31179Duong T.-H., Beniddir M.A., Boustie J., Nguyen K.-P.-P., Chavasiri W., Bernadat G. & Le Pogam P. (2019): DP4-assisted structure elucidation of isodemethylchodatin, a new norlichexanthone derivative meager in H-atoms, from the lichen Parmotrema tsavoense. - Molecules, 24(8): 1527 [9 p.].
A phytochemical investigation of the foliose lichen Parmotrema tsavoense (Krog and Swinscow) Krog and Swinscow (Parmeliaceae) resulted in the isolation of a new trichlorinated xanthone, isodemethylchodatin. The structure elucidation of this new norlichexanthone derivative proved tricky owing to proton deficiency, and to the lack of NMR data of closely related analogues. The structure of this compound was determined based on an integrated interpretation of 13C-NMR chemical shifts, MS spectra, and DP4-based computational chemistry was also performed to provide an independent and unambiguous validation of the determined structure. Isodemethylchodatin represents the first chlorinated lichexanthone/norlichexanthone derivative bearing a methoxy group at C-5. Keywords: lichen; xanthone; norlichexanthone; Parmotrema; DFT-NMR.
31178Hamberg L., Hotanen J.-P., Nousiainen H., Nieminen T.M. & Ukonmaanaho L. (2019): Recovery of understorey vegetation after stem-only and whole-tree harvesting in drained peatland forests. - Forest Ecology and Management, 442: 124–134.
The demand for small-sized trees, logging residues, stumps, and lateral roots for energy production has increased during recent decades and therefore whole-tree harvesting (WTH) has become a more common harvesting method in forests. However, this may cause a more pronounced delay in the recovery of forest vegetation than conventional stem-only harvesting (SOH), especially in sensitive peatlands, and thus increase soil erosion. The effects of WTH have not been investigated on peatlands before this study. Recovery of understorey vegetation of drained peatland forests after two different tree harvesting methods, stem-only harvesting and whole-tree harvesting, was investigated in Eastern Finland at eight silviculturally managed peatland forests largely comprising Scots pine, Pinus sylvestris, and Norway spruce, Picea abies. In SOH, trunks only were removed from the sites whereas in WTH, tree trunks, branches, and stumps were removed. In each site, understorey vegetation (tree seedlings, dwarf shrubs, graminoids, herbs, and bryophytes) was inventoried on both mounded and unprepared soil (surfaces) on 220 permanent sample plots one and five years after harvesting. WTH had more pronounced effects on vegetation than SOH. Five to six years after the treatments, the occurrence of dwarf shrubs was lower in WTH than in SOH, whereas the cover of graminoids increased from both SOH and WTH. Soil preparation affected negatively on the recovery of peat and forest bryophytes, but positively on the recovery of some graminoid and herb species. Peat properties, e.g., pH and water table level, were found to regulate the recovery. WTH caused a longer delay on the recovery of understorey vegetation than SOH, especially if soil had been prepared. Thus, WTH cannot be recommended in drained peatland forests.
31177Paoli L., Maccelli C., Guarnieri M., Vannini A. & Loppi S. (2019): Lichens “travelling” in smokers' cars are suitable biomonitors of indoor air quality. - Ecological Indicators, 103: 576–580.
In this work, two hypotheses have been tested: 1) that lichen transplants “travelling” in smokers' cars accumulate relevant amounts of nicotine and heavy metals from cigarette smoke, and 2) that such exposure affects their vitality. Lichen samples (Evernia prunastri) were exposed for two months inside the cabin of 10 volunteer's cars, equally distributed between smokers and non-smokers. Travelling in a smoker's car for two months increased the content of nicotine and heavy metals (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Sb) in the lichen. Exposed to Control (EC) ratios revealed an indoor uptake also for Cu and Sb in non-smoker's cars, caused by traffic pollution. A smoke factor, calculated as the ratio between values of smokers’ and non-smokers’ cars, indicated a 85.6-fold contribution for nicotine and contributions in the range 1.2 (Pb) to 2 (Ni) for heavy metals; in addition, after travelling in smokers' cars, lichens showed a remarkable (60%) reduction of their vitality, as indicated by the potential quantum yield of primary photochemistry. The study demonstrated that the effects of indoor pollution by cigarette smoke can be detected using lichen transplants. Keywords: Biomonitoring; Evernia prunastri; Heavy metals; Indoor pollution; Nicotine; Photosynthetic efficiency.
31176Konoreva L., Prokopiev I., Frolov I., Chesnokov S., Rozhina S., Poryadina L. & Shavarda A. (2019): Metabolite profiling of the Cladonia lichens using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. - Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 85: 3–12.
A metabolite analysis of 52 lichen samples belonging to 13 species of the genus Cladonia was carried out. Data of metabolite profiling were in good agreement with the results obtained using anatomical and morphological methods for lichens identification. The genetic heterogeneity of the studied groups is discussed. Keywords: Chemotaxonomy; Metabolite profiling; Molecular phylogeny.
31175Powell M. & the Cambridge Lichen Group (2012): The lichens of Cambridge walls. - Nature in Cambridgeshire, 54: 56–60.
31174Powell M. & the Cambridge Lichen Group (2011): Changes in the lichens of Chippenham Fen, 1975 – 2010. - Nature in Cambridgeshire, 53: 61–71.
31173Powell M. (2010): The Lichens of Wicken Fen. - Nature in Cambridgeshire, 52: 26–34.
31172Brightman F.H. (1965): Lichens of Cambridge walls. - Nature in Cambridgeshire, 8: 45–50.
31171Hornsey I.S. & Fletcher A. (1986): Lichen flora of the Parish of Mepal. - Nature in Cambridgeshire, 28: 40–49.
31170Laundon J.R. (1977): The lichen flora of Chippenham Fen, Cambridgeshire: a study of secondary woodland. - Nature in Cambridgeshire, 20: 11–20.
31169Powell M., Harris A. & Hicks M. (2011): Lichen ecology in traditional Hertfordshire orchards and the implications for conservation. - The Hertfordshire Naturalist, 43(2): 69–79.
Traditional Orchards are now a UK Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP) priority habitat. Where managed in a nonintensive way they have been described as hotspots for biodiversity, but there have been serious declines nationally and locally, over 90% in Hertfordshire. This has significant implications for biodiversity and ecological surveys are needed to improve our understanding and support their conservation. The Herts Biodiversity Projects Fund was used in 2011 to sample ten sites across the county for their lichen interest. A total of 71 species were confirmed from all fruit trees at these sites, with an additional 46 species from other substrates within these sites. There do not appear to be any obvious patterns of lichen community characteristics from the data available, although 19 species occurred on fruit trees in ten or more orchard sites representing the most characteristic communities. The average number of lichen species on fruit trees for each site as 34, and from each site as a whole was 49 species. 69% of species records came from fruit trees, demonstrating both the importance of this habitat as well as additional habitat opportunities within an orchard. All species were relatively common in a national context, the lack of rare species being a reflection of historic pollution and the relatively young age of fruit trees compared to veteran trees. However, orchards clearly support good, diverse lichen floras and are of considerable local importance in that respect. The Herts study compares very favourably with other national studies taking past histories and climate factors into account and helps to demonstrate their local value for biodiversity. Suggestions for appropriate management are also provided.
31168Gockman O., Selva S.B. & McMullin R.T. (2019): The first report of Chaenothecopsis perforata from North America. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 18: 52–57.
Chaenothecopsis perforata is reported as new to North America from Canada (Ontario and Québec) and the United States (Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Nebraska, Pennsylvania, Texas, and Wisconsin). The species occurs on the exudate of Rhus and this is the first documented occurrence on angiosperm exudate for any calicioid fungus in North America. Keywords. – Biogeography, Mycocaliciaceae, calicioid, Rhus glabra, R. typhina, R. lanceolata, R. virens, resinicolous.
31167Elix J.A., McCarthy P.M., Kantvilas G & Archer A.W. (2019): Additional lichen records from Australia 85. - Australasian Lichenology, 84: 55-72.
Seven lichen species, Arthonia vinosa Leight., Caloplaca chalybaea (Fr.) Müll.Arg., Pertusa- ria alboatra Zahlbr., P. labuensis A.W.Archer & Elix, P. neilgherrensis (Müll.Arg.) D.D.Awas- thi & P.Srivast., Rhizocarpon ridescens (Nyl.) Zahlbr. and Varicellaria hemisphaerica (Flörke) I.Schmitt & Lumbsch, are reported from Australia for the first time. New state, territory and oceanic island records are provided for 50 other taxa
31166Archer A.W. (2019): The lichen genus Pertusaria (Pertusariaceae, Ascomycotina) in Papua New Guinea: checklist and keys. - Australasian Lichenology, 84: 44-54.
A checklist and keys are provided to the 82 species of Lepra, Pertusaria and Varicellaria in Papua New Guinea
31165Elix J.A. (2019): Four new species and new records of buellioid lichens (Caliciaceae, As- comycota) from Antarctica. - Australasian Lichenology, 84: 33-43.
Amandinea windmillensis Elix, Buellia minispora Elix, B. rodseppeltii Elix and Tetramelas lokenensis Elix are described as new to science. The new combination Tetramelas filsonii (C.W.Dodge) Elix is proposed for Buellia filsonii C.W.Dodge. In addition, Buellia vilis Th.Fr. is reported for the first time from Antarctica and Amandinea isabellina (Hue) Søchting & Øvstedal and Buellia illaetabilis I.M.Lamb are recorded for the first time from continental Antarctica. In their monograph Lichens of Antarctica and South Georgia, Øvstedal & Lewis-Smith (2001) reported three species of Amandinea and 30 species of Buellia sens. lat. Four of the latter species have since been transferred to Amandinea (Søchting et al. 2004) and nine to Tetramelas (Kalb 2004; Nordin 2004; Elix 2017, 2018). Øvstedal subsequently described a further species of Buellia from Antarctica (Øvstedal & Lewis-Smith 2004), which has also been transferred to Tetramelas (Elix 2017). Following the study of 1105 Antarctic collections housed in BM, CANB, MEL and HO, I am describing new species of Amandinea, Buellia sens. lat. and Tetra- melas, and reporting the occurrence of Buellia vilis Th.Fr. from the continent
31164Fryday A.M. (2019): Corrections to reports of buellioid lichens from New Zealand\’s sub- antarctic islands, including Sclerococcum thelotrematicola comb. nov. and Epilichen scabrosus new to the Southern Hemisphere. - Australasian Lichenology, 84: 26-32.
The type, and only, collections of Buellia campbelliana Elix and Buellia thelotrematicola Elix are shown to be referable to Epilichen scabrosus (Ach.) Clem. and Sclerococcum, re- spectively. Epilichen scabrosus is here reported for the first time from the Southern Hemisphere. The new combination Sclerococcum thelotrematicola (Elix) Fryday is made, and the host species is shown to be Gintarasia lamellifera. The report of Buellia sharpiana Lendemer & R.C.Harris from New Zealand is also re-assessed
31163Elix J.A. (2019): A new species and new records of buellioid lichens (Caliciaceae, Ascomycota) from the Kerguelen Islands. - Australasian Lichenology, 84: 16-25.
Sixteen taxa of buellioid lichens are reported from the Kerguelen Islands in the southern Indian Ocean. Buellia kerguelenica Elix is new to science, while 12 taxa are new records for the islands. The new combination Amandinea tristiuscula (Nyl.) Elix is proposed for Lecidea tristiuscula Nyl. A detailed description and illustrations are provided for the latter species, and a key to the buellioid lichens of the islands is included. Thallus crustose, areolate; areoles separate, rarely contiguous, irregular and angular, ± flat, 0.1–0.5 mm wide, dark brown to dark olive-brown, often centred around base of apothecia; prothallus not apparent; photobiont cells 5–12 μm wide. Medulla white, lacking calcium oxalate (H2SO4–), I–. Apothecia 0.2–0.5 mm wide, abundant, lecideine, roundish, broadly adnate to sessile; disc black, epruinose, plane to convex with age; proper exciple thin, distinct, slightly raised above the disc, excluded in older convex apothecia, in section 35–40 μm thick; outer part brown-black, K–, N+ orange-brown; inner part brown. Epihymenium 10–15 μm thick, dark olive-brown to aeruginose-black, K–, N+ purple-brown. Hypothecium 85–170 μm thick, dark brown to brown-black, K–. Hymenium 35–55 μm thick, colourless, not inspersed; subhymenium 20–25 μm thick, brown, inspersed with oil droplets; paraphyses 1–2 μm wide, sparingly branched, with apices 3–4 μm wide, with dark olive-brown caps. Asci 8-spored, Bacidia-type. Ascospores Buellia-type, 1-septate, pale brown then dark brown, ellipsoid, 9– [11.8]–14 × 6–[7.1]–9 μm, very rarely constricted at the septum, not curved; outer wall smooth to finely ornamented. Pycnidia immersed, black, punctiform; conidia bacilliform, 6–8 × 1 μm. Chemistry: Medulla K–, C–, PD–, UV–; no lichen substances detected. Remarks Both Buellia subtegens and B. kerguelenica are characterized by discontinuous, areolate thalli, the absence of a prothallus, similar-sized Buellia-type ascospores that are not constricted at the septum, an aeruginose epihymenium, a brown hypothecium, a non-amyloid medulla and bacilliform conidia. However, Buellia subtegens differs in forming convex, hemispherical areoles, in having a much thicker hymenium, 80–100 μm thick, and a non-inspersed sub- hymenium (Murray 1963). Presently B. subtegens is only known from Antarctica. Buellia evanescens Darb. is also rather similar to B. kerguelenica, but it has a colourless to very pale brown hypothecium and commonly constricted ascospores (Lamb 1968). New combination The Kerguelen Islands are located in the southern Indian Ocean at 48°27’–50°01’S and 68°25’–70°33’E. The main island, Grande Terre, is 6,675 km2 in area and is surrounded by a further 300 smaller islands and islets, forming an archipelago of 7,215 km2. The highest point is Mont Ross in the Gallieni Massif, which rises along the southern coast of the island and has an elevation of 1,850 metres. The Cook Ice Cap (Calotte Glaciaire Cook) is a glacier with an area of about 403 km2, and lies on the central-western part of the island. The island is volcanic in origin, mountainous with numerous bays, peninsulas and fiords. The archipelago has a subpolar oceanic climate, and is extremely windswept. Plant life is mainly limited to grasses, mosses and lichens, although the islands are also known for the indigenous, edible Kerguelen cabbage, Pringlea antiscorbutica. Five species of buellioid lichens have previously been reported from the Kerguelen Islands, namely Buellia disciformis (Fr.) Mudd [as B. parasema deNot.] and B. stellulata (Taylor) Mudd (Tuckermann 1875); Amandinea subplicata (Nyl.) Øvstedal and A. tristiuscula (Nyl.) Elix (Crombie 1877) and Buellia kerguelensis C.W.Dodge (Dodge 1966). However, the report of B. disciformis from rocks is obviously incorrect, because that species is restricted to cort- icolous or lignicolous substrata. Amandinea tristiuscula (Nyl.) Elix, comb. nov. MycoBank No.: MB 826924 Lecidea tristiuscula Nyl. in Crombie, J. Bot. (London) 15, 190 (1877). Buellia tristiuscula (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Catal. Lich. Univ. 7, 424 (1931). Type: Îles Kerguelen, Swain’s Bay, on coastal rock, A.E. Eaton [Transit of Venus Expedition], i.1875 (BM 001097145 – holotype!). Buellia kerguelensis C.W.Dodge, Comité Français des Recherches Antarctiques (Paris) 15, 8 (1966). Type: Kerguelen Islands, Presqu’île Courbet, Plaine des Drumlins, on pebbles of denuded moraines with Usnea, E. Aubert de la Rüe 77, 1963 (HUH – holotype!). Thallus crustose, forming extended patches to c. 20 mm wide, epilithic, grey-white to grey- brown, to 0.4 mm thick, effuse and discontinuous to rimose-areolate, individual areoles 0.2– 0.4 mm wide; prothallus black when abutting other lichens or not apparent; medulla white, lacking calcium oxalate (H2SO4–), I–; photobiont cells 7–14 μm wide. Apothecia 0.1–0.5 mm wide, lecideine, immersed then broadly adnate or becoming sessile and constricted at the base, scattered or crowded, rounded or irregular through mutual pressure; disc dark brown to black, epruinose, weakly concave to plane; proper excipulum distinct, persistent, often slightly higher than the disc, in section 35–60 μm thick; outer zone dark brown to black-brown, K–, paler brown within. Epihymenium 12–15 μm thick, dark brown, K–, N–. Hypothecium 150– 250 μm thick, dark brown to brown-black, K–, N+ orange-brown. Hymenium 80–90 μm thick, colourless; subhymenium 30–50 μm thick, pale brown, densely inspersed with oil droplets; paraphyses 1.5–1.8 μm wide, simple to sparsely branched; apices 4–5 μm wide, with dark brown caps. Asci of the Bacidia-type, 8-spored. Ascospores at first of the Orcularia-type, later of the Physconia-type, 1-septate, pale olive-green to brown, ellipsoid, 17–[20.1]–24 × 8– [11.4]–14 μm, rarely constricted or dilated at the septum; outer spore-wall rugulate.
31162Elix J.A., Kantvilas G. & McCarthy P.M. (2019): Two new species of Rinodina (Physciaceae, Ascomycota) from southern Australia. - Australasian Lichenology, 84: 10-15.
Rinodina argopsina Elix & P.M.McCarthy, characterized by the presence of argopsin and zeorin, and R. teniswoodiorum Elix & Kantvilas, containing zeorin and arthothelin, are de- scribed as new to science from southern New South Wales and eastern Tasmania, respectively. The saxicolous species of Rinodina (Ach.) S.F.Gray in Australia are relatively well known following the initial treatment by Mayrhofer (1984), further additions by Mayrhofer et al. (1990), Matzer & Mayrhofer (1994), Matzer et al. (1998) and Trinkaus et al. (1999), and the more recent revisions by Kaschik (2006) and Elix (2011); also the description of two additional species (Elix & Giralt 2015; Mayrhofer & Elix, 2018). In this paper we describe two further new saxicolous species of Rinodina, one from New South Wales and the other from Tasmania
31161Elix J.A., Liao L. & Barrow R.A. (2019): The structure of xantholepinone A, a new secalonic acid derivative from the lichen Chrysothrix sulphurella. - Australasian Lichenology, 84: 3-9.
Xantholepinone A [8,8\ꞌ-dideoxysecalonic acid D] (1) has been isolated from the lichen Chry- sothrix sulphurella and the structure established by mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. A detailed assignment of the 13C-NMR spectrum of secalonic acid A (2) is also reported
31160Suchocka M., Błaszczyk M., Juźwiak A., Duriasz J., Bohdan A. & Stolarczyk J. (2019): Transit versus nature. Depreciation of environmental values of the road alleys. Case study: Gamerki-Jonkowo, Poland. - Sustainability, 11(6): 1816 [24 p.].
Road alleys are multifunctional features in open landscapes that serve as ecological corridors connecting habitats, and play an important role in sustaining ecological stability. However, multiple road authorities claim that tree-lined routes pose a threat to traffic safety and should therefore be removed. This aspect of safety seems crucial to authorities, significantly overwhelming the benefits of road alleys. Problems with the vitality of the trees (which are mainly mature and aging) deliver arguments for cutting them down. The aim of this paper is to examine the environmental and natural value of road alleys based on a 14 km long section of the Gamerki—Jonkowo Road in the Province of Warmia (Northeast Poland). Further, we aim to verify the degree of hazard posed by trees to be felled for safety reasons. An examination framework with six components was developed for the research. This framework includes a tree risk assessment and vitality evaluation, pulling tests, an examination of the protected hermit beetle and lichen species, and an examination of bat fauna. The results revealed that no trees were in the resignation phase and confirmed that the alley is a unique natural habitat with protected species of lichen, a few bats, and valuable insect species, among others the hermit beetle (Osmoderma barnabita). Therefore, the alley cannot be perceived only as a component of the road infrastructure. The maintenance of the trees seems to be essential when taking into account the environmental stability of the region. Keywords: road alleys; protection of road trees; tree cutting; green infrastructure management; biodiversity conservation.
31159St-Onge B. & Grandin S. (2019): Estimating the height and basal area at individual tree and plot levels in Canadian subarctic lichen woodlands using stereo WorldView-3 images. - Remote Sensing, 11(3): 248 [20 p.].
Lichen woodlands (LW) are sparse forests that cover extensive areas in remote subarctic regions where warming due to climate change is fastest. They are difficult to study in situ or with airborne remote sensing due to their remoteness. We have tested a method for measuring individual tree heights and predicting basal area at tree and plot levels using WorldView-3 stereo images. Manual stereo measurements of tree heights were performed on short trees (2–12 m) of a LW region of Canada with a residual standard error of 0.9 m compared to accurate field or UAV height data. The number of detected trees significantly underestimated field counts, especially in peatlands in which the visual contrast between trees and ground cover was low. The heights measured from the WorldView-3 images were used to predict the basal area at individual tree level and summed up at plot level. In the best conditions (high contrast between trees and ground cover), the relationship to field basal area had a R2 of 0.79. Accurate estimates of above ground biomass should therefore also be possible. This method could be used to calibrate an extensive remote sensing approach without in-situ measurements, e.g., by linking precise structural data to ICESAT-2 footprints. Keywords: high resolution; spaceborne; photogrammetry; taiga; black spruce; stem density; unmanned aerial vehicles.
31158Vitt D.H., Finnegan L. & House M. (2019): Terrestrial bryophyte and lichen responses to canopy opening in pine-moss-lichen forests. - Forests, 10(3): 233 [15 p.].
Pinus contorta-dominated montane forests of western Canada with relatively dense tree canopies have ground layers with abundant bryophytes, especially the feather mosses (Pleurozium schreberi and Hylocomium splendens), while those with more open canopies are dominated by species of reindeer lichens, especially Cladonia arbuscula s.l. and C. rangiferina s.l. Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou), which are a threatened species in Alberta, prefer open, Cladonia-dominated forests for their winter food supply. This study investigated if opening the canopy by thinning mature montane forests of the Canadian Rocky Mountain foothills would change the abundance of lichens and bryophytes. In 1997, forests were thinned by removing 20%, 40%, and 60% by volume. In 2016, 19 years after treatment, we re-surveyed a subset of these plots (n = 97) for lichen and bryophyte abundance and species richness by utilizing the amount of canopy opening at the plot level as our prime gradient. We then used ordination to determine the relationship of control plots to treatment plots. In uncut forest, the control plots were highly variable, but were mostly dominated by feather mosses, with little or no bare ground. Feather moss abundance was lower in treatment plots when compared to control plots, while cover of bare ground was greater. Overall, 19 years after treatment, we found that, in treatment plots, lichen abundance remained stable or slightly increased, feather mosses decreased markedly, and unoccupied space was double that of the control plots. We conclude that the canopy opening had little effect on understory and ground layer diversity, but considering species abundance (1) bryophytes have not recovered after canopy opening, (2) populations of reindeer lichens increased marginally, but have not colonized areas left bare from bryophyte dieback, and (3), after 19 years there, remains unoccupied areas of bare ground in plots with a reduced canopy cover. Our study demonstrated that, with canopy cover reduction resulting from forest thinning operations, the ground layer diversity is maintained, but recovery of ground layers in old-growth pine-dominated forests is not promoted. Therefore, timber harvest that partially opens the tree canopy is unlikely to benefit caribou by augmenting or accelerating winter food availability and habitat suitability for caribou. Keywords: bryophyte; caribou; Cladonia; ground layer; lichen; moss; Pinus contorta; reindeer lichen; feather moss.
31157Chollet-Krugler M., Nguyen T.T.T., Sauvager A., Thüs H. & Boustie J. (2019): Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) in time-series of lichen specimens from natural history collections. - Molecules, 24(6): 1070 [11 p.].
Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) were quantified in fresh and preserved material of the chlorolichen Dermatocarpon luridum var. luridum (Verrucariaceae/Ascomycota). The analyzed samples represented a time-series of over 150 years. An HPLC coupled with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) mode method was developed and validated for the quantitative determination of MAAs. We found evidence for substance specific differences in the quality of preservation of two MAAs (mycosporine glutamicol, mycosporine glutaminol) in Natural History Collections. We found no change in average mycosporine glutamicol concentrations over time. Mycosporine glutaminol concentrations instead decreased rapidly with no trace of this substance detectable in collections older than nine years. Our data predict that a screening for MAAs in organism samples from Natural History Collections can deliver results that are comparable to those obtained from fresh collections only for some MAAs (e.g., mycosporine glutamicol). For other MAAs, misleading, biased, or even false negative results will occur as a result of the storage sensitivity of substances such as mycosporine glutaminol. Our study demonstrates the value of pilot studies with time-series based on model taxa with a rich representation in the Natural History Collections. Keywords: herbarium; fungarium; mycosporine-like amino acids; degradation; storage; Dermatocarpon luridum.
31156Almendras K., Leiva D., Carú M. & Orlando J. (2018): Carbon consumption patterns of microbial communities associated with Peltigera lichens from a Chilean temperate forest. - Molecules, 23(11): 2746 [18 p.].
Lichens are a symbiotic association between a fungus and a green alga or a cyanobacterium, or both. They can grow in practically any terrestrial environment and play crucial roles in ecosystems, such as assisting in soil formation and degrading soil organic matter. In their thalli, they can host a wide diversity of non-photoautotrophic microorganisms, including bacteria, which play important functions and are considered key components of the lichens. In this work, using the BioLog® EcoPlate system, we studied the consumption kinetics of different carbon-sources by microbial communities associated with the thallus and the substrate of Peltigera lichens growing in a Chilean temperate rain forest dominated by Nothofagus pumilio. Based on the similarity of the consumption of 31 carbon-sources, three groups were formed. Among them, one group clustered the microbial metabolic profiles of almost all the substrates from one of the sampling sites, which exhibited the highest levels of consumption of the carbon-sources, and another group gathered the microbial metabolic profiles from the lichen thalli with the most abundant mycobiont haplotypes. These results suggest that the lichen thallus has a higher impact on the metabolism of its microbiome than on the microbial community of its substrate, with the latter being more diverse in terms of the metabolized sources and whose activity level is probably related to the availability of soil nutrients. However, although significant differences were detected in the microbial consumption of several carbon-sources when comparing the lichen thallus and the underlying substrate, D-mannitol, L-asparagine, and L-serine were intensively metabolized by both communities, suggesting that they share some microbial groups. Likewise, some communities showed high consumption of 2-hydroxybenzoic acid, D-galacturonic acid, and itaconic acid; these could serve as suitable sources of microorganisms as bioresources of novel bioactive compounds with biotechnological applications. Keywords: BioLog® EcoPlate; community level physiological profiles; lichen microbiota; lichen substrate; Nothofagus forest.
31155Benítez Á., Medina J., Vásquez C., Loaiza T., Luzuriaga Y. & Calva J. (2019): Lichens and bromeliads as bioindicators of heavy metal deposition in Ecuador. - Diversity, 11(2): 28 [10 p.].
We evaluated heavy metal deposition in Parmotrema arnoldii and Tillandsia usneoides in response to air pollution in Loja city, Ecuador. We assessed heavy metal (cadmium, copper, manganese, lead and zinc) content in these organisms at nine study sites inside Loja city and three control sites in nearby forests. Concentrations of all studied heavy metals (i.e., cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn)) were highest in downtown Loja. Our study confirms that passive monitoring using lichens and/or bromeliads can be an efficient tool to evaluate heavy metal deposition related to urbanization (e.g., vehicle emissions). We recommend these organisms to be used in cost-effective monitoring of air pollution in tropical countries. Keywords: air pollution; epiphytes; passive monitoring; vehicle emissions.
31154Jeon Y.-J., Kim S., Kim J.H., Youn U.J. & Suh S.-S. (2019): The comprehensive roles of ATRANORIN, a secondary metabolite from the Antarctic lichen Stereocaulon caespitosum, in HCC tumorigenesis. - Molecules, 24(7): 1414 [12 p.].
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most deadly genetic diseases, but surprisingly chemotherapeutic approaches against HCC are only limited to a few targets. In particular, considering the difficulty of a chemotherapeutic drug development in terms of cost and time enforces searching for surrogates to minimize effort and maximize efficiency in anti-cancer therapy. In spite of the report that approximately one thousand lichen-derived metabolites have been isolated, the knowledge about their functions and consequences in cancer development is relatively limited. Moreover, one of the major second metabolites from lichens, Atranorin has never been studied in HCC. Regarding this, we comprehensively analyze the effect of Atranorin by employing representative HCC cell lines and experimental approaches. Cell proliferation and cell cycle analysis using the compound consistently show the inhibitory effects of Atranorin. Moreover, cell death determination using Annexin-V and (Propidium Iodide) PI staining suggests that it induces cell death through necrosis. Lastly, the metastatic potential of HCC cell lines is significantly inhibited by the drug. Taken these together, we claim a novel functional finding that Atranorin comprehensively suppresses HCC tumorigenesis and metastatic potential, which could provide an important basis for anti-cancer therapeutics. Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), lichen; atranorin; cell cycle; cell death.
31153Loppi S. (2019): May the diversity of epiphytic lichens be used in environmental forensics?. - Diversity, 11(3): 36 [13 p.].
Epiphytic (tree inhabiting) lichens, well-known biomonitors of atmospheric pollution, have a great potential for being used in environmental forensics. Monitoring changes in biodiversity is a useful method for evaluating the quality of an ecosystem. Lichen species occurring within an area show measurable responses to environmental changes, and lichen biodiversity counts can be taken as reliable estimates of environmental quality, with high values corresponding to unpolluted or low polluted conditions and low values to polluted ones. Lichen diversity studies may be very useful in the framework of environmental forensics, since they may highlight the biological effects of pollutants and constitute the base for epidemiological studies. It is thus of paramount importance that great care is taken in the interpretation of the results, especially in the context of a rapidly changing environment and facing global change scenarios. For this reason, it seems advisable to produce several zonal maps, each based on different species groups, and each interpreted in a different way. This exercise could also be a valid support in the framework of a sensitivity analysis, to support or reject the primary results. In addition, a clear and formal expression of the overall uncertainty of the outputs is absolutely necessary. Keywords: air pollution; biodiversity; bioindicators; biomonitoring; environment; uncertainty.
31152Sancho L.G., Pintado A. & Green T.G.A. (2019): Antarctic studies show lichens to be excellent biomonitors of climate change. - Diversity, 11(3): 42 [14 p.].
Lichens have been used as biomonitors for multiple purposes. They are well-known as air pollution indicators around urban and industrial centers. More recently, several attempts have been made to use lichens as monitors of climate change especially in alpine and polar regions. In this paper, we review the value of saxicolous lichens for monitoring environmental changes in Antarctic regions. The pristine Antarctica offers a unique opportunity to study the effects of climate change along a latitudinal gradient that extends between 62° and 87° S. Both lichen species diversity and thallus growth rate seem to show significant correlations to mean annual temperature for gradients across the continent as well as to short time climate oscillation in the Antarctic Peninsula. Competition interactions appear to be small so that individual thalli develop in balance with environmental conditions and, as a result, can indicate the trends in productivity for discrete time intervals over long periods of time. Keywords: Antarctica; biomonitoring; lichens; growth rate; diversity; temperature; precipitation; climate change.
31151Brunialti G., Frati L., Malegori C., Giordani P. & Malaspina P. (2019): Do different teams produce different results in long-term lichen biomonitoring? Diversity 2019, 11, 43. . - Diversity, 11(3): 43 [17 p.].
Lichen biomonitoring programs focus on temporal variations in epiphytic lichen communities in relation to the effects of atmospheric pollution. As repeated surveys are planned at medium to long term intervals, the alternation of different operators is often possible. This involves the need to consider the effect of non-sampling errors (e.g., observer errors). Here we relate the trends of lichen communities in repeated surveys with the contribution of different teams of specialists involved in sampling. For this reason, lichen diversity data collected in Italy within several ongoing biomonitoring programs have been considered. The variations of components of gamma diversity between the surveys have been related to the composition of the teams of operators. As a major result, the composition of the teams significantly affected data comparability: Similarity (S), Species Replacement (R), and Richness Difference (D) showed significant differences between “same” and “partially” versus “different” teams, with characteristics trends over time. The results suggest a more careful interpretation of temporal variations in biomonitoring studies. Keywords: lichens; air pollution; Lichen Diversity Value (LDV); gamma diversity.
31150Aragón G., Martínez I., Hurtado P., Benítez Á., Rodríguez C. & Prieto M. (2019): Using growth forms to predict epiphytic lichen abundance in a wide variety of forest types. - Diversity, 11(4): 51 [14 p.].
Epiphytic richness is continuously declining due to forest fragmentation, logging, burning, agriculture, and livestock. The rate of species loss caused by habitat degradation and loss is more pronounced in Central and South America. Considering the extreme difficulty and time required to identify the more inconspicuous species, rapid diversity assessment methods need to be extrapolated throughout the world. This study correlated lichen growth forms and total epiphytic abundance across 119 forests located in Europe and Central-South America. A total of 54 papers were selected from specific databases focused on lichens. Additionally, data from several unpublished ecological studies were included. Linear regression models showed that epiphytic lichen abundance was highly and positively correlated with the number of growth forms at all geographical levels considered (i.e., Central-South American and European forests, and the combination of both). Thus, the use of growth forms may provide an alternative and complementary way to evaluate epiphytic diversity because most growth forms have cosmopolitan distribution and are easily recognizable. Keywords: richness; epiphyte; indicator species; forests; Europe; Central-South America.
31149Ellis C.J. (2019): Climate change, bioclimatic models and the risk to lichen diversity. - Diversity, 11(4): 54 [23 p.].
This paper provides an overview of bioclimatic models applied to lichen species, supporting their potential use in this context as indicators of climate change risk. First, it provides a brief summary of climate change risk, pointing to the relevance of lichens as a topic area. Second, it reviews the past use of lichen bioclimatic models, applied for a range of purposes with respect to baseline climate, and the application of data sources, statistical methods, model extents and resolution and choice of predictor variables. Third, it explores additional challenges to the use of lichen bioclimatic models, including: 1. The assumption of climatically controlled lichen distributions, 2. The projection to climate change scenarios, and 3. The issue of nonanalogue climates and model transferability. Fourth, the paper provides a reminder that bioclimatic models estimate change in the extent or range of a species suitable climate space, and that an outcome will be determined by vulnerability responses, including potential for migration, adaptation, and acclimation, within the context of landscape habitat quality. The degree of exposure to climate change, estimated using bioclimatic models, can help to inform an understanding of whether vulnerability responses are sufficient for species resilience. Fifth, the paper draws conclusions based on its overview, highlighting the relevance of bioclimatic models to conservation, support received from observational data, and pointing the way towards mechanistic approaches that align with field-scale climate change experiments. Keywords: adaptation; acclimation; climate envelope models; dispersal; exposure; microclimatic refugia; vulnerability.
31148Rocha B., Pinho P., Vieira J., Branquinho C. & Matos P. (2019): Testing the poleotolerance lichen response trait as an indicator of anthropic disturbance in an urban environment. - Diversity, 11(4): 55 [17 p.].
Urban environments are densely populated areas buzzing with a wide range of anthropic activities that cause disturbances like air pollution or the heat island effect, threatening both human and environmental health. Mitigating its impacts implies understanding the integrated effects that those disturbances exert on urban environments. Lichen biodiversity is frequently used as an ecological indicator, being able to integrate its effects in a quantifiable way. The poleotolerance response trait classifies lichens according to their tolerance to human disturbance, but it was developed for Italy’s flora and has seldom been applied outside Italy or in urban context studies. The aim of this work was to assess this trait suitability as an indicator of urban anthropic disturbance and test it outside Italy. For that, we sampled lichen diversity in 41 green spaces in Lisbon. Lichens were classified into the respective poleotolerance trait functional groups and their community weighted mean related with three type of environmental variables used as surrogates of urban disturbance. We showed that disturbance-tolerant functional groups could be used as an ecological indicator of the integrated effects of environmental disturbances. Some species were clearly misclassified, so we propose reclassification for those. Natural and seminatural functional groups did not behave as expected. Nevertheless, disturbance-tolerant functional groups have the potential to be used in in other Southern European cities. Keywords: epiphytic lichens; human disturbance; poleotolerance; functional ekology.
