32144Spribille T. (2019): Lichen symbionts outside of symbiosis: how do they find their match? A commentary on: ‘A case study on the re-establishment of the cyanolichen symbiosis: where do the compatible photobionts come from?’. - Annals of Botany, 124(3): vi–vii.
Commentary on the paper by Cardós et al. (2019) [jjh32143], in the same issue of the journal.
32143Cardós J.L.H., Prieto M., Jylhä M., Aragón G., Molina M.C., Martínez I. & Rikkinen J. (2019): A case study on the re-establishment of the cyanolichen symbiosis: where do the compatible photobionts come from?. - Annals of Botany, 124(3): 379–388.
• Background and Aims: In order to re-establish lichen symbiosis, fungal spores must first germinate and then associate with a compatible photobiont. To detect possible establishment limitations in a sexually reproducing cyanolichen species, we studied ascospore germination, photobiont growth and photobiont association patterns in Pectenia plumbea. • Methods: Germination tests were made with ascospores from 500 apothecia under different treatments, and photobiont growth was analysed in 192 isolates obtained from 24 thalli. We determined the genotype identity [tRNALeu (UAA) intron] of the Nostoc cyanobionts from 30 P. plumbea thalli from one population. We also sequenced cyanobionts of 41 specimens of other cyanolichen species and 58 Nostoc free-living colonies cultured from the bark substrate. • Key Results: Not a single fungal ascospore germinated and none of the photobiont isolates produced motile hormogonia. Genetic analyses revealed that P. plumbea shares Nostoc genotypes with two other cyanolichen species of the same habitat, but these photobionts were hardly present in the bark substrate. • Conclusions: Due to the inability of both symbionts to thrive independently, the establishment of P. plumbea seems to depend on Dendriscocaulon umhausense, the only cyanolichen species in the same habitat that reproduces asexually and acts as a source of appropriate cyanobionts. This provides support to the hypothesis about facilitation among lichens. Key words: Ascospore germination, cyanolichen symbiosis, free-living Nostoc, Pectenia plumbea, photobiont association, photobiont-mediated guilds, tRNALeu (UAA) intron.
32142Voglmayr H., Aguirre-Hudson M.B., Wagner H.G., Tello S. & Jaklitsch W.M. (2019): Lichens or endophytes? The enigmatic genus Leptosillia in the Leptosilliaceae fam. nov. (Xylariales), and Furfurella gen. nov. (Delonicicolaceae). - Persoonia, 42: 228–260.
Based on DNA sequence data, the genus Leptosillia is shown to belong to the Xylariales. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of ITS-LSU rDNA sequence data and of a combined matrix of SSU-ITS-LSU rDNA, rpb1, rpb2, tef1 and tub2 reveal that the genera Cresporhaphis and Liberomyces are congeneric with Leptosillia. Coelosphaeria fusariospora, Leptorhaphis acerina, Leptorhaphis quercus f. macrospora, Leptorhaphis pinicola, Leptorhaphis wienkampii, Liberomyces pistaciae, Sphaeria muelleri and Zignoëlla slaptonensis are combined in Leptosillia, and all of these taxa except for C. fusariospora, L. pinicola and L. pistaciae are epitypified. Coelosphaeria fusariospora and Cresporhaphis rhoina are lectotypified. Liberomyces macrosporus and L. saliciphilus, which were isolated as phloem and sapwood endophytes, are shown to be synonyms of Leptosillia macrospora and L. wienkampii, respectively. All species formerly placed in Cresporhaphis that are now transferred to Leptosillia are revealed to be non-lichenized. Based on morphology and ecology, Cresporhaphis chibaensis is synonymised with Rhaphidicyrtis trichosporella, and C. rhoina is considered to be unrelated to the genus Leptosillia, but its generic affinities cannot be resolved in lack of DNA sequence data. Phylogenetic analyses place Leptosillia as sister taxon to Delonicicolaceae, and based on morphological and ecological differences, the new family Leptosilliaceae is established. Furfurella, a new genus with the three new species, F. luteostiolata, F. nigrescens and F. stromatica, growing on dead branches of mediterranean fabaceous shrubs from tribe Genisteae, is revealed to be the closest relative of Delonicicola in the family Delonicicolaceae, which is emended. ITS rDNA sequence data retrieved from GenBank demonstrate that the Leptosilliaceae were frequently isolated or sequenced as endophytes from temperate to tropical regions, and show that the genus Leptosillia represents a widely distributed component of endophyte communities of woody plants. Key words: Ascomycota; Diaporthales; eight new combinations; five new taxa; phylogenetic analysis; pyrenomycetes; Sordariomycetes.
32141Marquardt B., Rathjen J., Boch S., Kaiser T. & Dengler J. (2004): Naturschutz im Industriegebiet? – Flora, Vegetation und Naturschutzpotenzial des Lüneburger Hafens. - Drosera, 2004: 43–92.
Nature conservation in an industrial area? – Flora, vegetation and the potential for nature conservation of the Lüneburg harbour In summer 2002, the vegetation of the industrial area Lüneburg harbour has been examined. This area is located in the eastern part of the city Lüneburg (Lower Saxony, NW Germany). It is characterised by plant communities of dry and poor open sites. Besides heathland communities and xerotherm grassland communities, that dominate large parts of the area, ruderal vegetation, pasture vegetation and woodland communities are occurring. 356 taxa of vascular plants, 51 taxa of bryophytes and 37 taxa of lichens were found in the area under investigation. 22 of them are actually listed in the regional red data book, which underlines the nature conservation value of this area. The plant communities occuring in the industrial area are described in detail, and their syntaxonomic classification is discussed. Their spatial distribution is exemplarily illustrated in a vegetation map for one part of the area. A special section is dedicated to the endangered and chorologically interesting plant species found around the Lüneburg harbour. Finally, we discuss the consequences of our results for nature conservation.
32140de Bruyn U. (2001): Zur aktuellen Verbreitung epiphytisch auftretender lichenicoler und nicht lichenisierter flechtenähnlicher Pilze im nördlichen Weser-Ems-Gebiet. - Drosera, 2001: 183–188.
The presented study provides a list of epiphytic lichenicolous fungi and non-lichenized taxa traditionally treated by lichenologists reported for the northern Weser Ems region (Lower Saxony, Germany). Overall 41 taxa are known for the investigated area. 21 taxa are still present in the investigated area, 20 taxa are considered extinct. Six species are reported as new for Lower Saxony. Lichenicolous fungi include a high number of host-specific taxa. They are very susceptible to changes in the environmental conditions.
32139de Bruyn U. (2005): Veränderungen der Flechtenflora der Insel Spiekeroog seit 1900. - Drosera, 2005: 75–88.
Changes of the lichen flora on the East Frisian island of Spiekeroog since1900. – In the course of a survey of the lichen flora on Spiekeroog in 2004/2005, 156 lichen taxa were found. Thus, 182 lichen taxa are known for Spiekeroog. Since 1900, the taxa number has distinctly increased by 87 taxa. Only 26 species have to be considered lost species. The species regarded as „lost“ are mainly species growing in anthropogenic habitats. The loss rate in near-natural habitats, however, is very low. The considerable increase in species is explained by the formation of new habitats (e.g. small island woods) or the deposition of new substrates (e.g. breakwaters in the harbour). The strong increase in soil lichen species in the nearnatural brown dunes is worthy of note. It is presumably explained by the fact that the sand deposit dynamics have been reduced since 1900. For epiphytic lichens no difference is found between island and mainland. Species that spread strongly in the past years have been able to settle on Spiekeroog as well. Species particularly sensitive to air pollution have disappeared.
32138de Bruyn U. & Linders H.-W. (1999): Bedeutung und naturschutzfachliche Bewertung von Hybrid-Pappeln als Trägerbäume für Moos- und Flechtenarten in Nordwestdeutschland. - Drosera, 1999(2): 95–108.
The importance of wayside poplars (Populus x canadensis) for the conservation of bryophytes and lichens in coastal areas of Lower Saxony is pointed out. A sampling method and an evaluation procedure to assess the significance for species conservation are presented. The problems of short-lived poplars as phorophytes for endangered bryophytes and lichens are discussed. Replacement plantations of long-lived tree species should be initiated. The preservation of selected stands of poplars rich in endangered species is proposed in order to maintain the present species inventory. They are important to bridge the existing gap in phorophytes. Suitable tree species for new plantations of wayside trees are suggested. A different aspect concerns the role of poplars for biomonitoring purposes. With the disappearance of wayside poplars valuable monitoring sites are lost and cannot be substituted within the next decades. This results in a loss of information concerning the control of im- mission rates in these regions.
32137Linders H.-W. (1986): Zur Verbreitung epiphytischer Makroflechten im Landkreis Leer. - Drosera, 1986: 57–70.
39 species of epiphytic macrolichens were mapped in the district of Leer, Northwestern Germany during 1985. A comparison with earlier reports indicates a strong, negative trend in the distribution of these species. Parmelia flaventior Stirton is reported as new in the investigated area.
32136Wagner H.-G. (2013): Funde bemerkenswerter Flechten, lichenicoler und flechtenähnlicher Pilze in Niedersachsen – ein Aufruf zur gezielten Erfassung wenig beachteter ökologischer und systematischer Gruppen. - Drosera, 2011: 119–126.
records of remarkable lichens and lichenicolous fungi in Lower saxony – a call for targeted recording of hitherto neglected ecological and systematic groups. – some lichenicolous fungi for the first time found in Lower Saxony are listed same as other mentionable findings. Only recently a supposedly complete flora list for Lower Saxony was published and yet ten new species have to be added after only a short period. Therefore, it is encouraged to do some deeper research on private and public basis including the missing inconspicuous species as well as those hard to determine.
32135Bock B. (2019): Unterschätzt und oft übersehen – Die Flechten. - Im Gseis, 33: 4–7.
[in German] Popular paper published in the official journal of the Nationalpark Gesäuse (Austria).
32134Mezaki Y., Kato S., Nishikawa O., Takashima I., Tsubokura M., Minowa H., Asakura T., Matsuura T. & Senoo H. (2019): Measurements of radiocesium in animals, plants and fungi in Svalbard after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant disaster. - Heliyon, 5: e03051 [7 p.].
An earthquake struck the eastern part of Japan on March 11, 2011. The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant was severely damaged by the earthquake and subsequent tsunami, leading to the emission of large amounts of radioactive pollutants, including 134Cs and 137Cs, into the environment. From August 23 to September 1 in 2011, and from August 27 to September 4 in 2013, we collected samples of animals, plants, fungi and lichens from Svalbard, Norway and measured the radioactivity of 134Cs and 137Cs contained in the samples. Though no radioactivity of 134Cs, which has a half-life of approximately 2 years, was observed, radioactivity of 137Cs, which has a half-life of approximately 30 years, was observed in some samples of lichens and fungi. We failed to detect the radioactivity of 134Cs in any of the samples we collected, therefore, it was impossible to say clearly that the radioactivity is derived from Fukushima or not. Nevertheless, the radioactivity data documented in this report are a useful reference for the future surveys of radioactivity within the Arctic.
32133Bungartz F., Elix J.A. & Printzen C. (2020): Lecanoroid lichens in the Galapagos Islands: the genera Lecanora, Protoparmeliopsis, and Vainionora (Lecanoraceae, Lecanoromycetes). - Phytotaxa, 431(1): 1–85.
As part of the Galapagos lichen inventory, species in the genus Lecanora and closely related genera have been revised, using both historic and recent collections. A total of 34 species are reported of which fourteen are new to science: Lecanora atro-ocellata, L. cactacea, L. cerebriformis, L. cerebrosorediata, L. confusoides, L. darwiniana, L. kalbii, L. malagae, L. ombligulata, L. pyrrhosporoides, L. subaureoides, L. terpenoidea, Protoparmeliopsis ertzii, and Vainionora nugrae. The taxonomy of Lecanora s.l. remains poorly resolved. Based on morphological similarities we assign the species treated here to several informal groups: the largest, with thirteen species, is the Lecanora subfusca-group, i.e., the core of Lecanora s.str. In the archipelago, most species in this group grow on bark but a few occur on rock. Seven species, assigned here to the L. marginata-group, occur exclusively on rock. Two species are included in the L. pallida-group, which may also include L. cactacea. However, this species is retained in the L. subfusca-group as it lacks densely pruinose discs. Three species are treated as part of the L. pinguis group. Six species belong to a heterogeneous assemblage commonly referred to as the L. varia-group. Species in this group are not necessarily closely related, but assigning them to phylogenetically defined, “natural” clades, i.e., the L. symmicta- or L. polytropa-groups, is currently not possible. Species of Vainionora share characteristics with these species as well as with species in the L. subfusca-group; the characters used to distinguish Vainionora from Lecanora are reviewed. A total of seven Lecanora species previously reported for the Galapagos could not be confirmed. Detailed descriptions for all thirty-four species of Lecanora, Protoparmeliopsis and Vainionora so far known from Galapagos are presented. An identification key for these species is provided. Bryonora granulata Fryday is reported as new to Galapagos. Keywords: Census of Galapagos Biodiversity, Galapagos Lichen Inventory, taxonomy, identification key, South America, Pyrrhospora, Lichens, Fungi.
32132Woods R.G. (2010): A Lichen Red Data List for Wales / Rhestr o Gen Data Coch ar gyfer Cymru. - Plantlife, Salisbury, 69 p.
This report presents the results of a comprehensive analysis of the current status of lichens in Wales using the updated IUCN criteria. It has brought to light a suite of species more threatened in Wales than in the rest of Britain, as well as some species threatened in Britain but which are doing better in Wales. Wales has a responsibility to protect and conserve all these threatened species, and it is hoped the findings of this study will be used to inform priorities for conservation action and future revisions of the British Red Data Book of Lichens and the list of lichens that appear in Section 42 of the Natural Environment and Rural Communities Act (NERC) 2006 (Habitats and species of principal importance in Wales). It also highlights those species with Welsh populations of European and/or world significance. This report has been produced by Plantlife Cymru with the support of the Countryside Council for Wales and the British Lichen Society.
32131Marshall A.J., Blanchon D.J., Aptroot A. & de Lange P.J. (2020): Five new records of Pyrenula (Pyrenulaceae) for New Zealand. - New Zealand Journal of Botany, 58(1): 48–61.
Pyrenula (Pyrenulaceae) is a poorly studied genus of lichenized mycobiota in New Zealand. Following the sampling of lichens from over 50 vegetation plots established within the Auckland Region by the Auckland Council, we have recognised a further five species of Pyrenula: P. leucostoma (Zahlbr.) R. C. Harris, P. microcarpa Müll. Arg., P. pyrenuloides (Mont.) R. C. Harris, P. subumbilicata (C. Knight) Aptroot and P. subvariolosa (C. Knight) Aptroot from the New Zealand Botanical Region. These discoveries increase the number of Pyrenula accepted for New Zealand from 10 to 15, and extend the range of two species previously regarded as endemic to Australia. The discoveries also highlight the importance of undertaking more comprehensive lichen sampling within New Zealand’s ecosystems. We recommend that, for those regions where permanent vegetation plots have been established for long-term monitoring, an assessment of lichen diversity should also be included in their initial sampling phase and monitoring protocols. With these additions, as well as changes in the taxonomy of New Zealand Pyrenula, a revised key to the known species of Pyrenula in New Zealand is presented. Keywords: Pyrenulaceae, Pyrenula, P. leucostoma, P. microcarpa, P. pyrenuloides, P. subumblicata, P. subvariolosa, Auckland Region, additions New Zealand mycobiota.
32130Yin A.C., Wang X.Y., Liu D., Zhang Y.Y., Yang M.X., Li L.J. & Wang L.S. (2019): Two new species of Placolecis (lichenized Ascomycota) from China. - Mycobiology, 47(4): 401–407.
Two new species of the lichen genus Placolecis are discovered in China, namely P. kunmingensis An. C. Yin & Li S. Wang and P. sublaevis An. C. Yin & Li S. Wang. The new combination P. loekoesiana (S.Y. Kondr., Farkas, J.J. Woo & Hur) An. C. Yin is proposed. Placolecis kunmingensis is characterized by having simple, spherical or ellipsoid, hyaline spores, and pear-shaped pycnidia; while P. sublaevis can be distinguished by its thallus forming larger aggregations with slightly flattened lobes at the thallus margin, and urn-shaped pycnidia. Descriptions, a phylogenetic tree and a key are provided for all the known Placolecis species in China. Keywords: Lichen, taxonomy, Catillariaceae, Yunnan Province.
32129Puglisi M. & Cataldo D. (2019): A comparative study on the bryophyte and lichen flora for monitoring the conservation status of protected areas of Sicily (Italy). - Nova Hedwigia, 109: 321–343.
A comparative analysis of the bryophytes and lichens used as environmental bioindicators of three Oriented Nature Reserves of the Ionian coast of Sicily (Italy) is presented. For this purpose, ecological and bio-ecological indices (Ellenberg indices, life form, life strategy, human impact, poleotolerance) were considered. Comparing the ecological data, the bryophytes result more tolerant than lichens of shaded condition, moist substrate, conversely, lichens reveal higher resistance to xericity and eutrophication and a preference towards the conditions of photophily. Relating to the bio-ecological parameters, bryophytes and lichens agree in revealing a more marked anthropic disturbance in the ONR Oasi del Simeto, a moderate disturbance in the ONR Fiume Fiumefreddo and even more moderate in the ONR La Timpa, the best preserved Reserve. Key words: bioindicators; bryophytes; lichens; Oriented Nature Reserves; Sicily.
32128Öztürk Ş., Güvenç Ş. & Oran S. (2019): The determination of the changes in epiphytic lichen diversity at microclimatic conditions the Quercus petraea (Mattuschka) Liebl. forest in the Uludağ Mountains (Bursa, Turkey). - Nova Hedwigia, 109: 475–487.
The aim of this study is to determine the effects of microclimatic factors and tree size on epiphytic lichen diversity in different parts of Quercus petraea. The microclimatic factors used were tree size, the base and trunk of the tree, bark surface moisture, and environmental factors such as the amount of relative humidity and light in the environment. A total of 35 epiphytic lichen species was found in the Quercus petraea forest in the Uludağ Mountains. Parmelia sulcata was the most common species. The highest species diversity was found in small trees. Shannon diversity on the trunk of the tree decreased with the increase in the tree size. The relationship between tree size and species richness on the trunk of the tree was found to be more significant than that found on the base. It has been determined that the frequency of some species on the base and trunk of the tree was increased as a result of an increase in the amount of relative humidity and light in the environment and an increase in the bark surface moisture. At the same time the frequency decreased when the amount of relative humidity and light in the environment and bark surface moisture decreased. Key words: biodiversity; epiphytic lichen; microclima; Quercus petraea; Uludağ.
32127Jiang S.H., Hawksworth D.L., Lücking R. & Wei J.C. (2020): A new genus and species of foliicolous lichen in a new family of Strigulales (Ascomycota: Dothideomycetes) reveals remarkable class-level homoplasy. - IMA Fungus, 11: 1 [13 p.].
Phylogenetic analysis of some foliicolous lichens collected in Hainan Province, China, revealed a new lineage morphologically similar to Porina but phylogenetically related to Strigulaceae (Dothideomycetes), differing from the latter in ascus type. The monospecific genus Tenuitholiascus gen. nov. is introduced for the single species, T. porinoides sp. nov., which is placed in the new, monogeneric family Tenuitholiascaceae, sister to Strigulaceae in Strigulales. The new taxon closely resembles the genus Porina in external morphology and ascospore type, as well as the thin-walled asci and unbranched paraphyses. Yet, it is entirely unrelated to the latter, which belongs in class Lecanoromycetes in the order Gyalectales. Keywords: Phylloblastia, Phyllocratera, Phylloporis.
32126Padgett T. & Wiersma Y.F. (2020): Arboreal macrolichen community composition and habitat associations in boreal forested wetlands of Newfoundland, Canada. - Bryologist, 123(1): 64–74.
Forested wetlands are ecologically and economically important, but many are poorly understood. A robust inventory of species is important for sound management in these ecosystems, particularly ones that include cryptogams such as arboreal lichens, which are rich and abundant in forested wetlands. On the island of Newfoundland, Canada, little is known about what lichens are found in forested wetlands, how lichen communities interact with different forested wetlands, or whether there are lichens unique to forested wetlands. Therefore, we investigated the potential for macrolichens to act as indicators of forested bog, fen and swamp wetland classes in four regions. We counted macrolichen thalli, by species, on the lower bole of black spruce (Picea mariana) trees within plots from each forested wetland class in each region. We also collected data on habitat characteristics in each wetland: soil pH, canopy closure, and ground and shrub cover, all of which differed significantly among forested wetland classes. Macrolichen communities differed among regions and forested wetland classes but the greatest differences were among regions. We also attempted to identify reliable macrolichen indicator species for forested wetland classes and regions but were unsuccessful. A lichen of conservation concern, Erioderma pedicellatum (Hue) P.M.Jørg., was detected in some of our forested wetland sites, highlighting the importance of proper management of these unique habitats. Keywords: Ecoregions, indicator species, forested bogs, forested fens, swamps, epiphytes.
32125Garrido-Benavent I., Pérez-Ortega S., Durán J., Ascaso C., Pointing S.B., Rodríguez-Cielos R., Navarro F. & de los Ríos A. (2020): Differential Colonization and Succession of Microbial Communities in Rock and Soil Substrates on a Maritime Antarctic Glacier Forefield. - Frontiers in Microbiology, 11: 126 [19 p.] doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2020.00126.
Glacier forefields provide a unique chronosequence to assess microbial or plant colonization and ecological succession on previously uncolonized substrates. Patterns of microbial succession in soils of alpine and subpolar glacier forefields are well documented but those affecting high polar systems, including moraine rocks, remain largely unexplored. In this study, we examine succession patterns in pioneering bacterial, fungal and algal communities developing on moraine rocks and soil at the Hurd Glacier forefield (Livingston Island, Antarctica). Over time, changes were produced in the microbial community structure of rocks and soils (ice-free for different lengths of time), which differed between both substrates across the entire chronosequence, especially for bacteria and fungi. In addition, fungal and bacterial communities showed more compositional consistency in soils than rocks, suggesting community assembly in each niche could be controlled by processes operating at different temporal and spatial scales. Microscopy revealed a patchy distribution of epilithic and endolithic lithobionts, and increasing endolithic colonization and microbial community complexity along the chronosequence. We conclude that, within relatively short time intervals, primary succession processes at polar latitudes involve significant and distinct changes in edaphic and lithic microbial communities associated with soil development and cryptogamic colonization. Keywords: Antarctica, Livingston Island, algae, bacteria, fungi, geomicrobiology, chronosequence, primary succession.
32124Biľová I., Goga M. & Bačkor M. (2019): Physiological responses of Xanthoria parietina to long-term copper excess: role of the extracellular secondary metabolite parietin. - Botanica Serbica, 43: 133–142.
