313018Ismailov A.B., Vondrák J. & Urbanavichus G.P. (2019): The Express-Method of Estimation of Epiphytic Lichens Diversity. - Lesovedenie, 4/2019: 494-303.
Diversity of epiphytic lichens was studied for the first time by express-method on a 1-ha sampling plot in montane pine forest Pinetum kochianae herboso–caricosum on Gunib plateau in Dagestan mountains. We found 179 species from 77 genera and 36 families. Among them 33 species, 7 genera (Dendriscocaulon, Gyalid- eopsis, Psoroglaena, Steinia, Tetramelas, Thelocarpon, Vezdaea) and 3 families (Gomphillaceae, Thelocarpaceae, Vezdaeaceae) were found for the first time in Dagestan and 3 species (Lecidella subviridis, Micarea hedlundii, Scoliciosporum sarothamnii) were found for the first time in Caucasus. By means of this method we found twice as much epixylic and epiphytic lichens and non-lichenized fungi than previously were known for the whole area of 40 ha of the studied forest. Noted high proportion of microlichens (63%) evidences high quality of knowledge. Ratio of number of species of micro- to macrolichens increased from 0.72 to 1.22. The genus coefficient indicators increased from 1.9 to 2.5. Number of the epiphytes and epixyles of pine increased by 38 species (by 46%) and by 8 generas (by 18%). Specific groups of lichens were found on decomposing dead- wood and tree trunks. They indicate undisturbed communities and high conservation value of the pine forest. pine forests, lichen flora, epiphytes, sampling plots, new findings, Gunib plateau, Eastern Caucasus, Dagestan
313017Давыдов Е.А., Урбанавичюс Г.П., Урбанавичене И.Н. & Селиванов А.Е. [Davydov E.A., Urbanavichus G.P., Urbanavichene I.N. & Selivanov A.E.] (2019): Umbilicaria freyi – новый для России вид лишайника и другие виды рода Umbilicaria из Приэльбрусья (Центральный Кавказ, Кабардино-Балкария) [Umbilicaria freyi – a new lichen species for Russia and other noteworthy records of Umbilicaria from the Elbrus region (Central Caucasus, Kabardino-Balcaria)]. - Turczaninowia, 22(2): 94–109.
An annotated list of 15 species of Umbilicaria Hoffm. collected in Elbrus region (Central Caucasus, Kabardino-Balcaria) is presented. The description and a localities of a new to Russia and Bulgaria lichen species Umbilicaria freyi Codogno et al. are reported. The species is characterized by developing of shizidia as vegetative propagules. Umbilicaria aprina Nyl., U. freyi, U. lyngei Schol. and U. maculata Krzewicka et al. are reported for the Caucasus Mountains for the first time, U. altaiensis Wei et Jiang, U. cinerascens (Arnold) Frey and U. subglabra (Nyl.) Harm. are new for the Central Caucasus. Outside Caucasus U. altaiensis Wei et Jiang is new for Austria, U. freyi – new for Bulgaria, and U. maculata – new for Altai Mts. Keywords: Alps, Altai, Asia, Austria, biogeography, Bulgaria, Umbilicariaceae.
313016Kubásek J. & Vondrák J. (2019): Existují pololišejníky?. - Botanika, 1/2019: 15-17.
Rozlité plodnice na substrátu, kterým je vět- šinou dřevo, tvoří řada nepříbuzných skupin hub. Jde o evoluční redukci, kdy houby přestaly vytvářet velké plodnice a řadu znaků, protože se jim vyplatí plodit v podobě tenkých povlaků na povrchu dřeva. Pokud tyto plodnice vytvářejí rourky (podobné hřibovitým), mluvíme větši- nou o choroších; pokud ne, užívá se termín kornatcotvará houba. Tyto pojmy jsou však umělé a žádné přirozené skupiny (evolučně monofyletické) takto vymezit nelze.
31315Gauslaa Y., Johlander S. & Nordén B. (2019): Lobaria amplissima thalli with external cephalodia need more rain than thalli without. - Lichenologist, 51(3): 281–286.
Hydration traits determine much of a lichen’s distribution pattern along a climatic gradient but the mechanisms involved are still incompletely known. A higher abundance of large external cepha- lodia in wet oceanic than in drier climates has previously been reported in Lobaria amplissima. This study aims to quantify how much more rain L. amplissima thalli with external cephalodia would need to fill their internal water holding capacity (WHCinternal) than thalli without. The mean WHCinternal was 1·8 times higher in thalli with external cephalodia than in those without. The WHCinternal when con- verted to mm rain needed to saturate an average specimen was 1·37 mm (min–max: 0·55–3·8 mm) for a cephalodiate thallus, whereas an average thallus without external cephalodia needed just 0·76 mm (min–max: 0·36–1·3 mm). Known dewfall rates and rates of water uptake from humid air are far below what is needed to saturate even the cephalodiate thallus with the lowest WHCinternal, implying a stronger dependency on rain for thalli with external cephalodia. Thus, the observed trends in this study are consistent with earlier reports of decreasing frequency of external cephalodia from wet to drier climates. cephalolichens, cyanobacteria, hydration traits, specific thallus mass, water storage
31314Sanders W.B. & De LOS Ríos A. (2019): Cell wall dynamics under conditions of diffuse growth in the thick-walled cortical tissue (prosoplectenchyma) of Ramalina usnea. - Lichenologist, 51(3): 269–280.
A recent field study indicated that thalli of the beard lichen Ramalina usnea undergo diffuse (“intercalary”) growth throughout their length. We examined thallus sections with TEM to better understand how the highly thickened cell walls of the prosoplectenchymatous cortex behave under con- ditions of continued expansion. Cell protoplasts were surrounded by massive accumulations of struc- tured electron-dense wall layers interspersed with amorphous, electron-transparent substances, visible as concentric rings in transverse section. Nearest the protoplast, electron-dense wall layers were distinct and more or less alternated with irregular deposits of electron-transparent material. With increasing distance from the protoplast, the electron-dense wall layers were increasingly disrupted and intermixed among the electron-transparent materials. New cell branches grew through the accumu- lated wall materials, interrupting the layers they penetrated while producing their own concentric wall layers. The differing amounts of cell wall material accumulated was further indication of the different relative ages of such neighbouring cells. These observations suggest that cell walls are disrupted by dif- fuse tissue expansion and continually replaced by new walls and wall materials deposited to their interior at the interface with the protoplast. This pattern of development, documented previously in R. menziesii and U. longissima, suggests that component cells of lichen prosoplectenchyma behave quite differently from those of diffusely expanding filaments studied in non-lichen-forming fungi, where a single, discrete cell wall is maintained throughout growth. Fungal cell, hyphal growth, intercalary growth, lichens, Ramalina menziesii, Usnea longissima
31313Fryday A.M. (2019): Eleven new species of crustose lichenized fungi from the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas). - Lichenologist, 51(3): 235–267.
Eleven new species of crustose, lichenized fungi are described from the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas). Nine species are saxicolous, whereas Lecania vermispora occurs on the stems of Hebe elliptica and Tephromela lignicola is lignicolous on fence posts. The new species are: Bacidia marina, with a sordid blue-green K−, N+ violet epihymenium and acicular, multiseptate ascospores; B. pruinata, with pruin- ose apothecia and multiseptate ascospores; Buellia gypsyensis, with a thallus containing 5-O-methyl- hiascic acid and with Amandinea-type conidia; Cliostomum albidum, with pruinose apothecia lacking pigments; C. longisporum, with long narrow ascospores (c. 20 × 3 μm); Coccotrema rubromarginatum, with a placodioid thallus having a red-brown margin and lower surface; Hymenelia microcarpa, with minute, immersed apothecia (<0·1 mm diam.) and a trebouxioid photobiont; Lecania vermispora, with vermiform, 3–6 septate ascospores; Lepra argentea, with papillate isidia with dark caps; Rhizocarpon malvinae, which is similar to R. reductum but with a grey thallus, generally sessile apothecia with a thick raised margin and often with the Cinereorufa-green pigment in the epithecium and upper exciple; and Tephromela lignicola, a sterile, sorediate species on fence posts. Most of these species are reported only from the Falkland Islands although Coccotrema rubromarginatum is also reported from Isla de los Estados and Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. Ascoconidia are reported from Lepra argentea and cephalodia from Pertusaria pachythallina. Keys to the species reported from the Falkland Islands in the genera of the newly described species are also provided. ascoconidia, cephalodia, South America, southern subpolar region, taxonomy
31312Jatnika M.F., Weerakoon G., Arachchige O., Noer S., Voytsekhovich A. & Lücking R. (2019): Discoveries through social media and in your own backyard: two new species of Allographa (Graphidaceae) with pigmented lirellae from the Palaeotropics, with a world key to species of this group. - Lichenologist, 51(3): 227–233.
The genus Graphis sensu Staiger was recently divided into two genera, Graphis s. str. and Allo- grapha. The latter contains mostly species with robust lirellae with a well-developed, often massively car- bonized excipulum. With one exception, it also contains all species with a pigmented, yellow to orange pruina on the lirellae. Until now, seven species of Allographa were known with this character, all present in the Neotropics and one also in Africa. Here we describe two further species, both from tropical Asia, thus extending the known distribution of Allographa species with pigmented lirellae to the entire tropics. Allographa kamojangensis Jatnika, Noer & Lücking sp. nov. from Indonesia (Java) was recognized as a new taxon on the social media Facebook site Lichens Connecting People. Detailed studies showed that it deviates from the neotropical A. firferi in the much larger ascospores and the orange, K+ immediately purple-violet pigment, and from A. lutea in the completely carbonized excipulum and the larger ascos- pores. Allographa jayatilakana Weerakoon, Arachchige & Lücking sp. nov. was discovered in the second author\’s backyard during a recent inventory of Graphidaceae in Sri Lanka. It differs from A. flavominiata in the much shorter ascospores, from A. firferi in the terminally muriform ascospores, and from A. ochra- cea in the yellow-orange, K+ yellow then slowly purple-violet pruina. A key is presented to all nine spe- cies of Allographa with pigmented lirellae. Allographa chrysocarpa, anthraquinone pigments, Colombo, Kamojang, lichens, taxonomy
31311Jørgensen P.M. (2019): The troublesome genus Thamnolia (lichenized Ascomycota). - Lichenologist, 51(3): 221–226 .
A new neotypus is designated for Thamnolia vermicularis in accordance with the protologue. The taxonomy is best reflected by molecular evidence which recognizes three subspecies: the widespread subsp. vermicularis, and the geographically more restricted subsp. taurica (in the eastern Alps) and subsp. tundrae (in the Arctic region). The nomenclatural consequences resulting from these changes require that two new combinations are made. nomenclature, taxonomic ranking, typifications
31310Davydov E.A., Blum O.B., Kashevarov G.P. & Grakhov V.P. (2019): Umbilicaria subpolyphylla Oxner: the correct name for U. iberica Sancho & Krzewicka and its bipolar distribution pattern. - Lichenologist, 51(3): 205–220.
The Umbilicaria polyphylla aggregate (U. polyphylla (L.) Baumg., U. subpolyphylla Oxner and U. iberica Sancho & Krzewicka) is discussed based on morphological, chemical and molecular data. Umbilicaria iberica is proposed to be a later synonym of U. subpolyphylla. The constructed nrITS + mtLSU phylogeny, which includes specimens with wide geographical ranges, shows that both U. poly- phylla and U. subpolyphylla are monophyletic and closely related. Both species have the same type of thal- loconidia and identical secondary metabolites. Umbilicaria subpolyphylla has prominent phenotypic differences when compared to U. polyphylla including the monophyllous thallus with a dull upper sur- face and an elevated, slightly wrinkled centre, often covered with white pruina, and a medulla of the ‘U. havaasii’ type. Phylogenetic evidence for the bipolar distribution of both U. polyphylla and U. subpoly- phylla is provided. Sympatric speciation in one region followed by long-distance dispersal seems to be the most plausible phylogeographical explanation for the observed patterns. Umbilicaria subpolyphylla is found in southern temperate-subtropical (Mediterranean) mountains, at least in Europe. biogeography, Bosnia, HPLC, lichen substances, mtLSU, New Zealand, nrITS, Umbilicaria polyphylla
31309Fryday A.M. & Boom P.P.G. van den (2019): Lecidea phaeophysata: a new saxicolous lichen species from western and southern Europe with a key to saxicolous lecideoid lichens present on Atlantic coasts. - Lichenologist, 51(3): 269–280.
A recent field study indicated that thalli of the beard lichen Ramalina usnea undergo diffuse (“intercalary”) growth throughout their length. We examined thallus sections with TEM to better understand how the highly thickened cell walls of the prosoplectenchymatous cortex behave under con- ditions of continued expansion. Cell protoplasts were surrounded by massive accumulations of struc- tured electron-dense wall layers interspersed with amorphous, electron-transparent substances, visible as concentric rings in transverse section. Nearest the protoplast, electron-dense wall layers were distinct and more or less alternated with irregular deposits of electron-transparent material. With increasing distance from the protoplast, the electron-dense wall layers were increasingly disrupted and intermixed among the electron-transparent materials. New cell branches grew through the accumu- lated wall materials, interrupting the layers they penetrated while producing their own concentric wall layers. The differing amounts of cell wall material accumulated was further indication of the different relative ages of such neighbouring cells. These observations suggest that cell walls are disrupted by dif- fuse tissue expansion and continually replaced by new walls and wall materials deposited to their interior at the interface with the protoplast. This pattern of development, documented previously in R. menziesii and U. longissima, suggests that component cells of lichen prosoplectenchyma behave quite differently from those of diffusely expanding filaments studied in non-lichen-forming fungi, where a single, discrete cell wall is maintained throughout growth. Fungal cell, hyphal growth, intercalary growth, lichens, Ramalina menziesii, Usnea longissima
31308Vondrák J. & Kubásek J. (2019): Epiphytic and epixylic lichens in forests of the Šumava mountains in the Czech Republic; abundance and frequency assessments. - Biologia, 74(4): 405–418.
Extensive sampling of lichen diversity in forest habitats in the Šumava mountains consisted of 128 plots with 824 sampled objects (single trees, snags, logs, etc.). The survey enabled assessment of regional abundance and frequency of epiphytic and epixylic lichen species. 240 species were recorded with frequencies (i.e. number of plots in which each species was recorded) ranging from 1 to 123 and with total abundance scores (i.e. sum of abundances from all objects) ranging from 1 to 1304. Using the total abundance scores, each species was classified as either: rare (129 species), common (68) or abundant (43). We recognised six types of forest, one formed by human activity and five natural ones. Species richness in the natural forests were in decreasing order: beech forests (167 species), bog and waterlogged forests (147), montane spruce forests (124), ash-alder alluvial forests (92) and ravine forests (68). The relative order of the first four kinds is probably real, but the low number of species in ravine forests is a result of insufficient sampling. All species were characterized by their fidelity and specificity to each forest type. Each natural forest category has a group of species with high fidelity. Many species were recorded in only a single category of forest, which demonstrates that a rich regional lichen biota requires variability in forest types. Forest habitats formed by human impact, mostly plantations of coniferous trees, have fewer species, and distinctly fewer species with high fidelity, than any natural forest category. Throughout the region, mature spruce trees in montane spruce forests have been dying at a rapid rate for over 20 years. This has probably resulted in a decline in those lichens that require high humidity, and an increase of some epixylic lichens, especially nitrophilous species. We did not encounter all species previously recorded in forests in the region, but most of the species missing from our list are either rare or have specialised habitat requirements. In the Red List of the Czech Republic, we suggested changes in categories for 32 species. Key-words: Fidelity, Habitats, Lichen diversity monitoring, Montane spruce forests, Regional rarity.
31307Reddy S.D., Siva B., Kumar K., Babu V.S.P., Sravanthi V., Boustie J., Nayak V.L., Tiwari A.K., Rao C.V., Sridhar B., Shashikala P. & Babu K.S. (2019): Comprehensive analysis of secondary metabolites in Usnea longissima (lichenized Ascomycetes, Parmeliaceae) using UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS and pro-apoptotic activity of barbatic acid. - Molecules, 24(12): 2270 [19 p.].
Considering the importance of ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole time of flight-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS) hyphenated techniques for analysis of secondary metabolites from crude extracts, the present study was aimed at identification of secondary metabolites in acetone extract of the lichen Usnea longissima. From our study, 19 compounds were tentatively identified through comparison of exact molecular masses from their MS/MS spectra, mass fragmentation studies and comparison with literature data. In addition, potent cytotoxic activity of U. longissima extract prompted us to isolate four compounds, 18R-hydroxy-dihydroalloprotolichesterinic acid (19), neuropogolic acid (20), barbatic acid (21), and usnic acid (22) from this extract which were adequately identified through mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. All four compounds displayed cytotoxic activity. Barbatic acid (21) manifested doxorubicin equivalent activity against A549 lung cancer cell line with IC50 of 1.78 µM and strong G0/G1 accumulation of cells. Poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage confirmed that it induced cytotoxic activity via apoptosis. Finally, our work has discerned the depside, barbatic acid (21) from crude extract as a candidate anti-cancer molecule, which induces cell death by stepping up apoptosis.
31306Paukov A., Teptina A., Morozova M., Kruglova E., Favero-Longo S.E., Bishop C. & Rajakaruna N. (2019): The effects of edaphic and climatic factors on secondary lichen chemistry: A case study using saxicolous lichens. - Diversity, 11(6): 94 [18 p.].
Diversity of secondary lichen metabolites and their relationship to substrate and environmental parameters were studied in saxicolous lichens in the Middle and South Urals of Russia. Atranorin, usnic acid, gyrophoric acid, zeorin, norstictic acid, antraquinones and stictic acid were found in 73, 42, 41, 37, 36, 35 and 32 species, respectively, of 543 taxa collected. One hundred and ninety six species (i.e., 36% of total species documented) contained no secondary metabolites. Spectra of secondary metabolites of crustose lichens varied on different rock types, while in fruticose and foliose groups only those species without lichen acids were dependent on the substrate type. In Canonical Correspondence Analysis, secondary lichen metabolites were subdivided into groups depending on the concentration of Ca and metals in the substrate. Gyrophoric, lobaric, psoromic, rhizocarpic and stictic acids were common in crustose lichens in metal-poor habitats; species with antraquinones and lichens without any secondary metabolites were most abundant on limestone (alkalic and metal-poor), while other common lichen metabolites had no to minimal dependence on the chemistry of the substrate. The two additional abiotic factors affecting the composition of secondary metabolites were the maximum temperature of the warmest month and elevation. Our results suggest a range of possible relationships exist among lichen acids, rocks and climatic parameters. Furthermore, the same metabolite may affect both accumulation of metals and stress tolerance under unfavorable conditions. Keywords: saxicolous lichens; lichen acids; rock chemistry; climatic factors; Urals; CCA.
31305Scharnagl K. (2019): The scale of symbiosis. - Symbiosis, 78: 7–17.
At the 2018 International Symbiosis Society Congress research was shared on symbioses across a wide variety of scales, from the temporal to the spatial, and from the very small to the very large. Advances in our technologies and computational abilities have enabled us to probe deeper than ever before into the nature of symbiosis, revealing a tremendous diversity, novel associations, and a deeper understanding of the initiation and maintenance of symbioses over time. Researchers at ISSC 2018 also discussed the importance of symbiosis in human society and culture, particularly as we attempt to understand and mediate the impacts of global climate change. Despite the prevalence of symbioses across temporal, interaction, spatial, predictive and social scales, symbiosis remains relegated to a subtopic or afterthought within biological research. It is time to bring symbiosis to the fore of biological thinking; to move symbiosis from a mere component of larger questions in ecology and evolution to the lens through which we address those questions. Keywords: Ecology . Evolution . Scale . Continuum.
31304Perez Catán S., Bubach D. & Messuti M.I. (2019): A new measurement tool to consider for airborne pollutants evaluations using lichens. - Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 26: 14689–14692.
An important factor affecting acquisition of pollution elements could be the lichen growth form. The Brunauer–Emmett–Teller theory approach has been used to determinate the specific area surface (BET-area) of solids by gas multilayer adsorption. Taking this standard method as a new tool, we measure the specific thallus area in foliose and fruticose lichens to evaluated area/volume relation for bioaccumulation prospects. Some preliminary results of elemental contents such as REEs (La, Sc, Sr) and pollutants (Cd, Co, Pb) were also measured to support the importance to use for the analysis of these thallus attributes. Keywords: Atmospheric pollutants . Brunauer–Emmett–Teller theory . Lichen thallus . Specific area surface.
31303Daly C. (2019): Preliminary results from a legacy indicator tool for measuring climate change related impacts on built heritage. - Heritage Science, 7: 32 [13 p.].
Background: Gradual changes in weathering rates and mechanisms are the barely visible impacts of climate change on cultural heritage. Long-term monitoring of built and archaeological heritage is therefore necessary to ascertain the nature of loss due to slow onset effects. During research at the Dublin Institute of Technology in 2011 a Legacy Indicator Tool (LegIT) for measuring the weathering of stone surfaces into the far future was developed by the author and piloted at five National Monuments in Ireland. While it is too soon to evaluate the tool in relation to long term climate change trends, this article considers the data from 5 years of exposure and provides an early assessment of the pilot study’s design and implementation. Results: Measurements for colour, surface roughness, weight, and dimensions from the 5 year exposure of the LegIT were analysed. Comparisons between sites allows assessment of surface change under different atmospheric conditions. The indications for regional and localized weathering trends will aid managers in understanding risks and setting priorities—both for further monitoring and for conservation interventions. Conclusions: Results from the 5 year pilot trial of the LegIT has allowed preliminary evaluation of its potential as a long term indicator for surface weathering. Recommendations have been made for modifications to the design, manufacture and implementation of the tool. The future aim is to compare results over time at each site, building a picture of surface weathering processes in relation to regional climatic change. Keywords: Cultural heritage, Archaeology, Management, Climate change, Stone, Weathering, Monitoring, Indicator.
31302Behera M.D., Behera S.K. & Sharma S. (2019): Recent advances in biodiversity and climate change studies in India. - Biodiversity and Conservation, 28: 1943–1951.
Biodiversity is continually transformed by a changing climate. Conditions change across the face of the planet at variable pace leading to rearrangements of biological associations. The carbon cycle and the water cycle, arguably the two most important large-scale processes for life on Earth; depend on biodiversity at genetic, species, and ecosystem levels and can yield feedbacks to climate change. India is no less affected through this feedback mechanism of climate change and had shown its cause and effect association in several studies. In this special issue we present 25 papers contributed by ca 90 authors from India and elsewhere those discuss wide-ranging aspects of biodiversity and climate change. These contributions are based on presentations made at the 2nd International Workshop on Biodiversity and Climate Change (BDCC-2018) held on 24–27-February 2018 at the Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, India. The papers are arranged in six sections: Plant (and lichen) Diversity and Climate; Plant Diversity Pattern and Environmental Heterogeneity; Forest Biomass and Carbon; Plant Diversity and Remote Sensing; Species Distribution Modelling; and Animal Diversity, Soil and Biotechnology. Included amongst the contributions are ones using a national database on plant diversity, describing vegetation carbon and biomass sequestration patterns, utilizing remote sensing to assess plant diversity proxies and conservation prioritization, employing species distribution models to analyze climate change scenarios, using acoustics indices for rapid assessment of biodiversity, addressing the soil micro-biome and environmental stress on medicinal plants. Keywords: Environmental heterogeneity · Biomass · Remote sensing · Species distribution model · Acoustic diversity.
31301Sahu N., Singh S.N., Singh P., Mishra S., Karakoti N., Bajpai R., Behera S.K., Nayaka S. & Upreti D.K. (2019): Microclimatic variations and their effects on photosynthetic efficiencies and lichen species distribution along elevational gradients in Garhwal Himalayas. - Biodiversity and Conservation, 28: 1953–1976.
Climate change effects on Himalayas are expectedly more pronounced than any other mountainous ecoregion of the world with expected threat of meltdown by the year 2100 if effective checks are not imposed. The impacts of this climate warming in the geologically fragile Himalayas has started to show its effects on shifting precipitation patterns, increasing temperatures, glaciers meltdown, species richness patterns and overall unpredictable microclimatic conditions. For measuring such impacts of current climate warming in Himalayan ecosystems, need of ecological substitutes has been stressed on by different United Nation conventions. Lichens in contrast to vascular flora have long been proved to act as cost effective global indicators for measuring ecosystems responses to environmental climate. The variations in microclimatic attributes and their effects on photosynthetic efficiency and distribution were studied in geologically fragile ecosystem of Govind Pashu Vihar National Park in Garhwal Himalayas. Total 217 species of lichens comprising 80 genera and 35 families were found along different elevations. Among the different habitat groups, corticolous lichens showed their dominance (123 species) followed by saxicolous (65 species) and terricolous (29 species) lichens. Corticolous forms were dominated by crustose while saxicolous and terricolous were mostly fruticose growth forms. Mostly large number of species showed a narrow distribution with maximum species richness observed in mid elevation zones (1950–2200 m) followed by a gradual decline towards higher elevations. Phaeophyscia hispidula, Parmotrema reticulatum and Flavoparmelia caperata showed wider ecological amplitude. Out of these species, P. hispidula and F. caperata were further subjected to chlorophyll fluorescence measurements with a pulse amplified modulated fluorometer to access photosynthetic quenching efficiencies. Maximum electron transport rates (ETR; 96 ± 5.76 μmol e− m−2 s−1) were observed in Phaeophyscia hispidula (1550 m) while F. caperata showed nearly 21% lower ETR. Photochemical quenching (qP; 0.5 ± 0.01) was maximum at 1550 m elevation in F. caperata while P. hispidula showed maximum qP values at 2200 m elevation, showing it’s higher tolerances towards extreme light stresses. F. caperata showed higher (0.102 ± 0.003) non photochemical quenching (NPQ) in comparison to P. hispidula (0.062 ± 0.001) at extreme elevations of 3508 m. P. hispidula overall showed more toxitolerant nature towards abiotic stresses as compared to F. caperata. Higher photosynthetically active radiation (PAR; 1600–2350 µmol m−2 s−1), thallus hydration levels and extreme variations in air temperature (5.75–31.65 °C), ambient humidity along elevations were imperative in controlling species richness, distribution and photosynthetic quenching of lichen flora in the region. Keywords: Chlorophyll fluorescence · Microclimate · Photochemical quenching · Photosynthetic plasticity · Species richness · Climate change · Western Himalayas.
31300Urbanavichene I. & Urbanavichus G. (2019): New records of lichens and allied fungi from the Kostroma Region, Russia. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 56: 53–62.
29 species of lichens, 3 non-lichenized calicioid fungi and 3 lichenicolous fungi are reported for the first time from the Kostroma Region. Among them, 15 species are new for the Central Federal District, including Myrionora albidula – a rare species with widely scattered locations, previously known only from the Southern Urals Mts in European Russia. The most important discoveries are confined to old-growth coniferous Picea sp. and Abies sibirica forests in the Kologriv Forest Nature Reserve. Two species (Leptogium burnetiae and Menegazzia terebrata) are included in the Red Data Book of Russian Federation. The distribution, ecology, taxonomic characters and conservation status of rare species and of those new for the Central Federal District are provided. Keywords: Biatora mendax, Myrionora albidula, old-growth forests, southern taiga, Kologriv Forest Reserve, Central European Russia.
31299Stepanchikova I.S., Himelbrant D.E., Schiefelbein U., Motiejūnaitė J., Ahti T. & Andreev M.P. (2019): The lichens of Moshchny Island (Lavansaari) – one of the remote islands in the Gulf of Finland. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 56: 31–52.
We present a checklist for Moshchny Island (Leningrad Region, Russia). The documented lichen biota comprises 349 species, including 313 lichens, 30 lichenicolous fungi and 6 non-lichenized saprobic fungi. Endococcus exerrans and Lichenopeltella coppinsii are reported for the first time for Russia; Cercidospora stenotropae , Erythricium aurantiacum , Flavoplaca limonia , Lecidea haerjedalica , and Myriospora myochroa for European Russia; Flavoplaca oasis , Intralichen christiansenii , Nesolechia fusca , and Myriolecis zosterae for North-Western European Russia; and Arthrorhaphis aeruginosa , Calogaya pusilla , and Lecidea auriculata subsp. auriculata are new for Leningrad Region. The studied lichen biota is moderately rich and diverse, but a long history of human activity likely caused its transformation, especially the degradation of forest lichen biota. The most valuable habitats for lichens in Moshchny Island are seashore and dune communities which definitely deserve protection. Keywords: Baltic Sea, Karelia australis, Leningrad Region, dune communities, Endococcus exerrans, Lichenopeltella coppinsii.
31298Himelbrant D.E., Stepanchikova I.S., Motiejūnaitė J., Kuznetsova E.S., Tagirdzhanova G. & Frolov I.V. (2019): New records of lichens and allied fungi from the Leningrad Region, Russia. X. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 56: 23–29.
Ten lichen species and three lichenicolous fungi are reported for the first time for St. Petersburg, the whole Leningrad Region or its western part. The lichens Bacidina indigens and Lecidella asema are new for European Russia, the lichens Bryoria kuemmerleana , Caloplaca turkuensis , Scoliciosporum pruinosum , and the lichenicolous fungus Raesaenenia huuskonenii are new for North-Western European Russia. Keywords: St. Petersburg, Bacidina indigens, Lecidella asema.
31297Rodríguez-Catón M. & Villalba R. (2018): Indicadores del decaimiento en bosques de Nothofagus pumilio en el norte de la Patagonia, Argentina [Indicators of forest decline for Nothofagus pumilio in northern Patagonia, Argentina]. - Madera y Bosques, 24(2): e2421588.
[in Spanish with English abstract: ] Forest decline is associated with partial or total crown mortality in a large percentage of trees at the stand level. While forest decline has been reported on a global context, the relationships between the external conditions of trees and their radial growth have rarely been reported. This study relates the intensity of decline with radial growth in 294 Nothofagus pumilio trees in northern Patagonia. The selected external indicators of decline were crown mortality, bark health, the incidence of boring insects and woodpeckers, as well as the presence of hemiparasite plants, fungi and lichens. High percentages of crown mortality are significantly related to decreasing radial growth of remaining trees. This relationship is more reliable when basal area increments rather than ring widths are used as estimates of radial growth. Bark health and abundance of cavities, resulting from the activities of boring insects and woodpeckers, were also significantly inversely related to growth. In contrast, no statistically significant relationships were found between growth and the presence of hemiparasites, fungi or lichens. Based on these results, we recommend the use of the following external indicators (1) crown mortality, (2) bark conditions and (3) cavities from boring insects and/or woodpeckers, to comprehensively characterize the Nothofagus pumilio forest decline in Patagonia. Keywords: growth rings, wood-boring insects, crown mortality, woodpeckers, forest health.
31296Gonzáles C.M., Lingua M. & Gudiño G.L. (2012): Evaluación de la calidad atmosférica sobre una sección de la cuenca del río Suquía (Córdoba, Argentina) mediante el empleo del biomonitor Usnea amblyoclada [Air quality along a section in the Suquía river basin (Córdoba, Argentina) using Usnea amblyoclada as biomonitor]. - Revista Internacional de Contaminación Ambiental, 28(4): 311–322.
[in Spanish with English abstract: ] The aim of this study was to estimate the air quality along a section in the Suquía river during winter period using as active biomonitor Usnea amblyoclada. Four sampling sites were selected: two sites located upstream of the effluent treatment plant Bajo Grande, where one of them corresponds to Córdoba city (one of the most polluted cities in Argentina) and the other two sites were located downstream of the plant. After the three-month exposure, on the transplanted lichens, photosynthetic pigments, malondialdehyde and hydroperoxy conjugated dienes, as peroxidation products and sulphur accumulation, were determined. A pollution index was calculated with some parameters and for each sampling site, allowing the establishment of different air qualities. The pollution index, a good estimator of global damage on the biomonitor, allowed discriminating different atmospheric qualities; reflecting that the city of Córdoba site is the most impaired in its air quality. The results showed that urban conditions, were those that produced more damage on the biomonitor during the studied period. Biological monitoring using U. amblyoclada in these conditions did not allow establishing differences in air pollution at sites downstream of the sewage treatment plant. Thus, the different water qualities and their potential volatile organic compounds contribution did not influence significantly the air quality in order to establish differences between these two areas according to the impact on the biomonitor. Key words: lichens; chemical parameters; biomonitoring; atmospheric pollution; Suquía River.
31295Litjeroff R., Lima L. & Prieri B. (2009): Uso de líquenes como bioindicadores de contaminación atmosférica en la ciudad de San Luis, Argentina. - Revista Internacional de Contaminación Ambiental, 25(2): 111–120.
[in Spanish with English abstract: ] Air qualtiy was assessed in San Luis City by using lichens as bioindicators. Six sites in San Luis City and one site in a control area, juana Koslay, a small town six kilometers to the East, were evaluated by using the Index of Atmospheric Purity (IAP) which measures indirectly the coverage of lichens in the sampling zone and directly the diversity of species. Shannon (H), equity (J) and richness (S) indexes were also measured. The lowest IAP were detected in San Luis City, the highest IAP was detected in juana Koslay. therefore urban areas are more polluted than peripheral ones. the extremely low frequency of lichens appearence in San Luis City indicated the low quality of air in these urban areas and the efficacy of lichens as bionindicators of air contamination. Key words: bioindicators, index of atmospheric purity, air pollution.
31294Aspiazu J., Cervantes L., Ramírez J., López J., Ramos R., Muñoz R. & Villaseñor P. (2007): Temporal and spatial trends studied by lichen analysis: atmospheric deposition of trace elements in Mexico. - Revista Mexicana de Física, S53(3): 87–96.
Ball moss on Tillandsia recurvata (Bromeliaceae), collected in an area previously identified as unpolluted, was transplanted to thirteen biomonitoring sites in the downtown and metropolitan areas of Mexico City (which cover a surface of 9,560 km2) during the periods August 2002 – January 2003 and July 2003 – 0ctubre 2003. A total of 52 lichens (weighing 300 g) were transplanted to each place. Two were analysed as zero or reference, El Chico National Park, a location 100 Km upwind from the city and the remaining 26 were hung in nylon net bags in order to be able to collect two transplanted tree month, out of every season over a one-year period. The concentrations were measured by the quantitative PIXE method based on an external beam facility. The atmospheric deposition for trace elements was inferred by its concentration in lichen samples collected in 2002 from 13 sites in Mexico and compared with data from a similar survey in 2003. The concentration of Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn and other elements was determined for each sample. Maps for each element were drawn after a geostatistical estimate of the metal concentration in the sample was made. Maps were drawn for all elements with the estimated values. Geographical distribution patterns were obtained for the different metals, reflecting the contribution of natural and antropogenic emission sources. The deposition patterns of V, As, Se, Cd and Pb are substantially influenced by long-range transport from other parts of Mexico City. For Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu, the deposition patterns are largely determined by contribution from point sources within Mexico and in the metropolitan area. The lichen data for Br and, in part, Se reflect an airborne supply from the environment. Contributions to trace element concentrations in lichen sources other than atmospheric deposition are identified and discussed. The Spatial and temporal variations in the distribution of metal concentration are discussed. Keywords: Bio-monitoring; lichens; atmospheric contamination; PIXE analysis.
31293Puy-Alquiza M.J., Gómez Peralta M., Miranda Avilés R., Reyes-Zamudio V., Salazar-Hernández M.C. & Ordaz-Zubia V.Y. (2015): El rol de las comunidades de líquenes en el deterioro superficial de su substrato rocoso: estudio de la interfase liquen-roca en dos monumentos históricos de la ciudad de Guanajuato, México [The role of lichen communities in superficial deterioration of their rock substrates: studies of the lichen-rock interface of two historical buildings in the City of Guanajuato, Mexico]. - Acta Universitaria, 25(4): 35–47.
[in Spanish with English abstract: ] In this paper we present the deterioration processes that exert lichen communities in siliceous sandstones of two historical monuments of the nineteenth and twentieth Centuries of the Guanajuato city (steps of the Guanajuato University and the School of Music at the Guanajuato University). In addition to contributing to the knowledge of deterioration, data on the lichen species found, is provided, the causes of its growth and its role in the deterioration of the stone material, in order to implement measures of protection and prevention. The lichen-rock interface was observed using complementary techniques such as, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Inductively Coupled Plasma) (ICP), and energy dispersive spectroscopy X-ray (EDS). Were identified five species of lichens: Xanthoparmelia mexicana, Xanthoparmelia tasmanica; Caloplaca aff. brouardii, Caloplaca aff. ludificans and Aspicilia sp. These lichens penetrate 0.5 µm to 50 µm on the substrate through its rhizines, causing disintegration of minerals in the rock surface (plagioclase, quartz and feldspar). The disintegration of minerals along with the changes in chemical composition in the lichen-rock interface shows a negative action on the rocky surface, (the decrease in SiO2, Al2O3, Zn, and K2O and the presence of a high percentage in CaO, Fe2O3, and MgO).
31292Álvarez-Gómez F., Korbee N. & Figueroa F.L. (2016): Analysis of antioxidant capacity and bioactive compounds in marine macroalgal and lichenic extracts using different solvents and evaluation methods. - Ciencias Marinas, 42(4): 271–288.
Natural extracts of macroalgae are widely recognized for their antioxidant properties. In this work, the antioxidant capacity of various aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts obtained from red and green marine algae and from one marine lichen collected from different sites in southern Spain (intertidal and estuarine waters) was evaluated by different methods: ABTS free radical scavenging assay, DPPH assay, and β-carotene bleaching method (BBM). Contents of total lipids, total carbohydrates, and UV photoprotectors with antioxidant capacity, such as mycosporine-like amino acids and phenolic compounds, were determined. Among the extraction solvents, the highest extraction yield was observed in H2O and 20% MeOH (v/v). The highest antioxidant activity was found in the extracts of the red macroalgae Hydropuntia cornea, Gracilariopsis longissima, Halopithys incurva, and Porphyra umbilicalis, whereas the lowest activity was detected in the green macroalga Ulva rotundata. In general, the antioxidant activity was higher using DPPH than BBM and ABTS. Even so, the ABTS assay is an easy and quick test that provides a comprehensive view of the entire extract in both the lipophilic medium and hydrophilic medium. The antioxidant activity was related to the composition of bioactive compounds and synergistic action is not discarded. The biotechnological use of macroalgal extracts with high antioxidant capacity is discussed. Key words: antioxidants, bioactive compounds, extracts, lichen, macroalgae.
31291Puy-Alquiza M.J., Miranda-Aviles R., Zanor G.A., Salazar-Hernández M.M. & Ordaz-Zubia V.Y. (2017): Study of the distribution of heavy metals in the atmosphere of the Guanajuato City: Use of saxicolous lichen species as bioindicators . - Ingeniería, Investigación y Tecnología, 18(1): 111–126.
The atmospheric deposition of some heavy metals was investigated using saxicolous lichen species (Xanthoparmelia mexicana (Gyeln.) Hale, Xanthoparmelia tasmanica (Hook. f. & Taylor) Hale, Caloplaca aff. brouardii (B. de Lesd.) Zahlbr., Caloplaca aff. ludificans Arup, and Aspicilia sp.), samples were collected from three zones (rural, suburban and urban) along the Guanajuato city, during the months of October-November 2012, April, July, and October 2013 and January 2014. Lichen samples were analyzed using the Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry technique. The concentrations of heavy metals in lichen samples from the Xanthoparmelia species ranged from (96.21 μg g -1) for lead (Pb), (95.10 μg g−1) for zinc (Zn), (58.40 μg g−1 )for vanadium (V), (105.15 μg g−1) for Chrome (Cr), and (48.93 μg g−1) for Niquel (Ni). Caloplaca species (92.42, μg g−1) for lead (Pb), (172.97 μg g−1 ) for Zinc (Zn), (53.51 μg g−1 ) for vanadium (V), (91.23 μg g−1 ) for copper (Cu), respectively, and Aspicilia sp (612.91μg g−1) for lead (Pb), (72.24 μg g−1 ) for zinc (Zn), (56.25 μg g−1) for vanadium (V), (18.24 μg g−1) for copper (Cu). The statistical significance of between Co-V, NiCr, Ni-Co, Sn-Zn, Co-Cr, Zn-Th, Sn-Th and Co-Zn concentrations confirmed anthropogenic sources mainly due to emissions from vehicular traffic, fossil fuel combustion correlations, solid waste disposal and other local anthropogenic activities. Pollution indices were additionally calculated by heavy metals concentrations in order to use lichens in Guanajuato city as bioindicators of air pollution. The concentration of these metals was observed to be in higher range as maximum values of Pb, Zn, V, and Cu reported from the lichen samples for the suburban and urban zones in Guanajuato city. The accumulations of Ni and Cr from both zones are similar in concentration. The contamination factors or the pollution index factor and the pollution load index criteria revealed high levels of Be, Cu, Co, Zn, Pb, and Th in Caloplaca species and Aspicilia sp., while Xanthoparmelia species show higher values only in Be, Sb and Pb. The results revealed that the most sensitive lichens were Aspicilia sp., with the highest levels of Pb. The results obtained reveal important contributions towards understanding of heavy metal deposition patterns and provide baseline data that can be used for potential identification of areas at risk from atmospheric heavy metals contamination in the region. The use of saxicolous lichens provide a cost–effective approach for monitoring regional atmospheric heavy metal contamination and may be effectively used in large scale air pollution monitoring programmer. Keywords: lichens, heavy metal pollution, indicator, Guanajuato city.
31290Gómez Caicedo H.D., Del Valle Fernández Malavé R., Galarraga Chacón F., Hernández Maldonado J., Roschman-Gonzáles A. & Escalona Trompiz A. (2013): Biomonitoreo activo de hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos en el aire del valle de Caracas-Venezuela empleando el liquen Parmotrema sancti-angelii (Lynge) Hale [Active biomonitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at the Caracas valled-Venezuela using Parmotrema sacti-angelii (Linge) Hale lichen)]. - Revista Internacional de Contaminación Ambiental, 29(4): 261–267.
[in Spanish with English abstract: ] The aim of this work was to determine the ability of the lichen Parmotrema sancti-angelii (Lynge) Hale to characterize and quantify polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in the air of the Caracas city. The lichens were transplanted from a suburban area to six locations in the city, where they were exposed for a period of four months. Sixteen (16) PAHs were studied which only thirteen (13) were above the limit of quantification. The total concentration of PAHs ranged from 2553 to 7654 ng /g. The lichens showed an enrichment in high molecular weight compounds (5 and 6 rings) for the studied locations, associated with atmospheric particles commonly generated by combustion processes. The ratio Fen/Ant suggests a remarkable pyrogenic origin and the ratio Ind/Ind+B[g,h,i] P indicates the presence of PAHs from burning vegetation in all locations. Keywords : air pollution; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; biological monitoring; transplanted lichen.
31289Zhang Y.Y., Wang X.Y., Li L.J., Søchting U., Yin A.C., Wang S.Q. & Wang L.S. (2019): Upretia squamulosa, a new lichen species from the arid valley of Jinsha-jiang River, China. - Phytotaxa, 402(6): 288–294.
Upretia squamulosa is described as new to science from the arid valley of Jinsha-jiang River, China. It is characterized by a squamulose thallus, greyish green to brown upper surface, lecanorine apothecia, and by containing gyrophoric and lecanoric acids. The other species in the genus, U. amarkantakana, differs from the new species by the crustose to subsquamulose thallus with lobate margin and the absence of gyrophoric and lecanoric acids. A phylogenetic tree based on nrITS for Upretia and related genera in the subfamily Caloplacoideae is established to assess the affinities of the new species. Keywords: Ioplaca, Lichenized fungi, Molecular phylogeny, Taxonomy, Teloschistaceae.
