28263Kinoshita Y., Yamamoto Y., Kurokawa T. & Yoshimura I. (2001): Influences of nitrogen sources on usnic acid production in a cultured mycobiont of the lichen Usnea hirta (L.) Wigg.. - Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry, 65(8): 1900–1902.
Effects of the nitrogen sources in the medium for the production of secondary metabolites in lichens were examined. The usnic acid production by a mycobiont of the lichen Usnea hirta was higher in the liquid medium containing ammonium and nitrate ions than in those containing amino acids.
28262Chekanov K., Feoktistov A. & Lobakova E. (2017): Spatial organization of the three-component lichen Peltigera aphthosa in functional terms. - Physiologia Plantarum, 160: 328–338.
The cephalolichen Peltigera aphthosa (L.) Willd. is characterized by lateral heterogeneity, which manifests itself in the presence of three thallus zones, referred to as the apical, basal and medial zone. These zones differ in terms of interaction between lichen bionts and their physiological activity. The apical thallus zone is more efficient in establishing a contact with cyanobacteria, because of a higher lectin content and a larger overall thallus surface area due to the presence of numerous mycobiont hyphae. Cephalodia are formed in this zone. The interaction between the mycobiont and cyanobiont is more intense in the medial zone. However, the establishment of the contact with cyanobacteria in this zone less probable. The spatial distribution of lectins in the thallus was determined. To reveal the differences in photosynthetic activity in three thallus zones, transient analysis of chlorophyll a fluorescence and the assessment of non-photochemical quenching of excited chlorophyll states were performed. Assimilation of absorbed light energy was more effective in the medial zone. The basal zone was characterized by decreased photosynthetic activity, lichen dissociation and thallus death.
28261Matteucci E., Occhipinti A., Piervittori R., Maffei M.E. & Favero-Longo S.E. (2017): Morphological, secondary metabolite and ITS (rDNA) variability within usnic acid-containing lichen thalli of Xanthoparmelia explored at the local scale of rock outcrop in W-Alps. - Chemistry and Biodiversity, 14: e1600483 [15 p.].
Lichen secondary metabolites (LSMs) are regarded with interest for valuable biological properties, but chemical variability among/within lichen taxa has been only fragmentarily characterized by advanced analytical techniques. Knowledge of variability at a local geographic scale has been particularly neglected, while it should address the collection of chemically homogeneous materials to test and exploit LSMs. Here we evaluated the chemical variability of 48 Xanthoparmelia specimens from two rock outcrops in Western Italian Alps, representative of nine morphotypes and sixteen rDNA ITS haplotypes. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were performed by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS2 and UPLC-HDR-DAD, respectively, and revealed the occurrence of 18 LSMs. Chemical partition allowed distinguishing six chemical groups, only partially overlapping with distinct morphotypes and three divergent haplotype groups, which, overall, accounted for the co-occurrence of different taxa only in part identifiable with species described for Europe. Some morphotypes were variable in presence and concentration of LSMs, and chemical divergences also characterized single ITS haplotypes. Accordingly, the collection of chemically homogeneous materials, even at a local scale, may be not properly addressed by morphological features and ITS barcoding, and should be confirmed by a specimen-level chemical characterization.
28260Prieto M., Martínez I., Aragón G. & Verdú M. (2017): Phylogenetic and functional structure of lichen communities under contrasting environmental conditions. - Journal of Vegetation Science, 28: 871–881.
Question: In order to identify the factors and assembly rules which potentially shape natural lichen communities we asked whether these communities are phylogenetically and functionally structured along an environmental gradient in beech forests in the Iberian Peninsula. Location: A climatic gradient in the Iberian Peninsula. Methods: We used species inventories, trait data and a molecular dated phylogeny to calculate phylogenetic and functional community metrics. We examined the phylogenetic and functional diversity of epiphytic lichen assemblages in nine beech forests along an environmental gradient. Results: We found a significant pattern in the average phylogenetic and functional diversity across sites. Species at northern sites were less closely related than expected by chance (phylogenetic and functional overdispersion), suggesting that these communities could be structured by species interactions limiting the similarity among them (e.g. by competition and facilitation). In contrast, species occurring in the southern distributional limit of the host tree were phylogenetically and functionally clustered, implying that these communities could be primarily structured by environmental filtering, driven by the reduction of summer rainfall. Lower precipitation areas favoured fruticulose and squamulose species and a larger proportion of species with green algal photobionts and asexual reproduction. Conclusions: Our results suggest that environmental filtering and species interactions regulate lichen communities differently under contrasting environmental conditions in beech forests in the Iberian Peninsula. These processes are reflected by the presence of key lichen traits that are phylogenetically conserved and can provide advantages for competition or adaptation to the environment. Keywords: Competition; CWM; Facilitation; Functional traits; Habitat filtering; NRI; NTI; Phylogenetic signal; Phylogeny.
28259Míguez F., Fernández-Marín B., Becerril J.M. & García-Plazaola J.I. (2017): Diversity of winter photoinhibitory responses: a case study in co-occurring lichens, mosses, herbs and woody plants from subalpine environments. - Physiologia Plantarum, 160: 282–296.
Winter evergreens living in mountainous areas have to withstand a harsh combination of high light levels and low temperatures in wintertime. In response, evergreens can activate a photoprotective process that consists of the downregulation of photosynthetic efficiency, referred to as winter photoinhibition (WPI). WPI has been studied mainly in woody evergreens and crops even when, in many instances, other functional groups such as lichens or bryophytes dominate in alpine and boreal habitats. Thus, we aimed to (1) assess the occurrence of WPI within overwintering evergreens comprising woody species, herbs, mosses and lichens, (2) compare the recovery kinetics among those groups and (3) clarify the role of thylakoid proteins and pigments in both processes: WPI and recovery. With this aim, WPI was analyzed in 50 species in the field and recovery kineticcs were studied in one model species from each functional group. Results showed that high levels of WPI are much more frequent among woody plants than in any other group, but are also present in some herbs, lichens and mosses. Winter conditions almost always led to the de-epoxidation of the xanthophyll cycle. Nevertheless, changes in the de-epoxidation level were not associated with the activation/deactivation of WPI in the field and did not match changes in photochemical efficiency during recovery treatments. Seasonal changes in thylakoid proteins [mainly D1 (photosystem II core complex protein) and PsbS (essential protein for thermal dissipation)] were dependent on the functional group. The results highlight the diversity of physiological solutions and suggest a physical–mechanical reason for the more conservative strategy of woody species compared with other groups.
28258Asplund J. & Wardle D.A. (2017): How lichens impact on terrestrial community and ecosystem properties. - Biological Reviews, 92: 1720–1738.
Lichens occur in most terrestrial ecosystems; they are often present as minor contributors, but in some forests, drylands and tundras they can make up most of the ground layer biomass. As such, lichens dominate approximately 8% of the Earth’s land surface. Despite their potential importance in driving ecosystem biogeochemistry, the influence of lichens on community processes and ecosystem functioning have attracted relatively little attention. Here, we review the role of lichens in terrestrial ecosystems and draw attention to the important, but often overlooked role of lichens as determinants of ecological processes. We start by assessing characteristics that vary among lichens and that may be important in determining their ecological role; these include their growth form, the types of photobionts that they contain, their key functional traits, their water-holding capacity, their colour, and the levels of secondary compounds in their thalli. We then assess how these differences among lichens influence their impacts on ecosystem and community processes. As such, we consider the consequences of these differences for determining the impacts of lichens on ecosystem nutrient inputs and fluxes, on the loss of mass and nutrients during lichen thallus decomposition, and on the role of lichenivorous invertebrates in moderating decomposition. We then consider how differences among lichens impact on their interactions with consumer organisms that utilize lichen thalli, and that range in size from microfauna (for which the primary role of lichens is habitat provision) to large mammals (for which lichens are primarily a food source). We then address how differences among lichens impact on plants, through for example increasing nutrient inputs and availability during primary succession, and serving as a filter for plant seedling establishment. Finally we identify areas in need of further work for better understanding the role of lichens in terrestrial ecosystems. These include understanding how the high intraspecific trait variation that characterizes many lichens impacts on community assembly processes and ecosystem functioning, how multiple species mixtures of lichens affect the key communityand ecosystem-level processes that they drive, the extent to which lichens in early succession influence vascular plant succession and ecosystem development in the longer term, and how global change drivers may impact on ecosystem functioning through altering the functional composition of lichen communities. Key words: decomposition, functional traits, invertebrate food webs, lichenized fungi, nutrient cycling, trophic interactions.
28257St. Martin P. & Mallik A.U. (2017): The status of non-vascular plants in trait-based ecosystem function studies. - Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 27: 1–8.
The contributions of non-vascular plants (NVPs) to ecosystem function can be significant in high latitude and high altitude ecosystems and yet their inclusion in trait-based studies is rare. Our aim in this paper is to argue for a more thorough and widespread inclusion of NVPs in trait-based studies of ecosystem function. We focused on three specific objectives, (i) to review and summarize the current knowledge base as to how NVP traits are measured and used in assessing ecosystem function, (ii) to highlight challenges in incorporating vascular plants (VPs) and NVPs together in trait-based studies, and (iii) discuss a framework by which VPs and NVPs can be included in explaining ecosystem function. From a literature search of the Web of Science database we found that the majority of trait-based studies examined mostly vascular plants (VPs), occasionally VPs and NVPs separately, but rarely the two groups together to describe ecosystem function. To date compared to VPs, assessment of the contributions of NVPs to ecosystem function has remained relatively unexplored. Plant communities comprising VPs and NVPs can influence, and in turn be influenced by their habitats. We argue that the response and effect traits of VPs and NVPs are comparable and that classifying NVPs simply as “mosses” and “lichens” and assessing their functions as such is inadequate. We summarized and identified particular measurable traits of both VPs and NVPs that have significant effects on nutrient cycling and community assembly. Future studies in areas where NVPs are abundant should include both VPs and NVPs, aggregated at the finest taxonomic resolution possible to relate ecosystem processes such as cycling of matter and plant community assembly. Keywords: Mosses; Lichens; Functional traits; Plant functional types; Ecosystem processes; Ecosystem function.
28256Moyo C.E., Beckett R.P., Trifonova T.V. & Minibayeva F.V. (2017): Extracellular redox cycling and hydroxyl radical production occurs widely in lichenized Ascomycetes. - Fungal Biology, 121: 582–588.
Some free-living Ascomycetes and white and brown rot Basidiomycetes can generate hydroxyl radicals using extracellular redox cycling. However, the mechanisms of hydroxyl radical production differ between white and brown rot Basidiomycetes, and are unknown for Ascomycetes. Here, we present a survey of extracellular hydroxyl radical production by a range of lichenized Ascomycetes. Results show that given a quinone and chelated ferric ions, many lichens can readily produce hydroxyl radicals, and this is accompanied by the reduction of Fe3+ to Fe2+. In white rot fungi, extracellular redox enzymes have been proposed to be involved in hydroxyl radical generation. However, a survey of a wide range of lichens suggests that in these fungi hydroxyl radical production does not directly correlate with the activity of laccases and peroxidases. Rather, radicals are probably produced by a mechanism like that proposed for brown rot fungi. Potential roles of hydroxyl radicals produced by lichens include the breakdown of lignocellulosic residues in the soil which may allow lichens to live a partially saprotrophic existence, the breakdown of toxic soil chemicals and the formation of an ‘oxidative burst’ to deter potential pathogens. Keywords: Laccases; Peroxidases; Quinone reductases; Reactive oxygen species; Saprophyte.
28255Favero-Longo S.E., Benesperi R., Bertuzzi S., Bianchi E., Buffa G., Giordani P., Loppi S., Malaspina P., Matteucci E., Paoli L., Ravera S., Roccardi A., Segimiro A. & Vannini A. (2017): Species- and site-specific efficacy of commercial biocides and application solvents against lichens. - International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 123: 127–137.
Control of lichens on stone cultural heritage is mostly achieved by a combination of mechanical removal with biocide applications. However, there is a lack of scientific evidence on the efficacy of different biocides on different species, and on the consistency of biocide effects on heritage sites in different environmental conditions. This results in some uncertainty when conservation interventions to control lichens are routinely defined on the basis of restoration tradition or empirical evaluation, without experimental measures of how lichens respond. In this work, we quantitatively evaluated (a) the efficacy of five commercially-available biocides, applied using a brush or with a cellulose poultice, against two species (Protoparmeliopsis muralis, Verrucaria nigrescens), and (b) whether the effects on the two species were consistent, per treatment, across three Italian heritage sites. Lichen vitality was quantified through analyses of chlorophyll a fluorescence (ChlaF) and ergosterol content. The results indicated that all the tested biocides, and their organic solvents, affected the vitality of both the species. However, most of treatments displayed different efficacy on each species, across the different sites and between brush and poultice applications. Accordingly, when a conservation intervention to control lichen growth is planned, biocide treatments need both species- and site-specific calibrations and lichen vitality should be properly ascertained in situ by monitoring ChlaF parameters (FV/FM and F0) twenty days after trial biocide applications. Keywords: Biocide; Chlorophyll a fluorescence; Ergosterol; Lichen; Organic solvents.
28254Tatsumi S., Ohgue T., Azuma A., Tuovinen V., Imada Y., Mori A.S., Thor G. & Ranlund Å. (2017): Tree hollows can affect epiphyte species composition. - Ecological Research, 32: 503–509.
Tree hollows often harbor animals and microorganisms, thereby storing nutritive resources derived from their biological activities. The outflows from tree hollows can create unique microenvironments, which may affect communities of epiphytic organisms on trunk surfaces below the hollows. In this study, we tested whether the species richness and composition of epiphytic bryophytes (liverworts and mosses) and lichens differ above and below tree hollows of Aria japonica and Cercidiphyllum japonicum in a Japanese temperate forest. The species richness of epiphytic bryophytes and lichens did not differ above and below hollows; however, the species composition of bryophytes differed significantly above and below hollows. Indicator species analyses showed that the moss species Anomodon tristis and the liverwort species Porella vernicosa were significantly more common below than above hollows, while the liverwort species Radula japonica and four lichen species, including Leptogium cyanescens, occurred more frequently above than below hollows. Our results highlight that tree hollows can produce unique microenvironments on trunk surfaces that potentially contribute to the maintenance of epiphytic diversity on a local scale. Keywords: Biodiversity; Cryptogams; Bryophytes; Lichens; Tree cavities.
28253Vanneste T., Michelsen O., Graae B.J., Kyrkjeeide M.O., Holien H., Hassel K., Lindmo S., Kapás R.E. & De Frenne P. (2017): Impact of climate change on alpine vegetation of mountain summits in Norway. - Ecological Research, 32: 579–593.
Climate change is affecting the composition and functioning of ecosystems across the globe. Mountain ecosystems are particularly sensitive to climate warming since their biota is generally limited by low temperatures. Cryptogams such as lichens and bryophytes are important for the biodiversity and functioning of these ecosystems, but have not often been incorporated in vegetation resurvey studies. Hence, we lack a good understanding of how vascular plants, lichens and bryophytes respond interactively to climate warming in alpine communities. Here we quantified long-term changes in species richness, cover, composition and thermophilization (i.e. the increasing dominance of warm-adapted species) of vascular plants, lichens and bryophytes on four summits at Dovrefjell, Norway. These summits are situated along an elevational gradient from the low alpine to high alpine zone and were surveyed for all species in 2001, 2008 and 2015. During the 15-year period, a decline in lichen richness and increase in bryophyte richness was detected, whereas no change in vascular plant richness was found. Dwarf-shrub abundance progressively increased at the expense of lichens, and thermophilization was most pronounced for vascular plants, but occurred only on the lowest summits and northern aspects. Lichens showed less thermophilization and, for the bryophytes, no significant thermophilization was found. Although recent climate change may have primarily caused the observed changes in vegetation, combined effects with non-climatic factors (e.g. grazing and trampling) are likely important as well. At a larger scale, alpine vegetation shifts could have a profound impact on biosphere functioning with feedbacks to the global climate. Keywords: Alpine vegetation; Climate change; Resurvey study; Thermophilization; Cryptogams.
28252Logesh A.R., Chinlampianga M., Shukla A.C. & Upreti D.K. (2017): Studies on lichens of Mizoram, northeast India. - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India, Section B: Biological Sciences, 87(2): 445–457.
The paper enumerates 159 species of lichens recorded from the Mizoram state of northeast India. Buellia aeruginascens, Chaenotheca chrysocephala, Diorygma reniforme, Gassicurtia acidobaeomyceta, Graphis granulosa, Hafellia demutans, Phyllopsora soralifera, Ramboldia sorediata, R. subnexa, Relicina sublanea, Stigmatochroma adaucta, S. gerontoides, S. kryptoviolascens, S. metaleptodes are new records for Indian lichen biota. An inventory of lichen species together with detailed account of new records of lichens are provided in the present communication. Keywords: Lichenized fungi  New records  Indo-Burma hotspot  Northeastern India.
28251Felczykowska A., Pastuszak-Skrzypczak A., Pawlik A., Bogucka K., Herman-Antosiewicz A. & Guzow-Krzemińska B. (2017): Antibacterial and anticancer activities of acetone extracts from in vitro cultured lichen-forming fungi. - BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 17:300 [12 p.].
Background: Lichens that were used in traditional medicine for ages produce numerous secondary metabolites, however our knowledge about biological activities of substances secreted by separated bionts is scarce. The main objectives of this study were to isolate and find optimal conditions for the growth of mycelia from three common lichen-forming fungi, i.e. Caloplaca pusilla, Protoparmeliopsis muralis and Xanthoria parietina and to evaluate antibacterial and antiproliferative activities of their acetone extracts. Methods: Agar disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods were used to test antimicrobial activity against six species of bacteria. MTT method, flow cytometry assay and DAPI staining were applied to test antiproliferative activity of selected extracts against MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma), PC-3 (human prostate cancer) and HeLa (human cervix adenocarcinoma) cancer cells. Results: P. muralis strongly inhibited the growth of Gram-positive bacteria, i.e. Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis (MICs from 6.67 to 100.00 μg mL−1). X. parietina grown on PDA and G-LBM media decreased HeLa or MCF-7 cancer cells viability with IC50 values of about 8 μg mL−1, while C. pusilla grown on G-LBM medium showed the highest potency in decreasing MCF-7 (7.29 μg mL−1), PC-3 (7.96 μg mL−1) and HeLa (6.57 μg mL−1) cancer cells viability. We also showed induction of apoptosis in HeLa, PC-3 and MCF-7 cell lines treated with increasing concentrations of C. pusilla extract. Conclusion: We showed that selected acetone extracts demonstrated a strong antimicrobial and anticancer effects that suggests that aposymbiotically cultured lichen-forming fungi can be a source of antibacterial and antiproliferative compounds. Keywords: Antibacterial activity, Antiproliferative effect, Apoptosis, Lichen, MIC, MBC.
28250Mikhailova I.N. (2017): Initial stages of recovery of epiphytic lichen communities after reduction of emissions from a copper smelter. - Russian Journal of Ecology, 48(4): 335–339.
[Translation of Original Russian Text by N. Gorgolyuk © I.N. Mikhailova, 2017, published in Ekologiya, 2017, No. 4, pp. 277–281.] Analysis has been made of changes in the species composition and abundance of epiphytic lichens on fir trees during the first decade after a sharp reduction of emissions from a large copper smelter in the Middle Urals. The results show that lichens have recolonized the area of the former lichen desert and that the abundance of lichen species in the impact and buffer zones has increased. However, a fairly long time is required before lichen communities in the vicinity of the smelter can recover to the background state, since species highly sensitive to pollution still occur only in the background area. Keywords: recolonization, succession, resistance, elasticity, heavy metals, sulfur dioxide, industrial pollution, the Middle Urals.
28249Zemanová L., Trotsiuk V., Morrissey R.C., Bače R., Mikoláš M. & Svoboda M. (2017): Old trees as a key source of epiphytic lichen persistence and spatial distribution in mountain Norway spruce forests. - Biodiversity and Conservation, 26: 1943–1958.
Habitat loss and fragmentation can negatively impact the persistence of dispersal-limited lichen species with narrow niches. Rapid change in microclimate due to canopy dieback exposes species to additional stressors that may limit their capacity to survive and colonize. We studied the importance of old trees as micro-refuges and microclimate stability in maintaining lichen survival and diversity. The study was situated in mountain Norway spruce (Picea abies) forests of the Gorgany Mountains of the Ukrainian Carpathian mountain belt. Lichens were collected on 13 circular study plots (1000 m2). Dendrochronological methods were used to reconstruct age structure and maximum disturbance event history. A linear mixed effects model and general additive models were used to explain patterns and variability of lichens based on stand age and disturbance history for each plot. Tree age was the strongest variable influencing lichen diversity and composition. Recent (<80 years ago) severely disturbed plots were colonized only by the most common species, however, old trees (>200 years old) that survived the disturbances served as microrefuges for the habitat-specialized and/or dispersal limited species, thus epiphytic lichen biodiversity was markedly higher on those plots in comparison to plots without any old trees. Most species were able to survive microclimatic change after disturbances, or recolonize disturbed patches from surrounding old-growth forests. We concluded that the survival of old trees after disturbances could maintain and/or recover large portions of epiphytic lichen biodiversity even in altered microclimates. Keywords: Biodiversity Colonization Forest continuity Microclimate Species refuges Tree age.
28248Vidal-Russell R. & Messuti M.I. (2017): Phylogenetic signal of photobiont switches in the lichen genus Pseudocyphellaria s. l. follows a Brownian motion model. - Symbiosis, 72: 215–223.
Lichen symbioses are defined as a symbiotic relationship between a mycobiont (generally an ascomycete) and one or more photobionts (green algae or/and cyanobacteria). It was proposed that cephalodia emancipation is an evolutionary driver for photobiont switch from chlorophyte to cyanobacteria. In this study we want to test the monophyly of cyanolichens and to measure the phylogenetic signal of the symbiotic relationship between cyanobacteria and a mycobiont partner in the lichen genus Pseudocyphellaria. This genus includes some species that have a chlorophyte as primary photobiont (and Nostoc in internal cephalodia), while others have only cyanobacteria. In a phylogenetic framework we measure the phylogenetic signal (or phylogenetic dispersion) as well as mapped photobiont switches performing stochastic character mapping. Results show that having cyanobacteria as main photobiont has a strong phylogenetic signal that follows a Brownian motion model. Seven clades in the phylogeny had an ancestor with cyanobacteria. Reversal to a green algae photobiont is rare. Several switches were estimated through evolutionary time suggesting that there was some flexibility in these traits along the phylogeny; however, close relatives retained cyanobacteria as main photobiont throughout the cyanolichen’s history. Photobiont switches from green algae to cyanobacteria might enhance ecotypical differentiation. These ecotypes could lead to several speciation events in the new lineage resulting in the phylogenetic signal found in this study. We give insights into the origin of lichen diversity exploring the photobiont switch in a phylogenetic context in Pseudocyphellaria s. l. as a model genus. Keywords: Evolutionary driver . Lichenized fungi . Photobiont switch . Speciation . Symbiosis.
28247Saccardo P.A. & Saccardo D. (1905): Supplementum universale. Pars VI. Hymenomycetae-Laboulbeniomycetae. - Sylloge Fungorum, 17: 1-991.
28246Gallo L., Corapi A., Apollaro C., Vespasiano G. & Lucadamo L. (2017): Effect of the interaction between transplants of the epiphytic lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea L. (Zopf) and rainfall on the variation of element concentrations associated with the water-soluble part of atmospheric depositions. - Atmospheric Pollution Research, 8(5): 912–920.
Water Soluble Bulk Deposition (WSBD) and Water Soluble Leaching (WSL) from Pseudevernia furfuracea thalli transplanted in a anthropized zone were separately collected in four locations where weather stations were set up for monitoring rainfalls rate and daily temperature. The thalli were exposed for three months during which 13 major rainfalls took place. The concentrations of 15 elements (Al, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, Pb, As, Cd, Ti, Sn, Sb) were measured as well in WSBD and WSL as in the lichen thalli at the end of the exposure period. The total bioaccumulation of each element was significantly correlated with its % representation in both the lichen input (WSBD) and output (WSL). Elements with a small water-soluble input-pool were mostly taken up by the thalli (output/input < 1). Among the elements with a high input-pool, Zn was nearly systematically taken up while Al and Mn were lost (output/input > 1). Al showed a significant direct correlation with the increase in mm and hours of rainfall (i.e. transition from net loss to net uptake) while Mn showed an inverse correlation (transition from net uptake to net loss), which may be due to element competition modulated by water-stimulated lichen physiology. Al was strongly bioaccumulated while Mn showed a slight increase in exposed thalli. This suggests that rainfall-induced loss can result in an underestimation by lichen biomonitoring of element concentrations in atmospheric deposition and an increase in the bioavailability of potential toxic elements for other environmental compartments.
28245Kaufmann S., Hauck M. & Leuschner C. (2017): Comparing the plant diversity of paired beech primeval and production forests: Management reduces cryptogam, but not vascular plant species richness. - Forest Ecology and Management, 400: 58–67.
Conflicting evidence of the impact of forest management on biodiversity exists, either decreasing or increasing species richness. Variable diversity responses may result from the adoption of different unmanaged reference systems, ranging from stands with management abandonment in the recent past to true primeval forests. We compared the species richness of epiphytic bryophytes and lichens and vascular forest floor plants in three primeval forest/production forest pairs of Fagus sylvatica in Slovakia, adopting a replicated design and a reference system without any management legacy. Mean number of bryophyte and lichen species per 500 m2-plot tended to be higher in the primeval forests, while the mean α-diversity of vascular plants was higher in the production forests. In contrast, the β-diversity of the three plant groups as expressed by the Sørensen Dissimilarity Index was generally higher in the primeval forest plot sample, reflecting a higher heterogeneity of plant community composition and habitat diversity. Plotting cumulative species numbers against plot numbers suggests that the curves for bryophyte and lichen species richness may saturate at ca. 250 plots or ∼12.5 ha in the primeval forests, but already at 30–60 plots (<3 ha) in the more homogeneous production forests. Total bryophyte and lichen species numbers are estimated to be 30–100% larger in the primeval forests than the production forests. Contrary to general belief, vascular plant species richness was similarly high, or even higher, in the primeval forests when >50 plots (total area: 2.5 ha) were investigated, evidencing the importance of natural disturbance regimes for maintaining high forest biodiversity. Our results show that Fagus sylvatica primeval forests are inhabited by a species-rich epiphyte flora despite the species poverty of the tree layer. This evidences the outstanding value of primeval forest reserves for the conservation of temperate forest biodiversity. Keywords: biodiversity offsetting, old-growth, restoration, secondary forest.
28244Spake R., Martin P.M., Ezard T.H.G., Newton A.C. & Doncaster C.P. (2015): A meta-analysis of functional group responses to forest recovery outside of the tropics . - Conservation Biology, 29(6): 1695–1703.
Both active and passive forest restoration schemes are used in degraded landscapes across the world to enhance biodiversity and ecosystem service provision. Restoration is increasingly also being implemented in biodiversity offset schemes as compensation for loss of natural habitat to anthropogenic development. This has raised concerns about the value of replacing old-growth forest with plantations, motivating research on biodiversity recovery as forest stands age. Functional diversity is now advocated as a key metric for restoration success, yet it has received little analytical attention to date. We conducted a meta-analysis of 90 studies that measured differences in species richness for functional groups of fungi, lichens, and beetles between old- growth control and planted or secondary treatment forests in temperate, boreal, and Mediterranean regions. We identified functional-group–specific relationships in the response of species richness to stand age after forest disturbance. Ectomycorrhizal fungi averaged 90 years for recovery to old-growth values (between 45 years and unrecoverable at 95% prediction limits), and epiphytic lichens took 180 years to reach 90% of old-growth values (between 140 years and never for recovery to old-growth values at 95% prediction limits). Non-saproxylic beetle richness, in contrast, decreased as stand age of broadleaved forests increased. The slow recovery by some functional groups essential to ecosystem functioning makes old-growth forest an effectively irreplaceable biodiversity resource that should be exempt from biodiversity offsetting initiatives. Keywords: biodiversity offsetting, old-growth, restoration, secondary forest.
28243McMullin R.T., Ure D., Smith M., Clapp H. & Wiersma Y.F. (2017): Ten years of monitoring air quality and ecological integrity using fieldidentifiable lichens at Kejimkujik National Park and National Historic Site in Nova Scotia, Canada. - Ecological Indicators, 81: 214–221.
Arboreal lichens have a wide range of tolerance to habitat disturbance. As a result, they have been used globally as bioindicators of environmental change, particularly for monitoring atmospheric pollution. Here, we use lichens to monitor air quality and ecological integrity (EI) at Kejimkujik National Park and National Historic Site in Nova Scotia, Canada. We provide descriptions of two protocols and compare the results using data gathered in 2006, 2011, and 2016. To monitor air quality, we established 12 monitoring sites throughout the park and used a suite of lichens that are intolerant to air pollution to develop an index of air purity (IAP) that we compared every 5 years. Our protocol for monitoring EI of forest ecosystems was set up at these same 12 sites. We selected 50 regionally common field-identifiable lichen species and genera ranging in sensitivity from disturbance-tolerant to intolerant, and compare their presence in spatially constrained zones on a variety of tree species every 5 years. Our results suggest that air quality in Kejimkujik has increased slightly in the 10 years since monitoring was implemented, which is consistent with improvements in local air quality. Species richness also increased slightly, suggesting that EI has not declined. The maintenance of EI, through protection and restoration of natural resources, is a key priority in the management of national parks in Canada. Our protocols will provide early detection of changes to EI, enabling park managers to take responsive action. We are confident that our protocols can be replicated in other parts of the world with different suites of regionally common lichens. Highlights: • A regionally specific suite of lichen species was successfully selected to monitor air quality and ecological integrity. • New monitoring protocols for air quality and ecological integrity were developed and successfully implement. • A positive correlation between the abundance of pollution intolerant species and a decline in air pollution was shown. • Regional suites of lichens can be used as a management tool for early detection ofdisturbances and environmental changes. Keywords: Bio-monitoring; Index of air purity; Sustainable forest management; Acadian forest; Maritimes.
28242Graney J.R., Landis M.S., Puckett K.J., Studabaker W.B., Edgerton E.S., Legge A.H. & Percy K.E. (2017): Differential accumulation of PAHs, elements, and Pb isotopes by five lichen species from the Athabasca Oil Sands Region in Alberta, Canada. - Chemosphere, 184: 700–710.
A 2014 case study investigated the relative accumulation efficiency of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), total sulfur (S), total nitrogen (N), major and minor elements and Pb isotopes in five common lichen species at three boreal forest sites in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) in northeastern Alberta, Canada to identify the optimum lichen species for future biomonitoring. Differences in concentrations of PAHs, multiple elements, and Pb isotopes in fruticose (Bryoria furcellata, Cladina mitis, Evernia mesomorpha) and foliose (Hypogymnia physodes and Tuckermannopsis americana) lichens were found along a 100 km distance gradient from the primary oil sands operations. Integration of insights from emission source samples and oil sands mineralogy in consort with aerosol collection indicates incorporation of more fine particulate matter (PM) into foliose than fruticose lichen biomass. Contrasting PAH with element concentrations allowed lichen species specific accumulation patterns to be identified. The ability of lichen species to incorporate different amounts of gas phase (S and N), petrogenic (V, Ni, Mo), clay (low Si/Al and more rare earth elements), and sand (higher Si/Al and Ti) components from the oil sand operations reflects aerosol particle size and lichen physiology differences that translate into differences in PM transport distances and lichen accumulation efficiencies. Based on these findings Hypogymnia physodes is recommended for future PAH biomonitoring and source attribution studies. Highlights: Five lichen species collected from three site transect in Athabasca Oil Sands Region. Lichen specific concentration gradients in PAHs, S, N, and 32 elements were found. Different coarse and fine particulate matter multi-element fingerprints identified. Oil sands mineralogy and Pb isotopes provided particulate matter source insights. Size dependent incorporation of aerosols in foliose and fruticose lichens documented. Keywords: Oil sands; PAHs; Pb isotopes; Foliose and fruticose lichens; Major and minor elements.
28241Lücking R., Hodkinson B.P. & Leavitt S.D. (2017): Corrections and amendments to the 2016 classification of lichenized fungi in the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. - Bryologist, 120(1): 58–69.