Xanthoria parietina is a common lichen that is widespread around the world. Tolerance of heavy metal pollution in this lichen is well known. Xanthoria parietina contains the secondary metabolite parietin, which protects the photobiont from high UV- radiation. Secondary metabolites of lichens have been found to form complexes with metal cations. In a long-term experiment (lasting 8 weeks), we tested the resistance of X. parietina with and without the secondary metabolite parietin against two concentrations of Cu (50 μM and 500 μM). Removal of parietin did not affect the measured physiological parameters. However, it caused higher accumulation of intracellular Cu. De novo synthesis of parietin in the lichen thallus after removal of the metabolite was not observed. Physiological parameters (chlorophyll a fluorescence, chlorophyll a integrity, content of soluble proteins, ergosterol levels, TBARS production) were affected by the higher dose of Cu during the long-term experiment. It seems that the secondary metabolite parietin does not protect the lichen against Cu excess. Keywords: parietin, lichens, heavy metals, accumulation, tolerance.
32123Ručová D., Goga M., Sabovljević M.S., Vilková M., Petruľová V. & Bačkor M. (2019): Insights into physiological responses of mosses Physcomitrella patens and Pohlia drummondii to lichen secondary metabolites. - Protoplasma, 256: 1585–1595.
It is widely accepted that allelopathy among mosses and lichens do exist due to its similar ecological needs, though it is rarely documented. With an aim to test whether there is an effect of allelochemicals to mosses, we grow axenically two moss species (namely Physcomitrella patens and Pohlia drummondii) in controlled conditions and use them to test the effect of lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea acetone extracts containing active compounds: atranorin, chloratranorin, and physodic acid. The photosynthesis value and the biochemical parameters were measured to detect changes in moss organisms upon application of different concentration of lichen extract. The results obtained clearly showed that both moss species reacted to allelochemicals applied in test but to different extent. This suggests that tested moss species have various patterns on reaction to allelochemicals, and that the process of allelopathy is rather a recently coevolving one, than pre-defined. The lichen secondary metabolites are allelochemicals effective also to moss species that are not selected lichen cohabitants. Keywords: Lichenized fungi; Secondary metabolites; Bryophytes; Allelopathy.
32122Caneva G., Fidanza M.R., Tonon C. & Favero-Longo S.E. (2020): Biodeterioration patterns and their Interpretation for potential applications to stone conservation: a hypothesis from allelopathic inhibitory effects of lichens on the Caestia Pyramid (Rome). - Sustainability, 12(3): 1132 [15 p.].
The colonisation of stone by different organisms often leaves biodeterioration patterns (BPs) on the surfaces even if their presence is no longer detectable. Peculiar weathering patterns on monuments and rocks, such as pitting phenomena, were recognised as a source of information on past colonisers and environmental conditions. The evident inhibition areas for new bio-patinas observed on the marble blocks of the Caestia Pyramid in Rome, recognisable as tracks of previous colonisations, seem a source for developing new natural products suitable for restoration activities. To hypothesise past occurring communities and species, which gave rise to such BPs, we carried out both in situ observations and analyses of the rich historical available iconography (mainly photographs). Moreover, we analysed literature on the lichen species colonising carbonate stones used in Roman sites. Considering morphology, biochemical properties and historical data on 90 lichen species already reported in Latium archaeological sites, we suppose lichen species belonging to the genus Circinaria (Aspicilia s.l.) to be the main aetiological agent of such peculiar BPs. These results seem relevant to highlight the long-lasting allelopathic properties of some lichen substances potentially applicable as a natural product to control colonisation, improving the environmental and economical sustainability of stone restoration. Keywords: lichen allelopathic substances; natural biocides; stone biodeterioration; stone conservation; historical photographs.
32121Miao C., Tang R., Dong L., Ren Z. & Zhao Z. (2019): Haematomma pluriseptatum sp. nov. from China. - Mycotaxon, 134: 637–641.
A new species, Haematomma pluriseptatum, is described from southwestern China. This corticolous species is characterized by large ascospores with (19–)20–26(–27) septa and by the presence of atranorin, russulone, and pseudoplacodiolic acid. A detailed description of its morphology, high resolution photographs, chemistry, comments, and distribution are provided. Related lichen taxa are discussed, and a key to the species of Haematomma from China is also provided. Key words—East Asia, Haematommataceae, Lecanorales, lichenized fungi, taxonomy.
32120Borsch T., Stevens A.-D., Häffner E., Güntsch A., Berendsohn W.G., Appelhans M.S., Barilaro C., Beszteri B., Blattner F.R., Bossdorf O., Dalitz H., Dressler S., Duque-Thüs R., Esser H.-J., Franzke A., Goetze D., Grein M., (2020): A complete digitization of German herbaria is possible, sensible and should be started now. . - Research Ideas and Outcomes, 6: e50675 [27 p.].
Keywords: Herbaria, Digitization, Botanical Collections, Research Infrastructure, Biodiversity Data, Conservation, Biomonitoring, Taxonomy, Semantics, Artificial Intelligence.
32119Rinas C. & McMullin R.T. (2020): Alectoria sorediosa new to Quebec from Parc national du Mont-Mégantic. - Evansia, 36(4): 135–138.
Alectoria sorediosa is reported from Québec, Canada for the first time from the conifer zone above 1000 m in Parc national du Mont-Mégantic. This rare species has only been reported in North America five times previously. Ours is the second report from eastern North America. Key words. Biogeography, Parmeliaceae, rare species.
32118Benesperi R., Brunialti G., Fappiano A., Frati L., Giordani P., Loppi S., Paoli L., Ravera S., Buzio P., Benco C., Martellos S. & Tretiach M. (2007): Contributo alla conoscenza della flora lichenica dell’Abetone, Appennino Tosco-Emiliano [Contribution to the knowledge of the epiphytic and terricolous lichen flora of Abetone (Tuscan - Emilian Apennines, Central Italy)]. - Informatore Botanico Italiano, 39(1): 43–51.
[in Italian with English abstract:] 200 infrageneric taxa of lichenised and lichenicolous fungi are reported from the Abetone area (Tuscan - Emilian Apennines, Central Italy). Psilolechia clavulifera (Nyl.) Coppins is a new addition to the lichen flora of Italy, other 17 taxa are new to Central Italy, 26 to Tuscany, 2 to Emilia Romagna. The presence of some taxa previously known from collections of the XIX° century is confirmed. The ecology and distribution of selected species are discussed.
32117Gruszka W. & Lipnicki L. (2019): Standard procedure for the identification of lichen refuges: a case study of the Krajeńskie Lakeland area in Poland. - Ecological Questions, 30(4): 19–27.
This paper presents guidelines for the identification of lichen refuges based on research carried out in the Krajeńskie Lakeland between 2009 and 2014. The main goal of this publication was to establish a methodology to distinguish refuges from other habitats. The main points of this methodology include the precise determination of the research area, comprehensive development of its local lichenobiotic biodiversity, identification of the most valuable species (mainly rare and endangered) and selection of areas with the highest concentration of their stands. Keywords: epiphytic lichens, refuge, endangered species, local biodiversity.
32116Tanona M. & Czarnota P. (2019): Natural disturbances of the structure of Norway spruce forests in Europe and their impact on the preservation of epixylic lichen diversity: A review. - Ecological Questions, 30(4): 7–17.
The review of current studies on the importance of two main natural disturbances in montane and boreal forests of Europe, dominated by Norway spruce, namely windstorms and the spruce bark beetle outbreaks, for the accumulation of decaying wood in forest ecosystems, shows the relationship between these processes and the creation of habitat diversity for epixylic lichens, especially in the context of the conservation of rare and endangered species. At the same time, this work reveals insufficiency of knowledge on this subject and points to the potential negative effects of removing this substrate in forests under area protection. It also includes recommendations for modern forestry, in which one of the significant goals would be to protect biodiversity. Keywords: bark beetle outbreaks, windstorms, lichen protection, decaying wood.
32115Haughian S.R. & Lundholm J.L. (2019): The Moss Machine in action: a preliminary test of a low-cost, indoor cultivation method for mosses. - Evansia, 36(4): 139–150.
Mosses and lichens are not generally used in green architecture and gardens in Canada, despite being widely used elsewhere in the world. This may be partly due to a lack of products that promote or incorporate them as landscaping elements. We built a low-cost growth cart specifically for mosses and lichens, called the “Moss Machine”, and tested its ability to grow four types of moss over 4.5 months in an indoor setting. Moss growth ranged from 1.5-4.5 cm over the duration of the study, with differences primarily due to species identity. The primary opportunity for improvement appears to be around the timing, duration, and overall management of watering regimens. We discuss other limitations and benefits of this initial design and recommend improvements for the next stage of development. Key words: Bryophyte, lichen, green roof, growth cart, ex situ conservation.
32114Munzi S., Benesperi R., Bianchi E., Brackel W. v., Di Nuzzo L., Favero-Longo S.E., Gheza G., Giordani P., Matteucci E., Paoli L. & Tonon C. (2019): Sulle orme dei Sambo. Escursione del XXXI congresso della Società Lichenologica Italiana al Monteferrato. - Notiziario della Società Lichenologica Italiana, 32: 99–107.
[in Italian] Italy; report on lichenological congress excursion
32113Keuler R., Garretson A., Saunders T., Erickson R.J., St. Andre N., Grewe F., Smith H., Lumbsch H.T., Huang J.-P., St. Clair L.L. & Leavitt S.D. (2020): Genome-scale data reveal the role of hybridization in lichen-forming fungi. - Scientific Reports, 10:1497 [14 p.].
Advancements in molecular genetics have revealed that hybridization may be common among plants, animals, and fungi, playing a role in evolutionary dynamics and speciation. While hybridization has been well-documented in pathogenic fungi, the effects of these processes on speciation in fungal lineages with different life histories and ecological niches are largely unexplored. Here we investigated the potential influence of hybridization on the emergence of morphologically and reproductively distinct asexual lichens. We focused on vagrant forms (growing obligately unattached to substrates) within a clade of rock-dwelling, sexually reproducing species in the Rhizoplaca melanophthalma (Lecanoraceae, Ascomycota) species complex. We used phylogenomic data from both mitochondrial and nuclear genomes to infer evolutionary relationships and potential patterns of introgression. We observed multiple instances of discordance between the mitochondrial and nuclear trees, including the clade comprising the asexual vagrant species R. arbuscula, R. haydenii, R. idahoensis, and a closely related rock-dwelling lineage. Despite well-supported phylogenies, we recovered strong evidence of a reticulated evolutionary history using a network approach that incorporates both incomplete lineage sorting and hybridization. These data suggest that the rock-dwelling western North American subalpine endemic R. shushanii is potentially the result of a hybrid speciation event, and introgression may have also played a role in other taxa, including vagrant species R. arbuscula, R. haydenii and R. idahoensis. We discuss the potential roles of hybridization in terms of generating asexuality and novel morphological traits in lichens. Furthermore, our results highlight the need for additional study of reticulate phylogenies when investigating species boundaries and evolutionary history, even in cases with wellsupported topologies inferred from genome-scale data.
32112Steggles E.K., Facelli J.M., Ainsley P.J. & Pound L.M. (2019): Biological soil crust and vascular plant interactions in Western Myall (Acacia papyrocarpa) open woodland in South Australia. - Journal of Vegetation Science, 30: 756–764.
Aim: Biological soil crust (BSC) is a key component of arid environments and plays a major role in determining ecological structure and function. Our research aim was to examine several mechanisms that contribute to BSC–plant interactions at species and community levels, to increase our understanding of plant community dynamics. Location: Yellabinna Regional Reserve, South Australia (30°50′17.99″ S, 132°12′10.37″ E). Methods: We used seed extraction techniques to examine soil seed banks beneath patches with and without BSC, and field and glasshouse experiments to study the effects of crust presence and disturbance on seedling emergence and survival. We also explored the influence of chemical leachates from BSC on seed germination. Results: Biological soil crust plays a pivotal role in influencing spatial patterns in soil seed bank composition. Our results showed less propagules accumulate in soils beneath crust when compared with patches without crust, and that propagule size is a contributing factor to determining their distribution between patch types. We found that late‐stage BSC physically inhibited seedling emergence, which increased when the BSC was disturbed in field experiments. Low seedling survivorship in both patch types suggests that although BSC may suppress recruitment in favourable years, it is low precipitation levels that have the over‐riding impact on recruitment success. Finally, leachates from late‐stage BSC were found to inhibit germination in three annual plant species, whilst early‐stage BSC accelerated germination in one annual plant. This clearly shows that leachate effects on seed germination vary according to plant species and crust successional stage. Conclusion: Overall, we identified several mechanisms through which BSC has complex effects on the annual and short‐lived perennial plant guilds of arid lands. These mechanisms contribute to species diversity through the creation of spatial heterogeneity in soil seed bank structure and emergence opportunities. Keywords: allelopathy, arid ecology, biological soil crust, chemical leachates, chenopod shrubland, microphytic crust, plant community structure, seed germination, seedling emergence, soil seed banks.
32111Hui R., Liu L., Xie M. & Yang H. (2019): Variation in snow cover drives differences in soil properties and microbial biomass of BSCs in the Gurbantunggut Desert—3 years of snow manipulations. - Ecohydrology, 12: e2118 [10 p.] DOI: 10.1002/eco.2118.
Variations in snow cover (as specific precipitation) can have an important effect on development of biological soil crusts (BSCs) in arid and semiarid regions, where water is the principal limiting factor for microorganisms. However, there is still limited knowledge available regarding the effects of snowfall on soil properties and microbial biomass in BSCs. To examine these effects of snow cover, three types of BSCs (cyanobacteria‐dominated, lichen‐dominated, and moss‐dominated crusts) were collected and exposed to five snow depths for 3 years. The results indicated that most of the soil properties and soil microbial biomass were significantly (p < .05) affected by 3 years of snow manipulation in three types of BSCs. In BSCs, the values of most soil properties and microbial biomass were higher in the increased snow depth treatments relative the snow removal treatments. Moreover, there were variations in soil properties and microbial biomass among BSC types. In short, increases/decreases in snow cover had different effects on three types of BSCs after 3 years of manipulation. Moreover, increases in snow cover had a positive influence on soil properties and microbial biomass, but negative effects were observed in all BSCs following snow removal and snow reduction. Thus, variations in snow cover can drive differences in soil properties and microbial biomass of BSCs, which may further affect development and succession of BSCs in arid and semiarid regions. Keywords: biological soil crusts (BSCs), snow cover, soil microbial biomass, successional stages, water availability.
32110Staples R., LaDuca R.L., Roze L.V., Laivenieks M., Linz J.E., Beaudry R., Fryday A., Schilmiller A.L., Koptina A.V., Smith B. & Trail F. (2020): Structure and chemical analysis of major specialized metabolites produced by the lichen Evernia prunastri. - Chemistry and Biodiversity, 17: e1900465 [13 p.] doi: 10.1002/cbdv.201900465.
We performed comparative profiling of four specialized metabolites in the lichen Evernia prunastri, collected at three different geographic locations, California and Maine, USA, and Yoshkar Ola, Mari El, Russia. Among the compounds produced at high concentrations that were identified in all three specimens, evernic acid, usnic acid, lecanoric acid and chloroatranorin, evernic acid was the most abundant. Two depsidones, salazinic acid and physodic acid, were detected in the Yoshkar‐Ola collection only. The crystalline structure of evernic acid (2‐hydroxy‐4‐[(2‐hydroxy‐4‐methoxy‐6‐methylbenzoyl)oxy]‐6‐methylbenzoate) (hmb) revealed two crystallographically and conformationally distinct hmb anions, along with two monovalent sodium atoms. One hmb moiety contained an exotetradentate binding mode to sodium, whereas the other exhibited an exohexadentate binding mode to sodium. Embedded edge‐sharing {Na2O8}n sodium‐oxygen chains connected the hmb anions into the full three‐dimensional crystal structure of the title compound. The crystal used for single‐crystal X‐ray diffraction exhibited non‐merohedral twinning. The data suggest the importance of the acetyl‐polymalonyl pathway products to processes of maintaining integrity of the lichen holobiont community. Keywords: Evernia prunastri, evernic acid, lichen specialized metabolites, crystalline structure, profiling specialized metabolites.
32109Aschenbrenner I.A., Cardinale M., Berg G. & Grube M. (2016): Understanding microbial multi-species symbioses. - Frontiers in Microbiology, 7: 180 [9 p.] doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2016.00180.
[a review paper] Lichens are commonly recognized as a symbiotic association of a fungus and a chlorophyll containing partner, either green algae or cyanobacteria, or both. The fungus provides a suitable habitat for the partner, which provides photosynthetically fixed carbon as energy source for the system. The evolutionary result of the self-sustaining partnership is a unique joint structure, the lichen thallus, which is indispensable for fungal sexual reproduction. The classical view of a dual symbiosis has been challenged by recent microbiome research, which revealed host-specific bacterial microbiomes. The recent results about bacterial associations with lichens symbioses corroborate their notion as a multi-species symbiosis. Multi-omics approaches have provided evidence for functional contribution by the bacterial microbiome to the entire lichen meta-organism while various abiotic and biotic factors can additionally influence the bacterial community structure. Results of current research also suggest that neighboring ecological niches influence the composition of the lichen bacterial microbiome. Specificity and functions are here reviewed based on these recent findings, converging to a holistic view of bacterial roles in lichens. Finally we propose that the lichen thallus has also evolved to function as a smart harvester of bacterial symbionts. We suggest that lichens represent an ideal model to study multi-species symbiosis, using the recently available omics tools and other cutting edge methods. Keywords: lichens, symbiosis, microbiome, Alphaproteobacteria, host-associated bacteria.
32108Karaahmet Z., Kınalıoğlu K. & Aydın S. (2019): Antioxidant and antibacterial potencies of Xanthoparmelia conspersa (Ehrh. ex Ach.) Hale and Dermatocarpon miniatum (L.) W. Mann. lichens from Black Sea Region in Turkey. - Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi, 9(3): 415–424.
Antibacterial properties of Dermatocarpon miniatum (L.) W. Mann and Xanthoparmelia conspersa (Ehrh. ex Ach.) Hale lichens were investigated by disc diffusion and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) methods. Antioxidant capacity of the lichens were examined by utilizing 2,2-diphenyl-1picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, 2,2’Azino-bis (3-ethylbenzenotiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, metal chelating activity, total antioxidant capacity, determination of total phenolic and total flavonoid contents. Extracts showed antibacterial effect against all bacteria except for Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. When compared antibacterial efficiency of the tested lichens, it is concluded that X. conspersa lichen is more active than D. miniatum lichen. DPPH radical scavenging activity of the extracts are increased in the following order: ethanol extract of X. conspersa > acetone extract of D. miniatum > ethanol extract of D. miniatum > acetone extract of X. conspersa. Studied lichen extracts showed relatively weak metal chelating activity. According to the obtained results, it is concluded that D. miniatum and X. conspersa lichen extracts can be alternative antibacterial and antioxidant agents. Keywords: Antibacterial Activity, Antibiotic, Antioxidant Activity, Lichen.
32107Kınalıoğlu K., Aydın S. & Bilgin Sökmen B. (2019): Antimicrobial potential of Usnea longissima Ach. lichen against human pathogens. - Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi, 9(4): 710–715.
Lichens are a symbiotic associations between a fungus and algae and/or cyanobacteria. Lichens use as food and dye source, air pollution indicator, medicinal and decoration. In this study, antimicrobial activity of ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of Usnea longissima Ach. lichen was searched by disc diffusion method. While inhibition zones range from 14.5 mm to 24.5 mm for bacteria, inhibition zones range from 10 mm to 32 mm for fungi. Lichen extracts exhibited higher activity than gentamicin and tetracycline but they showed similar activity to nystatin. The MIC values of the extracts varied between 2-117 μg/mL against bacteria; while the MIC values of the extracts varied between 4-59 μg/mL against fungi. According to the obtained results, it could be said that U. longissima might be an alternative to synthetic antimicrobial agents. Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, Lichen, Microorganism.
32106Zhang K., Jiang L.-Q., Wang L.-S., An D.-F., Lang L., Li G.-D., Wang X.-Y., Shi S.-B., Li Q.-Y., Jiang C.-L. & Jiang Y. (2020): Aureimonas leprariae sp. nov., Isolated from a Lepraria sp. lichen. - Current Microbiology, 77: 313–319.
A Gram-negative, motile, aerobic and coccoid rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain YIM132180T, was isolated from a Lepraria sp. lichen collected from Pu’er, Yunnan Province, China. The strain grew at 15–35 °C (optimum, 25–28 °C), at 0–2% (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 0–1%) and at pH 6.0–9.0 (optimum, pH 7.0). The 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain YIM132180T had highest similarity (96.4%) with Aureimonas endophytica 2T4P-2-4T, followed by Aureimonas ureilytica NBRC 106430T (95.7%) and Aureimonas rubiginis CC-CFT034T (95.6%). Phylogenetic analysis showed that the strain grouped with species of the genus Aureimonas. The genomic sequence was 4,779,519 bp and contained 4584 coding sequences (CDSs), 54 RNA genes, 3 complete rRNA genes and 47 tRNA genes. The major fatty acids (>10%) of strain YIM132180T were C18:1ω7c, C-16:0 and C19:0 cyclo ω8c. The predominant menaquinone was ubiquinone 10 (Q-10). The polar lipid profile comprised diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, unidentified phospholipid, amino lipid, lipid and most importantly sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG). Based on the draft genome sequence, the G +C content of strain YIM132180T was 68.4 mol%. The results of the polyphasic taxonomic study, including phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and phylogenetic analyses, showed that strain YIM132180T represents a novel species of the genus Aureimonas, for which the name Aureimonas leprariae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM 132180T (=KCTC 72462T = CGMCC 1.17389T).
32105Mendonça C.O., Aptroot A., Lücking R. & Cáceres M.E.S. (2020): Global species richness prediction for Pyrenulaceae (Ascomycota: Pyrenulales), the last of the “big three” most speciose tropical microlichen families. - Biodiversity and Conservation, 29: 1059–1079.
Together with Graphidaceae and Trypetheliaceae, Pyrenulaceae forms part of the "big three", the three most speciose, chiefly tropical microlichen families. Microlichens are the most diverse component of tropical lichen communities, with numerous species still to be discovered. Following previous analyses of Graphidaceae and Trypetheliaceae, here we present a global species richness estimate for Pyrenulaceae, using a recently devised method based on a global grid system. We refined this approach by using an iterative adjustment to estimate mean predicted grid range per species from a grid frequency histogram. We also adjusted a previously implemented randomization approach to estimate error margins. Our results showed a global estimate for Pyrenulaceae of (395–)441(–453) species world-wide, 307 of which are currently known, thus an overall predicted increase of over 40%. This includes 416 known and predicted tropical and 25 known, exclusively temperate species, the latter assumed to remain unchanged. While the robustness of the global prediction depends on accurately setting grid sampling scores, individual predicted grid richness varies according to additional factors such as evolutionary history. In addition to undescribed species contribution to predicted richness, we hypothesize that species delimitation studies in presumably widespread taxa will reveal refined species concepts with narrower ranges, thus further increasing estimated global richness. The comparison of predicted richness values for the three families Graphidaceae, Trypetheliaceae and Pyrenulaceae with regard to their evolutionary ages highlights this rather robust method as a promising tool to circumvent sampling and knowledge bias when assessing speciation and diversification patterns. Keywords: Microlichens · Neotropics · Anthracothecium · Lithothelium · Pyrenula · Pyrgillus.
32104Sérusiaux E., Lücking R. & Sparrius L.B. (2008): Opegrapha viridistellata (Roccellaceae), a new foliicolous lichen species from the Paleotropics. - Mycotaxon, 104: 223–227.
