33212Loppi S., Roblin B., Paoli L. & Aherne J. (2021): Accumulation of airborne microplastics in lichens from a landfill dumping site (Italy). - Scientific Reports, 11: 4564 [5 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-84251-4.
The aim of this study was to assess if lichens (Flavoparmelia caperata) surrounding a landfill dumping site in Italy accumulated higher amounts of microplastics compared with lichens at more distant sites. Lichen samples were collected at three sites along a transect from the landfill: close (directly facing the landfill), intermediate (200 m), and remote (1500 m). Anthropogenic microparticles (fibres and fragments) were determined visually after wet peroxide digestion of the samples, and microplastics were identified based on a hot needle test; the type of plastic was identified by micro-Raman analysis. The results showed that lichens collected in the vicinity of the landfill accumulated the highest number of anthropogenic microfibres and fragments (147 mp/g dw), and consequently microplastics (79 mp/g dw), suggesting that the impact of landfill emissions is spatially limited. The proportion of fibres and fragments identified as microplastics was 40% across all sites and the most abundant polymer type was polyester or polyethylene terephthalate (68%). These results clearly indicated that lichens can effectively be used to monitor the deposition of microplastics.
33211Di Nuzzo L., Vallese C., Benesperi R., Giordani P., Chiarucci A., Di Cecco V., Di Martino L., Di Musciano M., Gheza G., Lelli C., Spitale D. & Nascimbene J. (2021): Contrasting multitaxon responses to climate change in Mediterranean mountains. - Scientific Reports, 11: 4438 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-83866-x.
We explored the infuence of climatic factors on diversity patterns of multiple taxa (lichens, bryophytes, and vascular plants) along a steep elevational gradient to predict communities’ dynamics under future climate change scenarios in Mediterranean regions. We analysed (1) species richness patterns in terms of heat-adapted, intermediate, and cold-adapted species; (2) pairwise beta-diversity patterns, also accounting for its two diferent components, species replacement and richness diference; (3) the infuence of climatic variables on species functional traits. Species richness is infuenced by diferent factors between three taxonomic groups, while beta diversity difers mainly between plants and cryptogams. Functional traits are infuenced by diferent factors in each taxonomic group. On the basis of our observations, poikilohydric cryptogams could be more impacted by climate change than vascular plants. However, contrasting species-climate and traits-climate relationships were also found between lichens and bryophytes suggesting that each group may be sensitive to diferent components of climate change. Our study supports the usefulness of a multitaxon approach coupled with a species traits analysis to better unravel the response of terrestrial communities to climate change. This would be especially relevant for lichens and bryophytes, whose response to climate change is still poorly explored.
33210Etayo J. & López de Silanes M.E. (2020): Hongos liquenícolas del norte de Portugal, especialmente del Parque Natural Montesinho [Lichenicolous fungi from Northern Portugal, specially from Montesinho Natural Park]. - Nova Acta Científica Compostelana (Bioloxía), 27: 35–50. .
A total of 48 lichenicolous fungi is recorded from Montesinho Natural Park, northern Portugal. Chalara ramalinae growing on Ramalina is newly described. Trichonectria australis growing on Usnea is recorded for the first time from Europe. Opegrapha rotunda is a first record for the Iberian Peninsula. Cryptocoryneum condensatum is for the first time recorded as lichenicolous. Furthermore, we record here 59 lichen species, many of them with interesting lichenicolous fungi, and some of chorological interest to Portugal. Keywords: biodiversity, lichens, biogeography, Iberian Peninsula, taxonomy.
33209Moncada B., Mercado-Díaz J. A., Smith C. W., Bungartz F., Sérusiaux E., Lumbsch H.T. & Lücking R. (2021): Two new common, previously unrecognized species in the Sticta weigelii morphodeme (Ascomycota: Peltigeraceae). - Willdenowia, 51: 35–45. https://doi.org/10.3372/wi.51.51103.
Sticta is a subcosmopolitan genus most diverse in the tropics. Traditionally, many taxa were considered to be widespread and morphologically variable, following broadly circumscribed morphodemes. Among these is the S. weigelii morphodeme, characterized by a cyanobacterial photobiont and rather narrow, flabellate to truncate or tapering lobes producing predominantly marginal isidia. Molecular phylogenetic analyses focusing on the ITS fungal barcoding marker revealed that this morphodeme represents several species, some of which are only distantly related to each other. Here we describe two species and one subspecies of this morphodeme as new to science, based on analysis of 400 specimens, for 344 of which we generated ITS barcoding data. The two new species, S. andina and S. scabrosa, are broadly distributed in the Neotropics and also found in Hawaii, where the latter is represented by the new subspecies, S. scabrosa subsp. hawaiiensis; in the case of S. andina, the species is also found in the Azores. Sticta andina exhibits high phenotypic variation and reticulate genetic diversification, whereas the phenotypically rather uniform S. scabrosa contains two main haplotypes, one restricted to Hawaii. Sticta andina occurs in wellpreserved montane to andine forests and paramos, whereas the two subspecies of S. scabrosa are found in tropical lowland to lower montane forests, tolerating disturbance and extending into anthropogenic habitats. Key words: Ascomycota, Azores, Hawaii, Neotropics, Peltigeraceae, Sticta, Sticta weigelii.
33208Dobslaw D., Woiski C., Kiel M., Kuch B. & Breuer J. (2021): Plant uptake, translocation and metabolism of PBDEs in plants of food and feed industry: A review. - Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology, 20: 75–142. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11157-020-09557-7.
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have widely been used for decades as flame retardants in a variety of products like plastics for building insulation, upholstered furniture, electrical appliances, vehicles, aircrafts, polyurethane foams, textiles, cable insulation, appliance plugs and various technical plastics in concentrations of 5–30%. However, PBDEs also act as endocrine disrupters, neurotoxins, and negatively affect fertility. In 2001, worldwide consumption of technically relevant penta-BDEs was still estimated at 7500 tons, octa-BDEs at 3790 tons, and deca-BDE at 56,100 tons, but 50–60% of this total volume are discharged into the environment via sewage sludge and its agricultural use alone. In addition, soils are ubiquitously contaminated by the gaseous or particle-bound transport of PBDEs, which today has its main source in highly contaminated electronic waste recycling sites. The emitted PBDEs enter the food chain via uptake by the plants’ roots and shoots. However, uptake and intrinsic transport behaviour strongly depend on crop specifics and various soil parameters. The relevant exposure and transformation pathways, transport-relevant soil and plant characteristics and both root concentration factors (RCF) and transfer factors (TF) as derivable parameters are addressed and quantified in this review. Finally, a simple predictive model for quantification of RCF and TF based on log KOW values and the organic content of the soil/lipid content of the plants is also presented. Keywords: Plant uptake; Translocation; Root concentration factor;  PBDE; Shoot concentration factor; Food industry.
33207Galanina I.A., Ezhkin A.K. & Ohmura Y. (2021): The genus Rinodina (Physciaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) of the Sakhalin Island. - Ботанический журнал [Botanicheskii Zhurnal], 106(2): 147–165. DOI: 10.31857/S0006813621020034.
The presented work is based on the study of extensive material collected by A.K. Ezhkin in 2011–2018 from Sakhalin Island and herbarium specimens (VLA). As a result of the study, the new list of species of the genus Rinodina for Sakhalin Island consists 24 taxa. One species, Rinodina albertana Sheard, is new to Northeast Asia and Russia, 8 taxa are new to Sakhalin Island. The species are discussed with respect to their distribution in Northeast Asia and North America. Brief descriptions of rare species (R. albertana, R. buckii Sheard, and R. endospora Sheard) found on Sakhalin Island are made. The record of R. exigua (Ach.) Gray for Sakhalin Island (Galanina, 2013) belongs to R. freyi. Keywords: lichens, Physciaceae, biodiversity, endemism, distribution, Northeast Asia, North America
33206Markham J. & Fernández Otárola M. (2021): Bryophyte and lichen biomass and nitrogen fixation in a high elevation cloud forest in Cerro de La Muerte, Costa Rica. - Oecologia, 195: 489–497. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-020-04840-4.
Cloud forests have been found to lose more nitrogen in stream discharge than they gain from atmospheric deposition. They also support a large diversity and biomass of tree epiphytes, predominately composed of cryptogams. Since cryptogam epiphytes harbor nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria, they may help make up for the nitrogen loss from ecosystems. We assessed cryptogam biomass on the ground, boles and branches in Quercus costaricensis dominated stands near the tree line in the Cordillera de Talamanca, Costa Rica. Nitrogen fixation was assayed using 15N2 uptake. Total cryptogam biomass was 2 977 kg ha−1, with 67% being found on the lower branches. Bryophytes and chlorolichens made up 53% and 44%, respectively, of the biomass. Half of the bryophyte mass was composed of the liverwort Plagiochila heterophylla, and 66% of the chlorolichen of Lobariella pallida. There were no significant differences in nitrogen fixation rates between the cryptogam species, with a mean rate of 5.04 µg N g−1 day−1 during the predominantly wet condition in the forest. The overall nitrogen input from fixation was 6.1 kg N ha−1 year−1, of which 78% came from bryophytes, 18% from chlorolichens, and 4% from cyanolichens. Only 2.0% of the fixation occurred in cryptogams on the ground, whereas 67%, 24%, and 7% occurred on the lower branches, boles, and upper branches, respectively. These results show that tree epiphytes constitute a significant source of nitrogen for these forests, due to the trees’ large surface area, and can make up for the nitrogen lost from these ecosystems. Keywords Liverworts · Associative nitrogen fixation · Chlorolichens · Montane forest · Oak forest epiphytes · Quercus costaricensis.
33205Kukwa M. & Oset M. (2021): (2795) Proposal to conserve the name Ochrolechia szatalaensis against Pertusaria poriniza (lichenized Ascomycota: Pertusariales, Ochrolechiaceae). - Taxon, 70(1): 204–205. https://doi.org/10.1002/tax.12432.
33204Fryday A.M., Spribille T. & Tønsberg T. (2021): (2794) Proposal to conserve the name Coccotrema against Lepolichen (Ascomycota, Lecanoromycetes, Coccotremataceae). - Taxon, 70(1): 203–204. https://doi.org/10.1002/tax.12431.
33203Boch S., Saiz H., Allan E., Schall P., Prati D., Schulze E.-D., Hessenmöller D., Sparrius L. & Fischer M. (2021): Direct and indirect effects of management intensity and environmental factors on the functional diversity of lichens in Central European forests. - Microorganisms, 9: 463 [18 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9020463.
Using 642 forest plots from three regions in Germany, we analyzed the direct and indirect effects of forest management intensity and of environmental variables on lichen functional diversity (FDis). Environmental stand variables were affected by management intensity and acted as an environmental filter: summing direct and indirect effects resulted in a negative total effect of conifer cover on FDis, and a positive total effect of deadwood cover and standing tree biomass. Management intensity had a direct positive effect on FDis, which was compensated by an indirect negative effect via reduced standing tree biomass and lichen species richness, resulting in a negative total effect on FDis and the FDis of adaptation-related traits (FDisAd). This indicates environmental filtering of management and stronger niche partitioning at a lower intensity. In contrast, management intensity had a positive total effect on the FDis of reproduction-, dispersal- and establishment-related traits (FDisRe), mainly because of the direct negative effect of species richness, indicating functional over-redundancy, i.e., most species cluster into a few over-represented functional entities. Our findings have important implications for forest management: high lichen functional diversity can be conserved by promoting old, site-typical deciduous forests with a high richness of woody species and large deadwood quantity. Keywords: beech forest; conifer forest; environmental filtering; forest management intensity; functional trait; habitat heterogeneity; lichen functional diversity; over-redundancy; structural equation modeling; temperate forest.
33202Gheza G., Di Nuzzo L., Vallese C., Barcella M., Benesperi R., Giordani P., Nascimbene J. & Assini S. (2021): Morphological and chemical traits of Cladonia respond to multiple environmental factors in acidic dry grasslands. - Microorganisms, 9: 453 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9020453.
Terricolous lichen communities in lowlands occur especially in open dry habitats. Such communities are often dominated by species of the genus Cladonia, which are very variable in morphology, reproduction strategies, and secondary metabolites. In this work, we investigated traits-environment relationships considering vegetation dynamics, substrate pH, disturbance, and climate. A total of 122 plots were surveyed in 41 acidic dry grasslands in the western Po Plain (Northern Italy). Relationships between Cladonia traits and environmental variables were investigated by means of a model-based Fourth Corner Analysis. Thallus morphology and metabolites responded to vegetation dynamics, substrate pH, disturbance, and climate, whereas reproduction strategies responded only to vegetation dynamics. Traits’ correlations with vegetation dynamics elucidate their colonization patterns in open dry habitats or suggest biotic interactions with bryophytes and vascular plants. In addition, correlations between metabolites and environmental factors support interpretations of their ecological roles. Our results also stress the importance of studying traits’ relationships with climatic factors as an alert towards lichen reactions to climate change. Keywords: lichens; open dry habitats; reproduction strategy; secondary metabolites; species traits; thallus growth forms; vegetation dynamics.
33201Fischer P. (1998): Sandtrockenrasen von Binnendünen in der Unteren Mittelelbe-Niederung zwischen Dömitz und Boizenburg. - Tuexenia, 18: 119–151. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Tuexenia_NS_18_0119-0151.pdf.
Dry sand grasslands on inland dunes in the Lower-Middle Elbe Valley between Dömitz and Boizenburg. This paper deals with the flora and vegetation of dry sand grasslands of three large inland dunes east of the river in the Elbe basin between Dömitz and Boizenburg. The Spergulo-Corynephoretum occurs everywhere on open sandy sites out of the reach of ground- water and of the high-water level of the river. The soils show low contents of humus and low pH values. The dune slopes near Gothmann and especially those near Klein Schmölen show a distinct zonation pattern from open Corynephorus canescens communities on the top to dense grassland communities on the lower slopes, which are influenced by groundwater or by the high-water level of the river. The following sequence could be distinguished: 1) The Koeleria glauca-Carex arenaria community (Corynephorion canescentis) on relatively dry top and upper slope; 2) a Cladonia rangiformis-Rumex acetosella community (Koelerio-Corynephoretea) next downslope; 3) a Sedum reflexum-Hypnum cupressiforme community further downslope, and finally 4) an Allium angulosum-Sedum sexangulare community and the Diantho deltoides-Armerietum elongatae (Armerion elongatae) at the foot of the slope. This vegetation zonation coincides with increasing pH values, C contents and moisture of the soil. Small-scale differences in vegetation pattern and vegetational transitions are described in terms of variants and lower units. Transect analyses illustrate in detail the vegetation sequence in relation to soil conditions. Keywords: Dry sand grassland, dunes, Elbe basin, Koelerio-Corynephoretea, lichen synusiae, soil gradient, transect analysis.
33200Candoussau F., Boqueras M., Gómez-Bolea A., Læssøe T., Lowen R., Rogers J.D., Rossman A.Y. & Samuels G.J. (2007): Observations on Neobarya, including new species and new combinations. - Sydowia, 59: 179–215. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Sydowia_59_0179-0215.pdf.
New combinations and new species are proposed in Neobarya: N. aurantiaca comb. nov., N. byssicola comb. nov., N. lichenicola comb. nov., N. lutea sp. nov., N. peltigerae sp. nov., N. xylariicola sp. nov. Neobarya agaricicola, and N. parasitica are redescribed. Anamorphs associated with N. agaricicola (Calcarisporium), N. aurantiaca (paecilomyces-like), N. byssicola (Diploospora), N. danica (lecanicillium-like), N. parasitica (lecanicillium-like), N. peltigerae (acremonium-like), and N. xylariicola (Calcarisporium) are described. Barya montana and B. salacensis are excluded from Neobarya. A key to species is provided.
33199Lumbsch H.T. & Mietzsch H. (1990): Interessante Funde von Flechten und Flechtenparasiten in Hessen. - Jahrbücher des Nassauischen Vereins für Naturkunde, 112: 67–84. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Jahrbuch-Nassauischen-Verein-Naturkunde_112_0067-0084.pdf.
Distribution records for 26 lichenicolous and lichen-forming fungi are given. Among the mentioned species two are lichenicolous unlichenzed fungi and 24 are lichens. Arthrorhaphis grisea and Lecanora soralifera are new records for the Taunus Mts. and L. swartzii is new to the Rhön. Caloplaca subpallida, Carbonea vitellinaria, Cladonia cryptochlorophaea, Lepraria crassissima, Micarea leprosula, M. lutulata, Peltigera ponojensis and Placynthiella icmalea are reported from Hessen. Lichenostigma rugosum is reported for the first time from the Federal Republic of Germany.
33198Haupt W. (1987): Die aktuelle Vegetation der östlichen Lechtaler Alpen: III. Rasen-, Weide- und Hochstaudengesellschaften. - Veröffentlichungen des Tiroler Landesmuseums Ferdinandeum, 67: 11–55. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/VeroeffFerd_67_0011-0055.pdf.
The associations of lawns and meadows are described with regard to their floristic composition.The publication is an attempt to show the connections between the several associations and the effect of anthropologic influence upon them. Referring to the association of the Elynetum a new nomenclature of subassociations is tried. Farther there is given a new classification of variants of the Dryadeto-Firmetum and the nomination of the Ligusticum-meadow as a new association of meadows. Several terricolous macrolichens of (sub)alpine meadows listed in the relevés
33197Thimm I. (1953): Die Vegetation des Sonnwendgebirges (Rofan) in Tirol (subalpine und alpine Stufe). - Berichte des naturwissenschaftlichen-medizinischen Verein Innsbruck, 50: 5–166. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/BERI_50_0005-0166.pdf.
Alps; alpine vegetation study; nunatakks; several notes on remarkable lichens included
33196Rakete R. (1911): Bryologische und lichenologische Beobachtungen im Süden der Görlitzer Heide. - Abhandlungen der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft zu Görlitz, 27: 413–487. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Abh-naturforsch-Ges-Goerlitz_27_0413-0487.pdf.
33195Langerfeldt J. (1940): Alpine Flechtenheiden im Gebiet des Patscherkofels. - Jahrbuch des Vereins zum Schutze der Alpenpflanzen und -Tiere, 12: 22–30. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Jb-Verein-Schutz-Alpenpfl-Tiere_12_1940_0022-0030.pdf.
alpine lichen vegetation; Alps
33194Simonis (1864): Cetraria islandica L.. - Archiv der Freunde des Vereins Naturgeschichte in Mecklenburg, 18: 190–191. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Archiv-Freunde-Ver-Naturgesch-Mecklenburg_18_1864_0190-0191.pdf.
33193Ritschel G. (1974): Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Verbreitung xero- und basiphiler Erdflechten in Mainfranken. - Abhandlungen des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins Würzburg, 15: 7–32. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Abh-Natwiss-Ver-Wuerzburg_15_0007-0032.pdf.
Die beiden in Mainfranken recht verbreiteten epigäischen Flechtengemeinschaften Fulgensietum fulgentis Gams 1938 und Cladonietum convolutae Müller 1951 werden mit ihren Kontaktgesellschaften beschrieben. Die Mehrzahl der Vorkommen befindet sich im Muschelkalkgebiet, auf Keupergips sind nur wenige Fundorte bekannt. Das Fulgensietum fulgentis umfaßt, ähnlich wie in anderen Gebieten, eine typische und eine strauchflechtenreiche Variante, wobei letztere zum Cladonietum convolutae überleitet. Eine Gipsausbildung des Fulgensietum fulgentis konnte, da Gipsstandorte selten und flächenmäßig unbedeutend sind, nicht ausgeschieden werden; nur an einem Standort wurde die gipsspezifische Art Fulgensia bracteata nachgewiesen. Arealkarten der Assoziations- und Verbandscharakterarten veranschaulichen die Verbreitung der Gemeinschaften in Mainfranken.
33192Biermann R., Breder C., Daniels F.J.A., Kiffe K. & Paus S. (1994): Heideflächen im Raum Munster, Lüneburger Heide: eine floristisch-pflanzensoziologische Erfassung als Grundlage für Pflege- und Optimierungsmaßnahmen. - Berichte der Naturhistorischen Gesellschaft Hannover, 135: 103–159. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Ber-Nathist-Ges-Hannover_136_0103-0159.pdf.
Heathland near the town of Munster: a floristical and phytosociological study as a basis for management and amelioration. - This paper deals with flora and vegetation of four heathland areas in the immediate vicinity of the town of Munster (Soltau-Fallingbostel), Lower Saxony. The study also formulates a management plan for preservation and amelioration of the heathlands. The field work was carried out in 1991. The vegetation research followed the concepts of the Braun-Blanquet approach. The plant communities are described, with main emphasis on Nardo-Callunetea communities. Vegetation tables are included. Genisto-Callunetum cladonietosum is very common. Koelerio-Corynephoretea and Scheuchzerio-Caricetea communities, which are typical for heathlands, are also dealt with. Locally ruderal Plantaginetea majoris communities occur, mainly on sites disturbed by trampling. Moreover, a survey is presented of the synusiae of lichens and bryophytes. The lichen synusiae are rich in Cladonia species and are well developed. Species lists of vascular plants, lichens and bryophytes are given for each heathland area, with comments on their status. For some community types data are included on pH, conductivity and C/N ratio. Heathland management is surveyed and discussed. Réintroduction of sheep-grazing, combined with sod-cutting and mowing, is recommended as the most appropriate management measure. However, this form of management does not seem realistic for the area. Thus for each heathland area a detailed management plan has been worked out, which includes maps indicating sites where management measures should be implemented. Small-scale sodcutting and mowing are recommended and results should be evaluated annually. Cutting of adjacent Scots pines is recommended in order to enlarge the heathland areas.
33191Heinken T. & Zippel E. (1999): Die Sand-Kiefernwälder (Dicrano-Pinion) im norddeutschen Tiefland: syntaxonomische, standörtliche und geographische Gliederung. - Tuexenia, 19: 55–106. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Tuexenia_NS_19_0055-0106.pdf.
The pine forests on sandy soils (Dicrano-Pinion) in the northern German lowlands: Syntaxonomic, edaphic and geographic differentiation. The phytosociology of Scots pine forests on sandy soils in the lowlands of northern Germany is reevaluated on the basis of 1.096 relevés. It is shown that not only pine forests in north-eastern Germany, but also the pine forests of poor sandy soils in north-western Germany, belong to the Dicrano-Pinion Matuszk. 1962 em. hoc loco (Piceetalia abietis, Vaccinio-Piceetea). Thus, the range of this alliance extends westwards from that of the natural pine forests, i.e. those existing before the destruction of forests by man. Scots pine dominance always results in rather uniform environmental conditions. Thus, over the entire range, all Scots pine forests are rather similar. Natural old-growth pine forests, spontaneous pioneer pine woods in formerly open landscapes, and afforestations on decidious forest stands, cannot be distinguished floristically. Within the Dicrano-Pinion alliance four associations (Cladonio-Pinetum, Leucobryo-Pinetum, Empetro nigri-Pinetum, Peucedano-Pinetum) and one community (Deschampsia flexuosa-Pinus sylve- stns-community) are distinguished. The widespread Cladonio-Pinetum, Leucobryo-Pinetum and Deschampsia-Pinus community are differentiated along an ecological gradient of increasing nutrient supply. All three communities are subdivided multidimensionally according to climatic and edaphic factors. Empetro-nigri-Pinetum and Peucedano-Pinetum, which are represented only by few relevés, are characteristic of base-rich habitats with sandy soils. Consequently they are rare in the northern German pleistocenic regions. Pine forests on peaty soil, classified by many authors into the Dicrano-Pinion, are excluded from this alliance. Keywords: Cladonio-Pinetum, Dicrano-Pinion, Empetro nigri-Pinetum, Leucobryo-Pinetum, northern Germany, Peucedano-Pinetum, phytosociology, Scots pine forest, synchorology.
33190Mühl M. (1993): Zur Synsystematik der Krähenbeerheiden auf den Ostfriesischen Inseln. - Drosera, 1993: 11–32. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Drosera_1993_0011-0032.pdf.
In 1992 and 1993, the heathland vegetation on the East Frisian Islands (North- West-Germany), that is dominated by Empetrum nigrum L. was analyzed according to the Braun-Blanquet approach. All of the examined heaths belong to the Carici arenariae- Empetretum Tx. et Kawamura 1975 (Empetrion boreale, Nardo-Callune- tea). On the basis of 517 vegetation relevés the association is divided into four subassociations, namely the C.-E. festucetosum *arenariae Dierssen ex Mühl 1993, the C.-E. typicum de Smidt 1977, the C.-E. caricetosum nigrae Mühl 1993, and the C.-E. ericetosum de Smidt 1977. Within the subassociations several variants and subvariants are distinguished. The floristic and ecological characteristics of each syntaxon are given.
33189Preising E. (1953): Süddeutsche Borstgras- und Zwergstrauch-Heiden (Nardo-Callunetea). - Mitteilungen der Floristisch-Soziologischen Arbeitsgemeinschaft, N.F., 4: 112–123. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Mitt-flori-soz-Arb_NF_4_0112-0123.pdf.
heatland vegetation study; number of cryptogams listed from relevés
33188Daniels F.J.A., Biermann R. & Breder C. (1993): Über Kryptogamen-Synusien in Vegetationskomplexen binnenländischer Heidelandschaften. - Berichte der Reinhold-Tüxen-Gesellschaft, 5: 199–219. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Ber-Reinh-Tuexen-Ges_5_0199-0219.pdf.
Terricolous lichen- and moss-synusiae were studied in dry heathlands in the western European Lowlands. Four types are dealt with. The pioneer Placynthiella uliginosa synusium occurs on open, humic soil. It is succeeded by the Placynthiella-Cladonia glauca synusium. In older, dry heath the Cladinaportentosa synusium occurs. In moist and old heath the Hypnum-Pleurozium schreheri synusium is found. The species-rich Cladina portentosa synusium is common in the Lüneburger Heide. The occurrence of the synusia could be related to the age of the heathland. The dominance of Campylopus introflexus is discussed, just as synusial succession. Finally changes in the lichen- and mossflora of dry heathlands during this century are briefly discussed.
33187Heiselmayer P. (1985): Zur Vegetation stark beweideter Gebiete in den Radstädter Tauern (Hinterstes Kleinarltal, Salzburg). - Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien, 123: 247–262. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/VZBG_123_0247-0262.pdf.
The Tappenkar in the Radstädter Tauern (Salzburg) is a traditional pasture. In the subalpine and alpine region the Nardetum is distributed on a large area. The Aveno-Nardetum is the important association of all pasture plant communities. The typical subassociation on poor nutrient soils, the subassociation with Gentiana punctata and this with Trifolium pratense are described. The use of species-groups will be discussed. Number of cryptogams (e.g. Cladonia spp. div.) listed from phytosociological relevés.
33186Knapp R. (1944): Trockenrasen und Felsfluren Mitteldeutschlands. Teil 1. Säureliebende Sand- und Felsfluren (Corynephoretalia). - Halle (Saale), 17 p. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Vegetationsaufnahmen-Ruediger-Knapp_5_0001-0017.pdf.
phytocenology; cryptogam rich communities on sandy and rocky xerothermic sites
33185Kanz B., von Brackel W., Cezanne R., Eichler M., Hohmann M.-L., Teuber D. & Printzen C. (2015): Molekulargenetische Untersuchung zum Vorkommen der Rentierflechte Cladonia stygia in Hessen. - Botanik und Naturschutz in Hessen, 28: 5–20. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Botanik-Naturschutz-Hessen_28_0005-0020.pdf.
Molecular genetic analysis on the occurrence of reindeer lichen Cladonia stygia in Hesse [in German with English summary:] A survey conducted in 2009 reported the reindeer lichen Cladonia stygia (Fr.) Ruoss for the first time in Hesse. This species is often difficult to distinguish from the morphologically similar C. rangiferina (L.) F. H. Wigg., and its identification remains uncertain. We therefore used molecular genetic data to identify the Hessian samples of this species. Phylogenetic pedigrees based on six mitochondrial and nuclear gene loci support the distinction of C. stygia from C. rangiferina. Only two out of seven populations reported in Hesse consist of C. stygia. The other populations are formed by C. rangiferina. A targetted search for C. stygia and verification of its identification using molecular genetics are necessary steps for reliably judging the conservational status of this species in Hesse.
33184Schröder B. (1995): Die Cladonia-Arten der Ebbe-Moore/Südwestfalen. - Dortmunder Beiträge zur Landeskunde, 29: 29–32. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Dortmunder-Beitr-Landeskde_29_0029-0032.pdf.
33183Wu Y.-Y., Gao J., Zhang G.‑Z., Zhao R.‑K., Liu A.‑Q., Sun L.‑W., Li X., Tang H.‑L., Zhao L.‑C., Guo X.‑P. & Liu H.-J. (2020): Two lichens differing in element concentrations have similar spatial patterns of element concentrations responding to road traffic and soil input. - Scientific Reports, 10: 19001 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-76099-x.
Two epiphytic lichens (Xanthoria alfredii, XAa; X. ulophyllodes, XAu) and soil were sampled at three sites with varied distances to a road in a semiarid sandland in Inner Mongolia, China and analyzed for concentrations of 42 elements to assess the contribution of soil input and road trafc to lichen element burdens, and to compare element concentration diferences between the two lichens. The study showed that multielement patterns, Fe:Ti and rare earth element ratios were similar between the lichen and soil samples. Enrichment factors (EFs) showed that ten elements (Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, K, P, Pb, S, Sb, and Zn) were enriched in the lichens relative to the local soil. Concentrations of most elements were higher in XAu than in XAa regardless of sites, and increased with proximity to the road regardless of lichen species. These results suggested that lichen element compositions were highly afected by soil input and road trafc. The narrow-lobed sorediate species were more efcient in particulate entrapment than the broad-lobed nonsorediate species. XAa and XAu are good bioaccumulators for road pollution in desert and have similar spatial patterns of element concentrations for most elements as response to road trafc emissions and soil input.
33182Enkhtuya O. & Javkhlan S. (2019): Three species of Heterodermia recorded in Mongolia. - Proceedings of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences, 59(1): 57–64. https://doi.org/10.5564/pmas.v59i1.1138.
Heterodermia hypoleuca (Ach.) Trevis., H. japonica (M. Sato) Swinscow & Krog and H. subascendens (Asahina) Trass. have been recorded for the first time in Mongolia. Data on substrates, habitats, distribution are listed for every species. Taxonomic comments and distinctive characters are provided for these species. The habitats are briefly described and the frequently associated species are listed. It is interesting to note that as a result of processing hundreds of herbarium collections of lichens, numerous new species were found in Mongolia. This means that there is still a substantial gap in the knowledge, especially about the lichen flora of remote corners of the country, which are numerous. Keywords: lichen species; Heterodermia; Mountain Range; mossed granite rocks.
33181Kerboua M., Ahmed M.A., Samba N., Aitfella‐Lahlou R., Silva L., Boyero J.F., Raposo C., Lopez Rodilla J.M. (2021): Phytochemical investigation of new Algerian lichen species: Physcia mediterranea Nimis. - Molecules, 26: 1121 [21 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26041121.
The present study provides new data concerning the chemical characterisation of Physcia mediterranea Nimis, a rare Mediterranean species belonging to the family Physciaceae. The phytochemical screening was carried out using GC‐MS, HPLC‐ESI‐MS‐MS, and NMR techniques. Hot extraction of n‐hexane was carried out, followed by separation of the part insoluble in methanol: wax (WA‐hex), from the part soluble in methanol (ME‐hex). GC‐MS analysis of the ME‐hex part revealed the presence of methylbenzoic acids such as sparassol and atraric acid and a diterpene with a kaurene skeleton which has never been detected before in lichen species. Out of all the compounds identified by HPLC‐ESI‐MS‐MS, sixteen compounds are common between WA‐hex and ME‐hex. Most are aliphatic fatty acids, phenolic compounds and depsides. The wax part is characterised by the presence of atranorin, a depside of high biological value. Proton 1H and carbon 13C NMR have confirmed its identification. Atranol, chloroatranol (depsides compound), Ffukinanolide (sesquiterpene lactones), leprolomin (diphenyl ether), muronic acid (triterpenes), and ursolic acid (triterpenes) have also been identified in ME‐hex. The results suggested that Physcia mediterranea Nimis is a valuable source of bioactive compounds that could be useful for several applications as functional foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. Keywords: Algerian lichen; Physcia mediterranea Nimis; bioactive compounds; n‐hexane extract; wax; GC‐MS; HPLC‐ESI‐MS‐MS; NMR.
33180Lee S., Suh Y.J., Yang S., Hong D.G., Ishigami A., Kim H., Hur J.-S., Chang S.-C. & Lee J. (2021): Neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of evernic acid in an MPTP-induced Parkinson’s disease model. - International Journal of Molecular Science, 22: 2098 [18 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22042098.
Oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and neuroinflammation are strongly associated with the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD), which suggests that anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory compounds might provide an alternative treatment for PD. Here, we evaluated the neuroprotective effects of evernic aid (EA), which was screened from a lichen library provided by the Korean Lichen Research Institute at Sunchon National University. EA is a secondary metabolite generated by lichens, including Ramalina, Evernia, and Hypogymnia, and several studies have described its anticancer, antifungal, and antimicrobial effects. However, the neuroprotective effects of EA have not been studied. We found that EA protected primary cultured neurons against 1- methyl-4-phenylpyridium (MPP+)-induced cell death, mitochondrial dysfunction, and oxidative stress, and effectively reduced MPP+-induced astroglial activation by inhibiting the NF-κB pathway. In vivo, EA ameliorated MPTP-induced motor dysfunction, dopaminergic neuronal loss, and neuroinflammation in the nigrostriatal pathway in C57BL/6 mice. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that EA has neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects in PD models and suggest that EA is a potential therapeutic candidate for PD. Keywords: Parkinson’s disease; evernic acid; 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine; neuroprotection; neuroinflammation; anti-inflammation.
33179Braun U. & Bensch K. (2021): Annotated list of taxonomic novelties published in “Fungi Rhenani Exsiccati” Supplementi Fasc. 6 to 12, issued by K. W. G. L. Fuckel between 1867 and 1874. - Schlechtendalia, 38: 118–159. .
New taxa and new combinations published by K.W.G.L. Fuckel in “Fungi Rhenani Exsiccati” Supplementi Fasc. 6 to 12 between 1867 and 1874 are listed and annotated, supplemented by copies of the labels with the original descriptions or new combinations. References, citations and the synonymy are corrected when necessary. The nomenclature of some taxa is discussed in more detail. Key words: Fungi, nomenclature, exsiccata, protologue. Few lichenicolous and lichen-allied fungi are included as well.
33178Garrido-Benavent I., Pérez-Ortega S., de los Ríos A., Mayrhofer H. & Fernández-Mendoza F. (2021): Neogene speciation and Pleistocene expansion of the genus Pseudephebe (Parmeliaceae, lichenized fungi) involving multiple colonizations of Antarctica. - Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 155: 107020 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2020.107020.
Widespread geographic distributions in lichens have been usually explained by the high dispersal capacity of their tiny diaspores. However, recent phylogenetic surveys have challenged this assumption and provided compelling evidence for cryptic speciation and more restricted distribution ranges in diverse lineages of lichenforming fungi. To evaluate these scenarios, we focus on the fungal genus Pseudephebe (Parmeliaceae) which includes amphitropical species, a distribution pattern whose origin has been a matter of debate since first recognized in the nineteenth century. In our study, a six-locus dataset and a broad specimen sampling covering almost all Earth’s continents is used to investigate species delimitation in Pseudephebe. Population structure, gene flow and dating analyses, as well as genealogical reconstruction methods, are employed to disentangle the most plausible transcontinental migration routes, and estimate the timing of the origin of the amphitropical distribution and the Antarctic populations. Our results demonstrate the existence of three partly admixed phylogenetic species that diverged between the Miocene and Pliocene, and whose Quaternary distribution has been strongly driven by glacial cycles. Pseudephebe minuscula is the only species showing an amphitropical distribution, with populations in Antarctica, whereas the restricted distribution of P. pubescens and an undescribed Alaskan species might reflect the survival of these species in European and North American refugia. Our microevolutionary analyses suggest a Northern Hemisphere origin for P. minuscula, which could have dispersed into the Southern Hemisphere directly and/or through “mountain-hopping” during the Pleistocene. The Antarctic populations of this species are sorted into two genetic clusters: populations of the Antarctic Peninsula were grouped together with South American ones, and the Antarctic Continental populations formed a second cluster with Bolivian and Svalbard populations. Therefore, our data strongly suggest that the current distribution of P. minuscula in Antarctica is the outcome of multiple, recent colonizations. In conclusion, our results stress the need for integrating species delimitation and population analyses to properly approach historical biogeography in lichenforming fungi. Keywords: Ascomycota; Bipolar; Cryptic species; Lichen-forming fungi; Phylogeography; Species delimitation.
33177Osyczka P., Lenart-Boroń A., Boroń P. & Rola K. (2021): Lichen-forming fungi in postindustrial habitats involve alternative photobionts. - Mycologia, 113(1): 43–55. https://doi.org/10.1080/00275514.2020.1813486.
Mycobionts of many lichen genera appear to demonstrate strong selectivity in the choice of algal partner. The biological properties of a photobiont and its availability in an environment significantly determine the habitat requirements of lichens. Flexibility in photobiont choice extends the ecological amplitude of lichens; therefore, it may constitute an important adaptive strategy for colonization of extreme habitats. The photobiont inventory of the three epigeic lichens most resistant to soil pollution, i.e., Cladonia cariosa, C. rei, and the hyperaccumulator Diploschistes muscorum, was examined to verify whether and to what extent algal composition depends on the type of habitat and substrate enrichment with heavy metals. Photobionts Asterochloris and Trebouxia were identified in the studied lichen species; however, the presence of Trebouxia was directly related to anthropogenic sites with technogenic substrates, and the proportion of lichen specimens with these algae clearly depended on the level of heavy-metal soil pollution and the habitat type. The total number of algal haplotypes increased with increasing soil pollution, and the richness was associated more with soil pollution than with a given lichen species. Additionally, a large number of lichen individuals bearing multiple algal genotypes at polluted sites were recorded. Although Cladonia lichens were previously thought to be restricted to Asterochloris, they are able to start the relichenization process with Trebouxia under specific habitat conditions and to establish a stable association with these algae when colonization of disturbed sites takes place. Comparative analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA sequences revealed as many as 13 haplotypes of Trebouxia, and phylogenetic analysis grouped them into two different clades. Such a high level of genetic diversity indicates that Trebouxia is well adapted to metal pollution and could be an alternative photosynthetic partner for certain lichens, especially in polluted sites. Keywords: Algal partner; disturbed habitat; ITS; lichenized fungi; mycobiont selectivity; phylogenetic analysis; symbiotic adaptivity; Trebouxia.
33176Erken M.T., Cansaran-Duman D. & Tanman U. (2021): In silico prediction of type I PKS gene modules in nine lichenized fungi. - Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment, 35(1): 376–383. https://doi.org/10.1080/13102818.2021.1879679.
The novel biologically active molecules could play a significant role in the treatment of human diseases. Natural products have been and continue to be a major source of pharmaceuticals, and lichen secondary metabolites emerge as never-ending potential for bioactive molecules with a variety of pharmacological activities. Polyketides, which are synthesized by enzymes encoded by PKS genes, constitute the major group of these secondary metabolites. To date, there is a lack of information about identification of PKS gene modules. Functional validation studies in lichens are difficult because of the slow growth rates of lichens, the symbiotic partners of lichens cannot be cultured in the laboratory or the fact that most of them cannot be grown in culture. Consequently, the importance of genomic mining approach is increasing as a unique tool for natural product discovery studies. Here, we bioinformatically investigated the type I PKS module candidates in nine publicly available lichen-forming fungi genomes through the use of the in silico screening tools. We also predicted putative secondary metabolites produced in these lichens which indicated the pharmaceutical potential of these nine lichen-forming fungi by bioinformatics tools. Keywords: Fungi; lichen; bioinformatics; PKS; secondary metabolite.
33175Yatsyna A., Stukonis V. & Gliwa B. (2020): Lichens and allied fungi from the Praviršulio Tyrelis State Nature Reserve (Central Lithuania). - Botanica, 26(2): 160–169. .
The paper presents the results of the inventory of lichen-forming, lichenicolous and allied saprobic fungi from the Praviršulio Tyrelis State Nature Reserve. A total of 199 species were recorded, including 183 lichens, eight lichenicolous and eight non-lichenised saprobic fungi. Four lichenised species (Micarea pseudomicrococca, Parmelia serrana, Sclerophora amabilis and Thelocarpon laureri) were reported new to Lithuania. Three protected species, Cetrelia olivetorum, Cladonia parasitica and Hypotrachyna revoluta, were also observed. Keywords: biodiversity, bog, lichens, lichenicolous fungi, protected area.
33174Tedersoo L., Anslan S., Bahram M., Kõljalg U. & Abarenkov K. (2020): Identifying the ‘unidentifed’ fungi: a global‑scale long‑read third‑generation sequencing approach. - Fungal Diversity, 103: 273–293. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13225-020-00456-4.
Molecular identifcation methods, in particular high-throughput sequencing tools, have greatly improved our knowledge about fungal diversity and biogeography, but many of the recovered taxa from natural environments cannot be identifed to species or even higher taxonomic levels. This study addresses the phylogenetic placement of previously unrecognized fungal groups by using two complementary approaches: (i) third-generation amplicon sequencing analysis of DNA from global soil samples, screening out ITS reads of<90% similarity to other available Sanger sequences, and (ii) analysis of common fungal taxa that were previously indicated to be enigmatic in terms of taxonomic placement based on the ITS sequences alone (so-called top50 sequences). For the global soil samples, we chose to amplify the full rRNA gene operon using four partly overlapping amplicons and multiple newly developed primers or primer combinations that cover nearly all fungi and a vast majority of non-fungal eukaryotes. We extracted the rRNA 18S (SSU) and 28S (LSU) genes and performed phylogenetic analyses against carefully selected reference material. Both SSU and LSU analyses placed most soil sequences and top50 sequences to known orders and classes, but tens of monophyletic groups and single sequences remained outside described taxa. Furthermore, the LSU analyses recovered a few small groups of sequences that may potentially represent novel phyla. We conclude that rRNA genes-based phylogenetic analyses are efcient tools for determining phylogenetic relationships of fungal taxa that cannot be placed to any order or class using ITS sequences alone. However, in many instances, longer rRNA gene sequences and availability of both SSU and LSU reads are needed to improve taxonomic resolution. By leveraging third-generation sequencing from global soil samples, we successfully provided phylogenetic placement for many previously unidentifed sequences and broadened our view on the fungal tree of life, with 10–20% new order-level taxa. In addition, the PacBio sequence data greatly extends fungal class-level information in reference databases. Keywords: Soil fungi · Top 50 most wanted fungi · Phylogenetic diversity · PacBio sequencing · 18S rRNA gene (small subunit) · 28S rRNA gene (large subunit).
33173Biedunkiewicz A., Ejdys E., Kubiak D. & Sucharzewska E. (2021): Scientific research conducted at the Department of Mycology, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn. - Acta Mycologica, 55(2) [2020]: 5525 [19 p.]. https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1531-2739.
This paper presents a review of the research conducted by the staff of the Department of Mycology at UWM, Olsztyn since its establishment to the present. This unit was established and has been headed for over 20 years by Prof. Maria Dynowska. Since 2004, the Department has been conducting extensive mycological research, which is reflected in the dynamic growth of specialist staff involved in teaching activities and popularizing scientific research. Owing to the particular care of Prof. Dynowska, and maintenance of the principal interdisciplinary character of the research, the Department has been occupying a significant position in mycology in Poland recently. This paper attempts to provide a summary of the major scientific accomplishments of the team headed by Prof. Dynowska. Keywords: potentially pathogenic fungi; aquatic ecosystem; school environment; urban environment; lichenological studies; plant parasites; bioindication.
33172Farkas E., Biró B.,Varga N., Sinigla M. & Lőkös L. (2021): Analysis of lichen secondary chemistry doubled the number of Cetrelia W.L. Culb. & C.F. Culb. species (Parmeliaceae, lichenised Ascomycota) in Hungary. - Cryptogamie, Mycologie, 42(1): 1–16. https://doi.org/10.5252/cryptogamie-mycologie2021v42a1. http://cryptogamie.com/mycologie/42/1.