The following corrections and amendments are made to the 2016 classification of lichenized fungi published in the previous issue of this journal. Four families are added: Harpidiaceae (Pezizomycotina incertae sedis), with the two genera Euopsis and Harpidium; Pleomassariaceae (Pleosporales), with the genus Splanchonema; Squamarinaceae (Lecanorales), with the two genera Herteliana (moved from Ramalinaceae) and Squamarina (moved from Stereocaulaceae); and Trichosphaeriaceae (Sordariomycetes: Trichosphaeriales), with the genus Cresporhaphis. The following previously overlooked genera are also added: Allophoron (Pezizomycotina incertae sedis), Cresporhaphis (Trichosphaeriaceae), Gabura (Arctomiaceae), Julella (Trypetheliaceae), Knightiella (Icmadophilaceae), Porpidinia (Lecideaceae), Protoroccella (Roccellaceae), Psoromidium (Pannariaceae) and Tremotylium (Arthoniales incertae sedis). The classification is adjusted for four genera: Asteroporum (moved from Pezizomycotina incertae sedis to Dothideomycetes incertae sedis), Eremastrella (moved from Psoraceae to Lecideaceae), Hosseusia (moved from Pannariaceae to Lecanoromycetes incertae sedis) and Joergensenia (moved from Lecanorales incertae sedis to Pannariaceae). Further, the following overlooked generic synonyms are listed: Buscalionia (= Marcelaria [nom. cons. prop.]), Degeliella (= Psoromaria), Dirinastrum (= Buellia), Gymnographa (= Phaeographis), Kroswia (= Fuscopannaria), Marfloraea (= Lepra), Medusulina (= Fissurina), and Phaeographina (= Pliariona); the genus Anapyrenium is discussed as a potential synonym of Thelomma. Species numbers are adjusted for nine genera: Austrella (Pannariaceae; 3 spp.), Icmadophila (Icmadophilaceae; 5 spp.), Lepidocollema (Pannariaceae; 23 spp.), Massalongia (Massalongiaceae; 6 spp.), Parmeliella (Pannariaceae; 70 spp.), Psoromidium (Pannariaceae; 1 spp.), Pyrgillus (Pyrenulaceae; 7 spp.), Siphula (Icmadophilaceae; 17 spp.) and Synarthonia (Arthoniales incertae sedis; 5 spp.). The fossil lichen Honeggeriella (complexa) is validated by adding MycoBank registration numbers, the validity of the genus name Pallidogramme (Graphidaceae) is discussed and confirmed, and the authorship of the name Thallinocarpon (Lichinaceae) is clarified. Several genera are (continued to be) considered non-lichenized, namely Chaenothecopsis (Eurotiomycetes: Mycocaliciales: Sphinctrinaceae), Limboria (newly lectotypified with L. constellata; Pezizomycotina incertae sedis), Naetrocymbe (Dothideomycetes: Pleosporales: Naetrocymbaceae), and Obryzum (Dothideomycetes incertae sedis: Obryzaceae); the status of the genus Pleurotrema (Dothideomycetes incertae sedis: Pleurotremataceae) is also discussed. Seven genera are corrected to have molecular data available: Adelolecia, Aspiciliopsis, Aspilidea, Crocodia, Parasiphula, Vezdaea and Xylopsora. With these corrections, the number of lichenized species is now tabulated at 19,409 and the number of fungal genera, families, and orders including lichens at 1,002, 119, and 40, respectively.Keywords: Delichenization, Diploschistes, lichen species richness, Mycocaliciales, Peltigerales.
28240Lumbsch H.T. (2017): [Review:] The Lichens of Italy. A Second Annotated Checklist. - Bryologist, 120(1): 110–111.
Book review. Nimis, P. L. 2016. The Lichens of Italy. A Second Annotated Checklist. 739 pp., 2 figs, hardcover. EUT – Edizioni Universit`a di Trieste, Trieste, Italy [ISBN 9788883037542]. Price: E80.00 (approx. $85.00)þshipping. Available from http://dbiodbs.univ.trieste.it/egbooks/scli.html.
28239Lendemer J.C. (2017): Recent literature on lichens—244. - Bryologist, 120(1): 97–109.
28238Brodo I.M. (2017): [Review:] A lichen hotspot in the city of Boulder. - Bryologist, 120(1): 112–113.
Book review. Tripp, Erin A. 2016. Field Guide to the Lichens of White Rocks (Boulder, Colorado). University Press of Colorado, Boulder. 170 pages. Paper: ISBN 978-1-60732-553-6. $21.95; Ebook: ISBN 978-1-60732-554-3, $17.95.
28237Cáceres M.E.S., Aptroot A., Mendonça C.O., dos Santos L.A. & Lücking R. (2017): Sprucidea, a further new genus of rain forest lichens in the family Malmideaceae (Ascomycota). - Bryologist, 120(2): 202–211.
We describe the new genus, Sprucidea M.Cáceres, Aptroot & Lücking, from rain forest areas in South America and Southeast Asia. Phylogenetic analysis of the mtSSU and nuLSU markers place Sprucidea within Malmideaceae, sister to the genus Savoronala from Madagascar. Like Malmidea, Sprucidea is characterized by frequently red thalli containing norsolorinic acid, but differs in the bacillar instead of ellipsoid ascospores and in the stalked sporodochia as conidiomata; from Savoronala, Sprucidea is distinguished by the crustose thallus and short stalks of the sporodochia. The new genus thus far contains four species, two of them new to science, namely S. granulosa M.Cáceres, Aptroot & Lücking and S. rubropenicillata M.Cáceres, Aptroot & Lücking (type species), and two newly proposed combinations: S. gymnopiperis (Kalb) M.Cáceres, Aptroot & Lücking (basionym: Malmidea gymnopiperis Kalb) and S. penicillata (Aptroot, M.Cáceres, Lücking & Sparrius) M.Cáceres, Aptroot & Lücking (basionym: Bacidina penicillata Aptroot, M.Cáceres, Lücking & Sparrius). In addition, we propose the new combination Malmidea floridensis (Nyl.) M.Cáceres, Aptroot & Lücking (basionym: Lecidea floridensis Nyl.). We further include the pantropical genus Crustospathula (with currently five species) in Malmideaceae, differing from the other genera by its stalked soralia. With the recent addition of the genus Kalbionora, Malmideaceae thus contains five genera and two additional, orphaned lineages of species currently included in Lecidea s.l. A key to all genera and lineages is provided, as well as a key to all species of Sprucidea and Crustospathula. Keywords: Brazil, corticolous, Costa Rica, Lecidea cyrtidia, Lecidea plebeja, Papua New Guinea, Thailand, Venezuela.
28236Wieczorek A., Achrem M., Mitka J. R., Rogalski M. & Werczyńska K. (2014): Genetic Variability Of The Populations Of Zwackhia Viridis (Ach.) Poetsch & Schied (Lecanographaceae, Lichenized Ascomycetes) In The Eastern Poland: Geographic Versus Habitat Distance. - Polish Journal of Ecology, 62: 253–261.
Zwackhia viridis is a crustose lichen being found in forests throughout Poland. It belongs to rare species being labelled primeval forest lichens which are associated with large forest complexes. The eastern populations of Z. viridis were examined using RAPD technique in order to check whether geographic distance affects genetic diversity of the populations under study. The analysis of seven populations of that species showed large intraspecific diversity. The greatest genetic similarity occurred between populations from the north-eastern area of the country, about 300 km away from each other. In dendrograms, only these populations have simple matching distance greater than 50%. lichens; random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), genetic variation
28235Domaschke S., Fernández-Mendoza F., García M., Martín M. & Printzen C. (2012): Low genetic diversity in Antarctic populations of the lichen-forming ascomycete Cetraria aculeata and its photobiont. - Polar Research, 31: 17353.
Lichens, symbiotic associations of fungi (mycobionts) and green algae or cyanobacteria (photobionts), are poikilohydric organisms that are particularly well adapted to withstand adverse environmental conditions. Terrestrial ecosystems of the Antarctic are therefore largely dominated by lichens. The effects of global climate change are especially pronounced in the maritime Antarctic and it may be assumed that the lichen vegetation will profoundly change in the future. The genetic diversity of populations is closely correlated to their ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions and to their future evolutionary potential. In this study, we present evidence for low genetic diversity in Antarctic mycobiont and photobiont populations of the widespread lichen Cetraria aculeata. We compared between 110 and 219 DNA sequences from each of three gene loci for each symbiont. A total of 222 individuals from three Antarctic and nine antiboreal, temperate and Arctic populations were investigated. The mycobiont diversity is highest in Arctic populations, while the photobionts are most diverse in temperate regions. Photobiont diversity decreases significantly towards the Antarctic but less markedly towards the Arctic, indicating that ecological factors play a minor role in determining the diversity of Antarctic photobiont populations. Richness estimators calculated for the four geographical regions suggest that the low genetic diversity of Antarctic populations is not a sampling artefact. Cetraria aculeata appears to have diversified in the Arctic and subsequently expanded its range into the Southern Hemisphere. The reduced genetic diversity in the Antarctic is colonization
28234Werth S. & Sork V. L. (2014): Ecological specialization in Trebouxia (Trebouxiophyceae) photobionts of Ramalina menziesii (Ramalinaceae) across six range-covering ecoregions of western North America. - American Journal of Botany, 101: 1127–1140.
Premise of the study: Many lichens exhibit extensive ranges spanning several ecoregions. It has been hypothesized that this wide ecological amplitude is facilitated by fungal association with locally adapted photobiont strains. Methods: We studied the identity and geographic distribution of photobionts of the widely distributed North American lichen Ramalina menziesii based on rbcL (chloroplast DNA) and nuclear ribosomal ITS DNA sequences. To test for ecological spe- cialization, we associate photobiont genotypes with local climate and phorophyte. Key results: Of the photobiont lineages of R. menziesii, 94% belong to a clade including Trebouxia decolorans. The remaining are related to T. jamesii. The photobionts showed (1) significant structure according to ecoregion and phorophyte species and (2) genetic associations with phorophyte species and climate. Conclusions: Geography, climate, and ecological specialization shape genetic differentiation of lichen photobionts. One great advantage of independent dispersal of the fungus is symbiotic association with locally adapted photobiont strains. ecological specialization; genetic differentiation; host plant specificity; lichenized ascomycetes; phorophyte; photobiont; Ramalina menziesii; Ramalinaceae; symbiosis; Trebouxia decolorans; Trebouxiophyceae.
28233Alors D., Dal Grande F., Cubas P., Crespo A., Schmitt I., Molina M. C. & Divakar P. K. (2017): Panmixia and dispersal from the Mediterranean Basin to Macaronesian Islands of a macrolichen species. - Scientific Reports, 7: 40879.
The Mediterranean region, comprising the Mediterranean Basin and the Macaronesian Islands, represents a center of diversi cation for many organisms. The genetic structure and connectivity of mainland and island microbial populations has been poorly explored, in particular in the case of symbiotic fungi. Here we investigated genetic diversity and spatial structure of the obligate outcrossing lichen-forming fungus Parmelina carporrhizans in the Mediterranean region. Using eight microsatellite and mating-type markers we showed that fungal populations are highly diverse but lack spatial structure. This is likely due to high connectivity and long distance dispersal of fungal spores. Consistent with low levels of linkage disequilibrium and lack of clonality, we detected both mating-type idiomorphs in all populations. Furthermore we showed that the Macaronesian Islands are the result of colonization from the Mediterranean Basin. The unidirectional gene ow, though, seemed not to be su cient to counterbalance the e ects of drift, resulting in comparatively allelic poor peripheral populations. Our study is the rst to shed light on the high connectivity and lack of population structure in natural populations of a strictly sexual lichen fungus. Our data further support the view of the Macaronesian Islands as the end of the colonization road for this symbiotic ascomycete
28232Wiens J. J. (2012): Why biogeography matters: historical biogeography vs. phylogeography and community phylogenetics for inferring ecological and evolutionary processes. - Frontiers of Biogeography, 4(3): 128–135.
Phylogenetic and phylogeographic approaches have become widespread in evolutionary biol‐ ogy, ecology, and biogeography. However, analyses that incorporate inferences from historical biogeography (e.g., timing of colonization of a region) may be essential to answer the most important large‐ scale questions in these fields, but they remain infrequently used. I focus on two examples here. First, I argue that understanding the origins of biodiversity hotspots (and other high‐diversity regions) requires comparing the timing of biogeographic colonization and diversification rates among regions. In contrast, phylogeographic studies (e.g., analyses within species within a region) may themselves say little about why a region is diverse relative to others. Second, incorporating historical biogeograpy can help address the processes that determine community species richness and structure, such as dispersal, in‐situ trait evolution, and in‐situ speciation. In contrast, the widespread “community phylogenetics” approach (focusing on relatedness of species in communities) may have limited ability to explain community rich‐ ness and structure. biodiversity hotspot, biogeography, community ecology, community phylogenetics, phylogeny, phylogeography, species richness
28231Leavitt S. D. & Lumbsch H. T. (2016): Ecological biogeography of lichen-forming fungi. In: Druzhinina I. S. & Kubicek C. P. (eds), Environmental and microbial relationships, Ed. 3. - The Mycota IV, Springer International Publishing, Switzerland., p. 15–37.
Current research has dramatically increased our understanding of the geographical distribu- tion of lichens and allowed new insights in the importance of the photosynthetic partners for shaping the spatial distribution of these symbi- otic organisms. Novel methods, including the increased availability of data from environmen- tal sampling, will further enhance and refine our hypotheses to explain distribution patterns. These are truly exciting times—with the help of next-generation sequencing techniques, increased number of species for which micro- satellite markers have been identified, and improved analytical tools, biogeographical questions can be addressed that were beyond our reach only a decade ago. Improved under- standing of species delimitations of the fungal partners has allowed us to better understand distribution patterns, and in tandem with enhanced knowledge of species diversity of photosynthetic partners, this provides an ave- nue to better understand patterns that explain distribution patterns at an ecological level. Currently, ecological biogeographical studies focus on a few species that provide great insights, but we look forward to seeing these exemplary studies extended to other lichens, including phylogenetically distant groups and also tropical species, which are currently severely understudied. The extension of research to include a wider amplitude of species will also strengthen predictions of the impact of global climatic change to lichen distribution.
28230Knudsen K. (2004): A preliminary study of Acarospora smaragdula var. lesdainii in California. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 1: 21–24.
The current state of Acarospora studies is discussed. Acarospora hassei Herre and Acarospora particularis H. Magnusson are placed in synonymy with Acarospora smaragdula var. lesdainii (Harmand in A.L. Smith) H. Magnusson. A lectotype is selected for A. hassei Herre.
28229Lendemer J.C. (2004): Placynthiella knudsenii sp. nov., a new lichen from western New York. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 1: 75–78.
Placynthiella knudsenii Lendemer, a new species from western North America is described. It differs from all previously described species in the genus by the combination of a fissured and wrinkled areolate thallus composed primarily of isidioid structures, proportionally larger spores, and the presence of two unknowns by TLC and lack of gyrophoric acid.
28228Harris R.C. (2004): A preliminary list of the lichens of New York. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 1: 55–74.
A list of 808 species and 7 subspecific taxa of lichens known to the author to occur in New York state is presented. The new combination Myriospora immersa (Fink ex J. Hedrick) R. C. Harris is made.
28227Lendemer J.C. (2004): Recent records of lichens in the local area (MD, NJ, PA). I. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 1: 9–20.
An index to the collections of lichens made by the author in Maryland, New Jersey, Pennsylvania from 2002 to 2004 is provided.
28226Lendemer J.C. (2004): A preliminary checklist of the lichen flora of Lehigh Gorge State Park. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 1: 1–8.
Recent field work in the Lehigh Gorge, NE Pennsylvania, USA, revealed the presence of 100 lichen species. Of these, 22 have not previously been reported for the state of Pennsylvania and several represent undescribed taxa.
28225Lendemer J.C. (2005): Lichens of Eastern North America Exsiccati. Fascicle IV, nos. 151-200 . - Opuscula Philolichenum, 2: 37–52.
In conjunction with the preparator’s work on the lichen flora of eastern North America he began distribution of this exsiccat (Lichens of Eastern North America Exsiccati) from the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia (PH). This, the fourth fascicle in the series comprises the nos. 151 to 200 and is distributed in 20 sets on exchange to the following herbaria: ASU, B, BG, CANB, CHR, DOV, FH, GZU, H, HMAS, M, MIN, S, TSB, TNS, TU, UPS, herb. Lendemer. Lepraria caesiella R.C. Harris sp. nov., is described as new to science. The new combination Phlyctis ludoviciensis (Müll. Arg.) Lendemer, is proposed.
28224Knudsen K. (2005): Lichens of the Santa Monica, Part One. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 2: 27–36.
63 taxa are reported from the Santa Monica Mountains in southern California. Endocarpon pseudosubnitescens Breuss is reported as new to North America. New collections of the rare species Cladonia pulvinella Hammer and Placynthiella knudsenii Lendemer are reported. Acarospora arenosa Herre, Acarospora smaragdula (Wahlenberg) A. Massalongo var. smaragdula, Lecanora glaucopsina Nylander in Hasse, and Lecidea subplebeia Nylander in Hasse are discussed. Two new combinations are made: Mycobilimbia austrocalifornica (Zahlbruckner) Knudsen, and Sarcogyne arenosa (Herre) Knudsen & Standley. Acarospora craterifolia H. Magnusson is synonomized with Acarospora smaragdula var. smaragdula, and Acarospora carnegiei Zahlbruckner is synonomized with Acarospora obpallens (Nylander in Hasse) Zahlbruckner. Lectotypes are selected for the following names: Acarospora arenosa Herre, Lecanora obpallens Nylander in Hasse, and Lecidea subplebeia Nylander in Hasse.
28223Lendemer J.C. (2005): Contributions to the lichen flora of Pennsylvania: The lichen flora of the diabase region of northern Bucks and Montgomery Counties. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 2: 21–26.
This preliminary checklist of lichens and lichenicolous fungi occurring in the diabase region of northern Bucks and Montgomery Counties, Pennsylvania, USA, includes a total of 72 taxa, of which ten have not previously been reported from the state. The range of Lecanora oreinoides (Krber) Hertel & Rambold, is extended to include Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Pennsylvania.
28222Knudsen K. (2005): Polysporina lapponica in southern California. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 2: 17–20.
The occurrence of Polysporina lapponica (Acharius ex Schaerer) Degelius is reported for Southern California. Sarcogyne bicolor H. Magnusson is recognized as a new synonym of Polysporina lapponica. The species is discussed as a possible lichenized fungus and as an opportunistic parasite.
28221Harris R.C. (2005): Some name changes in Porina s. lat.. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 2: 15–16.
North American species of Porina Acharius s. lat (Porinaceae, Ostropomycetidae, Lecanoromycetes) lacking setae assigned by Harris to Trichothelium Müll. Arg. are here recognized as Pseudosagedia (Müll. Arg.) M. Choisy to co-ordinate with recent European checklists. The requisite new combinations are Pseudosagedia cestrensis (Michener) R. C. Harris, Pseudosagedia crocynioides (R. C. Harris) R. C. Harris, Pseudosagedia isidiata (R. C. Harris) R. C. Harris, and Pseudosagedia rhaphidosperma (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris.
28220Knudsen K. (2005): Acarospora epilutescens rediscovered. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 2: 11–14.
Acarospora epilutescens Zahlbruckner is assigned a neotype. Acarospora albida H. Magnusson is made a synonym of A. epilutescens. Its relation to Acarospora epilutesecens sensu Hasse and Magnusson is discussed.
28219Harris R.C. & Lendemer J.C. (2005): Contributions to the lichen flora of Pennsylvania: A checklist of lichens collected during the First Howard Crum Bryological Workshop, Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 2: 1–10.
A checklist of 209 species of lichens and lichenicolous fungi collected during the First Howard Crum Bryological Workshop in the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area, Pennsylvania, USA is provided. The new species Opegrapha bicolor R.C. Harris & Lendemer, collected during the Foray, is described. Chrysothrix flavovirens Tønsberg and Merismatium peregrinum (Flotow) Triebel are reported as new to North America.
28218Knudsen K. (2007): Lichenicolous Fungi of the Czech Republic (The First Commented Checklist) by Jana Kocourková. Acta Musei Nationalis Pragae. Sborník Nárosního [sic!] Muzea V Praze. Series B-Historia Naturalis, 55, 3-4, pp. 59-167 with eight plates of black and white photographs. 1999 (published in 2000). - Opuscula Philolichenum, 4: 81.
Literature review
28217Lendemer J.C. (2007): Lichens of eastern North America Exsiccati, Fascicle V, Nos. 201- 250. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 4: 69–80.
Data for the fifth fascicle, comprising the nos. 201 to 250, of Lichens of Eastern North America Exsiccati is presented. The exsiccat is distributed to ASU, B, BG, CANB, CHR, DOV, FH, GZU, H, HMAS, M, MIN, S, TSB, TNS, TU, UPS, and hb. Lendemer. The new combinations Fissurina cypressi (Müll. Arg.) Lendemer and F. scolecitis (Tuck.) Lendemer, are proposed.
28216Beeching S.Q. (2007): Dimelaena tenuis (lichenized Ascomycota) new to North America, and Xanthoparmelia pseudocongensis new to Georgia, USA. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 4: 55–56.
Dimelaena tenuis is reported as new to North America. Xanthoparmelia pseudocongensis is reported for the first time from Georgia.
28215Tønsberg T. (2007): Notes on lichen genus Lepraria in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, southeastern North America: Lepraria lanata and L. salazinica spp. nov.. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 4: 51–54.
Lepraria lanata Tønsberg and L. salazinica Tønsberg are described as new from the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, North Carolina and Tennessee, U.S.A. Lepraria lanata has exceptionally large consoredia, produces protocetraric and angardianic/roccellic acids and occurs on rock walls. It is easily recognized even in the field. Lepraria salazinica forms a thin, grayish white cover of soredia and consoredia on overhanging rock surfaces and produces atranorin, salazinic acid, and angardianic/roccellic acid.
28214Lendemer J.C. & Harris R.C. (2007): Lepraria normandinoides, a new widespread species from eastern North America. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 4: 45–50.
Lepraria normandinoides, a new species found to be widely distributed in eastern North America, USA is described.
28213Lendemer J.C. (2007): Megalaria beechingii (lichenized ascomycota), a new species from eastern North America. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 4: 39–44.
Megalaria beechingii, a new species from the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA is described.
28212Lendemer J.C. & Knapp W.M. (2007): Contributions to the lichen flora of Maryland: Recent collections from the Delmarva Peninsula. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 4: 23–28.
Results of a recent collecting trip to the Delmarva Peninsula in Maryland, USA, are presented. The Delmarva Peninsula (coastal Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia) is the northern limit of the geographic distribution of numerous typical coastal plain species. Lichen checklists for six localities are provided, and 46 taxa are reported for the first time from the state.
28211Knudsen K., Elix J.A. & Lendemer J.C. (2007): Lepraria adhaerens: A new species from North America. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 4: 5–10.
Lepraria adhaerens K. Knudsen, Elix & Lendemer is described as a new species of lichenized fungi growing usually over mosses and lichens on rock and soil, in southern California, Missouri and Pennsylvania. It is characterized by the presence of pannarin and zeorin. Keywords: Lepraria, lichenized Ascomycetes, North America, California, Santa Monica Mountains, Ozarks, Pennsylvania, Stereocaulaceae.
28210Fryday A.M., Lendemer J.C. & Howe N.M. (2007): Porpidia soredizodes (lichenized ascomycota) in North America. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 4: 1–4.
The occurrence of the sorediate species Porpidia soredizodes (Nyl. ex Lamy) J.R. Laundon in North America is confirmed based on a collection from the zinc contaminated superfund site at Lehigh Gap, Carbon Co., Pennsylvania. Another recent collection from Connecticut is also referable to P. soredizodes and two earlier collections from eastern Canada that were provisionally referred to this species are re-examined.
28209Buaruang K., Boonpragob K., Mongkolsuk P., Sangvichien E., Vongshewarat K., Polyiam W., Rangsiruji A., Saipunkaew W., Naksuwankul K., Kalb J., Parnmen S., Kraichak E., Phraphuchamnong P., Meesim S., Luangsuphabool T., Nirongbut P., Poengsungnoen V., Duangphui N., Sodamuk M., Phokaeo S., Molsil M., Aptroot A., Kalb K., Lücking R. & Lumbsch H.T. (2017): A new checklist of lichenized fungi occurring in Thailand. - MycoKeys, 23: 1–91.
A new revised checklist of lichenized fungi in Thailand is presented, including 1,292 species. Recent work on the taxonomy of these organisms in Thailand resulted in an enormous increase in our knowledge of the lichen biota of the country – the current checklist includes more than twice as many species as the previous catalogue published 15 years ago – and phylogenetic studies resulted in numerous changes in the generic classification of lichenized fungi. Hence, a new checklist is here presented summarizing the current knowledge of lichens in Thailand. Six new records are reported, viz. Acanthothecis salazinica, Bactrospora metabola, Buellia parastata, Diploschistes cinereocaesius, Rolfidium coccocarpioides, and Trapelia placodioides. Five previously recorded species, namely Lecanora carpinea, Platismatia glauca, P. lacunosa, P. tuckermanii and Roccella phycopsis are shown to be based on misidentifications and are excluded from the checklist. Three new combinations of species previously placed in Pertusaria to Lepra are proposed: L. bulolensis (A.W.Archer, Elix & Streimann) Schmitt & Lumbsch, L. patellifera (A.W.Archer) Schmitt & Lumbsch, and L. subventosa (Malme) Schmitt & Lumbsch. Keywords: Asia, biodiversity, lichens, new records, taxonomy.
28208Jia Z.-F. & Lücking R. (2017): Resolving the species of the lichen genus Graphina Müll. Arg. in China, with some new combinations. - MycoKeys, 25: 13–29.
In the framework of continuing studies on the Graphidaceae in China, the status of all taxa traditionally assigned to the genus Graphina reported from China are resolved in the present paper. Five new combinations are made, namely Diorygma isabellinum (Zahlbr.) Z.F. Jia & Lücking, comb. nov., Fissurina adscribens (Nyl.) Z.F. Jia & Lücking, comb. nov., Graphis lecanactiformis (Zahlbr.) Z.F. Jia & Lücking, comb. nov., Phaeographis haloniata (Zahlbr.) Z.F. Jia & Lücking, comb. nov. and Platygramme taiwanensis (J.C. Wei) Z.F. Jia & Lucking, comb. nov. Five new synonymies were found: Graphina olivascens Zahlbr. (= Fissurina adscribens), Graphina plumbicolor Zahlbr. (= Phaeographis haloniata), Graphina roridula Zahlbr. and its variety platypoda Zahlbr. [= Diorygma pachygraphum (Nyl.) Kalb, Staiger & Elix], and Graphina taiwanensis f. obscurata J.C. Wei (= Platygramme taiwanensis). Key words: Lichens, taxonomy, Graphidaceae, Ostropales, Lecanoromycetes, Ascomycota.
28207Svensson M., Ekman S., Klepsland J.T., Nordin A., Thor G., von Hirschheydt G., Jonsson F., Knutsson T., Lif M., Spribille T. & Westberg M. (2017): Taxonomic novelties and new records of Fennoscandian crustose lichens. - MycoKeys, 25: 51–86.
We present taxonomic, distributional and ecological notes on Fennoscandian crustose lichens and lichenicolous fungi, based on new collections as well as revision of herbarium material. Two new combinations are proposed: Frutidella furfuracea comb. nov. for F. pullata and Puttea duplex comb. nov. for Fellhanera duplex. Lecidea byssoboliza, L. carneoglauca and Variolaria torta are all reduced to synonymy with Bacidia antricola, Bacidia invertens is synonymized with B. igniarii, B. atrolivida with Mycobilimbia tetramera, and Gyalidea fruticola with Thelenella pertusariella. A new description is provided for Micarea hylocomii. 25 species of lichens and lichenicolous fungi are reported as new to Finland, Norway and/or Sweden: Absconditella lignicola (Norway), Bacidia antricola (Norway), B. polychroa (Norway), B. pycnidata (Sweden), Bacidina adastra (Sweden), Biatora veteranorum (Norway), Briancoppinsia cytospora (Finland), Catillaria scotinodes (Norway), Cliostomum subtenerum (Norway), Dirina fallax (Sweden), Fellhaneropsis almquistiorum (Norway), Gyalidea subscutellaris (Sweden), Lecania inundata (Norway), L. suavis (Norway), Micarea capitata (Norway), M. deminuta (Norway), M. hylocomii (Sweden), M. lynceola (Sweden), M. soralifera (Sweden), M. subconfusa (Sweden), Mycoblastus sanguinarioides (Finland, Sweden), Paralecia pratorum (Sweden), Puttea duplex (Sweden), Sarcogyne algoviae (Finland) and Toninia subnitida (Norway). Lectotypes are designated for Bacidia antricola, Lecidea byssoboliza, Lecidea carneoglauca, Lecidea subconfusa and Lecidea submoestula. Key words: Ascomycota, lectotypification, lichens, Ramalinaceae, Pilocarpaceae.
28206Harris R.C. & Ladd D. (2007): New taxa of lichens and lichenicolous fungi from the Ozark Ecoregion. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 4: 57–68.
Three genera and species of lichens from the Ozark region of midcontinental North America are described as new to science and illustrated. Pachyphysis ozarkana (Porpidiaceae s. lat.) is widely distributed on exposed carbonate rocks, Phoebus hydrophobius (Roccellaceae) occurs on sheltered areas of massive carbonate bluffs, and Xyleborus sporodochifer (Stereocaulaceae) occurs on lightly shaded decorticate hardwoods logs and stumps in wooded uplands. A lichenicolous fungus, Opegrapha diffracticola (Roccellaceae), occurring on Bacidia diffracta, is also described and illustrated.
28205McCarthy P.M. & Kantvilas G. (2017): A new species of Porina (lichenized Ascomycota, Porinaceae) from Tasmania. - Telopea, 20: 109–113.
Porina australis sp. nov. (lichenized Ascomycota, Porinaceae) is described from seasonally inundated, siliceous rocks in the Frankland River, north-western Tasmania, Australia. It has a thin, medium yellow-brown to dark rusty red-brown, rimose to areolate thallus, prominent, medium-sized, outwardly blackish perithecia that are mainly orange-brown within, a comparatively thick, pale excipulum and fusiform or narrowly oblong, 7(–9)-septate ascospores of 37–65 × 5–8 μm
28204Urbanavichene I.N. & Urbanavichus G.P. (2017): Micarea tomentosa (Pilocarpaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) new to Russia from the Republic of Mordovia. - Turczaninowia, 20(1): 30-34.
lichens, oristic nding, biogeography, ecology, indicator species, ecological continuity, Mordovskiy Reserve, Eastern Europe. Micarea tomentosa is reported as new to Russia from one locality in the Republic of Mordovia, where it grows on decaying wood of Alnus glutinosa in humid habitat of the old alder forest in the oodplain of the Vyaz- Pushta stream in Mordovskiy Reserve. M. tomentosa is similar to M. hedlundii stalked, whitish and tomentose pycnidia, but has a more brightly colored and more continuous thallus which is composed of granules larger than the goniocysts of M. hedlundii; anatomically, the two species can be differentiated by the presence of the dull orange pig- ment (reacting K+ violet, C+ violet) within the goniocysts of M. hedlundii; the apothecia of M. tomentosa are pale to slightly brownish, pinkish-brown usually simple and adnate while the apothecia of M. hedlundii are often tuberculate, larger and darker, pinkish-brown or brown pigmented. In addition, M. tomentosa has short (meso)condia. The spe- cies was known earlier only from four European countries (Poland, Slovakia, Estonia and Sweden), where it occurrs mostly within large complexes of natural forest ecosystems, especially in protected nature reserves, demonstrating its particular role as an indicator of ecological continuity for forest habitats. Considering the earlier known distribution of M. tomentosa, the Mordovian nding extends its known geographic range far to the East and con rms its occurrence in the Eastern Europe
28203Zhurbenko M.P. & Pino-Bodas R. (2017): A revision of lichenicolous fungi growing on Cladonia, mainly from the Northern Hemisphere, with a worldwide key to the known species. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 16: 188-266.