31147Sevgi E., Yılmaz O.Y., Çobanoğlu Özyiğitoğlu G., Tecimen H.B. & Sevgi O. (2019): Factors influencing epiphytic lichen species distribution in a managed Mediterranean Pinus nigra Arnold forest. - Diversity, 11(4): 59 [21 p.].
Lichens have important ecological functions in black pine forests, such as nitrogen fixation and nutrient cycling. Understanding lichen diversity could provide a better understanding of black pine ecosystems. The aim of this study was to identify the factors affecting the composition of lichen communities and their specific diversity in Mediterranean black pine forests. Research was conducted in 48 sampling plots. For the analysis, presence–absence and frequency data of lichen species were used. For stand level analysis, four community composition tables were created. We used bioclimate, topography, stand, and parent rock as variables. A total of 33 epiphytic lichen species were identified in the black pine forests from 282 sampled trees. Indicator lichen species were determined according to geographic region and stand age classes. Hypocenomyce scalaris was found to be an indicator species for old forests. Frequency data were more useful for revealing lichen species composition than presence–absence data. Of the topographic variables, elevation was the most prominent and had the highest explanation ratio for the composition of lichen species with a coefficient of correlation (R2) value of 0.49. Significantly positive (p < 0.001) relationships were found between epiphytic lichen richness and tree crown height, tree height, and bark pH. Our results revealed that to retain the trees in the stands rich in lichen species diversity is recommended in the managed forests. Keywords: lichen diversity; indicator species; species response curves; presence-absence data; frequency data. Keywords: lichen diversity; indicator species; species response curves; presence-absence data; frequency data.
31146Nascimbene J., Benesperi R., Giordani P., Grube M., Marini L., Vallese C. & Mayrhofer H. (2019): Could hair-lichens of high-elevation forests help detect the impact of global change in the Alps?. - Diversity, 11(3): 45 [10 p.].
Climate change and the anthropic emission of pollutants are likely to have an accelerated impact in high-elevation mountain areas. This phenomenon could have negative consequences on alpine habitats and for species of conservation in relative proximity to dense human populations. This premise implies that the crucial task is in the early detection of warning signals of ecological changes. In alpine landscapes, high-elevation forests provide a unique environment for taking full advantage of epiphytic lichens as sensitive indicators of climate change and air pollution. This literature review is intended to provide a starting point for developing practical biomonitoring tools that elucidate the potential of hair-lichens, associated with high-elevation forests, as ecological indicators of global change in the European Alps. We found support for the practical use of hair-lichens to detect the impact of climate change and nitrogen pollution in high-elevation forest habitats. The use of these organisms as ecological indicators presents an opportunity to expand monitoring activities and develop predictive tools that support decisions on how to mitigate the effects of global change in the Alps. Keywords: biodiversity conservation; climate change; ecosystem functioning; fruticose-filamentose lichens; global warming; nitrogen pollution.
31145Gurbanov R. & Unal D. (2018): The biomolecular alterations in Cladonia convoluta in response to lead exposure. - Spectroscopy Letters, 51: 563–570.
In this study, structural alterations in the biomolecular profile of the Cladonia convoluta exposed to lead were investigated considering the potential of lichens in biomonitoring practices. Particularly, qualitative and quantitative changes in the lipids, polysaccharides, proteins, and nucleic acids along with various organic acids in lead-exposed lichen were analytically analyzed using infrared spectroscopy. Moreover, the quantitative changes in chlorophyl and malondialdehyde levels were measured by independent biochemical assays. Chlorophyll content analysis revealed a dose- and time-dependent decrease in chlorophyl content, whereas malondialdehyde content analysis revealed lipid peroxidation as a result of lead exposure. Lead exposure diminished total nucleic acid quantity, which can be an important parameter for the elucidation of heavy metal tolerance mechanisms in lichens. Furthermore, lead exposure increased the quantity of usnic acid, signifying its importance in the lichen-based decontamination of metal polluted areas. Keywords: Chlorophyll, DNA conformation, infrared spectroscopy, lead, lichen.
31144Almborn O. (1992): Aptroot, André. A monograph of the Pyrenulaceae (excluding Anthracothecium and Pyrenula) and the Requienellaceae, with notes on the Pleomassariaceae, the Trypetheliaceae and Mycomicrothelia (lichenized and non-lichenized ascomycetes). Bibliotheca lichenologica 44: [i-ii], 1-178, 1991. - Taxon, 41: 393–394.
book review
31143Gams W. (1992): Report of the Committee for Fungi and Lichens: new series, 2. - Taxon, 41: 99–108.
The Committee for Fungi and Lichens reports its decisions on 45 proposals to conserve/reject names, recommending 21. Proposal 567: Phaeographina Müller Arg. vs. several other generic names. Proposed by D. L. Hawksworth & M. A. Sherwood (Taxon 30: 343. 1981). Votes: 2-11-1 (not recommended). Proposal 568: Phaeographis Müller Arg. vs. several other generic names. Proposed by D. L. Hawksworth & M. A. Sherwood (Taxon 30: 343-344. 1981). Votes: 1-12-1 (not recommended). Proposal 718: Conserve Baeomyces Pers. with Lichen fungiformis as type. Proposed by E. Sérusiaux (Taxon 32: 646-648. 1983). Votes: 1-12-1 (not recommended). Proposal 792: Reject Lichen subfuscus L. Proposed by O. Vitikainen (Taxon 34: 533-534. 1985). Votes: 11-2-1 (recommended). Proposal 871: Buellia De Not. vs. Gassicurtia Fée. Proposed by A. Aptroot (Taxon 36: 474. 1987). Votes: 13-1-0 (recommended). Proposal 895: Arthopyreniaceae Watson vs. Xanthopyreniaceae Zahlbr. Proposed by D. L. Hawksworth & O. Eriksson (Taxon 37: 190. 1988). Withdrawn by the proposers. Proposal 900: Physciaceae Zahlbr. vs. Pyxinaceae (Fries) Stizenberger. Proposed by D. L. Hawksworth & O. Eriksson (Taxon 37: 191. 1988). Votes: 12-1-1 (recommended). Proposal 904. Thelotremataceae (Nyl.) Stizenberger vs. Urceolariaceae Chevall. Proposed by D. L. Hawksworth & O. Eriksson (Taxon 37: 192. 1988). Withdrawn by the proposers. Proposal 905: Trapeliaceae Hertel vs. Saccomorphaceae Elenkin. Proposed by D. L. Hawksworth & O. Eriksson (Taxon 37: 192-193. 1988). Votes: 13-1-0 (recommended). Proposal 909: Pseudocyphellaria Vainio vs. several names. Proposed by D. J. Galloway & J. R. Laundon (Taxon 37: 480-482. 1988). Votes: 13-1-0 (recommended). Proposal 912: Rhytidocaulon Bally (Asclepiadaceae) vs. Rhytidocaulon Nyl. (Lichenes). Proposed by P. V. Bruyns (Taxon 37: 486-487. 1988). Votes: 12-2-0 (no objection). Proposal 925: Anema Nyl. ex Forssell vs. Omphalaria A. Massal. (Lichenes) proposed by P. M. Jørgensen & R. Santesson (Taxon 38: 303-304. 1989). Votes: 10-3-1 (recommended). Proposal 933: Arthopyrenia A. Massal. with A. rhyponta as conserved type. Proposed by D. L. Hawksworth & J. C. David (Taxon 38: 493. 1989). Votes: 1-9-4 (not recommended).
31142Nelson E.C. & Parnell J. (1992): Flora Hibernica (1836): Its publication, and aftermath as viewed by Dr. Thomas Taylor. - Taxon, 41: 35–42.
Flora Hibernica by J. T. Mackay, T. Taylor and W. H. Harvey was published on 15 June 1836 in Dublin. Although well received by botanists, the number of copies sold was small. Taylor was critical of the book, especially of Harvey's treatment of the algae, and he tried unsuccessfully to persuade Mackay to published a revised, less bulky edition which could be sold at a lower price.
31141Laundon J.R. (1992): Pertusaria aspergilla, the correct name for P dealbata auct. (lichenized Ascomycotina: Pertusariales). - Taxon, 41: 744–745.
Pertusaria aspergilla (Achar.) Laundon, comb. nov., replaces P. dealbata auct., non (Achar.) Crombie, and P dealbescens auct., non Erichsen, a superfluous name.
31140Grube M. & Nimis P.L. (1997): Mediterranean lichens on-line. - Taxon, 46: 487–493.
In the frame of a project of the OPTIMA Commission for Lichens, a workspace has been created on the Internet for the compilation of a checklist of Mediterranean lichens. The World Wide Web now offers quick access to the lichen checklists of several countries, and facilitates the coordination of future work through a common format of data presentation. As a first step, the checklists were placed on the Web as plain text files, except for the lichen data from Slovenia, which are organized in a relational database. Placing new information on the Web is equivalent to a kind of publication, which raises some issues which need being discussed.
31139Printzen C. (1997): (1302-1303) Two proposals to reject names of lichenized ascomycetes. - Taxon, 46: 543–544.
Nomenclature. Proposals to reject a forgotton name Lecidea tavaresiana H.Magn (in favour of Lecidea carrolii Coppins & P.James) and a dubious name Lecidea anomala var. tenebricosa (= Lecidea tenebricosa).
31138Wagner H.-G. & Schacherer A. (2019): Einige für Niedersachsen neue lichenicole Pilze sowie weitere bemerkenswerte Funde [Some new records of lichenicolous fungi and further noteworthy finds from Lower Saxony]. - Braunschweiger Naturkundliche Schriften, 15: 45–79.
In the course of botanical surveys in the federal state of Lower Saxony conducted by the Lower Saxony Water Management, Coastal Defence and Nature Conservation Agency (NLWKN), the species groups currently being surveyed comprise inter alia mosses, lichens and fungi. If ever possible, also lichenicolous species were included with the latter group. Twenty-four of these have been recorded as new for Lower Saxony since March, 2015. One of them (Pronectria diplococca) has been previously unknown in Germany. In addition, the lichen species Endocarpon pallidum and the hepaticolous fungus Mniaecia nivea are new to Lower Saxony. The newly recorded species and some other noteworthy finds are presented in short. The records presented here indicate the desirability to take note of such rather inconspicuous species within the scope of Lower Saxony’s species survey programs.
31137Khodosovtsev A.Ye., Darmostuk V.V., Didukh I.P. & Pylypenko I.O. (2019): Verrucario viridulae-Staurotheletum hymenogoniae, a new calcicolous lichen community as a component of petrophytic grassland habitats in the Northern Black Sea region. - Mediterranean Botany, 40(1): 21–32.
The new lichen association, Verrucario viridulae-Staurotheletum hymenogoniae (Aspicilion contortae Roux 2009, Aspicilietalia calcareae Roux 2009, Verrucarietea nigrescentis Wirth 1980) is described here. It is formed on marl limestone pebbles in arid landscapes in the Northern Black Sea lowland. Forty-six species of lichens and ten lichenicolous fungi were observed and Staurothele hymenogonia, Verrucaria muralis s. lat., V. viridula are diagnostic for the association. The new association is a component of the Nord-Pontic calcicline pale fescue grasslands habitats (EUNIS). It occurs in protected areas “Yelanetsky Steppe” (Mykolayiv region), “Troitska balka” (Zaporizha region), the National Nature Park “Kam`yanska Sich” and the Regional Landscape Park “Gavrylovsky” (Kherson region). Keywords: Ukraine, Aspicilion contortae; EUNIS; Phytocenology; Syntaxonomy.
31136Karthik S., Nandini K.C., Kekuda T.R.P., Vinayaka K.S. & Mukunda S. (2011): Total phenol content, insecticidal and amylase inhibitory efficacy of Heterodermia leucomela (L).. - Annals of Biological Research, 2(4): 38–43.
The present study was undertaken to investigate total phenol content, insecticidal and amylase inhibitory activity of methanol extract of a macrolichen Heterodermia leucomela (L) collected from Bhadra wildlife sanctuary, Karnataka. Total phenol content was estimated by Folin- Ciocalteu reagent method. Insecticidal activity of different concentrations of extract was determined by larvicidal effect on 2nd and 3rd instar larvae of the mosquito Aedes aegypti. Amylase inhibitory activity of the extract was tested against Diastase (Fungal). A marked concentration dependent mortality of larvae was observed. Among larvae, 2nd instar larvae were shown to be more susceptible to extract than 3rd instar larvae. The mortality of 2nd and 3rd instar larvae was recorded 100% at extract concentration 1.5mg/ml and 2mg/ml respectively. The extract showed dose dependent inhibition of amylase. The highest inhibition of amylase was 38.57% at extract concentration 25mg/ml. Thin layer chromatography showed Atranorin and Salazinic acid. Total phenol content was 50.20mg Gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight of extract. The larvicidal and amylase inhibitory effect of extract could be due to the presence of phenolic secondary metabolites. Key words: Heterodermia leucomela (L), Bhadra wildlife sanctuary, Aedes aegypti, Larval mortality, Amylase.
31135Sachin M.B., Mahalakshmi S.N. & Kekuda T.R.P. (2018): Insecticidal efficacy of lichens and their metabolites—A mini review. - Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 8: 159–164.
Interest in natural products possessing insecticidal activity is increased because of the drawbacks such as high cost, environmental pollution, effects on non-target organisms, and the emergence of resistant pests that are associated with the use of synthetic insecticides. Lichens are composite organisms comprised of a photobiont and a mycobiont. Lichens are used traditionally worldwide and many studies have shown the promising pharmacological properties of lichens, including insecticidal activity. The present review highlights the potential of lichen extracts and their metabolites as insecticidal agents. An extensive literature survey carried out revealed promising insecticidal properties of solvent extracts and metabolites of lichens against plant pests and insect vectors that transmit human diseases. Lichen metabolites such as usnic acid, atranorin, vulpinic acid, fumarprotocetraric acid, barbatic acid, norstictic acid, and diffractaic acid exhibit insecticidal activity. It appears from the literature survey that lichens and their metabolites can be employed as insecticidal agents to prevent and control insect pests that cause damages to plants and transmit diseases such as malaria, dengue, filariasis, and others. Key words: Lichens, lichen substances, insecticidal, larvicidal, usnic acid.
31134Firdous S.S., Khan S., Dar M.E.U.I., Shaheen H., Habib T. & Ullah T.S. (2017): Diversity and distribution of lichens in different ecological zones of Western Himalayas Pakistan. - Bangladesh Journal of Botany, 46(2): 805–811.
Thirty four lichen species encountered in 10 localities from Azad Jammu and Kashmir. Altitudinal range of the sampling stations was 1000 - 2200 m. The reported lichens belonged to 24 genera of 15 families. Parmeliaceae was the dominant family with 8 species followed by Ramalinaceae, Telochistaceae (5 species each). Collemataceae, Caliciaceae, Lecanoraceae, Lobariaceae (2 species each) and Candelariacea, Cladoniaceae, Dermatocarpaceae, Thalotrenataceae, Ramalinaceae, Rhizocarpaceae, Umbilicaraceae and Xanthoparmeliacea (1 species each). Foliose was the dominant growth form followed by crustose, sqamulose and fruticose. Altitude, anthropogenic pressure and pollution are the main factors controlling the diversity and distribution of lichens in the Azad Jammu and Kashmir. Keywords: Ecological zones. Lichen diversity, Altitude, Thalline spot test.
31133Shaheen S., Iqbal Z. & Hussain M. (2019): First report of dye yielding potential and compounds of lichens; a cultural heritage of Himalayan communities. - Pakistan Journal of Botany, 51(1): 341–360.
Lichens are well-known dye yielding organisms since ancient times. The present study investigates the dye yielding potential of nineteen lichen species belonging to eleven genera (Flavopunctelia, Flavoparmelia, Cladonia, Parmelia, Umbilicaria, Xanthoria, Ochrolechia, Hyperphyscia, Hypogymnia, Dermatocarpon and Parmotrema) of Himalayan region (Abbottabad) Pakistan. Wool and silk were dyed using the 3 different methods i.e. dimethyl sulphoxide (DEM), ammonia fermentation (AFM) and boiling water (BWM). Over 57 different dye tests were made on silk. Predominant color was cerise but yellow, brown, purple, green, pink and olive were produced. COSMIN software was used to detect HEX Colour codes with RBG and HSL values. These dye colors were further altered by modifying: exposure to light, temperature and subsequent additional extractions using the different method or the same one. After dying samples were tested for stability in sunlight and the action of soap, some samples were faded to some degree and some of them changed color. Most dyes obtained through the AFM and DEM method were stable while dyes from boiling water method were light stable. A correlation of dye color with lichen secondary metabolites was also attempted. Spot test results showed the presence of different lichen substances (gyrophoric, lecanoric acid, umbilicaric acids, usnic acid, atranorin, chloroatranorin, salazinic acid and parietin). Key words: Lichens, Extraction, Secondary metabolites, Dye, Cultural heritage, Himalayas.
31132Habib K., Imran A., Khalid A.N. & Fiaz M. (2017): Some new records of lichens from Hunza Valley, Pakistan. - Pakistan Journal of Botany, 49(6): 2475–2482.
There is a vast diversity of lichens in forests of Pakistan due to rich vegetation and suitable environmental conditions for their growth. During exploration of lichens of Hunza valley in Gilgit Baltistan, we found four species viz., Punctelia subrudecta, Punctelia borreri, Peltigera elisabethae and Xanthoria sogdiana, which are new records for Pakistan. Their molecular characterization is based on internal transcribed region of nuclear ribosome. Complete morphological descriptions along with phylogenetic analyses are also discussed in this work. Key words: Symbiont, rDNA, ITS, Himalayan forests, Biodiversity.
31131Güvenç Ş. & Öztürk Ş. (2017): Difference in epiphytic lichen communities on Quercus cerris from urban and rural areas in Bursa (Turkey). - Pakistan Journal of Botany, 49(2): 631–637.
Sixty epiphytic lichen species were identified in seven localities from urban and rural areas in Bursa province. Amandinea punctata, Hyperphyscia adglutinata, Opegrapha herbarum, and Parmelia sulcata commonly found in areas with intensive anthropogenic influence were determined to be indicators of urban areas. Pleurosticta acetabulum and Pseudevernia furfuracea were determined to be indicators of rural areas. The species diversity and composition of the epiphytic lichens on Quercus cerris varied depending on the effects of macroclimatic and microclimatic factors, anthropogenic and agricultural activities. Key words: Bursa, Quercus cerris, Epiphytic lichen, Lichen diversity, Lichen composition.
31130Matwiejuk A. (2016): The lichens in the agricultural landscape of Podlasie, North East Poland. - Pakistan Journal of Botany, 48(2): 813–830.
This paper carries information for diagnosis lichenobiota in the agricultural landscape of Poland NE. The research led to a better understanding of the problem of occurrence of lichens in the agricultural landscape. The functional groups of lichens, which were used to characterize lichen biota taking into account the morphological forms, frequency of occurrence and habitat requirements were determined. The basis for the specification of the more interesting taxa in the study area was to analyze the species composition of lichens in relation to the data on their previous records in rural areas, the degree of recognition in Poland NE and conservation status and threats in the country. Key words: Lichens, Distributions, Agricultural landscape, Poland.
31129Sevgi O., Çobanoğlu G. & Sevgi E. (2016): Effect of forest habitat on the distribution of lichen species in Şerif Yüksel Research Forest (Bolu, Turkey). - Pakistan Journal of Botany, 48(2): 581–588.
The paper presents the results of a study evaluating impact of habitat factors on distribution of lichen species in a forest ecosystem, in Şerif Yüksel Research Forest (Bolu-Turkey), by applying “binary logistic regression” as the main analysis tool. The variables used for logistic regression were tree species, forest purity, altitude, slope, aspect, tree diameter and number of lichen species. Since it may only be possible to be installed within the model when the number of surveillance of the species is more than 20 in the study area. Distribution of 42 of the 82 epiphytic lichen species were modeled by logistic regression. It is concluded that among these variables, "number of lichen species" and "to be a mixed forest" were the most appropriate variables used in the models. In conclusion, binary logistic regression model can be successfully used in lichen species distribution in forest habitat. Key words: Binary logistic models, Lichen distribution models, Present-absent data, Forest habitat.
31128Karabulut G. & Ozturk S. [Öztürk Ş.] (2015): Antifungal activity of Evernia prunastri, Parmelia sulcata, Pseudevernia furfuracea var. furfuracea. - Pakistan Journal of Botany, 47(4): 1575–1579.
The aim of this study was to investigate the In vitro efficacy of 96% alcohol extracts of Evernia prunastri and Pseudevernia furfuracea var. furfuracea that were in foliose-fruticose form and Parmelia sulcata in foliose form against important plant pathogens. The growth of fungal colonies in Petri plates amended with lichen extracts at 25°C was measured a day before covering all surface of Petri plate in control treatment. Data were analysed according to statistic analysis test LSD at p≤0.05. The in vitro efficacy of extracts of E. prunastri, P. sulcata and P. furfuracea var. furfuracea showed a significant inhibition against mycelia and spor growth of Aspergillus niger, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium culmorum, F. solani, Macrophomina phaseolina, Penicillium expansum and Rhizoctonia solani. The level of inhibition among extracts showed variation. It was concluded that secondary metabolites of lichens may be used as biological chemicals against some plant pathogens. Key words: Antifungal, Lichen extracts, Plant pathogen.
31127Firdous S.S., Naz S., Shaheen H. & Dar M.E.U.I. (2017): Lichens as bioindicators of air pollution from vehicular emissions in district Poonch, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. - Pakistan Journal of Botany, 49(5): 1801–1810.
In the present study epiphytic lichen mapping was done by Index of Atmospheric Purity (IAP) for the assessment of impact of vehicular pollution on lichen diversity in the Hajira city and its north sites of District Poonch Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. Vehicular emission is one of the sources of air pollution in the cities. Six transects and 25 sites (4 sites each 5km distance/transect with Hajira City (HC at 0km) as common site were selected for the present study. It is recorded that on increasing distance from the HC lichens diversity also increased. Lowest IAP value 38 at 0 km and highest 145 at 15 or 20 km distance was recorded. However some sites at a distance of 20 km showed decreased trend in lichen taxa because of undulating topography, change in zonation with changes in selection of trees and wind pattern. In the data higher IAP value indicated better air quality. A total of 42 lichens species were recorded from the study sites. Based on Ecological Index (Q), Ramalina fraxinia, Flavoparmelia flavientior, Xanthoria ucrainica, X. candelaria, Parmelia minarum, Physconia grisea, Parmelina carporrhizans, Parmelia squarrosa, P. succinata P. hyperopta, Bulbothrix laevigatula, Hypogymnia physodes, Melanelixia fulginosa, Lepraria finkii, etc., were sensitive in response to air pollution in the study area. It is concluded that IAP is a good approach in determination of air quality using bioindicators. This method proved simple, quick and cheap and vast areas are surveyed in a relatively short time at a relatively low cost.
31126Ranković B. & Kosanić M. (2012): Antimicrobial activities of different extracts of Lecanora atra, Lecanora muralis, Parmelia saxatilis, Parmelia sulcata and Parmeliopsis ambigua. - Pakistan Journal of Botany, 44(1): 429–433.
Antimicrobal activity of the acetone, methanol and aqueous extracts of the lichens Lecanora atra, Lecanora muralis, Parmelia saxatilis, Parmelia sulcata and Parmeliopsis ambigua was explored In vitro against to 6 species of bacteria and 10 species of fungi by the disc-difusion method and determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) by the Broth tube Dilution method. The acqueous extracts of the tested lichens didn't show any antimicrobal activity on any of the test organisms, whereas the acetone and methanol ones showed an activity related to the tested species. The bacteria were very sensitive related to the tested fungi. The strongest antimicrobal activity was found in the acetone extract of the lichen Parmelia sulcata where the least measured MIC value was 0.78 mg/ml. Generally, among the bacteria the most sensitive was the species Bacillus mycoides, and among the fungi Botrytis cinerea and Candida albicans. The bacterium Escerichia coli was resistant to all the extracts of the explored lichens. Generally, all the explored lichens had a relatively strong antimicrobal activity, which can be very important in making the food bad and in curing numerous diseases caused by these and similar microorganisms.
31125Wang Y., Huang S. & Jian X. (2018): Analysis on variation patterns of parmotrema tinctorum individuals under different environments. - Pakistan Journal of Botany, 50(3): 929–936.
Twelve Parmotrema tinctorum individuals were collected from the Yaoluoping national nature reserve of Anhui Province, China. The relationships between biological characters of lichen individuals and their environmental factors were analyzed by methods included Redundancy analysis (RDA). Based on the information, variation patterns of different individual's biological characters were described. The analysis results manifested that the biological characters showed a certain extent stability in a individual, but exhibit more variation among all twelve individuals, of which the hyphae diameter and anatomical character, had minimum variation coefficients not only within a individual, but also between all the analyzed lichen individuals. Redundancy analysis showed that environment factor moisture had a significant negative correlation with illumination, had the most-positive correlation and the most-negative correlation with hyphae diameter and biological index medulla width, respectively; While environment factor altitude had the most-negative correlation with lower cortex width and the most-positive correlation with rhizoid density. The atranorine content could response to illumination condition sensitively; whereas the algae layer thickness could reflect comprehensive environment change very well. The nutriment investment strategy within different function parts of a lichen thallus deserve to investigate deeply, which is of great importance in revealing the response model of lichens to environment change. Keywords: Parmotrema tinctorum; Characters; Environment factors; Individuals; Redundancy analysis individual.
31124Strimbeck G.R., Graae B.J., Lang S. & Sørensen M.V. (2019): Functional group contributions to carbon fluxes in arctic-alpine ecosystems. - Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, 51(1): 58–68.
Ongoing responses to climate change in arctic-alpine ecosystems, including the increasing dominance of deciduous shrubs, involve major shifts in plant functional group composition. Because rates of photosynthesis and respiration and their responses to temperature may vary among plant functional groups, a better understanding of their contributions to carbon fluxes will help improve predictions of how ecosystem changes will affect carbon source-sink relations in globally important tundra regions. We used a sequential harvest method to estimate growing season functional group contributions to net ecosystem exchange (NEE), ecosystem respiration (ER), and gross photosynthesis (GP) in alpine heath-, meadow-, and Salix-dominated shrub communities. We also partitioned ER into aboveground and belowground components in all three communities. Belowground efflux was the dominant component of ER in the heath and meadow communities (63 percent and 88 percent of ER, respectively) but contributed only approximately 40 percent of ER in the shrub community. The dominant functional group in each community contributed most to aboveground exchanges. Estimates for cryptogams were uncertain, but indicated a minor role for bryophytes and lichens in overall exchange. The results of our novel method of partitioning gas-exchange measurements suggest strong differences in the relative proportions of soil versus aboveground respiration and in the contributions of different functional groups in the net carbon exchange of three important arctic-alpine community types, with implications for changes in carbon dynamics as these systems respond to environmental change. Keywords: Plant functional groups; carbon sequestration; plant respiration; soil respiration; net ecosystem Exchange.
31123Liu D., Wang L., Wang X.Y. & Hur J.-S. (2019): Two new species of the genus Candelariella from China and Korea. - Mycobiology, 47(1): 40–49.
Candelariella is a widespread lineage of lichenized ascomycetes with ambiguous relationships among species that have not solved completely. In this study, several specimens belonging to Candelariella were collected from China and South Korea, and the internal transcribed spacer region was generated to confirm the system position of the newly collected specimens. Combined with a morphological examination and phylogenetic analysis, two new areolate species, Candelariella rubrisoli and C. subsquamulosa, are new to science. Detail descriptions of each new species are presented. In addition, C. canadensis is firstly reported from China mainland. Keywords: Taxonomy; Candelariaceae; East Asia; phylogeny.
31122Khastini R.O., Sari I.J., Herysca Y. & Sulasanah S. (2019): Lichen diversity as indicators for monitoring ecosystem health in Rawa Danau Nature Reserve, Banten, Indonesia. - Biodiversitas, 20: 489–496.
Study on environmental changes is very important in present circumstances throughout the world. Lichen biodiversity may provide an excellent measure in bio-monitoring on the ecosystem health of nature reserve areas such as Rawa Danau in Banten Province, Indonesia. At present, this area is highly disturbed due to ecological factors and human activities such as land use for agricultural land and residential area. The objective of this research is to provide the information needed for assessing ecosystem health which will be revealed by the diversity of lichens in the study area. The study was conducted using transect-based plot in three landscapes: residential area, primary forest and secondary forest, while exploration technique was carried out in freshwater swamp area. The cover for lichen species in the substrates and the number of species present were recorded. Shannon-Wiener diversity index was also calculated. A total of 86 specimens were collected from these four areas which resulted in the occurrence of 25 species of lichens belonging to 20 genera and 14 families. Shannon-Winner’s diversity index are ranging from 1.7197 at residential area to 2.6678 at swamp area. The variation in species composition is likely associated with the abiotic and biotic factors of each landscape with the differences in lichen diversity across landscapes suggest an altered environmental condition of in Rawa Danau. The results of this study can be used as baseline information of ecosystem health of Rawa Danau Nature Reserve in the face of future environmental changes. Keywords: Ecosystem health, lichen diversity, rawa danau, bio-monitoring, habitat.
31121Kusmoro J., Noer I.S., Jatnika M.F., Permatasari R.E. & Partasasmita R. (2018): Lichen diversity in geothermal area of Kamojang, Bandung, West Java, Indonesia and its potential for medicines and dyes. - Biodiversitas, 19: 2335–2343.
The study of lichens diversity in Kamojang, West Java was conducted by survey in geothermal field area following the line transect 6 km along to the East, North West and south from the Power House of Geothermal Power Plant. The lichen samples were taken from bark, soil, and stone. Lichen identification was done by morphological, anatomy and chemical analysis. Dyes potency of Parmotrema and Usnea test using ammoniac fermentation was done in Plant Taxonomy Laboratory of Department Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Padjadjaran. The survey has successfully collected 133 species of lichens, belong to 62 genera and 17 families. Parmeliaceae was found as dominant groups, consisting of 33 species and other co-dominant groups are Graphidaceae and Lobariaceae with 24 species and 8 species, respectively. Most lichens in Kamojang geothermal area belong to Ascomycetes, only one Basidiomycetes such as Dictyonema sericeum (Sw.) which found at Kawah Manuk (Manuk crater) area. The rare species of lichens such as Usnea longissima Ach, was found at Pine forest in Arboretum 6 km south of Powerhouse of Kamojang geothermal. Chemical analysis and literature study for Lichenic acid contains was done and generally, atranorin, usnic acid, barbatic and lecanoric acid was found in lichens samples. Amoniac fermentation result showed that Parmotrema tinctorum produced brownish red, red and purple, which occurred within 1 week to 5 weeks after fermentation. While Usnea produced variety of brown color, which occurred within 5 days up to 4 weeks after fermentation. Lichen species containing some medical properties are Bulbothrix, Cladonia and Usnea. While lichens having dyes properties are Hypogymnia, Lobaria, Peltigera, Usnea, and Parmotrema. Keywords: Dye, fermentation, Kamojang, lichen, lichenic acid, medicine.
31120Cecconi E., Fortuna L., Benesperi R., Bianchi E., Brunialti G., Contardo T., Di Nuzzo L., Frati L., Monaci F., Munzi L., Nascimbene J., Paoli L., Ravera S., Vannini A., Giordani P., Loppi S. & Tretiach M. (2019): New interpretative scales for lichen bioaccumulation data: The Italian proposal. - Atmosphere, 10: 136 [19 p.].
The interpretation of lichen bioaccumulation data is of paramount importance in environmental forensics and decision-making processes. By implementing basic ideas underlying previous interpretative scales, new dimensionless, species-independent “bioaccumulation scales” for native and transplanted lichens are proposed. Methodologically consistent element concentration datasets were populated with data from biomonitoring studies relying on native and transplanted lichens. The scale for native lichens was built up by analyzing the distribution of ratios between element concentration data and species-specific background concentration references (B ratios), herein provided for Flavoparmelia caperata and Xanthoria parietina (foliose lichens). The scale for transplants was built up by analyzing the distribution of ratios between element concentration in exposed and unexposed samples (EU ratio) of Evernia prunastri and Pseudevernia furfuracea (fruticose lichens). Both scales consist of five percentile-based classes; namely, “Absence of”, “Low”, “Moderate”, “High”, and “Severe” bioaccumulation. A comparative analysis of extant interpretative tools showed that previous ones for native lichens suffered from the obsolescence of source data, whereas the previous expert-assessed scale for transplants failed in describing noticeable element concentration variations. The new scales, based on the concept that pollution can be quantified by dimensionless ratios between experimental and benchmark values, overcome most critical points affecting the previous scales. Keywords: biomonitoring; native lichens; lichen transplants; air pollution; trace elements; background levels; Flavoparmelia caperata; Xanthoria parietina; Evernia prunastri; Pseudevernia furfuracea.
31119Sitzia T., Campagnaro T., Dainese M., Cassol M., Dal Cortivo M., Gatti E., Padovan F., Sommacal M. & Nascimbene J. (2017): Contrasting multi-taxa diversity patterns between abandoned and nonintensively managed forests in the southern Dolomites. - iForest, 10: 845–850.
The abandonment of silvicultural activities can lead to changes in species richness and composition of biological communities, when compared to those found in managed forests. The aim of this study was to compare the multi-taxonomical diversity of two mature silver fir-beech-spruce forests in the southern Dolomites (Italy), corresponding to the European Union habitat type 9130. The two sites share similar ecological and structural characteristics, but differ in their recent management histories. In the last 50 years, one site underwent non-intensive management, while the other was left unmanaged and was included in a forest reserve. The species richness and composition of eight taxa were surveyed in the two sites between 2009 and 2011. The difference in mean species richness between the two forest management types was tested through permutation tests, while differences in species composition were tested by principal coordinates analysis and the permutational multivariate analysis of variance. Mean species richness of soil macrofungi, deadwood lichens, bark beetles, and longhorn beetles were significantly higher in the abandoned than in the non-intensively managed forests. Deadwood fungi and epiphytic lichens did not differ in mean species richness between the two study sites, while mean species richness of ground beetles and birds were higher in the non-intensively managed than in the abandoned forest. Significant differences in species composition between the two sites were found for all the taxa, except for longhorn beetles. These results indicate that improving forest landscape heterogeneity through the creation of a mosaic of abandoned and extensively managed forests should better fulfill the requirements of ecologically different taxa. Keywords: Asperulo-Fagetum, Forestry Abandonment, Biodiversity Conservation, Selection Cutting, Natura 2000, Silver Fir.
31118Fačkovcová Z., Guttová A., Benesperi R., Loppi S., Bellini E., Sanità di Toppi L. & Paoli L. (2019): Retaining unlogged patches in Mediterranean oak forests may preserve threatened forest macrolichens. - iForest, 12: 187–192.
Forest management practices may heavily impact epiphytic (tree inhabiting) organisms. Retaining tree patches and buffer strips in logged stands may contribute to preserve ecosystem functioning and the vitality of epiphytic organisms in managed forests. To test these statements, the threatened forest macrolichen Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm. was used as a model species, since it is a “flag” indicator species of forest ecosystems with long ecological continuity. To this purpose, photosynthetic performances, thallus anatomy and water holding capacity (WHC) of samples of L. pulmonaria were investigated in a logged mixed oak forest (Tuscany, Italy), confronting lichen thalli from retained-forest patches and retained-isolated trees, 18 months after logging. Compared with those of retained-forest patches, thalli on the trunks of retained-isolated trees were thinner and showed lower vitality (as indicated by the potential quantum yield of primary photochemistry – FV/FM and the index of overall photosynthetic performance – PIABS), as well as lower water holding capacity. In contrast, thalli from forest patches had performances comparable to those of healthy samples from unlogged forests. Keywords: Biodiversity Conservation, Ecosystem Services, Forest Logging, Lobaria pulmonaria, Photosynthetic Performance, Water Holding Capacity.
