited in the Herbarium Truxillense of the National University of Trujillo (HUT), the determination of specialists, and the contrast with species documented in official studies of lichenobiota of this region. The material examined for each species includes the geographical distribution according to provinces and altitudes, and a representative specimen marked by the name and number of the main collector, followed by the acronym of the herbarium where it is deposited, as well as the common name if it exists. The information presented will serve to continue with taxonomic, ecological and environmental studies in these organisms. Keywords: lichens, distribution, provinces, La Libertad Region.
32291Rydgren K., Auestad I., Halvorsen R., Hamre L.N., Jongejans E., Töpper J.P. & Sulavik J. (2020): Assessing restoration success by predicting time to recovery— But by which metric? . - Journal of Applied Ecology, 57: 390–401. https://besjournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1365-2664.13526.
Restoration of degraded ecosystems may take decades or even centuries. Accordingly, information about the current direction and speed of recovery provided by methods for predicting time to recovery may give important feedback to restoration schemes. While predictions of time to recovery have so far been based mostly upon change in species richness and other univariate predictors, the novel ordination‐regression based approach (ORBA) affords a multivariate approach based upon species compositional change. We used species composition data from four alpine spoil heaps in western Norway, recorded at three time points, to predict time to recovery using ORBA. This approach uses distances between restored plots and reference plots along a successional gradient, represented by a vector in ordination space, to model linear or asymptotic relationships of compositional change as a function of time. Results from ORBA were compared with results from models of more generic univariate attributes, that is total cover, species richness and properties of the physical environment as functions of time. ORBA predictions of time to species compositional recovery varied from less than 60 years with linear models to 115–212 years with asymptotic models. The long estimated time to recovery suggests that the restoration schemes adopted for these spoil heaps are likely to be suboptimal. Much shorter time to recovery was predicted from some of the more generic univariate attributes, that is species richness and total cover, than from species composition. Given the current rates of recovery, most spoil heaps will reach reference levels for total cover and species richness within 50 years, whereas predictions indicate that 67–111 years are needed to restore levels of soil organic matter and pH. Synthesis and applications. Species composition and soil conditions provide information of generally higher relevance for evaluation of ecosystem recovery processes than the most commonly used metric to assess restoration success, species richness. Species richness is decoupled from species compositional recovery, and likely to be a generally poor measure of restoration success. We therefore encourage further improvement of methods like the ordination‐regression based approach that use species compositional data to predict time to recovery.
32290Pankratov T.A., Grouzdev D.S., Patutina E.O., Kolganova T.V., Suzina N.E. & Berestovskaya J.J. (2020): Lichenibacterium ramalinae gen. nov, sp. nov., Lichenibacterium minor sp. nov., the first endophytic, betacarotene producing bacterial representatives from lichen thalli and the proposal of the new family Lichenibacteriaceae within the order Rhizobiales. - Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, 113: 477–489. .
This study of lichens in the subarctic zone of the northern hemisphere has resulted in the detection of new representatives of the order Rhizobiales. The16S rRNA gene sequence phylogeny placed the strains as a separate branch inside the Rhizobiales clade. Strain RmlP001T exhibits 91.85% similarity to Roseiarcus fermentans strain Pf56T and 91.76% to Beijerinckia doebereinerae strain LMG 2819T, whilst strain RmlP026T is closely related to B. doebereinerae strain LMG 2819T (91.85%) and Microvirga pakistanensis strain NCCP-1258T (91.39%). A whole-genome phylogeny of the strains confirmed their taxonomic positions. The cells of both strains were observed to be Gram-negative, motile rods that multiplied by binary fission. The cells were found to contain poly-β-hydroxybutyrate and polyphosphate, to grow at pH 3.5–8.0 and 10–30 °C, and could not fix atmospheric nitrogen. Their major cellular fatty acid identified was C18:1ω7c (68–71%) and their DNA G + C contents determined to be 70.5–70.8%. Beta-carotene was identified as their major carotenoid pigment; Q-10 was the only ubiquinone detected. Strains RmlP001T and RmlP026T are distinguishable from related species by the presence of β-carotene, the absence of C1 metabolism and the ability to grow in the presence of 3.5% NaCl. Based on their phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic features, we propose a novel genus Lichenibacterium and two novel species, Lichenibacterium ramalinae (the type species of the genus) and Lichenibacterium minor, to accommodate these bacteria within the family Lichenibacteriaceae fam. nov. of the order Rhizobiales. The L. ramalinae type strain is RmlP001T (= KCTC 72076T = VKM B-3263T) and the L. minor type strain is RmlP026T (= KCTC 72077T = VKM B-3277T). Keywords: Lichenibacterium; LAR1; Lichen endophytes; Rhizobiales; Beta-carotene; Phylogenetic analysis; Symbiotic bacteria.