31288Gueidan C., Elix J.A., McCarthy P.M., Roux C., Mallen-Cooper M. & Kantvilas G. (2019): PacBio amplicon sequencing for metabarcoding of mixed DNA samples from lichen herbarium specimens. - MycoKeys, 53: 73–91.
The detection and identification of species of fungi in the environment using molecular methods heavily depends on reliable reference sequence databases. However, these databases are largely incomplete in terms of taxon coverage, and a significant effort is required from herbaria and living fungal collections for the mass-barcoding of well-identified and well-curated fungal specimens or strains. Here, a PacBio amplicon sequencing approach is applied to recent lichen herbarium specimens for the sequencing of the fungal ITS barcode, allowing a higher throughput sample processing than Sanger sequencing, which often required the use of cloning. Out of 96 multiplexed samples, a full-length ITS sequence of the target lichenised fungal species was recovered for 85 specimens. In addition, sequences obtained for co-amplified fungi gave an interesting insight into the diversity of endolichenic fungi. Challenges encountered at both the laboratory and bioinformatic stages are discussed, and cost and quality are compared with Sanger sequencing. With increasing data output and reducing sequencing cost, PacBio amplicon sequencing is seen as a promising approach for the generation of reference sequences for lichenised fungi as well as the characterisation of lichen-associated fungal communities. Keywords: SMRT sequencing, high-throughput sequencing, long amplicon analysis (LAA), lichenised fungi.
31287Kistenich S., Bendiksby M., Vairappan C.S., Weerakoon G., Wijesundara S., Wolseley P.A. & Timdal E. (2019): A regional study of the genus Phyllopsora (Ramalinaceae) in Asia and Melanesia. - MycoKeys, 53: 23–72.
Phyllopsora is a crustose to squamulose lichen genus inhabiting the bark of trees in moist tropical forests and rainforests. Species identification is generally challenging and is mainly based on ascospore morphology, thallus morphology and anatomy, vegetative dispersal units, and on secondary chemistry. While regional treatments of the genus have been conducted for Africa, South America and Australia, there exists no study focusing on the Asian and Melanesian species. Previously, 24 species of Phyllopsora s. str. have been reported from major national studies and checklists representing 13 countries. We have studied herbarium material of 625 Phyllopsora specimens from 18 countries using morphology, anatomy, secondary chemistry, and molecular data to investigate the diversity of Phyllopsora species in Asia and Melanesia. We report the occurrence of 28 species of Phyllopsora including the following three species described as new to science: P. sabahana from Malaysia, P. siamensis from Thailand and P. pseudocorallina from Asia and Africa. Eight species are reported as new to Asia. A key to the Asian and Melanesian species of Phyllopsora is provided. Keywords: Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Thailand, rainforest, TLC, phylogeny, identification key.
31286Tripp E.A., Morse C.A., Keepers K.G., Anderson Stewart C., Pogoda C.S., White K.H., Hoffman J.R., Kane N.C. & McCain C.M. (2019): Evidence of substrate endemism of lichens on Fox Hills Sandstone: Discovery and description of Lecanora lendemeri as new to science. - Bryologist, 122(2): 246–259.
Recent lichenological investigations of Fox Hills Formation sandstone outcrops in Colorado resulted in the discovery of three populations that represent an undescribed member of the Lecanora dispersa group (=Myriolecis). This new species is different from all others in the group in its production of usnic acid, which yields apothecia that are yellowish-green in color in fresh field material. The new species, here formally described as Lecanora lendemeri, is further characterized by its relatively large ascospores, endolithic thallus, presence of POL+ granules, and apparent restriction to this sandstone formation. We conducted molecular phylogenetic analyses to place the new species into the context of other members of Lecanora using new shotgun sequence data generated for this study in tandem with previously published rDNA data, and found that the new species is resolved as nested within the L. dispersa group, which was a strongly supported clade in our analysis. Using IUCN criteria including a known occurrence of only three populations, the largest of which is under conservation threat, we herein formally rank this new species as Endangered. This discovery comes on the heels of several other recent lichen discoveries on Fox Hills Sandstone, all species that are, so far as known, restricted to this rock type, suggesting that substrate endemism may be a common element of the biotic communities of the Fox Hills Formation. From the results of this and prior studies, it is clear that sandstone outcrops serve as important, yet still incompletely documented, habitats for cryptogamic diversity. This discovery further highlights the significance of conservation areas, even tiny units (e.g., 40 ha or less) that represent mere islands in a sea of urban development, such as in the Front Range of Colorado. Keywords: Colorado, edaphic, endemism, Fox Hills, Lecanora dispersa group, lichen, new species, sandstone, substrate, Myriolecis.
31285Pinheiro A.C., Mesquita N., Trovão J., Soares F., Tiago I., Coelho C., Paiva de Carvalho H., Gil F., Catarino L., Piñar G. & Portugal A. (2019): Limestone biodeterioration: A review on the Portuguese cultural heritage scenario. - Fungal Biology, 36: 275–285.
Stone, one of the earliest testimonies of human artistic expression, is susceptible to biodeterioration by microorganisms. The most frequent stone colonizing agents are algae, cyanobacteria, bacteria, fungi and lichens, each with their own set of adaptive traits, which allow them to prosper and consequently damage the stone substrate. Limestone is particularly susceptible to biological agents; therefore, in order to act towards the protection and prevention of colonization by microorganisms, it is crucial to understand the microbial communities thriving in limestone heritage buildings. Data regarding the biodiversity and biological activity in Portuguese limestone monuments is, however, still scarce and the scattered knowledge on the subject impairs a full comprehension of the complex and relevant phenomena associated with this particular setting. This review presents and discusses the available studies performed in Portuguese limestone. In addition, the state of the art methodologies to be used, as well as the future studies to be considered, in order to effectively protect such invaluable witnesses of our history, are discussed. Keywords: Limestone; Biodeterioration; Microorganisms; Portugal.
31284Mark K., Randlane T., Thor G., Hur J.-S., Obermayer W. & Saag A. (2019): Lichen chemistry is concordant with multilocus gene genealogy in the genus Cetrelia (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota). - Fungal Biology, 123: 125–139.
The lichen genus Cetrelia represents a taxonomically interesting case where morphologically almost uniform populations differ considerably from each other chemically. Similar variation is not uncommon among lichenized fungi, but it is disputable whether such populations should be considered entities at the species level. Species boundaries in Cetrelia are traditionally delimited either as solely based on morphology or as combinations of morpho- and chemotypes. A dataset of four nuclear markers (ITS, IGS, Mcm7, RPB1) from 62 specimens, representing ten Cetrelia species, was analysed within Bayesian and maximum likelihood frameworks. Analyses recovered a well-resolved phylogeny where the traditional species generally were monophyletic, with the exception of Cetrelia chicitae and Cetrelia pseudolivetorum. Species delimitation analyses supported the distinction of 15 groups within the studied Cetrelia taxa, dividing three traditionally identified species into some species candidates. Chemotypes, distinguished according to the major medullary substance, clearly correlated with clades recovered within Cetrelia, while samples with the same reproductive mode were dispersed throughout the phylogenetic tree. Consequently, delimiting Cetrelia species based only on reproductive morphology is not supported phylogenetically. Character analyses suggest that chemical characters have been more consistent compared to reproductive mode and indicate that metabolite evolution in Cetrelia towards more complex substances is probable. Keywords: Character evolution; Lichenized fungi; Molecular phylogeny; Secondary metabolites; Species delimitation.
31283Sanmartín P., Fuentes E., Montojo C., Barreiro P., Paz-Bermúdez G. & Prieto B. (2019): Tertiary bioreceptivity of schists from prehistoric rock art sites in the Côa Valley (Portugal) and Siega Verde (Spain) archaeological parks: Effects ofcleaning treatments. - International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 142: 151–159.
Schist weathering induced by the presence of lichen is one of the main concerns in the Côa Valley (northeast Portugal) and Siega Verde (northwest Spain) Archaeological Parks. In this study, different types of lichens, including mainly crustose forms (Caloplaca pellodella, Candelariella vitellina, Circinaria hoffmanniana, Diploschistes actinostomus and Lecidea fuscoatra) as well as some foliose forms (Parmelina tiliacea and Xanthoparmelia conspersa), were removed from schistose samples of both lithotypes in different locations. The lichens were removed by treatment with Biotin T® biocide or by laser treatment with the first (1064 nm, IR) and fourth (266 nm, UV) harmonics of a Nd:YAG laser. To assess the effects of the treatments, a recolonization experiment was carried out with biofilm-forming phototrophic microorganisms, and a bioreceptivity index (BI) was calculated for each lithotype and treatment. A water-based treatment (the removal method currently used in both parks) was used as a control cleaning treatment in the bioreceptivity experiment. The study findings show the importance of bioreceptivity studies for evaluating the effectiveness of cleaning treatments. Treatment of the schist samples with the chemical biocide significantly decreased the bioreceptivity (complete inhibition of biofilm formation), whereas laser treatments (especially IR laser) significantly increased the tertiary bioreceptivity. Moreover, the tertiary bioreceptivity of the schists depended on both the treatment applied and the nature of the substrate. Keywords: Bioreceptivity index (BI); Conservation; Lichen removal procedure; Non-destructive techniques; Colour measurements; Chlorophyll fluorescence.
31282Tabarsa M., You S., Abedi M., Ahmadian N., Li C. & Talapphet N. (2019): The activation of RAW264.7 murine macrophage and natural killer cells by glucomannogalactan polysaccharides from Tornabea scutellifera. - Carbohydrate Polymers, 219: 368–377.
A water-soluble polysaccharide was isolated from Tornabea scutellifera and fractionated using a DAEA Sepharose FF column to evaluate its capacity to stimulate natural killer (NK) cells and macrophages. Neutral sugars (71.8–93.5%) constituted the major part of crude polysaccharides and fractions (TSF1 and TSF2) with relatively lower levels of proteins (0.4–20.3%) and uronic acids (0.8–4.9%). The weight average molecular weights (Mw) of 152.7–537.3 × 103 g/mol were measured for isolated polysaccharides. The polysaccharides were composed of glucose (14.4–44.0%), galactose (23.2–43.2%), mannose (28.5–34.2%) and rhamnose (2.6–13.9%) units connected through (1→2)-Galp, (1→2,6)-Galp, (1→4)-Glcp, (1→6)-Glcp, (1→3)-Rhap, (1→2)-Rhap and (1→4)-Manp residues. TSF2 polysaccharide effectively induced RAW264.7 murine macrophages to release nitric oxide, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6, and activated NK cells to produce TNF-α, INF-γ, granzyme-B, perforin, NKG2D and FasL through NF-κB and MAPKs signaling pathways. Overall results suggested that polysaccharides from T. scutellifera could be potent immunostimulatory compounds inducing both macrophages and NK cells. Keywords: Tornabea scutellifera; Polysaccharides; Immunostimulation; Chemical structure; Molecular properties.
31281Pizňak M., Kolarčik V., Goga M. & Bačkor M. (2019): Allelopathic effects of lichen metabolite usnic acid on growth and physiological responses of Norway spruce and Scots pine seedlings. - South African Journal of Botany, 124: 14–19.
Lichens are globally widespread organisms playing an important role in diverse ecosystems. They produce secondary metabolites, unique compounds, which play many important ecological and biological roles, including their effects on other plants, through allelopathy. Usnic acid is one of the most frequent secondary compounds in thalli of lichens forming the layer on the surface of soils, interacting with the seedlings of conifers in the boreal forests. The main aim of this study was to investigate the growth, ploidy level, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and element content in the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedlings cultivated for 14 days using substrates containing addition (10 mg per cultivation tube) of (+) usnic acid (UA). We also investigated UA root content in these plants. The root:shoot ratio (R:S) decreased in stressed pines by over 31%. The average root length diminished by 48% and the shoot length (to the cotyledon base) by 25%. For spruce, the R:S ratio decreased by more than 41%, the root length by 46% while the shoot length by only 9%. The UA treatment particularly increased the number of non-fully developed seedlings during the germination. The seed germination rate did not vary significantly when compared to control. No significant ploidy differences between control and treated seedlings were observed in neither of the species. Ploidy aberration in two P. abies seedlings was discovered. The amount of UA in the roots, including UA bound on their surfaces, in spruce varied from 3.6 to 325.5 μg g−1 DW and in pine roots from 15.6 to 252.3 μg g−1 DW. A significant decrease in total macroelement content in roots of both species was noted, particularly for P, K, Ca, Mg and S contents. Interestingly, the contents of stress markers, e.g. superoxide dismutase and peroxidase were not significantly changed when compared to controls. Keywords: Allelopathy; Genome; Growth; Lichens; Macroelements; Picea abies; Pinus sylvestris; Usnic acid.
31280Rola K., Latkowska E., Myśliwa-Kurdziel B. & Osyczka P. (2019): Heavy-metal tolerance of photobiont in pioneer lichens inhabiting heavily polluted sites. - Science of the Total Environment, 679: 260–269.
Heavy metals are known for their negative impact on the physiological processes of lichen photobiont. In spite of this, certain lichens are known to be effective pioneers of polluted sites. Cladonia cariosa, C. rei, and Diploschistes muscorum are prominent examples of lichens that spontaneously colonise post-industrial wastes. We examined the effect of total and intracellular Zn, Pb, Cd, As, Cu, and Ni accumulation in the thalli of these species on the physiological parameters of photobiont. Increased accumulation of Zn, Cd, Cu, and Ni in D. muscorum and of Zn and Ni in C. rei negatively affected contents of photosynthetic pigments,whereas concentrations of Pb had a positive effect in all lichen species.Moreover, pigment contents were positively associatedwith the concentrations of most examined elements in C. cariosa. The results indicate that even if chlorophyll contents reduced, its degradation does not progress. This suggests that metal stress may exert a negative effect on the synthesis rather than on the integrity of chlorophyll. Most importantly, lichen samples of each of the species from polluted sites proved to possess significantly higher FV/FM ratios than those from a reference site; moreover, the contents of elements of lichen thalli positively influenced this parameter. The efficient functioning of the algal component under heavymetal stress conditions indicates that the examined lichens are well adapted to extremely contaminated substrates. Keywords: Algal component; Chlorophyll; PSII quantum yield; Bioaccumulation; Stress response; Hazardous waste sites.
31279Agnan Y., Courault R., Alexis M.A., Zanardo T., Cohen M., Sauvage M. & Castrec-Rouelle M. (2019): Distribution of trace and major elements in subarctic ecosystem soils: Sources and influence of vegetation. - Science of the Total Environment, 682: 650–662.
Artic and subarctic environments are particularly sensitive to climate change with a fasterwarming compared to other latitudes. Vegetation is changing but its role on the biogeochemical cycling is poorly understood. In this study, we evaluated the distribution of trace elements in subarctic soils from different land covers at Abisko, northern Sweden: grassland, moor, broad-leaved forest, and peat bog. Using various multivariate analysis approaches, results indicated a spatial heterogeneity with a strong influence of soil horizon classes considered: lithogenic elements (e.g., Al, Cr, Ti) were accumulated in mineral horizon classes and surface processinfluenced elements (e.g., Cd, Cu, Se) in organic horizon classes. Atmospheric influences included contamination by both local mines (e.g., Cu, Fe, Ni) and regional or long-range atmospheric transport (e.g., Cd, Pb, Zn). A nonnegative matrix factorization was used to estimate, for each element, the contribution of various sources identified. For the first time, a comparison between geochemical and ecological data was performed to evaluate the influence of vegetation on element distribution. Apart from soil pH that could control dynamics of As, Cu, and Se, two vegetation classes were reported to be correlated to geochemical factors: forbs and shrubs/dwarf shrubs probably due to their annual vs. perennial activities, respectively. Since these are considered as the main vegetation classes that quickly evolve with climate change, we expect to see modifications in trace element biogeochemical cycling in the future. p. 651 : "More specifically, we hypothesize that lichens and mosses, as well as herbaceous plant species, accelerate the accumulation of elements from the atmosphere to the soil related to their physiological features (higher bioaccumulation and faster turnover, respectively) compared to ligneous species, such as shrubs."
31278Foster K.R., Davidson C., Tanna R.N. & Spink D. (2019): Introduction to the virtual special issue monitoring ecological responses to air quality and atmospheric deposition in the Athabasca Oil Sands region the wood Buffalo environmental Association's Forest health monitoring program. - Science of the Total Environment, 686: 345–359.
The expansion of oil sands resource development in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region in the early 1990's led to concerns regarding the potential ecological and health effects of increased emissions and deposition of acidic substances. Conditions attached to a 1994 approval for an oil sands facility expansion led to the creation of the Wood Buffalo Environmental Association, and its Terrestrial Environmental Effects Monitoring committee. This multi-stakeholder body was tasked with development and operation of an environmental (forest health) monitoring program for the detection of ecological responses to atmospheric emissions and deposition. Initially focused on acid deposition monitoring, jack pine forest, growing on sandy soils with limited acid buffering capacity, was selected as the receptor system. An initial set of 10 monitoring locations was established using the Canadian Acid Rain Network Early Warning System methodology (since increased to 27, with three lost to development). Ecological monitoring is on a 6-year cycle, with concurrent measures of soil, needle and lichen chemistry, and tree and understory condition, together with ongoing measurements of air quality and atmospheric deposition. Because jack pine forest edges facing the emissions sources were expected to be more exposed to acidic emissions, evaluation of stand edge monitoring locations began in 2008. Monitoring of a targeted suite of indicators began in 2012 at 25 jack pine stand edge monitoring sites. This special issue presents the results derived from biophysical sampling campaigns (1998 to 2013), coupled with ongoing ambient atmospheric, deposition and epiphytic lichen monitoring (data through 2017) and source apportionment studies, as well as papers contributed by others engaged in regional research and monitoring programs. The Forest HealthMonitoring Programprovides data supportive of regulatory and stakeholder evaluations of environmental quality, and is adaptive to new needs, extreme environmental events and technological developmentwhile providing continuity of monitoring. Keywords: Jack pine forest; Acid deposition; Surface mining; in situ bitumen production.
31277Munzi S., Varela Z. & Paoli L. (2019): Is the length of the drying period critical for photosynthesis reactivation inlichen and moss components of biological soil crusts?. - Journal of Arid Environments, 166: 86–90.
Lichens and mosses represent the macroscopic components of biological soil crusts (biocrusts). Their ability to exploit short periods of water availability and reversibly deactivate metabolism is crucial for their growth and survival. In this work we investigated photosynthesis reactivation, respectively after long (65–66 days) and short (15 days) dry periods, in lichen and moss species widespread in two Mediterranean environments (Portugal and Italy). Chlorophyll a fluorescence emission of the samples was investigated and the parameter Fv/Fm, an indicator of vitality of photosynthetic organisms, was used as a proxy for photosynthesis reactivation. The fruticose lichens Cladonia convoluta and C. rangiformis, and the moss Pleurochaete squarrosa, typical of Mediterranean environments, showed a significantly slower reactivation of photosynthetic activity when subjected to a longer period of drought. Conversely, the alien invasive moss Campylopus introflexus was not affected by prolonged dry conditions. The study showed that drought duration influences the reactivation of photosynthetic activity in terricolous lichens and mosses forming biocrusts in re-hydration cycles. These results indicate the likelihood of a reduction in biocrust productivity as a consequence of climate change in Mediterranean drylands. Keywords: Invasive species; Biological soil crusts; Chlorophyll a fluorescence; Desiccation-tolerance; Drought stress; Mediterranean ecosystem.
31276Gadea A., Charrier M., Fanuel M., Clerc P., Daugan C., Sauvager A., Rogniaux H., Boustie J., Le Lamer A.-C. & Lohézic - Le Devehat F. (2019): Overcoming deterrent metabolites by gaining essential nutrients: A lichen/snail case study. - Phytochemistry, 164: 86–93.
Specialised metabolites in lichens are generally considered repellent compounds by consumers. Nevertheless, if the only food available is lichens rich in specialised metabolites, lichenophages must implement strategies to overcome the toxicity of these metabolites. Thus, the balance between phagostimulant nutrients and deterrent metabolites could play a key role in feeding preferences. To further understand lichen-gastropod interactions, we studied the feeding behaviour and consumption in Notodiscus hookeri, the land snail native to sub-Antarctic islands. The lichen Usnea taylorii was used because of its simple chemistry, its richness in usnic acid (specialised metabolite) and arabitol (primary metabolite) and its presence in snail habitats. Choice tests in arenas with intact lichens versus acetone-rinsed lichens were carried out to study the influence of specialised metabolites on snail behaviour and feeding preference. Simultaneously, usnic acid and arabitol were quantified and located within the lichen thallus using HPLC-DAD-MS and in situ imaging by mass spectrometry to assess whether their spatial distribution explained preferential snail grazing. No-choice feeding experiments, with the pure metabolites embedded in an artificial diet, defined a gradual gustatory response, from strong repellence (usnic acid) to high appetence (D-arabitol). This case study demonstrates that the nutritional activity of N. hookeri is governed by the chemical quality of the food and primarily by nutrient availability (arabitol), despite the presence of deterrent metabolite (usnic acid). Keywords: Usnea taylorii; Parmeliaceae; Notodiscus hookeri; Mass spectrometry imaging; Feeding choice; Lichen; Snail; Usnic acid; D-arabitol.
31275Requena Mullor J.M. (2015): Confirmación de cita histórica para Acarospora schleicheri (Ach.) A, Massai [sic!] (Acarosporaceae) en Almería [Ratification of historic record for Acarospora schleicheri (Ach.) A, Massai (Acarosporaceae) in Almería]. - Acta Botanica Malacitana, 40: 233–234.
Key words: Lichen, terricolous, Acarospora, Sierra de Gádor, Almería.
31274Merinero S. & Otálora M.A.G. (2011): Primera cita de Sticta Fuliginosa (Dicks.) Ach. (Lobariaceae) en el SE Peninsular [First record of Sticta fuliginosa (Dicks.) Ach. (Lobariaceae) in the Iberian SE]. - Acta Botanica Malacitana, 36: 179–180.
Key words: Lichen, epiphyte, Sticta, Sierra de Cazorla, Jaén.
31273Jaramillo O. C.E. (2018): Evaluación de la actividad antifúngica del extracto de Usnea laevis en hongos fitopatógenos [Evaluation of the antifungal activity of the lichenic extract of Usnea laevis in phytopathogenic fungi]. - Boletín Micológico, 33(1): 1–8.
Key words: Antifungal activity, lichen extracts, Usnea laevis, phytopathogenic fungi.
31272Vaillant F. D.I., Romeu C. C.R., Gómez P. M. & Ramírez O. R. (2014): Evaluación de la actividad antifúngica de extractos liquénicos e identificación de sus metabolitos [Evaluation of the fungicide activity from lichens extracts and identification their metabolites]. - Boletín Micológico, 29(2): 35–45.
Key words: Fungicide activity, lichens, lichens substances.
31271León C.A., Oliván Martínez G., Larraín J. & Vargas R. (2016): Patterns of bryophyte and lichen diversity in bogs and Tepualia stipularis forests of Northern Patagonia (Chile): evidence of a novel ecosystem in southern South America. - Botanical Sciences , 94(3): 441–453.
Bryophytes and lichens are an important component of biodiversity. Nevertheless, these cryptogamic groups are rarely included in floristic and ecological studies in southern South America. We present the first comparison of patterns of alpha and beta diversity of bryophytes and macrolichens in peatlands and Tepualia stipularis forests (TF) on Isla Grande de Chiloé, Chile. Two kinds of Sphagnum peatlands were studied, which were defined according to their origin and their vegetation, natural peatlands (GP) and anthropogenic peatlands (AP). A total of 86 species were found: 42 liverworts, 29 mosses and 14 lichens. The most species-rich sites were AP with a total of 52 species, followed by TF with 45 species, and GP with 21 species. The total bryo-lichenic diversity reported in this study was considerably higher than that reported in other studies for Patagonian peatlands. The three types of studied habitats showed significant differences in species richness and diversity indices. We found clear distinctions between the three habitat types, with significant differences in the floristic composition of GP, AP, and TP. Moreover, AP presented a species composition that has not been previously documented in TF or GP. They are the result of human action, but do not depend on continued human intervention for their maintenance. Therefore, here we propose to denominate AP as a novel ecosystem. Keywords: biodiversity patterns, emerging ecosystem, liverworts, macrolichens, mosses, Chile.
31270Redon J.F. (1985): Liquenes de Chile I. - Boletín Micológico, 2: 131–143.
31269Paquette H.A., van Miltenburg N.B., Selva S.B. & McMullin R.T. (1999): The calicioids of Forillon National Park, Quebec, Canada. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 18: 58–73.
The distribution of calicioid lichens and fungi is poorly understood in many areas of North America. For example, there were no previously known collections from Forillon National Park in Quebec, Canada. Therefore, we conducted a comprehensive inventory of the calicioid species in this unexplored area and discovered 30 species in nine genera. One species, Chaenothecopsis oregana, is new to eastern North America; two species, Calicium denigratum and Sclerophora coniophaea, are new to Quebec; and one species, Sclerophora peronella, is listed under Schedule 1 of the Canadian Species at Risk Act. We present an annotated checklist and a key to the calicioid species of Forillon National Park. Keywords. – Appalachians, Caliciales, Coniocybaceae, biogeography, Gaspé Peninsula, Mycocaliciaceae, Physciaceae, Sphinctrinaceae.
31268Muñoz Schick M. (1999): La Colección de Carlos José Bertero depositada en el herbario del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural. - Publicación Ocasional del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Chile, 53: 5–84.
The botanical collection of C.J. Bertero housed at the SGO Herbarium in the Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, is revised. The collection consists of 18 Fungi, 4 Lichens, 9 Bryophytes, 11 Pteridophytes and 404 Spermatophytes. Key words: Bertero, Collection, Catalogue, Flora, Chile.
31267Gumboski E.L. (2014): Contribution to the knowledge of lichenized mycota from Southern Brazil. I – Species of Ramboldia (Ascomycota: Lecanoraceae). - Acta Biológica Catarinense, 1(2): 60–66.
Ramboldia, a genus of lichen-forming fungi, is represented by lecideoid species with a Lecanora-type ascus and simple and persistently hyaline ascospores. Although probably common in Brazilian mycota, species of Ramboldia remains poorly recorded in the country. The collections and analyses of specimens followed the standard protocols in lichenology. Here are reported five new records to two States of Southern Brazil. Ramboldia haematites are new record to State of Santa Catarina and both, R. heterocarpa and R. russula, are new records to Santa Catarina and to State of Paraná. Descriptions, comments, figures and a key to Brazilian species are given. Keywords: Crustose thallus; lichen; Lecidea, Pyrrhospora; taxonomy.
31266Wu X.-H., Lyu F.-Y., Zhao X. & Jia Z.-F. (2018): A preliminary study on the lichen genus Coenogonium from China. - 热带亚热带植物学报 / Journal of Tropical and Subtropical Botany, 26(4): 421–428.
The lichen genus Coenogonium belongs to Coenogoniaceae, Ostropales, Ostropomycetidae, Lecano- romycetes, Ascomycota, Fungi, mainly distributed in tropics and subtropics. Ten species of Coenogonium were reported, including a species, C. disjunctum, as new record to China. Each species is described and discussed in detail, and the key to the genus and the photos of the new record species are presented. It is the first systematic study on Chinese Coenogonium, which can provide the basic information for the taxonomy of lichenized fungi. Key words: Cryptogamae; Lichenized fungi; Taxonomy; New record.
31265Elbert W., Weber B., Büdel B., Andreae M.O. & Pöschl U. (2009): Microbiotic crusts on soil, rock and plants: neglected major players in the global cycles of carbon and nitrogen?. - Biogeosciences Discussions, 6: 6983–7015.
Microbiotic crusts consisting of bacteria, fungi, algae, lichens, and bryophytes colonize most terrestrial surfaces, and they are able to fix carbon and nitrogen from the atmosphere. Here we show that microbiotic crusts are likely to play major roles in the global biogeochemical cycles of carbon and nitrogen, and we suggest that they should be further characterized and taken into account in studies and models of the Earth system and climate. For the global annual net uptake of carbon by microbiotic crusts we present a first estimate of ∼3.6Pga−1. This uptake corresponds to ∼6% of the estimated global net carbon uptake by terrestrial vegetation (net primary production, NPP:∼60Pga−1), and it is of the same magnitude as the global annual carbon turnover due to biomass burning. The estimated rate of nitrogen fixation by microbiotic crusts (∼45Tga−1) amounts to ∼40% of the global estimate of biological nitrogen fixation (107Tga−1). With regard to Earth system dynamics and global change, the large contribution of microbiotic crusts to nitrogen fixation is likely to be important also for the sequestration of CO2 by terrestrial plants (CO2 fertilization), because the latter is constrained by the availability of fixed nitrogen.
31264Matvieieva N.A., Pasichnyk L.A., Zhytkevych N.V., Jacinto P.G.G. & Pidgorskyi V.S. (2015): Antimicrobial activity of extracts from Ecuadorian lichens. - Мікробіологічний журнал / Mikrobiolohichnyi Zhurnal, 77(3): 23–27.
Antimicrobial activity of the ethanolic, isopropanolic, acetone, DMSO and aqueous extracts of the two lichen species from Ecuadorian highland, Usnea sp. and Stereocaulon sp. were explored in vitro against bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by the disc-diffusion method. Also the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined. The strongest antimicrobial activity was found in DMSO extract of Usnea sp. compared to antibacterial activity of ciprfloxacin and cefazolin antibiotics. The inhibition zone was 28 mm, 30 mm, 31mm (DMSO extract, ciprfloxacin and cefazolin respectively) in case of B. subtilis usage as the test bacteria. MIC value for Usnea sp. and Stereocaulon sp. DMSO extracts was 0.4 mg/ml. E. coli was resistant to all kinds of extracts. The S. aureus sensitivity to lichen DMSO extracts was comparable to sensitivity of these microorganisms to tetracycline and vancomycin. Thereby, most kinds of extracts (ethanol, isopropanol, hexane, DMSO and acetone solvents) from Ecuadorian lichens Usnea sp. and Stereocaulon sp. with the exception of aqueous Stereocaulon sp. extracts possessed antibacterial activity against B. subtilis. DMSO lichen extracts had also antimicrobial activity against S. aureus. At the same time the extracts studied didn’t demonstrate antibacterial activity against the representatives of the most common and harmful phytopathogenic bacteria tested. Further investigations of Ecuadorian lichens especially study of plants collected from extremal highland biotops can be very important in study of possibility of treatment of numerous diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms. Key words: Usnea sp., Stereocaulon sp., Antimicrobial activity, Ecuador.
31263Tønsberg T. & Andersen H.L. (2019): Miriquidica majae, a new lichen species from oldgrowth Picea abies forests in central Norway. - Graphis Scripta, 31(3): 14–22.
The new species Miriquidica majae Tønsberg is described from northern boreal forests in Central Norway where it is restricted to trunks of Picea abies, mainly in oldgrowth forests. Chemically M. majae recalls Myochroidea porphyrospoda, but is distinct by the combination of the endosubstratal or indistinct, white thallus in non-sorediate parts, the scattered, effuse soralia, and the lack of areoles that are not completely sorediate. The apothecia are rare and usually poorly developed. The sequences from the ITS2 region of the two species differ markedly.
31262Ismailov A.B., Urbanavichus G.P. & Vondrak J. (2019): New lichenized fungi for Russia from Dagestan (East Caucasus). - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 56: 7–10.
Three lichen species (Anaptychia elbursiana, A. roemeri and Megaspora rimisorediata) are reported for the first time for Russia from Dagestan. Anaptychia elbursiana is reported for the first time from North Caucasus, and Anaptychia roemeri and Megaspora rimisorediata from the Greater Caucasus. The characteristic features of the species and information on their morphology, anatomy, ecology and world distribution are given. Differences from similar species are discussed. Keywords: lichens, new records, floristic studies, Dagestan, Caucasus, Russia.
31261Geiser L.H., Nelson P.R., Jovan S.E., Root H.T. & Clark C.M. (2019): Assessing ecological risks from atmospheric deposition of nitrogen and sulfur to US forests using epiphytic macrolichens. - Diversity, 11: 87 [29 p.].
Critical loads of atmospheric deposition help decision-makers identify levels of air pollution harmful to ecosystem components. But when critical loads are exceeded, how can the accompanying ecological risk be quantified? We use a 90% quantile regression to model relationships between nitrogen and sulfur deposition and epiphytic macrolichens, focusing on responses of concern to managers of US forests: Species richness and abundance and diversity of functional groups with integral ecological roles. Analyses utilized national-scale lichen survey data, sensitivity ratings, and modeled deposition and climate data. We propose 20, 50, and 80% declines in these responses as cut-offs for low, moderate, and high ecological risk from deposition. Critical loads (low risk cut-off) for total species richness, sensitive species richness, forage lichen abundance and cyanolichen abundance, respectively, were 3.5, 3.1, 1.9, and 1.3 kg N and 6.0, 2.5, 2.6, and 2.3 kg S ha
31260Ellis C.J. & Eaton S. (2018): The biogeography of climate change risk for Scotland's woodland biodiversity: epiphytes. - Scottish Geographical Journal, 134: 257–267.
The biodiversity threat of human-induced climate change occurs because shifts in temperature, precipitation, etc. are expected to be large and rapid, while at the same time species vulnerability is increased because of habitat loss and fragmentation, weakening an effective ecological response to climate change. Here, we map both the species exposure to climate change – a decline in suitable climatic condition for areas with diverse lichen epiphyte assemblages – and vulnerability measured as the landscape extent of native woodland, which can provide microclimatic refugia. Choropleth maps for Scotland reveal regional contrasts in the risk for lichen epiphytes; a difference between northeast Scotland, with high exposure to climate change but lower potential vulnerability, and western Scotland with a lower (or more ambiguous) exposure, but high vulnerability because of landscapes with smaller and isolated woodlands. The analysis is general and large scale, relating to species biogeography, but helps to identify key actions at smaller, habitat scales. Keywords: Biodiversity, choropleth map, climate change, risk analysis, woodland.
31259Hansen K.K., Sundset M.A., Folkow L.P., Nilsen M. & Mathiesen S.D. (2018): Methane emissions are lower from reindeer fed lichens compared to a concentrate feed. - Polar Research, 37(1): 1505396 [10 p.].
Methane emissions from reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) fed lichens (mainly Cladonia stellaris) and a concentrate feed were determined using open-circuit respirometry. The lichen diet was low in crude protein (< 2.6% of dry matter [DM]), starch (6.0% DM) and acid detergent lignin (2.0% DM) compared to the concentrate feed (12.7, 22.5 and 7.2% DM, respectively), and high in neutral detergent fibre (82.2% DM versus 34.8% DM in concentrate feed). The feeds were offered in equal amounts (ca. 0.440 kg DM) 2 h after initiating methane recordings in the respiration chamber. The reindeer were adapted to these diets for > 4 weeks prior to experiments and methane emissions recorded for two separate 23 h periods for each diet. Methane emissions increased on average by 0.93 g/h (or by 5.8 times) in the first hour after feeding the concentrate feed, while emissions remained unchanged after the intake of lichens. Mean methane emissions from reindeer (n = 5) were 7.5 ± 0.54 (SE) g CH4 day−1 when fed lichens, compared to a higher emission (p = 0.001) of 11.2 ± 0.54 g CH4 day−1 on the concentrate diet. The mean proportion of gross energy intake lost as methane was 5.2 ± 0.37% on the lichens and 7.6 ± 0.37%, or some 50% higher, on the concentrate feed. This difference was significant (p < 0.001). Our results suggest that it is of environmental importance to preserve the lichens on the tundra and minimize supplementary feeding with concentrate diets, in order to reduce methane emission. Keywords: Respirometry; dietary secondary compounds; energy loss; Rangifer tarandus.
31258Muggia L., Leavitt S. & Barreno E. (2018): The hidden diversity of lichenised Trebouxiophyceae (Chlorophyta). - Phycologia, 57(5): 503–524.
The class Trebouxiophyceae is comprised of coccoid to ellipsoid unicells, filaments, blades and colony-forming species of green algae occurring in diverse terrestrial and aquatic environments. Some representatives have evolved parasitic heterotrophic lifestyles, others have been investigated for their biotechnological potential and others have evolved as integral components of lichen symbioses. In this review, we provide an overview of the current understanding of diversity, taxonomy and evolutionary context for the important lichen-forming algal class Trebouxiophyceae (Chlorophyta). In particular, we focus on members of the family Trebouxiaceae (Trebouxiales), the best-known, most widespread and most species-rich group of terrestrial, lichenised green algae. Recent investigations on the diversity of lichen phycobionts demonstrate the importance of implementing integrative taxonomic approaches. Therefore, combining analyses of morphological and anatomical traits with genetic data has improved our perspective of diversity in lichenised algae. More accurate recognition of diversity in Trebouxiophyceae will enhance our understanding of phylogenetic relationships and trait evolution, specimen identification in genomic and meta–bar-coding studies and patterns of specificity and selectivity among the lichen symbionts. We conclude with a discussion of the roles and transformative potential of high-throughput sequencing in research related to lichen-associated algae. Key words: Asterochloris, Coexistence, Ecology, Genomic, Microalgae, Phylogenetics, Species, Systematics.
31257Nugraha A.S., Pratoko D.K., Damayanti Y.D., Lestari N.D., Laksono T.A., Addy H.S., Untari L.F., Kusumawardani B. & Wangchuk P. (2019): Antibacterial and anticancer activities of nine lichens of Indonesian Java Island. - Journal of Biologically Active Products from Nature, 9: 39–46.
Lichen is a unique composite organism that arises from algae and fungi symbiotic relationship. There are 18,500 recorded lichen species worldwide but only limited number of global species has been tested for their biological activities. In particular, Indonesian lichens are rarely investigated. In this study, we collected and identified nine lichen species from six different locations in East Java Indonesia and screened their crude methanol extracts against gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and cancer cells (MCF7, Widr and Hela). While only the methanol extract of Parmelia cetrata Ach and Parmelia dilatata Vain inhibited Pseudomonas aeruginosa, most lichen extracts possessed moderate cytotoxicity. Cladonia scabriuscula methanol extract was cytotoxic against MCF7, Widr and Hela cell lines with IC50 value of 324, 324, 476 μg/mL, respectively. Moreover, methanol extract of Physcia cf. millegrana Degel indicated cytotoxicity against Hela cell line with IC50 value of 137 μg/mL. This study revealed anticancer potency of lichen of Java Island for the first time and further research is necessary for isolating the bioactive compounds. Key words: Medicinal plant, Lichen, Java island, phytochemical, antimicrobial, anticancer.
31256Machado N.M., Ribeiro A.B., Nicolella H.D., Ozelin S.D., Da Silva L.H.D., Guissone A.P.P., Rinaldi-Neto F., Lemos I.L.L., Furtado R.A., Cunha W.R., De Rezende A.A.A., Spanó M.A. & Tavares D.C. (2019): Usnic acid attenuates genomic instability in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells as well as chemical-induced preneoplastic lesions in rat colon. - Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A, 82(6): 401–410.
Keywords: (+)-Usnic acid, genotoxicity, antigenotoxicity, anticarcinogenic effect, chemoprevention.
31255Kawakami H., Suzuki C., Yamaguchi H., Hara K., Komine M. & Yamamoto Y. (2019): Norlichexanthone produced by cultured endolichenic fungus induced from Pertusaria laeviganda and its antioxidant activity. - Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry, 83(6): 996–999.
Endolichenic fungi, nonobligate microfungi that live in lichen, are promising as new bioresources of pharmacological compounds. We found that norlichexanthone isolated from the endolichenic fungus in Pertusaria laeviganda exhibited high antioxidant activity. Norlichexanthone produced by endolichenic fungus had the antioxidant activity with same level of ascorbic acid. This is the first report of high antioxidant activity of norlichexanthone. Keywords: Endolichenic fungi, Pertusaria laeviganda, norlichexanthone, antioxidant activity.
31254Sanders W.B. & de los Ríos A. (2019): The cellular cortex in Collemataceae (lichenized Ascomycota) participates in thallus growth and morphogenesis via parenchymatous cell divisions. - Mycologia, 111(2): 206–216.
According to a widely held view, fungi do not produce parenchymatous tissues. Following up on recent transmission electron microscopy (TEM) evidence that challenged this paradigm in several lichens, we employed scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to investigate the orientation of new anticlinal walls in the single-layered fungal cortex of six species of Collemataceae, a family of gelatinous cyanolichens with diverse surface morphologies. Examination of thallus surfaces in four species of Leptogium (L. austromericanum, L. burnetiae, L. chloromelum, L. marginellum) and two species of Scytinium (S. gelatinosum, S. lichenoides) revealed that recently formed septa adjoin to preceding septa in parenchymatous division. These cortical divisions were evident in the formation and development of thallus wrinkles, folds, isidia, and lobules in the six morphologically distinct taxa. Tomentum, by contrast, arose as filamentous outgrowths of the cortical cells. We conclude that the monostromatic cellular cortex in Collemataceae participates in surface growth and morphogenesis by means of parenchymatous cell divisions, in a remarkable parallel to plant meristems. Cortical cell divisions do not appear to drive morphogenesis, however, as very similar morphologies are achieved in the closely related genus Collema, which lacks a cortex altogether. These results provide evidence that parenchymatous cell division can indeed play a role in morphogenesis of fungal structures and show that SEM is a useful tool for distinguishing the orientation of anticlinal divisions in the cortex of gelatinous lichens. Keywords: Collema, fungal tissue, Leptogium, lichen cortex, lichen thallus, parenchyma, parenchymatous division, pseudoparenchyma, plectenchyma, Scytinium, septation.
31253Hawrył A., Hajnos-Stolarz A., Hawrył M. & Bogucka-Kocka A. (2019): TLC fingerprint with chemometrics and antioxidant activity of selected lichens. - Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies, 42: 302–310.
Selected lichens, collected in forests near Lublin (Poland) were extracted using Soxhlet apparatus with dichloromethane and methanol as solvents. The obtained extracts were analyzed using the Thin Layer Chromatography with silica gel as adsorbent and the mixture of toluene, ethyl acetate and formic acid (10/10/0.5; v/v/v, respectively) as mobile phase. Developed chromatographic plates were sprayed using the Naturstoff reagent to confirm the presence of some phenolic compounds. The images of plates were digitalized using TLC Analyzer software and the obtained chromatograms were exported to Excel and converted to csv files. Next csv files were loaded to SpecAlign program, where the smoothing, subtraction (original word misspelled) of background and normalization were performed. The chemical differences between samples were confirmed using the similarity (Pearson correlation coefficient) and distance (Euclidean distance) indices with cluster analysis and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Additionally, the preliminary evaluation of the antioxidant activity of the examined extracts of lichens was performed by use of the DPPH TLC test. Keywords: Chemometrics; DPPH; fingerprint; lichens; TLC; phenolic compounds.
31252Launis A., Malíček J., Svensson M., Tsurykau A., Sérusiaux E. & Myllys L (2019): Sharpening species boundaries in the Micarea prasina group, with a new circumscription of the type species M. prasina. - Mycologia, May 17:1-19..