The distribution patterns of lichen secondary metabolites are often taxon specific. They represent cryptic chemical diversity additional to morphological-anatomical biodiversity. Cetrelia W.L. Culb. & C.F. Culb. species (c. 200 specimens) were checked and revised by thin-layer chromatography. Soredia, pseudocyphellae, rhizines, features of lower surface are the main morphological characters analysed against the presence of cortical pigment, atranorin and medullary α-alectoronic acid, anziaic acid, α-collatolic acid, β-alectoronic acid, β-collatolic acid, imbricaric acid, 4-O-demethylimbricaric acid, olivetoric acid, perlatolic acid, physodic acid and 4-O-methylphysodic acid. The European occurrence of C. chicitae (W.L. Culb.) W.L. Culb. & C.F. Culb. – described from America – is confirmed on the basis of identical secondary metabolite composition by seven lichen substances. Four species were revealed and mapped in Hungary. Cetrelia chicitae and C. monachorum (Zahlbr.) W.L. Culb. & C.F. Culb. are new for the Hungarian lichen flora. From the originally known two taxa C. cetrarioides (Delise) W.L. Culb. & C.F. Culb. proved to be rare, C. olivetorum (Nyl.) W.L. Culb. & C.F. Culb. is less frequent than regarded earlier. Currently C. monachorum is the most frequent Cetrelia species in Hungary. Cetrelia chicitae and C. cetrarioides may need protection measures. Parmelia cetrarioides f. pseudofallax (Gyeln.) Gyeln. is lectotypified here. Key words: Chemotaxonomy, geographical distribution, high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC), lichen-forming fungus, lichen secondary metabolites (LSMs), lectotypification.
33171Otte V. (2020): Die lichenologische Hinterlassenschaft des Mecklenburger Entomologen Friedrich Wilhelm Konow (1842–1908) im Senckenberg Museum für Naturkunde Görlitz [The lichenological legacy of the Mecklenburg entomologist Friedrich Wilhelm Konow (1842–1908) at the Senckenberg Museum of Natural History of Görlitz]. - Berichte der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft Oberlausitz, 28: 151–158. .
The lichenological legacy of the Mecklenburg entomologist Friedrich Wilhelm Konow (1842–1908) at the Senckenberg Museum of Natural History of Görlitz A party of about 130 lichen specimens from Mecklenburg (Northern Germany) at the Natural History Museum of Görlitz, collected towards the end of the 19th century, can be assigned to pastor F. W. Konow, who is known primarily as an entomologist. The bulk of the material with approx. 100 specimens is represented by collections from the year 1872 from the surroundings of the town of Tessin near Rostock, wherefrom no other historical lichen occurrence data are available. The collection comprises the only Mecklenburg material of Parmelina quercina and Caloplaca lobulata as well as further species scarcely recorded from that land. Some specimens from northern Brandenburg, Thuringia and from the Harz Mountains are also included. Keywords: Historical lichen occurrence data, citizen science, Northern Germany, collections.
33170Ansaldo D., Vergara P.M., Carvajal M.A., Alaniz A.J., Fierro A., Vargas-Castillo R., Quiroz M., Moreira-Arce D. & Pizarro J. (2021): Tree decay modulates the functional response of lichen communities in Patagonian temperate forests. - Science of The Total Environment, 771: 145360 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145360.
Epiphytic and epixylic lichens respond negatively to forest degradation, climate change and pollution, but those effects may depend on functional traits or interact with the stage of tree decay. Disentangling the main drivers of lichen communities remains a challenge in regions where lichens are diverse and poorly known, as the case of Patagonian temperate forests. We used a multi-scale approach to evaluate the relationship between environmental variables, tree decay stage and lichens. We sampled lichens across three increasing scales (tree ≪ site ≪ landscape) by selecting 19 landscape units, where trees in four decay stages (snags, logs, cavity trees and healthy trees) were selected within sampling plots. A total of 35 predictors were measured over different scales, including 25 remote sensing indices of forest conditions, climate and air pollutants. Structural Equation Models were used to test the causal linkages of predictors with lichens, distinguishing functional categories (size, growth and reproductive strategy). A total of 69 lichen species were recorded. Cavity trees and logs supported the largest diversity, while snags and healthy trees had the lowest diversity. Functional lichen groups responded differently to fine-scale variables, including the diameter, height, density and pH of trees. Air pollutants affected species with sexual and mixed strategies. Lichens were sensitive to precipitation, temperature and wind speed, with foliose and sexual species responding positively to the latter. The abundance of all species and macrolichens increased with tree senescence and decreased with canopy continuity. Lichens occupying snags and logs responded negatively to primary productivity and tree senescence, but positively to soil organic matter. Our findings suggest: i) the functional structure of lichen communities varies non-linearly with the wood decay process; ii) the reproductive strategy influences the sensitivity to air pollutants, iii) climate variables influence dispersal and colonization of woody substrates; and iv) forest structure/succession interacts with tree decay. Keywords: Lichen communities; Logs; Cavity trees; Multi-scale approach; Structural equation models.
33169Węgrzyn M.H., Fałowska P., Kołodziejczyk J., Alzayany K., Wężyk P., Zięba-Kulawik K., Hawryło P., Turowska A., Grzesiak B., Lipnicki L. & Wietrzyk-Pełka P. (2021): Tree height as the main factor causing disappearance of the terricolous lichens in the lichen Scots pine forests. - Science of The Total Environment, 771: 144834 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.144834.
The lichen Scots pine forests habitats are undergoing rapid disappearance across Europe. Due to the semi-natural character of this habitat and an increase of the nitrification as a result of air pollution, determination of factors responsible for the decrease in lichen field layer cover requires a comprehensive approach. Our study aimed to investigate environmental factors necessary for the determination of active protection measures in order to maintain this vulnerable habitat. Specifically, we aimed to investigate: 1) the environmental factors influencing lichen cover in the lichen Scots pine forests of Bory Tucholskie National Park; 2) the differences in habitat variables between sites with lichen-rich and bryophyte-rich field layers. In our study, we used vegetation and microhabitat properties data collected over three years of surveys, as well as ALS LiDAR data. Our results indicated that lichen and bryophyte cover, tree height, tree cover, thickness of organic matter layer, soil temperature and soil water content differed between lichen-rich and bryophyte-rich sites. We found a significant negative relationship between lichen cover recorded within the field layer and tree height. The lichen-rich field layer developed better in areas with lower tree height and thinner layer of organic matter, which created a favorable habitat conditions for lichen development. Our research revealed the previously unknown impact of tree height for the development of lichen field layer. These findings can be used to plan the active conservation measures of lichen Scots pine forests.
33168Dresler S., Kováčik J., Wójciak H., Sowa I., Strzemski M. & Wójciak M. (2021): Allantoin content in lichens depends on anthropopressure level. - Ecological Indicators, 124: 107312 [6 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2020.107312.
Allantoin has been detected in several plant families but only few papers reported its presence in lichens. The 18 from 21 lichen species we tested contained detectable amount of allantoin with a range of 0.005–13.4 mg/g DW. Comparison of samples collected from the localities with various intensity of “anthropopressure” (forest versus city) revealed that higher content of heavy metals was significantly correlated with elevated allantoin content mainly for Zn, Cu, and Ni (and in 3 from 5 species also for Cd and Fe). Subsequent laboratory experiments with four species showed that the accumulation of allantoin is rather stimulated by Cd, Pb or Ni in individual species but Hg had strongly negative impact. On the contrary, salinity had no impact in any species while simulated acid rain (pH 3) evoked various responses in four tested species. Data indicate that accumulation of allantoin depends on the eventual pollution of the given locality and metals have considerable impact on its content while the effect of individual stresses is rather specific. Keywords: Environmental pollution; Heavy metals; Metabolites; Metallic contamination.
33167Kędzia S. (2021): Initial colonisation by Rhizocarpon geographicum in the Tatra Mountains. - Journal of Mountain Science, 18(2): 407–415. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11629-020-6130-3.
Previous lichenometric dating of young geomorphological forms in the Tatra Mountains has been hindered by differences in the determination of initial colonisation of fresh rock surfaces by the Rhizocarpon geographicum lichen. In order to determine precisely the time needed for the first thalli to appear on newly exposed rock surfaces, two experimental sites were created in 2013. The results from these sites were compared with the measurements taken on boulders in debris formed by a 2013 debris flow. In 2018, the largest thalli measured within the experimental sites and the debris flow area reached a size of approximately 2 mm. Based on this, the time of initial colonisation of rock surfaces was determined to be 5 ± 1 years, which is about half the period previously described in the literature. Keywords: Lichenometric dating; Rhizocarpon geographicum; Initial colonisation; Geomorphological forms; Tatra Mts.
33166Simmel J., Karlík P. & Poschlod P. (2021): Land-use history affects vascular plant composition of calcareous grasslands – Does it affect cryptogam composition, too?. - Ecological Indicators , 124: 107408 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2021.107408.
Land-use history and habitat age are considered highly important regarding the species composition and conservation value of, e.g., grasslands and forests. Ancient sites, i.e., sites with a continuous habitat history, are thought to be richer in rare, threatened, and more specialised species than recent sites. However, species composition is also affected by abiotic and ecological factors such as soil and climate parameters, and further analyses are needed to determine whether history or other factors are more important. In previous studies carried out at two study areas in the German Jurassic mountains, land-use history was identified as the main factor shaping vascular plant composition of ancient vs. recent grassland sites. Ancient was defined that there was a continuous grazing history since at least 200 years, while recent grasslands have developed from arable fields considerably after this time. Many species such as arable weeds and crop species, being residuals of the former land-use type, were found in the recent grasslands. In the present study, we assessed the terricolous cryptogam vegetation (bryophytes, lichens, macromycetes) of the same ancient and recent sites regarding species composition, occurrence of endangered species, and the applicability of the indicator species concept and Ellenberg indicator values. Although land-use history was the strongest explaining factor regarding vascular plant vegetation in previous studies, cryptogam vegetation did not reflect this signal. Species numbers and Ellenberg indicator values were quite similar in ancient and recent grasslands but we could, nevertheless, identify indicator species for both grassland types, with Rhytidium rugosum, Cladonia furcata ssp. subrangiformis and Hygrocybe persistens as strongest indicators of ancient grasslands, and Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus as strongest indicator of recent grasslands. When we compared the results for vascular plant and cryptogam vegetation we found that land-use history seems to have much less influence on the composition of the cryptogam vegetation in grasslands, given a certain time of recreation and succession. This is very likely due to an enhanced dispersability of cryptogam propagules. We found rare and endangered cryptogam species in ancient and recent sites; therefore, species maintenance measures can be worthwile in both grassland types. Keywords: Bryophytes; Central Europe; Continuity; Ellenberg indicator values; Fungi; Indicator species; Lichens; Macromycetes; woodland.
33165Manojlović N.T., Rančić A.B., Décor R., Vasiljević P. & Tomović J. (2021): Determination of chemical composition and antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of lichens Parmelia conspersa and Parmelia perlata. - Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization , 15: 686–696. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11694-020-00672-1.
The aim of this study is to investigate the chemical composition of extracts of the lichens Parmelia conspersa and Parmelia perlata and their antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities. The phytochemical analysis of the acetone extracts of two Parmelia lichens was determined by (HPLC-UV) method. The predominant phenolic compounds in these extracts were norstictic acid and usnic acids in P. conspersa, while salazinic acid and stictic acid were the major metabolites detected in P. perlata. Besides these compounds, the tested extracts of these lichens contain atranorin and chloroatranorin. The lichen extracts showed comparable and strong antioxidant activity, exhibited higher DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavengings, chelating activity, and inhibitory activity towards lipid peroxidation. The lichen extracts demonstrated important antimicrobial activity against eight strains with MIC values from 19.53 to 312.5 µg/mL. Cytotoxic efects of lichens were tested against Hep2c, RD and L2OB cell lines using MTT method. Cytotoxic efects of P. conspersa and P. perlata extracts toward three cancer cell lines were in the range from 76.33 to 163.39 µg/mL. This is the frst report of the detail chemical composition of the lichens P. conspersa and P. perlata. The present study showed that tested extracts of lichens demonstrated a important antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer efects. That suggests that these lichens can be used as new sources of the natural antimicrobial agents, antioxidants and anticancer compounds. Keywords: Lichen · Chemical composition · Antimicrobial activity · Antioxidant activity · Cytotoxic activity.
33164Akerman T., Spiers G., Beckett P., Anderson J. & Caron F. (2021): Assessment of airborne lead provenance in Northern Ontario, Canada, using isotopic ratios in snow and Cladonia rangiferina lichens. - Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 232:61 [17 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-021-05006-5.
Fresh snow and lichens (Cladonia rangiferina) were collected along two ~300-km transects in a regional survey around two smelter areas in Northern Ontario, i.e., the Sudbury and Timmins areas, in 2009–2010, as a part of a monitoring program. The samples were analyzed for Pb isotope ratios in snow from 47 sites, and in lichens from 28 sites, for background airborne lead and to determine the influence of distance versus local sources of Pb on a regional scale. Moreover, the lichen samples were split into two portions, the top portion, corresponding to recent growth (2–4 years), and the lower portion (up to 10+ years old) to determine the regime of recent versus old deposition. The study also investigated whether the isotopic signature in fresh snow (~1–2 weeks old) could correlate to the lichens’ recent growth. The Pb isotope signatures, reported as Pb isotope ratios 208Pb/206Pb and 207Pb/206Pb, in both snow and lichen recent growth were uniform over the region, except for localized influences near Sudbury and Timmins, suggesting that the background Pb represented remote sources for most of the region. Three-isotope plots 208Pb/206Pb versus 207Pb/206Pb of snow and lichens followed a linear model typical of mixing lines between two sources. As there are no statistical differences of Pb isotope ratios between fresh snow and recent lichen growth at neighboring stations, either type of sample may be used to describe the short-term record of airborne inputs. Finally, we found a strong relationship between the Pb isotope ratios of the recent growth (upper part) and old growth (lower part) of the lichens, with a slope of 0.9 between the lichen parts. This observation suggests either an isotopic segregation or the older parts of the lichens developed under different Pb source inputs in earlier times. Keywords: Pb isotopes. Snow samples. Lichens. Northern Ontario . Airborne lead . Atmospheric contamination.
33163Huynh B.L.C. & Nguyen K.P.P. (2020): A new xanthone from the lichen Parmotrema praesorediosum (Parmeliaceae). - Vietnam Journal of Chemistry, 58(6): 765–769. https://doi.org/10.1002/vjch.202000070.
Two xanthone compounds, praesorexanthone A (1) and praesorexanthone B (2), were isolated from the lichen Parmotrema praesorediosum (Nyl.) Hale (Parmeliaceae). Among them, praesorexanthone B is a new natural compound. Their chemical structures were unambiguously determined by the analysis of 1D and 2D NMR and high resolution ESI mass spectroscopic data, as well as by comparison of their NMR data with the ones in the literature. Keywords. Parmotrema praesorediosum, lichen, lichen substances, tetrahydroxanthone-chromanone dimer, hexahydroxanthone-chromanone dimer.
33162Alonso-García M.,Grewe F., Payette S. & Villarreal J.C. (2021): Population genomics of a reindeer lichen species from North American lichen woodlands. - American Journal of Botany, 108(1): 159–171. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajb2.1601.
Premise: Lichens are one of the main structural components of plant communities in the North American boreal biome. They play a pivotal role in lichen woodlands, a large ecosystem situated north of the closed-crown forest zone, and south of the forest–tundra zone. In Eastern Canada (Quebec), there is a remnant LW found 500 km south of its usual distribution range, in the Parc National des Grands-Jardins, originated mainly because of wildfires. We inferred the origin of the lichen Cladonia stellaris from this LW and assessed its genetic diversity in a postfire succession. Methods: We genotyped 122 individuals collected across a latitudinal gradient in Quebec. Using the software Stacks, we compared four different approaches of locus selection and single-nucleotide polymorphism calling. We identified the best fitting approach to investigate population structure and estimate genetic diversity of C. stellaris. Results: Populations in southern Quebec are not genetically different from those of northern LWs. The species consists of at least four phylogenetic lineages with elevated levels of genetic diversity and low co-ancestry. In Parc National des Grands-Jardins, we reported high values of genetic diversity not related with time since fire disturbance and low genetic differentiation among populations with different fire histories. Conclusions: This first population genomic study of C. stellaris is an important step forward to understand the origin and biogeographic patterns of lichen woodlands in North America. Our findings also contribute to the understanding of the effect of postfire succession on the genetic structure of the species. Key words: Apothecia; Cladonia stellaris; dispersal; fire; population genomics; reproduction; Quebec; SNPs; Stacks.
33161Malíček J., Palice Z. & Vondrák J. (2020): Lišejníky pralesa Hojná voda v Novohradských horách. - Bryonora, 66: 51–61. https://botanospol.cz/sites/default/files/2021-01/BRYONORA_66_05.pdf.
The primeval forest Hojná voda belongs together with Žofínský prales to the oldest protected areas in the Czech Republic. It is predominated by beech; spruce is frequently intermixed. Other trees are rarely present in small scree forest fragments. Even though it covers only a small area of 9.2 ha, the locality is an important refuge for many rare and old-growth forest lichens. A total of 156 lichens and 12 non-lichenized fungi were recorded. Most lichens (110) were recorded on trees, especially on beech (101), but epixylic lichen communities are species-rich (43) as well. Micarea parva and Pertusaria macounii were recorded at their second localities in the country. Alyxoria ochrocheila, Arthopyrenia cinereopruinosa, Biatora helvola, B. ocelliformis, Fuscidea arboricola, Gyalideopsis helvetica, Multiclavula mucida, Opegrapha trochodes, Thelopsis rubella and Verrucaria consociata are other remarkable species. Key words: beech old-growth forest, biodiversity, epiphytic lichens.
33160Szymczyk R., Konatowska M. & Rutkowski P. (2020): Materiały do bioty porostów Nadleśnictwa Doświadczalnego Zielonka w Wielkopolsce [Contribution to the lichen biota of the Zielonka Experimental Forest Division (Wielkopolska Province, Poland)]. - Fragmenta Floristica et Geobotanica Polonica, 27(2): 297–311. .
[in Polish with English abstract: ] This paper presents the results of lichenological studies carried out in the Zielonka Forest near Poznań, which yielded new information about the lichens of that forest. A total of 81 taxa were found in the area, of which 5 are legally protected and 18 are considered endangered in Poland. Agonimia flabelliformis, A. repleta, Bacidina mendax and Parmelia serrana are new for the Pojezierze Wielkopolskie lakeland. The biota includes such valuable species as Arthonia mediella, Chaenotheca chlorella, Chrysothrix candelaris, Microcalicium disseminatum, Punctelia subrudecta and Toniniopsis subincompta. Key words: Ascomycota, lichenized fungi, rare species, threatened and protected species, Zielonka Forest.
33159Anonymus (2021): Recent literature on Australasian lichens. - Australasian Lichenology, 88: 53. .
33158Elix J.A. & McCarthy P.M. (2021): A new species of Diploschistes (Graphidaceae) from consolidated soil in Australia. - Australasian Lichenology, 88: 50–52. .
Diploschistes sarcogynoides Elix & P.M.McCarthy sp. nov. (lichenized Ascomycota, Graphidaceae) is described from consolidated, siliceous soil in the Australian Capital Territory.
33157McCarthy P.M. (2021): A new terricolous species of Fellhaneropsis (lichenized Ascomycota, Pilocarpaceae) from Papua New Guinea. - Australasian Lichenology, 88: 45–49. .
Fellhaneropsis humicola P.M.McCarthy is described from consolidated soil in montane rainforest in Morobe Province, Papua New Guinea. The new species has a pale, terricolous, crustose thallus that is corticate and lacks lichen substances, rather large, dark brown to blackish, adnate to sessile apothecia (the margin often a little paler and the excipulum partly K+ crimson-brown in section and leaching a yellowish, non-crystalline solution). The excipulum is predominantly dark brown and it is prosoplectenchymatous in section; the hypothecium is pale brown to pale golden brown, and the hyaline, narrowly ellipsoid to oblongfusiform, 3-septate ascospores are 17–25 × 5–8 μm.
33156Øvstedal D.O., Broady P.A. & Fryday A.M. (2021): A new Sclerococcum (Dactylosporaceae, Ascomycota) on Gloeocapsa from Antarctica. - Australasian Lichenology, 88: 40–44. .
The new species Sclerococcum gloeocapsae, growing on the cyanobacterium Gloeocapsa sp. in Marie Byrd Land, Antarctica, is described and illustrated.
33155Elix J.A. (2021): Two new species of Tetramelas (Caliciaceae, Ascomycota) from Antarctica. - Australasian Lichenology, 88: 34–39. .
Tetramelas drakonensis Elix from Princess Elizabeth Land in eastern Antarctica and T. grevei Elix from Enderby Land in north-eastern Antarctica are described as new to science. An updated key is provided to the 15 Antarctic species of Tetramelas.
33154McCarthy P.M. & Elix J.A. (2021): An outline of some lichen communities on consolidated, siliceous soils in south-eastern Australia. - Australasian Lichenology, 88: 27–33. .
33153Elix J.A. & Mayrhofer H. (2021): Three new species of buellioid lichens (Caliciaceae, Ascomycota) from New Zealand and the first report of Rinodinella dubyanoides (Physciaceae, Ascomycota) from Australia and New Zealand. - Australasian Lichenology, 88: 20–26. .
Amandinea delangei Elix & H.Mayrhofer, Buellia blahaiana Elix & H.Mayrhofer and B. harrisiana Elix & H.Mayrhofer are described as new to science. In addition, Rinodinella dubyanoides (Hepp) H.Mayrhofer & Poelt is reported for the first time from Australia and New Zealand.
33152McCarthy P.M. & Elix J.A. (2021): A new species and further new records of Sarcogyne (Acarosporaceae) from Australia. - Australasian Lichenology, 88: 14–19. .
Sarcogyne regalis P.M.McCarthy & Elix sp. nov. (Acarosporaceae) is described from consolidated, siliceous soil in the Southern Tablelands, New South Wales, Australia. Four other species, S. canberrensis P.M.McCarthy & Elix, S. molongloensis P.M.McCarthy & Elix, S. porphyricola P.M.McCarthy & Elix and S. terrulenta P.M.McCarthy & Elix, are reported for the first time from New South Wales; the last-named species is also recorded from central Queensland.
33151Elix J.A., Mayrhofer H. & Wetschnig W. (2021): New species and new records of buellioid lichens (Caliciaceae, Ascomycota) from southern Africa. - Australasian Lichenology, 88: 3–13. .
Amandinea brussei Elix & H.Mayrhofer, Buellia capensis Elix & H.Mayrhofer, B. namaquaensis Elix, H.Mayrhofer & Wetschnig and Tetramelas franklinbrussei Elix & H.Mayrhofer are described as new to science. In addition, Amandinea polyxanthonica (Elix) Elix, Buellia tesserata Körb. and Tetramelas coquimbensis (C.W.Dodge) Elix are reported from southern Africa for the first time, as is Buellia hyporosea Elix from Madagascar.
33150Cavalloro V., Marrubini G., Stabile R., Rossi D., Linciano P., Gheza G., Assini S., Martino E. & Collina S.. (2021): Microwave-assisted extraction and HPLC-UV-CD determination of (S)-usnic acid in Cladonia foliacea. - Molecules, 26(2): 455 [15 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26020455.
During the years, many usnic acid (UA) conjugates have been synthesized to obtain potent endowed with biological properties. Since (S)-UA is less abundant in nature than (R)-enantiomer, it is difficult to source, thus precluding a deeper investigation. Among the lichens producing UA, Cladonia foliacea is a valuable (S)-UA source. In the present work, we report on a rapid HPLC-UV/PAD-CD protocol suitable for the analysis and the identification of the main secondary metabolites present in C. foliacea extract. Best results were achieved using XBridge Phenyl column and acetonitrile and water, which were both added with formic acid as mobile phase in gradient elution. By combining analytical, spectroscopical, and chiroptical analysis, the most abundant analyte was unambiguously identified as (S)-UA. Accordingly, a versatile microwave-assisted extractive (MAE) protocol, assisted by a design of experiment (DoE), to quantitatively recover (S)-UA was set up. The best result in terms of UA extraction yield was obtained using ethanol and heating at 80 °C under microwave irradiation for 5 min. Starting from 100 g of dried C. foliacea, 420 mg of (S)-UA were achieved. Thus, our extraction method resulted in a suitable protocol to produce (S)-UA from C. foliacea for biological and pharmaceutical investigation or commercial purposes. Keywords: Cladonia foliacea; usnic acid; chiroptical properties; absolute configuration; HPLC-UV/PAD-CD; DoE; MAE; lichens.
33149Váczi P., Barták M., Bednaříková M., Hrbáček F. & Hájek J. (2021): Spectral properties of Antarctic and Alpine vegetation monitored by multispectral camera: Case studies from James Ross Island and Jeseníky Mts.. - Czech Polar Reports, 10(2) [2020]: 297–312. DOI: 10.5817/CPR2020-2-22.
In this study, we investigated the utility of spectral remote sensing data gathered by a multispectral camera for estimating of vegetation cover in Antarctic vegetation oasis and Arcto-Alpine tundra. The surveys exploiting unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and multispectral camera were done in an Antarctic vegetation oasis located at the Northern shore of James Ross Island (Antarctica), and arcto-alpine tundra located in the Jeseníky Mts. (NE Czech Republic, 1 420 m a.s.l.). For the two locations, false colour images of spectral indices (VARI, NGRDI, GLI, RGBVI, ExG, NDVI, PRI) were taken and analysis of vegetation types and components of vegetation cover was done. Additionally, field research was performed by handheld instruments measuring NDVI, PRI and of selected vegetation components: Bryum pseudotriquetrum, Nostoc commune colonies (Antarctica), lichens grown on flat stones and boulders (the Jeseníky Mts.). The results show UAV photo surveys and imaging of spectral reflectance indices can be used to monitor vegetation types forming Antarctic vegetation oases and arcto-alpine tundra. Key words: remote sensing, UAV, vegetation indices, spectral reflectance, plant functional types.
33148Weiss J. & Orekhova A. (2021): Biometrical analysis and thallus morphology characteristics of Placopsis antarctica from King George Island, Antarctica. - Czech Polar Reports, 10(2) [2020]: 161–168. DOI: 10.5817/CPR2020-2-13.
Placopsis antarctica is an ornithocoprophilous lichen that has been for a long time confused with P. contortuplicata I. M. Lamb. In our study, we focused on morphological characteristics of P. antarctica thalli. We report biometrical data on dominant morphological structures of P. antarctica thallus: cephalodia, marginal lobes, sorediate pits and soralia. Thalli of P. antarctica were collected at the King George Island, Antarctica and analyzed in a laboratory using a digital microscopy approach. Central cephalodium was found rather elliptic then round-shaped. Mean length/width was found 2.424/1.720 mm. Marginal lobes were found wider at the apex (1.415 mm) than basal part (0.495 mm). Side cephalodia were smaller, their mean length/width was found 1.034/0.610 mm. Key words: cephalodium, morphometry, Nostoc, algae symbiont, microrelief.
33147Andreev M.P., Andersen D., Kurbatova L., Smirnova S., & Chaplygina O. (2021): Lichens, bryophytes and terrestrial algae of the Lake Untersee Oasis (Wohlthat Massiv, Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica). - Czech Polar Reports, 10(2) [2020]: 203–225. DOI: 10.5817/CPR2020-2-16.
Lake Untersee is the largest ice-covered freshwater lake in the interior of East Antarctica. The mountain oasis is situated around it in the Gruber Mts. of the Wohlthat Massif. For approximately 7,000 years the area has been free of ice and the local climate relatively stable. It is very severe, cold, and windy and dominated by intense evaporation and sublimation but with little melt. Relative humidity averages only 37%. Vegetation is sparse in the oasis and previously only poorly investigated. Two lichen species and no bryophytes were known from the area. In November-December 2018, a survey of terrestrial flora and vegetation was made. The list of lichens was completed for the area, bryophytes were found for the first time, and some terrestrial algae were collected. In total, 23 lichen species, 1 lichenicolous fungus, 1 moss, and 18 terrestrial algae were discovered for the locality. The abundance of each species within their habitats was also evaluated. The lichen flora of the Untersee Oasis is typical for continental oases and similar to other previously investigated internal territories of Dronning Maud Land, except for the very rich lichen flora of the Schirmacher Oasis. Key words: Queen Maud Land, Schirmacher Oasis, biodiversity, vegetation, flora, taxonomy, lichen biota, mosses.
33146Pedišius V. (2021): UV-B absorbing and bioactive secondary compounds in lichens Xanthoria elegans and Xanthoria parietina: A review. - Czech Polar Reports, 10(2) [2020]: 252–262. DOI: 10.5817/CPR2020-2-19.
Secondary metabolites are the bioactive compounds of plants which are synthesized during primary metabolism, have no role in the development process but are needed for defense and other special purposes. These secondary metabolites, such as flavonoids, terpenes, alkaloids, anthraquinones and carotenoids, are found in Xanthoria genus lichens. These lichens are known as lichenized fungi in the family Teloschistaceae, which grows on rock and produce bioactive compounds. A lot of secondary compounds in plants are induced by UV (100-400 nm) spectra. The present review showcases the present identified bioactive compounds in Xanthoria elegans and Xanthoria parietina lichens, which are stimulated by different amounts of UV-B light (280-320 nm), as well as the biochemistry of the UV-B absorbing compounds. Key words: UV-B, Xanthoria parietina, Xanthoria elegans, parietin, phenolic compounds, carotenoids, anthraquinone.
33145Ignatenko R.V. & Tarasova V.N. (2021): Population characteristics of cephalolichen Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm. at the northern limit of its range (Northwest Russia, Republic of Karelia). - Czech Polar Reports, 10(2) [2020]: 236–251. DOI: 10.5817/CPR2020-2-18.
The populations of Lobaria pulmonaria and their characteristics were studied at the northern limit of its range in the Republic of Karelia (Northwest Russia). The study was carried out in northernmost boreal zone on 8 permanent 100 × 100 m sample plots with last disturbance 180–270 years ago. It was found that in the north of the region, the number of substrate units on which lichen grows decreases with an increase of the time since last disturbance from 25 to 11 per ha. In the ontogenetic spectrum (excluding juvenile and immature thalli), virginal thalli prevailed. The proportion of generative thalli in forests in the mid-succession stages (mixed spruce-birch forests) was 2%, and they were absent at later stages (in preclimax spruce forests). In the studied forests, the main substrate of Lobaria pulmonaria was the trunks of living Populus tremula and Salix caprea. With an increase in the diameter and area of the trunk of Populus tremula, the number of thalli increased, and their average area decreased. An important role for Lobaria pulmonaria was played by the individual characteristics of the tree trunk, such as the height above ground, exposure, angle of inclination. The optimal conditions for the growth and development of this species were formed on the aspen trunks. Due to the collecting shape of crown and its wide radius, a large amount of precipitation flowed down the trunk during rain. Moreover, due to the wide and dense crown, the trunks were wet longer than other tree species. Comparison of the obtained data with similar studies done in the subzone of the middle taiga showed that at the limit of the range, the number of substrate units colonized by Lobaria pulmonaria and the number of thalli was smaller than in the south of Karelia. The share of generative thalli in the ontogenetic spectrum of species populations in forest communities of the north taiga subzone was 3 times smaller than in the middle taiga forests. Key words: northern taiga ecosystems, time from last disturbance, population ecology, populations, populations at range limits.
33144Marková I. (2006): Provazovka, aneb "vousáči" se vracejí. - České Švýcarsko, 5[1/2006]: 4. .
Short popular article devoted to a regionally recolonizing lichen - Usnea sp. [in Czech]
33143Voříšková L. (2002): Lišejník sírový. - České Švýcarsko, 1[1/2002]: 10–11. .
Short popular article devoted to a regionally common lichen - Chrysothrix chlorina [in Czech]
33142Marková I. (2011): Vyhynulé a nezvěstné druhy Labských pískovců (Českosaského Švýcarska). Díl 12. Větvičník žlutý (Letharia vulpina). - České Švýcarsko, 10[2/2011]: 7. .
Short popular article devoted to a regionally extinct lichen [in Czech]
33141Boitsova T.A., Brovko O.S., Ivakhnov A.D. & Zhil’tsov D.V. (2020): Optimizing supercritical fluid extraction of usnic acid from the lichen species Usnea subfloridana. - Russian Journal of Physical Chemistry, 14(7): 1135–1141. https://doi.org/10.1134/S1990793120070040.
[Original Russian Text published in Sverkhkriticheskie Flyuidy. Teoriya i Praktika, 2019, Vol. 14, No. 4, pp. 9–18.] Supercritical fluid extraction of usnic acid (UA) from the lichen species Usnea subfloridana is optimized using a rotatable second-order composite design with uniform precision. The effect that the pressure, temperature, and the process duration have on the extract yield is evaluated. The following optimal values for the extraction parameters are established based on the developed model: extraction duration, 80 min; temperature, 85°C; and pressure, 150 atm. Under these conditions, the predicted extract yield (1.19%) agrees closely with the experimental value (1.11%). The prepared extract exhibits antibacterial activity against the bacterium Escherichia coli and microorganisms of the species Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. Keywords: lichen, Usnea subfloridana, usnic acid, supercritical fluid extraction, rotatable composite design with uniform precision.
33140Rao M.R.V. & Hariprasad T.P.N. (2021): In silico analysis of a potential antidiabetic phytochemical erythrin against therapeutic targets of diabetes. - In Silico Pharmacology, 9: 5 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40203-020-00065-8.
Diabetes mellitus is a multifactorial disorder characterized by a chronic elevation in blood glucose levels. Currently, antidiabetic drugs are available to counteract the associated pathologies. Their concomitant efects necessitate the investigation for an efective and safe drug aimed to diminish blood glucose levels with fewer side efects. Several researchers are taking new initiatives to explore plant sources as they are known to contain a wide variety of active agents. Hence, the present study was undertaken to study the role of natural products using in silico interaction studies. Erythrin a compound present in lichens was selected as a potential anti-diabetic agent. Molecular docking studies were carried out with 14 target proteins to evaluate its antidiabetic potential. Molecular docking analysis resulted in favourable binding energy of interaction ranging as low as − 119.676 to − 92.9545 kcal/mol for erythrin, Analogue showed the highest interactions with 3C45 (− 119.676 kcal/mol) followed by 2Q5S (− 118.398 kcal/mol), 1XU7 (− 117.341 kcal/mol), 3K35 (− 114.267 kcal/mol). Erythrin was found to fare better than the three clinically used antidiabetic compounds, metformin, repaglinide and sitagliptin. Further, the molecular interactions between erythrin and the diabetes related target proteins was established by analysing the interactions with associated amino acids. In silico pharmacokinetics and toxicity profle of erythrin using admetSAR software predicted erythrin as non-carcinogenic and non-mutagenic. The drug-likeliness was calculated using molsoft software respecting Lipinski’s rule of fve. The compound was found to comply with Lipinksi rules violating only one flter criterion. The study suggested that erythrin could be a potential anti-diabetic agent. Keywords: admetSAR · Diabetes · Docking · Erythrin · Insilico analysis.
33139Degelius G. (1935): Das ozeanische Element der Strauch- und Laubflechtenflora von Skandinavien. - Acta Phytogeographica Suecica, 7: 1–411. .
Inaugural Dissertation; oceanic lichens; Scandinavia; Fennoscandia; distributional maps; phytogeography.
33138Thiyagaraja V., Lücking R., Ertz D., Karunarathna S.C., Wanasinghe D.N., Lumyong S. & Hyde K.D (2021): The evolution of life modes in Stictidaceae, with three novel taxa. - Journal of Fungi, 7(2): 105 [23 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7020105.
Ostropales sensu lato is a large group comprising both lichenized and non-lichenized fungi, with several lineages expressing optional lichenization where individuals of the same fungal species exhibit either saprotrophic or lichenized lifestyles depending on the substrate (bark or wood). Greatly variable phenotypic characteristics and large-scale phylogenies have led to frequent changes in the taxonomic circumscription of this order. Ostropales sensu lato is currently split into Graphidales, Gyalectales, Odontotrematales, Ostropales sensu stricto, and Thelenellales. Ostropales sensu stricto is now confined to the family Stictidaceae, which includes a large number of species that are poorly known, since they usually have small fruiting bodies that are rarely collected, and thus, their taxonomy remains partly unresolved. Here, we introduce a new genus Ostropomyces to accommodate a novel lineage related to Ostropa, which is composed of two new species, as well as a new species of Sphaeropezia, S. shangrilaensis. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses of mitochondrial small subunit spacers (mtSSU), large subunit nuclear rDNA (LSU), and internal transcribed spacers (ITS) sequence data, together with phenotypic data documented by detailed morphological and anatomical analyses, support the taxonomic affinity of the new taxa in Stictidaceae. Ancestral character state analysis did not resolve the ancestral nutritional status of Stictidaceae with confidence using Bayes traits, but a saprotrophic ancestor was indicated as most likely in a Bayesian binary Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling (MCMC) approach. Frequent switching in nutritional modes between lineages suggests that lifestyle transition played an important role in the evolution of this family. Keywords: 3 new taxa; ancestral character state analysis; asexual morph; Lecanoromycetes; Ostropomyces; sexual morph; Sphaeropezia.
33137Kaasalainen U., Tuovinen V., Kirika P.M., Mollel N.P., Hemp A. & Rikkinen J. (2021): Diversity of Leptogium (Collemataceae, Ascomycota) in East African montane ecosystems. - Microorganisms, 9: 314 [25 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9020314.
Tropical mountains and especially their forests are hot spots of biodiversity threatened by human population pressure and climate change. The diversity of lichens in tropical Africa is especially poorly known. Here we use the mtSSU and nuITS molecular markers together with morphology and ecology to assess Leptogium (Peltigerales, Ascomycota) diversity in the tropical mountains of Taita Hills and Mt. Kasigau in Kenya and Mt. Kilimanjaro in Tanzania. The sampled habitats cover a wide range of ecosystems from savanna to alpine heath vegetation and from relatively natural forests to agricultural environments and plantation forests. We demonstrate that Leptogium diversity in Africa is much higher than previously known and provide preliminary data on over 70 putative species, including nine established species previously known from the area and over 60 phylogenetically, morphologically, and/or ecologically defined Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs). Many traditional species concepts are shown to represent morphotypes comprised of several taxa. Many of the species were only found from specific ecosystems and/or restricted habitats and are thus threatened by ongoing habitat fragmentation and degradation of the natural environment. Our results emphasize the importance of molecular markers in species inventories of highly diverse organism groups and geographical areas. Keywords: biodiversity hotspot; Mount Kilimanjaro; Taita Hills; Mount Kasigau.
33136Bielczyk U., Czarnota P., Hollitzer-Zielińska D. & Śliwa L. (2020): Uzupełnienia i poprawki do listy porostów i grzybów naporostowych polskich Karpat [Additions and corrections to the checklist of Polish Carpathian lichens and lichenicolous fungi]. - Fragmenta Floristica et Geobotanica Polonica, 27(2): 323–357. https://doi.org/10.35535/ffgp-2020-0019.
[in Polish with English abstract: ] The list includes 241 taxa of lichen-forming fungi (lichens), 108 taxa of lichenicolous fungi and two lichenicolous myxomycetes about which records from the Polish Carpathians were reported after 2003, after the publication of checklists of lichens and lichenicolous fungi for the eastern and western part of this mountain range within the borders of Poland. For each species, its distribution in physiographical units is given with reference to the original bibliographic sources. It was shown that 46 species should be excluded from the list of lichens of the Polish Carpathians, due to incorrect identification, nomenclatural changes or recent taxonomic concepts. Key words: Carpathian bibliography, checklist, lichen-forming-fungi, lichenicolous fungi, lichenicolous myxomycetes, Polish Carpathians, species diversity.
33135Krzewicka B., Jędrzejczyk-Korycińska M. & Hollitzer-Zielińska D. (2020): Porosty cynkowo-ołowiowych terenów pogórniczych w Jaworznie [Lichens of zinc-lead post-mining areas in Jaworzno town]. - Fragmenta Floristica et Geobotanica Polonica, 27(2): 313–322. https://doi.org/10.35535/ffgp-2020-0018.
[in Polish with English abstract and summary: ] The paper presents the results of lichenological studies done in 2018 at three study sites in a zinc-lead postmining area in Jaworzno town, aimed at gathering data on the lichen biota of metal-enriched environments. Identified were 69 species (Tab. 1), including 47 taxa in the Ciężkowice area, 32 in Długoszyn and 38 in Sadowa Góra. Six of the species are red-listed in Poland (Cieśliński et al. 2006; Tab. 1): Staurothele hymenogonia, Thelidium decipiens, Verrucaria viridula, Xanthoria ulophyllodes classed as vulnerable (VU), Thelidium minutulum classed as near threatened (NT), and Vezdaea aestivalis (data deficient, DD). A highly diverse terricolous and epilithic lichen biota was found in this degraded and metal-contaminated environment, including species characteristic of zinc- and lead-enriched substrates (Agonimia vouauxii, Diploschistes muscorum, Sarcosagium campestre, Vezdaea aestivalis, V. leprosa). Key words: anthropogenic habitats, lichenized fungi, metal-enriched environments.
33134Cao S., Zhang F., Zheng H., Peng F., Liu C. & Zhou Q. (2018): Coccomyxa greatwallensis sp. nov. (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta), a lichen epiphytic alga from Fildes Peninsula, Antarctica. - PhytoKeys, 110: 39–50. https://doi.org/10.3897/phytokeys.110.26961.
A single-celled green alga Coccomyxa greatwallensis Shunan Cao & Qiming Zhou, sp. nov., isolated from a specimen of Antarctic lichen Psoroma hypnorum (Vahl) Gray, is described and illustrated based on a comprehensive investigation of morphology, ultrastructure, ecology and phylogeny. The cells of C. greatwallensis are ovoid to long ellipsoidal and measured 3–5 µm × 6–12 µm. The new species has distinct ITS rDNA and SSU rDNA sequences and differs from the phylogenetic closely related species C. antarctica, C. arvernensis and C. viridis in cell size, distribution and habitat. Keywords: Lichen epiphyte, Morphology, TEM, Phylogeny.
33133Galanty A., Danel T., Węgrzyn M., Podolak I. & Podolak I. (2021): Deep convolutional neural network for preliminary in-field classification of lichen species. - Biosystems Engineering, 204: 15–25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2021.01.004.
Lichens are unique organisms, valued for their pharmacological activity, but also well known as bioindicators of environmental pollution, key determinants for some natural ecological habitats, or just popular elements of decoration. High morphological similarity between lichen species makes their recognition complicated, especially under in-field conditions. Thus, there is a need for a quick and easy method that can help with the preliminary classification of selected lichen species. This paper presents a tool that can facilitate the recognition of Cladonia lichen species, based on a deep convolutional neural network, a model which has nowadays reached a classification level often comparable to humans. The network was trained and tested on twelve Cladonia species using a total of 1164 images, downloaded from various websites. The trained model achieved 60.94% accuracy, which is satisfactory for this novel, but still preliminary, automated classification of lichen species. Keywords: neural network; species recognition; lichen; Cladonia; in-field classification.
33132Daimari R., Bhuyan P., Hussain S., Nayaka S., Mazumder M.A.J. & Hoque R.R. (2021): Anatomical, physiological, and chemical alterations in lichen (Parmotrema tinctorum (Nyl.) Hale) transplants due to air pollution in two cities of Brahmaputra Valley, India. - Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 193:101 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-021-08897-3.
The lichen species Parmotrema tinctorum (Nyl.) Hale was transplanted in two cities—Tezpur (small) and Guwahati (large)—of the Brahmaputra Valley to assess the impact of air pollution on the anatomy and physiology, and accumulation of pollutants. Significant damage to the anatomy was observed in samples, and the degree of damage was found to be higher in the transplants of the larger city. In the lichen transplants from locations having high traffic density, the total chlorophyll content was found to fall; on the contrary, electrical conductivity was found to be higher. The exposed-to-control ratio showed severe accumulation of Cd in all the transplants. Elements such as Cd, Pb, and Zn were found to be enriched in all the lichen samples from both Guwahati as well as Tezpur city. Besides, Cr, Cu, K, and Ni were also realized to be enhanced to a moderate extent. The correlations of indicator metal species pairs showed that anthropogenic influence was quite clear. Keywords: Biomonitoring . Lichen . Transplant . Parmotrema tinctorum.
33131Roth E., Burgalat J., Rivière E., Zaiter M., Chakir A., Pasquet C. & Gunkel-Grillon P. (2021): Nickel spreading assessment in New Caledonia by lichen biomonitoring coupled to air mass history. - Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 28: 6058–6067. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-10873-2.