The new foliicolous species Opegrapha viridistellata is described from the Paleotropics. The species is characterized by a pale greyish green thallus without black dots, partially branched apothecia covered by a thin thalline layer, predominantly 4-septate ascospores and abundant black pycnidia producing two conidial types. Key words — Australia, Ivory Coast, Japan, New Caledonia, Papua New Guinea, Seychelles, Thailand.
32103Bawingan P., Lardizaval M. & Elix J. (2019): Philippine lichens with bulbate cilia – Bulbothrix and Relicina (Parmeliaceae). - Philippine Journal of Science, 184(4): 637–645.
This paper presents a taxonomic treatment of Bulbothrix and Relicina lichens (Ascomycota, Parmeliaceae) collected in the Philippines, two genera characterized by the presence of bulbate cilia. A total of five species of Bulbothrix and fifteen species of Relicina were identified, with one new record for each genus. The Philippines is a major center of diversity for Relicina. Keywords: coronate apothecia, lichenic acid crystals, parmelioid lichen, retrorse cilia, Hale.
32102John V. (2002): Die botanischen Sammlungen der Pollichia im Pfalzmuseum für Naturkunde, Bad Dürkheim (POLL). Eine erste Übersicht. - Mitteilungen der Pollichia, 89: 141–191.
[The botanical collections of the POLLICHIA in the Natural History Museum of the Palatinate, Bad Dürkheim (POLL). A first overview]. The development of the constituents of the POLLICHIA herbarium between 1840 and 2002 is described. Besides information on the processing and kind of arrangements, from different sections of the collections examples are provided. The paper offers for the first time a register of type specimens and exsiccates stored in the herbarium, as well as an index of collectors and a rough overview on the geographical origin.
32101Werner K. (1988): Zur Geschichte des Herbariums der Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg nebst Anmerkungen zu einigen Sammlern. - Hercynia, 25(1): 11–26.
After a brief account to the task of the Halle herbarium (HAL), its history is described from the foundation in 1819 to 1945. Special attention is given to the most important herbaria of D. F. L. v. Schlechtendal and his father D. F. K. v. Schlechtendal, other holdings are mentioned. New activities in research, started in 1947, stimulated the development and continuous enlargement of the herbarium. The estimated number of specimens in the different plant groups is given. Frequent collectors of flowering plants are named and in addition all bound exsiccata of Cryptogams deposited in HAL. Annotations deal with informations (mainly from unpublished letters) about parts of herb. Lambert in Germany and the collections of Schiede and Deppe, C. A. Ehrenberg, C. Papst, Hohenacker, Drège, Ecklon, and Zeyher.
32100Jagadeesh M.K., Valluri S.R., Kari V., Kubska K. & Kaczmarek Ł. (2020): Indexing exoplanets with physical conditions potentially suitable for rock-dependent extremophiles. - Life, 10(2): 10 [8 p.] .
The search for different life forms elsewhere in the universe is a fascinating area of research in astrophysics and astrobiology. Currently, according to the NASA Exoplanet Archive database, 3876 exoplanets have been discovered. The Earth Similarity Index (ESI) is defined as the geometric mean of radius, density, escape velocity, and surface temperature and ranges from 0 (dissimilar to Earth) to 1 (similar to Earth). The ESI was created to index exoplanets on the basis of their similarity to Earth. In this paper, we examined rocky exoplanets whose physical conditions are potentially suitable for the survival of rock-dependent extremophiles, such as the cyanobacteria Chroococcidiopsis and the lichen Acarospora. The Rock Similarity Index (RSI) is first introduced and then applied to 1659 rocky exoplanets. The RSI represents a measure for Earth-like planets on which physical conditions are potentially suitable for rocky extremophiles that can survive in Earth-like extreme habitats (i.e., hot deserts and cold, frozen lands). Keywords: Earth-like planets; exoplanets; extremophiles; habitability; Rock Similarity Index (RSI).
32099Puntillo D., Pittao E., Benesperi R., Bocca E., Catalano I., Nascimbene J., Ravera S., Matteucci E., Morando M., Potenza G. & lsocrono D. (2017): Lichenes ltalici Exsiccati ex Societa Lichenologica ltaliana. Fascicle I (Nos. 1-12). - Notiziario della Società Lichenologica Italiana, 30: 86–89.
Lichenes ltalici exsiccati ex Società Lichenologica ltaliana, a new series of exsiccata distributed by the Italian Lichen Society (Società Lichenologica ltaliana, SU), is introduced. The labels of the first 12 numbers are listed. Key words: Lichens, exsiccata.
32098Wiersma Y.F., McMullin R.T. & Sleep D.J.H. (2019): Model systems to elucidate minimum requirements for protected areas networks. - Scientific Reports, 9: 19594 [7 p.].
In conservation biology there have been varying answers to the question of “How much land to protect?” Simulation models using decision-support software such as Marxan show that the answer is sensitive to target type and amount, and issues of scale. We used a novel model system for landscape ecology to test empirically whether the minimum conservation requirements to represent all species at least once are consistent across replicate landscapes, and if not, whether these minimum conservation requirements are linked to biodiversity patterns. Our model system of replicated microcosms could be scaled to larger systems once patterns and mechanisms are better understood. We found that the minimum representation requirements for lichen species along the microlandscapes of tree trunks were remarkably consistent (4–6 planning units) across 24 balsam fir trees in a single stand, as well as for 21 more widely dispersed fir and yellow birch trees. Variation in minimum number of planning units required correlated positively with gamma diversity. Our results demonstrate that model landscapes are useful to determine whether minimum representation requirements are consistent across different landscapes, as well as what factors (life history, diversity patterns, dispersal strategies) affect variation in these conservation requirements. This system holds promise for further investigation into factors that should be considered when developing conservation designs, thus yielding scientifically-defensible requirements that can be applied more broadly.
32097Baker M.L., Grove S., de Salas M.F., Byrne C., Cave L., Bonham K., Moore K. & Kantvilas G. (2019): Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery’s Expedition of Discovery I – The flora and fauna of Wind Song, Little Swanport, Tasmania. - Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania, 153: 5–30.
A flora and fauna survey was conducted at the east coast Tasmanian property Wind Song in 2017 as part of the Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery’s ongoing research, collection-building and nature-discovery program. The survey recorded 885 taxa, primarily from the targeted groups of vascular plants, bryophytes, lichens, butterflies, moths, beetles, snails and slugs. Several of the taxa recorded, chiefly lichens and invertebrates, are new to science or new records for Tasmania. The survey provides a benchmark for further work and serves as an indicator of the biodiversity of a former farming property on Tasmania’s east coast. Key Words: species discovery, biodiversity, Tasmania, lichens, multidisciplinary survey.
32096Metz S., Singer D., Domaizon I., Unrein F. & Lara E. (2019): Global distribution of Trebouxiophyceae diversity explored by high-throughput sequencing and phylogenetic approaches. - Environmental Microbiology, 21(10): 3885–3895.
Trebouxiophyceae are a ubiquitous class of Chlorophyta encountered in aquatic and terrestrial environments. Most taxa are photosynthetic, and many acts as photobionts in symbiotic relationships, while others are free-living. Trebouxiophyceae have also been widely investigated for their use for biotechnological applications. In this work, we aimed at obtaining a comprehensive image of their diversity by compiling the information of 435 freshwater, soil and marine environmental DNA samples surveyed with Illumina sequencing technology in order to search for the most relevant environments for bioprospecting. Freshwater and soil were most diverse and shared more than half of all operational taxonomic units (OTUs), however, their communities were significantly distinct. Oceans hosted the highest genetic novelty, and did not share any OTUs with the other environments; also, marine samples host more diversity in warm waters. Symbiotic genera usually found in lichens such as Trebouxia, Myrmecia and Symbiochloris were also abundantly detected in the ocean, suggesting either free-living lifestyles or unknown symbiotic relationships with marine planktonic organisms. Altogether, our study opens the way to new prospection for trebouxiophycean strains, especially in understudied environments like the ocean.
32095Sundqvist M.K., Moen J., Björk R.G., Vowles T., Kytöviita M.‐M., Parsons M.A. & Olofsson J. (2019): Experimental evidence of the long‐term effects of reindeer on Arctic vegetation greenness and species richness at a larger landscape scale. - Journal of Ecology, 107(6): 2724–2736.
Large herbivores influence plant community structure and ecosystem processes in many ecosystems. In large parts of the Arctic, reindeer (or caribou) are the only large herbivores present. Recent studies show that reindeer have the potential to mitigate recent warming‐induced shrub encroachment in the Arctic and the associated greening of high‐latitude ecosystems. This will potentially have large scale consequences for ecosystem productivity and carbon cycling. To date, information on variation in the interactions between reindeer and plants across Arctic landscapes has been scarce. We utilized a network of experimental sites across a latitudinal gradient in the Scandinavian mountains where reindeer have been excluded from 59 study plots for at least 15 years. We used this study system to test the effect of long‐term exclusion of reindeer on the abundance of major plant functional groups, the greenness indexes Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), soil mineral nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P), and species richness, and to determine whether the effect of reindeer exclusion is dependent on reindeer density, productivity, soil fertility or climate. We found that NDVI and LAI, lichen and deciduous shrub abundances were largely reduced while soil mineral N was enhanced by reindeer. The direction and amplitude of other plant functional group responses to reindeer exclusion differed between forest and tundra as well as shrub‐ and herbaceous‐dominated vegetation. Higher reindeer densities were related to decreased plant species richness in low‐productive sites and to increased species richness in productive sites. The relative reduction in LAI and associated absolute reductions of deciduous shrubs in response to reindeer were positively related to reindeer density, while the relative reduction in NDVI was not. Further, relative reductions in LAI and NDVI in response to reindeer were unrelated to climate and soil fertility. Synthesis. Our results provide long‐term experimental evidence highlighting the role of reindeer density in regulating plant species richness, global climate change induced greenness patterns and shrub encroachment at regional scales in the Arctic. These findings emphasize the need to consider reindeer in models predicting vegetation patterns and changes in high‐latitude ecosystems. Keywords: climate change; forest; grazing; large mammalian herbivores; plant community composition; plant–herbivore interactions; soil nutrients; tundra.
32094Havrilla C.A., Chaudhary V.B., Ferrenberg S., Antoninka A.J., Belnap J., Bowker M.A., Eldridge D.J., Faist A.M., Huber‐Sannwald E., Leslie A.D., Rodriguez‐Caballero E., Zhang Y. & Barger N.N. (2019): Towards a predictive framework for biocrust mediation of plant performance: A meta‐analysis. - Journal of Ecology, 107(6): 2789–2807.
Understanding the importance of biotic interactions in driving the distribution and abundance of species is a central goal of plant ecology. Early vascular plants likely colonized land occupied by biocrusts — photoautotrophic, surface‐dwelling soil communities comprised of cyanobacteria, bryophytes, lichens and fungi — suggesting biotic interactions between biocrusts and plants have been at play for some 2,000 million years. Today, biocrusts coexist with plants in dryland ecosystems worldwide, and have been shown to both facilitate or inhibit plant species performance depending on ecological context. Yet, the factors that drive the direction and magnitude of these effects remain largely unknown. We conducted a meta‐analysis of plant responses to biocrusts using a global dataset encompassing 1,004 studies from six continents. Meta‐analysis revealed there is no simple positive or negative effect of biocrusts on plants. Rather, plant responses differ by biocrust composition and plant species traits and vary across plant ontogeny. Moss‐dominated biocrusts facilitated, while lichen‐dominated biocrusts inhibited overall plant performance. Plant responses also varied among plant functional groups: C4 grasses received greater benefits from biocrusts compared to C3 grasses, and plants without N‐fixing symbionts responded more positively to biocrusts than plants with N‐fixing symbionts. Biocrusts decreased germination but facilitated growth of non‐native plant species. Synthesis. Results suggest that interspecific variation in plant responses to biocrusts, contingent on biocrust type, plant traits, and ontogeny can have strong impacts on plant species performance. These findings have important implications for understanding biocrust contributions to plant productivity and community assembly processes in ecosystems worldwide. Keywords: biological soil crust; biotic interactions; biotic resistance; biotic soil community; germination; facilitation; meta‐analysis; plant functional traits; plant–soil (below‐ground) interactions.
32093Rodríguez-Caballero E., Román J.R., Chamizo S., Ramos B.R. & Cantón Y. (2019): Biocrust landscape-scale spatial distribution is strongly controlled by terrain attributes: Topographic thresholds for colonization in a semiarid badland system . - Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 44: 2771–2779.
Biological soil crust, or biocrust communities, are the dominating life form in many extreme habitats, such as arid and semiarid badlands, where water scarcity and highly erodible substrates limit vegetation cover. While climate, soil and biotic factors have been described as environmental filters influencing biocrust distribution in such biomes, little is known about the effect of terrain attributes on creating specific microhabitats that promote or restrict biocrust colonization. This study aimed to identify the main terrain attributes controlling biocrust distribution in the driest badland system in Europe, the Tabernas Badlands (SE Spain). To do this, we analysed the influence of different terrain attributes related to landscape stability and microclimate formation on the spatial distribution of lichen and cyanobacteria, using field measurements and topographical information from a LiDAR survey. Our results showed that the spatial distribution of cyanobacteria-dominated biocrusts, which are physiologically and morphologically adapted to extreme drought and high UVA radiation, was mostly associated with areas of high potential incoming solar radiation. The exception was bare south-aspect hillslopes with very high sediment transport potential, where bare physically crusted soils were the dominant ground cover. Lichen-dominated biocrusts, in contrast, colonized near the top of north-aspect hillslopes, characterized by low potential incoming solar radiation and potential evapotranspiration, and their cover decreased downstream, as conditions became good enough for vascular plants. Keywords: cyanobacteria; lichen; spatial pattern; microclimate; slope; badland.
32092Frisch A., Moen V.S., Grube M. & Bendiksby M. (2020): Integrative taxonomy confirms three species of Coniocarpon (Arthoniaceae) in Norway. - MycoKeys, 62: 27–51.
We have studied the highly oceanic genus Coniocarpon in Norway. Our aim has been to delimit species of Coniocarpon in Norway based on an integrative taxonomic approach. The material studied comprises 120 specimens of Coniocarpon, obtained through recent collecting efforts (2017 and 2018) or received from major fungaria in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, as well as from private collectors. We have assessed (1) species delimitations and relationships based on Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses of three genetic markers (mtSSU, nucITS and RPB2), (2) morphology and anatomy using standard light microscopy, and (3) secondary lichen chemistry using high-performance thin-layer chromatography. The results show three genetically distinct lineages of Coniocarpon, representing C. cinnabarinum, C. fallax and C. cuspidans comb. nov. The latter was originally described as Arthonia cinnabarina f. cuspidans and is herein raised to species level. All three species are supported by morphological, anatomical and chemical data. Keywords: Arthoniales, Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood, morphology, mtSSU, nucITS, phylogeny, RPB2.
32091Zhao Y., Jia R.L. & Wang J. (2019): Towards stopping land degradation in drylands: Water‐saving techniques for cultivating biocrusts in situ. - Land Degradation and Development, 30: 2336–2346.
In recent years, inoculating sand surfaces with biocrust organisms has become one of the most promising biotechnological strategies for controlling and reversing land degradation in drylands. To fully exploit this biotechnology on a large scale in drylands, researchers must explore water‐saving techniques to incubate biocrusts in situ. To achieve this aim, we tested three methods—broadcasting dried cyanobacteria, spraying fresh cyanobacteria, and broadcasting natural biocrust fragments—to culture biocrusts in situ on the Tengger Desert in Northern China. The cover of incubated biocrust increased during the first 2 months after inoculation (from 6% to more than 20.0% in treatments using biocrust fragments); biocrust cover declined but persisted after 12 months of incubation (13.8% cover in the best treatment, natural cyanobacteria fragments). The cover of cyanobacteria was higher than the cover of lichen in our natural cyanobacteria‐lichen crust fragment treatment (NCL; p < .05) after incubating for 12 months. We highlight that cyanobacteria should be selected for biocrust incubation during the initial stages of dryland restoration. Accumulated rainfall was positively related to the cover of incubated biocrust. However, wind speed and wind erosion intensity were both negatively related to the cover of incubated biocrust. In conclusion, broadcasting biocrust fragments is a rapid, efficient, and water‐saving biotechnique to cultivate biocrusts in situ. Actions to reduce wind speed and wind erosion, such as mechanical sand fixing, can help stabilize soils and improve crust cultivation. Keywords: cyanobacteria, eco‐friendly biotechnique, ecology restoration, water‐saving.
32090Chelli S., Marignani M., Barni E., Petraglia A., Puglielli G., Wellstein C., Acosta A.T.R., Bolpagni R., Bragazza L., Campetella G., Chiarucci A., Conti L., Nascimbene J., Orsenigo S., Pierce S., Ricotta C., Tardella F.M., Abeli T., Aronne G., Bacaro G., Bagella S., Benesperi R., Bernareggi G., Bonanomi G., Bricca A., Brusa G., Buffa G., Burrascano S., Caccianiga M., Calabrese V., Canullo R., Carbognani M., Carboni M., Carranza M.L., Catorci A., Ciccarelli D., Citterio S., Cutini M., Fratte M.D., De Micco V., Del Vecchio S., Di Martino L., Di Musciano M., Fantinato E., Filigheddu R., Frattaroli A.R., Gentili R., Gerdol R., Giarrizzo E., Giordani P., Gratani L., Incerti G., (2019): Plant–environment interactions through a functional traits perspective: a review of Italian studies. - Plant Biosystems, 153(6): 853–869.
Italy is among the European countries with the greatest plant diversity due to both a great environmental heterogeneity and a long history of man–environment interactions. Trait-based approaches to ecological studies have developed greatly over recent decades worldwide, although several issues concerning the relationships between plant functional traits and the environment still lack sufficient empirical evaluation. To draw insights on the association between plant functional traits and direct and indirect human and natural pressures on the environmental drivers, this article summarizes the existing knowledge on this topic by reviewing the results of studies performed in Italy adopting a functional trait approach on vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens. Although we recorded trait measurements for 1418 taxa, our review highlighted some major gaps in plant traits knowledge: Mediterranean ecosystems are poorly represented; traits related to belowground organs are still overlooked; traits measurements for bryophytes and lichens are lacking. Finally, intraspecific variation has been little studied at community level so far. We conclude by highlighting the need for approaches evaluating trait–environment relationship at large spatial and temporal scales and the need of a more effective contribution to online databases to tie more firmly Italian researchers to international scientific networks on plant traits. Keywords: Climate change, CSR plant strategy theory, forest management, intraspecific variability, land use change, plant traits, terrestrial and freshwater environments.
32089Huang J.‐B., Liu W.‐Y., Li S., Song L., Lu H.‐Z., Shi X.‐M., Chen X., Hu T., Liu S. & Liu T. (2019): Ecological stoichiometry of the epiphyte community in a subtropical forest canopy. - Ecology and Evolution, 9: 14394–14406.
Epiphytes in tree canopies make a considerable contribution to the species diversity, aboveground biomass, and nutrient pools in forest ecosystems. However, the nutrient status of epiphytes and their possible adaptations to nutrient deficiencies in the forest canopy remain unclear. Therefore, we analyzed the stoichiometry of five macroelements (C, N, P, K, and Ca) in four taxonomic groups (lichens, bryophytes, ferns, and spermatophytes) to investigate this issue in a subtropical montane moist evergreen broad‐leaved forest in Southwest China. We found that the interspecific variations in element concentrations and mass ratios were generally greater than the intraspecific variations. And there were significant stoichiometric differences among functional groups. Allometric relationships between N and P across the epiphyte community indicated that P might be in greater demand than N with an increase in nutrients. Although canopy nutrients were deficient, most epiphytes could still maintain high N and P concentrations and low N:P ratios. Moreover, ferns and spermatophytes allocated more limited nutrients to leaves than to stems and roots. To alleviate frequent drought stress in the forest canopy, vascular epiphytes maintained several times higher K concentrations in their leaves than in the tissues of lichens and bryophytes. Our results suggest that epiphytes may have evolved specific nutrient characteristics and adaptations, so that they can distribute in heterogeneous canopy habitats and maintain the stability of nutrient metabolism. Forest canopies are occupied by nearly 600 epiphytic species (including lichens, bryophytes, ferns, and spermatophytes) in a subtropical montane moist evergreen broad‐leaved forest in Southwest China. However, the nutrient status of epiphytes and their adaptations to nutrient deficiencies in the forest canopy remain unclear. In this study, we analyzed the stoichiometry of five macroelements (C, N, P, K, and Ca) of dominant epiphytes and found that stoichiometric characteristics differed across species and functional groups. Keywords: arboreal epiphyte; element content; functional group; nutritional strategy; phylogeny; stoichiometric ratio.
32088Wang M., Wang C. & Jia R. (2019): The impact of nitrogen deposition on photobiont‐mycobiont balance of epiphytic lichens in subtropical forests of central China. - Ecology and Evolution, 9: 13468–13476.
Excessive nitrogen (N) deposition can impact lichen diversity in forest ecosystems, and this is a particular situation in China. Here, we examined the N uptake, assimilation, and the impact of excessive N deposition on the symbiotic balance of dominant epiphytic lichens in the subtropical forests in the Mts. Shennongjia of central China. The results show that lichen species took up, assimilated and utilized more ammonium than nitrate in a species-specific way, following the increase of N availability. The photobiont of the lichens decreased with the increase of N concentration following an initial increase, while the mycobiont response to the N addition was not apparent. Considerable variation in response to excessive N deposition exists among the lichen species. Usnea longissima could regulate its N uptake, resulting in a stable photobiont-mycobiont ratio among N treatments. In contrast, the photobiont-mycobiont ratio of other four lichens increased initially but decreased when N concentration exceeded a certain level, and N stress may have broken the balance between photobiont and mycobiont of these lichens. Our results suggest that most epiphytic lichens in subtropical forest of central China could uptake and assimilate more ammonium than nitrate and that the balance between photobiont and mycobiont of many epiphytic lichens might change with the increasing N deposition load, which could impact the lichen diversity of this forest ecosystem. Keywords: ammonium; chlorophyll; ergosterol; lichen; nitrate.
32087Fick S.E., Barger N., Tatarko J. & Duniway M.C. (2020): Induced biological soil crust controls on wind erodibility and dust (PM10) emissions. - Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 45(1): 224–236.
Inducing biological soil crust (biocrust) development is an appealing approach for dust mitigation in drylands due to the resistance biocrusts can provide against erosion. Using a portable device, we evaluated dust emissions from surfaces either inoculated with biocrust, amended with a plant‐based soil stabilizer, or both at varying wind friction velocities. Four months after application, emissions from all treatments were either indistinguishable from or greater than controls, despite evidence of biocrust establishment. All treatments had greater surface roughness and showed more evidence of entrapment of windblown sediment than controls, factors which may have been partially responsible for elevated emissions. There was a synergistic effect of inoculation and stabilizer addition, resulting in a nearly two‐fold reduction in estimated emissions compared to either treatment alone. Stepwise regression analysis indicated that variables associated with surface crust strength (aggregate stability, penetration resistance) were negatively associated with emissions and variables associated with sediment supply (sand content, loose sediment cover) were positively associated with emissions. With more time to develop, the soil‐trapping activity and surface integrity of biocrust inoculum and soil stabilizer mixtures is expected to increase with the accumulation of surface biomass and enhancement of roughness through freeze–thaw cycles. We measured dust emissions from surfaces either inoculated with biological soil crust, amended with an organic stabilizer, or both at varying wind friction velocities. Four months after treatment initiation, we found combinations of inoculant and stabilizer provided greater erosion resistance than either of the treatments alone, resulting in a nearly two‐fold reduction in emissions across simulations. The rapid soil‐building activity and enhanced integrity of biocrust inoculum and soil stabilizer mixtures provides a promising methodology for dryland dust mitigation. Keywords: Colorado Plateau; PI‐SWERL; aeolian; cyanobacteria; dust; erosion; lichen; moss; restoration.