Micarea is a lichenized genus in the family Pilocarpaceae (Ascomycota). We studied the phylogeny and reassessed the current taxonomy of the M. prasina group. We focused especially on the taxonomic questions concerning the type species M. prasina and, furthermore, challenges concerning type specimens that are too old for successful DNA barcoding and molecular studies. The phylogeny was reconstructed using nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 = ITS), mitochrondrial rDNA small subunit (mtSSU), and replication licensing factor MCM7 gene from 31 species. Fifty-six new sequences were generated. The data were analyzed using maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood methods. The results revealed four undescribed, well-supported lineages. Three lineages represent new species described here as M. fallax, M. flavoleprosa, and M. pusilla. In addition, our results support the recognition of M. melanobola as a distinct species. Micarea fallax is characterized by a vivid to olive green thallus composed of aggregated granules and whitish or brownish apothecia sometimes with grayish tinge (Sedifolia-gray pigment).Micarea flavoleprosa has a thick, wide-spreading yellowish green, whitish green to olive green sorediate thallus and lacks the Sedifolia-gray pigmentation. The species is mostly anamorphic, developing apothecia rarely. Micarea melanobola is characterized by a pale to dark vivid green granular thallus and darkly pigmented apothecia (Sedifolia-gray). Micarea pusilla is characterized by a whitish green to olive green thinly granular or membranous thallus, numerous and very small whitish apothecia lacking the Sedifolia-gray pigment, and by the production of methoxymicareic acid. Micarea fallax, M. flavoleprosa, and M. melanobola produce micareic acid. The reliability of crystalline granules as a character for species delimitation was investigated and was highly informative for linking the old type specimen of M. prasina to fresh material.
31251Zakeri Z., Otte V., Sipman H., Malíček J., Cubas P., Rico V.J., Lenzová V., Svoboda D. & Divakar P.K. (2019): Discovering cryptic species in the Aspiciliella intermutans complex (Megasporaceae, Ascomycota) – First results using gene concatenation and coalescent-based species tree approaches. - PLoS ONE, 14(5): e0216675.
Taxonomic identifications in some groups of lichen-forming fungi have been challenge largely due to the scarcity of taxonomically relevant features and limitations of morphological and chemical characters traditionally used to distinguish closely related taxa. Delineating species boundaries in closely related species or species complexes often requires a range of multisource data sets and comprehensive analytical methods. Here we aim to examine species boundaries in a group of saxicolous lichen forming fungi, the Aspiciliella intermutans complex (Megasporaceae), widespread mainly in the Mediterranean. We gathered DNA sequences of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (nuITS), the nuclear large subunit (nuLSU), the mitochondrial small subunit (mtSSU) ribosomal DNA, and the DNA replication licensing factor MCM7 from 80 samples mostly from Iran, Caucasia, Greece and eastern Europe. We used a combination of phylogenetic strategies and a variety of empirical, sequence-based species delimitation approaches to infer species boundaries in this group. The latter included: the automatic barcode gap discovery (ABGD), the multispecies coalescent approach *BEAST and Bayesian Phylogenetics and Phylogeography (BPP) program. Different species delimitation scenarios were compared using Bayes factors species delimitation analysis. Furthermore, morphological, chemical, ecological and geographical features of the sampled specimens were examined. Our study uncovered cryptic species diversity in A. intermutans and showed that morphology-based taxonomy may be unreliable, underestimating species diversity in this group of lichens. We identified a total of six species-level lineages in the A. intermutans complex using inferences from multiple empirical operational criteria. We found little corroboration between morphological and ecological features with our proposed candidate species, while secondary metabolite data do not corroborate tree topology. The present study on the A. intermutans species-complex indicates that the genus Aspiciliella, as currently circumscribed, is more diverse in Eurasia than previously expected.
31250Hoffman A.S., Albeke S.E., McMurray J.A., Evans R.D. & Williams D.G. (2019): Nitrogen deposition sources and patterns in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem determined from ion exchange resin collectors, lichens, and isotopes. - Science of the Total Environment, 683: 709–718.
Over the past century, atmospheric nitrogen deposition (Ndep) has increased across the western United States due to agricultural and urban development, resulting in degraded ecosystem quality. Regional patterns of Ndep are often estimated by coupling direct measurements from large-scale monitoring networks and atmospheric chemistry models, but such efforts can be problematic in the western US because of complex terrain and sparse sampling. This study aimed not only to understand Ndep patterns in mountainous ecosystems but also to investigate whether isotope values of lichens and throughfall deposition can be used to determine Ndep sources, and serve as an additional tool in ecosystem health assessments. We measured Ndep amounts and δ15N in montane conifer forests of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem using canopy throughfall and bulk monitors and lichens. In addition, we examined patterns of C:N ratios in lichens as a possible indicator of lichen physiological condition. The isotopic signature of δ15N of Ndep helps to discern emission sources, because δ15N of NOx from combustion tends to be high (−5 to +25‰) while NHx from agricultural sources tends to be comparatively low (−40 to −10‰). Summertime Ndep increased with elevation and ranged from 0.26 to 1.66 kg ha−1. Ndep was higher than expected in remote areas. The δ15N values of lichens were typically −15.3 to −10‰ suggesting agriculture as a primary emission source of deposition. Lichen %N, δ15N and C:N ratios can provide important information about Ndep sources and patterns over small spatial scales in complex terrain.
31249Grishkan I., Lázaro R. & Kidron G.J. (2019): Cultured microfungal communities in biological soil crusts and bare soils at the Tabernas Desert, Spain. - Soil Systems, 3: 36 [18 p.].
We examined the variations in microfungal communities from different surface types (cyanobacterial crusts, lichen-dominated crusts, and noncrusted bare surface) at two different positions—north-oriented slope and sun-exposed plain in the Tabernas Desert, Spain. A total of 77 species from 46 genera was isolated using the soil dilution plate method. The studied mycobiota, similar to the majority of desert mycobiotas, was dominated by melanin-containing species. However, in the Tabernas crusts, unlike the studied crusts of the Negev Desert (Israel) and the Tengger Desert (China), melanized fungi with large multicellular spores were much less abundantly represented, while the thermotolerant group, Aspergillus spp., remarkably contributed to the communities’ structure. Density of microfungal isolates positively correlated with chlorophyll content indicating possible significant influence of organic matter content on fungal biomass. The variations in crust composition, biomass, and the position of habitats were accompanied by the variations in microfungal community structure, diversity level, and isolate densities, with the communities at the plain sun-exposed position being much less variable than the communities at the north-oriented position. The study shows that microclimatic and edaphic factors play an essential role in the development of crust and noncrust microfungal communities, and their structure can be a sensitive indicator of changing environmental conditions at a microscale. Keywords: biological soil crusts; chlorophyll content; diversity level; microfungal communities; species composition.
31248Jørgensen P.M. & Nimis P.L. (2019): On the typification of the lichen genus Lepra Scop.. - Taxon, 68(1): 132–136.
The first typification of Lepra Scop. by Pertusaria discoidea (Pers.) Malme (= Lepra albescens (Hudson) Hafellner), made in the Paris Code (1956), is shown to be correct after studies of the original material in the Micheli Herbarium in FI. Details of the latter are given. All later statements about this case, even in the Code, are irrelevant. Keywords: included species; nomenclature; Marflorea; Micheli; Variolaria.
31247Ходосовцев О.Є. [Khodosovtsev A.Ye.] (2019): Експедиції по водоспадах рівнинної частини України [Expeditions to the waterfalls of the Ukrainian plains]. - Чорноморський ботанічний журнал [Chornomorski Botanical Journal], 15(1): 89–94.
In Ukrainian
31246Ходосовцев О.Є., Дармостук В.В., Ходосовцева Ю.А. & Гайченя Ю.В. [Khodosovtsev A.Ye., Darmostuk V.V., Khodosovtseva Yu.A., Gaychenya Yu.V.] (2019): Лишайники та ліхенофільні гриби Трикратського гранітного масиву (Україна) [The lichens and lichenicolous fungi of Trykraty granite massive (Ukraine)]. - Чорноморський ботанічний журнал [Chornomorski Botanical Journal], 15(1): 54–68.
[In Ukrainian with English abstract:] 156 species of lichens and 44 species of lichenicolous fungi were found in the Trykraty granite massive. Lichenicolous fungi Cercidospora xanthoriae, Endococcus fusiger, Rosellinula frustulosae, Stigmidium squamariae, Tremella phaeophysciae, Xenonectriella leptaleae and lichen Coenogonium pineti are new for the steppe zone of Ukraine. 79 species of the lichens and 36 species of the lichenicolous fungi are reported for the first time for the National Nature Park “Buzky Gard”. Nine species were determined at the generic level and therefore require further identification. The exposed rock surfaces, seepage sites on granite, different soils in Aktovskiy, Arbuzynsky, Petropavlovsky canyons, ancient tree plantations in Nature Reserves “Labyrynt” and “Vasyleva Pasika” provided high gamma-diversity of the lichens and lichenicolous fungi in Trykraty granite massive. The nature habitats of this massive occupies of 750 ha and includes 200 species of lichens and lichenicolous fungi, therefore it is considered to be a hot-spot of biodiversity in plains of Ukraine. Eighty-four species of lichens were found in granite surfaces, 64 species – on bark of deciduous trees and only 12 species grow on soil between granite boulders. Thirty-six species of lichenicolous fungi were collected on saxicolous lichens. Lasallia pustulata is a lichen included in the Red Data Book of Ukraine which is protected in Trykraty department of the Natural Nature Park “Buzky Gard”. The lichens Acrocordia gemmata, Bacidia fraxinea, B. rubella, Caloplaca monacensis, Chaenotheca chlorella, C. trichialis, Cladonia uncialis, Coenogonium pineti, Lichinella nigritella, L. stipatula, Opegrapha niveoatra, Pseudoschismatomma rufescens, Ramalina intermedia, Scytinium gelatinosum, Xanthoparmelia loxodes and X. pokornyi were included to official list of species which require protection in Mykolaiv region. Key words: canyons, Mertvovod, Ukrainian crystalline massive, saxicolous, steppe zone.
31245Araújo H.D.A., Aires A.L., Júnior J.G.S., Oliveira J.R.S., Libeiro M.H.M.L., Martins M.C.B., Bezerra M.A.C., Aires A.L., Albuquerque M.C.P.A., Melo-Júnior M.R., Filho N.T.P., Pereira E.C., Silva D.J.R., dos Anjos J.V., Falcão E.P.S., Silva N.H. & Lima V.L.M. (2019): Usnic acid potassium salt: evaluation of the acute toxicity and antinociceptive effect in murine model. - Molecules, 24:2042 [17 p.].
To obtain usnic acid potassium salt (PS-UA), the usnic acid (UA) was extracted and purified from the lichen Cladonia substellata, and modified to produce PS-UA. The structure was determined by 1H-NMR, IR and elemental analysis, ratified through computational models, as well as identification the site of K+ insertion in the molecule. Antinociceptive activity was detected through contortions in mice induced by acetic acid and formalin (phases I and II) after treatments with 10 and 20 mg/kg of PS-UA, indicating interference in both non-inflammatory and inflammatory pain. After oral administration at doses of 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg, no deaths of mice with treatments below 2000 mg/kg were observed. Except for body weight gain, food and water consumption decreased with treatments of 1000 and 2000 mg/kg, and the number of segmented leukocytes was higher for both treatments. Regarding serum levels, cholesterol and triglycerides decreased, however, there was an increase in hepatic transaminases with both treatments. Liver and kidney histological changes were detected in treatments of 2000 mg/kg, while the spleen was preserved. The PS-UA demonstrated antinociceptive activity while the acute toxicity at the concentration of 2000 mg/kg was the only dose that presented morphological changes in the liver and kidney.
31244 Gül Ü.D., Şenol Z.M., Gürsoy N. & Şimşek S. (2019): Effective UO22+ removal from aqueous solutions using lichen biomass as a natural and low-cost biosorbent. - Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 205–206: 93–100.
The UO22+ biosorption properties of a lichen, Evernia prunastri, from aqueous solutions were investigated. The widely occurring lichen samples were collected from the forest in Bilecik-Turkey. The UO22+ biosorption onto lichen was characterized by FT-IR and SEM-EDX analysis techniques before and after biosorption. The effects of the solution pH, biosorbent dosage, UO22+ concentration, contact time, and temperature on UO22+ biosorption on lichen sample were studied by using the batch method. The isotherm experimental data were described using isotherm models of Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin Radushkevich. The maximum UO22+ biosorption capacity of the lichen sample was estimated by the Langmuir equation to be 0.270 mol kg−1. The adsorption energy from the Dubin Radushkevich model was found to be 8.24 kJ mol−1. Kinetic data determined that the biosorption was best described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Thermodynamic findings showed that the biosorption process was endothermic, entropy increased and spontaneous. In conclusion, the lichen appears to be a promising biosorbent for the removal of UO22+ ions from aqueous solutions because of high biosorption capacity, easy usability, low cost, and high reusability performance.
31243Huang Y., Xiang J., Wang C., Ren D., JohnsonDavid & Xu T. (2019): Lichen as a biomonitor for vehicular emission of metals: a risk assessment of lichen consumption by the Sichuan Snub-Nosed Monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana). - Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 180: 679–685.
Two lichen species, Usnea aciculifera and Usnea luridorufa, were used as biomonitors for the deposition of traffic-related metals in China's Shennongjia National Nature Reserve. The suitability of the two lichen species for use as biomonitors was compared. The health threat to the Sichuan snub-nosed (aka golden) monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) from consuming lichen with elevated metal concentrations due to vehicular traffic was then assessed. Lichens, with large surface areas and neither roots nor stomata, efficiently absorb both particulate and gaseous air pollutants. The resulting data was used to assess the effect of heavy metal accumulation on the lichens as well as the health risk imposed on the monkeys as lichen is a primary food source. Lichen samples were collected in the core area of the reserve at three locations of varying traffic intensity. A forth site in the reserve, with no proximate traffic, was used as the control. Results show: (1) lichen from high traffic sites has significantly higher concentrations of Fe, Cd, Pb Zn, and Cr than lichen collected from the control site; (2) vehicular traffic is the primary source of metals in lichen; (3) U. luridorufa collected at high traffic sites displayed decreased photosynthetic efficiency, an indication of stress; (4) intake of Cd and Pb from vehicle emissions in the Shennongjia National Nature Reserve could adversely affect snub-nosed monkey health. This research advances the science of biomonitoring, contributes to environmental protection efforts in China's nature reserves and helps improve food safety for Sichuan snub-nosed monkey, a national treasure of China. Keywords: Traffic metal; chlorophyll fluorescence; lichen; golden monkey; health risk.
31242Lendemer J.C. & Allen J.L. (2019): Hypotrachyna oprah (Parmeliaceae, Lichenized Ascomycota), a new foliose lichen with lichexanthone from southeastern North America. - Castanea, 84: 24–32.
Hypotrachyna oprah is described as new to science from collections made at locations in southeastern North America (Alabama, Florida, North Carolina). The species is considered rare and was potentially confused with H. osseoalba in the past. It differs from H. osseoalba in having capitate soralia and producing echinocarpic acid, together with related substances, in the medulla. The specific epithet was chosen to honor Dr. Oprah Winfrey for her performances, media presence, and generous philanthropy that have substantially improved humanity. Key words: Appalachian Mountains, biodiversity hotspot, Coastal Plain, conservation, endemism, lichenized diaspores, Talladega National Forest.
31241Yang C., Baral H.-O., Xu X. & Liu Y. (2019): Parakarstenia phyllostachydis, a new genus and species of non-lichenized Odontotremataceae (Ostropales, Ascomycota). - Mycological Progress, 18: 833–845.
The new species Parakarstenia phyllostachydis was discovered on stems of Phyllostachys heteroclada in Sichuan Province of China and is placed in a new genus within Odontotremataceae in this paper. A multigene analysis of a combined nuclear ITS and LSU rDNA and mtSSU sequence dataset and comparable morphologies suggests the taxonomic affinity of the new taxon in this family. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference phylogenetic analyses provide evidence that the fungus is best placed in a distinct genus within this family. The new genus is compared with similar genera of Ostropales and a comprehensive description and illustration are offered. Parakarstenia is characterized by its distinct suite of features, such as initially immersed, intracortical, later erumpent and seemingly superficial, sessile and usually gregarious apothecia with a flat to slightly convex, greyish white or pale brown disc; a hairless, buff to yellow receptacle; a non-protruding margin, absent periphysoids and crystals, cylindrical to clavate asci with conical apex and a hemiamyloid (type RR) outer wall; and narrowly cylindrical-clavate to fusoid, vermiform, straight to medium curved, initially non-septate, at maturity transversely multiseptate ascospores. An updated phylogram for Ostropales with selected, predominantly non-lichenized members based on multigene analysis is provided. Keywords: New genus and species . Bambusicolous fungi . Karstenia . Phylogeny . Taxonomy.
31240Боровичев Е.А., Кожин М.Н., Белкина О.А., Константинова Н.А., Кравченко А.В., Мелехин А.В., Попова К.Б., Урбанавичюс Г.П. & Химич Ю.Р. [Borovichev E.A., Kozhin M.N., Belkina O.A., Konstantinova N.A., Kravchenko A.V., Melekhin A.V., Popova K.B., Urbanavichus G.P. & Khimich Yu.R.] (2019): Роль Особо охраняемых природных территорий в сохранении редких видов грибов, лишайников и растений Зеленого пояса Фенноскандии [The role of protected areas in conserving rare fungi, lichens and plants in the green belt of fennoscandia (Murmansk region)]. - Труды Карельского научного центра РАН / Transactions of Karelian Research Centre of Russian Academy of Science, 4: 100–118.
The diversity and distribution of rare and threatened fungi, lichens, mosses, liverworts and vascular plants listed in the Red Data Books of the Murmansk Region (regionally red-listed) and Russia (nationally red-listed) within the Murmansk part of the Green Belt of Fennoscandia (GBF) are discussed. Records include 261 regionally red-listed species (8 species of fungi, 57 lichens, 31 liverworts, 55 mosses, and 110 vascular plants), i. e. 63.5 % of the total pool of red-listed species, and 17 nationally red-listed species (4 lichens, 5 liverworts, 1 moss and 7 vascular plants). Protected areas harbor 17 of the 30 nationally red-listed species known from the Murmansk Region, and 219 of the 411 regionally red-listed species, proving that protected areas inside GBF play an essential role in nature conservation in the Murmansk Region. The protected areas of greatest conservation significance for a majority of the analyzed groups are the Kutsa Nature Reserve (Zakaznik), Pasvik Stat Nature Reserve and Poluostrova Rybachy and Sredny Nature Park. For 43 red-listed species there are no records from protected areas inside GBF, including such species rare in the Murmansk Region as Peltigera lyngei, Carex atherodes, Botrychium lanceolatum, Lomatogonium rotatum, Draba nivalis, D. lactea, Flaviporus citrinellus, Skeletocutis lilacina, Chaenothecopsis fennica, Frullania tamarisci, Scapania simmonsii, Rhabdoweisia fugax, Tortula mucronifolia, Tanacetum bipinnatum, etc.). The priority steps to be taken to secure the preservation of rare and vulnerable species populations are reorganization of the Kutsa Nature Reserve into a Nature Park and alteration of the boundaries of the Poluostrova Rybachy and Sredny Nature Park. K e y w o r d s: Red Data Book of the Murmansk Region; protected areas; fungi; lichens; liverworts; mosses; vascular plants; Green Belt of Fennoscandia.
31239Кожин М.Н., Боровичев Е.А., Белкина О.А., Давыдов Д.А., Денисов Д.Б., Исаева Л.Г., Константинова Н.А., Мелехин А.В., Попова К.Б., Урбанавичюс Г.П. & Химич Ю.Р. [Kozhin M.N., Borovichev E.A., Belkina O.A., Davydov D.A., Denisov D.B., Isaeva L.G., Konstantinova N.A., Melekhin A.V., Popova K.B., Urbanavichus G.P. & Khimich Yu.R.] (2019): История и основные итоги изучения криптогамных организмов Зеленого пояса Фенноскандии в пределах Мурманской области [History and main outputs of cryptogams study in the Green belt of Fennoscandia within Murmansk region]. - Труды Карельского научного центра РАН / Transactions of Karelian Research Centre of Russian Academy of Science, 4: 64–88.
The studies of cryptogams in the Green Belt of Fennoscandia (GBF) within Murmansk Region are reviewed and summarized. This territory, important in terms of biodiversity conservation, encompasses 13 operating protected areas, yet remains insufficiently studied. At first, since the mid-19th century, Finnish scientists played the key role in detecting the cryptogam biota of the GBF. They organized and carried out field surveys, as well as further taxonomic identifications and treatments of individual groups. Later, in the 20th century, intensive studies of cryptogams were associated with economic developments in the region, the establishment and activities of biological institutions in Murmansk Region: Polar-Alpine Botanical Garden-Institute and Institute of North Industrial Ecology Problems of the Kola Science Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences, science departments of strict nature reserves. At the beginning of the 21st century, Forest Research Institute and Institute of Biology of the Karelian Research Centre RAS became involved in the studies. The research mostly focused on the general biodiversity exploration of the territory, but at the same time some new taxa were discovered within various groups of organisms. An analysis of the current state of knowledge shows that algae and fungi in the GBF within Murmansk Region have been studied rather fragmentarily, and the known species composition does not reflect their real diversity. Lichens, mosses and liverworts of the territory have been revealed to a much greater extent. The Pasvik Strict Nature Reserve, the Ainov Islands of Kandalakshsky Strict Nature Reserve, the Nature Park The Rybachy and the Sredny Peninsulas and the regional nature reserve (zakaznik) Kutsa are the best studied areas, and the bulk of the cryptogam diversity of the GBF is concentrated there. K e y w o r d s: history of studies; protected areas; biodiversity; fungi; lichens; cyanoprokaryotes; algae; liverworts; mosses; Murmansk Region; Green Belt of Fennoscandia.
31238Allen J.L. & McMullin R.T. (2019): Modeling algorithm influence on the success of predicting new populations of rare species: ground‑truthing models for the Pale‑Belly Frost Lichen (Physconia subpallida) in Ontario. - Biodiversity and Conservation, 28: 1853–1862.
Conservation of rare species relies on a thorough knowledge of distributions and the locations of populations. Field surveys for new populations of rare species are time consuming and resource intensive. Thus, it is essential to conduct searches as efficiently as possible. Model-based sampling, where species distribution models are used to select sites with high probability of the species presence for surveys, can drastically improve the efficiency and success of field sampling. The vast array of methods to build species distribution models can make it difficult to select one approach to implement for a project. Here we directly compared two methods, Maxent and non-parametric multiplicative regression (NPMR), using the endangered lichen Physconia subpallida as the focal species. We built models using all known localities of P. subpallida in Ontario, Canada, then ground-truthed each of the models for 9 days over a 2-year period, searching only areas predicted to have the highest level of probability of species occurrence. NPMR far outperformed Maxent, with the discovery of six new populations with a total of 36 individuals compared to one new population consisting of a single individual, respectively. The disparity between the two results likely stems from the potentially over-simplified response curves from Maxent when compared to NPMR. If a complex relationship is expected between the species and environmental variables, NPMR may outperform Maxent. However, there is not a single modeling algorithm that works best in every situation, so it is essential to test multiple modeling methods for guiding rare species surveys. Keywords: Species distribution modeling · Model-based sampling · Maxent · Species at risk · Endangered species.
31237Galanty A., Paśko P. & Podolak I. (2019): Enantioselective activity of usnic acid: a comprehensive review and future perspectives. - Phytochemistry Reviews, 18: 527–548 .
This review is focused on the comparison of the biological and pharmacological activities of usnic acid enantiomers. Most of the available data refer to (?)-usnic acid, while the left-handed isomer has been less often significantly studied. Special attention was paid to the experiments comparing both (?)- and (-)-usnic acid at the same time, the results of which indicated interesting differences, however no tendency as to which enantiomer was more potent could be observed. Nevertheless, more studies, especially on (-)-usnic acid, are needed to give a final explanation for the similarities and differences between both usnic acid enantiomers. These should be especially directed to steric structure–activity relationship of the enantiomers, tested under the same experimental conditions, which may help to explain the possible mechanisms of their actions. Keywords: Antibacterial;  Chirality;  Cytotoxic;  Enantiomers; Usnic acid.
31236Burgaz A.R., Luna-González S., Gutiérrez-Larruga B., Pino-Bodas R., Lőkös L. & Farkas E. (2019): Diversity of Albanian Cladoniaceae. - Botanica Complutensis, 43: 15–40.
As a result of collections made during the years 2009-2017, the number of Cladoniaceae species is enlarged to 27 species, providing fifteen new records to Albanian Cladonia. The distribution of many of the previously mentioned taxa is extended and the chemical variability for many of the species is discussed. Cladonia borealis, C. caespiticia, C. cervicornis, C. coccifera, C. conista, C. cryptochlorophaea, C. cyathomorpha, C. humilis, C. merochlorophaea, C. parasitica, C. peziziformis, C. polycarpoides, C. ramulosa, C. rei and C. subulata are new for Albania. Key words: Cladonia; Albania; phytogeography.
31235Lendemer J.C. (2019): Recent literature on lichens—252. - Bryologist, 122(1): 172–181.
31234Kirika P.M., Divakar P.K., Crespo A. & Lumbsch H.T. (2019): Molecular and phenotypical studies on species diversity of Hypotrachyna (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) in Kenya, East Africa. - Bryologist, 122(1): 141–150.
The delimitation of species boundaries of tropical lichen-forming fungi remains relatively poorly known. Recent studies demonstrated higher species diversity in tropical areas than previously assumed. Here we focus on the genus Hypotrachyna, which is a speciose group of parmelioid lichens with a center of distribution in tropical areas and on collections made over the last decade in Kenya. We gathered DNA sequences of nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS), large subunit (nuLSU) and mitochondrial small subunit (mtSSU) from 136 samples and analyzed them in phylogenetic frameworks. Morphological, chemical and ecological features were re-evaluated. We show that several species that were supposed to have wide, intercontinental distributions consist of separate lineages. Consequently, three new species are described from Kenya: H. kenyana, H. meridionalis, and H. nyandaruaensis. Furthermore, the separation of H. meyeri from H. sinuosa is supported by molecular data and we propose to use the name H. imbricatula for Neotropical samples and H. orientalis for Paleotropical specimens of H. imbricatula s.l. Our study supports the hypothesis that distributional ranges in parmelioid lichens are more restricted than previously assumed. Keywords: Hidden diversity, molecular systematics, new species, parmelioid lichens, phylogeny, taxonomy.
31233Paz-Bermúdez G., Archer A.W. & Elix J.A. (2019): A first approach to the lichen flora of Guinea-Bissau. - Bryologist, 122(1): 151–157.
Twenty lichen taxa are reported as new from Guinea-Bissau; one is new to continental Africa, seven are reported for the first time from western Africa and one is described here as new to science, namely Pertusaria guineabissauensis, which has eight hyaline, smooth-walled ascospore per ascus and contains stictic acid. Keywords: Africa, biodiversity, herbaria, COI, new species, Pertusaria.
31232McMullin R.T. (2019): Lichens and allied fungi added to the list of rare species inhabiting the Carden Alvar Natural Area, Ontario. - Natural Areas Journal, 39(2): 212–225.
Alvars are globally rare ecosystems occurring mostly in the Great Lakes region of North America and the Baltic region of northern Europe. They are defined by calcareous rock (dolostone, limestone, or marble) plains with exposed pavement, thin soil with grasslands, or forested areas that are usually stunted. One of the largest alvars in the Great Lakes region is the Carden Alvar Natural Area (Carden), which is in southern Ontario ~100 km NNE of Toronto and ~25 km E of Orillia. In recent decades, recognition of the rare and uncommon species inhabiting Carden has led to the protection of 3035 of its ~12,873 ha (24%). To continue to better understand Carden’s wildlife, the first detailed survey of the lichens and allied fungi was completed in 2015 and is presented herein. The study was conducted on protected lands and revealed 199 species in 99 genera. Twenty-five species are provincially listed as S1 (critically imperiled), S2 (imperiled), or S3 (vulnerable) by the Ontario Natural Heritage Information Centre, several species represent major range extensions in the province, and a high number (17) of species with cyanobacteria as their primary photobiont were discovered. Results from this study can assist land managers in Carden to identify areas of high conservation value, develop sound conservation strategies, and justify the purchase or donation of additional property for conservation purposes. Index terms: biodiversity, biogeography, conservation, cyanolichens, IUCN Red List of Ecosystems.
31231McCune B., Di Meglio E., Tønsberg T. & Yahr R. (2019): Five new crustose Stereocaulon species in western North America. - Bryologist, 122(2): 197–218.
Crustose Stereocaulon species have only recently been reported from North America, and targeting them specifically in recent fieldwork revealed an unexpected diversity of species. We sampled crustose Stereocaulon species in western North America from Alaska to Oregon and analyzed them by morphology, DNA sequencing, and thin-layer chromatography. Five new species were found, along with one species known from northern Europe and North America (S. leucophaeopsis), a second one previously known only from northern Europe and eastern North America (S. plicatile), and one previously known western North American endemic (S. nivale). Each of these species is supported by DNA sequences, as well as morphological and chemical characters, such that they can be distinguished by simple spot tests and morphology. One exception is that S. leucophaeopsis and S. areolatum may be difficult to distinguish when sterile without a DNA sequence. The number of crustose Stereocaulon species known from North America is increased from 3 to 8. Seven of those eight species occur in the national parks of southwestern Alaska (Katmai, Lake Clark, and Kenai Fjords). Two of the eight are known from Oregon and Washington. Keywords: Lichenized fungi, Stereocaulon areolatum, Stereocaulon cephalocrustatum, Stereocaulon fecundum, Stereocaulon hypothallinum, Stereocaulon nivale, Stereocaulon oregonense, Stereocaulon plicatile, Stereocaulaceae.
31230Guzow-Krzemińska B., Jabłońska A., Flakus A., Rodriguez-Flakus P., Kosecka M. & Kukwa M. (2019): Phylogenetic placement of Lepraria cryptovouauxii sp. nov. (Lecanorales, Lecanoromycetes, Ascomycota) with notes on other Lepraria species from South America. - MycoKeys, 53: 1–22.
Lepraria cryptovouauxii is described as a new semicryptic species similar to L. vouauxii, from which it differs geographically (South America) and phylogenetically; both species differ in nucleotide position characters in nucITS barcoding marker. Lepraria harrisiana is reported as new to South America and L. nothofagi as new to Antarctica, Bolivia, and Peru. Lepraria incana (South American records are referred to L. aff. hodkinsoniana) and L. vouauxii (most South American records are referred to L. cryptovouauxii) should be excluded at least temporarily from the lichen list of South America. All records previously referred to as L. alpina from Bolivia and Peru belong to L. nothofagi. Most of Bolivian records of L. pallida belong to L. harrisiana. Lepraria borealis and L. caesioalba should be included in L. neglecta. Lepraria achariana, L. impossibilis, and L. sipmaniana are sequenced for the first time. Keywords: lichenized fungi, morphology, Neotropics, nucITS rDNA, secondary metabolites, taxonomy.
31229Paoli L., Fačkovcová Z., Guttová A., Maccelli C., Kresáňová K. & Loppi S. (2019): Evernia goes to school: Bioaccumulation of heavy metals and photosynthetic performance in lichen transplants exposed indoors and outdoors in public and private environments. - Plants, 8(5):125 [10 p.].
Recently indoor air quality (IAQ) has become a key issue, especially in schools, where children spend most of the day. Only in a few cases IAQ was investigated using lichens as biomonitors. During autumn 2017, lichens (Evernia prunastri) were exposed for two months indoors and outdoors in public (schools) and private (dwellings) environments, in both rural and urban areas of Slovakia. The bioaccumulation of selected elements and the physiological status of the samples were considered. The content of heavy metals increased in samples exposed outdoors for 11 out of 12 elements (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, S, Sb, V and Zn, but not Ca) in the urban area and for 5 (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Sb) in the rural area. Indoor concentrations were overall similar, both in rural and urban buildings, independently of the outdoor conditions. An indoor accumulation occurred only for Cd, Cu and Pb. An indoor origin was suggested for Cd, while for Cu and Pb, outdoor penetration (car traffic) is the likely cause of indoor values. Indoor exposed lichens maintained their vitality (as reflected by chlorophyll a fluorescence emission). This latter result further supports the use of lichen biomonitoring as a suitable method for assessing IAQ. Keywords: biomonitoring; chlorophyll fluorescence; citizen science; Evernia prunastri; exposed to control ratio; indoor pollution.
31228John V., Aptroot A., Beck A., Berger A., Seaward M.R.D., Stapper N.J., Vervoort M. & Wagner A. (2018): Die Flechten der Burgruine Drachenfels, Biosphärenreservat Pfälzerwald-Nordvogesen. - Mitteilungen der Pollichia, 99: 45-54.
113 saxicolous, muscicolous or plant debris inhabiting lichens and three lichenicolous lichens were recorded from the Drachenfels Castle ruins. Six species (Caloplaca ceracea, Flavoplaca arcis, F. dichroa, F. limonia, Lecania rabenhorstii & Solenopsora vulturiensis) are new to Rheinland-Pfalz. Caloplaca ceracea und Solenopsora vulturiensis are also new for Germany. Endangered and protected species are briefly discussed.
31227Groner U. (2018): Eine Auswahl wenig bekannter oder unbekannter Caloplaca-Arten. - Meylania, 61: 19–23.
Several unknown or only badly known Caloplaca species are presented; two of them, C. macrocarpa and C. ruderum, are reported new to Switzerland. Most of the taxa considered are very rare, some have been confused or misidentified in the past. The mainly saxicolous C. chlorina and the corticolous C. turkuensis seem to be rather widespread and not rare in the country.
31226Bürgi-Meyer K. (2018): Bei der Schaffung des Naturwaldreservates Glaubenberg-Fürstein (Kantone LU, OW, Zentralschweiz) wurden die Lebensräume gefährdeter Waldflechten berücksichtigt. Bericht über neue Fundlokalitäten bemerkenswerter Baum-, Totholzund Bodenflechten im Naturwaldreservat. - Meylania, 61: 23–34.
In the year 2017 the Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN), the Armasuisse Real Estate and the Cantons of Lucerne and Obwalden realized in Central Switzerland a natural forest reserve covering 823 hectares. The biodiversity objectives include the protection of the habitats of threatened lichens. Additional investigations of rare lichens in the reserve are reported. The information include methodological and ecological aspects as well as interesting observations of lichens.
31225Vonarburg C. (2018): Lichenologische Beobachtungen an der Exkursion der Bryolich in Lenk, Kanton Bern. - Meylania, 61: 35–38.
About 67 lichen species were recorded during the excursion of Bryolich in the surroundings of Lenk (Kanton Bern, Switzerland). Among these several rare species were found. The most important findings were Chaenotheca cinerea, actually known only from three other localities in Switzerland and Gyalideopsis helvetica.
31224Zimmermann E. & Feusi S. (2018): Lichenicole Pilze der Schweiz I: Bemerkenswerte Funde lichenicoler Pilze anlässlich der Bryolich-Jahresversammlung 2017 in der Lenk (Schweiz, Berner Oberland). - Meylania, 61: 38–46.
23 lichenicolous fungi were recorded during the excursions of the Bryolich annual meeting 2017 in the surroundings of Lenk (BE, Switzerland). Among these, 13 species are published for the first time for Switzerland, 3 findings are new for Switzerland. Two unknown lichenicolous fungi are outlined (Chionosphaera sp., Xenonectriella sp.).
31223Trevisan V.B.A. (1851): Della supposta idenlità specifica de' Licheni riuniti dallo Schaerer sotto al nome di Lecidea microphylla. - Nuovi Annali delle Scienze Naturali, ser. III [Bologna], 3: 452–465.
31222Watson P. (ed.) (2014): Birmingham Botany Collections. Lichens. - Birmingham Museums, 158 p.
E-book; herbaria
31221Osorio H.S. & Ferraro L.I. (2001): Contribution to the lichen flora of Argentina. XX. Lichens from the Province of Jujuy. - Comunicaciones Botánicas de los Museos Nacionales de Historia Natural y Antropologia, 118: 1–8.
Twenty lichen species gathered in Jujuy Province, NW Argentina, are listed. 90% out of them are new provincial records. All the taxa published from 1950 to 2000 from this Province are enumerated. Key words: Argentina - Lichens - Taxonomy - Distribution.
31220Subhashini A. & Suganthi R. (2014): Determination of toxic heavy metals in four different lichen species of Tamil Nadu, India. - Asian Journal of Biological and Life Sciences, 3(1): 45–48.
Biomonitoring studies provide valuable information about the quantity and quality of pollutants in the atmosphere and can be very effective as an early warning system to detect environmental changes. The present study was undertaken to determine the heavy metal concentration in lichens from Velachery, Tiruvallur (Chennai) and Chithanji, Kalathur (Vellore) in Tamil Nadu, India. Physcia lichen was collected from Velachery and Porina interestes lichen was collected from Tiruvallur, the pollution rich zones. Buellia disciformis lichen was collected from Chithanji and Lecanora allphona lichen was collected from Kalathur, the unpolluted zones. The residue was used for the analysis of heavy metals like Lead, Chromium, Zinc, Copper, Nickel and Iron using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The results obtained showed the lichens in the respective places have absorbed the heavy metal which is most prone in the area. From the present study it is inferred that the heavy metal levels in lichens with the atmospheric deposition reflects the toxic level of heavy metals in our environment and gives evidence of air contamination at industrial and market areas with heavy traffic. Key words : lichen, heavy metals, pollutants, atomic absorption spectrometer.
31219García R., Rosato V., Kristensen M.J. (2014): Análisis de las comunidades liquénicas presentes en construcciones edilicias de la ciudad de La Plata [Analysis of lichen communities present in buildings of La Plata city]. - Ciencia y Tecnología de los Materiales, 4: 63–71.
Lichens are organisms able to grow on a wide variety of natural and artificial surfaces, such as the case of buildings and monuments in cities. In the Buenos Aires province, despite being one of the most urbanized provinces in the country, the lichen biota knowledge is still lacking. Most studies have been performed mainly in natural environments, although there are few records of lichens in cities. Lichens were found in buildings in the city of La Plata, and by multivariate analysis (PCA, principal components analysis) the composition and structures of the communities was analyzed. Three common species in all samples and associated species with low coverage and sporadic occurrences were found. F. austrocitrina is a dominant species that has shown an ability to live in the cities and to adapt to this particular type of substrate. Keywords: lichens, buildings, PCA, communities.
31218Marié D.C., Chaparro M.A.E., Irurzun M.A., Lavornia J.M., Marinelli C., Cepeda R., Böhnel H.N., Castañeda M.A.G. & Sinito A.M. (2016): Magnetic mapping of air pollution in Tandil city (Argentina) using the lichen Parmotrema pilosum as biomonitor. - Atmospheric Pollution Research, 7: 513–520.
The lichen Parmotrema pilosum is sensitive to pollution and it can live accumulating airborne pollutants for long time, such characteristic allows its use as biomonitor for environmental mapping in urban areas when this epiphytic specie is available. In this work, we investigated the use of such passive collector and magnetic techniques to monitor the air pollution in Tandil, a city located in Buenos Aires province with approximately 125,000 inhabitants, 60,000 vehicles and various metallurgical factories inside the urban area. The sampling strategy was carried out following a random stratified design and measuring magnetic susceptibility, magnetic hysteresis loops, anhysteretic and isothermal remanent magnetization and thermomagnetic studies to determine the magnetic properties of airborne particles accumulated on lichen samples. Scanning electron microscopy observations show particles with different morphologies (individual particles, spherules and aggregates) and composition (Fe, Al, Ni, Cr, Ti, Cu, K and Br) produced by metallurgical factories and by gaseous/solid vehicle emissions. The magnetic mineralogy shows the predominance of pseudo-single domain magnetite-like mineral and the magnetic grain size estimations indicate the presence of fine particles (<0.1 mm) in sites with low vehicular traffic or less polluted, while sites more affected by pollution (high vehicular traffic and metallurgical industries) are characterized by coarser magnetic grain size particles, between 0.1 and 5 mm. Mass-specific magnetic susceptibility was represented in a 2-D contour map to observe in detail the distribution of magnetic particles in this urban area, giving high values (up to 1161.2  108 m3 kg1) that are indicative of areas with high pollution loading. Keywords: Biomonitoring; Magnetic properties; Grain size; Air pollution; Magnetite.
31217Lavornia J.M., Garcia R.A., Rosato V.G., Kristensen M.J., Chayle J.A. & Saparrat M.N. (2017): Aportes a la colección de hongos liquenizados del herbario del Instituto de Botánica Carlos Spegazzini (LPS) [Contributions to the collection of liquenized fungi from the herbarium of the Institute of Botany Carlos Spegazzini (LPS)]. - Boletín de la Sociedad Argentina de Botánica, 52(1): 5–12.
The Institute of Botany Carlos Spegazzini (IBCS) (UNLP, La Plata) hosts an herbarium of fungi (LPS) of approximately 40,000 specimens, with 4200 type specimens. The aim of this study was to examine the specimens of lichenized fungi deposited in the IBCS, update their taxonomy and name, check questionable species determination, identify those not certain, and incorporate them into the Herbarium LPS. 192 specimens were studied coming from 11 Provinces of Argentina, as well as Brazil, Uruguay and France and they were determined based on their exo-morphology, histological and histochemical reactions. Thin Layer Chromatographs (TLC) were also performed to study the secondary metabolites present. Argentinean geographical distribution of the identified species was established. The 91.66% of the materials examined (176 specimens) was corrected and accounted for a total of 91 species, 50 genera and 21 families, with Parmeliaceae (16 genera, 31 species), Graphidaceae (4; 5) and Physciaceae (3; 9) as the best represented. The name of 56 specimens belonging to 32 species was updated. The identity of 120 specimens was modified to species level (87), genera (33) and family (1). The distribution of 9 species in Argentina was expanded. Key words: Fungi, Herbarium LPS, Lichens, Argentina.
31216Hoffman J.R. (2019): Cladonia leporina (Cladoniaceae), a new macrolichen for New York State and northern range extension found in Brooklyn, New York. - The Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society, 146(2): 138–141.
A sizable population of the jester lichen, Cladonia leporina Fr., is here reported from dune habitat in Floyd Bennett Field, Brooklyn, NY. Marking a new record for New York, and the northernmost known record of this species, this study is a reminder that the Atlantic Coast likely still holds hidden diversity in its urban lichen communities. Key words: biodiversity, lichen, Gateway National Recreation Area, NPS, urban ecology.
31215Bungartz F., Yánez A., Nugra F. & Ziemmeck F. (2013): Guía rápida de líquenes de las Islas Galápagos. - Fundación Charles Darwin, 189 p.
Ecuador, Galapagos isles; lichen guide publication in electronic version
31214González-Torres D., López de Silanes M.E. & Paz-Bermúdez G. (2006): Determinación de la contaminación atmosférica en la ciudad de Pontevedra mediante bioindicadores liquénicos. - Nova Acta Científica Compostelana (Bioloxía), 15: 37–46.
Determination of air quality in Pontevedra (Galicia) using lichens as bioindicators. This study establishes the gradient of present atmospheric pollution in Pontevedra using lichens as bioindicators. A qualitative scale proposed to the Galician region (Carballal & García-Molares, 1987-88) and IBL method (Nimis, 1999) were employed to estimate air quality. Results obtained in 2004 were compared with other studies made in the same city in 1988 by García-Molares. The scale proposed to Galicia in 1987-88 as also revised and the inclusion of two new taxa was suggested. A summary of the epiphytic lichens from Pontevedra was included, where 89 taxa were obtained, with a first citation of Parmeliopsis minarum to the Iberian Peninsula and Lepraria umbricola a first citation to Galicia. Keywords: Lichens, epiphytes, pollution, bioindicators, Pontevedra, Spain.
31213Gorman A.J., Kerhoulas L.P., Polda W.T. & Kerhoulas N.J. (2019): Epiphyte diversity, abundance, and distribution in an old Sitka spruce crown. - Evansia, 36(1): 12–22.