31117McMullin R.T. & Wiersma Y.F. (2019): Out with OLD growth, in with ecological continNEWity: new perspectives on forest conservation. - Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 17(3):176–181.
Forest managers have a responsibility to identify and conserve ecologically exceptional forest stands. In North America, priority areas of old- growth forest are often identified based primarily on the age of trees within the stand. However, delineating forests with high conservation value based solely on tree age is an oversimplification. Therefore, we propose a different view – that of forest continuity, a view that is more prevalent in Europe. We contend that forests that have been continuously wooded over time, whether old- growth trees are present or not, have higher conservation value than areas that have old trees but that may not always have been forested. Identifying forests with high continuity requires a different index than tree age. We argue that the relative richness and abundance of lichens can be effective indicators of forest continuity, discuss how forest managers might operationalize this system, and explain why it might be a more ecologically relevant indicator of priority forest areas.
31116Fünfstück M. (1907): Lichenes (Flechten). A. Allgemeiner Teil. - In: Engler A. & Prantl K. (eds), Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien nebst ihren Gattungen und wichtigeren Arten insbesondere der Nutzpflanzen unter Mitwirkung zahlreicher hervorragender Fachgelehrten. I. Teil. Abteilung 1, p. 1–49, W. Engelmann, Leipzig.
31115Weber C.A. (1928): Georg Bitter. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 46: (148)–(156).
obituary, biography, bibliography
31114Bitter G. (1909): Peltigeren‐Studien III. Peltigera nigripunctata n. sp., eine verkannte Flechte mit heterosymbiontischen Cephalodien. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 27(4): 186–195.
31113Bitter G. (1904): Peltigeren‐Studien. II. Das Verhalten der oberseitigen Thallusschuppen der Peltigera lepidophora (Nyl).. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 22(4): 251–254.
31112Bitter G. (1904): Peltigeren‐Studien. I. Rückseitige Apothecien bei Peltigera malacea. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 22(4): 248–251.
31111Asano M. & Kameda Y. (1935): Über die Konstitution des Calycins und dessen Synthese (IV. Mitteil. über Flechten‐Farbstoffe der Pulvinsäure‐Reihe). - Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, 68(8): 1568–1571.
31110Goebel K. (1926): Die Wasseraufnahme der Flechten. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 44(3): 158–161.
Water uptake of lichens
31109Snelgar W.P., Green T.G.A. & Beltz C.K. (1981): Carbon dioxide exchange in lichens: Estimation of internal thallus CO2 transport resistances. - Physiologia Plantarum, 52(4): 417–422.
The gaseous exchange pathways of Sticla latifrons Rich. and Pseudocyphellaria amphisticta Kremp. were examined using both light and scanning electron microscopes. The size and frequency of the pores in the gas exchange structures (cyphellae and pseudocyphellae) and in the medulla were measured and from these CO2 diffusion resistances were calculated. Pseudocyphellae were found to be smaller and more widely spaced than cyphellae, consequently the resistance of the pseudocyphellae, was much greater than that of the cyphellae. Medulla resistances were low in both lichens and are probably unimportant, even at high water contents. No evidence of hyphal swelling was found. Gas exchange structure resistances were more than five fold greater than medulla resistances. It is suggested that this arrangement of resistances may simultaneously encourage refixation of respired CO2 and maintain a non desiccating environment for the lichen algae. The internal transport resistances calculated in this work approximate experimentally obtained values. Key-words: Sticta latifrons, Pseudocyphellaria amphisticta, cyphellae, pseudocyphellae, recycling, photorespiration, photosynthesis, water relations, hyphae, alga.
31108Büdel B., Becker U., Porembski S. & Barthlott W. (1997): Cyanobacteria and cyanobacterial lichens from inselbergs of the Ivory Coast, Africa. - Botanica Acta, 110(6): 458–465.
This study focuses on the saxicolous lichens and cyanobacteria of the open, exposed rock surface of inselbergs. Twenty‐three species of cyanobacteria and 17 cyanobacterial lichen species (“cyanolichens”) from several inselbergs and other rocky outcrops of three major climatic regions, savanna, transition zone and rain forest, are reported from the Ivory Coast. Inselbergs are isolated and frequently mountains consisting of Precambrian granites or gneisses that abruptly rise from the surrounding plains. Cyanobacteria were found to be the dominating organisms on all rock surfaces. The lichens found mainly belong to the family Peltulaceae and a few were present from the family Lichinaceae. Nine species of the cyanolichens and most of the cyanobacteria are new for the Ivory Coast. A gradient in total species number (cyanolichens and cyanobacteria) occurs from the savanna to the rain forest, with a decrease in species number towards the rain forest. Saxicolous cyanobacterial lichens reached a higher species number in the savanna type ecosystem (11) than on inselbergs in the rain forest (7). The cyanolichens and cyanobacteria found are characteristic for larger, light‐exposed rock surfaces and species like P. congregate, P. lingulata, P. tortuosa and P. umbilicata preferentially occur on the granite or sandstone of inselbergs. Key words: Blue-green algae, cyanobacteria, cyanolichens, inselberg, Ivory Coast.
31107Kreisel H. (2005): Liste der ethnomykologisch und biotechnologisch relevanten Pilze. Literatur – Kunst – Volksmedizin – Pharmazie – Techniken – Drogen. - Feddes Repertorium, 116: 339–391.
List of fungi relevant in ethnomycology and biotechnology. An enumeration of fungi which play a role in ethnomycology, ethnomedicine, toxicology, pharmacy, art and literature, with actual nomenclature and important synonyms. As an appendix, names of mycological products and metabolites are explained. Several dozens of lichens are included.
31106Smriga M. & Saito H. (2000): Effect of selected thallophytic glucans on learning behaviour and short‐term potentiation. - Phytotherapy Research, 14: 153–155.
This paper reviews the effects of thallophytic glucans on rodent cognitive performance modelled by a combination of behavioural and electrophysiological approaches. Glucans were isolated from thallophytic plants, based on prescriptions used in traditional Chinese and Japanese medicine. In parallel with the already described enhancement of hippocampal synaptic plasticity by disaccharides, polysaccharides isolated from lichens Flavoparmelia caperata and Cetrariella islandica, enhanced hippocampal plasticity and behavioural performance in rats. Keywords: isolichenan; PC-2; Cetrariella islandica; senile dementia; learning behaviour; short-term potentiation; long-term potentiation.
31105Valladares F., Sancho L.G. & Ascaso C. (1998): Water storage in the lichen family Umbilicariaceae. - Botanica Acta, 111: 99–107.
Abstract: Quantitative relationships between thallus structure and water storage and retention capacities In 12 species of the lichen family Umbilicariaceae were explored using three recent techniques for plant structure analysis: stereology (3D quantification of microscopic Images), mercury Intrusion porosimetry (determination of pore size distribution of tissues) and low‐temperature scanning electron microscopy (LTSEM). Water storage capacity of the thallus was related neither to thallus density nor surface area of the thallus; It was directly related to the total porosity of the thallus and inversely related to the proportion of thallus volume occupied by cell walls and gelatinous substances. Water retention capacity increased with increasing thallus density and was decreased by slight increases in the surface area of the upper side of the thallus. Water storage and retention capacities exhibited a positive correlation only when the storage capacity was expressed on a surface area basis. LTSEM study of fully hydrated specimens revealed that many intercellular spaces of the upper cortex and upper parts of the algal layer contained liquid water. Intercellular spaces of the lower part of the algal layer and medulla were in general either airfilled or partially occupied by gelatinous substances. Species with rhizinomorphs and substrate‐hygrophytic (water uptake from surface run‐offs) stored more water and retained it longer than aerohygrophytic species (water uptake from the atmosphere) lacking rhizinomorphs. Thallus structure of aerohygrophytic species seems to facilitate rapid gas exchange with the environment, improving water uptake and carbon gain when atmospheric moisture is available but accelerating dehydration when the atmosphere becomes dry. Key words: lichen, water storage, stereology, low temperature scanning electron microscopy (LTSEM), functional structure, mercury intrusion porosimetry, Umbilicariaceae.
31104Doherty B., Gabrieli F., Clementi C., Cardon D., Sgamellotti A., Brunetti B. & Miliani C. (2014): Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopic investigation of orchil dyed wool from Roccella tinctoria and Lasallia pustulata. - Journal of Raman Spectroscopy, 45(9): 723–729.
In this work Raman spectroscopic techniques have been utilized to characterize the vibrational spectral features of orchil dyed wool samples. Specifically, it is noted by surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy that wool dyed purple with two historically used orchil species (Roccella tinctoria and Lasallia pustulata) show spectral differences possibly owing to their specific dye‐precursor constituents. The additional natural dyestuff woad (Isatis tinctoria L.) overdyeing the R. tinctoria orchil dyed wool is a further challenge when distinguishing the mixed dye components given by the co‐adsorption of the dyestuffs as permitted by the selection rules of surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Furthermore, the effects of dilution of the L. pustulata species in its spectral detection have been assessed along with the evaluation of subsequent lichen extract boiling before dyeing which resulted in the detection of a degraded form of the orchil dye. Proof of concept included the surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) investigation of a purple dyed tapestry (XVI century) which permitted an aged orchil dye to be determined. This contribution utilizes SERS as a fast, reproducible and specific method for both orchil dye detection and alteration induced by degradation. Keywords: orchil dyed wool; surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy; dye co-adsorption; lichen thermal degradation; lichen species characterization.
31103Jüriado I. & Paal J. (2019): Epiphytic lichen synusiae and functional trait groups in boreo‐nemoral deciduous forests are influenced by host tree and environmental factors. - Nordic Journal of Botany, 37(1): e01939 [15 p.].
Deciduous forests with temperate broad‐leaved tree species are particularily important in terms of biodiversity and its protection, but are threatened habitats in northern Europe. Using multivariate analyses we studied the effect of forest site type, environmental variables and host tree properties on epiphytic lichen synusiae as well as on the composition of species‐specific functional traits. Epiphytic lichens were examined on Acer platanoides, Fraxinus excelsior, Quercus robur, Tilia cordata, Ulmus glabra and U. laevis in two types of forests: Humulus‐type floodplain forests and Lunaria‐type boreo‐nemoral forests on the talus slopes of limestone escarpment (klint forests). Klint forests located near the seashore were under greater maritime influence compared to floodplain forests located in inland Estonia which experience stronger air temperature contrasts. In addition to stand level and climatic variables, tree level factors (bark pH, trunk circumference and cover of bryophytes) considerably affected the species composition of the lichen synusiae. Overall, 137 lichen species were recorded, including 14 red‐listed species characteristic of deciduous trees. We defined 13 lichen societies and showed their preference to forests of a specific site type and/or host tree properties. In forests of both types, most of the epiphytic lichens were crustose, and had apothecia as the fruit bodies and chlorococcoid algae as the photobiont. However, the proportion of lichens with a foliose or fruticose growth form, as well as the proportion of lichens with vegatative diaspores, were higher in floodplain forests. In klint forests with a stronger influence from the wind, crustose species completely dominated, while species with vegetative diaspores were rare and most species dispersed sexually. Lichens with Trentepohlia as the photobiont were characteristic of these forests, and lichens with lirellate ascomata were prevailing, indicating the great uniqueness of the kint forests for epiphytic lichens in the boreo‐nemoral region. Keywords: ash, elm, floodplain forests, lime, Trentepohlia, cyanolichens, growth form, oak, temperate broad-leaved trees.
31102Staniaszek-Kik M., Chmura D. & Żarnowiec J. (2019): What factors influence colonization of lichens, liverworts, mosses and vascular plants on snags?. - Biologia, 74: 375–384.
The dead standing trees i.e. snags are known as habitat for epiphytic and epixylic species including first of all lichens and bryophytes. The vascular plants are much rarer on this type of coarse woody debris (CWD). The eighty snags (CWD elements higher than 1.5 m) of Norway spruce Picea abies and beech Fagus sylvatica in the Karkonosze Mts. were examined for the presence of lichens, liverworts, mosses and vascular plants. The height of snags, their decomposition stage, cover of bark, diameter at breast height (DBH) as well as site conditions (elevation, slope and aspect, presence in forest community) were measured and noted. The percent cover of plants and lichens were estimated on each snag. Totally 99 taxa were recorded. There lichen species were dominant (44), followed by mosses (34), liverworts (13) and there were only 8 vascular plants. The total species richness varied from 1 to 22 taxa. The species composition growing on snags was subjected to canonical correspondence analysis and statistical analyses. They revealed that the species identity of snag is one of the most important factors influencing species composition. The number of species is positively correlated with DBH whereas decomposition stage, presence of bark, snag height are not significant factors. The species richness increases also with altitude what is connected with higher abundance of spruce snags. The occurrence of snags in this area ismainly associated with forest management practices in the past. Despite of some observed patterns in colonization of snags they are important habitat especially for lichens. Keywords: Biodiversity . Epixylic bryophytes . Forest condition . Standing deadwood.
31101Cecconi E., Incerti G., Capozzi F., Adamo P., Bargagli R., Benesperi R., Candotto Carniel F., Favero-Longo S.E., Giordano S., Puntillo D., Ravera S., Spagnuolo V. & Tretiach M. (2019): Background element content in the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea: a comparative analysis of digestion methods. - Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 191:260 [16 p.].
In bioaccumulation studies, the interpretation of pollutant contents in the target biomonitor has to be performed by assessing a deviation from an unaltered reference condition. A common strategy consists in the comparison with background element content (BEC) values, often built up by uncritically merging methodologically heterogeneous data. In this respect, the acid digestion of samples was identified as a major step affecting BEC data. Here, the analytical outcomes of two acid mixtures were compared on a set of matched paired samples of the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea, a widely used biomonitor for which BEC values based on partial digestion were previously provided. The standard reference material BCR 482 (P. furfuracea) was used to validate analytical procedures consisting of either a HF total mineralization or an aqua regia partial one, both associated to ICP-MS multi-element analysis. In particular, the performance of the procedures was evaluated by comparing analytical results of field samples with the accuracy obtained on BCR aliquots (measured-to-expected percentage ratio). The total digestion showed a better performance for Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Se, Sn, and Zn, whereas the opposite was found for Cr, Co, P, and S. Moreover, new BEC values were provided for P. furfuracea using a consolidated statistical approach, after a total sample digestion with hydrofluoric acid. The multivariate investigation of the background variability of 43 elements in 57 remote Italian sites led to the identification of geographically homogeneous areas for which BEC values are provided for use as reference in biomonitoring applications. Keywords: Air pollution . Baseline . Bioaccumulation . Biomonitor . Mineralization . Acid extraction.
31100Muhle H. (1966): Die Flechte Cladonia rappii Evans neu in Westfalen. - Natur und Heimat, 26: 74–76.
31099Klee R. & Warns A. (1971): Aussagewert von Flechtenexplantaten für eine Immissionsbelastung. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 84(9): 515–522.
Die Schädigung von Parmelia physodes‐Explantaten verlief in Frankfurt/M. parallel mit der SO2‐Belastung. Da die Flechten im Sommer nicht geschädigt wurden, kommen klimatische Ursachen weniger in Frage. Die Empfindlichkeit der Parmelia physodes‐Explantate nimmt ab Bonitierungsstufe 5 (etwa drei Viertel geschädigt) sehr stark ab. Die Arbeit wurde mit Unterstützung des Bundesinnenministeriums durchgeführt.
31098Lange O.L. (1965): Der CO2‐Gaswechsel von Flechten nach Erwärmung im feuchten Zustand. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 78(10): 441–454.
Thalli der vier Flechtenarten Cladonia rangiferina (Meißner), Usnea dasypoga (Schwarzwald), Ramalina macijormis (Negev) und Roccella fucoides (Mallorca) wurden im voll eingequollenen Zustand im Luftraum für jeweils 60 Min. (nach einer Vorwärmzeit von 30 Min.) auf verschiedene Temperaturen erwärmt. Ihr CO2‐Gaswechsel war vorher mit dem URAS bestimmt worden und wurde nach der Behandlung etwa 3 Wochen lang verfolgt (bei 10°C, 10000 Lux Beleuchtung). Die reelle photosynthetische CO2‐Aufnahme kam, bei den einzelnen Arten unterschiedlich, nach Behandlung mit Temperaturen zwischen 36° und 45° völlig zum Erliegen. Nach Einwirkung niedrigerer Temperaturen trat bei nicht oder nur wenig beeinflußter Dunkelatmung eine Depression der Photosynthese von Cladonia, Usnea und Ramalina auf, die anschließend im Laufe von Tagen oder Wochen zumindest teilweise wieder ausgeglichen wurde und die als z. T. reversible Hemmung bzw. Schädigung des Photosyntheseapparates gedeutet wurde. Nur bei Roccella fehlte eine derartige Erholung. Irreversible Schädigung der Photosynthesefähigkeit um 25 bis 50% des Ausgangswertes trat noch bei Temperaturen von 32° (Usnea), 34° (Roccella), 37° (Ramalina) und 40° (Cladonia) auf. Eine so niedrige Wärmewiderstandsfähigkeit selbst der Wüstenart Ramalina maciformis ist in ökologischer Hinsicht nur im Zusammenhang mit der poikilohydren Eigenschaft der Flechten und mit der erheblichen Zunahme ihrer Resistenz bei abnehmender Hydratur verständlich.
31097Mattick F. (1953): Lichenologische Notizen: 1. Der Flechten ‐ Koëffizient und seine Bedeutung für die Pflanzengeographie. — 2. Funde lichenisierter Clavarien in Brasilien. — 3. Das Zusammenleben von Trentepohlien mit Flechten. — 4. Gedanken zur Phylogenie der Flechten. — 5. Zur Nomenklatur der Flechten. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 66(7): 263–276.
31096Huneck S. (1966): Flechteninhaltsstoffe, XXIV. Die Struktur von Tumidulin, einem neuen chlorhaltigen Depsid. - Chemische Berichte, 99(4): 1106–1110.
Die Struktur von Tumidulin wird aufgeklärt. Massen‐, NMR‐, IR‐ und UV‐Spektren sowie Hydrolyse erweisen es als 3.5‐Dichlor‐4.6‐dihydroxy‐2‐methyl‐benzoesäure‐[5‐hydroxy‐3‐methyl‐4‐methoxycarbonyl‐phenylester] (1).
31095Keuck G. (1979): Die systematische Stellung der Ramalinaceae [The systematic position of the Ramalinaceae]. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 92(1): 507–518.
[in German with English abstract: ] Ascocarp ontogeny and thallus anatomy were studied in 13 species out of the 5 genera hitherto described in the Lichen family Ramalinaceae. Apothecial development proved to be very similar in all species and relates the family to the Parmeliaceae sensu HENSSEN and JAHNS. Differences between these families are discussed briefly. For the present it is not possible to subdivide the Ramalinaceae in account of ontogenetic characteristics. Therefore, anatomical and chemical differences as well as the light or black pycnidial wall continue to be the most important taxonomic criteria. According to these, the five genera may be arranged in two groups (number of species in brackets): the first includes Ramalina Ach. (over 100), Trichoramalina Rund. et Bowl. (2) and Ramalinopsis (Zahlbr.) Follm. et Hun. (1), the second Niebla Rund, et Bowl. ( = Desmazieria Mont.) (13) and Cenozosia Mass. (1). The latter genus is not generally accepted.
31094Huneck S. & Follmann G. (1968): Mitteilungen über Flechteninhaltsstoffe LV. Zur Phytochemie und Chemotaxonomie einiger Chiodectonaceen und Roccellaceen. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 81: 125–134.
1. Siebzehn Chiodectonaceen und Roccellaceen verschiedener Florengebiete, deren sekundäre Inhaltsstoffe großenteils noch unbekannt waren, wurden vergleichend dünnschichtchromatographisch oder mikrochemisch untersucht. 2. Chiodecton sphaerale Ach. enthält Lecanorsäure, Dendrographa leucophaea (Tuck.) Darb. und Dendrographa minor Darb. Fumarprotocetrarsäure, Roccella balfourii Muell.‐Arg., Roccella caribaea Darb., Roccella difficilis Darb., Roccella fucoides (Neck.) Wain., Roccella linearis (Ach.) Wain. var. guineensis Wain., Roccella mauritiana Darb., Roccella montagnei Bél. und Roccella sinensis Nyl. Erythrin und Lecanorsäure, Roccella decipiens Darb. und Roccella linearis (Ach.) Wain. var. hypochromatica Wain. Erythrin, Roccella dubia Darb. und Roccella hypomecha (Ach.) Bory var. isabellina Wain. Lecanorsäure, Roccella hypomecha (Ach.) Bory Roccellsäure sowie Sagenidium molle Stirt. Fuciformsäure. 3. Die chemotaxonomischen Beziehungen der untersuchten Arten werden diskutiert.
31093Thorn C.E., Darmody R.G. & Campbell S.W., Allen C.E. & Dixon J.C. (2007): Microvariability in the early stages of cobble weathering by microenvironment on a glacier foreland, Storbreen, Jotunheimen, Norway. - Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 32: 2199–2211.
The initial stages of cobble weathering, measured as increasing percentage porosity, were calculated for sets of cobbles taken from the foreland of Storbreen, a cirque glacier in the Jotunheimen, Norway. Cobbles were taken from in front of the 1998 glacier snout, from the 1928, 1870, 1810 and 1750 moraine crests and from the ~10 000-year-old land surface beyond the Neoglacial foreland limit. Three microenvironments were examined within each site: (1) lichen-free surfaces from exposed cobbles, (2) lichen-covered surfaces from exposed cobbles and (3) buried cobbles taken from a soil depth of ~40 cm. Percentage porosity within plagioclase minerals was calculated using backscatter electron images of prepared thin sections. Porosity was calculated from five depth profiles into each cobble. Depth profiles were subdivided into a sequence of 50 µm × 50 µm rectangles running to at least a nominal depth of 500 µm within each cobble. Three cobbles from each dated land surface were sampled, except for the 1750 surface, which had five cobbles. Statistical analysis was by analysis of variance of rank-order transformed data. Findings indicate that cobbles close to the glacier snout are largely unweathered; also, weathering is generally weak in the 1928, 1870 and 1810 positions, but statistically significantly higher in the 1750- and 10 000-year-old positions. Weathering of buried cobbles always exceeded weathering of exposed cobbles and may possibly reach a value beyond which it cannot progress while retaining surface cohesion. The degree of weathering on lichen-free and lichen-covered cobble surfaces is not initially distinguishable, but diverges sharply after ~250 years, when lichen-covered surfaces experience significantly higher totals. Overall, the weathering trend in cobbles matches that found in soils at the same sites. Keywords: weathering; biogeochemical; glacier foreland; Neoglacial.
31092André H.M. (1985): Associations between corticolous microarthropod communities and epiphytic cover on bark. - Holarctic Ecology, 8(2): 113–119.
The discontinuous bark cover formed by epiphytic lichens and algae provides a mosaic of microhabitats for the fauna. Multivariate analyses applied to 1800 samples collected in Belgian Lorraine (southern Belgium) during each of the four seasons has made it possible to distinguish five major classes of arthropod microcommunities. Two of them are confined to special habitats or places at certain seasons, viz. – a Pseudochermes fraxini (Homoptera) community found on Fraxinus during the summer, and “trophically” different from others; – a Vertagopus arborea (Collembola) community observed in foliose lichens in St. Mard mainly in winter. The three other classes are directly related to the epiphytic cover, viz.– a Dometorina plantivaga (Oribatida) community found in crustose epiphytes; – an Eueremaeus oblongus/Trichoribates trimaculatus (Oribatida) community sheltered by foliose lichens; – an Entomobrya nivalis (Collembola)/Cerobasis guestfalicus (Psocoptera) community observed in fruticose lichens. The ecological meaning of those microcommunities (mosaic and stratification patterns, seasonal variation, succession) is discussed. The results support the hypothesis that corticolous microcoenoses are associated with the epiphyte type and that their composition is greatly affected by the vegetation stratification pattern on bark.
31091Follmann G. (1964): Eine felsbewohnende Flechtengesellschaft der mittel‐ und nordchilenischen Küstenformationen mit kennzeichnender Roccella portentosa (Mont.) Darb.. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 77(1): 262–274.
1. Eine als Roccelletum portentosae nov. ass. (Roccellion oceanicum [Matt.] nov. comb., Rhizocarpetalia Klem., Epipetretea lichenosa Klem.) beschriebene selbständige Kryptogamengesellschaft besiedelt die Küstenfelsen des mittel‐ und nordchilenischen Litorals. 2. Die artenreiche, halophile, hygrophile, neutrophile, nitrophile, skiophytische und substratvage Felsgesellschaft läßt die geographischen Unterassoziationen boreochilense nov. subass. und centrochilense nov. subass. erkennen. 3. Die biologischen, floristischen, geographischen, ökologischen, soziologischen und systematischen Eigenarten der Flechtengesellschaft werden herausgestellt. 4. Das Roccelletum portentosae nov. ass. setzt sich ausschließlich aus Endemarten der vom Humboldtstrom bestrichenen Küstenzone zusammen. 5. Chiodecton follmannii Riedl, Enterostigma skottsbergii Zahlbr. und Roccella gayana Mont. stellen Neufunde für das Untersuchungsgebiet dar.
31090Kremer B.P. & Bellmann H. (2000): Auch Mauerwerk ist Lebensraum. - Biologie in unserer Zeit, 30(2): 97–104.
popular paper [in German with English summary : ] Brickwork and ecological enhancement. Although installed for a primary technical purpose, walls erected of bricks or stonework exhibit a wide variety of habitat structures Their spatial richness with different surfaces, joints, holes, and crevices of any dimension along with different exposure to the sun light and further weather elements create an array of microclimates. A wall in an urban environment as well as in the cultural landscape therefore often provides remarkably enriching elements, each with its very special equipment of numerous species. This short overview discusses some of its major ecological features particularly in the light of natural conservation and species protection.
31089Steiner M. (1952): Zur Expositionsabhängigkeit epixyler Flechtengesellschaften. Das Physcietum ascendentis subassoc. xanthorietosum substellaris. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 65(8): 255–262.
lichen sociology
31088Fünfstück M. (1902): Der gegenwärtige Stand der Flechtenforschung nebst Ausblicken auf deren voraussichtliche Weiterentwickelung. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 20(11): 62–77.
31087Mäule C. (1891): Ueber die Fruchtanlage bei Physcia pulverulenta (Schreb.) Nyl.. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 9(7): 209–213.
31086Asahina Y. & Hayashi H. (1933): Untersuchungen über Flechtenstoffe, XXVI. Mitteil.: Über Psoromsäure. - Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, 66(7): 1023–1030.
Chemistry, psoromic acid
31085Linskens H.F. (1970): Notiz zur Ökologie der Steinring‐Vegetation auf Spitzbergen. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 83: 261–264.
Svalbard; high Arctic vegetation; polygonal soils
31084Ascaso C., Wierzchos J. & de los Ríos A. (1995): Cytological investigations of lithobiontic microorganisms in granitic rocks. - Botanica Acta, 108(6): 474–481.
This paper shows the ultrastructure of lithobiontic organisms in a granitic rock from the exterior to the interior, where fissures are found 1–2 mm from the surface. There is clear differentiation at cell level between mycobiont and photobiont cells located on the rock surface which forms part of the lichen thallus and prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells (algae and fungi) found in the fissures. As well as the observations at the ultrastructural level of the microorganisms which live in fissures and cavities, immunolabelling techniques with colloidal gold have been applied to obtain an immunolocalization of Rubisco enzyme in some of the cells. The technique applied here permits Rubisco enzyme to be identified in algae‐like cells belonging to fissures where it is difficult to identify the pyrenoid. The mineral environment of the cells situated inside the fissures is investigated by Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (EDS). The biotite particles present in the fissure walls, as well as some lithobiont microorganisms, show a depletion of potassium from interlayer positions. Key words: Aspicilia, granitic rock, immunogold localization, microprobe, lichen, lithobiontic microorganisms, Rubisco.
31083Van Roy W., Mathey A. & Van Vaeck L. (1996): In‐situ analysis of lichen pigments by Fourier transform laser microprobe mass spectrometry with external ion source. - Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 10: 562–572.
Several selected lichen samples are analysed by Fourier transform laser microprobe mass spectrometry with 5 μm resolution and with virtually no sample preparation. The application area can be increased to molecules with molecular weight higher than 500, because of the detection of post‐laser generated ions. In most cases, enough information is available to allow, in combination with IR and NMR data, complete structural characterization of the pigments, without the analysis of reference products.
31082Engelskjøn T. (1987): Botany of Bouvetøya, South Atlantic Ocean. II. The terrestrial vegetation of Bouvetøya. - Polar Research, 5(2): 129–163.
Bouvetøya (54°25′S, 3°20′E), the northernmost land in the maritime Antarctic, has a climate typical of oceanic islands south of the Antarctic convergence, and a non‐vascular vegetation of maritime Antarctic composition and structure. Mean vegetation temperatures during the growing season are from +1 to +4.5°C on the low ground, whereas elevations above 200 m a.s.l. are more prone to freezing and show regular diurnal freeze/thaw cycles. Radiative heating of the ground is important in some well‐drained lichen communities with a northward aspect, but generally the mean diurnal temperatures registered in the superficial part of substratum and vegetation are low because of the prevailing cloudiness and high windspeeds. Some geothermally heated communities arc described. The soil reaction ranges from slightly acid on silicic lava and leached basalt ground, to alkaline on calcite‐bearing pyroclastic rocks, with a correspondingly different vegetation. The main plant communities of Bouvetoya are documented by quadrat analyses, and a classification is proposed. Local distribution patterns of 26 cryptogamic species are discussed and related to soil chemistry and elevation, as well as to the time elapsed for their establishment and the development of communities undisturbed by volcanism, landslides, glacierization, and animal influence.
31081Follmann G. (1962): Die Flechtengesellschaften der Osterinsel. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 75(7): 245–260.
Lichen sociology; Polynesia. •1. Die Flechtengesellschaften der polynesischen Osterinsel wurden biologisch, pflanzengeographisch, phytosoziologisch und ökologisch untersucht. •2. Das photophile, mesophile, anemophile und hitzeresistente Physcictum pictae (Skottsb. p.p.) nov. comb. (Epipetretea lichenosa Klem.) kommt regelmäßig auf Basalt‐ und Tuffblöcken vor. •3. Das photophile, hydrophile, anemophile und halophile Caloplacetum rubinae nov. ass. (Epipetretea lichenosa Klem.) bleibt auf die Küstenfelsen beschränkt. •4. Das ombrophile, mesophile und azidophile Parmelietum reticulatae nov. ass. (Epipetretea lichenosa Klem.) gedeiht auf moosigen Tuffblöcken im degradierten Sopkoretum toromirae Skottsb. •5. Das photoneutral‐ombrotolerante, mesophile und azidophile Arthonie‐tum fuscescentis nov. ass. (Epiphytetea lichenosa Klem.) besiedelt mäßig rauhe Holz‐ und Rindenflächen. •6. Das fragmentarische photophile, mesophile und azidophile Cladonietum pityreae nov. ass. (Epigacetea lichenosa Klem.) füllt die Rasenlücken des Sporoboletum elongati Skottsb. •7. 17 Gesellschaftsbildner stellen Neufunde für die Osterinsel dar.
31080Whitehouse E. (1933): Plant succession on central Texas granite. - Ecology, 14(4): 391–405.
31079Kuntz K.L. & Larson D.W. (2006): Influences of microhabitat constraints and rock‐climbing disturbance on cliff‐face vegetation communities. - Conservation Biology, 20(3): 821–832.
Many researchers report that rock climbing has significant negative effects on cliff biota. Most work on climbing disturbance, however, has not controlled for variation in microsite characteristics when comparing areas with and without climbing presence. Additionally, some researchers do not identify the style or difficulty level of climbing routes sampled or select climbing routes that do not represent current trends in the sport. We solved these problems by sampling climbing areas used by advanced “sport” climbers and quantifying differences in microtopography between climbed and control cliffs. We determined whether differences in vegetation existed between pristine and sport‐climbed cliff faces when microsite factors were not controlled. We then determined the relative influence of the presence of climbing, cliff‐face microtopography, local physical factors, and regional geography on the richness, abundance, and community composition of cliff‐face vascular plants, bryophytes, and lichens. When we did not control for microsite differences among cliffs, our results were consistent with the majority of prior work on impacts of climbing (i.e., sport‐climbed cliff faces supported a lower mean richness of vascular plants and bryophytes and significantly different frequencies of individual species when compared with pristine cliff faces). When we investigated the relative influences of microtopography and climbing disturbance, however, the differences in vegetation were not related to climbing disturbance but rather to the selection by sport climbers of cliff faces with microsite characteristics that support less vegetation. Climbed sites had not diverged toward a separate vegetation community; instead, they supported a subset of the species found on pristine cliff faces. Prior management recommendations to restrict development of new climbing routes should be reevaluated based on our results. Keywords: cliff vegetation, disturbance, microtopography, Niagara Escarpment, recreation, rock climbing.
31078Asano M. & Ohta Z. (1933): Über die Konstitution der Caperatsäure (I. Mitteil.). - Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, 66(7): 1020–1023.
chemistry, caperatic acid
31077Follmann G. (1966): Chilenische Wanderflechten. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 79(10): 453–462.
1. Es wird erstmalig über das Vorkommen von Wanderflechten in Südamerika berichtet; 2. Als solche kommen die Laub‐ und Strauchflechten Parmelia vagans (Nyl.) Nyl., Roccella cervicornis Follm. spec. nov. und Tornabenia ephebaea (Ach.) Kur. in der nordchilenischen Atacamawüste vor; 3. Geographie, Ökologie, Soziologie und Systematik der chilenischen Ärolichenen werden erörtert; 4. Die Diagnose der neuen endemischen Roccella cervicornis Follm. spec. nov. wird vorgelegt.
31076Edwards H.G.M. & Rull Perez F. (1999): Lichen biodeterioration of the Convento de la Peregrina, Sahagún, Spain. - Biospectroscopy, 5: 47–52.
Lichen encrustations from Diploschistes scruposus involved in the biodeterioration of the 13th Century Convento de la Peregrina in Sahagún Spain, have been analyzed using Raman spectroscopy. The vibrational spectra are characteristic of calcium oxalate monohydrate, β‐carotene, chlorophyll, and para‐depside phenolic acids such as atranorin, lecanoric acid, and diploschistesic acid. The destructive colonization of the monumental stonework is highlighted and evidence presented for deleterious lichen invasion of the wall paintings inside the Convent. Keywords: lichen; biodeterioration; Raman spectroscopy; wall paintings; pigments.
31075König G.M. & Wright A.D. (1999): 1H and 13C‐NMR and biological activity investigations of four lichen‐derived compounds. - Phytochemical Analysis, 10: 279–284.
The lichen‐derived natural products, atranorin (1), hopane‐6α, 22‐diol (2), usnic acid (3), and vulpinic acid (4) were analysed by both one and two‐dimensional (1H, 13C)‐NMR. Experiments employed included COSY, NOESY, XHCO, HMQC and HMBC. For 1 and 2, fully assigned proton NMR data are reported for the first time; the reassigned 13C NMR data for both 1 and 2 are also reported. For 3, cross‐peaks were observed in the HMBC spectrum that suggest that CH long‐range coupling through H bonds is occurring. Biological activity investigations of each compound indicated hopane‐6α, 22‐diol (2) to have anti‐tubercular activity (MIC 8 µg/mL) and usnic acid (3) to be very weakly cytotoxic (ED50 13 µg/mL).
31074De Angelis F., Ceci R., Quaresima R., Reale S. & Di Tullio A. (2003): Investigation by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of secondary metabolites in lichens deposited on stone monuments. - Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 17: 526–531.