32086Arcadia L. in & Coppins B.J. (2019): (2713) Proposal to reject the name Lecidea cornea (lichenised Ascomycota). - Taxon, 68(5): 1114.
nomenclature
32085Arcadia L. in, Knudsen K. & Kocourková J. (2019): (2712) Proposal to conserve the name Lichen cervinus (Acarospora cervina) with a conserved type (Acarosporaceae, lichenised Ascomycota). - Taxon, 68(5): 1113–1114.
nomenclature
32084Buch C. (2019): Exkursion: Bochum-Querenburg, Moose und Flechten auf dem Gelände der Ruhr-Universität. - Jahrbuch des Bochumer Botanischen Vereins, 10: 105–107.
Germany; report on excursion
32083Mežaka A., Bader M.Y., Salazar Allen N. & Mendieta-Leiva G. (2020): Epiphyll specialization for leaf and forest successional stages in a tropical lowland rainforest. - Journal of Vegetation Science, 31: 118–128.
Questions: The importance of tropical rainforest gap dynamics in biodiversity maintenance is not fully understood, in particular for taxa other than trees and lianas. We used epiphylls on rainforest leaves to study the importance of leaf- and forest-scale succession in determining biodiversity patterns by characterizing community change with leaf age in gaps and closed-forest habitats. We asked: (1) Do epiphylls show specialization for leaf and forest successional stages? (2) Can early- and late-successional epiphyllous species be recognized at these two scales? (3) How do epiphyll presence, species richness, and cover change with leaf and forest successional stages? Location: Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Method: Data were collected from 420 leaves, in three age groups and at two heights on shrubs in gaps and closed forest. We calculated turnover and nestedness components of dissimilarity to evaluate the importance of species replacement or accumulation during leaf and forest succession. Using generalized linear mixed models we determined what factors explain epiphyll species occurrence, richness and cover. Results: Closed forest contained more liverwort and lichen specialist species than gaps. Specialist species were identified for older leaves only. Dissimilarity between leaves within age groups was dominated by turnover within and between forest successional stages. Dissimilarity between leaf age groups, at the site level, was dominated by nestedness, i.e., species accumulation. Both in forest and gaps, epiphyll presence and cover increased with leaf age for all taxa except fungi, while species richness increased only for lichens. Conclusion: Early and late forest successional stages both contribute to epiphyll species richness by harboring specialized species. Among leaf successional stages, young leaves contain a mere subset of the species found on older leaves. Epiphyll communities do not follow classic succession, in the sense of changes being driven by species replacement, but are characterized by species accumulation through time. Keywords: Bryophytes, community dynamics, epiphylls, forest gaps, fungi, lichens, specialists, species accumulation, succession.
32082Prieto M. & Olariaga I. (2019): (2697–2698) Proposals to conserve the names Placidium and P. michelii with conserved types (Verrucariales: lichenized Ascomycota). - Taxon, 68(4): 855–856.
nomenclature
32081Prateeksha, Palya B.S., Bajpai R., Jadavan V., Kumar S., Upreti D.K., Singh B.R., Nayaka S & Singh B.N. (2016): The genus Usnea: a potent phytomedicine with multifarious ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology. - Royal Society of Chemistry Advance, 6: 21672–21696.
[a Review paper] The genus Usnea Adans. (Parmeliaceae; lichenized Ascomycetes) is a typical group of mostly pale grayishgreen fruticoselichens that grow as leafless mini-shrubs. More than 360 species of Usnea are known in the world. Usnea has long been thought to have treat various illnesses in addition to its historical use as dyes, cosmetics, preservatives, and deodorants, particularly in eastern countries such as China, Japan, Taiwan, India and Europe. The current review focuses on the traditional uses and phytochemistry aspects of different Usnea species, and discusses the pharmacological findings and toxicology of their extracts and isolated compounds. The available compilation of data will provide a new base for future perspectives and highlight the need for further studies of this potent herbal source to harvest more beneficial therapeutic drugs. Nineteen species of the genus Usnea are found to be important folk medicines all over the world. It is evident from the comparative analysis of the searched literature that the genus Usnea has been used for various purposes for centuries and its long and traditional medicinal history was well documented in the past. As per ancient records and recent scientific literature, the species of genus Usnea have been used as promising traditional medicines, exerting an array of therapeutic properties to relieve sore throats, bronchitis, cold, flu, infection, and indigestion. Phytochemical analysis confirms the general presence of a wide range of metabolites, polysaccharides, fatty acids, phenolic acids, flavonoids, terpenes, sterols, depsides, depsidones, and benzofurans. As specific constituents, usnic acid, polyphenols, and depsides have been considered as main efficacy component for antibacterial and antifungal activities. In addition, pharmacological analysis also revealed that other pure compounds and crude extracts of Usnea species prove to be significant anti-cancer, anti-proliferative, anti-oxidant, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer, hepatoprotective, and anti-genotoxic agents. However, there is a need for more precise investigations to examine the clinical value of both isolated pure compounds and crude extracts and to elucidate their mechanisms of action. Apart from clinical validation and elucidation of their mechanism of action, biosafety studies of the compounds are also important to legitimately use the potential bioactive compounds for the further development of future lead drugs.
32080Malíček J., Man M. & Novotný P. (2019): DaLiBor – nejobsáhlejší databáze rozšíření mechorostů a lišejníků v ČR. - Botanika, 2/2019: 7–9.
32079Mejstřík V. (2019): Lišejníky vrchu Praha v Brdech [The lichens of the Praha Hill in the Brdy Highlands]. - Bohemia centralis, 35: 161–168.
The floristic results of a lichenological survey carried out on Praha Hill (862 m a. s. l.) in the central Brdy Highlands in 1992 and 1993 are presented. Studied substrats: boulder (boulder scree), soil, wood, dead wood, bark of trees. 65 species of lichens was found. The occurrence of the arctic-alpine species was recorded – Brodoa atrofusca, B. intestiniformis, Cladonia macrophylla, Melanelia stygia, Miriquidica nigroleprosa, Pertusaria corallina, Protoparmelia atriseda, Rhizocarpon polycarpum, Umbilicaria hyperborea, Umbilicaria polyphylla.
32078Šoun J., Malíček J. & Vondrák J. (2019): Zajímavé nálezy lišejníků v Brdech a na Rokycansku. - Erica, 26: 45–64.
New records of 64 rare and data-deficient lichens from the Brdy Mts and the Rokycany region are reported. In addition, new records of six lichen-allied fungi are included. 18 lichens are reported for the first time from the Brdy Mts, e.g. Absconditella sphagnorum, Caloplaca lucifuga, Chaenotheca chlorella, Gyalecta fagicola and Lecidea turficola. Cetraria sepincola, Cladonia amaurocraea, C. stellaris, Fellhaneropsis myrtillicola, Pertusaria flavida, Sclerophora peronella, Usnea glabrescens and Xanthoparmelia mougeotii represent other remarkable species from the study region. Several recently spreading macrolichens, such as Evernia mesomorpha, Hypotrachyna afrorevoluta, H. revoluta, Nephromopsis laureri and Parmotrema perlatum are reported mainly from twigs of Larix, while Parmotrema reticulatum (new for the Czech Republic) from a twig of Prunus spinosa.
32077Gómez González D.C., Rodríguez Quiel C., Zotz G. & Bader M.Y. (2017): Species richness and biomass of epiphytic vegetation in a tropical montane forest in western Panama. - Tropical Conservation Science, 10: 1–17.
In tropical montane forests epiphytes represent a substantial proportion of biodiversity and green biomass, particularly where fog occurs almost daily. Epiphytes play important ecological roles in these ecosystems, for example, in forest hydrology and in amplifying arthropod biodiversity, but quantitative assessments of epiphytic biomass and species diversity are rare. Such data are important, however, for a better understanding on their ecological roles and as a baseline for detecting ecological change due to climate or land-use changes. In a tropical lower montane cloud forest (c. 1,150 m above sea level) in Panama, we identified and weighed all epiphytic matter, which includes vascular plants, bryophytes, lichens, and dead organic matter from the trunks of 22 trees varying in diameters at breast height and 28 canopy branches. Additionally, we collected epiphytic matter in the understory in 22 plots of 2 × 2 m. A total of 155 species of vascular epiphytes, hemiepiphytes, and nomadic vines were found. Orchidaceae were by far the most species-rich family, followed by Araceae and Bromeliaceae. The vertical distribution of these species in the forest showed species-specific vertical preferences, but species numbers varied little in undergrowth, trunks, and tree crowns. Epiphytic matter was positively related to tree size, and we used tree-size data inventory data from a nearby 1-ha plot to extrapolate our findings to the plot level. The resulting estimate of 16,439 kg ha−1 for total epiphytic matter and 6,214 kg ha−1 for living plants, the latter representing about 2% of aboveground forest biomass. Keywords: biomass, cloud forest, epiphytes, hemiepiphytes, species richness.
32076Kondratyuk S., Lőkös L., Halda J., Lee B.G., Jang S.-H.,Woo J.-J., Park J.S., Oh S.-O., Han S.-K. & Hur J.-S. (2019): Arthonia dokdoensis and Rufoplaca toktoana – two new taxa from Dokdo Islands (South Korea). - Mycobiology, 47(4): 355–367.
Arthonia dokdoensis sp. nov., a lichenicolous fungus from the subcosmopolitan Arthonia molendoi complex growing on crustose thalli of species of the genus Orientophila (subfamily Xanthorioideae, Teloschistaceae), as well as the lichen species Rufoplaca toktoana sp. nov. (subfamily Caloplacoideae, Teloschistaceae) similar to Rufoplaca kaernefeltiana, both from Dokdo Islands, Republic of Korea, are described, illustrated, and compared with closely related taxa. In the phylogenetic tree of the Arthoniaceae based on 12S mtSSU and RPB2 gene sequences, the phylogenetic position of the A. dokdoensis and the relationship with the A. molendoi group are illustrated, while the position of the newly described R. toktoana is confirmed by phylogenetic tree based on ITS nrDNA data. Keywords: New species; Orientophila; phylogenetic analysis; taxonomy.
32075Kliment J., Hrabovský M., Kučera V., Guttová A., Hindáková A. & Guričanová D. (2019): Rodová homonymia v slovenskom odbornom botanickom menosloví a jej riešenie. - Kultúra slova, 53(6): 335–341.
[in Slovak] Slovak vernacular names; generic homonyms
32074Knudsen K., Adams J.N., Kocourková J., Wang Y., Ortañez J. & Stajich J.E. (2020): The monophyletic Sarcogyne canadensis–wheeleri clade, a newly recognized group sister to the European Acarospora glaucocarpa group. - Bryologist, 123: 11–30.
Molecular phylogenetic analyses of newly generated sequences from North American material belonging to the Acarospora glaucocarpa group recovered these sequences in a previously unrecognized clade sister to European members of the group. North American material is recognized as a distinct clade, named the ‘‘Sarcogyne canadensis–wheeleri clade,’’ and its constituent species are described. Four new calciphytes from North America are described from the clade: S. alcesensis, S. bernardinensis, S. convexa and S. wheeleri. Sarcogyne wheeleri is the taxon North American lichenologists usually identified as A. glaucocarpa. Acarospora canadensis was recovered in the clade and is revised and transferred to Sarcogyne. A neotype is designated for A. glaucocarpa. We transfer S. bolleana, a rare species described from Texas, to Acarospora and do not consider it a synonym of S. arenosa. We do not recognize A. glaucocarpa s.str. as occurring in continental North America. We supply a key to the S. canadensis-wheeleri clade. Currently we report 102 species of Acarosporaceae from North America. Keywords: Biodiversity, interspecific taxa, integrative taxonomy, New Mexico.
32073Lendemer J.C. (2020): Leprocaulon beechingii (Leprocaulaceae), a new species from the southern Appalachian Mountains of eastern North America. - Bryologist, 123: 1–10.
Leprocaulon beechingii is described as new to science based on collections from exposed rock outcrops in the southern Appalachian Mountains in eastern North America. Taxonomic placement in Leprocaulon, and delimitation from other members of the genus with usnic acid, is supported by molecular phylogenetic analyses of ITS and mtSSU sequence data. The species is readily recognized by its occurrence on non-calcareous rocks, normandinoides-type placodioid thallus, and the production of usnic acid and zeorin. Keywords: Asexual reproduction, biodiversity hotspot, cliff community, granite dome, endemism, leprose thallus.
32072Lendemer J.C. (2020): Bacidia thiersiana (Ramalinaceae), a new species with lobaric acid widespread in southeastern North America. - Bryologist, 123: 39–47.
Bacidia thiersiana is described as new to science from scattered locations throughout southeastern North America, including the southern Appalachian Mountains and Coastal Plain. The species is characterized by its frequent occurrence on and near thalli of Bathelium carolinianum, minutely areolate, esorediate thallus with small, pale to tan, biatorine apothecia and the production of lobaric acid. In addition to comparison with other morphologically similar species that produce lobaric acid and other fluorescent secondary compounds, Bacidina crystallifera is discussed and illustrated in detail. Keywords: Biodiversity, endemism, natural history collections, Scoliciosporum pensylvanicum, Scoliciosporum pruinosum.
32071Kyselová Z. (1990): Beitrag zu Flechtenflora der Tatra I. (Addenda ad lichenographiam Tatrae I.). - Zborník prác o Tatranskom národnom parku, 30: 87–94.
Slovakia; Tatra Mts
32070Morse C.A. & Sheard J.W. (2020): Rinodina lecideopsis (Teloschistales, Physciaceae) a new endemic species from the central United States related to R. bischoffii. - Bryologist, 123: 31–38.
Rinodina lecideopsis is described as new to science. The species is characterized by the lecideine appearance of its apothecia due to the darkly pigmented cortex of the thalline margin and by a broad, hyaline proper exciple, which limits the algae to a narrow region at the base of the margin. The hymenium is densely inspersed with oil droplets and the spores are Bischoffii-type, both characters indicating a relationship with R. bischoffii. The new species belongs to a group of ecologically similar saxicolous lichens restricted to outcrops in tallgrass prairies, and glade openings in savannas and woodlands, fire-adapted ecosystems of the central United States. The biogeography and conservation needs of these lichens is briefly discussed. Keywords: Epihymenium, hymenial inspersion, proper exciple, spore size, fire, glade, Great Plains–Ozarks distribution.
32069Kyselová Z. (1995): Contribution to the lichen flora of the Tatra Mountains Il. Addenda ad lichenographiam Tatrae II. - Oecologia Montana, 4: 15–20.
This article provides up-to-date information about the occurence and distribution of some lichen species in the Tatra Mountains. Belonia incarnata, Bryonora castanea, Caloplaca isidiigera, Massalongia carnosa, Nephroma arcticum, Peccania coralloides and others have previously been reported from a restricted number of localities. Solorina octospora is reported as new species for the West Carpathian Mountains. Species considered as extinct or missing are mentioned: Arthonia didyma, A. punctiformis, Cyphelium karelicum, Peltigera collina and Usnea carpatica. Attention has been given to critically endangered species, where extinction is a possibility e.g.: Cetraria laureri, Leptogium saturninum, Lobaria pulmonaria. Menegazzia terebrata, Nephroma parile, Normandina pulchella and Thelotrema lepadinum. Key words: Lichen, distribution, the Tatra Mountains.
32068Hansen E.S. (2019): Lichens from Sisimiut in West Greenland and their climatic preferences. - Botanica, 25(2): 102–110.
A total of 165 lichen taxa collected from Sisimiut in West Greenland in summer 2017 were reported and categorized toward their climatic preferences. Almost 68% of the 165 lichens are more or less equally distributed in continental and oceanic areas of Greenland. More than 26% of the lichens occur most frequently in oceanic areas and more rarely in continental areas. Almost 5% of the lichens occur most frequently in continental areas and more rarely in oceanic areas. Two lichens are distinctly oceanic. No distinctly continental lichens were found in the present investigation. The results are in good accordance with those obtained from similar investigations in West Greenland. Two different climatic scenarios and their influence upon the lichen communities are discussed. Keywords: distribution types, ecology, global warming, lichenized ascomycetes, West Greenland.
32067Konoreva L., Chesnokov S., Kuznetsova E. & Stepanchikova I. (2019): Remarkable records of Micarea from the Russian Far East and significant extension of Micarea laeta and M. microareolata range. - Botanica, 25(2): 186–201.
The aim of the study was to consolidate data on lichens of the genus Micarea Fr. from the Russian Far East. A total of 19 Micarea species were found to be known from this area. Micarea laeta and M. microareolata were new to Asia and Russia. Additionally, M. laeta was reported new to North America, Austria and Great Britain, M. microareolata – to North America, Czech Republic and Germany as well. Micarea contexta was reported new to Asia, Micarea adnata and M. tomentosa were reported new to the Russian Far East, M. hedlundii to the South of the Russian Far East and M. lignaria to the Sakhalin Region. Micarea turfosa was excluded from the list. The distribution of taxa and some differences between related species were discussed. Molecular data were obtained and used for phylogenetic analysis of Micarea contexta, M. laeta and M. microareolata. Keywords: biogeography, crustose lichens, distribution, Kamchatka, Kurile Islands, Sakhalin, North America.
32066Hämäläinen A., Strengbom J. & Ranius T. (2019): Low‐productivity boreal forests have high conservation value for lichens. - Journal of Applied Ecology, 57: 43–54.
1. Land set aside for preservation of biodiversity often has low productivity. As biodiversity generally increases with productivity, due to higher or more diverse availability of resources, this implies that some of the biodiversity may be left unprotected. Due to a lack of knowledge on the species diversity and conservation value of low‐productivity habitats, the consequences of the biased allocation of low‐productivity land for set‐asides are unknown. 2. We examined the conservation value of boreal low‐productivity forests (potential tree growth <1 m3 ha−1 year−1) by comparing assemblages of tree‐ and deadwooddwelling lichens and forest stand structure between productive and low‐productivity forest stands. We surveyed 84 Scots pine‐dominated stands in three regions in Sweden, each including four stand types: two productive (managed and unmanaged) and two low‐productivity stands (on mires and on thin, rocky soils). 3. Lichen species richness was the highest in low‐productivity stands on thin soil, which had similar amounts and diversity of resources (living trees and dead wood) to productive unmanaged stands. Stands in low‐productivity mires, which had low abundance of living trees and dead wood, hosted the lowest lichen richness. Lichen species composition differed among stand types, but none of them hosted unique species. The differences in both species richness and composition were more pronounced in northern than in southern Sweden, likely due to shorter history of intensive forestry. 4. Synthesis and applications. Boreal low‐productivity forests can have as high conservation value as productive forests, which should be reflected in conservation strategies. However, their value is far from uniform, and conservation planning should acknowledge this variation and not treat all low‐productivity forests as a uniform group. Some types of low‐productivity forest (e.g. on rocky soil) are more valuable than others (e.g. on mires), and should thus be prioritized in conservation. It is also important to consider the landscape context: low‐productivity forests may have higher value in landscapes where high‐productivity forests are highly influenced by forestry. Finally, although low‐productivity forests can be valuable for some taxa, productive forests may still be important for other taxa. Keywords: boreal forests, dead wood, epiphytic, epixylic, mire, productivity‐diversity relationship, Scots pine.
32065Root H.T., Miller J.E.D. & Rosentreter R. (2020): Grazing disturbance promotes exotic annual grasses by degrading soil biocrust communities. - Ecological Applications, 30(1): e02016 [10 p.].
Exotic invasive plants threaten ecosystem integrity, and their success depends on a combination of abiotic factors, disturbances, and interactions with existing communities. In dryland ecosystems, soil biocrusts (communities of lichens, bryophytes, and microorganisms) can limit favorable microsites needed for invasive species establishment, but the relative importance of biocrusts for landscape-scale invasion patterns remains poorly understood. We examine effects of livestock grazing in habitats at high risk for invasion to test the hypothesis that disturbance indirectly favors exotic annual grasses by reducing biocrust cover. We present some of the first evidence that biocrusts increase site resistance to invasion at a landscape scale and mediate the effects of disturbance. Biocrust species richness, which is reduced by livestock grazing, also appears to promote native perennial grasses. Short mosses, as a functional group, appear to be particularly valuable for preventing invasion by exotic annual grasses. Our study suggests that maintaining biocrust communities with high cover, species richness, and cover of short mosses can increase resistance to invasion. These results highlight the potential of soil surface communities to mediate invasion dynamics and suggest promising avenues for restoration in dryland ecosystems. Key words: biocrust; cheatgrass; disturbance ecology; diversity–ecosystem-function relationship; exotic annual grasses; livestock grazing; plant establishment; rangeland; resistance to invasion.
32064Root H.T., Miller J.E.D. & Rosentreter R. (2020): Grazing disturbance promotes exotic annual grasses by degrading soil biocrust communities. - Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America, 101(1):e01637 [5 p.].
Photogallery illustrating the article “Grazing disturbance promotes exotic annual grasses by degrading soil biocrust communities” by Heather T. Root, Jesse E. D. Miller and Roger Rosentreter published in Ecological Applications. https ://doi.org/10.1002/eap.2016 [jjh32065]
32063Vonarburg C., Bergamini A. & Stofer S. (2019): Moose und Flechten in Gärten – das Bryolich-Projekt ist gestartet. - Meylania, 64: 45–47.
32062von Hirschheydt G., Dietrich M., Gabathuler M., Keller C., Scheidegger C., Vust M. & Stofer S. (2019): Revision der Roten Liste der Flechten – Wer macht mit?. - Meylania, 63: 35–37.
[in German] Aditional note on the revision of the Red List of lichens of Switzerland
32061Stofer S., Dietrich M., Gabathuler M., Keller C., von Hirschheydt G., Vust M. & Scheidegger C. (2019): Die Revision der Roten Liste der Flechten der Schweiz. - Meylania, 63: 30–34.
[in German] A note on the revision of the Red List of lichens of Switzerland
32060Marti J. & Aebli A. (2019): Die Verbreitung von Usnea florida im Kanton Glarus. - Meylania, 64: 22–26.
In the course of surveys carried out in 2018/2019, Usnea florida, a lichen species that is rare in Switzerland, was found at 52 sites in the canton of Glarus. The species grew at an altitude of 1020 to 1540 m a.s.l., mostly (80 %) on sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) and with lower frequency on beech (Fagus sylvatica), alder (Alnus viridis) and wild cherry (Prunus avium). Most sites are far away from intensively fertilized agricultural areas. The records form the basis for conservation planning for the species in the canton of Glarus.
32059Dietrich M., Groner U., Keller C., Scheidegger C., Vust M. & Zimmermann E. (2019): Beiträge zur lichenologischen Erforschung der Schweiz – Folge 1. - Meylania, 64: 7–21.