The paper documents 70 species of fungi found on species of the lichen genus Cladonia, 65 of which are obligately lichenicolous. One genus, Brackelia, and seven species, Biciliopsis cladoniae, Brackelia lunkei, Caeruleoconidia biazrovii, Neolamya ahtii, Niesslia keissleri, Sclerococcum crassitunicatum and S. epicladonia, are here described as new to science. The names Caeruleoconidia and C. ochrolechiae are validated. Ameroconium cladoniae is considered as a heterotypic synonym of Taeniolella beschiana. Merismatium cladoniicola most likely is a heterotypic synonym of M. decolorans. Taxonomic notes on critical specimens, including those of Abrothallus cf. pezizicola, Arthonia cf. lepidophila, Cladophialophora cf. cladoniae, Hainesia cf. bryonorae, Merismatium cf. nigritellum as well as of unidentified species of Acremonium, Dactylospora, Leptosphaeria, Lichenopeltella and Pronectria found on Cladonia are provided. Cercidospora cladoniicola, Didymocyrtis cladoniicola, Hainesia longicladoniae, Pezizella ucrainica, Plectocarpon cladoniae and Polycoccum laursenii are documented as new to Asia. Biazrovia stereocaulicola, Hainesia longicladoniae and Polycoccum microcarpum are new to North America. The following species are new to various countries: Argentina (Bachmanniomyces uncialicola and Niesslia cladoniicola), Finland (Didymocyrtis foliaceiphila and Roselliniella cladoniae), Japan (Lichenosticta alcicorniaria), Lithuania (Abrothallus cf. pezizicola), Mongolia (Arthonia digitatae, Didymocyrtis cladoniicola, Epicladonia stenospora s. lat., Lichenostigma alpinum s. lat., Phaeopyxis punctum, Sphaerellothecium cladoniicola and Taeniolella beschiana), New Zealand (Abrothallus cladoniae s. lat. and Epicladonia sandstedei), Norway (Arthonia digitatae), Kazakhstan (Sphaerellothecium cladoniae), Kyrgyzstan (Epicladonia sandstedei), Papua New Guinea (Opegrapha cladoniicola), Portugal (Epicladonia stenospora s. lat.), Russia (Abrothallus cladoniae s. lat., A. cf. pezizicola, Arthrorhaphis aeruginosa, Didymocyrtis foliaceiphila, Hainesia longicladoniae, Neoburgoa freyi, Pezizella ucrainica and Polycoccum laursenii), Spain (Lichenoconium aeruginosum), U.S.A. (Biazrovia stereocaulicola, Hainesia longicladoniae, Niesslia cladoniicola and Polycoccum microcarpum), Venezuela (Roselliniella cladoniae) and Vietnam (Pyrenidium actinellum s. lat.). Epicladonia sandstedei and E. stenospora s. lat. are new to Macaronesia. Heterocephalacria bachmannii is for the first time documented in the polar desert biome. Biazrovia stereocaulicola, Coniochaeta sp., Merismatium coccisporum and Pyrenidium actinellum s. lat. are newly reported to occur on Cladonia. A key to 138 species of fungi so far known to occur on Cladonia is provided. Cladoniicolous fungi, new taxa, new records, new host lichens, taxonomy
28202Lewis C.J. Brinker & Samuel R. (2017): Notes on new and interesting lichens from Ontario, Canada - III. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 16: 153-187.
We report on fifty-seven lichen species from forty-four genera that are new either to Canada or the Province of Ontario, are the first published records in approximately the last century, or are additional provincial records of rare species with few collections. Ranges of several species are also expanded in northeastern North America. The first published reports of Abrothallus microspermus, Lecanora epanora, Parmotrema hypotropum, and Placidium arboreum in Canada are presented, as well as, the first published reports of Arthrorhaphis alpina, Dermatocarpon intestiforme, Menegazzia subsimilis, Multiclavula vernalis, Parmelia neodiscordans, Polychidium muscicola, Porpidia melinodes, Protothelenella corrosa, and Ramalina sinensis in Ontario. We report the first documented records since the late 19th to early 20th century for Ontario of Arthonia ruana, Heterodermia hypoleuca, Leptogium corticola, Lithothelium septemseptatum, Phaeophyscia hispidula ssp. hispidula, and Scyntinium dactylinum. Details on the following additional rare species are also provided: Acarospora sinopica, Anaptychia palmulata, Arthothelium spectabile, Catapyrenium cinereum, Chrysothrix chlorina, C. xanthina, Evernia prunastri, Gyalecta jenensis, Heppia adglutinata, Lecanora fugiens, Lepraria humida, Scytinium subtile, S. teretiusculum, Microcalicium arenarium, Myriospora smaragdula, Normandina pulchella, Opegrapha mougeotii, O. rufescens, Parmeliella triptophylla, Psilolechia lucida, Psora decipiens, P. globifera, P. pseudorussellii, Punctelia appalachensis, Rhizocarpon oederi, Rhizoplaca chrysoleuca, Teloschistes chrysophthalmus, Thyrea confusa, Toninia sedifolia, and Usnea longissima. Rare lichens, Appalachian-Great Lakes, arctic-alpine, metallophytes, range extension, Ontario lichens
28201Xu M., Heidmarsson S., Thorsteinsdottir M., Eiriksson F.F., Omarsdottir S. & Olafsdottir E.S. (2017): DNA barcoding and LC-MS metabolite profiling of the lichen-forming genus Melanelia: Specimen identification and discrimination focusing on Icelandic taxa. - PLoS ONE, 12(5): e0178012.
Taxa in the genus Melanelia (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) belong to a group of saxicolous lichens with brown to black foliose thalli, which have recently undergone extensive changes in circumscription. Taxa belonging to Parmeliaceae are prolific producers of bioactive com- pounds, which have also been traditionally used for chemotaxonomic purposes. However, the chemical diversity of the genus Melanelia and the use of chemical data for species dis- crimination in this genus are largely unexplored. In addition, identification based on morpho- logical characters is challenging due to few taxonomically informative characters. Molecular identification methods, such as DNA barcoding, have rarely been applied to this genus. This study aimed to identify the Melanelia species from Iceland using DNA barcoding approach, and to explore their chemical diversity using chemical profiling. Chemometric tools were used to see if lichen metabolite profiles determined by LC-MS could be used for the identifi- cation of Icelandic Melanelia species. Barcoding using the fungal nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (nrITS) successfully identified three Melalenlia species occurring in Iceland, together with Montanelia disjuncta (Basionym: Melanelia disjuncta). All species formed monophyletic clades in the neighbor-joining nrITS gene tree. However, high intra- specific genetic distance of M. stygia suggests the potential of unrecognized species line- ages. Principal component analysis (PCA) of metabolite data gave a holistic overview showing that M. hepatizon and M. disjuncta were distinct from the rest, without the power to separate M. agnata and M. stygia due to their chemical similarity. Orthogonal partial least– squares to latent structures–discriminate analysis (OPLS-DA), however, successfully distin- guished M. agnata and M. stygia by identifying statistically significant metabolites, which lead to class differentiation. This work has demonstrated the potential of DNA barcoding, chemical profiling and chemometrics in identification of Melanelia species
28200Park C.-H., Li X.R., Zhao Y., Jia R.L. & Hur J.-S. (2017): Rapid development of cyanobacterial crust in the field for combating desertification. - Plos One, 12(6): e0179903.
Desertification is currently a major concern, and vast regions have already been devastated in the arid zones of many countries. Combined application of cyanobacteria with soil fixing chemicals is a novel method of restoring desertified areas. Three cyanobacteria, Nostoc sp. Vaucher ex Bornet & Flahault, Phormidium sp. Ku ̈tzing ex Gomont and Scytonema arcan- geli Bornet ex Flahault were isolated and tested in this study. Tacki-SprayTM (TKS7), which consists of bio-polysaccharides and tackifiers, was used as a soil fixing agent. In addition, superabsorbent polymer (SAP) was applied to the soil as a water-holding material and nutri- ent supplement. Application of cyanobacteria with superabsorbent polymer and TKS7 (CST) remarkably improved macro-aggregate stability against water and erodibility against wind after 12 months of inoculation when compared to the control soil. The mean weight diameter and threshold friction velocity of the CST treated soil were found to be 75% and 88% of those of the approximately 20-year-old natural cyanobacterial crust (N-BSC), re- spectively, while these values were 68% and 73% of those of the N-BSC soil after a single treatment of cyanobacteria alone (CY). Interestingly, biological activities of CST were similar to those of CY. Total carbohydrate contents, cyanobacterial biomass, microbial biomass, soil respiration, carbon fixation and effective quantum yield of CST treated soil were en- hanced by 50–100% of the N-BSC, while those of control soil were negligible. Our results suggest that combined application of cyanobacteria with soil fixing chemicals can rapidly develop cyanobacterial crust formation in the field within 12 months. The physical properties and biological activities of the inoculated cyanobacterial crust were stable during the study period. The novel method presented herein serves as another approach for combating desertification in arid regions
28199Halda J. P. (2016): Druhová diverzita lišejníků v údolí Zdobnice mezi Souvlastním a Plačtivou skálou. - Orlické hory a Podorlicko, 23(1-2): 125-140.
A detailed lichenological exploration has been made in Zdobnice‘s valley between Souvlastní settlement and Plačtivá skála rock formation. Several rare and endangered epiphytic and freshwater species were found. Well preserved valley of the river Zdobnice presents a lot of considerable biotopes and localities for rare lichens (Arthonia endlicheri, Bacidina inundata, Ente- rographa zonata, Ionaspis lacustris, Lecidea ahlesii, Micarea lutulata, Micarea tuberculata, Opegrapha lithyrga a Porina lectissima, Verrucaria funckii, V. margacea and V. praetermissa). lichen diversity, Zdobnice river, Orlické hory Mts, East Bohemia
28198Vondrák J., Moniri M.H., Malíček J. & Košnar J. (2017): Extensive yellow crusts below limestone overhangs: a new taxon close to a minute epiphytic lichen. - Nordic Journal of Botany, 35: 368–376.
A conspicuous yellow crust forming extensive covers on some dry and shaded limestone rocks in Europe is described here as Caloplaca substerilis subsp. orbicularis M. Haji Moniri, Vondrák & Malíček subsp. nov. Based on nuITS rDNA, 28S nuLSU rDNA and mtSSU rDNA sequence data, the new taxon is closely related to Caloplaca substerilis and C. ulcerosa. e three taxa form a supported clade in the subfamily Xanthorioideae (Teloschistaceae), but none of the recently seggregated genera are suitable for them. In the ITS phylogeny, the new taxon forms a monophylum nested within C. substerilis. However, its extensive yellow thalli and absence of vegetative diaspores clearly distinguish it from Caloplaca substerilis (subsp. substerilis). Indeed, if it had not been for the molecular evidence, we would have described it at the rank of species. We suggest that the substrate switch and accompanying processes are responsible for the striking phenotypic di erence between Caloplaca substerilis subsp. substerilis and C. substerilis subsp. orbicularis
28197Wagner B. (2017): Lišejníky vrchu Sedlo v Českém středohoří (severní Čechy). [Lichens of the Sedlo Hill in the České středohoří Mts (North Bohemia)]. - Bryonora, 59: 37–43.
This contribution presents the results of a lichenofloristic survey of the Sedlo Hill near the town of Úštěk in North Bohemia, which was undertaken in 2011–2013. The tephrite hill is covered mostly by a scree forest. In total, 72 lichen species were recorded, including one endangered lichen (Usnea subfloridana) and three vulnerable species (Bryoria fuscescens, Melanelixia subaurifera and Physcia stellaris). Aspicilia cinerea, Lecanora cenisia, L. soralifera, Miriquidica leucophaea, Porpidia rugosa and Rimularia insularis represent remarkable species from tephrite rocks
28196Malíček J. (2017): Malíček J.: Lišejníky NPP Kaňk u Kutné Hory. [Lichens of the protected area Kaňk near Kutná Hora]. - Bryonora, 59: 30–36.
A list of 101 lichen taxa recorded in 2016 in the Kaňk National Nature Monument near Kutná Hora in Central Bohemia is presented. The locality is well known due to findings of fossils in calcareous conglomerates. Acarospora rehmii is reported here for the first time from the Czech Republic. Caloplaca albolutescens, C. velana, C. xerica, Diplotomma porphyricum, Lecanora albellula, Lempholemma polyanthes, Melanelixia elegantula, Sarcogyne privigna, Verrucaria bryoctona and Xanthoparmelia delisei represent further remarkable findings from the protected area
28195Bouda F. (2017): Nové druhy žluté skupiny rodu Rhizocarpon v České Republice. [A new species of yellow Rhizocarpon in the Czech Republic]. - Bryonora, 59: 24–29.
Three species of map lichens, Rhizocarpon atroflavescens, R. carpaticum and R. ferax, have newly been discovered in the Czech Republic. These taxa occur predominantly in mountain regions with uncovered rocky outcrops and boulders. Rhizocarpon atrofla- vescens has a whitish prothallus and ascospores containing at most one longitudinal septum. It grows on slightly calcareous rocks. The acidophilous species Rhizocarpon carpaticum also rarely has one longitudinal septum; however, the species has convex apothecia extending up above the areoles and the thallus margin is bordered with a black prothallus. Rhizocarpon ferax occurs mainly on overhangs or at bases of vertical faces of acidic rocks. It has muriform spores and its roundish apothecia are usually hidden between two crescent-shaped areoles
28194Halda J.P., Kocourková J., Lenzová V., Malíček J., Müller A., Palice Z., Uhlík P. & Vondrák J. (2017): Lišejníky zaznamenané během 22. jarního setkání bryologicko-lichenologické sekce ČBS v Moravském krasu v dubnu 2015. [Lichens recorded during the 22th spring meeting of the Bryological and lichenological section of the CBS in the Moravian Karst (Czech Republic), April 2015]. - Bryonora, 59: 1–23.
A list of 297 lichen species and non-lichenized or lichenicolous fungi recorded in the Moravian Karst region in April 2015 during the 22th spring meeting of the Bryological and lichenological section of the Czech Botanical Society is presented. Remarkable endangered lichens were found: Anaptychia ciliaris, Arthonia byssacea, A. calcicola, Bacidia arceutina, B. auerswaldii, B. vermifera, Biatora albohyalina, Caloplaca biatorina, C. lucifuga, Candelariella reflexa s. str., Catillaria minuta, Chaenotheca hispidula, C. chlorella, Dirina stenhammari, Gyalecta geoica, Lecania cuprea, L. sylvestris, Lecanora intumescens, Lecidea strasseri, Lemmopsis arnoldiana, Lepraria diffusa, Leptogium subtile, Mycobilimbia tetramera, Parabagliettoa cyanea, Phaeophyscia hirsuta, Placynthium subradiatum, Polychidium muscicola, Porina linearis, Protoblastenia laeta, Psorotichia diffracta, Rinodina excrescens, Schismatomma pericleum, Thelenella muscorum, Thelidium incavatum and Thelopsis rubella
28193Moon K.H., Nakanishi M., Futagami Y. & Kashiwadani H. (2011): Studies on Cambodian species of Graphidaceae (Ostropales, Ascomycota) (I). - J. Jap. Bot., 86(5): 273-278.
Cambodia, Fissurina batavana, Graphis chlorotica, Graphis taneina, lichen. Three species of two genera, Fissurina batavana (Zahlbr.) M. Nakan., Kashiw. & K. H. Moon, Graphis taneina M. Nakan., Kashiw. & K. H. Moon and Graphis chlorotica A. Massal. in the lichen family Graphidaceae are newly reported from Cambodia and their distribution ranges are presented. Among them, Graphis taneina is new to science. G. taneina is distinct from the allied species of the genus in having sorediate thallus, erumpent lirellae without striation, labia covered by a thallus nearly up to the top of exciples, transversely septate colorless spores which are 30-32 × 7-8 um and in producing 2-methoxypsoromic acid. A new combination, Fissurina batavana (Zahlbr.) M. Nakan., Kashiw. & K. H. Moon is proposed. In addition, these are the second worldwide records for F batavana and Graphis chlorotica. Graphis taneina M. Nakan., Kashiw. & K. H. Moon; Fissurina batavana (Zahlbr.) M. Nakan., Kashiw. & K. H. Moon
28192Shibuichi H., Kashiwadani H., Yoshida K. & Timdal E. (2006): Materials for the Distribution of Lichens in Japan (15). - J. Jap. Bot., 81(1): 52-53.
Japan, Toninia
28191Shibuichi H. & Kurokawa S. (2006): Materials for the Distribution of Lichens in Japan (14). - J. Jap. Bot., 81(1): 51.
Japan, Cladonia
28190Kantvilas G., Kashiwadani H. & Moon K.H. (2005): The lichen genus Siphula Fr. (Lecanorales) in East Asia. - J. Jap. Bot., 80: 208-213.
Siphula decumbens, East Asia, Japan, Taiwan, China
28189Asahina Y. (1931): The Raiken's Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. XXXVI. - J. Jap. Bot., 7(5): 143-146.
Japan, Umbilicaria
28188Asahina Y. (1931): The Raiken's Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. XXXV. - J. Jap. Bot., 7(4): 102-106.
Japan, Umbilicaria, Phylliscum, Pseudocyphellaria, Cladia
28187Asahina Y. (1930): The Raiken\'s Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. XXXIII. - J. Jap. Bot., 7(1): 3-6.
28186Kon Y., Kashiwadani H., Masada M. & Tamura G. (1993): Effects of culture conditions on the growth of symbionts from Usnea confusa subsp. kitamiensis. - J. Jap. Bot., 68(6): 348-354.
Japna, Usnea confusa subsp. kitamiensis
28185Kurokawa S. (1987): Japanese names of lichen families. - J. Jap. Bot., 62(11): 349-350.
28184Ohmura Y. & Seaward M.R.D. (2017): Is Glyphis cicatricosa an indicator for \‘global warming\’ or an \‘urban heat island\’ effect in Japan?. - Lichenologist, 49(3): 291–296.
During the course of floristic studies of Japa- nese lichens, Glyphis cicatricosa Ach. (Graphi- daceae, Ascomycota), a pantropical species (Galloway 2007), was found on the bark of Phellodendron amurense Rupr. in a suburban area of Tsukuba-city (36°06'03''N, 140° 06'43''E). This is on the Pacific side of eastern Honshu, with a warm-temperate climate and is the northernmost locality of G. cicatricosa in Japan. The sapling tree was planted in the Tsukuba Botanical Garden (c. 14 ha, 20 m elev.) in 1984 when the mean annual temperature was 12 °C, but this has gradually increased since then to almost 15 °C in 2015 when G. cicatricosa was discovered (Fig. 1). Does an increase in annual temperature at this site plausibly explain the unexpected phyto- geographical distribution of this lichen in terms of ‘global warming’, or is it the result of an ‘urban heat island’ effect, or indeed is it related to one or more other factors?
28183Kirika P.M., Divakar P.K., Leavitt S.D., Buaruang K., Crespo A., Mugambi G., Gatheri G.W. & Lumbsch H. T. (2017): The genus Relicinopsis is nested within Relicina (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota). - Lichenologist, 49(3): 189–197.
Macro-morphological features traditionally used to segregate genera in Parmeliaceae have been shown to be highly plastic, placing limits on their taxonomic value. Here we aim to elucidate the evolutionary relationships of the genera Relicina and Relicinopsis and reassess the phenotypic features traditionally used to separate these genera. To this end, we gathered ribosomal DNA sequences of ITS, nuLSU and mtSSU and analyzed them in a phylogenetic framework. Relicina was recovered as paraphyletic, with Relicinopsis nested within, and three different clades were identified within Relicina. Alternative hypothesis tests significantly rejected the monophyly of Relicina. Our results indicate that the presence or absence of bulbate cilia is of limited taxonomic value in this clade. Based on differences in conidia, however, we propose to accept Relicinopsis as a subgenus within Relicina as Relicina subgen. Relicinopsis (Elix & Verdon) Kirika, Divakar & Lumbsch. It is proposed that five new combinations of species previously classified in Relicinopsis be placed in Relicina. generic circumscription, integrative taxonomy, lichenized fungi, molecular systematics, parmelioid lichens
28182Gerlach A. da Cruz Lima, Clerc P. & Borges R.M. da Silveira (2017): Taxonomy of the corticolous, shrubby, esorediate, neotropical species of Usnea Adans. (Parmeliaceae) with an emphasis on southern Brazil. - Lichenologist, 49(3): 199–238.
Seventeen corticolous shrubby apotheciate Usnea species without vegetative propagules are reported from Brazil, including five species that are new to science: Usnea aurantiaca-parvula A. Gerlach & P. Clerc (characterized by an orange medulla and lageniform spinulose fibrils), U. cirrosa Motyka, U. cladocarpa Fée (syn. nov.: U. ramillosa Motyka), U. concinna Stirton (lectotype designated here, syn. nov. U. radiata Stirton, U. florida var. scabrosa Zahlbr.), U. cristatula Motyka, U. erinacea Vain., U. fleigiae A. Gerlach & P. Clerc (characterized by large spores and a thin, lax medulla), U. grandispora A. Gerlach & P. Clerc (characterized by large spores, a black base and protocetraric or salazinic acids in the medulla), U. kalbiana P. Clerc & A. Gerlach (characterized by a vitreous cortex and annular cracks in the basal part), U. lunaria Motyka, U. meridionalis Zahlbr. (syn. nov.: U. michauxii I. I. Tav.), Usnea cf. moreliana Motyka, U. parvula Motyka, U. steineri Zahlbr, U. subelegans (Vain.) B. de Lesd. (lectotype designated here), U. subparvula A. Gerlach & P. Clerc (characterized by spinulose fibrils and protocetraric acid in the medulla) and one as yet unidentified species (named Usnea sp. 1). Usnea cirrosa, U. cristatula and U. erinacea are new records for Brazil. A full description with morphological, anatomical (CMA and ascospores) and chemical features (TLC), as well as geographical distribution, is provided for each species along with an identification key to all species reported. Molecular data from the ITS rDNA, RPB1 and Mcm7 markers are present for most taxa, except for U. concinna, U. cristatula, U. kalbiana, U. lunaria, U. cf. moreliana and U. subelegans. anatomy, ascospores, lichens, morphology, phylogenetics, thin-layer chromatography
28181Bjelland T., Bendiksby M., Frisch A. (2017): Geographically disjunct phylogenetic lineages in Leptogium hibernicum reveal Leptogium krogiae sp. nov. from East Africa. - Lichenologist, 49(3): 239–251.
Phylogenetic analyses of nuclear (Mcm7, nrITS, nrLSU) and mitochondrial (mrSSU) DNA sequences revealed geographically disjunct lineages in Leptogium hibernicum. One of these lineages is described here as Leptogium krogiae, which differs from L. hibernicum in the thinner thallus (190–210 μm vs. 390–480μm), shallowly striate lobes instead of deeply furrowed lobes, isidia that are seldom distinctly flattened, and apothecia with a subhymenial euparaplectenchymatous layer. Leptogium krogiae is a widespread epiphyte in mist-affected woodlands and montane forests in East Africa and appears to be a common species. Afromontane rainforests, Collemataceae, lichen, Mcm7, mrSSU, nrITS, nrLSU, taxonomy
28180Neuwirth G. & Stocker-Wörgötter E. (2017): Tapellaria palaeotropica (Pilocarpaceae), a new foliicolous lichen species from the Seychelles, and a world key to the genus. - Lichenologist, 49(3): 253–258.
The new lichenized ascomycete Tapellaria palaeotropica is described from Mahé Island in the Seychelles. The species is characterized by a crustose, pale green, smooth thallus dispersed in patches and by having black, rounded apothecia with flat discs, hyaline, transversely, 3–5-septate ascospores and a purplish brown excipulum. Morphology, distribution and related species are discussed. A world key to all currently known species in the genus is presented. lichen diversity, rainforest, taxonomy, tropical islands
28179Asplund J., Siegenthaler A. & Gauslaa Y. (2017): Simulated global warming increases usnic acid but reduces perlatolic acid in the mat-forming terricolous lichen Cladonia stellaris. - Lichenologist, 49(3): 269–274.
Lichens as sessile and slow-growing symbiotic associations have evolved various carbon- based secondary compounds (CBSCs) to mitigate the effects of some stressors in the extreme environments in which they often grow. The mat-forming lichen Cladonia stellaris, an important fodder for reindeer, produces usnic acid in the outermost layer and perlatolic acid in the medulla. Here, we studied effects of simulated global warming on these CBSCs in C. stellaris cultivated in climate chambers with: 1) ambient conditions as control or 2) ambient conditions +4°C. The chambers simulated, at an hourly resolution, an averaged 10-year growing season dynamic from a long-term monitored boreal mire in northern Sweden. After two months of acclimation, +4 °C warming in one simulated growing season increased the concentration of usnic acid by 31% compared with ambient conditions, whereas the warming decreased the concentration of perlatolic acid by 14%. Since lichen CBSCs play important roles in ecosystem processes such as lichenivory and decomposition, these changes may profoundly affect lichen-dominated ecosystems. boreo-arctic ecosystems, carbon based secondary compounds, climate change, reindeer lichen
28178Brickley M.R. (2017): Development of a live cell imaging method for mitochondria in Trebouxia photobionts. - Lichenologist, 49(3): 275–286.
The Trebouxia photobiont freshly isolated from Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th. Fr. was used to develop a live cell chondriome (mitochondrial DNA) labelling method. In the initial phase six candidate dyes were tested and compared for mitochondrial labelling utility as assessed by the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the mitochondrial signal to the adjacent cellular background in standardized confocal images of 30 labelled cells. DIOC7, JC-1 and MitoTracker orange (MTO) dyes showed some labelling ability. MTO had significantly higher utility than the other dyes. In a second phase, MTO concentration was optimized. The final labelling protocol was a 30 minute incubation with 1 μM of MTO. The resultant labelling was suitable for both widefield and confocal microscopy. Both 2D thresholding and 3D volume construction are demonstrated using the resultant data. The protocol can therefore be utilized for both qualitative research and for quantitative measurement of the chondriome in Trebouxia photobionts. This will facilitate a wide range of mitochondrial investigations in lichenology. chondriome, dyes, lichens, microscopy, MitoTracker orange, photobiont
28177Singh P. & Singh K.P. (2017): Note on the taxonomic status of Pyrgillus tibellii Kr. P. Singh & Pushpi Singh with a world key to the species of Pyrgillus Nyl. (Pyrenulaceae: Pyrenulales). - Lichenologist, 49(3): 287–289.
Pyrgillus tibellii Kr. P. Singh & Pushpi Singh was described from Arunachal Pradesh in the Eastern Himalaya, India (Singh & Singh 2012a). In the same year Kashiwadani et al. (2012) described P. cambodiensis Kashiw. et al. from Cambodia (Fig. 1). Recently, Shi et al. (2015) reported P. cambodiensis and P. javanicus (Mont. & Bosch) Nyl. as new to China from southern Yunnan and considered P. tibellii (Fig. 2) as conspecific with Pyrgillus cambodiensis following the rule of priority (Art. 11.4; McNeill et al. 2012). Shi et al. (2015), however, ignored the chemistry of P. tibellii. We have examined the holotype of P. cambodiensis (Cambodia: Siem Reap Province, Western Prasat Top, Angkor Wats complex, Siem Reap, 13°26'N, 103°51'E, alt. c. 30 m, on bark of Dipterocarpus elatus, 24 November 2010, H. Kashiwadani 50508) borrowed from TNS Japan and found it clearly distinct from the type of P. tibellii (India: Arunachal Pradesh, Papumpare dis- trict, Sankei view, on bark, alt. c. 340m, 12 January 1997, K. P. Singh 9616) housed at ASSAM in India. Pyrgillus tibellii, although similar to P. cambodiensis in morphology and anatomy (they both have 3-septate ascos- pores), is easily distinguished from the latter by its larger ascospores and the presence of lichexanthone (UV+ yellow) in the thallus. In lichen taxonomy, secondary metabolites play a significant role in delimiting species (Hawksworth 1976; Lumbsch 1998a, b; Luangsuphabool et al. 2016). Reaction to ultraviolet (UV) has been considered an important and necessary criterion for the identification of several lichen species (Aptroot 2012). It is therefore concluded that P. tibellii and P. cambodiensis are two distinct taxa and not conspecific as treated by Shi et al. (2015). Pyrgillus tibellii is endemic to India, so far confined to Arunachal Pradesh in Eastern Himalaya and Kerala in Western Ghats, and grows on trees in tropical forests at lower elevations. It might possibly also occur in China. The genus Pyrgillus Nyl. belongs to the family Pyrenulaceae and is so far represented by seven species (Aptroot 1991; Kashiwadani et al. 2012; Singh & Singh 2012b), four of which occur in India (Singh & Singh 2012b). We present a key to these species.
28176Joshi S., Upreti D.K., Thanh N.T., Nguyen A.D. & Hur J.-S. (2017): New and interesting species in the family Graphidaceae (Ascomycota: Ostropales) from Vietnam . - Lichenologist, 49(3): 259–268.
The lowland area of southern Vietnam contains a high diversity of corticolous, crustose lichens, particularly in the family Graphidaceae. Two species, Acanthothecis verrucosa S. Joshi, Upreti & Hur and Graphis exuta S. Joshi, Upreti & Hur, are described new to science. Acanthothecis verrucosa is characterized by a verrucose, olive green thallus containing irregular to shortly lirellate apothecia, hyaline to brownish proper exciple apically lined by robust periphysoids, muriform ascospores, 30–70 × 15–20 μm, and the presence of psoromic and subpsoromic acids. Graphis exuta is characterized by a smooth, greenish white thallus, simple lirellae lacking thalline margin, entire labia coarsely white pruinose towards slit, muriform ascospores, 20–35 × 10–13 μm, and norstictic acid in the thallus. A new name, Acanthothecis yokdonensis S. Joshi & Hur, is proposed here for the species Acanthothecis salazinica S. Joshi & Hur, a later homonym of A. salazinica van den Boom & Sipman. In addition, 34 species from Vietnam are newly reported. A world key to the group of Graphis species characterized by short, simple and sessile lirellae lacking or with basal thalline margins (nuda-morph) is presented. lichen, keys, mangrove, nomenclature, taxonomy, tropical
28175Orange A. , Earland-Bennett P.M., Hitch C.J.B. & Powell M. (2017): Select A new leprose Leprocaulon (Ascomycota, Leprocaulales) from Great Britain A new leprose Leprocaulon (Ascomycota, Leprocaulales) from Great Britain. - Lichenologist, 49(3): 183-188.
Leprocaulon calcicola is described as new from walls in SE England; it is leprose, pale to mid blue-grey, and contains zeorin and usnic acid. It differs from L. knudsenii from North America in its habitat on mortared walls rather than non-calcareous rock and in its ITS sequence. ‘Lecanora’ ecorticata differs in the yellower colour, and the presence of unidentified fatty acids and traces of unknown terpenoids (but not zeorin) by thin-layer chromatography. Leprose lichens with usnic acid are still poorly known and sequencing must be used to support morphological and chemical studies. churches, lichen, taxonomy, usnic acid, walls
28174Pavlova E.A., Kuzmin A.N., Pozdnyakov N.V. & Maslov A.I. (2017): 15N – nitrate uptake and nitrogen exchange in the bionts of the lichen Parmelia sulcata. - Symbiosis, 72: 117–121.
Nitrateuptake andnitrogeninclusion into aminoacids were studied in the intact thallus and isolated bionts of the lichen Parmelia sulcata with the aid of mass spectroscopic tracing of heavy isotope 15N. The isolated photobiont, the green algae Trebouxia sp. did not take up nitrate, whereas the mycobiont and intact thalli were enriched in 15N when incubated with Na15NO3. Pulse feeding experiments with intact thalli followed by separation of photobiont showed that the labelled nitrate was originally assimilated by the mycobiont and only after that was detected in the photobiont. The isolated mycobiont after pulse labeling excreted labeled compounds into the incubation medium. Amino acidswere detected in the exudate. The quantities of two amino acids considerably exceeded those of the others. One wasidentifiedasalanine, theothercouldnotyetbeidentifiedwith certainty. Both of these high-quantity compounds were also much more enriched in 15N than the others. These two compounds are proposed to be the transport forms of nitrogen within the Parmelia sulcata thallus. Keywords: Lichen . Mycobiont . Nitrogen metabolism . Parmelia sulcata . Photobiont . Symbiosis.
28173Zhao X., Fernández-Brime S., Wedin M., Locke M., Leavitt S.D. & Lumbsch H.T. (2017): Using multi-locus sequence data for addressing species boundaries in commonly accepted lichen-forming fungal species. - Organisms Diversity and Evolution, 17(2): 351–363.
Accurate species delimitations are of great importance for effectively characterizing biological diversity. Our criteria for delimiting species have changed dramatically over the last decades with the increasing availability of molecular data and improvement of analytical methods to evaluate these data. Whereas reciprocal monophyly is often seen as an indicator for the presence of distinct lineages, recently diverged species often fail to form monophyletic groups. At the same time, cryptic species have repeatedly been detected in numerous organismal groups. In this study, we addressed the species delimitation in the crustose lichen-forming fungal genus Diploschistes using multilocus sequence data from specimens representing 16 currently accepted species. Our results indicate the presence of previously undetected, cryptic specieslevel lineages in the subgenus Limborina. In the subgenus Limborina, samples from different continents currently classified under the same species were shown to be only distantly related. At the same time, in parts of subgen. Diploschistes characterized by short branches, none of the currently accepted species formed monophyletic groups. In spite of the lack of monophyly in phylogenetic reconstructions, a multispecies coalescent method provided support for eight of the nine accepted species in subgen. Diploschistes as distinct lineages. We propose to reduce D. neutrophilus to synonymy with D. diacapsis and point out that additional sampling will be necessary before accepting additional species in subgen. Limborina. Keywords: BPP . Diploschistes . Graphidaceae . Molecular phylogeny . Species delimitation.
28172Fałtynowicz W. & Kossowska M. (2016): The lichens of Poland. A fourth checklist. - Acta Botanica Silesiaca, Monographiae, 8: 3–122.
This catalogue consists of 1642 lichen species and 19 subspecies belonging to 333 genera. All the taxa recorded to date on the Polish territory are listed. For taxa recorded after 2003 and not included to the previous checklist the appropriate reference is given. If present, contemporary taxonomical revisions of individual genera and other groups occurring in Poland are also cited. For 286 taxa, whose names have been changed compared to the previous edition of the checklist, the old names published there are added as synonyms. The index of Polish names of all species is also given. Key words: lichens, checklist, Poland.