Lichens are ubiquitous organisms formed by symbiotic associations of fungal hyphas and algae that also grow under often extreme environmental conditions. They produce secondary metabo- lites, the so-called lichen substances, whose structural characterization can give an important con- tribution to lichen taxonomy. Lichens are also widely employed as biomonitors of atmospheric pollution; being epiphyte organisms they tend, in fact, to accumulate exogenous compounds. More- over, it could be questioned if the environmental stress alters their secondary metabolites produc- tion. Therefore, a new strategy for the analysis of the organic substances absorbed or metabolized by lichens has been developed. This method exploits the dry solid-phase microextraction (SPME) headspace technique coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Lichens coat- ing the stone surfaces of monuments, located in small towns between high mountains and far away from urban environments, have been investigated. In the field of cultural heritage, this study can contribute to the knowledge of the state of conservation of outdoor exposed historical monuments.
31073Hawksworth D.L., David J.C., Ahti T. & McNeill J. (2007): The correct date and place of publication of the ten new generic names employed by Acharius in the Lichenographia Universalis. - Taxon, 56(2): 567–570.
Clarification in the Tokyo Code of the authorship of names appearing in the work of another allowed exemplification in the Vienna Code that it is the acceptance by the author of the name and not that by the publishing author that is critical for valid publication. This permits resolution of a long‐standing uncertainty as to whether generic names published in Acharius’s Lichenographia Universalis of 1810 were or were not first introduced in Luyken’s Tentamen Historiae Lichenum of 1809. In that work, Luyken reproduced diagnoses of Acharius’s new genera while the Lichenographia was still in press, and 5–6 months before Acharius’s work was published. However, as Luyken did not accept the new genera in his final classification some workers had considered the names not validly published under Art. 34 of the Code. Now, following the Vienna Code, we conclude that these names were validly published in 1809 and must be attributed to “Ach., in Luyken”. The correct place and date of publication of the ten generic names involved is presented along with notes on their nomenclatural status; these include the well‐known genera Alectoria, Evernia, Lecanora, Nephroma, and Ramalina. Keywords: Art. 34, Ascomycota, “in” citations, Lecanoromycetes, lichens, Luyken, nomenclature.
31072Honegger R. (1978): Ascocarpontogenie, Ascusstruktur und ‐funktion bei Vertretern der Gattung Rhizocarpon. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 91: 579–594.
Ascocarp ontogeny, Ascus Structure and Function in some members of the genus Rhizocarpon. Some of the yellow and grey Rhizocarpon species form primordia of fruiting bodies as well as pyknidia in the prothallus; this is quite unusual among the lichenized fungi. Pycnidia normally are simple or slightly cham- bered. Conidiophores are phialides, forming microconidia. With the forma- tion of each conidium a small scar of wall material remains at the phialide neck. In senescent or otherwise degenerate phialides the wall material of the scars becomes reduced. In this way the conidiophores assume an annellide- like appearance. Microconidia seem to function as spermatia. Fruiting bodies of all the species investigated are discothecia with para- physoids as interascal filaments. Ascogonia develop between the vegetative hyphae of either the prothallus or the areolae. Trichogynes with adhering microconidia are observed. The asci of all the yellow, grey and white species investigated are bitu- nicate, opening with a slight "Jack in the box" mechanism. Their apically thickened, sightly amyloid endoascus reaches the base of the ascus. The endo- ascus shows the characteristic "accordion structure" of the Bitunicates. Similar ascus types are observed in the Patellariaceae. The asci of the Rhizocarpon- type clearly differ from those of the unitunicate-inoperculate Lecanora-type as well as from the other ascus types observed in the Lecanorales. The Rhizocarpon species investigated seem to represent an archaic group, which could be interpreted as one of the missing links between the non- lichenized bitunicate Discomycetes and the Lecanorales.
31071Solhaug K.A., Gauslaa Y. & Haugen J. (1995): Adverse effects of epiphytic crustose lichens upon stem photosynthesis and chlorophyll of Populus tremula L.. - Botanica Acta, 108: 233–239.
Dry cork layer (phellem) in stems of Populus tremula transmitted 35–55 percent of incident irradiation, depending upon moisture content. A cover of crustose Lecanora lichens reduced transmission through phellem to 10 percent or less of incident irradiation. The bark contains photosynthetically active cells. Apparent quantum yield for photosynthetic O2‐evolution was 0.017 in bark covered with dry Lecanora compared with 0.070 in naked bark. The capacity for gross photosynthesis in high light (1090 μmol photons m−2 s−1) was reduced by 50 percent in Lecanora‐covered bark. Lecanora did not reduce the ratio between variable and maximal chlorophyll a fluorescence (Fv/Fm). Chlorophyll content per unit area was similar in leaves and naked bark of Populus tremula. The chlorophyll content in the bark decreased with increasing chlorophyll content in Lecanora. Chlorophyll a/b ratio was 2.5 in the bark compared with 4.0 in leaves and in Lecanora, and the ratio decreased down the stems. The a/b ratio was 2.3 in Lecanora covered bark compared with 2.6 in naked bark. The changes in bark photosynthesis below a Lecanora crust were probably due to acclimation of bark photosynthesis to shade, since the lichen acids in the measured lichens neither suppressed photosynthetic O2‐evolution nor changed the Fv/Fm in bark disks. Key words: Bark photosynthesis, epiphytic Lecanora lichens, lichen acids, phellem light transmission, Populus tremula.
31070Connor M., Dempsey E., Smyth M.R. & Richardson D.H.S. (1991): Determination of some metal ions using lichen-modified carbon paste electrodes. - Electroanalysis, 3: 331–336.
Lichens have long been used as biomonitors of environmental pollution. We therefore investigated the application of lichen-modified carbon paste electrodes (CPEs) for the determination of lead(II) and copper(II) using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. These electrochemical biosensors incorporate the biological selectivity of lichen species such as Cladonia portentosa and Lobaria pulmonaria, and the genus Roccella, with the sensitivity of electrochemical detection. As such, they may offer new reactivity patterns that could be exploited in the determination of trace metal ions in environmental samples and in speciation studies. The voltammetric responses were evaluated with respect to pH of accumulation (carried out under open circuit conditions), pH of electrolyte, solution, metal ion concentration, percentage lichen loading in the carbon paste, interferences, and surface renewal.
31069Allen A.E. (1929): Influence of Cladonia ground cover on the establishment of seedlings. - Ecology, 10(3): 354–355.
31068Jack H.A. (1935): Precipitation retention by Cladonia mats. - Ecology, 16(1): 120–121.
By experimentation in northern lower Michigan during the summer of 1934 it was ascertained that all rains averaging less than 0.12 inches were retained by a normal Cladonia rangiferina mat. Unless there was more than 0.12 inches of precipitation in any one rain, the soil beneath the mat did not receive any moisture, as was the case with one-third of the rains during that summer (a normal one).
31067Kumar P., Chen H.Y.H., Thomas S.C. & Shahi C. (2018): Epixylic vegetation abundance, diversity, and composition vary with coarse woody debris decay class and substrate species in boreal forest. - Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 48: 399–411.
Although the importance of coarse woody debris (CWD) to understory species diversity has been recognized, the combined effects of CWD decay and substrate species on abundance and species diversity of epixylic vegetation have received little attention. We sampled a wide range of CWD substrate species and decay classes, as well as forest floors in fire-origin boreal forest stands. Percent cover, species richness, and evenness of epixylic vegetation differed significantly with both CWD decay class and substrate species. Trends in cover, species richness, and evenness differed significantly between nonvascular and vascular taxa. Cover, species richness, and species evenness of nonvascular species were higher on CWD, whereas those of vascular plants were higher on the forest floor. Epixylic species composition also varied significantly with stand ages, overstory compositions, decay classes, substrate species, and their interactions. Our findings highlight strong interactive influences of decay class and substrate species on epixylic plant communities and suggest that conservation of epixylic diversity would require forest managers to maintain a diverse range of CWD decay classes and substrate species. Because stand development and overstory compositions influence CWD decay classes and substrate species, as well as colonization time and environmental conditions in the understory, our results indicate that managed boreal landscapes should consist of a mosaic of different successional stages and a broad suite of overstory types to support diverse understory plant communities. Key words: boreal forest, coarse woody debris, decay class, epixylic plants, substrate species.
31066Sabatini F.M., de Andrade R.B., Paillet Y., Ódor P., Bouget C., Campagnaro T., Gosselin F., Janssen P., Mattioli W., Nascimbene J., Sitzia T., Kuemmerle T. & Burrascano S. (2019): Trade-offs between carbon stocks and biodiversity in European temperate forests. - Global Change Biology, 25(2): 536–548.
Policies to mitigate climate change and biodiversity loss often assume that protecting carbon‐rich forests provides co‐benefits in terms of biodiversity, due to the spatial congruence of carbon stocks and biodiversity at biogeographic scales. However, it remains unclear whether this holds at the scales relevant for management, and particularly large knowledge gaps exist for temperate forests and for taxa other than trees. We built a comprehensive dataset of Central European temperate forest structure and multi‐taxonomic diversity (beetles, birds, bryophytes, fungi, lichens, and plants) across 352 plots. We used Boosted Regression Trees (BRTs) to assess the relationship between above‐ground live carbon stocks and (a) taxon‐specific richness, (b) a unified multidiversity index. We used Threshold Indicator Taxa ANalysis to explore individual species’ responses to changing above‐ground carbon stocks and to detect change‐points in species composition along the carbon‐stock gradient. Our results reveal an overall weak and highly variable relationship between richness and carbon stock at the stand scale, both for individual taxonomic groups and for multidiversity. Similarly, the proportion of win‐win and tradeoff species (i.e., species favored or disadvantaged by increasing carbon stock, respectively) varied substantially across taxa. Win‐win species gradually replaced trade‐off species with increasing carbon, without clear thresholds along the aboveground carbon gradient, suggesting that community‐level surrogates (e.g., richness) might fail to detect critical changes in biodiversity. Collectively, our analyses highlight that leveraging co‐benefits between carbon and biodiversity in temperate forest may require stand‐scale management that prioritizes either biodiversity or carbon in order to maximize co‐benefits at broader scales. Importantly, this contrasts with tropical forests, where climate and biodiversity objectives can be integrated at the stand scale, thus highlighting the need for context‐specificity when managing for multiple objectives. Accounting for critical change‐points of target taxa can help to deal with this specificity, by defining a safe operating space to manipulate carbon while avoiding biodiversity losses. Keywords: biodiversity conservation, carbon storage, climate change mitigation, community thresholds, multi‐objective forest planning, multi‐taxonomic diversity, trade‐off species, win‐win species.
31065Higgins K.L. & Garon‐Labrecque M.‐È. (2018): Fine‐scale influences on thaw depth in a forested peat plateau landscape in the Northwest Territories, Canada: Vegetation trumps microtopography. - Permafrost and Periglacial Processes, 29: 60–70.
The influence of vegetation and microtopography on fine‐scale variability of thaw depth is largely unknown but potentially important for improving modeling of ecosystem–permafrost interactions. To elucidate their influence, we measured tree density, shrub cover and cryptogam presence (lichen and bryophyte) on forested permafrost peat plateaus in the discontinuous permafrost zone in the southern Northwest Territories, Canada. Greater tree density was associated with shallower thaw depth (approximately one quarter of the variance), whereas shrub cover had a negligible influence on thaw depth. Cryptogam species influenced thaw depth, with greater thaw depth associated with Sphagnum than with Cladonia (a difference on the order of 10%). Greater thaw depth occurred beneath hummocks than beneath hollows (a difference also on the order of 10%). Together, canopy cover, cryptogam species and microforms contribute to a variation of roughly half the variance in thaw depth in the peat plateau landscape. Keywords: boreal forest, microtopography, permafrost, plants, species, vegetation ecology.
31064Strong W.L. (2014): Northernmost North American Pinus contorta var. latifolia (lodgepole pine) sociations and vegetation diversity relative to its central range east of the Rocky Mountains. - Nordic Journal of Botany, 32: 222–232.
Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) stands were sampled in central Yukon, Canada (61.5–64°N latitude), which represented the northernmost 9% of the tree's North American range. Within this area, lodgepole pine occupied only ˜ 2% of the landscape. This study determined: 1) what forest sociations occurred (i.e. structural dominance‐types); 2) how plant growth form composition and richness differed from the central portion of the species’ geographical range; and 3) if stands were biased towards occurring on more thermally favorable south‐facing slopes. Five lodgepole pine sociations were recognized among 100 relevés: Rhododendron groenlandicum (Labrador tea); Cladonia arbuscula (green reindeer lichen); Calamagrostis purpurascens (purple reedgrass); Hylocomium splendens (stairstep moss) and Alnus viridis (green alder, n = 4 relevés). Rhododendron stands were proportionally more common on low gradient sites and had more total plant cover than the other sociations. Cladonia and Calamagrostis stands were typically associated with dry coarse‐textured soils and warm dry sites, respectively; whereas the composition of the Hylocomium sociation reflected the detrimental influences of atypically dense forest canopies on understory vascular plants. Only the Calamagrostis sociation was unique to the study region. Species richness among common northern lodgepole pine sociations averaged 16–19 taxa per relevé (p > 0.05). Northern compared to central range (n = 1394) relevés were compositionally different based on little overlap of their datasets in the ordination space. Northern vegetation had less (p < 0.001) total plant (129% vs 184%), deciduous shrub (9% vs 26%), broad‐leaved herb (5% vs 25%), and bryophyte (27% vs 54%) cover; had greater macro‐lichen cover (13% vs 5%) and lower floristic richness (11 vs 24 taxa) and was less than half as phytosociological diverse. Lodgepole pine stands in the northernmost portion of their range were not biased towards occurring on south‐facing slopes, which suggested an ecological potential for range expansion.
31063Moore P.A., Smolarz A.G., Markle C.E. & Waddington J.M. (2019): Hydrological and thermal properties of moss and lichen species on rock barrens: Implications for turtle nesting habitat. - Ecohydrology, 12:e2057. [8 p.].
In central Ontario, Canadian Shield rock barrens are a dominant geographic feature supporting at‐risk reptiles near their northern range limit. To better understand the characteristics of the organic soil that make Canadian Shield rock barrens suitable turtle nesting habitat, we measured moisture retention and evaporative potential and calculated the thermal properties of lichen (Cladonia) mats and moss (Sphagnum and Polytrichum) cushions, as well as their underlying mineral–organic soils. The upper soil profile consisted almost entirely of low density (14–49 kg m−3), high porosity (72–98%) organic matter (loss on ignition [LOI] of 84–99%), which transitioned rapidly to comparatively high density (304–815 kg m−3) mineral–organic soil (LOI of 10–85%). In contrast to Sphagnum and Cladonia, under laboratory conditions, Polytrichum was able to maintain an evaporation rate well above the open‐water potential for several days during a drying experiment. Overall, contrasts in composition and water retention between soil layers are likely to dampen diurnal temperature fluctuations. However, differences in potential water loss between species will have a direct impact on soil thermal dynamics, particularly if substantial water loss occurs in the mineral–organic layer. Because soil depth and temperature regulation by moisture content and soil composition are an important component of nesting habitat, this research provides evidence for the need to conserve moss/lichen‐dominated habitats within turtle species' home ranges. Understanding the ecohydrological controls and limits to how these key moss/lichen species develop and influence primary peat formation represents a critical research need for habitat restoration strategies. Keywords: Cladonia, lichen, moisture retention, moss, nesting habitat, Polytrichum, rock barrens, species at risk, Sphagnum, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, turtle.
31062Anderson E. & Rudolph E.D. (1956): An analysis of variation in a variable population of Cladonia. - Evolution, 10(2): 147–156.
1. A strongly discordant variation pattern brought large variable populations of Cladonia to our attention. 2. Random collections were made from an essentially uniform habitat and the variation pattern was studied intensively. 3. Five characters were eventually chosen for scoring or measurement: (a) variability in width in the ultimate podetial centimeter. (b) podetial width 1/8 centimeter from tip. (c) maximum podetial width. (d) erosion and gelification of the cortical region. (e) color reaction to KOH. 4. These five characters were found to be associated in two complexes running from: little variation in width in podetium tip distal region of podetium narrow podetium narrow cortical region not gelified, eroded no reaction with KOH to: great variation in podetium tip distal region of podetium wide podetium wide cortical region heavily gelified, not eroded yellow reaction with KOH 5. Analysis by pictorialized scatter diagrams and by the use of the hybrid index method, correlated closely with the judgment of a taxonomic expert, made independently on the same material. 6. The probable sexuality of these species of Cladonia is briefly discussed. It is concluded that they give evidence of sexual as well as asexual reproduction. It furthermore seems most likely that hybridization and subsequent backcrossing between Cladonia uncialis and C. subtenuis are responsible for the extreme variability of this population.
31061Yarranton G.A. (1975): Population growth in Cladonia stellaris (Opiz.) Pouz. and Vezda. - New Phytologist, 75(1): 99–110.
Populations of Cladonia stellaris in burnt areas of the northern Ontario clay belt were observed photographically from 1968 to 1974. Population growth is logistic with a typical convergent standing crop of 500 g per m2, reached about 30 years after establishment. There is considerable oscillation about the convergent standing crops with time, as well as environmentally determined variations between crops at different sites. Rates of growth are strongly correlated with successional maturity, so that time of establishment may influence the subsequent population size. Final carrying capacity is apparently determined by a complex of factors effective through their influence on light and water availability and by direct physical interference of other species. Ericaceous shrubs and Pleurozium schreberi seem to be the most influential. Cladonia stellaris does not appear until 25 years after fire, but rapidly becomes the most abundant lichen by means of clonal growth. Clones develop by three kinds of budding and subsequently undergo fusion and fission as growth proceeds. Longer range dispersal is by means of small thallus fragments and is evidently highly efficient as newly colonized areas exhibit widespread potential distributions.
31060Урбанавичюс Г.П. & Урбанавичене И.Н. [Urbanavichus G.P. & Urbanavichene I.N.] (2019): Новинки лихенофлоры Кабардино-Балкарии [Lichen flora novelties of Kabardino-Balkaria]. - Turczaninowia, 22(1): 137–144.
[In Russian wit English abstract:] Based on the results of short field works in July 2018, data on new and noteworthy species for the lichen flora of the Central Caucasus are presented. The specimens were collected in the Baksan River valley, Elbrus district, Republic of Kabardino-Balkaria, mainly in the vicinity of the village Bylym in the Bylym intermountain arid basin of the Severo-Yurskaya (North-Jurassic) depression between the Bokovoy (Lateral) and Skalistyi (Rocky) Ridges, and in the vicinities of Elbrus and Azau settlements near the foot of the south-eastern slope of Mount Elbrus. In the present paper, 22 species are reported as new for the lichen flora of the study area. Candelariella blastidiata is reported for the first time for Caucasus, Agonimia opuntiella, Gyalolechia lenae, Lecidella laureri and Physconia perisidiosa are new to Central Caucasus. Another 14 species (Anaptychia bryorum, Caloplaca percrocata, Endocarpon adsurgens, Hyperphyscia adglutinata, Lecania suavis, Lobothallia alphoplaca, Muellerella pygmaea, Peltula euploca, Pertusaria flavicans, Phaeophyscia orbicularis, Ph. sciastra, Punctelia borreri, Thallinocarpon nigritellum, Xanthomendoza fallax) are newly reported to Kabardino-Balkaria. The genera Hyperphyscia, Lecania, Muellerella, Peltula and Thallinocarpon are new to the lichen flora of Kabardino-Balkaria. Information about localities, ecology and Caucasian distribution of all mentioned species is provided.
31059Урбанавичене И.Н. [Urbanavichene I.N.] (2018): Виды рода Bryoria (Parmeliaceae) Северного Кавказа [Species of the genus Bryoria (Parmeliaceae) from the North Caucasus]. - Ботанический журнал [Botanicheskiy Zhurnal], 103(9): 1109–1123.
[In Russian with English summary:] The paper provides a brief survey of the genus Bryoria in the North Caucasus. An identification key for 14 Bryoria species is composed for the first time for the region. The results are based on the data of field studies (in the protected nature areas of the Russian Caucasus), revision of herbarium specimens of the Komarov Botanical Institute (LE), and analysis of literature sources. Notes on the Bryoria species morphology, anatomy, ecology and distribution are presented. Bryoria vrangiana is published as a new species to the Caucasus. Key words: lichens, Bryoria, identification key, B. vrangiana, North Caucasus, Russia.
31058Урбанавичюс Г.П. & Урбанавичене И.Н. [Urbanavichus G.P. & Urbanavichene I.N.] (2018): Дополнения к лихенофлоре Кабардино-Балкарии [Additions to the lichen flora of Kabardino-Balkaria]. - Ботанический журнал [Botanicheskiy Zhurnal], 103(11): 1483–1488.
[In Russian with English summary: ] During a short field trip of the authors in June 2018 in the Republic of Kabardino-Balkaria, interesting lichen species were found. Twelve lichen species (Agonimia tristicula, Anema tumidulum, Circinaria contorta, Collema subflaccidum, Enchylium tenax, Lecanora frustulosa, L. valesiaca, Punctelia jeckeri, Synalissa ramulosa, Toninia opuntioides, T. physaroides, T. sedifolia) are new to the lichen flora of the Republic Kabardino-Balkaria. Data on ecology and distribution in the Caucasus of these species are provided. Four genera (Agonimia, Anema, Enchylium, Synalissa) are new to the lichen flora of the Republic Kabardino-Balkaria. Lecanora valesiaca is reported for the first time to the Northern Caucasus. The study area is located in the Baksan River valley in the vicinity of the village Bylym (Elbrus district) in the Bylym intermountain arid basin of the Severo-Yurskaya (North-Jurassic) depression between the Bokovoy (Lateral) and Skalistyi (Rocky) Ridges (43°27'24" N, 43°00'23" E, alt. 1130—1170 m). The specimens are kept in the lichenological herbarium in LE (St. Petersburg) and in the private collection of G. Urbanavichus. Key words: lichens, new records, distribution, Caucasus.
31057Kruys N. & Jonsson B.G. (1997): Insular patterns of calicioid lichens in a boreal old-growth forest-wetland mosaic. - Ecography, 20: 605–613.
Fragmentation of the forested landscape poses a threat to many aspects of biodiversity associated with old‐growth forests. Studies of the effects of forest fragmentation are often complicated by the variation in composition and age of patches and the matrix. This study used a system of isolated stands where patch age and composition were similar and the matrix variability negligible. The patches were composed of old‐growth Picea abies stands of varying size and shape in a wetland matrix. The study organisms were epiphytic crustose calicioid lichens (also known as Caliciales), many of which are very substrate‐specific and restricted to old‐growth stands. The aim of the study was to measure the effect of patch size, patch isolation, habitat and substrate quality on the species richness and composition of epiphytic calicioids. Twenty‐four patches ranging from 0.4 to 15.9 ha in size were studied. All species of calicioid lichens were registered in 0.1 ha plots in each patch. Isolation was measured as the percentage of available habitat within 400 m of a patch. Twenty‐two species were found with an average of 9.48 ± 0.26 (SE) species per patch and 2.92 ± 0.18 (SE) species per tree. Species richness at patch level correlated with stand structure, primarily tree density, while number of species per tree (reflecting population size) was strongly correlated with island size and several stand variables. There was no effect of isolation on species richness. Species composition was influenced by both substrate variables and patch size. The species composition on the islands showed a significant nestedness, i.e. species composition on species‐poor islands constituted a non‐random subset of the species composition on species‐rich islands. We propose that the explanation for the strong relationship between species richness at tree level and stand size is an edge effect which implies that unaffected interior areas only occur on large islands. The different microclimate of the patch edge enables only the hardiest species to establish large populations there whilst shade and moisture demanding species are restricted to the interiors of larger islands.
31056John E.A. (1990): Fine scale patterning of species distributions in a saxicolous lichen community at Jonas Rockslide, Canadian Rocky Mountains. - Holarctic Ecology, 13: 187–194.
Distinct patterns of species distribution upon individual rockfaces are found n a saxicolous lichen community growing on a rockslide in the Canadian Rockies. A grid system was used for sampling individual rockfaces and the likelihood of finding a species on particular parts of the rockface was analysed. Use of chemicals in the field and collection of apothecia allowed specific identification of individual lichen thalli. Lichens were divisible into three groups: those which are distributed apparently at random over the rockfaces, those which are more likely to occur on upper, outer and southerly portions of the rockfaces and those which are found more often on lower, inner and northerly portions of the rockfaces. The upper rockface surfaces are often snow‐free in winter while the lower rockface group experiences deeper and more persistent snow cover. Simple microclimatic measurements suggest that temperature also differs across the surface of a rockface. It is hypothesised that lichen distributions are at least in part explained by ecophysiological adaptations to their particular microhabitat, while it is recognised that competition may also play a role in community organisation.
31055Torre G., Fernández-Lugo S., Guarino R. & Fernández-Palacios J.M. (2019): Network analysis by simulated annealing of taxa and islands of Macaronesia (North Atlantic Ocean). - Ecography, 42: 768–779.
With the aim of explaining the role that taxa and island features have in biogeographical patterns, we processed presence–absence matrices of all the Macaronesian native species of ten different taxa (arthropods, birds, bryophytes, fungi, lichens, mammals, mollusks, pteridophytes, reptiles and spermatophytes) through simulated annealing analysis. Distribution patterns among the archipelagos were pinpointed, along with the different biogeographic roles played by islands and species groups. All the networks analysed resulted to be significantly modular and the structure of biogeographic modules reflects known past connections among the archipelagos and the current drivers of species distribution. The role assigned to the species supports some biological (ecological amplitude, degree of endemicity) and functional (long‐distance dispersal and persistence abilities) traits of their respective biota and justifies their position in recent models of biogeographical distribution. Whereas it was expected that the modules identified by the spermatophytes and arthropods would reflect the compartmentalization of archipelagos quite well, this was also the case for much more vagile taxa, such as fungi or lichens. Conversely, results obtained for pteridophytes and bryophytes suggest that for those taxa geographic distance and/or macroclimatic conditions are less important than the size, age and orography of an island to determine the modularity of island groups. On the other hand, dry, species‐poor islets, act as connectors, tending to cluster together for different taxa, independently of their archipelagic adscription, whereas large, high, humid islands tend to form network or module hubs representing regional centers of speciation and dispersal.
31054Niittynen P. & Luoto M. (2018): The importance of snow in species distribution models of arctic vegetation. - Ecography, 41: 1024–1037.
Snow cover is characteristic of high‐latitude and ‐altitude ecosystems where snowpack properties regulate many ecological patterns and processes. Nevertheless, snow information is only rarely used as a predictor in species distribution models (SDMs). Methodological difficulties have been limiting both the quality and quantity of available snow information in SDMs. Here, we test whether incorporating remotely sensed snow information in baseline SDMs (using five climate‐topography‐soil variables) improves the accuracy of species occurrence and community level predictions. We use vegetation data recorded in 1200 study sites spanning a wide range of environmental conditions characteristic of mountain systems at high‐latitudes. The data consist of 273 species from three ecologically different and evolutionarily distant taxonomical groups: vascular plants, mosses, and lichens. The inclusion of the snow persistence variable significantly improved the predictive performance of the distribution and community level predictions. The improvements were constant, irrespective of the evaluation metric used or the taxonomic group in question. Snow was the most influential predictor for 36% of the species and had, on average, the second highest variable importance scores of all the environmental variables considered. Consequently, models incorporating snow data produced markedly more refined distribution maps than simpler models. Snow information should not be neglected in the construction of species distribution models where ecosystems characterized by seasonal snow cover are concerned.
31053Rolshausen G., Dal Grande F., Sadowska‐Deś A.D., Otte J. & Schmitt I. (2018): Quantifying the climatic niche of symbiont partners in a lichen symbiosis indicates mutualist‐mediated niche expansions. - Ecography, 41: 1380–1392.
The large distributional areas and ecological niches of many lichenized fungi may in part be due to the plasticity in interactions between the fungus (mycobiont) and its algal or cyanobacterial partners (photobionts). On the one hand, broad‐scale phylogenetic analyses show that partner compatibility in lichens is rather constrained and shaped by reciprocal selection pressures and codiversification independent of ecological drivers. On the other hand, sub‐species‐level associations among lichen symbionts appear to be environmentally structured rather than phylogenetically constrained. In particular, switching between photobiont ecotypes with distinct environmental preferences has been hypothesized as an adaptive strategy for lichen‐forming fungi to broaden their ecological niche. The extent and direction of photobiont‐mediated range expansions in lichens, however, have not been examined comprehensively at a broad geographic scale. Here we investigate the population genetic structure of Lasallia pustulata symbionts at sub‐species‐level resolution across the mycobiont's Europe‐wide range, using fungal MCM7 and algal ITS rDNA sequence markers. We show that variance in occurrence probabilities in the geographic distribution of genetic diversity in mycobiont‐photobiont interactions is closely related to changes in climatic niches. Quantification of niche extent and overlap based on species distribution modeling and construction of Hutchinsonian climatic hypervolumes revealed that combinations of fungal–algal interactions change at the sub‐species level along latitudinal temperature gradients and in Mediterranean climate zones. Our study provides evidence for symbiont‐mediated niche expansion in lichens. We discuss our results in the light of symbiont polymorphism and partner switching as potential mechanisms of environmental adaptation and niche evolution in mutualisms.
31052Naksuwankul K. & Lücking R. (2019): Three new species and new records of foliicolous lichen genus Porina (Porinaceae, Ostropales) and artificial key to species from Thailand. - Phytotaxa, 400(2): 51–63.
Foliicolous material of the lichenized genus Porina was collected in different types of forest in Thailand. Three new species were discovered: P. subatriceps Naksuwankul & Lücking, characterized by a yellowish brown, K+ reddish involucrellum and oblong, 7–11-septate ascospores, P. lumbschii Naksuwankul & Lücking, with large, muriform ascospores, and P. thailandica Naksuwankul & Lücking, having, small, oblong, 3-septate ascospores and a dark brown to black, K-involucrellum, morphologically close to P. homala and P. subhomala which differ by having 7-septate ascospores. An artificial key to species for a total of 55 taxa found in Thailand is provided and 20 new records are listed for the country. Keywords: foliicolous, new species, Porina, Thailand.
31051Kukwa M., Schmitt I. & Ertz D. (2018): Ochrolechia incarnata comb. nov. (Lecanoromycetes, Ascomycota), a distinct species of the O. parella group from Europe and Macaronesia. - Phytotaxa, 371(2): 119–126.
Ochrolechia incarnata comb. nov. is reinstated from the synonymy of O. parella. This saxicolous species is morphologically very similar to O. parella, but differs from the latter phylogenetically and chemically in the production of olivetoric acid causing a C+ red reaction of the apothecial margin medulla. Ochrolechia incarnata is so far known from Europe (Ireland, Sweden) and Macaronesia (Canary Islands, Porto Santo). Notes on other saxicolous species with pruinose apothecia are provided, and the taxonomy of O. pallescens is shortly discussed. Keywords: biodiversity, Pertusariales, Ostropomycetidae, taxonomy.
31050Wang C.-H., Munzi S., Wang M., Jia Y.-Z. & Tao W. (2019): Increasing nitrogen depositions can reduce lichen viability and limit winter food for an endangered Chinese monkey. - Basic and Applied Ecology, 34: 55–63.
Increasing economic growth and industrial development in China is starting to impact even remote areas such as the Shennongjia nature reserve, where nitrogen pollution is becoming a major environmental threat. The epiphytic lichen flora is particularly rich in this area and is one of the components of this habitat most sensitive to nitrogen pollution. Since lichens represent an important food resource for the endangered monkey species Rhinopithecus roxellana, a reduction in lichen availability would have harmful consequences for the conservation of its habitat in the Shennongjia Mountains. To investigate the effects of increased nitrogen availability on the local lichen communities, so far scarcely considered, we conducted a one-year field experiment measuring growth, survival, and phosphomonoesterase activity of the widespread species Usnea luridorufa in response to nitrogen (up to 50 kg N ha−1 year−1 deposition) and phosphorus supply. Growth and survival of thalli and propagules of U. luridorufa decreased when treated with N deposition >12.05 kg N ha−1 year−1 and >2.14 kg N ha−1 year−1, respectively. The important role of phosphorus availability in relation to nitrogen supply was demonstrated by the increase in phosphomonoesterase activity with increasing nitrogen availability until a nitrogen toxicity threshold was reached. However, the high concentration of phosphorus in rainwater showed that phosphorus is not a limiting nutrient in the area. The results make a contribution to the knowledge of the negative effects of increased N deposition in the Shennongjia forest ecosystem. Keywords: Biodiversity conservation; Environmental management; Pollution impact; Rhinopithecus roxellana; Stress response; Usnea luridorufa.
31049Yoshino K., Yamamoto K., Hara K., Sonoda M., Yamamoto Y. & Sakamoto K. (2019): The conservation of polyol transporter proteins and their involvement in lichenized Ascomycota. - Fungal Biology, 123: 318–329.
In lichen symbiosis, polyol transfer from green algae is important for acquiring the fungal carbon source. However, the existence of polyol transporter genes and their correlation with lichenization remain unclear. Here, we report candidate polyol transporter genes selected from the genome of the lichen-forming fungus (LFF) Ramalina conduplicans. A phylogenetic analysis using characterized polyol and monosaccharide transporter proteins and hypothetical polyol transporter proteins of R. conduplicans and various ascomycetous fungi suggested that the characterized yeast’ polyol transporters form multiple clades with the polyol transporter-like proteins selected from the diverse ascomycetous taxa. Thus, polyol transporter genes are widely conserved among Ascomycota, regardless of lichen-forming status. In addition, the phylogenetic clusters suggested that LFFs belonging to Lecanoromycetes have duplicated proteins in each cluster. Consequently, the number of sequences similar to characterized yeast’ polyol transporters were evaluated using the genomes of 472 species or strains of Ascomycota. Among these, LFFs belonging to Lecanoromycetes had greater numbers of deduced polyol transporter proteins. Thus, various polyol transporters are conserved in Ascomycota and polyol transporter genes appear to have expanded during the evolution of Lecanoromycetes. Keywords: Gene duplication; Genome; Lecanoromycetes; Lichen-forming fungi; Phylogenetic analysis; Ramalina conduplicans.
31048Shameera Ahamed T.K., Rajan V.K., Sabira K. & Muraleedharan K. (2019): DFT and QTAIM based investigation on the structure and antioxidant behavior of lichen substances Atranorin, Evernic acid and Diffractaic acid. - Computational Biology and Chemistry, 80: 66–78.
In this study, the structural and antioxidant behavior of the three lichen-derived natural compounds such as atranorin (AT), evernic acid (EV) and diffractaic acid (DF) has been investigated in the gas and water phase using both B3LYP and M06-2X functional level of density functional theory (DFT) with two different basis sets 6-31+G (d, p) and 6-311++G (d, p). The intramolecular H–bonds (IHB) strength, aromaticity and noncovalent interactions (NCI) have been computed with the help of the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM). This calculation gives major structural characteristics that indirectly influence the antioxidant behavior of the investigated compounds. The spin density (SD) delocalization of the unpaired electron is found to be the main stabilizing factor of neutral and cationic radical species. The main mechanisms, recommended in the literature, for the antioxidant action of polyphenols as radical scavengers such as hydrogen atom transfer (HAT), single electron transfer followed by proton transfer (SET-PT), and sequential proton loss electron transfer (SPLET), were examined. The result shows that the HAT and SPLET mechanism are the most conceivable one for the antioxidant action of this class of compounds in gas and water phase respectively. Preference of SPLET over HAT in water phase is due to the significantly lower value of proton affinity (PA) compared to the bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE) value. This study reveals that O2-H3, O9-H26 and O4-H45 respectively are the most favored site of AT, EV and DF for homolytic as well as heterolytic OH bond breaking. Keywords: Atranorin; Evernic acid; Diffractaic acid; DFT; Antioxidant.