Preserving biodiversity in remaining old-growth forests is a high priority for many land managers. To this end, we inventoried the diversity, abundance, and distribution of epiphyte species in one 318-year-old, 86 m tall Picea sitchensis tree on the north coast of California. In 39 plots, we recorded species present and mean percent cover for each species. Our findings include the following: 1) 68 epiphyte species were found in this one tree; 2) epiphyte diversity increased with height; 3) lichens had the highest diversity of all epiphyte classes; and 4) mosses had the highest percent cover of all epiphyte classes. These findings highlight the capacity for old trees to serve as reservoirs of biodiversity in younger forests. Key words: Lichen, moss, old-growth, Picea sitchensis, species richness.
31212Root H.T. & McCune B. (2019): Lichen establishment on artificial substrates. - Evansia, 36(1): 5–11.
By providing open space, artificial lichen establishment substrates can allow study of the process of establishment and lichenization, which are among the processes that play out to determine lichen communities. They may also be useful to understand how quickly lichen communities can change and become re-established as we seek to interpret lichen biomonitoring data. We left 5 artificial lichen substrates for 42 months to be naturally colonized by lichens in an Oregon Fraxinus latifolia forest. Compared to a nearby forest macrolichen community with 45 species, we observed eight macrolichen taxa becoming established on the substrates. Many of the developing thalli could be identified only to genus. Taxa becoming established largely represented a subset of the forest community that lacked cyanolichens and included a greater proportion of nitrogen-tolerant species, suggesting that these taxa establish particularly quickly. Key words. Lichen, establishment, ecology, epiphytes, lichenization, air quality.
31211Hansen C.J. & Lendemer J.C. (2019): The first report of the rare lichen species Phaeophyscia leana (Physciaceae) from Alabama. - Evansia, 36(1): 1–4.
Phaeophyscia leana, largely considered to be endemic to the river systems of central eastern North America, is newly reported from Madison County, Alabama. This is the first report from Alabama and extends the distribution of the species nearly 195 kilometers south of its currently established southern range limit. The species occurs on trees in river floodplains, a habitat that has been widely altered through hydrological engineering throughout eastern North America. Key words. Lichen diversity, southeastern United States, Tennessee River, conservation, Huntsville.
31210Gerlach A.C.L., Borges da Silveira R.M. & Clerc P. (2019): Usnea oreophila (Parmeliaceae), a new saxicolous species from the mountains of Brazil. - Bryologist, 122(1): 122–129.
Usnea oreophila A.Gerlach & P.Clerc is described as new to science. This saxicolous species is characterized by a patchy, reddish, sometimes pale pigment above the jet-black basal pigmentation, branches with numerous cracks with downturned edges, numerous and sorediate fibercles, a thick and fistulose central axis, as well as by the production of a complex chemistry with squamatic acid as the main medullary compound. Usnea oreophila is currently known from high altitude grasslands above 1200 meters elevation above sea level in the states of Minas Gerais, Paraná and Santa Catarina. Keywords: High-altitude grasslands, phylogeny, taxonomy, thin layer chromatography.
31209Lendemer J.C., Hoffman J.R. & Sheard J.W. (2019): Rinodina brauniana (Physciaceae, Teloschistales), a new species with pseudoisidia from the southern Appalachian Mountains of eastern North America. - Bryologist, 122(1): 111–121.
Rinodina brauniana is described as new to science from collections made throughout the southern Appalachian Mountains in the eastern United States (Alabama, North Carolina and Tennessee). It appears to be widespread on corticolous substrates in deciduous forests throughout the region, occurring at sites spanning an elevation gradient of 285–1585 meters. The species differs from R. colobinoides in its pseudoisidiate, rather than blastidiate thallus. Ultrastructural studies of the pseudoisidia in R. brauniana demonstrated that they are apically ecorticate and thus unlike vegetative reproductive structures in other Rinodina species. Although rare, apothecia were located and ascospores were found to have an unusual type-B development that is most similar to Pachysporaria-type II. The new species honors E. Lucy Braun, pioneering American field biologist and champion of temperate eastern North American forests. Keywords: Asexual reproduction, biodiversity, endemism, lecanorine, proper exciple.
31208Aslan A., Apaydin G. [Apaydın G.], Yazici K. [Yazıcı K.], Cengiz E. & Aylikci V. (2010): Analysis of trace element concentrations of some lichens of Turkey. - Asian Journal of Chemistry, 22(1): 389–400.
In this study, concentrations of six different-elements (Ca, K, Fe, Ba, Ti and Sr) were measured in twelve lichen species from two geographically different regions (Northern Anatolia: Provinces of Trabzon, Ordu, Anvin and Giresun and Eastern Anatolia: Erzurum-province) in Turkey. An annular (55)Fe and (241)Am radioactive source was used for excitation of characteristic K X-rays using radioisotope excited energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence method of multiple standard addition. The incident beam and fluorescence X-rays emitted from the target were detected and analyzed with an Ultra-LEGe detector. Five of the six elements (Ca, K, Fe, Ba and Ti) are available in the twelve lichen species living in 12 different habitats. But, Sr is the only available element in some lichens living in some certain localities. Moreover, some lichens living in some localities contain very high concentrations (almost 5-10 folds) of Ti and Ba (for example: Ordu-Unye Cinarsuyu, Erzurum-Kosk village for Ti, 0.384,0.342%, respectively and Trabzon-Macka, Solma plateau for Ba and 0.306%). Keywords:Element analysis; Lichen; Soil; EDXRF; Turkey.
31207Kahriman N., Yazici K. [Yazıcı K.], Arslan T., Aslan A., Karaoglu S.A. & Yayli N. (2011): Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils from Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach. and Evernia divaricata (L.) Ach.. - Asian Journal of Chemistry, 23(5): 1937–1939.
In present studies, the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach. and Evernia divaricata (L.) Ach have been analyzed. The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from of E. prunastri and E. divaricata, were identified by GC and GC-MS. Main component was monoterpenes, such as tricyclene (0.5 and 2.2 %), alpha-pinene (6.6 and 7.2 %), camphene (3.0 and 3.1 %), beta-pinene (6.3 and 8.0 %), alpha-phellandrene (3.3 and 4.1 %), limonene (1.6 and 6.3 %), gamma-terpinene (0.5 and 1.9 %), terpinolene ( and 3.1 %) and p-cymene (1.5 and 1.8 %), respectively. The inhibitory effects of the essential oils of E. prunastri and E. divaricata were tested against seven bacterial species using the disc-diffusion method and E. divaricata oil exhibited the antimicrobial and antifungal activity, whereas, E. prunastri showed only antifungal activity. Keywords: Evernia prunastri and Evernia divaricata; Essential oils; GC-FID; GC-MS.
31206Yazici K. [Yazıcı K.], Aslan A. & Çiçek A. (2012): Comparison of trace element levels of lichen species living on different habitats. - Asian Journal of Chemistry, 24(2): 920–926.
In this paper, concentrations of 18 trace elements, Al, B, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, Se, Si and Zn were determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) in 16 lichen species living in four different habitats at 39 localities in Ardahan (Turkey). Cd, Na, Ni and Pb are the only available elements in some lichens living in some certain localities. Cd, Na, Ni and Pb are not necessary elements for the lichen metabolism, but the lichen species can take them into their bodies from their habitats or atmosphere (if there are) and store them even if it haven't got any role in the lichen metabolism. Moreover, some lichens living in some localities contain high concentrations (almost 177 folds of Fe: Ardahan-Hanak Altas: 1.13266 %), 104 folds of Ca (Posof, 2 km to Kursuncavus, mainroadside: 3.1066.6 %), 96 folds of Na (Ardahan-Hanak Alias: 0.090 %), 36 folds of Ni (Ardahan-Hanak Altas: 0.002386 %), 30 folds of Cr (Ardahan-Hanak Altas: 0.001853 %), 27 folds of Al (Ardahan, Cole 20 km to Ardahan mainroad side: 0.6960 %) and 22 folds of Mn (Ardahan-Hanak, Altas: 0.03946 %). The highest values of Al, Cr, Cu, K, Mn, Ni, P, S and Zn were determined in Dermatocarpon miniatum, while the highest values of Cd, Fe, Mg and Na were accumulated by Peltigera rufescens. On the other hand, the highest amounts of B and Se were accumulated by Peltigera canina, Ca by Rhizoplaca chrysoleuca and Pb by Parmelia sulcata. Keywords: Ardahan; ICP-OES; Lichen; Trace elements; Turkey.
31205Kahriman N., Tosun G., Yayli B., Yazici K. [Yazıcı K.], Karaoglu S.A. & Yayli N. (2012): Volatile constituents and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils from Cladonia rangiformis Hoffm. and Cladonia furcata (Huds.) Schrad.. - Asian Journal of Chemistry, 24(4): 1442–1444.
This study was designed to examine the chemical compositions and antimicrobial activities of the essential oils from Cladonia rangiformis Hoffm. and Cladonia furcata (Huds.) Schrad. The essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation and analyzed with GC and GC-MS and screened for their in vitro antimicrobial activity in a microdilution assay. In total, 25 and 12 compounds were identified from the oil of C. rangiformis and C. furcata, accounting for 89.2 % and 91.6 To of the detected GC peak areas, respectively. The essential oils consisted mainly of alcohols (29.4 % and 1.6 %), ketone (21.7 % and 18.6 %) and hydrocarbons (13.1 % and 57.6 %). The major compound of the essential oils was 3-octanone (21.7 % and 18.6 %), respectively. The inhibitory effects of the essential oils of C. rangiformis and C. furcata, were tested against seven bacterial species using the disc-diffusion method and C. rangifonnis oil exhibited the antimicrobial and antifungal activity against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans (MIC = 306.2 mu g/mu L, each), whereas, C. fiurata oil showed only antifungal activity against the pathogenic yeast C. albicans (MIC = 784.4 mu g/mu L). Keywords: Cladonia rangiformis; Cladonia furcata; Essential oils; GC-FID; GC-MS.
31204Aslan A., Gurbuz H., Yazici K. [Yazıcı K.], Cicek A. [Çiçek A.], Turan M. & Ercisli S. (2013): Evaluation of lichens as bio-indicators of metal pollution. - Journal of Elementology, 18(3): 353–369.
The objectives of this study have been to determine the impact of the distance from a combustor of a cement plant (downwind direction) and duration of exposure to pollution on the bioaccumulation of metals by four lichen species. Nickel, cadmium, chromium, copper and lead accumulated in lichen thalli, with the highest accumulation occurring at 50 m of the cement plant and upon prolonged exposure. In contrast, the concentrations of Al were not consistently affected by the distance from the plant or the duration of exposure. Pseudevernia furfuracea was most effective as an indicator of cement dust pollution. We concluded that transplantation of Pseudevernia furfuracea on trees or shrubs can be an easy and cost-effective means of Ni, Cd, Cr, Cu and Pb pollution monitoring. Keywords: cement plant pollution; enrichment factor; heavy metal pollution; lichens.
31203Yazici K. [Yazıcı K.], Aslan A. & Aptroot A. (2013): New lichen records from Turkey. - Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy, 20(2): 207–211.
Three lichen species, namely Cladonia grayi G. Merr. ex Sandst., Pertusaria subventosa Malme var. subventosa, and Parmelia squarrosa Hale are reported as new to Turkey as a result of a lichenological survey in the Burdur region of the country. Descriptions are presented, including geographic distribution, substrate, chemistry, and comparisons with morphologically similar taxa. Keywords: Ascomycota; Lichen; Burdur; Turkey.
31202Yazici K. [Yazıcı K.] & Aptroot A. (2017): Three lichen taxa new to Turkey. - Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy, 24(1): 83–89.
Three lichen taxa viz. – Aspicilia asiatica (H. Magn.) Yoshim., Lecanora subcarnea (Sw.) Ach. var. soralifera H. Magn., and Thelidium minutulum Körb. were identified as new to Turkey as a result of a lichenological survey in the Bitlis and Muş regions Turkey. In addition, Lecanora subcarnea var. soralifera is also new to Asia. A detail taxonomic account, notes on known distribution, substrates, and chemistry under each taxon and comparisons with morphologically similar taxa are furnished under each taxon. Keywords: Ascolichen, Lecanoraceae, Hymenchiaaceae (sic!; recte Hymeneliaceae); Verrucariaceae.
31201Dietrich M. & Malíček J. (2019): Cliostomum haematommatis und Loxospora cristinae – zwei wenig bekannte corticole, sorediöse Krustenflechten in der Schweiz. - Meylania, 63: 22-29.
For a long time, samples of sorediate crustose lichens containing 2’-O-Methylperlatolic acid have been called Pertusaria aff. pulvereosulphurata in Switzerland. Finally, their identity was clarified: These are Cliostomum haematommatis, which is mentioned for the first time from Switzerland and Loxospora cristinae, collected already in the 19th century and recently confirmed in the country. Both species and their distribution in Switzerland are presented and discussed.
31200Pogoda C.S., Keepers K.G., Nadiadi A.Y., Bailey D.W., Lendemer J.C., Tripp E.A. & Kane N.C. (2019): Genome streamlining via complete loss of introns has occurred multiple times in lichenized fungal mitochondria. - Ecology and Evolution, 9: 4245–4263.
Reductions in genome size and complexity are a hallmark of obligate symbioses. The mitochondrial genome displays clear examples of these reductions, with the ancestral alpha‐proteobacterial genome size and gene number having been reduced by orders of magnitude in most descendent modern mitochondrial genomes. Here, we examine patterns of mitochondrial evolution specifically looking at intron size, number, and position across 58 species from 21 genera of lichenized Ascomycete fungi, representing a broad range of fungal diversity and niches. Our results show that the cox1gene always contained the highest number of introns out of all the mitochondrial protein‐coding genes, that high intron sequence similarity (>90%) can be maintained between different genera, and that lichens have undergone at least two instances of complete, genome‐wide intron loss consistent with evidence for genome streamlining via loss of parasitic, noncoding DNA, in Phlyctis boliviensisand Graphis lineola. Notably, however, lichenized fungi have not only undergone intron loss but in some instances have expanded considerably in size due to intron proliferation (e.g., Alectoria fallacina and Parmotrema neotropicum), even between closely related sister species (e.g., Cladonia). These results shed light on the highly dynamic mitochondrial evolution that is occurring in lichens and suggest that these obligate symbiotic organisms are in some cases undergoing recent, broad‐scale genome streamlining via loss of protein‐coding genes as well as noncoding, parasitic DNA elements. Keywords: genome reduction, homing endonucleases, introns, lichen, parasitic genetic elements, symbiosis.
31199Divakar P.K., Wei X.-L., McCune B., Cubas P., Boluda C.G., Leavitt S.D., Crespo A., Tchabanenko S. & Lumbsch H.T. (2019): Parallel Miocene dispersal events explain the cosmopolitan distribution of the Hypogymnioid lichens. - Journal of Biogeography, 46: 945–955.
Aim: Contemporary species’ distributions are shaped by both geography and historical events, such as extinction, diversification in specific areas and long-distance dispersals. In the most diverse family of lichen-forming fungi, Parmeliaceae, the Hypogymnioid clade, is an example of an evolutionary lineage comprised of species occurring in temperate to subpolar regions in both hemispheres. Here, we elucidate the timing of diversification events and the impact of historical events on the species distribution in this lineage. Location: Worldwide. Taxon: Genera Arctoparmelia, Brodoa, Hypogymnia and Pseudevernia (Parmeliaceae). Methods: Our sampling focused on the most diverse genus of the clade, Hypogymnia, including c. 70% of the described species. We reconstructed phylogenetic relationships using a multi-locus data set, estimated divergence times, and inferred ancestral distributions. Results: Our analyses suggest that the ancestor of the Hypogymnioid clade occurred in the Holarctic. In each of the four genera, all recovered as monophyletic here, diversification have occurred largely during the Miocene and Pliocene. A number of currently accepted species did not form monophyletic groups, especially in cases where specimens were collected from distinct geographic areas, with multiple, distinct clades corresponding to the geographic region of origin. Our results suggest that only a very few species in the Hypogymnioid clade have cosmopolitan distributions, all of which reproduces using vegetative propagules including both symbiotic partners. Main conclusions: While the diversification occurred predominantly in the Northern Hemisphere during the Miocene, a long-distance dispersal event from the Northern to the Southern Hemisphere, resulted in diversification of a clade of species largely restricted to the Southern Hemisphere. Similar to other groups in this diverse family, our study highlights the need for re-evaluation of species boundaries among members of the Hypogymnioid clade. Keywords: Biogeography, diversification, Hypogymnia, lichen, Miocene, molecular evolution, molecular systematics, substitution rate.
31198Broome A., Bellamy C., Rattey A., Ray D., Quine C.P. & Park K.J. (2019): Niches for Species, a multi-species model to guide woodland management: An example based on Scotland’s native woodlands. - Ecological Indicators, 103: 410–424.
Designating and managing areas with the aim of protecting biodiversity requires information on species distributions and habitat associations, but a lack of reliable occurrence records for rare and threatened species precludes robust empirical modelling. Managers of Scotland’s native woodlands are obliged to consider 208 protected species, which each have their own, narrow niche requirements. To support decision-making, we developed Niches for Species (N4S), a model that uses expert knowledge to predict the potential occurrence of 179 woodland protected species representing a range of taxa: mammals, birds, invertebrates, fungi, bryophytes, lichens and vascular plants. Few existing knowledge-based models have attempted to include so many species. We collated knowledge to define each species’ suitable habitat according to a hierarchical habitat classification: woodland type, stand structure and microhabitat. Various spatial environmental datasets were used singly or in combination to classify and map Scotland’s native woodlands accordingly, thus allowing predictive mapping of each species’ potential niche. We illustrate how the outputs can inform individual species management, or can be summarised across species and regions to provide an indicator of woodland biodiversity potential for landscape scale decisions. We tested the model for ten species using available occurrence records. Although concordance between predicted and observed distributions was indicated for nine of these species, this relationship was statistically significant in only five cases. We discuss the difficulties in reliably testing predictions when the records available for rare species are typically low in number, patchy and biased, and suggest future model improvements. Finally, we demonstrate how using N4S to synthesise complex, multi-species information into an easily digestible format can help policy makers and practitioners consider large numbers of species and their conservation needs. Keywords: Protected species; Habitat suitability models; Knowledge-based models; Niches for Species model; Land management; Forestry.
31197Larrieu L., Gosselin F., Archaux F., Chevalier R., Corriol G., Dauffy-Richard E., Deconchat M., Gosselin M., Ladet S., Savoie J.-M., Tillon L. & Bouget C. (2019): Assessing the potential of routine stand variables from multi-taxon data as habitat surrogates in European temperate forests. - Ecological Indicators, 104: 116–126.
To encourage forest managers to use biodiversity indicators in their work, providing environmental variables that depict species habitats, have well-calibrated and strong relationships with biodiversity and are easy to routinely record would be a step forward. The Index of Biodiversity Potential (IBP) is a rapid habitat assessment method widely used in France. It uses ten variables that indicate potential habitat for forest-dwelling species and is easy for forest managers to implement during their day-to-day activities. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the indicator power of these IBP variables at the stand scale, i.e. their capacity to co-vary with empirical species richness and composition data for nine taxa. The data were obtained from 487 plots set up in 19 forested areas in France. Taxonomic data focused on corticolous lichens, corticolous and saproxylic bryophytes, polypores, saproxylic beetles, ground beetles, hoverflies, birds, bats and vascular plants. For the latter five taxa, we built subgroups of forest-specialist species. The IBP variables were recorded on 1-ha circular plots centered on the sampling point used to record taxonomic data. We explored the relationships between the IBP variables and species composition/richness of nine taxa at the stand scale. Furthermore, we searched for threshold values for all the significant relationships found between species richness and the IBP variables. Variations in the species composition of vascular plants and saproxylic beetles, and to a lesser extent, polypores, bats and lichens, were significantly related to habitat variations (ranked according to the Procrustes significance level). The contribution of the IBP variables to the total inertia of species composition was about 18.7% on average. The IBP variables had a lower number of significant relationships with species richness than with species composition. Unexpectedly, the forest subgroups mainly showed fewer significant relationships with habitat variables than did the full-groups, both for species richness and composition. We highlighted seven significant thresholds in the habitat variables above which species richness was significantly higher. Finally, we recommend that forest managers (i) routinely use a rapid habitat assessment such as the IBP, (ii) orient silvicultural practices to ensure conservation of autochtonous tree species, large logs and different types of aquatic habitats above the thresholds highlighted in this study, and (iii) periodically complete a biodiversity assessment at the forest scale by recording taxonomic data. Keywords: IBP; Covariation; Biodiversity; Stand structure; Species richness; Species composition.
31196Kitaura M.J., Costa P.C., Scur M.C. & Lorenz A.P. (2019): Genetic and morphological variations of the lichenized fungus Steinera intricata (Arctomiaceae, Lecanoromycetes) from southern South America to Antarctic Peninsula. - Polar Biology, 42: 907–918.
Steinera (Arctomiaceae, Lecanoromycetes) is an Austral genus of lichenized fungi that form symbiotic associations with cyanobacteria, producing small and inconspicuous thalli. Most species of Steinera present a high degree of endemism restricted to sub-Antarctic islands except S. intricata which occurs from southern South America to the Antarctic Peninsula and presents remarkable phenotypic variation along its distribution range. In this study, an integrative approach was used to explore the extent of intraspecific diversity of S. intricata throughout its distribution. Morphological and anatomical descriptions and the phylogenetic analyses of three genomic regions were performed with specimens collected from seven Antarctic islands and in the Tierra del Fuego National Park (Argentina). Genetic data revealed species-level lineages are not associated with the differences observed in the thalli shape, which probably are related to distinct microhabitats and substrates as well as to the development stage. Molecular clock analyses estimated that S. intricata originated at about 0.24 Myr and that the diversification of the Antarctic lineages occurred at about 0.16 Myr. This study revealed that there is probably an unknown diversity of new members of Steinera in southern South America and that the evolutionary history of these cyanolichens may contribute to the understanding of the phylogeographic connections between members of the Austral-Antarctic flora. Keywords: Cyanolichens · Taxonomy · Species diversity · Arctomiaceae · Southern Hemisphere.
31195Chuquimarca L., Gaona F.P., Iñiguez-Armijos C. & Benítez Á. (2019): Lichen responses to disturbance: Clues for biomonitoring land-use effects on riparian Andean ecosystems. - Diversity, 11(5): 73 [15 p.].
The transformation of natural ecosystems due to anthropogenic land use is considered one of the main causes of biodiversity loss. Lichens, due to their poikilohydric nature, are very sensitive to natural and anthropogenic disturbances. Therefore, lichen communities have been widely used as bioindicators of climatic and environmental changes. In this study, we evaluated how the species richness and community composition of epiphytic lichens respond to land-use intensity in riparian ecosystems of the Andes in southern Ecuador. Additionally, we evaluate how the richness of six functional traits (photobiont type, growth form, and reproductive strategy) changed across the different land-use intensity. We selected 10 trees in twelve sites for a total de 120 trees, equally divided into four riparian land-use intensities (forest, forest-pasture, pasture and urban). We recorded a total of 140 lichen species. Species richness was highest in the forest sites and decreased towards more anthropogenic land uses. Lichen community composition responded to land-use intensity, and was explained by microclimate variables (e.g., precipitation, percentage forested area) and distance to the forest. Richness of functional traits of lichens also differed significantly among the four land-use intensity and decreased from forests to urban land-use. Taxonomic diversity and functional traits can be effectively applied as bioindicators to assess and monitor the effects of land-use changes in the riparian ecosystems of tropical montane regions. Keywords: epiphyte communities; functional traits; bioindicators; riparian land-use; tropical Andes.
31194Kitaura M.J., Bernardo C.M., Koch N.M., Rodrigues A.S., Torres J.-M., Barbosa T.D., Canêz L.S., Spielmann A.A., Honda N.K., Fleig M. & Lorenz A.P. (2019): Leptogium (Collemataceae, Peltigerales) from Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil: nine new records, three new taxa and a key for the species. - Phytotaxa, 399(2): 127–146.
The diversity of Leptogium has been underestimated in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Nine species are being reported for the first time to the state, including L. microcarpum, as new record to Brazil; and L. cyanizum, as new record to the American continent. Furthermore, L. hondae, L. moluccanum var. denticulatum and L. quilombensis are proposed as new to science. The first key to species of Leptogium is provided for this region, which can also be used for surrounding regions in Brazil.
31193Gustafsson L., Berglind M., Granström A., Grelle A., Isacsson G., Kjellander P., Larsson S., Lindh M., Pettersson L.B., Strengbom J., Stridh B., Sävström T., Thor G., Wikars L.-O. & Mikusiński G. (2019): Rapid ecological response and intensified knowledge accumulation following a north European mega-fire. - Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 34(4): 234–253.
Deepened knowledge on response of biota and ecological processes following fire is essential for a future with warmer climate and more disturbances. In 2014 the first mega-fire (13,100 ha) for at least a century in Scandinavia hit south-central Sweden, in a production forest landscape shaped by clearcutting forestry. Ecological dynamics is followed in >20 projects from universities, authorities and citizen science initiatives, rapidly accumulating substantial amounts of data. We outline projects and summarize their results during the first four years, demonstrating a rapid succession of fungi, lichens, vascular plants, birds, mammals, ticks, butterflies, beetles, and drastically altered carbon dynamics. We characterize forest operations including regeneration measures and point to patterns in pest and pathogen infestations. 8,000 ha is set aside for natural succession, with the rest harvested and managed for forest production, offering excellent opportunities for studies on salvage logging effects, already evident for birds. We demonstrate a strong regrowth of deciduous trees, and the protected part will in some decades likely develop into the largest deciduous-dominated area in boreal north Europe outside Russia. Continued studies of biodiversity and ecological processes are urgent for this unique area. Keywords: Biodiversity; disturbance; ecology; mega-fire; succession.
31192Ravera S., Puglisi M., Vizzini A., Totti C., Aleffi M., Barberis G., Benesperi R., von Brackel W., Dagnino D., De Giuseppe A.B., Fačkovcová Z., Gheza G., Giordani P., Guttová A., Mair P., Mayrhofer H., Nascimbene J., Nimis P.L., Paoli L., Passalacqua N.G., Pittao E., Poponessi S., Prosser F., Ottonello M., Puntillo D., Puntillo M., Sicoli G., Sguazzin F., Spitale D., Tratter W., Turcato C. & Vallese C. (2019): Notulae to the Italian flora of algae, bryophytes, fungi and lichens: 7. - Italian Botanist, 7: 69–91.
In this contribution, new data concerning algae, bryophytes, fungi, and lichens of the Italian flora are presented. It includes new records and confirmations for the algae genus Chara, the bryophyte genera Cephalozia, Conardia, Conocephalum, Didymodon, Sphagnum, Tetraplodon, and Tortula, the fungal genera Endophyllum, Gymnosporangium, Microbotryum, Phragmidium, and Pluteus, and the lichen genera Candelariella, Cladonia, Flavoplaca, Lichenothelia, Peltigera, Placolecis, Rinodina, Scytinium, and Solenopsora. Keywords: Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Bryidae, Charophyceae, Jungermanniidae.
31191Wieczorek A. (2018): The lichen genus Opegrapha s. l. in Poland: morphological variability, ecology, and distribution. - Monographiae Botanicae, 107: 1–162.
This monograph presents the results of research on the morphological and anatomical variability, ecology, and distribution of Opegrapha s. l. in Poland. The study is based on roughly 1,400 specimens from Polish and some European herbaria. Out of the 18 species of the genus Opegrapha s. l. recorded from Poland, seven species belong to the genus Opegrapha Ach., four species now belong to the genus Alyxoria Ach. ex Gray, two species each are found in the genera Arthonia Ach. and Zwackhia Körb, and one species belongs to each of the genera Gyrographa Ertz & Tehler, Phacographa Hafellner, and Pseudoschismatomma Ertz & Tehler. One of the species, Zwackhia sorediifera, has been reported from Poland for the first time. Among the 18 species of the genus Opegrapha s. l., 10 are epiphytic, five epilithic, and two lichenicolous. The first modern identification key for the species of Opegrapha s. l. in Poland is presented. Numerous new regional records are provided that complement our knowledge of the geographic distribution of some poorly known taxa, such as Alyxoria culmigena, A. mougeotii, A. ochrocheila, Arthonia calcarea, Opegrapha dolomitica, O. geographicola, O. lithyrga, and Phacographa glaucomaria. All species are characterized and discussed, and their diagnostic characters illustrated. Geographic ranges of each species in Poland are presented on maps based on revised herbarium materials. Keywords: lichenized Ascomycota; Arthoniales; Opegraphaceae; Roccellaceae; species variability; distribution maps; Poland.
31190Alstrup V., Olech M., Wietrzyk-Pełka P. & Węgrzyn M.H. (2018): The lichenicolous fungi of the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica: species diversity and identification guide. - Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae, 87(4):3607 [32 p.].
This paper contributes 96 species to the biota of lichenicolous fungi in the South Shetland Islands archipelago. New to science are the following genera: Antarctosphaeria Alstrup & Olech, gen. nov., Dahawkswia Alstrup & Olech, gen. nov., Lichenohostes Alstrup & Olech, gen. nov., Llanorella Alstrup & Olech, gen. nov., Phaeosporodendron Alstrup & Olech, gen. nov., and Prostratomyces Alstrup & Olech, gen. nov. Additionally, 31 species are described as new to science. These are: Antarctosphaeria bireagens Alstrup & Olech, sp. nov., A. lichenicola Alstrup & Olech, sp. nov., Arthonia dufayelensis Alstrup & Olech, sp. nov., A. livingstonensis Alstrup & Olech, sp. nov., A. massalongiae Alstrup & Olech, sp. nov., A. pertusariicola Alstrup & Olech, sp. nov., A. rakusae Alstrup & Olech, sp. nov., Carbonea austroshetlandica Alstrup & Olech, sp. nov., Cercidospora pertusariicola Alstrup & Olech, sp. nov., Dactylospora antarctica Alstrup & Olech, sp. nov., D. haematommatis Alstrup & Olech, sp. nov., Dahawkswia lichenicola Alstrup & Olech, sp. nov., Dendrophoma acarosporae Alstrup & Olech, sp. nov., Didymellopsis antarctica Alstrup & Olech, sp. nov., Lichenohostes citrinospora Alstrup & Olech, sp. nov., Lichenostigma corymbosae Alstrup & Olech, sp. nov., Llanorella ramalinae Alstrup & Olech, sp. nov., Metasphaeria verrucosa Alstrup & Olech, sp. nov., Micarea lichenicola Alstrup & Olech, sp. nov., Phaeospora antarctica Alstrup & Olech, sp. nov., P. convolutae Alstrup & Olech, sp. nov., Phaeosporodendron badiae Alstrup & Olech, sp. nov., Phoma acarosporae Alstrup & Olech, sp. nov., Prostratomyces leprariae Alstrup & Olech, sp. nov., P. ochrolechiae Alstrup & Olech, sp. nov., P. rhizocarpicolae Alstrup & Olech, sp. nov., Rhagadostoma antarctica Alstrup & Olech, sp. nov., Sphaerellothecium placopsiicola Alstrup & Olech, sp. nov., Stigmidium placopsiicola Alstrup & Olech, sp. nov., Taeniolella frigidae Alstrup & Olech, sp. nov., and Tetramelas caloplacae Alstrup & Olech, sp. nov. Furthermore, a literature survey was undertaken, which resulted in the preparation of an identification guide for the lichenicolous species occurring in the South Shetlands Islands. Keywords: taxonomy; new taxa; lichen; maritime Antarctica.
31189Maciejowski W., Osyczka P., Smykla J., Ziaja W., Ostafin K. & Krzewicka B. (2018): Diversity and distribution of lichens in recently deglaciated areas of southeastern Spitsbergen. - Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae, 87(4):3596 [18 p.].
The diversity and distribution of lichen species were investigated in recently deglaciated areas of the borderland between Sørkapp Land and Torell Land (southeastern Spitsbergen, Svalbard). A total of 15 sites representing various habitat types specific to the area were evaluated. Sampling sites were characterized by a very diverse composition of lichens and species richness ranging from as few as two species to as many as 53. None of the species was ubiquitous among the investigated sampling sites; conversely, most were recorded only once or twice indicating a high heterogeneity in species distribution. Eighty species are reported for the first time from southeastern Spitsbergen. The terricolous lichen Verrucaria xyloxena is reported for the first time from the Svalbard archipelago. The influence of the selected abiotic and biotic environmental factors on the occurrences and distributions of lichen species is discussed in this paper. Keywords: Arctic; Svalbard; Sørkapp Land; Torell Land; lichenized fungi; spontaneous succession; ice-free areas.
31188Kantvilas G. (2019): Further additions to the genus Menegazzia A. Massal. (Parmeliaceae) in Australia, with a revised regional key. - Lichenologist, 51(2), 137-146.
An identification key to the 39 species of Menegazzia recorded for Australia and its offshore islands (including Tasmania) is presented. Distribution patterns are discussed and summarized. Main- land Australia supports 19 species, with seven endemics, and shares 12 species with Tasmania, six with New Zealand and one with South America. The new species, Menegazzia williamsii Kantvilas from New South Wales, is described and is characterized by an inflated, fragile, esorediate thallus containing stictic acid but lacking isopigmentosin, 2-spored asci and an inspersed epihymenium. In addition, M. hyper- nota Bjerke, formerly known only from New Zealand, is recorded from Tasmania for the first time. biodiversity, lichen chemistry, lichenized fungi, new species, Tasmania, taxonomy
31187Aptroot A., Maphangwa K., Zedda L., Tekere M., Alvarado P. & Sipman H. (2019): The phylogenetic position of Culbersonia is in the Caliciaceae (lichenized ascomycetes). - Lichenologist, 51(2), 187-191.
Culbersonia Essl. is a monotypic genus origin- ally based on C. americana Essl., a taxon described from Arizona, United States of America (Esslinger 2000). Soon after publi- cation, it was realized that this species had already been described in 1980, as Pyxine nubila Moberg, from Africa (Moberg 1980). Consequently, the combination Culbersonia nubila (Moberg) Essl. was made (Nash et al. 2002). The species combines characters of Pyxine Fr. with those of Physconia Poelt. It is widely distributed in dry subtropical regions around the world but is most common in Africa and Central America, where it grows on trees and rocks (Swinscow & Krog 1988; Moberg 2004; Obermayer et al. 2009).
31186Alors D., Cendón-Flórez Y., Divakar P., Crespo A., González.Benítez N. & Molina M. (2019): Differences in the sexual aposymbiotic phase of the reproductive cycles of Parmelina carporrhizans and P. quercina. Possible implications for their reproductive biology. - Lichenologist, 51(2): 175-186.
Our knowledge of ontogenetic development and reproductive biology in lichen-forming fungi is rather poor. Here, we aim to advance our understanding of the reproductive biology of Parmelina carporrhizans and P. quercina for which mycobiont fungi of both species were cultured in aposymbiotic conditions from ascospores. For P. carporrhizans 48 hours were necessary for 98·6% of apothecia to eject spores, while for P. quercina 100% of apothecia ejected spores in the first 24 hours. In P. quercina, large apothecia ejected more spores than smaller ones. In both species the percentage of spores germinating seemed independent of apothecium size. The percentage germination was higher in P. carporrhizans (72·4%) than in P. quercina (14·3%). Moreover, P. carporrhizans was grown more successfully on culture media than P. quercina. These results suggest that these species have different reproductive strategies, given that P. carporrhizans expels larger spores and in greater numbers than P. quercina as well as having different nutritional requirements (since P. carporrhizans grew successfully in the selected media but P. quercina did not). These characteristics may explain the sympatric speciation of these species. axenic culture, mycobiont, ontogeny, reproductive success, size and number theory
31185Devkota S., Dymytrova L., Chaudhary R., Werth S. & Scheidegger C. (2019): Climate change-induced range shift of the endemic epiphytic lichen Lobaria pindarensis in the Hindu Kush Himalayan region. - Lichenologist, 51(2): 157-173.
The Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region harbours some of the richest and most diverse ecosystems on the planet that are now facing substantial threats through changes in climate, land use and human population growth, with serious consequences for the biodiversity in this mountainous region. In this paper we evaluated the effects of climate change on the distribution of the tripartite epiphytic macro- lichen Lobaria pindarensis, considered to be endemic to the Himalayas. To predict the current and future distribution of this species we applied the Random Forest modelling algorithm and climatic variables with a post-processing of projected distributions using a map of habitat types in the study region. We calibrated models based on 1397 species presences within an altitudinal range of 2036–4000 m and extrapolated them according to two IPCC scenarios of climate change (RCP 2·6 and RCP 8·5). Based on the results of ensemble modelling, two new localities where L. pindarensis might potentially occur were predicted. Our simulations predicted a range expansion of this epiphytic lichen to the north-east and to higher altitudes in response to climate change, although the species’ low dispersal abilities and the local availability of trees as a substratum will considerably limit latitudinal and altitudinal shifts. By contrast, assuming the species can migrate to previously unoccupied areas, and depending on different future climate scenarios, our models forecasted a habitat loss of 30–70% for L. pindarensis. The main reason for the simulated habitat loss is the expected increase in mean annual temperature (by 1·5–3·7 °C) and total annual precipitation (by 56–125 mm). Our results contribute further evidence for the high sensitivity of tripartite macrolichens, especially those from mountain areas, to climate change and particularly emphasize the vulnerability of L. pindarensis. Thus, we stress the need to develop and formulate conservation measures and strategies for the protection of this endemic species in the Hindu Kush Himalayan region. climate warming, conservation, habitat loss, mountain area, Nepal, Random Forest modelling, species distribution
31184Yakovchenko L., Davydov E., Ohmura Y. & Printzen C. (2019): The phylogenetic position of species of Lecanora s. l. containing calycin and usnic acid, with the description of Lecanora solaris Yakovchenko & Davydov sp. nov.. - Lichenologist, 51(2): 147-156.
Phylogenetic reconstructions based on ITS/5.8S and mtSSU DNA sequence data suggest a close relationship between two Lecanora species containing calycin and usnic acid and the Lecanora polytropa group. Lecanora solaris Yakovchenko & Davydov sp. nov. is described from the Altai Mountains in Russia. Its gross morphology resembles that of L. somervellii as both species have an effigurate, citrine-yellow thallus (due to the production of calycin). However, L. solaris is distinguished from L. somervellii by having a small, squamulose to marginally lobate umbilicate thallus and apothecia with a persistent margin, whereas L. som- ervellii has a large, distinctly placodioid thallus and an apothecial margin that is soon excluded. growth form, Lecanora polytropa, Lecanora somervellii, Lecanoraceae, lichenized fungi, molecular phylogeny, secondary metabolites
31183Clyne A.B., Cleavitt N.L. & Fahey T.J. (2019): Terrestrial gastropod grazing on macrolichens in a northern broadleaf–conifer forest. - Northeastern Naturalist, 26(2): 261–274.
Herbivory by terrestrial gastropods, particularly Arion spp. (a slug), can alter epiphytic lichen communities; however, little is known about this interaction in forests of North America. We used 3 lines of evidence to explore this interaction: field grazing assessments on lichen thalli, a 10-y re-measure of gastropod abundance, and gastropod feeding trials in a montane forest at Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF) in northern New Hampshire. Grazing damage by terrestrial gastropods was widespread, though few sites had severe grazing. Grazing damage was significantly higher on flatter terrain and on broadleaf trees. Slug densities were significantly lower in 2016 than in earlier surveys (1997–2006) on 4 of 6 plots. In feeding trials, 2 common lichens, Hypogymnia physodes and Platismatia glauca, were grazed more heavily by both native and non-native slugs than other lichen species. However, the Succineidae (amber) snails preferred Lobaria pulmonaria, a lichen that has been declining at HBEF in the last decade. Overall, lichen communities in the HBEF were moderately impacted by terrestrial gastropod grazing, but potential effects of the non-native slugs at higher elevations and impacts on lichen health of widespread, moderate grazing deserve further study.
31182Tibell L., Tibell S. & Van Der Pluijm A. (2019): Chaenotheca biesboschii a new calicioid lichen from willow forests in the Netherlands. - Lichenologist, 51(2): 123-135.
A new species of Chaenotheca, C. biesboschii, has been found in the freshwater tidal area of the Biesbosch in the Netherlands, a national park well known for harbouring several rare and threatened mosses and lichens. A phylogenetic analysis of the ITS region revealed some strongly supported infrageneric clades in Chaenotheca which were given informal names, and some were assigned provisional names in anticipation of generic recognition. The analysis also showed that the new species differed in the sequenced region from other European Chaenotheca species. Chaenotheca biesboschii might be mistaken for C. gracillima but, in addition to a considerable difference in the ITS region, it also differs from this species in morphology. It is also similar to C. servitii but again differs in morphology. Chaenotheca biesboschii inhabits decorticated wood in the oldest stages of forest development of abandoned willow coppices. In 2016 and 2017 a fairly large population was found in an area comprising several square kilometres. In the Biesbosch area, extensive woodlands have developed only since the 1950s and therefore C. biesboschii might have been recently estab- lished in the area, possibly following climatic warming. The new species is characterized by having an immersed, glaucous green thallus; apothecia 0·9–1·4 mm high; capitulum on the lower side when young with a ring-like thickening covered by a yellow pruina; when mature with a rusty brown pruina on the capit- ulum and upper part of stalk; spherical spores, 3·5–5·5 μm diam., ornamented by irregular cracks, medium brown; photobiont Stichococcus. A key to the European species of Chaenotheca is provided. Chaenotheca, climate change, Europe, freshwater tidal areas, phylogeny, taxonomy
31181Corsie E., Harrold P. & Yahr R. (2019): No combination of morphological, ecological or chemical characters can reliably diagnose species in the Parmelia saxatilis aggregate in Scotland. - Lichenologist, 51(2): 107-121.
The Parmelia saxatilis aggregate is comprised of three species in Europe, proposed to differ in morphological, distributional or chemical characters. In this study, we sampled nearly 200 thalli from five sites across a steep ecological gradient in Scotland to investigate the distribution of the species in the aggregate, and we characterized all specimens by morphological, chemical and ITS sequence variation. In our sample, 191 specimens were identified to species using ITS. We confirm that a PCR length assay can be used for separation of P. saxatilis s. str. from P. ernstiae and P. serrana because across our sample, P. saxatilis s. str. consistently includes a group I intron c. 200 bp. Using sequences for specimen identi- fication, we test previously proposed characters to diagnose specimens and use multivariate analysis to identify the most consistent features which may be used for identification among species. First, we test lobe morphology, presence and amount of pruina, distribution of isidia, lobe tip colour, and chemistry. Second, we use classification trees that quantify the contributions of 1) morphological and chemical factors, and 2) morphological and ecological factors, to a priori ITS-barcoded specimens. Parmelia sax- atilis s. str., P. ernstiae and P. serrana all occur across the sampled gradient but differ in the frequency of occurrence, with P. saxatilis s. str. more frequent in the relatively drier east, and P. ernstiae more frequent in the wetter west. Parmelia serrana was collected around a third as often as the other two species, but more frequently on tree branches than expected. For all the morphological characters examined, all the species show some overlap and no morphological features are diagnostic, though trends are apparent by species. The classification tree approach holds promise for discovering the most meaningful variation for field workers to approach correct identifications. Chemical variation using TLC is perhaps the best way to distinguish most specimens but, even here, overlap in chemosyndromes exists among the species. barcoding, distribution, lichens, taxonomy, thin-layer chromatography
31180Seaward M.R.D. & Richardson D.H.S. (2019): Sir David Cecil Smith FRS (1930–2018). - Lichenologist, 51(2): 103–105.