28171Kärnefelt I. & Thell A. (2017): Suomen Rupijäkälät. - Graphis Scripta, 29(1–2): 47–48.
Book review of: STENROOS, S., VELMALA, S., PYKÄLÄ, J. and AHTI, T. (eds). 2015. Suomen Rupijäkälät. Norrlinia 28 [in Finnish]. Luonnontieteellinen keskusmuseo [Finnish Museum of Natural History], Helsinki, pp. 454. ISBN: 978-951-51-0837.
28170Kärnefelt I. & Thell A. (2017): Lavar – en fältguide. - Graphis Scripta, 29(1–2): 46.
Bokk review of : MOBERG, R. and HULTENGREN, S. 2016. Lavar – en fältguide [Lichens – a field guide]. Naturcentrum, Stenungsund, 244 pp.
28169Kärnefelt I. & Thell A. (2017): Syllabus of Plant families. - Graphis Scripta, 29(1–2): 45.
Book review of : JAKLITSCH, W., BARAL, H.-O., LÜCKING, R. and LUMBSCH, H. T. 2016: 1/2 Ascomycota. – In: Frey, W. (ed): Syllabus of Plant Families. Adolf Engler’s Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien 13th ed. – Gebrüder Borntraeger, Stuttgart, 322 pp.
28168Pykälä J., Lendemer J.C., Malíček J., Haughland D.L. & Huhtinen S. (2017): Interesting lichens found during the IAL8 pre-excursion in the south-western archipelago of Finland 2016. - Graphis Scripta, 29(1–2): 57–64.
In July 2016, the pre-excursion of the IAL8 symposium was held in Kemiönsaari in the SW archipelago of Finland (biogeographical province V). Seven localities were visited and a number of interesting species were found, reports of which are summarized here. Lepraria humida is new to Fennoscandia, Halecania viridescens, Lepraria nivalis, Protoparmelia phaeonesos, Reichlingia leopoldii and Scoliciosporum gallurae are new to Finland, and Lecanora norvegica, Ramboldia insidiosa and Rinodina efflorescens are new to the biogeographical province. Notes on new finds of threatened species are also provided.
28167Feuerer T. & Schiefelbein U. (2017): The poverty of lichenological internet sources. - Graphis Scripta, 29(1–2): 49–56.
Some of the more important global lichenological internet sources are roughly characterized. Major deficits on data quality are outlined and proposals for an improved service are made. It is shown that the cooperation between the single database operators needs to be intensified and well established standardizations have to be applied wherever possible.
28166Feuerer T. & Höhne H. (2017): Takhtajan’s definition of global floristic regions revisited. - Graphis Scripta, 29(1–2): 40–43.
Based on an enlarged and improved set of species lists for the floristic regions defined by Takhtajan, a map of the global floristic realms of lichens is presented. The differences between this and a map of the floristic realms of phanerogams are discussed.
28165Jordal J.B., Klepsland J.T. & Nordén B. (2017): Melaspilea lentiginosula, a species of oceanic pine forests, new to Fennoscandia . - Graphis Scripta, 29(1–2): 33–39.
Melaspilea lentiginosula, here reported from 15 localities in Norway, is new to Fennoscandia. All collections were made from living trunks of old Pinus sylvestris in coastal forests in western and central parts of the country. The distribution and habitat preferences suggest an oceanic species of native old-growth hemiboreal and boreal pine forests.
28164Thell A., Tsurykau A., Persson P.-E., Hansson M., Åsegård E., Kärnefelt I. & Seaward M.R.D. (2017): Parmelia ernstiae, P. serrana and P. submontana, three species increasing in the Nordic countries. - Graphis Scripta, 29(1–2): 24–32.
Revised information on the morphology, chemistry and distribution of species of Parmelia s. str. in Fennoscandia is presented. Although Parmelia ernstiae was earlier believed to be chemically distinct from P. serrana in terms of lobaric acid, its presence in all studied samples detected by TLC means that these two semi-cryptic species can no longer be chemically separated. All three species are increasing in frequency and spreading northwards in Fennoscandia. Parmelia serrana is reported as new to Zealand in Denmark.
28163Kondratyuk S.Y., Schumm F., Elix J.A., Kärnefelt I., Thell A. & Hur J.-S. (2017): Eilifdahlia schwarzii (Caloplacoideae, Teloschistaceae) – a new species from Western Australia. - Graphis Scripta, 29(1–2): 18–23.
The new species Eilifdahlia schwarzii F. Schumm & S. Y. Kondr. is described. It differs from the more common southern Australian E. dahlii (Elix, S. Y. Kondr. & Kärnefelt) S. Y. Kondr., Kärnefelt, Elix, A. Thell, J. Kim, A. S. Kondr. & J.-S. Hur in having a poorly developed whitish thallus, bright yellow to bright yellow-orange apothecia, with a persistent glossy margin, a proper exciple with scleroplectenchymatous tissue, longer ascospores, and wider ascospore septa. The new species is known from scattered localities in Western Australia. The new combination E. sergeyana (Kantvilas) S. Y. Kondr., Elix, Kärnefelt & A. Thell is made, and a key to the species of Eilifdahlia is presented. Key words: New species, new combination, ecology, lichen substance, key.
28162Hestmark G. (2017): Lectotypification of Umbilicaria leiocarpa. - Graphis Scripta, 29(1–2): 12–17.
The name Umbilicaria leiocarpa is reviewed and lectotypified using a specimen in the Herbarium Ramond at BBF. Keywords: lichens; de Candolle; Ramond’s cryptogams; France; Pyrenees.
28161Golubkov V. & Tsurykau A. (2017): Contribution to the knowledge of Cladonia in the Russian Arctic. - Graphis Scripta, 29(1–2): 8–11.
Cladonia monomorpha is reported from the Yamal and Mammoth Peninsulas (Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug) as new to Russia. Cladonia cryptochlorophaea is new to the Yamal-Gydan area. The occurrence of C. chlorophaea in the Yamal Peninsula was confirmed by thin-layer chromatography.
28160McMullin R.T. (2017): Chaenothecopsis marcinae new to Europe from Lapland, Finland. - Graphis Scripta, 29(1–2): 6–7.
Chaenothecopsis marcineae Selva is reported for the first time from the Eastern Hemisphere. It was collected on Picea abies resin in Pallas-Yllästunturi National Park in Lapland, Finland.
28159Pykälä J. (2017): Additions to the lichen flora of Finland. VIII. - Graphis Scripta, 29(1–2): 1–5.
Eleven lichen species are reported as new to Finland including one species new to Fennoscandia: Bagliettoa steineri, Caloplaca isidiigera, Catillaria groenlandica, Fellhaneropsis almquistiorum, Lecidea septentrionalis, Placynthium dolichoterum, Polyblastia aurorae, Ramonia interjecta, Rhizocarpon chioneum, Verrucaria asperula (new to Fennoscandia) and Vezdaea rheocarpa.
28158Lendemer J.C. (2011): Vezdaea schuyleriana (Vezdaeaceae, Lichenized Ascomycetes), a new species from eastern North America. - Notulae Naturae, 484: 1–4.
Vezdaea schuyleriana, a new species with sessile apothecia, simple ascospores, and filiform paraphyses that do not entwine individual asci is described from Pennsylvania, USA. A new English language key to the known species of the genus Vezdaea is provided.
28157Lendemer J.C. (2015): Lichens: our neglected and imperiled natives. - Marilandica, 6(1): 3–4.
popular paper
28156Knudsen K. & Kocourková J. (2017): What is Acarospora nitrophila (Acarosporaceae)?. - Bryologist, 120(2): 124–128.
Acarospora nitrophila is lectotypified and a new description is supplied with photographs. It is currently considered a rare saxicolous species only positively known from Norway and Sweden. A key is supplied for some European species commonly confused with A. nitrophila. Keywords: Biodiversity, species concepts, taxonomy.
28155McCune B., Curtis M.J. & Di Meglio J. (2017): New taxa and a case of ephemeral spore production in Lecideaceae from western North America. - Bryologist, 120(2): 114–123.
Cyclohymenia epilithica is a newly described genus and species from Oregon and Washington, U.S.A. It occurs on noncalcareous rock in the oceanic forests west of the crest of the Cascade Range. Unlike most other North American species in the Lecideaceae, it is restricted to shady habitats in cool, wet, temperate climates. It is distinguished from other members of the family by its thick, pale gray green, epilithic thallus; immersed apothecia that superficially appear like perithecia or pycnidia; and ascocarps that usually contain a central sterile column surrounded by a ring-shaped hymenium. The structure and position of the ascocarp appear to be unique among Lecideaceae and related families. The species is also unusual in producing short-lived asci; most collections have barren apothecia. Lecidea atrobrunnea subsp. deplanaica is raised to the species level. The taxon deserves specific rank, not just from its distinctive chemistry, but also from morphology, distribution, and ecology that differ from L. atrobrunnea s.str. The newly described Lecidea uniformis from Oregon and Washington, mainly west of the Cascade crest, is similar in many ways to L. fuscoatra, but the areoles are uniformly brown and do not have a differentiated gray, blackish, or whitish edge. DNA sequence data support the taxa Cyclohymenia epilithica and L. uniformis. Keywords: Ascomycota, Lecanoromycetidae, Lecideales, lichenized fungi, Pacific Northwest.
28154Sundstøl S.A. & Odland A. (2017): Responses of alpine vascular plants and lichens to soil temperatures. - Annales Botanici Fennici, 54: 169–178.
Plant abundance and distribution patterns have mostly been explained in terms of air temperatures, yet a great deal of vascular plant biomass is located below ground. Winter soil temperatures, which are related to both air temperature and snow cover, may therefore be important determinants of species composition in alpine areas. Epigeic lichens, however, have no underground biomass, and they often dominate at sites that are inhospitable to vascular plants, such as those that experience sustained periods of sub-freezing temperatures. In this study, effects of several warm- and cold-season soil-temperature variables on individual plant and lichen species common to oligotrophic alpine heaths was investigated using linear regression and ordination. The differences in growing season length as measured by soil temperatures were compared. Warm season variables were found to have less influence than cold season variables on individual species abundances in these areas. Changes in winter snow cover depth and duration, such as those that are predicted in Norway, can result in changes to soil temperature patterns, to the possible benefit of some species and detriment of others.
28153Tsurykau A. & Khramchankova V. (2011): Lichens from Gomel Region: a provisional checklist. - Botanica Lithuanica, 17(4): 157–163.
A total of 267 species and two subspecies of the lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi from Gomel Region (Republic of Belarus) are listed. Of these, seven lichen species and two lichenicolous fungi are indicated as new to the Region. Acarospora moenium is a new lichen species to Belarus. There are 14 species included in the Red Data Book of the Republic of Belarus. Keywords: lichens, checklist, biodiversity, Gomel, Belarus.
28152Hansen E.S. (2011): A contribution to the lichen flora of the Kobbefjord area, West Greenland. - Botanica Lithuanica, 17(4): 151–155.
The paper lists 137 species of lichens from the Kobbefjord area in West Greenland. Of these, 125 species were recorded for the first time. The lichen vegetation forms mosaics of epiphytic species, snow patch species and species occurring in different types of dwarf shrub heaths and on rocks. The saxicolous lichen flora varies from a fairly moist to a dry, wind-exposed type. Nitrophilous lichens occur more or less scattered at the locality. Keywords: lichens, Kobbefjord, Greenland.
28151Asahina Y. (1929): The Raikens Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. XXXI. - J. Jap. Bot., 6(9): 269-271.
28150Asahina Y. (1929): On the Specimens of Lichens Collected in the Vicinity of Sapporo, Hokkaido, 50 Years Ago. - J. Jap. Bot., 6(8): 234-253.
Japan, Hokkaido
28149Asahina Y. (1929): The Raikens Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. XXX. - J. Jap. Bot., 6(5): 137-139.
Japan, Chiodecton
28148Asahina Y. (1929): The Raikens Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. XXIX. - J. Jap. Bot., 6(4): 101-103.
28147Asahina Y. (1929): The Raikens Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. XXVIII. - J. Jap. Bot., 6(3): 64-66.
Japan, Solenopsora
28146Asahina Y. (1929): I am in Great Hopes That Books of the Every Local Flora of Japan will be Published Successively. - J. Jap. Bot., 6(12): 408-411.
Flora of Japan
28145Asahina Y. (1929): The Raiken's Soliloquy on Botanical Science" or Notes on Lichens. XXXII. - J. Jap. Bot., 6(11): 336-340.
28144de Crozals A. (1912): Lichens du Massif de l'Espinouze. - Bulletin de Géographie Botanique, 22: 252–274.
Collema trivallense ['trivallensis'] sp. nov. (= Lempholemma trivallense); Collema querceti sp. nov. (= Collema fuscovirens)
28143Olivier H. (1912): Les Pertusaria de la flore d'Europe: Etude synoptique, descriptive et Géographique. - Bulletin de Géographie Botanique, 22: 193–217.
Pertusaria; key; Europe.
28142Olivier H. (1911): Etude synoptique et géographique des Lécidés de la Flore d’Europe. - Bulletin de Géographie Botanique, 21: 157–209.
Bacidia; Europe; key.
28141Ravera S., Cogoni A., Totti C., Aleffi M., Assini S., Caporale S., Fačkovcová Z., Filippino G., Gheza G., Olivieri N., Ottonello M., Paoli L., Poponessi S., Pišút I. & Venanzoni R. (2016): Notulae to the Italian flora of algae, bryophytes, fungi and lichens: 2. - Italian Botanist, 2: 43–54.
In this contribution, new data concerning red algae, lichens and bryophytes of the Italian flora are presented. It includes new records and confirmations for the algal genus Grateloupia, the bryophyte genus Didymodon, and the lichen genera Buellia, Cladonia, Letharia, Pertusaria, and Pyrenula. Keywords: Bryidae, floristic data, lichenized ascomycetes, Rhodophyceae.
28140Ravera S., Cogoni A., Vizzini A., Aleffi M., Assini S., Barcella M., von Brackel W., Caporale S., Fačkovcová Z., Filippino G., Gheza G., Gigante D., Paoli L., Potenza G., Poponnessi S., Prosser F., Puntillo D., Puntillo M. & Venanzoni R. (2017): Notulae to the Italian flora of algae, bryophytes, fungi and lichens: 3. - Italian Botanist, 3: 55–60.
In this contribution, new data concerning bryophytes, fungi and lichens and of the Italian flora are presented. It includes new records and confirmations for the bryophyte genera Dicranodontium, Fontinalis, Lophocolea and Riccia, the fungal genus Diplolaeviopsis, the lichen genera Agonimia, Cladonia, Protoparmelia, Rhizocarpon, and Scytinium. Keywords: Ascomycota, Bryidae, Marchantiidae, Jungermanniidae, floristic data.
28139Ravera S., Cogoni A., von Brackel W., Filippino G., Isocrono D., Matteucci E., Morando M., Prosser F. & Puntillo D. (2016): Notulae to the Italian flora of algae, bryophytes, fungi and lichens: 1. - Italian Botanist, 1: 55–60.
In this contribution, new data concerning lichens and bryophytes of the Italian flora are presented. It includes new records, exclusions, and confirmations to the Italian administrative regions for taxa in the lichen genera Athallia, Ramonia, Thelotrema, Pertusaria, Bryoplaca and in the bryophyte genera Dicranella, Bryum, and Scorpiurium. Keywords: Bryopsida, floristic data, lichenized ascomycetes.
28138Loppi S. (2006): Licheni come bioaccumulatori di elementi in traccia: stato della ricerca in Italia. - Biologia Ambientale, 20(2): 69–78.
Lichens as bioaccumulators of trace elements: state-of the-art of research in Italy. The state-of-the-art of research on the use of lichens as bioaccumulators of trace element carried out in Italy is presented. The role of atmospheric particulate matter and soil contamination of samples, as well as the interpretation of results were especially addressed. Some future research lines are suggested. Key words: Atmospheric pollution / Biomonitoring / Heavy metals / Lichens.
28137Fiorentino J. (2008): Studying the lichens of the Maltese Islands. - Notiziario della Società Lichenologica Italiana, 21: 67–72.
28136Fiorentino J. (2007): First record of Pyrenula chlorospila Arnold (Pyrenulales : Pyrenulaceae) from the Maltese Islands (Central Mediterranean). - Central Mediterranean Naturalist, 4(3): 195–198.
One specimen of an inconspicuous, corticolous lichen found on the bark of an oak tree at Buskett was identified as Pyrenula chlorospila Arnold. This species is not included in the checklist published by Sommier and Caruana Gatto in Flora Melitensis Nova (Sommier & Caruana Gatto, 1915). Instead Pyrenula nitida var nitidella is mentioned which name is also used for specimens in Caruana Gatto's collection housed in the herbarium at Argotti. Three of these specimens were also examined and were found to represent P. chlorospila. Consequently, Pyrenula chlorospila is recorded for the first time from the Maltese Islands.
28135Fiorentino J. (2008): First record of Pyrenocollema halodytes (Nyl.) R. Harris (Pyrenulales: Pyrenulaceae) from the Maltese Islands (Central Mediterranean). - Central Mediterranean Naturalist, 4(4): 213–219.
The marine crustose lichen Pyrenocollema halodytes (Nyl.) R. Harris is known to grow on substrates such as limestone, chalk, molluscan shells and barnacles and is consequently considered as a marine lichen. It was formerly placed under the genus Arthopyrenia but together with other lichens from this genus all containing cyanobacteria as the symbiont photobiont was placed under the genus Pyrenocoliema. In this review Pyrenocollema halodytes is being recorded for the first time from the Maltese Islands having been found growing at Mistra Bay on the calcareous plates of the Star Barnacle Chthamalus stellatus found on rocks of the upper mediolittoral zone.
28134Fiorentino J. (2012): The genus Xanthoria (Teloschistaceae, lichenised Ascomycota) in the Maltese Islands. - Central Mediterranean Naturalist, 5(3-4): 9–17.
The occurrence of Xanthoria calcicola Oksner, Xanthoria aureola (Ach.) Erichsen and Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th.Fr. are confirmed for the Maltese Islands. The morphological features and ecological preferences of these lichens are described and illustrated. The lobe widths and thallus thicknesses of these three species are measured. Three other species of Xanthoria with ecological requirements that can be met locally are also described briefly. These species have so far not been recorded for the Maltese Islands. Finally an identification key for all six species of Xanthoria is included.
28133Fiorentino J. (2002): An appraisal of scientific names used in the 1915 list of lichens of the Maltese Islands by Stefano Sommier and Alfredo Caruana Gatto. - Central Mediterranean Naturalist, 3(4): 189–196.
In 1915 Stefano Sommier and Alfredo Caruano Gatto published a list of lichens from the Maltese islands. Since then no other lists of local lichens have been published. This work reviews the lichen names appearing in the original checklist and, where relevant, alternative names are suggested based on contemporary usage.
28132Hofmann H. (2016): Die BLAM hat ein neues Ehrenmitglied. - Herzogiella, 3: 3–4.
Anniversary; Regine Stordeur.
28131von Brackel W. (2016): Flechte und Moos des Jahres 2016. - Herzogiella, 3: 65.
Lichen and moss of the year 2016: Icmadophila ericetorum and Sphagnum magellanicum.
28130Heerd E., Kirschbaum U., Mattonet B. & Windisch U. (2016): 30 Jahre Mittelhessischer Lichenologischer Arbeitskreis (MLA). - Herzogiella, 3: 62–64.
28129Berger A. & Berger M. (2016): Genuss ohne Reue – Bericht zum Flechtenkurs 2015 des Mittelhessischen Lichenologischen Arbeitskreises in Gießen. - Herzogiella, 3: 58–61.
28128John V. (2016): THW-Hanomag im Dienste der Flechten. - Herzogiella, 3: 55–57.
Lichens on artificial substrates.
28127Blanz P. (2016): Report on the Symposium „Biodiversity and Ecology of fungi, lichens and mosses, in commemoration of Josef Poelt’s death 20 ears ago“. - Herzogiella, 3: 52–54.
28126Schultz M. & Resl P. (2016): Taxonomische und nomenklatorische Neuerungen – Flechten, Erste Folge. - Herzogiella, 3: 21–28.
Summarization of nomenclatoric and taxonomic novelties concerning (at least potentially) Central Europe.
28125Schirmacher U. & Henze M. (2016): Untersuchung von Flechten-Inhaltsstoffen aus Cetraria-Herbarmaterial und eines Isländisch-Moos-Tees aus Island. - Herzogiella, 3: 34–39.
Cetraria islandica; TLC; lichen metabolits.
28124Eichler M. & Cezanne R. (2016): Neue Publikationen die Flechtenflora Mitteleuropas betreffend, Zweite Folge. - Herzogiella, 3: 16–20.
Bibliography; Central Europe
28123Anonymous (2016): Newsletter from the Japanese Society for Lichenoloqy. - Newsletter from the Japanese Society for Lichenoloqy, 138: 513-516.
28122Anonymous (2016): Newsletter from the Japanese Society for Lichenoloqy. - Newsletter from the Japanese Society for Lichenoloqy, 137: 509-512.
28121Anonymous (2016): Newsletter from the Japanese Society for Lichenoloqy. - Newsletter from the Japanese Society for Lichenoloqy, 136: 507-508.
28120Anonymous (2016): Newsletter from the Japanese Society for Lichenoloqy. - Newsletter from the Japanese Society for Lichenoloqy, 135: 503-506.
28119Anonymous (2016): Newsletter from the Japanese Society for Lichenoloqy. - Newsletter from the Japanese Society for Lichenoloqy, 134: 499-502.
28118Anonymous (2016): Newsletter from the Japanese Society for Lichenoloqy. - Newsletter from the Japanese Society for Lichenoloqy, 133: 495-498.
28117Kondratyuk S. Y., Lőkös L., Kim J. A., Kondratiuk A. S., Jeong M.-H., Jang S. H., Oh S.-O. & Hur J.-S. (2015): New members of the Pertusariales (Ascomycota) proved by combined phyloge- netic analysis. - Studia Bot. Hung. , 46(2): 95–110.
New genus Marfloraea for the Variolaria amara-group as well as new members of the genera Dibaeis and Ochrolechia proved by results of the combined phylogenetic analysis based on nuclear ITS1/ITS2 portion of ribosomal nrDNA and 12S SSU mtDNA sequences are described and compared with closely related taxa. Fi een new combinations are proposed, i.e. Dibaeis yurii, Mar oraea albescens, M. amara, M. aspergilla, M. corallina, M. corallophora, M. erythrella, M. ex- cludens, M. mammosa, M. ophthalmiza, M. panyrga, M. pulvinata, M. scaberula, M. subventosa and Ochrolechia dactylina. Dibaeis yurii is recorded for the rst time from South Korea. Marfloraea, new genus, Ochrolechia, Variolaria
28116Moon K.H., Nakanishi M., Ahn C. & Kashiwadani H. (2014): Existence of Graphis cervina Müll Arg. (Graphidaceae) in Korea. - J. Jap. Bot., 89: 249-252.
The existence of Graphis cervina Müll. Arg. (Graphidaceae) is confirmed in Korea and its distribution is reported. It was largely found on granite along the Taebaek and Sobaek Mountains located on the east and east-south side of the Korean Peninsula. G. koreana Joshi & al., a species recently described from Korea, is simply reduced to a synonym of G. cervina
28115Moon K.H., Aptroot A., Elix J.A. & Kashiwadani H. (2014): Diploicia canescens subsp. australasica (Caliciaceae) found in Korea. - J. Jap. Bot., 89(1): 51-53.
Diploicia canescens (Dicks.) A. Massal. subsp. australasica Elix & Lumbsch is reported for the first time from Korea. It was found on lava rock along the coast of Cheju (Jeju) Island, Korea. This taxon was previously known from Australia and New Zealand, so its distribution now extends to Eastern Asia
28114Kashiwadani H., Aptroot A., Iakovchenko L. & Yoshida K. (2014): The studies of speciation and species diversity of lichen in the costal and insular areas of the eastern Asia (III). - National Institute of Biological Resources, 58 pp.
Korea is situated on the east Asian Continent and its northeast/southest extension is about 1,100 km. Phytogeographically it belongs to the easternmost part of the Sino-Himalayan Region. Korean lichens were initially studied by European and Japanese botanists and lichenologists. The first study of Korean lichens was made in 1891 by Müller J, a German lichenologist, who reported Synechoblastus bicaudatus Müll. Arg. [= Collema japonicum (Müll.Arg.) Hue]. In 1905, Hue, a French lichenologist, reported Lecanora oreina Ach. on the basis of a collection made by U. Faurie, a catholic priest and then Korean and foreign botanists or lichenologists reported Korean lichens. In 1996, Ministry of Environment reported 498 lichens species. In 2013, the newly compiled national inventory of Korean lichens, 788 taxa were recorded. Korean species of the genus Myelochroa are revised taxonomically and the following 8 species are recognized: M. aurulenta (Tuck.) Elix & Hale, M. entotheiochroa (Hue) Elix & Hale, M. galbina (Ach.) Elix & Hale, M. hayachinensis (Kurok.) Elix & Hale, M. rrugans (Nyl.) Elix & Hale, M. leucotyliza (Nyl.) Elix & Hale, M. metarevoluta (Asahina) Elix & Hale and M. perisidians (Nyl.) Elix & Hale. M. ibukiensis Moon et al. is reduced to a synonym for M. aurulenta. M. indica (Hale) Elix & Hale and M. xantholepis (Mont. & Bosch) Elix & Hale are excluded from the lichen of Korea. The propose of this survey is found out the new to Korea or new to science species. According to this study, two species, Gyalecta sp. and Hymenelia sp. are reported as new to science. 28 species were reported as new to Korea. Among them, 11 species was recorded as new to Asia;Catillaria atomarioides, Circinaria leprosescens, Eopyrenula leucoplaca, Fellhanera subtilis, Fellhaneropsis myrtillicola, Fuscidea austera, F. intercincta, Hymenelia ceracea, Psilolechia clavulifera, Strigula brevis, and Verrucaria simplex, and 2 species, Roccellina nipponica, Schismatomma ocellulatum, were reported as the second report from the world. 38 species were reported as second recoered from the Korea
28113Jayalalal U., Oh S.O., Park J.S., Sung J.H., Kimb S.H. & Hur J.S. (2015): Evaluation of air quality using lichens in three different types of forest in Korea. - Forest Science and Technology, 12(1): 1-8.
There is little available information on lichen diversity and air quality in forests in South Korea. To address this, the present study aims to correlate corticolous lichen diversity with air quality in selected forests in South Korea. Two sites located on Jeju Island and one site located at Mt. Hambaek, Kangwon Province were selected for this study. Twenty trees representing two species (Quercus sp. and Pinus japonica) were chosen at each site. The coverage and frequency of corticolous lichens found on the selected trees were recorded by using 2500 cm2 grids. Ambient SO2, NO2, and O3 levels at each site were determined using OgawaTM passive samplers having filter pads coated with absorbing reagents. Lichen diversity data collected on selected trees were used to formulate the index of atmospheric purity (IAP). A total of 65 lichen species were found. A negative correlation was observed between lichen diversity expressed as IAP and the concentrations of SO2, NO2, and O3 levels. The results revealed that corticolous lichens could be used as indicators to monitor the air quality of forests in South Korea on a large scale. air pollution; bioindicator; index of atmospheric purity (IAP); forest health; lichen diversity
28112Fosaa A.M. (1987): The ecology of some marine and maritime lichens on rocky shores of the Faroe Islands. - Fróðskaparrit, 34–35: 91–106.
The seashore zonation found by Fletcher (1973) and Lewis (1964), was also found in the Faroe Islands. Following indicators are usable: Xeric supralittoral zone: Anaptychia fusca; Submesic supralittoral zone: Xanthoria parietina; Mesic supralittoral zone: Caloplaca marina and Lichina confinis; Littoral fringe: Verrucaria maura; Eulittoral Zone: Verrucaria mucosa. As the seashore is strongly influenced by guano, the lichen communities are dominated by ornitocoprophilous lichens, while the ornitocoprophobic species were not found. Almborn (1955), Søchting & Gjeldstrup (1985) and other Scandinavian lichenologists treat the m.s.l. and s.s.l. zone as one zone, but as Xanthoria parietina together with other foliose lichens invades here, it is on the basis of these foliose lichens that we divide the supralittorale zone of the Faroe Islands in a mesic supralittoral zone and a submesic supralittoral zone.
28111Fosaa A.M. (2004): Altitudinal distribution of plant communities in the Faroe Islands. - Fróðskaparrit, 51: 217–236.
This paper presents the first quantitative vegetation analysis carried out along a continuous altitudinal gradient in the Faroe Islands. In order to describe the distribution of plant communities along altitudinal gradients, five mountains were studied. The aim was to define vegetation zones and to determine the transition boundary between temperate and arctic- alpine vegetation. The vegetation was classified into 12 plant communities belonging to four main vegetation types. Several terricolous species of macrolichens (Cladonia spp. div., Cetraria islandica, Peltigera canina, Solorina crocea) included.
28110Townrow J.E.S. (1960): Um nakrar skónir í Føroyum (On some Lichens of the Faroe Islands). - Fróðskaparrit, 9: 78–83.
[In Danish with English summary:] Species lists and short ecological notes are given for a collection of Faroese lichens. About a quarter of the species are new records for the Faroes.
28109Alstrup V., Christensen S.N., Hansen E.S. & Svane S. (1994): The lichens of the Faroes. - Fróðskaparrit, 40: 61–121.
The collections of lichens from the Faroes in the Danish herbaria have been revised together with new collections. 471 species, subspecies and varieties of lichens and 50 species of lichenicolous fungi were found. Notes are given about the frequency, habitats and distribution of the species, and new collections are cited for the rarer species. References are made to the literature of the subject and the synonyms used in that literature are listed. New species and new combinations are: Carbonea degelii Alstrup sp. nov., Cercidospora arthroraphidicola Alstrup sp. nov., Dactylospora rostrupii Alstrup sp. nov., Endococcus verrucosporus Alstrup sp. nov., Lasiosphaeriopsis cephalodiorum (Rostrup) Alstrup comb. nov., Micarea paratropa (Nyl.) Alstrup comb. nov., Micarea subconfusa (Nyl.) Alstrup comb. nov. and Roselliniopsis ventosa (Rostrup) Alstrup comb. nov. Another 223 species are new to the area.
28108Schultz M., Dolnik C., Neumann P. & Schiefelbein U. (2016): Die Flechten auf der Elbinsel Neßsand. - Berichte des Botanischen Vereins zu Hamburg, 30: 97–114.
Eine Kartierung der Flechten auf der Elbinsel Neßsand ergab Nachweise von 108 Taxa, davon 100 Flechtenarten, eine Form sowie sieben lichenicole Pilze und Flechtenparasiten. Fellhanera viridisorediata, Myriospora rhagadiza und Scoliciosporum gallurae sind Neufunde für die Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg. Erstmals für Niedersachsen wird Bacidina etayana nachgewiesen. Die Bedeutung der Insel als Rückzugs- und Ansiedlungsort diverser in Hamburg und Umland sonst seltener Flechten wird diskutiert.
28107Kinalioglu K. [Kınalıoğlu K.] & Aptroot A. (2017): Bacidia, Micarea, Sagedia, and Stigmidium species new to Turkey. - Mycotaxon, 132(1): 223–229.
During lichenological exploration in Turkey, two lichenised fungi (Micarea micrococca, Sagedia zonata) and one lichenicolous fungus (Stigmidium microspilum) were established as new records for Asia, and one lichenised fungus (Bacidia chloroticula) as new for Turkey. Illustrations are accompanied by brief descriptions and comments on habitat, substrate, and geographical distribution. Key words—biodiversity, Corylus, Giresun, İstanbul, Trabzon. Key words—biodiversity, Corylus, Giresun, İstanbul, Trabzon.
28106Łubek A. & Kukwa M. (2017): Additions to the mycobiota of Poland. - Mycotaxon, 132(1): 183–195.
One saprobic fungus (Agyrium rufum), one facultative lichenicolous fungus (Trimmatostroma quercicola), and six obligatory lichenicolous fungi (Arthonia coronata, Cornutispora intermedia, Didymocyrtis melanelixiae, Minutoexcipula mariana, Stigmidium rivulorum, and Weddellomyces xanthoparmeliae) are reported as new to Poland. Lecanora pulicaris is a new host for Cornutispora intermedia and Ochrolechia turneri for Minutoexcipula mariana. Seven of the reported species were found in natural forest communities in Białowieża National Park. Discussions on characteristics of each species and distributions are also provided. Key words—mitosporic fungi, Ascomycota.
28105Kukwa M., Czarnota P. & Łubek A. (2017): Three lichen species in Buellia, Catillaria, and Cheiromycina, new to Poland. - Mycotaxon, 132(1): 177–182.
Three sterile crustose lichen species, Buellia arborea from the Tatra Mts and Catillaria fungoides and Cheiromycina reimeri from Białowieża National Park, are recorded as new to Poland. The record of Cheiromycina reimeri is also the first from Europe. Characteristics of all three species, notes on similar taxa, distribution, and habitat preferences are provided. Key words—sorediate lichens, lichenized fungi, Ascomycota.