31047Canha N., Freitas M.C. & Almeida S.M. (2019): Contribution of short irradiation instrumental neutron activation analysis to assess air pollution at indoor and outdoor environments using transplanted lichens. - Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 320: 129–137.
A biomonitoring study of air pollution using lichen Flavoparmelia caperata (L.) Hale was conducted at indoor and outdoor environments of primary schools of rural and urban areas of mainland Portugal. This work concerns the chemical characterization of samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis using short irradiations; the mass fractions of Al, Cl, K, Mn and V were determined. Using the latter, the outdoor pollution sources influencing the studied indoor classrooms, namely, sea salt spray and industry, could be assessed. Resuspension of settled dust, playing an important role, was also confirmed. Keywords: Indoor air quality · Biomonitoring · Lichens · Schools · Short irradiation · Chemical elements.
31046Silva V., Catry F.X., Fernandes P.M., Rego F.C., Paes P., Nunes L., Caperta A.D., Sérgio C. & Bugalho M.N. (2019): Effects of grazing on plant composition, conservation status and ecosystem services of Natura 2000 shrub‑grassland habitat types. - Biodiversity and Conservation, 28: 1205–1224.
The Natura 2000 network is crucial to conserve biodiversity in the European Union and provides hotspots for certain ecosystem services. Grazing, a common land use in different Natura 2000 habitat types, may contribute to the maintenance of protected plant communities and reduce fuel loads and wildfire hazard. Our study aims to assess the effects of grazing on plant composition and conservation status of calcareous shrub-grassland Natura 2000 habitat types, as well as its effects on fire hazard reduction and aboveground carbon storage. We surveyed plant communities grazed by goats in fenced (ungrazed) and open (grazed) plots in a mosaic of calcareous shrub-grassland habitat types and assessed plant species composition and habitat conservation status. We also assessed aboveground plant biomass in grazed and ungrazed plots and modelled potential fire behaviour in those plots for each habitat. With the exception of cryptogams, grazing did not affect plant cover, but positively affected species richness (mean ± SD: 26.80 ± 11.65 vs. 29.37 ± 8.59, P = 0.01; fenced vs. unfenced) and Shannon diversity (2.11 ± 0.81 vs. 2.33 ± 0.55, P < 0.01) in the habitat mosaic. Furthermore, grazing did not affect the conservation status of two out of three of the studied habitat types. Additionally, grazing decreased the fire hazard in grass and dwarf shrub communities without reducing aboveground carbon stocks significantly. Our results show that moderate grazing is a management practice that effectively contribute to the conservation of Natura 2000 shrub-grassland habitat types through reduction of wildfire hazard and maintenance of habitat conservation status. Keywords: Carbon storage · Fire hazard · Functional traits · Indicator species · Vegetation structure.
31045Cimmino A., Nimis P.L., Masi M., De Gara L., van Otterlo W.A.L., Kiss R., Evidente A. & Lefranc F. (2019): Have lichenized fungi delivered promising anticancer small molecules?. - Phytochemistry Reviews, 18: 1–36.
This review, covering the literature from 1844 to present (end 2017), probes questions concerning small molecule metabolites derived from lichens (lichenized fungi) and their impact in terms of providing compounds with significant promise in oncology. The review gives an overview of lichenized fungi and summarizes the classes of compounds obtained as metabolites from these organisms. A definition of what characteristics an actual ‘‘promising’’ anticancer compound should possess is also delineated. The review reports a brief overview on human cancer and then goes into depth in listing compounds with so-called ‘‘anticancer properties’’ that have been isolated from lichenized fungi, according to their small molecule structural classes. Five ‘‘most promising’’ compounds are discussed in-depth, also considering the possibility of obtaining sufficient amounts for further investigations. Keywords: Lichen;  Endolichen fungi;  Bioactive; metabolites;  Anticancer aktivity.
31044McCune B., Haramundanis K. & Gaposchkin E.M. (2019): Lichenometric dating of historic inscriptions on a rock outcrop in coastal Oregon. - Northwest Science, 92(5): 388–394.
We estimated the age of inscriptions on a rock outcrop by estimating the ages of lichens that had overgrown the inscriptions. The inscriptions are considered to be historically important, potentially representing some of the earliest European exploration of Neahkahnie Mountain, the highest point along the Pacific coast from Baja California to Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington. The rock bearing the inscriptions was destroyed by road construction activities in about 1970–1980, but the inscriptions had been photographed with sufficient detail to allow diameter estimates for the lichens on the rock, affording an opportunity for dating based on lichen sizes. Aspicilia and Placopsis are currently the only lichen genera that are common on similar outcrops in the area and form large light-colored discrete individuals with a radial form. We therefore derived a calibration curve for lichen size in relation to age based on Aspicilia and Placopsis sizes on nearby surfaces of known age (road cuts and stone walls), then applied that curve to the diameters of lichens in the photo. Based on the sizes of the lichens on the rock outcrop with inscriptions, the rock face had been available for lichen colonization and growth for > 100 yrs and perhaps shows a pulse of recruitment following extensive wildfires on the immediate coast in the 1840s. Calculated lichen ages are within 25 years of the expected time of US Army exploration of Neahkahnie Mountain under Captain C. C. Augur in the mid-1800s. Keywords: Aspicilia, historical exploration, lichens, Neahkahnie Mountain, Pacific Northwest.
31043Fu J.-M., Aptroot A., Wang Z.-L. & Zhang L.-L. (2019): Four Pyrenula species new to China. - Mycotaxon, 134: 155–160.
Pyrenula brunnea, P. punctella, P. subducta, and P. submastophora are reported for the first time from China. This increases the number of Pyrenula species known from China to 46. Descriptions and distribution of the four species are given. Key words—Asia, lichen-forming fungi, Pyrenulaceae, taxonomy.
31042Ahat P., Tumur A. & Guo S.-Y. (2019): Anamylopsora altaica sp. nov. from Northwestern China. - Mycotaxon, 134: 147–153.
Anamylopsora altaica, collected from rocks in the Hot Spring Valley Forest Park in the Altay Mountains, Xinjiang, Northwestern China, is described as a new species, based on morphological and chemical characteristics, as well as ITS DNA sequence data. The new lichen species is characterized by its crowded, overlapping squamules with upturned margins, crowded globose apothecia with eight simple hyaline spores per ascus, and the presence of psoromic acid. A detailed description and colour photographs are provided. Key words—Anamylopsoraceae, Baeomycetaceae, Baeomycetales.
31041Sun M.-J., Yan S.-K., Tang R., Wang C.-X. & Zhang L.-L. (2019): New records of Bilimbia and Toninia from China. - Mycotaxon, 134: 139–146.
As a result of our study on the lichen flora of Northwest China, one species of Bilimbia (B. lobulata) and three species of Toninia (T. coelestina, T. gobica, and T. superioris) are reported for the first time from China. Keywords—Asia, biodiversity, Lecanorales, Ramalinaceae, taxonomy.
31040Pizarro D., Dal Grande F., Leavitt S.D., Dyer P.S., Schmitt I., Crespo A., Lumbsch H.T. & Divakar P.K. (2019): Whole-genome sequence data uncover widespread heterothallism in a largest group of lichen-forming fungi. - Genome Biology and Evolution, 11(3): 721–730.
Fungal reproduction is regulated by the mating-type (MAT1) locus, which typically comprises two idiomorphic genes. The presence of one or both allelic variants at the locus determines the reproductive strategy in fungi-homothallism versus heterothallism. It has been hypothesized that self-fertility via homothallism is widespread in lichen-forming fungi. To test this hypothesis, we characterized the MAT1 locus of 41 genomes of lichen-forming fungi representing a wide range of growth forms and reproductive strategies in the class Lecanoromycetes, the largest group of lichen-forming fungi. Our results show the complete lack of genetic homothallism suggesting that lichens evolved from a heterothallic ancestor. We argue that this may be related to the symbiotic lifestyle of these fungi, and may be a key innovation that has contributed to the accelerated diversification rates in this fungal group. Key words: lichen-forming fungi, mating system, heterothallism, MAT, sexual reproduction.
31039Chollet-Krugler M., Nguyen T.T.T., Sauvager A., Thüs H. & Boustie J. (2019): Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) in time-series of lichen specimens from natural history collections. - Molecules, 24: 1070 [11 p.].
Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) were quantified in fresh and preserved material of the chlorolichen Dermatocarpon luridum var. luridum (Verrucariaceae/Ascomycota). The analyzed samples represented a time-series of over 150 years. An HPLC coupled with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) mode method was developed and validated for the quantitative determination of MAAs. We found evidence for substance specific differences in the quality of preservation of two MAAs (mycosporine glutamicol, mycosporine glutaminol) in Natural History Collections. We found no change in average mycosporine glutamicol concentrations over time. Mycosporine glutaminol concentrations instead decreased rapidly with no trace of this substance detectable in collections older than nine years. Our data predict that a screening for MAAs in organism samples from Natural History Collections can deliver results that are comparable to those obtained from fresh collections only for some MAAs (e.g., mycosporine glutamicol). For other MAAs, misleading, biased, or even false negative results will occur as a result of the storage sensitivity of substances such as mycosporine glutaminol. Our study demonstrates the value of pilot studies with time-series based on model taxa with a rich representation in the Natural History Collections. Keywords: herbarium; fungarium; mycosporine-like amino acids; degradation; storage; Dermatocarpon luridum.
31038Yazici K. & Aslan A. (2019): Three new lichenicolous fungi records for Turkey and Asia. - Acta Botanica Hungarica, 61: 205–212.
Three lichenicolous fungi, Abrothallus peyritschii, Lichenochora verrucicola and Sclerococcum montagnei, collected from Burdur and Bitlis provinces, are reported as new to Turkey, the latter species is also new to Asia. Short descriptions, including geographical distributions, hosts and comparisons with similar taxa are provided. Keywords: Ascomycota, biodiversity, Bitlis, Burdur, lichenicolous fungi, Turkey.
31037Kondratyuk S.Y., Lőkös L., Jang S.-H., Hur J.-S. & Farkas E. (2019): Phylogeny and taxonomy of Polyozosia, Sedelnikovaea and Verseghya of the Lecanoraceae (Lecanorales, lichen-forming Ascomycota). - Acta Botanica Hungarica, 61: 137–184.
From the combined phylogenetic analysis of multi-locus sequence data of the Lecanoraceae including two nuclear protein-coding markers (RPB2 and RPB1), the internal transcribed spacer and a fragment of the mitochondrial small subunit, found that the originally monotypic eastern Asian genus Verseghya is positioned within the Verseghya-Lecidella-Pyrrhospora clade of the Lecanoraceae and includes one more taxon Verseghya thysanophora widely distributed in Northern Hemisphere. The genus Lecidella forming the Lecidella-Glaucomaria subclade within the same Verseghya-Lecidella-Pyrrhospora clade of the Lecanoraceae found to have tendency to be polyphyletic after including the recently described eastern Asian taxon Lecidella mandshurica into phylogenetic analysis of the Lecanoraceae. It is shown that Lecidella mandshurica was previously recorded from China sub Lecidella aff. elaeochroma. The originally monotypic eastern Asian genus Sedelnikovaea forming a monophyletic branch within the Sedelnikovaea-Lecanoropsis subclade and being in out-position to the Rhizoplaca-Protoparmeliopsis s. str. clade of the Lecanoraceae found to include three more taxa, i.e. Sedelnikovaea marginalis, S. pseudogyrophorica, and S. subdiscrepans. The Eurasian Protoparmeliopsis bolcana, and the eastern Asian P. kopachevskae, are illustrated for the first time as being positioned within the Protopameliopsis branch of the Lecanoraceae, while the South Korean ‘Protoparmeliopsis’ chejuensis found to be positioned in separate monophyletic branch from all other branches of the Rhizoplaca-Protoparmeliopsis s. l. clade of the Lecanoraceae. The genus Polyozosia A. Massal. as earlier name for the former Myriolecis branch of the Lecanoraceae is accepted as far the type species of the latter genus, i.e. P. poliophaea, found to be positioned within this branch. The Polyozosia robust monophyletic branch is positioned in the outermost position in the Rhizoplaca-Protoparmeliopsis s. str. clade of the Lecanoraceae. Position and species content of the accepted genera Glaucomaria, Lecanoropsis, Omphalodina, Polyozosia, and Straminella are discussed in separate nrITS and mtSSU, and combined phylogeny based on concatenated sequences of nrITS, mtSSU, RPB2 and RPB1 genes. Fourty new combinations are proposed: Glaucomaria bicincta, G. carpinea, G. leptyrodes, G. lojkaeana, G. subcarpinea, G. sulphurea, G. swartzii, G. swartzii subsp. caulescens, G. swartzii subsp. nylanderi, Lecanoropsis anopta, L. macleanii, Omphalodina chrysoleuca, O. huashanensis, O. opiniconensis, O. phaedrophthalma, O. pseudistera, Palicella anakeestiicola, Polyozosia albescens, P. andrewii, P. contractula, P. crenulata, P. dispersa, P. hagenii, P. perpruinosa, P. populicola, P. pruinosa, P. reuteri, P. sambuci, P. semipallida, P. straminea, P. thuleana, Sedelnikovaea marginalis, S. pseudogyrophorica, S. subdiscrepans, Straminella bullata, S. burgaziae, S. conizaeoides, S. densa, S. maheui, S. varia, and Verseghya thysanophora. Validation of one name as Polyozosia perpruinosa Fröberg ex S. Y. Kondr. L. Lőkös et Farkas is also proposed. Keywords: China, Glaucomaria, Lecanoropsis, Myriolecis, phylogeny, Omphalodina, Palicella, Polyozosia, Sedelnikovaea, Straminella, taxonomy, Verseghya.
31036Kondratyuk S.Y., Halda J.P., Lőkös L., Yamamoto Y., Popova L.P. & Hur J.-S. (2019): New and noteworthy lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi 8. - Acta Botanica Hungarica, 61: 101–135.
Six new for science species of lichen-forming fungi from Republic of Korea, Eastern Asia, i. e.: Bacidina jasonhuri J. P. Halda, S. Y. Kondr. et L. Lőkös, Gyalidea koreana J. P. Halda, S. Y. Kondr. L. Lőkös et Hur, G. pisutii J. P. Halda, S. Y. Kondr. L. Lőkös et Hur, G. poeltii S. Y. Kondr. L. Lőkös, J. P. Halda et Hur, G. Vězdae S. Y. Kondr. L. Lőkös, J. P. Halda et Hur, and Porpidia ulleungdoensis S. Y. Kond. L. Lőkös et J. P. Halda, as well as two new species from Japan (Fauriea yonaguniensis S. Y. Kondr. M. Moriguchi et Yoshik. Yamam. and Laundonia ryukyuensis S. Y. Kondr. M. Moriguchi et Yoshik. Yamam.), and one new species Lecanora orlovii S. Y. Kondr. et L. Lőkös from Ukraine are described, illustrated and compared with closely related taxa. Keywords: Bacidina, Fauriea, Gyalidea, Japan, Laundonia, Lecanora, new species, Porpidia, South Korea, Ukraine.
31035Kapets N.V. & Kondratyuk S.Y. (2019): New data on lichenicolous fungi of the Teteriv River Basin (Ukraine). - Acta Botanica Hungarica, 61: 45–54.
The data on 31 species of lichenicolous fungi (Abrothallus caerulescens, Arthonia phaeophysciae, Athelia arachnoidea, Cercidospora macrospora, Clypeococcum hypocenomycis, Cornutispora lichenicola, Erythricium aurantiacum, Heterocephalacria physciacearum, Intralichen christiansenii, Lichenochora obscuroides, Lichenoconium erodens, L. lecanorae, L. usneae, Lichenodiplis lecanorae, Lichenostigma cosmopolites, Lichenothelia convexa, L. scopularia, Marchandiomyces corallinus, Monodictys epilepraria, Muellerella pygmaea, M. erratica, Pronectria leptaleae, Pyrenochaeta xanthoriae, Sclerococcum sphaerale, Sphaerellothecium propinquellum, Stigmidium fuscatae, S. squamariae, S. xanthoparmeliarum, Taeniolella phaeophysciae, T. punctata, Xanthoriicola physciae) new to the Teteriv River Basin are provided. Further five species (Cercidospora crozalsiana, Lichenostigma epipolina, Lichenothelia tenuissima, Polysporina subfuscescens and Taeniolella beschiana) are new to Ukraine. Additional localities for all newly reported species are listed. Keywords: Cercidospora crozalsiana, lichenicolous fungi, Lichenostigma epipolina, Lichenothelia tenuissima, Polysporina subfuscescens, Taeniolella beschiana, Teteriv River Basin, Ukraine.
31034Ismailov A.B. & Urbanavichus G.P. (2019): New and rare lichens for Russia and the Caucasus from high mountainous Dagestan (East Caucasus). - Acta Botanica Hungarica, 61: 23–31.
Five species of lichenized ascomycetes are reported from high mountainous Dagestan. Acarospora laqueata, Lecania ochronigra and Protoparmelia placentiformis are new to Russia and the Caucasus (the last two). Anamylopsora pulcherrima is the first record of the genus and species for the North Caucasus. Buellia centralis is the first record for the Caucasus and second for Russia. Our records considerably extended information about geography and ecology of presented species especially the very rare species Buellia centralis, Lecania ochronigra and Protoparmelia placentiformis. The characteristic features of specimens with information of their morphology, anatomy, ecology and world distribution are given. Keywords: Caucasus, floristical studies, lichens, new records, rare species, Russia.
31033Goga M. & Dudáš M. (2019): Lichens from the Zemplínske vrchy Mts and Physcia leptalea new to Slovakia. - Acta Botanica Hungarica, 61: 11–21.
We present the results of lichenological survey in the area of Zemplínske vrchy Mts in this paper. The study area is underexplored regarding lichens and there are not many published resources on lichens. In total thirty-five localities were investigated and 68 lichen species were identified. Fifteen species of them are evaluated in the Red list of lichens of Slovakia. From interesting findings, Cladonia crispata, Graphis scripta, Lecanora conizaeoides and Flavoparmelia caperata are discussed here. Physcia leptalea is reported for the first time for the area of Slovakia. Keywords: central Europe, lichen diversity, lichenized fungi, Western Carpathians.
31032Kärnefelt I., Lőkös L., Seaward M.R.D., Thell A. & Thell N. (2019): Sergij Y. Kondratyuk – A 60th birthday tribute. - Acta Botanica Hungarica, 61: 1–4.
31031Neuwirth G. (2017): Der Mikrokosmos der Flechten (Lichenes). - ÖKO.L Zeitschrift für Ökologie, Natur- und Umweltschutz, 39/1: 22–26.
popular paper
31030Berger F. (2017): Häufige Rindenflechten in Linz und rundherum. - ÖKO.L Zeitschrift für Ökologie, Natur- und Umweltschutz, 39/3: 3–14.
popular paper
31029Neuwirth G. (2018): A study on rare and noteworthy lichenized ascomycetes from Sardinia (Italy). - Stapfia, 109: 181–196.
The study reports about remarkable lichen species from the Mediterranean region, collected from various substrates during a one-week trip through Sardinia in May 2018. One of them was recorded for the first time in Sardinia and thirty-two lichenized ascomycetes could be classified as either extremely rare, very rare or rare. The aim of this publication is to contribute to the lichen flora by means of a photographic documentation including short comments on rare species and additional information about the collecting sites. A species list of all recorded taxa is provided. Key words: Mediterranean region, rare records, taxonomy, photographic documentation.
31028Dämon W., Krisai-Greilhuber I. & Klenke F. (2013): Fundliste der 37. Internationalen Mykologischen Dreiländertagung in Tamsweg 2013. - Österreichische Zeitschrift für Pilzkunde, 22: 121–162.
During the 37. Mycological “Dreiländertagung” in Tamsweg (Lungau, Salzburg, Austria) from 11.-17. August 2013 in total 530 fungal taxa have been recorded; 230 Agaricales, Boletales and Russulales; 100 ”Aphyllophorales“, ”Gasteromycetes“ and Heterobasidiomycetes; 55 Urediniomycetes and Ustilaginomycetes; 130 Ascomycota; and 15 species of anamorphs and other groups. In addition, 27 species of lichens have been determined. Most of the finds reported here are from seven excursion sites in the Lungau (province of Salzburg), others from bordering regions in Carinthia and Styria. Only a relatively low number of macromycetes could be found, due to extremely dry and hot weather conditions in the foregoing weeks of the meeting. Nevertheless, more than 60 fungi are new to the province of Salzburg, and 13 fungi are new to Austria: Cortinarius impolitus, Inocybe angulatosquamulosa, I. mixtilis var. aurata, I. nematoloma, I. pseudoasterospora var. microsperma, Mycena quercus-ilicis, Exobasidium sundstroemii, Hymenoscyphus spec. 'griseobrunneus', Lasiobolus diversisporus, Mycosphaerella epilobii-montani, Nodulosphaeria cirsii, Parascutellinia fuckelii, and Pindara terrestris. Key words: Mycota of Lungau, Salzburg, Carinthia, Styria, Austria.
31027Lang K., Breuss O. & Krisai-Greilhuber I. (2010): Eine qualitative floristische Momentaufnahme von Flechten im hochalpinen Lebensraum im Naturpark Rieserferner-Ahrn (Südtirol, Italien). - Österreichische Zeitschrift für Pilzkunde, 19: 31–39.
In summer 2008 in the nature preserve Rieserferner-Ahrn (South Tyrol, Italy), a natura 2000 protectorate. 174 lichen specimens were collected for the first time. They represent 79 species. Peltigera elisahethae and Camielariella coralliza were the rarest taxa in the area investigated. Key words: Lichens, Peltigera elisabethae, Candelariella coralliza. - New records, species list, survey. - Mycoflora of South Tyrol, Italy.
31026Breuss O. (2013): Byssoloma laurisilvae und Thelotrema lueckingii, zwei neue Flechtenarten aus Madeira. - Österreichische Zeitschrift für Pilzkunde, 22: 99–105.
Two lichen species are described as new from the laurel forests of Madeira. The foliicolous Byssoloma laurisilvae differs from B. kakouettae in having yellow to ochre apothecial discs, a thinner, colourless hypothecium, and white pycnidia. Thelotrema lueckingii is close to T. lepadinum from which it differs in its yellowish medulla and the red spot test with K. Key words: Lichenized Ascomycotina, Pilocarpaceae, thelotremoid Graphidaceae. – New species, sp. nov., taxonomy. – Lichen flora of Madeira, Atlantic islands, Macaronesia.
31025Breuss O. & Clerc P. (2013): Erstnachweise und weitere bemerkenswerte Funde pyrenocarper Flechten in der Schweiz. - Österreichische Zeitschrift für Pilzkunde, 22: 93–98.
Five species (Endocarpon adsurgens, E. loscosii, Involucropyrenium squamulosum, Placidiopsis tiroliensis, and Placidium adami-borosi) and one variety (Clavascidium lacinulatum var. atrans) of pyrenocarpous lichens are reported from Switzerland for the first time. Several additional species, previously already known from Swiss records, are reported from additional provinces. Brief notes on characteristics, ecology and distribution of the taxa are given. Key words: Lichenized Ascomycotina, pyrenocarpous lichens, Verrucariaceae. – New records. – Alps, Switzerland.
31024Marstaller R. (1967): Die Xerothermflora der Gipshänge bei Jena (Ostthüringen) unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Bunten-Erdflechten-Gesellschaft. - Hercynia, 5: 352–372.
31023Miyawaki H., Sudirman I.L., Simbolon H., Nakanishi M., Yamaguchi T. & Shimizu H. (2005): Effects of forest fires on some lichen species in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. - Phyton (Horn), 45: 569–574.
Developing a simple method for evaluating the damage and recovery from the forest fires in tropical rain forest is required from a forest management standpoint in Indonesia. The purpose of this study is to present a new evaluation method of forest fire damage, especially for field scientists and forest managers. We employed some popular taxonomical groups and their growth forms for evaluation without using any expensive equipment in forests. We surveyed and examined this method in the mixed dipterocarp forest at Bukit Bangkirai, East Kalimantan, Indonesia, in 2002. Results showed that the evaluation score became lower at 0-50 cm height zone at the hardly damaged forest as compared with control (no damaged) forest. In low land of East Kalimantan, lichens grow more at low height zone of tree trunks than higher position, which seemed to depend on the moisture from the ground. Forest fires in this area should spread with burning of dry grasses and fallen leaves on ground surface, and lichens at lower height zone might be severely affected. Dictyonema cf. moorei with cyanobacteria as photobionts, which apparently prefers the damaged forests, might be a bio-indicator as pioneer lichen for forest fires. While, Coenogonium sp. with green algae as photobionts, which was observed only control forest, seemed to be a bio-indicator of good/matured tropical lowland rainforests. Key words : Evaluation, forest fires, Kalimantan-Indonesia, lichens, lowland tropical rain forest.
31022Zollitsch B. (1967): Soziologische und ökologische Untersuchungen auf Kalkschiefern in hochalpinen Gebieten. Teil I. - Berichte der Bayerischen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 40: 67–100.
phytosociology; Alps; numerous terricolous and saxicolous lichens identified by J. Poelt
31021Gams H. (1960): Die Herkunft der hochalpinen Moose und Flechten. - Jahrbuch des Vereins zum Schutze der Alpenpflanzen und -Tiere, 25: 85–95.
31020Türk R. & Moser C. (2005): The effect of stemflow on transplanted Hypogynmia physodes in the urban area of Salzburg (Austria). - Phyton (Horn), 45: 317–330.
In the city of Salzburg a study was carried out to investigate possible effects of the stemflow on lichens using a transplant technique along raintracks of trees. Between November 2000 and June 2001 specimens of Hypogynmia physodes were exposed around the trunks of Tilia cordata at 6 different sites in the urban area of Salzburg. The lichen thalli were fixed on discs of cork which were fitted into bark holes. As the physiological response of the exposed lichens the CO2-gas exchange was observed in time intervals of 4 weeks. Also the pigment content was measured after exposition. Visible damage and changes in the size of the exposed lichen samples were determined photographically. The stemflow after a rain phase was collected with an equipment created by the department of environmental protection of the provincial government of Salzburg and analysed for conductivity, pH and the content of Ca2+, SO4 2-, NH4+, NO3- and Zn. After 6 months of exposure most of the specimens showed no seriously visible damages. Only some peripheral and selective chlorosis and necrosis appeared. At several sites growth of the thalli was observed to a certain extent. The lichens had unimodal responses in gas exchange. The physiological activity varied with alteration in environmental conditions. After rain periods the NP-rates were increasing and the DR-rates were significantly negative correlated. The lichens had unimodal responses in gas exchange. The physiological activity varied with alteration in climatic conditions. After rain periods the NP-rates were increasing and the DRrates were significant negative correlated. No apparent changes in chlorophyll a and b content occured. Average levels of contaminants were low but showed higher values in the winter months. Key words : Lichen, stemflow, air pollution, raintracks, CO2 exchange, chlorophyll content, urban area of Salzburg.
31019Fontaniella B., Molina M.C. & Vicente C. (2000): An improved method for the separation of lichen symbionts. - Phyton (Horn), 40: 323–328.
A novel method for the isolation of lichen photobionts by density gradient centrifugation has been assessed using the lichen Evernia prunastri as an experimental model. An initial sucrose-KI gradient was prepared in which algae and small hyphal fragments formed an interphase in a sucrose-KI gradient. Then, 10 mM phosphate buffer is added and the preparation centrifuged a second time. This partitioned the algal cells towards the buffer while the bulk of the fungal hyphae were retained in the sucrose solution. This method allowed the purification of algal cells with no contamination from the fungal partner. Key words: Evernia prunastri, Lichenes, photobionts, symbionts, isolation technique.
31018Bültmann H. & Geringhoff H. (1998): Cladonia decorticata und Cladonia polycarpoides im Südschwarzwald [Cladonia decorticata and Cladonia polycarpoides in the Southern Black Forest (Germany)]. - Carolinea, 56: 119–120.
Two new populations of Cladonia decorticata and C. polycarpoides in the Southern Black Forest are described. The former population is in the Schauinsland area and the latter one in the Belchen area.
31017Wirth V. (2008): Alfred Lösch – ein badischer Kryptogamenforscher. - Carolinea, 66: 63–69.
ALFRED LÖSCH – a researcher of cryptogams from Baden/ southern Germany. The life of ALFRED LÖSCH (1865- 1946), who collected lichens and fern plants mainly in the region of southern Baden, is sketched. Due to an active exchange and his relations to several well known contemporary botanists his samples are represented in important herbaria.
31016Philippi G. (1999): Dr. Herbert Schindler † 1907 – 1998. - Carolinea, 57: 149–151.
obituary; biography; bibliography
31015Ahrens M. & Wolf T. (2015): Bunodophoron melanocarpum im Schwarzwald (Südwestdeutschland) [Bunodophoron melanocarpum in the Black Forest (South-West Germany)]. - Carolinea, 73: 135–138.
The lichen Bunodophoron melanocarpum (Sw.) Wedin (Sphaerophoraceae, Lecanorales) was found at a locality in the northern part of the Black Forest (Baden- Württemberg, South-West Germany). Until now, the species was considered to be extinct in Germany after the last known site had been destroyed in 1982 by forestry. The new locality is situated in a rocky, forested ravine, close to a waterfall where conditions of high humidity prevail. There, B. melanocarpum was found growing on acidic rock on almost vertical, damp rock surfaces, both at the bottom of the northerly exposed and shaded cliff as well as on large boulders situated at its base. Important associated species are Diplophyllum albicans, Isothecium myosuroides, Anastrophyllum minutum, Bazzania flaccida, Dicranodontium denudatum, Leucobryum juniperoideum, Plagiochila punctata, Parmelia omphalodes and Sphaerophorus globosus.
31014Kochjarová J., Škodová I. & Blanár D. (2015): Grasslands in the border area of Carpathian and Pannonian regions: an example from Muránska planina Mts (Central Slovakia). - Tuexenia, 35: 195–220.
Keywords: Elyno-Seslerietea, Festuco-Brometea, grassland vegetation, pioneer vegetation, Western Carpathians, Pannonia. Numerous lichens from phytosociological relevés identidied by A. Guttová and I. Pišút.
31013Marques J. & Paz-Bermúdez G. (2014): New and interesting lichen records for the Portuguese funga from the Upper Douro region (north-east Portugal). - Österreichische Zeitschrift für Pilzkunde, 23: 37–53.
Thirty five saxicolous and terricolous lichens are here reported for the first time from the Upper Douro region (province of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, north-east Portugal) with data on their currently known distribution and regional ecology. Acarospora charidema, A. macrospora subsp. murorum, Aspicilia crespiana, A. cupreoglauca, A. viridescens, Caloplaca arnoldii subsp. obliterata, C. rubelliana, Endocarpon loscosii, Lichinella nigritella, Psorotichia schaereri, Pterygiopsis affinis, Rhizoplaca maheui, Rinodina vezdae, Toninia toepferii and Verrucaria geophila are new for mainland Portugal. Key words: Lichen diversity, saxicolous lichens, terricolous lichens, schist. – Mycobiota of the Iberian Peninsula.
31012Wirth V. (2016): Bemerkenswerte Funde von Flechten in Süddeutschland und Umgebung [Noteworthy records of lichens in Southern Germany and its vicinity]. - Carolinea, 74: 11–22.
Numerous rare or hitherto overlooked lichen species are reported from regions of Southern Germany and neighbouring France. Some of them are the first records for Germany. They are presented with topographic and ecological data based on herbarium vouchers. Of special significance is the rediscovery of Sclerophora farinacea, which has been missing for 150 years, as well as a repeatedly collected sterile lichen now assigned to Biatora aureolepra, a species of upper montane coniferous forests. The floristics of the Candelariella efflorescens-assemblage in the area is discussed. The synonymy of Lecidea scabridisca with Rimularia mullensis, and of Lecidea vezdai with Miriquidica complanata is explained.
31011Breuss O. (2017): Flechten aus Spitzbergen im Herbarium des Oberösterreichischen landesmuseums (LI), gesammelt 1975 von Werner Repetzky. - Stapfia, 107: 163–168.
list of 220 lichen taxa (215 species, 5 infraspecific taxa) collected by W. Repetzky in 1975 in western and northwestern Spitsbergen is presented. 9 species (Buellia uberior, Candelariella commutata, Diplotomma nivale, Leptogium tetrasporum, Staurothele hymenogonia, Verrucaria foveolata, V. illinoisensis, V. kalenskyi and V. triglavensis) are additions to the known lichen flora of Spitzbergen. For these records, short remarks on characteristics and distribution are provided. Key words: Lichenized Ascomycota, Arctic, mycobiota of Spitsbergen, biodiversity.
31010Dengler J. & Boch S. (2007): Taxonomy, ecology, and distribution of six remarkable plant taxa (Spermatophyta, Bryophyta, and Lichenes) of the Estonian dry grassland flora. - Phyton (Horn), 47: 47–71.
We present new and remarkable flowering plant, moss, and lichen taxa to the flora of Estonia, which we recorded in dry grasslands on the island of Saaremaa. New to Estonia are Bryum radiculosum BRID. (Bryophyta - Bryaceae), Caloplaca lithophila H. MAGN. (Lichenes - Teloschistaceae), and Festuca oelandica (HACKEL) K. RICHTER (Spermatophyta - Poaceae). Agonimia globulifera BRAND & DIEDERICH in SERUSIAUX & al. (Lichenes - Verrucariaceae) was previously mentioned in a note by S. B. but without detailed ecological information. For Allium schoenoprasum subsp. schoenoprasum var. alvarense Hyl. (Spermatophyta - Alliaceae) and Crepis tectorum subsp. pumila (LILJEBLAD) STERNER (Spermatophyta - Asteraceae), diverging opinions existed in the literature as to whether they occur in Estonia or not and how they should be discriminated from the respective typical infraspecific taxon. We give detailed morphological descriptions of the collected specimens and characterise the stands of the newly found taxa ecologically and sociologically. Most of the new records originate from the Crepido pumilae-Allietum alvarensis (Sedo-Scleranthenea), an open alvar community of shallow, skeletal soils, whose stands are subject to inundation in winter and severe drought in summer. From a phytogeographical point of view, the occurrences of the three flowering plant taxa on Saaremaa are most remarkable, as they have been previously thought to be endemics of Öland and Gotland. They presumably have arisen following the glaciation under the harsh environmental conditions of the open alvar communities from their widespread and ecologically plastic ancestors. Keywords: Agonimia globulifera, Allium schoenoprasum subsp. schoenoprasum var. alvarense, Bryum radiculosum, Caloplaca lithophila, Crepis tectorum subsp. pumila, Festuca oelandica. - Alvar vegetation, Crepido pumilae-Allietum alvarensis, Sedo-Scleranthenea. - Endemism, floristics. - Flora of Estonia.
31009Breuss O. (2013): Erwähnenswerte Flechtenfunde im Lechquellengebirge und in den Lechtaler Alpen (Vorarlberg, Österreich). - Österreichische Zeitschrift für Pilzkunde, 22: 85–92.
Nineteen lichen taxa are reported as new from the Austrian province of Vorarlberg. Micarea globulosella and Verrucaria cambrini are first records for Austria. Key words: Lichenized Ascomycetes. – New records. – Lichen flora of Austria, Vorarlberg.
31008Breuss O. (2014): Erwähnenswerte Flechtenfunde im Lechquellengebirge und in den Lechtaler Alpen (Vorarlberg, Österreich) – 2. - Österreichische Zeitschrift für Pilzkunde, 23: 171–177.
16 lichen taxa are treated, of which 15 are recorded for the first time from the Austrian province of Vorarlberg. Short notes on their characters and distributions are provided. The most remarkable findings are Ramonia luteola and Thelenella pertusariella. Key words: Lichenized Ascomycetes. – New records. – Mycobiota of Austria, Vorarlberg.