31179Duong T.-H., Beniddir M.A., Boustie J., Nguyen K.-P.-P., Chavasiri W., Bernadat G. & Le Pogam P. (2019): DP4-assisted structure elucidation of isodemethylchodatin, a new norlichexanthone derivative meager in H-atoms, from the lichen Parmotrema tsavoense. - Molecules, 24(8): 1527 [9 p.].
A phytochemical investigation of the foliose lichen Parmotrema tsavoense (Krog and Swinscow) Krog and Swinscow (Parmeliaceae) resulted in the isolation of a new trichlorinated xanthone, isodemethylchodatin. The structure elucidation of this new norlichexanthone derivative proved tricky owing to proton deficiency, and to the lack of NMR data of closely related analogues. The structure of this compound was determined based on an integrated interpretation of 13C-NMR chemical shifts, MS spectra, and DP4-based computational chemistry was also performed to provide an independent and unambiguous validation of the determined structure. Isodemethylchodatin represents the first chlorinated lichexanthone/norlichexanthone derivative bearing a methoxy group at C-5. Keywords: lichen; xanthone; norlichexanthone; Parmotrema; DFT-NMR.
31178Hamberg L., Hotanen J.-P., Nousiainen H., Nieminen T.M. & Ukonmaanaho L. (2019): Recovery of understorey vegetation after stem-only and whole-tree harvesting in drained peatland forests. - Forest Ecology and Management, 442: 124–134.
The demand for small-sized trees, logging residues, stumps, and lateral roots for energy production has increased during recent decades and therefore whole-tree harvesting (WTH) has become a more common harvesting method in forests. However, this may cause a more pronounced delay in the recovery of forest vegetation than conventional stem-only harvesting (SOH), especially in sensitive peatlands, and thus increase soil erosion. The effects of WTH have not been investigated on peatlands before this study. Recovery of understorey vegetation of drained peatland forests after two different tree harvesting methods, stem-only harvesting and whole-tree harvesting, was investigated in Eastern Finland at eight silviculturally managed peatland forests largely comprising Scots pine, Pinus sylvestris, and Norway spruce, Picea abies. In SOH, trunks only were removed from the sites whereas in WTH, tree trunks, branches, and stumps were removed. In each site, understorey vegetation (tree seedlings, dwarf shrubs, graminoids, herbs, and bryophytes) was inventoried on both mounded and unprepared soil (surfaces) on 220 permanent sample plots one and five years after harvesting. WTH had more pronounced effects on vegetation than SOH. Five to six years after the treatments, the occurrence of dwarf shrubs was lower in WTH than in SOH, whereas the cover of graminoids increased from both SOH and WTH. Soil preparation affected negatively on the recovery of peat and forest bryophytes, but positively on the recovery of some graminoid and herb species. Peat properties, e.g., pH and water table level, were found to regulate the recovery. WTH caused a longer delay on the recovery of understorey vegetation than SOH, especially if soil had been prepared. Thus, WTH cannot be recommended in drained peatland forests.
31177Paoli L., Maccelli C., Guarnieri M., Vannini A. & Loppi S. (2019): Lichens “travelling” in smokers' cars are suitable biomonitors of indoor air quality. - Ecological Indicators, 103: 576–580.
In this work, two hypotheses have been tested: 1) that lichen transplants “travelling” in smokers' cars accumulate relevant amounts of nicotine and heavy metals from cigarette smoke, and 2) that such exposure affects their vitality. Lichen samples (Evernia prunastri) were exposed for two months inside the cabin of 10 volunteer's cars, equally distributed between smokers and non-smokers. Travelling in a smoker's car for two months increased the content of nicotine and heavy metals (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Sb) in the lichen. Exposed to Control (EC) ratios revealed an indoor uptake also for Cu and Sb in non-smoker's cars, caused by traffic pollution. A smoke factor, calculated as the ratio between values of smokers’ and non-smokers’ cars, indicated a 85.6-fold contribution for nicotine and contributions in the range 1.2 (Pb) to 2 (Ni) for heavy metals; in addition, after travelling in smokers' cars, lichens showed a remarkable (60%) reduction of their vitality, as indicated by the potential quantum yield of primary photochemistry. The study demonstrated that the effects of indoor pollution by cigarette smoke can be detected using lichen transplants. Keywords: Biomonitoring; Evernia prunastri; Heavy metals; Indoor pollution; Nicotine; Photosynthetic efficiency.
31176Konoreva L., Prokopiev I., Frolov I., Chesnokov S., Rozhina S., Poryadina L. & Shavarda A. (2019): Metabolite profiling of the Cladonia lichens using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. - Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 85: 3–12.
A metabolite analysis of 52 lichen samples belonging to 13 species of the genus Cladonia was carried out. Data of metabolite profiling were in good agreement with the results obtained using anatomical and morphological methods for lichens identification. The genetic heterogeneity of the studied groups is discussed. Keywords: Chemotaxonomy; Metabolite profiling; Molecular phylogeny.
31175Powell M. & the Cambridge Lichen Group (2012): The lichens of Cambridge walls. - Nature in Cambridgeshire, 54: 56–60.
31174Powell M. & the Cambridge Lichen Group (2011): Changes in the lichens of Chippenham Fen, 1975 – 2010. - Nature in Cambridgeshire, 53: 61–71.
31173Powell M. (2010): The Lichens of Wicken Fen. - Nature in Cambridgeshire, 52: 26–34.
31172Brightman F.H. (1965): Lichens of Cambridge walls. - Nature in Cambridgeshire, 8: 45–50.
31171Hornsey I.S. & Fletcher A. (1986): Lichen flora of the Parish of Mepal. - Nature in Cambridgeshire, 28: 40–49.
31170Laundon J.R. (1977): The lichen flora of Chippenham Fen, Cambridgeshire: a study of secondary woodland. - Nature in Cambridgeshire, 20: 11–20.
31169Powell M., Harris A. & Hicks M. (2011): Lichen ecology in traditional Hertfordshire orchards and the implications for conservation. - The Hertfordshire Naturalist, 43(2): 69–79.
Traditional Orchards are now a UK Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP) priority habitat. Where managed in a nonintensive way they have been described as hotspots for biodiversity, but there have been serious declines nationally and locally, over 90% in Hertfordshire. This has significant implications for biodiversity and ecological surveys are needed to improve our understanding and support their conservation. The Herts Biodiversity Projects Fund was used in 2011 to sample ten sites across the county for their lichen interest. A total of 71 species were confirmed from all fruit trees at these sites, with an additional 46 species from other substrates within these sites. There do not appear to be any obvious patterns of lichen community characteristics from the data available, although 19 species occurred on fruit trees in ten or more orchard sites representing the most characteristic communities. The average number of lichen species on fruit trees for each site as 34, and from each site as a whole was 49 species. 69% of species records came from fruit trees, demonstrating both the importance of this habitat as well as additional habitat opportunities within an orchard. All species were relatively common in a national context, the lack of rare species being a reflection of historic pollution and the relatively young age of fruit trees compared to veteran trees. However, orchards clearly support good, diverse lichen floras and are of considerable local importance in that respect. The Herts study compares very favourably with other national studies taking past histories and climate factors into account and helps to demonstrate their local value for biodiversity. Suggestions for appropriate management are also provided.
31168Gockman O., Selva S.B. & McMullin R.T. (2019): The first report of Chaenothecopsis perforata from North America. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 18: 52–57.
Chaenothecopsis perforata is reported as new to North America from Canada (Ontario and Québec) and the United States (Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Nebraska, Pennsylvania, Texas, and Wisconsin). The species occurs on the exudate of Rhus and this is the first documented occurrence on angiosperm exudate for any calicioid fungus in North America. Keywords. – Biogeography, Mycocaliciaceae, calicioid, Rhus glabra, R. typhina, R. lanceolata, R. virens, resinicolous.
31167Wegrzyn M.H., Wietrzyk-Pełka P., Nicia P., Lehmann-Konera S. & Olech M. (2018): Short-term monitoring of Arctic trace metal contamination based on Cetrariella delisei bioindicator in Svalbard. - Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae, 87(4):3600 [20 p.].
This study focuses on short-term monitoring of trace metals in the Svalbard archipelago. Short-term studies using lichen bioindicators are important because temporary changes in lichen trace metal levels are mainly dependent on air pollutants. Here, we investigated temporal and spatial differences in the content of trace metals such as Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, and Zn measured in the lichen thalli of Cetrariella delisei. The temporal aspect was studied in the marine plain of Calypsostranda between 1988 and 2016 and that of Hornsundneset between 1985 and 2008. The spatial aspect was studied between Hornsundneset in 1985 and Calypsostranda in 1988 as well as between Hornsundneset in 2008 and Calypsostranda in 2016. The results revealed an increase in the concentration of Cr, Mn, Ni, and Co for both the aspects, while a decrease in the contents of Cu, Cd, and Mo was observed. Pb content varied, as Pb level increased with time in Hornsundneset but decreased in Calypsostranda. The Zn content showed no significant changes in both temporal and spatial aspects. Keywords: lichens; heavy metals; potential toxic metals; spatial and temporal trends; Spitsbergen.
31166Archer A.W. (2019): The lichen genus Pertusaria (Pertusariaceae, Ascomycotina) in Papua New Guinea: checklist and keys. - Australasian Lichenology, 84: 44-54.
A checklist and keys are provided to the 82 species of Lepra, Pertusaria and Varicellaria in Papua New Guinea
31165Elix J.A. (2019): Four new species and new records of buellioid lichens (Caliciaceae, Ascomycota) from Antarctica. - Australasian Lichenology, 84: 33–43.
Amandinea windmillensis Elix, Buellia minispora Elix, B. rodseppeltii Elix and Tetramelas lokenensis Elix are described as new to science. The new combination Tetramelas filsonii (C.W.Dodge) Elix is proposed for Buellia filsonii C.W.Dodge. In addition, Buellia vilis Th.Fr. is reported for the first time from Antarctica and Amandinea isabellina (Hue) Søchting & Øvstedal and Buellia illaetabilis I.M.Lamb are recorded for the first time from continental Antarctica. In their monograph Lichens of Antarctica and South Georgia, Øvstedal & Lewis-Smith (2001) reported three species of Amandinea and 30 species of Buellia sens. lat. Four of the latter species have since been transferred to Amandinea (Søchting et al. 2004) and nine to Tetramelas (Kalb 2004; Nordin 2004; Elix 2017, 2018). Øvstedal subsequently described a further species of Buellia from Antarctica (Øvstedal & Lewis-Smith 2004), which has also been transferred to Tetramelas (Elix 2017). Following the study of 1105 Antarctic collections housed in BM, CANB, MEL and HO, I am describing new species of Amandinea, Buellia sens. lat. and Tetramelas, and reporting the occurrence of Buellia vilis Th.Fr. from the continent.
31164Wietrzyk-Pełka P., Otte V., Węgrzyn M.H. & Olech M. (2018): From barren substrate to mature tundra – lichen colonization in the forelands of Svalbard glaciers. - Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae, 87(4):3599 [20 p.].
This paper contributes to studies on the lichen biota of Arctic regions. The research was carried out in the forelands of eight glaciers and in the mature tundra surrounding them. Study areas were located in two parts of Svalbard: in the Kongsfjord (forelands of Austre Brøggerbreen, Vestre Brøggerbreen, Austre Lovénbreen, Midtre Lovénbreen, and Vestre Lovénbreen) and in the Isfjord (forelands of Rieperbreen, Svenbreen, and Ferdinandbreen). In each foreland and in the mature tundra surrounding it, a series of 1-m2 plots was established, within which a percentage cover for each species was determined. In total, 133 lichens and one lichenicolous fungus were recorded. Nineteen species were recorded for the first time in Svalbard: Agonimia allobata, Atla wheldonii, Bacidia herbarum, Catolechia wahlenbergii, Epigloea soleiformis, Lecanora behringii, Lepraria subalbicans, Leptogium arcticum, Pertusaria pseudocorallina, Placidiopsis custnani, Protothelenella corrosa, Pyrenidium actinellum, Spilonema revertens, Stereocaulon saxatile, Thelocarpon sphaerosporum, Toninia coelestina, Verrucaria elaeina, Verrucaria murina, and Verrucaria xyloxena. The lichen richness was the lowest in the Ferdinandbreen foreland (24 species) and the highest in the Rieperbreen foreland (82 species). Significant differences in species composition were found among the forelands studied, except for Austre and Vestre Brøggerbreen whose lichen composition was similar. The differences in lichen composition between mature tundra in the vicinity of the following forelands were identified: Vestre Brøggerbreen and Svenbreen, Austre Brøggerbreen and Svenbreen, and Austre Brøggerbreen and Ferdinandbreen. The most dominant group of lichens in both forelands and mature tundra were chlorolichens, not cyanolichens. Keywords: cryptogamic species; primary succession; Kongsfjord; Isfjord; Spitsbergen; Arctic.
31163Elix J.A. (2019): A new species and new records of buellioid lichens (Caliciaceae, Ascomycota) from the Kerguelen Islands. - Australasian Lichenology, 84: 16-25.
Sixteen taxa of buellioid lichens are reported from the Kerguelen Islands in the southern Indian Ocean. Buellia kerguelenica Elix is new to science, while 12 taxa are new records for the islands. The new combination Amandinea tristiuscula (Nyl.) Elix is proposed for Lecidea tristiuscula Nyl. A detailed description and illustrations are provided for the latter species, and a key to the buellioid lichens of the islands is included. Thallus crustose, areolate; areoles separate, rarely contiguous, irregular and angular, ± flat, 0.1–0.5 mm wide, dark brown to dark olive-brown, often centred around base of apothecia; prothallus not apparent; photobiont cells 5–12 μm wide. Medulla white, lacking calcium oxalate (H2SO4–), I–. Apothecia 0.2–0.5 mm wide, abundant, lecideine, roundish, broadly adnate to sessile; disc black, epruinose, plane to convex with age; proper exciple thin, distinct, slightly raised above the disc, excluded in older convex apothecia, in section 35–40 μm thick; outer part brown-black, K–, N+ orange-brown; inner part brown. Epihymenium 10–15 μm thick, dark olive-brown to aeruginose-black, K–, N+ purple-brown. Hypothecium 85–170 μm thick, dark brown to brown-black, K–. Hymenium 35–55 μm thick, colourless, not inspersed; subhymenium 20–25 μm thick, brown, inspersed with oil droplets; paraphyses 1–2 μm wide, sparingly branched, with apices 3–4 μm wide, with dark olive-brown caps. Asci 8-spored, Bacidia-type. Ascospores Buellia-type, 1-septate, pale brown then dark brown, ellipsoid, 9– [11.8]–14 × 6–[7.1]–9 μm, very rarely constricted at the septum, not curved; outer wall smooth to finely ornamented. Pycnidia immersed, black, punctiform; conidia bacilliform, 6–8 × 1 μm. Chemistry: Medulla K–, C–, PD–, UV–; no lichen substances detected. Remarks Both Buellia subtegens and B. kerguelenica are characterized by discontinuous, areolate thalli, the absence of a prothallus, similar-sized Buellia-type ascospores that are not constricted at the septum, an aeruginose epihymenium, a brown hypothecium, a non-amyloid medulla and bacilliform conidia. However, Buellia subtegens differs in forming convex, hemispherical areoles, in having a much thicker hymenium, 80–100 μm thick, and a non-inspersed sub- hymenium (Murray 1963). Presently B. subtegens is only known from Antarctica. Buellia evanescens Darb. is also rather similar to B. kerguelenica, but it has a colourless to very pale brown hypothecium and commonly constricted ascospores (Lamb 1968). New combination The Kerguelen Islands are located in the southern Indian Ocean at 48°27’–50°01’S and 68°25’–70°33’E. The main island, Grande Terre, is 6,675 km2 in area and is surrounded by a further 300 smaller islands and islets, forming an archipelago of 7,215 km2. The highest point is Mont Ross in the Gallieni Massif, which rises along the southern coast of the island and has an elevation of 1,850 metres. The Cook Ice Cap (Calotte Glaciaire Cook) is a glacier with an area of about 403 km2, and lies on the central-western part of the island. The island is volcanic in origin, mountainous with numerous bays, peninsulas and fiords. The archipelago has a subpolar oceanic climate, and is extremely windswept. Plant life is mainly limited to grasses, mosses and lichens, although the islands are also known for the indigenous, edible Kerguelen cabbage, Pringlea antiscorbutica. Five species of buellioid lichens have previously been reported from the Kerguelen Islands, namely Buellia disciformis (Fr.) Mudd [as B. parasema deNot.] and B. stellulata (Taylor) Mudd (Tuckermann 1875); Amandinea subplicata (Nyl.) Øvstedal and A. tristiuscula (Nyl.) Elix (Crombie 1877) and Buellia kerguelensis C.W.Dodge (Dodge 1966). However, the report of B. disciformis from rocks is obviously incorrect, because that species is restricted to cort- icolous or lignicolous substrata. Amandinea tristiuscula (Nyl.) Elix, comb. nov. MycoBank No.: MB 826924 Lecidea tristiuscula Nyl. in Crombie, J. Bot. (London) 15, 190 (1877). Buellia tristiuscula (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Catal. Lich. Univ. 7, 424 (1931). Type: Îles Kerguelen, Swain’s Bay, on coastal rock, A.E. Eaton [Transit of Venus Expedition], i.1875 (BM 001097145 – holotype!). Buellia kerguelensis C.W.Dodge, Comité Français des Recherches Antarctiques (Paris) 15, 8 (1966). Type: Kerguelen Islands, Presqu’île Courbet, Plaine des Drumlins, on pebbles of denuded moraines with Usnea, E. Aubert de la Rüe 77, 1963 (HUH – holotype!). Thallus crustose, forming extended patches to c. 20 mm wide, epilithic, grey-white to grey- brown, to 0.4 mm thick, effuse and discontinuous to rimose-areolate, individual areoles 0.2– 0.4 mm wide; prothallus black when abutting other lichens or not apparent; medulla white, lacking calcium oxalate (H2SO4–), I–; photobiont cells 7–14 μm wide. Apothecia 0.1–0.5 mm wide, lecideine, immersed then broadly adnate or becoming sessile and constricted at the base, scattered or crowded, rounded or irregular through mutual pressure; disc dark brown to black, epruinose, weakly concave to plane; proper excipulum distinct, persistent, often slightly higher than the disc, in section 35–60 μm thick; outer zone dark brown to black-brown, K–, paler brown within. Epihymenium 12–15 μm thick, dark brown, K–, N–. Hypothecium 150– 250 μm thick, dark brown to brown-black, K–, N+ orange-brown. Hymenium 80–90 μm thick, colourless; subhymenium 30–50 μm thick, pale brown, densely inspersed with oil droplets; paraphyses 1.5–1.8 μm wide, simple to sparsely branched; apices 4–5 μm wide, with dark brown caps. Asci of the Bacidia-type, 8-spored. Ascospores at first of the Orcularia-type, later of the Physconia-type, 1-septate, pale olive-green to brown, ellipsoid, 17–[20.1]–24 × 8– [11.4]–14 μm, rarely constricted or dilated at the septum; outer spore-wall rugulate.
31162Motta K., Amórtegui K., Moncada B. & Lücking R. (2019): New species in the genus Graphis with transversally septate ascospores (Ascomycota: Ostropales: Graphidaceae) from Colombia. - Phytotaxa, 401(4): 257–266.
The lichenized genus Graphis sensu Staiger (Graphidaceae) is listed with 67 species in the most recent version of the Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. Revision of recent publications and approximately 700 collections housed in the Cryptogams Section of the Herbario Forestal “Gilberto Emilio Mahecha Vega” of the Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas in Bogotá revealed 70 additions to the Colombian lichen biota in this genus and the recently segregated genus Allographa, including 13 species new to science, from the departments of Boyacá, Casanare, Cauca, Cesar, Cundinamarca, Meta, Nariño, Santander, and Tolima. In this paper, six new species of Graphis with transversely septate ascospores are described, illustrated, and discussed. The new taxa are: Graphis amaliana, with lirellae becoming striate, laterally carbonized excipulum, clear hymenium, large, transversely septate ascospores, and norstictic acid; differing from Allographa celata and A. verminosa in the verrucose thallus and erumpent lirellae with verruculose thallin margin, as well as in the broader ascospores; G. carmenelisana with labia becoming striate, completely carbonized excipulum, inspersed hymenium (type A), large, transversely septate ascospores, and stictic acid; differing from Graphis gloriosensis in the rugose-verruculose thallus and the radiately branched lirellae with apically thin complete thalline margin and labia becoming striate; G. kavintuca with entire lirellae, laterally carbonized excipulum, clear hymenium, small to medium-sized, transversely septate ascospores, and lacking substances; differing from A. elongata in the lirellae lacking a thalline margin and from A. nana in the larger ascospores and the longer, flexuose lirellae; G. rosalbinana with lirellae becoming striate, completely carbonized excipulum, clear hymenium, small, transversely septate ascospores, and norstictic acid; differing from G. schiffneri in the shape and disposition of the lirellae; G. santanderiana with entire lirellae, laterally carbonized excipulum, clear hymenium, small, transversely septate ascospores, and lacking secondary substances; differing from G. imshaugii in the laterally carbonized excipulum and lack of secondary substances; G. solmariana with entire lirellae, laterally carbonized excipulum, clear hymenium, large, transversely septate ascospores, and stictic acid; differing from G. sitapurensis in the basal thalline margin and the broader ascospores. A remarkably high number of new species are from high altitude andine forest and paramo, habitats previously not believed to be rich in Graphis species. Keywords: lichens, biological diversity, Magdalena Valley dry forests.
31161Elix J.A., Liao L. & Barrow R.A. (2019): The structure of xantholepinone A, a new secalonic acid derivative from the lichen Chrysothrix sulphurella. - Australasian Lichenology, 84: 3-9.
Xantholepinone A [8,8\ꞌ-dideoxysecalonic acid D] (1) has been isolated from the lichen Chry- sothrix sulphurella and the structure established by mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. A detailed assignment of the 13C-NMR spectrum of secalonic acid A (2) is also reported
31160Suchocka M., Błaszczyk M., Juźwiak A., Duriasz J., Bohdan A. & Stolarczyk J. (2019): Transit versus nature. Depreciation of environmental values of the road alleys. Case study: Gamerki-Jonkowo, Poland. - Sustainability, 11(6): 1816 [24 p.].
Road alleys are multifunctional features in open landscapes that serve as ecological corridors connecting habitats, and play an important role in sustaining ecological stability. However, multiple road authorities claim that tree-lined routes pose a threat to traffic safety and should therefore be removed. This aspect of safety seems crucial to authorities, significantly overwhelming the benefits of road alleys. Problems with the vitality of the trees (which are mainly mature and aging) deliver arguments for cutting them down. The aim of this paper is to examine the environmental and natural value of road alleys based on a 14 km long section of the Gamerki—Jonkowo Road in the Province of Warmia (Northeast Poland). Further, we aim to verify the degree of hazard posed by trees to be felled for safety reasons. An examination framework with six components was developed for the research. This framework includes a tree risk assessment and vitality evaluation, pulling tests, an examination of the protected hermit beetle and lichen species, and an examination of bat fauna. The results revealed that no trees were in the resignation phase and confirmed that the alley is a unique natural habitat with protected species of lichen, a few bats, and valuable insect species, among others the hermit beetle (Osmoderma barnabita). Therefore, the alley cannot be perceived only as a component of the road infrastructure. The maintenance of the trees seems to be essential when taking into account the environmental stability of the region. Keywords: road alleys; protection of road trees; tree cutting; green infrastructure management; biodiversity conservation.
31159St-Onge B. & Grandin S. (2019): Estimating the height and basal area at individual tree and plot levels in Canadian subarctic lichen woodlands using stereo WorldView-3 images. - Remote Sensing, 11(3): 248 [20 p.].
Lichen woodlands (LW) are sparse forests that cover extensive areas in remote subarctic regions where warming due to climate change is fastest. They are difficult to study in situ or with airborne remote sensing due to their remoteness. We have tested a method for measuring individual tree heights and predicting basal area at tree and plot levels using WorldView-3 stereo images. Manual stereo measurements of tree heights were performed on short trees (2–12 m) of a LW region of Canada with a residual standard error of 0.9 m compared to accurate field or UAV height data. The number of detected trees significantly underestimated field counts, especially in peatlands in which the visual contrast between trees and ground cover was low. The heights measured from the WorldView-3 images were used to predict the basal area at individual tree level and summed up at plot level. In the best conditions (high contrast between trees and ground cover), the relationship to field basal area had a R2 of 0.79. Accurate estimates of above ground biomass should therefore also be possible. This method could be used to calibrate an extensive remote sensing approach without in-situ measurements, e.g., by linking precise structural data to ICESAT-2 footprints. Keywords: high resolution; spaceborne; photogrammetry; taiga; black spruce; stem density; unmanned aerial vehicles.
31158Vitt D.H., Finnegan L. & House M. (2019): Terrestrial bryophyte and lichen responses to canopy opening in pine-moss-lichen forests. - Forests, 10(3): 233 [15 p.].
Pinus contorta-dominated montane forests of western Canada with relatively dense tree canopies have ground layers with abundant bryophytes, especially the feather mosses (Pleurozium schreberi and Hylocomium splendens), while those with more open canopies are dominated by species of reindeer lichens, especially Cladonia arbuscula s.l. and C. rangiferina s.l. Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou), which are a threatened species in Alberta, prefer open, Cladonia-dominated forests for their winter food supply. This study investigated if opening the canopy by thinning mature montane forests of the Canadian Rocky Mountain foothills would change the abundance of lichens and bryophytes. In 1997, forests were thinned by removing 20%, 40%, and 60% by volume. In 2016, 19 years after treatment, we re-surveyed a subset of these plots (n = 97) for lichen and bryophyte abundance and species richness by utilizing the amount of canopy opening at the plot level as our prime gradient. We then used ordination to determine the relationship of control plots to treatment plots. In uncut forest, the control plots were highly variable, but were mostly dominated by feather mosses, with little or no bare ground. Feather moss abundance was lower in treatment plots when compared to control plots, while cover of bare ground was greater. Overall, 19 years after treatment, we found that, in treatment plots, lichen abundance remained stable or slightly increased, feather mosses decreased markedly, and unoccupied space was double that of the control plots. We conclude that the canopy opening had little effect on understory and ground layer diversity, but considering species abundance (1) bryophytes have not recovered after canopy opening, (2) populations of reindeer lichens increased marginally, but have not colonized areas left bare from bryophyte dieback, and (3), after 19 years there, remains unoccupied areas of bare ground in plots with a reduced canopy cover. Our study demonstrated that, with canopy cover reduction resulting from forest thinning operations, the ground layer diversity is maintained, but recovery of ground layers in old-growth pine-dominated forests is not promoted. Therefore, timber harvest that partially opens the tree canopy is unlikely to benefit caribou by augmenting or accelerating winter food availability and habitat suitability for caribou. Keywords: bryophyte; caribou; Cladonia; ground layer; lichen; moss; Pinus contorta; reindeer lichen; feather moss.
31157Pérez F.L. (1997): Geoecology of erratic globular lichens of Catapyrenium lachneum in a high Andean Paramo. - Flora, 192: 241-259.
A population of 172 globoids of the lichen Catapyrenium lachneum (ACH.) R. SANTESSON was examined at 4540 m in a paramo of the Venezuelan Andes. Lichen thalli were attached to mobile, spherical lumps of soil which are mobilized by needly ice. Globoid size and shape were correlated; smaller specimens were more spherical than larger ones, because heavier globoids remain immobile for increasingly long periods on one side and become flattened. Globoid cores consisted of silty soil with a higher content of fine grains and organic matter than the substrate beneath. These contrasts occur because lichens gradually trap and accumulate aeolian dust, while thalli die and become incorporated in globoids. Large flat globoids had an internal double- layered structure. The upper band had a greater organic content and was finer because of continuous capture of aeolian material by a dense lichen cover on the upper globoid face. Due to their properties, globoids can store sizable amounts of water. Water was swiftly absorbed by globoids; larger specimens stored less water than smaller ones, but lost moisture at considerably slower rates. Growth of needle ice delivers much water to the soil surface, where lichens can readily imbibe it. The water relations of these unique lichens, considered ecologically crucial for their growth and survival during episodic drought periods, are discussed in detail. Erratic lichens, Catapyrenium lachneum, water relations, paramo, Andes, Venezuela
31156Almendras K., Leiva D., Carú M. & Orlando J. (2018): Carbon consumption patterns of microbial communities associated with Peltigera lichens from a Chilean temperate forest. - Molecules, 23(11): 2746 [18 p.].
Lichens are a symbiotic association between a fungus and a green alga or a cyanobacterium, or both. They can grow in practically any terrestrial environment and play crucial roles in ecosystems, such as assisting in soil formation and degrading soil organic matter. In their thalli, they can host a wide diversity of non-photoautotrophic microorganisms, including bacteria, which play important functions and are considered key components of the lichens. In this work, using the BioLog® EcoPlate system, we studied the consumption kinetics of different carbon-sources by microbial communities associated with the thallus and the substrate of Peltigera lichens growing in a Chilean temperate rain forest dominated by Nothofagus pumilio. Based on the similarity of the consumption of 31 carbon-sources, three groups were formed. Among them, one group clustered the microbial metabolic profiles of almost all the substrates from one of the sampling sites, which exhibited the highest levels of consumption of the carbon-sources, and another group gathered the microbial metabolic profiles from the lichen thalli with the most abundant mycobiont haplotypes. These results suggest that the lichen thallus has a higher impact on the metabolism of its microbiome than on the microbial community of its substrate, with the latter being more diverse in terms of the metabolized sources and whose activity level is probably related to the availability of soil nutrients. However, although significant differences were detected in the microbial consumption of several carbon-sources when comparing the lichen thallus and the underlying substrate, D-mannitol, L-asparagine, and L-serine were intensively metabolized by both communities, suggesting that they share some microbial groups. Likewise, some communities showed high consumption of 2-hydroxybenzoic acid, D-galacturonic acid, and itaconic acid; these could serve as suitable sources of microorganisms as bioresources of novel bioactive compounds with biotechnological applications. Keywords: BioLog® EcoPlate; community level physiological profiles; lichen microbiota; lichen substrate; Nothofagus forest.
31155Benítez Á., Medina J., Vásquez C., Loaiza T., Luzuriaga Y. & Calva J. (2019): Lichens and bromeliads as bioindicators of heavy metal deposition in Ecuador. - Diversity, 11(2): 28 [10 p.].
We evaluated heavy metal deposition in Parmotrema arnoldii and Tillandsia usneoides in response to air pollution in Loja city, Ecuador. We assessed heavy metal (cadmium, copper, manganese, lead and zinc) content in these organisms at nine study sites inside Loja city and three control sites in nearby forests. Concentrations of all studied heavy metals (i.e., cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn)) were highest in downtown Loja. Our study confirms that passive monitoring using lichens and/or bromeliads can be an efficient tool to evaluate heavy metal deposition related to urbanization (e.g., vehicle emissions). We recommend these organisms to be used in cost-effective monitoring of air pollution in tropical countries. Keywords: air pollution; epiphytes; passive monitoring; vehicle emissions.
31154Jeon Y.-J., Kim S., Kim J.H., Youn U.J. & Suh S.-S. (2019): The comprehensive roles of ATRANORIN, a secondary metabolite from the Antarctic lichen Stereocaulon caespitosum, in HCC tumorigenesis. - Molecules, 24(7): 1414 [12 p.].
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most deadly genetic diseases, but surprisingly chemotherapeutic approaches against HCC are only limited to a few targets. In particular, considering the difficulty of a chemotherapeutic drug development in terms of cost and time enforces searching for surrogates to minimize effort and maximize efficiency in anti-cancer therapy. In spite of the report that approximately one thousand lichen-derived metabolites have been isolated, the knowledge about their functions and consequences in cancer development is relatively limited. Moreover, one of the major second metabolites from lichens, Atranorin has never been studied in HCC. Regarding this, we comprehensively analyze the effect of Atranorin by employing representative HCC cell lines and experimental approaches. Cell proliferation and cell cycle analysis using the compound consistently show the inhibitory effects of Atranorin. Moreover, cell death determination using Annexin-V and (Propidium Iodide) PI staining suggests that it induces cell death through necrosis. Lastly, the metastatic potential of HCC cell lines is significantly inhibited by the drug. Taken these together, we claim a novel functional finding that Atranorin comprehensively suppresses HCC tumorigenesis and metastatic potential, which could provide an important basis for anti-cancer therapeutics. Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), lichen; atranorin; cell cycle; cell death.
31153Loppi S. (2019): May the diversity of epiphytic lichens be used in environmental forensics?. - Diversity, 11(3): 36 [13 p.].
Epiphytic (tree inhabiting) lichens, well-known biomonitors of atmospheric pollution, have a great potential for being used in environmental forensics. Monitoring changes in biodiversity is a useful method for evaluating the quality of an ecosystem. Lichen species occurring within an area show measurable responses to environmental changes, and lichen biodiversity counts can be taken as reliable estimates of environmental quality, with high values corresponding to unpolluted or low polluted conditions and low values to polluted ones. Lichen diversity studies may be very useful in the framework of environmental forensics, since they may highlight the biological effects of pollutants and constitute the base for epidemiological studies. It is thus of paramount importance that great care is taken in the interpretation of the results, especially in the context of a rapidly changing environment and facing global change scenarios. For this reason, it seems advisable to produce several zonal maps, each based on different species groups, and each interpreted in a different way. This exercise could also be a valid support in the framework of a sensitivity analysis, to support or reject the primary results. In addition, a clear and formal expression of the overall uncertainty of the outputs is absolutely necessary. Keywords: air pollution; biodiversity; bioindicators; biomonitoring; environment; uncertainty.
31152Sancho L.G., Pintado A. & Green T.G.A. (2019): Antarctic studies show lichens to be excellent biomonitors of climate change. - Diversity, 11(3): 42 [14 p.].
Lichens have been used as biomonitors for multiple purposes. They are well-known as air pollution indicators around urban and industrial centers. More recently, several attempts have been made to use lichens as monitors of climate change especially in alpine and polar regions. In this paper, we review the value of saxicolous lichens for monitoring environmental changes in Antarctic regions. The pristine Antarctica offers a unique opportunity to study the effects of climate change along a latitudinal gradient that extends between 62° and 87° S. Both lichen species diversity and thallus growth rate seem to show significant correlations to mean annual temperature for gradients across the continent as well as to short time climate oscillation in the Antarctic Peninsula. Competition interactions appear to be small so that individual thalli develop in balance with environmental conditions and, as a result, can indicate the trends in productivity for discrete time intervals over long periods of time. Keywords: Antarctica; biomonitoring; lichens; growth rate; diversity; temperature; precipitation; climate change.
31151Brunialti G., Frati L., Malegori C., Giordani P. & Malaspina P. (2019): Do different teams produce different results in long-term lichen biomonitoring? Diversity 2019, 11, 43. . - Diversity, 11(3): 43 [17 p.].
Lichen biomonitoring programs focus on temporal variations in epiphytic lichen communities in relation to the effects of atmospheric pollution. As repeated surveys are planned at medium to long term intervals, the alternation of different operators is often possible. This involves the need to consider the effect of non-sampling errors (e.g., observer errors). Here we relate the trends of lichen communities in repeated surveys with the contribution of different teams of specialists involved in sampling. For this reason, lichen diversity data collected in Italy within several ongoing biomonitoring programs have been considered. The variations of components of gamma diversity between the surveys have been related to the composition of the teams of operators. As a major result, the composition of the teams significantly affected data comparability: Similarity (S), Species Replacement (R), and Richness Difference (D) showed significant differences between “same” and “partially” versus “different” teams, with characteristics trends over time. The results suggest a more careful interpretation of temporal variations in biomonitoring studies. Keywords: lichens; air pollution; Lichen Diversity Value (LDV); gamma diversity.
31150Aragón G., Martínez I., Hurtado P., Benítez Á., Rodríguez C. & Prieto M. (2019): Using growth forms to predict epiphytic lichen abundance in a wide variety of forest types. - Diversity, 11(4): 51 [14 p.].
Epiphytic richness is continuously declining due to forest fragmentation, logging, burning, agriculture, and livestock. The rate of species loss caused by habitat degradation and loss is more pronounced in Central and South America. Considering the extreme difficulty and time required to identify the more inconspicuous species, rapid diversity assessment methods need to be extrapolated throughout the world. This study correlated lichen growth forms and total epiphytic abundance across 119 forests located in Europe and Central-South America. A total of 54 papers were selected from specific databases focused on lichens. Additionally, data from several unpublished ecological studies were included. Linear regression models showed that epiphytic lichen abundance was highly and positively correlated with the number of growth forms at all geographical levels considered (i.e., Central-South American and European forests, and the combination of both). Thus, the use of growth forms may provide an alternative and complementary way to evaluate epiphytic diversity because most growth forms have cosmopolitan distribution and are easily recognizable. Keywords: richness; epiphyte; indicator species; forests; Europe; Central-South America.
31149Ellis C.J. (2019): Climate change, bioclimatic models and the risk to lichen diversity. - Diversity, 11(4): 54 [23 p.].
This paper provides an overview of bioclimatic models applied to lichen species, supporting their potential use in this context as indicators of climate change risk. First, it provides a brief summary of climate change risk, pointing to the relevance of lichens as a topic area. Second, it reviews the past use of lichen bioclimatic models, applied for a range of purposes with respect to baseline climate, and the application of data sources, statistical methods, model extents and resolution and choice of predictor variables. Third, it explores additional challenges to the use of lichen bioclimatic models, including: 1. The assumption of climatically controlled lichen distributions, 2. The projection to climate change scenarios, and 3. The issue of nonanalogue climates and model transferability. Fourth, the paper provides a reminder that bioclimatic models estimate change in the extent or range of a species suitable climate space, and that an outcome will be determined by vulnerability responses, including potential for migration, adaptation, and acclimation, within the context of landscape habitat quality. The degree of exposure to climate change, estimated using bioclimatic models, can help to inform an understanding of whether vulnerability responses are sufficient for species resilience. Fifth, the paper draws conclusions based on its overview, highlighting the relevance of bioclimatic models to conservation, support received from observational data, and pointing the way towards mechanistic approaches that align with field-scale climate change experiments. Keywords: adaptation; acclimation; climate envelope models; dispersal; exposure; microclimatic refugia; vulnerability.
31148Rocha B., Pinho P., Vieira J., Branquinho C. & Matos P. (2019): Testing the poleotolerance lichen response trait as an indicator of anthropic disturbance in an urban environment. - Diversity, 11(4): 55 [17 p.].
Urban environments are densely populated areas buzzing with a wide range of anthropic activities that cause disturbances like air pollution or the heat island effect, threatening both human and environmental health. Mitigating its impacts implies understanding the integrated effects that those disturbances exert on urban environments. Lichen biodiversity is frequently used as an ecological indicator, being able to integrate its effects in a quantifiable way. The poleotolerance response trait classifies lichens according to their tolerance to human disturbance, but it was developed for Italy’s flora and has seldom been applied outside Italy or in urban context studies. The aim of this work was to assess this trait suitability as an indicator of urban anthropic disturbance and test it outside Italy. For that, we sampled lichen diversity in 41 green spaces in Lisbon. Lichens were classified into the respective poleotolerance trait functional groups and their community weighted mean related with three type of environmental variables used as surrogates of urban disturbance. We showed that disturbance-tolerant functional groups could be used as an ecological indicator of the integrated effects of environmental disturbances. Some species were clearly misclassified, so we propose reclassification for those. Natural and seminatural functional groups did not behave as expected. Nevertheless, disturbance-tolerant functional groups have the potential to be used in in other Southern European cities. Keywords: epiphytic lichens; human disturbance; poleotolerance; functional ekology.
31147Sevgi E., Yılmaz O.Y., Çobanoğlu Özyiğitoğlu G., Tecimen H.B. & Sevgi O. (2019): Factors influencing epiphytic lichen species distribution in a managed Mediterranean Pinus nigra Arnold forest. - Diversity, 11(4): 59 [21 p.].
Lichens have important ecological functions in black pine forests, such as nitrogen fixation and nutrient cycling. Understanding lichen diversity could provide a better understanding of black pine ecosystems. The aim of this study was to identify the factors affecting the composition of lichen communities and their specific diversity in Mediterranean black pine forests. Research was conducted in 48 sampling plots. For the analysis, presence–absence and frequency data of lichen species were used. For stand level analysis, four community composition tables were created. We used bioclimate, topography, stand, and parent rock as variables. A total of 33 epiphytic lichen species were identified in the black pine forests from 282 sampled trees. Indicator lichen species were determined according to geographic region and stand age classes. Hypocenomyce scalaris was found to be an indicator species for old forests. Frequency data were more useful for revealing lichen species composition than presence–absence data. Of the topographic variables, elevation was the most prominent and had the highest explanation ratio for the composition of lichen species with a coefficient of correlation (R2) value of 0.49. Significantly positive (p < 0.001) relationships were found between epiphytic lichen richness and tree crown height, tree height, and bark pH. Our results revealed that to retain the trees in the stands rich in lichen species diversity is recommended in the managed forests. Keywords: lichen diversity; indicator species; species response curves; presence-absence data; frequency data. Keywords: lichen diversity; indicator species; species response curves; presence-absence data; frequency data.
31146Nascimbene J., Benesperi R., Giordani P., Grube M., Marini L., Vallese C. & Mayrhofer H. (2019): Could hair-lichens of high-elevation forests help detect the impact of global change in the Alps?. - Diversity, 11(3): 45 [10 p.].
Climate change and the anthropic emission of pollutants are likely to have an accelerated impact in high-elevation mountain areas. This phenomenon could have negative consequences on alpine habitats and for species of conservation in relative proximity to dense human populations. This premise implies that the crucial task is in the early detection of warning signals of ecological changes. In alpine landscapes, high-elevation forests provide a unique environment for taking full advantage of epiphytic lichens as sensitive indicators of climate change and air pollution. This literature review is intended to provide a starting point for developing practical biomonitoring tools that elucidate the potential of hair-lichens, associated with high-elevation forests, as ecological indicators of global change in the European Alps. We found support for the practical use of hair-lichens to detect the impact of climate change and nitrogen pollution in high-elevation forest habitats. The use of these organisms as ecological indicators presents an opportunity to expand monitoring activities and develop predictive tools that support decisions on how to mitigate the effects of global change in the Alps. Keywords: biodiversity conservation; climate change; ecosystem functioning; fruticose-filamentose lichens; global warming; nitrogen pollution.
31145Gurbanov R. & Unal D. (2018): The biomolecular alterations in Cladonia convoluta in response to lead exposure. - Spectroscopy Letters, 51: 563–570.
In this study, structural alterations in the biomolecular profile of the Cladonia convoluta exposed to lead were investigated considering the potential of lichens in biomonitoring practices. Particularly, qualitative and quantitative changes in the lipids, polysaccharides, proteins, and nucleic acids along with various organic acids in lead-exposed lichen were analytically analyzed using infrared spectroscopy. Moreover, the quantitative changes in chlorophyl and malondialdehyde levels were measured by independent biochemical assays. Chlorophyll content analysis revealed a dose- and time-dependent decrease in chlorophyl content, whereas malondialdehyde content analysis revealed lipid peroxidation as a result of lead exposure. Lead exposure diminished total nucleic acid quantity, which can be an important parameter for the elucidation of heavy metal tolerance mechanisms in lichens. Furthermore, lead exposure increased the quantity of usnic acid, signifying its importance in the lichen-based decontamination of metal polluted areas. Keywords: Chlorophyll, DNA conformation, infrared spectroscopy, lead, lichen.