The first issue of the series «Contributions to the lichenological exploration of Switzerland » presents twelve lichens new to Switzerland (Agonimia flabelliformis, Caloplaca conglomerata, Caloplaca micromontana, Catillaria fungoides, Myriolecis zosterae subsp. palanderi, Porpidia degelii, Ramalina europaea, Rhizocarpon dinothetes, Rhizocarpon inimicum, Strigula muscicola, Trimmatothele perquisita, Verrucaria commutata), as well as new sites of rare, threatened or other remarkable lichens.
32058Dietrich M. (2019): Beiträge zur lichenologischen Erforschung der Schweiz – eine neue Rubrik. - Meylania, 64: 4–6.
With the «Contributions to the lichenological exploration of Switzerland» lichens new to Switzerland as well as new sites of rare, threatened or other remarkable lichens will be presented. The new rubric follows an old tradition and is open for all interested.
32057Bürgi-Meyer K. (2019): Bericht über neue Fundlokalitäten bemerkenswerter Baum-, Totholz- und Bodenflechten im Zentralschweizer Naturwaldreservat Glaubenberg-Fürstein. Folge II: Funde südlich des Glaubenbergpasses (Kanton Obwalden). - Meylania, 64: 27–39.
Report on new localities of remarkable epiphytic, epixylic and epigeic lichens in the Central Swiss Natural Forest Reserve Glaubenberg-Fürstein. Part II: Records from south of Glaubenbergpass (Canton of Obwalden). In 2018 special habitats (keystone structures) south of Glaubenbergpass in the Natural Forest Reserve Glaubenberg-Fürstein were examined for the occurrence of rare lichen species. These species are considered as relicts of an originally widespread peat bog lichen vegetation in the region. This survey is the continuation of the survey carried out in 2017.
32056Bürgi-Meyer K. & Dietrich M. (2019): Fruchtende Peltula farinosa Büdel in der Südschweiz – eine Fotodokumentation. - Meylania, 63: 15–21.
Fertile Peltula farinosa Büdel in Southern Switzerland – a photo documentation Few fertile specimens of the cyanobacterial lichen Peltula farinosa were reported for the first time in Europe from Ronco sopra Ascona (Canton of Ticino, Switzerland) in 2016. Since then, a considerable number of further fertile individuals could be recorded at this locality. Here, we present a photo gallery that illustrates the various stages of apothecia development. Until now, Peltula farinosa was only known from arid or semiarid environments. Further investigations should address the ecological background of the extraordinary occurrences presented here.
32055Aoussar N., Rhallabi N., Mhand R.A., Manzali R., Bouksaim M., Douira A. & Mellouki F. (2020): Seasonal variation of antioxidant activity and phenolic content of Pseudevernia furfuracea, Evernia prunastri and Ramalina farinacea from Morocco. - Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences, 19: 1–6.
The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of environmental conditions on the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of acetone extracts of thalli of Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf, Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach. and Ramalina farinacea (L.) Ach. harvested in the Middle Atlas (MA) in Morocco during autamn, summer, spring, and winter. The antioxidant activity was performed in vitro by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl) radical scavenging method. Total phenolic compounds and flavonoid contents of all the extracts were also determined. These extracts showed significant antioxidant activity, which varied relatively from one species to another and also depended on the season of collection. A significant relationship between the antioxidant capacity and total phenolics content was found. Higher values of antioxidant activity and polyphenols content of all species were registered in late winter and spring. The acetone extract of Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf. showed the highest DPPH scavenging activity with IC50 = 498 ± 44 µg/mL and the highest total phenolic content (TPC = 328 ± 27 μg GAE/mg of dry extract). Our study showed that harvesting season had significant effect on phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of the studied lichen species and their harvesting should be done during spring season to achieve better antioxidant potential. Keywords: Antioxidant activity; Phenolic compounds; Pseudevernia furfuracea; Evernia prunastri; Ramalina farinacea; DPPH.
32054Bate P.N.N., Orock A.E., Nyongbela K.D., Babiaka S.B., Kukwah A. & Ngemenya M.N. (2020): In vitro activity against multi-drug resistant bacteria and cytotoxicity of lichens collected from Mount Cameroon. - Journal of King Saud University - Science, 32: 614–619.
Natural products remain a promising source of new efficacious antimicrobials to counter increasing resistance and prevent emergence of multidrug and extensively resistant bacteria phenotypes which hinder successful chemotherapy. Lichens have been shown to possess significant antimicrobial activity. This study investigated the antibacterial properties of six lichens found on Mount Cameroon. Methanol extracts of the lichens were screened against nine multidrug resistant clinical bacteria isolates and 6 control strains using disc diffusion and microdilution assays. The phytochemical composition of the extracts was determined and active extracts evaluated for cytotoxicity on monkey kidney epithelial LLC-MK2 cells using microscopy and MTT-formazan assay. Three extracts showed intermediate to high activity with diameters of inhibition zones ranging from 15 to 30 mm against all nine multidrug resistant strains similar to gentamicin positive control (P = 0.1018–0.6699). Extracts of Usnea articulata and Usnea florida, were the most active with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 4–10 mg/mL and showed broad spectrum dose-dependent activity. All the extracts were not cytotoxic (CC50 from 56.58 to 278.50 mg/mL) and the most active were rich in alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids among others. The considerable broad spectrum bacteriostatic activity against multidrug resistant strains and lack of cytotoxicity of U. articulata and U. florida justifies further exploration of these lichens to identify the bioactive molecules for development into new efficacious antibacterials. Keywords: Lichens; Antibiotics; Resistance; Antibacterials; Toxicity; Phytochemistry.
32053Matteucci E., Scarcella A.V., Croveri P., Marengo A., Borghi A., Benelli C., Hamdan O. & Favero-Longo S.E. (2019): Lichens and other lithobionts on the carbonate rock surfaces of the heritage site of the tomb of Lazarus (Palestinian territories): diversity, biodeterioration, and control issues in a semi-arid environment. - Annals of Microbiology, 69: 1033–1046.
Purpose: Investigations on the lithobiontic colonization of the stone cultural heritage in (semi-)arid regions are needed to address conservation strategies. In this work, lithobiontic communities were examined on the carbonate rock surfaces of the heritage site of the Tomb of Lazarus.We aimed to evaluate their distribution and interaction with the lithic substrate, together with the efficacy of biocidal treatments for their control. Methods: Diversity and abundance of lithobionts were surveyed on the Jerusalem stone blocks of three architectural elements. Observations at the lichen-rock interface were carried out by reflected light and scanning electron microscopy. The efficacy against lichens of the widely used biocide benzalkonium chloride (BZC) was compared for different concentrations and application methods, and evaluated by epifluorescence microscopy. Results: Chlorolichens were the dominant component of lithobiontic communities, more thoroughly adapted to the semi-arid conditions of the site than mosses and black biofilms of cyanobacteria and dematiaceous fungi. A different structural organization, in terms of thallus thickness and depth of the hyphal penetration component, characterized epilithic and endolithic lichen species, responsible for different deteriogenic activities. Biocidal assays showed that even the methodologies that are usually effective in temperate conditions (as the application of BZC 1.5% by poultice) may not completely devitalize lichens adapted to the stress conditions of semi-arid climates, unless a pervasive biocide diffusion through metabolically active thalli is carefully guaranteed. Conclusion: Lithobionts act as biodeteriogens on the semi-arid surfaces of the investigated heritage site. Their removal is thus recommendable, but it needs to be adequately supported with a careful calibration of devitalization strategies. Keywords: Biocide . Biodiversity . Biofilm . Didactic activities . Lichens . Stone conservation.
32052Uhlík P. (2007): Lišejníky kamenných moří na Komářím vrchu u Kraslic. - Příroda Kraslicka, 1: 45–51.
[in Czech]; on lichens of granite bouldery fields of Mt. Komáří vrch Krušné hory (Erzgebirge / Ore Mountains); nice photographs of Cladonia spp. div., Umbilicaria hyperborea and Stereocaulon saxatile included.
32051Uhlík P. & Šindelář J. (2019): Experimentální přírodní expozice lišejníků v Bečovské botanické zahradě. - Nová Botanika, 2019/1: 43–45.
Popular paper [in Czech]; natural exposition of lichens in the botanical garden Bečov nad Ohří (Western Bohemia)
32050Halici M.G. & Barták M. (2019): Sphaerellothecium reticulatum (Zopf) Etayo, a new lichenicolous fungus for Antarctica. - Czech Polar Reports, 9(1): 13–19.
In the project aiming to determine the lichen mycota of James Ross Island, we identified a new lichenicolous fungus species which is reported from Antarctica for the first time: Sphaerellothecium reticulatum on Flavoparmelia gerlachei. Although this species was identified on other parmelioid lichens, it was never reported on Flavoparmelia spp. Key words: Southern hemisphere, biodiversity, lichens, lichenicolous fungi, James Ross Island, Mycosphaerellaceae.
32049Casanova-Katny A., Barták M. & Gutierrez C. (2019): Open top chamber microclimate may limit photosynthetic processes in Antarctic lichen: Case study from King George Island, Antarctica. - Czech Polar Reports, 9(1): 61–77.
Long-term manipulated warming experiments using the open top chamber (OTC) approach tend to mimick the future climate and predict the changes in photosynthesis and production of vegetation under globally changed climate. In Antarctica, several longterm experiments are carried out recently. Here we report to the lichens grown in OTCs installed at the Fildes Peninsula (King George Island). The field study compares primary photochemical processes of photosynthesis in Antarctic lichen Placopsis antarctica grown for one year in OTC and compared to outside plot (control). We measured effective quantum yield of photosystem II (ΦPSII) of green algae part of thallus in 10 min. interval for 12 days. We examined the responses of diurnal ΦPSII to PAR in relation to environmental factors through continuous 12-d-long monitoring of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters ΦPSII in particular. Daily courses of ΦPSII and photosynthetic electron transport rate (ETR) to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and hydration state of thallus have been assumed to reflect changes in physiological status of P. antarctica in changing Antarctic environment. The data indicate that OTC microenvironment may lead to partial limitation of photosynthetic processes in P. antarctica during austral summer season. The limitation is caused by accelerated dehydration of thallus in OTC compared to the outside generally colder control plot, and thus shortened physiologically active period of lichens in OTC. Key words: monitoring fluorometer, cyanolichens, Antarctic tundra, Placopsis antarctica, electron transport rate, chlorophyll fluorescence, long-term exposition.
32048Barták M., Láska K., Hájek J. & Váczi P. (2019): Microclimate variability of Antarctic terrestrial ecosystems manipulated by open top chambers: Comparison of selected austral summer seasons within a decade. - Czech Polar Reports, 9(1): 88–106.
Open top chambers (OTCs) were established in the northern part of the James Ross Island, Antarctic Peninsula, as a part of long-term program in January 2007. They were installed in two typical locations differing in vegetation cover. First group was set in a seashore ecosystem dominated by moss carpet supplemented with few lichen species. The other group was located on the top of a volcanic mesa (350 m a.s.l.) with irregular cover of lichens Usnea antarctica and Umbilicaria decussata. Temperature regimes inside and outside OTCs were continuously measured and related to year-round reference meteorological data. For majority of OTC installations, temperature increase caused by OTC was apparent in the period of September-March. Detailed analysis of chamber effect on the increase in air, surface, vegetation, and ground temperatures was done for late austral summer seasons of 2007 and 2008, and 10 years later, the seasons of 2017 and 2018. The OTC-induced temperature increase was more pronounced for mesa than seashore plot. For both locations, OTC-induced increase in temperature was highest for warm days with full sunshine and limited wind speed. On stormy days with overcast sky and high wind speed, the shift in temperature was smaller. Consequences of a long-term manipulation of Antarctic terrestrial ecosystems by OTCs for moss and lichen ecophysiology are discussed. Key words: James Ross Island, microclimate, manipulated environment, chamber effect, austral summer, ground warming, ecophysiology, lichens, moss.
32047Folgar-Cameán Y. & Barták M. (2019): Evaluation of photosynthetic processes in Antarctic mosses and lichens exposed to controlled rate cooling: Species-specific responses. - Czech Polar Reports, 9(1): 114–124.
Antarctic regions involve a great variety of habitats characterized by environmental stressors and life forms of autotrophic organisms with unique survival and functioning mechanisms. Lichens and mosses from these regions, similarly to high altitude alpine locations, have evolved physiological adaptations to perform photosynthesis at subzero temperatures. In this study we applied linear cooling technique in order to analyze interspecific differences in primary photosynthetic processes in Antarctic species affected by low and subzero temperature stress. We exposed Sanionia uncinata, Rhizoplaca aspidophora, Ochrolechia frigida, Cladonia sp., Himantormia lugubris and Umbilicaria decussata to the cooling from 20 to -35°C at a constant rate of 2°C min-1. Fluorometric parameters were measured during the cooling experiments: FV/FM - potential yield of photosynthetic processes in photosystem II, and F0 - minimal chlorophyll fluorescence. All the species showed S-curves for FV/FM in response to decreasing temperature and interspecific differences in the parameters of S-curve equation. Critical temperature for FV/FM was found -35°C for U. decussata, while the other species ranged between -16 to -20°C. The changes of F0 with thallus temperature decrease were species-specific. F0 decrease followed by an increase was found with cooling from 20 to -20°C, and from -20 to -35°C, respectively, in the majority of cases. These results suggest that the experimental moss and lichen species from Antarctica have a high resistance to freezing temperatures. The underlying physiological mechanisms are constitutive features of Antarctic lichens and mosses. They are a crucial part of the adaptation and short-term acclimatory changes in ecophysiological performance of the organisms in harsh polar environments. Key words: temperature stress, chlorophyll fluorescence, linear cooling, Antarctic species, cold adaptation, cold resistence.
32046Cho S.M., Lee H., Hong S.G. & Lee J. (2020): Study of ecophysiological responses of the Antarctic fruticose lichen Cladonia borealis using the PAM fluorescence system under natural and laboratory conditions. - Plants, 9: 85 [19 p.] doi:10.3390/plants9010085.
Antarctic lichens have been used as indicators of climate change for decades, but only a few species have been studied. We assessed the photosynthetic performance of the fruticose lichen Cladonia borealis under natural and laboratory conditions using the PAM fluorescence system. Compared to that of sun-adapted Usnea sp., the photosynthetic performance of C. borealis exhibits shade-adapted lichen features, and its chlorophyll fluorescence does not occur during dry days without rain. To understand its desiccation-rehydration responses, we measured changes in the PSII photochemistry in C. borealis under the average light intensity of dawn light and daylight and the desiccating conditions of its natural microclimate. Interestingly, samples under daylight and rapid-desiccation conditions showed a delayed reduction in Fv’/Fm’ and rETRmax, and an increase in Y(II) and Y(NPQ) levels. These results suggest that the photoprotective mechanism of C. borealis depends on sunlight and becomes more efficient with improved desiccation tolerance. Amplicon sequencing revealed that the major photobiont of C. borealis was Asterochloris irregularis, which has not been reported in Antarctica before. Collectively, these results from both field and laboratory could provide a better understanding of specific ecophysiological responses of shade-adapted lichens in the Antarctic region. Keywords: fruticose lichens; Cladonia borealis; Antarctic; phytochemistry; poikilohydric; non-photochemical quenching; desiccated state; shade-adapted lichen.
32045Мучник Е.Э., Давыдов Е.А., Конорева Л.А. & Потемкин А.Д. [Muchnik E.E., Davydov E.A., Konoreva L.A. & Potemkin A.D.] (2019): Памяти Светланы Ивановны Чабаненко (1954–2018) [In Memoriam: Svetlana Ivanovna Chabanenko (1954–2018)]. - Ботанический журнал [Botanicheskii Zhurnal], 104(10): 1651–1661.
Obituary
32044Ray D.G., Cahalan G.D. & Lendemer J.C. (2020): Factors influencing the persistence of reindeer lichens (Cladonia subgenus Cladina) within frequent-fire environments of the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain, USA. - Fire Ecology, 16:1 [18 p.] doi.org/10.1186/s42408-019-0063-7.
Background: Prescribed fire is increasingly used to accomplish management goals in fire-adapted systems, yet our understanding of effects on non-target organisms remains underdeveloped. Terricolous lichens in the genus Cladonia P. Browne, particularly cushion-forming reindeer lichens belonging to Cladonia subgenus Cladina Nyl., fit into this category, being characteristic of fire-adapted ecosystems, yet highly vulnerable to damage or consumption during burns. Moreover, inherently slow dispersal and growth rates raise questions about how to conserve these taxa in the context of fire-mediated restoration management. This research was undertaken to identify factors that contribute to Cladonia persistence within areas subject to repeated burning and involved tracking the fate of 228 spatially isolated individuals distributed across seven sites previously burned zero to two times. Site selection was determined by edaphic factors associated with a rare inland dune woodland community type known to support relatively high densities of Cladonia. Results: Evaluated across all sites, the post-burn condition of Cladonia subtenuis (Abbayes) Mattick samples, categorized as intact (32%), fragmented (33%), or consumed (36%) individuals, approximated a uniform distribution. However, their status was highly variable at the different sites, where from 0 to 70% were assessed as intact and 11 to 60% consumed. Machine-learning statistical techniques were used to identify the factors most strongly associated with fire damage, drawing from variables describing the proximate fuel bed, growth substrate, and fire weather. The final descriptive model was dominated by variables characterizing the understory fuel matrix. Conclusions: Areas with highly contiguous fuels dominated by pyrogenic pine needles were most likely to result in consumption of individual Cladonia, whereas those growing in areas with low fuel continuity or in areas dominated by hardwood litter were more likely to persist (intact or as fragments). Further, substrates including bare soil and moss mats afforded more protection than coarse woody debris or leaf litter in settings where fuels were both contiguous and highly flammable. Our findings describe the characteristics of within-site fire refugia, the abundance of which may be enhanced over time through restoration and maintenance treatments including thinning, promotion of mixed-species overstory composition, and periodic burning. Because lichens contribute to, and are considered reliable indicators of forest health, fire-based restoration management efforts will benefit from improved understanding of how these vulnerable organisms are able to persist. Keywords: Cladina, Cladonia sp., fire refugia, inland dune, non-target organism, prescribed fire, reindeer lichen, restoration, safe site.
32043Moisejevs R., Degtjarenko D., Motiejūnaitė J., Piterāns A. & Stepanova D. (2019): New records of lichens and lichenicolous fungi from Latvia, with a list of lichenicolous fungi reported from Latvia. - Lindbergia, 42: linbg.01119 [6 p.] doi: 10.25227/linbg.01119.
Four species of lichen-forming fungi (Calicium pinastri, Chaenotheca laevigata, Lecania croatica and Pycnora praestabilis) and two lichenicolous fungi (Arthrorhaphis aeruginosa and Chaenothecopsis epithallina) are reported as new for Latvia. The first comprehensive list of lichenicolous fungi in Latvia is also presented, including their hosts and distribution in Latvia (northern Europe). Kezwords: Baltic countries, distribution, lichenized fungi.
32042Bradshaw M., Grewe F., Thomas A., Harrison C.H., Lindgren H., Muggia L., St. Clair L.L., Lumbsch H.T. & Leavitt S.D. (2020): Characterizing the ribosomal tandem repeat and its utility as a DNA barcode in lichen-forming fungi. - BMC Evolutionary Biology, 20:2 [11 p.].
Background: Regions within the nuclear ribosomal operon are a major tool for inferring evolutionary relationships and investigating diversity in fungi. In spite of the prevalent use of ribosomal markers in fungal research, central features of nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) evolution are poorly characterized for fungi in general, including lichenized fungi. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nrDNA has been adopted as the primary DNA barcode identification marker for fungi. However, little is known about intragenomic variation in the nrDNA in symbiotic fungi. In order to better understand evolution of nrDNA and the utility of the ITS region for barcode identification of lichen-forming fungal species, we generated nearly complete nuclear ribosomal operon sequences from nine species in the Rhizoplaca melanophthalma species complex using short reads from high-throughput sequencing. Results: We estimated copy numbers for the nrDNA operon, ranging from nine to 48 copies for members of this complex, and found low levels of intragenomic variation in the standard barcode region (ITS). Monophyly of currently described species in this complex was supported in phylogenetic inferences based on the ITS, 28S, intergenic spacer region, and some intronic regions, independently; however, a phylogenetic inference based on the 18S provided much lower resolution. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated ITS and intergenic spacer sequence data generated from 496 specimens collected worldwide revealed previously unrecognized lineages in the nrDNA phylogeny. Conclusions: The results from our study support the general assumption that the ITS region of the nrDNA is an effective barcoding marker for fungi. For the R. melanophthalma group, the limited amount of potential intragenomic variability in the ITS region did not correspond to fixed diagnostic nucleotide position characters separating taxa within this species complex. Previously unrecognized lineages inferred from ITS sequence data may represent undescribed species-level lineages or reflect uncharacterized aspects of nrDNA evolution in the R. melanophthalma species complex. Keywords: Copy number variation, DNA barcoding, ITS, Lichens, Repeat region, Rhizoplaca.
32041Antonelli F., Esposito A., Calvo L., Licursi V., Tisseyre P., Ricci S., Romagnoli M., Piazza S. & Guerrieri F. (2020): Characterization of black patina from the Tiber River embankments using Next-Generation Sequencing. - Plos One, 15(1): e0227639 [24 p.].
Black patinas are very common biological deterioration phenomena on lapideous artworks in outdoor environments. These substrates, exposed to sunlight, and atmospheric and environmental agents (i.e. wind and temperature changes), represent extreme environments that can only be colonized by highly versatile and adaptable microorganisms. Black patinas comprise a wide variety of microorganisms, but the morphological plasticity of most of these microorganisms hinders their identification by optical microscopy. This study used Next- Generation Sequencing (NGS) (including shotgun and amplicon sequencing) to characterize the black patina of the travertine embankments (muraglioni) of the Tiber River in Rome (Italy). Overall, the sequencing highlighted the rich diversity of bacterial and fungal communities and allowed the identification of more than one hundred taxa. NGS confirmed the relevance of coccoid and filamentous cyanobacteria observed by optical microscopy and revealed an informative landscape of the fungal community underlining the presence of microcolonial fungi and phylloplane yeasts. For the first time high-throughput sequencing allowed the exploration of the expansive diversity of bacteria in black patina, which has so far been overlooked in routine analyses. Furthermore, the identification of euendolithic microorganisms and weathering agents underlines the biodegradative role of black patina, which has often been underestimated. Therefore, the use of NGS to characterize black patinas could be useful in choosing appropriate conservation treatments and in the monitoring of stone colonization after the restoration interventions.
32040Komendova R. [recte Komendová] (2018): The use of bioindicators for assessing atmospheric pollution with platinum metals. - Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 27: 3444–3451.