Lichen biomonitoring and air mass trajectories were used to study the influence of mining activities in the atmospheric dispersion of metallic elements to assess the exposure of the population to dust emitted by mining activities. A map of forward trajectory densities from open mine surfaces throughout New Caledonia was computed and allowed to identify three preferred wind directions (trade wind, bent trade winds and oceanic winds) that could arise in mining particles dispersion all over New Caledonia. Areas where an air quality monitoring would be advisable to evaluate the exposure of the population to the Nickel dusts have been identified. Lichens collected around the industrial mining site KNS and in North Provence of New Caledonia were analysed for their Ni, Co, Cr, Zn and Ti contents. Backward trajectories were simulated from the lichen sampling point using FLEXTRA fed with ECMWF meteorological data, and densities of trajectories having overflown a mine were calculated. Ratio metal/Ti was then plotted as a function of air mass trajectory densities having overflown open pits. A positive correlation between trajectory densities and titanium-normalized metal in lichen for Ni, Co, Cr was highlighted, indicating that mining is a source of dispersion of these metals. For Zn, which is a tracer of fossil fuel or biomass (wood) combustion activity, no correlation was found. Keywords: Lichen . Biomonitoring . Metals . Atmospheric modelling.
33130Корчиков Е.С., Цуриков А.Г. & Травкин В.П. [Korchikov E.S., Tsurykau A.G. & Travkin V.P.] (2017): Новые находки лишайников на территории национального парка «Бузулукский бор» (Самарская и Оренбургская области) [New lichen findings in the Buzuluk national park “Buzuluksky Bor” (Samara and Orenburg regions)]. - Вестник Оренбургского государственного педагогического университета [Vestnik of Orenburg State University], 22(2): 14–18. http://www.vestospu.ru.
[in Russian with English summary: ] Nine lichen species are listed in the article as new to the National Park “Buzuluksky Bor”. Exact location, substrate characteristics and phytocenosis are indicated for each specimen. So far 174 species of lichen-forming and non-lichenized fungi from 70 genera, 33 families, 11 orders and 5 classes are known in the National Park “Buzuluksky Bor”. Key words: south of European Russia, forest lichens, biodiversity.
33129Fanelli G., Coleine C., Gevi F., Onofri S., Selbmann L. & Timperio A.M. (2021): Metabolomics of dry versus reanimated Antarctic lichen-dominated endolithic communities. - Life, 11(2): 96 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/life11020096.
Cryptoendolithic communities are almost the sole life form in the ice-free areas of the Antarctic desert, encompassing among the most extreme-tolerant organisms known on Earth that still assure ecosystems functioning, regulating nutrient and biogeochemical cycles under conditions accounted as incompatible with active life. If high-throughput sequencing based studies are unravelling prokaryotic and eukaryotic diversity, they are not yet characterized in terms of stress adaptations and responses, despite their paramount ecological importance. In this study, we compared the responses of Antarctic endolithic communities, with special focus on fungi, both under dry conditions (i.e., when dormant), and after reanimation by wetting, light, and optimal temperature (15 °C). We found that several metabolites were differently expressed in reanimated opposite sun exposed communities, suggesting a critical role in their success. In particular, the saccharopine pathway was up-regulated in the north surface, while the spermine/spermidine pathway was significantly down-regulated in the shaded exposed communities. The carnitine-dependent pathway is up-regulated in south-exposed reanimated samples, indicating the preferential involvement of the B-oxidation for the functioning of TCA cycle. The role of these metabolites in the performance of the communities is discussed herein. Keywords: Antarctica; cryptoendolithic communities; untargeted metabolomics; adaptation; extremophiles; sun exposure.
33128Wicaksono W.A., Kusstatscher P., Erschen S., Reisenhofer-Graber T., Grube M., Cernava T. & Berg G. (2021): Antimicrobial-specific response from resistance gene carriers studied in a natural, highly diverse microbiome. - Microbiome, 9:29 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40168-020-00982-y.
Background: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major threat to public health. Microorganisms equipped with AMR genes are suggested to have partially emerged from natural habitats; however, this hypothesis remains inconclusive so far. To understand the consequences of the introduction of exogenic antimicrobials into natural environments, we exposed lichen thalli of Peltigera polydactylon, which represent defined, highly diverse miniature ecosystems, to clinical (colistin, tetracycline), and non-clinical (glyphosate, alkylpyrazine) antimicrobials. We studied microbiome responses by analysing DNA- and RNA-based amplicon libraries and metagenomic datasets. Results: The analyzed samples consisted of the thallus-forming fungus that is associated with cyanobacteria as well as other diverse and abundant bacterial communities (up to 108 16S rRNA gene copies ng-1 DNA) dominated by Alphaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Moreover, the natural resistome of this meta-community encompassed 728 AMR genes spanning 30 antimicrobial classes. Following 10 days of exposure to the selected antimicrobials at four different concentrations (full therapeutic dosage and a gradient of sub-therapeutic dosages), we observed statistically significant, antimicrobial-specific shifts in the structure and function but not in bacterial abundances within the microbiota. We observed a relatively lower response after the exposure to the non-clinical compared to the clinical antimicrobial compounds. Furthermore, we observed specific bacterial responders, e.g., Pseudomonas and Burkholderia to clinical antimicrobials. Interestingly, the main positive responders naturally occur in low proportions in the lichen holobiont. Moreover, metagenomic recovery of the responders’ genomes suggested that they are all naturally equipped with specific genetic repertoires that allow them to thrive and bloom when exposed to antimicrobials. Of the responders, Sphingomonas, Pseudomonas, and Methylobacterium showed the highest potential. Conclusions: Antimicrobial exposure resulted in a microbial dysbiosis due to a bloom of naturally low abundant taxa (positive responders) with specific AMR features. Overall, this study provides mechanistic insights into community-level responses of a native microbiota to antimicrobials and suggests novel strategies for AMR prediction and management. Keywords: Lichen microbiota, Peltigera polydactylon, Antimicrobial resistance, Metagenomic mining, Genome recovery.
33127Lauriault P. & Wiersma Y. (2020): Substratum dynamics over time could influence the rarity of tree-dwelling cyanolichens. - Lichenologist, 52(6): 455–458. doi:10.1017/S0024282920000493.
There are challenges in reconciling tree and lichen lifespans with a snapshot study such as this. The time when the lichen colonized the host tree is unknown. Lichen colonization could occur later in the life of the host tree, regardless of condition. The effect of col- onization timing is not possible to isolate from the present study and it adds significant noise to the data. Also, the known lifespan of boreal felt lichens in the wild is currently not well understood. If they are shorter-lived than we expect, they might die off before the tree is dead, which would also confound the results. We sug- gest that using thallus size as a proxy for time spent on the tree is not an adequate alternative for long-term monitoring of lichens. Our exploratory results may suggest that the substratum qual- ity of balsam fir declines with declining tree health. If we were to use tree health as a proxy for age, and assume that its quality as a substratum remained constant, we could expect that less healthy host trees would be more abundant than healthier host trees. We found a clear pattern that the number of host trees in each health category decreases (Fig. 2B). This might indicate that bal- sam fir in poorer health are also less suitable as a substratum for the boreal felt lichen, even if less healthy trees existed longer for the lichen to colonize. However, with the current sampling design we cannot verify this hypothesis. A more detailed measure of internal tree health and tree age, with proper representation across all health and age classes, as it relates to the ability to host sensi- tive lichens, could lead to more informed conclusions. The detectability of this lichen across tree condition classes is quite similar, and we used a survey method that has been demonstrated to minimize missed detections within the plot boundaries (Lauriault & Wiersma 2019). Knowing the minimum tree age at which lichens can colonize would be useful but would require careful and frequent monitoring of young trees to detect when a lichen appears. However, we did not find the boreal felt lichen on trees less than 5 cm DBH, suggesting that this lichen can- not colonize trees until they reach a certain age. Another study suc- cessfully aged host trees and found that the number of thalli per tree peaked on 80-year-old trees (Tagirdzhanova et al. 2019), which is beyond the maximum average age of balsam fir in our study region. The patterns between boreal felt lichen host tree age, size and con- dition in these wetter areas is not well known. We have included data from Wigle et al. (2020) in the Supplementary Material (avail- able online) from upland balsam fir trees (which were not hosts for the boreal felt lichen) in the same region to illustrate the difficulties of relating tree size, age and health.
33126Ertz D., Huereca A., Salcedo-Martínez S. & Tehler A. (2020): Remarkable cases of parallel evolution of the placodioid thallus growth form in the Lecanographaceae (Arthoniales) with the description of a new species of Alyxoria from Mexico. - Lichenologist, 52(6): 415-424. doi:10.1017/S0024282920000444.
The new species Alyxoria sierramadrensis is described from Mexico where it inhabits limestone rocks. The lichen developing from this fungus is characterized by a placodioid to subfoliose thallus with a white pruinose surface; rounded to shortly elongated ascomata with a black epruinose margin and a widely exposed, white pruinose hymenial disc; hyaline, 3-septate ascospores, 17–25 × 7–9 μm; the presence of anthraquinones rendering the medulla orange. Phylogenetic analyses of nuLSU, mtSSU and RPB2 sequences place this species in the genus Alyxoria (Lecanographaceae). This generic affiliation is surprising because all known Alyxoria species have a crustose thallus. Lecanographaceae mainly includes species without a thallus (lichenicolous taxa) or with a thin crustose thallus, the only exception being Simonyella variegata with a fruticose thallus. The new species belongs to the Alyxoria ochrocheila subgroup, which includes lichens also frequently known to have anthraquinones, white pruinose hymenial discs and 3-septate ascospores. Phylogenetic analyses further determined the systematic position of the monotypic genus Phoebus. This genus, considered as an Arthoniales of uncertain family affiliation, is shown to belong to the Lecanographaceae. With its placodioid thallus, it is another example of a lichenized fungus with a deviating morphology in thallus structure for the family, increasing the number of remarkable cases of parallel evolution of lichen growth forms within the Arthoniales. Phoebus hydrophobius is newly recorded for Mexico. anthraquinone, biodiversity, lichen, North America, phylogeny, taxonomy
33125Tuovila H. & Huhtinen S. (2020): New methods for mycocalicioid fungi. - Lichenologist, 52(6): 403-413. doi:10.1017/S0024282920000481.
The identification of mycocalicioid species continues to be based on morphological and chemical characters, even though molecular data and substratum preferences can provide many important insights into specific problems associated with species delimitation and other taxo- nomic challenges. Our results reinforce the usefulness of many morphological and chemical characteristics and reveal several new features that can be used for both species delimitation and identification. Given the fact that mycocalicioid species can rarely be distinguished by just a single character, combinations of different chemical and morphological characteristics must be used. Additional characteristics must also be sought, including those that have previously been overlooked or still need to be discovered. As a result of this search, we introduce a new term, pseudohemiamyloid, for a reversible, KOH resistant/enhanced reaction in Lugol\’s solution. Chaenothecopsis, methodology, morphology, Mycocaliciales, Mycocalicium, Phaeocalicium, pseudohemiamyloid
33124Orange A. (2020): Lithocalla (Ascomycota, Lecanorales), a new genus of leprose lichens containing usnic acid. - Lichenologist, 52(6): 425-435. doi:10.1017/S0024282920000419.
The identity of Lecanora ecorticata has been uncertain due to conflicting reports of the presence of zeorin and the loss of the holotype. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the species probably belongs in Ramalinaceae, where it is the first leprose species reported. Zeorin was found to be absent in recently collected material of L. ecorticata, including specimens from the type locality, and the report of zeorin in the lost holotype is considered to be due to contamination. A new genus, Lithocalla, is erected to accommodate L. ecorticata and a second closely related species, that occurs in the Falkland Islands, is newly combined as Lithocalla malouina. A lectotype is selected for L. ecorticata. Lithocalla is characterized by a leprose thallus containing usnic acid with fatty acids and terpenoids, but no zeorin; ascomata and conidiomata are unknown. Falkland Islands, Norway, sterile crusts, usnic acid
33123Zhurbenko M. & Ohmura Y. (2020): Contributions to the knowledge of lichenicolous fungi growing on baeomycetoid lichens and Icmadophila, with a key to the species. - Lichenologist, 52(6): 437-453. doi:10.1017/S002428292000047X.
Five species of lichenicolous fungi are described as new to science: Buelliella ohmurae Zhurb. & Diederich (on Icmadophila), with a non- granulose epihymenium, not or only slightly enlarged, pale brown apical cells of paraphysoids and 1-septate, smooth ascospores; Catillaria japonica Zhurb. & Hafellner (on Dibaeis and Pseudobaeomyces), with a medium to dark reddish brown epihymenium, exciple and hypothe- cium, rather frequently branched and anastomosed paraphyses with only slightly enlarged apical cells without a dark cap, and Catillaria- type asci; Cryptodiscus ihlenii Zhurb. (on Dibaeis), with persistently immersed ascomata, non-amyloid asci and hymenium, not or only slightly enlarged apical cells of paraphyses and narrowly obovate, 1-septate ascospores; Llimoniella chilensis Zhurb. (on Dibaeis and a sterile microsquamulose lichen), with a K+ green exciple and epihymenium and aseptate, broadly ellipsoid ascospores; and Stigmidium phyllobaei- dis Zhurb., Etayo & Flakus (on apothecial discs of Phyllobaeis), with a hemiamyloid interascal gel, not previously reported in that genus, well-developed, 1‒2(‒4)-celled periphysoids, elongate asci and hyaline, 1-septate ascospores. An undescribed species of Arthonia (on Pseudobaeomyces) is briefly characterized. Sphaerellothecium coniodes is newly reported for Asia. A key to the 32 species of lichenicolous fungi and lichens known to occur on baeomycetoid lichens and Icmadophila is provided. Buelliella, Catillaria, Cryptodiscus, Llimoniella, new species, Stigmidium
33122Crespo A., Rico V., Garrido E., Lumbsch H. & Divakar P. (2020): A revision of species of the Parmelia saxatilis complex in the Iberian Peninsula with the description of P. rojoi, a new potentially relict species — CORRIGENDUM. - Lichenologist, 52(6): 459-459. doi:10.1017/S0024282920000572.
In the Abstract, a statement referring to the newly described spe- cies P. rojoi A. Crespo, V. J. Rico & Divakar, by Crespo et al. (2020), reads ...and is restricted to higher altitudes of northern and central Spain. This should be corrected to read ‘and is restricted to mild, warm and low altitude localities in the south of the Iberian Peninsula (Spain: Cádiz and Málaga). The complete sentence should therefore read: The new species, which forms a sister-group relationship with P. saxatilis s. str., is rare in the Iberian Peninsula and is restricted to mild, warm and low altitude localities in the south of the Iberian Peninsula (Spain: Cádiz and Málaga)
33121Richter T. (2018): [Selten gezeigte Pilze] Paranectria oropensis (Ces. ex Rabenh.) D. Hawksw. & Piroz.. - Boletus, 39(1): 38. .
lichenicolous fungi; photodocumentation
33120Malíček J. (2020): Lišejníky NPR Kohoutov na Křivoklátsku [Lichens of the Kohoutov National Nature Reserve in the Křivoklát region]. - Bryonora, 66: 25–33. https://botanospol.cz/sites/default/files/2021-01/BRYONORA_66_03.pdf.
The old-growth beech forest with fragments of scree forests in the protected area Kohoutov (28.8 ha) is among to the most valuable woodlands in the central part of Bohemia. The locality is dominated by beech; maple trees, limes, oaks and several other trees are intermixed. According to historical sources, Kohoutov is characterized by a long-lasting absence of forest management. However, the forest’s continuity was strongly influenced by the production of charcoal in the past. Despite relatively dry climate conditions and substrate acidification during the second half of the 20th century, it harbours numerous, mainly crustose epiphytic and epixylic lichens. Local diversity hot-spots are situated in scree and well-lit forests, especially in the upper part of the reserve. A total of 153 lichens and six non-lichenized fungi were recorded. A major part of lichens was recorded on trees (104), especially on maples (62), beeches (53) and oaks (42). Lignicolous lichen communities with 55 recorded species were species-rich as well. Saxicolous species were represented by 38 taxa. The great importance of the locality for nature protection is underlined by the presence of numerous calicioid lichens and fungi. Arthonia ruana, Bacidia circumspecta, B. rosella, B. vermifera, Bacidina phacodes, Calicium adspersum, Catinaria atropurpurea, Fuscidea recensa, Gyalecta flotowii, Multiclavula mucida and Pertusaria flavida represent the most remarkable species. Keywords: Lichens of the Kohoutov National Nature Reserve in the Křivoklát region.
33119Schoebel C.N., Brodbeck S., Buehler D., Cornejo C., Gajurel J., Hartikainen H., Keller D., Leys M., Říčanová Š., Segelbacher G., Werth S. & Csencsics D. (2013): Lessons learned from microsatellite development for nonmodel organisms using 454 pyrosequencing. - Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 26: 600–611. https://doi.org/10.1111/jeb.12077.
Microsatellites, also known as simple sequence repeats (SSRs), are among the most commonly used marker types in evolutionary and ecological studies. Next Generation Sequencing techniques such as 454 pyrosequencing allow the rapid development of microsatellite markers in nonmodel organisms. 454 pyrosequencing is a straightforward approach to develop a high number of microsatellite markers. Therefore, developing microsatellites using 454 pyrosequencing has become the method of choice for marker development. Here, we describe a user friendly way of microsatellite development from 454 pyrosequencing data and analyse data sets of 17 nonmodel species (plants, fungi, invertebrates, birds and a mammal) for microsatellite repeats and flanking regions suitable for primer development. We then compare the numbers of successfully lab-tested microsatellite markers for the various species and furthermore describe diverse challenges that might arise in different study species, for example, large genome size or nonpure extraction of genomic DNA. Successful primer identification was feasible for all species. We found that in species for which large repeat numbers are uncommon, such as fungi, polymorphic markers can nevertheless be developed from 454 pyrosequencing reads containing small repeat numbers (five to six repeats). Furthermore, the development of microsatellite markers for species with large genomes was also with Next Generation Sequencing techniques more cost and time-consuming than for species with smaller genomes. In this study, we showed that depending on the species, a different amount of 454 pyrosequencing data might be required for successful identification of a sufficient number of microsatellite markers for ecological genetic studies. Keywords: comparative studies; conservation genetics; massively parallel sequencing; next generation sequencing technology; population genetics; shotgun sequencing. Among else, 16 microsatellites were tested for mycobiont of Lobaria pulmonaria with total reads of 181 541. 14 microsatellites succesfully amplified, each of them unique.
33118Burgaz A.R., Gutiérrez-Larruga B., Rodríguez-Arribas C. & Pino-Bodas R. (2020): The genus Cladonia from Greece. - Herzogia, 33: 340–376. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.33.2.2020.340.
A study of the Cladoniaceae has been carried out in Greece, based on collections from 223 different localities. Thirty four Cladonia species were found, seven of which are new records to Greece, Cladonia conista, C. corsicana, C. digitata, C. macrophyllodes, C. peziziformis, C. polycarpoides and C. subturgida. As a result of this study the total number of Greek Cladonia species rises to 43. The currently known distribution ranges in Greece as well as information about the chemical variability of most of the species are provided. A key to all the Cladonia taxa known from Greece is included. Key words: lichenized Ascomycota, biodiversity, biogeography, Greek mycota, Mediterranean region, secondary metabolites.
33117Stordeur R., Breuss O., Eckstein J., Grünberg H., Kison H.-U., Schiefelbein U., Schultz M. & Thüs H. (2020): Beiträge zur Flechtenflora Sachsen-Anhalts und Thüringens. - Herzogia, 33: 377–393. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.33.2.2020.377.
First records, rediscoveries and additional localities of 32 rare or remarkable taxa from Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia are presented. Twenty-two taxa are new to Saxony-Anhalt. These include the lichenized fungi Acarospora oligospora, Bacidina adastra, Botryolepraria lesdainii, Cladonia cryptochlorophaea, Cryptodiscus gloeocapsa, Epigloea grummannii, Lathagrium undulatum, Pertusaria albescens var. corallina, Scytinium pulvinatum, Thelidium pluvium, Verrucaria memnonia, and Verrucaria fusca auct. (non Pers.). Further new taxa for Saxony-Anhalt are the lichenicolous species Intralichen lichenicola, Lichenochora obscuroides, Minutoexcipula tephromelae, Phaeospora parasitica, Stigmidium psorae, and S. rivulorum and the saprophytic fungi Leptosillia macrospora and Thelocarpon saxicola. Verrucaria pilosoides is new to Germany; based on ITS-data, it is part of the V. muralis group. Fuscidea mollis was considered possibly extinct in Germany, but a new locality was recorded in the Bode Valley. The new record is simultaneously the first confirmed report from Saxony-Anhalt for this species. The following species have not been recorded in Saxony-Anhalt for 60 to 180 years, but could be confirmed based on recent collections: Arthonia dispersa, Bacidia subincompta, Lempholemma polyanthes, Opegrapha rupestris, Polyblastia albida, Pyrrhospora quernea, and Verrucaria margacea. New records (since 2001) of Eiglera flavida and additional localities for the recently reported Scoliosporum gallurae are listed for the studied areas. Key words: First records, noteworthy lichens, lichen diversity, lichenicolous fungi, saprophytic fungi, chemistry, microcrystal tests, molecular analyses, Harz Mountains, Germany.
33116Knudsen K. & Kocourková J. (2020): Acarosporaceae of Belarus. - Herzogia, 33: 394–406. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.33.2.2020.394.
Fourteen species of Acarosporaceae are reported for Belarus in the genera Acarospora, Caeruleum, Myriospora, and Sarcogyne. The species Acarospora admissa and Acarospora intermedia are revised. Acarospora discreta and A. durietzii are treated as synonyms of A. admissa. Lectotypes are designated for A. admissa and Parmelia squamulosa var. discreta. Acarospora admissa is reported as new from Belarus, Germany, Italy, Lithuania, and Poland. Acarospora intermedia is reported as new from Belarus, Czech Republic, Italy, and the Russian Federation. Acarospora sibirica is reported as new to Europe and not recognized as a synonym of A. impressula. Sarcogyne hypophaeoides is reported new for North America (Ontario, Canada) and for Belarus, France, and Italy.
33115Guttová A., Valachovič M., Tzonev R., Ganeva A., Shivarov V.V. & Fačkovcová Z. (2020): Lichens recorded in chasmophytic communities associated with relict and endemic plant species in Bulgaria. - Herzogia, 33: 407–419. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.33.2.2020.407.
The mid-altitudes of Bulgaria comprise a wide range of sparsely vegetated ecosystems, including rock cliffs and outcrops. They host chasmophytic communities supporting different range-restricted or rare plants. Sampling vegetation relevés, we recorded the present lichen biota. Here we report on the occurrence of 143 lichen species. Out of them, we shortly comment on noteworthy species, specifically those which have not been reported from Bulgaria so far – Acarospora moenium, A. oligospora, Agonimia globulifera, A. opuntiella, Anema tumidulum, Fuscopannaria mediterranea, Lempholemma chalazanum, Leptogium brebissonii agg., Lichinella cribellifera, Psora vallesiaca, Pyrenopsis grumulifera, Scytinium aragonii, S. schraderi, Thelopsis lojkana, and Thalloidima tauricum. Key words: Balkan peninusula, biodiversity, Habitat 8210, Habitat 8220, NATURA 2000.
33114van den Boom P.P.G., Elix J.A. & Giralt M. (2020): Lichen diversity of crustose Caliciaceae and Physciaceae from Alentejo, the Azores and Madeira (Portugal) including the new Amandinea madeirensis. - Herzogia, 33: 420–431. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.33.2.2020.420.
Examination of crustose Caliciaceae and Physciaceae from Portugal (Alentejo, Madeira and the Azores) revealed the new corticolous species, Amandinea madeirensis, characterized by 16-spored asci and small Physconia-type ascospores. The new species is compared with the other known corticolous species of Buellia s. lat. with polyspored asci and a key to these species is provided. Additional information is given for a further 49 species, of which Amandinea polyspora, Rinodina teichophila and the lichenicolous fungus Wernerella maheui are new records for Portugal. The following are new records for the regions studied: Buellia mediterranea and B. caloplacivora are new to the Azores, Buellia uberiuscula and Rinodina guzzinii are new to Madeira, while most records from Alentejo are new for the province. An additional record of the rare species Buellia indissimilis, hitherto known only from two localities (including the type) in northern Portugal, is included. Key words: Buellia, Rinodina, polyspored asci, Wernerella, lichens of Atlantic archipeligos.
33113Oran S. (2020): Additions to the lichen biota of the Kaz Mountains (Çanakkale-Balıkesir, Turkey). - Herzogia, 33: 432–446. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.33.2.2020.432.
In the present paper, 195 lichen taxa and one lichenicolous fungus are reported from the Kaz Mountains. Rhizocarpon jemtlandicum and Rinodina moziana are new to Turkey. Key words: Kazdağı, lichen flora, Mediterranean lichens.
33112Xie C.-M., Ren Z.-J., Wang C.-X. & Zhang L.-L. (2020): Four species of Fuscidea new to China. - Herzogia, 33: 447–454. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.33.2.2020.447.
Fuscidea asbolodes, F. elixii and F. scrupulosa are reported for the first time in Asia and F. recensa var. arcuatula is new to China. Detailed taxonomic descriptions with illustrations as well as a key to all known Chinese Fuscidea species are provided. Key words: Taxonomy, lichen-forming fungi, Fuscideaceae.
33111Yakovchenko L., Davydov E.A., Paukov A., Konoreva L., Chesnokov S. & Ohmura Y. (2020): New records of arctic-alpine lichens from the Russian Far East. - Herzogia, 33: 455–472. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.33.2.2020.455.
New localities are given for 19 lichen species from the Russian Far East. Aspicilia asteria and A. umbrinella are reported for Russia for the first time. Buellia lacteoidea, B. ocellata, Dermatocarpon polyphyllizum, Lecanora reagens, and Miriquidica pycnocarpa are newly reported for the Russian Far East. Buellia lacteoidea is reported for the second time from Eurasia and Russia. Lecanora argentea, Lecidea promiscua, Miriquidica leucophaea, Placopsis cribellans, Rhizocarpon saanaёnse and Rimularia badioatra are recorded for the first time for the southern Far East. Rhizocarpon polycarpum is a new species for Primorye Territory, and Acarospora veronensis and Rimularia limborina are new for Sakhalin. Lecanora gangaleoides, Umbilicaria hyperborea, and U. herrei are confirmed for Sakhalin. Characteristic features of the species, including those that distinguish them from their closest relatives, and species’ distribution and ranges are described. Aspicilia pseudovulcanica S.Y.Kondr. et al. is synonymized with A. asteria Hue, and A. submamillata S.Y.Kondr. et al. is synonymized with A. umbrinella Hue.
33110Berger F., Zimmermann E. & von Brackel W. (2020): Species of Pronectria (Bionectriaceae) and Xenonectriella (Nectriaceae) growing on foliose Physciaceae, with a key of the European species. - Herzogia, 33: 473–493. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.33.2.2020.473.
Confusion about the identity of Xenonectriella leptaleae (J.Steiner) Rossman & Lowen led us to revise Central European material of the hypocrealean genera Pronectria and Xenonectriella growing on foliose Physciaceae to clarify the taxonomy. Consequently, we reinstate Pronectria leptaleae and describe Pronectria etayoi, Xenonectriella physciacearum and X. zimmermanni as new species. The new combination Xenonectriella angulospora is proposed. A key to the species of the genera Pronectria and Xenonectriella growing on Physciaceae in Europe is provided. Key words: Hypocreales, Anaptychia, Phaeophyscia, Physcia, Physconia, Heterodermia, lichenicolous fungi, new species.
33109Hafellner J. & Mayrhofer H. (2020): Noteworthy records of lichenicolous fungi from various countries on the Balkan Peninsula. II. - Herzogia, 33: 494–511. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.33.2.2020.494.
A total of 42 taxa of lichenicolous fungi – most of them non-lichenized, a few lichenized – are recorded from various countries in southeastern Europe. Of these, 22 species (Clypeococcum cetrariae, Didymocyrtis pseudeverniae, Illosporiopsis christiansenii, Lecanora lecanoricola, Lecanora printzenii, Lichenoconium erodens, Lichenoconium reichlingii, Lichenostigma alpinum, Merismatium decolorans, Niesslia cladoniicola, Paralecia pratorum, Phaeospora peltigericola, “Phoma” lobariae, “Phoma” lobariicola, Raesaenenia huuskonenii, Stigmidium schaereri, Stigmidium stygnospilum, Taeniolella phaeophysciae, Taeniolella thelotrematis, Talpapellis beschiana, Trichonectria rubefaciens, and Zwackhiomyces lecanorae) are reported for the first time from the Balkan Peninsula. A further 20 taxa previously known from the Balkan are added to the mycofloras of additional Balkan countries. The new records for individual countries are: Muellerella erratica and Lichenoconium reichlingii for Albania; Didymocyrtis cladoniicola, Lichenoconium erodens, Lichenostigma maureri and Taeniolella phaeophysciae for Bosnia and Herzegovina; Stigmidium gyrophorarum, Taeniolella phaeophysciae, and Xanthoriicola physciae for Bulgaria; “Phoma” lobariae and Taeniolella thelotrematis for Croatia; Didymocyrtis cladoniicola, Lichenoconium erodens, Merismatium decolorans, “Phoma” lobariicola, Talpapellis beschiana, Telogalla olivieri, and Zwackhiomyces lecanorae for Greece; Didymocyrtis pseudeverniae, Endococcus propinquus, Lecanora lecanoricola, Lichenoconium erodens, and Lichenosticta alcicornaria for Kosovo; Telogalla olivieri for North Macedonia; Arthonia molendoi, Arthonia varians, Buellia uberior, Clypeococcum cetrariae, Endococcus propinquus, Endohyalina insularis, Heterocephalacria physciacearum, Illosporiopsis christiansenii, Lecanora printzenii, Lichenochora weillii, Lichenoconium erodens, Lichenoconium usneae, Lichenostigma alpinum, Lichenostigma chlaroterae, Muellerella pygmaea var. athallina, Niesslia cladoniicola, Paralecia pratorum, Phaeospora peltigericola, “Phoma” lobariae, Raesaenenia huuskonenii, Stigmidium schaereri, Stigmidium squamariae, Stigmidium stygnospilum, Taeniolella phaeophysciae, Talpapellis beschiana, Thelocarpon epibolum, Toninia plumbina, and Trichonectria rubefaciens for Montenegro. Key words: Ascomycetes, basidiomycetes, biodiversity, mycoflora, southeastern Europe; Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Kosovo, North Macedonia, Montenegro.
33108Zhurbenko M.P., Stepanchikova I.S. & Himelbrant D.E. (2020): New species and new records of lichenicolous fungi from the Kamchatka Territory of Russia. - Herzogia, 33: 512–524. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.33.2.2020.512.
Arthonia epiparmelia Zhurb. (on Parmelia sulcata), A. lecideicola Zhurb. & Stepanchikova (on Lecidea erythrophaea), Feltgeniomyces lecanorae Zhurb. (on Lecanora chlarotera s. lat.) and Merismatium lobariae Zhurb. (on Lobaria pulmonaria and L. scrobiculata) are described as new to science from the northern Holarctic. Abrothallus eriodermae, Lichenochora galligena and Xenonectriella streimannii s. lat. are newly reported for Asia and Russia. Keywords: lichen parasites, taxonomy, northern Asia Pacific, Alaska, Arthonia, Feltgeniomyces, Merismatium.
33107Zhurbenko M.P., Diederich P. & Gagarina L.V. (2020): Lichenicolous fungi from Vietnam, with the description of four new species. - Herzogia, 33: 525–543. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.33.2.2020.525.
Twenty six species of lichenicolous fungi are reported from Vietnam. Arthophacopsis heterodermiae (on Heterodermia; also known from Australia), Diplolaeviopsis vietnamensis (on Bathelium), Minutoexcipula kovalenkoi (on Lecanora) and Sclerococcum pseudosipmanii (on Parmotrema) are described as new to science. Cladophialophora cf. megalosporae and Microsphaeropsis cf. olivacea possibly represent undescribed species and are informally described and discussed. Lawreya glyphidiphila, Milospium lacoizquetae, Spirographa arsenii (also new to Papua New Guinea and the U.S.A.), S. intermedia s. lat. and S. pyramidalis are newly reported for Asia; Stigmidium microspilum is newly reported for South America (Brazil) and Hong Kong. Another 15 species are newly documented from Vietnam, including Opegrapha physciae, which is also new to Cape Verde, Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico. Key words: lichen parasites, taxonomy, biodiversity, biogeography, South-East Asia.
33106Gasparyan A. & Sipman H.J.M. (2020): The first record of Lobaria pulmonaria from Armenia. - Herzogia, 33: 554–558. https://doi.org/10.13158/heia.33.2.2020.554.
Lobaria pulmonaria is reported for the first time from Armenia. A single specimen was found on an old Oriental Beech tree in Fagus orientalis - Carpinus forest in the Dilijan National Park. Details of the habitat are given, and potential threats discussed. Key words: Ascomycota, Lobariaceae, tree lungwort, lichens, biodiversity, conservation, South Caucasus.
33105Hudson D.T., Markle C.E., Harris L.I., Moore P.A. & Waddington J.M. (2021): Ecohydrological controls on lichen and moss CO2 exchange in rock barrens turtle nesting habitat. - Ecohydrology, 14: e2255 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1002/eco.2255.
Lichens and mosses are among the first organisms to colonize the open bedrock of eastern Georgian Bay, Ontario making them essential for primary soil formation and ecosystem succession, while also providing nesting habitat for turtle species-at-risk. However, the slow growing nature of lichen and moss makes them vulnerable to ecohydrological stresses caused by climate and land-use change. In order to better understand how lichen and moss will respond to stressors, we examined which ecohydrological factors (e.g., near-surface soil moisture and temperature) control the CO2 exchange of lichen (Cladonia spp.) and moss (Polytrichum spp.) on rock barrens, and the time of year growth primarily occurs. Net ecosystem productivity (NEP) was significantly greater in the wet period of the growing season than the dry, with an estimated difference of 0.7 μmol m−2 s−1 for lichen, 2.9 μmol m−2 s−1 for moss, and 2.5 μmol m−2 s−1 for a moss and lichen mix. These findings indicate that the wet portions of the growing season are critical for growth, while lichen and moss have little to no productivity during the dry period. Our results indicate that near-surface soil moisture is an indicator of the CO2 exchange of lichen and moss, and this relationship varies among cover types. For the geographical regions where warm, dry conditions are expected to increase in duration and frequency with climate change, lichen and moss NEP will likely decrease, thus limiting the long-term availability of nesting habitat for turtle species-at-risk. Keywords: Cladonia, Polytrichum, productivity, rock barrens, soil moisture, turtle habitat, turtle nesting.
33104Haeler E., Bergamini A., Blaser S., Ginzler C., Hindenlang K., Keller C., Kiebacher T., Kormann U.G., Scheidegger C., Schmidt R., Stillhard J., Szallies A., Pellissier L. & Lachat T. (2021): Saproxylic species are linked to the amount and isolation of dead wood across spatial scales in a beech forest. - Landscape Ecology, 36: 89–104. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-020-01115-4.
Context Dead wood is a key habitat for saproxylic species, which are often used as indicators of habitat quality in forests. Understanding how the amount and spatial distribution of dead wood in the landscape affects saproxylic communities is therefore important for maintaining high forest biodiversity. Objectives We investigated effects of the amount and isolation of dead wood on the alpha and beta diversity of four saproxylic species groups, with a focus on how the spatial scale influences results. Methods We inventoried saproxylic beetles, woodinhabiting fungi, and epixylic bryophytes and lichens on 62 plots in the Sihlwald forest reserve in Switzerland. We used GLMs to relate plot-level species richness to dead wood amount and isolation on spatial scales of 20–200 m radius. Further, we used GDMs to determine how dead wood amount and isolation affected beta diversity. Results A larger amount of dead wood increased beetle richness on all spatial scales, while isolation had no effect. For fungi, bryophytes and lichens this was only true on small spatial scales. On larger scales of our study, dead wood amount had no effect, while greater isolation decreased species richness. Further, we found no strong consistent patterns explaining beta diversity.
33103Vosel Y., Belyanin D., Melgunov M., Vosel S., Mezina Ks., Kropacheva M., Zhurkova I. & Shcherbov B. (2021): Accumulation of natural radionuclides (7Be, 210Pb) and micro-elements in mosses, lichens and cedar and larch needles in the Arctic Western Siberia. - Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 28: 2880–2892. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-10615-4.
This is a study of the atmospheric-origin natural radionuclides (7Be and 210Pb) and a wide range of micro- and macro-element accumulation in mosses, lichens, cedar and larch needles in Arctic western Siberia (Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District). Based on the specific activities measurements of atmospheric precipitation markers (7Be and 210Pb), this study found that the concentration of dust particles in the studied objects incrementally increases in the following order, from lowest concentration to highest: cedar needles, larch needles, lichens and mosses. Concentrations of Zr, Hf, Ti, Th, Fe, V, Li, Na, Si, Be, Y, rare earth elements (REE) and Sc in this area also increase in the same ascending sequence. Enrichment factors of these elements (EF) relative to the North American Shale Composite (NASC) are close to unity, which proves their terrigenous origin. Also, the terrigenous origin of the elements in the studied biological objects is confirmed by their high correlation coefficients with Sc. This means that their concentration in the studied biological objects is the result of a background of solid atmospheric precipitation. Enrichment factors of biogenic elements and their analogues (P, Se, Mn, Mg, Ca, K, Zn, Sr, Ba, Rb, Cs) are significantly greater than unity, and this is associated with high concentrations of these elements in the biological part of the samples. A radially symmetric distribution of Pb content in biological objects is observed over the surface of the studied area (with a center located within the city of Novy Urengoy). This leads to the conclusion that there is a point source around which anthropogenic precipitation of Pb takes place. This distribution is most clearly manifested by the example of larch and cedar needles. Anthropogenic deposition of other elements has not been detected in this study area.
33102Holt E.A. & Nelson P.R. (2021): Climatic, vegetative, and disturbance predictors of lichen species’ height in Arctic Alaska, USA. - Polar Biology, 44: 133–145. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00300-020-02784-2.
Lichens cover approximately 8% of land surface, primarily in alpine and polar habitats. Lichen biomass is often correlated with cover and thallus height, but quick and efective methods of lichen biomass estimation have not been tested across large areas. We utilize a dataset of over 7800 height measurements made throughout the Arctic Network of National Parks in the US to model mat-forming macrolichen height by species as a function of morphological, climatic, and habitat factors. Our goal was to understand how lichen height, as proxy for biomass, varied by species in diferent areas, and determine which factors best predict lichen height. We found that the single best predictor of lichen height was surface downwelling shortwave radiation. Climatic, vegetative, and other physiographic variables were moderate predictors of lichen height. We determined that diferences in height observed between species were not explained by the degree of branching nor thallus width. Our fndings highlight that the key factors predicting lichen height may not be easy to mitigate through management (e.g., radiation, vapor pressure defcit, length of growing season), yet may be altered in future climate change scenarios. Further, rapid height feld measurements, like those used in our study, could improve our understanding of the drivers of lichen biomass, underscore its variability across species, and could be used for other applications. Accurate biomass measurements are necessary for landscape-scale monitoring and predictions of future lichen biomass in the face of climate perturbations. Keywords Lichen height · Biomass · Alaska · Radiation · Morphology · Grazing.
33101Abas A., Mazlan S.M., Latif M.T., Aiyub K., Muhammad N. & Nadzir M.S.M. (2021): Lichens reveal the quality of indoor air in Selangor, Malaysia. - Ecological Processes, 10: 3 [8 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13717-020-00274-1.
Background: Indoor air quality (IAQ) is a concern in kindergartens as children spend much of their time there. Yet, there is a shortage of biological indicators needed for assessing IAQ. Thus, this study evaluated IAQ using transplanted lichen Usnea misaminensis as a biological indicator. Methods: Lichen samples, collected from Bukit Larut, Perak, Malaysia, were exposed to indoor and outdoor environments in an urban area (Ummi Aiman Kindergarten) and a rural area (Ummi Qaseh Pelangi Kindergarten) for 2 months during August 15 to October 14, 2019. The concentrations of 12 selected elements and the vitality of the lichens were then evaluated. Results: Increased concentrations of eleven of the twelve elements deposited in the lichen samples in both urban and rural areas were observed. For both areas, the element concentrations in the samples from the indoor environment was lower than those from the outdoor environment, and those in the rural area were lower than those from in the urban area, suggesting the impacts of traffic emissions. The vitality of the lichens showed no significant change in indoor environment, compared to that in outdoor environment, indicating that even exposed to indoor environment, the lichens remained effective biological indicators as same as they were in the outdoor environment. Conclusions: Lichens are effective biological indicators for both outdoor and indoor environments. Furthermore, outdoor emissions could influence IAQ, which could be problematic in densely populated areas such as kindergartens. Mitigation measures should be taken. Keywords: Biological indicator, Transplanting technique, Indoor environment, Trace element, Usnea misaminensis.
33100Savilaakso S., Johansson A., Häkkilä M., Uusitalo A., Sandgren T., Mönkkönen M. & Puttonen P. (2021): What are the efects of even-aged and uneven-aged forest management on boreal forest biodiversity in Fennoscandia and European Russia? A systematic review. - Environmental Evidence, 10: 1 [38 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13750-020-00215-7.
Background: Forest harvesting changes forest habitat and impacts forest dependent species. Uneven-aged management is often considered better for biodiversity than even-aged management, but there is an ongoing discourse over the benefts and disadvantages of diferent silvicultural systems. This systematic review contributes to the public discussion and provides evidence for policy making by synthesising current evidence on impacts of even-aged and uneven-aged forest management on biodiversity in boreal forests of Fennoscandia and European Russia. In this review even-aged and uneven-aged forest management are compared directly to each other as well as to natural forest to provide a broad basis for public discussion. Methods: Both peer-reviewed and grey literature were searched in bibliographical databases, organizational webpages and internet search engines in English, Finnish, Swedish and Russian. Articles were screened for relevance by their title/abstract and again by full text. The inclusion of studies was assessed against pre-defned criteria published in an a priori protocol. A narrative synthesis and meta-analysis were conducted to describe the evidence base and to compare species richness and abundance between diferently managed forests. The infuence of habitat specialism, taxon, years since harvesting, deadwood availability and harvesting intensity on species richness and abundance were also tested. Review fndings: Searching identifed 43,621 articles of which 137 articles with 854 studies had independent data and were included in the narrative synthesis. Of those, 547 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The most studied taxa were arthropods, vascular plants, bryophytes, fungi, and lichens. Results showed that forests with less disturbance (uneven-aged and mature even-aged) host more forest dependent species than young even-aged forests (<80 years old) although the diference was only marginally signifcant for mature even-aged forests (>80 years old). Uneven-aged forest had similar number of species and individuals than natural forest whereas even-aged forest had less species than natural forest. Open habitat species and their individuals were more numerous in young even-aged forests and forests undergone retention harvest. Efect sizes found were mostly large indicating strong and uniform impact of forest management based on species’ habitat preferences. In addition to habitat specialism, years since harvest explained some of the diferences found in species richness and abundance due to increase of open habitat.
33099Xigurigan, Tunuomula, Haliga, Shu Z.B., Ganchimeg, Qirigeer, Li G.Y. & Laxinamujila B. (2021): Two new depsidones from Parmelia saxatilis. - Chemistry of Natural Compounds, 57(1): 63–65. .
Two new depsidones, diffractione B (1) and salazinin A (2), and two known compounds, the dibenzofuran derivative usnic acid (3) and depsidone salazinic acid (4), were isolated from Parmelia saxatilis. The structures of the isolated compounds were identified by spectral analysis and comparison with literature data. Keywords: Traditional Mongolian medicine, Parmelia saxatilis, chemical compound.
33098Hargis H., Gotsch S.G., Porada P., Moore G.W., Ferguson B. & Van Stan II J.T. (2019): Arboreal epiphytes in the soil-atmosphere interface: How often are the biggest “buckets” in the canopy empty?. - Geosciences, 9: 342 [17 p.]. doi:10.3390/geosciences9080342. https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9080342.
Arboreal epiphytes (plants residing in forest canopies) are present across all major climate zones and play important roles in forest biogeochemistry. The substantial water storage capacity per unit area of the epiphyte “bucket” is a key attribute underlying their capability to influence forest hydrological processes and their related mass and energy flows. It is commonly assumed that the epiphyte bucket remains saturated, or near-saturated, most of the time; thus, epiphytes (particularly vascular epiphytes) can store little precipitation, limiting their impact on the forest canopy water budget. We present evidence that contradicts this common assumption from (i) an examination of past research; (ii) new datasets on vascular epiphyte and epi-soil water relations at a tropical montane cloud forest (Monteverde, Costa Rica); and (iii) a global evaluation of non-vascular epiphyte saturation state using a process-based vegetation model, LiBry. All analyses found that the external and internal water storage capacity of epiphyte communities is highly dynamic and frequently available to intercept precipitation. Globally, non-vascular epiphytes spend <20% of their time near saturation and regionally, including the humid tropics, model results found that non-vascular epiphytes spend ~1/3 of their time in the dry state (0–10% of water storage capacity). Even data from Costa Rican cloud forest sites found the epiphyte community was saturated only 1/3 of the time and that internal leaf water storage was temporally dynamic enough to aid in precipitation interception. Analysis of the epi-soils associated with epiphytes further revealed the extent to which the epiphyte bucket emptied—as even the canopy soils were often <50% saturated (29–53% of all days observed). Results clearly show that the epiphyte bucket is more dynamic than currently assumed, meriting further research on epiphyte roles in precipitation interception, redistribution to the surface and chemical composition of “net” precipitation waters reaching the surface. Keywords: precipitation; interception; bromeliad; vascular epiphyte; non-vascular epiphyte; lichens; bryophytes; water storage capacity.