28104 González Y., Aragón G., Burgaz A.R. & Prieto M. (2017): Records of terricolous lichens from páramos of southern Ecuador. - Mycotaxon, 132(1): 153–175.
Ecological studies of five páramos in Azuay and Loja provinces recorded one lichen species new to South America (Bryoria nitidula), five new to Ecuador (Cladonia halei, C. melanopoda, C. merochlorophaea, C. subreticulata, Diploschistes diacapsis), two new to mainland Ecuador (Cladonia grayi, C. pyxidata), and 20 new provincial records. Brief morphological descriptions, with remarks on distribution and ecology, are provided. Key words—Andes, biodiversity, Cladoniaceae, Neotropics.
28103Wilk K. & Flakus A. (2017): Eight Caloplaca species newly recorded from Bolivia, including C. crocina comb. nov.. - Mycotaxon, 132(1): 125–140.
Eight species of Caloplaca s. lat. are reported as new to Bolivia: Caloplaca baueri, C. cinnabarina, C. crocina, C. darbishirei, C. ochraceofulva, C squamosa, C. subsoluta, and C. texana. Caloplaca texana is also reported as new for Peru and the Southern Hemisphere. The new combination Caloplaca crocina is proposed and compared with other Caloplaca spp. producing hourglass-shaped ascospores. Taxonomic notes and data on the distribution and habitat preferences are presented for all treated species. Key words—lichenized fungi, Ascomycota, Lecanoromycetes, Teloschistaceae, tropical dry forest.
28102Kinalioglu K. [Kınalıoğlu K.] (2017): New records of Caloplaca, Hydropunctaria, and Verrucaria from Turkey and Asia. - Mycotaxon, 132(1): 73–78.
Three lichen species—Caloplaca oleicola, Hydropunctaria adriatica, and Verrucaria elaeina—are described as new to Turkey and to Asia. Key words—Ascomycota, Corylus sp., lichenized fungi, Teloschistaceae, Verrucariaceae.
28101Armstrong R.A. (2017): A study of fragmentation rates in lichen populations on rock surfaces using the Kaplan-Meir estimator and Cox regression. - Annales Botanici Fennici, 54: 169–178.
Fragmentation rates in 21 populations of three foliose lichens Xanthoparmelia conspersa, Melanelixia fuliginosa ssp. fuliginosa and Parmelia saxatilis and the crustose lichen Rhizocarpon geographicum were estimated in north Wales, UK from the size frequency distribution of thalli with fragmenting centres. The Kaplan-Meier estimator suggested significant differences in fragmentation rates among populations of three of the four species. In M. fuliginosa ssp. fuliginosa, Cox regression analysis also suggested higher rates of fragmentation on rock surfaces with a greater percent lichen cover and increased diversity (Shannon-Weaver diversity index). Slope angle, aspect, texture, and location of population relative to the sea also influenced fragmentation rates. The data suggest considerable variation in fragmentation rates among populations within the same area which may be determined primarily by the intensity of competition on a rock surface.
28100Hartl C., Schmidt A.R., Heinrichs J., Seyfullah L.J., Schäfer N., Gröhn C., Rikkinen J. & Kaasalainen U. (2015): Lichen preservation in amber: morphology, ultrastructure, chemofossils, and taphonomic alteration. - Fossil Record, 18: 127–135.
The fossil record of lichens is scarce and many putative fossil lichens do not show an actual physiological relationship between mycobionts and photobionts or a typical habit, and are therefore disputed. Amber has preserved a huge variety of organisms in microscopic fidelity, and so the study of amber fossils is promising for elucidating the fossil history of lichens. However, so far it has not been tested as to how amber inclusions of lichens are preserved regarding their internal characters, ultrastructure, and chemofossils. Here, we apply light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and Raman spectroscopy to an amber-preserved Eocene lichen in order to gain information about the preservation of the fossil. The lichen thallus displays lifelike tissue preservation including the upper and lower cortex, medulla, photobiont layer, apothecia, and soredia. SEM analysis revealed globular photobiont cells in contact with the fungal hyphae, as well as impressions of possible former crystals of lichen compounds. EDX analysis permitted the differentiation between halite and pyrite crystals inside the lichen which were likely formed during the later diagenesis of the amber piece. Raman spectroscopy revealed the preservation of organic compounds and a difference between the composition of the cortex and the medulla of the fossil.
28099Rowe E.C., Ford A.E.S., Smart S.M., Henrys P.A. & Ashmore M.R. (2016): Using qualitative and quantitative methods to choose a habitat quality metric for air pollution policy evaluation. - PLoS ONE, 11(8): e0161085 [20 p.].
Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition has had detrimental effects on species composition in a range of sensitive habitats, although N deposition can also increase agricultural productivity and carbon storage, and favours a few species considered of importance for conservation. Conservation targets are multiple, and increasingly incorporate services derived from nature as well as concepts of intrinsic value. Priorities vary. How then should changes in a set of species caused by drivers such as N deposition be assessed? We used a novel combination of qualitative semi-structured interviews and quantitative ranking to elucidate the views of conservation professionals specialising in grasslands, heathlands and mires. Although conservation management goals are varied, terrestrial habitat quality is mainly assessed by these specialists on the basis of plant species, since these are readily observed. The presence and abundance of plant species that are scarce, or have important functional roles, emerged as important criteria for judging overall habitat quality. However, species defined as ‘positive indicator-species’ (not particularly scarce, but distinctive for the habitat) were considered particularly important. Scarce species are by definition not always found, and the presence of functionally important species is not a sufficient indicator of site quality. Habitat quality as assessed by the key informants was rank-correlated with the number of positive indicator-species present at a site for seven of the nine habitat classes assessed. Other metrics such as species-richness or a metric of scarcity were inconsistently or not correlated with the specialists’ assessments. We recommend that metrics of habitat quality used to assess N pollution impacts are based on the occurrence of, or habitat-suitability for, distinctive species. Metrics of this type are likely to be widely applicable for assessing habitat change in response to different drivers. The novel combined qualitative and quantitative approach taken to elucidate the priorities of conservation professionals could be usefully applied in other contexts.
28098Li Q., Zhang B., He Z. & Yang X. (2016): Distribution and diversity of bacteria and fungi colonization in stone monuments analyzed by high-throughput sequencing . - PLoS ONE, 11(9): e0163287 [17 p.].
The historical and cultural heritage of Qingxing palace and Lingyin and Kaihua temple, located in Hangzhou of China, include a large number of exquisite Buddhist statues and ancient stone sculptures which date back to the Northern Song (960–1219 A.D.) and Qing dynasties (1636–1912 A.D.) and are considered to be some of the best examples of ancient stone sculpting techniques. They were added to the World Heritage List in 2011 because of their unique craftsmanship and importance to the study of ancient Chinese Buddhist culture. However, biodeterioration of the surface of the ancient Buddhist statues and white marble pillars not only severely impairs their aesthetic value but also alters their material structure and thermo-hygric properties. In this study, high-throughput sequencing was utilized to identify the microbial communities colonizing the stone monuments. The diversity and distribution of the microbial communities in six samples collected from three different environmental conditions with signs of deterioration were analyzed by means of bioinformatics software and diversity indices. In addition, the impact of environmental factors, including temperature, light intensity, air humidity, and the concentration of NO2 and SO2, on the microbial communities’ diversity and distribution was evaluated. The results indicate that the presence of predominantly phototrophic microorganisms was correlated with light and humidity, while nitrifying bacteria and Thiobacillus were associated with NO2 and SO2 from air pollution.
28097Zhang B.-W., Xu J.-L., Zhang H., Zhang Q., Lu J. & Wang J.-H. (2016): Structure elucidation of a polysaccharide from Umbilicaria esculenta and its immunostimulatory activity. - PLoS ONE, 11(12): e0168472 [18 p.].
Umbilicaria esculenta has been used as a tonic food in China for several centuries owing to its pleasant flavor and health benefits. In this study, a water soluble polysaccharide, which we designated as UP2, with an average molecular weight of 3.33 × 105 Da, was isolated from U. esculenta cultivated in the Huangshan Mountain, by consecutive hot water extraction and anion-exchange chromatography. Gas chromatography analysis indicated that UP2 contained three kinds of monosaccharides, including mannose, glucose, and galactose at a molar ratio of 1.7:1.0:1.2. Linkage analysis of UP2 revealed the presence of (1 → 6)-linked glucosyl, (1 → 3,6)-linked glucosyl, t-linked galactosyl, (1 → 6)-linked galactosyl and (1 → 6)-linked mannosyl at a molar ratio of 0.7:4.6:4.1:2.2:9.1. Structural analysis determined that UP2 possessed a backbone consisting of (1 → 6)-linked β-D-glucopyranosyl and (1 → 6)-linked α-D-mannopyranosyl residues, which substituted at the O-3 position of (1 → 6)-linked β-D-glucopyranosyl residues by branches of (1 → 6)-linked α-D-galactopyranosyl and 1-linked β-D-galactopyranosyl residues. Immunostimulatory activity analysis showed that UP2 could stimulate the proliferation of RAW264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner, and all the samples (20–500 μg/mL) were found to enhance nitric oxide production. The highest phagocytic activity of UP2 was observed at 200 μg/mL. Thus, UP2 may be a potential source of biological and pharmacological agents.
28096Wu L., Lei Y., Lan S. & Hu C. (2017): Photosynthetic recovery and acclimation to excess light intensity in the rehydrated lichen soil crusts. - PLoS ONE, 12(3): e0172537 [13 p.].
As an important successional stage and main type of biological soil crusts (BSCs) in Shapotou region of China (southeastern edge of Tengger Desert), lichen soil crusts (LSCs) often suffer from many stresses, such as desiccation and excess light intensity. In this study, the chlorophyll fluorescence and CO2 exchange in the rehydrated LSCs were detected under a series of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) gradients to study the photosynthetic acclimation of LSCs. The results showed that although desiccation leaded to the loss of photosynthetic activity in LSCs, the fluorescence parameters including Fo, Fv and Fv/Fm of LSCs could be well recovered after rehydration. After the recovery of photosynthetic activity, the effective photosynthetic efficiency ΦPSII detected by Imaging PAM had declined to nearly 0 within both the lichen thallus upper and lower layers when the PAR increased to 200 μE m-2 s-1, however the net photosynthesis detected by the CO2 gas analyzer in the LSCs still appeared when the PAR increased to 1000 μE m-2 s-1. Our results indicate that LSCs acclimating to high PAR, on the one hand is ascribed to the special structure in crust lichens, making the incident light into the lichen thallus be weakened; on the other hand the massive accumulation of photosynthetic pigments in LSCs also provides a protective barrier for the photosynthetic organisms against radiation damage. Furthermore, the excessive light energy absorbed by crust lichens is also possibly dissipated by the increasing non-photochemical quenching, therefore to some extent providing some protection for LSCs.
28095Rickbeil G.J.M., Hermosilla T., Coops N.C., White J.C. & Wulder M.A. (2017): Estimating changes in lichen mat volume through time and related effects on barren ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) movement. - PLoS ONE, 12(3): e0172669 [16 p.].
Lichens form a critical portion of barren ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) diets, especially during winter months. Here, we assess lichen mat volume across five herd ranges in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut, Canada, using newly developed composite Landsat imagery. The lichen volume estimator (LVE) was adapted for use across 700 000 km2 of barren ground caribou habitat annually from 1984–2012. We subsequently assessed how LVE changed temporally throughout the time series for each pixel using Theil-Sen’s slopes, and spatially by assessing whether slope values were centered in local clusters of similar values. Additionally, we assessed how LVE estimates resulted in changes in barren ground caribou movement rates using an extensive telemetry data set from 2006–2011. The Ahiak/Beverly herd had the largest overall increase in LVE (median = 0.033), while the more western herds had the least (median slopes below zero in all cases). LVE slope pixels were arranged in significant clusters across the study area, with the Cape Bathurst, Bathurst, and Bluenose East herds having the most significant clusters of negative slopes (more than 20% of vegetated land in each case). The Ahiak/Beverly and Bluenose West had the most significant positive clusters (16.3% and 18.5% of vegetated land respectively). Barren ground caribou displayed complex reactions to changing lichen conditions depending on season; the majority of detected associations with movement data agreed with current understanding of barren ground caribou foraging behavior (the exception was an increase in movement velocity at high lichen volume estimates in Fall). The temporal assessment of LVE identified areas where shifts in ecological conditions may have resulted in changing lichen mat conditions, while assessing the slope estimates for clustering identified zones beyond the pixel scale where forage conditions may be changing. Lichen volume estimates associated with barren ground caribou movement metrics in an expected manner and, as such, show value for future habitat assessments.
28094Moya P., Molins A., Martínez-Alberola F., Muggia L. & Barreno E. (2017): Unexpected associated microalgal diversity in the lichen Ramalina farinacea is uncovered by pyrosequencing analyses. - PLoS ONE, 12(4): e0175091 [21 p.].
The current literature reveals that the intrathalline coexistence of multiple microalgal taxa in lichens is more common than previously thought, and additional complexity is supported by the coexistence of bacteria and basidiomycete yeasts in lichen thalli. This replaces the old paradigm that lichen symbiosis occurs between a fungus and a single photobiont. The lichen Ramalina farinacea has proven to be a suitable model to study the multiplicity of microalgae in lichen thalli due to the constant coexistence of Trebouxia sp. TR9 and T. jamesii in longdistance populations. To date, studies involving phycobiont diversity within entire thalli are based on Sanger sequencing, but this method seems to underestimate the diversity. Here, we aim to analyze both the microalgal diversity and its community structure in a single thallus of the lichen R. farinacea by applying a 454 pyrosequencing approach coupled with a careful ad hoc-performed protocol for lichen sample processing prior to DNA extraction. To ascertain the reliability of the pyrosequencing results and the applied bioinformatics pipeline results, the thalli were divided into three sections (apical, middle and basal zones), and a mock community sample was used. The developed methodology allowed 40448 filtered algal reads to be obtained from a single lichen thallus, which encompassed 31 OTUs representative of different microalgae genera. In addition to corroborating the coexistence of the two Trebouxia sp. TR9 and T. jamesii taxa in the same thallus, this study showed a much higher microalgal diversity associated with the lichen. Along the thallus ramifications, we also detected variations in phycobiont distribution that might correlate with different microenvironmental conditions. These results highlight R. farinacea as a suitable material for studying microalgal diversity and further strengthen the concept of lichens as multispecies microecosystems. Future analyses will be relevant to ecophysiological and evolutionary studies to understand the roles of the multiple photobionts in lichen symbioses.
28093Sodamuk M., Boonpragob K., Mongkolsuk P., Tehler A., Leavitt S.D. & Lumbsch H.T. (2017): Kalbionora palaeotropica, a new genus and species from coastal forests in Southeast Asia and Australia (Malmideaceae, Ascomycota). - Mycokeys, 22: 15–25.
A new species and genus, Kalbionora palaeotropica, is described for a crustose lichen occurring in coastal forests in Thailand, Vietnam, and northeastern Australia. It is morphologically similar to Malmidea and Eugeniella, but differing in morphological and chemical characters. The single known species in the new genus contains atranorin, zeorin, the stictic acid chemosyndrome and chlorinated xanthones. Morphologically it is characterized by having asci of the Catillaria-type, a yellowish brown colour, a granulose epihymenium, dark brown hypothecium, hyaline, 1–3 transversely septate ascospores. Molecular data strongly support a phylogenetic position in Malmideaceae, sister to a clade including Malmidea, Savoronala and two species currently placed in Lecidea s. lat. (including L. cyrtidia and L. plebeja). Key words: Lecanorales, lichens, mangroves, taxonomy, tropical diversity.
28092Lumbsch H.T. & Rikkinen J. (2017): Evolution of lichens. - In: Dighton J. & White J.F. (eds), The Fungal Community: Its Organization and Role in the Ecosystem. 4. edn, Mycology series, no. 32, p. 53–62, CRC Press / Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton.
chapter in book
28091Holzschuh A. (2016): Does rock climbing threaten cliff biodiversity? - A critical review. - Biological Conservation, 204: 153–162.
Rock climbing has increased in popularity over the past 20 years. Meanwhile, there have been increasing calls for restrictions on rock climbing due to concerns about the impact of climbing on cliff biodiversity. However, the biological impacts of rock climbing are still not well understood. Here, I review the existing literature to assess the impact of rock climbing on cliff biodiversity. The majority of published results may be confounded by systematic abiotic differences between climbed and unclimbed cliffs, and this lack of proper controls may lead to the overestimation of the negative effects of rock climbing on biodiversity. Evidence for the impact of rock climbing on biodiversity is inconclusive for most taxa. Studies on lichens and vascular plants have described evidence for negative, positive and no effects of rock climbing. Snail biodiversity was found to be negatively affected, while reliable evidence of the impacts of rock climbing on birds is still lacking. Bryophytes were generally unaffected by rock climbing. Further research is urgently needed, because the mixed results of the existing studies do not allow final conclusions how rock climbing affects the cliff biota. Future studies should select comparable controls for biodiversity comparison, widen the focus to further cliff-associated taxa, and investigate how climbing effects vary with climbing intensity. Such studies would facilitate the improved management of rock climbing areas that are rich in biodiversity and contain rare and threatened species. Keywords: Community composition; Diversity; Human disturbance; Rocky habitat; Trampling.
28090Sohrabi M., Favero-Longo S.E., Pérez-Ortega S., Ascaso C., Haghighat Z., Talebian M.H., Fadaei H. & de los Ríos A. (2017): Lichen colonization and associated deterioration processes in Pasargadae, UNESCO world heritage site, Iran. - International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 117: 171–182.
Knowledge on lichen and microbial colonization as well as associated biodeterioration processes of the stone cultural heritage is needed to establish proper conservation programs, but is still poor for stonework in semi-arid regions. In this study, lichen diversity was characterized on seven monumental buildings of the Pasargadae UNESCO-world heritage site (Iran). The risk of biodeterioration processes associated to lichen occurrence on two types of limestones, and the lichen resilience to mechanical cleaning intervention were examined. Physico-chemical substrate features and climatic conditions, combined with the agricultural surrounding and tourist disturbance, supported a pervasive colonization by species-poor epi- and endolithic communities, and fast recolonization processes by nitrophytic species after mechanical removal. The endolithic growth of some lichens and the penetration of hyphal structures of epilithic ones, examined by light and electron microscopy, were associated to stone disintegration and dissolution at the lichen-rock interface. Endolithic cyanobacteria were detected under lichen thalli, likely contributing to deterioration processes. Colonization and deterioration patterns did not appear peculiar with respect to previous investigations on similar communities in different climatic regions, and were mostly related to the different examined lithologies, indicating lichens as harmful biodeteriogens of the sedimentary rock materials used in the stone cultural heritage of semi-arid regions.
28089Padhi S., Das D., Panja S. & Tayung K. (2017): Molecular characterization and antimicrobial activity of an endolichenic fungus, Aspergillus sp. isolated from Parmelia caperata of Similipal Biosphere Reserve, India. - Interdisciplinary Sciences: Computational Life Sciences, 9: 237–246.
Endolichenic fungi are microbes that inhabit healthy inner lichen tissues without any disease symptoms. They have been reported to produce new and interesting bioactive metabolites. In the present study, an endolichenic fungus frequently isolated from surface-sterilized lichen thallus of Parmelia caperata has been described. The fungus was identified as Aspergillus tubingensis based on morphological traits and ITS rDNA sequence. Crude metabolites extracted from the culture broth exhibited considerable antimicrobial activity against a panel of clinically significant human pathogens. The fungus showed optimum antimicrobial activity in PDB medium in day 7 of incubation period. PDB medium amended with 1 % NaCl and at alkaline pH was found to be optimal for antimicrobial metabolites production. Enhanced activity was observed when the fungus was exposed briefly to a heat shock of 60 C during incubation. The metabolites showed optimum k-max at 214 nm with an absorbance value of 1.589. Molecular characterization of the isolate was carried out by ITS phylogeny and ITS2 secondary structure analyses. The phylogenetic trees based on both ITS rDNA and ITS2 sequences showed the isolate within the clade A. tubingensis. Considering the ubiquity and ambiguity in identifying Aspergillus species of different lifestyles, a method to differentiate pathogenic and endophytic Aspergillus at species level was developed using ITS2 secondary structure analysis. The results showed common folding pattern in the secondary structures with a helix and a 50 dangling end found to be highly conserved. Certain features in the secondary structure like multi-bulges and a symmetric interior loop were observed to be unique which distinguish our isolate from other A. tubingensis. Keywords: Endolichenic fungi;  Parmelia caperata; Aspergillus tubingensis; Antimicrobial aktivity; ITS2 secondary structure.
28088Duong T.H., Huynh B.L.C., Chavasiri W., Chollet-Krugler M., Nguyen V.K., Nguyen T.H.T., Hansen P.E., Le Pogam P., Thüs H., Boustie J. & Nguyen K.P.P. (2017): New erythritol derivatives from the fertile form of Roccella montagnei. - Phytochemistry, 137: 156–164.
Highlights: • Five montagnetol derivatives were isolated from the fertile form of Roccella montagnei collected in Vietnam. • Chemical structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR, HR-ESI-MS analysis and the application of a modified Mosher method. • The cytotoxic activities of some isolated compounds against HepG2, NCI-H460, MCF-7, and HeLa cell lines were evaluated. Chemical investigation of the methanol extract of the fertile form of Roccella montagnei collected in Vietnam afforded twelve secondary metabolites, including five new montagnetol derivatives, orsellinylmontagnetols A−D and a furanyl derivative together with seven known compounds. Their chemical structures were elucidated by analysis of 1D and 2D NMR and high resolution mass spectroscopic data. The relative stereochemistry of two chiral centers (C-2 and C-3) of orsellinylmontagnetols A and B was elucidated by comparison of their coupling constants and the specific rotation with those reported in the literature while the absolute stereochemistry was determined by the application of a modified Mosher method for the hydroxy group at C-3. The absolute configuration (2R,3S) of the butanetetraol moiety of these compounds is in accordance with that of erythrin, a recognized chemotaxonomic marker of the genus Roccella. Five of these compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against four cancer cell lines. Only orsellinylmontagnetol A exerted a moderate activity against MCF-7 cell line with an IC50 value of 68.39 ± 3.46 μM. Keywords: Lichen; Roccella montagnei (fertile form); Montagnetol; Montagnetol derivatives; Stereochemistry; Cytotoxicity.
28087Giordani P., Minganti V., Brignole D., Malaspina P., Cornara L. & Drava G. (2017): Is there a risk of trace element contamination in herbal preparations? A test study on the lichen Cetraria islandica. - Chemosphere, 181: 778–785.
Lichens are a source of unique secondary metabolites, which have been proved to have many biological properties with possible pharmaceutical roles, including e.g. antioxidant, antimicrobial, antifungal or anti-inflammatory activities and to be worth of consideration for potential human use. However, lichens lack cuticolar tissues and are exposed to several atmospheric contaminants, including trace elements. This work aims at exploring the potential toxicity of herbal preparations derived by the lichen Cetraria islandica due to trace element contamination, testing whether different concentrations may be observed, depending on the origin of the raw material. Fourteen samples of C. islandica, as cut dried thalli occurring on the European market, have been bought from different providers. For each sample, the concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, P, Pb, V and Zn were measured on comminuted herbal substance and on the corresponding decoction, using atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The elemental concentrations in decoctions were significantly lower than those measured in raw materials, dropping down to levels of negligible health concern. Differences observed in raw materials were not observed anymore in the corresponding decoctions. Also, the elemental transfer rate from dried lichen to decoction was extremely element-specific, ranging from 2% for Cu to 95% for Zn. Keywords: Decoction; Iceland moss; Metals; Phytotherapy.
28086Coyle J.R. (2017): Intraspecific variation in epiphyte functional traits reveals limited effects of microclimate on community assembly in temperate deciduous oak canopies. - Oikos, 126: 111–120.
Forest canopies are heterogeneous environments where changes in microclimate over short distances create an opportunity for niche-based filtering of canopy-dwelling species assemblages. This environmental filtering may not occur if species’ physiological capacities are flexible or if rapid dispersal alleviates compositional differences. I assess the role of humidity, light and temperature gradients in structuring epiphyte communities in temperate deciduous oak (Quercus) canopies and determine whether gradients filter species with fixed traits or whether environmental constraints act primarily to alter individual phenotypes. I measured environmental conditions and seven functional traits related to water and light acquisition on individual macrolichens at 60 sample locations in northern red oaks Quercus rubra in two Piedmont forests in North Carolina, USA. The effects of environmental variables on individual-level traits and community composition were evaluated using linear mixed models and constrained ordination (RDA). In general, traits and community composition responded weakly to environmental variables and trait variation within taxa was high. Cortex thickness exhibited the strongest response, such that individuals with thicker cortices were found in samples experiencing lower humidity and higher light levels. Overall, gradients of humidity, light and temperature were not strong environmental filters that caused large changes in community composition. This was probably due to phenotypic variability within taxa that enabled species to persist across the full range of environmental conditions measured. Thus, humidity affected the phenotype of individuals, but did not limit species distributions or alter community composition at the scale of branches within trees. Community and trait responses were primarily associated with site-level differences in humidity, suggesting that in these forests landscape-scale climatic gradients may be stronger drivers of epiphyte community assembly than intra-canopy environmental gradients.
28085Onuţ‐Brännström I., Tibell L. & Johannesson H. (2017): A worldwide phylogeography of the whiteworm lichens Thamnolia reveals three lineages with distinct habitats and evolutionary histories. - Ecology and Evolution, 7(10): 3602–3615.
Thamnolia is a lichenized fungus with an extremely wide distribution, being encountered in arctic and alpine environments in most continents. In this study, we used molecular markers to investigate the population structure of the fungal symbiont and the associated photosynthetic partner of Thamnolia. By analyzing molecular, morphological, and chemical variation among 253 specimens covering the species distribution range, we revealed the existence of three mycobiont lineages. One lineage (Lineage A) is confined to the tundra region of Siberia and the Aleutian Islands, a second (Lineage B) is found in the high alpine region of the Alps and the Carpathians Mountains, and a third (Lineage C) has a worldwide distribution and covers both the aforementioned ecosystems. Molecular dating analysis indicated that the split of the three lineages is older than the last glacial maximum, but the distribution ranges and the population genetic analyses suggest an influence of last glacial period on the present-day population structure of each lineage. We found a very low diversity of Lineage B, but a higher and similar one in Lineages A and C. Demographic analyses suggested that Lineage C has its origin in the Northern Hemisphere, possibly Scandinavia, and that it has passed through a bottleneck followed by a recent population expansion. While all three lineages reproduce clonally, recombination tests suggest rare or past recombination in both Lineages A and C. Moreover, our data showed that Lineage C has a comparatively low photobiont specificity, being found associated with four widespread Trebouxia lineages (three of them also shared with other lichens), while Lineages A and B exclusively harbor T. simplex s. lat. Finally, we did not find support for the recognition of taxa in Thamnolia based on either morphological or chemical characters. Keywords: chemical variation; clonality; lichens; phylogeography; symbiosis; Thamnolia.
28084Aschenbrenner I.A., Cernava T., Erlacher A., Berg G. & Grube M. (2017): Differential sharing and distinct co-occurrence networks among spatially close bacterial microbiota of bark, mosses and lichens. - Molecular Ecology, 26: 2826–2838.
Knowledge of bacterial community host-specificity has increased greatly in recent years. However, the intermicrobiome relationships of unrelated but spatially close organisms remain little understood. Trunks of trees covered by epiphytes represent complex habitats with a mosaic of ecological niches. In this context, we investigated the structure, diversity and interactions of microbiota associated with lichens, mosses and the bare tree bark. Comparative analysis revealed significant differences in the habitat-associated community structures. Corresponding co-occurrence analysis indi- cated that the lichen microbial network is less complex and less densely intercon- nected than the moss- and bark-associated networks. Several potential generalists and specialists were identified for the selected habitats. Generalists belonged mainly to Proteobacteria, with Sphingomonas as the most abundant genus. The generalists com- prise microorganisms with generally beneficial features, such as nitrogen fixation or other supporting functions, according to a metagenomic analysis. We argue that benefi- cial strains shared among hosts contribute to ecological stability of the host bio- coenoses. Keywords: amplicon sequencing, co-occurrence patterns, host microbe associations, metagenome, microbial ekology.
28083Nascimbene J., Mayrhofer H., Dainese M. & Bilovitz P.O. (2017): Assembly patterns of soil-dwelling lichens after glacier retreat in the European Alps. - Journal of Biogeography, 44: 1393–1404.
Aim: To assess the spatial-temporal dynamics of primary succession following deglaciation in soil-dwelling lichen communities.Location: European Alps (Austria, Switzerland and Italy). Methods: Five glacier forelands subjected to relevant glacier retreat during the last century were investigated. In each glacier foreland, three successional stages were selected at increasing distance from the glacier, corresponding to a gradient of time since deglaciation between 25 and 160 years. In each successional stage, soil-dwelling lichens were surveyed within five 1 × 1 m plots. In addition to a classical ecological framework, based on species richness and composition, we applied a functional approach to better elucidate community assembly mechanisms. Results: A positive relationship was found between species richness and time since deglaciation indicating that richer lichen communities can be found at increasing terrain ageing. This pattern was associated with compositional shifts, suggesting that different community assemblages can be found along the successional stages. The analysis of β-diversity revealed a significant nested pattern of species assemblages along the gradient (i.e. earlier successional stages hosted a subset of the species already established in older successional stages), while the turnover component was less relevant. Considering functional groups, we found contrasting patterns in relation to time since deglaciation: the incidence of species with a cyanobacterial photobiont and those reproducing by spores decreased, while that of species reproducing by vegetative propagules increased. Main conclusions: This study reveals that community assembly patterns of soil-dwelling lichens in alpine glacier forelands are ruled by mechanisms of directional species accumulation and trait selection that involve a trade-off between different functional strategies. Functional traits that reflect the dispersal and adaptation capability of the species underpin the colonization success of soil-dwelling lichens in glacier forelands. Keywords: dispersal traits, glacier forelands, photobiont type, primary succession, spatialtemporal patterns, species accumulation, species richness and composition, trait selection, β-diversity.
28082Suija A. & Liira J. (2017): Community response to alkaline pollution as an adjusting reassembly between alternative stable states. - Journal of Vegetation Science, 28: 527–537.
Aims: We hypothesize that the community response to disturbances can be interpreted as a large-scale dynamic equilibrium between multiple alternate states stemming from different species pools within a regional meta-pool and being limited by species’ multi-dimensional niches. We explore this hypothesis by examining the re-assembly of an acidophilous lichen community in response to long-term alkaline dust pollution, assuming understorey as a potential side- factor. Location: Around a cement factory in Kunda, Estonia. Methods: Lichen communities on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) trunks in 40 stands around a cement factory and in nine distant limestone habitats were assessed. Results: The formed bark pH gradient from pH 2.4 to 8.1 was reflected in a continuum of lichen communities on pines from acidophilous to basiphilous communities. Besides suppressing species richness, understorey density more evidently caused the compositional divergence from neutral bark conditions. The effect of hidden interactions among drivers was explained through reactions of individual species – almost all species across the pollution gradient were pH-limited, whereas species adapted to neutral or alkaline substrate were additionally sensitive to understorey conditions. The hump-shaped distribution of pH niche ranges along the observed niche optima, rather than ecological indicator values, showed that the shape of species’ multi-dimensional niche-space still needs to be quantified. Conclusions: Each alternative community state along the disturbance gradient represents a realization of its specific species pool within the meta-pool. Degradation can be defined if the community state is not supported by a meta-pool. Species infiltration during community re-assembly can be predicted using species source communities as cost-efficient proxies. Keywords: Alkaline pollution; Alternate states; Assembly rules; Community dynamics; Ecological indicator values; Environmental filters; Lichens; Species pool hypothesis.
28081Kellogg J.J. & Raja H.A. (2017): Endolichenic fungi: a new source of rich bioactive secondary metabolites on the horizon. - Phytochemistry Reviews, 16: 271–293.
Endolichenic fungi are diverse groups of predominantly filamentous fungi that reside asymptomatically in the interior of lichen thalli. Natural products from endolichenic fungi, isolated from a variety of different lichen species, have been attracting increased attention for their potential to produce bioactive metabolites possessing new structures and representing different structural classes. This is evident from the steady increase of publications devoted to endolichenic fungal metabolites over the past decade, since the first report of endolichenic secondary metabolites. The bioactive metabolites produced by endolichenic fungi originate from multiple biosynthetic pathways and occupy different chemical structure classes, including steroids, quinones, terpenoids, peptides, xanthones, sulfur-containing chromenones, etc. Endolichenic fungal metabolites possess a diverse array of bioactivities, such as anticancer, antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, and anti-Alzheimer’s disease. This review provides the first thorough assessment of endolichenic fungi, their biodiversity, secondary metabolites, and associated bioactivity. This review will highlight the bioactive metabolites reported in recent years from endolichenic fungi, as well as discussing the potential of these symbiotic fungi as sources of new, diverse natural products with varying bioactivities. Keywords: Bioactivity;  Biodiversity;  Endolichenic fungi;  Lichen;  Natural products.