This work deals with the study and selection of suitable bioindicators for the assessment and detection of environmental contamination by platinum metals. Lichen (Xanthoria parietina), moss (Pleurozium schreberi) and needle (Pinus nigra) were tested as bioindicators. After optimization of the analytical procedures for decomposition, pretreatment, preconcentration and determination of platinum and palladium, platinum metals contamination in areas with high car traffic was determined by the original species technique. The contamination of the environment was determined depending on the distance from the source of pollution and also the sorption capacity of these individual biomaterials was tested. A higher content of platinum metals was found in lichen samples, then in moss and the lowest concentrations were found in the needles. The platinum and palladium concentrations ranged from units to tens in ng.g(-1) and the high bioavailability of palladium was confirmed. The most appropriate bioindicator was lichen and can be recommended to monitor the content of bioavailable forms of these elements in the environment. There was no confirmation of the massive spread of these pollutants over longer distances, the highest concentration values being found in the immediate vicinity of the road. In particular, the increasing concentrations of these metals have been confirmed in the environment, as well as in biomatrics. Keywords:Platinum; palladium; bioindicators; lichen; moss; needles; atmospheric pollution; AAS; solid phase extraction.
32039Belinchón R., Ellis C.J. & Yahr R. (2018): Climate-woodland effects on population genetics for two congeneric lichens with contrasting reproductive strategies. - FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 94(11): fiy159 [13 p.] doi: 10.1093/femsec/fiy159.
Genetic variation is expected to be influenced by the interaction between reproductive mode and dispersal traits on the one hand and environmental and habitat setting affecting establishment success on the other. We evaluated how environmental/habitat setting affects population genetic variation (i.e. variation in genetic diversity and structure) when regulated by contrasting dispersal traits. We used fungus-specific microsatellite markers to examine genetic diversity and structure of two closely related epiphytic lichen fungi that differ in their primary reproductive mode: Nephroma laevigatum (sexually reproducing, n = 191, 10 microsatellites) and N. parile (asexually reproducing, n = 182, 12 microsatellites), along a steep climatic gradient in Scotland. Despite their reproductive differences, we found a high proportion of clones in both species and a background pattern of genetic structure related to climatic gradients. We also demonstrated that woodland connectivity, rather than geographic distance, explained genetic diversity in both species. Environmental/habitat setting, modulated by the reproductive mode of the species, affects genetic diversity and structure, but the putative dissimilarity in their reproductive mode is less important than has been previously assumed. We reinforce the importance of protecting highly connected populations, positioned along a gradient capturing the segregation of gene pool differences in response to climatic variation. Keywords: climatic gradient; connectivity; dispersal traits; epiphytic lichens; microsatellites; Nephroma.
32038Demková L., Oboňa J., Árvay J., Michalková J. & Lošák T. (2019): Biomonitoring road dust pollution along streets with various traffic densities. - Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 28: 3687–3696.
Three lichen species (Phaeophyscia orbicularis, Physcia adscendens, and Xanthoria parietina), were sampled from the deciduous trees along nine streets of various traffic densities in Prešov, Slovakia. The total concentrations of risk elements (Al, As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) were determined by the ICP-OES method. Phaeophyscia orbicularis showed the best ability to accumulate all evaluated risk elements except Pb and Cr. X. parientina was found to be the least suitable for bioaccumulation purposes. The concentration of evaluated risk elements in lichen insoles came predominantly from traffic, which was confirmed by a significant positive correlation between risk elements and traffic density. Based on the results of contamination factor, evaluated streets were most polluted by Cr, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn and only slightly polluted by Cd. Provably higher values of Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni and Zn were measured in streets with higher traffic density. According to the cluster analysis, two groups of risk elements, expressing their origin, were found. Keywords: lichens, air pollution, traffic density, fuel combustion, risk element.
32037Gadea A., Fanuel M., Le Lamer A.-C., Boustie J., Rogniaux H., Charrier M. & Lohézic-Le Devehat F. (2020): Mass Spectrometry Imaging of specialized metabolites for predicting lichen fitness and snail foraging. - Plants, 9: 70 [12 p.].
Lichens are slow-growing organisms supposed to synthetize specialized metabolites to protect themselves against diverse grazers. As predicted by the optimal defense theory (ODT), lichens are expected to invest specialized metabolites in higher levels in reproductive tissues compared to thallus. We investigated whether Laser Desorption Ionization coupled to Mass Spectrometry Imaging (LDI-MSI) could be a relevant tool for chemical ecology issues such as ODT. In the present study, this method was applied to cross-sections of thalli and reproductive tissues of the lichen Pseudocyphellaria crocata. Spatial mapping revealed phenolic families of metabolites. A quantification of these metabolites was carried out in addition to spatial imaging. By this method, accumulation of specialized metabolites was observed in both reproductive parts (apothecia and soralia) of P. crocata, but their nature depended on the lichen organs: apothecia concentrated norstictic acid, tenuiorin, and pulvinic acid derivatives, whereas soralia mainly contained tenuiorin and pulvinic acid. Stictic acid, tenuiorin and calycin, tested in no-choices feeding experiments, were deterrent for N. hookeri while entire thalli were consumed by the snail. To improve better knowledge in relationships between grazed and grazing organisms, LDI-MSI appears to be a complementary tool in ecological studies Keywords: Pseudocyphellaria crocata; Lobariaceae; chemical ecology; optimal defense theory; Mass Spectrometry Imaging; lichens; specialized metabolites; Notodiscus hookeri.
32036Solárová Z., Liskova A., Samec M., Kubatka P., Büsselberg D. & Solár P. (2020): Anticancer potential of lichens’ secondary metabolites. - Biomolecules, 10: 87 [33 p.].
Lichens produce different classes of phenolic compounds, including anthraquinones, xanthones, dibenzofuranes, depsides and depsidones. Many of them have revealed effective biological activities such as antioxidant, antiviral, antibiotics, antifungal, and anticancer. Although no clinical study has been conducted yet, there are number of in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrating anticancer effects of lichen metabolites. The main goal of our work was to review most recent published papers dealing with anticancer activities of secondary metabolites of lichens and point out to their perspective clinical use in cancer management. Keywords: lichen; secondary metabolites; anticancer; in vitro; in vivo.
32035Etayo J. (1996): Contribution to the lichen flora of the Canary Islands. II. Epiphytic lichens from La Palma. - Österreichische Zeitschrift für Pilzkunde, 5: 149–159.
A list o f 42 species o f epiphytic lichens from La Palma (Canary Islands), especially from the Biosphere Reserve "El Canal y Los Tiles" is presented. One species, Belonia lumbrispora, is proposed as new. Five species are new to Macaronesia: Anisomeridum nyssaegenum, Eopyremila septemseptata, Lecanora navarrensis, Sarea difformis, and Strigiila lateralis. Seven further species are new records for the whole Canary Islands: Arthonia astroidestra, Arthothelium macounii, Glyphis cicatricosa, Megulariu pidverea, Parmentaria chilensis, Phaeographis dendritica. and Rinodina madeirensis. Lichenized ascomycetes, epiphytic lichens, Belonia, La Palma, Canary Islands
32034Gheza G. (2019): The macrolichens of Val di Scalve (northern Italy) and the first record of Parmelia pinnatifida in Italy. - Webbia, 74(2): 307–315.
The Val di Scalve valley, which is located in the province of Bergamo (Lombardy, northern Italy) at the boundary between the calcareous Orobic Prealps and the siliceous Orobic Alps, has never been studied before from a lichenological standpoint. This first contribution reports 327 records of 106 macrolichen taxa from 24 localities in which the main habitats occurring in the montane and subalpine belts of the valley are represented. Dermatocarpon intestiniforme, Parmelia submontana, Parmotrema arnoldii and Cetrelia cetrarioides are new to Lombardy; the latter two species, together with Hypotrachyna laevigata, Menegazzia terebrata and Parmotrema crinitum, are listed in the Italian Red List of epiphytic lichens. Other species with conservation or biogeographical value include Cladonia grayi, Cladonia pulvinata, Leptogium saturninum, Peltigera lepidophora and Sphaerophorus fragilis. Some considerations on the surveyed species are expressed and suggestions aimed at improving the lichenological knowledge of the Val di Scalve valley and the Orobic Prealps and Alps are discussed. Furthermore, the first record of Parmelia pinnatifida in Italy, which contributes to filling a gap in knowledge about its distribution in the Alps, is reported from the neighbouring upper Val Camonica valley (province of Brescia). Keywords: Alps, Cladonia, lichens, nature conservation, Parmeliaceae, Prealps, upper basin of the Oglio river.
32033Orthová V. (2003): Rastie lišajník Xanthoparmelia verrucigera v Čechách? [Does the lichen Xanthoparmelia verrucigera grow in the Czech Republic?]. - Bryonora, 32: 1–2.
The occurrence of Xanthoparmelia verrucigera, reported from the Czech Republic from a single locality near Prague, has been questioned. The specimen reported by Suza (1940) has not been found in herbaria, and therefore the most reliable and necessary method for differentiation from the closely related X. conspersa – TLC for detection of norstictic acid, present only in the medulla of the latter taxon, could not have been performed. The presence of X. verrucigera at the locality was not confirmed in 2002. Keywords: Xanthoparmelia verrucigera, Prague surroundings, Czech Republic.
32032Vicol I. (2010): Preliminary studies regarding the epiphytic lichens diversity from Băneasa Forest (Bucharest Municipality, Romania). - Oltenia. Studii şi comunicări. Ştiinţele Naturii, 26(1): 257–262.
Within this note the analysis of epiphytic lichens diversity from Băneasa Forest is presented. Within Băneasa Forest, it was identified an extremely reduced number of lichen species, analysed mainly from toxi-tolerance degree and chorology point of view. Also, the lichen species were analysed in relation with their ecological preferences. The analysis has indicated the correlations among critical environment conditions and ecological particularities of lichen species from Băneasa Forest. The comparisons with other similar studies around and within Bucharest Municipality have been pointed out. It was achieved the evaluation of the environmental quality based on the toxitolerance degree and chorology aspects of the identified lichen species. Keywords: epiphytic, lichens, diversity, ecological conditions, Băneasa Forest.
32031Băloniu L. & Costache I. (2010): New data about epiphytic lichens from Motru town area - Oltenia. - Oltenia. Studii şi comunicări. Ştiinţele Naturii, 26(2): 14–18.
A list of 47 lichen taxa, including mainly epiphytic, is reported from Motru City area. Two taxa (Lecanora impudens, Punctelia reddenda) are newly recorded for Romania and 40 taxa are new for Motru City area. Keywords: lichenized fungi, diversity, epiphytic, Motru, Romania.
32030Băloniu L. & Răduţoiu D. (2010): Contributions to the knowledge of the epiphytic lichens from Păuşeşti area. - Oltenia. Studii şi comunicări. Ştiinţele Naturii, 26(2): 19–22.
A list of 43 lichen taxa, including mainly epiphytic, is reported from Păuşeşti-Vâlcea area. One taxon (Ochrolechia dalmatica) is newly recorded for Romania. Keywords: lichenized fungi, diversity, epiphytic, Păuşeşti-Vâlcea, Romania.
32029Begu A. (2010): Lichens – potential indicators of air pollution. - Oltenia. Studii şi comunicări. Ştiinţele Naturii, 26(2): 213–220.
The present paper gives a research review on lichens flora in the Republic of Moldova beginning with 1934 until present time. It also presents the Lichens Toxitoleration Scale (LTS) and Air Quality Gradation Scale (AQGS), which were developed to assess the air quality both in urban and forest ecosystems. Thus, 40 lichens indicator species and a standard species (Parmelia sulcata) are proposed to monitor environment quality in the Republic of Moldova. Keywords: lichens, bioindication, air pollution, standard species.
32028Yavuz M. (2013): Lichens in the Prescriptions of Pliny the Elder. - Oltenia. Studii şi comunicări. Ştiinţele Naturii, 29(1): 115–119.
Caius Plinius Secundus, better known as Pliny the Elder, was a Roman author, naturalist, commander and a contemporary of Pedanius Dioscorides. He wrote an encyclopaedic work, Naturalis Historiae, consisting of thirty-seven books. In this study, two Latin codices and an English translation of Naturalis Historiae have been cross-compared and evaluated in order to investigate medicinal uses of lichens (the fungo-algal symbiotic organisms) in the antiquity. It is found that, Caius Plinius Secundus prescribes some botanical herbs -probably lichens- as remedies of dermatological diseases. Keywords: Plinius, ethnomedicine, lichens, Naturalis Historiae, remedy.
32027Çobanoğlu Özyiğitoğlu G. & Yavuz M. (2015): Lichen records from two military bases in the Asian side of Istanbul. - Oltenia. Studii şi comunicări. Ştiinţele Naturii, 31(2): 37–46.
A list of 65 lichenized fungi taxa and a lichenicolous fungus is reported from two military bases: Infantry Academy and Naval Academy in Tuzla district, Istanbul province. 15 lichen species and a lichenicolous fungus are new records for the province. This paper is a first among equals (primus inter pares) since it mentions lichen records for the first time from military bases in Turkey. Keywords: lichenized fungi, lichenicolous fungus, biodiversity, military bases, Turkey.
32026Vicol I. (2011): A study regarding the impact of forestry management on lichen flora within forests from Bucharest surroundings (Romania). - Oltenia. Studii şi comunicări. Ştiinţele Naturii, 27(1): 165–170.
The conservation of old-growth stands is of a crucial importance to lichens. Within investigated forests there were inventoried a total of 13 lichen species of which 63% were recorded to Biglaru Forest and 37% were found in Băneasa Forest, respectively. The investigated stands are intensively managed and this fact is in a close correlation to prevailing of synanthropic lichen species. A high abundance of lichen species was observed both in upper canopies of trees and on lignicolous substrata. Within the investigated forests a special importance is attributed to bark characteristic and illumination conditions. In the researched area, there have been recorded three lichen species which indicate a moderate to high environmental quality. Keywords: lichens, Băneasa, Biglaru, managed stands, forests.
32025Vicol I. (2018): The assessment of the atmospheric pollution by accumulation of the heavy metals in central and peripheral parts of Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th. Fr., Romania. - Oltenia. Studii şi comunicări. Ştiinţele Naturii, 34(1): 200–204.
This study is focused on heavy metals accumulation by Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th. Fr., identified on trees as components of shelterbelts. The fieldwork was performed in three counties – Călărași, Vaslui and Dolj – during June-December 2015. A single shelterbelt was investigated in Vaslui and Dolj, while four shelterbelts were investigated in Călărași. Thus, six sampling units were selected within each of the shelterbelts, with an area of 9 m2. In the laboratory, the collected lichen thalli were shifted into two thalline components, i.e. the central and peripheral parts of the thalli. The heavy metals accumulation was analysed both in the central and the peripheral parts of the thalli. The results have indicated that heavy metals were accumulated to a higher extent in the central part of thalli than in peripheral parts. The main source of pollution with heavy metals in the studied sites is car traffic. Keywords: shelterbelts, Xanthoria parietina, pollution, heavy metals, Romania.
32024Vicol I. (2018): Distribution of the Leptorhaphis Körb. 1855 genus in Romania. - Oltenia. Studii şi comunicări. Ştiinţele Naturii, 34(2): 72–78.
The field work performed to find out the lichen species tabulated in the Leptorhaphis genus took place in a lot of habitats from Romania, especially within natural and seminatural forest habitats and also in man-made habitats such as orchards and shelterwoods. The lichen species taken into account were not identified in the studied sites. Based on the literature, it was found that the Leptorhaphis genus is rather weakly distributed on Romanian territory. Chorological data, the habitat type, substratum, cenotaxonomy, and taxonomy of the Leptorhaphis genus are presented in this paper. Also, the worldwide chorology of Leptorhaphis genus is presented. In conclusion, further field studies are needed for the identification of the lichen species of Leptorhaphis genus on an extended area from Romania. Keywords: Leptorhaphis genus, chorology, Romania.
32023Yavuz M. & Çobanoğlu G. (2018): Lichen diversity of Gölcük Nature Park (Isparta), including new records for Turkey. - Oltenia. Studii şi comunicări. Ştiinţele Naturii, 34(2): 57–66.
In this study where the lichen biodiversity of Gölcük Nature Park and its surroundings in Isparta province located in the north-western part of Mediterranean Region of Turkey is assessed, a list of 189 lichenized fungi species (192 taxa) is reported. The most frequent 3 species in the study area are Melanohalea exasperata, Anaptychia ciliaris and Lecidella elaeochroma. Distribution of lichenized fungi depending on the substrate, respectively, is (41.67%) epiphytic, (36.56%) saxicolous, (14.52%) terricolous, (3.76%) muscicolous and (3.49%) lichenicolous. On a morphological basis, the crustose lichen taxa predominate in the area with 55.50% percentage, followed by the foliose (25.13%) and the squamulose (7.85%) taxa, while the leprose taxa are the fewest. Among the identified taxa, 73 species are firstly recorded for the research area and Isparta province. Diplotomma pharcidium (Ach.) M. Choisy, Flavoplaca granulosa (Müll. Arg.) Arup, Frödén & Søchting, and Miriquidica pycnocarpa (Körb.) are three new records for Turkish Lichen Mycota. Keywords: Lichenized fungi, diversity, Mediterranean Turkey.
32022Liu F., Chen S., Ferreira M.A., Chang R., Sayari M., Kanzi A.M., Wingfield B.D., Wingfield M.J., Pizarro D., Crespo A., Divakar P.K., de Beer Y.W. & Duong T.A. (2019): Draft genome sequences of five Calonectria species from Eucalyptus plantations in China, Celoporthe dispersa, Sporothrix phasma and Alectoria sarmentosa. - IMA Fungus, 10:22 [13 p.].
Draft genome sequences of five Calonectria species [including Calonectria aciculata, C. crousiana, C. fujianensis, C. honghensis and C. pseudoturangicola], Celoporthe dispersa, Sporothrix phasma and Alectoria sarmentosa are presented. Species of Calonectria are the causal agents of Eucalyptus leaf blight disease, threatening the growth and sustainability of Eucalyptus plantations in China. Celoporthe dispersa is the causal agent of stem canker in native Syzygium cordatum and exotic Tibouchina granulosa in South Africa. Sporothrix phasma was first discovered in the infructescences of Protea laurifolia and Protea neriifolia in South Africa. Alectoria sarmentosa is fruticose lichen belongs to the alectorioid clade of the family Parmeliaceae. The availability of these genome sequences will facilitate future studies on the systematics, population genetics, and genomics of these fungi. Keywords: Alectoria sarmentosa, Calonectria species, Celoporthe dispersa, Eucalyptus leaf disease, Fungal pathogens, Sporothrix phasma.
32021Dietrich M. (2018): Flechtenreiche Trockenmauern auf der Alp Flix im Parc Ela: Neue Arten für die Schweiz und den Kanton Graubünden. - Meylania, 62: 18–27.
[in German with English abstract: ] In the frame of a restoration project of old dry stone walls, on Alp Flix (Parc Ela, Canton of Graubünden) the lichen diversity on several dry stone walls was investigated to evaluate the possibilities of conserving and supporting species richness. In addition, two free standing boulders were examined. With 216 taxa the detected diversity is very high. Several interesting lichens were found, including Bellemerea subsorediza, Miriquidica complanata and Placynthium stenophyllum var. isidiatum which are recorded for the first time in Switzerland. In addition, 16 lichens new to the Canton of Graubünden and several other interesting findings are reported.
32020Mermilliod J.-C. (2018): Diversité des lichens sur les petites branches d’un marronnier à Nyon et découverte d’une espèce nouvelle pour la Suisse : Strangospora microhaema (Norman) R. Anderson. - Meylania, 62: 12–17.
[in French with English abstract:] The diversity and frequency of lichens on a set of 34 small branches (diameter 0.8 to 1.7 cm) from a fallen tree (Aesculus hippocastanum) have been analysed. On the total length of 7.95 m, 556 thalli of 32 lichen species have been identified, namely 17 foliose species, 1 fruticulose and 14 crustose. One species, Strangospora microhaema (Norman) R. Anderson, present with 10 thalli, is new for Switzerland.
32019van Dort K. & Horvers B. (2017): Nederlandse coniocarpen: overzicht en geïllustreerde determinatiesleutel [Coniocarps of the Netherlands – overview and illustrated field key to the species]. - Buxbaumiella, 110: 42–50.
[in Dutch with English abstract: ] Coniocarps form a distinct group of lichens (traditionally including some non-lichenized fungi). They are well characterized by the very small, usually long-stalked apothecia (hence the name of ‘pinhead-lichens’). About 29 species are known from The Netherlands: 5 species belong to the genus Calicium and 12 to Chaenotheca. An additional twelve species are placed in various different genera. Some of them have all but disappeared from The Netherlands. Chaenotheca brachypoda, C. chlorella, C. xyloxena and Mycocalicium subtile seem to be expanding however. An obvious cause of this is simply the increasing attention being paid towards minuscule lichen species in general. On the other hand, an effect of the increasing number of snags in the ageing Dutch forests seems logical. In a table, the actual knowledge is summarized (useful characteristics of thallus and ascocarp to facilitate identification at ‘first glance’, trend in number of ‘atlasblokken’, red list category). To draw extra attention to this interesting group of corticolous and lichnicolous specialists an identification key to the Dutch species is provided (very rare species excluded). The field key is based on presence and colour of the thallus and pruina. Finally, short illustrated descriptions per species are given, pinpointing the differences with similar species. The article is also a preview of an ‘Identification guide to Dutch lichens’, based on field characters and chemical spot tests, to be published in 2018.
32018van der Kolk H.-J. (2017): Physcia vitii, een nieuw vingermos in Nederland [Physcia vitii new to the Netherlands]. - Buxbaumiella, 109: 34–37.
[in Dutch with English abstract: ] Physcia vitii resembles other species from the genera Phaeophyscia and Physcia, but is characterized by the somewhat brownish lobes, K+ yellow upper cortex, pseudoparenchymatic lower cortex and absence of cilia. The species was found in the Netherlands for the first time in Wageningen on a lime tree (Tilia) alongside a road. There are no recent nearby recordings of Physcia vitii. The species might indeed be very rare in Northwestern Europe or, alternatively, might not be recorded due to its inconspicuous appearance.
32017Bekking M. & Aptroot A. (2017): Verslag BLWG Zomerkamp Öland, Zweden, zaterdag 11 t/m zaterdag 18 juni 2016 [Report of the BLWG summer meeting 2016 in Öland, Sweden]. - Buxbaumiella, 109: 1–24.
[in Dutch with English abstract: ] The summer meeting 2016 of the Dutch Bryological and Lichenological Society (BLWG) was held June 11-18 on the Swedish island of Öland. A report is given of the 230 bryophytes and 410 lichens that were seen during the field trips. The list of bryophytes includes 13 Red List species and 8 first records for Öland and Gymnostomum viridulum as first record for Sweden. Fuscidea lightfootii, Lecanora compallens, Leptorhaphis maggiana, and Thelidium impressum are reported here new to Sweden; 13 other lichen species are first records for Öland.
32016van der Kolk H.-J., van Trigt T. & Sparrius L. (2019): Korstmossenhotspot Landgoed Elswout [Lichens of Elswout]. - Buxbaumiella, 114: 22–25.
[in Dutch with English abstract: ] Elswout is an old estate in the innermost zone of the coastal dunes near Haarlem in the west of the Netherlands. From 1999 onward, it was discovered that Elswout harbours a rich lichen flora, mainly due to the presence of a wide variety of habitats, in which a rich lichen flora could develop during three centuries. A total of 175 lichen species were recorded at Elswout, 17 of which are on the Dutch Red List of endangered species. The most important sites are the stone fences around the main building for epilithic lichens, and old beech and lime trees for epiphytic lichens. Elswout can be considered a hotspot for (endangered) lichen species in the Netherlands.