33097Arjaghi S.K., Alasl M.K., Sajjadi N., Fataei E. & Rajaei G.E. (2021): Green synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles by RS lichen extract and its application in removing heavy metals of lead and cadmium . - Biological Trace Element Research, 199: 763–768. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-020-02170-3.
The present study was carried out with the aim of green synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles by a distilled extract of SR (Ramalina sinensis), a local species of Fandoghlu forest in Ardabil. Among effective compounds in the extract of this local plant to remove lead and cadmium toxic metals are carbohydrates and phenolic compounds and the green synthesis of Fe3O4 nanoparticles was accomplished in a 1 h period at 70 degrees Celsius, with gradual addition of ammonia to the distiled extract obtained from plant. Synthesized iron oxide nanoparticles have been confirmed by various techniques such as ultra-violet spectrophotometry, XRD, FT-IR, SEM, and EDAX elemental analysis. In the spectrum obtained from the UV-spectrophotometer, the peak appearing at 310 ± 5 nm indicates the electron transfer of oxygen to the synthesized iron from the SR lichen. The XRD spectrum also showed the characteristics of 2 Theta=30.55, 36, and 43.35, which confirmed with iron oxide nanoparticles. The uniform spherical nature of iron oxide nanoparticles (III) in size from 20 to 40 nm were visible using SEM images. The obtained peak at 514 cm−1 in the infrared spectrum showed the formation of a new bond between iron and oxygen. The thermodynamic studies and adsorption investigation showed that lead was followed by the Langmuir adsorption model (R2 = 0.999) and cadmium was followed by Freundlich absorption model (R2 = 0.986) and the process of removing is spontaneous and exothermic. The data obtained from kinetic studies of removing lead and cadmium from aqueous solutions were fitted in a second-order kinetic model with an appropriate correlation coefficient of 0.99. The ability to remove lead and cadmium by magnetic nanoparticles of iron oxide was respectively 82% and 77% for initial concentration of 50 mg/l and pH in the range of 5–4. Keywords: Iron oxide nanoparticles . R. sinensis lichen . Green synthesis . Adsorption . Kinetics.
33096Vicol I. (2020): The relationship between intensity of vehicle traffic and accumulation of chemical elements in lichen Xanthoria parietina. - Oltenia. Studii şi comunicări. Ştiinţele Naturii, 36: 181–186. .
Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th. Fr. (1860) was used to monitor the pollution with chemical elements caused by car traffic. In this study, in 8 counties in Romania, both the central and peripheral parts of X. parietina were used to indicate accumulation of chemical elements over time. The results indicated that the vehicle number was significantly correlated to Al, Zn, Cu, and Mn concentrations accumulated in the central parts of X. parietina. In addition, Zn and Fe accumulated in peripheral parts of X. parietina were also correlated with the number of vehicles. The two parts of X. parietina accumulate the chemical elements at different rates due to their ripeness degree. The central parts are old and accumulate high metal concentrations whilst the peripheral ones are young and accumulate low metal concentrations. In conclusion, the long-time exposure of central parts is well defined through the accumulation of more metals, compared to the short-time exposure of peripheral parts characterized by the accumulation of two metals. Also, X. parietina could be used as monitor of metal pollution caused by car traffic. Keywords: biomonitoring, lichens, metal accumulation, number of vehicles, atmospheric pollution, Romania.
33095Llop E., Muñiz D., Navarro-Rosinés P., Roux C. & Llimona X. (2020): La diversitat dels líquens saxícoles de l’avantpaís meridional dels Pirineus orientals. - Butlletí de la Institució Catalana d’Història Natural, 84: 213–224. DOI: 10.2436/20.1502.01.54.
Saxicolous lichen diversity from the southern foreland of Eastern Pyrenees. [in Catalan with English abstract: ] This contribution to the knowledge of the saxicolous lichen catalogue from the southern foreland of the eastern Pyrenees has yield a list of 312 taxa. Among them, 14 are newly quoted for Catalonia: Alyxoria variiformis, Caloplaca emilii, Clauzadea chondrodes, Encephalographa elisae, Hymenelia coerulea, Lathagrium dichotomum, Lecidea swartzioidea, Lemmopsis arnoldiana, Lepraria umbricola, Myriolecis prominens, Placidium adami-borosi, Staurothele nantiana, Thalloidima opuntioides, Toninia tristis subsp. asiae-centralis, and Zahlbrucknerella calcarea. In addition, C. emilii is the first record in the Iberian lichen biota. The catalogue has been analysed in terms of available geological substrates and habitat types. Species richness varies markedly between habitats, not between geological substrates, except for a slightly increase in Cretaceous calcareous rocks and dolomites. Species composition is extremely different between sites, independently of habitat or geological substrate. The average value of dissimilarity index reaches the 90 %. This heterogeneity in species composition shows a great variability within the considered factors, but not between those factors. On the other hand, abundance of functional traits holds a large homogeneity between sites, with an average dissimilarity index reaching 27 %. A substantial low variability is found within factors, compared with species composition. The features of the southern Pyrenean foreland affords a large set of geological substrates; however, saxicolous lichen communities do not seem to be related with such diversity. In addition, adaptive responses to ecological factors by lichen community are more steady despite the large specific heterogeneity. Key words: Biodiversity, Catalonia, distribution, functional traits, Iberian Peninsula.
33094Caporale S. & Ravera S. (2020): Lichen diversity on Trees Outside Forest in Molise (Central Italy). - Borziana, 1: 67–75. https://doi.org/10.7320/Borz.001.067.
The role of Trees Outside Forest (TOF) in preserving biodiversity is highlighted through the study of their associated epiphytic lichen flora. Thirty TOF units located throughout the Italian region Molise have been surveyed. 170 trees of 17 different species have been examined. A total of 111 lichen taxa has been recorded. Among these, six taxa are new to the lichen flora of Molise (Agonimia opuntiella, Arthonia excipienda, Arthopyrenia analepta, Lecanora albella, Mycomicrothelia confusa and Scytinium subtile). One species is considered vulnerable, eight near threatened in Italy and 23 taxa are non-poleotolerant species usually growing on old trees in ancient, undisturbed forests. These findings suggest that TOF can provide surrogate habitat conditions for lichens usually occurring in natural environments. Key words: Biodiversity, Lichenized Ascomycetes, TOF.
33093Campisi P., Mannino A.M., Venturella G. & Ravera S. (2020): A first contribution to the cryptogamic flora of “Bosco Pomieri” (Northern Sicily). - Borziana, 1: 33–51. https://doi.org/10.7320/Borz.001.035.
This is the first contribution to the cryptogamic flora (algae, bryophytes, fungi and lichens) of the “Bosco Pomieri”, an old-growth forest included in the Madonie Regional Park (N-Sicily). This area presents a significantly high biodiversity (41 algae, 41 bryophytes, 141 fungi, and 105 lichens) and also hosts several taxa of high biogeographic value. Key words: : Biodiversity, Algae, Bryophytes, Fungi, Lichens, Old-growth forest, Sicily.
33092Güvenç Ş., John V. & Türk A. (2020): Phytogeographical analysis of the lichens and lichenicolous fungi of Turkey. - Borziana, 1: 87–108. https://doi.org/10.7320/Borziana.001.087.
The aim of the paper is to evaluate the diversity of all known lichenized and lichenicolous fungi of the Turkish provinces, their similarities being calculated and to determine their distribution in the geographic and phytogeographic regions of Turkey. The records of lichenized fungi in "A Checklist of the Lichens of Turkey" were evaluated, together with new country and province records from 2015 to 2020. A total of 1765 lichenized fungi were evaluated from the 81 provinces. The geographical regions of Turkey were divided into three main groups according to the similarity in species diversity (1) Aegean, Mediterranean and Marmara, (2) Central, Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia, and (3) the Black Sea region. The phytogeographical regions of Turkey were divided into two main groups (1) Euro-Siberian and Mediterranean and (2) Irano-Turanian. The very heterogeneous intensity so far of the research on lichens in the different provinces of Turkey causes only a weak correlation of the distribution of lichens with the geographic and phytogeographic regions. Key words: biodiversity, checklist, distribution, lichen biota, phytogeography.
33091Pinault P. & Roux C. (2020): Epicladonia brodoae P. Pinault et Cl. Roux sp. nov., champignon lichénicole non lichénisé (Ascomycota). - Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, 71: 67–73. .
Description de la nouvelle espèce Epicladonia brodoae P. Pinault et Cl. Roux sp. nov., bien caractérisée par son parasitisme sur le thalle de Brodoa intestiniformis sur lequel elle induit des galles en forme de chou-fleur, par ses cellules conidiogènes grandes (la plupart de 14,5– 24 × 4,5–6,5µm), groupées par 4 et par ses conidies grandes (la plupart de 12,5–15,5 × 2,5 –3,5µm), fusiformes. E. stenospora, qui est signalé pour la deuxième fois en France, et E. sandstedei font l’objet d’un appendice.
33090England J.K., Lendemer J.C. & Tripp E. (2021): Rockefellera crossophylla (Pannariaceae) Rediscovered in Alabama. - Opuscula Philochenum, 20: 1–6. http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/op/biblio_list.php?BucVolume_tab=20.
The rediscovery of Rockefellera crossophylla in Alabama, U.S.A. is documented based on six sites discovered between 2015 and 2018. This unusual species was first documented from Alabama by Thomas Minott Peters in the mid-1800’s, but not subsequently seen until rediscovered by the first author in Lawrence County, in 2015, on a sandstone boulder in the Sipsey Wilderness of William B. Bankhead National Forest. Despite extensive fieldwork throughout surrounding areas of central and northern Alabama, no populations outside of Bankhead National Forest have been discovered, further highlighting the biological significance of this small tract of intact, primary habitat within Alabama’s borders. Keywords. – Appalachian Mountains, biodiversity, conservation, Cumberland Plateau, cyanolichen, threatened species.
33089Zhurbenko M.P. (2020): Clypeococcum lenae (Dothideomycetes), a new lichenicolous species from the Arctic, with a key to species of lichenicolous fungi on Solorina. - Opuscula Philochenum, 19: 199–207. http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/op/biblio_list.php?BucVolume_tab=19.
The new lichenicolous fungus, Clypeococcum lenae, growing on Solorina is described from the Siberian Arctic. The species is characterized by immersed, aggregated pseudothecia, united by a common, K+ violet clypeus, and often laterally and basally surrounded by stromatically transformed host tissues, I and K/I− hymenium, well-developed pseudoparaphyses, bitunicate, 8-spored, I and K/I− asci, and brown, ellipsoid to obovate, muriform ascospores. A key to the species of lichenicolous fungi that grow on Solorina is provided.
33088Navarro-Rosinés P. & Romero (2020): Trematosphaeria dermatocarponis y T. lophiostoma dos nuevos sinónimos de Opegrapha pulvinata. - Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, 71: 91–100. .
[in Spanish with French, Esperanto and English abstract: ] Two species of non – lichenised lichenicolous fungi described in the genus Trematosphaeria : T. lophiostoma Werner et M. Choisy (1932) and T. dermatocarponis Werner (1963), are considered synonymous with Opegrapha pulvinata Rehm in Lojka (1869). The authors of these species attributed them to the genus Trematosphaeria by confusing the small lirellate ascomas with perithecia. Due to morphological differences, we also propose to separate into an independent species the specimens previously attributed to Opegrapha pulvinata, but growing on Placidium and Endocarpon : Opegrapha placidiicola (Zhurb.) Nav. – Ros. et Romero, comb. et stat. nov.
33087Burgaz A.R., Ahti T. & Pino-Bodas R. (2020): Mediterranean Cladoniaceae. - Sociedad Española de Liquenología (SEL), Madrid, 117 p. https://mariomairal.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/Burgaz-et-al_2020_Mediterranean-Cladoniaceae.pdf.
Cladoniaceae is a family of lichen forming fungi with subcosmopolitan distribution. Mediterranean Cladoniaceae is a compendium of the knowledge of the Cladoniaceae inhabiting the Mediterranean region. It is based on material from an extensive field work and from a number of herbaria. In total 92 species representing three genera, Cladonia, Pilophorus and Pycnothelia are treated. The species are described and illustrated. Data about secondary metabolites, morphological variation, habitat and taxonomical notes are provided. Distribution maps of each species, based on material studied and literature references, are presented.
33086Olariaga I., Paz-Bermúdez G., Calvo J., Etayo J. & Prieto M. (2020): Rediscovery of the endangered lichen Pseudocyphellaria aurata (Lobariaceae, Ascomycota) in mainland Spain. - Anales del Jardín Botánico de Madrid, 77(2): e099 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3989/ajbm.2558. http://rjb.revistas.csic.es/index.php/rjb/article/view/518/660.
Lichens, as well as other organisms, should be considered important biodiversity components for the establishment of priorities in conservation biology. In this study, we report six new recent localities of the highly endangered, epiphytic macrolichen Pseudocyphellaria aurata in Spain: two in Navarra and four in A Coruña. Previous Spanish reports based on literature and herbarium specimens suggest a reduction of the distribution area of P. aurata and local extinction. Pseudocyphellaria aurata is known to be extinct in six localities, where it has not been observed since the middle of the 19th century (Cádiz, Pontevedra, Málaga). Four records reported for central Spain (Zaragoza, Salamanca, Teruel) are considered unplausible. The newly discovered populations are located in well-preserved patches of atlantic deciduous forest with strong oceanic influence, whose long-term ecological stability seems evident because of the presence of ancient trees. Nevertheless, these populations are small, fragmentary, and are threatened by habitat degradation, forestry and maybe fungal pathogens. Two populations, Intzola and Beba (Navarra and A Coruña, respectively), account for 75.7% of thalli. The localities with the highest number of trees colonized by P. aurata are Santa Leocadia and Beba in A Coruña. We reassessed the conservation status of this species concluding that conservation initiatives must be implemented to avoid its extinction in mainland Spain. Keywords: Conservation biology, IUCN, local extinction, red-listing.
33085Medeiros I.D. (2019): Determining the type locality and collector of Nylander’s South African lichens. - Bothalia, 49(1): a2384 [5 p.]. https://doi.org/10.4102/abc.v49i1.2384. http://www.scielo.org.za/pdf/babc/v49n1/11.pdf.
Background: In 1868, Nylander described 15 new lichen taxa from collections made near Durban, South Africa. The locality was not specified and the collector was identified only as ‘Miss Armstrong’ Objectives: To identify the collector and type locality of Nylander’s species. Method: Scientific literature, maps, letters, notebooks and genealogical sources were consulted to reconstruct the provenance of the specimens. Results: ‘Miss Armstrong’ was likely Olivia Armstrong; she collected in the Karkloof area of the KwaZulu-Natal Midlands. Conclusion: This investigation facilitates future work to determine whether the species described and reported by Nylander are still extant in the same locality. Keywords: Lichens; Type Locality; Botanical Collectors.
33084Hu L., Zhang X., Wang C.-X. & Zhao Z.-T. (2020): Four non-yellow species of Rhizocarpon new to China. - Mycotaxon, 135: 885–893. https://doi.org/10.5248/135.885.
Four species of the lichen genus Rhizocarpon (R. cinereonigrum, R. distinctum, R. sublavatum, and R. subpostumum) are reported for the first time from China. Descriptions provide morphological and chemical characters and known distribution of each species. Key words—lichen-forming fungi, Rhizocarpaceae, saxicolous, taxonomy.
33083Lü L., Yang Y.-H. & He J.-X. (2020): Three placodioid species of Lecanoraceae new for China. - Mycotaxon, 135: 869–876. https://doi.org/10.5248/135.869.
Three placodioid lichen species, Lecanora valesiaca, Protoparmeliopsis sierrae, and Rhizoplaca phaedrophthalma, are reported for the first time from China. Detailed taxonomic descriptions with high resolution photographs, chemistry, remarks, and distribution are provided. Keywords —ascolichen, pruinose thallus, rosettes, squamulose-areolate, taxonomy.
33082Liu F.Y., Xu Y.N., Zhu M.L. & Zhao X. (2020): Three new records of Porina from China. - Mycotaxon, 135: 839–844. https://doi.org/10.5248/135.839.
Three species of the lichen genus Porina are newly reported for China: P. internigrans, P. kamerunensis, and P. subrubrosphaera. Taxonomic descriptions, illustrations, and comments are provided. Key words —Ascomycota, Lecanoromycetes, Ostropales, Porinaceae, taxonomy.
33081Fryday A.M. & Dillman K.L. (2021): Two new species of Ostropales (Lecanoromycetes) and other significant records of lichenized fungi from southeastern Alaska. - Bryologist, 124(1): 20–26. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-124.1.020.
Recent field work in the Petersburg Borough of southeastern (SE) Alaska has led to the discovery of two species of lichenized fungi in the Ostropales that are here described as new to science: Jamesiella dacryoidea Fryday, which has green-grey dacryoid thlasidia, and Sagiolechia bairdensis Fryday, which has very small apothecia (,0.2 mm diam.), 3-septate ascospores and a trebouxioid photobiont. A key to the North American species of Sagiolechia and Gyalidea is also provided. In addition, Bryobilimbia ahlesii (Hepp) Fryday, Printzen & S.Ekman is reported for the first time from Alaska, along with records of several other species that have rarely been collected in the state. Keywords: Alexander Archipelago, Baird Glacier, Mitkof Island, lichen systematics, Patterson Glacier, recently deglaciated terrain.
33080Blanchon D.J. & Bannister J. (2002): Ramalina meridionalis, a new species from New Zealand, Norfolk Island and Lord Howe Island. - Australasian Lichenology, 51:17–19. .
Specimens of"Ramalina arabum" from New Zealand, Norfolk Island and Lord Howe Island are recognized as a new species, R. meridionalis Blanchon & Bannister
33079Dou M.-Z., Zhao X. & Jia Z.-F. (2020): Trapelia calyciformis sp. nov. from China. - Mycotaxon, 135(4): 817–823. https://doi.org/10.5248/135.817.
Trapelia calyciformis is described from China as a new species. The lichen is characterized by its gray-white thallus, zeorine apothecium with black disc and cracked excipulum, narrow paraphyses branched near the tip, 8-spored asci, aseptate ascospores with one vacuole, and the presence of gyrophoric acid. The specimens examined were deposited in LCUF. A key to the species of Trapelia reported in China is presented. Key words — lichenized fungi, Trapeliales, Trapeliaceae, taxonomy.
33078Hale M.E., Jr. (1971): Studies on Parmelia subgenus Xanthoparmelia (Lichenes) in South Africa. - Botaniska Notiser, 124(3): 313–354. .
The evolutionary trends in morphology and chemistry of Parmelia subgenus Xanthoparmelia are discussed. Africa has a higher proportion of biogenetically "primitive" acids (hypoprotocetraric, protocetraric acids) and greater morphological diversity than are present in the North American and Australian populations. Twelve new species from South Africa are described: P. almbornii, P. atroventralis, P. diadeta, P. dichromatica, P. encrustans, P. frondosa, P. heterodoxa, P. hyporhytida, P. lecanorica, P. neocongensis, P. quintaria, and P. subdomokosii.
33077Hawksworth D.L. (1971): Regional studies in Alectoria (Lichenes) 1. The central and southern African species . - Botaniska Notiser, 124(1): 122–128. .
In central and southern Africa the lichen genus Alectoria Ach. is largely restricted to the highest mountains of Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda, where A. angolensis Dodge, A. cf. chalybeiformis (L.) Gray, A. fuscescens Gyeln. var. nigrescentifusca (Gyeln.) D. Hawksw. comb. nov.. A. motykae D. Hawksw. sp. nov., A. ruwenzoriensis D. Hawksw. sp. nov. and A. smithii DR. f. esorediata D. Hawksw. f. nov. occur. Reports of A. bicolor (Ehrh.) Nyl., A. epichrysa Stirt.. A. chalybeiformis (L.) Gray f. terrestris Stizenb., A. jubata (L.) Ach., A. jubata (L.) Ach. var. prolixa Ach., A. sulcata (Lév.) Nyl. and Parmelia lichinoidea NYL. ex Cromb. by earlier authors are also discussed.
33076Almborn O. (1980): Cramer, J. (ed.): Bibliotheca Lichenologica. A series of original papers and reprints of books on lichens published by J. Cramer, Box 48, 3301 Lehre, W. Germany. - Botaniska Notiser, 133(4): 649–650. .
Short book reviews written jointly on the following issues of Bibliotheca Lichenologica: 6. Keuck, G. 1977: Ontogenetisch-systematische Studie über Erioderma im Vergleich mit anderen cyanophilen Flechtengattungen. 175 pp. 5 tables, 217 plates, 20 figures in text. ISBN 3-7862-1051-5. Price DM 60:– (paperback). 7. Ritschel, Gabrielle Aiko. 1977: Verbreitung und Soziologie epiphytischer Flechten in Nordwestbayern. 192 pp., 29 tables, 75 figures in text. ISBN 3-7682-1122-3. Price DM 50:– (paperback). 8. Rodemborg, L. 1977: Epilitische Vegetation in einem alten Weidegebiet auf Mittel-Öland, Schweden. 108 pp., 4 tables, 5 plates. ISBN 3-7682-111151-7. Price DM 30:– (paperback). 9. Poelt, J. & Vězda, A. 1977: Bestimmungs-schlüssel europäischer Flechten. Ergänzungsheft I. 258 pp. No illustrations. ISBN 3-7682-1162-2. Price DM 50:– (cloth; as the following volumes). 10. Buschardt, A. 1979: Zur Flechtenflora der inneralpinen Trocken-Täler unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Vinschgaus. 419 pp., 157 distribution maps. ISBN 3-7682-1226-2. Price DM:–. 11. Beltman, H. A. 1978: Vegetative Strukturen der Parmeliaceae und ihre Entwicklung. 193 pp., 51 plates. ISBN 3-7682-1199-1. Price DM 60:–. 12. Mayrhofer, H . & Poelt, J. 1979: Die saxicolen Arten der Flechtengattung Rinodina in Europa. 186 pp., 13 figures (drawings of spores). ISBN 3-7682-1237-8. Price DM 50:–. 13. Schneider, G. 1979: Die Flechtengattung Psora sensu Zahlbruckner. 291 pp., 18 plates, 48 figures in text. ISBN 3-7682-1257-2. Price DM 50:–. 14. Vobis, G. 1980: Bau und Entwicklung der Flechten-Pycnidien und ihre Conidien. 141 pp., 215 plates, 15 figures in text. ISBN 3-7682-1270-X. Price DM 50:–.
33075Almborn O. (1980): Seaward, Mark R. D. (ed.) 1977: Lichen ecology. Academic Press, London. 10+550 pp. ISBN 0-12-634350-0. Price £ 23.00 (cloth). - Botaniska Notiser, 133(4): 647–648. .
Book review
33074Almborn O. (1980): Jahns, H. M. 1980: BLV Bestimmungsbuch. Farne , Moose, Flechten Mittel-, Nord- und Westeuropas. 256 pp. 655 colour photographs. BLV Verlagsgesellschaft München. ISBN 3-405-11893-X. - Botaniska Notiser, 133(4): 647. .
Book review
33073Almborn O. (1980): Krog, H., Østhagen, H. & Tønsberg, T. 1980: Lavflora. Norske brusk- og bladlav. 312 pp. cloth. Supplement in English. 52 pp. wrappers. Universitetsforlaget, Box 7502, Skillebekk, Oslo 2-, Norway. ISBN 82-00-01907-1 and 82-00-01988-8. Price N.Cr. 189.00 or N.Cr. 209.00 (with Supplement).. - Botaniska Notiser, 133(4): 646–647. .
Book review
33072Kärnefelt I. (1980): Lichens of western North America with disjunctions in Macaronesia and West Mediterranean region. - Botaniska Notiser, 133(4): 569–577. .
Six unrelated lichens, Alectoria imshaugii Brodo & D. Hawksw., Cetraria merrillii Du Rietz, Dimelaena radiata (Tuck.) Hale & W. Culb., Parmelia pustulosa Essl., Parmelia subolivacea Nyl. and Thelomma mammosum (Hepp) Massal. have their distributional centre in temperate to subtropical W North America. Five were already known from disjunct ranges in Macaronesia, NW Africa, Portugal and Spain. Cetraria merrillii recently discovered in the central highlands of Spain, is here included in the same group. Possible modern and historical causes of the discontinuous ranges are discussed. Distribution maps are included.
33071Almborn O. (1980): Three centuries of Botany at the University of Lund, a short survey. - Botaniska Notiser, 133(4): 451–474. .
A survey is made of the main features in the history of Botany at the University of Lund from 1668, when the University was founded, till the present day. Special attention has been paid to the Professors of Botany, to the development of the various Chairs and to the pronounced diversification of research in Botany during the 20th century. Some attempt has been made to trace the influence of other Swedish universities on Lund and vice versa. The history of the buildings of the Departments has been sketched not forgetting the almost perpetual need for new premises. A selection of the many botanical theses presented for the doctor’s degree published in Lund is given, in particular those of the present century. Limited space has otherwise permitted mention of only some few works considered to be of special importance.
33070Kärnefelt I. (1980): Everniastrum andense sp. nov., a neotropical paramo lichen. - Botaniska Notiser, 133(3): 387–394. .
Brief introductory remarks on the genus are followed by a detailed description of the new species, E. andense Kärnef. The section on taxonomy deals mainly with the affinity of the new species with E. ecuadoriense (R. Sant.) Hale. E. andense appears to be endemic to the northern Andean region of Neotropis colonizing twigs of paramo shrubs. Illustrations of anatomical and morphological characteristics and a distribution map are included.
33069van der Pluijm (2021): Hyperphyscia lucida in oude wilgenbossen in de Biesbosch, een nieuw ontstane korstmossoort? [Hyperphyscia lucida in the Netherlands, an example of recent, instantaneous speciation?]. - Buxbaumiella, 120: 7–15. .
[in Dutch with English summary: ] Recently, on morphological grounds Hyperphyscia lucida was described as a new species from specimens collected in 2020 in willow forests in the freshwater tidal area the Biesbosch. This article in Dutch summarizes the original report in Lindbergia 43: linbg.01138, and further addresses a possible origin of the new species. With fairly large dimensions and with many differentiating characters it seems unlikely that Hyperphyscia lucida was previously overlooked in the well explored areas of the Biesbosch, the Netherlands or Europe, where so far only H. adglutinata is reported. Hyperphyscia lucida has not yet been tested with molecular tools to determine its genetic position, so synonymization with (sub-)tropical taxa of Hyperphyscia cannot be ruled out. And if it were an undescribed species from (sub-)tropical areas outside Europe, then it must have travelled an extraordinarily long distance. The possibility of a recent, instantaneous speciation is also taken into account. In the Biesbosch area populations of Hyperphyscia adglutinata regularly have apothecia and pycnidia. It is speculated that H. lucida may have evolved from this species via whole-genome doubling, or autopolyploidy, a process cited as an infrequent cause of speciation in plants. Perhaps in a zygote of H. adglutinata abnormal meiotic cell division occurred, a diploid spore was produced, and a diploid fungal anamorph from this spore was able to make a new symbiosis. This scenario could be tested e.g. via flow cytometry by comparing DNA weight per nucleus of H. adglutinata and H. lucida. In recent decades the Dutch lichen flora has undergone significant changes because of e.g. changes in climate and air quality. Recent speciation may also have contributed to this in a very minor extent. A few dozen lichen species have been described new for science from the Netherlands since 1997. Some of these have turned out to be near-endemics for NW-Europe. The current distribution of two species, Lecanora sinuosa and L. compallens is relatively well documented, but they seem absent in older herbarium collections and therefore cannot yet be ruled out as neospecies. Alyxoria viridipruinosa, recently described from England, may also meet criteria for a candidate neospecies.
33068Phinney N.H., Gauslaa Y., Palmqvist K. & Esseen P.‐A. (2021): Macroclimate drives growth of hair lichens in boreal forest canopies. - Journal of Ecology, 109(1): 478–490. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2745.13522.
Epiphytic lichens are important biodiversity components of forest canopies world‐wide, significantly contributing to ecosystem function. The RGR, a measure of fitness, drives population dynamics and shapes lichens’ large‐scale distributions. In a climate change scenario, we need to know how external (macro‐ and microclimate, and nitrogen deposition) and internal factors (cortical pigments, chlorophyll and specimen size) affect RGR in these ecologically important canopy organisms. We used dominant pendulous hair lichens widely distributed across the boreal biome to test the hypothesis that precipitation drives RGR of pale (Alectoria sarmentosa, Usnea dasopoga) and dark species Bryoria fuscescens differently across a large‐scale gradient from continental to oceanic climates (precipitation: 450–2,600 mm) in Scandinavia (60–64°N, 5–19°E). After transplanting lichens to lower branches of Picea abies in nine boreal forest sites for 1 year, we used linear mixed effects models to analyse how total precipitation, rainfall, number of days with rain, temperature sum, nitrogen deposition, light, chlorophyll a (an indicator of photosynthetic capacity) and size influenced their RGR. RGR was highest in the pale species (Alectoria and Usnea) and increased with amount and frequency of precipitation, with >3 times higher RGR in the wettest compared to the driest site. The number of days with rain was a better predictor of RGR than total precipitation or rain. By contrast, RGR of the dark Bryoria weakly increased with precipitation. RGR in all species increased with light and decreased with size. Chlorophyll a concentration, boosted by moderate nitrogen deposition, increased RGR of all species. In conclusion, rainfall likely drives the distribution of the pale species due to their higher RGR and abundance in wet climates but cannot explain why Bryoria dominates drier inland forests. Our results highlight that the functional links between rainfall and RGR depends on both colour of the lichens (pale vs. dark pigments) and water storage traits. Synthesis. Our findings may explain the global, regional and local distribution patterns of hair lichens and help us to predict how environmental hazards such as climate change and forestry influence these important boreal canopy components. Keywords: RGR; chlorophyll; climate change; epiphytic lichens; lichen colour; nitrogen deposition; plant–climate interactions; rainfall.
33067Almborn O. (1980): Kärnefelt, I. 1979: The brown fruticose species of Cetraria. Opera Botanica 46. Stockholm. 150 pages, 74 figures (25 in colour) and distribution maps. ISSN 0078-5237. ISBN 91-546-0254-8. Price SKr 81, libraries SKr 135:- (wrappers).. - Botaniska Notiser, 133(1): 119–120. .
Book review
33066Almborn O. (1980): Jørgensen, P. M. 1978: The lichen family Pannariaceae in Europe. Opera Botanica 45. Stockholm. 123 pages, 53 figures and distribution maps in text. ISSN 0078-5237. ISBN 91-546-0241-6. Price SKr 66:-, libraries SKr 110:- (wrappers). - Botaniska Notiser, 133(1): 118–119. .
Book review
33065Galloway D.J. (1980): Notes on the lichen genus Baeomyces in New Zealand. - Botaniska Notiser, 133(1): 77–83. .
Three species of Baeomyces Pers., occur in New Zealand viz. B. absolutus Tuck ., B. fungoides (Sw.) Ach., and B. heteromorphus Nyl. ex Bab. & Mitt, in Hook. f. A key to species is given together with details of their morphology, chemistry, distribution, habitat and taxonomy. The following taxa are rejected as synonyms: B. arcuatus Stirt., B. subgranosus Stirt. (B. fungoides), B. cupreus Müll. Arg., B. cinnabarinus Zahlbr., B. fuscocarneus F. Wils., B. granosus Stirt., B. haemotropus Leighton, Cladoniopsis caespitosa Zahlbr. (B. heteromorphus), B. novaezelandiae Knight (B. absolutus).
33064Degelius G. (1979): Studies in the lichen family Collemataceae. IV. Collema fecundum, a new species from North America. - Botaniska Notiser, 132(4): 569–572. .
Collema fecundum Degel., a new species from the west coast of N America is described. It is closely related to the New Zealand species C. novozelandicum Degel., from which it differs in, i.a., lack of isidia. Taxonomical and ecological data are given.
33063Almborn O. (1978): Moberg, R. 1977: The lichen genus Physcia and allied genera in Fennoscandia. Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 22(1). Uppsala. 6 + 108 pp., 42 figures in text, 2 plates (illustrating type material in herb. Acharius, Helsinki) and 26 distribution maps. ISBN 91-554-0648-3. ISSN 0082-0644. Price SKr 50 :- (wrappers).. - Botaniska Notiser, 131(1): 179–180. .
Book review
33062Hale M.E. Jr. & Vobis G. (1978): Santessonia, a new lichen genus from Southwest Africa . - Botaniska Notiser, 131(1): 1–5. .
The genus Santessonia Hale & Vobis is proposed as new. The only known species, S. namibensis Hale & Vobis, is fruticose and has buellioid apothecial characters, placing it in the family Physciaceae. It occurs in the coastal fog zone on rocks and shrubs.
33061Kärnefelt I. (1977): Masonhalea, a new lichen genus in the Parmeliaceae. - Botaniska Notiser, 130(1): 101–107. .
The new genus Masonhalea is segregated from Cetraria s. lat. on the basis of anatomy, morphology, ecology and chemistry. Its only species, M. richardsonii (Hook. in Richardson) Kärnef. is described and illustrated and a distribution map is provided.
33060Almborn O. (1977): Brodo, I. M. & Hawksworth, D. L. 1977: Alectoria and allied genera in North America. Opera Botanica 42. Stockholm. 164 pp., 1 +67 figures and distribution maps. ISBN 91-546- 0211-1. ISSN 0078-5237. Price SKr 87:- (libraries SKr 145:-).. - Botaniska Notiser, 130(2): 253–254. .
Book review
33059Almborn O. (1977): Cramer, J. (ed.): Bibliotheca Lichenologica. A series of original papers and reprints of books on lichens. - Botaniska Notiser, 130(2): 251–253. .
A book review written jointly on 5 following monographs published in the Bibliotheca Lichenologica series: 1. Hannemann, B. 1973: Anhangsorgane der Flechten. Ihre Strukturen und ihre systematische Verteilung. IV + 123 pp., 3 tables, 181 drawings and microphotographs. J. Cramer, Lehre, Germany. Price DM 50:- (paperbound as the following volumes). 2. Awasthi, D. D. 1975: A monograph of the lichen genus Dirinaria. IV + 108 pp., 16 distribution maps, 59 figures in 15 plates. Gantner Verlag, Vaduz, Liechtenstein. ISBN 3-7682- 5452-6. Price DM 40:-. 3. Wunder, H. 1974: Schwarzfrüchtige, saxicole Sippen der Gattung Caloplaca (Lichenes, Teloschistaceae) in Mitteleuropa, dem Mittelmeergebiet und Vorderasien. 11 + 186 pp., 9 plates. J. Cramer, Lehre. ISBN 3-7682-0924-5. Price DM 40:—. 4. Jürging, P. 1975: Epiphytische Flechten als Bioindikatoren der Luftverunreinigung, dargestellt an Untersuchungen und Beobachtungen in Bayern. 11 + 164 pp., 43 maps, diagrams and tables. Gantner Verlag, Vaduz. ISBN 3-7862- 0964-4. Price DM 50:-. 5. De Wit, T. 1976: Epiphytic lichens and air pollution in the Netherlands. 115 pp., 114 maps, diagrams and tables. Gantner Verlag, Vaduz. ISBN 3-7682-1059-6. Price DM 60:-.
33058Holm L. & Holm K. (1977): A study of the Leptopeltidaceae. - Botaniska Notiser, 130(2): 215–229. .
The family Leptopeltidaceae von Höhnel ('Phacidiales’) has been amended to comprise unitunicate genera only, viz. Leptopeltis von Höhnel s. lat., Dothiopeltis E. Muller, and Ronnigeria Petrak. Dothithyrella v. Höhn., Leptopeltopsis Petr., and Moeszopeltis Petr. are included in the synonymy of Leptopeltis. The lichenicolous Lichenopeltella maculans (growing on Umbilicaria hirsuta) discussed among excluded taxa, based on previously published observations on bitunicate character of its asci.
33057Kärnefelt I. (1977): Three new species of brown fruticose Cetraria. - Botaniska Notiser, 130(2): 125–129. .
C. arenaria Kärnef. sp. nov., an American lowland species growing on sand and distributed from New England to the Great Plains of western Canada, with a disjunct occurrence in Colombia and C. australiensis W. Weber ex Kärnef. sp. nov., an alpine species from Australia, New South Wales, Snowy Mountains, are described and illustrated. C. fastigiata (Del. ex Nyl. in Norrl.) Kärnef. stat. nov., based on an infraspecific taxon of C. delisei, is redescribed, illustrated and one table is presented comparing it with C. delisei.
33056Zhurbenko M.P. (2020): Lichenicolous fungi from the Holarctic. Part III: New reports and a key to species on Hypogymnia. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 19: 180–189. http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/op/biblio_list.php?BucVolume_tab=19.
Cercidospora parva and Feltgeniomyces mongolicus are reported for the first time from North America, the latter is also first documented from the Arctic. Micarea inquinans is newly reported for Russia, and Epithamnolia xanthoriae is reported as new to European Russia. Baeomyces and Dibaeis are reported as new host genera for Epithamnolia xanthoriae, and Dibaeis for Merismatium nigritellum. A key to the species of lichenicolous fungi growing on Hypogymnia is provided. Keywords. – Biodiversity discovery, biogeography, floristics, lichen-dwelling fungi, United States of America.
33055Ding Y., Salvador C.S.C., Caldeira A.T., Angelini E. & Schiavon N. (2021): Biodegradation and microbial contamination of limestone surfaces: An experimental study from Batalha Monastery, Portugal. - Corrossion and Materials Degradation, 2: 31–45. https://doi.org/10.3390/cmd2010002.
An experimental study was conducted to assess the nature and extent of the biodeterioration of the limestone in the Batalha Monastery in Portugal. Stone fragments covered with microbial biofilms and lichenous crusts were investigated using Optical Microscopy (OM), Low Vacuum Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (LV-SEM + EDS), and X-ray micro-Diffractometry (µ-XRD). Microbial samples were collected from the stone surface, cultured, and analyzed with NGS metagenomic DNA test to classify the bacterial communities associated with the formation of the biofilms. Particulate air pollutants collected on Pall GN-6 paper filters using a cascade impactor were characterized by SEM-EDS + NGS. The results showed that lichens play a major role in biodeterioration by promoting both physical and chemical attack on the limestone substrate via hyphae mechanical penetration along calcite inter-crystalline spaces, the dissolution/leaching of calcite minerals, and the precipitation of secondary minerals such as Ca-oxalates within the stone porosity framework. DNA analyses identified the bacterial communities within the biofilms and their relative abundances. Air quality monitoring results suggest that the microbial population colonizing the monastery limestone could at least partially be derived from the dry and wet deposition of airborne biological particles on the stone surfaces and that S, N, and P-rich air pollutants may have provided nutrients and energy for the bacteria communities, thus indirectly facilitating biofilm formation, the growth of a lichenous crusts, and limestone biodeterioration effects. Keywords: biodeterioration; Batalha Monastery; limestone decay; lichen microbiomes.
33054Søchting U. & Arup U. (2021): Austroplaca sibirica (lichenized Ascomycota, Teloschistaceae) - a bipolar lichen with an austral origin documented by molecular data. - Graphis Scripta, 33(1): 12–16. http://nhm2.uio.no/botanisk/lav/Graphis/33_1/GS_33_12.pdf.
Based on molecular data, the austral lichen genus Austroplaca is shown to be represented in the Northern Hemisphere by the species Caloplaca sibirica. Accordingly, we make the combination Austroplaca sibirica. It grows on detritus and lignum in Canada, Greenland, Iceland, northern Scandinavia, Svalbard and Siberia and its southern range includes Patagonia (Argentina, Chile) and Kerguelen Islands. As its related species and genera are inhabitants of the Southern Hemisphere we hypothesize that it has migrated from the Southern to the Northern Hemisphere.
33053Ertz D. & Tønsberg T. (2021): A new species of Sagiolechia (Sagiolechiaceae) from Norway, with lirelliform ascomata and 1-septate ascospores. - Graphis Scripta, 33(1): 1–11. http://nhm2.uio.no/botanisk/lav/Graphis/33_1/GS_33_1.pdf.
The new species Sagiolechia monoseptata is described from the northern boreal zone of Norway where it was found on a shaded siliceous rock under a boulder in a north-facing, small, steep scree. It is characterized by the pale greyish-green thallus, black, lirelliform ascomata, and 1-septate ascospores of (11–) 12–16 × (4–) 5–6 (–7) μm, all features unique within the genus. Despite the unusual combination of morphological characters, phylogenetic analyses using nuLSU, mtSSU and RPB2 sequences place the new lichen in the genus Sagiolechia with full support.
33052Tibell L. (1976): Calicium denigratum (Vain.) L. Tibell, comb. nov.. - Botaniska Notiser, 129(2): 131–136. .
Calicium denigratum, C. abietinum and C. glaucellum compared on macro- and micromorphological characters.
33051Rosentreter R. & DeBolt A. (2021): Comparing local, state, and global lichen distribution patterns at Jupiter Inlet Lighthouse Outstanding Natural Area (ONA), Florida. - Evansia, 37(4): 125–138. .
Fifty-five lichen species have been identified from the 120-acre Jupiter Inlet Lighthouse Outstanding Natural Area (ONA), located in southeast Florida. The ONA habitat is comprised of sand pine scrub, oak scrub, and coastal hammock. While our emphasis was on documenting macrolichens, several microlichens were identified. Relative abundance ratings were assigned to each lichen species based on its frequency in the ONA and in Florida. The rating of “rare” for the ONA does not necessarily imply that the species is rare in Florida, but it would be considered rare at the ONA, in most cases because of the area’s small size. The sole exception is for the federally endangered Cladonia perforata, which is rare throughout its range. For each species, we used the Consortium of North American Lichen Herbaria to determine the number of known sites from Florida compared to their regional and global geographic distribution. Global distribution patterns are generalized, but no attempt at a global abundance ranking was made. Biogeographic patterns are presented for each species, as well as ecological and climate change considerations regarding management actions on this relatively small nature preserve. Key words: Biogeography, abundance rating, lichen, ecology, Cladonia perforata.
33050Bültmann H. & Lünterbusch C.H. (2008): The Cladonia cariosa group in Greenland. - Abhandlungen aus dem Westfälischen Museum für Naturkunde, 70: 305–312. https://www.lwl.org/wmfn-download/Abhandlungen/Abh_70(3+4)2008_Seite_305-312.pdf.
Five of the known strains of Cladonia cariosa are found in Greenland. Common is C. cariosa with atranorin and with atranorin and norstictic acid. Rarer are types with homosekikaic acid, fumarprotocetraric acid or rangiformic acid instead of norstictic acid. In all, the chemical diversity of the C. cariosa group is high in the Arctic with the joint occurrence of Eurasian and N-American strains. The psoromic acid strain of C. symphycarpia is widely distributed in Greenland. A species with porphyrilic acid chemcally conforms with C. galindezii. C. krogiana is reported new to Greenland. The strains and species occur together quite often and only few geographical and ecological differences were found. None of the strains or species is exclusively Arctic.
33049Мучник Е.Э., Браславская Т.Ю. & Тихонова Е.В. [Muchnik E.E., Braslavskaya T.Y. & Tikhonova E.V.] (2018): Дополнение к лихенобиоте Национального Парка «Смоленское Поозерье» (Смоленская область) [Additions to Lichen Biota of Smolensk Lakeland National Park (Smolensk Region)]. - Ученые Записки Петрозаводского Государственного Университета [Uchenye zapiski Petrozavodskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta / Proceedings of Petrozavodsk State University], 8(177): 43–47. https://doi.org/10.15393/uchz.art.2018.249.