31144Almborn O. (1992): Aptroot, André. A monograph of the Pyrenulaceae (excluding Anthracothecium and Pyrenula) and the Requienellaceae, with notes on the Pleomassariaceae, the Trypetheliaceae and Mycomicrothelia (lichenized and non-lichenized ascomycetes). Bibliotheca lichenologica 44: [i-ii], 1-178, 1991. - Taxon, 41: 393–394.
book review
31143Gams W. (1992): Report of the Committee for Fungi and Lichens: new series, 2. - Taxon, 41: 99–108.
The Committee for Fungi and Lichens reports its decisions on 45 proposals to conserve/reject names, recommending 21. Proposal 567: Phaeographina Müller Arg. vs. several other generic names. Proposed by D. L. Hawksworth & M. A. Sherwood (Taxon 30: 343. 1981). Votes: 2-11-1 (not recommended). Proposal 568: Phaeographis Müller Arg. vs. several other generic names. Proposed by D. L. Hawksworth & M. A. Sherwood (Taxon 30: 343-344. 1981). Votes: 1-12-1 (not recommended). Proposal 718: Conserve Baeomyces Pers. with Lichen fungiformis as type. Proposed by E. Sérusiaux (Taxon 32: 646-648. 1983). Votes: 1-12-1 (not recommended). Proposal 792: Reject Lichen subfuscus L. Proposed by O. Vitikainen (Taxon 34: 533-534. 1985). Votes: 11-2-1 (recommended). Proposal 871: Buellia De Not. vs. Gassicurtia Fée. Proposed by A. Aptroot (Taxon 36: 474. 1987). Votes: 13-1-0 (recommended). Proposal 895: Arthopyreniaceae Watson vs. Xanthopyreniaceae Zahlbr. Proposed by D. L. Hawksworth & O. Eriksson (Taxon 37: 190. 1988). Withdrawn by the proposers. Proposal 900: Physciaceae Zahlbr. vs. Pyxinaceae (Fries) Stizenberger. Proposed by D. L. Hawksworth & O. Eriksson (Taxon 37: 191. 1988). Votes: 12-1-1 (recommended). Proposal 904. Thelotremataceae (Nyl.) Stizenberger vs. Urceolariaceae Chevall. Proposed by D. L. Hawksworth & O. Eriksson (Taxon 37: 192. 1988). Withdrawn by the proposers. Proposal 905: Trapeliaceae Hertel vs. Saccomorphaceae Elenkin. Proposed by D. L. Hawksworth & O. Eriksson (Taxon 37: 192-193. 1988). Votes: 13-1-0 (recommended). Proposal 909: Pseudocyphellaria Vainio vs. several names. Proposed by D. J. Galloway & J. R. Laundon (Taxon 37: 480-482. 1988). Votes: 13-1-0 (recommended). Proposal 912: Rhytidocaulon Bally (Asclepiadaceae) vs. Rhytidocaulon Nyl. (Lichenes). Proposed by P. V. Bruyns (Taxon 37: 486-487. 1988). Votes: 12-2-0 (no objection). Proposal 925: Anema Nyl. ex Forssell vs. Omphalaria A. Massal. (Lichenes) proposed by P. M. Jørgensen & R. Santesson (Taxon 38: 303-304. 1989). Votes: 10-3-1 (recommended). Proposal 933: Arthopyrenia A. Massal. with A. rhyponta as conserved type. Proposed by D. L. Hawksworth & J. C. David (Taxon 38: 493. 1989). Votes: 1-9-4 (not recommended).
31142Nelson E.C. & Parnell J. (1992): Flora Hibernica (1836): Its publication, and aftermath as viewed by Dr. Thomas Taylor. - Taxon, 41: 35–42.
Flora Hibernica by J. T. Mackay, T. Taylor and W. H. Harvey was published on 15 June 1836 in Dublin. Although well received by botanists, the number of copies sold was small. Taylor was critical of the book, especially of Harvey's treatment of the algae, and he tried unsuccessfully to persuade Mackay to published a revised, less bulky edition which could be sold at a lower price.
31141Laundon J.R. (1992): Pertusaria aspergilla, the correct name for P dealbata auct. (lichenized Ascomycotina: Pertusariales). - Taxon, 41: 744–745.
Pertusaria aspergilla (Achar.) Laundon, comb. nov., replaces P. dealbata auct., non (Achar.) Crombie, and P dealbescens auct., non Erichsen, a superfluous name.
31140Grube M. & Nimis P.L. (1997): Mediterranean lichens on-line. - Taxon, 46: 487–493.
In the frame of a project of the OPTIMA Commission for Lichens, a workspace has been created on the Internet for the compilation of a checklist of Mediterranean lichens. The World Wide Web now offers quick access to the lichen checklists of several countries, and facilitates the coordination of future work through a common format of data presentation. As a first step, the checklists were placed on the Web as plain text files, except for the lichen data from Slovenia, which are organized in a relational database. Placing new information on the Web is equivalent to a kind of publication, which raises some issues which need being discussed.
31139Printzen C. (1997): (1302-1303) Two proposals to reject names of lichenized ascomycetes. - Taxon, 46: 543–544.
Nomenclature. Proposals to reject a forgotton name Lecidea tavaresiana H.Magn (in favour of Lecidea carrolii Coppins & P.James) and a dubious name Lecidea anomala var. tenebricosa (= Lecidea tenebricosa).
31138Wagner H.-G. & Schacherer A. (2019): Einige für Niedersachsen neue lichenicole Pilze sowie weitere bemerkenswerte Funde [Some new records of lichenicolous fungi and further noteworthy finds from Lower Saxony]. - Braunschweiger Naturkundliche Schriften, 15: 45–79.
In the course of botanical surveys in the federal state of Lower Saxony conducted by the Lower Saxony Water Management, Coastal Defence and Nature Conservation Agency (NLWKN), the species groups currently being surveyed comprise inter alia mosses, lichens and fungi. If ever possible, also lichenicolous species were included with the latter group. Twenty-four of these have been recorded as new for Lower Saxony since March, 2015. One of them (Pronectria diplococca) has been previously unknown in Germany. In addition, the lichen species Endocarpon pallidum and the hepaticolous fungus Mniaecia nivea are new to Lower Saxony. The newly recorded species and some other noteworthy finds are presented in short. The records presented here indicate the desirability to take note of such rather inconspicuous species within the scope of Lower Saxony’s species survey programs.
31137Khodosovtsev A.Ye., Darmostuk V.V., Didukh I.P. & Pylypenko I.O. (2019): Verrucario viridulae-Staurotheletum hymenogoniae, a new calcicolous lichen community as a component of petrophytic grassland habitats in the Northern Black Sea region. - Mediterranean Botany, 40(1): 21–32.
The new lichen association, Verrucario viridulae-Staurotheletum hymenogoniae (Aspicilion contortae Roux 2009, Aspicilietalia calcareae Roux 2009, Verrucarietea nigrescentis Wirth 1980) is described here. It is formed on marl limestone pebbles in arid landscapes in the Northern Black Sea lowland. Forty-six species of lichens and ten lichenicolous fungi were observed and Staurothele hymenogonia, Verrucaria muralis s. lat., V. viridula are diagnostic for the association. The new association is a component of the Nord-Pontic calcicline pale fescue grasslands habitats (EUNIS). It occurs in protected areas “Yelanetsky Steppe” (Mykolayiv region), “Troitska balka” (Zaporizha region), the National Nature Park “Kam`yanska Sich” and the Regional Landscape Park “Gavrylovsky” (Kherson region). Keywords: Ukraine, Aspicilion contortae; EUNIS; Phytocenology; Syntaxonomy.
31136Karthik S., Nandini K.C., Kekuda T.R.P., Vinayaka K.S. & Mukunda S. (2011): Total phenol content, insecticidal and amylase inhibitory efficacy of Heterodermia leucomela (L).. - Annals of Biological Research, 2(4): 38–43.
The present study was undertaken to investigate total phenol content, insecticidal and amylase inhibitory activity of methanol extract of a macrolichen Heterodermia leucomela (L) collected from Bhadra wildlife sanctuary, Karnataka. Total phenol content was estimated by Folin- Ciocalteu reagent method. Insecticidal activity of different concentrations of extract was determined by larvicidal effect on 2nd and 3rd instar larvae of the mosquito Aedes aegypti. Amylase inhibitory activity of the extract was tested against Diastase (Fungal). A marked concentration dependent mortality of larvae was observed. Among larvae, 2nd instar larvae were shown to be more susceptible to extract than 3rd instar larvae. The mortality of 2nd and 3rd instar larvae was recorded 100% at extract concentration 1.5mg/ml and 2mg/ml respectively. The extract showed dose dependent inhibition of amylase. The highest inhibition of amylase was 38.57% at extract concentration 25mg/ml. Thin layer chromatography showed Atranorin and Salazinic acid. Total phenol content was 50.20mg Gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight of extract. The larvicidal and amylase inhibitory effect of extract could be due to the presence of phenolic secondary metabolites. Key words: Heterodermia leucomela (L), Bhadra wildlife sanctuary, Aedes aegypti, Larval mortality, Amylase.
31135Sachin M.B., Mahalakshmi S.N. & Kekuda T.R.P. (2018): Insecticidal efficacy of lichens and their metabolites—A mini review. - Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 8: 159–164.
Interest in natural products possessing insecticidal activity is increased because of the drawbacks such as high cost, environmental pollution, effects on non-target organisms, and the emergence of resistant pests that are associated with the use of synthetic insecticides. Lichens are composite organisms comprised of a photobiont and a mycobiont. Lichens are used traditionally worldwide and many studies have shown the promising pharmacological properties of lichens, including insecticidal activity. The present review highlights the potential of lichen extracts and their metabolites as insecticidal agents. An extensive literature survey carried out revealed promising insecticidal properties of solvent extracts and metabolites of lichens against plant pests and insect vectors that transmit human diseases. Lichen metabolites such as usnic acid, atranorin, vulpinic acid, fumarprotocetraric acid, barbatic acid, norstictic acid, and diffractaic acid exhibit insecticidal activity. It appears from the literature survey that lichens and their metabolites can be employed as insecticidal agents to prevent and control insect pests that cause damages to plants and transmit diseases such as malaria, dengue, filariasis, and others. Key words: Lichens, lichen substances, insecticidal, larvicidal, usnic acid.
31134Firdous S.S., Khan S., Dar M.E.U.I., Shaheen H., Habib T. & Ullah T.S. (2017): Diversity and distribution of lichens in different ecological zones of Western Himalayas Pakistan. - Bangladesh Journal of Botany, 46(2): 805–811.
Thirty four lichen species encountered in 10 localities from Azad Jammu and Kashmir. Altitudinal range of the sampling stations was 1000 - 2200 m. The reported lichens belonged to 24 genera of 15 families. Parmeliaceae was the dominant family with 8 species followed by Ramalinaceae, Telochistaceae (5 species each). Collemataceae, Caliciaceae, Lecanoraceae, Lobariaceae (2 species each) and Candelariacea, Cladoniaceae, Dermatocarpaceae, Thalotrenataceae, Ramalinaceae, Rhizocarpaceae, Umbilicaraceae and Xanthoparmeliacea (1 species each). Foliose was the dominant growth form followed by crustose, sqamulose and fruticose. Altitude, anthropogenic pressure and pollution are the main factors controlling the diversity and distribution of lichens in the Azad Jammu and Kashmir. Keywords: Ecological zones. Lichen diversity, Altitude, Thalline spot test.
31133Shaheen S., Iqbal Z. & Hussain M. (2019): First report of dye yielding potential and compounds of lichens; a cultural heritage of Himalayan communities. - Pakistan Journal of Botany, 51(1): 341–360.
Lichens are well-known dye yielding organisms since ancient times. The present study investigates the dye yielding potential of nineteen lichen species belonging to eleven genera (Flavopunctelia, Flavoparmelia, Cladonia, Parmelia, Umbilicaria, Xanthoria, Ochrolechia, Hyperphyscia, Hypogymnia, Dermatocarpon and Parmotrema) of Himalayan region (Abbottabad) Pakistan. Wool and silk were dyed using the 3 different methods i.e. dimethyl sulphoxide (DEM), ammonia fermentation (AFM) and boiling water (BWM). Over 57 different dye tests were made on silk. Predominant color was cerise but yellow, brown, purple, green, pink and olive were produced. COSMIN software was used to detect HEX Colour codes with RBG and HSL values. These dye colors were further altered by modifying: exposure to light, temperature and subsequent additional extractions using the different method or the same one. After dying samples were tested for stability in sunlight and the action of soap, some samples were faded to some degree and some of them changed color. Most dyes obtained through the AFM and DEM method were stable while dyes from boiling water method were light stable. A correlation of dye color with lichen secondary metabolites was also attempted. Spot test results showed the presence of different lichen substances (gyrophoric, lecanoric acid, umbilicaric acids, usnic acid, atranorin, chloroatranorin, salazinic acid and parietin). Key words: Lichens, Extraction, Secondary metabolites, Dye, Cultural heritage, Himalayas.
31132Habib K., Imran A., Khalid A.N. & Fiaz M. (2017): Some new records of lichens from Hunza Valley, Pakistan. - Pakistan Journal of Botany, 49(6): 2475–2482.
There is a vast diversity of lichens in forests of Pakistan due to rich vegetation and suitable environmental conditions for their growth. During exploration of lichens of Hunza valley in Gilgit Baltistan, we found four species viz., Punctelia subrudecta, Punctelia borreri, Peltigera elisabethae and Xanthoria sogdiana, which are new records for Pakistan. Their molecular characterization is based on internal transcribed region of nuclear ribosome. Complete morphological descriptions along with phylogenetic analyses are also discussed in this work. Key words: Symbiont, rDNA, ITS, Himalayan forests, Biodiversity.
31131Güvenç Ş. & Öztürk Ş. (2017): Difference in epiphytic lichen communities on Quercus cerris from urban and rural areas in Bursa (Turkey). - Pakistan Journal of Botany, 49(2): 631–637.
Sixty epiphytic lichen species were identified in seven localities from urban and rural areas in Bursa province. Amandinea punctata, Hyperphyscia adglutinata, Opegrapha herbarum, and Parmelia sulcata commonly found in areas with intensive anthropogenic influence were determined to be indicators of urban areas. Pleurosticta acetabulum and Pseudevernia furfuracea were determined to be indicators of rural areas. The species diversity and composition of the epiphytic lichens on Quercus cerris varied depending on the effects of macroclimatic and microclimatic factors, anthropogenic and agricultural activities. Key words: Bursa, Quercus cerris, Epiphytic lichen, Lichen diversity, Lichen composition.
31130Matwiejuk A. (2016): The lichens in the agricultural landscape of Podlasie, North East Poland. - Pakistan Journal of Botany, 48(2): 813–830.
This paper carries information for diagnosis lichenobiota in the agricultural landscape of Poland NE. The research led to a better understanding of the problem of occurrence of lichens in the agricultural landscape. The functional groups of lichens, which were used to characterize lichen biota taking into account the morphological forms, frequency of occurrence and habitat requirements were determined. The basis for the specification of the more interesting taxa in the study area was to analyze the species composition of lichens in relation to the data on their previous records in rural areas, the degree of recognition in Poland NE and conservation status and threats in the country. Key words: Lichens, Distributions, Agricultural landscape, Poland.
31129Sevgi O., Çobanoğlu G. & Sevgi E. (2016): Effect of forest habitat on the distribution of lichen species in Şerif Yüksel Research Forest (Bolu, Turkey). - Pakistan Journal of Botany, 48(2): 581–588.
The paper presents the results of a study evaluating impact of habitat factors on distribution of lichen species in a forest ecosystem, in Şerif Yüksel Research Forest (Bolu-Turkey), by applying “binary logistic regression” as the main analysis tool. The variables used for logistic regression were tree species, forest purity, altitude, slope, aspect, tree diameter and number of lichen species. Since it may only be possible to be installed within the model when the number of surveillance of the species is more than 20 in the study area. Distribution of 42 of the 82 epiphytic lichen species were modeled by logistic regression. It is concluded that among these variables, "number of lichen species" and "to be a mixed forest" were the most appropriate variables used in the models. In conclusion, binary logistic regression model can be successfully used in lichen species distribution in forest habitat. Key words: Binary logistic models, Lichen distribution models, Present-absent data, Forest habitat.
31128Karabulut G. & Ozturk S. [Öztürk Ş.] (2015): Antifungal activity of Evernia prunastri, Parmelia sulcata, Pseudevernia furfuracea var. furfuracea. - Pakistan Journal of Botany, 47(4): 1575–1579.
The aim of this study was to investigate the In vitro efficacy of 96% alcohol extracts of Evernia prunastri and Pseudevernia furfuracea var. furfuracea that were in foliose-fruticose form and Parmelia sulcata in foliose form against important plant pathogens. The growth of fungal colonies in Petri plates amended with lichen extracts at 25°C was measured a day before covering all surface of Petri plate in control treatment. Data were analysed according to statistic analysis test LSD at p≤0.05. The in vitro efficacy of extracts of E. prunastri, P. sulcata and P. furfuracea var. furfuracea showed a significant inhibition against mycelia and spor growth of Aspergillus niger, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium culmorum, F. solani, Macrophomina phaseolina, Penicillium expansum and Rhizoctonia solani. The level of inhibition among extracts showed variation. It was concluded that secondary metabolites of lichens may be used as biological chemicals against some plant pathogens. Key words: Antifungal, Lichen extracts, Plant pathogen.
31127Firdous S.S., Naz S., Shaheen H. & Dar M.E.U.I. (2017): Lichens as bioindicators of air pollution from vehicular emissions in district Poonch, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. - Pakistan Journal of Botany, 49(5): 1801–1810.
In the present study epiphytic lichen mapping was done by Index of Atmospheric Purity (IAP) for the assessment of impact of vehicular pollution on lichen diversity in the Hajira city and its north sites of District Poonch Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. Vehicular emission is one of the sources of air pollution in the cities. Six transects and 25 sites (4 sites each 5km distance/transect with Hajira City (HC at 0km) as common site were selected for the present study. It is recorded that on increasing distance from the HC lichens diversity also increased. Lowest IAP value 38 at 0 km and highest 145 at 15 or 20 km distance was recorded. However some sites at a distance of 20 km showed decreased trend in lichen taxa because of undulating topography, change in zonation with changes in selection of trees and wind pattern. In the data higher IAP value indicated better air quality. A total of 42 lichens species were recorded from the study sites. Based on Ecological Index (Q), Ramalina fraxinia, Flavoparmelia flavientior, Xanthoria ucrainica, X. candelaria, Parmelia minarum, Physconia grisea, Parmelina carporrhizans, Parmelia squarrosa, P. succinata P. hyperopta, Bulbothrix laevigatula, Hypogymnia physodes, Melanelixia fulginosa, Lepraria finkii, etc., were sensitive in response to air pollution in the study area. It is concluded that IAP is a good approach in determination of air quality using bioindicators. This method proved simple, quick and cheap and vast areas are surveyed in a relatively short time at a relatively low cost.
31126Ranković B. & Kosanić M. (2012): Antimicrobial activities of different extracts of Lecanora atra, Lecanora muralis, Parmelia saxatilis, Parmelia sulcata and Parmeliopsis ambigua. - Pakistan Journal of Botany, 44(1): 429–433.
Antimicrobal activity of the acetone, methanol and aqueous extracts of the lichens Lecanora atra, Lecanora muralis, Parmelia saxatilis, Parmelia sulcata and Parmeliopsis ambigua was explored In vitro against to 6 species of bacteria and 10 species of fungi by the disc-difusion method and determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) by the Broth tube Dilution method. The acqueous extracts of the tested lichens didn't show any antimicrobal activity on any of the test organisms, whereas the acetone and methanol ones showed an activity related to the tested species. The bacteria were very sensitive related to the tested fungi. The strongest antimicrobal activity was found in the acetone extract of the lichen Parmelia sulcata where the least measured MIC value was 0.78 mg/ml. Generally, among the bacteria the most sensitive was the species Bacillus mycoides, and among the fungi Botrytis cinerea and Candida albicans. The bacterium Escerichia coli was resistant to all the extracts of the explored lichens. Generally, all the explored lichens had a relatively strong antimicrobal activity, which can be very important in making the food bad and in curing numerous diseases caused by these and similar microorganisms.
31125Wang Y., Huang S. & Jian X. (2018): Analysis on variation patterns of parmotrema tinctorum individuals under different environments. - Pakistan Journal of Botany, 50(3): 929–936.
Twelve Parmotrema tinctorum individuals were collected from the Yaoluoping national nature reserve of Anhui Province, China. The relationships between biological characters of lichen individuals and their environmental factors were analyzed by methods included Redundancy analysis (RDA). Based on the information, variation patterns of different individual's biological characters were described. The analysis results manifested that the biological characters showed a certain extent stability in a individual, but exhibit more variation among all twelve individuals, of which the hyphae diameter and anatomical character, had minimum variation coefficients not only within a individual, but also between all the analyzed lichen individuals. Redundancy analysis showed that environment factor moisture had a significant negative correlation with illumination, had the most-positive correlation and the most-negative correlation with hyphae diameter and biological index medulla width, respectively; While environment factor altitude had the most-negative correlation with lower cortex width and the most-positive correlation with rhizoid density. The atranorine content could response to illumination condition sensitively; whereas the algae layer thickness could reflect comprehensive environment change very well. The nutriment investment strategy within different function parts of a lichen thallus deserve to investigate deeply, which is of great importance in revealing the response model of lichens to environment change. Keywords: Parmotrema tinctorum; Characters; Environment factors; Individuals; Redundancy analysis individual.
31124Strimbeck G.R., Graae B.J., Lang S. & Sørensen M.V. (2019): Functional group contributions to carbon fluxes in arctic-alpine ecosystems. - Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, 51(1): 58–68.
Ongoing responses to climate change in arctic-alpine ecosystems, including the increasing dominance of deciduous shrubs, involve major shifts in plant functional group composition. Because rates of photosynthesis and respiration and their responses to temperature may vary among plant functional groups, a better understanding of their contributions to carbon fluxes will help improve predictions of how ecosystem changes will affect carbon source-sink relations in globally important tundra regions. We used a sequential harvest method to estimate growing season functional group contributions to net ecosystem exchange (NEE), ecosystem respiration (ER), and gross photosynthesis (GP) in alpine heath-, meadow-, and Salix-dominated shrub communities. We also partitioned ER into aboveground and belowground components in all three communities. Belowground efflux was the dominant component of ER in the heath and meadow communities (63 percent and 88 percent of ER, respectively) but contributed only approximately 40 percent of ER in the shrub community. The dominant functional group in each community contributed most to aboveground exchanges. Estimates for cryptogams were uncertain, but indicated a minor role for bryophytes and lichens in overall exchange. The results of our novel method of partitioning gas-exchange measurements suggest strong differences in the relative proportions of soil versus aboveground respiration and in the contributions of different functional groups in the net carbon exchange of three important arctic-alpine community types, with implications for changes in carbon dynamics as these systems respond to environmental change. Keywords: Plant functional groups; carbon sequestration; plant respiration; soil respiration; net ecosystem Exchange.
31123Liu D., Wang L., Wang X.Y. & Hur J.-S. (2019): Two new species of the genus Candelariella from China and Korea. - Mycobiology, 47(1): 40–49.
Candelariella is a widespread lineage of lichenized ascomycetes with ambiguous relationships among species that have not solved completely. In this study, several specimens belonging to Candelariella were collected from China and South Korea, and the internal transcribed spacer region was generated to confirm the system position of the newly collected specimens. Combined with a morphological examination and phylogenetic analysis, two new areolate species, Candelariella rubrisoli and C. subsquamulosa, are new to science. Detail descriptions of each new species are presented. In addition, C. canadensis is firstly reported from China mainland. Keywords: Taxonomy; Candelariaceae; East Asia; phylogeny.
31122Khastini R.O., Sari I.J., Herysca Y. & Sulasanah S. (2019): Lichen diversity as indicators for monitoring ecosystem health in Rawa Danau Nature Reserve, Banten, Indonesia. - Biodiversitas, 20: 489–496.
Study on environmental changes is very important in present circumstances throughout the world. Lichen biodiversity may provide an excellent measure in bio-monitoring on the ecosystem health of nature reserve areas such as Rawa Danau in Banten Province, Indonesia. At present, this area is highly disturbed due to ecological factors and human activities such as land use for agricultural land and residential area. The objective of this research is to provide the information needed for assessing ecosystem health which will be revealed by the diversity of lichens in the study area. The study was conducted using transect-based plot in three landscapes: residential area, primary forest and secondary forest, while exploration technique was carried out in freshwater swamp area. The cover for lichen species in the substrates and the number of species present were recorded. Shannon-Wiener diversity index was also calculated. A total of 86 specimens were collected from these four areas which resulted in the occurrence of 25 species of lichens belonging to 20 genera and 14 families. Shannon-Winner’s diversity index are ranging from 1.7197 at residential area to 2.6678 at swamp area. The variation in species composition is likely associated with the abiotic and biotic factors of each landscape with the differences in lichen diversity across landscapes suggest an altered environmental condition of in Rawa Danau. The results of this study can be used as baseline information of ecosystem health of Rawa Danau Nature Reserve in the face of future environmental changes. Keywords: Ecosystem health, lichen diversity, rawa danau, bio-monitoring, habitat.
31121Kusmoro J., Noer I.S., Jatnika M.F., Permatasari R.E. & Partasasmita R. (2018): Lichen diversity in geothermal area of Kamojang, Bandung, West Java, Indonesia and its potential for medicines and dyes. - Biodiversitas, 19: 2335–2343.
The study of lichens diversity in Kamojang, West Java was conducted by survey in geothermal field area following the line transect 6 km along to the East, North West and south from the Power House of Geothermal Power Plant. The lichen samples were taken from bark, soil, and stone. Lichen identification was done by morphological, anatomy and chemical analysis. Dyes potency of Parmotrema and Usnea test using ammoniac fermentation was done in Plant Taxonomy Laboratory of Department Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Padjadjaran. The survey has successfully collected 133 species of lichens, belong to 62 genera and 17 families. Parmeliaceae was found as dominant groups, consisting of 33 species and other co-dominant groups are Graphidaceae and Lobariaceae with 24 species and 8 species, respectively. Most lichens in Kamojang geothermal area belong to Ascomycetes, only one Basidiomycetes such as Dictyonema sericeum (Sw.) which found at Kawah Manuk (Manuk crater) area. The rare species of lichens such as Usnea longissima Ach, was found at Pine forest in Arboretum 6 km south of Powerhouse of Kamojang geothermal. Chemical analysis and literature study for Lichenic acid contains was done and generally, atranorin, usnic acid, barbatic and lecanoric acid was found in lichens samples. Amoniac fermentation result showed that Parmotrema tinctorum produced brownish red, red and purple, which occurred within 1 week to 5 weeks after fermentation. While Usnea produced variety of brown color, which occurred within 5 days up to 4 weeks after fermentation. Lichen species containing some medical properties are Bulbothrix, Cladonia and Usnea. While lichens having dyes properties are Hypogymnia, Lobaria, Peltigera, Usnea, and Parmotrema. Keywords: Dye, fermentation, Kamojang, lichen, lichenic acid, medicine.
31120Cecconi E., Fortuna L., Benesperi R., Bianchi E., Brunialti G., Contardo T., Di Nuzzo L., Frati L., Monaci F., Munzi L., Nascimbene J., Paoli L., Ravera S., Vannini A., Giordani P., Loppi S. & Tretiach M. (2019): New interpretative scales for lichen bioaccumulation data: The Italian proposal. - Atmosphere, 10: 136 [19 p.].
The interpretation of lichen bioaccumulation data is of paramount importance in environmental forensics and decision-making processes. By implementing basic ideas underlying previous interpretative scales, new dimensionless, species-independent “bioaccumulation scales” for native and transplanted lichens are proposed. Methodologically consistent element concentration datasets were populated with data from biomonitoring studies relying on native and transplanted lichens. The scale for native lichens was built up by analyzing the distribution of ratios between element concentration data and species-specific background concentration references (B ratios), herein provided for Flavoparmelia caperata and Xanthoria parietina (foliose lichens). The scale for transplants was built up by analyzing the distribution of ratios between element concentration in exposed and unexposed samples (EU ratio) of Evernia prunastri and Pseudevernia furfuracea (fruticose lichens). Both scales consist of five percentile-based classes; namely, “Absence of”, “Low”, “Moderate”, “High”, and “Severe” bioaccumulation. A comparative analysis of extant interpretative tools showed that previous ones for native lichens suffered from the obsolescence of source data, whereas the previous expert-assessed scale for transplants failed in describing noticeable element concentration variations. The new scales, based on the concept that pollution can be quantified by dimensionless ratios between experimental and benchmark values, overcome most critical points affecting the previous scales. Keywords: biomonitoring; native lichens; lichen transplants; air pollution; trace elements; background levels; Flavoparmelia caperata; Xanthoria parietina; Evernia prunastri; Pseudevernia furfuracea.
31119Sitzia T., Campagnaro T., Dainese M., Cassol M., Dal Cortivo M., Gatti E., Padovan F., Sommacal M. & Nascimbene J. (2017): Contrasting multi-taxa diversity patterns between abandoned and nonintensively managed forests in the southern Dolomites. - iForest, 10: 845–850.
The abandonment of silvicultural activities can lead to changes in species richness and composition of biological communities, when compared to those found in managed forests. The aim of this study was to compare the multi-taxonomical diversity of two mature silver fir-beech-spruce forests in the southern Dolomites (Italy), corresponding to the European Union habitat type 9130. The two sites share similar ecological and structural characteristics, but differ in their recent management histories. In the last 50 years, one site underwent non-intensive management, while the other was left unmanaged and was included in a forest reserve. The species richness and composition of eight taxa were surveyed in the two sites between 2009 and 2011. The difference in mean species richness between the two forest management types was tested through permutation tests, while differences in species composition were tested by principal coordinates analysis and the permutational multivariate analysis of variance. Mean species richness of soil macrofungi, deadwood lichens, bark beetles, and longhorn beetles were significantly higher in the abandoned than in the non-intensively managed forests. Deadwood fungi and epiphytic lichens did not differ in mean species richness between the two study sites, while mean species richness of ground beetles and birds were higher in the non-intensively managed than in the abandoned forest. Significant differences in species composition between the two sites were found for all the taxa, except for longhorn beetles. These results indicate that improving forest landscape heterogeneity through the creation of a mosaic of abandoned and extensively managed forests should better fulfill the requirements of ecologically different taxa. Keywords: Asperulo-Fagetum, Forestry Abandonment, Biodiversity Conservation, Selection Cutting, Natura 2000, Silver Fir.
31118Fačkovcová Z., Guttová A., Benesperi R., Loppi S., Bellini E., Sanità di Toppi L. & Paoli L. (2019): Retaining unlogged patches in Mediterranean oak forests may preserve threatened forest macrolichens. - iForest, 12: 187–192.
Forest management practices may heavily impact epiphytic (tree inhabiting) organisms. Retaining tree patches and buffer strips in logged stands may contribute to preserve ecosystem functioning and the vitality of epiphytic organisms in managed forests. To test these statements, the threatened forest macrolichen Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm. was used as a model species, since it is a “flag” indicator species of forest ecosystems with long ecological continuity. To this purpose, photosynthetic performances, thallus anatomy and water holding capacity (WHC) of samples of L. pulmonaria were investigated in a logged mixed oak forest (Tuscany, Italy), confronting lichen thalli from retained-forest patches and retained-isolated trees, 18 months after logging. Compared with those of retained-forest patches, thalli on the trunks of retained-isolated trees were thinner and showed lower vitality (as indicated by the potential quantum yield of primary photochemistry – FV/FM and the index of overall photosynthetic performance – PIABS), as well as lower water holding capacity. In contrast, thalli from forest patches had performances comparable to those of healthy samples from unlogged forests. Keywords: Biodiversity Conservation, Ecosystem Services, Forest Logging, Lobaria pulmonaria, Photosynthetic Performance, Water Holding Capacity.
31117McMullin R.T. & Wiersma Y.F. (2019): Out with OLD growth, in with ecological continNEWity: new perspectives on forest conservation. - Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 17(3):176–181.
Forest managers have a responsibility to identify and conserve ecologically exceptional forest stands. In North America, priority areas of old- growth forest are often identified based primarily on the age of trees within the stand. However, delineating forests with high conservation value based solely on tree age is an oversimplification. Therefore, we propose a different view – that of forest continuity, a view that is more prevalent in Europe. We contend that forests that have been continuously wooded over time, whether old- growth trees are present or not, have higher conservation value than areas that have old trees but that may not always have been forested. Identifying forests with high continuity requires a different index than tree age. We argue that the relative richness and abundance of lichens can be effective indicators of forest continuity, discuss how forest managers might operationalize this system, and explain why it might be a more ecologically relevant indicator of priority forest areas.
31116Fünfstück M. (1907): Lichenes (Flechten). A. Allgemeiner Teil. - In: Engler A. & Prantl K. (eds), Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien nebst ihren Gattungen und wichtigeren Arten insbesondere der Nutzpflanzen unter Mitwirkung zahlreicher hervorragender Fachgelehrten. I. Teil. Abteilung 1, p. 1–49, W. Engelmann, Leipzig.
31115Weber C.A. (1928): Georg Bitter. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 46: (148)–(156).
obituary, biography, bibliography
31114Bitter G. (1909): Peltigeren‐Studien III. Peltigera nigripunctata n. sp., eine verkannte Flechte mit heterosymbiontischen Cephalodien. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 27(4): 186–195.
31113Bitter G. (1904): Peltigeren‐Studien. II. Das Verhalten der oberseitigen Thallusschuppen der Peltigera lepidophora (Nyl).. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 22(4): 251–254.
31112Bitter G. (1904): Peltigeren‐Studien. I. Rückseitige Apothecien bei Peltigera malacea. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 22(4): 248–251.
31111Asano M. & Kameda Y. (1935): Über die Konstitution des Calycins und dessen Synthese (IV. Mitteil. über Flechten‐Farbstoffe der Pulvinsäure‐Reihe). - Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, 68(8): 1568–1571.
31110Goebel K. (1926): Die Wasseraufnahme der Flechten. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 44(3): 158–161.
Water uptake of lichens
31109Snelgar W.P., Green T.G.A. & Beltz C.K. (1981): Carbon dioxide exchange in lichens: Estimation of internal thallus CO2 transport resistances. - Physiologia Plantarum, 52(4): 417–422.
The gaseous exchange pathways of Sticla latifrons Rich. and Pseudocyphellaria amphisticta Kremp. were examined using both light and scanning electron microscopes. The size and frequency of the pores in the gas exchange structures (cyphellae and pseudocyphellae) and in the medulla were measured and from these CO2 diffusion resistances were calculated. Pseudocyphellae were found to be smaller and more widely spaced than cyphellae, consequently the resistance of the pseudocyphellae, was much greater than that of the cyphellae. Medulla resistances were low in both lichens and are probably unimportant, even at high water contents. No evidence of hyphal swelling was found. Gas exchange structure resistances were more than five fold greater than medulla resistances. It is suggested that this arrangement of resistances may simultaneously encourage refixation of respired CO2 and maintain a non desiccating environment for the lichen algae. The internal transport resistances calculated in this work approximate experimentally obtained values. Key-words: Sticta latifrons, Pseudocyphellaria amphisticta, cyphellae, pseudocyphellae, recycling, photorespiration, photosynthesis, water relations, hyphae, alga.
31108Büdel B., Becker U., Porembski S. & Barthlott W. (1997): Cyanobacteria and cyanobacterial lichens from inselbergs of the Ivory Coast, Africa. - Botanica Acta, 110(6): 458–465.
This study focuses on the saxicolous lichens and cyanobacteria of the open, exposed rock surface of inselbergs. Twenty‐three species of cyanobacteria and 17 cyanobacterial lichen species (“cyanolichens”) from several inselbergs and other rocky outcrops of three major climatic regions, savanna, transition zone and rain forest, are reported from the Ivory Coast. Inselbergs are isolated and frequently mountains consisting of Precambrian granites or gneisses that abruptly rise from the surrounding plains. Cyanobacteria were found to be the dominating organisms on all rock surfaces. The lichens found mainly belong to the family Peltulaceae and a few were present from the family Lichinaceae. Nine species of the cyanolichens and most of the cyanobacteria are new for the Ivory Coast. A gradient in total species number (cyanolichens and cyanobacteria) occurs from the savanna to the rain forest, with a decrease in species number towards the rain forest. Saxicolous cyanobacterial lichens reached a higher species number in the savanna type ecosystem (11) than on inselbergs in the rain forest (7). The cyanolichens and cyanobacteria found are characteristic for larger, light‐exposed rock surfaces and species like P. congregate, P. lingulata, P. tortuosa and P. umbilicata preferentially occur on the granite or sandstone of inselbergs. Key words: Blue-green algae, cyanobacteria, cyanolichens, inselberg, Ivory Coast.
31107Kreisel H. (2005): Liste der ethnomykologisch und biotechnologisch relevanten Pilze. Literatur – Kunst – Volksmedizin – Pharmazie – Techniken – Drogen. - Feddes Repertorium, 116: 339–391.
List of fungi relevant in ethnomycology and biotechnology. An enumeration of fungi which play a role in ethnomycology, ethnomedicine, toxicology, pharmacy, art and literature, with actual nomenclature and important synonyms. As an appendix, names of mycological products and metabolites are explained. Several dozens of lichens are included.
31106Smriga M. & Saito H. (2000): Effect of selected thallophytic glucans on learning behaviour and short‐term potentiation. - Phytotherapy Research, 14: 153–155.
This paper reviews the effects of thallophytic glucans on rodent cognitive performance modelled by a combination of behavioural and electrophysiological approaches. Glucans were isolated from thallophytic plants, based on prescriptions used in traditional Chinese and Japanese medicine. In parallel with the already described enhancement of hippocampal synaptic plasticity by disaccharides, polysaccharides isolated from lichens Flavoparmelia caperata and Cetrariella islandica, enhanced hippocampal plasticity and behavioural performance in rats. Keywords: isolichenan; PC-2; Cetrariella islandica; senile dementia; learning behaviour; short-term potentiation; long-term potentiation.
31105Valladares F., Sancho L.G. & Ascaso C. (1998): Water storage in the lichen family Umbilicariaceae. - Botanica Acta, 111: 99–107.
Abstract: Quantitative relationships between thallus structure and water storage and retention capacities In 12 species of the lichen family Umbilicariaceae were explored using three recent techniques for plant structure analysis: stereology (3D quantification of microscopic Images), mercury Intrusion porosimetry (determination of pore size distribution of tissues) and low‐temperature scanning electron microscopy (LTSEM). Water storage capacity of the thallus was related neither to thallus density nor surface area of the thallus; It was directly related to the total porosity of the thallus and inversely related to the proportion of thallus volume occupied by cell walls and gelatinous substances. Water retention capacity increased with increasing thallus density and was decreased by slight increases in the surface area of the upper side of the thallus. Water storage and retention capacities exhibited a positive correlation only when the storage capacity was expressed on a surface area basis. LTSEM study of fully hydrated specimens revealed that many intercellular spaces of the upper cortex and upper parts of the algal layer contained liquid water. Intercellular spaces of the lower part of the algal layer and medulla were in general either airfilled or partially occupied by gelatinous substances. Species with rhizinomorphs and substrate‐hygrophytic (water uptake from surface run‐offs) stored more water and retained it longer than aerohygrophytic species (water uptake from the atmosphere) lacking rhizinomorphs. Thallus structure of aerohygrophytic species seems to facilitate rapid gas exchange with the environment, improving water uptake and carbon gain when atmospheric moisture is available but accelerating dehydration when the atmosphere becomes dry. Key words: lichen, water storage, stereology, low temperature scanning electron microscopy (LTSEM), functional structure, mercury intrusion porosimetry, Umbilicariaceae.
31104Doherty B., Gabrieli F., Clementi C., Cardon D., Sgamellotti A., Brunetti B. & Miliani C. (2014): Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopic investigation of orchil dyed wool from Roccella tinctoria and Lasallia pustulata. - Journal of Raman Spectroscopy, 45(9): 723–729.
In this work Raman spectroscopic techniques have been utilized to characterize the vibrational spectral features of orchil dyed wool samples. Specifically, it is noted by surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy that wool dyed purple with two historically used orchil species (Roccella tinctoria and Lasallia pustulata) show spectral differences possibly owing to their specific dye‐precursor constituents. The additional natural dyestuff woad (Isatis tinctoria L.) overdyeing the R. tinctoria orchil dyed wool is a further challenge when distinguishing the mixed dye components given by the co‐adsorption of the dyestuffs as permitted by the selection rules of surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Furthermore, the effects of dilution of the L. pustulata species in its spectral detection have been assessed along with the evaluation of subsequent lichen extract boiling before dyeing which resulted in the detection of a degraded form of the orchil dye. Proof of concept included the surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) investigation of a purple dyed tapestry (XVI century) which permitted an aged orchil dye to be determined. This contribution utilizes SERS as a fast, reproducible and specific method for both orchil dye detection and alteration induced by degradation. Keywords: orchil dyed wool; surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy; dye co-adsorption; lichen thermal degradation; lichen species characterization.
31103Jüriado I. & Paal J. (2019): Epiphytic lichen synusiae and functional trait groups in boreo‐nemoral deciduous forests are influenced by host tree and environmental factors. - Nordic Journal of Botany, 37(1): e01939 [15 p.].
Deciduous forests with temperate broad‐leaved tree species are particularily important in terms of biodiversity and its protection, but are threatened habitats in northern Europe. Using multivariate analyses we studied the effect of forest site type, environmental variables and host tree properties on epiphytic lichen synusiae as well as on the composition of species‐specific functional traits. Epiphytic lichens were examined on Acer platanoides, Fraxinus excelsior, Quercus robur, Tilia cordata, Ulmus glabra and U. laevis in two types of forests: Humulus‐type floodplain forests and Lunaria‐type boreo‐nemoral forests on the talus slopes of limestone escarpment (klint forests). Klint forests located near the seashore were under greater maritime influence compared to floodplain forests located in inland Estonia which experience stronger air temperature contrasts. In addition to stand level and climatic variables, tree level factors (bark pH, trunk circumference and cover of bryophytes) considerably affected the species composition of the lichen synusiae. Overall, 137 lichen species were recorded, including 14 red‐listed species characteristic of deciduous trees. We defined 13 lichen societies and showed their preference to forests of a specific site type and/or host tree properties. In forests of both types, most of the epiphytic lichens were crustose, and had apothecia as the fruit bodies and chlorococcoid algae as the photobiont. However, the proportion of lichens with a foliose or fruticose growth form, as well as the proportion of lichens with vegatative diaspores, were higher in floodplain forests. In klint forests with a stronger influence from the wind, crustose species completely dominated, while species with vegetative diaspores were rare and most species dispersed sexually. Lichens with Trentepohlia as the photobiont were characteristic of these forests, and lichens with lirellate ascomata were prevailing, indicating the great uniqueness of the kint forests for epiphytic lichens in the boreo‐nemoral region. Keywords: ash, elm, floodplain forests, lime, Trentepohlia, cyanolichens, growth form, oak, temperate broad-leaved trees.
31102Staniaszek-Kik M., Chmura D. & Żarnowiec J. (2019): What factors influence colonization of lichens, liverworts, mosses and vascular plants on snags?. - Biologia, 74: 375–384.