31007Kaufmann M. (2018): Flechtenvegetationskundliche Studien am Glaukonitsandstein der Garschella-Formation (Helvetikum, Vorarlberg / Austria occ.). - inatura – Forschung online, 60: 1–47.
Bei den vegetationskundlichen Untersuchungen auf Glaukonitsandstein der Garschella-Formation, einer am europäischen Schelf abgelagerten Gesteinseinheit des Helvetikums, konnten in der kollinen und montanen Stufe elf Gesteinsflechtenassoziationen ausgewiesen werden. Die Bedeutung des Eintrags von karbonathaltigem flüssigem Wasser (indirekter Abfluss von Niederschlagswasser aus der Umgebung (ekreophil) und Kluftwasser) konnte herausgearbeitet werden. Trotz des primär siliziklastischen Gesteins sind neun Gesellschaften Karbonatgesteinsflechtenassoziationen. Dabei erhält einerseits der an sich karbonatfreie Glaukonitsandstein durch das Abflussgeschehen aus der umgebenden karbonatreichen Umgebung (Schrattenkalk) einen Karbonateintrag, andererseits ist der Sandstein selbst durch über calcitverheilte Klüfte karbonathaltig. Zwei Syntaxonomische Einheiten des hier karbonatfreien Sandsteins entziehen sich der karbonatischen Beeinflussung, indem sie vor dem Flüssigwassereintrag durch die Position am Felsen abgeschirmt werden (trocken geschützt vorstehend oder zuoberst gelegen). In diesen beiden Syntaxonomische Einheiten wird die auch in den ausgewiesenen Karbonatgesteinsflechtenassoziationen vereinzelt auftretende, heterogene (im Sinn der Einstufung in calcicole vs. calcifuge, saxicole vs. epiphytische) Artengarnitur ins Extrem getrieben. Bei der einen Einheit dominieren calcifuge saxicole Arten (dem I. Dirinetum masiliense s. l. Cl.Roux 2017) und bei der zweiten Einheit treten epiphytische Arten gesellschaftsbildend auf (dem IX. saxicoles Physcietum adscentis Ochsner & Frey 1926). Key words: Lichenes, epilithische Flechten, Gesteinsflechten, Flechtenassoziationen, Flechtensoziologie, Vorarlberg, Glaukonitsandstein, Grünsandstein, Phosphorit.
31006Guzow-Krzemińska B., Flakus A., Kosecka M., Jabłońska A., Rodriguez-Flakus P. & Kukwa M. (2019): New species and records of lichens from Bolivia. - Phytotaxa, 397(4): 257–279.
Fuscidea multispora Flakus, Kukwa & Rodr. Flakus and Malmidea attenboroughii Kukwa, Guzow-Krzemińska, Kosecka, Jabłońska & Flakus are described as new to science based on morphological, chemical and molecular characters. Lepra subventosa var. hypothamnolica is genetically and chemically distinct from L. subventosa var. subventosa and a new name, Lepra pseudosubventosa Kukwa & Guzow-Krzemińska, is proposed due to the existence of Lepra hypothamnolica (Dibben) Lendemer & R.C. Harris. Pertusaria muricata, recently transferred to Lepra, is kept in the genus Pertusaria due to the highest similarity of ITS sequence with members of Pertusaria. The occurrence of Micarea hedlundii in the Southern Hemisphere is confirmed based on molecular evidence from Bolivian population. Lepra pseudosubventosa and Pertusaria muricata are reported as new to South America, and 20 taxa as new to Bolivia. Lepraria stephaniana, previously known only from the type locality, is reported from two more sites. An ascosporic state is reported for the first time for Lepra amaroides, as are new chemotypes. Molecular markers were used to place some sterile, sorediate crustose lichens in the family Graphidaceae. The phylogenetic positions of some sterile Malmidea specimens within Malmidaceae are also discussed. Key words: sterile lichens, molecular systematics, biodiversity, Ascomycota.
31005Cezanne R., Eichler M., Hohmann M.-L. & Wirth V. (2008): Die Flechten des Odenwaldes. - Andrias, 17: 1–520.
In a comprehensive study, all species of lichens and lichenicolous fungi detected within the Odenwald, a mountain area near Heidelberg, were treat ed and their distribution shown in grid maps. During an observation period of more than 20 years a total of 660 lichen species and 78 species of lichenicolous fungi were found. These are very high numbers for an area of 2,500 km2 that reaches an altitude of only 600 m above sea level. The high number of fi nds can be attributed to several factors including: a very thorough search, a favourable climate for lichens and the considerable recovery of the lichen vegetation following the decrease of SO2 pollution during the last 10-15 years. The highest number of species registered in a single MTB quadrant (5.5 x 6 km) was 319, with 425 being recorded in a whole MTB area (11 x 12 km). These numbers surpass those of comparable regions in Germany and reach up to the records of the mountainous areas of the Black Forest. 142 species are new to the Odenwald. 55 species are new for Hesse, 39 for Baden-Württemberg, 32 for Bavaria, among them many lichenicolous fungi which are still not suffi ciently known. New to Germany are: Fellhanera ochracea, Lichenochora coarctatae, Lichenodiplis hawksworthii, Pronectria oligospora, P. ornamentata, Thelocarpon magnussonii, T. saxicola and Vezdaea stipitata. Aphanopsis coenosa, Arthonia mediella, A. molendoi, Sphinctrina tubiformis and Thelocarpon coccosporum, had all been missing from Germany for a number of years, but were found again. Further remark able species present are, e.g. Arthonia endlicheri, Arthothelium spectabile, Catinaria atropurpurea, Cyphelium lecideinum, C. sessile, Diplotomma lutosum, Gyalidea diaphana, Immersaria athroo carpa, Lecanora rhodi, Lobothallia praeradiosa, Micarea hedlundii and Thelenella pertusariella. 193 species are extinct or have been missing for a long time. For all present species the number of records (= number of quadrants where the species is present) is mentioned and the trend of the population (decreasing / increasing) as well as the degree of endangerment in the region is evaluated. Species with a subatlantic and temperate-central- european distribution are well represented, whereas the boreal-montane element, e.g. Umbilicaria deusta, U. polyphylla, Immersaria athroocarpa and Lecidea commaculans, is scarce as a consequence of the low altitude of the Odenwald. Conspicuously frequent are species with an atlantic-subatlantic or subatlantic-submediterranean distribution, e.g. Flavoparmelia caperata, Punctelia borreri, Bacidia neosquamulosa or Lecanora sinuosa, which spread to the east during the last few years as a result of the warming climate. In an extensive investigation the literature was analysed, and the accessible historical samples of lichens and lichenicolous fungi from the Odenwald were checked. Many samples from Otto Behr (preserved in Botanical Museum Berlin), who was collecting between 1947 and 1957 and published his results in 1954, were revised.
31004Nascimbene J. (2006): Flechten / Licheni epifiti (Lichenes). – In: Kranebitter P. & Hilpold A., GEO-Tag der Artenvielfalt 2006 am Fuß der Vajolettürme (Rosengarten, Gemeinde Tiers, Südtirol, Italien). - Gredleriana, 6: 418–420.
31003Komposch H., Emmerer B. & Taurer-Zeiner C. (2004): Flechten (Lichenes) - 92 Arten. – In: Wieser C., Komposch C., Krainer K. & Wagner J., 6. GEO-Tag der Artenvielfalt Griffner Schlossberg und Griffner See, Kärnten 11./12. Juni 2004. - Carinthia II, 194/114: 544–547.
Keywords: GEO-day, biodiversity, Griffner Schlossberg, Griffner See, Carinthia, Austria.
31002Taurer-Zeiner C. & Pichorner B. (2003): Flechten (Lichenes) - 55 Arten. – In: Krainer K. & Wieser C., GEO-Tag der Artenvielfalt Danielsberg/Mölltal, Kernten 13./14. Juni 2003. - Carinthia II, 193/113: 342–343.
Key Words: GEO-day, biodiversity, Danielsberg, Kärnten.
31001Komposch H. & Emmerer B. (2007): Flechten (Lichenes) – 116 Arten. – In: Krainer K., 9. GEO-Tag der Artenvielfalt Leonstain und Umgebung, Pörtschach am Wörthersee/Kärnten 8./9. Juni 2007. - Carinthia II, 197/117: 502–504.
In the 9th GEO-day of biodiversity, which took place on the 8th to 9th Juni in a part of protected landscape Leonstain and environs in the community of Pörtschach am Wörthersee (Carinthia), 93 scientists, amateur researchers and about 33 pupils from Pörtschach, Klagenfurt and Wolfsberg were involved. During the period of 24 hours 1343 species of 33 plant-, animal-, moss- and fungus-groups could be recorded.
31000Nascimbene J. (2007): Flechten / Licheni. – In: Kranebitter P. & Wilhalm T., GEO-Tag der Artenvielfalt 2007 am Fuß des Plattkofels (Seiser Alm, Gemeinde Kastelruth, Südtirol, Italien). - Gredleriana, 7: 421–424.
30999Nascimbene J. (2005): Flechten / Licheni (Lichenes). – In: Haller R., GEO-Tag der Artenvielfalt 2004 am Schlern (Südtirol). - Gredleriana, 5: 367–370.
30998Gros P., Bauch C., Foissner W., Heiss E., Hierschläger M., Lindner R., Lohmeyer T.R., Medicus C., Neuner W., Oertel A., Pfleger H.S., Pilsl P., Stöhr O., Taurer-Zeiner C., Türk R. & Wittmann H. (2012): Nationalpark Hohe Tauern, Seidlwinkltal (Rauris, Salzburg) – GEO Tag der Artenvielfalt [National Park Hohe Tauern (Rauris, Salzburg). – GEO-day of biodiversity]. - Abhandlungen Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Österreich, 38: 1–70.
The fourth “Hohe Tauern National Park Biodiversity Day” (“Nationalpark Hohe Tauern Tag der Artenvielfalt” – TAV 2010) took place between 28 and 30 May 2010 in the Seidlwinkl valley in Salzburg. On this occasion, 50 experts detected 1,288 different species of animals, plants and fungi. Up to that point, about 850 taxa were listed for this area in the National Park Biodiversity Databank in Salzburg’s museum “Haus der Natur”, above all flowering plants (National Park marshland mapping project, Wittmann et al. 2007), bumblebees (private databank Johann Neumayer), beetles (Geiser 2001), butterflies/moths (data of Salzburg’s Entomological Association and from the National Park butterflies mapping project: Huemer & Wieser 2008) and birds (various sources). During the TAV 2010, further organisms groups were recorded: Ciliates, mosses, algae, lichens, fungi, grasshoppers, bugs, diptera, amphibians, reptiles and mammals were identified and inserted in the National Park Biodiversity Databank. A total of more than 3,600 new data records were added. As compared to former TAVs, the alpine zone has been less well covered due to the early date. Despite the very promising results, many experts noticed conspicuous human-caused damage to the landscape, such as drainage or increasingly intensive agriculture, above all in the wetlands between Gollehen- and Palfneralm. This will negatively affect the local ecological balance and biodiversity: The national park administration should react to those deficits in the protection of this area. Keywords: Hohe Tauern National Park, GEO biodiversity day, Seidlwinkl valley, records, plants, animals, fungi.
30997Hofmann P. (2005): Flechten (Lichenes) – 208 Arten. – In: Pagitz K., Huemer P. & Jedinger A., GEO-Tag der Artenvielfalt 2005 in Tirol - Erhebungen im Naturpark Kaunergrat. - Berichte des naturwissenschaftlichen-medizinischen Verein Innsbruck, 92: 319–324.
30996Pfleger H.S., Kainhofer E. & Türk R. (2007): Flechten Lichens. – In: Pagitz K. (ed.), Geo-Tag der Artenvielfalt 2007 in Tirol – Ötztal. - Veröffentlichungen des Tiroler Landesmuseums Ferdinandeum, 87: 124–135.
Within the scope of the „GEO-Tag der Artenvielfalt" 2007 (7th to 10th of July 2007) in the North Tyrolean Ötz valley (Austria) 325 taxa of lichens have been found. With Chaenotheca phaeocephala there is also a new report of lichen for North Tyrol; other notable species are Heterodermia obscurata, which is very rare in Austria and Candelariella kuusamoensis, of which it is the second known site in North Tyrol.
30995Türk R. (2015): Flechten (Lichenes). – In: Pagitz K. & Huemer P., Geo-Tag der Artenvielfalt 2015 in Tirol – Valsertal. - Wissenschaftliches Jahrbuch der Tiroler Landesmuseen, 8: 147–153.
Within the scope of the „GEO-Tag der Artenvielfalt“ 2015 in the North Tyrolean Valsertal (Austria) 212 taxa of lichens have been found.
30994Brockmüller H. (1863): 4. Beiträge zur Kryptogamen-Flora Mecklenburgs. - Archiv des Vereins der Freunde der Naturgeschichte in Mecklenburg, 17: 162–256.
Germany; lichens at p. 207–233
30993Türk R., Pagitz C.L. & Pagitz K. (2016): Flechten. – In: Pagitz K. & Huemer P., Geo-Tag der Artenvielfalt 2016 in Tirol – Thiersee. - Wissenschaftliches Jahrbuch der Tiroler Landesmuseen, 9: 163–167.
Within the scope of the „GEO-Tag der Artenvielfalt“ 2016 in the North Tyrolean Thiersee (Austria) 116 taxa of lichens have been found.
30992Türk R., Pfleger H.S. & Goldberger C. (2009): Flechten im Alpenpark Karwendel – Hinterautal. – In: Pagitz K., Geo-Tag der Artenvielfalt 2008 in Tirol - Alpenpark Karwendel. - Wissenschaftliches Jahrbuch der Tiroler Landesmuseen, 2: 184–188.
Within the scope of the “GEO-Tag der Artenvielfalt” 2008 (13th of September) in the North Tyrolean “Alpenpark Karwendel” (Austria) 136 taxa of lichenshave been found. The lichen Physcia leptalea is recorded for the first time for the area of North Tyrol.
30991Türk R. & Pfleger H.S. (2010): Flechten im Naturpark Zillertal. – In: Pagitz K., Geo-Tag der Artenvielfalt 2009 in Tirol - Naturpark Zillertal. - Wissenschaftliches Jahrbuch der Tiroler Landesmuseen, 3: 404–410.
Within the scope of the „GEO-Tag der Artenvielfalt“ 2009 (16th to 19th of July) in the North Tyrolean „Naturpark Zillertal“ (Austria) 204 taxa of lichens have been found. The most remarkable finding is Micarea lithinella which is new for Tyrol.
30990Komposch H., Emmerer B. & Taurer-Zeiner C. (2005): Flechten (Lichenes) - 90 Arten. – In: Krainer K. & Wieser C., 7. GEO-Tag der Artenvielfalt Stift Viktring- Klagenfurt, Kärnten 10./11. Juni 2005. - Carinthia II, 195/115: 701–703.
30989Steiner J. (1907): Bearbeitung der in Südarabien, auf Sokótra und den benachbarten Inseln gesammelten Flechten. - Denkschriften der Akademie der Wissenschaften, Math.-Naturw. Kl., 71: 93–102.
30988Nascimbene J. (2006): Indagine lichenologica nelle aree di monitoraggio integrato IT01-Renon e IT02-Monticolo (Alto Adige) [Lichen survey in the Biomonitoring plots IT01-Renon and IT02-Monticolo in South Tyrol] . - Forest Observer, 2/3: 157–168.
Due to their ecological role lichens are considered as reliable indicators of biodiversity in forest ecosystems. Recently the biomonitoring of lichen diversity was included in the long-term monitoring program of forests EU/ICP. During 2006 a lichen survey was carried out in the plots IT01-Renon and IT02-Monticolo in South Tyrol. The aims of the work are to obtain a first lichen checklist of the two permanent plots and to evaluate epiphytic lichen diversity in the Monticolo plot. 125 species were found, 57 of which at Monticolo and 86 at Renon. They represent ca. 10 % of the lichen flora of Trentino-Alto Adige and ca. 20 % of the epiphytic lichen flora of South Tyrol. Within the plots some nationally rare species worthy of conservation were found.
30987Egeling G. (1881): Übersicht der bisher in der Umgebung von Cassel beobachteten Lichenen. - Abhandlungen und Bericht des Vereins für Naturkunde Kassel, 28: 77–112.
30986Breuss O. & Brand M. (2010): Flechtenfunde im Salzkammergut (Oberöster­reich/Salzburg, Österreich). Ergebnisbericht über die Feldtagung der Bryologisch-lichenologischen Arbeitsgruppe der KNNV am Wolfgangsee 2008. - Österreichische Zeitschrift für Pilzkunde, 19: 101–120.
As a result of the 2008 ficldmeeting of the Dutch Bryological and Lichenological Work group (Bryologische en Lichenologischc Wcrkgroep van de Koninklijke Nederlandse Natuurhistorische Vereniging) in Strobl, Salzburg, Austria, a list of 514 lichens and 22 lichenicolous fungi is presented. Anisameridium ranunculospomm, Eopvrenula grandicula, Gvalecta sbarbari, Involucropvrenium squamulosiim, and Vernwaria boblensis are additions to the known lichen flora of Austria. Additional records of Gvalecta sbarbari, previously only known from the type collection, are enclosed. Farnoldia jurana subsp. caemlea is a new combination.
30985Rücker T. & Wittmann H. (1995): Mykologisch-lichenologische Untersuchungen im Naturwaldreservat Kesselfall (Salzburg, Österreich) als Diskussionsbeitrag für Kryptogamenschutzkonzepte in Waldökosystemen. - Sydowia Beihefte, 10: 168–191.
Macromycete, lichen and vascular plant floras were investigated in the natural forest reserve “Kesselfall”, a small deciduous forest area in the inner part of the Kaprun valley (Salzburg, Austria). A total of 210 macrofungi, 153 lichens and 120 vascular plants were recorded. The percentage of “Red-List” species is high (15% for macrofungi and 19% for lichens). Less than 1% (two species) of the vascular plants observed are threatened. These results emphasize the importance of macrofungi and lichens as indicator organisms for forest ecosystems. Fayodia leucophylla, Lepiota tomentella, Peziza depressa, Pholiota mixta, Sowerbyella fagicola and Tremella mesenterica var. alba are new records for Austria, 35 fungal species are recorded for the first time in the “Land” of Salzburg. Legislative actions (nature conservation law) and management agreements (private contracts concluded between public administration and land owners) for the conservation of macrofungi in gerneral and for the investigated area in detail are discussed on the basis of the results from this study. The best way to protect fungi is to establish a network of natural forest reserves with different types of habtitats. In these conservation areas either no or extensive forest management is essential. These stragegies are the most effective way not only of reducing the threats to the flora of fungi and lichens, but also to many other organisms. Keywords: Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes, ecology, plant protection.
30984Bäumler J.A. (1893): Zur Pilzflora Niederösterreichs. - Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien, 43: 277–294.
Upper Austria; Xylographa and several lichen-allied fungi included
30983Fuckel L. (1877): Symbolae mycologicae: Beiträge zur Kenntniss Rheinischer Pilze. Dritter Nachtrag. - Jahrbücher des Nassauischen Vereins für Naturkunde, 29–30: 1–39.
30982Albertini J.B. & Schweinitz L.D. (1805): Conspectus fungorum in Lusatiae superioris agro Niskiensi crescentium e methodo Persooniana. - Lipsiae, subtimus Kummerianis, [i-xxiv +] 376 p. [+ Tabs. I-XII].
30981Friebes G. (2017): Mykologische Untersuchungen in Naturwaldresten bei Ferlach (Kärnten, Österreich). - Carinthia II, 207/127: 449–492.
Keywords: Basidiomycota, Ascomycota, Carinthia, Karawanks, Ferlacher Horn, virgin forest, diversity, ecology. Multiclavula mucida and lichen-allied fungi included (e.g. Cryptodiscus spp.).
30980Berger F. (2017): Weitere bemerkenswerte Flechtenfunde aus Oberösterreich, vorwiegend aus dem Kobernaußerwald. - Stapfia, 107: 147–151.
Ramonia chrysophaea, Staurothele geoica and Verrucaria invenusta are reported the first time in Austria. New records for Upper Austria are Caloplaca erodens, Lichenochora calcariae, Sclerococcum griseosporodochium, Verrucaria umbrinula and Zwackhiomyces calcariae. Remarkable records from outside the Alps are Biatorella hemisphaerica, Solorina spongiosa, Sporodictyon terrestre, Staurothele succedens and Verrucaria schindleri. The very rare Atla wheldonii has been located on a second site in Austria. Key words: Upper Austria, Austria, new lichen records, pyrenocarpous lichens.
30979Friebes G. (2011): Über sieben interessante, in der Steiermark nachgewiesene Schlauchpilze (Ascomycota). - Joannea Botanik, 9: 5–22.
The records of seven species of the Ascomycota are described and briefly discussed. Six species are new to Styria and five species are likely to be new to Austria. Orbilia pilifera spec. nov. is described as a species based on collections from Spain and France; this taxon is also new to Central Europe. Key words: Ascomycota, Mycoflora of Styria, Austria. Two ostropalean fungi, sometimes dealt by lichenologists, included: Cryptodiscus pini (Romell) Baloch, Gilenstam & Wedin and Karstenia idaei (Fuckel) Sherwood (collected on bark of Quercus, and of the 'Ramonia chrysophaea' outfit).
30978Marečková M., Barták M. & Hájek J. (2019): Temperature effects on photosynthetic performance of Antarctic lichen Dermatocarpon polyphyllizum: a chlorophyll fluorescence study. - Polar Biology, 42: 685–701.
Chlorophyll fluorescence is an important indicator of a photosynthetic energy conversion in chloroplast photosystem II and responds sensitively to stress factors affecting photosynthesizing organisms. Three different methods were employed to identify the most sensitive fluorescence parameters responding to thallus temperature decrease within Antarctic lichen Dermatocarpon polyphyllizum: (1) Fast chlorophyll fluorescence transient (OJIP with parameters characterizing photosystem II functioning) (2) Slow Kautsky kinetics supplemented by saturation pulses (to evaluate quantum yield of photosynthetic processes in photosystem II, as well as maximum quantum PSII efficiency and non-photochemical and photochemical quenching), and (3) Linear cooling from + 22 to − 40 °C (to determine change in ΦPSII and the critical temperature for PSII). A K-step (usually documented at highly stressed organisms) was found in OJIPs measured at + 22 °C at 0.22–0.40 ms and attributed to the negative effect of high temperature on PSII functioning, PSII donor side limitation in particular. At subzero temperature (− 0.5, − 5 °C), an L-step was detected at 0.05 ms and related to a low temperature-induced decrease in connectivity between light-harvesting complexes and PSII. An increase of DI0/RC (the flux of dissipated excitation energy) was reported for the first time in lichens. The OJIP-derived parameters, DI0/RC and Phi_D0 (quantum yield of energy dissipation) in particular, indicated that they might be used for the detection of early events in low temperature-affected lichens. Linear cooling data determined the critical temperature (− 12 °C) for primary photosynthetic processes (ΦPSII) in Dermatocarpon. Keywords: Diplosphaera sp. OJIP K-step Kautsky kinetic Linear cooling Photosystem II.
30977Watmough S.A., Bird A., McDonough A. & Grimm E. (2019): Forest fertilization associated with oil sands emissions. - Ecosystems, 22: 1–14.
The Athabasca Oil Sands in Alberta, Canada, is one of the largest point sources emitters of NOx and SO2 in Canada, and there have been widespread concerns over potential ecosystem acidification owing to the acid sensitivity of the base-poor sandy soils in the region. In this study we compared soil and vegetation properties at a jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb) forest adjacent to one of the largest mines in the region with a jack pine stand located approximately 15 km from the mine. At the site closest to the mine, throughfall deposition of SO4-S and DIN(NO3 + NH4) exceeds 30 and 20 kg ha-1 y-1, respectively, compared with less than 9 kg ha-1 y-1 for SO4-S and less than 2 kg ha-1 y-1 DIN at the distant site. However, on an equivalence basis, base cation (Ca + Mg + Na) deposition in throughfall at both sites exceeded the combined S and N deposition. Total S and N as well as Ca and Mg concentrations in epiphytic lichens and tree bark were significantly higher at the site adjacent to the mine, reflecting the higher acidic and base cation throughfall deposition. The forest floor at the stand close to the mine had a significantly higher pH, exchangeable Ca, Mg, K and total S concentrations compared with the distant site. The chemistry of deeper mineral soil horizons was more consistent between the two sites. Foliar concentrations of S, Ca, Mg, Fe and Al in jack pine, Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Vacciniummyrtilloides and Arctostaphylos uva-ursi were also higher at the site close to the mine, but these differences were not always significant. Coincidental with differences in atmospheric deposition, herbaceous cover and biomass, especially A. uva-ursi, was significantlyhigher, and terricolous lichencoverwas several fold lower at the site closest to the mine. This work indicates that despite high S and N emissions fromoil sands activities, forest fertilization and alkalization may be of greater concern than acidification owing to large dust emissions from the mines and the Acid Deposition Management Framework for the region should be modified accordingly. Key words: oil sands; forests; acidification; eutrophication; alkalization; lichens.
30976Heindel R.C., Governali F.C., Spickard A.M. & Virginia R.A. (2019): The role of biological soil crusts in nitrogen cycling and soil stabilization in Kangerlussuaq, west Greenland. - Ecosystems, 22: 243–256.
Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) naturally coexist with vascular plants in many dryland ecosystems. Although most studies of dryland biocrusts have been conducted in warm deserts, dryland biocrusts also exist in the Arctic, where they may be an important source of nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) to nutrient-limited environments. In Kangerlussuaq, Greenland, wind-driven soil erosion has created a heterogeneous landscape where biocrusts dominate distinct patches of soil but are absent from the surrounding shrub and graminoid tundra. Prior to this study, little was known about the physical development and nutrient cycling of west Greenland biocrusts and their role in maintaining landscape heterogeneity. We characterized the physical properties, lichen assemblages, and nutrient concentrations of biocrusts and underlying soils along gradients in biocrust development and age. We found that biocrusts took 180 ± 40 years to fully develop and that biocrusts became thicker and soil penetration resistance increased as they developed. The N-fixing lichen Stereocaulon sp. was found throughout the study region at all stages of biocrust development. Natural 15N abundance suggests that Stereocaulon sp. obtains about half of its N from biological fixation and that some biologically fixed N is incorporated into the underlying soils over time. Although the N and C concentrations of underlying soils increased slightly with biocrust development, nutrient concentrations under the most developed biocrusts remained low compared to the surrounding vegetated tundra. Our results suggest that biocrusts are a persistent feature and play an important role in maintaining the high spatial heterogeneity of the Kangerlussuaq terrestrial landscape. Key words: Aeolian processes; Arctic; biological soil crust; Greenland; nitrogen fixation; nutrient cycling; drylands.
30975Teltewskoi A., Michaelis D., Schirrmeister L., Joosten H., Schiefelbein U. & Manthey M. (2019): A robust vegetation-based elevation transfer method for reconstructing Arctic polygon mire palaeo-microtopography. - Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 522: 12–27.
The reconstruction of past environments by means of macrofossil and pollen analysis is commonly based on the modern ecological preferences of the taxa that may have produced these fossils. Here we present a modelling approach, in which we use modern vegetation–surface height relationships to quantify past surface heights in an Arctic ice-wedge polygon mire. Vegetation composition and ground surface height (GSH) were assessed in a polygon mire near Kytalyk (Northeastern Siberia). Cluster analysis revealed five plant communities, which are clearly separated with respect to ground surface height, frost surface height and coverages of open water and vegetation. Based on the composition of modern vegetation we constructed two sets of potential fossil types (plant macrofossils and pollen), an extensive one and a more restricted one to reflect different conditions of preservation and recognisability. We applied Canonical Correspondence Analysis to model the relationships between potential fossil types and measured GSH. Both models show a strong relationship between modelled and measured GSH values and a high accuracy in prediction. Finally, we used the models to predict GSH values for Holocene peat samples and found a fair correspondence with expert-based multi-proxy reconstruction of wetness conditions, even though only a minor part of the encountered fossils were represented in the GSH models, illustrating the robustness of the approach. Our approach can be used to reconstruct palaeoenvironmental conditions in a more objective way and can serve as a template for further palaeoecological studies.
30974El-Garawani I.M., Elkhateeb W.A., Zaghlol G.M., Almeer R.S., Ahmed E.F., Rateb M.E. & Abdel Moneim A.E. (2019): Candelariella vitellina extract triggers in vitro and in vivo cell death through induction of apoptosis: A novel anticancer agent. - Food and Chemical Toxicology, 127: 110–119.
Candelariella vitellina is common green-yellow lichen found on barks, wood, and rocks in Japanese forests. To investigate the mechanism of its anticancer potential, C. vitellina (80% MeOH/H2O) extract was prepared. High-performance liquid chromatography–high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis revealed seven new compounds and 11 natural compounds of terpenes and polyketides. In vitro cytotoxicity analysis of Caco-2 cells exhibited an IC50 of 125 ± 4.1 μg/mL. No significant cytotoxicity was observed in vitro in normal human peripheral lymphocytes. Both the IC25 and IC50 were determined to explore the potent anticancer potential in this study. C. vitellina exhibited a mitochondrial P53-independent apoptotic effect with negative P53 expression and an elevated BAX/BCL2 ratio as well as upregulated CASP3 mRNA expression. Similarly, in vivo analysis showed the same pattern of anticancer potential but was dependent on the P53 expression. Furthermore, C. vitellina induced antioxidative conditions in vitro and in vivo. The decreased invasion of tumor cells in vivo and increased apoptotic features in vitro and in vivo suggest the moderate to strong apoptotic anticancer potential of C. vitellina. However, further studies are needed to determine the extent and mechanism of action on different cell lines to support the anticancer properties of this lichen. Keywords: Candelariella vitellina; Anticancer; Apoptosis; Terpenes; Polyketides.
30973Roncero-Ramos B., Muñoz-Martín M., Chamizo S., Fernández-Valbuena L., Mendoza D., Perona E., Cantón Y. & Mateo P. (2019): Polyphasic evaluation of key cyanobacteria in biocrusts from the most arid region in Europe. - PeerJ, 7:e6169 [27 p.].
Cyanobacteria are key microbes in topsoil communities that have important roles in preventing soil erosion, carbon and nitrogen fixation, and influencing soil hydrology. However, little is known regarding the identity and distribution of the microbial components in the photosynthetic assemblages that form a cohesive biological soil crust (biocrust) in drylands of Europe. In this study, we investigated the cyanobacterial species colonizing biocrusts in three representative dryland ecosystems from the most arid region in Europe (SE Spain) that are characterized by different soil conditions. Isolated cyanobacterial cultures were identified by a polyphasic approach, including 16S rRNA gene sequencing, phylogenetic relationship determination, and morphological and ecological habitat assessments. Three well-differentiated groups were identified: heterocystous-cyanobacteria (Nostoc commune, Nostoc calcicola, Tolypothrix distorta and Scytonema hyalinum), which play an important role in N and C cycling in soil; nonheterocystous bundle-forming cyanobacteria (Microcoleus steenstrupii, Trichocoleus desertorum, and Schizothrix cf. calcicola); and narrow filamentous cyanobacteria (Leptolyngbya frigida and Oculatella kazantipica), all of which are essential genera for initial biocrust formation. The results of this study contribute to our understanding of cyanobacterial species composition in biocrusts from important and understudied European habitats, such as the Mediterranean Basin, a hotspot of biodiversity, where these species are keystone pioneer organisms. Keywords: Biological soil crust, Biocrusts, Soil cyanobacteria, Phylogenetic relationships, 16S rRNA gene.
30972Malhotra S.S. & Khan A.A. (1983): Sensitivity to SO2 of various metabolic processes in an epiphytic lichen, Evernia mesomorpha. - Biochemie und Physiologie der Pflanzen, 178: 121–130.
In the epiphytic lichen Evernia mesomorpha NYL., metabolic proeesses such as photosynthetic CO2-fixation and protein and lipid biosyntheses were found to be very sensitive to SO2. Exposure of lichens to 0.1 ppm of gaseous SO2 for increasing durations produced a progressive reduction in these processes. Protein biosynthesis appeared to be the process most sensitive to SO2. Fumigation of lichen tissues at 0.34 ppm of SO2 for increasing durations caused an increased phytotoxic effect on all three metabolic processes. Such fumigations also inhibited acid phosphatase activity and caused an increase in the sulphur content of the tissues. During an SO2-free period after the fumigations, these metabolic processes recovered partially or completely in liehens exposed to 0.1 ppm SO2 but showed little or no recovery in lichens exposed to 0.34 ppm SO2.
30971Stienen H. (1982): Zuckeranteile in den Zellwänden von vier Kryptogamen [Sugar proof in the cell walls of four cryptogams]. - Biochemie und Physiologie der Pflanzen, 177: 629–631.
The sugar contents of the cell walls of 4 nonflowering plants were determined by means of High Performance Liquid Chromatography after hydrolysis treatment with diluted sulphuric acid. The result differs slightly from results obtained by other workers and show high glucose contents in the 2 mosses, Sphagnum fallax and Pogonatum aloides. Glucoronic-acid and fructose have not been found, while the alga Enteromorpha intestinalis and the lichen Parmelia acetabulum show high hemicellulose contents.
30970Loppi S., Malfatti A., Sani M. & Whitehead N. (1997): Lichens as biomonitors of geothermal radionuclide pollution. - Geothermics, 26: 535–540.
The epiphytic lichen Parmelia caperata was used systematically as a bioaccumulator of radionuclides in the Travale-Radicondoli geothermal field (central Italy). The results showed that radioactivity in this area is not different from that of other non-geothermal areas and that the exploitation of geothermal resources should not cause an enrichment in radioactivity. However, the survey also revealed a negative association between total β radioactivity in lichens and the distance from geothermal power plants, so that the latter may represent a source of local radionuclide pollution.
30969Loppi S. & Nascimbene J. (1998): Lichen bioindication of air quality in the Mt. Amiata geothermal area (Tuscany, Italy). - Geothermics, 27: 295–304.
The results of a lichen bioindication survey of air quality performed in the Mt. Amiata geothermal area (Tuscany, central Italy) are reported. On the basis of 153 Index of Atmospheric Purity (IAP) samplings, an air quality zonal map of the area was drawn. The lowest IAP values were recorded in an area encompassing the geothermal power plants, up to a distance of about 500 m. The overall pattern of rising IAP values with increasing distance from the geothermal power plants suggested that air pollution from the geothermal installations is the main cause of the observed zonation of lichen communities. It is suggested that hydrogen sulphide is the main contaminant responsible for lichen decline around geothermal power plants.
30968Huneck S. & Follmann G. (1970): Mitteilungen über Flechteninhaltsstoffe LXXV: Zur Phytochemie und Chemotaxonomie der Buelliaceae [Notes on Lichen Substances LXXV: On the Phytochemistry and Chemotaxonomy of the Buelliaceae]. - Biochemie und Physiologie der Pflanzen, 161: 191–214.
1. The secondary metabolic products of 73 representatives of the crustose lichen family Buelliaceae (Lecanorales Ascolichenes) have been analyzed microchemically or by thin layer chromatography. 2. The most characteristic constituents are the depside atranorin and the depsidone norstictic acid. 3. The depside lecanoric acid, the depsidone physodalic acid, and the pulvinic acid derivative pulvinic acid lactone were found in this family for the first time. 4. The spectrum of buelliacean substances indicates close relationships to the Physciaceae. 5. Chemosystematically, the sections Diploicia (Buellia) and Placothallia (Rinodina) show the highest developmental level within the family.
30967Adamo P., Vingiani S. & Violante P. (2002): Lichen-rock interactions and bioformation of minerals. - Developments in Soil Science, 28: 377–391.