[in Russian with English summary: ] Smolensk Lakeland National Park is located in the west of the Central Russian Upland, to the north of the city of Smolensk (Smo- lensk region). At the time of this study, the lichen list of the national park included 138 lichen species, 2 of which are considered doubtful. In the summer of 2017, more than 60 lichen specimens were collected in the process of geobotanical survey on vegetation plots in various plant communities of Smolensk Lakeland National Park. When identifying this collection, about 40 lichen species were determined, including 14 species new to the territory of the National Park, among which 7 were new to the Smolensk region: Cladonia rei, C. symphycarpa, Lecania cyrtellina, Lepraria finkii, Peltigera praetextata, P. rufescens and Meneggazzia terebrata. The last species is rare all over Russia, listed in the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation, and recommended for inclusion into the next edition of the Red Data Book of the Smolensk region. Thus, 150 species of lichens (with 2 more classified as doubtful) are known today in the territory of Smolensk Lakeland National Park. For a more complete identification of the lichen biota of the ter- ritory further research is needed. lichens, lichen biota, rare species, Red Data Book of the Russian Federation, Smolensk Lakeland National Park, Smolensk region
33048Srinivasan M., Shanmugam K., Kedike B., Narayanan S., Shanmugam S. & Gopalasamudram N.H. (2020): Trypethelone and phenalenone derivatives isolated from the mycobiont culture of Trypethelium eluteriae Spreng. and their anti-mycobacterial properties. - Natural Product Research, 34(23): 3320–3327. https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2019.1566823.
The metabolites of the mycobiont culture of the lichen Trypethelium eluteriae were isolated by column chromatography and preparative TLC. Nine compounds (1–9) including two new trypethelones, 8-methoxytrypethelone (6) and 5′-hydroxy-8-ethoxytrypethelone (9), together with four known trypethelones (3–4, 7–8), and two known phenalenones (1–2) were characterized. It is the first report of 8-methoxytrypethelone methyl ether (5) purification as a racemic mixture in T. eluteriae. Earlier, 7-hydroxyl-8-methoxyltrypethelone (10) was reported as new compound with erroneous spectroscopic data. This compound was identified later as 8-hydroxytrypethelone methyl ether (4). X-ray crystallographic structures of compounds 5–7 were elucidated for the first time. Phenalenones (1–2) and trypethelones (5–6 and 9) were the additional compounds discovered in the cultured mycobiont of T. eluteriae. Six compounds (1–2, 5–8) were screened against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and two compounds (7–8) against non-tuberculosis mycobacteria and other human pathogenic bacteria. Compound (7) inhibited M. tuberculosis H37Rv strain with an MIC of 12.5 µg/mL. Keywords: Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv; Trypetheliaceae; Trypethelium eluteriae; mycobiont culture; phenalenone; trypethelone.
33047Dieu A., Mambu L., Champavier Y., Chaleix V., Sol V., Gloaguen V. & Millot M. (2020): Antibacterial activity of the lichens Usnea florida and Flavoparmelia caperata (Parmeliaceae). - Natural Product Research, 34(23): 3358–3362. https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2018.1561678.
Acetone extracts of the two common epiphytes lichens Usnea florida and Flavoparmelia caperata have been evaluated for their antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and Aspergillus brasiliensis. The dibenzofuran derivative (+)-usnic acid (1) was the main metabolite in these two species. Thamnolic (5), evernic (6), physodic (7) and 3-hydroxyphysodic acids (8) were isolated from U. florida, as well as 5,7-dihydroxy-6-methylphtalide (2) which was newly identified in this Genus. Protocetraric (3) and caperatic acids (4) and ergosterol peroxide (9) are usually biosynthezised by F. caperata. Antibacterial activity was determined for the four main compounds against Staphylococcus aureus using bioautography and broth dilution method. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of usnic acid, caperatic acid and protocetraric acid were comprised between 7.25 and 12.5 µg/mL. Keywords: lichens extracts, Flavoparmelia caperata, Usnea florida, Staphylococcus aureus, bioautography.
33046Plymale A.E., Wells J.R., Pearce C.I., Brislawn C.J., Graham E.B., Cheeke T.E., Allen J.L., Fansler S.J., Arey B.W., Bowden M.E., Saunders D.L., Danna V.G., Tyrrell K.J., Weaver J.L., Sjöblom R., Paul R., McCloy J.S., Hjärthner-Holdar E., Englund M., Ogenhall E., Peeler D.K. & Kruger A.A. (2021): Niche partitioning of microbial communities at an ancient vitrified Hillfort: Implications for vitrified radioactive waste disposal. - Geomicrobiology Journal, 38(1): 36–56. https://doi.org/10.1080/01490451.2020.1807658.
Because microbes cannot be eliminated from radioactive waste disposal facilities, the consequences of bio-colonization must be understood. At a pre-Viking era vitrified hillfort, Broborg, Sweden, anthropogenic glass has been subjected to bio-colonization for over 1,500 years. Broborg is used as a habitat analogue for disposed radioactive waste glass to inform how microbial processes might influence long-term glass durability. Electron microscopy and DNA sequencing of surficial material from the Broborg vitrified wall, adjacent soil, and general topsoil show that the ancient glass supports a niche microbial community of bacteria, fungi, and protists potentially involved in glass alteration. Communities associated with the vitrified wall are distinct and less diverse than soil communities. The vitrified niche of the wall and adjacent soil are dominated by lichens, lichen-associated microbes, and other epilithic, endolithic, and epigeic organisms. These organisms exhibit potential bio-corrosive properties, including silicate dissolution, extraction of essential elements, and secretion of geochemically reactive organic acids, that could be detrimental to glass durability. However, long-term biofilms can also possess a homeostatic function that could limit glass alteration. This study documents potential impacts that microbial colonization and niche partitioning can have on glass alteration, and subsequent release of radionuclides from a disposal facility for vitrified radioactive waste. Keywords: Community structure; habitat analogue; microbes and surfaces; molecular ecology; near surface radioactive waste disposal.
33045Gheza G., Nascimbene J., Barcella M. & Assini S. (2020): A first lichen survey in Valle Imagna (Lombardy, Northern Italy). - Borziana, 1: 77-86. https://doi.org/10.7320/Borziana.001.077.
Within the province of Bergamo, the less known one in Lombardy (N Italy) under a lichenolog-ical point of view, the Valle Imagna was completely devoid of previous lichen surveys. In thiswork, we report 111 records of 40 lichen taxa, mostly epiphytic, from five sites located on theBergamasque side of Mount Resegone (Orobic Prealps). Most of them are common species,whereas 11 are new to the province of Bergamo, and three of them (Buellia griseovirens,Phaeophyscia ciliata, Punctelia jeckeri) have been rarely recorded in the region. These findshighlight that, in spite of being recognized as one of the most lichen species-rich regions inItaly, Lombardy is still in need of further explorations. broadleaved forests, floristics, macrolichens, Natura 2000 Habitats, Orobic Prealps
33044Solhaug K.A., Asplund J. & Gauslaa Y. (2021): Apparent electron transport rate – a non‑invasive proxy of photosynthetic CO2 uptake in lichens. - Planta, 253: 14 [9 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00425-020-03525-9.
Lichens are poikilohydric organisms passively regulated by ambient conditions. In theory, apparent electron transport rate (ETRapp), estimated by photosystem II yield measured in light (ΦPSII), is a proxy of photosynthetic CO2 uptake. Hydration level, however, is a complicating factor, particularly during suprasaturation that strongly reduces CO2 difusion. Here, the cephalolichen Lobaria pulmonaria and two chlorolichens Parmelia sulcata and Xanthoria aureola were excessively hydrated before photosynthetic CO2 uptake and ΦPSII using imaging fuorescence tools were simultaneously measured while drying at 200 µmol photons m−2 s−1. CO2 uptake peaked when hydration had declined to a level equivalent to their respective internal water holding capacity (WHCinternal) i.e., the water per thallus area after blotting external water. CO2 uptake and ETRapp in all species were highly correlated at hydration levels below WHCinternal, but weaker at higher hydration (chlorolichens) or absent (cephalolichen). Yet, at a specimen level for the two chlorolichens, the correlation was strong during suprasaturation. The CO2 uptake—ETRapp relationship did not difer between measured species, but may vary between other lichens because the slope depends on cortical transmittance and fraction of electrons not used for CO2 uptake. For new lichen species, calibration of ETRapp against CO2 uptake is therefore necessary. At intrathalline scales, ΦPSII during drying initially increased along thallus margins before reaching maximum values in central portions when hydration approached WHCinternal. WHCinternal represents the optimal hydration level for lichen photosynthesis. In conclusion, ETRapp is an easily measured and reliable proxy of CO2 uptake in thalli without external water but overestimates photosynthesis during suprasaturation. Keywords: Desiccation · Imaging chlorophyll fuorescence · Infrared gas analysis · Suprasaturation · Water holding capacity. Main conclusion: During desiccation, both apparent electron transport rate (ETRapp) and photosynthetic CO2 uptake peak when external water has evaporated. External water, causing suprasaturation, weakens the strong correlation between ETRapp and CO2 uptake.
33043Darmostuk V.V. & Khodosovtsev A.Ye. (2020): Notes to lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi in Ukraine I. - Чорноморський ботанічний журнал [Chornomorski Botanical Journal], 16(3): 257–274. doi: 10.32999/ksu1990553X/2020-16-3-6. http://cbj.kspu.edu/images/PDF/2020/16.3/8%201.pdf.
In this contribution, new data concerning lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi in Ukraine are presented. It includes new records, exclusions, and confirmations to the Ukrainian administrative regions or taxa in the genera of Arthonia, Aspicilia, Aspiciliella, Bacidia, Buellia, Cercidospora, Circinaria, Cladonia, Clypeococcum, Codonmyces, Didymellopsis, Didymocyrtis, Heterocephalacria, Laetisaria, Lambiella, Lecanora, Lepraria, Lichenochora, Lichenoconium, Lichenostigma, Lichenothelia, Marchandiomyces, Montanelia, Phaeospora, Placynthiella, Polycoccum, Protoparmeliopsis, Pyrenochaeta, Pyrenodesmia, Pyrenopsis, Refractohilum, Rinodina, Rosellinula, Scytinium, Sphaerellothecium, Sphinctrina, Staurothele, Stigmidium, Taeniolella, Thallinocarpon, Toninia, Trapelia, Weddellomyces, Xanthoparmelia and Xanthoriicola. Among them 28 species of lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi are new to Mykolaiv region, 21 species new to Dnipropetrovsk region, 17 species new to Cherkasy region, 7 species new to Kherson region, 5 species new to Zaporizhzhia region, 3 species new to Chernivtsi region, 3 species new to Odessa region, 3 species new to Luhansk region, 2 species new to Donetsk region, 2 species new to Kirovograd region, one species new to Ternopil region and one species new to Rivne region. Caloplaca xerica is a new host species for Lichenochora caloplacae. In Ukraine, Aspicilia cinerea is a dubious species and it needs to be removed from lichen list of Cherkasy, Donetsk, Dnipropetrovsk, Kirovograd, Mykolaiv and Zaporizhzhia regions. Lepraria neglecta was erroneously reported for Donetsk, Mykolaiv and Zaporizhzhia regions and should be removed from the species lists of these regions. Miriquidica complanata is erronoeusly reported for Zaporizhzhia regions and should be excluded from the list of this region.
33042Brackel W. v. (2020): Lichenicolous fungi from Molise (Italy). - Borziana, 1: 53–65. https://doi.org/10.7320/Borz.001.053.
During a one week excursion to Molise in 2016, 18 lichenologically interesting sites were visited. The results of these field studies with special emphasis on lichenicolous fungi are presented, completed with data from the literature. The resulting list comprises four species known only from literature and 45 based on original data. Among these, three species (Epicladonia stenospora, Spirographa triangularis and Xenonectriella physciacearum) are new to Italy and 39 species are new to Molise. In addition, the finds of five lichens new to Molise are mentioned. Key words: Ascomycotina, Basidiomycotina, lichens, Mediterranean.
33041Wigle R.D., Wiersma Y.F., Arsenault A. & McMullin R.T. (2021): Drivers of arboreal lichen community structure and diversity on Abies balsamea and Betula alleghaniensis in the Avalon Forest Ecoregion, Newfoundland. - Botany, 99: 43–54. https://doi.org/10.1139/cjb-2020-0061.
There is debate about what drives and maintains the structure of arboreal lichen communities and the relative importance of substrate vs. local environment. Here, we examined which lichen species are unique to two tree species [Abies balsamea (L.) Mill. and Betula alleghaniensis Britton] in the boreal forests of the Avalon Peninsula, Newfoundland, and which environmental variables are most important for lichen colonization and community structure. We collected data on lichen diversity from tree boles along with environmental data (tree size, bark pH, canopy cover) for each tree and each site. Multivariate analyses were used to determine the relationship between community structure and environmental data. The results show that a diverse range of tree characteristics are needed to support a diverse range of lichen species. Certain stands, such as old B. alleghaniensis stands, are more suitable to host a unique community of lichens than others. These results can inform land managers on the Avalon, recommending strategies for protected areas and providing forest harvest guidelines that limit clear-cutting of A. balsamea to maintain a diverse community structure and limit harvest of B. alleghaniensis trees in sites less optimal for lichen growth. These baseline data can also be used to monitor changes caused by moose browse and selective harvesting, two locally important threats to lichen diversity. Key words: boreal forest, epiphyte, substrate specificity, distribution patterns, community structure.
33040Мучник Е.Э.  & Тихонова Е.В. [Muchnik E.E. & Tikhonova E.V.] (2020): Дополнения к лихенофлоре Смоленской области [Additions to lichen flora of Smolensk region]. - Ботанический журнал [Botanicheskiy Zhurnal], 105(8): 807–815. DOI: 10.31857/S0006813620080104.
[in Russian with English summary: ] Additions to the list of lichens and allied fungi of the Smolensk Region and the “Smolensk Lakeland” National Park are presented, including the lichenicolous fungus Phaeosporobolus usneae, recorded in Central Russia for the first time, and 16 species of lichens new to the Smolensk Region: Bacidina chloroticula, Bryoria fuscescens, B. vrangiana, Buellia erubescens, Carbonicola anthracophila, Cladonia glauca, C. norvegica, C. pleurota, Fuscidea arboricola, F. pusilla, Lecanora thysanophora, Lepraria jackii, Ochrolechia androgyna, Pertusaria coronata, Ropalospora viridis. Another 6 lichen species were first identified on the territory of the “Smolensk Lakeland” National Park: Bryoria capillaris, Cladonia deformis, Lecanora compallens, Peltigera polydactylon, Trapeliopsis flexuosa, Usnea hirta. Carbonicola anthracophila, Cladonia glauca, C. norvegica, Ochrolechia androgyna and Pertusaria coronata are recommended to include in the list of protected species of the region. Keywords: lichens, lichenicolous fungi, rare species, specially protected nature areas, “Smolensk Lakeland” National Park, Central Russia.
33039Галанина И.А. [Galanina I.A.] (2016): Дополнение к лихенобиоте дюнных комплексов (тукуланов) Центральной Якутии [Addition to the lichen biota of dune complexes of Central Yakutia]. - Ботанический журнал [Botanicheskiy Zhurnal], 101(12): 1486–1497. .
[in Russian with English abstract: ] Additional data on the lichens of the dune complexes in the Central Yakutia (tukulans) are presented. A total of 48 new species were identified, 15 of them being new to Yakutia. The total list of lichens in Yakut tukulans comprises 104 taxa. There are species of a special interest, namely those directly inhabiting the sands to contribute to their stabilization: Diploschistes muscorum, Trapeliopsis granulosa, Baeomyces carneus, Cladonia coccifera, Placynthiella uliginosa, Stereocaulon sp. An interesting group of lichens characteristic of tukulans inhabits dry wood and coal: Arthrosporum populorum, Biatora subduplex, Cliostomum corrugatum, C. griffithii, C. leprosum, Cyphelium tigillare, Carbonicola myrmecina, Hypocenomyce castaneocinerea. Keywords: lichens, tukulans, dunes, Yakutia.
33038Цуриков А.Г. [Tsurykau A.G.] (2019): Динамика географической структуры лихенобиоты Беларуси как индикатор современных биоклиматических условий [Dynamics of the geographic structure of Lichen biota of Belarus as indicator of modern bioclimatic conditions]. - Ботанический журнал [Botanicheskiy Zhurnal], 104(8): 1167–1188. DOI: 10.1134/S000681361908012X.
[in Russian with English summary: ] The biogeographical structure of the lichen biota of Belarus was studied in order to understand its distribution patterns (floristic elements) against the background of modern ecogeographical and historical factors. Seven floristic elements are distinguished, namely arid, boreal (cool-temperate), hypo-arctic-montane, montane, multi-zonal, nemoral (mild-temperate) and suboceanic. Nemoral element is the most diverse in the country, counting 205 (30.9%) species. The share of arid and mild-temperate species has increased over the past 20 years due to the climate warming. In contrast, hypo-arctic-montane and montane lichens are vulnerable to warming and may soon experience local extinction. For the suboceanic and multi-zonal species, sensitivity to climate change remains unknown. Keywords: lichens, lichenicolous fungi, geographic analysis, climate change.
33037Цуриков А.Г. [Tsurykau A.G.] (2019): Ареалогический анализ лихенобиоты Беларуси [Analysis of geographic distribution of lichen biota of Belarus]. - Ботанический журнал [Botanicheskiy Zhurnal], 104(11): 1665–1680. DOI: 10.1134/S0006813619110176.
[in Russian with English summary: ] The paper represents the results and problems of the analysis of geographic ranges (distribution) of lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi of Belarus. In total, seven types of geographic ranges are distinguished, namely European, European-North African, Euro-American, Eurasian, Palearctic, circumpolar (Holarctic) and multiregional. The share of the species with the widest geographic distribution (multiregional and Holarctic) is 88%. It is assumed that a real part of the species with narrower ranges can be lower due to the current insufficient knowledge of their geography. This is confirmed by comparison of modern (2019) and historical (1982) data on geographic distribution of lichens. For this period, the data on the half (50%) of the analyzed species has been changed. Furthermore, the geographic distribution structure of lichen biota of the country has become looking poorer as the share of multiregional species increased significantly while the amount of European, Eurasian and EuroAmerican species has decreased by 6 times. Keywords: range, distribution, geographic structure, geographic analysis, lichens, lichenicolous fungi.
33036Урбанавичюс Г.П. [Urbanavichus G.P.] (2016): Phaeophyscia dagestanica (Physciaceae) – новый вид лишайника с Восточного Кавказа (Внутригорный Дагестан, Россия) [Phaeophyscia dagestanica (Physciaceae), a new lichen species from Eastern Caucasus (Inner-mountain Dagestan, Russia)]. - Ботанический журнал [Botanicheskiy Zhurnal], 101(7): 810–814. .
[in Russian with English abstract: ] The new lichen species Phaeophyscia dagestanica G. Urbanav. sp. nov. is described, based on collections from the eastern part of the Great Caucasus (Dagestan, Russia). It is distinguished from a similar species Ph. nigricans by its black lower surface of lobules with black rhizines, upper surface with tiny cortical colorless hairs, and phylogenetic position. The species grows on calcareous rocks in subalpine meadows and birch-pine forests at the altitudes from ca. 1750 to 2250 m a. s. l.; so far is known from Gunib Plateau only (Gunib district, Inner-Mountain Dagestan). Keywords: lichen, Phaeophyscia, new species, Dagestan, Caucasus, Russia.
33035Урбанавичюс Г.П. & Урбанавичене И.Н. [Urbanavichus G.P. & Urbanavichene I.N.] (2020): Новые лихенофлористические находки из Мурманской области [New records to the lichen flora of Murmansk Region]. - Ботанический журнал [Botanicheskiy Zhurnal], 105(12): 1221–1225. DOI: 10.31857/S0006813620120182.
[in Russian with English summary: ] Based on field research by the first author, seven rare and noteworthy species from Murmansk Region are recorded. Among them, five species, namely Bryoria glabra, Myriolecis invadens, Myriospora scabrida, Phaeocalicium praecedens and Thelidium minutulum are reported for the first time for Murmansk Region. The information about the localities, ecology and distribution of all mentioned species is provided. Keywords: lichens, new findings, distribution, Murmansk Region.
33034Урбанавичене И.Н. & Урбанавичюс Г.П. [Urbanavichene I.N. & Urbanavichus G.P.] (2016): Лихенофлора Мордовского заповедника (аннотированный список видов) [The lichen flora of the Mordovskii Reserve (an annotated species list)]. - Москва, Флора и фауна заповедников. Вып. 126 / Moscow, Flora and fauna of Reserves. Issue 126 , 41 p. .
[in Russian with English abtsract: ] The results of author’s inventory of the lichen flora of the Mordovskii Reserve in 2013–2015 are presented. Annotated list includes 361 species of lichens and systematically close non-lichenized lichenicolous and saprotrophic fungi.
33033Hamäläinen A., Ranius T. & Strengbom J. (2021): Increasing the amount of dead wood by creation of high stumps has limited value for lichen diversity. - Journal of Environmental Management, 280: 111646 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2020.111646.
Artificial creation of dead wood in managed forests can be used to mitigate the negative effects of forestry on biodiversity. For this to be successful, it is essential to understand the conservation value that the created dead wood has in comparison to naturally occurring dead wood, and, furthermore, where in the landscape addition of dead wood is most beneficial, i.e. how landscape composition influences species occurrence on dead wood. We examined these questions by surveying epixylic lichens on artificially created high stumps of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) in 3–17 years old clear-cuts. We compared lichen assemblages on high stumps to those on other types of pine dead wood in mature forests, and examined how stump age, the amount of dead wood at the clear-cuts, and landscape composition at 500 m - 2.5 km scale influenced the assemblages. In comparison to other dead wood types, high stumps hosted lower lichen richness and less variable assemblages containing mainly common generalist species. Species richness increased with stump age, whereas dead wood amount and landscape composition were not important; only the total amount of forests in the landscape had a minor positive effect. We conclude that at the studied timescale high stumps of Scots pine are not particularly valuable for epixylic lichens and provide a poor substitute for naturally occurring dead wood in mature forests, although their value may increase with age. Furthermore, directing dead wood creation to specific stands or landscapes does not appear beneficial for lichen biodiversity, given the minor effect of landscape composition found at scales below 2.5 km. Keywords: Colonization; Dead wood; Epixylic; Landscape composition; Pinus sylvestris.
33032Tatsumi S., Strengbom J., Čugunovs M. & Kouki J. (2020): Partitioning the colonization and extinction components of beta diversity across disturbance gradients. - Ecology, 101(12): e03183 [10 p.]. 10.1002/ecy.3183. https://doi.org/10.1002/ecy.3183.
Changes in species diversity often result from species losses and gains. The dynamic nature of beta diversity (spatial variation in species composition) that derives from such temporal species turnover, however, has received relatively little attention. Here, we disentangled extinction and colonization components of beta diversity by using the sets of species that went locally extinct and that newly colonized the study sites. We applied this concept of extinction and colonization beta diversity to ground vegetation communities that have been repeatedly surveyed in forests where fire and harvesting were experimentally applied. We first found that fire and harvesting caused no effect on beta diversity 2 yr after the treatments. From this result, we might conclude that they did not alter the ways in which species assemble across space. However, when we analyzed the extinction and colonization beta diversity between pretreatment and 2 yr after the treatments, both measures were found to be significantly lower in burned sites compared to unburned sites (i.e., the groups of excluded and newly colonized species both showed low beta diversity in the burned sites). These results indicate that the fire excluded similar subsets of species across space, making communities become more heterogeneous, but at the same time induced spatially uniform colonization of new species, causing communities to homogenize. Consequently, the effects of these two processes canceled each other out. The relative importance of extinction and colonization components per se also changed temporally after the treatments. Fire and harvesting showed synergetic negative impacts on extinction beta diversity between pre-treatment and 10 yr after the treatments. Overall, analyses using extinction and colonization beta diversity allowed us to detect nonrandom disassembly and reassembly dynamics in ground vegetation communities. Our results suggest that common practices of analyzing beta diversity at one point in time can mask significant variation driven by disturbance. Acknowledging the extinction–colonization dynamics behind beta diversity is essential for understanding the spatiotemporal organization of biodiversity. Key words: biotic homogenization; community assembly; dispersal; ecosystem function; extinction debt; fire; forest dynamics; resilience; retention harvest; spatial heterogeneity; succession.
33031Reyes-Tur B., González-Guillén A., Rosabal D. & Capote-Danet A. (2020): Associations between tree snails and corticolous lichens in a secondary forest in eastern Cuba. - Poeyana, 510: 18–26. http://revistas.geotech.cu/index.php/poey.
Snail-lichen interactions have received little attention in tropical ecosystems. Here, we studied the species richness of corticolous lichens with snail grazing traces on host trees inhabited by the Cuban tree snails, Polymita venusta, Liguus fasciatus and Hemitrochus lucipeta at La Rinconada, eastern Cuba. We sampled lichen specimens from ground level to 2 m, on the trunks of 15 host trees of eight species, in a 6 000 m² forest patch, in April 2012. In addition, we sampled snail feces from the three snail species. Most of the tree snail and lichen species were associated with a tree species usually with smooth bark, Senna atomaria. We found 30 lichen species, of which 19 were identified to species, three to genus, and eight remain undetermined. Non-metric multidimensional scaling and χ2 tests showed that the three snail species had different associations with lichen species. Liguus fasciatus is associated with Physcia sorediosa and P. aipolia; H. lucipeta is associated with Platythecium grammitis and an unknown lichen, and P. venusta is associated with Buellia spuria and Chrysothrix candelaris. Evidence from snail grazing damage on lichen species, together with ingested spores from six species, suggested that L. fasciatus and P. venusta are generalist herbivores. Keywords: herbivory, lichen-animal interaction, Gastropoda, Stylommatophora.
33030Massalongo A.B. (1860): Sulla Chrysothrix nolitangere, Mont.. - Atti Imp. Reg. Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere et Arti, ser. 3, 5: 499–504 [+ Tab. III]. .
33029Massalongo A. (1855): Nemacola novum genus Byssacearum. - Flora [Regensburg], 38: 36–37 [+ Tab. I]. .
Nemacola criniformis gen. et spec. nov.
33028Massalongo A. (1853): Alcuni generi di Licheni nuovamente limitati e descritti. - Tip. di Giuseppe Antonelli, Verona, 44 p. http://nhm2.uio.no/botanisk/lav/RLL/PDF1/M31941.pdf.
Tricholechia A.Massal. gen. nov., Trichoplacia A.Massal. gen. nov., Raphiospora A.Massal. gen. nov., Lecania A.Massal. gen. nov., Cryptolechia A.Massal. gen. nov., Fulgensia A.Massal. & de Not. gen. nov., Xanthocarpia A.Massal. & de Not. gen. nov.
33027Massalongo A. (1852): Sui generi Dirina e Dirinopsis. - Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien, 1: 207–224 [+ 4 plates]. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/VZBG_1_0001-0234.pdf.
Hagenia albana sp. nov. (= Rinodina albana)
33026Senoner [A.] (1861): Professor Dr. A. B. Massalongo. Eine biographische Skizze. - Österreichische Botanische Zeitschrift, 11: 257–262. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/OeBoZ_011_0257-0262.pdf.
biography; bibliography
33025Massalongo A. (1854): Geneacaena lichenum. - Veronae: Typis Ramanzinianis, 24 p. https://ia801208.us.archive.org/14/items/geneacaenaliche00mass/geneacaenaliche00mass.pdf.
Koerberia gen. nov., Collolechia gen. nov., Cormothecium gen. nov., Sagiolechia gen. nov., Encephalographa gen. nov., Leciographa gen. nov., Krempelhuberia gen. nov., Acrocordia gen. nov.
33024Pant R., Joshi A., Joshi T., Maiti P., Nand M., Joshi T., Pande V. & Chandra S. (2021): Identification of potent Antigen 85C inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis via in-house lichen library and binding free energy studies Part-II. - Journal of Molecular Graphics and Modelling, 103: 107822 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmgm.2020.107822.
Tuberculosis remains the cause of mortality throughout the world. Currently, the available antitubercular drugs are not effective because of the existence of Multi-Drug resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB) and Extensively-Drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB). It has, therefore, become necessary to develop novel drugs that inhibit the activity of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Due to the existence of MDR and XDR-TB, Mtb Ag85C has risen out as a propitious molecular drug target as it has importance in the synthesis of main components of the Mtb cell envelope which are essential for the virulence and survival of Mtb. In a previous paper, we studied a potential drug target by virtual high throughput screening of compounds and in continuation of the study on Mtb Ag85C, we further studied the role of lichen compounds in the inhibition of Ag85C. In the current research work, virtual screening of a lichen compounds library was performed against Ag85C. Further, ADMET analysis was employed to filter out the screened lichen compounds. Bioactivity score and toxicity prediction finalized four lichen compounds i.e. Portentol, Aspicilin, Parietinic acid and Polyporic acid as potential inhibitors of Ag85C. The stability and dynamic behavior of four compounds were analyzed by using Molecular dynamics simulation which indicated that they may be potential inhibitors of Ag85C. Therefore, based on the above results, Portentol, Aspicilin, Parietinic acid and Polyporic acid may be potential drug candidates against Mtb. We suggest that the use of these compounds can minimize the treatment time-period and the various side effects associated with the currently available anti-tubercular drugs. Keywords: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Antigen 85C; Virtual screening; ADMET; Molecular dynamics; MMPBSA.
33023Belova S.E., Danilova O.V., Ivanova A.A., Merkel A.Y. & Dedysh S.N. (2020): Methane-oxidizing communities in lichen-dominated forested tundra are composed exclusively of high-affinity USCα methanotrophs. - Microorganisms, 8(12): 2047 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8122047.
Upland soils of tundra function as a constant sink for atmospheric CH4 but the identity of methane oxidizers in these soils remains poorly understood. Methane uptake rates of −0.4 to −0.6 mg CH4-C m−2 day−1 were determined by the static chamber method in a mildly acidic upland soil of the lichen-dominated forested tundra, North Siberia, Russia. The maximal CH4 oxidation activity was localized in an organic surface soil layer underlying the lichen cover. Molecular identification of methanotrophic bacteria based on retrieval of the pmoA gene revealed Upland Soil Cluster Alpha (USCα) as the only detectable methanotroph group. Quantification of these pmoA gene fragments by means of specific qPCR assay detected ~107pmoA gene copies g−1 dry soil. The pmoA diversity was represented by seven closely related phylotypes; the most abundant phylotype displayed 97.5% identity to pmoA of Candidatus Methyloaffinis lahnbergensis. Further analysis of prokaryote diversity in this soil did not reveal 16S rRNA gene fragments from well-studied methanotrophs of the order Methylococcales and the family Methylocystaceae. The largest group of reads (~4% of all bacterial 16S rRNA gene fragments) that could potentially belong to methanotrophs was classified as uncultivated Beijerinckiaceae bacteria. These reads displayed 96–100 and 95–98% sequence similarity to 16S rRNA gene of Candidatus Methyloaffinis lahnbergensis and “Methylocapsa gorgona” MG08, respectively, and were represented by eight species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs), two of which were highly abundant. These identification results characterize subarctic upland soils, which are exposed to atmospheric methane concentrations only, as a unique habitat colonized mostly by USCα methanotrophs. Keywords: atmospheric methane oxidation; forested tundra; acidic soils; methanotrophic bacteria; USCα group; pmoA gene; bacterial diversity
33022Migliozzi A., Catalano I., Mingo A. & Aprile G.G. (2020): Detecting the drivers of functional diversity in a local lichen fora: a case study on the extinct volcano of Roccamonfna (southern Italy). - Oecologia, 194: 757–770. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-020-04790-x.
Current strategies for conservation reportedly sufer from an inadequate awareness of the drivers afecting lichen diversity, pointing to the need to fully develop a functional approach to lichen ecology. This study is an attempt to detect the drivers afecting functional diversity in the lichen fora of a volcanic Mediterranean area. Data on epiphytic lichen distribution were correlated with information coming from a GIS analysis. Species richness, functional diversity and indicator values of lichens species were analyzed as a function of altitude, bioclimatic patterns and land use patterns. Both taxonomic and functional diversity were found to increase with altitude, peaking at 600 m a.s.l. and slightly decreasing at higher elevations. A fltering efect of altitude on lichen growth-forms was detected at increasing altitude, with foliose isidiate lichens replacing crustose lichens with sexual reproduction, cyanobacteria replacing Trentepohlia as photobiont, and oligotrophic species linked to partially shaded environments gradually replacing species indicating eutrophic conditions. Forest stations impacted by low impact traditional agriculture tended to express higher lichen diversity compared to either undisturbed broadleaved forests or intensive orchards. These data demonstrate the need to integrate traditional low-impact agricultural practices in protected areas. Moreover, they provide the evidence that reanalyzing past and recent lichenological censuses with the proposed analytical tools may help previewing and driving the evolution of endangered ecosystems. Keywords: Altitudinal gradient · Bioindicators · GIS analysis · Land-use patterns · Protected areas.
33021Behera P.K. & Nayaka S. (2020): Updated checklist of lichen biota of Meghalaya, India with 93 new distributional records for the state. - Journal of Indian Botanical Society, 100: 134–147. .
The paper reports the occurrence of 337 species of lichens from Meghalaya in North-East India. The study includes compilation of previous reports and recent collections from the state. The 337 species are distributed under 40 families and 102 genera, out of which 93 species are reported for the first time from the state Meghalaya. The lichen biota is dominated by crustose lichens (226 spp.) with maximum representation of graphidaceous (66 spp.) forms. Frequent encountering of previously unrecorded species from Meghalaya indicates the lichen richness and insufficient exploration in the state. Keywords: Biodiversity, Cryptogam, Distribution, Lichenized fungi, North-east, Taxonomy.
33020Исмаилов А.Б. & Урбанавичюс Г.П. [Ismailov A.B. & Urbanavichus G.P.] (2020): Виды лишайников, рекомендуемые к включению в новое. издание Красной книги Республики Дагестан [Species of lichens recommended for inclusion in the new edition of the Red data book of the Republic of Dagestan]. - Ботанический вестник Северного Кавказа [Botanical Herald of the North Caucasus], 2020/1: 7–22. DOI: 10.33580/2409-2444-2020-6-1-7-22.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] During on the field work of 2009–2020 years were obtained data on diversity, distribution and occurrence of lichens in the Republic of Dagestan including data on rare and endangered species. Based on them we recommend 24 species for inclusion in the new edition of the red data book of the Republic of Dagestan. Among them, 8 species are included in the red book of the Russian Federation (Leptogium burnetiae, L. hildenbrandii, Letharia vulpina, Lobaria pulmonaria, Nephromopsis laureri, Ricasolia amplissima, Tornabea scutellifera, Usnea florida), 16 species are rare and vulnerable in the region (Anaptychia elbursiana, A. roemeri, Chaenotheca hispidula, Circinaria vagans, Coniocarpon cinnabarinum, Enterographa hutchinsiae, Flavoparmelia soredians, Hypotrachyna laevigata, Inoderma byssaceum, Lecanographa lyncea, Lobarina scrobiculata, Pannaria conoplea, Parmelina quercina, Sclerophora farinacea, Seirophora lacunosa, Usnea articulata). Most of the species (20) were proposed to be included with «Vulnerable» category, 2 species (Leptogium burnetiae, Nephromopsis laureri) with «Near Threatened» and 2 species (Tornabea scutellifera, Usnea florida) with «Least Concern». Most of the lichens recommended on protection are epiphytes and concentrated in forest communities on the Coastal lowland (Samur river Delta), in mountain broad-leaved and mixed forests. Keywords: lichens, rare species, vulnerable species, protected species.
33019Gerlach A., Kantvilas G., Herrera Campos M.A., Truong C., Flakus A. & Miadlikowska J. (2020): A Festschrift in honor of Philippe Clerc: an eminent and multitalented lichenologist in Switzerland. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 65(2): 239. https://doi.org/10.35535/pfsyst-2020-0019.
33018Gerlach A., Rodrigues D., Rodriguez J.M., Rojas C., Temu S. & Kantvilas G. (2020): A tribute to Philippe Clerc: an eminent and multitalented lichenologist in Switzerland. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 65(2): 240–246. https://doi.org/10.35535/pfsyst-2020-0020.
anniversary; biography
33017Ferron S., Berry O., Olivier-Jimenez D., Rouaud I., Boustie J., Lohézic-Le Dévéhat F. & Poncet R. (2020): Chemical diversity of five coastal Roccella species from mainland France, the Scattered Islands, and São Tomé and Príncipe. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 65(2): 247–260. https://doi.org/10.35535/pfsyst-2020-0021.
Roccella species constitute interesting models to address questions regarding lichen metabolite diversity across taxonomic, ecological and geographic gradients. Indeed, owing to their wide distribution, their taxonomic diversity and the narrow ecological niche they occupy, Roccella species are good candidates to study the drivers of lichen chemistry. This study focuses on the chemical profiling of five species: R. applanata, R. belangeriana, R. fuciformis, R. montagnei and R. phycopsis. These five species were sampled in a rather narrow longitudinal range (1°51′W to 47°17′E) covering the Eastern Atlantic and Western Indian Ocean areas along an extended latitudinal range (48°49′N to 22°23′S). High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis followed by mass spectrometry of 31 Roccella thalli revealed a number of interesting patterns through a multivariate (PCA) analysis, including the first detailed chemical profiles for two species from the Scattered Islands: R. applanata and R. belangeriana. Metabolite segregation amongst all studied Roccella species, including R. montagnei and R. belangeriana, gave some insight into the taxonomy of the latter two species, which we interpret as separate species. An additional analysis focusing on R. montagnei samples revealed chemical differences along both a latitudinal and ecological gradient (from Europa Island to São Tomé and Príncipe). Three mass spectra databases were built to dereplicate the ions, which gave an overview of the factors that could drive quantitative and qualitative metabolite composition in lichens. Additionally, several new Roccella species records are reported for the Scattered Islands, as well as São Tomé and Príncipe. Key words: Roccella applanata, Roccella belangeriana, Roccella fuciformis, Roccella montagnei, Roccella phycopsis, chemical profile.
33016Kantvilas G. (2020): A new species of Mazosia (lichenised Ascomycetes: Roccellaceae) from Tasmania. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 65(2): 261–264. https://doi.org/10.35535/pfsyst-2020-0022.
Two species of Mazosia occur in Tasmania: the foliicolous, pantropical M. phyllosema and M. corticola, here described as new to science. The new species is characterised by a corticolous thallus containing psoromic acid and three-septate ascospores, 17–27 × 4–6.5 µm; it occurs in Tasmanian and Victoria. Key words: Australia, corticolous, foliicolous, lichens, new species.
33015Ohmura Y. (2020): Usnea nipparensis and U. sinensis form a ‘species pair ’ presuming morphological, chemical and molecular phylogenetic data. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 65(2): 265–271. https://doi.org/10.35535/pfsyst-2020-0023.
Phylogenetic relationships between Usnea nipparensis and U. sinensis, caperatic acid containing Usnea species, were examined based on ITS rDNA, and the phylogenetic position of U. nipparensis was inferred based on multi-locus gene analysis using ITS rDNA, nuLSU, and MCM7. Although U. nipparensis and U. sinensis have a sorediate and an esorediate shrubby thallus, respectively, and in general look quite different, other detailed morphological and chemical features are similar. Analysis of the ITS rDNA sequences suggests their close relationship, but also confirms the independence of both species, and that they most likely form a ‘species pair’ based on morphological, chemical and molecular phylogenetic data. Phylogenetic trees based on both multi-locus gene and ITS rDNA alone strongly support that U. nipparensis and U. angulata belong to the same clade. Key words: Asia, caperatic acid, ITS rDNA, lichenized fungi, nuLSU, MCM7, phylogeny, taxonomy.
33014Gerlach A., da Silveira R.M.B., Rojas C. & Clerc P. (2020): Naming and describing the diversity in the Usnea cornuta aggregate (lichenized Ascomycota, Parmeliaceae) focusing on Brazilian specimens. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 65(2): 272–302. https://doi.org/10.35535/pfsyst-2020-0024.
This study is a reassessment of the Usnea cornuta aggregate diversity mainly in Brazil. Based on previous multi-locus species delimitation analyses using the multispecies coalescent model (MSC), we carried out a posteriori morphological and anatomical studies. The following corticolous new species are described: Usnea arianae with norstictic or fatty or lobaric acids, convex and efflorescent soralia and a lax medulla; U. flabelliformis with protocetraric acid, fan-shaped main branches and a high medulla/cortex ratio; U. rubropallens with protocetraric acid and a faint orange cortical/subcortical pigment; U. stipitata with constictic acid, stipitate soralia and a high medulla/cortex ratio; and U. tenuicorticata with protocetraric acid, a thin cortex and a high medulla/cortex ratio. The newly described species were found to occur so far only in the Americas, except U. arianae which shows an amphi-atlantic distribution in Europe and on the American continent. Seven species already described belonging to the U. cornuta aggr. in Brazil are further treated here: Usnea boomiana with caperatic acid and large, concave soralia, new to South America; U. brasiliensis with protocetraric acid, minute and irregular soralia; U. cornuta with mainly salazinic acid and minute soralia fusing into consoralia; U. macaronesica (syn. nov.: U. subglabrata) with barbatic acid, large excavate soralia and a lax medulla; Usnea subpectinata, a so far european species resurrected from the U. cornuta synonymy, with stictic acid and numerous isidiofibrils, new to South America; and U. trachyclada with thamnolic acid and K+ bright yellow stipitate soralia. Full descriptions with morphological, anatomical and chemical features, geographical distributions, and illustrations are provided for each species along with an identification key. Key words: Central America, Europe, multispecies coalescent (MSC) model, secondary metabolites, South America, species delimitation analyses, systematics.
33013Lücking R., Nadel M.R.A., Araujo E. & Gerlach A. (2020): Two decades of DNA barcoding in the genus Usnea (Parmeliaceae): how useful and reliable is the ITS?. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 65(2): 303–357. https://doi.org/10.35535/pfsyst-2020-0025.
We present an exhaustive analysis of the ITS barcoding marker in the genus Usnea s.lat., separated into Dolichousnea, Eumitria, and Usnea including the subgenus Neuropogon, analyzing 1,751 accessions. We found only a few low-quality accessions, whereas information on voucher specimens and accuracy and precision of identifications was of subpar quality for many accessions. We provide an updated voucher table, alignment and phylogenetic tree to facilitate DNA barcoding of Usnea, either locally or through curated databases such as UNITE. Taxonomic and geographic coverage was moderate: while Dolichousnea and subgenus Neuropogon were well-represented among ITS data, sampling for Eumitria and Usnea s.str. was sparse and biased towards certain lineages and geographic regions, such as Antarctica, Europe, and South America. North America, Africa, Asia and Oceania were undersampled. A peculiar situation arose with New Zealand, represented by a large amount of ITS accessions from across both major islands, but most of them left unidentified. The species pair Usnea antarctica vs. U. aurantiacoatra was the most sampled clade, including numerous ITS accessions from taxonomic and ecological studies. However, published analyses of highly resolved microsatellite and RADseq markers showed that ITS was not able to properly resolve the two species present in this complex. While lack of resolution appears to be an issue with ITS in recently evolving species complexes, we did not find evidence for gene duplication (paralogs) or hybridization for this marker. Comparison with other markers demonstrated that particularly IGS and RPB1 are useful to complement ITS-based phylogenies. Both IGS and RPB1 provided better backbone resolution and support than ITS; while IGS also showed better resolution and support at species level, RPB1 was less resolved and delineated for larger species complexes. The nuLSU was of limited use, providing neither resolution nor backbone support. The other three commonly employed protein-coding markers, TUB2, RPB2, and MCM7, showed variable evidence of possible gene duplication and paralog formation, particularly in the MCM7, and these markers should be used with care, especially in multimarker coalescence approaches. A substantial challenge was provided by difficult morphospecies that did not form coherent clades with ITS or other markers, suggesting various levels of cryptic speciation, the most notorious example being the U. cornuta complex. In these cases, the available data suggest that multimarker approaches using ITS, IGS and RPB1 help to assess distinct lineages. Overall, ITS was found to be a good first approximation to assess species delimitation and recognition in Usnea s.lat., as long as the data are carefully analyzed, and reference sequences are critically assessed and not taken at face value. In difficult groups, we recommend IGS as a secondary barcode marker, with the option to employ more resource-intensive approaches, such as RADseq, in species complexes involving so-called species pairs or other cases of disparate morphology not reflected in the ITS or IGS. Attempts should be made to close taxonomic and geographic gaps especially for the latter two markers, in particular in Eumitria and Usnea s.str. and in the highly diverse areas of North America and Central America, Africa, Asia, and Oceania. Key words: accuracy in GenBank, incorrect sequence labeling, paralogs, species delimitation; species richness.
33012Moncada B., Sipman H.J.M. & Lücking R. (2020): Testing DNA barcoding in Usnea (Parmeliaceae) in Colombia using the internal transcribed spacer (ITS). - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 65(2): 358–385. https://doi.org/10.35535/pfsyst-2020-0026.