The dead standing trees i.e. snags are known as habitat for epiphytic and epixylic species including first of all lichens and bryophytes. The vascular plants are much rarer on this type of coarse woody debris (CWD). The eighty snags (CWD elements higher than 1.5 m) of Norway spruce Picea abies and beech Fagus sylvatica in the Karkonosze Mts. were examined for the presence of lichens, liverworts, mosses and vascular plants. The height of snags, their decomposition stage, cover of bark, diameter at breast height (DBH) as well as site conditions (elevation, slope and aspect, presence in forest community) were measured and noted. The percent cover of plants and lichens were estimated on each snag. Totally 99 taxa were recorded. There lichen species were dominant (44), followed by mosses (34), liverworts (13) and there were only 8 vascular plants. The total species richness varied from 1 to 22 taxa. The species composition growing on snags was subjected to canonical correspondence analysis and statistical analyses. They revealed that the species identity of snag is one of the most important factors influencing species composition. The number of species is positively correlated with DBH whereas decomposition stage, presence of bark, snag height are not significant factors. The species richness increases also with altitude what is connected with higher abundance of spruce snags. The occurrence of snags in this area ismainly associated with forest management practices in the past. Despite of some observed patterns in colonization of snags they are important habitat especially for lichens. Keywords: Biodiversity . Epixylic bryophytes . Forest condition . Standing deadwood.
31101Cecconi E., Incerti G., Capozzi F., Adamo P., Bargagli R., Benesperi R., Candotto Carniel F., Favero-Longo S.E., Giordano S., Puntillo D., Ravera S., Spagnuolo V. & Tretiach M. (2019): Background element content in the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea: a comparative analysis of digestion methods. - Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 191:260 [16 p.].
In bioaccumulation studies, the interpretation of pollutant contents in the target biomonitor has to be performed by assessing a deviation from an unaltered reference condition. A common strategy consists in the comparison with background element content (BEC) values, often built up by uncritically merging methodologically heterogeneous data. In this respect, the acid digestion of samples was identified as a major step affecting BEC data. Here, the analytical outcomes of two acid mixtures were compared on a set of matched paired samples of the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea, a widely used biomonitor for which BEC values based on partial digestion were previously provided. The standard reference material BCR 482 (P. furfuracea) was used to validate analytical procedures consisting of either a HF total mineralization or an aqua regia partial one, both associated to ICP-MS multi-element analysis. In particular, the performance of the procedures was evaluated by comparing analytical results of field samples with the accuracy obtained on BCR aliquots (measured-to-expected percentage ratio). The total digestion showed a better performance for Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Se, Sn, and Zn, whereas the opposite was found for Cr, Co, P, and S. Moreover, new BEC values were provided for P. furfuracea using a consolidated statistical approach, after a total sample digestion with hydrofluoric acid. The multivariate investigation of the background variability of 43 elements in 57 remote Italian sites led to the identification of geographically homogeneous areas for which BEC values are provided for use as reference in biomonitoring applications. Keywords: Air pollution . Baseline . Bioaccumulation . Biomonitor . Mineralization . Acid extraction.
31100Muhle H. (1966): Die Flechte Cladonia rappii Evans neu in Westfalen. - Natur und Heimat, 26: 74–76.
31099Klee R. & Warns A. (1971): Aussagewert von Flechtenexplantaten für eine Immissionsbelastung. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 84(9): 515–522.
Die Schädigung von Parmelia physodes‐Explantaten verlief in Frankfurt/M. parallel mit der SO2‐Belastung. Da die Flechten im Sommer nicht geschädigt wurden, kommen klimatische Ursachen weniger in Frage. Die Empfindlichkeit der Parmelia physodes‐Explantate nimmt ab Bonitierungsstufe 5 (etwa drei Viertel geschädigt) sehr stark ab. Die Arbeit wurde mit Unterstützung des Bundesinnenministeriums durchgeführt.
31098Lange O.L. (1965): Der CO2‐Gaswechsel von Flechten nach Erwärmung im feuchten Zustand. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 78(10): 441–454.
Thalli der vier Flechtenarten Cladonia rangiferina (Meißner), Usnea dasypoga (Schwarzwald), Ramalina macijormis (Negev) und Roccella fucoides (Mallorca) wurden im voll eingequollenen Zustand im Luftraum für jeweils 60 Min. (nach einer Vorwärmzeit von 30 Min.) auf verschiedene Temperaturen erwärmt. Ihr CO2‐Gaswechsel war vorher mit dem URAS bestimmt worden und wurde nach der Behandlung etwa 3 Wochen lang verfolgt (bei 10°C, 10000 Lux Beleuchtung). Die reelle photosynthetische CO2‐Aufnahme kam, bei den einzelnen Arten unterschiedlich, nach Behandlung mit Temperaturen zwischen 36° und 45° völlig zum Erliegen. Nach Einwirkung niedrigerer Temperaturen trat bei nicht oder nur wenig beeinflußter Dunkelatmung eine Depression der Photosynthese von Cladonia, Usnea und Ramalina auf, die anschließend im Laufe von Tagen oder Wochen zumindest teilweise wieder ausgeglichen wurde und die als z. T. reversible Hemmung bzw. Schädigung des Photosyntheseapparates gedeutet wurde. Nur bei Roccella fehlte eine derartige Erholung. Irreversible Schädigung der Photosynthesefähigkeit um 25 bis 50% des Ausgangswertes trat noch bei Temperaturen von 32° (Usnea), 34° (Roccella), 37° (Ramalina) und 40° (Cladonia) auf. Eine so niedrige Wärmewiderstandsfähigkeit selbst der Wüstenart Ramalina maciformis ist in ökologischer Hinsicht nur im Zusammenhang mit der poikilohydren Eigenschaft der Flechten und mit der erheblichen Zunahme ihrer Resistenz bei abnehmender Hydratur verständlich.
31097Mattick F. (1953): Lichenologische Notizen: 1. Der Flechten ‐ Koëffizient und seine Bedeutung für die Pflanzengeographie. — 2. Funde lichenisierter Clavarien in Brasilien. — 3. Das Zusammenleben von Trentepohlien mit Flechten. — 4. Gedanken zur Phylogenie der Flechten. — 5. Zur Nomenklatur der Flechten. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 66(7): 263–276.
31096Huneck S. (1966): Flechteninhaltsstoffe, XXIV. Die Struktur von Tumidulin, einem neuen chlorhaltigen Depsid. - Chemische Berichte, 99(4): 1106–1110.
Die Struktur von Tumidulin wird aufgeklärt. Massen‐, NMR‐, IR‐ und UV‐Spektren sowie Hydrolyse erweisen es als 3.5‐Dichlor‐4.6‐dihydroxy‐2‐methyl‐benzoesäure‐[5‐hydroxy‐3‐methyl‐4‐methoxycarbonyl‐phenylester] (1).
31095Keuck G. (1979): Die systematische Stellung der Ramalinaceae [The systematic position of the Ramalinaceae]. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 92(1): 507–518.
[in German with English abstract: ] Ascocarp ontogeny and thallus anatomy were studied in 13 species out of the 5 genera hitherto described in the Lichen family Ramalinaceae. Apothecial development proved to be very similar in all species and relates the family to the Parmeliaceae sensu HENSSEN and JAHNS. Differences between these families are discussed briefly. For the present it is not possible to subdivide the Ramalinaceae in account of ontogenetic characteristics. Therefore, anatomical and chemical differences as well as the light or black pycnidial wall continue to be the most important taxonomic criteria. According to these, the five genera may be arranged in two groups (number of species in brackets): the first includes Ramalina Ach. (over 100), Trichoramalina Rund. et Bowl. (2) and Ramalinopsis (Zahlbr.) Follm. et Hun. (1), the second Niebla Rund, et Bowl. ( = Desmazieria Mont.) (13) and Cenozosia Mass. (1). The latter genus is not generally accepted.
31094Huneck S. & Follmann G. (1968): Mitteilungen über Flechteninhaltsstoffe LV. Zur Phytochemie und Chemotaxonomie einiger Chiodectonaceen und Roccellaceen. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 81: 125–134.
1. Siebzehn Chiodectonaceen und Roccellaceen verschiedener Florengebiete, deren sekundäre Inhaltsstoffe großenteils noch unbekannt waren, wurden vergleichend dünnschichtchromatographisch oder mikrochemisch untersucht. 2. Chiodecton sphaerale Ach. enthält Lecanorsäure, Dendrographa leucophaea (Tuck.) Darb. und Dendrographa minor Darb. Fumarprotocetrarsäure, Roccella balfourii Muell.‐Arg., Roccella caribaea Darb., Roccella difficilis Darb., Roccella fucoides (Neck.) Wain., Roccella linearis (Ach.) Wain. var. guineensis Wain., Roccella mauritiana Darb., Roccella montagnei Bél. und Roccella sinensis Nyl. Erythrin und Lecanorsäure, Roccella decipiens Darb. und Roccella linearis (Ach.) Wain. var. hypochromatica Wain. Erythrin, Roccella dubia Darb. und Roccella hypomecha (Ach.) Bory var. isabellina Wain. Lecanorsäure, Roccella hypomecha (Ach.) Bory Roccellsäure sowie Sagenidium molle Stirt. Fuciformsäure. 3. Die chemotaxonomischen Beziehungen der untersuchten Arten werden diskutiert.
31093Thorn C.E., Darmody R.G. & Campbell S.W., Allen C.E. & Dixon J.C. (2007): Microvariability in the early stages of cobble weathering by microenvironment on a glacier foreland, Storbreen, Jotunheimen, Norway. - Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 32: 2199–2211.
The initial stages of cobble weathering, measured as increasing percentage porosity, were calculated for sets of cobbles taken from the foreland of Storbreen, a cirque glacier in the Jotunheimen, Norway. Cobbles were taken from in front of the 1998 glacier snout, from the 1928, 1870, 1810 and 1750 moraine crests and from the ~10 000-year-old land surface beyond the Neoglacial foreland limit. Three microenvironments were examined within each site: (1) lichen-free surfaces from exposed cobbles, (2) lichen-covered surfaces from exposed cobbles and (3) buried cobbles taken from a soil depth of ~40 cm. Percentage porosity within plagioclase minerals was calculated using backscatter electron images of prepared thin sections. Porosity was calculated from five depth profiles into each cobble. Depth profiles were subdivided into a sequence of 50 µm × 50 µm rectangles running to at least a nominal depth of 500 µm within each cobble. Three cobbles from each dated land surface were sampled, except for the 1750 surface, which had five cobbles. Statistical analysis was by analysis of variance of rank-order transformed data. Findings indicate that cobbles close to the glacier snout are largely unweathered; also, weathering is generally weak in the 1928, 1870 and 1810 positions, but statistically significantly higher in the 1750- and 10 000-year-old positions. Weathering of buried cobbles always exceeded weathering of exposed cobbles and may possibly reach a value beyond which it cannot progress while retaining surface cohesion. The degree of weathering on lichen-free and lichen-covered cobble surfaces is not initially distinguishable, but diverges sharply after ~250 years, when lichen-covered surfaces experience significantly higher totals. Overall, the weathering trend in cobbles matches that found in soils at the same sites. Keywords: weathering; biogeochemical; glacier foreland; Neoglacial.
31092André H.M. (1985): Associations between corticolous microarthropod communities and epiphytic cover on bark. - Holarctic Ecology, 8(2): 113–119.
The discontinuous bark cover formed by epiphytic lichens and algae provides a mosaic of microhabitats for the fauna. Multivariate analyses applied to 1800 samples collected in Belgian Lorraine (southern Belgium) during each of the four seasons has made it possible to distinguish five major classes of arthropod microcommunities. Two of them are confined to special habitats or places at certain seasons, viz. – a Pseudochermes fraxini (Homoptera) community found on Fraxinus during the summer, and “trophically” different from others; – a Vertagopus arborea (Collembola) community observed in foliose lichens in St. Mard mainly in winter. The three other classes are directly related to the epiphytic cover, viz.– a Dometorina plantivaga (Oribatida) community found in crustose epiphytes; – an Eueremaeus oblongus/Trichoribates trimaculatus (Oribatida) community sheltered by foliose lichens; – an Entomobrya nivalis (Collembola)/Cerobasis guestfalicus (Psocoptera) community observed in fruticose lichens. The ecological meaning of those microcommunities (mosaic and stratification patterns, seasonal variation, succession) is discussed. The results support the hypothesis that corticolous microcoenoses are associated with the epiphyte type and that their composition is greatly affected by the vegetation stratification pattern on bark.
31091Follmann G. (1964): Eine felsbewohnende Flechtengesellschaft der mittel‐ und nordchilenischen Küstenformationen mit kennzeichnender Roccella portentosa (Mont.) Darb.. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 77(1): 262–274.
1. Eine als Roccelletum portentosae nov. ass. (Roccellion oceanicum [Matt.] nov. comb., Rhizocarpetalia Klem., Epipetretea lichenosa Klem.) beschriebene selbständige Kryptogamengesellschaft besiedelt die Küstenfelsen des mittel‐ und nordchilenischen Litorals. 2. Die artenreiche, halophile, hygrophile, neutrophile, nitrophile, skiophytische und substratvage Felsgesellschaft läßt die geographischen Unterassoziationen boreochilense nov. subass. und centrochilense nov. subass. erkennen. 3. Die biologischen, floristischen, geographischen, ökologischen, soziologischen und systematischen Eigenarten der Flechtengesellschaft werden herausgestellt. 4. Das Roccelletum portentosae nov. ass. setzt sich ausschließlich aus Endemarten der vom Humboldtstrom bestrichenen Küstenzone zusammen. 5. Chiodecton follmannii Riedl, Enterostigma skottsbergii Zahlbr. und Roccella gayana Mont. stellen Neufunde für das Untersuchungsgebiet dar.
31090Kremer B.P. & Bellmann H. (2000): Auch Mauerwerk ist Lebensraum. - Biologie in unserer Zeit, 30(2): 97–104.
popular paper [in German with English summary : ] Brickwork and ecological enhancement. Although installed for a primary technical purpose, walls erected of bricks or stonework exhibit a wide variety of habitat structures Their spatial richness with different surfaces, joints, holes, and crevices of any dimension along with different exposure to the sun light and further weather elements create an array of microclimates. A wall in an urban environment as well as in the cultural landscape therefore often provides remarkably enriching elements, each with its very special equipment of numerous species. This short overview discusses some of its major ecological features particularly in the light of natural conservation and species protection.
31089Steiner M. (1952): Zur Expositionsabhängigkeit epixyler Flechtengesellschaften. Das Physcietum ascendentis subassoc. xanthorietosum substellaris. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 65(8): 255–262.
lichen sociology
31088Fünfstück M. (1902): Der gegenwärtige Stand der Flechtenforschung nebst Ausblicken auf deren voraussichtliche Weiterentwickelung. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 20(11): 62–77.
31087Mäule C. (1891): Ueber die Fruchtanlage bei Physcia pulverulenta (Schreb.) Nyl.. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 9(7): 209–213.
31086Asahina Y. & Hayashi H. (1933): Untersuchungen über Flechtenstoffe, XXVI. Mitteil.: Über Psoromsäure. - Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, 66(7): 1023–1030.
Chemistry, psoromic acid
31085Linskens H.F. (1970): Notiz zur Ökologie der Steinring‐Vegetation auf Spitzbergen. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 83: 261–264.
Svalbard; high Arctic vegetation; polygonal soils
31084Ascaso C., Wierzchos J. & de los Ríos A. (1995): Cytological investigations of lithobiontic microorganisms in granitic rocks. - Botanica Acta, 108(6): 474–481.
This paper shows the ultrastructure of lithobiontic organisms in a granitic rock from the exterior to the interior, where fissures are found 1–2 mm from the surface. There is clear differentiation at cell level between mycobiont and photobiont cells located on the rock surface which forms part of the lichen thallus and prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells (algae and fungi) found in the fissures. As well as the observations at the ultrastructural level of the microorganisms which live in fissures and cavities, immunolabelling techniques with colloidal gold have been applied to obtain an immunolocalization of Rubisco enzyme in some of the cells. The technique applied here permits Rubisco enzyme to be identified in algae‐like cells belonging to fissures where it is difficult to identify the pyrenoid. The mineral environment of the cells situated inside the fissures is investigated by Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (EDS). The biotite particles present in the fissure walls, as well as some lithobiont microorganisms, show a depletion of potassium from interlayer positions. Key words: Aspicilia, granitic rock, immunogold localization, microprobe, lichen, lithobiontic microorganisms, Rubisco.
31083Van Roy W., Mathey A. & Van Vaeck L. (1996): In‐situ analysis of lichen pigments by Fourier transform laser microprobe mass spectrometry with external ion source. - Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 10: 562–572.
Several selected lichen samples are analysed by Fourier transform laser microprobe mass spectrometry with 5 μm resolution and with virtually no sample preparation. The application area can be increased to molecules with molecular weight higher than 500, because of the detection of post‐laser generated ions. In most cases, enough information is available to allow, in combination with IR and NMR data, complete structural characterization of the pigments, without the analysis of reference products.
31082Engelskjøn T. (1987): Botany of Bouvetøya, South Atlantic Ocean. II. The terrestrial vegetation of Bouvetøya. - Polar Research, 5(2): 129–163.
Bouvetøya (54°25′S, 3°20′E), the northernmost land in the maritime Antarctic, has a climate typical of oceanic islands south of the Antarctic convergence, and a non‐vascular vegetation of maritime Antarctic composition and structure. Mean vegetation temperatures during the growing season are from +1 to +4.5°C on the low ground, whereas elevations above 200 m a.s.l. are more prone to freezing and show regular diurnal freeze/thaw cycles. Radiative heating of the ground is important in some well‐drained lichen communities with a northward aspect, but generally the mean diurnal temperatures registered in the superficial part of substratum and vegetation are low because of the prevailing cloudiness and high windspeeds. Some geothermally heated communities arc described. The soil reaction ranges from slightly acid on silicic lava and leached basalt ground, to alkaline on calcite‐bearing pyroclastic rocks, with a correspondingly different vegetation. The main plant communities of Bouvetoya are documented by quadrat analyses, and a classification is proposed. Local distribution patterns of 26 cryptogamic species are discussed and related to soil chemistry and elevation, as well as to the time elapsed for their establishment and the development of communities undisturbed by volcanism, landslides, glacierization, and animal influence.
31081Follmann G. (1962): Die Flechtengesellschaften der Osterinsel. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 75(7): 245–260.
Lichen sociology; Polynesia. •1. Die Flechtengesellschaften der polynesischen Osterinsel wurden biologisch, pflanzengeographisch, phytosoziologisch und ökologisch untersucht. •2. Das photophile, mesophile, anemophile und hitzeresistente Physcictum pictae (Skottsb. p.p.) nov. comb. (Epipetretea lichenosa Klem.) kommt regelmäßig auf Basalt‐ und Tuffblöcken vor. •3. Das photophile, hydrophile, anemophile und halophile Caloplacetum rubinae nov. ass. (Epipetretea lichenosa Klem.) bleibt auf die Küstenfelsen beschränkt. •4. Das ombrophile, mesophile und azidophile Parmelietum reticulatae nov. ass. (Epipetretea lichenosa Klem.) gedeiht auf moosigen Tuffblöcken im degradierten Sopkoretum toromirae Skottsb. •5. Das photoneutral‐ombrotolerante, mesophile und azidophile Arthonie‐tum fuscescentis nov. ass. (Epiphytetea lichenosa Klem.) besiedelt mäßig rauhe Holz‐ und Rindenflächen. •6. Das fragmentarische photophile, mesophile und azidophile Cladonietum pityreae nov. ass. (Epigacetea lichenosa Klem.) füllt die Rasenlücken des Sporoboletum elongati Skottsb. •7. 17 Gesellschaftsbildner stellen Neufunde für die Osterinsel dar.
31080Whitehouse E. (1933): Plant succession on central Texas granite. - Ecology, 14(4): 391–405.
31079Kuntz K.L. & Larson D.W. (2006): Influences of microhabitat constraints and rock‐climbing disturbance on cliff‐face vegetation communities. - Conservation Biology, 20(3): 821–832.
Many researchers report that rock climbing has significant negative effects on cliff biota. Most work on climbing disturbance, however, has not controlled for variation in microsite characteristics when comparing areas with and without climbing presence. Additionally, some researchers do not identify the style or difficulty level of climbing routes sampled or select climbing routes that do not represent current trends in the sport. We solved these problems by sampling climbing areas used by advanced “sport” climbers and quantifying differences in microtopography between climbed and control cliffs. We determined whether differences in vegetation existed between pristine and sport‐climbed cliff faces when microsite factors were not controlled. We then determined the relative influence of the presence of climbing, cliff‐face microtopography, local physical factors, and regional geography on the richness, abundance, and community composition of cliff‐face vascular plants, bryophytes, and lichens. When we did not control for microsite differences among cliffs, our results were consistent with the majority of prior work on impacts of climbing (i.e., sport‐climbed cliff faces supported a lower mean richness of vascular plants and bryophytes and significantly different frequencies of individual species when compared with pristine cliff faces). When we investigated the relative influences of microtopography and climbing disturbance, however, the differences in vegetation were not related to climbing disturbance but rather to the selection by sport climbers of cliff faces with microsite characteristics that support less vegetation. Climbed sites had not diverged toward a separate vegetation community; instead, they supported a subset of the species found on pristine cliff faces. Prior management recommendations to restrict development of new climbing routes should be reevaluated based on our results. Keywords: cliff vegetation, disturbance, microtopography, Niagara Escarpment, recreation, rock climbing.
31078Asano M. & Ohta Z. (1933): Über die Konstitution der Caperatsäure (I. Mitteil.). - Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, 66(7): 1020–1023.
chemistry, caperatic acid
31077Follmann G. (1966): Chilenische Wanderflechten. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 79(10): 453–462.
1. Es wird erstmalig über das Vorkommen von Wanderflechten in Südamerika berichtet; 2. Als solche kommen die Laub‐ und Strauchflechten Parmelia vagans (Nyl.) Nyl., Roccella cervicornis Follm. spec. nov. und Tornabenia ephebaea (Ach.) Kur. in der nordchilenischen Atacamawüste vor; 3. Geographie, Ökologie, Soziologie und Systematik der chilenischen Ärolichenen werden erörtert; 4. Die Diagnose der neuen endemischen Roccella cervicornis Follm. spec. nov. wird vorgelegt.
31076Edwards H.G.M. & Rull Perez F. (1999): Lichen biodeterioration of the Convento de la Peregrina, Sahagún, Spain. - Biospectroscopy, 5: 47–52.
Lichen encrustations from Diploschistes scruposus involved in the biodeterioration of the 13th Century Convento de la Peregrina in Sahagún Spain, have been analyzed using Raman spectroscopy. The vibrational spectra are characteristic of calcium oxalate monohydrate, β‐carotene, chlorophyll, and para‐depside phenolic acids such as atranorin, lecanoric acid, and diploschistesic acid. The destructive colonization of the monumental stonework is highlighted and evidence presented for deleterious lichen invasion of the wall paintings inside the Convent. Keywords: lichen; biodeterioration; Raman spectroscopy; wall paintings; pigments.
31075König G.M. & Wright A.D. (1999): 1H and 13C‐NMR and biological activity investigations of four lichen‐derived compounds. - Phytochemical Analysis, 10: 279–284.
The lichen‐derived natural products, atranorin (1), hopane‐6α, 22‐diol (2), usnic acid (3), and vulpinic acid (4) were analysed by both one and two‐dimensional (1H, 13C)‐NMR. Experiments employed included COSY, NOESY, XHCO, HMQC and HMBC. For 1 and 2, fully assigned proton NMR data are reported for the first time; the reassigned 13C NMR data for both 1 and 2 are also reported. For 3, cross‐peaks were observed in the HMBC spectrum that suggest that CH long‐range coupling through H bonds is occurring. Biological activity investigations of each compound indicated hopane‐6α, 22‐diol (2) to have anti‐tubercular activity (MIC 8 µg/mL) and usnic acid (3) to be very weakly cytotoxic (ED50 13 µg/mL).
31074De Angelis F., Ceci R., Quaresima R., Reale S. & Di Tullio A. (2003): Investigation by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of secondary metabolites in lichens deposited on stone monuments. - Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 17: 526–531.
Lichens are ubiquitous organisms formed by symbiotic associations of fungal hyphas and algae that also grow under often extreme environmental conditions. They produce secondary metabo- lites, the so-called lichen substances, whose structural characterization can give an important con- tribution to lichen taxonomy. Lichens are also widely employed as biomonitors of atmospheric pollution; being epiphyte organisms they tend, in fact, to accumulate exogenous compounds. More- over, it could be questioned if the environmental stress alters their secondary metabolites produc- tion. Therefore, a new strategy for the analysis of the organic substances absorbed or metabolized by lichens has been developed. This method exploits the dry solid-phase microextraction (SPME) headspace technique coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Lichens coat- ing the stone surfaces of monuments, located in small towns between high mountains and far away from urban environments, have been investigated. In the field of cultural heritage, this study can contribute to the knowledge of the state of conservation of outdoor exposed historical monuments.
31073Hawksworth D.L., David J.C., Ahti T. & McNeill J. (2007): The correct date and place of publication of the ten new generic names employed by Acharius in the Lichenographia Universalis. - Taxon, 56(2): 567–570.
Clarification in the Tokyo Code of the authorship of names appearing in the work of another allowed exemplification in the Vienna Code that it is the acceptance by the author of the name and not that by the publishing author that is critical for valid publication. This permits resolution of a long‐standing uncertainty as to whether generic names published in Acharius’s Lichenographia Universalis of 1810 were or were not first introduced in Luyken’s Tentamen Historiae Lichenum of 1809. In that work, Luyken reproduced diagnoses of Acharius’s new genera while the Lichenographia was still in press, and 5–6 months before Acharius’s work was published. However, as Luyken did not accept the new genera in his final classification some workers had considered the names not validly published under Art. 34 of the Code. Now, following the Vienna Code, we conclude that these names were validly published in 1809 and must be attributed to “Ach., in Luyken”. The correct place and date of publication of the ten generic names involved is presented along with notes on their nomenclatural status; these include the well‐known genera Alectoria, Evernia, Lecanora, Nephroma, and Ramalina. Keywords: Art. 34, Ascomycota, “in” citations, Lecanoromycetes, lichens, Luyken, nomenclature.
31072Honegger R. (1978): Ascocarpontogenie, Ascusstruktur und ‐funktion bei Vertretern der Gattung Rhizocarpon. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 91: 579–594.
Ascocarp ontogeny, Ascus Structure and Function in some members of the genus Rhizocarpon. Some of the yellow and grey Rhizocarpon species form primordia of fruiting bodies as well as pyknidia in the prothallus; this is quite unusual among the lichenized fungi. Pycnidia normally are simple or slightly cham- bered. Conidiophores are phialides, forming microconidia. With the forma- tion of each conidium a small scar of wall material remains at the phialide neck. In senescent or otherwise degenerate phialides the wall material of the scars becomes reduced. In this way the conidiophores assume an annellide- like appearance. Microconidia seem to function as spermatia. Fruiting bodies of all the species investigated are discothecia with para- physoids as interascal filaments. Ascogonia develop between the vegetative hyphae of either the prothallus or the areolae. Trichogynes with adhering microconidia are observed. The asci of all the yellow, grey and white species investigated are bitu- nicate, opening with a slight "Jack in the box" mechanism. Their apically thickened, sightly amyloid endoascus reaches the base of the ascus. The endo- ascus shows the characteristic "accordion structure" of the Bitunicates. Similar ascus types are observed in the Patellariaceae. The asci of the Rhizocarpon- type clearly differ from those of the unitunicate-inoperculate Lecanora-type as well as from the other ascus types observed in the Lecanorales. The Rhizocarpon species investigated seem to represent an archaic group, which could be interpreted as one of the missing links between the non- lichenized bitunicate Discomycetes and the Lecanorales.
31071Solhaug K.A., Gauslaa Y. & Haugen J. (1995): Adverse effects of epiphytic crustose lichens upon stem photosynthesis and chlorophyll of Populus tremula L.. - Botanica Acta, 108: 233–239.
Dry cork layer (phellem) in stems of Populus tremula transmitted 35–55 percent of incident irradiation, depending upon moisture content. A cover of crustose Lecanora lichens reduced transmission through phellem to 10 percent or less of incident irradiation. The bark contains photosynthetically active cells. Apparent quantum yield for photosynthetic O2‐evolution was 0.017 in bark covered with dry Lecanora compared with 0.070 in naked bark. The capacity for gross photosynthesis in high light (1090 μmol photons m−2 s−1) was reduced by 50 percent in Lecanora‐covered bark. Lecanora did not reduce the ratio between variable and maximal chlorophyll a fluorescence (Fv/Fm). Chlorophyll content per unit area was similar in leaves and naked bark of Populus tremula. The chlorophyll content in the bark decreased with increasing chlorophyll content in Lecanora. Chlorophyll a/b ratio was 2.5 in the bark compared with 4.0 in leaves and in Lecanora, and the ratio decreased down the stems. The a/b ratio was 2.3 in Lecanora covered bark compared with 2.6 in naked bark. The changes in bark photosynthesis below a Lecanora crust were probably due to acclimation of bark photosynthesis to shade, since the lichen acids in the measured lichens neither suppressed photosynthetic O2‐evolution nor changed the Fv/Fm in bark disks. Key words: Bark photosynthesis, epiphytic Lecanora lichens, lichen acids, phellem light transmission, Populus tremula.
31070Connor M., Dempsey E., Smyth M.R. & Richardson D.H.S. (1991): Determination of some metal ions using lichen-modified carbon paste electrodes. - Electroanalysis, 3: 331–336.
Lichens have long been used as biomonitors of environmental pollution. We therefore investigated the application of lichen-modified carbon paste electrodes (CPEs) for the determination of lead(II) and copper(II) using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. These electrochemical biosensors incorporate the biological selectivity of lichen species such as Cladonia portentosa and Lobaria pulmonaria, and the genus Roccella, with the sensitivity of electrochemical detection. As such, they may offer new reactivity patterns that could be exploited in the determination of trace metal ions in environmental samples and in speciation studies. The voltammetric responses were evaluated with respect to pH of accumulation (carried out under open circuit conditions), pH of electrolyte, solution, metal ion concentration, percentage lichen loading in the carbon paste, interferences, and surface renewal.
31069Allen A.E. (1929): Influence of Cladonia ground cover on the establishment of seedlings. - Ecology, 10(3): 354–355.
31068Jack H.A. (1935): Precipitation retention by Cladonia mats. - Ecology, 16(1): 120–121.
By experimentation in northern lower Michigan during the summer of 1934 it was ascertained that all rains averaging less than 0.12 inches were retained by a normal Cladonia rangiferina mat. Unless there was more than 0.12 inches of precipitation in any one rain, the soil beneath the mat did not receive any moisture, as was the case with one-third of the rains during that summer (a normal one).
31067Kumar P., Chen H.Y.H., Thomas S.C. & Shahi C. (2018): Epixylic vegetation abundance, diversity, and composition vary with coarse woody debris decay class and substrate species in boreal forest. - Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 48: 399–411.
Although the importance of coarse woody debris (CWD) to understory species diversity has been recognized, the combined effects of CWD decay and substrate species on abundance and species diversity of epixylic vegetation have received little attention. We sampled a wide range of CWD substrate species and decay classes, as well as forest floors in fire-origin boreal forest stands. Percent cover, species richness, and evenness of epixylic vegetation differed significantly with both CWD decay class and substrate species. Trends in cover, species richness, and evenness differed significantly between nonvascular and vascular taxa. Cover, species richness, and species evenness of nonvascular species were higher on CWD, whereas those of vascular plants were higher on the forest floor. Epixylic species composition also varied significantly with stand ages, overstory compositions, decay classes, substrate species, and their interactions. Our findings highlight strong interactive influences of decay class and substrate species on epixylic plant communities and suggest that conservation of epixylic diversity would require forest managers to maintain a diverse range of CWD decay classes and substrate species. Because stand development and overstory compositions influence CWD decay classes and substrate species, as well as colonization time and environmental conditions in the understory, our results indicate that managed boreal landscapes should consist of a mosaic of different successional stages and a broad suite of overstory types to support diverse understory plant communities. Key words: boreal forest, coarse woody debris, decay class, epixylic plants, substrate species.
31066Sabatini F.M., de Andrade R.B., Paillet Y., Ódor P., Bouget C., Campagnaro T., Gosselin F., Janssen P., Mattioli W., Nascimbene J., Sitzia T., Kuemmerle T. & Burrascano S. (2019): Trade-offs between carbon stocks and biodiversity in European temperate forests. - Global Change Biology, 25(2): 536–548.
Policies to mitigate climate change and biodiversity loss often assume that protecting carbon‐rich forests provides co‐benefits in terms of biodiversity, due to the spatial congruence of carbon stocks and biodiversity at biogeographic scales. However, it remains unclear whether this holds at the scales relevant for management, and particularly large knowledge gaps exist for temperate forests and for taxa other than trees. We built a comprehensive dataset of Central European temperate forest structure and multi‐taxonomic diversity (beetles, birds, bryophytes, fungi, lichens, and plants) across 352 plots. We used Boosted Regression Trees (BRTs) to assess the relationship between above‐ground live carbon stocks and (a) taxon‐specific richness, (b) a unified multidiversity index. We used Threshold Indicator Taxa ANalysis to explore individual species’ responses to changing above‐ground carbon stocks and to detect change‐points in species composition along the carbon‐stock gradient. Our results reveal an overall weak and highly variable relationship between richness and carbon stock at the stand scale, both for individual taxonomic groups and for multidiversity. Similarly, the proportion of win‐win and tradeoff species (i.e., species favored or disadvantaged by increasing carbon stock, respectively) varied substantially across taxa. Win‐win species gradually replaced trade‐off species with increasing carbon, without clear thresholds along the aboveground carbon gradient, suggesting that community‐level surrogates (e.g., richness) might fail to detect critical changes in biodiversity. Collectively, our analyses highlight that leveraging co‐benefits between carbon and biodiversity in temperate forest may require stand‐scale management that prioritizes either biodiversity or carbon in order to maximize co‐benefits at broader scales. Importantly, this contrasts with tropical forests, where climate and biodiversity objectives can be integrated at the stand scale, thus highlighting the need for context‐specificity when managing for multiple objectives. Accounting for critical change‐points of target taxa can help to deal with this specificity, by defining a safe operating space to manipulate carbon while avoiding biodiversity losses. Keywords: biodiversity conservation, carbon storage, climate change mitigation, community thresholds, multi‐objective forest planning, multi‐taxonomic diversity, trade‐off species, win‐win species.
31065Higgins K.L. & Garon‐Labrecque M.‐È. (2018): Fine‐scale influences on thaw depth in a forested peat plateau landscape in the Northwest Territories, Canada: Vegetation trumps microtopography. - Permafrost and Periglacial Processes, 29: 60–70.
The influence of vegetation and microtopography on fine‐scale variability of thaw depth is largely unknown but potentially important for improving modeling of ecosystem–permafrost interactions. To elucidate their influence, we measured tree density, shrub cover and cryptogam presence (lichen and bryophyte) on forested permafrost peat plateaus in the discontinuous permafrost zone in the southern Northwest Territories, Canada. Greater tree density was associated with shallower thaw depth (approximately one quarter of the variance), whereas shrub cover had a negligible influence on thaw depth. Cryptogam species influenced thaw depth, with greater thaw depth associated with Sphagnum than with Cladonia (a difference on the order of 10%). Greater thaw depth occurred beneath hummocks than beneath hollows (a difference also on the order of 10%). Together, canopy cover, cryptogam species and microforms contribute to a variation of roughly half the variance in thaw depth in the peat plateau landscape. Keywords: boreal forest, microtopography, permafrost, plants, species, vegetation ecology.
31064Strong W.L. (2014): Northernmost North American Pinus contorta var. latifolia (lodgepole pine) sociations and vegetation diversity relative to its central range east of the Rocky Mountains. - Nordic Journal of Botany, 32: 222–232.
Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) stands were sampled in central Yukon, Canada (61.5–64°N latitude), which represented the northernmost 9% of the tree's North American range. Within this area, lodgepole pine occupied only ˜ 2% of the landscape. This study determined: 1) what forest sociations occurred (i.e. structural dominance‐types); 2) how plant growth form composition and richness differed from the central portion of the species’ geographical range; and 3) if stands were biased towards occurring on more thermally favorable south‐facing slopes. Five lodgepole pine sociations were recognized among 100 relevés: Rhododendron groenlandicum (Labrador tea); Cladonia arbuscula (green reindeer lichen); Calamagrostis purpurascens (purple reedgrass); Hylocomium splendens (stairstep moss) and Alnus viridis (green alder, n = 4 relevés). Rhododendron stands were proportionally more common on low gradient sites and had more total plant cover than the other sociations. Cladonia and Calamagrostis stands were typically associated with dry coarse‐textured soils and warm dry sites, respectively; whereas the composition of the Hylocomium sociation reflected the detrimental influences of atypically dense forest canopies on understory vascular plants. Only the Calamagrostis sociation was unique to the study region. Species richness among common northern lodgepole pine sociations averaged 16–19 taxa per relevé (p > 0.05). Northern compared to central range (n = 1394) relevés were compositionally different based on little overlap of their datasets in the ordination space. Northern vegetation had less (p < 0.001) total plant (129% vs 184%), deciduous shrub (9% vs 26%), broad‐leaved herb (5% vs 25%), and bryophyte (27% vs 54%) cover; had greater macro‐lichen cover (13% vs 5%) and lower floristic richness (11 vs 24 taxa) and was less than half as phytosociological diverse. Lodgepole pine stands in the northernmost portion of their range were not biased towards occurring on south‐facing slopes, which suggested an ecological potential for range expansion.
31063Moore P.A., Smolarz A.G., Markle C.E. & Waddington J.M. (2019): Hydrological and thermal properties of moss and lichen species on rock barrens: Implications for turtle nesting habitat. - Ecohydrology, 12:e2057. [8 p.].
In central Ontario, Canadian Shield rock barrens are a dominant geographic feature supporting at‐risk reptiles near their northern range limit. To better understand the characteristics of the organic soil that make Canadian Shield rock barrens suitable turtle nesting habitat, we measured moisture retention and evaporative potential and calculated the thermal properties of lichen (Cladonia) mats and moss (Sphagnum and Polytrichum) cushions, as well as their underlying mineral–organic soils. The upper soil profile consisted almost entirely of low density (14–49 kg m−3), high porosity (72–98%) organic matter (loss on ignition [LOI] of 84–99%), which transitioned rapidly to comparatively high density (304–815 kg m−3) mineral–organic soil (LOI of 10–85%). In contrast to Sphagnum and Cladonia, under laboratory conditions, Polytrichum was able to maintain an evaporation rate well above the open‐water potential for several days during a drying experiment. Overall, contrasts in composition and water retention between soil layers are likely to dampen diurnal temperature fluctuations. However, differences in potential water loss between species will have a direct impact on soil thermal dynamics, particularly if substantial water loss occurs in the mineral–organic layer. Because soil depth and temperature regulation by moisture content and soil composition are an important component of nesting habitat, this research provides evidence for the need to conserve moss/lichen‐dominated habitats within turtle species' home ranges. Understanding the ecohydrological controls and limits to how these key moss/lichen species develop and influence primary peat formation represents a critical research need for habitat restoration strategies. Keywords: Cladonia, lichen, moisture retention, moss, nesting habitat, Polytrichum, rock barrens, species at risk, Sphagnum, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, turtle.
31062Anderson E. & Rudolph E.D. (1956): An analysis of variation in a variable population of Cladonia. - Evolution, 10(2): 147–156.
1. A strongly discordant variation pattern brought large variable populations of Cladonia to our attention. 2. Random collections were made from an essentially uniform habitat and the variation pattern was studied intensively. 3. Five characters were eventually chosen for scoring or measurement: (a) variability in width in the ultimate podetial centimeter. (b) podetial width 1/8 centimeter from tip. (c) maximum podetial width. (d) erosion and gelification of the cortical region. (e) color reaction to KOH. 4. These five characters were found to be associated in two complexes running from: little variation in width in podetium tip distal region of podetium narrow podetium narrow cortical region not gelified, eroded no reaction with KOH to: great variation in podetium tip distal region of podetium wide podetium wide cortical region heavily gelified, not eroded yellow reaction with KOH 5. Analysis by pictorialized scatter diagrams and by the use of the hybrid index method, correlated closely with the judgment of a taxonomic expert, made independently on the same material. 6. The probable sexuality of these species of Cladonia is briefly discussed. It is concluded that they give evidence of sexual as well as asexual reproduction. It furthermore seems most likely that hybridization and subsequent backcrossing between Cladonia uncialis and C. subtenuis are responsible for the extreme variability of this population.
31061Yarranton G.A. (1975): Population growth in Cladonia stellaris (Opiz.) Pouz. and Vezda. - New Phytologist, 75(1): 99–110.
Populations of Cladonia stellaris in burnt areas of the northern Ontario clay belt were observed photographically from 1968 to 1974. Population growth is logistic with a typical convergent standing crop of 500 g per m2, reached about 30 years after establishment. There is considerable oscillation about the convergent standing crops with time, as well as environmentally determined variations between crops at different sites. Rates of growth are strongly correlated with successional maturity, so that time of establishment may influence the subsequent population size. Final carrying capacity is apparently determined by a complex of factors effective through their influence on light and water availability and by direct physical interference of other species. Ericaceous shrubs and Pleurozium schreberi seem to be the most influential. Cladonia stellaris does not appear until 25 years after fire, but rapidly becomes the most abundant lichen by means of clonal growth. Clones develop by three kinds of budding and subsequently undergo fusion and fission as growth proceeds. Longer range dispersal is by means of small thallus fragments and is evidently highly efficient as newly colonized areas exhibit widespread potential distributions.
31060Урбанавичюс Г.П. & Урбанавичене И.Н. [Urbanavichus G.P. & Urbanavichene I.N.] (2019): Новинки лихенофлоры Кабардино-Балкарии [Lichen flora novelties of Kabardino-Balkaria]. - Turczaninowia, 22(1): 137–144.
[In Russian wit English abstract:] Based on the results of short field works in July 2018, data on new and noteworthy species for the lichen flora of the Central Caucasus are presented. The specimens were collected in the Baksan River valley, Elbrus district, Republic of Kabardino-Balkaria, mainly in the vicinity of the village Bylym in the Bylym intermountain arid basin of the Severo-Yurskaya (North-Jurassic) depression between the Bokovoy (Lateral) and Skalistyi (Rocky) Ridges, and in the vicinities of Elbrus and Azau settlements near the foot of the south-eastern slope of Mount Elbrus. In the present paper, 22 species are reported as new for the lichen flora of the study area. Candelariella blastidiata is reported for the first time for Caucasus, Agonimia opuntiella, Gyalolechia lenae, Lecidella laureri and Physconia perisidiosa are new to Central Caucasus. Another 14 species (Anaptychia bryorum, Caloplaca percrocata, Endocarpon adsurgens, Hyperphyscia adglutinata, Lecania suavis, Lobothallia alphoplaca, Muellerella pygmaea, Peltula euploca, Pertusaria flavicans, Phaeophyscia orbicularis, Ph. sciastra, Punctelia borreri, Thallinocarpon nigritellum, Xanthomendoza fallax) are newly reported to Kabardino-Balkaria. The genera Hyperphyscia, Lecania, Muellerella, Peltula and Thallinocarpon are new to the lichen flora of Kabardino-Balkaria. Information about localities, ecology and Caucasian distribution of all mentioned species is provided.
31059Урбанавичене И.Н. [Urbanavichene I.N.] (2018): Виды рода Bryoria (Parmeliaceae) Северного Кавказа [Species of the genus Bryoria (Parmeliaceae) from the North Caucasus]. - Ботанический журнал [Botanicheskiy Zhurnal], 103(9): 1109–1123.