32015Tsurykau A., Bely P., Golubkov V., Persson P.-E. & Thell A. (2019): The lichen genus Parmelia (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) in Belarus. - Herzogia, 32: 375–384.
Four hundred eighty-three specimens of the genus Parmelia collected in Belarus were examined. Four species, P. ernstiae, P. saxatilis, P. serrana and P. sulcata, were identified in this study. The distribution of these species in Belarus is reviewed. Parmelia saxatilis appeared to be an extremely rare species in Belarus known from a single locality. Parmelia ernstiae is reported from Belarus for the first time. The presence of Parmelia fraudans and P. submontana has not been confirmed, and they are therefore excluded from the Belarusian list of lichen species. Morphological and chemical characters of the isidiate and corticolous species Parmelia ernstiae and P. serrana are briefly discussed. Key words: biodiversity, distribution, secondary metabolites, isidiate species.
32014Pyrcha M. & Oset M. (2019): Saxicolous species of the genus Pertusaria s.l. in Poland. - Herzogia, 32: 385–397.
Notes on the morphology, secondary chemistry, habitat requirements and distribution of saxicolous species belonging to the genus Pertusaria s.l. in Poland are provided. The following species are treated: Lepra aspergilla, L. corallina, L. ocellata, L. schaereri, Pertusaria flavicans, P. melanochlora, P. pseudocorallina and Varicellaria lactea. Although most of these species are reported from the southern part of the country, a key to all species known from Poland is provided. A chemotype of P. melanochlora lacking picrolichenic acid is reported for the first time. Pertusaria chiodectonoides and P. inopinata are considered uncertain records from Poland due to the lack of available material. The identity of P. eitneriana described from Poland is unclear; it was recorded only by the type collection. Key words: Lepra, Pertusariales, secondary lichen chemistry, Varicellaria.
32013Kubiak D. & Osyczka P. (2019): Tree avenues as reservoir for epiphytic lichens in deforested landscapes. - Herzogia, 32: 398–420.
Old tree avenues are a disappearing traditional element in European landscapes. Roadside trees constitute an important habitat for many groups of organisms and support the maintenance of biodiversity in deforested areas, but they are often neglected in conservation strategies. This study describes and analyses the conservation value of planted trees along rural roads in NE Poland for epiphytic lichens. A total of 105 trunks of seven deciduous tree species were examined. Lichen species inventories were assembled for trunks at a height up to two meters from the ground. A total of 99 lichen species was recorded. Lichen species richness and cover were dependent primarily on tree species. Diameter of trees was not significantly correlated with the number of species. Ulmus laevis and, to a lesser extent, Fraxinus excelsior and Acer platanoides, were be the most valuable tree species in terms of lichen species richness. Quercus robur as a roadside tree did not have above-average species numbers. Lichen species with a preference for eutrophicated or alkaline bark occurred in their largest numbers on Populus nigra agg. Betula pendula hosted the largest number of species avoiding eutrophication. Each tree species had its own set of exclusive lichens and hosted taxa which are red-listed in Poland; however, no single tree species alone guarantees preservation of the entire range of epiphytic lichens on roadside trees in the study area. Since tree avenues, especially those composed of multiple species, provide a suitable habitat for various rare and endangered lichens, potentially high conservation value should always be attributed to this element of local landscapes in low pollution areas. Key words: species richness, epiphytes, roadside trees, agriculture, rural landscapes, conservation.
32012van den Boom P.P.G. & Alvarado P. (2019): Lichens and lichenicolous fungi of Faial (Azores, Portugal) with descriptions of three new species. - Herzogia, 32: 421–437.
Results of a fieldtrip to Faial in 2016 are treated on lichens and lichenicolous fungi. Of the 109 taxa recorded, 14 are new to the Azores, and one new genus (Cliomegalaria) and three new species, Bacidia sigmospora, Bacidina terricola, Cliomegalaria symmictoides, are proposed to accommodate specimens not matching any known taxon. Key words: Ascomycota, taxonomy, mtSSU, 28S nrDNA, rpb1.
32011Brackel W. v. & Berger F. (2019): Lichenicolous fungi from Sardinia (Italy): new records and a first synopsis . - Herzogia, 32: 444–471.
During a four week excursion of the first author to Sardinia in 2014, 64 sites of lichenological interest were visited. The second author visited 12 sites in a one week excursion in 2011. The results of these field studies are presented here with special emphasis on lichenicolous fungi, completed with data from the literature to produce a first checklist for the island. The list comprises 42 species known only from the literature and 167 species including the authors’ recent finds. Among them one species, Sporidesmiella lichenophila U.Braun & Heuchert, is new to Europe, 15 species are new to Italy and 87 species are new to Sardinia. In addition the finds of 13 lichenicolous lichens are mentioned. The new species Endococcus sardous Brackel is described. One new combination is proposed, Polycoccum minus (Kernst.) Brackel comb. nov. (= Microthelia minor Kernst.), as we were able to find a specimen of this rare species. Key words: Ascomycotina, Basidiomycotina, lichens, Endococcus, Mediterranean.
32010Davydov E.A., Chesnokov S.V., Konoreva L.A. & Andreev M.P. (2019): Umbilicariaceae (lichenized Ascomycota) from the Stanovoye Nagor’e Highlands (South Siberia, Russia). - Herzogia, 32: 472–484.
Twenty species of Umbilicariaceae are reported from the Stanovoye Nagor’e Highlands, mostly from the Kodar Range. Of these, Umbilicaria rhizinata is new for Russia, U. formosana and U. kisovana are new for Siberia, U. herrei is new for South Siberia, U. lyngei and Xylopsora friesii are new for the Stanovoye Nagor’e Highlands. The distribution patterns of the studied species are discussed. Previous reports of Umbilicaria (Lasallia) papulosa from Siberia are considered to be doubtful. Key words: Kalar, Kodar, Udokan, new record, growth form.
32009Hellou S., Uriac P., Le Dévehat F., Sauvager A., Jéhan P., Zebboudj A., Boustie J. & Esnault J. (2019): A chemotaxonomic study of the Xanthoparmelia pulla group in Algeria. - Herzogia, 32: 485–502.
The Xanthoparmelia pulla group is well represented in Algeria from coastal to desert areas. As it is difficult to recognize the species without chemical data, we undertook a study of specimens collected in Algeria using chromatography (TLC and HPLC), mass spectrometry and fluorimetry. Our results confirm the presence of six species, two of which are represented by two chemotypes. We report two diphenyl ethers (β-collatolic and β-alectoronic acids) for the first time in X. glabrans. We also provide a key to these taxa based on chemical data, and employ a new test combining UV and K reactions. Keywords: Fluorescence, HPLC-DAD, Lichens, Mass Spectrometry, North Africa.
32008Benatti M.N. & Marcelli M.P. (2019): Physciaceae foliosas do Parque Estadual da Cantareira, estado de São Paulo. III. Espécies do Gênero Physcia [Foliose Physciaceae from the Parque Estadual da Cantareira, São Paulo state. III. Species of the genus Physcia]. - Rodriguésia, 70: e00642018 [12 p.].
[in Portuguese with English abstract : ] This survey includes data obtained from foliose lichens specimens collected at Parque Estadual da Serra da Cantareira until the end of the 1990s, and currently deposited in SP herbarium. Samples of six foliose lichen species belonging to the genus Physcia of the family Physciaceae were found and analyzed. Descriptions, comments, illustrations and a key for the reported species are presented. Key words: Ascomycota, fungi, lichens, Atlantic Forest.
32007Gumboski E.L., Gerlach A.C.L., Spielmann A.A., Canêz L.S. & Marceli M.P. (2019): Ephebe brasiliensis (Ascomycota, Lichinaceae): an overlooked freshwater lichenized fungus. - Rodriguésia, 70: e02842017 [5 p.].
Ephebe brasiliensis is a semi-aquatic fruticose cyanolichen that occurs in freshwater environments from Brazil (Minas Gerais and São Paulo states) and Uruguay. Although this species may be locally abundant and has “wide” distribution, it has been poorly studied and is still misunderstood with respect to their distribution and ecological characteristics. Herein, E. brasiliensis is reported for the first time in Southern Brazil. Key words: Atlantic Forest, biodiversity, cyanobacteria, cyanolichen, Stigonema.
32006Sipman H., Hertel H. & Schrüfer K. (2019): Dr. Johannes Knoph (1951–2019). - Herzogia, 32: 263–267.
Obituary [in German]
32005Shivarov V.V. (2019): Clypeococcum hemiamyloideum (Polycoccaceae, Ascomycota), a novel lichenicolous fungus on Verrucaria latebrosa. - Herzogia, 32: 438–443.
Clypeococcum hemiamyloideum is described as a novel lichenicolous fungus on Verrucaria latebrosa from the Malyovitsa River, Bulgaria. It is characterized by two types of hymenial gels: lower gel predominant, hemiamyloid (I+ red), upper gel only in the ostiolar region, euamyloid (I+ blue), a variable spore number in the mature asci (1–8), pseudothecia 100–175 µm diam., black, and ascospores 17.8–20.3 x 6.6–7.6 µm, brown, thick-walled, warted, 1-septate. The reactions of the hymenial gels in C. hemiamyloideum and V. latebrosa were tested with different concentrations of IKI in order to identify their types and thresholds. Key words: Bulgaria, freshwater habitats, iodine reactions, lichenicolous fungi, new species, Polycoccaceae, Verrucariaceae.
32004Gagunashvili A.N. & Andrésson Ó.S. (2018): Distinctive characters of Nostoc genomes in cyanolichens. - BMC Genomics, 19:434 [18 p.].
Background: Cyanobacteria of the genus Nostoc are capable of forming symbioses with a wide range of organism, including a diverse assemblage of cyanolichens. Only certain lineages of Nostoc appear to be able to form a close, stable symbiosis, raising the question whether symbiotic competence is determined by specific sets of genes and functionalities. Results: We present the complete genome sequencing, annotation and analysis of two lichen Nostoc strains. Comparison with other Nostoc genomes allowed identification of genes potentially involved in symbioses with a broad range of partners including lichen mycobionts. The presence of additional genes necessary for symbiotic competence is likely reflected in larger genome sizes of symbiotic Nostoc strains. Some of the identified genes are presumably involved in the initial recognition and establishment of the symbiotic association, while others may confer advantage to cyanobionts during cohabitation with a mycobiont in the lichen symbiosis. Conclusions: Our study presents the first genome sequencing and genome-scale analysis of lichen-associated Nostoc strains. These data provide insight into the molecular nature of the cyanolichen symbiosis and pinpoint candidate genes for further studies aimed at deciphering the genetic mechanisms behind the symbiotic competence of Nostoc. Since many phylogenetic studies have shown that Nostoc is a polyphyletic group that includes several lineages, this work also provides an improved molecular basis for demarcation of a Nostoc clade with symbiotic competence. Keywords: Cyanobacteria, Nostoc, Lichen, Symbiosis, Symbiotic competence.
32003Guttová A. & El Mokni R. (2019): Lichens collected during the 12th “Iter Mediterraneum” in Tunisia (24 March – 4 April, 2014). - Studia Botanica Hungarica, 50(2): 317–322.
We present a second short list of already identified lichens collected during OPTIMAITER to Tunisia in 2014. The lichens were collected in 20 sampling sites in the northern part of the country. We report on ecological and distributional data related to 45 taxa, 11 of them were not included in the published checklist of lichens of Tunisia and further papers related to the diversity of lichens of Tunisia (Calicium glaucellum, Catapyrenium daedaleum, C. psoromoides, Gyalecta jenensis, Haematomma ochroleucum, Lecania sylvestris, Lecanora argentata, Parmotrema stuppeum, Physcia phaea, Ramalina subgeniculata, and Rinodina pyrina). Keywords: biodiversity, North Africa, lichenized fungi.
32002Fačkovcová Z. & Paoli L. (2019): The lichens of the Krasín Nature Reserve in Biele Karpaty Mts (Western Carpathians, Slovakia). - Studia Botanica Hungarica, 50(2): 307–316.
The outputs of a pilot lichenological survey of the protected area Krasín (Western Carpathian Mts) are given. The area harbours various habitats (calcareous outcrops, southern xerotherm slopes, oak woods with Quercus pubescens, and hornbeam-linden woods) providing suitable conditions for a wide range of epiphytic, saxicolous, and epigeic lichens. During the field survey, 72 lichen taxa were recorded. Five of them are considered as threatened in Slovakia and four of them as indicators of forest ecological continuity. Key words: biodiversity, lichenized fungi, NATURA 2000, threatened species.
32001Şenkardeşler A. (2019): The correct status of “Fragm. typi” introduced by Klára Verseghy. - Studia Botanica Hungarica, 50(2): 299–305.
Klára Verseghy used the term “Fragm. typi” in her catalogue of the type specimens deposited in BP. However, this status is in conflict with the Code. “Fragm. typi” were replaced by lectotype and isolectotype of the following names: Buellia samothrakiana, Caloplaca servitiana, Catillaria servitii, Catillaria zsakii, Lecania nylanderiana var. ochracea, Lecanora atra var. aegaeica, L. cengiae-samboae, L. rhodi, Lecidea aegaeica f. acrustacea and Rinodina samothrakiana. Key words: Greece, Hungary, Iran, lichens, lichenized Ascomycota, typification.
32000Pócs T. (2019): Out of Africa. Acquaintance and joint ventures with Edit Farkas described in an unscholarly way. - Studia Botanica Hungarica, 50(2): 293–297.
Tribute
31999Varga N., Pifkó D., Kondratyuk S.Y., Kärnefelt I. & Thell A. (2019): Hungarian lichenologists – a 60th birthday tribute. - Studia Botanica Hungarica, 50(2): 261–292.
Edit Farkas and László Lőkös are internationally well known and respected Hungarian lichenologists. They did their best to maintain and to develop several aspects of the Hungarian lichenology, including biodiversity research on lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi, taxonomic revisions based on morphological, chemical and molecular methods, ecological, ecophysiological and conservation biological research, as well as investigations on history of science and bibliographical compilations. Hungarian lichen herbaria were enriched considerably by their various Hungarian collections as well as collections from tropical, temperate Asian and Balkan areas. We shortly overview their scientific career and results publishing in more than 100 scientific papers, and similar amount of scientific and popular presentations. As key persons in traditional Hungarian lichenology, their keen and precise way of research might serve as a good example to their students and colleagues. Keywords: biography, science history, lichenology, birthday tribute.
31998Roux C. & Bertrand M. (2019): Validation des nouvelles espèces Caloplaca epierodens Cl. Roux et M. Bertrand et Aspicilia serenensis Cl. Roux et M. Bertrand, et des nouvelles combinaisons Aspicilia hoffmanniana (S. Ekman et Fröberg ex R. Sant) Cl. Roux et M. Bertrand et A. reagens (Zahlbr.) Cl. Roux et M. Bertrand. - Bulletin de Association Française de Lichénologie, 44(1): 1–6.
31997Hafellner J. (2019): Lichenicolous Biota (Nos 301–320). - Fritschiana (Graz), 94: 25–42.
The 13th fascicle (20 numbers) of the exsiccata 'Lichenicolous Biota' is published. The issue contains material of 18 nonlichenized fungal taxa (16 teleomorphs of ascomycetes, 2 basidiomycetes). Collections of the type species of the following genera are distributed: Lichenochora (L. obscuroides, syn. L. thallina) and Nesolechia (N. oxyspora). The new combination Sphaerellothecium arnoldii (A.Massal.) Hafellner is proposed.
31996Hafellner J. (2019): A reinvestigation of Microthelia umbilicariae results in a contribution to the species diversity in Endococcus. - Fritschiana (Graz), 94: 1–23.
A set of morphoanatomical characters and the amyloid reaction of the ascomatal centrum indicates that Microthelia umbilicariae Linds. belongs to Endococcus (Verrucariales). Endococcus freyi Hafellner, detected on Umbilicaria cylindrica (type locality in Austria), is described as new to science. The new combinations Endococcus umbilicariae (Linds.) Hafellner and Didymocyrtis peltigerae (Fuckel) Hafellner are introduced. Key words: Ascomycota, key, Lasallia, lichenicolous fungi, Umbilicaria, Verrucariales, Pleosporales.
31995Demková L., Árvay J., Bobuľská L., Hauptvogl M. & Hrstková M. (2019): Open mining pits and heaps of waste material as the source of undesirable substances: biomonitoring of air and soil pollution in former mining area (Dubnik, Slovakia). - Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 26: 35227–35239.
Moss and lichen bag technique (Dicranum sp., Hypnum sp., Polytrichum sp., Hypogymnia physodes) and activity of soil enzymes (urease, acid and alkaline phosphatase, fluorescein diacetate, ß-glucosidase) were used as bioindicators of air and soil pollution in Dubník former mining area (East Slovakia). Ten open mining pits and 8 heaps of waste material were chosen for the research purposes. Contamination factor (Cf), degree of contamination (Cd), and pollution load index (PLI) were used to evaluate the level of soil pollution and relative accumulation factor (RAF) expressed the level of air pollution by risk elements (As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Sb, Pb, Zn). Based the degree of contamination results, the study area was polluted by individual elements in the following order: Fe>Cd>As>Pb>Sb>Zn>Cu>Ni>Mn. The highest values of Mn and Ni and lower values of urease were determined in open mining pits comparing heaps of waste material. The results of PLI index confirmed extreme pollution at all sampling sites. Considering the average RAF values showed the decrease of accumulation abilities of evaluated taxa in the following order: Dicranum sp.>Hypnum sp.>Hypogymnia physodes>Polytrichum sp. Keywords Moss and lichen bag technique . Activity of soil enzymes . Contamination factor . Degree of contamination . Relative accumulation factor . Mining bodies.
31994Nývlt D., Nývltová Fišáková M., Barták M., Stachoň D., Pavel V., Mlčoch B. & Láska K. (2016): Death age, seasonality, taphonomy and colonization of seal carcasses from Ulu Peninsula, James Ross Island, Antarctic Peninsula. - Antarctic Science, 28(1): 3–16.
The origin and nature of seal carcasses scattered around the Ulu Peninsula, James Ross Island, is examined using robust and novel multidisciplinary analysis. Spatial distribution analysis indicates their predominance at low elevations and on surfaces with negligible slope. The seals died throughout the last century. Dental cement increments indicate that the seals died in late winter, and we interpret this to show an influence of the persistence and break-up of sea ice and the appearance of pools/cracks in the northern Prince Gustav Channel on death. Specifically, after being trapped by a late winter freeze-up the seals search for open water, become disoriented by snow-covered flat valleys and move inland. Carcasses from all age groups of crabeater seal are found on land, but inland movement is less notable for Weddell and leopard seals. Although most carcasses appear to have remained unchanged during the last 10 years due to the cold and dry conditions, a few carcasses that are located in sites of snow accumulation and subsequent melting have undergone enhanced decay. Decaying seal carcasses represent loci of nutrient release in a nutrient deficient environment and are colonized by algae, cyanobacteria, lichens and mosses. This research suggests further useful studies for the future. Key words: James Ross Island, preservation state, Prince Gustav Channel, sea ice, seal behaviour.
31993Lukáč M., Prokipčák I., Lacko I. & Devínsky F. (2012): Solubilisation of (+)-usnic acid in aqueous micellar solutions of gemini and heterogemini surfactants and their equimolar mixture. - Acta Facultatis Pharmaceuticae Universitatis Comenianae, 59: 36–43.
The solubilisation of natural compound, (+)-usnic acid, in micellar solutions of gemini (N,N’-didecyl-N,N,N’,N’-tetramethylethane-1,2-diyldiammonium dibromide) and heterogemini (decyl 2-[decyl(dimethyl)ammonio]ethylphosphate) surfactants and their equimolar mixture has been studied. The highest solubility was found for gemini surfactant. The relationship between synergism in surface properties of mixture of surfactants and their solubilisation properties is also discussed. Keywords: gemini surfactant – heterogemini surfactant – usnic acid – solubilisation –solubility in aqueous solutions.
31992Stefańska-Krzaczek E. (2011): Przemiany ubogich siedlisk borowych a aktualny stan roślinności runa w drzewostanach sosnowych kolejnych klas wieku w Nadleśnictwie Bolesławiec [Consistency in the classification of oligotrophic forest sites and forest vegetation in Scots pine stands of successive age classes in Bolesławiec Forest]. - Leśne Prace Badawcze (Forest Research Papers), 72(1): 53–64.
[In Polish with English abstract: ] Recent changes have been recorded in the site classification of many managed Polish forests. These changes result from soil eutrophication and improved site recognition thanks to the wider use of diagnostic tools. The relative importance of these two causes of changes in the classification of forest site types has not yet been assessed, and this information is needed for the interpretation of current and future studies of forest vegetation conditions. In this paper of two sets of vegetation data collected in fresh coniferous forest sites were compared. The first data set was collected in forest sites classified as a dry coniferous forest in 1960 and as a fresh coniferous forest in 2004 (dry/fresh sites). The second data set was collected in forest sites classified in both 1960 and 2004 as a fresh coniferous forest (fresh/fresh sites). Data were collected from circular plots of 8 m radius in forest subsections containing stands of successive age classes. Vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens were identified and their cover was recorded. The aim of the comparison was to determine how species composition changed with site classification, and to identify indicators of the disappearance of dry forest containing Cladonia species in study area. The abundance and cover of vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens was similar and consistent with the current classification of the re-diagnosed sites. Slight differences in species composition indicated that the previous identification of dry coniferous forest sites might have been connected with the presence of Cladonio-Pinetum communities in the study area. Key words: forest typology, forest phytosociology, managed forest, Cladonia forest, undergrowth species.
31991Stefańska-Krzaczek E. (2012): Fitocenozy borów sosnowych na tle zmian klasyfikacji mezotroficznych siedlisk borowych na przykładzie Nadleśnictwa Bolesławiec [Phytocoenoses of Scots pine forests on the background of changes in classification of mesotrophic sites in Bolesławiec Forest]. - Leśne Prace Badawcze (Forest Research Papers), 73(2): 107–119.
[In Polish with English abstract: ] We attempt to better explain the connection of vegetation structure and dynamics with changes in the site classification of managed forests in Poland. The paper is focused on forest vegetation in oligotrophic and mesotrophic sites with respect to changes in site classification. The main goal of the paper is to assess the how differences in the vegetation cover of forest sites related to changes in their classification. Three data sets were compared. The first set contained data collected in sites classified in both 1960 and 2004 as oligotrophic fresh coniferous forest (oligotrophic/oligotrophic). The second set contained data collected in mesotrophic fresh mixed coniferous forest sites in 2004, which had been classified as oligotrophic fresh coniferous forest in 1960 (oligotrophic/mesotrophic). The third set contained data collected in sites classified as mesotrophic fresh mixed coniferous forest in both 1960 and 2004 (mesotrophic/mesotrophic). Data were collected from circular plots of 8 m radius in successive stand age-classes. All vascular plants, bryophyte and lichen species were identified and their cover was recorded. In general, mesotrophic sites were richer in vascular plant species and oligotrophic sites were richer in lichen species. The cover of non-tree vascular plants was higher in mesotrophic sites in stand age classes Ia-III, where in oligotrophic sites the cover of lichens was higher. The forest in oligotrophic/mesotrophic sites showed some similarities with oligotrophic/ oligotrophic sites, but species composition was more similar to mesotrophic/mesotrophic sites. As a consequence, some indicator species preferred meso- over oligotrophic sites, but probably only at a local scale. However, site re-diagnosis was not connected with forest type changes but rather it relies on the conversion of forest structure, which later causes changes in the spatial heterogeneity of forest communities. Key words: forest site types, mesotrophic sites, undergrowth species, forest plant communities.