28080Aguillaume L., Avila A., Pinho P., Matos P., Llop E. & Branquinho C. (2017): The critical levels of atmospheric ammonia in a Mediterranean holm-oak forest in north-eastern Spain. - Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 228:93 [13 p.].
Despite recent regulations, atmospheric ammonia (NH3) emissions have not changed much over the last decades and excessive nitrogen remains as one of the major drivers for biodiversity changes. To prevent deleterious effects on species and ecosystems, it is very important to establish safety thresholds, such as those defined by the Critical Level (CLE) concept, “the concentration above which direct adverse effects on receptors may occur, based on present knowledge.” Empirical critical levels of atmospheric NH3 have mainly been reported for temperate forests and there is a lack of information for Mediterranean forests. Here, we provide a case study on NH3 CLEs for a typical Mediterranean ecosystem, the holm-oak (Quercus ilex) forest. To derive the CLE value, we measured NH3 concentrations for 1 year at a distance gradient in the forest surrounding a point source (cattle farm) and used diversity changes of lichen functional groups to indicate the onset of adverse effects. We estimate a NH3 CLE threshold of 2.6 μg m−3, a value that is higher than that reported in other Mediterranean ecosystems and suggests that the site has been already impacted by NH3 pollution in the past. In a more general context, this study confirms the validity of lichen functional groups to derive CLEs in Mediterranean forests and woodlands and contribute to the body of knowledge regarding the impacts of NH3 on ecosystems. Keywords: Critical levels; Ammonia; Ecological indicators; Lichen functional groups; Mediterranean; Quercus ilex forest; N pollution.
28079Santaniello F., Djupström L.B., Ranius T., Weslien J., Rudolphi J. & Thor G. (2017): Large proportion of wood dependent lichens in boreal pine forest are confined to old hard wood. - Biodiversity and Conservation, 26: 1295–1310.
Intensive forest management has led to a population decline in many species, including those dependent on dead wood. Many lichens are known to depend on dead wood, but their habitat requirements have been little studied. In this study we investigated the habitat requirements of wood dependent lichens on coarse dead wood (diameter >10 cm) of Scots pine Pinus sylvestris in managed boreal forests in central Sweden. Twenty-one wood dependent lichen species were recorded, of which eleven were confined to old (estimated to be >120 years old) and hard dead wood. Almost all of this wood has emanated from kelo trees, i.e. decorticated and resin-impregnated standing pine trees that died long time ago. We found four red-listed species, of which two were exclusive and two highly associated with old and hard wood. Lichen species composition differed significantly among dead wood types (low stumps, snags, logs), wood hardness, wood age and occurrence of fire scars. Snags had higher number of species per dead wood area than logs and low stumps, and old snags had higher number of species per dead wood area than young ones. Since wood from kelo trees harbours a specialized lichen flora, conservation of wood dependent lichens requires management strategies ensuring the future presence of this wood type. Besides preserving available kelo wood, the formation of this substratum should be supported by setting aside P. sylvestris forests and subject these to prescribed burnings as well as to allow wild fires in some of these forests. Keywords: Coarse woody debris;  Fire scars;  Habitat requirements;  Saproxylic species; Kelo.
28078Egertová Z., Gaisler J., Zemanová L. & Hradílek Z. (2016): Mniaecia jungermanniae (Helotiales), an overlooked bryophilous ascomycete in the Liberec Region (Czech Republic). - Czech Mycology, 68(2): 149–165.
Mniaecia jungermanniae, a tiny inoperculate ascomycete growing on leafy liverworts of the order Jungermanniales, was recorded at 66 localities in the Liberec Region (Czech Republic) since December 2013 to May 2015. It was noticed on 17 species of liverworts, with Cephalozia bicuspidata, Calypogeia neesiana, C. azurea and Diplophyllum albicans being the most frequently inhabited ones. The species was recorded on rocks and boulders as well as on soil on forest tracks and along streams, exceptionally on wood. The geological bedrock was acidic in all cases – sandstone, granite or phyllite. The altitude of the localities ranged between 315 and 1215 m a.s.l. Localities were predominantly located in the shade in coniferous and broad-leaved forests, always with a rich occurrence of liverworts. Hitherto known localities in the Czech Republic are also summarised in the article. Key words: bryophilous fungi, Jungermanniales, leafy liverworts, North Bohemia.
28077Adamčík S., Aude E., Bässler C., Christensen M., van Dort K., Fritz Ö., Glejdura S., Heilmann-Clausen J., Holec J., Jančovičová S., Kunca V., Lackovičová A., Lüth M. & Ódor P. (2016): Fungi and lichens recorded during the cryptogam symposium on natural beech forests, Slovakia 2011. - Czech Mycology, 68(1): 1–40.
In September 2011, an international team of cryptogam experts visited seven national nature reserves in five mountain areas of Slovakia: Havešová and Stužica in the Poloniny Mts., Vihorlat in the Vihorlatské vrchyMts., Oblík in the Slanské vrchyMts., Dobročský prales and Klenovský Vepor in the Veporské vrchy Mts. and Badínsky prales in the Kremnické vrchy Mts. The reserves were selected to represent examples of the best protected old-growth beech forests in the country. The aim was to study the diversity of wood-inhabiting fungi on fallen beech logs and epiphytic lichens on standing beech trees. In total, 215 fungal species and 128 lichens were recorded on beech wood and bark, and 27 fungi and 26 lichens on additional substrates. The site of the highest conservation value is Stužica with 126 fungi and 79 lichens recorded on beech, of which 12 fungi and 19 lichens are indicators of high nature conservation value. Combined with historical records, a total of 19 non-lichenised fungal indicators are now reported from the site, making it the highest ranked natural beech forest in Europe. The second most important reserve for fungal diversity is Havešová with 121 species, including 14 indicator species recorded on beech wood. For lichens, the second most important reserve is Klenovský Vepor with 69 species including 18 lichen indicators recorded on beech. Nine fungus species are here reported as new to Slovakia: Asterostroma medium, Entoloma hispidulum, E. pseudoparasiticum, Gloeohypochnicium analogum, Hohenbuehelia valesiaca, Hymenochaete ulmicola, Hypocrea parmastoi, Melanomma spiniferum and Scutellinia colensoi. Lichen species Alyxoria ochrocheila is reported as new to Slovakia and Lecanographa amylacea, which was considered extinct in the Slovak Red list, was also recorded. This is the first list of wood-inhabiting fungi and epiphytic lichens of old-growth beech forests in Slovakia, and hence an important contribution to the exploration of biodiversity in Slovakia.
28076Awasthi D.D. (1991): A Key to the Microlichens of India, Nepal and Sri Lanka. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 40: 1-340.
Includes keys for 163 genera and 1, 150 species. New: Aspicilia scabridula (Magn.) comb. nov., A. maculata (Magn.) comb. nov., Buellia confusa sp. nov., Caloplaca handelii (Zahlbr.) comb. nov., C. orissensis (Räs.) comb. nov., Diploschistes megalosporus Lumbsch nom. nov., Graphina subintricata (Krempelh.) comb. nov., Enterographa praepallens (Nyl.) comb. nov., Laurera andamanica nom. nov., Myriotrema tarmuguliense (Sethy, Nagarkar & Patw.) comb. nov., M. pertusarioides (Nagarkar, Sethy & Patw.) comb. nov., M norstictideum (Patw. & Nagarkar) comb. nov., M. meghalayense (Patw. & Nagarkar) comb. nov., Ocellularia guptei (Nagarkar, Sethy & Patw.) comb. nov., O. neomasonhalei (Patw., Sethy & Nagarkar) comb. nov., O. jamesii (Patw. & Kulk.) comb. nov., O. submicrosporoides (Nagarkar, Sethy & Patw.) comb. nov., O. mahabalei (Patw. & Kulk.) comb. nov, Pertusaria neilgherrensis (Müll. Arg.) Awasthi & Srivastava stat. et comb. nov., Pleurotrema corticola (Makh. & Patw.) comb. nov., P. verrucosum (Makh. & Patw.) comb. nov., Protoblastenia griseococcinea (Nyl. in Hue) Inoue comb. nov., Rinodina megaspora (Awasthi & Agarwal) stat et comb. nov., Anthracothecium austroindicum A. Singh sp. nov., A. badioatrum A. Singh sp. nov., A. goaense A. Singh sp. nov., A. nanosporum A. Singh sp. nov., A. himalayense var. pseudohimalayense (A. Singh) A. Singh comb. nov., Bacidia psorina (Nyl. in Hue) G. Pant & Awasthi comb. nov., Coenogonium himalayense G. Pant & Awasthi sp. nov.
28075Arnold N. & Poelt J. (1995): Über Anthrachinone-Pigmente bei einigen Arten der Flechtengattung Xanthoria, insbesondere aus der Verwandtschaft von Xanthoria elegans (Teloschistaceae). - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 57: 49-58.
anthraquinones, chemistry, fallacinol, parietin, physcion, teloschistin, Xanthoria
28074Aptroot A. (1997): Lichen biodiversity in Papua New Guinea, with the report of 173 species on one tree. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 68: 203-213.
Comparison of the lichen flora in a lowland primary tropical rain forest (1-230 m), a mountain forest (2300-2750 m), and a high mountain area with subalpine and alpine vegetation (3500-4500 m). Between 400 and 500 species were found at each region, although actual species composition was very different
28073Singh S.M. & Nayaka S. (2017): Contributions to the Floral Diversity of Schirmacher Oasis and Larsemann Hills, Antarctica . - Proc Indian Natn Sci Acad, 83(2): 469-481.
In continental Antarctica, algae, fungi, lichen and mosses are the major floristic elements. To understand their distribution and diversity pattern in ice free areas of Schirmacher Oasis and Larsemann Hills investigations were conducted during various Indian Antarctic Expeditions. Due to the extreme environmental conditions in Antarctica, lichens and bryophytes undergo sever morphological changes and occur in mostly in sterile condition that makes them difficult group to identify. A total of 69 species of lichens were encountered in the Schirmacher Oasis and 25 species in the region of Larsemann Hills. Most lichens known from these two areas are microlichens. The ecophysiological studies on lichens indicated Rhizoplaca melanophthalma as the most desiccation tolerant species in Schirmacher Oasis. The studies on moss flora contributed only 12 species under eight genera and five families from Schirmacher Oasis. The sub-fossil moss Pohlia nutans of Holocene period was recorded from lake sediment cores from Schirmacher Oasis. There are several studies on algal flora of Schirmacher Oasis and in one of the studies a total of 109 species of cyanobacteria belonging to 30 genera and 9 families were recorded from Schirmacher Oasis. Similarly, a total of 19 species of fungi belonging to 13 genera and seven families were recorded from Schirmacher Oasis soils and 5 species of yeasts were recorded from Larsemann Hills. Furthermore, Thelebolus microsporus was characterized for adaptation strategies and biotechnological potentials. Schirmacher Oasis; Larsemann Hills; Algae; Fungi; Moss; Lichens; Antarctica
28072Elix J.A. & Mayrhofer H. (2017): New species and new records of buellioid lichens (Physciaceae, Ascomycota) from New Zealand. - Telopea, 20: 75–84.
Amandinea rangitatensis Elix & H.Mayrhofer, Buellia haywardii Elix,A.Knight & H.Mayrhofer, B. maungatuensis Elix & H.Mayrhofer, B. papanui Elix & H.Mayrhofer, and Tetramelas allisoniae Elix, H.Mayrhofer & Glenny are described as new to science. Rinodinella fertilis var. hypostictica (Elix) Elix is recorded for the first time from New Zealand. Tetramelas allisoniae also occurs in Tasmania
28071Kashiwadani H. (1979): Materials for the distribution of lichens in Japan (5). Parmelia erumpens Kurok. - J. Jap. Bot., 54: 223.
Japan, Parmelia erumpens
28070Asahina Y. (1928): The Raiken\'s Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. XXV. - J. Jap. Bot., 5(9): 317-322.
Japan, Glossodium, Massalongia, Placynthium, Buellia
28069Asahina Y. (1928): The Raiken\'s Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. XXIV. - J. Jap. Bot., 5(8): 288-290.
Japan, Manna, Lecanora
28068Asahina Y. (1928): The Reiken\'s Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. XXIII. - J. Jap. Bot., 5(7): 255-256.
Japan, Myriangium
28067Asahina Y. (1928): Mach More to Perceive by the Tongue and Nose. - J. Jap. Bot., 5(7): 253-255.
Japan, Cladonia, fumarprotocetraric acid
28066Asahina Y. (1928): The Raiken\'s Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. XXII. - J. Jap. Bot., 5(6): 210-211.
Japan, Sphinctrina
28065Asahina Y. (1928): The Raiken\'s Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. XXI. - J. Jap. Bot., 5(5): 169-170.
Japan, Menegazzia
28064Asahina Y. (1928): The Raiken\'s Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. XX. - J. Jap. Bot., 5(4): 132-133.
Japan, Lobaria
28063Asahina Y. (1928): The Raiken\'s Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. XIX. - J. Jap. Bot., 5(3): 91-94.
28062Asahina Y. (1928): The Raiken\'s Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. XXVII. - J. Jap. Bot., 5(11): 386-389.
Japan, Hypotrachyna
28061Asahina Y. (1928): The Raiken's Soliloquy on Botanical Science" or Notes on Lichens. XXVI. - J. Jap. Bot., 5(10): 352-354.
Japan, Candelaria
28060Asahina Y. (1927): The Raiken\'s Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. XVIII. - J. Jap. Bot., 5(1): 6-10.
Japan, Pseudocyphellaria
28059Asahina Y. (1927): The Raiken's Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. XVII. - J. Jap. Bot., 4(6): 108-110.
Japan, Dermatocarpon
28058Asahina Y. (1927): The Raiken\'s Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. XVI. - J. Jap. Bot., 4(5): 113-115.
28057Feuerer T. & Thell A. (2002): Parmelia ernstiae - a new macrolichen from Germany. - Mitteilungen aus dem Institut für Allgemeine Botanik in Hamburg, 30-32: 49-60.
28056Asahina Y. (1927): The Raiken\'s Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. XV. - J. Jap. Bot., 4(4): 82-8.
Japan, Solorina
28055Molina M.C. & Vicente C. (2000): Purification and characterization of two isolectins with arginase activity from the lichen Xanthoria parietina. - Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 33(4): 300–307.
Two glycoproteins were purified and biochemically characterized from the lichen X. parietina. Both behaved as enzymes with arginase activity and haemaglutinins. Secreted arginase (SA) contained galactose and glucose in the saccharide moiety and an isoelectric point of 4.54. The algal binding-protein (ABP) had N-acetyl-glucosamine and glucose as glycosidic residues and an isoelectric point of 3.53. Both proteins had the same molecular mass (58.6 kDa) and the same qualitative amino acidic composition. The results allowed us to consider these glycoproteins as isolectins, which have significant physiological roles in the relationship between photobiont and mycobiont of symbiotic association. Keywords: Algal binding-protein; Glycoprotein; Isolectins; Secreted arginase.
28054Moon K.H., Ahn C. & Kashiwadani H. (2015): Revision of the lichen genus Myelochroa (Ascomycotina: Parmeliaceae) in Korea. - Journal of Species Research, 4(1): 23–32.
Korean species of the genus Myelochroa are revised taxonomically and the following eight species are recognized: M. aurulenta (Tuck.) Elix & Hale, M. entotheiochroa (Hue) Elix & Hale, M. galbina (Ach.) Elix & Hale, M. hayachinensis (Kurok.) Elix & Hale, M. irrugans (Nyl.) Elix & Hale, M. leucotyliza (Nyl.) Elix & Hale, M. metarevoluta (Asahina) Elix & Hale and M. perisidians (Nyl.) Elix & Hale. Myelochroa ibukiensis K.H. Moon et al. is reduced to a synonym for M. aurulenta. Myelochroa denegans (Nyl.) Elix & Hale, M. indica (Hale) Elix & Hale and M. xantholepis (Mont. & Bosch) Elix & Hale are excluded from the lichen of Korea. In addition, a key for the species of the Korean Myelochroa is provided. Keywords: Korea, lichen, Myelochroa, taxonomy.
28053Fernández-Moriano C., Divakar P.K., Crespo A. & Gómez-Serranillos M.P. (2015): Antioxidant and cytoprotective potentials of Parmeliaceae lichens and identification of active compounds. - Anales de la Real Academia Nacional de Farmacia, 81(2): 164–178.
Lichens, symbiotic organisms with special features, are able to synthesize exclusive secondary metabolites that are attracting increasing interest in their pharmacological activities. Present study aimed to perform an initial screening of the antioxidant capacities of 29 lichens from Parmeliaceae family, and the cytoprotective potential of the most promising species in a model of central nervous system-like cells. Also, another goal was to determine the main chemical constituents of the promising lichens. After molecular identification of all lichen specimens by PCR techniques regarding the molecular marker ITS rDNA, antioxidant activity was measured in terms of free radical scavenging properties through ORAC assay. Methanol extracts of the three species with highest ORAC values (Cetrelia braunsiana (Cb), Parmotrema saccatilobum (Ps) and Usnea ghattensis (Ug)) were analyzed for phytochemical characterization through TLC and HPLC methods. We identified alectoronic acid as major metabolite in Cb, protocetraric acid in Ps and usnic, stictic and constictic acids in Ug. Concerning cytoprotective properties, their extracts were tested on human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. Protection against H2O2- induced oxidative stress in such neuronlike model was assessed by cell viability assays, thus determining their optimal concentrations. Then, their effect on oxidative stress markers, such as intracellular ROS formation, glutathione levels and caspase-3 activity, were evaluated. In general, lichens extracts were able to reverse the oxidative damage caused by H2O2, and promoted neurons survival. Results obtained in this study imply that these lichen species might be used as promising sources for natural compounds with potential neuroprotective activity, suggesting future research avenues.
28052Millot M., Girardot M., Dutreix L., Mambu L. & Imbert C. (2017): Antifungal and anti-biofilm activities of acetone lichen extracts against Candida albicans. - Molecules, 22: 651 [11 p.].
Candida albicans is a commensal coloniser of the human gastrointestinal tract and an opportunistic pathogen, especially thanks to its capacity to form biofilms. This lifestyle is frequently involved in infections and increases the yeast resistance to antimicrobials and immune defenses. In this context, 38 lichen acetone extracts have been prepared and evaluated for their activity against C. albicans planktonic and sessile cells. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of extracts (MICs) were determined using the broth microdilution method. Anti-biofilm activity was evaluated using tetrazolium salt (XTT) assay as the ability to inhibit the maturation phase (anti-maturation) or to eradicate a preformed 24 h old biofilm (anti-biofilm). While none of the extracts were active against planktonic cells, biofilm maturation was limited by 11 of the tested extracts. Seven extracts displayed both anti-maturation and anti-biofilm activities (half maximal inhibitory concentrations IC50_mat and IC50_biof  100 g/mL); Evernia prunastri and Ramalina fastigiata were the most promising lichens (IC50_mat < 4 g/mL and IC50_biof < 10 g/mL). Chemical profiles of the active extracts performed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) have been analyzed. Depsides, which were present in large amounts in the most active extracts, could be involved in anti-biofilm activities. This work confirmed that lichens represent a reservoir of compounds with anti-biofilm potential. Keywords: lichens; biofilm; Candida albicans; screening; chemical profiling.
28051Asahina Y. (1927): The Raiken's Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. XIV. - J. Jap. Bot., 4(3): 60-64.
28050Asahina Y. (1927): The Raiken's Soliloquy on Botanical Science" or Notes on Lichens. XIII. - J. Jap. Bot., 4(2): 33-35.
Japan, Cetrelia
28049Asahina Y. (1927): The Raiken's Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. XII. - J. Jap. Bot., 4(1): 2-5.
28048Asahina Y. (1926): The Raiken's Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. VIII. - J. Jap. Bot., 3(9): 209-212.
Japan, Umbilicaria
28047Asahina Y. (1926): The Raiken's Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. VII. - J. Jap. Bot., 3(8): 178-181.
Japan, Peltigera
28046Asahina Y. (1926): The Raiken's Soliloquy on Botanical Science" or Notes on Lichens. VI. - J. Jap. Bot., 3(7): 150-152.
Japan, Dictyonema
28045Asahina Y. (1926): The Raiken's Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. V. - J. Jap. Bot., 3(6): 124-125.
Japan, Cladonia
28044Gültekin M., Çaylı G. & Esen H. (2017): Utilization of renewable filler from lichen in low density polyethylene. - Polymer Composites, 38(2): 389–395.
New organic filler, obtained from a local lichen type, Rinodina Poeltii, was utilized in low density polyethylene (LDPE). Thermal characterization of organic filler revealed its suitability to be used as filler during extrusion and injection processes. Filler did not exhibit any weight loss up to 300°C except the dehydration loss at 155°C. Unmodified filler was compounded as 5, 10, and 15% by weight with LDPE. Filler addition resulted in a decrease for both tensile strength and % elongation at break. However, an increase was observed in elastic modulus. The compatibility of the filler material and polymer matrix was also found to be good as a result of absence of pull out voids in SEM observation.
28043Ibarrondo I., Martínez‐Arkarazo I. & Madariaga J.M. (2017): Biomineralization in saxicolous lichens: Raman spectroscopic study supported with XRF and SEM-EDX analyses. - Journal of Raman Spectroscopy, 48(2): 161–169.
This study demonstrates the applicability of Raman spectroscopy, assisted with X‐ray fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy–energy dispersive X‐ray spectroscopy analyses, in the characterization of biominerals accumulated on several stone materials colonized by saxicolous lichens under different environmental conditions. The distribution of the diverse biominerals through the lichen–stone interface is described. Among them, neogenerated biominerals involved in the metabolism of Caloplaca and Lecanoraceae lichen genera such as calcium oxalates in their two hydrated forms were found in different parts of the lichen, even on sandstones that X‐ray spectroscopy evidenced the absence of calcium in their mineralogical composition. Hence, it is demonstrated the atmospheric intake likely as particulate matter composed of calcite. The occurrence of the calcium oxalates is shown not to be related to the environmental conditions but to the lichen genera, because no common patterns were observed in the studied specimens. Moreover, several carbonates like calcite (CaCO3), ankerite (FeCa(CO3)2) and dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2) were identified only in the lichen thallus vicinity. These evidences are described by means of Raman spectroscopy for the first time. The biominerals accumulated on several stone materials colonized by saxicolous lichens living under different environmental conditions are characterized. The work describes the calcium oxalate distribution on the surface of caloplaca and lecanoraceae lichen genera and demonstrates the neogenesis of calcium oxalates on non carbonated stones (where X‐ray spectroscopy evidenced the absence of calcium) suggesting an atmospheric uptake. It is noticeable the detection of calcite (CaCO3), ankerite (FeCa(CO3)2) and dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2) in the vicinity of the lichen thalli. These evidences are described by means of Raman spectroscopy for the first time. Keywords: lichens; Raman spectroscopy; calcium oxalates; ankerite; dolomite; calcite.
28042Maslać A., Maslać M. & Tkalec M. (2016): The impact of cadmium on photosynthetic performance and secondary metabolites in the lichens Parmelia sulcata, Flavoparmelia caperata and Evernia prunastri. - Acta Botanica Croatica, 75(2): 186–193.
Lichens are one of the most common air quality bioindicators. Airborne heavy metal pollution causes various physiological changes in lichens, but sensitivity to metal pollution is species specifi c. In this research, three lichen species (Parmelia sulcata, Flavoparmelia caperata and Evernia prunastri) were exposed to cadmium (50 mg L–1) in laboratory conditions. Photosynthetic effi ciency of photosystem II and content of secondary metabolites were determined after one, three and eight days of exposure. In all investigated species treatment of lichen thalli with cadmium signifi cantly changed Fv/Fm and RFd only after eight days of exposure. Quantifi cation of metabolites showed a decreased content of the medullary depsidones salazinic acid (in P. sulcata) and protocetraric acid (in F. caperata) but increased content of cortical depside atranorin (in P. sulcata) and dibenzofurane usnic acid (in F. caperata) after cadmium exposure. However, no changes in secondary metabolites were found in E. prunastri. Results show that investigated species are relatively resistant to short-term cadmium-exposure and that secondary metabolites could have an important role in the protection of primary metabolism from negative cadmium impacts, at least in some species. Key words: air pollution, heavy metal, HPLC, photosynthesis.
28041Kossowska A. (2008): Lichens growing on calcareous rocks in the Polish part of the Sudety Mountains. - Acta Botanica Silesiaca Monographiae, 3: 1–108.
Paper presents the results of the investigations of the calcicolous lichen flora occuring in the Sudety Mts. The study was carried out in the two most extensive areas with calcareous substrates in the Sudety Mts: the Góry Kaczawskie Mts in the western part of the Sudetes and the ŒŚnieżnik Metamorphic Region in their eastern part, and the two types of localities: natural rock outcrops and quarries. On each locality the entire lichen flora that was directly (saxicolous species) or indirectly (terricolous and muscicolous species) associated with calcareous substrates was analyzed. Of the 129 species currently found in the study area, 84 species were exclusively epilithic, 17 were epilithic, 21 species grew over mosses and 22 taxa were not connected with only one type of substrate. The calcicolous lichen flora of the Western Sudety Mts was significantly richer and more diverse than that of the Eastern Sudetes. In the Góry Kaczawskie Mts a total of 111 calcicolous lichen species were found, whereas in the ŒŚnieżnik Metamorphic Region only 72 species were identified during the study. Only 54 taxa occured in both calcareous areas in the Sudety Mts. Key words: saxicolous lichens, calciphilous lichens, Sudety Mts, Lower Silesia.
28040Lendemer J.C. (2016): Keys to Lichens of North America: Revised and Expanded by Irvin M. Brodo et al., eds. 2016. 427 pp., 36 line drawings, 14 photos. ISBN 978-0-300-19573-6 $29.95 (spiral bound). Yale University Press, New Haven, CT. - Rhodora, 118(974): 243–246.
book review
28039Fryday A.M. (2016): Common Lichens of Northeastern North America: A Field Guide (Memoirs of The New York Botanical Garden Volume 112) by Troy McMullin and Frances Anderson. 2015. 192 pp. 138 color photos, 138 b/w illustrations. ISBN 978-0-89327-511-2. $38.99 (hardcover). The New York Botanical Garden Press, Brooklyn, New York. - Rhodora, 118(975): 332–334.
book review
28038Stern M., Medeiros I.D., Negoita L. & Rajakaruna N. (2016): Limestone flora of the Simonton Corner Quarry Preserve, Rockport, Maine, USA. - Rhodora, 118(974): 206–226.
Limestone is a distinctive substrate that has significant effects on soils and plants. The present study characterizes the diversity of vascular plants, bryophytes, and lichens at the Simonton Corner Quarry Preserve, an abandoned limestone quarry in Rockport, Maine, USA, which was in operation in the late 1800s. We document vascular plant diversity and associated edaphic features (i.e., soil pH and elemental chemistry) using 30 535 meter plots spread throughout the site. For vascular plants, 114 species in 96 genera and 50 families were observed; few of these species are known to prefer calcareous environments, and 38% are nonnative. Conversely, the soiland rock-dwelling cryptogam biota, which comprises 21 moss species in 13 families and eight lichen species in three families, contains many calciphilic species. The bryoflora conspicuously lacks liverworts, whereas the lichen biota is dominated by cyanolichens. This study will inform future conservation and reclamation work at this and other human-altered limestone sites in Maine and floristically similar areas and contribute to our understanding of the geoecology of New England. Key Words: bryophytes, carbonate floras, edaphic factor, geobotany, lichens, limestone, plant-soil relations.
28037Robinson S.C., Ketchledge E.H., Fitzgerald B.T., Raynal D.J. & Kimmerer R.W. (2010): A 23-year assessment of vegetation composition and change in the Adirondack alpine zone, New York State. - Rhodora, 112(952): 355–377.
The Adirondack Mountains of New York State hold some of the southernmost communities of alpine vegetation in the eastern United States. Containing the greatest concentration of rare and endangered species in New York State, this ,12,000-year-old ecosystem is important to understanding the ecological history of northeastern North America. In order to monitor floristic and vegetational shifts over time, 11 permanent transects were established in 1984 on four summits (Wright, Algonquin, Boundary, and Iroquois) of the MacIntyre Range in the Adirondack High Peaks region. Using the point-intercept method, all 11 transects were sampled in 1984, 1994, 2002, and 2007. Vegetation composition changed significantly over the 23-year period, with an overall decrease in bryophytes/lichens and an increase in vascular plants, indicating that vascular plants were replacing bryophytes, particularly in areas not disturbed by hikers. Community similarity was high among all transects, and increased with time for vascular plants as they became more abundant, indicating a successional convergence. Compositional shifts may also reflect effects of global warming and atmospheric deposition on alpine plant communities. Key Words: alpine flora, vegetation change, succession, bryophytes, Adirondack Mountains, permanent transect.
28036Capers R.S. & Taylor D.W. (2014): Slow recovery in a Mount Washington, New Hampshire, alpine plant community four years after disturbance. - Rhodora, 116(965): 1–24.
Four years after a trench was dug through alpine habitat on Mount Washington, New Hampshire, we surveyed vascular plants, bryophytes, and lichens in the disturbed area, analyzing species richness and abundance compared with values in adjacent, undisturbed areas. Plants had begun recolonizing the disturbed area, but species richness and abundance remained far lower than in the undisturbed community. Among vascular plants, graminoids colonized most quickly, and woody species were largely absent. Species with the highest frequency and greatest abundance in the disturbed area also were common and abundant in the undisturbed community. Bryophytes appeared to be colonizing no more quickly than vascular plants. Treeline and elevation exerted separate effects on community structure and recovery. Treeline influenced species richness, abundance, and the rate of recovery of vascular plants, but there was no evidence of an additional effect of elevation either above or below treeline. Treeline also influenced species richness of bryophytes and lichens. In addition, elevation appeared to have a separate effect on their rate of recovery in alpine habitat: species richness of bryophytes and lichens declined with elevation in the disturbed community but not in the undisturbed community. This suggests that elevation has a transient effect on colonization and/or survival, but only above treeline. In general, recovery has occurred more quickly below treeline. This survey establishes baseline information that will be useful in assessing the rate of recovery after future surveys. Key Words: alpine plants, disturbance recovery, global climate change, vascular plants, bryophytes, lichens, Presidential Range, White Mountain National Forest, succession.
28035Capers R.S. & Slack N.G. (2016): A baseline study of alpine snowbed and rill communities on Mount Washington, NH. - Rhodora, 118(976): 345–381.
Quantitative data on the abundance and frequency of vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens are lacking for alpine snowbed and rill communities in northeastern North America. Such data are needed to establish whether the communities are changing in response to climate warming, nitrogen deposition or shifts in the timing of precipitation and snowmelt. We surveyed nine sites (five snowbeds and four rills) on Mount Washington (White Mountain National Forest, New Hampshire), recording 54 vascular plant species, 42 bryophytes and 13 lichens. Although vascular plants were most abundant, bryophytes and lichens, which had not been completely surveyed in these communities previously, were important in terms of species richness (as many as eight bryophytes and four lichens in 1 m2 quadrats) and were occasionally abundant, particularly bryophytes in rills. We found that snowbeds and rills are separate communities. Some species are shared, but far higher numbers of vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens were found in one community but not the other. The most frequent vascular plants had been reported as common in snowbeds and rills previously. However, several species that are common in these communities elsewhere occurred less often in our sites because of variation occurring both across the region and within the White Mountains. Our research provides baseline information on snowbeds and rill plant communities so that future studies can determine how they respond to changes in environmental conditions. Key Words: alpine ecology, bryophytes, climate change, community dynamics, lichens, species richness.
28034McMullin R.T. (2015): The lichens of Prince Edward Island, Canada: a second checklist, with species ranked for conservation status. - Rhodora, 117(972): 454–484.
The lichens of Prince Edward Island (PEI) are well known to have been inadequately sampled and not well understood. In this study, 19 biologically diverse forest remnants and other potentially rich localities were explored for their lichen vegetation, and 118 new county records and 71 species new for the province were discovered. Together with previously studied sites, 38 localities in total have now been surveyed. A new checklist based on these surveys was prepared for all the lichens of the island. In addition, conservation status (S-ranks) is proposed for 153 species of the 326 species in 118 genera now known for the province. Four species received a rank of S1 (critically imperiled): Anaptychia crinalis, Megaspora verrucosa, Pannaria lurida, and Sclerophora amabilis; and six species received a rank of S2 (imperiled): Acrocordia cavata, Bryoria salazinica, Heterodermia speciosa, Menegazzia terebrata, Pannaria rubiginosa, and Ramalina thrausta. The importance of baseline data for future conservation planning, pollution monitoring, and climate change studies is emphasized. Key Words: Biogeography, phytogeography, rare species, sustainable management, old-growth forests, forest.
28033Perlmutter G.B., Blank G.B. & Rivas Plata E. (2017): Checklists of corticolous lichenized and allied fungi collected in mixed forests of Western Wake County, North Carolina, USA. - Evansia, 34(1): 23–37.