We tested the functionality of ITS-based DNA barcoding in lichen fungi using Colombian samples of the genus Usnea as an example. New ITS sequences were generated for 15 samples from five localities in two different ecoregions, representing varying morphologies and medullary chemistries. We employed five strategies to identify the samples: (1) BLASTn on the NCBI BLAST site with the original identifications of the best matching reference sequences; (2) as previous, but with revised identifications of the reference sequences based on a separately published revision of ITS sequences published for the genus; (3) local BLASTn in BioEdit using a separately published, revised and curated set of ITS reference sequences for the genus; (4) multiple alignment based phylogenetic analysis within the framework of all available ITS sequences for Usnea s.str.; and (5) integrative taxonomy, combining molecular phylogeny and comparative analysis of phenotype and chemical data. Using the latter approach as reference, we found that NCBI BLASTn with original identifications performed poorly, resulting in an identification success rate of only 7% (a single sample). NCBI BLASTn with revised identifications more than tripled identification success (23%), but was still unsatisfactory. Local BLASTn in BioEdit using the revised, curated reference data further doubled identification success (47%), but remained inadequate. Multiple alignment-based phylogenetic analysis achieved an identification success rate of 80% compared to the result from integrative taxonomy. Based on these results, we conclude that ITS-based DNA barcoding of the genus Usnea under the current circumstances performs poorly, but can be substantially improved using three strategies: (1) update identifications of reference sequences in primary repositories such as GenBank or alternatively use a curated reference data set; (2) perform local BLAST with a curated reference data set focusing on the target genus only, combined with multiple alignment-based phylogenetic analysis as a verification step; and (3) close substantial geographic and taxonomic gaps in the existing reference data. Our analyses suggest that if a near-complete reference data set with correct identifications existed for the genus, then standard BLAST approaches could achieve high levels of identification success close to 100%. As part of our DNA barcoding exercise, which generated the first 15 ITS sequences for Colombian samples of the genus Usnea, we confirm the presence of U. aranea and U. wasmuthii in Colombia and we report for the first time U. tenuicorticata for the country. Key words: Usnea columbiana, Usnea concinna, Usnea fruticans, Usnea macrura, Usnea nidulans, Usnea setulosa, Usnea sulphurascens.
33011Rodriguez J.M., Diaz Dominguez R.E., Mayrhofer H., Passo A. & Renison D. (2020): High lichen species richness in Polylepis australis forest: new records from South America and Argentina. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 65(2): 386–402. https://doi.org/10.35535/pfsyst-2020-0027.
The Polylepis australis forests in Central Argentina support a great biodiversity in a relative small area. As a result of this study focusing on the diversity and ecology of the lichen communities of these forests, we present five new species for South America: Rinodina ficta, R. malcolmii, R. obscura, Usnea glabrata, Tetramelas triphragmioides and eight taxa new for Argentina: Calicium abietinum, Erioderma leylandii subsp. leylandii, Leptogium microstictum, Phaeophyscia endococcinodes, Rinodina dolichospora, R. intermedia, Usnea cirrosa and U. flavocardia. Unidentified Usnea species, similar to U. silesiaca, were also characterized and discussed. Key words: Caliciaceae, Collemataceae, Córdoba, Pannariaceae, Parmeliaceae, Physciaceae, taxonomy.
33010Spielmann A.A. & Marcelli M.P. (2020): Type studies on Parmotrema (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) with salazinic acid. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 65(2): 403–508. https://doi.org/10.35535/pfsyst-2020-0028.
The species of Parmotrema with salazinic acid were revised, based on the types of the accepted names, as well as their synonyms. Descriptions for 66 species are given and the synonymy, chemistry, distribution and taxonomic affinities of each species discussed. Three new species are described: Parmotrema austromaculatum sp. nov., P. bifidum sp. nov. and P. clercianum sp. nov. One new combination in Parmelinella is made, P. afrocetrata comb. nov., as well as 13 new combinations in Parmotrema: P. acanthifolium comb. nov., P. concors comb. nov., P. foliolosum comb. nov., P. granulare comb. nov., P. lividotessellatum comb. nov., P. magnum comb. nov., P. maximum comb. nov., P. nudum comb. nov., P. petropoliense comb. nov., P. radiatum comb. nov., P. reterimulosum comb. nov., P. sieberi comb. nov. and P. warmingii comb. nov. One new name, Parmotrema elixii nom. nov. is proposed for Rimelia pustulata. Two lectotypifications are made: Parmotrema erubescens and P. ruminatum. Twelve taxa remain without definite status and are included in the nomina inquirenda. Key words: lichens, Brazil, Parmelia, Rimelia, Canomaculina, Rimeliella, Parmelinella.
33009La Greca S. (2020): Chrysothrix bergeri (Ascomycota: Arthoniales: Chrysothricaceae), a new lichen species from the southeastern United States, the Caribbean, and Bermuda. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 65(2): 509–514. https://doi.org/10.35535/pfsyst-2020-0029.
A crustose lichen species new to science – previously characterized in the literature but unnamed – is formally described. This new species, Chrysothrix bergeri sp. nov., ranges from the southeastern United States southwards to the Caribbean islands (Bahamas and Cuba) and eastwards to Bermuda. It is most easily confused with C. xanthina, from which it differs in both chemistry and ascospore shape. Bilimbia aurata and Bilimbia stevensoni are both confirmed as synonyms of C. xanthina. A lectotype is selected for Bilimbia aurata. Solvent E is recommended for the chromatographic separation of leprapinic and pinastric acids – two lichen secondary products critical for diagnosing certain species of Chrysothrix, including C. bergeri. Key words: Arthoniomycetes, leprapinic acid, Neotropics, pinastric acid, taxonomy.
33008Bungartz F., Søchting U. & Arup U. (2020): Teloschistaceae (lichenized Ascomycota) from the Galapagos Islands: a phylogenetic revision based on morphological, anatomical, chemical, and molecular data. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 65(2): 515–576. https://doi.org/10.35535/pfsyst-2020-0030.
The lichen family Teloschistaceae from the Galapagos is revised. Most of the species belong to the Caloplacoideae, two to Teloschistoideae and a few to Xanthorioideae, three subfamilies not validly published, which is remedied here. Four different datasets were analyzed using Bayesian inference. For the bulk of the species, a combined dataset of nrITS, nrLSU and mrSSU was analyzed. Additionally, three analyses were performed using nrITS to further investigate phylogenetic relationships within and between species in each subfamily, and in the genera Xanthomendoza and Squamulea. Four new genera are described: Lacrima, Oceanoplaca, Phaeoplaca, Sucioplaca. Twenty-four species are reported, of which ten are new to science: Caloplaca nigra, Lacrima galapagoensis, Oceanoplaca chemoisidiosa, O. sideritoides, Phaeoplaca tortuca, Squamulea chelonia, S. humboldtiana, S. osseophila, S. oceanica, and Xanthomendoza leoncita. Several new combinations are proposed and three species of Xanthomendoza are reduced to synonymy. Several new combinations and species placed into synonymy do not occur in the Galapagos, but are treated as a consequence of our taxonomic revision. Morphology, anatomy, secondary chemistry, distribution and molecular phylogenetic affiliation are presented for each species and a key is provided. Eight different chemical patterns are quantitatively described based on HPLC analyses. The new genus Lacrima includes L. galapagoensis, a species without vegetative propagules, and two densely isidiate species, L. epiphora and L. aphanotripta that are morphologically similar to ‘Caloplaca’ wrightii. The only species of Galapagos Teloschistaceae that contains xanthones is placed into Huneckia. Oceanoplaca includes two species with the new anthraquinone isidiosin, O. isidiosa and O. chemoisidiosa, while a third species, O. sideritoides, does not contain this secondary metabolite. Phaeoplaca camptidia has previously been reported from Galapagos, but our phylogenetic analysis suggests that it is a new species, here named P. tortuca. An isolated position is occupied by ‘Caloplaca’ diplacia, which we place in it its own monotypic genus Sucioplaca. Some Galapagos Teloschistaceae can be considered a ‘residue’ of unresolved Caloplaca s.l., i.e. the corticolous C. floridana is possibly related to the saxicolous C. nigra, while C. cupulifera can currently not be placed. Squamulea remains particularly problematic and includes S. phyllidizans, that is nested among otherwise unresolved Squamulea species. Based on molecular data, S. phyllidizans is close to ‘Huriella’. ‘Huriella’ flakusii, described from Peru, is confirmed to occur in the Galapagos and the genus is reduced to synonymy with Squamulea. The Squamulea squamosa/subsoluta group remains largely unresolved, but the new species S. chelonia, S. humboldtiana, S. oceanica, and S. osseophila are phylogenetically distinct. Foliose Teloschistaceae are represented only by one species, described as Xanthomendoza leoncita, while the only fruticose species, Teloschistes chrysophthalmus and T. flavicans, are cosmopolitan. Key words: Census of Galapagos Biodiversity, Caloplaca, Galapagos Lichen Inventory, Squamulea, taxonomy, identification key, South America, HPLC, secondary metabolites.
33007Lücking R., Moncada B., Sipman H.J.M., Sobreira P.N.B., Viñas C., Gutíerrez J. & Flynn T.W. (2020): Saxiloba: a new genus of placodioid lichens from the Caribbean and Hawaii shakes up the Porinaceae tree (lichenized Ascomycota: Gyalectales). - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 65(2): 577–585. https://doi.org/10.35535/pfsyst-2020-0031.
The new genus Saxiloba is described with the two species S. firmula from the Caribbean and S. hawaiiensis from Hawaii. Saxiloba is characterized by a unique, placodioid thallus forming distinct lobes, growing on rock in shaded to exposed situations with a trentepohlioid photobiont and a fenestrate thallus anatomy with distinct surface lines. The material is often sterile, but Porina-like perithecia and ascospores had previously been described for the Caribbean taxon and were here confirmed for both species. Molecular sequence data also confirmed placement of this lineage in Porinaceae. Its position within that family supports the notion that Porinaceae should be subdivided into a larger number of genera than proposed in previous classification attempts. Compared to other Porinaceae, Saxiloba exhibits a unique morphology and anatomy that recalls taxa in the related family Graphidaceae and it substantially expands the known phenotypic variation within Porinaceae. The two recognized species are similar in overall morphology but, apart from their disjunct distribution and different substrate ecology, differ in lobe configuration, color and disposition of the crystal clusters and resulting surface patterns. Key words: Labyrintha, Leucodecton, Poeltidea, Trichotheliaceae, window lichens.
33006McCune B., Arup U., Breuss O., Di Meglio E., Di Meglio J., Esslinger T.L., Miadlikowska J., Miller A.E., Rosentreter R., Schultz M., Sheard J., Tønsberg T. & Walton J. (2020): Biodiversity and ecology of lichens of Kenai Fjords National Park, Alaska. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 65(2): 586–619. https://doi.org/10.35535/pfsyst-2020-0032.
We inventoried lichens in Kenai Fjords National Park in Alaska, USA We assembled the known information on occurrence and ecology of lichens in this park by combining field, herbarium, and literature studies. Our results provide baseline data on lichen occurrence that may be used in resource condition assessments, vulnerability assessments, long-term ecological monitoring, and resource management. We report a total of 616 taxa of lichenized fungi from the Park, plus an additional five subspecies and three varieties, all of which are new additions to the National Park Service database for this park unit. An additional five species of nonlichenized lichenicolous fungi are reported here. Eight non-lichenized fungi that are traditionally treated with lichens are also included, most of these associated with bark of particular host species. Four taxa new to North America are reported here (Arctomia delicatula var. acutior, Aspicilia dudinensis, Myriospora myochroa, and Ochrolechia bahusiensis), along with 44 species new to Alaska. Numerous species have been confirmed using ITS barcoding sequences. Also several records assigned to the genus level are reported, many of those are likely new species. Key words: biological inventory, Kenai Peninsula, lichenized fungi, North America.
33005Tsurykau A., Bely P. & Arup U. (2020): Molecular phylogenetic analyses reveal two new synonyms of Xanthoria parietina. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 65(2): 620–623. https://doi.org/10.35535/pfsyst-2020-0033.
Molecular analyses of the recently described Xanthoria polessica collected from the type locality and of the Australian species X. coomae were used to determine whether these taxa are distinct species or fall within the wide phenotypic variation of the wellknown and cosmopolitan X. parietina. Our results clearly indicate that both taxa should be considered as synonyms of X. parietina since the infraspecific morphological range is accommodated by the observed variation in the thallus and lobe size, their color, position of apothecia, the shape of ascospores, and width of ascospore septum. Key words: taxonomy, phylogeny, ITS, Teloschistaceae, lichens.
33004Brunialti G., Giordani P., Ravera S. & Frati L. (2021): The reproductive strategy as an important trait for the distribution of lower-trunk epiphytic lichens in old-growth vs. non-old growth forests. - Forests, 12: 27 [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/f12010027.
(1) Research Highlights: The work studied the beta diversity patterns of epiphytic lichens as a function of their reproductive strategies in old-growth and non-old growth forests from the Mediterranean area. (2) Background and Objectives: The reproductive strategies of lichens can drive the dispersal and distribution of species assemblages in forest ecosystems. To further investigate this issue, we analyzed data on epiphytic lichen diversity collected from old-growth and non-old growth forest sites (36 plots) located in Cilento National Park (South Italy). Our working hypothesis was that the dispersal abilities due to the different reproductive strategies drove species beta diversity depending on forest age and continuity. We expected a high turnover for sexually reproducing species and high nestedness for vegetative ones. We also considered the relationship between forest continuity and beta diversity in terms of species rarity. (3) Materials and Methods: we used the Bray–Curtis index of dissimilarity to partition lichen diversity into two components of beta diversity for different subsets (type of forest, reproductive strategy, and species rarity). (4) Results: The two forest types shared most of the common species and did not show significant differences in alpha and gamma diversity. The turnover of specific abundance was the main component of beta diversity, and was significantly greater for sexually reproducing species as compared to vegetative ones. These latter species had also the least turnover and greater nestedness in old-growth forests. Rare species showed higher turnover than common ones. (5) Conclusions: Our results suggest that sexually reproducing lichen species always have high turnover, while vegetative species tend to form nested assemblages, especially in old-growth forests. The rarity level contributes to the species turnover in lichen communities. Contrary to what one might expect, the differences between old-growth and non-old growth forests are not strong. Keywords: sexual reproduction; vegetative propagules; forest management; functional traits; beta diversity.
33003Schmitz D., Villa P.M., Putzke J., Michel R.F.M., Campos P.V., Neto J.A.A.M. & Schaefer C.E.R.G. (2020): Diversity and species associations in cryptogam communities along a pedoenvironmental gradient on Elephant Island, Maritime Antarctica. - Folia Geobotanica, 55: 211–224. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12224-020-09376-2.
The Maritime Antarctica region has terrestrial ecosystems dominated by lichens and mosses, representing important ecological indicators of climate change. However, little is known about environmental factors that shape regional cryptogam communities at local scale. In this study we analyse changes in species richness, species composition and coverage of representative cryptogam communities across a pedoenvironmental gradient inMaritime Antarctica. We hypothesized that soil texture and chemical properties shape variations in species richness and composition. We selected fifteen different pedoenvironments, where 20 plots (20 × 20 cm) were sampled for obtaining phytosociological parameters of cryptogamous communities, and in each plot a composite topsoil sample was collected to determine chemical and physical soil properties.Wethen evaluated the main effects of soil attributes on the richness and composition of cryptogam species using direct gradient analysis and linear models. The ecological value of species was determined, allowing to identify the type of plant community and species associations in each pedoenvironment. Differences in species composition, richness and coverage were detected along the pedoenvironmental gradient. The model analysis showed that soil fertility has significant effects on species composition, but not on species richness. Based on gradient analysis, variability on soil fertility and nutrient contents were important pedoenvironmental filters for cryptogam communities in Maritime Antarctica. This study reveals that small-scale heterogeneity contributes to specific associations along pedoenvironmental gradients. We conclude that soil attributes drive the composition pattern of cryptogam species and also the type of communities present. Keywords: lichens . mosses . richness . soil texture . soil fertility . species composition.
33002McMullin R.T., Sokoloff P.C. & Lendemer J.C. (2020): Molecular data reveal the identity of an unusual form of Calogaya saxicola and the first report from the Queen Elizabeth Islands in the Canadian High Arctic. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 19: 190–198. http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/op/biblio_list.php?BucVolume_tab=19.
Calogaya saxicola (≡ Caloplaca saxicola) is reported for the first time from the Queen Elizabeth Islands in the Canadian High Arctic. The report is based on an unusual form with inconspicuous or absent lobes and clustered apothecia forming hemispherical mounds. It was identified using a molecular phylogenetic analysis of ITS nrDNA sequence data. Our analysis recovered the sequence in the C. saxicola group, within a clade of sequences assigned to C. saxicola s. str. in previous studies. Keywords. – Biogeography, genotype, morphological plasticity, phenotype, Teloschistaceae.
33001Kelso N. & Hansen C.J. (2020): Discovery of the first large population of Phaeophyscia leana in northern Alabama. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 19: 174–179. http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/op/biblio_list.php?BucVolume_tab=19.
One year after two individuals of the rare lichen Phaeophyscia leana were reported from north Alabama, a significant subpopulation of more than 500 individual thalli was discovered nearby in the Goldsmith-Schiffman Wildlife Sanctuary, Owens Cross Roads, Alabama. The site is located in a young forest surrounding an 80-year-old pond on protected property, affording some environmental protections that may have allowed this subpopulation to grow to its current size. This affirms that P. leana occurs at the southern edge of the Ohio Valley and furthers regional knowledge of the species by documenting that it occurs in at least one larger, more stable subpopulation. The discovery has positive implications for the future of the species in northeast Alabama and throughout its range. Keywords. – Huntsville, Madison County, lichen diversity, southeastern United States, Tennessee River.
33000Sierra R. & Molinari-Novoa E.A. (2020): Neoechinodiscus, a new name for Echinodiscus Etayo & Diederich (lichenicolous Helotiales). - Opuscula Philolichenum, 19: 172–173. http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/op/biblio_list.php?BucVolume_tab=19.
The name Echinodiscus Etayo & Diederich is illegitmate because it is a later homonym of Echinodiscus Bentham (a genus of legume) and Echinodiscus A. Mann (a genus of diatoms). Neoechinodiscus is introduced to provide a legitimate name for the genus of lichenicolous fungi. The new combinations N. lesdainii and N. kozhevnikovii are also proposed for the species included in Echinodiscus Etayo & Diederich. Keywords. – Echinodiscus kozhevnikovii, nomenclature, Phacopsis lesdainii, taxonomy.
32999Perlmutter G.B. & Rivas Plata E. (2020): Lecanora (Aspicilia) albopruinosa Looman is a synonym of Circinaria contorta. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 19: 168–171. http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/op/biblio_list.php?BucVolume_tab=19..
Material of Lecanora albopruinosa Looman was examined and found to belong to Circinaria contorta. This confirms the synonymy that was previously published seemingly without examination of the authentic material of L. albopruinosa. Further, L. albopruinosa Looman was found to be an illegitimate homonym of the European L. albopruinosa (Arnold) Nyl., which is a species of Caloplaca. Keywords. – Megasporaceae, North America, nomenclature, taxonomy.
32998Brodo I.M. & Sheard J.W. (2020): The lichens and lichenicolous fungi of Haida Gwaii, British Columbia, Canada. 6. A new species of Buellia with four-celled, Callispora-type ascospores. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 19: 163–167. http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/op/biblio_list.php?BucVolume_tab=19.
A new species of crustose lichen belonging to the “Hafellia” group of the genus Buellia, i.e., having Callispora-type ascospores with uneven lateral wall thickening, was discovered growing on lignum on a beach on Haida Gwaii, British Columbia. It resembles and is related to B. fosteri but has longer, predominantly 4-celled ascospores and a hymenium that is not inspersed with oil. It is described and illustrated here as B. gibstoneorum. It is compared with B. fosteri and some other species with Callispora-type ascospores. The new combination Buellia bispora is made for Hafellia bispora. Keywords. – Coastal lichens, Hafellia, Pacific Northwest, Buellia gibstoneorum.
32997Han L.-F., Xie Y.-H., Zhang H.-B., Li L.-S. & Guo S.-Y. (2020): A new species of Usnea (Parmeliaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) from Southwest China. - Phytotaxa, 472(1): 23–32. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.472.1.3.
During the study of Usnea from China, we identified and illustrated a new species, Usnea sulphuridiscoidea S. Y. Guo & L. F. Han from the Ailaoshan Mountain of Southwest China, based on morphological characteristics and nrDNA ITS sequence data. This new species can be distinguished morphologically from other apotheciate members of Usnea by the special lateral apothecia with sulphur disc, the inflated branches with glossy surface and numerous papillae as well as many fibrils, meanwhile lacking pseudocyphellae and soralia. The nrDNA ITS sequence data supported the recognition of the new species. Keywords: Ailaoshan Mountain, ITS sequence, Lecanorales, phylogenetic analysis, taxonomy.
32996Rodriguez-Flakus P. (2020): Non-saxicolous lecideoid lichens in southern South America. - Phytotaxa, 476(1): 1–73. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.476.1.1.
Lecidea Ach. in its broad sense, is one of the largest and most heterogeneous genus of lichenized fungi with a worldwide distribution and with diversity hotspots located in the temperate and polar regions. The genus belongs to a crust-like microlichen group and inhabits many different substrates (e.g., bark, rock, wood, soil, mosses). Lecidea does not form a coherent systematic entity, and previous studies have revealed it as a polyphyletic assemblage with species spread across various families within the Lecanoromycetes. The present study is a modern taxonomic revision of southern South America non-saxicolous lecideoid lichens based on morphological, anatomical and chemical characters. A total of 27 species belonging to ten genera are recognized. The current study reveals a substantial, previously hidden, diversity of lichens in Valdivian temperate and Magellanic subpolar forests; increasing the number of known lecideoid lichens in the studied area. Many new regional records are also reported including six species new to South America (Bryobilimbia hypnorum, Hertelidea botryosa, H. eucalypti, Japewiella tavaresiana, Placynthiella oligotropha, and Ramboldia brunneocarpa). The following species are here described as new to science: Bryobilimbia flakusii Rodr. Flakus sp. nov. (Argentina), B. pallida Rodr. Flakus sp. nov. (Argentina, Chile), Hertelidea printzenii Rodr. Flakus sp. nov. (Argentina), H. stipitata Rodr. Flakus sp. nov. (Argentina, Chile), “Lecidea” vobisii Rodr. Flakus sp. nov. (Argentina), and Ramboldia australis Rodr. Flakus sp. nov. (Argentina, Chile). All species are described and illustrated in detail, and an identification key to the species is provided. In addition, as a result of a revision of available type material, a list of 48 additional species excluded from this study, including brief remarks on their taxonomical affiliations, is provided. Keywords: Argentina, biodiversity, Bryobilimbia, Chile, Hertelidea, Hypocenomyce, Japewiella, Lecidea s. lat., lichenized Ascomycota, Miltidea, new species, Palicella, Placynthiella, Ramboldia, taxonomy, temperate forests, Trapeliopsis.
32995Avonto C., Chittiboyina A.G., Khan S.I., Dale O.R., Parcher J.F., Wang M. & Khan I.A. (2021): Are atranols the only skin sensitizers in oakmoss? A systematic investigation using non-animal methods. - Toxicology in Vitro, 70: 105053 [8 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2020.105053.
Oakmoss and treemoss absolutes are the major natural extracts of concern as potential sources of skin sensitizers in cosmetics and personal care products (PCP). Two single constituents, atranol and chloroatranol, have been identified as primary culprits in both lichens, and industrial self-regulation has been proposed to limit their contents to less than 100 ppm. Nonetheless, evidence points to the presence of additional candidate skin sensitizers in these multicomponent extracts. These observations, along with a lack of data from non-animal alternative methods and the chemical variability of commercial absolutes, prompted further investigation of oakmoss absolute along with altranol-like compounds in these extracts. The major chemical constituents of a commercial sample were identified by two independent analytical techniques, GC–MS and HPLC-DAD-MS. The crude oakmoss extract and pure compounds were assayed with two in chemico methods (HTS-DCYA and DPRA) to gauge their chemical reactivity. Activation of inflammatory responses in vitro was also investigated by KeratinoSens ™ and human cell line activation tests (h-CLAT). Based on weight of evidence, orcinol, ethyl orsellinate, and usnic acid were classified as candidate sensitizers, along with both atranols and oakmoss extract. Keywords: Skin sensitization; Oakmoss absolutes; Non-animal alternative methods; DPRA; KeratinoSens; h-CLAT; HTS-DCYA.
32994Mugas M.L., Calvo G., Marioni J., Céspedes M., Martinez F., Sáenz D., Di Venosa G., Cabrera J.L., Núñez Montoya S. & Casas A. (2021): Photodynamic therapy of tumour cells mediated by the natural anthraquinone parietin and blue light. - Journal of Photochemistry & Photobiology, B: Biology, 214: 112089 [8 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2020.112089.
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment for superficial tumours involving the administration of a photosensitiser followed by irradiation. The potential of the natural anthraquinone parietin (PTN) in PDT is still relatively unexploited. In the present work, PTN isolated from the lichen Teoloschistes nodulifer (Nyl.) Hillman (Telochistaceae) was evaluated as a potential photosensitiser on tumour cells employing UVA-Vis and blue light. Blue light of 2 J/cm2 induced 50% death of K562 leukaemic cells treated 1 h with 30 μM PTN (Protocol a). Higher light doses (8 J/cm2) were needed to achieve the same percentage of cell death employing lower PTN concentrations (3 μM) and higher exposure times (24 h) (Protocol b). Cell cycle analysis after both protocols of PTN-PDT revealed a high percentage of sub-G1 cells. PTN was found to be taken up by K562 cells mainly by passive diffusion. Other tumour cells such as ovary cancer IGROV-1 and LM2 mammary carcinoma, as well as the normal keratinocytes HaCaT, were also photosensitised with PTN-PDT. We conclude that PTN is a promising photosensitiser for PDT of superficial malignancies and purging of leukaemic cells, when illuminated with blue light. Thus, this light wavelength is proposed to replace the Vis-UVA lamps generally employed for the photosensitisation of anthraquinones.
32993Abas A. (2021): A systematic review on biomonitoring using lichen as the biological indicator: A decade of practices, progress and challenges. - Ecological Indicators, 121: 107197 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2020.107197.
Various methods have been developed to monitor environmental quality, including biomonitoring using lichen. In this paper, a total of 143 previous studies from the last decade were analyzed to gain insight into current practices, progress, and challenges. Content analysis was employed to systematically characterize and classify the existing biomonitoring using lichen studies into several groups based on research area and scope. Various aspects of current biomonitoring applications using lichen were analyzed and it was found that the number of related studies increased significantly in recent years. Two main techniques for biomonitoring using lichen were identified, with varying research scope and types of parameters that were measured in the studies. Finally, the current practices, progress, and challenges of biomonitoring using lichen as the biological indicator were discussed, and future recommendations were provided. Key words: Lichens; Environmental impact assessment; Biological monitoring; Environmental management; Air pollution.
32992Hei Y., Zhang H., Tan N., Zhou Y., Wei X., Hu C., Liu Y., Wang L., Qi J. & Gao J.-M. (2021): Antimicrobial activity and biosynthetic potential of cultivable actinomycetes associated with Lichen symbiosis from Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. - Microbiological Research, 244: 126652 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micres.2020.126652.
Actinobacteria that inhabit lichen symbionts are considered a promising yet previously underexplored source of novel compounds. Here, for the first time, we conducted a comprehensive investigation with regard to strain isolation and identification of lichen-associated actinobacteria from Tibet Plateau, antimicrobial activity screening, biosynthetic genes detection, bioactive metabolites identification and activity prediction. A large number of culturable actinomycetes were isolated from lichens around Qinghai Lake, in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Twenty-seven strains with distinct morphological characteristics were preliminarily studied. 16S rRNA gene identification showed that 13 strains were new species. The PCR-screening of specific biosynthetic genes indicated that these 27 isolates had abundant intrinsic biosynthetic potential. The antimicrobial activity experiment screened out some potential biological control antagonistic bacteria. The metabolites of 13 strains of Streptomyces with antibacterial activity were analyzed by LC-HRMS, and further 18 compounds were identified by NMR and / or LC-HRMS. The identified compounds were mainly pyrrolidine and indole derivatives, as well as anthracyclines. Seven compounds were identified with less biological activity, then predicted and evaluated their biological activity. The predicted results showed that compound 2 had excellent inhibitory activity on HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. Overall, the results indicate actinobacteria isolated from unexploited plateau lichen are promising sources of biological active metabolite, which could provide important bioactive compounds as potential antibiotic drugs. Keywords: Actinobacteria; Lichens; Antimicrobial activity; Biosynthetic potential; Activity prediction.
32991Sepahvand A., Studzińska-Sroka E., Ramak P. & Karimian V. (2021): Usnea sp.: Antimicrobial potential, bioactive compounds, ethnopharmacological uses and other pharmacological properties; a review article. - Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 268: 113656 [25 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2020.113656.
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Usnea sp. is a fruticose thalli lichen with interesting medicinal properties. Since ancient times, Usnea sp. has been used in traditional medicine worldwide to treat various diseases. The broad scientific studies on this lichen have proved its multidirectional biological effect, such as antimicrobial activity, which is attributed to its usnic acid content. Purpose: The main aim of this review is to provide an up-to-date overview of the antimicrobial activities of Usnea sp., including the traditional and medicinal uses, and a critical evaluation of the presented data. Also, the mechanism of this type of action will be explained. Methods: To prepare this manuscript, the information was extracted from scientific databases (Pubmed, ScienceDirect, Wiley, Springer, and Google Scholar), books, and theses. The available scientific information was critically analysed. Results: Analysis of the scientific literature regarding traditional uses and bioactivity research showed that Usnea sp. extracts exhibit high antibacterial activity. The Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis) and aquatic oomycetous fungi were the most sensitive Usnea sp. extracts. Moderate activity against Malassezia furfur and dermatophytes was observed, as well. Gram-negative bacteria, yeast, and fungi were more frequently resistant to Usnea sp. extracts (included Escherichia coli, Candida sp., Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Aspergillus sp.). The antiviral activity of Usnea sp. was limited. Conclusion: The results show that the use of Usnea sp. in traditional medicine can be scientifically documented. Studies show that usnic acid is the active compound present in Usnea sp. extracts. This compound, which has a high antibacterial and cytotoxic activity, exists in large quantities in low-polarity extracts, and low concentration in these of high-polarity. Usnea sp. extracts contain compounds other than usnic acid as well with biological effects. Usnea barbata is a species that has been employed in modern-day cosmetic and pharmaceutical preparations. The information presented in the review can be considered as a source of knowledge about the Usnea sp. It presents research on biological properties reported for different species of Usnea genus and thus can facilitate their use in medicine. Keywords: Antibacterial activity; Antifungal activity; Antiviral activity; Cytotoxic activity; Antioxidant activity; Lichen extracts and compounds; Usnic acid mechanism of action; Staphylococcus aureus.
32990Kowallik K.V. & Martin W.F. (2021): The origin of symbiogenesis: An annotated English translation of Mereschkowky’s 1910 paper on the theory of two plasma lineages. - BioSystems, 199: 104281 [34 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystems.2020.104281.
In 1910, the Russian biologist Konstantin Sergejewitch Mereschkowsky (Константин Сергеевич Мережковский, in standard transliterations also written as Konstantin Sergeevič Merežkovskij and Konstantin Sergeevich Merezhkovsky) published a notable synthesis of observations and inferences concerning the origin of life and the origin of nucleated cells. His theory was based on physiology and leaned heavily upon the premise that thermophilic autotrophs were ancient. The ancestors of plants and animals were inferred as ancestrally mesophilic anucleate heterotrophs (Monera) that became complex and diverse through endosymbiosis. He placed a phylogenetic root in the tree of life among anaerobic autotrophic bacteria that lack chlorophyll. His higher level classification of all microbes and macrobes in the living world was based upon the presence or absence of past endosymbiotic events. The paper's primary aim was to demonstrate that all life forms descend from two fundamentally distinct organismal lineages, called mykoplasma and amoeboplasma, whose very nature was so different that, in his view, they could only have arisen independently of one another and at different times during Earth history. The mykoplasma arose at a time when the young Earth was still hot, it later gave rise to cyanobacteria, which in turn gave rise to plastids. The product of the second origin of life, the amoeboplasma, arose after the Earth had cooled and autotrophs had generated substrates for heterotrophic growth. Lineage diversification of that second plasma brought forth, via serial endosymbioses, animals (one symbiosis) and then plants (two symbioses, the second being the plastid). The paper was published in German, rendering it inaccessible to many interested scholars. Here we translate the 1910 paper in full and briefly provide some context. Keywords: Endosymbiosis; Symbiogenesis; Symbioses; Mereschkowsky; Origin of eukaryotes; Origin of the nukleus. p. 5: That brings us to the last words of Mereschkowsky’s 1910 paper, which appear in a footnote: “Either the symbiosis is present, and they are lichens, or the symbiosis is not present, and they are fungi; there are no transitional forms nor can they exist.” Such is the nature of symbiogenesis.
32989Wilhelm K., Longman J., Orr S.A. & Viles H. (2021): Stone-built heritage as a proxy archive for long-term historical air quality: A study of weathering crusts on three generations of stone sculptures on Broad Street, Oxford. - Science of the Total Environment, 759: 143916 [11 p.]. .
Highlights: • Novel concept of ‘pollution clock’ in layers of black crusts • Finer-scale resolution pollution reconstruction of the ‘pollution clock’ • First time pollution signals in crusts linked to changing sources of air pollution • Distinct pollutants represent modern pollution, leaded petrol use and coal burning. • Potential for calibrating black crusts with continuous pollution record. Black crusts on historic buildings are mainly known for their aesthetic and deteriorative impacts, yet they also can advance air pollution research. Past air pollutants accumulate in distinct layers of weathering crusts. Recent studies have used these crusts to reconstruct pollution to improve our understanding of its effects on stone-built heritage. However, the majority of the studies provide only coarse resolution reconstruction of pollution, able to distinguish between ‘inner=old’ and ‘outer=modern’ crust layers. In contrast, very few studies have linked distinct periods of exposure to pollution variations in the composition of these crusts. Herewe address this research gap by developing a finer-scale resolution pollution record.Our study explored the unique configuration of limestone sculptures in central Oxford,which have been exposed over the last 350 years to three different periods of atmospheric pollution; the early Industrial Revolution, the Victorian period and the 20th century.When the first two generations of sculptures weremoved to less polluted areas, their ‘pollution clocks’ were stopped. Herewe discuss the potential of investigating the ‘pollution clock’ recorded in the geochemicalmakeup of each sculpture generation'sweathering crust layers. We found the analysed crusts record clear changes related to the evolution ofmodes of transport and industrial and technological development in Oxford. Higher levels of Arsenic (As), Selenium (Se) are linked to pollution from coal burning during Victorian times and Lead (Pb) indicated leaded petrol use inmodern times. Our work shows that stone-built heritage with a known history of air pollution exposure allows improving the pollution reconstruction resolution of these weathering crusts. The results provide the basis for calibrating long-term geochemical archives. This approach may be used to reconstruct past air quality and has the potential to inform stoneweathering research and conservation, in addition to improving the reconstruction of historical pollution. Keywords: Geochemical archives; Coal burning; Black crusts; Palaeopollution; Environmental pollution; Heavy metals.
32988Lyanguzova I.V., Bondarenko M.S., Belyaeva A.I., Kataeva M.N., Barkan V.Sh. & Lyanguzov A.Yu. (2020): Migration of heavy metals from polluted soil to plants and lichens under conditions of field experiment on the Kola Peninsula. - Russian Journal of Ecology, 51(6): 528–540. DOI: 10.1134/S1067413620060053.
[Original Russian Text published in Ekologiya, 2020, No. 6, pp. 427–440] We have carried out a field experiment to study the migration of Ni, Cu, and Co from the organic horizon of Al–Fe-humus podzols polluted with heavy metals (HMs) to the dominant species of dwarf shrubs, mosses, and lichens forming the ground vegetation layer in middle-aged pine forests. The following hypotheses were tested: (1) the introduction of metallurgical dust causes destruction of ground vegetation layer even in the absence of sulfur dioxide; (2) the destruction of this layer is caused by high concentrations of HMs in the aboveground organs of plants and lichens, which lead to their death; and (3) the level of HM accumulation by different taxa is directly correlated with their strategy of mineral nutrition. The contents of Ni, Cu, and Co in the organic horizon of podzols and in the assimilatory organs of dominant dwarf shrub, moss, and lichen species were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. High inter- and intracenotic variation in the level of HM pollution of the soil organic horizon was revealed, which caused spatially uneven destruction of the ground vegetation layer. The translocation of HMs from the polluted soil to the aboveground parts of plants and lichens leads to a 1.5- to 5-fold increase in the content of HMs in all species, which does not exceed the toxicity threshold and does not prevent their growth in the experimental plots. The introduction of metallurgical dust over 5 years made the level of pollution of the organic soil horizon comparable to that in the buffer zone of the Severonikel Plant. This made it possible to compare the HM content in plants and lichens under the conditions of soil and aerotechnogenic pollution and determine the features of HM accumulation by organisms with different strategies of mineral nutrition. The Ni < Cu concentration ratio in the organic soil horizon is reversed in the leaves of dwarf shrubs and green and brown parts of moss Pleurozium schreberi under conditions of either soil pollution and aerotechnogenic pollution. Keywords: pine forests, ground vegetation layer, northern taiga, Murmansk oblast, heavy metals, environmental pollution.
32987Lafuente A., Durán J., Delgado-Baquerizo M., Recio J., Gallardo A., Singh B.K. & Maestre F.T. (2020): Biocrusts modulate responses of nitrous oxide and methane soil fluxes to simulated climate change in a Mediterranean dryland . - Ecosystems , 23: 1690–1701. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-020-00497-5.
Little is known about the role of biocrusts in regulating the responses of N2O and CH4 fluxes to climate change in drylands. Here, we aim to help filling this knowledge gap by using an 8-year field experiment in central Spain where temperature and rainfall are being manipulated (~ 1.9°C warming, 33% rainfall reduction and their combination) in areas with and without well-developed biocrust communities. Areas with initial high cover of well-developed biocrusts showed lower N2O emissions, enhanced CH4 uptake and higher abundances of functional genes linked to N2O and CH4 fluxes compared with areas with poorly developed biocrusts. Moreover, biocrusts modulated the responses of gases emissions and related functional genes to warming and rainfall reductions. Specifically, we found under rainfall exclusion and its combination with warming a sharp reduction in N2O fluxes (~ 96% and ~ 197%, respectively) only under well-developed biocrust cover. Warming and its combination with rainfall exclusion reduced CH4 consumption in areas with initial low cover of well-developed biocrust, whereas rainfall exclusion enhanced CH4 uptake only in areas with high initial cover of well-developed biocrusts. Similarly, the combination of warming and rainfall exclusion increased the abundance of the nosZ gene compared to the rainfall exclusion treatment and increased the abundance of the pmoA gene compared to the control, but only in areas with low biocrust cover. Taken together, our results indicate that well-developed biocrust communities could counteract the impact of warming and altered rainfall patterns on soil N2O and CH4 fluxes, highlighting their importance and the need to preserve them to minimize climate change impacts on drylands. Key words: biocrust; denitrifiers; dryland; methane; methanotrophs; nitrous oxide.
32986Wagner M., Bathke A.C., Cary S.C., Green T.G.A., Junker R.R., Trutschnig W. & Ruprecht U. (2020): Myco‑ and photobiont associations in crustose lichens in the McMurdo Dry Valleys (Antarctica) reveal high diferentiation along an elevational gradient . - Polar Biology, 43: 1967–1983. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00300-020-02754-8.
Climatically extreme regions such as the polar deserts of the McMurdo Dry Valleys (78° S) in Continental Antarctica are key areas for a better understanding of changes in ecosystems. Therefore, it is particularly important to analyze and communicate current patterns of biodiversity in these sensitive areas, where precipitation mostly occurs in form of snow and liquid water is rare. Humidity provided by dew, clouds, and fog are the main water sources, especially for rock-dwelling crustose lichens as one of the most common vegetation-forming organisms. We investigated the diversity and interaction specifcity of myco-/photobiont associations of 232 crustose lichen specimens, collected along an elevational gradient (171–959 m a.s.l.) within the McMurdo Dry Valleys. The mycobiont species and photobiont OTUs were identifed by using three markers each (nrITS, mtSSU, RPB1, and nrITS, psbJ-L, COX2). Elevation, positively associated with water availability, turned out to be the key factor explaining most of the distribution patterns of the mycobionts. Pairwise comparisons showed Lecidea cancriformis and Rhizoplaca macleanii to be signifcantly more common at higher elevations and Carbonea vorticosa and Lecidea polypycnidophora at lower elevations. Lichen photobionts were dominated by the globally distributed Trebouxia OTU, Tr_A02 which occurred at all habitats. Network specialization resulting from myco-/photobiont bipartite network structure varied with elevation and associated abiotic factors. Along an elevational gradient, the spatial distribution, diversity, and genetic variability of the lichen symbionts appear to be mainly infuenced by improved water relations at higher altitudes. Keywords: Crustose lichens · Specifcity · Spatial patterns · Polar desert · Foehn winds · Humidity.
32985Shelyakin M., Zakhozhiy I. & Golovko T. (2020): The efect of temperature on Antarctic lichen cytochrome and alternative respiratory pathway rates. - Polar Biology, 43: 2003–2010. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00300-020-02758-4.
Respiration is a crucial process that provides all living organisms with energy and metabolites for growth and cellular maintenance. The processes that control respiration in lichens remain poorly understood. We investigated the efects of short-term temperature changes on the respiration rate, as well as the relative contributions of the cytochrome and alternative pathways of thalli from four green-algal lichen species collected from their natural habitats in Antarctica. Lichen respiration was sensitive to short-term temperature increases over a range of 5–35 °C. The total O2 uptake rate was increased by fourfold, and the mean respiratory coefcient (Q10) decreased from 2.5 to 1.3 as the temperature increased. An increase in temperature from 5 to 15 °C had a positive efect on cytochrome respiration coupled with energy production. Temperatures above 15 °C stimulated the activation of the alternative (energy-dissipating) respiratory pathway. Hyperthermia led to increased O2 consumption that was not associated with mitochondrial oxidases. The efects of increased temperature on the respiration rates were more pronounced in the bipolar lichens Umbilicaria decussata and Usnea sphacelata than in the Usnea aurantiaco-atra species with a narrower geographical distribution. Keywords: Lichens · Antarctica · Temperature · Respiration · Cytochrome and alternative respiratory pathways · Residual respiration.
32984Şenol Z.M., Gül Ü.D. & Gürkan R. (2020): Bio-sorption of bisphenol a by the dried- and inactivated-lichen (Pseudoevernia furfuracea) biomass from aqueous solutions. - Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering, 18: 853–864. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40201-020-00508-6.
Bisphenol A (BPA), which is known as one of the endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with hydrophilic hydroxyl groups and hydrophobic aromatic groups, has been widely used in plastic industries. The chemical waste from the industry is sometimes discharges into lakes and rivers, and then these surface waters can be polluted. So, this article aims to investigate the bio-sorption process of BPA by the inactivated lichen (Pseudoevernia furfuracea) biomass from aqueous solution. At initial, the effect of the variables such as initial BPA concentration, solution pH, temperature, contact time and recovery rate on the bio-sorption process was investigated. From the optimal results, it has been observed that the highest removal efficiency is approximately 64% at a contact time of 3-h, the bio-sorbent concentration of 9 mg/L, initial BPA concentration of 40 mg/L, and agitation speed of 150 rpm at pH 5.0. In explaining the bio-sorption potential of lichen biomass, Langmuir and/or Redlich-Peterson isotherms with two and three parameters, respectively were observed to be better fit with the experimental isotherm data (R2 = 0.982). From equilibrium data based on difference between the measured and predicted results (qe, exp and qe, pre), it was shown that biosorption of BPA could be best described by the pseudo second order kinetic model with minimum sum of square error of 2.61%. In addition, it shows more film diffusion, and partly pore diffusion in linearity region in terms of kinetic sorption behaviors of BPA in the rate-limiting step as well as intra-particle diffusion according to Boyd’s kinetic model with better regression coefficient than 0.981 when compared to the other used kinetic models, including Bangham’s pore diffusion and Elovich kinetic models (with R2 of 0.958 and 0.929). The thermodynamic studies showed that the biosorption process was spontaneous, and chemically feasible. Therefore, due to be low-cost, eco-friendly character, wide availability and easily accessible, the lichen biomass could be used as a promising bio-sorbent for the removal of BPA from the environment and wastewater effluents. Keywords Lichen . Pseudevernia furfuracea . Bio-sorption . Bisphenol A.
32983García R., Márquez G. & Acosta Hospitaleche C. (2020): Richness of lichens growing on Eocene fossil penguin remains from Antarctica. - Polar Biology, 43: 2011–2019. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00300-020-02761-9.