32289Santiago R., Silva N.H., Silva F.P., Martins M.C.B., de Vasconcelos T.L., Yano-Melo A.M. & Pereira E.C. (2018): Interactions of the lichen Cladonia salzmannii Nyl. with soil, microbiota, mycorrhizae and Genipa Americana. - Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 18(3): 833–850. https://scielo.conicyt.cl/pdf/jsspn/v18n3/0718-9516-jsspn-02402.pdf.
The lichen Cladonia salzmannii can influence the arbuscular mycorrhizal formation (AMF) of sandy soils in the Brazilian Northeast, thereby contributing to improved vascular plant growth. The objective of this work was to evaluate how C. salzmannii changes the biological processes of soil in a tropical savannah ecosystem where soils have low nutrient availability, so any lichen-induced effects would be important. The microbial activity, AMF, growth of Genipa americana and chemical-physical characteristics of the soil were analyzed. Soil samples were collected under pillows of lichen thalli or in open spaces without them. Chemical and biological soil attributes were evaluated by analysis of soluble and exchangeable cations, microbial activity and AMF colonization. The presence of barbatic acid (BAR), a major compound of C. salzmannii, was detected in the soil, which positively influenced soil properties. AMF colonization was higher in lichen-covered soil. G. americana seedlings were grown under greenhouse conditions, the experiment was done in a randomized design of 4 inoculation treatments. The inoculated plants with lichens+AMF presented greater growth parameters. The results could indicate that BAR is capable of stimulating the association between plants and AMF, linking the root and the soil system. This arrangement improves a positive feedback loop established between lichen-AMF-vascular plant. Keywords: lichen substance; barbatic acid; cerrado biome; Glomeromycotina growth; Rubiaceae.
32288Lewis L., Gottschalk-Druschke C., Saldías C., Mackenzie R., Malebrán J., Goffinet B. & Rozzi R. (2018): Cultivando un jardín de nombres en los bosques en miniatura del Cabo de Hornos: extensión de la conservación biocultural y la ética a seres vivos poco percibidos [Cultivating a garden of names in the cape horn miniature forests: Extending biocultural conservation and ethics to little perceived living beings]. - Magallania, 46(1): 103–123. https://scielo.conicyt.cl/pdf/magallania/v46n1/0718-2244-magallania-46-01-00103.pdf.
[in Spanish with English abstract: ] Bryophytes (mosses, liverworts, and hornworts) and lichens have been undervalued in conservation and environmental education programs, and by modern culture in general. So much so, that most bryophytes and lichens lack a common name. We present a new methodology and activity to foster an ecological understanding of biodiversity, as well as of biocultural conservation and ethics, which includes little, under-perceived, living-beings - such as bryophytes. If something has no name, it does not exist in the cultural realm. If something is named, then it exists in the cultural sphere; additionally, its existence is decisively influenced by its name. At the southern end of the Americas, the UNESCO Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve in Chile protects a world’s biodiversity hotspot for bryophytes. Here, the research team at the Omora Ethnobotanical Park has developed an innovative educational and ecotourism activity to appreciate bryophytes: Cultivating a garden of names. This activity has been developed with the methodological approach of Field Environmental Philosophy. It encourages students and park’s visitors to engage physically as well as culturally (including the symbolic-linguistic dimension) with bryophytes and lichens, their life-habits and habitats. Park’s visitors are invited to observe, draw, and create names for bryophytes and lichens by using: (i) a magnifying glass or hand-lens to amplify the biophysical features of small plants, and (ii) the conceptual lenses of the biocultural ethics to broaden their understanding about how to interpret and respect the natural world. Through this activity, visitors connect to living beings that were previously under-perceived, and they come to see, value and care for a biophysical reality that is diverse, beautiful, and performs ecological functions that are essential to ecosystem integrity and human well-being. Cultivating a garden of names fosters a change of scientific and ethical perspectives to include little-perceived groups of organisms into the goals of conservation and environmental education. Key words: Bryophytes, biocultural ethics, education, field environmental philosophy, lichens.
32287Wirth V., Sipman H.J.M. & Curtis-Scott O. (2018): A sketch of the lichen biota in a Renosterveld vegetation habitat. - Carolinea, 76: 35–55. .