Three checklist tables are presented from collections made during a study of corticolous lichen community response to highway pollution in western Wake County, North Carolina, USA. A total of 103 species of lichens and three species of allied fungi were found, representing 64 genera in 36 families. Two allied fungi, Amphisphaeria bufonia and Rebentischia massalongoi, are recommended to be added to the North American lichen checklist. Keywords. Biodiversity, lichens, deciduous forest, Piedmont, eastern North America.
28032Miller L.R. & Sullivan T.J. (2017): Corticolous lichens of Meeman Biological Station, Shelby County, Tennessee. - Evansia, 34(1): 1–5.
An inventory of the corticolous lichen flora of the Edward J. Meeman Biological Station of the University of Memphis was conducted to determine the biodiversity of this protected site. In total, 43 species representing 28 genera and 15 families were identified. This preliminary list provides baseline data for future studies of the lichen flora of the area. Keywords. Biodiversity, corticolous lichens, Meeman Biological Station, Tennessee.
28031Hodgkiss A. (2017): What’s going on? Yeasts in the cortex. - Evansia, 34(1): 38–39.
[Reprint from the British Lichen Society Bulletin 119: 70-71 (2016)]
28030Wietrzyk P., Węgrzyn M. & Lisowska M. (2017): Lichen diversity on glacier moraines in Svalbard. - Cryptogamie, Mycologie, 38(1): 67–80.
This paper contributes to studies on the lichen biota of Arctic glacier forelands. The research was carried out in the moraines of three different glaciers in Svalbard: Longyearbreen, Irenebreen and Rieperbreen. In total, 132 lichen taxa and three lichenicolous lichens were recorded. Eight species were recorded for the first time in the Svalbard archipelago: Arthonia gelidae, Buellia elegans, Caloplaca lactea, Cryptodiscus pallidus, Fuscidea kochiana, Merismatium deminutum, Physconia distorta, and Polyblastia schaereriana. One species, Staurothele arctica, was observed for the first time in Spitsbergen (previously recorded only on Hopen island). All the studied glaciers lie in Spitsbergen’s warm region. However, Kaffiøyra Plain, where Irenebreen is located, is characterized by higher levels of humidity, which may explain its different lichen composition compared to that of the other two moraines. The forelands of Rieperbreen and Longyearbreen are located in the same area of Svalbard, which is also the warmest and the driest and where high species diversity is expected. This proved to be true for the Rieperbreen moraine, but not for the Longyearbreen moraine, where species diversity was lowest. The expansion of tourism along Longyearbyen appears to be a major factor behind the poor development of lichen biota on the Longyearbreen moraine. Key-words: Arctic / Irenebreen / Rieperbreen / Longyearbreen / species richness.
28029Boggess L.M., Walker G.L. & Madritch M.D. (2017): Cliff Flora of the Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area. - Natural Areas Journal, 37: 200–211.
Cliffs harbor unique ecological communities while facing increasing pressure from human disturbances. How abiotic factors such as surface heterogeneity, slope, and aspect interact locally to drive variation in plant communities remains largely unknown. We surveyed the vascular plants, bryophytes, and lichens along 50 vertical transects throughout the Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area (Tennessee, USA) to characterize the vegetative community and to determine which factors influenced the distribution of cliff vegetation. Across all cliff face plots, the dominant lichen genus was Lepraria; the dominant vascular plant was Dennstaedtia punctilobula; and the dominant bryophyte was Dicranum montanum. We found several rare species including Cladonia pocillum, a boreal disjunct lichen; Vittaria appalachiana, Appalachian shoestring fern; and Cynodontium schisti, a rare bryophyte. Vascular plants, bryophytes, and lichens were each influenced by different environmental drivers. West-facing slopes supported high vascular plant diversity, low-angle slopes supported high bryophyte diversity, and faces with high surface heterogeneity supported high lichen diversity. Both plant and lichen communities varied widely by transect within and across sampling areas. Recreational rock climbing did not appear to influence community structure, possibly due to low levels of climbing traffic among our survey transects. Nonetheless, we overlapped our vegetative model with a simple spatial model of potential for rock climbing development to highlight specific areas of concern. Our predictive model of vegetative diversity was moderately accurate (ρ = 0.43), suggesting that surveying each cliff individually may be necessary for conservation efforts. In addition, our work indicated that preserving vegetation along the top of cliff faces should remain a focus of conservation efforts. Index terms: cliff ecology, rock climbing, spatial modeling, Shannon’s diversity.
28028Miller J.E.D. & Damschen E.I. (2017): Biological soil crust cover is negatively related to vascular plant richness in Ozark sandstone glades. - Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society, 144(2): 170–178.
Sandstone glades in the Ozark highlands contain unique communities of vascular plants, including several species of conservation concern, as well as abundant communities of terricolous cryptogams—collectively termed biological soil crusts. Biological soil crusts have important ecological roles in grassland systems, such as preventing erosion and retaining soil moisture. Despite the conservation importance of sandstone glades, this ecosystem has received little scientific attention, and the drivers of plant diversity and soil crust prevalence in sandstone glades are poorly understood. In this study, we assessed relationships between soil crust cover and vascular plant species richness and tested whether dominance shifts from soil crusts to vascular plants along a soil gradient. Soil crust cover was negatively related to vascular plant species richness, and vascular plant richness increased (and crust cover decreased) with increasing soil organic matter. As soil organic matter increased, the proportion of perennial vascular plants in the community also increased. These results provide some of the first quantitative evidence for drivers of plant diversity patterns in Ozark sandstone glades and suggest that soil characteristics have an important role in structuring the distributions of plants and crusts in sandstone glades. Key words: biological soil crusts, edaphic communities, lichens, outcrop communities, plant diversity.
28027Will-Wolf S., Jovan S. & Amacher M.C. (2017): Lichen elemental content bioindicators for air quality in upper Midwest, USA: A model for large-scale monitoring. - Ecological Indicators, 78: 253–263.
Our development of lichen elemental bioindicators for a United States of America (USA) national monitoring program is a useful model for other large-scale programs. Concentrations of 20 elements were measured, validated, and analyzed for 203 samples of five common lichen species. Collections were made by trained non-specialists near 75 permanent plots and an expert near nine air monitoring sites. Flavoparmelia caperata (most frequent) and Physcia aipolia/stellaris between them represented the full range of local forest cover and pollution load. Evernia mesomorpha (values saturated at intermediate pollution), Parmelia sulcata, and Punctelia rudecta (both difficult for non-specialists) were less useful. Conversion models (GLM or regression) rendered elemental data equivalent between species. Al, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, N, and S, plus composite indexes from them, were linked with local air pollution based on correlations with directly measured N and particulate matter as well as from PCA; elements were weakly correlated with modeled pollution estimates. Lichen Hg had no other useful surrogates. Invoking multiple causation and scale-dependence helped address several issues of interpretation, for instance conflicting bioindicator value of Al and Fe from literature. Keywords: Bioindicator; Element; Lichen; Metal; Nitrogen; Pollution; Scale-dependence; Sulfur.
28026Studabaker W.B., Puckett K.J., Percy K.E. & Landis M.S. (2017): Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, dibenzothiophene, and alkylated homologs in the lichen Hypogymnia physodes by gas chromatography using single quadrupole mass spectrometry and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. - Journal of Chromatography A, 1492: 106–116.
Development of the Athabasca Oil Sands Region in northeastern Alberta, Canada has contributed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), which include alkyl PAHs and dibenzothiophenes, to the regional environment. A new analytical method was developed for quantification of PAHs and PACs in the epiphytic lichen bioindicator species Hypogymnia physodes for use in the development of receptor models for attribution of PAH and PAC concentrations to anthropogenic and natural emission sources. Milled lichens were extracted with cyclohexane, and extracts were cleaned on silica gel using automated solid phase extraction techniques. Quantitative analysis was performed by gas chromatography with selected ion monitoring (GC-SIM-MS) for PAHs, and by GC with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) for PACs. PACs were quantitated in groups using representative reference compounds as calibration standards. Analytical detection limits were ≤2.5 ng g−1 for all individual compounds. Precision as measured by laboratory duplicates was variable; for individual analytes above 5 ng g−1 the mean absolute difference between duplicates was typically <20%. Selection of single-analyte markers for source attribution should include consideration of data quality indicators. Use of TOF-MS to spectrally characterize PAC group constituents identified significant challenges for the accurate quantitation of PACs with more than two carbons in their side chain(s). Total PAH concentrations in lichen samples ranged from 12 to 482 ng g−1. Total PACs in each sample varied from a fraction of total PAHs to more than four times total PAHs. Results of our analyses of H. physodes are compared with other studies using other species of lichens as PAH receptors and with passive monitoring data using polyurethane foam (PUF) samplers in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR). This study presents the first analytical methodology developed for the determination of PACs in an epiphytic lichen bioindicator species. Keywords: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Polycyclic aromatic compounds; Lichens; Oil sands; Gas chromatography with time of flight; mass spectrometry; Dibenzothiophenea.
28025Miller J.E.D., Villella J., Carey G., Carlberg T. & Root H.T. (2017): Canopy distribution and survey detectability of a rare old-growth forest lichen. - Forest Ecology and Management, 392: 195–201.
Forest managers in many parts of the world are charged with protecting rare lichen species, including species growing near their range limits. Rare lichens may be particularly vulnerable to effects of climate change, and conserving lichen diversity necessitates understanding factors that limit species distributions. Habitat suitability envelopes for lichens are shifting as the climate changes, but it is unclear whether and how local (e.g., within-tree) lichen species distributions will shift. Conserving lichen biodiversity also requires effective field surveys to detect and monitor rare lichen populations. However, the reliability of rare lichen survey methods currently used across global forest lands is rarely tested. In this study, we quantify the canopy distribution of an epiphytic old-growth forest cyanolichen near its southern range limit and test whether ground surveys reliably detect canopy populations. Near its southern range limit, Lobaria oregana was most abundant in two distinct zones within tree crowns: on branches of large trees in the mid-crown, and on boles of small trees near ground level. The abundance of this species near ground level suggests that lichens may benefit from cooler, wetter microclimates near the equatorial edges of their ranges. Maintaining these microclimate habitats may be a key to long-term viability of rear edge lichen populations. Targeted ground surveys reliably detected L. oregana in litterfall underneath trees where it was abundant in the crowns. However, ground surveys did not reliably detect the lichen underneath trees when it occurred in the crowns in low abundance. Our results suggest that ground surveys are useful for characterizing abundant lichen species, but that canopy surveys (e.g., tree climbing) may be needed to reliably detect lichens when they occur at low abundance. Keywords: Adaptation Cyanolichens Epiphytic lichens Lobaria Range limits Survey and manage.
28024Savino F., Pugliese M., Quarto M., Adamo P., Loffredo F., De Cicco F. & Roca V. (2017): Thirty years after Chernobyl: Long-term determination of 137Cs effective half-life in the lichen Stereocaulon vesuvianum. - Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 172: 201–206.
It has been widely shown that nuclear fallout includes substances, which accumulate in organisms such as crustaceans, fish, mushrooms and lichens, helping to evaluate the activity concentration of contaminants accumulated on a long time. In this context, radiocaesium deposited in soil following the Chernobyl accident on 26 April 1986 is known to have remained persistently available for plant uptake in many areas of Europe. Studies on the lichen Stereocaulon vesuvianum show the plant's high capacity to retain radionuclides from the substrate and the air. After the Chernobyl accident, starting from September 1986, at the Radioactivity Laboratory (LaRa) of the University of Naples Federico II, four monitoring campaigns to evaluate the activity concentration of four isotopes of the two elements caesium and ruthenium (134Cs, 137Cs, 103Ru and 106Ru) were carried out until 1999. This study allowed the effective half-life of 134Cs and 137Cs to be estimated. Twenty-eight years after the accident, in December 2014, a further sampling was carried out; only 137Cs was revealed beyond the detection limits, measuring activity concentrations ranging from 20 to 40 Bq/kg, while the other radionuclides were no longer observed due to their shorter half-life. The last sampling allowed more precise determination of the effective half-life of 137Cs (6.2 ± 0.1 year), due to the larger dataset on a large time period. Keywords: Lichen Bio-monitoring Radioactivity Gamma-ray spectrometry Mt. Vesuvius Effective half-life.
28023Chytrý M., Horsák M., Syrovátka V., Danihelka J., Ermakov N., German D.A., Hájek M., Hájek O., Hájková P., Horsáková V., Kočí M., Kubešová S., Lustyk P., Nekola J.C., Preislerová Z., Resl P. & Valachovič M. (2017): Refugial ecosystems in central Asia as indicators of biodiversity change during the Pleistocene–Holocene transition. - Ecological Indicators, 77: 357–367.
Highlights: • Relict ecosystems in central Asia preserve many features of Pleistocene ecosystems. • We use them as indicators of species-richness patterns of Pleistocene landscapes. • Vascular-plant and land-snail richness was lower in Pleistocene-like landscapes. • Bryophyte and lichen richness was higher in Pleistocene-like landscapes. • Modern analogs are useful indicators of the past biodiversity changes. Site-scale species richness (alpha diversity) patterns are well described for many present-day ecosystems, but they are difficult to reconstruct from the fossil record. Very little is thus known about these patterns in Pleistocene full-glacial landscapes and their changes following Holocene climatic amelioration. However, present-day central Asian ecosystems with climatic features and biota similar to those of the full-glacial periods may serve as proxies of alpha diversity variation through both space and time during these periods. We measured alpha diversity of vascular plants, bryophytes, macrolichens and land snails, as well as environmental variables, in 100-m2 plots located in forests and open habitats in the Russian Altai Mountains and their northern foothills. This region contains adjacent areas that possess climatic and biotic features similar to mid-latitude Europe for both the Last Glacial Maximum and contemporaneous Holocene ecosystems. We related alpha diversity to environmental variables using generalized linear models and mapped it from the best-fit models. Climate was identified as the strongest predictor of alpha diversity across all taxa, with temperature being positively correlated to number of species of vascular plants and land snails and negatively correlated to that of bryophytes and macrolichens. Factors important for only some taxa included precipitation, soil pH, percentage cover of tree layer and proportion of grassland areas in the landscape around plots. These results, combined with the high degree of similarity between the current Altai biota and dry-cold Pleistocene ecosystems of Europe and northern Asia, suggest that vascular plant and land snail alpha diversity was low during cold phases of the Pleistocene with a general increase following the Holocene climatic amelioration. The opposite trend probably existed for terricolous bryophytes and macrolichens. Keywords: Alpha diversity; Bryophyte; Land snail; Lichen; Palaeoecological reconstruction; Pleistocene–Holocene transition; Species richness; Vascular plant.
28022Bellio P., Di Pietro L., Mancini A., Piovano M., Nicoletti M., Brisdelli F., Tondi D., Cendron L., Franceschini N., Amicosante G., Perilli M. & Celenza G. (2017): SOS response in bacteria: Inhibitory activity of lichen secondary metabolites against Escherichia coli RecA protein. - Phytomedicine, 29: 11–18.
Background: RecA is a bacterial multifunctional protein essential to genetic recombination, error-prone replicative bypass of DNA damages and regulation of SOS response. The activation of bacterial SOS response is directly related to the development of intrinsic and/or acquired resistance to antimicrobials. Although recent studies directed towards RecA inactivation via ATP binding inhibition described a variety of micromolar affinity ligands, inhibitors of the DNA binding site are still unknown. Purpose: Twenty-seven secondary metabolites classified as anthraquinones, depsides, depsidones, dibenzofurans, diphenyl-butenolides, paraconic acids, pseudo-depsidones, triterpenes and xanthones, were investigated for their ability to inhibit RecA from Escherichia coli. They were isolated in various Chilean regions from 14 families and 19 genera of lichens. Methods: The ATP hydrolytic activity of RecA was quantified detecting the generation of free phosphate in solution. The percentage of inhibition was calculated fixing at 100 µM the concentration of the compounds. Deeper investigations were reserved to those compounds showing an inhibition higher than 80%. To clarify the mechanism of inhibition, the semi-log plot of the percentage of inhibition vs. ATP and vs. ssDNA, was evaluated. Results: Only nine compounds showed a percentage of RecA inhibition higher than 80% (divaricatic, perlatolic, alpha-collatolic, lobaric, lichesterinic, protolichesterinic, epiphorellic acids, sphaerophorin and tumidulin). The half-inhibitory concentrations (IC50) calculated for these compounds were ranging from 14.2 µM for protolichesterinic acid to 42.6 µM for sphaerophorin. Investigations on the mechanism of inhibition showed that all compounds behaved as uncompetitive inhibitors for ATP binding site, with the exception of epiphorellic acid which clearly acted as non-competitive inhibitor of the ATP site. Further investigations demonstrated that epiphorellic acid competitively binds the ssDNA binding site. Kinetic data were confirmed by molecular modelling binding predictions which shows that epiphorellic acid is expected to bind the ssDNA site into the L2 loop of RecA protein. Conclusion: In this paper the first RecA ssDNA binding site ligand is described. Our study sets epiphorellic acid as a promising hit for the development of more effective RecA inhibitors. In our drug discovery approach, natural products in general and lichen in particular, represent a successful source of active ligands and structural diversity.
28021Fernández-Moriano C., Divakar P.K., Crespo A. & Gómez-Serranillos M.P. (2017): Protective effects of lichen metabolites evernic and usnic acids against redox impairment-mediated cytotoxicity in central nervous systemlike cells. - Food and Chemical Toxicology, 105: 262–277.
Lichens species produce unique secondary metabolites that attract increasing pharmacological interest, including their redox modulatory activities. Current work evaluated for the first time the in vitro cytoprotective properties, based on the antioxidant activities, of the Parmeliaceae lichens Evernia prunastri and Usnea ghattensis and the mechanism of action of their major phenolic constituents: the evernic and usnic acids, respectively. In two models of central nervous system-like cells (U373-MG and SH-SY5Y cell lines), exogenous H2O2 induced oxidative stress-mediated cytotoxicity. We first assessed their radical scavenging capacities (ORAC and DPPH tests) and the phenolic content of the extracts. At the optimal concentrations, pretreatments with evernic acid displayed significant protection against H2O2-induced cytotoxic damage in both models. It reversed the alterations in oxidative stress markers (including ROS generation, glutathione system and lipid peroxidation levels) and cellular apoptosis (caspase-3 activity). Such effects were in part mediated by a notable enhancement of the expression of intracellular phase-II antioxidant enzymes; a plausible involvement of the Nrf2 cytoprotective pathway is suggested. Usnic acid exerted similar effects, to some extent more moderate. Results suggest that lichen polyketides evernic and usnic acids merit further research as promising antioxidant candidates in the therapy of oxidative stress-related diseases, including the neurodegenerative disorders. Keywords: Parmeliaceae lichens Evernic acid Usnic acid oxidative stress neuroprotection.
28020Caridi F., D’Agostino M., Messina M., Marcianò G., Grioli L., Belvedere A., Marguccio S. & Belmusto G. (2017): Lichens as environmental risk detectors. - The European Physical Journal Plus, 132: 189 [9 p.].
Several studies carried out after the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986 showed that lichens are suitable biomonitors of the fall-out, given their long life expectancy. 137Cs activity concentrations were measured through HPGe gamma spectrometry in different epiphytic lichens (Usnea SPP, Platismatia glauca, Pseudevernia furfuracea, Ramalina SPP), collected from three sampling sites in the Calabria region, south of Italy. Data on variations in the contents of airborne particulates heavy metals, As, Be, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn, measured in the thalli of the investigated lichens through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), were reported in accordance with a lichen thalli naturalness/alteration scale. Energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis in a scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDX), with an electron beam of 20 keV, that interacts with the sample leading to the emission of characteristic X-rays as secondary radiation, was also employed to investigate about the chemistry of the adherent particles to the surface of investigated lichens and about the possible interaction between them and the surrounding environment. Data obtained in this article provide useful information on the environmental risk of the studied area and can be further used for a radiological and chemical mapping.
28019Rubio-Salcedo M., Psomas A., Prieto M., Zimmermann N.E. & Martínez I. (2017): Case study of the implications of climate change for lichen diversity and distributions. - Biodiversity and Conservation, 26: 1121–1141.
There is ample evidence for species distributional changes in response to recent climate change, but most studies are biased toward better known taxa. Thus, an integrated approach is needed that includes the “cryptic diversity” represented partly by lichens, which are among the most sensitive organisms to environmental change due to their physiological characteristics. The use of functional traits and ecological attributes may improve the interpretation of how species respond to climate change. Thus, we quantified the future climate change impacts on 41 lichen species distributed in the Iberian Peninsula using ensemble climatic suitability maps (derived from generalized linear and generalized additive models, and classification and regression tree analysis) and different metrics. We also determined the lichen traits/attributes that might be related to a shared response to climate change. The results indicated a loss of bioclimatic space for 75% of the species studied and an increase for 10 species, especially in Mediterranean ones. Most of the species that will lose more than 70% of their current modeled distribution area comprised big macrolichens with cyanobacteria as the photobiont, thereby indicating a great biomass loss in forests, which might affect nutrient cycles. We also found that the predicted distributions were trait-related. Smaller species, green-algae lichens, and saxicolous and epiphyte species will respond better to future climate change. The results of this type of study may help to identify the species that are most vulnerable to climate change and facilitate the development of conservation measures to avoid their decline. Keywords: Climatic suitability map Exposure Future distribution area Susceptibility.
28018Rodriguez J.M., Renison D., Filippini E. & Estrabou C. (2017): Small shifts in microsite occupation could mitigate climate change consequences for mountain top endemics: a test analyzing saxicolous lichen distribution patterns. - Biodiversity and Conservation, 26: 1199–1215.
The extent to which small shifts among local topographic microsites could mitigate the effects of larger-scale climate change in arctic–alpine systems including mountain top organisms is largely unknown. This study is among the first to evaluate the relative contribution of microsite and altitude as a proxy for climate change on saxicolous lichen communities. We registered 107 lichen species in 54 boulders ranging from 900 to 2700 m.a.s.l. and in a large array of microsites in central Argentina. Communities ordinated along NMS multivariate analysis axes 1, 2 and 3 presented a cumulative R2 of 80%. The three axes were explained by altitude with axis 1 only being explained by altitude. Axis 2 was also explained by slope and aspect whereas axis 3 was explained by the interaction of altitude with aspect indicating that aspect was important only at lower altitudes but not at the mountain top. Lichen cover and richness were similar throughout the altitudinal gradient. We interpret that under a climate warming scenario, lower altitude species occupying pole ward facing slopes will have to migrate upwards while at the mountain top—for most communities—there still is scope for microsite segregation to compensate climate change. Keywords Argentina  Lichen communities  Species richness  Lichen cover  Rock outcrops  Succession.
28017Kodnik D., Winkler A., Candotto Carniel F. & Tretiach M. (2017): Biomagnetic monitoring and element content of lichen transplants in a mixed land use area of NE Italy. - Science of the Total Environment, 595: 858–867.
Highlights: • Lichen transplants allow easy and detailed environmental pollution data collection. • Two-month exposed samples were enriched with magnetite-like magnetic minerals. • Magnetic parameters and content of selected elements were correlated. • Magnetic properties are good proxies also for low levels of heavy metal pollution. The aim of this study was to verify whether it is possible to discriminate between the different pollution sources present in a mixed land use area of NE Italy on the basis of the magnetic properties and the element content of lichen transplants. Thalli of Pseudevernia furfuracea were collected in a pristine area of the South-Eastern Alps and exposed for 2 months in 40 sites located at the knots of a 700 m step grid covering ca. 40 km2 of a mosaic of agricultural, forested, industrial and urban areas. In this way, the samples could be analyzed after a defined period of time, and compared to pre-exposure conditions. The post-exposure element content and the magnetic data substantially agreed, revealing a rather modest anthropogenic impact on the territory, mostly limited to an industrial park. Since the magnetic mineralogy was homogeneous throughout the entire set of samples, with magnetite-like minerals as the main magnetic carriers, it was not possible to discriminate betweenPMoriginating fromthe different pollution sources. The contribution given by the industrial park could be confirmed by the multivariate analysis of the element data set. Conversely, it was possible to assess the lowenvironmental impact of the largest local industry, a cement plant, located outside the industrial park. Notwithstanding the relatively short time of the survey, P. furfuracea was proven to be an effective accumulator for biomagnetic monitoring studies, its magnetic properties being excellent proxies for heavy metal pollution evenwhen the anthropogenic impact on the territory is low. Keywords: Air pollution Dust Environmental magnetism Magnetic properties Particulate matter.
28016Medeiros I.D., Fryday A.M. & Rajakaruna N. (2014): Additional lichen records and mineralogical data from metal-contaminated sites in Maine. - Rhodora, 116(967): 323–347.
Geochemistry and mineralogy of rocks play important roles in the occurrence of individual lichen species and assembly of lichen communities. Whereas lichens of metal-enriched settings have been a focus of study for many decades, only a few such lichen inventories exist for North America. We reexamined the lichen biota of Pine Hill, a serpentine outcrop on Little Deer Isle, Maine and Callahan Mine, a copper- and zinc-enriched Superfund site in Brooksville, Maine by conducting additional field surveys and reexamining unidentified taxa from previous collections. To better characterize the substrates upon which the lichens were found, we conducted elemental analyses via x-ray fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry on rock samples collected at Pine Hill and recorded pH, electrical conductivity, and elemental concentrations via inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry on soil samples from Callahan Mine. The re-investigation of lichens of the two metal-enriched sites resulted in the addition of 20 taxa to Pine Hill and 10 taxa to Callahan Mine. These include Dermatocarpon leptophyllodes, Placynthiella hyporhoda, Pyrenocarpon thelostomum, and Vezdaea acicularis, all recorded for the first time from New England. In addition, we report the first documented records since the late 19th to early 20th century for New England of Porocyphus coccodes, Sarcosagium campestre, and Steinia geophana, and the first such record for Maine for Coccocarpia palmicola. Stereocaulon condensatum and S. subcoralloides, both considered as rare in New England, were also collected from Callahan Mine. Key Words: edaphic ecology, lichen ecology, Maine lichens, metal quarries, metal-tolerance, serpentine, superfund sites.
28015Rivals F. & Semprebon G.M. (2017): Latitude matters: an examination of behavioural plasticity in dietary traits amongst extant and Pleistocene Rangifer tarandus. - Boreas, 46: 254–263.
The geographical distribution of species affects their dietary traits relative to resources available in different lati- tudes. Dietary traits of Rangifer tarandus, a species with a wide geographical distribution, were investigated using tooth mesowear and microwear methods in eight extant populations from Canada. The data show a latitudinal shift corresponding to a vegetational gradient from the taiga to the tundra, i.e. an increase of lichen consumption from the low to the high latitudes. This pattern is also evidenced in the Pleistocene fossil record of Europe where R. tarandus populations from low latitude localities show a lower consumption of lichen than at higher latitudes.
28014Williams L., Colesie C., Ullmann A., Westberg M., Wedin M. & Büdel B. (2017): Lichen acclimation to changing environments: Photobiont switching vs. climate- specific uniqueness in Psora decipiens. - Ecology and Evolution, 2017(7): 2560–2574.
Unraveling the complex relationship between lichen fungal and algal partners has been crucial in understanding lichen dispersal capacity, evolutionary processes, and responses in the face of environmental change. However, lichen symbiosis remains enigmatic, including the ability of a single fungal partner to associate with various algal partners. Psora decipiens is a characteristic lichen of biological soil crusts (BSCs), across semi-arid, temperate, and alpine biomes, which are particularly susceptible to habitat loss and climate change. The high levels of morphological variation found across the range of Psora decipiens may contribute to its ability to withstand environmental change. To investigate Psora decipiens acclimation potential, individuals were transplanted between four climatically distinct sites across a European latitudinal gradient for 2 years. The effect of treatment was investigated through a morphological examination using light and SEM microscopy; 26S rDNA and rbcL gene analysis assessed site-specific relationships and lichen acclimation through photobiont switching. Initial analysis revealed that many samples had lost their algal layers. Although new growth was often determined, the algae were frequently found to have died without evidence of a new photobiont being incorporated into the thallus. Mycobiont analysis investigated diversity and determined that new growth was a part of the transplant, thus, revealing that four distinct fungal clades, closely linked to site, exist. Additionally, P. decipiens was found to associate with the green algal genus Myrmecia, with only two genetically distinct clades between the four sites. Our investigation has suggested that P. decipiens cannot acclimate to the substantial climatic variability across its environmental range. Additionally, the different geographical areas are home to genetically distinct and unique populations. The variation found within the genotypic and morpho-physiological traits of P. decipiens appears to have a climatic determinant, but this is not always reflected by the algal partner. Although photobiont switching occurs on an evolutionary scale, there is little evidence to suggest an active environmentally induced response. These results suggest that this species, and therefore, other lichen species, and BSC ecosystems themselves may be significantly vulnerable to climate change and habitat loss. Keywords: biological soil crusts, environmental change, Europe, genetic diversity, green algae, latitudinal gradient, morphological variability, Myrmecia, plant–climate interactions, plasticity.
28013Vondrák J., Ismailov A. & Urbanavichus G. (2017): Lichens of the family Teloschistaceae in Dagestan, an eastern part of the Caucasian biodiversity hot-spot. - Nova Hedwigia, 104(4): 483–498.
Teloschistaceae, one of the largest families of lichenized fungi, has its known Eurasian diversity hot-spots in the Mediterranean basin and in arid continental territories. The Caucasus is a natural boundary between these territories and the diversity of Teloschistaceae is therefore expected to be high in this region. We studied the easternmost part of the Caucasus, Dagestan, a region neglected by lichenologists in the past, but with recent lichenological activity. We provide here a checklist of 85 species of Teloschistaceae, 39 of them new to Dagestan from our field work in 2015, and four species new to Russia (Athallia nesodes, "Caloplaca" emilii, "Caloplaca" xerica and Gyalolechia epiphyta). This total is higher than the numbers known from some well-surveyed Central European countries, but lower than numbers reported from Mediterranean countries. It suggests a rather high diversity of Teloschistaceae in Dagestan, although the absence of well-developed maritime and Mediterranean habitats (which are usually rich in species of Teloschistaceae) precludes an even higher diversity. Key words: Caloplaca, diversity potential, Russia, Variospora, Xanthocarpia.
28012Jia Z.-F. & Lücking R. (2017): Resolving the genus Phaeographina Müll. Arg. in China. - MycoKeys, 21: 13–32.
As part of ongoing studies of the lichen family Graphidaceae in China, the status of all taxa traditionally assigned to the genus Phaeographina reported from China is resolved in the present paper. Five new combinations are proposed: Phaeographis pleiospora (Zahlbr.) Z.F. Jia & Lücking, comb. nov., Platygramme elaeoplaca (Zahlbr.) Z.F. Jia & Lücking, comb. nov., Platythecium maximum (Groenh.) Z.F. Jia & Lücking, comb. nov., P. pyrrhochroa (Mont. & Bosch) Z.F. Jia & Lücking, comb. nov., and Sarcographina heterospora (Nyl.) Z.F. Jia & Lücking, comb. nov. Six new synonyms are established: Phaeographina callospora Zahlbr. [= Diorygma hieroglyphicum (Pers.) Staiger & Kalb], P. fukiensis Zahlbr. [= Pallidogramme chrysenteron (Mont.) Staiger, Kalb & Lücking], P. fukiensis var. substriata Zahlbr. [= Pallidogramme chrysenteron (Mont.) Staiger, Kalb & Lücking], P. granulans Zahlbr. [= Platygramme platyloma (Müll. Arg.) M. Nakan. & Kashiw.], P. pluvisilvarum Zahlbr. [= Graphis alpestris (Zahlbr.) Staiger], and P. valida Zahlbr. [= Thecographa prosiliens (Mont. & Bosch) A. Massal.]. Two additional synonyms are reported: Phaeographina subrigida (Nyl.) Zahlbr. is synonymized under Platygramme platyloma (Müll. Arg.) M. Nakan. & Kashiw., and Platythecium dimorphodes (Nyl.) Staiger under Platythecium pyrrhochroum (Mont. & Bosch) Z.F. Jia & Lücking. Key words: Lichen, taxonomy, Graphidaceae, Ostropales.
28011Timdal E., Bendiksby M., Kahraman A.M., Halıcı M.G. (2017): Psora taurensis (Psoraceae, Lecanorales), a new lichen species from Turkey. - MycoKeys, 21: 1–12.
Herein we describe the new species, Psora taurensis, from two localities in the Taurus Mountains in Turkey at ca. 1000 m altitude. Investigations of anatomy, secondary chemistry and DNA sequences (ITS and mtSSU) of P. taurensis and presumed close relatives suggest that P. taurensis is a distinct evolutionary lineage with P. tenuifolia as its sister, although it is morphologically more similar to P. russellii and P. vallesiaca. Key words: Anatomy, DNA, phylogeny, Lecanorales, lichenized ascomycetes, taxonomy, TLC, Turkey.
28010Jiang S.-H., Wei X.-L. & Wei J.-C. (2017): Two new species of Strigula (lichenised Dothideomycetes, Ascomycota) from China, with a key to the Chinese foliicolous species. - MycoKeys, 19: 31–42.