Antarctica presents one of the most severe environmental conditions for life. Under these circumstances, cryptogams are the dominant photosynthetic organisms, among which we fnd a great richness of lichens. In Antarctic environments, lichens can grow on rocks or in this case on fossil remains, among the few available substrates. In the present contribution, we examined all fossil penguins of the Antarctic collection of the Museo de La Plata, as a signifcant sample of fossil vertebrates. The selected materials here described come from the Submeseta Formation (Eocene) on Seymour/Marambio Island, located northeast of the Antarctic Peninsula on the Weddell Sea. Given the scarcity of lichenological studies on this island, and the results presented here add signifcantly to our knowledge of the lichen species that occur there with the recognition of 11 taxa with a crustose morphology (epilithic and endolithic), the sampling of lichens growing on fossil bones acquired an evident importance. Keywords: Fossil penguin bones · Endolithic · Bioerosion · Taphonomy · Fungi systematic · Seymour/Marambio Island.
32982Upadhyay S., Bisht K. & Chandra K. (2020): Further additions to the plasticolous lichens from India. - National Academy Science Letters, 43(7): 647–649. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40009-020-00946-8.
The present paper describes diversity of plasticolous lichens colonizing a 15-year-old nylon net house at Chamoli district, Garhwal Himalaya, documenting a total of 19 species of lichens, in which 12 species are being reported for the first time as plasticolous lichen mycota from India and out of these 12 species, 9 species are being reported first time across the world as plasticolous. Keywords: India; Lichen; New report; Plasticolous.
32981Grewe F., Ametrano C., Widhelm T.J., Leavitt S., Distefano I., Polyiam W., Pizarro D., Wedin M., Crespo A., Divakar P.K. & Lumbsch H.T. (2020): Using target enrichment sequencing to study the higher-level phylogeny of the largest lichen-forming fungi family: Parmeliaceae (Ascomycota). - IMA Fungus, 11: 27 [11 p.]. s43008-020-00051-x.
Parmeliaceae is the largest family of lichen-forming fungi with a worldwide distribution. We used a target enrichment data set and a qualitative selection method for 250 out of 350 genes to infer the phylogeny of the major clades in this family including 81 taxa, with both subfamilies and all seven major clades previously recognized in the subfamily Parmelioideae. The reduced genome-scale data set was analyzed using concatenatedbased Bayesian inference and two different Maximum Likelihood analyses, and a coalescent-based species tree method. The resulting topology was strongly supported with the majority of nodes being fully supported in all three concatenated-based analyses. The two subfamilies and each of the seven major clades in Parmelioideae were strongly supported as monophyletic. In addition, most backbone relationships in the topology were recovered with high nodal support. The genus Parmotrema was found to be polyphyletic and consequently, it is suggested to accept the genus Crespoa to accommodate the species previously placed in Parmotrema subgen. Crespoa. This study demonstrates the power of reduced genome-scale data sets to resolve phylogenetic relationships with high support. Due to lower costs, target enrichment methods provide a promising avenue for phylogenetic studies including larger taxonomic/specimen sampling than whole genome data would allow. Keywords: Next-generation sequencing, Target capture, HybPiper, Phylogenomics, Maximum likelihood, Bayesian interference, ASTRAL, Parmotrema, Parmelioideae, Protoparmelioideae.
32980Joshi Y., Bisht K. & Suda N. (2020): Lichenicolous fungi colonising members of the lichen-forming family Teloschistaceae in India. - Kew Bulletin, 75: 54 [7 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12225-020-09912-5.
This paper gives an account of lichenicolous fungi colonising members of the lichen-forming family Teloschistaceae from India. A new species, Lichenochora ajaysinghii, colonising Caloplaca saxicola is described and a key to so-far-known lichenicolous fungi colonising Indian Teloschistaceae taxa is provided. Key Words. Caloplaca, Himalaya, key, new species, taxonomy.
32979Hafellner J. (2020): Lichenicolous Biota (Nos 321–340). - Fritschiana (Graz), 96: 29–45. .
The 14th fascicle (20 numbers) of the exsiccata 'Lichenicolous Biota' is published. The issue contains material of 12 non-lichenized fungal taxa (10 teleomorphs of ascomycetes, 2 basidiomycetes) and 8 lichenized ascomycetes. Among others, collections of the type species of the following genera are distributed: Arthrorhaphis (A. flavovirescens, under its heterotypic synonym A. citrinella), Biatoropsis (B. usnearum), Dacampia (D. hookeri), Nesolechia (N. oxyspora), Paralecanographa (P. grumulosa), Stigmidium (S. schaereri), and Telogalla (T. olivieri).
32978Obermayer W. (2020): Dupla Graecensia Lichenum (2020, numbers 1191–1290). - Fritschiana (Graz), 96: 1–28. .
The exsiccata 'Dupla Graecensia Lichenum (2020, numbers 1191–1290)' comprises 100 collections (747 specimens) of lichen duplicates from the following 18 countries: Albania (district of Shkodër), Australia (state of Queensland), Austria (states of Carinthia, Salzburg, Styria, Tyrol, Upper Austria, and Vorarlberg), Brazil (states of Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul), Canada (territory of Nunavut), China (Tibet, province Xizang), Croatia (island of Košljun), Czech Republic (North Bohemia and South Bohemia), Greece (islands of Corfu and Rhodes), Italy (region of Veneto and autonomous region of Trentino - Alto Adige), Nepal, New Zealand (South Island), Portugal (Madeira Island), Slovenia, Spain (Canary Islands), Switzerland (canton of Bern), Thailand (province of Chumphon), and Venezuela (state of Merida). Isotype specimens of Buellia maungatuensis are distributed. TLC-investigations were carried out for 40 issued taxa.
32977Tarasova V.N., Sonina A.V., Androsova V.I., Valekzhanin A.A. & Konoreva L.A. (2020): The lichens and allied fungi of forest rocky communities of the Vysokaya (Volda) Mountain (Windy Belt Ridge, Arkhangelsk Region, NW Russia). - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 57: 133–146. https://doi.org/10.12697/fce.2020.57.12.
The paper presents the results of continuing research of lichen diversity in rocky communities of Windy Belt Ridge (Arkhangelsk Region, NW Russia). Using the method of sample plots and linear routes, the communities of the mountain Vysokaya (Volda) were examined, and 270 species and 2 subspecies of lichens and allied fungi were recorded there. A total of 18 lichens are new for the mainland area of Arkhangelsk Region, 35 species are new to the Vodlozersky National Park (Arkhangelsk part) and 9 species are in the Red Data Book of Arkhangelsk Region (2020). Within sample plots (altogether 0.2 ha), 230 species were found, with 41–50% of total species number being presented within one sample plot (0.04 ha). Along the linear route (2 km), 190 taxa were recorded: 43 species were found only on the route (outside the sample plots), which is 16% of the total lichen species number in studied communities. Comparative analysis of the lichen diversity between currently studied mountains (Olovgora, Muroigora, Vysokaya) of the Windy Belt Ridge showed that the high degree of community conservation, rocky type of communities with significant rocky outcrops, as well as landscape heterogeneity determine conditions for a high species diversity of lichens. In total, 343 species of lichens and allied fungi have been found for the studied mountains of the Windy Belt Ridge. Keywords: lichen diversity, rocky communities, old-growth forests, Vysokaya, Volda, Vodlozersky National Park, Arkhangelsk Region.
32976von Brackel W. & Döbbeler P. (2020): An addition to the knowledge of lichenicolous fungi of Greece with a key to the lichenicolous fungi on Collema s.l.. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 57: 147–152. https://doi.org/10.12697/fce.2020.57.13.
Didymellopsis pulposi, Pronectria diplococca, P. pedemontana, Stigmidium hageniae and Tremella anaptychiae are reported as new to Greece. Pronectria diplococca is reported as new to Austria. A key to the lichenicolous fungi on Collema s.l. is provided. Keywords: lichen-inhabiting fungi, Mediterranean area, Bionectriaceae.
32975Muggia L., Ametrano C.G., Sterflinger K. & Tesei D. (2020): An overview of genomics, phylogenomics and proteomics approaches in Ascomycota. - Life, 10(12): 356 [75 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/life10120356.
Fungi are among the most successful eukaryotes on Earth: they have evolved strategies to survive in the most diverse environments and stressful conditions and have been selected and exploited for multiple aims by humans. The characteristic features intrinsic of Fungi have required evolutionary changes and adaptations at deep molecular levels. Omics approaches, nowadays including genomics, metagenomics, phylogenomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics, and proteomics have enormously advanced the way to understand fungal diversity at diverse taxonomic levels, under changeable conditions and in still under-investigated environments. These approaches can be applied both on environmental communities and on individual organisms, either in nature or in axenic culture and have led the traditional morphology-based fungal systematic to increasingly implement molecular-based approaches. The advent of next-generation sequencing technologies was key to boost advances in fungal genomics and proteomics research. Much effort has also been directed towards the development of methodologies for optimal genomic DNA and protein extraction and separation. To date, the amount of proteomics investigations in Ascomycetes exceeds those carried out in any other fungal group. This is primarily due to the preponderance of their involvement in plant and animal diseases and multiple industrial applications, and therefore the need to understand the biological basis of the infectious process to develop mechanisms for biologic control, as well as to detect key proteins with roles in stress survival. Here we chose to present an overview as much comprehensive as possible of the major advances, mainly of the past decade, in the fields of genomics (including phylogenomics) and proteomics of Ascomycota, focusing particularly on those reporting on opportunistic pathogenic, extremophilic, polyextremotolerant and lichenized fungi. We also present a review of the mostly used genome sequencing technologies and methods for DNA sequence and protein analyses applied so far for fungi. Keywords: extremophiles; fungi; human opportunistic; lichens; plant pathogens.
32974Selbmann L., Benkő Z., Coleine C., de Hoog S., Donati C., Druzhinina I., Emri T., Ettinger C.L., Gladfelter A.S., Gorbushina A.A., Grigoriev I.V., Grube M., Gunde-Cimerman N., Ákos Karányi Z., Kocsis B., Kubressoian T., Miklós I., Miskei M., Muggia L., Northen T., Novak-Babič M., Pennacchio C., Pfliegler W.P., Pòcsi I., Prigione V., Riquelme M., Segata N., Schumacher J., Shelest E., Sterflinger K., Tesei D., U’Ren J.M., Varese G.C., Vázquez-Campos X., Vicente V.A., Souza E.M., Zalar P., Walker A.K. & Stajich J.E. (2020): Shed light in The daRk LineagES of the fungal tree of life—STRES. - Life, 10(12): 362 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/life10120362.
The polyphyletic group of black fungiwithin theAscomycota (Arthoniomycetes, Dothideomycetes, and Eurotiomycetes) is ubiquitous in natural and anthropogenic habitats. Partly because of their dark, melanin-based pigmentation, black fungi are resistant to stresses including UV- and ionizing-radiation, heat and desiccation, toxic metals, and organic pollutants. Consequently, they are amongst the most stunning extremophiles and poly-extreme-tolerant organisms on Earth. Even though ca. 60 black fungal genomes have been sequenced to date, [mostly in the family Herpotrichiellaceae (Eurotiomycetes)], the class Dothideomycetes that hosts the largest majority of extremophiles has only been sparsely sampled. By sequencing up to 92 species that will become reference genomes, the “Shed light in The daRk lineagES of the fungal tree of life” (STRES) project will cover a broad collection of black fungal diversity spread throughout the Fungal Tree of Life. Interestingly, the STRES project will focus on mostly unsampled genera that display different ecologies and life-styles (e.g., ant- and lichen-associated fungi, rock-inhabiting fungi, etc.). With a resequencing strategy of 10- to 15-fold depth coverage of up to ~550 strains, numerous new reference genomes will be established. To identify metabolites and functional processes, these new genomic resources will be enriched with metabolomics analyses coupled with transcriptomics experiments on selected species under various stress conditions (salinity, dryness, UV radiation, oligotrophy). The data acquired will serve as a reference and foundation for establishing an encyclopedic database for fungal metagenomics as well as the biology, evolution, and ecology of the fungi in extreme environments. Keywords: adaptation; black fungi; Dothideomycetes; Eurotiomycetes; Extremophiles; genomics; metabolomics; secondary metabolites; stress conditions; transcriptomics.
32973Darmostuk V.V., Khodosovtsev A.Ye., Vondrák J. & Sira O.Ye. (2020): New and noteworthy lichenicolous and bryophylous [sic!] fungi from the Ukrainian Carpathians. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 58: 19–24. https://doi.org/10.12697/fce.2020.58.02.
Nine species, Acremonium rhabdosporum, Arthonia digitatae, Bryocentria metzgeriae, Diplolaeviopsis cf. symmictae, Skyttea gregaria, Rhymbocarpus pubescens, Stromatopogon cladoniae, Tremella cetrariicola and Xenonectriella subimperspicua, are newly reported for Ukraine. Sphinctrina anglica is recollected for the first time since 1955. Parmelia saxatilis and Parmelina pastillifera are new host species for X. subimperspicua. Keywords: Carpathian Biosphere Reserve, Gorgany Nature Reserve, Diplolaeviopsis, Stromatopogon, Xenonectriella.
32972Fatima M., Habib K., Czarnota C. & Khalid A.N. (2020): Two new Bacidina species (Lecanorales, Ascomycota) from Pakistan. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 58: 25–34. https://doi.org/10.12697/fce.2020.58.03.
Bacidina margallensis and B. iqbalii from Pakistan are described and illustrated. Phylogeny of ITS nrDNA region confirms their position within the genus Bacidina, and morphological data make them distinct from other known species of the genus. Based on molecular data, corticolous Bacidina margallensis appears to be a sister species to B. chloroticula, but morphologically, when dry, is the most similar to known from Europe B. mendax because of the granular and warted greenish grey thallus, whitish-cream to dark brown and often piebald apothecia. It differs from that species by shorter, wider and less septate ascospores; 1–3-septate in B. margallensis vs 3–5(6)-septate in B. mendax, and by unusual parrot-green colour of wet thallus. Saxicolous Bacidina iqbalii is closely related to B. neosquamulosa but differs in having crustaceous thallus, transculent when wet entirely pale apothecia, larger asci and less septate large ascospores. Keywords: lichenized fungi, Ramalinaceae, lichen taxonomy, molecular phylogeny, ITS nrDNA, Asia.
32971Matkala L., Salemaa M. & Bäck J. (2020): Soil total phosphorus and nitrogen explain vegetation community composition in a northern forest ecosystem near a phosphate massif. - Biogeosciences , 17: 1535–1556. https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-17-1535-2020.
The relationship of the community composition of forest vegetation and soil nutrients were studied near the Sokli phosphate ore deposit in northern Finland. Simultaneously, the effects of the dominant species and the age of trees, rock parent material and soil layer on these nutrients were examined. For this purpose, 16 study plots were established at different distances from the phosphate ore along four transects. Phosphate mining may take place in Sokli in the future, and the vegetation surveys and soil sampling conducted at the plots can be used as a baseline status for following the possible changes that the mining may cause in the surrounding ecosystem. The total phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) contents of the soil humus layer were positively related with species number and abundance of the understorey vegetation, and the correlation was slightly higher with P than N. This is interesting, as N usually has the most important growth-limiting role in boreal ecosystems. The spatial variation in the content of soil elements was high both between and within plots, emphasizing the heterogeneity of the soil. Dominant tree species and the soil layer were the most important environmental variables affecting soil nutrient content. High contents of P in the humus layer (maximum 2.60 g kg−1 ) were measured from the birch-dominated plots. As the P contents of birch leaves and leaf litter were also rather high (2.58 and 1.28 g kg−1 , respectively), this may imply that the leaf litter of birch forms an important source of P for the soil. The possible mining effects, together with climate change, can have an influence on the release of nutrients to plants, which may lead to alterations in the vegetation community composition in the study region. p. 1540: [Results] ... "The number of mosses and lichen correlated negatively with soil total C (p<0.01) and C : N (p<0.05), ..."
32970Goncu B., Sevgi E., Kizilarslan Hancer C., Gokay G. & Ozten N. (2020): Differential antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of lichen species on human prostate carcinoma cells. - PLoS ONE , 15(9): e0238303 [21 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0238303.
Lichens are stable symbiotic associations between fungus and algae and/or cyanobacteria that have different biological activities. Around 60% of anti-cancer drugs are derived from natural resources including plants, fungi, sea creatures, and lichens. This project aims to identify the apoptotic effects and proliferative properties of extracts of Bryoria capillaris (Ach.) Brodo & D.Hawksw, Cladonia fimbriata (L.) Fr., Evernia divaricata (L.) Ach., Hypogymnia tubulosa (Schaer.) Hav., Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm., and Usnea florida (L.) Weber ex Wigg. lichen species on prostate cancer cells. Lichen extracts were performed by ethanol, methanol, and acetone separately by using the Soxhlet apparatus and the effects of the extracts on cell viability, proliferation, and apoptosis were measured with the utilization of MTT, LDH assay, Annexin V assay, and Western Blot. Findings of our study revealed a positive correlation between the elevation of cell sensitivity and the increase in the treatment doses of the extract in that higher doses applied reverberate to higher cell sensitivity. A similar correlation was also identified between cell sensitivity elevation and the duration of the treatment. Evidence in our study have shown the existence of an anti-proliferative effect in the extracts of Bryoria capillaris, Evernia divaricata (L.) Ach., Hypogymnia tubulosa (Schaer.) Hav., Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm., and Usnea florida (L.) Weber ex Wigg., while a similar effect was not observed in the extracts of Cladonia fimbriata. Evernia divaricata induced anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects in PC-3 cells, which induced apoptotic cell death by both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. Hypogymnia tubulosa has been shown to have anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects in all extractions methods and our findings identified that both the percentage of the apoptotic cells and apoptotic protein expressions recorded an increase at lower treatment concentrations. Although Lobaria pulmonaria is known to have significant cytotoxic effects, we did not observe a decrease in cell proliferation. Indeed, proliferation marker proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein expression levels have shown an increase in all extracts, while Usnea florida exhibited apoptosis induction and slight proliferation reduction in extract treatments with lower concentrations. We tested 18 extracts of six lichen species during our study. Of these, Evernia divaricata and Hypogymnia tubulosa demonstrated significant apoptotic activity on prostate cancer cells including at low concentrations, which implies that it is worth pursuing the biologically active lead compounds of these extracts on prostate cancer in vitro. Further corroboratory studies are needed to validate the relative potential of these extracts as anti-metastatic and anti-tumorigenic agents.
32969Hawrył A., Hawrył M., Hajnos-Stolarz A., Abramek J., Bogucka-Kocka A. & Komsta Ł. (2020): HPLC fingerprint analysis with the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of selected lichens combined with the chemometric calculations. - Molecules, 25: 4301 [22 p.]; doi:10.3390/molecules25184301. .
The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of multivariate techniques to predict antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of the selected lichens from the chromatographic data. A simple and reproducible HPLC-DAD technique has been used to obtain the chromatographic fingerprint profiles. Reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) linear gradient system with methanol, water and phosphoric acid (V) (pH 2.3) as the mobile phase was used (50 min). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) has been applied to the evaluation of the phytochemical similarity between studied samples, especially between the same species collected in various places of Poland (Cetraria islandica (L.) Ach., CI, Cladina mitis Sandst., CM, Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl., HP). The ability to scavenge free radicals was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods and the total phenolic content was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu (F-C) test. In the case of DPPH % of inhibition was higher for selected species (Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf, H. physodes in comparison to the literature data. The FRAP test showed that the H. physodes extract had higher ability to scavenge free radical in comparison to Cladonia furcata (Huds.) Schrader and Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach., whereas P. furfuracea extract showed higher ability than C. islandica. The high content of phenolics in P. furfuracea and H. physodes confirms their high antioxidant activity. The cytotoxic activity of studied extracts was tested by cell culture method using the human HL-60 / MX2 acute CKL-22 (CRL-2257) promyelocytic leukemia tumor cell line. The lowest values of IC50 [µg·mL−1 ] were obtained for: H. physodes(HP1)—99.4; C. digitate—122.6; H. physodes (HP)—136.5, C. subulata—142.6; C. mitis—180.2. Keywords: lichens; HPLC; antioxidant and cytotoxic activities; chemometrics; PLS.
32968Zloba M.H. (2020): Delmarva Lichens: An Illustrated Manual. By James C. Lendemer and Nastassja Noell. Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Society, Volume 28. 386 pages. Torrey Botanical Society and New York Botanical Gardens, 2900 Southern Boulevard. Bronx, New York 10458-5126. USD $30. Hard cover. ISBN 978-0-9996525-2-7. - Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society, 147(3): 289–290. .
Book review
32967Berber D., Türkmenoğlu İ. & Sesal N.C. (2020): Antibacterial potential of six lichen species against Enterococcus durans from leather industry : Evaluation of acetone extracts obtained from several lichen species as alternative natural antibacterial agents. - Johnson Matthey Technology Review, 64(4): 480–488. https://doi.org/10.1595/205651320X15942856494595.
Antibacterial resistant bacteria are a significant problem in the hide or skin soaking process due to their destructive properties on finished leather. Lichens may be a solution to overcome this resistance problem. Enterococcus durans (99.86%) was isolated from soak liquor samples. For screening of possible antibacterial effects of lichen acetone extracts, six lichen species (Hypogymnia tubulosa, H. physodes, Evernia divaricata, Pseudevernia furfuracea, Parmelia sulcata and Usnea sp.) were examined by nine-fold dilution against E. durans. H. tubulosa, H. physodes and E. divaricata extracts showed antibacterial effects at the concentrations of 240 μg ml–1, 120 μg ml–1 and 60 μg ml–1 whereas the extracts of P. furfuracea had an antibacterial effect at 240 μg ml–1 and 120 μg ml–1. On the other hand, P. sulcata had no antibacterial effect. The most successful lichen extract was determined to be Usnea sp. at the concentrations of 240 μg ml–1, 120 μg ml–1, 60 μg ml–1, 30 μg ml–1 and 15 μg ml–1. In conclusion, lichen extracts seem to have potential antibacterial efficacies against E. durans.
32966Miranda-González R. & McCune B. (2020): The weight of the crust: Biomass of crustose lichens in tropical dry forest represents more than half of foliar biomass. - Biotropica, 52: 1298–1308. https://doi.org/10.1111/btp.12837.
In recent years, our ecological knowledge of tropical dry forests has increased dramatically. However, the functional contributions of whole ecosystem components, such as lichens, remain mostly unknown. In these forests, the abundance of epiphyte crustose lichens is responsible for the characteristic white bark on most woody plants, conspicuous during the dry season, but the amount of resources that the lichen component represents remains unexplored. We estimated lichen biomass in a Mexican tropical dry forest using the bark area of trees, the dry mass of lichens per unit area and the percentage of bark covered by lichens, together with previously known tree densities. The lowest 2.5 m of the forests main trunks contained 188 kg/ha of lichen biomass, with lichens covering 85% of the available bark for trees <12 cm DBH and 38% for trees >12 cm. Total epiphytic lichen biomass was 1.34–1.99 Mg/ha. Lichen biomass represented 61% of the foliar biomass in the forest. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a lichen biomass estimate is provided for an ecosystem in which crustose lichens are the dominant lichen growth form. Crustose lichens are typically considered to contribute little to the total lichen biomass and to be difficult to include in ecological analyses. The high lichen biomass in this ecosystem implies a significant ecological role which so far is unexplored. We suggest the crustose lichen component should not be underestimated a priori in ecological studies, especially in ecosystems with abundant lichen cover. Keywords: Chamela, ecosystem scale, lichenized fungi, Mexico, seasonally dry tropical forest.
32965Gökalsın B., Berber D., Çobanoğlu Özyiğitoğlu G., Yeşilada E. & Sesal N.C. (2020): Quorum sensing attenuation properties of ethnobotanically valuable lichens against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. - Plant Biosystems, 154(6): 792–799. https://doi.org/10.1080/11263504.2019.1701117.
Antimicrobial properties of ethnobotanically valuable lichens are well recognized but it is not known how exactly their therapeutic effects on microbial infections occur. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic Gram-negative pathogen and its nosocomial strains are responsible for high mortality and morbidity rates. It coordinates pathogenesis and virulence via four quorum sensing (QS) mechanisms called las, rhl, pqs and iqs. The objective of this study is to investigate and report the utilization of lichens for QS inhibition against P. aeruginosa. The inhibitory potentials of Ramalina farinacea (L.) Ach. and Platismatia glauca (L.) W.L. Culb. & C.F. Culb extracts were tested against QS systems of P. aeruginosa using biosensor strains (lasB-gfp, rhlA-gfp and pqsA-gfp). All tested lichen acetone extracts have shown inhibitory effects on las, rhl and pqs QS systems. The percentages of QS inhibition were detected between 75.21% and 92.42% for las, 50.62% and 64.22% for rhl, 47.61% and 69.35% for pqs systems. The highest inhibition was detected for the extracts of R. farinacea collected from Bursa–Alaçam. We concluded that these lichen species have significant anti-QS potentials against P. aeruginosa and they can be further evaluated as alternative biosources in medicine. Keywords: Ramalina farinacea; Platismatia glauca; lichen extracts; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; quorum sensing inhibition.
32964Lücking R., Kaminsky L., Perlmutter G.B., Lawrey J.D. & Dal Forno M. (2020): Cora timucua (Hygrophoraceae), a new and potentially extinct, previously misidentified basidiolichen of Florida inland scrub documented from historical collections. - Bryologist, 123(4): 657–673. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-123.4.657.
The known collections of the genus Cora in continental North America north of Mexico, all restricted to Florida, are shown to belong to a single species, representing a previously unrecognized taxon formally described herein as C. timucua. Based on data of the fungal ITS barcoding marker, obtained through Sanger and Illumina sequencing from two historical collections, the new species is phylogenetically most closely related to C. casanarensis from Colombia and C. itabaiana from Brazil, although it is morphologically most similar to the only distantly related C. hymenocarpa from Costa Rica. Based on data from the Consortium of North American Lichen Herbaria (CNALH) and from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), most of the collections of C. timucua originate from around the turn of the 19th century, while a few were made in the second half of the 20th century, all between 1968 and 1985. Almost all collections originate from Florida sand pine scrub, apparently the preferred habitat of this taxon. Neither modern collections nor extant localities are known. Based on these findings and the substantial degree of land use change in Florida in the past decades, we assessed the conservation status of C. timucua using the IUCN Red List criteria and found that it should be classified as critically endangered (CR), in line with the status of another Florida endemic, Cladonia perforata, which was the first federally red-listed lichen in the United States. The most likely location where C. timucua may still be extant is Ocala National Forest in the north-central portion of the Florida peninsula, although recent macrolichen surveys in that area did not encounter this species. Keywords: Basidiolichens, Consortium of North American Lichen Herbaria, endemism, high throughput sequencing, metabarcoding, phenotype-based phylogenetic binning, species delimitation.
32963Oliveira Junior I., Aptroot A., dos Santos L.A., Cavalcante J.G., Košuthová A. & Cáceres M.E.S. (2020): Two further new lichen species from the Atlantic Forest remnant Pedra Talhada (Alagoas, Brazil), with a species list. - Bryologist, 123(4): 617–632. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-123.4.617.
The following new lichen species are described from the Atlantic rain forest remnant Pedra Talhada (Alagoas, Brazil): Hafellia nortetrapla, with four ascospores per asci, ascospores grey to brown, 1- septate, 30–38313–16 lm, and norstictic acid as secondary chemistry, and Pterygiopsis densisidiata, with an appressed thallus, densely covered with branched isidia, and clearly clustering with species inside the core group of the order Lichinomycetes, as shown by analysis of mtSSU region sequences. A further 19 species are reported as new to Brazil, and 307 new to the state of Alagoas. In total, 442 species have been identified thus far in our collections from Pedra Talhada, and a list of the species is provided. Keywords: Hafellia, Pterygiopsis, new taxa, lichenized fungi, northeastern Brazil.
32962Autumn K., Barcenas-Peña A., Kish-Levine S., Huang J.-P. & Lumbsch H.T. (2020): Repeated colonization between arid and seasonal wet habitats, frequent transition among substrate preferences, and chemical diversity in Western Australian Xanthoparmelia lichens. - Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 8: 129 [10 p.]. doi: 10.3389/fevo.2020.00129.
Arid soil habitats are challenging for sedentary and slow-growing lichens because the integrity of the substrate can easily be disturbed by natural forces, e.g., wind and flood. Yet, adaptation into such habitat types occurred multiple times in lichens that may be associated with specific morphological and ecological adaptations. We studied the genetic and chemical diversity of the lichen-forming fungal genus Xanthoparmelia in Western Australia, where it is abundant in both arid and temperate ecoregions occurring on both soil and rock substrates. We found frequent evolutionary transitions among substrate types and between arid and temperate habitats. However, specific chemical phenotypes were not associated with different habitat and substrate types, and the level of phenotypic (the composition of secondary metabolites) divergence was not correlated with the level of genetic divergence among taxa. The study closes by discussing the importance of arid soil habitats for evolutionary diversification in the hyperdiverse genus Xanthoparmelia. Keywords: Anthropocene, soil habitat, rapid diversification, repeated evolution, thin-layer chromatography.
32961Shiryaev A.G., Peintner U., Elsakov V.V., Sokovnina S.Y., Kosolapov D.A., Shiryaeva O.S., Devi N.M. & Grigoriev A.A. (2020): Relationship between species richness, biomass and structure of vegetation and mycobiota along an altitudinal transect in the Polar Urals. - Journal of Fungi, 6(4): 353 [22 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof6040353.
Aboveground species richness patterns of vascular plants, aphyllophoroid macrofungi, bryophytes and lichens were compared along an altitudinal gradient (80–310 m a.s.l.) on the Slantsevaya mountain at the eastern macroslope of the Polar Urals (Russia). Five altitudinal levels were included in the study: (1) Northern boreal forest with larch-spruce in the Sob’ river valley habitats; (2–3) two levels of closed, northern boreal, larch-dominated forests on the slopes; (4) crook-stemmed forest; (5) tundra habitats above the timberline. Vascular plant or bryophyte species richness was not affected by altitudinal levels, but lichen species richness significantly increased from the river valley to the tundra. For aphyllophoroid macrofungi, species richness was highest at intermediate and low altitudes, and poorest in the tundra. These results indicate a positive ecotone effect on aphyllophoroid fungal species richness. The species richness of aphyllophoroid fungi as a whole was neither correlated to mortmass stocks, nor to species richness of vascular plants, but individual ecological or morphological groups depended on these parameters. Poroid fungal species richness was positively correlated to tree age, wood biomass and crown density, and therefore peaked in the middle of the slope and at the foot of the mountain. In contrast, clavarioid fungal species richness was negatively related to woody bio- and mortmass, and therefore peaked in the tundra. This altitudinal level was characterized by high biomass proportions of lichens and mosses, and by high litter mortmass. The proportion of corticoid fungi increased with altitude, reaching its maximum at the timberline. Results from the different methods used in this work were concordant, and showed significant patterns. Tundra communities differ significantly from the forest communities, as is also confirmed by nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analyses based on the spectrum of morphological and ecological groups of aphyllophoroid fungi. Keywords: biodiversity; fungal ecology; climatic gradient; productivity; flora; lichen; mosses; life form; phytocoenology; plant–fungal interactions; timberline; tundra; Arctic greening.
32960Mežaka A., Putna S. & Erta I. (2015): Evaluation and long-term conservation perspectives of woodland key habitat bryophyte and lichen indicators in Latgale. - In: Environment. Technology. Resources. Proceedings of the 10th International Scientific and Practical Conference. Volume II, p. 197–201, Rezekne, Latvia. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17770/etr2015vol2.283. http://journals.ru.lv/index.php/ETR/article/viewFile/283/696.
Nowadays human impact to habitats and species are stronger then ever before. Latvia is typical example of fragmented landscape, where forest patches are mixed with agricultural land and waterbodies. Latgale is one of typical such a fragmented landscape parts of Latvia. Around 6.41 % of Latgalian forests were evaluated as Woodland Key Habitats (WKHs) or potential WKHs (PWKHs) after WKH inventory. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the current status and draw the further perspectives of WKH bryophyte and lichen indicator species conservation in Latgale. Data were analyzed with Generalized Linear model. In total 16 WKH types, suitable for bryophyte and lichen indicator species existence were identified in Latgale. As a result WKH type, forest stand age and area were significant factors influencing bryophyte and lichen specialist and indicator species richness in forest stand level. WKH status did not provide any official conservation status for habitats or species based on current legislation in Latvia. Therefore establishment of conservation areas as microreserves for habitats and species and Nature Reserves in areas, with high (P)WKH density is an effective tool for their long-term conservation in Latgale. Further scientific studies of bryophytes, lichens and WKHs are necessary for planning the best conservation scenarios taking into account also forest ecosystem services. Keywords: Woodland key habitats, bryophytes, lichens, conservation.
32959Xu M., De Boer H., Olafsdottir E.S., Omarsdottir S. & Heidmarsson S. (2020): Phylogenetic diversity of the lichenized algal genus Trebouxia (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta): a new lineage and novel insights from fungal-algal association patterns of Icelandic cetrarioid lichens (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota). - Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 194(4): 460–468. https://doi.org/10.1093/botlinnean/boaa050.
Lichens have high tolerance to harsh environmental conditions, where lichen symbiont interactions (e.g. myco- and photobionts) may play a crucial role. The characterization of fungal-algal association patterns is essential to understand their symbiotic interactions. This study investigated fungal-algal association patterns in Icelandic cetrarioid lichens using a multi-locus phylogenetic framework, including fungal nrITS, MCM7, mtSSU, RPB1 and RPB2 and algal nrITS, nrLSU, rbcL and mtCOXII data. Most Icelandic cetrarioid lichenized fungi were found to be specifically associated to the known Trebouxia clade “S” (Trebouxia simplex/suecica group), whereas the lichen-forming fungus Cetrariella delisei forms a symbiosis with a previously unrecognized lineage of Trebouxia, provisionally named as the “D” clade. This new Trebouxia lineage is supported by maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses using all four included algal loci. Keywords: Iceland, lichen, Parmeliaceae, phylogeny, symbiosis, Trebouxia.
32958Claudel C., Lev-Yadun S., Hetterscheid W. & Schultz M. (2019): Mimicry of lichens and cyanobacteria on tree-sized Amorphophallus petioles results in their masquerade as inedible tree trunks. - Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 190: 192–214. https://doi.org/10.1093/botlinnean/boz014.
We revisit a case of mimicry in Amorphophallus involving visual mimicry of lichens and colonies of cyanobacteria on their tree-trunk sized petioles. We investigate the entire genus for similar defensive coloration types and report a defensive leaf coloration strategy in several Amorphophallus spp. that involves mimicry, camouflage and plant-mimicking that results in defensive visual masquerade. We propose that the visual expression of lichen and cyanobacteria mimicry enables the huge and fleshy petioles to look like solid non-edible tree trunks, a classic case of masquerade, probably as defence against herbivores. The results are discussed in a phylogenetic and evolutionary context. Keywords: Araceae – camouflage – herbivory.
32957Lendemer J.C. (2020): Recent literature on lichens—259. - Bryologist, 123(4): 720–730. DOI: 10.1639/0007-2745-123.4.720.
32956Klein J., Thor G., Low M., Sjögren J., Lindberg E. & Eggers S. (2020): What is good for birds is not always good for lichens: Interactions between forest structure and species richness in managed boreal forests. - Forest Ecology and Management, 473: 118327 [11 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2020.118327.
Forestry in the boreal region increasingly replaces natural disturbances in shaping biodiversity. Large-scale removal of small diameter trees (thinning), is ubiquitous in northern European forestry, yet an understanding of how it relates to biodiversity across taxa is lacking. To address this, we examined how two forest structural elements, commonly impacted by forest thinning (i.e. vegetation density in the understory and overstory), are correlated with the species richness of forest-dwelling birds and epiphytic lichens. These taxa were chosen because they likely have opposing habitat demands: epiphytic lichens potentially benefitting from more light in open forests, and birds benefitting from structurally complex forests for foraging, nesting and cover. We used remote sensing tools, already applied in forestry planning, to see if management recommendations could be found that balance the needs of both taxonomic groups within the same forests. Our results show that richness in epiphytic lichens and forest-dwelling birds is not correlated and that a high species richness (~15 birds & ~40 epiphytic lichens) in both taxa is only predicted in the same stand under a specific vertical distribution and density of the forest’s vegetation: this occurs when the vegetation above 3 m is open (to promote epiphytic lichen richness) and below 3 m is dense (to promote bird richness). Dense vegetation up to 7 m above ground has a diverging effect on forest birds (positive) and epiphytic lichens (negative). A larger stem diameter further increases species richness in both taxa. Our study provides results that are directly implementable in forestry planning over large areas with the help of remote sensing tools (LiDAR). Key words: Multi taxa; LiDAR; Thinning; Vegetation density; Boreal forest; Bayesian.
32955Klepsland J.T. (2020): Thirty lichens and lichenicolous fungi new to Norway. - Graphis Scripta, 32(7): 120–143. http://nhm2.uio.no/botanisk/lav/Graphis/32_7/GS_32_120.pdf.
Thirty species of lichens and lichenicolous fungi are reported new to Norway, along with short notes on diagnostic characters, distribution and ecology, viz. Acolium sessile, Arthonia amylospora, A. helvola, Bacidia fuscoviridis, Biatorella flavella, Caloplaca isidiigera, C. monacensis, Diplotomma pharcidium, Echinodiscus lesdainii, Endocarpon psorodeum, Gregorella humida, Gyalecta ophiospora, Heppia adglutinata, Hydropunctaria orae, Lecania koerberiana, Micarea fennica, M. tomentosa, Myriolecis antiqua, Parvoplaca nigroblastidiata, Porina rosei, Psoroglaena dictyospora, Rhizocarpon advenulum, Rinodina albana, R. polysporoides, Scutula curvispora, Staurothele arctica, Verrucaria hydrophila, Vezdaea rheocarpa, Xanthocarpia marmorata, and Zhurbenkoa epicladonia.
32954Hurtado P., Prieto M., Aragón G., de Bello F. & Martínez I. (2020): Intraspecific variability drives functional changes in lichen epiphytic communities across Europe. - Ecology, 101(6): e03017 [10 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1002/ecy.3017.
Traditional approaches in trait-based community ecology typically expect that trait filtering across broad environmental gradients is largely due to replacement of species, rather than intraspecific trait adjustments. Recently, the role of intraspecific trait variability has been largely highlighted as an important contributor mediating the ability of communities to persist under changing conditions and determining the community-level trait variation, particularly across limited environmental gradients. Unfortunately, few studies quantify the relative importance of species turnover versus intraspecific variability mediating the response of communities different from vascular plants. Here, we studied the functional changes in epiphytic lichen communities within 23 beech forests across large latitudinal (ca. 3,000 km) and environmental gradients in Europe to quantify the relative contribution of species turnover and intraspecific variability and the role of climate controlling community-level trait changes. For 58 lichen species, we focused on a set of 10 quantitative functional traits potentially affected by climatic conditions and related to photosynthetic performance (n = 1,184 thalli), water use strategy (n = 1,018 thalli), and nutrient uptake (n = 1,179 thalli). Our results showed that intraspecific trait variability explained most of the functional changes in lichen communities in response to the latitudinal gradient. Further, such functional changes were determined by the covariation between intraspecific trait variability and species turnover, which varied in sign depending on the trait considered. Finally, different climatic predictors explained functional variation due to both intraspecific trait variability and species turnover. We propose that lichen communities cope with contrasting climatic conditions by adjusting the functional trait values of the most abundant species within the communities rather than by the replacement of the species. Consequently, intraspecific variability should be explicitly incorporated to understand the effect of environmental changes on lichen communities, even over large environmental variations, better. Our results challenge the universality of the hypothesis that species turnover chiefly drives functional trait changes across large environmental gradients and call for a wider test of such important assumptions in trait ecology in different organism types and ecosystems. Key words: beech forests; climate; community ecology; functional ecology; functional trait variation; intraspecific variability; latitudinal gradient; lichen; species turnover.
32953Diuzheva A., Locatelli M., Tartaglia A., Goga M., Ferrone V., Carlucci G. & Andruch V. (2020): Application of liquid-phase microextraction to the analysis of plant and herbal samples. - Phytochemical Analysis, 31: 687–699. DOI: 10.1002/pca.2939.
Introduction: The analysis of plant and herbal samples is a challenging task for analytical chemists due to the complexity of the matrix combined with the low concentration of analytes. In recent years different liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) techniques coupled with a variety of analytical equipment have been developed for the determination of both organic and inorganic analytes. Objective: Over the past few years, the number of research papers in this field has shown a markedly growing tendency. Therefore, the purpose of this review paper is to summarise and critically evaluate research articles focused on the application of LPME techniques for the analysis of plant and herbal samples. Results: Due to the complex nature of the samples, the direct application of LPME techniques to the analysis of plants has not often been done. LPME techniques as well as their modalities have been commonly applied in combination with other pretreatment techniques, including a solid–liquid extraction technique supported by mechanical agitation or auxiliary energies for plant analysis. Applications and the most important parameters are summarised in the tables. Conclusion: This review summarises the application of the LPME procedure and shows the major benefits of LPME, such as the low volume of solvents used, high enrichment factor, simplicity of operation and wide selection of applicable detection techniques. We can expect further development of microextraction analytical methods that focus on direct sample analysis with the application of green extraction solvents while fully automating procedures for the analysis of plant materials. Key words: dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction, herbal, liquid-phase microextraction, plant, single- drop microextraction, solid samples.
32952Ravera S., Puglisi M., Vizzini A., Totti C., Barberis G., Bianchi E., Boemo A., Bonini I., Bouvet D., Cocozza C., Dagnino D., Di Nuzzo L., Fačkovcová Z., Gheza G., Gianfreda S., Giordani P., Hilpold A., Hurtado P., Köckinger H., Isocrono D., Loppi S., Malíček J., Matino C., Minuto L., Nascimbene J., Pandeli G., Paoli L., Puntillo D., Puntillo M., Rossi A., Sguazzin F., Spitale D., Stifter S., Turcato C. & Vazzola S. (2020): Notulae to the Italian flora of algae, bryophytes, fungi and lichens: 10. - Italian Botanist, 10: 83–99. https://doi.org/10.3897/italianbotanist.99.59352.
In this contribution, new data concerning red algae, bryophytes, fungi and lichens of the Italian flora are presented. It includes new records and confirmations for the algal genus Thorea, for the bryophyte genera Ephemerum, Hedwigia, Pogonatum, Riccia, Sphagnum, and Tortella, the fungal genera Pileolaria and Sporisorium, and the lichen genera Bacidia, Cerothallia, Chaenotheca, Cladonia, Halecania, Lecanora, Phylloblastia, Physcia, Protoparmelia, Pycnora, Segestria, and Sphaerophorus. Keywords: Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Bryidae, Marchantiidae, Rhodophyta.
32951Roux C. (2020): Lectotypification de Verrucaria leptotera f. inconspicua Nyl. (syn. Arthopyrenia inconspicua (Nyl.) J. Lahm ex Körb.). - Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, 71: 87–89. .
Résumé : Verrucaria leptotera f. inconspicua Nyl. (qui est antérieur à Arthopyrenia inconspicua J. Lahm) est lectotypifié par un spécimen de J. Lahm (mstr) et considéré comme le basionyme de Lichenopeltella inconspicua (Nyl.) Cl. Roux (autorité corrigée) qui remplace Lichenopeltella inconspicua (J. Lahm) Cl. Roux. Pour la même raison, Arthopyrenia inconspicua J. Lahm. est corrigé en Arthopyrenia inconspicua (Nyl.) J. Lahm ex Körb.
32950Roux C, Pinault P., Ertz D. & Gardiennet A. (2020): Deux Capronia s. l. (Ascomycota, Chaetothyriales) lichénicoles sur Cladonia. - Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, 71: 75–86. .
Résumé : Description de deux champignons lichénicoles sur Cladonia, Capronia diederichiana P. Pinault et Cl. Roux sp. nov., récolté sur deux espèces de Cladonia, et Knufia peltigerae, ordinairement sur Peltigera, mais se rencontrant également sur Cladonia (gr. pyxidata) et parfois même sur d’autres lichens (Enchylium tenax, Scytinium lichenoides) et sur bryophytes. Comparaison entre ces deux espèces bien distinctes, surtout par leurs spores. Différences entre Capronia diederichiana et les espèces voisines ou analogues. Considérations sur les genres Capronia (y compris leurs stades asexués Cladophialophora), Knufia et Merismatium, ainsi que sur l’hamathécium des Capronia s. l.
32949Méric J.-C & Roux C. [collab. Aïtelli M. & Poumarat S.] (2020): Lichénologie à Sivergues (84) : 26 octobre 2019. - Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, 71: 20–29. .