[In Russian with English summary:] The paper provides a brief survey of the genus Bryoria in the North Caucasus. An identification key for 14 Bryoria species is composed for the first time for the region. The results are based on the data of field studies (in the protected nature areas of the Russian Caucasus), revision of herbarium specimens of the Komarov Botanical Institute (LE), and analysis of literature sources. Notes on the Bryoria species morphology, anatomy, ecology and distribution are presented. Bryoria vrangiana is published as a new species to the Caucasus. Key words: lichens, Bryoria, identification key, B. vrangiana, North Caucasus, Russia.
31058Урбанавичюс Г.П. & Урбанавичене И.Н. [Urbanavichus G.P. & Urbanavichene I.N.] (2018): Дополнения к лихенофлоре Кабардино-Балкарии [Additions to the lichen flora of Kabardino-Balkaria]. - Ботанический журнал [Botanicheskiy Zhurnal], 103(11): 1483–1488.
[In Russian with English summary: ] During a short field trip of the authors in June 2018 in the Republic of Kabardino-Balkaria, interesting lichen species were found. Twelve lichen species (Agonimia tristicula, Anema tumidulum, Circinaria contorta, Collema subflaccidum, Enchylium tenax, Lecanora frustulosa, L. valesiaca, Punctelia jeckeri, Synalissa ramulosa, Toninia opuntioides, T. physaroides, T. sedifolia) are new to the lichen flora of the Republic Kabardino-Balkaria. Data on ecology and distribution in the Caucasus of these species are provided. Four genera (Agonimia, Anema, Enchylium, Synalissa) are new to the lichen flora of the Republic Kabardino-Balkaria. Lecanora valesiaca is reported for the first time to the Northern Caucasus. The study area is located in the Baksan River valley in the vicinity of the village Bylym (Elbrus district) in the Bylym intermountain arid basin of the Severo-Yurskaya (North-Jurassic) depression between the Bokovoy (Lateral) and Skalistyi (Rocky) Ridges (43°27'24" N, 43°00'23" E, alt. 1130—1170 m). The specimens are kept in the lichenological herbarium in LE (St. Petersburg) and in the private collection of G. Urbanavichus. Key words: lichens, new records, distribution, Caucasus.
31057Kruys N. & Jonsson B.G. (1997): Insular patterns of calicioid lichens in a boreal old-growth forest-wetland mosaic. - Ecography, 20: 605–613.
Fragmentation of the forested landscape poses a threat to many aspects of biodiversity associated with old‐growth forests. Studies of the effects of forest fragmentation are often complicated by the variation in composition and age of patches and the matrix. This study used a system of isolated stands where patch age and composition were similar and the matrix variability negligible. The patches were composed of old‐growth Picea abies stands of varying size and shape in a wetland matrix. The study organisms were epiphytic crustose calicioid lichens (also known as Caliciales), many of which are very substrate‐specific and restricted to old‐growth stands. The aim of the study was to measure the effect of patch size, patch isolation, habitat and substrate quality on the species richness and composition of epiphytic calicioids. Twenty‐four patches ranging from 0.4 to 15.9 ha in size were studied. All species of calicioid lichens were registered in 0.1 ha plots in each patch. Isolation was measured as the percentage of available habitat within 400 m of a patch. Twenty‐two species were found with an average of 9.48 ± 0.26 (SE) species per patch and 2.92 ± 0.18 (SE) species per tree. Species richness at patch level correlated with stand structure, primarily tree density, while number of species per tree (reflecting population size) was strongly correlated with island size and several stand variables. There was no effect of isolation on species richness. Species composition was influenced by both substrate variables and patch size. The species composition on the islands showed a significant nestedness, i.e. species composition on species‐poor islands constituted a non‐random subset of the species composition on species‐rich islands. We propose that the explanation for the strong relationship between species richness at tree level and stand size is an edge effect which implies that unaffected interior areas only occur on large islands. The different microclimate of the patch edge enables only the hardiest species to establish large populations there whilst shade and moisture demanding species are restricted to the interiors of larger islands.
31056John E.A. (1990): Fine scale patterning of species distributions in a saxicolous lichen community at Jonas Rockslide, Canadian Rocky Mountains. - Holarctic Ecology, 13: 187–194.
Distinct patterns of species distribution upon individual rockfaces are found n a saxicolous lichen community growing on a rockslide in the Canadian Rockies. A grid system was used for sampling individual rockfaces and the likelihood of finding a species on particular parts of the rockface was analysed. Use of chemicals in the field and collection of apothecia allowed specific identification of individual lichen thalli. Lichens were divisible into three groups: those which are distributed apparently at random over the rockfaces, those which are more likely to occur on upper, outer and southerly portions of the rockfaces and those which are found more often on lower, inner and northerly portions of the rockfaces. The upper rockface surfaces are often snow‐free in winter while the lower rockface group experiences deeper and more persistent snow cover. Simple microclimatic measurements suggest that temperature also differs across the surface of a rockface. It is hypothesised that lichen distributions are at least in part explained by ecophysiological adaptations to their particular microhabitat, while it is recognised that competition may also play a role in community organisation.
31055Torre G., Fernández-Lugo S., Guarino R. & Fernández-Palacios J.M. (2019): Network analysis by simulated annealing of taxa and islands of Macaronesia (North Atlantic Ocean). - Ecography, 42: 768–779.
With the aim of explaining the role that taxa and island features have in biogeographical patterns, we processed presence–absence matrices of all the Macaronesian native species of ten different taxa (arthropods, birds, bryophytes, fungi, lichens, mammals, mollusks, pteridophytes, reptiles and spermatophytes) through simulated annealing analysis. Distribution patterns among the archipelagos were pinpointed, along with the different biogeographic roles played by islands and species groups. All the networks analysed resulted to be significantly modular and the structure of biogeographic modules reflects known past connections among the archipelagos and the current drivers of species distribution. The role assigned to the species supports some biological (ecological amplitude, degree of endemicity) and functional (long‐distance dispersal and persistence abilities) traits of their respective biota and justifies their position in recent models of biogeographical distribution. Whereas it was expected that the modules identified by the spermatophytes and arthropods would reflect the compartmentalization of archipelagos quite well, this was also the case for much more vagile taxa, such as fungi or lichens. Conversely, results obtained for pteridophytes and bryophytes suggest that for those taxa geographic distance and/or macroclimatic conditions are less important than the size, age and orography of an island to determine the modularity of island groups. On the other hand, dry, species‐poor islets, act as connectors, tending to cluster together for different taxa, independently of their archipelagic adscription, whereas large, high, humid islands tend to form network or module hubs representing regional centers of speciation and dispersal.
31054Niittynen P. & Luoto M. (2018): The importance of snow in species distribution models of arctic vegetation. - Ecography, 41: 1024–1037.
Snow cover is characteristic of high‐latitude and ‐altitude ecosystems where snowpack properties regulate many ecological patterns and processes. Nevertheless, snow information is only rarely used as a predictor in species distribution models (SDMs). Methodological difficulties have been limiting both the quality and quantity of available snow information in SDMs. Here, we test whether incorporating remotely sensed snow information in baseline SDMs (using five climate‐topography‐soil variables) improves the accuracy of species occurrence and community level predictions. We use vegetation data recorded in 1200 study sites spanning a wide range of environmental conditions characteristic of mountain systems at high‐latitudes. The data consist of 273 species from three ecologically different and evolutionarily distant taxonomical groups: vascular plants, mosses, and lichens. The inclusion of the snow persistence variable significantly improved the predictive performance of the distribution and community level predictions. The improvements were constant, irrespective of the evaluation metric used or the taxonomic group in question. Snow was the most influential predictor for 36% of the species and had, on average, the second highest variable importance scores of all the environmental variables considered. Consequently, models incorporating snow data produced markedly more refined distribution maps than simpler models. Snow information should not be neglected in the construction of species distribution models where ecosystems characterized by seasonal snow cover are concerned.
31053Rolshausen G., Dal Grande F., Sadowska‐Deś A.D., Otte J. & Schmitt I. (2018): Quantifying the climatic niche of symbiont partners in a lichen symbiosis indicates mutualist‐mediated niche expansions. - Ecography, 41: 1380–1392.
The large distributional areas and ecological niches of many lichenized fungi may in part be due to the plasticity in interactions between the fungus (mycobiont) and its algal or cyanobacterial partners (photobionts). On the one hand, broad‐scale phylogenetic analyses show that partner compatibility in lichens is rather constrained and shaped by reciprocal selection pressures and codiversification independent of ecological drivers. On the other hand, sub‐species‐level associations among lichen symbionts appear to be environmentally structured rather than phylogenetically constrained. In particular, switching between photobiont ecotypes with distinct environmental preferences has been hypothesized as an adaptive strategy for lichen‐forming fungi to broaden their ecological niche. The extent and direction of photobiont‐mediated range expansions in lichens, however, have not been examined comprehensively at a broad geographic scale. Here we investigate the population genetic structure of Lasallia pustulata symbionts at sub‐species‐level resolution across the mycobiont's Europe‐wide range, using fungal MCM7 and algal ITS rDNA sequence markers. We show that variance in occurrence probabilities in the geographic distribution of genetic diversity in mycobiont‐photobiont interactions is closely related to changes in climatic niches. Quantification of niche extent and overlap based on species distribution modeling and construction of Hutchinsonian climatic hypervolumes revealed that combinations of fungal–algal interactions change at the sub‐species level along latitudinal temperature gradients and in Mediterranean climate zones. Our study provides evidence for symbiont‐mediated niche expansion in lichens. We discuss our results in the light of symbiont polymorphism and partner switching as potential mechanisms of environmental adaptation and niche evolution in mutualisms.
31052Naksuwankul K. & Lücking R. (2019): Three new species and new records of foliicolous lichen genus Porina (Porinaceae, Ostropales) and artificial key to species from Thailand. - Phytotaxa, 400(2): 51–63.
Foliicolous material of the lichenized genus Porina was collected in different types of forest in Thailand. Three new species were discovered: P. subatriceps Naksuwankul & Lücking, characterized by a yellowish brown, K+ reddish involucrellum and oblong, 7–11-septate ascospores, P. lumbschii Naksuwankul & Lücking, with large, muriform ascospores, and P. thailandica Naksuwankul & Lücking, having, small, oblong, 3-septate ascospores and a dark brown to black, K-involucrellum, morphologically close to P. homala and P. subhomala which differ by having 7-septate ascospores. An artificial key to species for a total of 55 taxa found in Thailand is provided and 20 new records are listed for the country. Keywords: foliicolous, new species, Porina, Thailand.
31051Kukwa M., Schmitt I. & Ertz D. (2018): Ochrolechia incarnata comb. nov. (Lecanoromycetes, Ascomycota), a distinct species of the O. parella group from Europe and Macaronesia. - Phytotaxa, 371(2): 119–126.
Ochrolechia incarnata comb. nov. is reinstated from the synonymy of O. parella. This saxicolous species is morphologically very similar to O. parella, but differs from the latter phylogenetically and chemically in the production of olivetoric acid causing a C+ red reaction of the apothecial margin medulla. Ochrolechia incarnata is so far known from Europe (Ireland, Sweden) and Macaronesia (Canary Islands, Porto Santo). Notes on other saxicolous species with pruinose apothecia are provided, and the taxonomy of O. pallescens is shortly discussed. Keywords: biodiversity, Pertusariales, Ostropomycetidae, taxonomy.
31050Wang C.-H., Munzi S., Wang M., Jia Y.-Z. & Tao W. (2019): Increasing nitrogen depositions can reduce lichen viability and limit winter food for an endangered Chinese monkey. - Basic and Applied Ecology, 34: 55–63.
Increasing economic growth and industrial development in China is starting to impact even remote areas such as the Shennongjia nature reserve, where nitrogen pollution is becoming a major environmental threat. The epiphytic lichen flora is particularly rich in this area and is one of the components of this habitat most sensitive to nitrogen pollution. Since lichens represent an important food resource for the endangered monkey species Rhinopithecus roxellana, a reduction in lichen availability would have harmful consequences for the conservation of its habitat in the Shennongjia Mountains. To investigate the effects of increased nitrogen availability on the local lichen communities, so far scarcely considered, we conducted a one-year field experiment measuring growth, survival, and phosphomonoesterase activity of the widespread species Usnea luridorufa in response to nitrogen (up to 50 kg N ha−1 year−1 deposition) and phosphorus supply. Growth and survival of thalli and propagules of U. luridorufa decreased when treated with N deposition >12.05 kg N ha−1 year−1 and >2.14 kg N ha−1 year−1, respectively. The important role of phosphorus availability in relation to nitrogen supply was demonstrated by the increase in phosphomonoesterase activity with increasing nitrogen availability until a nitrogen toxicity threshold was reached. However, the high concentration of phosphorus in rainwater showed that phosphorus is not a limiting nutrient in the area. The results make a contribution to the knowledge of the negative effects of increased N deposition in the Shennongjia forest ecosystem. Keywords: Biodiversity conservation; Environmental management; Pollution impact; Rhinopithecus roxellana; Stress response; Usnea luridorufa.
31049Yoshino K., Yamamoto K., Hara K., Sonoda M., Yamamoto Y. & Sakamoto K. (2019): The conservation of polyol transporter proteins and their involvement in lichenized Ascomycota. - Fungal Biology, 123: 318–329.
In lichen symbiosis, polyol transfer from green algae is important for acquiring the fungal carbon source. However, the existence of polyol transporter genes and their correlation with lichenization remain unclear. Here, we report candidate polyol transporter genes selected from the genome of the lichen-forming fungus (LFF) Ramalina conduplicans. A phylogenetic analysis using characterized polyol and monosaccharide transporter proteins and hypothetical polyol transporter proteins of R. conduplicans and various ascomycetous fungi suggested that the characterized yeast’ polyol transporters form multiple clades with the polyol transporter-like proteins selected from the diverse ascomycetous taxa. Thus, polyol transporter genes are widely conserved among Ascomycota, regardless of lichen-forming status. In addition, the phylogenetic clusters suggested that LFFs belonging to Lecanoromycetes have duplicated proteins in each cluster. Consequently, the number of sequences similar to characterized yeast’ polyol transporters were evaluated using the genomes of 472 species or strains of Ascomycota. Among these, LFFs belonging to Lecanoromycetes had greater numbers of deduced polyol transporter proteins. Thus, various polyol transporters are conserved in Ascomycota and polyol transporter genes appear to have expanded during the evolution of Lecanoromycetes. Keywords: Gene duplication; Genome; Lecanoromycetes; Lichen-forming fungi; Phylogenetic analysis; Ramalina conduplicans.
31048Shameera Ahamed T.K., Rajan V.K., Sabira K. & Muraleedharan K. (2019): DFT and QTAIM based investigation on the structure and antioxidant behavior of lichen substances Atranorin, Evernic acid and Diffractaic acid. - Computational Biology and Chemistry, 80: 66–78.
In this study, the structural and antioxidant behavior of the three lichen-derived natural compounds such as atranorin (AT), evernic acid (EV) and diffractaic acid (DF) has been investigated in the gas and water phase using both B3LYP and M06-2X functional level of density functional theory (DFT) with two different basis sets 6-31+G (d, p) and 6-311++G (d, p). The intramolecular H–bonds (IHB) strength, aromaticity and noncovalent interactions (NCI) have been computed with the help of the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM). This calculation gives major structural characteristics that indirectly influence the antioxidant behavior of the investigated compounds. The spin density (SD) delocalization of the unpaired electron is found to be the main stabilizing factor of neutral and cationic radical species. The main mechanisms, recommended in the literature, for the antioxidant action of polyphenols as radical scavengers such as hydrogen atom transfer (HAT), single electron transfer followed by proton transfer (SET-PT), and sequential proton loss electron transfer (SPLET), were examined. The result shows that the HAT and SPLET mechanism are the most conceivable one for the antioxidant action of this class of compounds in gas and water phase respectively. Preference of SPLET over HAT in water phase is due to the significantly lower value of proton affinity (PA) compared to the bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE) value. This study reveals that O2-H3, O9-H26 and O4-H45 respectively are the most favored site of AT, EV and DF for homolytic as well as heterolytic OH bond breaking. Keywords: Atranorin; Evernic acid; Diffractaic acid; DFT; Antioxidant.
31047Canha N., Freitas M.C. & Almeida S.M. (2019): Contribution of short irradiation instrumental neutron activation analysis to assess air pollution at indoor and outdoor environments using transplanted lichens. - Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 320: 129–137.
A biomonitoring study of air pollution using lichen Flavoparmelia caperata (L.) Hale was conducted at indoor and outdoor environments of primary schools of rural and urban areas of mainland Portugal. This work concerns the chemical characterization of samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis using short irradiations; the mass fractions of Al, Cl, K, Mn and V were determined. Using the latter, the outdoor pollution sources influencing the studied indoor classrooms, namely, sea salt spray and industry, could be assessed. Resuspension of settled dust, playing an important role, was also confirmed. Keywords: Indoor air quality · Biomonitoring · Lichens · Schools · Short irradiation · Chemical elements.
31046Silva V., Catry F.X., Fernandes P.M., Rego F.C., Paes P., Nunes L., Caperta A.D., Sérgio C. & Bugalho M.N. (2019): Effects of grazing on plant composition, conservation status and ecosystem services of Natura 2000 shrub‑grassland habitat types. - Biodiversity and Conservation, 28: 1205–1224.
The Natura 2000 network is crucial to conserve biodiversity in the European Union and provides hotspots for certain ecosystem services. Grazing, a common land use in different Natura 2000 habitat types, may contribute to the maintenance of protected plant communities and reduce fuel loads and wildfire hazard. Our study aims to assess the effects of grazing on plant composition and conservation status of calcareous shrub-grassland Natura 2000 habitat types, as well as its effects on fire hazard reduction and aboveground carbon storage. We surveyed plant communities grazed by goats in fenced (ungrazed) and open (grazed) plots in a mosaic of calcareous shrub-grassland habitat types and assessed plant species composition and habitat conservation status. We also assessed aboveground plant biomass in grazed and ungrazed plots and modelled potential fire behaviour in those plots for each habitat. With the exception of cryptogams, grazing did not affect plant cover, but positively affected species richness (mean ± SD: 26.80 ± 11.65 vs. 29.37 ± 8.59, P = 0.01; fenced vs. unfenced) and Shannon diversity (2.11 ± 0.81 vs. 2.33 ± 0.55, P < 0.01) in the habitat mosaic. Furthermore, grazing did not affect the conservation status of two out of three of the studied habitat types. Additionally, grazing decreased the fire hazard in grass and dwarf shrub communities without reducing aboveground carbon stocks significantly. Our results show that moderate grazing is a management practice that effectively contribute to the conservation of Natura 2000 shrub-grassland habitat types through reduction of wildfire hazard and maintenance of habitat conservation status. Keywords: Carbon storage · Fire hazard · Functional traits · Indicator species · Vegetation structure.
31045Cimmino A., Nimis P.L., Masi M., De Gara L., van Otterlo W.A.L., Kiss R., Evidente A. & Lefranc F. (2019): Have lichenized fungi delivered promising anticancer small molecules?. - Phytochemistry Reviews, 18: 1–36.
This review, covering the literature from 1844 to present (end 2017), probes questions concerning small molecule metabolites derived from lichens (lichenized fungi) and their impact in terms of providing compounds with significant promise in oncology. The review gives an overview of lichenized fungi and summarizes the classes of compounds obtained as metabolites from these organisms. A definition of what characteristics an actual ‘‘promising’’ anticancer compound should possess is also delineated. The review reports a brief overview on human cancer and then goes into depth in listing compounds with so-called ‘‘anticancer properties’’ that have been isolated from lichenized fungi, according to their small molecule structural classes. Five ‘‘most promising’’ compounds are discussed in-depth, also considering the possibility of obtaining sufficient amounts for further investigations. Keywords: Lichen;  Endolichen fungi;  Bioactive; metabolites;  Anticancer aktivity.
31044McCune B., Haramundanis K. & Gaposchkin E.M. (2019): Lichenometric dating of historic inscriptions on a rock outcrop in coastal Oregon. - Northwest Science, 92(5): 388–394.
We estimated the age of inscriptions on a rock outcrop by estimating the ages of lichens that had overgrown the inscriptions. The inscriptions are considered to be historically important, potentially representing some of the earliest European exploration of Neahkahnie Mountain, the highest point along the Pacific coast from Baja California to Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington. The rock bearing the inscriptions was destroyed by road construction activities in about 1970–1980, but the inscriptions had been photographed with sufficient detail to allow diameter estimates for the lichens on the rock, affording an opportunity for dating based on lichen sizes. Aspicilia and Placopsis are currently the only lichen genera that are common on similar outcrops in the area and form large light-colored discrete individuals with a radial form. We therefore derived a calibration curve for lichen size in relation to age based on Aspicilia and Placopsis sizes on nearby surfaces of known age (road cuts and stone walls), then applied that curve to the diameters of lichens in the photo. Based on the sizes of the lichens on the rock outcrop with inscriptions, the rock face had been available for lichen colonization and growth for > 100 yrs and perhaps shows a pulse of recruitment following extensive wildfires on the immediate coast in the 1840s. Calculated lichen ages are within 25 years of the expected time of US Army exploration of Neahkahnie Mountain under Captain C. C. Augur in the mid-1800s. Keywords: Aspicilia, historical exploration, lichens, Neahkahnie Mountain, Pacific Northwest.
31043Fu J.-M., Aptroot A., Wang Z.-L. & Zhang L.-L. (2019): Four Pyrenula species new to China. - Mycotaxon, 134: 155–160.
Pyrenula brunnea, P. punctella, P. subducta, and P. submastophora are reported for the first time from China. This increases the number of Pyrenula species known from China to 46. Descriptions and distribution of the four species are given. Key words—Asia, lichen-forming fungi, Pyrenulaceae, taxonomy.
31042Ahat P., Tumur A. & Guo S.-Y. (2019): Anamylopsora altaica sp. nov. from Northwestern China. - Mycotaxon, 134: 147–153.
Anamylopsora altaica, collected from rocks in the Hot Spring Valley Forest Park in the Altay Mountains, Xinjiang, Northwestern China, is described as a new species, based on morphological and chemical characteristics, as well as ITS DNA sequence data. The new lichen species is characterized by its crowded, overlapping squamules with upturned margins, crowded globose apothecia with eight simple hyaline spores per ascus, and the presence of psoromic acid. A detailed description and colour photographs are provided. Key words—Anamylopsoraceae, Baeomycetaceae, Baeomycetales.
31041Sun M.-J., Yan S.-K., Tang R., Wang C.-X. & Zhang L.-L. (2019): New records of Bilimbia and Toninia from China. - Mycotaxon, 134: 139–146.
As a result of our study on the lichen flora of Northwest China, one species of Bilimbia (B. lobulata) and three species of Toninia (T. coelestina, T. gobica, and T. superioris) are reported for the first time from China. Keywords—Asia, biodiversity, Lecanorales, Ramalinaceae, taxonomy.
31040Pizarro D., Dal Grande F., Leavitt S.D., Dyer P.S., Schmitt I., Crespo A., Lumbsch H.T. & Divakar P.K. (2019): Whole-genome sequence data uncover widespread heterothallism in a largest group of lichen-forming fungi. - Genome Biology and Evolution, 11(3): 721–730.
Fungal reproduction is regulated by the mating-type (MAT1) locus, which typically comprises two idiomorphic genes. The presence of one or both allelic variants at the locus determines the reproductive strategy in fungi-homothallism versus heterothallism. It has been hypothesized that self-fertility via homothallism is widespread in lichen-forming fungi. To test this hypothesis, we characterized the MAT1 locus of 41 genomes of lichen-forming fungi representing a wide range of growth forms and reproductive strategies in the class Lecanoromycetes, the largest group of lichen-forming fungi. Our results show the complete lack of genetic homothallism suggesting that lichens evolved from a heterothallic ancestor. We argue that this may be related to the symbiotic lifestyle of these fungi, and may be a key innovation that has contributed to the accelerated diversification rates in this fungal group. Key words: lichen-forming fungi, mating system, heterothallism, MAT, sexual reproduction.
31039Chollet-Krugler M., Nguyen T.T.T., Sauvager A., Thüs H. & Boustie J. (2019): Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) in time-series of lichen specimens from natural history collections. - Molecules, 24: 1070 [11 p.].
Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) were quantified in fresh and preserved material of the chlorolichen Dermatocarpon luridum var. luridum (Verrucariaceae/Ascomycota). The analyzed samples represented a time-series of over 150 years. An HPLC coupled with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) mode method was developed and validated for the quantitative determination of MAAs. We found evidence for substance specific differences in the quality of preservation of two MAAs (mycosporine glutamicol, mycosporine glutaminol) in Natural History Collections. We found no change in average mycosporine glutamicol concentrations over time. Mycosporine glutaminol concentrations instead decreased rapidly with no trace of this substance detectable in collections older than nine years. Our data predict that a screening for MAAs in organism samples from Natural History Collections can deliver results that are comparable to those obtained from fresh collections only for some MAAs (e.g., mycosporine glutamicol). For other MAAs, misleading, biased, or even false negative results will occur as a result of the storage sensitivity of substances such as mycosporine glutaminol. Our study demonstrates the value of pilot studies with time-series based on model taxa with a rich representation in the Natural History Collections. Keywords: herbarium; fungarium; mycosporine-like amino acids; degradation; storage; Dermatocarpon luridum.
31038Yazici K. & Aslan A. (2019): Three new lichenicolous fungi records for Turkey and Asia. - Acta Botanica Hungarica, 61: 205–212.
Three lichenicolous fungi, Abrothallus peyritschii, Lichenochora verrucicola and Sclerococcum montagnei, collected from Burdur and Bitlis provinces, are reported as new to Turkey, the latter species is also new to Asia. Short descriptions, including geographical distributions, hosts and comparisons with similar taxa are provided. Keywords: Ascomycota, biodiversity, Bitlis, Burdur, lichenicolous fungi, Turkey.
31037Kondratyuk S.Y., Lőkös L., Jang S.-H., Hur J.-S. & Farkas E. (2019): Phylogeny and taxonomy of Polyozosia, Sedelnikovaea and Verseghya of the Lecanoraceae (Lecanorales, lichen-forming Ascomycota). - Acta Botanica Hungarica, 61: 137–184.
From the combined phylogenetic analysis of multi-locus sequence data of the Lecanoraceae including two nuclear protein-coding markers (RPB2 and RPB1), the internal transcribed spacer and a fragment of the mitochondrial small subunit, found that the originally monotypic eastern Asian genus Verseghya is positioned within the Verseghya-Lecidella-Pyrrhospora clade of the Lecanoraceae and includes one more taxon Verseghya thysanophora widely distributed in Northern Hemisphere. The genus Lecidella forming the Lecidella-Glaucomaria subclade within the same Verseghya-Lecidella-Pyrrhospora clade of the Lecanoraceae found to have tendency to be polyphyletic after including the recently described eastern Asian taxon Lecidella mandshurica into phylogenetic analysis of the Lecanoraceae. It is shown that Lecidella mandshurica was previously recorded from China sub Lecidella aff. elaeochroma. The originally monotypic eastern Asian genus Sedelnikovaea forming a monophyletic branch within the Sedelnikovaea-Lecanoropsis subclade and being in out-position to the Rhizoplaca-Protoparmeliopsis s. str. clade of the Lecanoraceae found to include three more taxa, i.e. Sedelnikovaea marginalis, S. pseudogyrophorica, and S. subdiscrepans. The Eurasian Protoparmeliopsis bolcana, and the eastern Asian P. kopachevskae, are illustrated for the first time as being positioned within the Protopameliopsis branch of the Lecanoraceae, while the South Korean ‘Protoparmeliopsis’ chejuensis found to be positioned in separate monophyletic branch from all other branches of the Rhizoplaca-Protoparmeliopsis s. l. clade of the Lecanoraceae. The genus Polyozosia A. Massal. as earlier name for the former Myriolecis branch of the Lecanoraceae is accepted as far the type species of the latter genus, i.e. P. poliophaea, found to be positioned within this branch. The Polyozosia robust monophyletic branch is positioned in the outermost position in the Rhizoplaca-Protoparmeliopsis s. str. clade of the Lecanoraceae. Position and species content of the accepted genera Glaucomaria, Lecanoropsis, Omphalodina, Polyozosia, and Straminella are discussed in separate nrITS and mtSSU, and combined phylogeny based on concatenated sequences of nrITS, mtSSU, RPB2 and RPB1 genes. Fourty new combinations are proposed: Glaucomaria bicincta, G. carpinea, G. leptyrodes, G. lojkaeana, G. subcarpinea, G. sulphurea, G. swartzii, G. swartzii subsp. caulescens, G. swartzii subsp. nylanderi, Lecanoropsis anopta, L. macleanii, Omphalodina chrysoleuca, O. huashanensis, O. opiniconensis, O. phaedrophthalma, O. pseudistera, Palicella anakeestiicola, Polyozosia albescens, P. andrewii, P. contractula, P. crenulata, P. dispersa, P. hagenii, P. perpruinosa, P. populicola, P. pruinosa, P. reuteri, P. sambuci, P. semipallida, P. straminea, P. thuleana, Sedelnikovaea marginalis, S. pseudogyrophorica, S. subdiscrepans, Straminella bullata, S. burgaziae, S. conizaeoides, S. densa, S. maheui, S. varia, and Verseghya thysanophora. Validation of one name as Polyozosia perpruinosa Fröberg ex S. Y. Kondr. L. Lőkös et Farkas is also proposed. Keywords: China, Glaucomaria, Lecanoropsis, Myriolecis, phylogeny, Omphalodina, Palicella, Polyozosia, Sedelnikovaea, Straminella, taxonomy, Verseghya.
31036Kondratyuk S.Y., Halda J.P., Lőkös L., Yamamoto Y., Popova L.P. & Hur J.-S. (2019): New and noteworthy lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi 8. - Acta Botanica Hungarica, 61: 101–135.
Six new for science species of lichen-forming fungi from Republic of Korea, Eastern Asia, i. e.: Bacidina jasonhuri J. P. Halda, S. Y. Kondr. et L. Lőkös, Gyalidea koreana J. P. Halda, S. Y. Kondr. L. Lőkös et Hur, G. pisutii J. P. Halda, S. Y. Kondr. L. Lőkös et Hur, G. poeltii S. Y. Kondr. L. Lőkös, J. P. Halda et Hur, G. Vězdae S. Y. Kondr. L. Lőkös, J. P. Halda et Hur, and Porpidia ulleungdoensis S. Y. Kond. L. Lőkös et J. P. Halda, as well as two new species from Japan (Fauriea yonaguniensis S. Y. Kondr. M. Moriguchi et Yoshik. Yamam. and Laundonia ryukyuensis S. Y. Kondr. M. Moriguchi et Yoshik. Yamam.), and one new species Lecanora orlovii S. Y. Kondr. et L. Lőkös from Ukraine are described, illustrated and compared with closely related taxa. Keywords: Bacidina, Fauriea, Gyalidea, Japan, Laundonia, Lecanora, new species, Porpidia, South Korea, Ukraine.
31035Kapets N.V. & Kondratyuk S.Y. (2019): New data on lichenicolous fungi of the Teteriv River Basin (Ukraine). - Acta Botanica Hungarica, 61: 45–54.
The data on 31 species of lichenicolous fungi (Abrothallus caerulescens, Arthonia phaeophysciae, Athelia arachnoidea, Cercidospora macrospora, Clypeococcum hypocenomycis, Cornutispora lichenicola, Erythricium aurantiacum, Heterocephalacria physciacearum, Intralichen christiansenii, Lichenochora obscuroides, Lichenoconium erodens, L. lecanorae, L. usneae, Lichenodiplis lecanorae, Lichenostigma cosmopolites, Lichenothelia convexa, L. scopularia, Marchandiomyces corallinus, Monodictys epilepraria, Muellerella pygmaea, M. erratica, Pronectria leptaleae, Pyrenochaeta xanthoriae, Sclerococcum sphaerale, Sphaerellothecium propinquellum, Stigmidium fuscatae, S. squamariae, S. xanthoparmeliarum, Taeniolella phaeophysciae, T. punctata, Xanthoriicola physciae) new to the Teteriv River Basin are provided. Further five species (Cercidospora crozalsiana, Lichenostigma epipolina, Lichenothelia tenuissima, Polysporina subfuscescens and Taeniolella beschiana) are new to Ukraine. Additional localities for all newly reported species are listed. Keywords: Cercidospora crozalsiana, lichenicolous fungi, Lichenostigma epipolina, Lichenothelia tenuissima, Polysporina subfuscescens, Taeniolella beschiana, Teteriv River Basin, Ukraine.
31034Ismailov A.B. & Urbanavichus G.P. (2019): New and rare lichens for Russia and the Caucasus from high mountainous Dagestan (East Caucasus). - Acta Botanica Hungarica, 61: 23–31.
Five species of lichenized ascomycetes are reported from high mountainous Dagestan. Acarospora laqueata, Lecania ochronigra and Protoparmelia placentiformis are new to Russia and the Caucasus (the last two). Anamylopsora pulcherrima is the first record of the genus and species for the North Caucasus. Buellia centralis is the first record for the Caucasus and second for Russia. Our records considerably extended information about geography and ecology of presented species especially the very rare species Buellia centralis, Lecania ochronigra and Protoparmelia placentiformis. The characteristic features of specimens with information of their morphology, anatomy, ecology and world distribution are given. Keywords: Caucasus, floristical studies, lichens, new records, rare species, Russia.
31033Goga M. & Dudáš M. (2019): Lichens from the Zemplínske vrchy Mts and Physcia leptalea new to Slovakia. - Acta Botanica Hungarica, 61: 11–21.
We present the results of lichenological survey in the area of Zemplínske vrchy Mts in this paper. The study area is underexplored regarding lichens and there are not many published resources on lichens. In total thirty-five localities were investigated and 68 lichen species were identified. Fifteen species of them are evaluated in the Red list of lichens of Slovakia. From interesting findings, Cladonia crispata, Graphis scripta, Lecanora conizaeoides and Flavoparmelia caperata are discussed here. Physcia leptalea is reported for the first time for the area of Slovakia. Keywords: central Europe, lichen diversity, lichenized fungi, Western Carpathians.
31032Kärnefelt I., Lőkös L., Seaward M.R.D., Thell A. & Thell N. (2019): Sergij Y. Kondratyuk – A 60th birthday tribute. - Acta Botanica Hungarica, 61: 1–4.
31031Neuwirth G. (2017): Der Mikrokosmos der Flechten (Lichenes). - ÖKO.L Zeitschrift für Ökologie, Natur- und Umweltschutz, 39/1: 22–26.
popular paper
31030Berger F. (2017): Häufige Rindenflechten in Linz und rundherum. - ÖKO.L Zeitschrift für Ökologie, Natur- und Umweltschutz, 39/3: 3–14.
popular paper
31029Neuwirth G. (2018): A study on rare and noteworthy lichenized ascomycetes from Sardinia (Italy). - Stapfia, 109: 181–196.
The study reports about remarkable lichen species from the Mediterranean region, collected from various substrates during a one-week trip through Sardinia in May 2018. One of them was recorded for the first time in Sardinia and thirty-two lichenized ascomycetes could be classified as either extremely rare, very rare or rare. The aim of this publication is to contribute to the lichen flora by means of a photographic documentation including short comments on rare species and additional information about the collecting sites. A species list of all recorded taxa is provided. Key words: Mediterranean region, rare records, taxonomy, photographic documentation.
31028Dämon W., Krisai-Greilhuber I. & Klenke F. (2013): Fundliste der 37. Internationalen Mykologischen Dreiländertagung in Tamsweg 2013. - Österreichische Zeitschrift für Pilzkunde, 22: 121–162.
During the 37. Mycological “Dreiländertagung” in Tamsweg (Lungau, Salzburg, Austria) from 11.-17. August 2013 in total 530 fungal taxa have been recorded; 230 Agaricales, Boletales and Russulales; 100 ”Aphyllophorales“, ”Gasteromycetes“ and Heterobasidiomycetes; 55 Urediniomycetes and Ustilaginomycetes; 130 Ascomycota; and 15 species of anamorphs and other groups. In addition, 27 species of lichens have been determined. Most of the finds reported here are from seven excursion sites in the Lungau (province of Salzburg), others from bordering regions in Carinthia and Styria. Only a relatively low number of macromycetes could be found, due to extremely dry and hot weather conditions in the foregoing weeks of the meeting. Nevertheless, more than 60 fungi are new to the province of Salzburg, and 13 fungi are new to Austria: Cortinarius impolitus, Inocybe angulatosquamulosa, I. mixtilis var. aurata, I. nematoloma, I. pseudoasterospora var. microsperma, Mycena quercus-ilicis, Exobasidium sundstroemii, Hymenoscyphus spec. 'griseobrunneus', Lasiobolus diversisporus, Mycosphaerella epilobii-montani, Nodulosphaeria cirsii, Parascutellinia fuckelii, and Pindara terrestris. Key words: Mycota of Lungau, Salzburg, Carinthia, Styria, Austria.
31027Lang K., Breuss O. & Krisai-Greilhuber I. (2010): Eine qualitative floristische Momentaufnahme von Flechten im hochalpinen Lebensraum im Naturpark Rieserferner-Ahrn (Südtirol, Italien). - Österreichische Zeitschrift für Pilzkunde, 19: 31–39.
In summer 2008 in the nature preserve Rieserferner-Ahrn (South Tyrol, Italy), a natura 2000 protectorate. 174 lichen specimens were collected for the first time. They represent 79 species. Peltigera elisahethae and Camielariella coralliza were the rarest taxa in the area investigated. Key words: Lichens, Peltigera elisabethae, Candelariella coralliza. - New records, species list, survey. - Mycoflora of South Tyrol, Italy.
31026Breuss O. (2013): Byssoloma laurisilvae und Thelotrema lueckingii, zwei neue Flechtenarten aus Madeira. - Österreichische Zeitschrift für Pilzkunde, 22: 99–105.
Two lichen species are described as new from the laurel forests of Madeira. The foliicolous Byssoloma laurisilvae differs from B. kakouettae in having yellow to ochre apothecial discs, a thinner, colourless hypothecium, and white pycnidia. Thelotrema lueckingii is close to T. lepadinum from which it differs in its yellowish medulla and the red spot test with K. Key words: Lichenized Ascomycotina, Pilocarpaceae, thelotremoid Graphidaceae. – New species, sp. nov., taxonomy. – Lichen flora of Madeira, Atlantic islands, Macaronesia.
31025Breuss O. & Clerc P. (2013): Erstnachweise und weitere bemerkenswerte Funde pyrenocarper Flechten in der Schweiz. - Österreichische Zeitschrift für Pilzkunde, 22: 93–98.
Five species (Endocarpon adsurgens, E. loscosii, Involucropyrenium squamulosum, Placidiopsis tiroliensis, and Placidium adami-borosi) and one variety (Clavascidium lacinulatum var. atrans) of pyrenocarpous lichens are reported from Switzerland for the first time. Several additional species, previously already known from Swiss records, are reported from additional provinces. Brief notes on characteristics, ecology and distribution of the taxa are given. Key words: Lichenized Ascomycotina, pyrenocarpous lichens, Verrucariaceae. – New records. – Alps, Switzerland.
31024Marstaller R. (1967): Die Xerothermflora der Gipshänge bei Jena (Ostthüringen) unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Bunten-Erdflechten-Gesellschaft. - Hercynia, 5: 352–372.
31023Miyawaki H., Sudirman I.L., Simbolon H., Nakanishi M., Yamaguchi T. & Shimizu H. (2005): Effects of forest fires on some lichen species in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. - Phyton (Horn), 45: 569–574.
Developing a simple method for evaluating the damage and recovery from the forest fires in tropical rain forest is required from a forest management standpoint in Indonesia. The purpose of this study is to present a new evaluation method of forest fire damage, especially for field scientists and forest managers. We employed some popular taxonomical groups and their growth forms for evaluation without using any expensive equipment in forests. We surveyed and examined this method in the mixed dipterocarp forest at Bukit Bangkirai, East Kalimantan, Indonesia, in 2002. Results showed that the evaluation score became lower at 0-50 cm height zone at the hardly damaged forest as compared with control (no damaged) forest. In low land of East Kalimantan, lichens grow more at low height zone of tree trunks than higher position, which seemed to depend on the moisture from the ground. Forest fires in this area should spread with burning of dry grasses and fallen leaves on ground surface, and lichens at lower height zone might be severely affected. Dictyonema cf. moorei with cyanobacteria as photobionts, which apparently prefers the damaged forests, might be a bio-indicator as pioneer lichen for forest fires. While, Coenogonium sp. with green algae as photobionts, which was observed only control forest, seemed to be a bio-indicator of good/matured tropical lowland rainforests. Key words : Evaluation, forest fires, Kalimantan-Indonesia, lichens, lowland tropical rain forest.
31022Zollitsch B. (1967): Soziologische und ökologische Untersuchungen auf Kalkschiefern in hochalpinen Gebieten. Teil I. - Berichte der Bayerischen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 40: 67–100.
phytosociology; Alps; numerous terricolous and saxicolous lichens identified by J. Poelt
31021Gams H. (1960): Die Herkunft der hochalpinen Moose und Flechten. - Jahrbuch des Vereins zum Schutze der Alpenpflanzen und -Tiere, 25: 85–95.
31020Türk R. & Moser C. (2005): The effect of stemflow on transplanted Hypogynmia physodes in the urban area of Salzburg (Austria). - Phyton (Horn), 45: 317–330.
In the city of Salzburg a study was carried out to investigate possible effects of the stemflow on lichens using a transplant technique along raintracks of trees. Between November 2000 and June 2001 specimens of Hypogynmia physodes were exposed around the trunks of Tilia cordata at 6 different sites in the urban area of Salzburg. The lichen thalli were fixed on discs of cork which were fitted into bark holes. As the physiological response of the exposed lichens the CO2-gas exchange was observed in time intervals of 4 weeks. Also the pigment content was measured after exposition. Visible damage and changes in the size of the exposed lichen samples were determined photographically. The stemflow after a rain phase was collected with an equipment created by the department of environmental protection of the provincial government of Salzburg and analysed for conductivity, pH and the content of Ca2+, SO4 2-, NH4+, NO3- and Zn. After 6 months of exposure most of the specimens showed no seriously visible damages. Only some peripheral and selective chlorosis and necrosis appeared. At several sites growth of the thalli was observed to a certain extent. The lichens had unimodal responses in gas exchange. The physiological activity varied with alteration in environmental conditions. After rain periods the NP-rates were increasing and the DR-rates were significantly negative correlated. The lichens had unimodal responses in gas exchange. The physiological activity varied with alteration in climatic conditions. After rain periods the NP-rates were increasing and the DRrates were significant negative correlated. No apparent changes in chlorophyll a and b content occured. Average levels of contaminants were low but showed higher values in the winter months. Key words : Lichen, stemflow, air pollution, raintracks, CO2 exchange, chlorophyll content, urban area of Salzburg.
31019Fontaniella B., Molina M.C. & Vicente C. (2000): An improved method for the separation of lichen symbionts. - Phyton (Horn), 40: 323–328.
A novel method for the isolation of lichen photobionts by density gradient centrifugation has been assessed using the lichen Evernia prunastri as an experimental model. An initial sucrose-KI gradient was prepared in which algae and small hyphal fragments formed an interphase in a sucrose-KI gradient. Then, 10 mM phosphate buffer is added and the preparation centrifuged a second time. This partitioned the algal cells towards the buffer while the bulk of the fungal hyphae were retained in the sucrose solution. This method allowed the purification of algal cells with no contamination from the fungal partner. Key words: Evernia prunastri, Lichenes, photobionts, symbionts, isolation technique.