Strigula has traditionally been circumscribed based on morphology, but species delimitation in the genus generally lacks comprehensive analyses. A molecular approach has now been applied to foliicolous material of the genus from tropical areas in China. On the basis of combined phenotyic and genotypic data, two new species are described from southern China: S. acuticonidiarum and S. guangxiensis. Key words: Foliicolous lichens, lichens, molecular phylogeny, Strigulales.
28009Naksuwankul K., Kraichak E., Parnmen S., Lücking R. & Lumbsch H.T. (2016): Five new species of Graphidaceae (Ascomycota, Ostropales) from Thailand. - MycoKeys, 17: 47–63.
Five new species of Graphidaceae are described from Thailand. Molecular evidence and phenotypical characters support their independent status from related and similar species. Glaucotrema thailandicum Naksuwankul, Lücking & Lumbsch is unique within the genus in having submuriform ascospores. Ocellularia klinhomii Naksuwankul, Lücking & Lumbsch is characterized by having a whitish gray, rimose thallus with ascomata in verrucae and surrounded by a black ring and lack of secondary metabolites. Ocellularia phatamensis Naksuwankul, Parnmen & Lumbsch has a grayish, thick and rimose thallus, differing from O. klinhomii in lacking a dark apothecial rim and having ascomata that are not immersed in verrucae. Ocellularia thailandica Naksuwankul, Kraichak & Lumbsch differs from O. albocincta in lacking a columella. Ocellularia rotundifumosa Naksuwankul, Lücking & Lumbsch differs from O. fumosa in having ascospores with rounded ends. An epitype for O. krathingensis is selected. Key words: East Asia, lichens, taxonomy, thelotremoid lichens, tropical diversity.
28008Lindgren H., Leavitt S.D. & Lumbsch H.T. (2016): Characterization of microsatellite markers in the cosmopolitan lichen-forming fungus Rhizoplaca melanophthalma (Lecanoraceae). - MycoKeys, 14: 31–36.
Rhizoplaca melanophthalma s.l. is a group of morphologically distinct and chemically diverse species that commonly occur in desert, steppe and montane habitats worldwide. In this study, we developed microsatellite markers to facilitate studies of genetic diversity, population structure, and gene flow in the nominal taxon of this group, Rhizoplaca melanophthalma. We characterized 10 microsatellite markers using a draft genome of R. melanophthalma s. str. assembled from Illumina reads. These loci were tested for 21 R. melanophthalma s. str. specimens and also with a subset of 18 specimens representing six additional species in the R. melanophthalma complex. The number of alleles per locus in R. melanophthalma s. str. ranged from 3 to 11 with an average of 6.7. Nei’s unbiased gene diversity ranged from 0.35 to 0.91. Amplifications of the microsatellite loci were largely successful in the other six species, although only three markers were found to be polymorphic. The new markers will provide an additional resource for studying genetic, population- and landscape-level processes in the cosmopolitan taxon Rhizoplaca melanophthalma s. str.
28007Hansen E.S. (2015): Contribution to the lichen flora of South East Greenland. III. The coastal area between 63° and 65° N. - Botanica Lithuanica, 21(2): 119–124.
The paper lists 95 lichen taxa from the coastal area between 63° and 65° N in South East Greenland. Of these, 46 lichens were recorded for the first time from the area. Lecanora symmicta and Ochrolechia tartarea are new to East Greenland. Acarospora badiofusca, Aspicilia annulata and Parmeliella triptophylla are new to South East Greenland. Keywords: Arctic region, diversity, lichens, species.
28006Hansen E.S. (2016): Contribution to the lichen flora of South East Greenland. IV. The Ammassalik area. - Botanica Lithuanica, 22(1): 72–77.
The paper lists 102 lichen taxa from the Ammassalik area, South East Greenland. Rinodina egedeana and Verrucaria erichsenii are new to East Greenland. Seven lichen taxa are new to South East Greenland, viz. Acarospora peliscypha, Caloplaca magni-filii, Lecanora atromarginata, Lecidella euphorea, Miriquidica nigroleprosa, Peltigera britannica and Rhizocarpon atroflavescens. Keywords: Arctic region, diversity, lichens.
28005Bely P. (2016): New data on distribution and ecology of lichen Parmotrema stuppeum (Parmeliaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) in Belarus. - Botanica Lithuanica, 22(1): 93–95.
The paper presents information about new localities of Parmotrema stuppeum, rare foliose lichen in Belarus. Both earlier known and new localities of the species are discussed. New data on the ecology of P. stuppeum in Belarus are provided. Keywords: Brest region, Gomel region, new localities, old-growth forest, parmelioid lichens, Parmotrema, Republic of Belarus.
28004Joshi S., Upreti D.K., Egbe A.E. & Hur J.-S. (2016): New records of Graphis from Cameroon, with a key to African species of Graphis. - Mycotaxon, 131(4): 925–937.
New records of Graphis species are reported from Cameroon, West Africa: G. ajarekarii, G. alboglaucescens, G. brahmanensis, G. daintreensis, G. exalbata, G. gloriosensis, G. gonimica, G. handelii, G. immersella, G. novopalmicola, G. pseudoaquilonia, and G. supracola. The material was collected in the tropical rain forests of Mount Cameroon. The diagnostic characters of the species are briefly discussed and illustrated. An artificial key is provided to facilitate identification of Graphis species known from the African Palaeotropics. Key words—corticolous, crustose lichens, taxonomy, Graphidaceae, Ostropales.
28003Jiang S.-H., Wei X.-L. & Wei J.-C. (2016): Strigula sinoaustralis sp. nov. and three Strigula spp. new to China. - Mycotaxon, 131(4): 795–803.
A new foliicolous lichen is described from South China. Strigula sinoaustralis is most similar to S. concreta in ascospore dimensions but differs by its white-punctate thallus with entire margins and its longer asci. An analysis of its relationships based on molecular phylogeny is given. Strigula antillarum, S. laureriformis, and S. prasina are reported as new to China. Key words—new species, taxonomy, phylogenetic analysis, lichenized Ascomycota.
28002Kidron G.J. & Temina M. (2017): Non-rainfall water input determines lichen and cyanobacteria zonation on limestone bedrock in the Negev Highlands. - Flora, 229: 71–79.
Lichen zonation on bedrock in accordance with the rock contours is a common phenomenon. This is also the case in the Negev Desert Highlands, where zonation along a continuum of lichens-cyanobacteria or different groups of lichens (epiliths-endoliths) within a distance of as short as <1 m can be observed. In an attempt to evaluate the factors responsible for the zonation, two plots with zonal distribution were demarcated in a north-facing slope and two at a south-facing slope, and their chlorophyll content and species composition were defined. In addition, rock properties, surface temperatures, dust input, rain amount, and the amount of non- rainfall water input, NRWI (dew, fog and high water vapor content) were measured. Whereas rock properties and aeolian input failed to explain the observed zonation, a clear temperature-induced NRWI gradient was found. The findings suggest that differential amounts of NRWI are responsible for the zonation observed, and subsequently for the clear gradient in chlorophyll content. The findings also suggest that lithobiont zonation may serve as a biomarker for subtle gradients in surface temperatures and subsequently in NRWI. Keywords Dew; Fog; Lithobionts; Temperature; water vapor; Zonation.
28001Asahina Y. (1926): The Raiken\'s Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. IV. - J. Jap. Bot., 3(5): 100-102.
28000Asahina Y. (1926): The Raiken\'s Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. III. - J. Jap. Bot., 3(4): 77-78.
27999Asahina Y. (1926): The Raiken's Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. II. - J. Jap. Bot., 3(3): 50-54.
27998Asahina Y. (1926): The Raiken\'s Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. I. - J. Jap. Bot., 3(2): 27-28.
27997Asahina Y. (1926): The Raiken\'s Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. XI. - J. Jap. Bot., 3(12): 283-286.
27996Asahina Y. (1926): The Raiken\'s Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. X. - J. Jap. Bot., 3(11): 255-257.
27995Asahina Y. (1926): The Raiken's Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. IX. - J. Jap. Bot., 3(10): 229-232.
27994Asahina Y. (1938): Mikrochemischer Nachweis der Flechtenstoffe. VIII. Mitteilung. - J. Jap. Bot., 14: 650-659.
27993Asahina Y. (1938): Mikrochemischer Nachweis der Flechtenstoffe. V. Mitteilung. - J. Jap. Bot., 14: 39-44.
27992Asahina Y. (1938): Mikrochemischer Nachweis der Flechtenstoffe. VII. Mitteilung. - J. Jap. Bot., 14: 318-323.
27991Asahina Y. (1938): Mikrochemischer Nachweis der Flechtenstoffe. VI. Mitteilung. - J. Jap. Bot., 14: 244-250.
27990Asahina Y. (1937): Mikrochemischer Nachweis der Flechtenstoffe. IV. Mitteilung. - J. Jap. Bot., 13: 855-861.
27989Asahina Y. (1937): Mikrochemischer Nachweis der Flechtenstoffe III. - J. Jap. Bot., 13: 529-536.
27988Asahina Y. (1936): Microchemischer Nachweis der Flechtenstoffe. I. - J. Jap. Bot., 12: 516-525.
27987Sato M. (1934): History of Lichenology in Japan. I. - J. Jap. Bot., 10(2): 107-112.
27986Sato M. (1934): History of Lichenology in Japan. II . - J. Jap. Bot., 10(3): 192-195.
27985Anonymous (1937): The literature on the lichens of China. - J. Jap. Bot., 13: 215-217.
27984Asahina Y. (1926): The Raiken's Soliloquy on Botanical Science or Notes on Lichens. V. - J. Jap. Bot., 3(6): 124-125.
27983Dal Grande F., Sharma R., Meiser A., Rolshausen G., Büdel B., Mishra B., Thines M., Otte J., Pfenninger M. & Schmitt I. (2017): Adaptive differentiation coincides with local bioclimatic conditions along an elevational cline in populations of a lichen-forming fungus. - BMC Evolutionary Biology, 17:93 [14 p.].
Background: Many fungal species occur across a variety of habitats. Particularly lichens, fungi forming symbioses with photosynthetic partners, have evolved remarkable tolerances for environmental extremes. Despite their ecological importance and ubiquity, little is known about the genetic basis of adaption in lichen populations. Here we studied patterns of genome-wide differentiation in the lichen-forming fungus Lasallia pustulata along an altitudinal gradient in the Mediterranean region. We resequenced six populations as pools and identified highly differentiated genomic regions. We then detected gene-environment correlations while controlling for shared population history and pooled sequencing bias, and performed ecophysiological experiments to assess fitness differences of individuals from different environments. Results: We detected two strongly differentiated genetic clusters linked to Mediterranean and temperate-oceanic climate, and an admixture zone, which coincided with the transition between the two bioclimates. High altitude individuals showed ecophysiological adaptations to wetter and more shaded conditions. Highly differentiated genome regions contained a number of genes associated with stress response, local environmental adaptation, and sexual reproduction. Conclusions: Taken together our results provide evidence for a complex interplay between demographic history and spatially varying selection acting on a number of key biological processes, suggesting a scenario of ecological speciation. Keywords: Adaptation Altitudinal Climate change Fungi Pool-Seq Population genomics Symbiosis SNP Gradient.
27982Goga M., Antreich S.J., Bačkor M., Weckwerth W. & Lang I. (2017): Lichen secondary metabolites affect growth of Physcomitrella patens by allelopathy. - Protoplasma, 254: 1307–1315.
Lichen secondary metabolites can function as allelochemicals and affect the development and growth of neighboring bryophytes, fungi, vascular plants, microorganisms, and even other lichens. Lichen overgrowth on bryophytes is frequently observed in nature even though mosses grow faster than lichens, but there is still little information on the interactions between lichens and bryophytes. In the present study, we used extracts from six lichen thalli containing secondary metabolites like usnic acid, protocetraric acid, atranorin, lecanoric acid, nortistic acid, and thamnolic acid. To observe the influence of these metabolites on bryophytes, the moss Physcomitrella patens was cultivated for 5 weeks under laboratory conditions and treated with lichen extracts. Toxicity of natural mixtures of secondary metabolites was tested at three selected doses (0.001, 0.01, and 0.1 %). When the mixture contained substantial amounts of usnic acid, we observed growth inhibition of protonemata and reduced development of gametophores. Significant differences in cell lengths and widths were also noticed. Furthermore, usnic acid had a strong effect on cell division in protonemata suggesting a strong impact on the early stages of bryophyte development by allelochemicals contained in the lichen secondary metabolites. Biological activities of lichen secondary metabolites were confirmed in several studies such as antiviral, antibacterial, antitumor, antiherbivore, antioxidant, antipyretic, and analgetic action or photoprotection. This work aimed to expand the knowledge on allelopathic effects on bryophyte growth. Keywords: Allelopathy Usnic acid Bryophytes Inhibiton of growth.
27981Moon K.H. & Kashiwadani H. (2009): Lobothallia alphoplaca (Wahlenb.) Hafellner (Megasporaceae) found in Korea. - Journal of Japanese Botany, 84(5): 303-305.
Lobathallia alphoplaca (Wahlenb.) Hafellner was first reported from Korea, where it grew on lava distributed in rather restricted coastal area at NE side of Cheju (Jeju) Island. It has been reported from China and Japan in Asia
27980Urbanavichus G.P., Lavrinenko O.V. & Urbanavichene I.N. (2009): The lichens of Dolgii and adjacent islands in the Barents Sea. - Botanicheskii Zhurnal (St. Petersburg), 94(5): 656-675.
252 liehen species are reported from Dolgiy Island and adjacent small islands in southeastern part of the Barens Sea (Nenets Autonomous Area, Nenetskiy Nature Reserve, Kanin-Pechora area of the West Eurasian sector of the Russian Arctic). Wide-ranging circumpolar (93 %) and arctic-alpine (50.4 %) species dominate in the lichen flora; its arctic element being insignificantly represented (3.6 %). Twelve species Bacidina egenula, Bilimbia accedens, Caloplaca alociza, Caloplaca cf. chry-sodeta, Lecanora perpruinosa, Lecidella scabra, Miriquidica instrata, Rinodina immersa, R. muscicola, Thelidium incavatum, T. minimum, and Xylographa opegraphella are new to the Arctic. Frigidopyrenia bryospila, Rinodina muscicola, Thelenella sordidula are reported as new to Russia. 138 species, 39 genera and 12 families are new to the lichen flora of the Kanin-Pechora area of the West Eurasian sector of the Russian Arctic
27979Hawksworth D.L., Rico V.J., Barrasa J.M. & Kocourková J. (2009): On the identity of Velenovský's Cantharellus peltigerae. - Mycotaxon, 109: 315-318.
The application of the name Cantharellus peltigerae, which was introduced by Velenovský in 1920 (not 1922 as commonly cited), has been uncertain. A spirit bottle containing original material has now been located in PRC, and found to contain two species of Arrhenia, A. peltigerina and A. cfr. griseopallida. e first grows on old thalli of Peltigera species, and the second on soil. e element on Peltigera is designated as lectotype here to fix Velenovský\ ́s name as a later taxonomic synonym of A. peltigerina. Original material of Mycena praecox, also described by Velenovský in 1920, was said to be present in the same spirit bottle, but no Mycena was to be found inside. agaric, Basidiomycota, lectotypification, lichenicolous fungi
27978Hawksworth D.L. (2009): Book reviews and notices. - Mycotaxon, 110: 509-562.
27977Galloway D.J. (2009): Darwin's lichens. - The Linnean, Newsletter and Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London , 25(3): 36-51.
In 1992-1993, I helped the late Prof. David L. Yudilevich (1930-2006) (see Mann 2006) coordinate an international symposium, “Darwin and the Beagle in Chile: Evolution Today”, at the University of Chile in Santiago, Chile (29 September-1 October 1993) as part of the ICSU General Assembly meetings held at that time in Santiago. The symposium was wide-ranging, covering the major themes of Geology, Palaeontology, Evolution & Genetics, Botany, Zoology, Ecology, Medicine & Psychology, Anthropology, History, Philosophy and Religion. To this symposium I contributed an account of Darwin’s lichens (Galloway 1993a). Although David Yudilevich later produced a fine book on Darwin in Chile (Yudilevich & Castro Le- Fort (1995), based very much on the Symposium and its associated Darwin Exhibition (to which the Linnean Society contributed a life-size copy of the Collier portrait of Darwin from the Society’s Meeting Room) which was assembled in the Patio Ignacio Domeyko of the University of Chile, none of the papers contributed to the Symposium were published, hence this account of Darwin’s lichens in a revised form in this his bicentennial year
27976Canêz L. de Silva (2009): Estudos taxonômicos em Punctelia (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycetes liquenizados). - Instituto de Botânica da Secretaria de Estado do Meio Ambiente, São Paulo, 274 p.
Punctelia was proposed by Krog (1982) for some Parmelia Ach. species that have punctiform pseudocyphellae on the upper surface, and filiform or unciform conidia associated with atranorine on the upper cortex. So, Krog transferred 18 species to this new genus. Nowadays, according to literature data, Punctelia has 49 species. Twenty-four of them are reported to Brazil, representing almost 50% of the total species of the World. Nevertheless, no study has included all species and they have only been treated in Floras and there is no specific to Brazil. Due this gap in Punctelia studies and the high number of species cited to Brazil, this work had as objective to make a taxonomic and floristic study of Punctelia species with emphasis to Southern and Southeastern areas of the country. All types of the valid species (as well as their synonyms’) were requested from 39 herbaria. Almost of them were studied, totalizing 94% of the valid species. Types were described and compared with protologues and literature. Spot tests were made within the other studied specimens with potassium hydroxide (K), sodium hypochlorite (C) and p-phenylenediamine (P), and all of them were submitted in UV light for fluorescent test. Excepting on the types, Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) with solvent C and Microcrystallization tests were made to determinate the substances. As a result the number of species increased to 74. Twenty species are new to Science: Punctelia analandiana Canêz & Marcelli, P. atrodigitata Marcelli & Canêz, P.brasiliana Canêz & Marcelli, P. dispersa Marcelli & Canêz, P. delicatula Canêz & Marcelli, P. elixii Marcelli & Canêz, P. erosa Canêz & Marcelli, P. ibiunensis Canêz & Marcelli, P. inversa Marcelli & Canêz, P. involuta Canêz & Marcelli, P. isidiata Canêz & Marcelli, P. krogiae Marcelli & Canêz, P. lobulata Canêz & Marcelli, P. marcellii Canêz, P. mirabilis Canêz & Marcelli, P. nashii Marcelli & Canêz, P. obtecta Canêz & Marcelli, P. palui Canêz & Marcelli, P. puigarii Canêz & Marcelli and P. spathulata Canêz & Marcelli. Twelve new combinations are made: P. albida (Zahlbr.) Canêz & Marcelli, P. australica (Räs.) Canêz & Marcelli, P. azulensis (B. de Lesd.) Canêz & Marcelli, P. cylindrica (Räs.) Marcelli & Canêz, P. insignata (Stizenb.) Canêz & Marcelli, P. laeviuscula (Räs.) Canêz & Marcelli, P. maculato-sorediosa (Gyeln.) Canêz & Marcelli, P. polycarpina (Zahlbr.) Canêz & Marcelli, P. ruderata (Vainio) Canêz & Marcelli, P. scrobiculata (B. de Lesd.) Canêz & Marcelli, P. subaequans (Nyl.) Canêz & Marcelli and P. subsorediosa (Räs.) Canêz & Marcelli. We elected lectotypes for Parmelia borreri var. allophyla Kremp., P. lorentzii var. lobulata Kremp., Punctelia borrerina (Nyl.) Krog, P. lorentzii (Kremp.) Krog, P. microsticta (Müll. Arg.) Krog and P. stictica (Del. ex Duby) Krog. In addition, we list P. ruderata new to the American Continent, P. jujensis Adler and P. missouriensis Wilhelm & Ladd new to Brazil and P. roseola Jungbluth, Marcelli & Elix new to the State of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)
27975Britton A.J., Hester A.J., Hewison R.L., Potts J.M. & Ross L.C. (2017): Climate, pollution and grazing drive long-termchange inmoorland habitats. - Applied Vegetation Science, 20: 194–203.
Question: Dwarf shrub moorland dominated by ericaceous plants is a distinctive, internationally important feature of northwest Europe, with its stronghold in Scotland. There have been major declines in its condition and extent. How has moorland composition changed within Scotland over the past ca. 35 yr and what is the role of climate change, pollution and grazing in driving these changes? Location: Five hundred and forty locations across Scotland, UK. Methods: We used a long-term resurvey approach to assess change across Scottishmoorlands. We relocated plots sampled ca. 35 yr previously in alpine heath, dry heath, wet heath and bog, and recorded vegetation species composition. We assessed change in species group richness and cover and mean Ellenberg values between surveys, using paired t-tests. We used CCA with variation partitioning and regression analysis to analyse the vegetation data with spatial data sets on climate, pollution and grazing, to assess the role of each driver in driving vegetation changes. Results: Significant diversity and compositional changes between surveys were found for all habitat types, particularly alpine heath. Significant associations were found with climate (many variables), pollution (N and S) and herbivore number (primarily deer). Species richness generally increased, but several specialist species declined in cover, especially those associated with higher altitude habitats (e.g. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, Salix herbacea and alpine lichens). Many of the most successful species are ubiquitous, e.g. the widespread grazing- and pollution- tolerant graminoids Anthoxanthum odoratum, Juncus squarrosus, Festuca rubra and Nardus stricta and the generalist mosses Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus and Hylocomium splendens. Conclusions: Diversity and composition of moorlands in Scotland have changed significantly over the ca. 35-yr period studied; the drivers of these changes are complex, with climate, pollution and grazing playing variable roles across habitats. The reduction in specialist species, homogenization of alpine heaths and declines in forb and lichen cover all represent negative changes in the biodiversity value of Scottish moorlands.
27974Yavuz M. & Çobanoğlu G. (2010): Ethnological uses and etymology of the word Usnea in Ebubekir Razi's \"Liber Almansoris\". - British Lichen Society Bulletin, 106: 3-12.
27973Nakanishi M., Kashiwadani H., Futagami Y. & Moon K.H. (2010): Nine species of Graphidaceae (Ostropales, Ascomycota) collected in Siem Reap, Cambodia. - Journal of Japanese Botany, 85(5): 313-321.
Nine species of seven genera in the family Graphidaceae are recognized as Cambodian member of the lichens and their distribution ranges are presented. Among them, one species, Graphis cambodiensis M. Nakan., Kashiw. & K. H. Moon, is new to science. It is distinct from allied species of the genus in having prominent lirellae covered by thallus nearly up to the exciples, muriform spores 75–105 × 20–30 μm in size and in producing norstictic acid. Graphis commaculans Vain. is reduced to a synonym of Sarcographa gyrizans (Leight.) Müll. Arg. The following seven species, Carbacanthographis induta (Müll. Arg.) Lücking, Fissurina dumastii Fée, Graphis glaucescens Fée, G. supracola A. W. Archer, Gymnographa heterospora (Nyl.) Staiger, Hemithecium aphanes (Mont. & v. d. Bosch) M. Nakan. & Kashiw. and Sarcographa gyrizans (Leight.) Müll. Arg. are new to the lichen ora of Cambodia
27972Haji Moniri M., Kamyabi S. & Clayden S.R. (2010): A preliminary study of Rhizocarpon macrosporum in Razavi Khorasan Province (NE Iran). - Iranian Journal of Botany, 16(1): 185-189.
The present paper is a part of a more extensive investigation of Rhizocarpon based on collections made since 2007 in Razavi Khorasan province in northeastern Iran. Here, we provide details of the morphology, anatomy and lichen substances R. macrosporum. A distribution map is also presented
27971Biazrov L.G. (2010): Handbook of the Lichens of Russia. - Botanicheskii Zhurnal, 94(12): 1879-1882.
book review
27970Kaschik M. (2006): Taxonomic Studies on Saxicolous Species of the Genus Rinodina (Lichenized Ascomycetes, Physciaceae) in the Southern Hemisphere with Special Emphasis in Australia and New Zealand. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 93: 1–162.
Monographic treatment of 21 species; keys. Four species are placed in synonymy and one hitherto unrecorded species for Australia was discovered. Nine species are excluded. New: Rinodina gyrophorica sp. nov. (Australia-Queensland), R. herteliana sp. nov. (New Zealand-Otago), R. moziana var. parasitica Kaschik & H. Mayrhofer var. nov. (New Zealand-North Auckland), R. ramboldii sp. nov. (Australia-Northern Territory, Victoria, Queensland, Juan Fernandez Islands). The author also presents a brief phylogenetic analysis based on nuclear ITS rDNA sequences
27969Jansson U. (2010): Utkast til handlingsplan for huldrestry (Usnea longissima). - Biofokus rapport, 2010/36: 1-44.
27968Wang H., Umeokoli B.O., Eze P., Heering C., Janiak C., Müller W.E.G., Orfali R.S., Hartmann R., Dai H., Lin W., Liu Z. & Proksch P. (2017): Secondary metabolites of the lichen-associated fungus Apiospora montagnei. - Tetrahedron Letters, 58(17): 1702–1705.
The endolichenic fungus Apiospora montagnei isolated from the lichen Cladonia sp. was cultured on solid rice medium, yielding the new diterpenoid libertellenone L (1), the new pyridine alkaloid, 23-O-acetyl-N-hydroxyapiosporamide (2) and the new xanthone derivative 8-hydroxy-3-hydroxymethyl-9-oxo-9H-xanthene-1-carboxylic acid methyl ether (3) together with 19 known compounds (4–22). The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR spectra as well as by HRESIMS data. The absolute configuration of the new 6,7-seco-libertellenone derivative 1 was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Four additional known compounds 23–26 were isolated when NaCl or NH4Cl were added to solid rice medium. Compounds 7–9, 18 and 26 exhibited significant cytotoxicity against the L5178 murine lymphoma cell line with IC50 values of 2.6, 0.2, 2.1, 2.7 and 1.7 μM, respectively.
27967Price K., Lilles E.B. & Banner A. (2017): Long-term recovery of epiphytic communities in the Great Bear Rainforest of coastal British Columbia. - Forest Ecology and Management, 391: 296–308.
The recent Great Bear Rainforest agreement recognises the high biodiversity values of this large intact area of coastal temperate rainforest by calling for old forest targets to be met by 2264. Recruiting young stands has joined conserving existing old stands as a strategy for achieving targets, but the point at which second growth stands recover oldgrowth attributes remains uncertain. We examined the recovery of epiphytes towards oldgrowth conditions by comparing community composition, richness and abundance between young (55–100 year old), mature (101–250 years old) and oldgrowth stands (>250 year old). We felled 77 western redcedar, amabilis fir, western hemlock and Sitka spruce trees, identified all epiphytes, and examined effects of stand age, region, tree species, site nutrient status and presence of residual trees on the epiphyte community. We found 229 taxa, including 49 bryophytes, 98 macrolichens and 82 crustose lichens. Epiphyte community varied by region and among tree species, but not by site productivity or presence of residual trees. In the northern region, trees in oldgrowth supported twice as many epiphyte species, seven times as many unique species, and a significantly different community composition for all functional groups (bryophytes, crustose lichens, hair lichens, cyanolichens and other macrolichens) relative to trees in stands younger than 200 years. Overall similarity between second growth and oldgrowth was about 50%. Young and mature stands overlapped considerably in richness, abundance, and community composition, indicating little recovery between 55 and 200 years. Our study suggests that in the northern region of the Great Bear Rainforest, epiphyte communities need more than 200 years to recover to oldgrowth conditions.
27966Vanha-Majamaa I., Shorohova E., Kushnevskaya H. & Jalonen J. (2017): Resilience of understory vegetation after variable retention felling in boreal Norway spruce forests – A ten-year perspective. - Forest Ecology and Management, 393: 12–28.
We studied the ten-year response of understory vegetation and lichens in mature boreal Norway spruce forests to five felling treatments in southern Finland. The stand level treatments represent a range in intensity of overstory removal: clear felling (CF) with site preparation and planting, retention felling (RF) (7% of stand volume retained) with site preparation and planting, gap felling with site preparation (GFs) (50% retained) and without planting, gap felling (GF) (50% retained) without site preparation or planting, and selection felling (SF) (67% retained) without site preparation or planting. Disc trenching was used for site preparation. Vegetation was sampled before and 1, 2, 3 and 10 years after the treatments. Both species cover and number decreased significantly immediately after all treatments. The resistance of understory vegetation, defined as the amount of change in the community structure caused by the treatments, increased in the order CF < RF < GFs < SF < GF. The dynamics of vascular plants depended on the felling intensity. The dynamics of non-vascular species depended both on the felling intensity and site preparation. CF and RF caused almost similar effects on understory vegetation composition. Local extinctions of mosses and liverworts were caused especially by CF and RF. However, even with 67% retention, 18 bryophyte species were lost during the study period. Loss of bryophyte species was higher after SF than after GF treatments, suggesting that aggregated retention is better for maintaining bryophyte species in felling areas. The resilience of understory vegetation increased in the order CF < RF < GFs < GF < SF. The abundance of mosses, liverworts and dwarf shrubs had not recovered ten years after treatments. Herb species were the most resilient compared to other species groups. We conclude that in intensively managed forest landscapes, GF and SF can be recommended as alternatives to CF to better maintain understory diversity on the stand level. However, the aim with GF and SF treatments was to further harvest the stands. Subsequent removal of the residual stands may cause substantial changes in understory vegetation for the whole treatment area. To protect late-successional bryophytes in felling areas in mesic spruce forests, high levels of retention and minimizing soil disturbance would be required. P. 24: "Forest floor lichens were not initially abundant on our sites. However, we found that the lichen richness dropped after all treatments except SF. After ten years, the lichen species richness was highest in all treatments. Similar results have been obtained by Newmaster and Bell (2002), who found several lichens colonizing mineral soils and disturbed sites five years after harvesting treatments."
27965Ruiz-Fernández J., Oliva M. & García-Hernández C. (2017): Topographic and geomorphologic controls on the distribution of vegetation formations in Elephant Point (Livingston Island, Maritime Antarctica). - Science of the Total Environment, 587–588: 340–349.
• We identified four different vegetable formations in Elephant Point, Antarctica. • These formations are mainly distributed in bedrock plateaus and raised beaches. • Only 10.5% of the peninsular area is vegetated. • These formations have barely colonised the areas deglaciated since 1956. • Time passed since the deglaciation is a key factor to explain vegetable colonisation. This article focuses on the spatial distribution of vegetation formations in Elephant Point, an ice-free area of 1.16 km2 located in Livingston Island (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica). Fieldwork carried out in January 2014 consisted of floristic surveys and designation of a vegetation map. We have examined these data in a GIS environment together with topographical and geomorphological features existing in the peninsula in order to infer the factors controlling vegetation distribution. This has allowed quantifying the total area covered by the four different vegetation formations distributed across the peninsula, proliferating mainly on bedrock plateaus and Holocene raised beaches. Grass formation is essentially composed of Deschampsia antarctica, distributed almost exclusively on raised beaches, and covering 4.1% of the ice-free surface. The remaining three formations are fundamentally composed of cryptogam species. The first of which is fruticose lichen and moss formation, present on high bedrock plateaus and principally formed by lichens such as Usnea aurantiaco-atra. The next is the crustose lichen formation, spreading on bedrock plateaus near the coast populated by bird colonies. In this case, ornitocoprophilous lichens such as Caloplaca regalis, Xanthoria elegans and Haematomma erythromma are predominant. Together, both formations have colonised 5.1% of the peninsula. The last variety, moss carpet and moss cushion formation, occupies 1.4% of the deglaciated surface, spreading primarily in flooded areas, stabilised talus slopes, and bedrock plateaus as well. Therefore, the total surface colonised by vegetation is 12.2 ha, which comprises 10.5% of the peninsula. Due to the retreat of the Rotch Dome glacier, 20.1 ha remain ice-free since 1956 (17.3% of the deglaciated area). Ever since, even though the Antarctic Peninsula has registered one of the most significant temperature rises on Earth, vegetation has only colonised 0.04 ha of this new space, which merely represents 0.3% of the vegetated area in Elephant Point. Keywords: Elephant Point Antarctica Vegetation Tundra Geomorphology.
27964Vehkaoja M., Nummi P. & Rikkinen J. (2017): Beavers promote calicioid diversity in boreal forest landscapes. - Biodiversity and Conservation, 26(3): 579–591.
Beavers are ecosystem engineers that modify and maintain a range of special habitat types in boreal forests. They also produce large quantities of deadwood that provide substrate for many lignicolous organisms such as calicioid fungi (Ascomycota). We studied how calicioid diversity differed between boreal riparian forests with and without beaver activity. The results show that calicioid diversity were significantly higher at beaver sites compared to the other two forest site types studied. The large quantity and diverse forms of deadwood produced by beavers clearly promotes calicioid diversity in the boreal landscape. The specific lighting and humidity conditions within beaver wetlands could be the reason why they promote the success of certain calicioid species. Keywords: deadwood Flood Pin lichen Riparian forest Snag.