France; report on excursion with photodocumentation
32948Gheza G., Di Nuzzo L. & Nascimbene J. (2020): The lichen genus Cladonia in Monte Ceceri (Tuscany, Central Italy). - Borziana, 1: 5–13. https://doi.org/10.7320/Borz.001.005.
Cladonia is a widespread genus of lichenized Ascomycetes whose knowledge is fragmentary in Italy. There, many records are dispersed in floristic studies, while specific research targeted on this lichen group is almost missing. As a first contribution to the knowledge of the Cladonia biota of Tuscany, the annotated list of the species recorded in Monte Ceceri (Fiesole, province of Florence) is reported. Eleven species are listed; among them, C. ciliata likely became extinct since the only historical record, while C. peziziformis and C. rei are reported for the first time from Tuscany. Similarly to other areas recently studied in northern Italy, also in Monte Ceceri the occurrence of Cladonia-rich terricolous lichen communities is related to the persistence of fragments of open dry habitats, which are threatened by vegetation encroachment. This case study is a first step towards a better knowledge of terricolous lichen communities of lowlands of central Italy, which provides information useful for the conservation of these overlooked organisms. Key words: Diversity, floristics, habitat loss, open dry habitats.
32947Gauslaa Y. & Timdal E. (2020): Usnea rubicunda new to Scandinavia. - Graphis Scripta, 32(6): 110–119. http://nhm2.uio.no/botanisk/lav/Graphis/32_6/GS_32_110.pdf.
The western temperate-tropical fruticose species lichen Usnea rubicunda Stirt. is reported as new to Scandinavia from a locality in Farsund municipality, Vest-Agder, south-west Norway. The fungal barcode marker, nrITS, shows a 99.8–100 % similarity with British specimens, and the known small Norwegian population is assumed to have recently immigrated from Britain, possibly a response to global warming. Details on morphology, habitat, and population characteristics of the Norwegian occurrence are given.
32946Hurtado P., Prieto M., de Bello F., Aragón G., López-Angulo J., Giordani P., Díaz-Peña E.M., Vicente R., Merinero S., Košuthová A., Benesperi R., Bianchi E., Mayrhofer H., Nascimbene J., Grube M., Wedin M., Westberg M. & Martínez I. (2020): Contrasting environmental drivers determine biodiversity patterns in epiphytic lichen communities along a European gradient. - Microorganisms, 8(12): 1913 [14 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8121913.
Assessing the ecological impacts of environmental change on biological communities requires knowledge of the factors driving the spatial patterns of the three diversity facets along extensive environmental gradients. We quantified the taxonomic (TD), functional (FD), and phylogenetic diversity (PD) of lichen epiphytic communities in 23 beech forests along Europe to examine their response to environmental variation (climate, habitat quality, spatial predictors) at a continental geographic scale. We selected six traits related to the climatic conditions in forest ecosystems, the water-use strategy and the nutrient uptake, and we built a phylogenetic tree based on four molecular markers. FD and climate determined TD and PD, with spatial variables also a ecting PD. The three diversity facets were primarily shaped by distinct critical predictors, with the temperature diurnal range a ecting FD and PD, and precipitation of the wettest month determining TD. Our results emphasize the value of FD for explaining part of TD and PD variation in lichen communities at a broad geographic scale, while highlighting that these diversity facets provide complementary information about the communities’ response under changing environmental conditions. Furthermore, traits such as growth form, photobiont type, and reproductive stratégy mediated the response of lichen communities to abiotic factors emerging as useful indicators of macroclimatic variations. Keywords: beech forests; climate; epiphytic lichen; functional diversity; functional trait; latitudinal gradient; phylogenetic diversity; taxonomic diversity.
32945John V. & Beck A. (2020): Notiz zu den Flechtenbiota der Burgruine Erfenstein, mit einem Nachtrag zur Burgruine Drachenfels. - Mitteilugen der Pollichia [Bad Dürkheim], 100: 75–83. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Mitt-Pollichia_100_0075-0083.pdf.
On the relatively small complex of the Erfenstein Castle ruins 75 lichen species were found, including endangered and rare species. In addition to the species typical for sandstone, the castle is an oasis for numerous species on limestone. Due to the balanced ratio of nitrophytic to nitrophobic lichens, there is no evidence for excessive eutrophication. The castle can currently be regarded as an example of gentle care measurements. Solenopsora vulturiensis from the Drachenfels Castle ruins is confirmed by molecular methods.
32944Fernandes R.A., Chaudhari D.A. & Jha A.K. (2020): Evolution of strategies in paraconic acids synthesis. - Asian Journal of Organic Chemistry, 9: 1478–1501. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajoc.202000353.
Various syntheses of different paraconic acids over the last seventeen years have been abstracted here. Paraconic acids have either a methylene or methyl group at the 4-position of the γ-butyrolactone with a common C-3 carboxylic acid group and a long alkyl chain. Several possibilities of relative configurations give rise to distinct set of paraconic acids, which are also categorized in this review. Various strategies based on chiral catalytic methods, chiral pool, chiral auxiliary, resolution and other methods were engaged in the synthesis of different paraconic acids. A few members are yet to be synthesized and this compilation might entice future synthetic attempts on them. Keywords: catalysis · lactones · lichen · natural products · paraconic acids · total synthesis.
32943Zarabska-Bożejewicz D. (2020): The impact of nitrogen pollution in the agricultural landscape on lichens: A review of their responses at the community, species, biont and physiological levels. - Agronomy, 10(12): 1852 [19 p.]. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10121852.
Lichenized fungi are widely used as bioindicators owing to their sensitivity to various anthropogenic impacts. Increased nitrogen deposition affects the occurrence, abundance and distribution of lichens. The main sources of nitrogen in the agricultural landscape are ammonia (NH3) and the ammonium cation (NH4+). Livestock farming and the use of organic and mineral fertilizers are primarily responsible for the emissions of these compounds. N in excess can negatively impact lichen biota and lead, for example, to species decline, impoverishment of lichen communities or unbalanced symbiosis. However, there is also evidence for certain opposite effects, in particular at medium N concentrations. Positive influences may be manifested, for example, by higher chlorophyll a concentrations, or by a greater lichen diversity being supported by the coexistence of lichens with different trophic requirements. Indicator values of lichens in relation to N input are exhibited, for example, by some biont markers (the contents of ergosterol and chlorophyll a), particular species, such as Xanthoria parietina, or trophic functional groups (oligotrophilous and nitrophilous lichens). Gaps identified in the current knowledge are discussed. Keywords: lichenized fungi; elevated nitrogen deposition; bioindication.
32942Krzewicka B. (2012): A Revision of Verrucaria s.l. (Verrucariaceae) in Poland. - Polish Botanical Studies, 27: 3–143. .
A taxonomic treatment of the genus Verrucaria s.l. in Poland is provided, based on a study of ca 1700 specimens from Polish and foreign herbaria. A total of 62 species belonging to seven genera currently separated within Verrucaria s.l. are presented including two new combinations, Verruculopsis minutum (Hepp) Krzewicka and Parabagliettoa disjuncta (Arnold) Krzewicka. The following genera and species are recognized in the study area: Bagliettoa − B. baldensis (A. Massal.) Vězda, B. calciseda (DC.) Gueidan & Cl. Roux, B. marmorea (Scop.) Gueidan & Cl. Roux, B. parmigerella (Zahlbr.) Vězda & Poelt; Hydropunctaria − H. maura (Wahlenb.) Keller, Gueidan & Thüs, H. rheitrophila (Zschacke) Keller, Gueidan & Thüs, H. scabra (Vĕzda) Keller, Gueidan & Thüs; Parabagliettoa − P. cyanea (A. Massal.) Gueidan & Cl. Roux, P. disjuncta, P. dufourii (DC.) Gueidan & Cl. Roux; Placopyrenium − P. canellum (Nyl.) Gueidan & Cl. Roux, P. fuscellum (Turner) Gueidan & Cl. Roux, P. trachyticum (Hazsl.) Breuss; Verrucaria − V. acrotella auct., V. amylacea Hepp, V. andesiatica Servít, V. aquatilis Mudd, V. bryoctona (Th.Fr.) Orange, V. caerulea DC., V. cataleptoides (Nyl.) Nyl., V. cernaensis Zschacke, V. cincta Hepp, V. denudata Zschacke, V. dolosa Hepp, V. elaeina Borrer, V. elaeomelaena (A. Massal.) Arnold, V. funckii (Spreng.) Zahlbr., V. hochstetteri Fr., V. latebrosa Körb., V. macrostoma DC., V. maculiformis Kremp., V. madida Orange, V. margacea (Wahlenb.) Wahlenb., V. muralis Ach., V. myriocarpa Hepp, V. nigrescens Pers., V. nigroumbrina (A. Massal.) Servít, V. obfuscans (Nyl.) Nyl., V. ochrostoma Borrer, V. pachyderma (Arnold) Arnold, V. pinguicula A. Massal., V. policensis Servít, V. polonica J. Nowak, V. polysticta Borrer, V. praetermissa (Trevisan) Anzi, V. procopii Servít, V. sphaerospora Anzi, V. sublobulata Servít, V. submauroides auct., V. submersella Servít, V. tectorum (A. Massal.) Körb., V. tristis (A. Massal.) Kremp., V. umbrinula Nyl., V. viridicans Servít, V. viridula (Schrad.) Ach., V. xyloxena Norman; Verrucula − V. elegantaria (Zehetl.) Nav.-Ros. & Cl. Roux, V. helvetica (B. de Lesd.) Nav.-Ros. & Cl. Roux, V. polycarparia Nav.-Ros. & Cl. Roux, V. protearia (Zehetl.) Nav.-Ros. & Cl. Roux; and Verruculopsis − V. lecideoides (A. Massal.) Gueidan & Cl. Roux, V. minutum. Three species, Parabagliettoa disjuncta, Verrucula elegantaria and V. polycarparia are reported for the first time from Poland. Twenty five taxa are excluded from the survey because they were mistakenly reported or not confirmed for the study area. The morphology, anatomy, ecology and known distribution of all treated taxa are discussed. Keys for the identification of genera and particular groups of the species are provided. Additional nomenclatural and taxonomic clarification include the typification of Thrombium lecideoides A. Massal., Verrucaria aquatilis var. aerimontana Servít and Verrucaria timkoii Servít, and the synonymy of Lithoicea nigrescens var. acrotella A. Massal. with Verrucaria nigrescens, Verrucaria amylacea f. compacta Arnold with Verrucaria amylacea, Verrucaria aquatilis var. aerimontana with Verrucaria aquatilis, Verrucaria atroviridis Servít with Verrucaria aquatilis, Verrucaria denudata f. dissulta Servít with Verrucaria funckii, Verrucaria elaeina var. determinata Körb. with Verrucaria praetermissa, Verrucaria elaeina var. effusa Körb. with Verrucaria submersella, Verrucaria hoffmanni Hepp with Bagliettoa marmorea, Verrucaria maura var. opaca Körb. with Hydropunctaria scabra, Verrucaria nigrofusca Servít with Verrucaria nigroumbrina, Verrucaria sublobulata var. robustior Servít with Verrucaria sublobulata, Verrucaria timkoii with Bagliettoa calciseda. The name Verrucaria funckiana is rejected because it proved illegitimate as it was nomenclaturally superfluous when published. Key words: Verrucariaceae, Bagliettoa, Hydropunctaria, Parabagliettoa, Placopyrenium, Verrucaria, Verrucula, Verruculopsis, revision, nomenclature, taxonomy, ecology, key, Poland.
32941蒋淑华,张超,姚宗廷,刘华杰 [Jiang S.-H., Zhang C., Yao Z.-T. & Liu H.-J.] (2020): 星果衣属(乳嘴衣科)一新种和一中国新记录种 [A species new to science and a new Chinese record of Astrothelium (Typetheliaceae)]. - Mycosystema, 39(2): 1–9. DOI: 10.13346/j.mycosystema.200285.
[in Chinese with English abstract: ] Based on morphology, anatomy, chemistry and molecular biology, a new species of lichenized fungus Astrothelium, A. sinense, and a new record to China A. macrocarpum were reported. The new species is characterized by thallus bullate-folded, perithecia surrounded by whitish rim except for dark ostiolar area, and thallus and pseudostromata with lichexanthone both showing UV+ yellow. Comparisons and discussions with their similar species were provided. These are basic data for compilation of Flora Lichenum Sinicorum. Key words: lichenized fungi, Dothideomycetes, Trypetheliales, phenotype, genotype.
32940Huynh B.-L.-C., Pham N.K.T. & Nguyen T.P. (2021): Vinapraesorediosic acids D and E from the lichen Parmotrema praesorediosum (Nyl.) Hale. - Phytochemistry Letters, 41: 61–64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytol.2020.11.001.
One new α,β-unsaturated-γ-lactone acid, named Vinapraesorediosic acid D (1), and one new benzoic acid, Vinapraesorediosic acid E (2), were isolated from the lichen Parmotrema praesorediosum. Their chemical structures were elucidated by extensive IR, CD, HR-ESI-MS, and NMR spectroscopic analysis, and comparison with previously published data. Compound 1 was evaluated for the cytotoxicity against four human cancer cell lines (MCF-7, HeLa, NCI-H460, and HepG2) using SRB assay. As results, 1 exhibited moderate activity against MCF-7. Keywords: Parmotrema praesorediosum; Parmeliaceae; Vinapraesorediosic acid D; Vinapraesorediosic acid E.
32939Joshi Y, Kumar P, Yadav AL, Suda N & Halda JP (2021): Distribution and diversity of lichenicolous fungi from western Himalayan Cold Deserts of India, including a new Zwackhiomyces species. - Sydowia, 73: 171–183. .
The bare rock surfaces in cold deserts provide the most extreme environmental conditions for life on Earth where specialists with particular adaptations, such as bacteria, black yeasts, fungi, mosses, lichens and microalgae can colonize. Lichens growing in these harsh conditions also use to house symptomatic and asymptomatic fungi, which are generally termed as lichenicolous and endolichenic fungi, respectively. In the present study lichenicolous fungi associated with lichens of cold deserts of India (Leh- Ladakh and Lahaul Spiti) were investigated using lichen specimens obtained from CSIR-National Botanical Research Institute including herbaria of LWG, LWU and private herbaria of Dr. D.D. Awasthi (AWAS). The new species Zwackhiomyces lecideae, lichenicolous on Lecidea, is described in detail, and a list of 36 species (including one lichenicolous lichen, Sarcogyne sphaeros- pora, and one black meristematic fungus, Lichenothelia convexa, that is also a facultative lichenicolous fungus) belonging to 11 families (excluding genera of uncertain taxonomic positions) infecting 39 species of lichen hosts in the study site is presented. The discovery of a new species of Zwackhiomyces raises the tally of its members to 36 across the world and eight from India. alpine, astrobiology, diversity, Mars, lichens, lichensphere, secondary fungi, taxonomy.
32938Ertz D. (2020): New insights into the systematics and phylogeny of the genus Fouragea (Arthoniales, Opegraphaceae). - Phytotaxa, 472(2): 184–192. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.472.2.8.
The foliicolous lichen-forming fungus Opegrapha vegae was collected on the French island of Mayotte (Comoros archipelago). Phylogenetic analyses using nuLSU and RPB2 sequences place this species in the genus Fouragea (Opegraphaceae). Opegrapha alba, O. heliabravoa, O. tuxtlensis and O. vegae are newly combined in the genus Fouragea because of their foliicolous habit, their general morphology and their ascomata and ascospores types. Fouragea vegae is reported as new for the Comoros archipelago. Keywords: Comoros archipelago; diversity; lichen; Opegrapha; taxonomy.
32937Ertz D. & van den Boom P.P.G. (2020): Lecanographa atlantica (Arthoniales, Lecanographaceae), a widespread and conspicuous but still undescribed lichen-forming fungus. - Phytotaxa, 472(2): 147–158. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.472.2.5.
Lecanographa farinosa was considered to be a lichen inhabiting coastal rocks of the Mediterranean region and to possess psoromic and conpsoromic acids as major secondary metabolites. A revision of its type specimen from Germany proved that the species has been misunderstood. In this paper, L. farinosa is shown to have a thallus containing confluentic and 2’-Omethylmicrophyllinic acids and to have a different ecology and distribution. A revision of previous reports of L. farinosa from continental Portugal and the study of recent specimens of Lecanographa cf. farinosa from the Azores, Canary Islands, Cape Verde and continental Portugal revealed a new species described as L. atlantica. Moreover, reports of L. dialeuca from France (Brittany) and of L. subgrumulosa from the Azores are considered misidentifications of L. atlantica. This latter has thus a widespread distribution ranging from the Azores to the Atlantic coast of the European continent where it inhabits volcanic rocks near the sea. Lecanographa atlantica is characterized by a whitish to cream coloured thallus, usually rounded or oblong to shortly lirelliform and white pruinose ascomata with a widely exposed hymenial disc and thin margin, (3–)5–7- septate ascospores of (16–)18.9–23(–26) × (3–)3.4–4(–4.5) μm, and a chemistry including at least 2’-O-methylperlatolic acid but lacking confluentic and 2’-O-methylmicrophyllinic acids. Psoromic acid is sometimes present in L. atlantica but its origin is unclear. Phylogenetic analyses using nuLSU sequences place L. atlantica as sister to L. hypothallina. Keywords: chemistry, diversity, island biology, phylogeny, taxonomy.
32936Santesson J. (1970): Anthraquinones in Caloplaca. - Phytochemistry, 9: 2149–2166. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(00)85380-7.
About 230 species of the lichen genus Caloplaca have been surveyed for anthraquinones. By means of lichen mass spectrometry and TLC, emodin, parietin, fallacinol, fallacinal, parietinic acid, xanthorin, 2-chloroemodin, fragilin, and 1-O-methylfragilin have been identified, as well as some non-anthraquinonoid compounds. The species studied can be arranged according to their anthraquinone content in thirteen “chemical groups”.
32935Gagarina L.V. & Ezhkin A.K. (2020): To the study of the lichen genus Usnea (Parmeliaceae) in Kunashir Island (Sakhalin Region, Russia). - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 54(2): 467–478. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2020.54.2.467.
Nine species from the genus Usnea were found in the Kunashir Island. Six species are new for the Kunashir Island. These are U. cornuta, U. glabrata, U. fragilescens, U. lapponica, U. pangiana, U. subfloridana. In total, six secondary medullary substances detected by HPTLC were found in the species of Usnea from Kunashir. Four new chemotypes are described. The paper provides a key for identification of Usnea species in the Kunashir Island, list of specimens examined, lists of chemotypes detected by authors and known from literature. Keywords: chemistry, distribution, key, lichen substances, Kuril Islands.
32934Stepanchikova I.S., Rodionova A.A., Himelbrant D.E. & Motiejūnaitė J. (2020): The lichens of Maly Island (Peninsaari) in the Gulf of Finland (Leningrad Region). - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 54(2): 453–466. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2020.54.2.453.
A lichen checklist for Maly Island (Leningrad Region, Russia) comprises 160 species, including 150 lichens, 9 lichenicolous fungi and 1 non-lichenized saprobic fungus. Lecidella eff ugiens is new to North-Western European Russia, Diplotomma pharcidium and Taeniolella delicata are new to the Leningrad Region. The lichen biota of Maly Island is relatively poor due to natural and anthropogenic factors: the island is small, sandy, lacking rocky outcrops, with low diversity of plant communities; all its forests are disturbed and young. The most valuable habitats for lichens on Maly Island are seashore communities and open pine stands on sand. Keywords: lichen diversity, seashore communities, Baltic Sea, Karelia australis, Kingisepp District, Russia.
32933Мучник Е.Э. [Muchnik E.E.] (2020): Дополнения к лихенобиоте Брянской области (Россия) [Contribution to the lichen biota of the Bryansk Region (Russia)]. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 54(2): 441–451. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2020.54.2.441.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] The checklist of 56 lichen species and 4 allied non-lichenized saprotrophic fungi is presented. It complements the previously available information on the lichen biota of the Bryansk Region. Lecanora stanislai, Micarea pusilla, and Physconia grumosa are recorded for the first time in Central Russia, 38 other species are new to the Bryansk Region. Calicium quercinum, Cladonia decorticata, C. homosekikaica, and Stereocaulon condensatum are rare species in Central Russia. We consider a number of species as indicators of biologically valuable forest and park landscapes in coniferous- broadleaved and broadleaved subzones in Central Russia. Recommendations on expanding the list of protected lichen species in Bryansk Region are given. Keywords: Lecanora stanislai, Micarea pusilla, Physconia grumosa, lichens, rare species, special protected areas, Central Russia.
32932Konoreva L.A., Chesnokov S.V., Korolev K.S. & Himelbrant D.E. (2020): On the Micarea prasina group (Pilocarpaceae) in the Kaliningrad Region. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 54(2): 429–440. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2020.54.2.429.
Seven species of Micarea prasina group were found during the lichen study in the northern part of the Kaliningrad Region. M. pseudomicrococca is reported for the fi rst time for Russia, 6 other species are new to the Kaliningrad Region. Morphological, anatomical, and chemical features of the species are discussed. Keywords: Micarea, biodiversity, distribution, lichens, secondary metabolites, taxonomy, Baltic region, Russia.
32931Исмаилов А.Б. [Ismailov A.B.] (2020): Лишайники высокогорных буковых лесов Республики Дагестан [Lichens of high mountainous beech forests of the Republic of Dagestan]. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 54(2): 413–427. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2020.54.2.413.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] The high mountainous beech (Fagus orientalis) forests of Dagestan which are a refugium of the species with oceanic/suboceanic distribution in the arid conditions of the East Caucasus have been studied for the first time, and 140 species of lichens, lichenicolous and non-lichenized fungi growing on beech have been revealed. Among them 3 species (Leptogium burnetiae, Lobaria pulmonaria, and Ricasolia amplissima) are endangered lichens included in the red data book of Russia. Seven species (Abrothallus nephromatis, A. peyritschii, Biatora beckhausii, Biatoropsis usnearum, Bryoria vrangiana, Dactylospora lobariella, and Usnea fragilescens) and 2 genera (Biatoropsis and Ramonia) are reported for the first time for the East Caucasus; 10 species (Collema nigrescens, C. subnigrescens, Gyalecta fagicola, G. herculina, Lecanora intumescens, Leptogium burnetiae, L. cyanescens, Melanohalea elegantula, Nephroma helveticum, and Ramonia luteola) and the genus Biatora are new for Dagestan. The record of Ramonia luteola is the second for Russia and the Caucasus. Most of the lichens are with trebouxioid photobiont, cyanolichens are represented by 20 species, lichens with trentepohlioid photobiont — by 14 species. Reproductive strategy by spores is prevailing. Vegetative diaspores are formed by 51 species of which 46 are fruticose and foliose. The species from Lobarion pulmonariae community are revealed. The presence of rare and endangered species shows a high value of studied community for nature protection. Keywords: Fagus orientalis, Lobarion pulmonariae, biodiversity, lichenicolous fungi, new records, old-growth forests, East Caucasus, Russia.
32930Zhdanov I.S. (2020): Halecania ahtii (Leprocaulaceae), a new lichen species from the Russian Far East. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 54(2): 405–411. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2020.54.2.405.
A new species, Halecania ahtii, is described and illustrated. It is only known from the type locality in the Russian Far East. It is characterized by thin, very inconspicuous thallus consisting of small, dispersed areoles and most likely containing argopsin (identifi ed by fast orange-red reaction with P), as well as relatively small ascospores, and a lichenicolous habit on diff erent saxicolous host species on acidic rocks. A key for Halecania species containing argopsin is proposed. Keywords: biodiversity, Primorye Territory.
32929Бельдиман Л.Н., Урбанавичене И.Н., Федосов В.Э. & Кузьмина Е.Ю. [Beldiman L.N., Urbanavichene I.N., Fedosov V.E. & Kuzmina E.Yu.] (2020): Мхи и лишайники острова Шокальского (Карское море, Ямало-Ненецкий автономный округ) [Mosses and lichens of Shokalsky Island (Kara Sea, Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Area)]. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 54(2): 497–513. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2020.54.2.497.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] We studied in detail a moss-lichen component of Shokalsky Island vegetation for the first time and identified 79 species of mosses and 54 species and 2 subspecies of lichens and lichenicolous fungi. All species of mosses and 23 species and 2 subspecies of lichens and lichenicolous fungi are recorded for the first time for the island. The study is based on collections made in South West part of the island, in arctic tundra. We also explored the participation of the mosses and lichens in the main types of plant communities and the species distribution in 10 ecotopes. The paper describes the noteworthy findings (Abrothallus parmeliarum, Aongstroemia longipes, Arthonia peltigerea, Caloplaca caesiorufella, Catillaria stereocaulorum, Ceratodon heterophyllus, Lecanora leptacinella, Sphagnum concinnum, S. olafii) and features of bryo- and lichenoflora of Shokalsky Island. Keywords: bryoflora, lichenoflora, arctic tundra, flora, Arctic, West Siberia.
32928Czernyadjeva I.V., Ahti T., Boldina O.N., Chesnokov S.V, Davydov E.A., Doroshina G.Ya., Fedosov V.E., Khetagurov Kh.М., Konoreva L.A., Kotkova V.M., Kuzmina E.Yu., Lavrentiev M.V., Liksakova N.S., Nikolayev I.А., Popova N.N., Safronova T.V., Shadrina S.N. & Yakovchenko L.S. (2020): New cryptogamic records. 6. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 54(2): 537–557. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2020.54.2.537.
First records of chrysophytes for the North-Western Russia and the Leningrad Region, fungi for the Pskov Region, lichens for Svalbard and the Altai Territory, bryophytes for the Far East, Arkhangelsk, Saratov, Voronezh and Sakhalin regions, the Karachayevo-Circassian Republic, Republic of North Ossetia – Alania, the Republic of Altai, the New Siberian Islands Archipelago, the Kuril Islands, the Republic of South Ossetia. The data on its localities, habitats and distribution are provided. Keywords: Alutaceodontia alutacea, Basidiomycota, Botryobasidium intertextum, Buellia epigaea, Calliergon megalophyllum, Chrysophyceae, Chrysostephanosphaera globulifera, Cladonia labradorica, Cladonia norvegica, Cladonia oxneri, Dendrothele acerina, Fissidens exilis, Homalia trichomanoides, Lewinskya laevigata, Mallomonas oviformis, Orthotrichum sibiricum, Orthotrichum sibiricum, Parmelia fraudans, Pellia endiviifolia, Peltigera extenuata, Peniophora lilacea, Pohlia beringiensis, Rhizomnium magnifolium, Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus, Sphagnum jensenii, Sphagnum majus, Sphagnum mirum, Sphagnum squarrosum, aphyllophoroid fungi, algae, chrysophytes, lichens, mosses, mycobiota, Republic of Altai, Altai Territory, Arctic, Arkhangelsk Region, Far East, Karachayevo-Circassian Republic, Kinnvika Bay, Kuril Islands, Leningrad Region, New Siberian Islands Archipelago, Nordaustlandet, North-Western Russia, Norway, Pskov Region, Republic of North Ossetia — Alania, Republic of South Ossetia, Russia, Saratov Region, Sakhalin Region, Stolbovoy Island, Svalbard, Voronezh Region, Urup Island.
32927Fjelde M.O., Melechin A. & Timdal E. (2020): Calvitimela talayana new to Fennoscandia. - Graphis Scripta, 32(5): 101–109. http://nhm2.uio.no/botanisk/lav/Graphis/32_5/GS_32_101.pdf.
The lichen species Calvitimela talayana (Tephromelataceae, Lecanorales) is rarely collected worldwide but seems to have a broad and northern circumpolar distribution. It is here reported as new to Fennoscandia. The collection was made on siliceous rocks in alpine to arctic boulderfields at massif Lovozerskie gory on the Kola peninsula (Murmansk oblast, Russia), extending the known distribution range of this species by almost 1200 km. An additional collection from the Priuralsky district (Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District) was made 160 km north of the former northernmost collection in the Ural Mountain. The specimens fit C. talayana in morphology (pale yellow areolae and yellow to dark green soralia), and the identification was confirmed by thin-layer chromatography and a maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis of the barcode marker nrITS.
32926Suija A. & Jüriado I. (2020): Records of new and interesting lichenicolous fungi from Finland and Norway. - Graphis Scripta, 32(5): 86–100. http://nhm2.uio.no/botanisk/lav/Graphis/32_5/GS_32_86.pdf.
Seven lichenicolous fungi new to Finland were found during the revision of lichen material collected by the second author from Finland and Norway, and of historical collections made by Prof. Theodor Lippmaa in the 1920s from north-western Finland. New localities for 29 lichenicolous species collected in the southern Finnish archipelago, in northern Finland or in northern Norway are also reported.
32925Wang W., Van den Boom P., Sangvichien E. & Wei J. (2020): A molecular study of the lichen genus Byssoloma Trevisan (Pilocarpaceae) with descriptions of three new species from China. - Lichenologist, 52(5): 387-396. .
A molecular phylogeny of the genus Byssoloma is inferred from mtSSU sequences using Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses. Byssoloma subdiscordans is resolved as sister to B. citricola rather than to the B. leucoblepharum clade, the B. subundulatum group (species with a compact apothecial margin) is shown to be a monophyletic group, and three species belonging to this group are described as new to science from Hainan Province in China: B. brunneodiscum W. C. Wang & J. C. Wei, with dark brown apothecia, crystals in the excipulum and the presence of 2,5,7-trichloro-3-O-methylnorlichexanthone; B. rubrofuscum W. C. Wang & J. C. Wei, with red-brown apothecia, 3–6-septate ascospores and the presence of 5,7-dichloro-3-O-methylnorlichexanthone; B. melanodiscocarpum W. C. Wang & J. C. Wei, with pure black apothecia, a K+ olive-black hypothecium and the presence of thiophanic acid. foliicolous lichens, Hainan, mtSSU, taxonomy
32924Wang W., Sangvichien E., Wei T. & Wei J. (2020): A molecular phylogeny of Pilocarpaceae Zahlbr., including a new species of Tapellaria Müll. Arg. and new records of foliicolous lichenized fungi from Thailand. - Lichenologist, 52(5): 377-385. .
The phylogeny of foliicolous taxa in Pilocarpaceae was reconstructed using Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses of concatenated ITS and mtSSU sequences. Sixty-six new partial sequences representing 36 taxa were generated and 29 sequences were downloaded from GenBank. Our results indicate that Lasioloma R. Sant. is nested within a paraphyletic Calopadia Vězda, whereas Fellhanera Vězda is poly- phyletic and the phylogenetic relationships of Eugeniella Lücking et al. and Sporopodium Mont. with Fellhanera require further investiga- tion. In addition, Tapellaria parvimuriformis W. C. Wang & J. C. Wei is described as a new species from Khao Yai National Park, Thailand, and is characterized by its small muriform ascospores, grey campylidia with a pale base, and short conidia. Eight new records of foliicolous lichens for Thailand are also listed. Asia, Bayesian analysis, foliicolous lichens, ITS, mtSSU
32923Van der Kolk H., Earland-Bennett P. & Hawksworth D. (2020): A new Psammina species with exceptionally long conidial arms, with a key to the ten known species of the genus. - Lichenologist, 52(5): 337-343. .
The algicolous and lichenicolous species Psammina filamentosa is described from the Netherlands and the UK, and is characterized by long (generally over 50 μm) and somewhat tapered conidial arms. Psammina filamentosa is compared with other Psammina specimens found in the same habitat, growing on algae or lichens on the dry side of trees and stones. Psammina filamentosa, P. inflata and P. stipitata differ in the dimensions of their conidial arms. Psammina simplex, however, may be a synonym of P. stipitata, and a DNA study is needed to deter- mine whether it is a distinct species or developing material of P. stipitata. Psammina inflata is also reported as new for the Netherlands. A new worldwide key to the 10 species of Psammina currently known is provided, including three species described from plant material. algicolous, coelomycetes, hyphomycetes, lichenicolous, The Netherlands, UK
32922Galanty A., Paśko P., Podolak I. & Zagrodzki P. (2020): Optimization of usnic acid extraction conditions using fractional factorial design. - Lichenologist, 52(5): 397-401. .
Usnic acid is a unique lichen metabolite of industrial importance, widely studied to explore its pharmacological potential and valued espe- cially as an antibacterial agent in cosmetics. Although a vast number of papers describe usnic acid extraction from various lichen species, none has so far provided an unequivocal indication of the best extraction procedure for this compound. Thus, the current study was focused on the direct comparison of three commonly used usnic acid extraction methods (heat reflux, shaking, ultrasound-assisted extractions), which were optimized using fractional factorial design. Heat reflux extraction, shaking extraction and ultrasound-assisted extraction were first optimized in a series of experiments using fractional factorial design, with respect to three parameters: the extraction time, the solvent used and the number of extraction repetitions. HPLC was employed for usnic acid quantitative analysis. The best scores for each extraction method were statistically compared and the optimal conditions were indicated. The optimal set of parameters for usnic acid was established to be a single, 60 min heat reflux extraction with acetone. This extraction scheme provided 4.25 ±0.08 mg g−1 d.w. of usnic acid, while for ultrasound-assisted and shaking extractions the amount was two- or even four times lower (2.33 ±0.17 and 0.97 ±0.08 mg g−1 d.w., respect- ively). The optimal procedure for usnic acid extraction described here may be suitable for effective acquisition of this compound for sci- entific research purposes, but also for applications in the pharmaceutical or cosmetic industries. extraction, fractional factorial design, lichen, optimization, usnic acid
32921Elvebakk A., Hong S., Park C. & Rämä T. (2020): Psoroma capense and P. esterhuyseniae (Pannariaceae), two new alpine species from South Africa. - Lichenologist, 52(5): 345-352. .
The new species Psoroma capense and P. esterhuyseniae are described from four alpine localities in the Western Cape Province of South Africa and are the only known Psoroma species from Africa. The specimens were all collected from moist sites near watercourses, on cool and mostly south-facing cliffs. Psoroma capense resembles P. tenue in gross morphology but differs in the ascending thallus squamules, lack of secondary compounds and short-ellipsoid to ovoid ascospores. However, a phylogenetic analysis involving the markers ITS, nucLSU, mtSSU and Mcm7, comparing the only recent collection of P. capense with previously published sequences, shows that it belongs to the P. hypnorum lineage, with no known, closely related species. Psoroma esterhuyseniae resembles P. hypnorum but has subglobose to short- ellipsoid ascospores without apical perispore extensions. The two species are thought to have evolved from one or two long-distance dis- persal events during the Pleistocene. biodiversity, evolution, lichens, phylogeny, taxonomy
32920Davydov E., Yakovchenko L., Urbanavichene I., Konoreva L., Chesnokov S., Kharpukhaeva T. & Obermayer W. (2020): Umbilicaria orientalis – a new species of Umbilicaria subg. Papillophora with an East Asian distribution: Morphological delimitation and molecular evidence. - Lichenologist, 52(5): 353-364. .
Umbilicaria orientalis Davydov sp. nov. is described and phylogenetic analysis (ITS, mtLSU and RPB2) confirmed its distinctness and indicated a sister relationship with U. trabeculata within the U. vellea group. The species is morphologically similar to U. vellea but differs by simple, cylindrical or strap-like rhizinomorphs and by thalloconidia, developing both on the lower surface and on rhizinomorphs, that are 1–2 (rarely 4)–celled or in aggregates of up to 5–6 cells. Umbilicaria orientalis is described from the Russian Far East and is currently known from a wide range of localities in East Asia, from the Far East to South Siberia and Mongolia in the north, to Hebei and Tibet in the south. New sequences of U. americana were obtained; the species represents an independent phylogenetic lineage within Umbilicaria subg. Papillophora. Diagnostic traits and variability of different developmental stages of U. orientalis, as well as its East Asian distribution pattern, are discussed. Ascomycota, China, Far East, lichen, Mongolia, Russia, South Siberia, Tibet
32919Crespo A., Rico V., Garrido E., Lumbsch H. & Divakar P. (2020): A revision of species of the Parmelia saxatilis complex in the Iberian Peninsula with the description of P. rojoi, a new potentially relict species. - Lichenologist, 52(5): 365-376. .
The species of the Parmelia saxatilis complex occurring in the Iberian Peninsula were revised. Eight species are accepted, including a new species found in southern Spain, described as P. rojoi A. Crespo, V. J. Rico & Divakar. The new species, which forms a sister-group rela- tionship with P. saxatilis s. str., is rare in the Iberian Peninsula and is restricted to higher altitudes of northern and central Spain. Parmelia rojoi differs from P. saxatilis by generally narrower isidia and a more fragile thallus. The segregation of the new species is also supported by ITS (rDNA) and Mcm7 (MS456) phylogeny and multispecies coalescent-based approaches, including StarBEAST and BP&P. Furthermore, the divergence of P. rojoi is dated back to the Pleistocene, c. 2.13 Ma. A key to the identification of species from the P. saxatilis complex with their diagnostic features is provided. All species of the complex known from Europe are also found in the Iberian Peninsula. We hypothesize that P. rojoi is a relict species that survived the Pleistocene glaciations in refugia in Spain and has been unable to extend its distributional range in postglacial periods. biogeography, glaciations, lichen, Parmeliaceae, phylogeny, refugia, systematics, taxonomy
32918Torres J.M., Spielmann A.A., Aptroot A., Cardoso K.F. & Honda N.K. (2020): The lichen genus Schistophoron Stirt. (Ascomycetes, Graphidaceae) in Brazil with a world key to the species. - Cryptogamie, Mycologie , 41(13): 211–217. https://cryptogamie.com/mycologie/41/13.
The genus Schistophoron Stirt. is reported for the first time from Brazil, based on collections from Mato Grosso do Sul State. Two species, S. indicum Kr.P.Singh & Swarnalatha, and S. tenue Stirt., were found, both of which are described and illustrated. In addition, a brief characterization of the other know species, with their geographic distribution, a comparative table and a world key are provided to facilitate their identification. Key words: Lirellae, mazaedium, new records, tropics, Chaco.
32917Kubiak D. & Osyczka P. (2020): Non-forested vs forest environments: The effect of habitat conditions on host tree parameters and the occurrence of associated epiphytic lichens. - Fungal Ecology, 47: 100957 [13 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.funeco.2020.100957.
The study compares the epiphytic lichen communities of two different ecological systems of northern Poland, a non-forested area and a natural lowland deciduous forest corresponding to the potential vegetation flora of a large part of Central Europe, in relation to the same tree species. The impact of habitat type and tree species on individual tree properties and the association between tree size, bark pH, conductivity, water-holding capacity, bark splitting, light intensity at tree trunks and the composition of lichens were analysed. Three sets of lichens were identified: confined to non-forested areas (40 species), confined to forests (61 species), and non-specific mutual species (53 species). The results indicate that most species demonstrate specificity to habitat type rather than to tree species. Factors related to tree species and bark properties gain in importance at the level of a specific habitat. Bark pH and waterholding capacity are decisive factors for lichen occurrence in both habitat types; additionally, in forests, tree diameter is important. The paper provides potentially useful ecological data for campaigns aimed at lichen conservation and at shaping the environment with concern for biodiversity. Keywords: Epiphytes; Lichen communities; Host trees; Deciduous forest; Non-forested area; Ecology; Habitat factors; Lichen conservation.
32916Nelsen M.P. & Lumbsch H.T. (2020): A data-driven evaluation of lichen climate change indicators in Central Europe. - Biodiversity and Conservation, 29: 3959–3971. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-020-02057-8.
Lichens are widely utilized as indicators of air quality, forest health and climate change. In Central Europe, specific lichens have been designated as climate change indicators; however, the lichen biota of central Europe has been substantially altered by air pollution and only re-established during the past decades—complicating the interpretation of recent changes in lichen composition. To assess their validity as climate change indicators, we aggregated georeferenced records of these taxa and compared their historic and modern distributions. Modern distributions substantially differed for fewer than half of the indicator taxa with sufficient data to enable evaluation—reinforcing their utility as climate change indicators. However, modern distributions for approximately half of the taxa evaluated were largely confined to historically suitable climates—raising questions about their utility as climate change indicators. We were unable to model historic distributions for nearly two-thirds of all indicator taxa due to insufficient data. About one-third of these had multiple modern records but one or fewer historic records, suggesting they may indeed be expanding their range; however, about half had comparable or greater numbers of historic records relative to modern records, complicating their interpretation as climate change indicators. Together, our work illustrates that distributions for fewer than half of the lichen climate change indicators have substantially shifted in the recent past, and calls into question whether the remaining designated taxa are indeed strong positive indicators of climate change. We argue that more quantitative, evidence-based derivations of climate change indicators are required to accurately detect climate change. Keywords: Lichens;  Climate change;  Biomonitoring;  Europe.
32915Nimis P.L. & Martellos S. (2020): Towards a digital key to the lichens of Italy. - Symbiosis, 82: 149–155. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13199-020-00714-8.
Work is in progress for the completion of a computer-aided key to all lichens known to occur in Italy, which will be freely available online, and as a free application for mobile devices. A first example, concerning the lichens of Northern Italy (2.339 infrageneric taxa), is already available online for testing. A computer-generated but manually edited dichotomous key is invoked for all species previously filtered via a multi-entry interface, where several selected characters can be specified in a single step. To optimize the two query interfaces, two different datasets are used, one for the dichotomous, the other for the multi-entry interface. Keywords: Biodiversity . E-keys . Flora . Identification . Lichenized fungi.
32914Smith H.B., Dal Grande F., Muggia L., Keuler R., Divakar P.K., Grewe F., Schmitt I., Lumbsch H.T. & Leavitt S.D. (2020): Metagenomic data reveal diverse fungal and algal communities associated with the lichen symbiosis. - Symbiosis, 82: 133–147. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13199-020-00699-4.
Lichens have traditionally been considered the symbiotic phenotype from the interactions of a single fungal partner and one or few photosynthetic partners. However, lichen symbioses have been shown to be farmore complex andmay include a wider range of other interacting organisms, including non-photosynthetic bacteria, accessory fungi, and algae. In this study, we analyzed metagenomic shotgun sequences in an attempt to characterize lichen mycobiomes. Specifically, we inferred the range of fungi associated within lichen thalli from five groups of lichens – horsehair lichens (mycobiont = Bryoria spp.), shadow lichens (taxa in Physciaceae), rock posies (Rhizoplaca spp.), rock tripes (Umbilicaria spp.), and green rock shields (Xanthoparmelia spp.). Metagenomic reads from the multi-copy nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region, the standard DNA barcode region for fungi, were extracted, clustered, and used to infer taxonomic assignments. Our data revealed diverse lichen-associated mycobiomes. Many of the members of the lichen-associated mycobiomes that were identified here have not previously been found in association with lichens. Furthermore, closely related mycobionts tended to have more similar mycobiomes. We found little evidence supporting the ubiquitous presence of Cystobasidiales yeasts in macrolichens, although reads representing this putative symbiotic partner were found in samples of Bryoria lichens, albeit in low abundance. Our study further highlights the ecosystem-like features of lichens, with partners and interactions far from being completely understood. Future research is needed to more fully and accurately characterize lichen mycobiomes and how these fungi interact with the major lichen components, the photo- and mycobionts. Keywords: Cystobasidiomycetes . Endolichenic fungi . Genomics . Holobiont . ITS . Symbiosis.
32913Muggia L., Zalar P., Azua-Bustos A., González-Silva C., Grube M. & Gunde-Cimerman N. (2020): The beauty and the yeast: can the microalgae Dunaliella form a borderline lichen with Hortaea werneckii?. - Symbiosis, 82: 123–131. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13199-020-00697-6.
Lichenized fungi usually develop complex, stratifiedmorphologies through an intricately balanced living togetherwith their algal partners, but several species are known to form only more or less loose associations with algae. These borderline lichens are still little explored although they could inform us about early stages of lichen evolution.We studied the association of the extremely halotolerant fungus Hortaea werneckii with the alga Dunaliella atacamensis, discovered in a cave in the Atacama Desert (Chile), and with D. salina, common inhabitant of saltern brines. D. atacamensis forms small colonies, in which cells of H. werneckii can be frequently observed, while such interaction has not been observed with D. salina. As symbiotic interactions between Dunaliella and Hortaea have not been reported, we performed a series of co-cultivation experiments to inspect whether these species could interact and develop more distinct lichen-like symbiotic structures.We set up co-cultures between axenic strains of Hortaea werneckii (isolated both fromMediterranean salterns and from the Atacama cave) and isolates of D. atacamensis (from the Atacama cave) and D. salina (isolated from Mediterranean salterns). Although we used different growth media and cultivation approaches, bright field and SEMmicroscopy analyses did not indicate any mutual effects in these experiments.We discuss the implications for fungal algal interactions along the transition from algal exploiters to lichen symbioses. Keywords: Atacama Desert . Black yeast . Culture . Halotolerant . Mutualism . Salterns.