A sketch of the lichen vegetation of the Haarwegskloof Renosterveld Reserve near Bredasdorp (Western Cape, South Africa) is presented. This reserve is a representative example of renosterveld vegetation, which replaces the better known fynbos in relatively dry regions on more fertile, clay- and shale-based soils. Our sketch is a first attempt to characterize the lichen biota of a renosterveld area. The rather low number of 76 encountered species reflects the absence of aged trees and large rock formations and occasional bushfires. However, the significance of the species is great because most have very restricted distributions in southern Africa. Among the epiphytic lichens Physciaceae and Xanthoria-relatives prevail, while on soil and on rock the genus Xanthoparmelia is by far the most important, with 22 species, among them several endemics.
32286Wirth V. (2018): Nur eine Weidbuche? – Weidbuchen als Biodiversitätsgaranten im Schwarzwald. - Carolinea, 76: 21–34. .
Only a pasture beech? Freestanding beech trees as biodiversity sources in the Black Forest On an old beech tree on an extensive pasture in southern Black Forest a broken part of the crown allowed the investigation of epiphytes also on branches and little twigs of usually inaccessible parts of the tree. 127 epiphytic organisms were found, among them 91 lichen species, six lichenicolous fungi and 16 species of mosses and hepatics. The number of lichen species is remarkable and the highest which was registered on a tree in Europe. The high number proves the importance of the old beech trees (so called Weidbuchen) on extensive pastures of the southern Black Forest as habitats of high diversity with many endangered species, an additional argument for the protection of these trees which they should merit as historico-cultural witnesses anyway.
32285Wirth V. (2019): Contributions à la végétation lichénique des Vosges et de la vallée du Rhin alsacienne 1. Lichens observés dans la vallée du Rhin. - Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, 70: 77–90. .
The results of lichenological excursions in the Alsatian Rhine valley are presented. 40 localities were visited. The following species are noteworthy for the corresponding natural area : Agonimia opuntiella, Caloplaca demissa, Diploschistes actinostomus, Gonohymenia octosporella, Lecidea sarcogynoides, Parmelina carporrhizans, Pertusaria leucosora, Thyrea confusa, Xanthoparmelia tinctina. Acarospora moenium was found on natural stone substrate within dry grasslands. The population of Bactrospora dryina in Alsace is probably the most important in France.
32284Wirth V. (2019): Zur Kenntnis der Flechtenbiota im Nordschwarzwald. - Mitteilungen des Badischen Landesvereins für Naturkunde und Naturschutz, Freiburg im Breisgau, 22(4): 685–712. .
Contribution to the lichen flora of the Northern Black Forest. Records of lichen species from the National Park Black Forest are listed and some typical associations mentioned. Particularly characteristic are communities which prefer old stems of Abies and Picea, on rather rain-protected faces with Lecanactis abietina, on wet faces with Thelotrema lepadinum and rarely with Sphaerophorus globosus, towards their basis with Micarea species as M. adnata and M. cinerea. On dead stems communities with Calicium glaucellum, Chaenotheca and Chaenothecopsis species are widespread. On sandstone boulders Lecidea lithophila and L. plana are most frequent; on steep faces protected from rapid drying the Fuscideetum kochianae is typical. On raw humus covers of Trapeliopsis granulosa, Placynthiella uliginosa and P. oligotropha form mosaics with communities rich in Cladonia species. The area is dominated by conifer woods and excludes human settlements, therefore man-made substrates and subneutral bark habitats are of minor importance concerning their frequency; nevertheless, they increase the species diversity considerably. Ramboldia cinnabarina is new to Germany. Key words: lichens, Northern Black Forest, National Park, forests, boulder slopes.
32283Wirth V. (2019): Basi- und subneutrophytische Flechten im Grundgebirge des Schwarzwaldes. - Mitteilungen des Badischen Landesvereins für Naturkunde und Naturschutz, Freiburg im Breisgau, 22(3): 443–467. .
Basi- and subneutrophytic lichens in the bedrock area of the Black Forest. For more than 100 years, botanists have devoted particular attention to the occurrence of calcicolous or basi- and subneutrophytic bryophytes and vascular plants in the area of bedrock in the Black Forest, which is characterized by acidophilous vegetation. This phenomenon was not specifically dealt with in respect to lichens. In habitats with calcite-containing or SiO2-poor siliceous rock as basic silicates, many lichen species occur that avoid more acidic substrates. Lichens are excellent indicators of basic or subneutral substrate conditions and special mineralogical characteristics. The petrographic conditions vary widely, yet rocks with plagioklase or hornblende, such as amphibolites, occur frequently. Different from most bryophytes which prefer moister and more shadowy habitats, most lichen species are specialised in xeric microhabitats. The slightly basiphytic and subneutro-phytic lichen species are listed. Key words: lichens, basic rock, calcite, basiphytes, subneutrophytes, Black Forest.