This chapter discusses the principal effects of lichen growth on mineral substrata and focuses on rock surface disintegration, on mineral etching patterns and decomposition features, and on the formation of biogenic minerals. The chapter discusses the principal effects of lichen growth on mineral substrata with reference to rock surface disintegration, mineral etching patterns, and formation of oxalates, iron oxides, and hydroxides, aluminosilicates, and lichen acid–metal complexes. The release of organic molecules, such as oxalic acid and polyphenolic secondary products of lichen metabolism usually indicated as “lichen acids,” have been proven to play a key role in lichen weathering and neogenesis of poorly and well crystalline biominerals. Both physical and chemical properties of the rock substrate and morphology of the thallus may strongly differentiate extent and assemblage of the lichen–substrate contact zone. Differences in the bio-weathering capability seem to be more related to the physiology of the lichen species involved. Recent progress in the study of the interactions between lichens and their rock substrata mainly relies on the utilization of specialized analytical and instrumental techniques and on the close collaboration among scientists from different research fields.
30966Huneck S. (1974): Sekundärstoffe einiger Stereocaulon-Arten. - Phytochemistry, 13: 2313–2314.
Key Words: Stereocaulon spp.; Stereocaulaceae; lichens; lichen substances.
30965Tarvainen O., Markkola A.M. & Strömmer R. (2003): Diversity of macrofungi and plants in Scots pine forests along an urban pollution gradient. - Basic and Applied Ecology, 4: 547–556.
Fungal and plant community structures were studied in mature Scots pine stands along an urban pollution gradient with four zones of pollution intensity around the city of Oulu, northern Finland. For fungi sporocarp inventories and characterization of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) morphotypes were used and for plants coverage analyses were made. Significant differences were found in community structure of macrofungi and plants along the gradient. The number of ECM species and their sporocarp production, especially those of Cortinarius spp., diminished towards the emission sources, whereas the fruiting of saprotrophic fungi increased close to the emission sources. Eight fruiting macrofungal species reflected the differences between the pollution zones. The species decreasing towards the emission sources were almost all ectomycorrhizal (Chroogomphus rutilus, Cortinarius anomalus, C. brunneus, C. gentilis, C. semisanguineus, Suillus variegatus), with only one species, Cantharellula umbonata considered as saprotrophic. In contrast, ectomycorrhizal Paxillus involutus proved to be pollution-tolerant. The diversity of ECM species was lowest at the most polluted zone while the diversity of plant species increased towards the emission sources. The diversity among ECM morphotypes and saprotrophic species did not differ between the zones. Close to the emission sources slowly growing plant species were displaced by species typical for more nutrient-rich forests, herbs and grasses being more abundant while the number of bryophyte species diminished and lichens were absent. The observed differences in fungal and plant communities are suggested to be results of long-term nitrogen-mediated changes and they support the hypothesis that nitrogen inputs lead to loss of fruiting ECM species.
30964Stordeur R. (1989): V. Wirth, Die Flechten Baden-Württembergs. Verbreitungsatlas, 1, Verlag Eugen Ulmer, Auflage. - Stuttgart (1987), p. 528S, 408 Abb. (Farbfotos), 860 Verbreitungskarten. Leinen mit Schutzumschlag, DM 78,-. - Flora, 182: 126.
book review
30963Hesbacher S., Fröberg L., Baur A., Baur B. & Proksch P. (1996): Chemical variation within and between individuals of the lichenized ascomycete Tephromela atra. - Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 24: 603–609.
HPLC-analysis was used to determine the concentrations of the lichen compounds alectoronic acid (depsidon), α-collatolic acid (depsidon) and atranorin (depsid) in the lichenized ascomycete Tephromela atra (syn. Lecanon atra) (Hudson) Hafeliner from limestone walls on the Baltic island of Öland, Sweden. In 24 individuals of T. atra sampled on a stone wall, the pre-reproductive and reproductive tissue did not differ in the concentrations of alectoronic acid, collatolic acid and atranorin. The concentrations of the three lichen compounds were inter-correlated in the reproductive tissue, but not in the pre-reproductive tissue. Single individuals of T. atra ranged in area covered from 10.1 to 147.4 cm2 (mean: 38.5 cm2; N=24); 38.6% of this area was pre-reproductive tissue. However, the concentrations of the three lichen compounds were correlated neither with the total area covered by the lichen nor with the percentage of pre-reproductive tissue. This suggests that the concentrations of the lichen compounds do not change with increasing size (age) of the lichen. Analysis of specimens of T. atra from eight localities revealed a significant variation in lichen compounds (range between localities: alectoronic acid 0.60–3.26 μg/mg lichen dry weight (DW); collatolic acid 2.14–11.59 μg/mg lichen DW; atranorin 0.58–4.16 μg/mg lichen DW). The level of grazing observed in the lichens differed significantly among localities. However, no correlations between the concentrations of the three lichen compounds and the grazing damage to the lichens were found.
30962Stordeur R. (1993): Flechten von Nord- und Mitteleuropa – Ein Bestimmungsbuch., R. Moberg, I. Holmåsen, Ute Jülich (Ed.), G. Fischer, Stuttgart; Jena; New York (1992), p. 237, Übersetzt von, 350 Abb. (überwiegend Farbfotos), 300 Verbreitungskarten. Glanzkarton, DM 78,-. ISBN 3-437-20471-8. - Flora, 188: 237–238.
book review
30961Stordeur R. (1997): Die Flechten Baden-Württembergs, Teil 1 und 2, 2. Auflage, V. Wirth, Verlag Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart (1995), 1006 S., 555 Farbfotos, 55 Schwarzweißfotos und Zeichnungen, 996 Verbreitungskarten. Leinen mit Schutzumschlag, DM 148, ISBN: 3-8001-3325-3. - Flora, 192: 29–30.
book review
30960Huneck S. & Schreiber K. (1974): Die sekundärstoffe von einigen europäischen und indischen Flechten. - Phytochemistry, 13: 2315–2316.
Key Words: Lichens; lichen substances.
30959Huneck S. (1974): Sekundärstoffe einiger amerikanischer Flechten. - Phytochemistry, 13: 2872–2873.
Key Words: Lichens, Iichen substances, usnic acid, barbatic acid, lecomic acid, terpenoids.
30958Friedl T. (1993): New aspects of the reproduction by autospores in the lichen alga Trebouxia (Microthamniales, Chlorophyta). - Archiv für Protistenkunde, 143: 153–161.
Two different “zoospore to zoospore” cycles — named cell cycle A and cell cycle B - have been found in Trebouxia by starting cultures of different species from zoospores and following the further developmental stages under identical culture conditions. In cell cycle A the first cell divisions after zoospore settlement result in an autosporangium with few (4–32) adhering autospores (tetrads or autospore packages) and then zoosporangia and autosporangia with numerous (>32) small autospores are formed, adhering together with other cells into an autospore package. In cell cycle B, however, the zoospores first develop into almost completely differentiated vegetative cells which are transformed directly into zoosporangia or autosporangia with numerous small autospores. Autospore packages are not formed in cell cycle B. It is concluded that these differences in the reproduction by autospores are important characters for the identification of Trebouxia species, but that they do not justify separation of the genus into two genera or subgenera. Keywords: Autosporulation; Cell cycle; Lichens; Trebouxia.
30957Feige G.B. (1969): Stoffwechselphysiologische Untersuchungen an der tropischen Basidiolichene Cora pavonia (Sw.) Fr.. - Flora oder Allgemeine botanische Zeitung, 160: 169–180.
30956Poelt J. & Vězda A. (1969): Über Bau und systematische Stellung der Flechtengattung Solorinella. - Flora oder Allgemeine botanische Zeitung, 158: 223–231.
The soil-lichen Solorinella asteriscus differs very much from the Peltigeraceae, with them it has been ranked till now, among other things because of the morphology of apothecia, asci and paraphyses. On the contrary it corresponds extensively with some representatives of the Gyalectaceae sensu ZAHLBR., particularly with the genus Gyalidea, in the neighbourhood of which it should be placed in future. The so-called thallus of Solorinella, formed as star-shaped lobes, is an exciple modified and stretched by the influence of algae. The strata of algae and the exciple are built up by the same complexus of hyphae. Solorinella forms another, in details diverging but nevertheless comparable example for the assumption, that the corticate so-called thallus of the foliose lichens corresponds to a very modified exciple.
30955Kappen L., Meyer M. & Bölter M. (1990): Ecological and physiological investigations in continental Antarctic cryptogams: I. Vegetation pattern and its relation to snow cover on a hill near Casey Station, Wilkes Land. - Flora, 184: 209–220.
The vegetation of the summit region of a small ice:free hill in the inner part of the east-Antarctic Bailey Peninsula, Windmill Islands, was recorded by 105 relevés along various transects. It was analysed by the Braun-Blanquet phytosociological method, by a divisive polythetic procedure and tested by an ordination analysis. An epipetric Usnea sphacelata- and a Rinodina olivaceobrunnea-moss turf community were described as distinct communities and additionally a transient community. The vegetation is highly dependent on the extension and duration of a shallow snow cover, because snow is the main water source for the poikilohydrous cryptogams. This was shown by recording regularly the changes of snow cover in 5 quadrats of the summit region. The photophilous, wind- exposed vegetation of this hill resembles ecologically that of high arctic and alpine regions. The dominance of Neuropogon species is characteristic of the Antarctic and also the Andine region, in equivalent arctic-alpine communities Umbilicaria species are the most prominent element. The epibryic and epigeic Rinodina olivaceobrunnea-moss turf community has no identical counterpart in the arctic and alpine region.
30954Garty J. & Galun M. (1974): Selectivity in lichen-substrate relationships. - Flora, 163: 530–534.
The moisture retention capacity of eigth different types of saxicolous lichen substrates from the Negev Desert, was measured. It was shown that there is a correlation between the establishment of the lichens Ramalina maciformis, Buellia canescens, B. sorediosa and Caloplaca ehrenbergii, and the moisture retention capacity values of the substrates. The importance of the physical properties of the substrate as factor in the lichen-substrate association are discussed.
30953Veste M., Littmann T., Friedrich H. & Breckle S.-W. (2001): Microclimatic boundary conditions for activity of soil lichen crusts in sand dunes of the north-western Negev desert, Israel. - Flora, 196: 465–474.
Photosynthetic activity of soil crust lichens was thoroughly investigated. Its interrelations with microclimatic boundary conditions was measured during two field experiments in the central part of the sand dune field in the north-western Negev Desert. After nocturnal rainfall the lichens were active well until noon when they dried out finally. However, over most of the year dewfall seems to be the primary controlling factor for activation as in other lichen communities. The microclimatic conditions for activity were determined in detail. It was found that after sunset terrestrial radiation leads to a progressive development of a stable air layer above ground accompanied by decreasing temperatures and wind speed. Well before midnight dewpoint temperature differences drop below 1.0 K and leaf wetness sensors indicate the formation of dew. It is exactly in this situation when lichen activity starts. Maximum activity, however, is reached a few hours later when cumulative dewfall exceeds 0.1 mm at dewpoint temperature differences around 0 K. In nights with advective labilization and subsequent dewfall evaporation, no lichen activity was observed. Even a heavy foggy night did not lead to any activity at the soil surface.
30952Von Hurka H. & Winkler S. (1973): Statistische Analyse der rindenbewohnenden Flechtenvegetation einer Allee Tübingens. - Flora, 162: 61–80.
1. The bark-inhabiting lichen vegetation of maple trees (Acer platanoides) in the Steinlachallee (tree-lined road) in Tübingen comprises 14 species (table 1). 2. Some species occur more frequently together than random deviation suggests (significance level 5 %). They thus form communities whose composition alters with changing exposure. No same community is found at the different exposure zones (table 2 and fig. 3). 3. In certain cases the presence or abscence of lichen species along the Steinlachallee in centrifugal direction shows significant gradients (table 3). 4. Degree of lichen cover generally changes with exposure and distance from the city centre (table 4, fig. 4). 5. However, individual species are influenced differently by the two variables (fig. 10 and 11). Consequently, the significance of a particular species changes, as far as the cover of a given tree is concerned (fig. 6—9). 6. The ecological optimum of some species changes with exposure and their position in the transect, while other species keep their ecological optima constant independent of exposure and/or position in the transect (table 6, fig. 10, 11). 7. From this, conclusions can be drawn about the physiological optima and the competitive force of the participating species. In general, crustose lichens seem to displace foliose lichens from their physiological optima. 8. The apparent influence on the lichen vegetation is to a greater extent attributed to the city climate than to air pollution.
30951Lange O.L., Beyschlag W., Meyer A. & Tenhunen J.D. (1984): Determination of photosynthetic capacity of lichens in the field - a method for measurement of light response curves at saturating CO2 concentration. - Flora, 175: 283–293.
Reproducible determination of the photosynthetic capacity of lichens is desirable in order to identify patterns of natural change in lichen metabolic activity and in order to effectively use lichens as bioindicators to monitor influences of air pollution. However, lichen photosynthetic CO2 exchange is highly dependent on the actual thallus water content, and experimental control of the state of hydration is difficult. At superoptimal water content and under natural ambient CO2 conditions, net photosynthetic rates are low due to large CO2 diffusion resistance in the thallus. However, high levels of external CO2 can establish saturating CO2 partial pressure at the sites of carboxylation. Thus at high CO2, one obtains a constant and reproducible photosynthetic response with lichens over a large range in high thallus water content. A newly developed, portable minicuvette system is described which allows quick and reliable determination of photosynthetic capacity of lichens in the field. Small, fully water saturated thallus samples (0.15 to 0.3 g dry mass) are included in a climatized chamber with attached light source. Carbon dioxide exchange is measured by means of an infrared gas analyzer at saturating external CO2 concentration (2,500 ppm) and under defined light and temperature conditions. Light response curves at constant temperature are demonstrated for several epiphytic lichen species. Several types of information, such as the maximal photosynthetic rate, quantum utilization efficiency, and light compensation point can be obtained from these measurements. We suggest that such parameters can be used to assess changes in lichen photosynthetic activity, for instance with respect to impact of pollutants. When combined with measurements of actual net photosynthesis rates obtained in time courses, the described methods will also help us to better understand on a physiological basis the behavior of lichens in their natural habitat.
30950Kauppi M. (1976): Fruticose lichen transplant technique for air pollution experiments. - Flora, 165: 407–414.
Cladonia stellaris (Opiz) Pouz. & Vězda lichens were transplanted into small plastic containers and placed in the area surrounding a chemical factory and in built-up areas in Oulu, Northern Finland. The changes occasioned in the lichens by the effects of air pollution were determined under the microscope, by photography, by measuring their net assimilation rate (URAS-2), chlorophyll content, pH and electrical conductivity, and by various chemical analyses. The results obtained from two autumn series of experiments are presented here. The lichens reacted fairly sharply to pollutants in the air, in a manner reflecting the qualitative differences between the town environment and the fertilizer factory as sources of pollution. The technique described here is compared with transplants of corticolous lichens. It seems that fruticose lichens may be successfully used as pollution indicators provided that the exposure period is short, only a few months.
30949Von Schulze E.D. & Lange O.L. (1968): CO2 -Gaswechsel der Flechte Hypogymnia physodes bei tiefen Temperaturen im Freiland [Measurements of the CO2-gas-exchange of the lichen Hypogymnia physodes at low temperatures in the field]. - Flora oder Allgemeine Botanische Zeitung, 158: 180–184.
During late winter 1968 (March) the CO2-gas-exchange of the lichen Hypogymnia physodes was measured in its natural habitat under natural conditions as well as under controlled temperature conditions. Though temperature did not increase above 4°C, temporary it was only 0 °C, and light intensity was just low because of snow showers, the net photosynthesis of the lichen was positive all day long. Daily CO2-uptake was 22 mg • dm−2 (referred to thallus surface). Maximum rate of CO2-net-photosynthesis was 3.8 mg CO2 • dm−2 • h−1 • Even at - 6°C, 0.44 mg CO2 • dm−2• h−1 were assimilated. The results confirm the results found in the laboratory about the photosynthetic activity of lichens at low temperatures. Comparing the rate of photosynthesis of Hypogymnia at temperatures near and below freezing with the photosynthetic activity of higher plants it shows up that these rates might be ecologically rather important for the annual CO2-balance.
30948Sembdner G. (1958): Standortseinflüsse auf die morphologische und anatomische Ausgestaltung bei einigen Cladonia-Arten. - Flora oder Allgemeine Botanische Zeitung, 145: 589–610.
30947Schuster G. (1993): Development of adventive thalli in Umbilacaria Hoffm.. - Flora, 187: 201–207.
Species of Umbilicaria developed adventive lobes from the surface of rhizomorphs after the trapping of algae. Secondary lobes were formed mainly in older thalli and were thought to be important for propagation. Regeneration from the base of the umbilicus probably accounted important for the recolonization of the original site and for maintenance of the population.
30946Kappen L., Lange O.L., Schulze E.-D., Evenari M. & Buschbom U. (1979): Ecophysiological investigations on lichens of the Negev desert: VI. Annual course of the photosynthetic production of Ramalina maciformis (Del.) Bory. - Flora, 168: 85–108.
Diurnal courses oflight, temperatures, water content, and CO2 exchange of the thalli of Ramalina maciformis were measured in its natural habitat in the Negev desert from March to September 1971. The measurements of water content of the lichen thalli by means of a Hiltner dew balance were extended over a period of about two years. Water content was the most prominent factor controlling the CO2-gas exchange of the lichen. The different types of water uptake by rain-, dew-, or water-vapour moistening and the corresponding daily courses of net photosynthesis are presented. The experimental data, formed the basis of a correlation model for net photosynthesis of R. maciformis by means of which the daily photosynthetic production due to dew and water-vapour uptake was calculated for a, whole year according to the registrations of the thallus water contents, temperatures of a neighbouring weather station, and photoperiod. The net photosynthesis due to rain-water imbibition and the respiration during the night were separately calculated. The photosynthetic CO2 gain which was yielded by dew on c. 200 days was as high as that calculated for the 29 rain days of the extremely rainy annual period of 1971/72. In years with precipitation near the long term average, as was the subsequent period 1972/73, rain induced production of R. maciformis was only 2/3 of that yielded by dewfall and may be only a small fraction in dry years, whereas dewfall maintains almost always its regular occurrence. Rainfall in the Negev, although being very effective for high photosynthetic productivity, is too scarce to provide life of R. maciformis. The existence of many lichens in the Negev is only possible because of the high frequency and regularity of dew falls. It is discussed whether the calculated amount of the annual photosynthetic gain is representative for the natural production and growth.
30945Nash T.H. III., Moser T.J., Bertke C.C., Link S.O., Sigal L.L., White S.L. & Fox C.A. (1982): Photosynthetic patterns of Sonoran Desert lichens I. Environmental considerations and preliminary field measurements. - Flora, 172: 335–345.
In comparison to the Negev Desert environment, where extensive desert lichen photosynthetic and productivity studies have been conducted, the environment of the interior Sonoran Desert at Phoenix, Arizona, is shown to be much less favorable for lichen photosynthetic activity. Lack of dewfall events is inferred to be the major difference, as the estimated dewfall frequency of 12 d per year is only 6 % of the number of days when dewfall occurs at Avdat, Israel. Favorable moisture periods for lichen photosynthesis are shown to be largely restricted to the winter period when temperatures are cool. The occurrence of dewfall and periods with low vapor pressure deficits is generally coupled with the occurrence of winter rainfall periods. Fog, a factor responsible for luxuriant lichen communities in some maritime, arid environments, is shown to be almost non-existent at Phoenix. Preliminary photosynthetic measurements over 28 d confirmed that days with photosynthetic activity are tightly coupled with precipitation events. Moisture conditions favorable for photosynthetic activity may persist for a day or two after precipitation events. Because of the marked differences in moisture conditions and in lichen biomass estimates between the Negev and the interior Sonoran Desert, it is inferred that lichen productivity must be much lower at the Sonoran Desert site.
30944Kappen L. & Lange O.L. (1972): Die Kälteresistenz einiger Makrolichenen [The cold resistance of some macrolichens]. - Flora, 161: 1–29.
Cold resistance of several lichen species from different geographical provenances was determined. For indication of their vitality the CO2-gas exchange of the thalli was analysed in an infrared gas analyser (URAS, Hartmann & Braun) before and repeatedly, within 2 to 5 weeks, after the cold treatment. The thalli were cooled down to − 10°C, − 20°C, − 30°C, − 50°C and to the temperatures of solid CO2 (− 78°C) and liquid N (− 196°C) with a slow gradient (stepwise) and rapidly (direct) and vice versa rewarmed to + 10°C, the temperature of their pre- and postculture. It was attempted to distinguish between the phycobiont’s and the mycobiont’s responses to the cold treatment. As could be concluded from the data most of the CO2-output was due to the mycobiont. In light this CO2-output was decreased down to 48% in isolated mycobionts of Cladonia rangiferina and to 69% in the medulla of Lobaria pulmonaria. In order to calculate a reasonable value for gross photosynthesis of the phycobiont, the amount of CO2-output in light was supposed to be generally 50% of the dark respiration. By this calculation of gross photosynthesis one can prevent the appearence of a non-existing recovery of the thalli. As to their respiration response, the 8 tested lichens, exept Umbilicaria vellea, tolerated a stepwise cold treatment to − 196°C and a rapid one to − 78°C. As indicated by the photosynthesis even 5 lichens tolerated a stepwise cold treatment to − 196°C (cf. table 3). This more sensitive reaction of the phycobiont determines the strength of the symbiosis. The cold sensitivity of Roccella fucoides seems to determine its geographical distribution and habitats. Umbilicaria vellea was tender in summer and highly resistant in winter, which could be related to its habitats. A great number of lichens from Central Europe, the Mediterranean, New Zealand, and the Negev Desert, Israel tolerated cold treatments which can never be expected in these areas. The kind of cold injury in highly resistant species was tested by varying the conditions of cooling and rewarming. It could be concluded that rapid cooling induced vitrification of water in the cells. If the samples were rewarmed fast enough no injury occurred, if rewarming allowed a recrystallisation of ice the photosynthesis and respiration of the thalli ceased. Cold injury conclusively may only occur, when ice is formed within the cells. With exception of a few species the lichens can be characterized by an extraordinary high resistance to frost. Actually most of the tested lichens tolerated low temperatures which do not occur in any natural habitat at all. So within this respect their worldwide distribution is not limited.
30943Wunder J. & Möseler B.M. (1996): Kaltluftströme auf Basaltblockhalden und ihre Auswirkung auf Mikroklima und Vegetation [Cold airstreams on slopes of basaltic rocks and their influence on microclimate and vegetation]. - Flora, 191: 335–344.
Measurements of the microclimate on slopes with extensive basaltic blocks reveal cold airstreams coming out of the ground. These airstreams caused by perennial underground ice influence the herbaceous, bryophytic and lichenophytic vegetation by locally inverting the temperature of the air close to the ground surface. In accordance to these ecological characteristics the Betulo-carpaticae-Sorbetum aucupariae appears and the woodless parts of the slope are characterized by not competitive lichens and bryophytes. Key words: Microclimate; cold airstreams; basaltic blocks; underground ice; vegetation ecology.
30942Kauppi M. & Mikkonen A. (1980): Floristic versus single species analysis in the use of epiphytic lichens as indicators of air pollution in a boreal forest region, northern Finland. - Flora, 169: 255–281.
The influence of air pollution from an iron and steel works upon the surrounding vegetation is studied by two parallel methods, one based on the epiphytic lichen flora on pines, and the other on measurements of certain reactions of the lichen Hypogymnia physodes (L). Nyl. (p H, conductivity, and the chlorophyll, total S and iron content of the thallus, and the reactions of the algal cell component). Comparison of the results suggests that a clear picture of the nature and spread of air pollution may still be obtained from morphological examinations and various measured parameters in a single commonly occurring lichen species. This method is especially practical in the boreal coni ferous zone, where the epiphytic lichen vegetation is limited.
30941Stocker O. (1975): Prinzipien der Flechtensymbiose [Principles of lichen symbiosis]. - Flora, 164: 359–376.
Lichen symbiosis is based and limited on the genetical constitution and the physiological balance of power of the symbionts. On the whole it may be characterized as “rent symbiosis”.
30940Zotz G. & Winter K. (1994): Photosynthesis and carbon gain of the lichen, Leptogium azureum, in a lowland tropical forest. - Flora, 189: 179–186.
CO2 gas exchange and microclimatic conditions of Leptogium azureum (Sw. ex Ach.) Mont., a foliose lichen, were investigated in the lowland tropical forest of Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Thalli growing epiphytically in the forest canopy or epilithically on boulders in the understory were studied. Under the prevailing temperature and humidity conditions, thallus water contents were generally high during the night, resulting in high rates of respiration. Daytime net CO2 uptake was restricted by low light in the understory or by temporary reduction of thallus water content in the canopy. As a consequence, carbon balances were negative on many days. The results of these first field measurements of the CO2 gas exchange of a tropical lichen support the notion that the low abundance of macro lichens in tropical lowland forests is mainly caused by an unfavourable combination of high temperature and low light. Keywords: Leptogium azureum; lowland rain forest; carbon balance; lichen.
30939Lange O.L., Belnap J., Reichenberger H. & Meyer A. (1997): Photosynthesis of green algal soil crust lichens from arid lands in southern Utah, USA: role of water content on light and temperature responses of CO2 exchange. - Flora, 192: 1–15.
Biotic soil crusts are a worldwide phenomenon in arid and semi-arid landscapes. Metabolic activity of the poikilohydric organisms found in these crusts is dominated by quick and drastic changes in moisture availability and long periods of drought. Under controlled conditions, we studied the role of water content on photosynthetic and respiratory CO2 exchange of three green algal soil crust lichens from a desert site in southern Utah (USA): Diploschistes diacapsis (Ach.) Lumbsch, Psora cerebriformis W. Weber, and Squamarina lentigera (Weber) Poelt. Photosynthetic metabolism is activated by extremely small amounts of moisture; lower compensation values for net photosynthesis (NP) are reached between 0.05 and 0.27 mm of precipitation equivalent. Thus, the lichens can use very low degrees of hydration for carbon gain. Maximal NP occurs between 0.39 and 0.94 mm precipitation equivalent, and area-related rates equal 2.6–5.2 μmol CO2 m−2s−1. All three tested species show ‘sun plant’ features, including high light requirements for CO2 exchange compensation and for NP saturation. Diploschistes diacapsis maintains high rates of NP at full water saturation. In contrast, suprasaturated thalli of the other two species show a strong depression in NP which can be removed or reduced by increased external CO2 concentration. Consequently, this depression is most probably caused by increased thallus diffusive resistances due to pathway blockage by water. This depression will greatly limit carbon gain of these species in the field after heavy rain. It occurs at all temperatures of ecological relevance and also under conditions of low light. However, maximum water holding capacity of P. cerebriformis and S. lentigera is higher than that of D. diacapsis. This could mean that periods of hydration favorable for metabolic activity for those two species last longer than those of D. diacapsis. This might compensate for their lower rates of NP during suprasaturation. Thus, two different strategies might have developed for lichen existence in the specific and extreme arid soil crust habitat. Data about habitat conditions for the different lichen species are needed in order to test this hypothesis and to allow interpretation and prediction of perfonnance of these soil crust lichens in nature.
30938Leisner J.M.R., Bilger W. & Lange O.L. (1996): Chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics of the cyanobacterial lichen Peltigera rufescens under field conditions: I. Seasonal patterns of photochemical activity and the occurrence of photosystem II inhibition. - Flora, 191: 261–273.
Photosystem (PS) II fluorescence of the cyanobacterial lichen Peltigera rufescens, together with microclimate parameters (light, temperature, relative humidity, and rainfall), was recorded over a complete year (September 1992 - August 1993). Measurements were made on thalli at two quasi-natural growing sites in a xerothermic steppe formation in the Botanical Garden, Würzburg. The sites spanned the natural habitat range for the species, one being partly shaded whilst we increased exposure at the other by removing the steppe canopy. Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were automatically determined at 20 minute intervals using a PAM-2000 fluorometer. From the fluorescence data, metabolically active phases of the poikilohydrous lichen could clearly be distinguished from dormancy. In the majority of cases, dormancy could be attributed to desiccation. During winter, frost inhibited activity completely at temperatures below −5°C. Metabolic activity of the lichen occurred over a wide range of temperatures and light conditions including periods of very high light when photoinhibitory damage might have been expected. However, values of the optimal quantum efficiency of PS II (determined under low light at dawn) showed no depression (photoinhibition) except when metabolic activity of the lichen had been severely curtailed by frost and/or extended drought. The inhibition was reversed after even brief periods of normal metabolic activity. Peltigera rufescens, therefore, seemed to be well adapted to its natural environment and showed little photoinhibition as long as it frequently hydrated and became metabolically active.
30937Lange O.L., Büdel B., Meyer A., Zellner H. & Zotz G. (2000): Lichen carbon gain under tropical conditions : water relations and CO2 exchange of three Leptogium species of a lower montane rainforest in Panama. - Flora, 195: 172–190.
Diel time courses of microclimate, hydration, and CO2 exchange of Leptogium azureum, L. cyanescens and L. phyllocarpum (homoiomerous cyanolichens) were measured under quasi-natural conditions at a forest edge of a lower montane, tropical rainforest (Panama). In addition, responses to experimentally controlled water content (WC), photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), and temperature were studied for L. phyllocarpum. Performance of the Leptogium species was compared with two other, but heteromerous, cyanolichens from the same site and treated in earlier publications (Dictyonema glabratum, Sticta tomentosa). Net photosynthesis (NP) of L. phyllocarpum was adapted to high temperatures with an upper temperature compensation point well above 40°e. The light saturation of NP was highly dependent on WC and occurred at PPFD levels between 100 and 600 εmol m−2s−1. Light compensation point was about 20 Ilmol m−2s−1 and increased with decreasing We. All three Leptogium species suffered from a strong depression of NP at suprasaturating WC, which reduced CO2 assimilation by 55 to more than 80%, compared to the maximum. Natural NP was controlled by the interplay of thallus hydration and radiation. In contrast to the heteromerous species, high water holding capacity of the gelatinous lichens, especially of L. phyllocarpum, shortened the periods of inactivity through desiccation, thus essentially extending the daily time span for photosynthetic activity. However, high WC reduced the rates of CO2 fixation. A rough estimate for L. azureum reveals that net photosynthetic carbon gain would be increased by about one third in the absence of suprasaturation depression. In spite of these limitations, average daily net photosynthetic carbon gain of mature thalli of all three Leptogium species was relatively high [between 6.2 and 9 mgC (gC)−1d−1, as related to thallus carbon content]. However, a very large portion of assimilated carbon - on average 60 to 90% - was lost again through nocturnal respiration which was stimulated by high night temperatures of the continuously moist thalli. The resulting diel carbon balance amounted from 0.6 to 3.6 mgC (gC)−1d−1. Abundance of Leptogium species and of other macrolichens was high in the lower montane forest, it was low in warmer lowland rainforests of the same area. Based upon a literature review for lichens under different climate conditions the existing hypothesis is discussed to what extend this phenomenon might be explained through negative carbon balances due to temperature-induced increases in nocturnal respiration.
30936Jahns H.M. & Ott S. (1983): Das Mikroklima dicht benachbarter Flechtenstandorte [The microclimate of adjacent lichen habitats]. - Flora, 173: 183–222.
The microclimate of 5 lichen habitats is recorded for several days in the summer and in the autumn of 1980. The locations are situated inside a very small area, but each habitat is inhabited by one or 2 lichen species only. The intensity of light, temperature of air and of lichens, relative humidity, watercontent of the thalli and wind are measured in situ. The interaction of numerous influences is described and discussed. Distinct microclimatic differences are observed, which can explain the distributional patterns of the lichen species in the area.
30935Feige G.B., Lumbsch H.T. & Schmitz K.E. (1993): Die Ausbildung eines Zentralstranges in der Flechtenfamilie Roccellaceae (Opegraphales; Ascomycotina): Anatomische Untersuchungen an Simonyella variegata) [The formation ora central cord in the lichen family Roccellaceae (Opegraphales; Ascomycotina): Anatomical studies on Simonyella variegata]. - Flora, 187: 159–167.
The development of the central cord in Simonyella variegata (Roccellaceae) is studied. The central cord is built of medullary hyphae, which are parallel arranged and possess heavily swollen walls. The hyphae are embedded in a gelatinous, melanized matrix. The thallus tips do not have a central cord. The importance of the central cord is shortly discussed. The cord is compared with similar structures in other lichens.
30934Hahn S.C., Tenhunen J.D., Popp P.W., Meyer A. & Lange O.L. (1993): Upland tundra in the foothills of the Brooks Range, Alaska: Diurnal CO2 exchange patterns of characteristic lichen species. - Flora, 188: 125–143.
CO2 exchange, water content, and microclimate conditions were observed for seven characteristic lichen species in their natural habitat within upland tundra communities of northern Alaska. Diurnal courses of lichen gas exchange response were recorded over five-day periods during the arctic summer and fall (from July to early September 1988 and 1989). Water availability is the environmental factor of foremost importance in determining rates of primary production. Water sources were rain, fog, and dew fall, as well as high air humidity, which alone could reactivate most of the green algal species after desiccation. Despite high variability in environmental conditions, certain patterns in the diurnal course of thallus hydration occurred repeatedly, so that five different weather types were defined within which gas exchange performance was predictable. Even short periods of favourable hydration were used by lichens for positive net photosynthesis (NP). There was no indication of adverse consequences of “resaturation respiration”. Even after a dry period of 3 days, sudden rehydration resulted in carbon gain without delay. For short periods of time, the combinations of water content, temperature and light imposed on the lichens enables high rates of NP. Individual species differed greatly in their maximal NP rate, which correlated with chlorophyll and nitrogen content. At favourable times in the field, observed NP rates approached the maximum capacity found in laboratory experiments at natural ambient CO2. Often with sufficient hydration, carbon gain was limited by light. CO2 exchange became negative even during daylight hours due to the effects of fog and clouds with light below compensation levels. Reduced but still positive rates of NP were observed with snow and with frozen lichens. In order to draw general conclusions about activity over the summer season, the time was calculated for a characteristic set of sampling days during which thalli were inactivated due to dehydration (no CO2 exchange measurable), during which they photosynthetically fixed CO2, and during which CO2 was released. The thalli were inactivated on the average 42.5 % of the time. Species-specific differences with respect to the total period of dehydration were surprisingly small (from 39.0% forStereocaulon alpinum to 45.5 % for Cetraria cucullata). Thus, growth-form specific morphology and anatomy of the samples, which were exposed side-by-side at the same site did not result in large differences in active phases. On the other hand, differences in physiological traits between species result in varying division of active phases with respect to positive and negative NP. For example, Dactylina arctica photosynthesized 1.36 times longer than Peltigera malacea. Other traits tend to offset the negative effect of long periods with respiratory CO2 release. As a result, the cyanobacterial lichen Peltigera malacea with the shortest total period of positive NP was, nevertheless, the most productive species due to its high photosynthetic capacity. Our field observations strengthen the viewpoint that studies of lichen physiological differentiation are essential for understanding species autecology and that approaches based on interpretation of morphological attributes may sometimes be exaggerated in their importance.
30933Guttenberger H., Hainzl M., Grill D. & Türk R. (1991): Altitude dependence of thiol content of lichens. - Flora, 185: 201–205.
The water soluble thiol (SH) content of lichens and its altitude dependence was investigated using an altitude profile of two lichen species. Further lichen species were investigated at different elevations for their SH-content. The poicilohydric lichens show a rise in SH-content with increasing altitude to a maximum between 1400–1600 m above sea level. At higher altitudes the content of SH declines again with increasing elevation.
30932Kidron G.J. (2000): Dew moisture regime of endolithic and epilithic lichens inhabiting limestone cobbles and rock outcrops, Negev Highlands, Israel. - Flora , 195: 146–153.
Endolithic and epilithic lichens proliferate on calcareous cobbles and rock outcrops in the Negev Highlands, Israel. Whereas epilithic lichens predominate in shaded mesohabitats, extensively covering rock outcrops, endolithic lichens proliferate on loose cobbles. Endolithic lichens were thought to predominate in habitats having a poor dew regime. Dew measurements were carried out at habitats of endolithic and epilithic lichens. The measurements took place on loose and partially embedded cobbles with 90–100% of endolithic lichen cover, and on rock outcrops inhabited by epilithic lichens (75-90% cover). In addition, independent dew measurements were carried out with the Plate Cloth Method (CPM). A total of 60 days of measurements was performed. Average daily dew amount as obtained by the CPM was 0.20 mm, as compared to 0.18 mm obtained on the loose cobbles, 0.09 mm obtained by the partially embedded cobbles and 0.04–0.08 mm obtained on the bedrock surfaces. The dew amounts obtained on the cobbles were significantly higher than those obtained on the bedrock surfaces (paired t-test, p < 0.001). Thus, although exposed to the first sun beams during the early morning hours, cobbles, due to their excessive heat loss and subsequent higher cooling rates, form a mesic microhabitat (as far as dew amount is concerned) within an unshaded and hence xeric (as far as dew duration is concerned) mesohabitat. The results point out that endolithic lichens are not necessarily adapted to a poor dew regime. The advantage of the endolithic habitat in light of the present findings is discussed.
30931Redon J. & Lange O.L. (1983): Epiphytische Flechten im Bereich einer chilenischen „Nebeloase“ (Fray Jorge) I. Vegetationskundliche Gliederung und Standortsbedingungen [Epiphytic lichens in the region of a Chilean “Fog oasis” (Fray Jorge) I. Distributional patterns and habitat conditions]. - Flora, 174: 213–243.
Fog formation occurs frequently along the coast of nothern Chile. The fog envelopes the slopes and the summit of the coastal ranges. Water condenses in this zone and effects the development of an usually lush vegetation known as a fog oasis in this arid or semi-arid environment. In the Fray Jorge National Park, the fog-dependent vegetation consists of evergreen forests which are surrounded by thorn scrub and succulents. Lichens play an important role in these habitats. They cover the phanerophytes of the different zones of the coastal area as epiphytic vegetation and have both high biomass and species diversity. The objective of the first part of this work was a description of the epiphytic lichen vegetation for a selected, representative area of about 10 km2 of the Fray Jorge National Park and to study the environmental relationships of these lichens with special emphasis on their water relations. Redon (1982) described 54 different epiphytic lichen species for this area. A phytosociological study resulted in the definition of 2 lichen-associations which are characterized by species combinations, dominant life forms, and species diversity. The Oropogonetum loxensis lichen community grows on shrubs and trees in the zone which is directly affected by persistent fog. On the other hand, the Ramalinetum cactacearum lichen community covers the shrubs in the region below the fog belt. Along a transect which streched from the drier inland depression without fog influence to the top of the coastal range where there is regular fog formation, the changes in the lichen vegetation and the gradation between the 2 communities were characterized. At the habitats of the Oropogonetum and the Ramalinetum, diurnal courses of light intensity, air temperature, air humidity and lichen thallus temperature were measured during characteristic wheather conditions in the different seasons throughout the year. Lichen water content of typical, selected species was followed at the same time by weighing of samples. The species of the Oropogonetum are often thoroughly moistened during the night by condensing fog which forms droplets on the thalli. In the early morning hours, maximum water contents of the lichens up to 153 and 172 % (by dry weight) respectively were measured. After disappearance of the fog during the late morning hours, the thalli increasingly dry out as temperatures increase and air humidity is decreased. Thallus water content reaches a minimum of about 16 % in the early afternoon. In contrast, water relations of the species of the Ramalinetum are much more unfavourable. Moistening by liquid water seems to be restricted to very infrequent dew condensation and to the few rain events in winter (situations, which were not observed during this study in the field). The habitats of the Ramalinetum are not reached by the fog. However, fog formation in the higher altitudes of the coastal ranges is correlated with a substantial increase in air humidity in the depression where the Ramalinetum occurs. The lichen thalli are able to absorb this water vapor from the air even though no condensation occurs. Thus, in the early morning hours after nights with high air humidity, hydration of the species of the Ramalinetum increases, and water contents up to about 37 % were measurable. Subsequently the thalli dry out again and reach their minimum water content after noon, similar to the lichens of the Oropogonetum. Water exchange between lichens and air seems to take place so quickly, that the thalli are almost in equilibrium with the water potential of the ambient air, at least during the time periods of low solar radiation before noon. The same is the case for the species of the Oropogonetum on days without fog formation but with high air humidity. In a second communication of this series, the importance of the habitat conditions for the photo-synthetic primary production of the lichens will be assessed.
30930Stocker O. (1927): Physiologische und ökologische Untersuchungen an Laub- und Strauchflechten. Ein Beitrag zur experimentellen Ökologie und Geographie der Flechten. - Flora oder Allgemeine Botanische Zeitung , 121: 334–415.
30929Lange O.L., Schulze E.-D. & Koch W. (1970): Experimentell-ökologische Untersuchungen an Flechten der Negev-Wüste: III. CO2-Gaswechsel und Wasserhaushalt von Krusten- und Blattflechten am natürlichen Standort während der sommerlichen Trockenperiode [Ecophysiological investigations on lichens of the Negev desert: III. CO2 gas exchange and water relations of crustose and foliose lichens in their natural habitat during the summer dry period]. - Flora, 159: 529–538.
CO2 gas exchange and water relations of crustose and foliose lichens were examined under natural conditions at the end of the dry period in their highland habitat of the Central Negev Desert: Caloplaca ehrenbergii (Muell. Arg.) A. Zahlbr., Caloplaca aurantia (Pers.) Hellb. var. aurantia Poelt, Lecanora farinosa (Flk.) Nyl., Xanthoria isidioidea (Beltr.) R et Galun, Squamarina cf. crassa (Huds.) Poelt, Diploschistes steppicus Reichert and endolithic lichens inside limestone. Similar to the behaviour of the fruticose species Ramalina maciformis and Teloschistes lacunosus (Part II), the other life forms are also moistened sufficiently, as a result of nightly dew-fall, that an apparent photosynthetic CO2 uptake is possible for a period of several hours following sunrise. Maximum rates of photosynthesis are peak values compared with known values from field measurements of lichens from other climatic regions. They reach the order of the highest rates of CO2 assimilation of wild phanerogams, measured at the same time in the same habitat. Also the crustose and the foliose lichens are capable of absorbing enough water vapour in absence of dew condensation from the surrounding moist air at night so as to permit a short period of photosynthetic activity during the morning.
30928Hahn S., Speer D., Meyer A. & Lange O.L. (1989): Photosynthetische Primärproduktion von epigäischen Flechten im „Mainfränkischen Trockenrasen”: I. Tagesläufe von Mikroklima, Wassergehalt und CO2-Gaswechsel zu den verschiedenen Jahreszeiten) [Photosynthetic primary production of epigean lichens growing in local xerothermic steppe formations in Franconia: I. Diurnal time courses of microclimate, water content and CO2 exchange at different seasons]. - Flora, 182: 313–339.
Microclimate, water content and CO2 exchange were investigated in three lichen species from the „Mainfrankischen Trockenrasen” in their natural environment (Franconia, Northern Bavaria). The research site, located on top of the bluffs of the Main river valley, is in an area of limestone formations. The rare xerothermic vegetation unit, a local steppe formation (Xerobromion sward), naturally contains a high proportion of cryptogams. The measurements were taken throughout the highly active part of the year between April and November. Climatic conditions and water contents were simultaneously recorded, while CO2 exchange was measured during the light period. For each season of the year there were specific cases of weather conditions which could be classified into uniform types, and the related responses in net photosynthesis and water status of the lichens are described in schemes and diurnal courses. Further results, as general light and water content dependent photosynthesis curves derived from the measured parameter, and seasonally shifting photosynthesis responses which occurred in some species, are discussed.
30927Goebel K. (1926): Morphologische und biologische Bemerkungen: 32. Induzierte Dorsiventralität bei Flechten. - Flora oder Allgemeine Botanische Zeitung, 121: 177–188.
30926Ensgraber A. (1954): Über den Einfluß der Antrocknung auf die Assimilation und Atmung von Moosen und Flechten. - Flora oder Allgemeine Botanische Zeitung, 141: 432–475.
30925Ried A. (1960): Stoffwechsel und Verbreitungsgrenzen von Flechten I.: Flechtenzonierungen an Bachufern und ihre Beziehungen zur jährlichen Überflutungsdauer und zum Mikroklima. - Flora oder Allgemeine Botanische Zeitung, 148: 612–638.
30924Lange O.L. & Redon J. (1983): Epiphytische Flechten im Bereich einer chilenischen „Nebeloase“ (Fray Jorge) II. Ökophysiologische Charakterisierung von CO2-Gaswechsel und Wasserhaushalt [Epiphytic lichens in the region of a Chilean “Fog oasis” (Fray Jorge) II. Ecophysiological characterization of CO2 exchange and water relations]. - Flora, 174: 245–284.
In a previous communication (Part I) the epiphytic lichen vegetation in the region of the fog oasis Fray Jorge was reported. For 2 lichen communities, the habitat conditions have been characterized through microclimatological measurements. The present paper considers CO2 gas exchange and water relations of these lichens. Under controlled conditions, photosynthesis and respiration are reported as influenced by water content of the thalli, light intensity, and temperature, for selected species (Everniopsis trulla and Usnea lacerata from the Oropogonetum loxensis and Heterodermia spinulosa andRamalina cactacearum from the Ramalinetum cactacearum). The maximal rates of net photosynthesis and dark respiration of the 4 species were very similar. They exhibited medium range of CO2 exchange capacity when compared with maximum rates of species from other climatic regions. Moistened with liquid water, photosynthetic activity began at a thallus water content of 26 to 29 % (on a dry weight basis). Subsequently, net photosynthesis increased almost linearly with increasing water content. Very high water content resulted in a substantial depression of CO2 uptake for the species of the Ramalinetum. This apparently is due to increased diffusion resistances within the fully-moistened thalli. Characteristically, such a depression is much smaller or nonexistent for the species of the Oropogonetum. Water vapor uptake in the absence of condensation by the dry lichen thalli can also enable photosynthetic activity. For example, Ramalina cactacearum already exhibited CO2 uptake in equilibrium with a relative air humidity of 82 %, which corresponds to a water potential of —251 bar (at 10°C). In equilibrium with nearly saturated air, the lichens reached rates of photosynthesis which are similar to those which are attained at optimal water contents after moistening with liquid water. However with water vapor uptake, the same rates of net photosynthesis are possible at substantially lower thalli water contents than would be the case if the thalli were moistened with liquid water. Differences in activation of mitochondrial respiration and in the diffusive conductance of the thalli for CO2 may be the reasons for thie phenomenon. This has important implications for production ecology. Based upon the CO2 exchange measurements in the laboratory, the dependency of net photosynthesis of the experimental lichens on water status, light and temperature is presented in interpolation diagrams. These allow estimation of rates of CO2 uptake for a given combination of environmental factors. With the weather data obtained from the field measurements it is thus possible at least approximately to simulate gas exchange performance of the lichens under their natural conditions. Fog condensation results in water contents of the lichen thalli which — according to the simulations — allow maximal rates of net photosynthesis. With typical fog weather conditions, a positive net CO2 uptake is possible for the species of the Oropogonetum from briefly after sunrise until about 13 h when the moisture compensation point is finally reached. The daily photosynthetic CO2 gain under such circumstances amounts to about 5.47 mg CO2 per g dry weight. Conditions for production are much less favourable for the species of the Ramalinetum. However, the simulations show that in spite of the lack of moistening by fog in these habitats, water vapor uptake from the ambient air alone enables carbon gain in the morning. The duration and rate of net photosynthesis is very dependent on the humidity conditions during the night and on the rate of drying by solar radiation in the morning hours. Under conditions of high humidity at night, Heterodermia spinulosa attains a daily gain of 2.39 mg CO2 per g. The capability of the thalli to use air humidity as their main water source and their ability to conduct positive photosynthesis at extremely low thallus water potentials, are necessary characteristics for the existence of these species in the Ramalinetum.
30923Ried A. (1960): Stoffwechsel und Verbreitungsgrenzen von Flechten: II. Wasser- und Assimilationshaushalt, Entquellungs- und Submersionsresistenz von Krustenflechten benachbarter Standorte. - Flora oder Allgemeine Botanische Zeitung, 149: 345–385.
30922Dässler H.-G. & Ranft H. (1969): Das Verhalten von Flechten und Moosen unter dem Einfluß einer Schwefeldioxidbegasung. - Flora oder Allgemeine Botanische Zeitung, 158: 454–461.
30921Lange O.L. & Evenari M. (1971): Experimentell-ökologische Untersuchungen an Flechten der Negev-Wüste: IV. Wachstumsmessungen an Caloplaca aurantia (Pers.) Hellb. [Ecophysiological investigations on lichens of the Negev desert IV. Growth measurements with Caloplaca aurantia (Pers.) Hellb.]. - Flora oder Allgemeine Botanische Zeitung, 160: 100–104.
During a period of c. 5 years growth rates of 13 thalli of Caloplaca aurantia (Pers.) Hellb. var. aurantia Poelt were measured in the highland of the Central Negev Desert near Avdat. An average annual radial rate of marginal growth of 0.68 mm was determined by direct measurements and of 0.56 mm by calculation from increment of thallus surface area. This growth equals medium growth rates of crustose epipetric lichens from other climatic regions and shows the good adaptation of the metabolism of Caloplaca to the specific conditions of the desert habitat. Annual productivity of Caloplaca amounted to c.10.4% of a young thallus. This value obtained by direct growth measurements confirms former calculations of annual lichen productivity in the Negev which were made from CO2 gas exchange measurements in the field.
30920Lange O.L. (1953): Hitze- und Trockenresistenz der Flechten in Beziehung zu ihrer Verbreitung. - Flora oder Allgemeine Botanische Zeitung, 140: 39–97.
30919Kaule A. (1934): Über die Cephalodien der Flechten: (2. Beitrag.). - Flora oder Allgemeine Botanische Zeitung, 127: 345–361.
on cephalodiate lichens
30918Kaule A. (1931): Die Cephalodien der Flechten. - Flora oder Allgemeine Botanische Zeitung, 126: 1–44.
on cephalodiate lichens
30917Lange O.L. (1969): Experimentell-ökologische Untersuchungen an Flechten der Negev-Wüste I. CO2-Gaswechsel von Ramalina maciformis (Del.) Bory unter kontrollierten Bedingungen im Laboratorium. - Flora, 158: 324–359.
Ecophysiological investigations on lichens of the Negev Desert I. CO2 gas exchange of Ramalina maciformis (Del.) Bory under controlled conditions in the laboratory.
30916James P.W. (1967): Kleine Kryptogamenflora, H. Gams, in: Die Flechten, vol. III, Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart (1967), p. 244, 84 figures. Price: DM. 28. - Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 50: 511–512.
book review
30915Wirth V. & Türk R. (1975): Zur SO2-Resistenz von Flechten verschiedener Wuchsform [SO2 resistance of lichens with different growth forms]. - Flora, 164: 133–143.
To determine the SO2 resistance of lichens pertaining to different groups of growth form their thalli were exposed to SO2 in air (4 mg/m3) (determination of total resistance) or were submerged in Na2S2O5 solution (determination of plasmatic resistance). As a viability criterion the CO2 exchange of the thalli was measured with an infrared gas analyzer before and after SO2 exposure or sulphite treatment. 4 crustose lichens, 5 foliose lichens, 3 fruticose lichens and 1 foliose gelatinous lichen were tested. The resistance of the individual species as determined by the fumigation experiments and the sulphite treatment varies considerably, also within the usually employed growth form groups. An arrangement of the species in order of their plasmatic resistance results in another sequence than an arrangement in order of their total resistance. Of all the tested species the crustose lichen Rhizocarpon geographicum showed by far the highest plasmatic resistance. Although crustose lichens show a tendency to a greater resistance and fruticose lichens to a lower resistance to SO2 gas, there is no high correlation between growth form and SO2 sensitivity. Neither can crustose lichens be considered as generally more resistant than foliose ones nor can foliose lichens be considered as more resistant than fruticose species, because some of the tested lichens did not fit in this often accepted sequence of decreasing resistance. Some crustose lichens (e. g. Pertusaria corallina) were for instance found to be more sensitive than foliose lichens (e. g. Xanthoria parietina), several foliose lichens (Parmelia glabratula, Lobaria pulmonaria) were less resistant than beard-like lichens (Alectoria fuscescens, A. pubescens). After SO2 treatment the gelatinous lichen Collema cristatum is totally damaged. It is possible that anatomical-morphological features of the lichens influence the SO2 resistance, and some results support this, however the species are still too manifoldly differenciated within the roughly defined growth form groups to reveal a high correlation between growth form and SO2 sensitivity. It seems that lichens of moist and shady habitats are more easily damaged than those of dry sites. Epiphytic and silicate lichens apparently do not differ basically in their SO2 resistance. Lichen species with a large ecological amplitude are best qualified for bioindicators of SO2 pollution; lichens with a narrow ecological range are too sensitive to environmental changes not caused by SO2.
30914Nobel W., Beismann H., Franzaring J. , Kostka-Rick R., Wagner G. & Erhardt W. (2005): Standardisierte biologische Messverfahren zur Ermittlung und Bewertung der Wirkung von Luftverunreinigungen auf Pflanzen (Bioindikation) in Deutschland. Stand und Perspektiven [Standardised biological measurement procedures to determine and evaluate the effect of air pollution on plants (biomonitoring) in Germany – status and perspectives]. - Gefahrstoffe - Reinhaltung der Luft, 65: 478–484.
Status and perspectives of the standardisation work within the Commission on Air Pollution Prevention of VDI and DIN (KRdL) concerning biomonitoring in Germany are presented. The current VDI Guidelines are described shortly, partly with their historical development. Thereby advantages and disadvantages of technical measurement procedures and the differ ences between active and passive biomonitoring are discussed and where to use them is explained. The current work, also in other working groups, comprises e.g. the standardisation of procedures to evaluate biomonitoring results, procedures which account more for biodiversity aspects, faunistic approaches, and VDI Guidelines for a monitoring of genetically engineered organisms.
30913Haas H.F. & Krivan V. (1986): Ein Trennverfahren zur Bestimmung von Ag, Cd, Hg und Zn in biologischem Material durch radiochemische Neutronenaktivierungsanalyse [A separation procedure for the determination of Ag, Cd, Hg and Zn in biological material by radiochemical neutron activation analysis]. - Fresenius Zeitschrift für analytische Chemie, 324: 13–18.
A simple separation procedure for the determination of Ag, Au, Cd, Hg and Zn in biological material by radiochemical neutron activation analysis was developed. It enables the separation of the indicator radionuclides 110mAg, 198Au, 115Cd, 203Hg and 65Zn in a group with yields >99% and is well suited for the separation of 203Hg from 75Se and 65Zn from 46Sc. The separation of these radionuclides is often necessary because of the occurrence of instrumental interferences in the instrumental neutron activation analysis. Simultaneously, the limits of detection for Ag, Au and Cd can significantly be improved. The method is based on the decomposition of the sample in the mixture of HNO3/HCl/H2O2 and on the separation of Ag, Au, Cd, Hg and Zn on Dowex 1X8 from a sample solution being 1.5 M with HCl. The applicability of this method is demonstrated by the analysis of lichens and several kinds of fungi. For the experimental conditions used, the limits of detection are of the order of magnitude of 10 ng/g.
30912Koller G. & Passler W. (1930): Über die Konstitution der Caprarsäure. - Monatshefte für Chemie und verwandte Teile anderer Wissenschaften, 56: 212–233.
chemistry; caperatic acid
30911Krivan V., Egger K.P., Hausbeck R. & Schmid W. (1986): Belastung der Luft und anderer durch Niederschlag kontaminierter Umweltproben des Ulmer Raumes mit radioaktiven Spaltprodukten nach dem Reaktorunfall in Tschernobyl [Contamination of the air and other environmental samples of the Ulm region by radioactive fission products after the accident of the Chernobyl reactor]. - Fresenius´ Zeitschrift für analytische Chemie, 325: 597–602.
Since April 30, 1986, the radioactivity of the fission products released by the accident of the Chernobyl reactor has been measured in the air of the city of Ulm. The airborne dust samples were collected with flow calibrated samplers on cellulose acetate membrane filters and counted with a high resolution gamma ray spectrometer. Later on, the radioactivity measurements were expanded to other relevant environmental samples contaminated by radioactive atmospheric precipitates including grass, spruce needles, mosses, lichens, various kinds of food, drinking water, asphalt and concrete surface layers, municipal sewage sludge and sewage sludge ash. This paper reports the obtained results.
30910Kostka-Rick R., Leffler U.S., Markert B., Herpin U., Lusche L. & Lehrke J. (2001): Biomonitoring zur wirkungsbezogenen Ermittlung der Schadstoffbelastung in terrestrischen Ökosystemen. - Umweltwissenschaften und Schadstoff-Forschung, 13: 5–12.
Biomonitoring programmes provide relevant information, which may supplement ambient air pollution monitoring or modelling around emission sources. As a prerequisite, assessment scales for biomonitoring data have to be derived based on an objective evaluation of available data, as well as on a scheme of presentation, which is suggestive and easily understandable even for laymen. Based on an evaluation of numerous monitoring programmes, assessment scales for biomonitoring results are derived for plant biomonitoring, which also serve as a basis for the graphical presentation of monitoring results. This study is focussed on bioindicator plants like mosses (passive biomonitoring) and exposed lichens (active biomonitoring), in which 14 metal elements are investigated. As an example, data from a local biomonitoring network around a cement plant were used to demonstrate the use of the assessment scales derived and the presentation scheme developed. Data sets from about 15 moss and 24 lichen biomonitoring programmes, comprising more than 1000 specimens, were sorted by their pollutant characteristics in order to form the database. Data on the metal contents of species demonstrating similar values with respect to growth characteristics and habit, and representing background or low pollution levels, are aggregated and their statistical distributions are evaluated. Spacing of the assessment scales and their colour designations are derived from the 50-, 75-, 90- and 95-percentile values. Graphical presentation allows a comparison of the absolute values of metal contents and a relative association of measured values. Exemplary results from moss and lichen monitoring around a cement plant are generally below or slightly above the median values at background and low-pollution sites. Metal contents are higher in lichens compared to mosses for 7 elements (Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Sb, Sn, Zn), and are lower in lichens only for thallium. The assessment scheme presented is mainly aimed at the practitioner in the field of biomonitoring in order to provide a reliable and sound scale of assessment by comparison on an absolute scale rather than presenting the basis of ecological risk assessment. Differences in metal content of co-located samples of various moss species and possible correction procedures are briefly discussed- as well as the consequences of pooling monitoring data across various moss species for the quality of assessment scales. Further evaluations shall focus on species-specific rather than on pooled databases and will investigate the consequences of the use of correction factors when extrapolating metal data from one monitoring species to another. Keywords: Assessment scale; assessment scheme; biomonitoring; environmental monitoring; heavy metals; lichens; lichen monitoring; mosses; moss monitoring; soil monitoring.
30909Koller G. & Pfeiffer G. (1933): Über Enzyme der Flechten und über die Konstitution der Umbilikarsäure. - Monatshefte für Chemie und verwandte Teile anderer Wissenschaften, 62: 359–372.
30908Niemann A. (1967): Über die Differential-Thermoanalyse von Flechten, die auf Kalksteinen wachsen. - Fresenius´ Zeitschrift für analytische Chemie, 231: 456–457.
30907Zellner J. (1934): Zur Chemie der Flechten III. Parmelia physodes L.. - Monatshefte für Chemie und verwandte Teile anderer Wissenschaften, 64: 6–11.
30906Zellner J. (1935): Zur Chemie der Flechten IV. Gyrophora Dillenii (Tuck.) Müll. Arg. und Parmelia furfuracea L.. - Monatshefte für Chemie und verwandte Teile anderer Wissenschaften, 66: 81–86.
30905Zellner J. (1932): Zur Chemie der Flechten (I. Mitteilung). Über Peltigera canina L.. - Monatshefte für Chemie und verwandte Teile anderer Wissenschaften, 61: 300–304.
30904Klima J. (1933): Zur Chemie der Flechten II. Alectoria ochroleuca Ehrh.. - Monatshefte für Chemie und verwandte Teile anderer Wissenschaften, 62: 209–213.
30903Lippert W. & Döbbeler P. (2002): Dr. Helmut Wunder 30.1.1940 - 17.12.2001. - Berichte der Bayerischen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 72: 201–203.
obituary; biography
30902Grims F. (1977): Das Donautal zwischen Aschach und Passau, ein Refugium bemerkenswerter Pflanzen in Oberösterreich. - Linzer Biologische Beiträge, 9: 5–80.
Upper Austria; one chapter on lichens
30901Meusel H. (1939): Mitteldeutsche Vegetationsbilder. 1. Die Steinklöbe bei Nebra und der Ziegelrodaer Forst. - Hercynia, 1: 8–98.
Germany; xerothermic vegetation; lichens det. E. Riehmer
30900Schmid J. & Bogenrieder A. (1998): Spirken-Moorwälder im Schwarzwald. Das Steerenmoos bei Faulenfürst (Gemeinde Schluchsee). - Mitteilungen des Badischen Landesvereins für Naturkunde und Naturschutz, N.F., Freiburg im Breisgau, 17: 29–58.
Berg-Kiefern-Hochmoor, Pino mugo-Sphagnetum magellanici, Spirken-Moorwald, Vaccinio uliginosi-Pinetum rotundatae, Pinus rotundata Link, Moor-Kiefer, Spirke, Pinus mugo s.l., Reliktbaumart, Moorschutz, Naturschutzwürdigkeit, Schwarzwald, Steerenmoos.
30899Nörr M. (1969): Die Moosvegetation des Naturschutzgebietes Bodetal. - Hercynia, 6: 345–435.
bryosociology; dozens of lichens listed in the relevés
30898Fetzmann E. (1961): Vegetationsstudien im Tanner Moor (Mühlviertel, Oberösterreich). - Sitzungsberichte der Akademie der Wissenschaften, mathematisch-naturwissenschaftliche Klasse, 170: 69–88.
30897Hilbig W. & Reichhoff L. (1977): Übersicht über die Pflanzengesellschaften des südlichen Teiles der DDR XIII. Die Vegetation der Fels- und Mauerspalten, des Steinschuttes und der Kalkgesteins Pionierstandorte. - Hercynia, 14: 21–46.
Germany; phytosociology
30896Reimers H. (1940): Bemerkenswerte Moos- und Flechtengesellschaften auf Zechstein-Gips am Südrande des Kyffhäuser und des Harzes. - Hedwigia, 79: 81–174.
30895Holzner W. & Hübl E. (1977): Zur Vegetation der Kalkalpengipfel des Westlichen Niederösterreich. - Jahrbuch des Vereins zum Schutz der Bergwelt, 42: 247–269.
30894Ricek E.W. (1970): Kryptogamenvereine an Lehmböschungen. - Jahrbuch des Oberösterreichischen Musealvereines, 115: 267–298.
30893Schaeftlein H. (1962): Ein eigenartiges Hochmoor in den Schladminger Tauern. - Mitteilungen der Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereines für Steiermark, 92: 104–119.
30892Poelt J. (1975): Basidienflechten, eine in den Alpen lange übersehene Pflanzengruppe. - Jahrbuch des Vereins zum Schutze der Alpenpflanzen und -Tiere, 40: 81–92.
30891Dittrich S., Schmiedel D., Laupichler B., Wagner F. & von Oheimb G. (2016): Auswirkungen von Waldbränden auf die Langzeitdynamik naturnaher Kiefernwälder (Leucobryo-Pinetum) im Nationalpark Sächsische Schweiz (Sachsen, Deutschland) [Impact of forest fires on the long-term dynamics of near-natural Scots pine forests (Leucobryo-Pinetum) in Saxon Switzerland National Park (Saxony, Germany)]. - Tuexenia, 36: 23–36.
Compared to deciduous forest associations, long-term investigations of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests in Central Europe are scarce and their succession dynamics are not well studied. Although being the most fire-prone forest type in Central Europe, there is also a lack of data on the long-term effects of forest fires on the vegetation of Central European Scots Pine forests. Additionally, pine stands are highly vulnerable to eutrophication, strongly altering vegetation. Therefore, we studied near-natural, fire-affected Scots pine forests (Leucobryo-Pinetum) within Saxon Switzerland National Park (Saxony federal state, Germany) by permanent observation plots. Plots where surveyed by vegetation relevés repeated up to four times. Based on the date of the relevant fire events and the year of plot establishment, we analysed three time series (A: 1963–2012, fire 1948/1953); B: 2002–2014, fire: 1993; C: 2002–2014, fire: 2000). Unexpectedly, we found low variation in plant diversity and a low species turnover across the time series. Only few species where propagated by the forest fire events in the short run, few species showed significant cover variations depending on the time passed since the forest fire. Nitrophytic species where nearly absent. The low eutrophication signal in the vegetation is attributed to nitrogen deposition rates below critical rates for species turnover. Compared to Scots pine plantations and Scots pine forests originating from extensive management, near natural stands of the Leucobryo-Pinetum appear as a relatively stable forest type, which is only shortly affected by local forest fires and underlies stagnant succession dynamics in the long run. Keywords: forest dynamics, permanent observation plots, Pinus sylvestris. Lichens from relevés were identified by K.M. Stetzka.
30890Rottensteiner W.K. (2018): Notizen zur „Flora von Istrien“, Teil IV. - Joannea Botanik, 15: 119–214.
Croatia, Istria; 8 macrolichens listed, identified by H. Mayrhofer (p. 122–123 & 147)
30889Wesche K., Otte V., Boyle H., Damm U., Gebauer P., Ritz C.M. & Wesenberg J. (2016): Die botanisch-mykologischen Sammlungen in Görlitz – zentrale Anlaufstellen für die haupt- und ehrenamtliche Pflanzen- und Pilzkunde in der Oberlausitz. - Berichte der Naturforschende Gesellschaft der Oberlausitz, 24: 37–50.
Germany; herbaria
30888Schurig A., Beck A., Goldberg R., Otte V., Sbrzesny K. & Wünsche A.E. (2015): Botanische Untersuchungen im Naturdenkmal „Brazilka“ (Lauschemoor) in Tschechien. Teil 1: Flora. - Berichte der Naturforschende Gesellschaft der Oberlausitz, 23: 59–94.
A botanical survey of the natural monument „Brazilka“ (Lauschemoor) in the Czech Republic. Part 1: Flora. A geobotanical survey of the Lauschemoor (Brazilka) fen in the Czech Republic was performed in 2011/12. Over an area of about 8.9 ha, 260 species of vascular plant, 67 bryophytes and 56 lichens were observed. The results are presented in a table. The species composition is interpreted from a phytogeographical point of view, and changes in species composition following the restoration measures are discussed. Both present and absent species reflect the changeful history of utilisation of this fen. Keywords: revitalization of bogs, lichens, mosses, spermatophytes, Lužické hory.
30887Decker P., Voigtländer K., Düker C., Hutchinson J.M.C., Lübcke T., Moll S., Mühle E., Müller J., Otte V., Reise H., Schindler S. & Weinert G. (2015): Artenliste vom „Tag der Artenvielfalt“ 2015 auf dem Städtischen Friedhof in Görlitz. - Berichte der Naturforschende Gesellschaft der Oberlausitz, 23: 161–170.
Species list from the „Day for Biological Diversity“ 2015 in the city cemetery of Görlitz Within the scope of the “Day of Biological Diversity” (13th June 2015), the biodiversity of the city cemetery in Görlitz, Saxony, was investigated under the guidance of the staff of the cemetery and of the Senckenberg Museum of Natural History Görlitz. The number of species identified were: 100 spermatophytes, 1 fern, 13 mosses, 41 lichens, 18 gastropods, 16 spiders, 7 ground beetles, 16 millipedes and centipedes, and 27 birds. Keywords: biodiversity, fauna, flora, Saxony, Germany, Spermatophyta, Pteridophyta, Bryophyta, Lichenes, Gastropoda, Araneae, Carabidae, Chilopoda, Diplopoda, Aves.
30886Krause J., Müller J., Otte V. & Heinken T. (2017): Die Moos- und Flechtenflora auf Apfel- und Kirschbäumen in Plantagen im Potsdamer Raum. - Verhandlungen des Botanischen Vereins von Berlin und Brandenburg, 149: 135–151.
We studied the flora of epiphytes of orchards around Potsdam (Brandenburg, NE Germany) and surveyed in winter 2012/13 304 apple and cherry trees. A total of 97 identified epiphytic bryophyte and lichen species were found (plus 6 unidentified taxa), among them 36 bryo-phyte, 34 foliose and 33 crustaceous lichen species. Twenty-eight bryophyte species grew on apple trees and 32 on cherry trees. In the group of lichen species 36 species were found on apple trees and 62 on cherry trees. Eleven recorded bryophyte species are listed in the cur-rent Red List of Threaten Species of Brandenburg. Five of the lichen species have a Red List status and nine more are not listed so far, they thus recolonized Brandenburg in the last few years or spread forward. A second record for Brandenburg was done for the crustaceous lichen species Ochrolechia arborea. The results underline the importance of orchards for epiphytic bryophytes and lichens, es-pecially the extensively managed or fallow orchards.
30885Vannini A., Paoli L., Nicolardi V., Di Lella L.A. & Loppi S. (2017): Seasonal variations in intracellular trace element content and physiological parameters in the lichen Evernia prunastri transplanted to an urban environment. - Acta Botanica Croatica, 76(2): 171–176.
In this study we investigated the seasonal variations in the intracellular content of 14 trace elements (Al, As, Ba, Cd, Ce, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Pd, Sb, Zn) and physiological parameters (namely chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, ergosterol, photosynthetic efficiency, cell membrane integrity) in the thalli of the lichen Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach. exposed to an urban environment (Siena, central Italy). Lichen thalli were collected before each exposure period from an unpolluted area and transplanted to 16 sites; every 3 months the thalli were retrieved and replaced with new ones. Exposed-to-control ratios of trace elements revealed a marked intracellular accumulation of Cd in summer and autumn, and of Sb in autumn and spring, possibly as a result of vehicular traffic pollution. However, considering the low absolute concentrations of these elements, the intracellular fraction of depositions may hardly have caused an impairment of physiological parameters. As a matter of fact, indicators of photobiont vitality (content of chlorophylls a and b and photosynthetic efficiency) did not show any fluctuation across seasons, while changes in the indicators of mycobiont vitality (cell membrane damage and ergosterol content) overall did reflect some seasonal changes and/or lichen growth. Keywords: air pollution; antimony; bioaccumulation; biomonitoring; cadmium; epiphytes; heavy metals.
30884Sass-Gyarmati A. & Vojtkó A. (2010): The Herbarium of the Botanical Department in Károly Eszterházy College (Eger). - Acta Biologica Plantarum Agriensis, 1: 7–13.
Hungary; herbaria
30883Kovács D., Matus G., Sinigla M. & Lőkös L. (2017): Distribution of the genus Trapeliopsis Hertel & Gotth. Schneid. (lichenised Ascomycota) in Hungary. - Acta Biologica Plantarum Agriensis, 5(1): 51.
Conference abstract
30882Dulai S., Kereszturi Á., Radnai Z., Tarnai R., Szopkó D. & Pócs T. (2017): Effects of salt, oxidative stress and perchlorate treatments on the activity of phototrophic energy transforming system in intact cryptobiotic crusts originated from different habitats. - Acta Biologica Plantarum Agriensis, 5(1): 52.
Conference abstract
30881Veres K. & Csintalan Z. (2017): Life on sand dunes from lichens point of view – effect of microclimate and seasonality on activity of terricolous lichen communities. - Acta Biologica Plantarum Agriensis, 5(1): 62.
Conference abstract
30880Deme J., Kovács D., Alegro A., Šegota V., Purger D. & Csiky J. (2017): Lichenological and bryological curiosities in the Papuk Mt (Croatia). - Acta Biologica Plantarum Agriensis, 5(1): 49.
Conference abstract