31990Cantón Y., Román J.R., Chamizo S., Rodríguez-Caballero E. & Moro M.J. (2014): Dynamics of organic carbon losses by water erosion after biocrust removal. - Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics, 62: 258–268.
In arid and semiarid ecosystems, plant interspaces are frequently covered by communities of cyanobacteria, algae, lichens and mosses, known as biocrusts. These crusts often act as runoff sources and are involved in soil stabilization and fertility, as they prevent erosion by water and wind, fix atmospheric C and N and contribute large amounts of C to soil. Their contribution to the C balance as photosynthetically active surfaces in arid and semiarid regions is receiving growing attention. However, very few studies have explicitly evaluated their contribution to organic carbon (OC) lost from runoff and erosion, which is necessary to ascertain the role of biocrusts in the ecosystem C balance. Furthermore, biocrusts are not resilient to physical disturbances, which generally cause the loss of the biocrust and thus, an increase in runoff and erosion, dust emissions, and sediment and nutrient losses. The aim of this study was to find out the influence of biocrusts and their removal on dissolved and sediment organic carbon losses. One-hour extreme rainfall simulations (50 mm h–1) were performed on small plots set up on physical soil crusts and three types of biocrusts, representing a development gradient, and also on plots where these crusts were removed from. Runoff and erosion rates, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and organic carbon bonded to sediments (SdOC) were measured during the simulated rain. Our results showed different SdOC and DOC for the different biocrusts and also that the presence of biocrusts substantially decreased total organic carbon (TOC) (average 1.80±1.86 g m–2) compared to physical soil crusts (7.83±3.27 g m–2). Within biocrusts, TOC losses decreased as biocrusts developed, and erosion rates were lower. Thus, erosion drove TOC losses while no significant direct relationships were found between TOC losses and runoff. In both physical crusts and biocrusts, DOC and SdOC concentrations were higher during the first minutes after runoff began and decreased over time as nutrient-enriched fine particles were washed away by runoff water. Crust removal caused a strong increase in water erosion and TOC losses. The strongest impacts on TOC losses after crust removal occurred on the lichen plots, due to the increased erosion when they were removed. DOC concentration was higher in biocrust–removed soils than in intact biocrusts, probably because OC is more strongly retained by BSC structures, but easily blown away in soils devoid of them. However, SdOC concentration was higher in intact than removed biocrusts associated with greater OC content in the top crust than in the soil once the crust is scraped off. Consequently, the loss of biocrusts leads to OC impoverishment of nutrient–limited interplant spaces in arid and semiarid areas and the reduction of soil OC heterogeneity, essential for vegetation productivity and functioning of this type of ecosystems. Keywords: Biological soil crust; Dissolved OC; Sediment OC; Runoff; Biocrust disturbance; Physical crust.
31989Gypser S., Veste M., Fischer T. & Lange P. (2016): Infiltration and water retention of biological soil crusts on reclaimed soils of former open-cast lignite mining sites in Brandenburg, north-east Germany. - Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics, 64: 1–11.
Investigations were done on two former open-cast lignite mining sites under reclamation, an artificial sand dune in Welzow Süd, and a forest plantation in Schlabendorf Süd (Brandenburg, Germany). The aim was to associate the topsoil hydrological characteristics of green algae dominated as well as moss and soil lichen dominated biological soil crusts during crustal succession with their water retention and the repellency index on sandy soils under temperate climate and different reliefs. The investigation of the repellency index showed on the one hand an increase due to the cross-linking of sand particles by green algae which resulted in clogging of pores. On the other hand, the occurrence of moss plants led to a decrease of the repellency index due to absorption caused by bryophytes. The determination of the water retention curves showed an increase of the water holding capacity, especially in conjunction with the growth of green algae layer. The pore-related van Genuchten parameter indicate a clay-like behaviour of the developed soil crusts. Because of the inhomogeneous distribution of lichens and mosses as well as the varying thickness of green algae layers, the water retention differed between the study sites and between samples of similar developmental stages. However, similar tendencies of water retention and water repellency related to the soil crust formation were observed. Biological soil crusts should be considered after disturbances in the context of reclamation measures, because the initial development of green algae biocrusts lead to an increasing repellency index, while the occurrence of mosses and a gain in organic matter enhance the water holding capacity. Thus, the succession of biocrusts and their small-scale succession promote the development of soil and ecosystem. Keywords: Repellency index; pF-curves; Water holding capacity; Biological soil crusts.
31988Kłos A., Ziembik Z., Rajfur M., Dołhańczuk-Śródka A., Bochenek Z., Bjerke J.W., Tømmervik H., Zagajewski B., Ziółkowski D., Jerz D., Zielińska M., Krems P. & Godyń P. (2017): The origin of heavy metals and radionuclides accumulated in the soil and biota samples collected in Svalbard, near Longyearbyen. - Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S, 24(2): 223–238.
Heavy metals and radioactive compounds are potentially hazardous substances for plants, animals and humans in the Arctic. A good knowledge of the spatial variation of these substances in soil and primary producers, and their sources, is therefore essential. In the samples of lichen Thamnolia vermicularis, Salix polaris and Cassiope tetragona, and the soil samples collected in 2014 in Svalbard near Longyearbyen, the concentrations of the following heavy metals were determined: Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and Hg, as well as the activity concentrations of the following: K-40, Cs-137, Pb-210, Pb-212, Bi-212, Bi-214, Pb-214, Ac-228, Th-231 and U-235 in the soil samples. The differences in the concentrations of the analytes accumulated in the different plant species and soil were studied using statistical methods. Sea aerosol was indicated as the source of Pb, Hg, Cs-137, Pb-210 and Th-231 in the studied area. A relatively high concentration of nickel was determined in the biota samples collected near Longyearbyen, compared to other areas of Svalbard. It was supposed that nickel may be released into the atmosphere as a consequence of the local coal mining around Longyearbyen. Keywords: heavy metals, radioisotopes, biomonitoring, soil, Arctic regions.
31987Jóźwiak M.A. (2012): Concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. thalli and changes to morphological structure. - Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S, 19(4): 549–569.
Apart from widely known anthropogenic pollutants as SO2, NOx, CO2, CO, there are another dangerous substances emitted to the air named polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). In the air they occur in a form of vapours and aerosols deposited on dust particles of 10 μm (PM 10) and 2.5 μm (PM 2.5) in diameter. In cities, the air polluted by gases and atmospheric particulate was analysed using special automatic or semi-automatic equipment or analytic procedures. That is why a powerful development of bioanalytical techniques based on using organisms as bioindicators is observed in recent years. The lichens are the most frequently used organisms in bioindication. The purpose of this research is to evaluate air pollution by PAHs in urban agglomeration with the use of Hypogymnia physodes (L.)Nyl. The research was performed in two hundred thousand occupants in south-east Poland in 2004-2007. The lichens placed on tree branches of 30 cm on 4 crossroads, and the 3 branches were put in each research point. Before starting the exposition, the “O” sample had been collected that had been stored in a closed container before chemical analysis. The exposition period lasted for 3 months. Then PAHs were determined in collected lichens. The analysis was performed with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), LiChrosper (TM) column 100 RP - 18, UV detector; λ = 254 nm. The concentration was expressed in mg/kg of dry mass that is after deducting PAH value determined in “O” sample. The analysis of obtained results showed diverse concentration of the pollution in the analysed crossroads depending on the road traffic density and season. PAH concentrations were determined from 0.61 mg·kg–1 d.m. in the 1st quarter of 2004 to 2.56 mg·kg–1 d.m. in the 1st quarter of 2006, and from 0.48 mg·kg–1 d.m. in the 4th quarter of 2004 to 2.22 mg·kg–1 d.m. in the 4th quarter of 2006. Meteorological conditions influence the concentration of PAHs in lichens. The atmospheric precipitation contributed to the decrease of PAHs concentration in the air by scavenging the pollution with atmospheric particulate. The regression line amounted to y = 1.91759 – 0.00674 · x, at the confidence interval equal to p = 0.0308. A relation between the PAH concentration and air relative humidity turned out to be the most essential correlation. This relation indicates that the concentration of PAHs in the lichens increases with an increase of humidity. The line regression amounted to y = –1.04196 + 0.02897 · x, at the confidence interval equal to p = 0.0505. Keywords: air pollution, bioindicators, lichens, morphological change.
31986Szynkowska M.I. & Pawlaczyk A. (2007): The influence of mercury content on the structural changes of bioindicator surfaces. - Polish Journal of Chemical Technology, 9(4): 115–120.
This work examines the recommended chemical analytical method for the identification and detecting mercury from the environmental media. The aim of this study was to establish a correlation between mercury content in different biological indicators like: human hair, mushrooms, lichen, moss and needle samples, and the changes in the structure of the investigated material. We have explored the possibilities of using the SEM method in environmental studies to investigate a variety of biological samples coming from areas at different pollution state. We have combined the information from the quantity measurements with the qualitative analysis. The total content of Hg was determined using the Automatic Mercury Analyzer SP-3D. The accuracy of the applied method was verified by an analysis of proper certificate materials: Mixed Polish Herbs INCT-MPH-2, Lichen CRM 482, Pine needles 1575a and Human Hair NCS ZC 81002. The obtained results proved a direct influence of the content of mercury and environmental pollution on the damage of the structure of the studied samples. Keywords: mercury, surface analysis, bioindicators, SEM.
31985Ciężka M., Kossowska M., Paneth P. & Górka M. (2016): Carbon, Nitrogen and Sulphur concentration and δ13C, δ15N values in Hypogymnia physodes within the montane area – preliminary data. - Geoscience Records, 2(1): 24–32.
The contribution of C, N and S, as well as the isotopic composition of C and N of atmospheric pollutants, are assumed to be reflected in the organic compounds inbuilt into the lichen thallus. The chemical and isotopic analyses were carried out on lichen Hypogymnia physodes samples gathered from Picea abies and Larix decidua, collected in 13 sampling points located in Karkonoski National Park and its closest vicinity in 2011. The results for %C, %N and %S varied from 43.44 to 46.79%, from 0.86 to 1.85% and from 0.07 to 0.27 %, respectively. The δ13C values ranged from -26.6 to -24.6‰, whereas δ15N values varied from -13.0 to -6.8‰. The ranges in isotope composition suggest different sources of C and N for Karpacz compared to the remaining sampling sites. For Karpacz, the δ13C values suggest (in case the fractionation product-substrate does not exist and Δ=0) that the dominant sources are coal combustion processes, whereas for remaining sampling points, the δ13C values are ambiguous and are masked by many mixed natural and anthropogenic processes. With the same assumption that Δ=0, the δ15N values suggest that transport is not a dominant source of nitrogen within Karpacz city. Moreover, in this study we tested the possible fractionation (Δ) for carbon and nitrogen, assuming that within the investigated area, the source of carbon is probably CO2 and/or DIC (HCO3-) dissolved in precipitation, while the source of nitrogen is NOx and/or NO3- ion. The calculated fractionation factors were: (i) for gaseous carbon compounds ΔCO2-Corg value from -13.4 to -11.4‰, whereas for the ions form ΔHCO3 --Corg value from -16.6 to -14.6‰, (ii) for nitrogen gaseous compounds ΔNOx-Norg value between apx. -17 and -5‰, whereas for the ions form ΔNO3 --Norg value between -9.9 and -3.7‰. Keywords: Hypogymnia physodes • Karkonosze Mountains • CNS concentration • δ13C • δ15N.
31984Fischer T., Gypser S., Subbotina M. & Veste M. (2014): Synergic hydraulic and nutritional feedback mechanisms control surface patchiness of biological soil crusts on tertiary sands at a post-mining site. - Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics, 62(4): 293–302.
In a recultivation area located in Brandenburg, Germany, five types of biocrusts (initial BSC1, developed BSC2 and BSC3, mosses, lichens) and non-crusted mineral substrate were sampled on tertiary sand deposited in 1985– 1986 to investigate hydrologic interactions between crust patches. Crust biomass was lowest in the non-crusted substrate, increased to the initial BSC1 and peaked in the developed BSC2, BSC3, the lichens and the mosses. Water infiltration was highest on the substrate, and decreased to BSC2, BSC1 and BSC3. Non-metric multidimensional scaling revealed that the lichens and BSC3 were associated with water soluble nutrients and with pyrite weathering products, thus representing a high nutrient low hydraulic feedback mode. The mosses and BSC2 represented a low nutrient high hydraulic feedback mode. These feedback mechanisms were considered as synergic, consisting of run-off generating (low hydraulic) and run-on receiving (high hydraulic) BSC patches. Three scenarios for BSC succession were proposed. (1) Initial BSCs sealed the surface until they reached a successional stage (represented by BSC1) from which the development into either of the feedback modes was triggered, (2) initial heterogeneities of the mineral substrate controlled the development of the feedback mode, and (3) complex interactions between lichens and mosses occurred at later stages of system development. Keywords: Recultivation; Pyrite weathering; Bistable ecosystems.
31983Dołhańczuk-Śródka A., Ziembik Z., Kříž M., Hyšplerová L. & Wacławek M. (2015): Pb-210 isotope as a pollutant emission indicator. - Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S, 22: 73–81.
Passive biomonitoring using 210Pb was used in the paper to evaluate pollutant deposition. Well-developed epiphytic foliose lichens Hypogymnia physodes growing on spruce branches were used in the studies. The samples of mosses Pleurozium schreberi and soil (raw humus) were collected from the area around the tree from which the samples of lichens were collected. The studies have shown that it is possible to identify dust emission sources using a radioactive lead isotope (210Pb). The highest activity of 210Pb was observed in areas with increased deposition of other pollutants, such as Ni, Cd, Cu and Pb, which may indicate that 210Pb is one of the emission components. Keywords: 210Pb, pollutant emission indicator, passive biomonitoring.
31982Kõresaar K., Kõresaar P. & Mandre M. (2008): Edela-Eesti luitemetsade järelkasvu arengust ning uuenemistingimustest sambliku ja pohla kasvukohatüübis [Development and renewalconditions of dune pine forests second growth in the lichen and cowberry site type in Southwest Estonia]. - Forestry Studies | Metsanduslikud Uurimused, 49: 47–58.
[in Estonian with English abstract and summary] On the southwestern coast of Estonia dune pine forest covers approximately 3000 hectares. This area includes coastal pine forests. The dune pine forest natural renewal in Southwest Estonia is the object of research. The natural regeneration of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) at the cowberry site type and at the lichen site type are observed. The necessary observations were made and primary data were collected in 1999–2006 from 28 sample plots, wherefrom 16 were situated at the lichen and 12 at the cowberry site type. The aim of the present study was to find out how old stand and forest site type influences the growth of second growth (height, height increment, age and number of trees per unit area) and its morphological parameters (length of needles and shoots and their dry mass). Key words: Scots pine, natural regeneration, dune forests, shoots, needles.
31981Leśniewska J., Kuczyńska I. & Bystrek J. (2008): The use of botanical microtechnique paraffin in anatomical studies of lichens. - Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Skłodowska, Sectio C [Lublin], 63: 93–101.
The paper describes a simple method of making paraffin slides from dry and unfixed lichen specimens, several methods of their staining and assessment of color stability of used dyes. It was demonstrated for the first time that lichen sections from permanent slides can be hydrated and their structure characteristic of fresh material can be restored.
31980Matwiejuk A. (2017): Lichens of fruit trees in the selected locations in Podlaskie Voivodeship [North-Eastern Poland]. - Environmental Protection and Natural Resources [Ochrona Środowiska i Zasobów Naturalnych], 28(4): 5–9.
The aim of this paper is to present the diversity of the lichen species on fruit trees (Malus sp., Pyrus sp., Prunus sp. and Cerasus sp.) growing in orchards in selected villages and towns in the Podlaskie Voivodeship. Fifty-six species of lichens were found. These were dominated by common lichens found on the bark of trees growing in built-up areas with prevailing heliophilous and nitrophilous species of the genera Physcia and Phaeophyscia. A richer lichen biota is characteristic of apple trees (52 species) and pear trees (36). Lichens of the apple trees constitute 78% of the biota of this phorophyte growing in the fruit orchards in Poland. Of the recorded species, only two (Ramalina farinacea, Usnea hirta) are covered by partial protection in Poland. Keywords: lichenized fungi, epiphytes, species diversity, occurrence, fruit orchards, Podlaskie Voivodeship, North-Eastern Poland.
31979Wieczorek A. & Łysko A. (2012): Lichen biota of the Wolin Island (Poland). - Biodiversity Research and Conservation, 25: 83–89.
A list of 232 taxa of lichenized and lichenicolous fungi was recorded within the Wolin island, especially, the Wolin National Park. The findings comprise the results of field studies conducted between 1996 and 2008 and those published in earlier works. Some of them are rare in the Polish lowlands. Key words: forest lichens, rare species, Poland.
31978Jóźwiak M.A. (2013): Ectohydricity of lichens and role of cortex layer in accumulation of heavy metals. - Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S, 20(4): 659–676.
Heavy metal and dust pollution absorption through lichen thallus occurs on the surface, that is by means of ectohydric sorption . Protective mechanisms, among which there is heterometric (layered) structure of lichens, play a significant role in limiting this process. The aim of this research was to determine the way the pollution penetrates inside lichen thallus and to determine the role of dermal layer in stopping heavy metals on the thallus surface . Lichen thalli exposed to transport pollution near Krakow-Katowice motorway for half a year were analyzed. With the use of Electron Scanning Microscope Quanta 250 and microanalyser EDEX accumulation of pollutions depositing on the outer lichen surface, on the surface of algal cells, in subcortex layer, on the fungal hyphae surface and intercellular spaces of crack bottom of pseudocyphella were determined. The results of the analysis show an important role of pseudocyphella in the process of pollution penetration inside lichen thallus and protective effectiveness of the upper cortex whose tight structure and thickness of chitinous cell walls of mycelium, relatively thicker in comparison to parenchyma layer, influence its dermal properties. Heavy metal accumulation (Al, Fe, Cu) on the thallus surface, on algal cell surface, on the fungal hyphae surface and deep layers of pseudocyphella cracks is presented by the order: crack > alga > fungi > subcortex layer > thallus surface. Keywords: lichen thallus, protective mechanisms, dermal layer, pseudocyphella, heavy metals pollution.
31977Studzińska-Sroka E. & Dubino A. (2018): Lichens as a source of chemical compounds with antiinflammatory activity. - Herba Polonica, 64(1): 56–64.
[A review paper] Symptoms of inflammation accompany a number of diseases. In order to mitigate them, folk medicine has used a variety of medicinal substances, including herbs and mushrooms. Lichens are less known organisms, containing specific secondary metabolites with interesting biological properties. One of their biological actions is the anti-inflammatory activity that has been confirmed by in vitro and animal studies. It has been proven that compounds and extracts from lichens inhibit the enzymes involved in the inflammatory process. The following paper is a review of research on the little-known anti-inflammatory properties of lichens. Key words: lichen compounds, lichen extracts, biological activity.
31976Wojterska M., Balcerkiewicz S. & Brzeg A. (2018): The map of vegetation complexes of the Seili island and its surroundings (SW Finland). - Biodiversity Research and Conservation, 52: 35–41.
The paper gives the results of studies on vegetation complexes of 12 islands and several skerries, situated within the inner part of SW Finnish archipelago. There were differentiated 14 types of complexes, comprising all types of communities (of vascular plants, mosses and lichens). All complexes are characterised by a repetitive combination of communities. Their distribution, showing distinct regularities in relation to geology, geomorphology and situation on an island, is depicted in the map. Key words: vegetation landscape, sigmassociation method, inner archipelago, Turku.
31975Tilk M., Ots K., Tullus T. & Mandre M. (2018): Alustaimestiku mitmekesisus ja geobotaaniline analüüs Edela-Eesti luitemännikutes [Ground vegetation diversity and geobotanical analysis in dune pine forests in southwest Estonia]. - Forestry Studies | Metsanduslikud Uurimused, 69: 63–74.
[in Estonian with English abstract and summary] To investigate the ecosystems on dunes, five typical dunes were selected in the coastal area of the Baltic Sea in southwest Estonia. To study ground vegetation species richness, species composition and horizontal structure, 251 quadrats of 1 m2 in size were established and descriptions of vascular plants, bryophytes and lichen species were provided. Topographical factors, soil horizons, soil pH and electrical conductivity, soil nutrients, soil moisture conditions and light conditions were determined. In total, 42 vascular plant, 43 bryophyte and 48 lichen species were recorded on five dunes. Vascular plant species richness and composition on forested dunes was dependent on the absolute dune height, zone and aspect of the slope, soil nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus content, soil pH and moisture, the cover of the bryophyte-lichen layer and light conditions. Regarding bryophyte and lichen layer species composition, important factors were the aspect of the dune, vascular plant species cover, light conditions, the thickness of the moderately decomposed organic soil horizon, soil pH, electrical conductivity and volumetric water content. Lichen species richness was highest on the slopes of the dunes, while bryophyte species richness was higher at the bottoms and decreased towards the tops of the dunes. Ground vegetation species richness and species’ horizontal and vertical structure on forested dunes were highly dependent on topography-induced differences, aspect, height and zone of the dunes. The most important factors controlling the complex of ground vegetation were light conditions, soil water content, thickness of the moderately decomposed litter layer and soil potassium and calcium content. Key words: inland dunes, vascular plants, bryophytes, lichens, environmental factors, topography.
31974Dengler J., Widmer S., Staubli E., Babbi M., Gehler J., Hepenstrick D., Bergamini A., Billeter R., Boch S., Rohrer S. & Dembicz I. (2019): Dry grasslands of the central valleys of the Alps from a European perspective: the example of Ausserberg (Valais, Switzerland). - Hacquetia, 18(2): 155–177.
The upper Rhone valley in the Swiss canton of Valais is one of the driest and most continental of the inner-alpine valleys and harbours a rich xerothermic flora. We studied syntaxonomy and ecology of dry grasslands and their species richness patterns. In 2018 we recorded 28 vegetation plots (10 m²) and three nested-plot series of 0.0001 to 100 m² on the south-facing slopes above the village of Ausserberg. Mean richness of all species ranged from 1.7 on 1 cm² to 47.3 on 100 m², with little contribution of bryophytes and lichens. The species-area relationship for total richness closely followed a power function. Modified TWINSPAN yielded a three-cluster solution, which could easily be matched with three orders of the class Festuco- Brometea: Stipo pulcherrimae-Festucetalia pallentis (xeric, rocky), Festucetalia valesiacae (xeric, non-rocky) and Brachypodietalia pinnati (meso-xeric). The subdivision of the xeric types into two orders is new for Swiss dry grasslands, where these types up to now had been joined in a single alliance Stipo-Poion within the Festucetalia valesiacae. 7 terricolous lichens were identified within relevés, including Cladonia novochlorophaea (two plots), previously known only from one locality in Switzerland.
31973Storm C., Cezanne R., Eichler M. & Schwabe A. (2019): Multi-stress-affected sandy grasslands: Livestock-grazing as a tool for nature conservation under the impact of drought events and rabbit population fluctuations?. - Tuexenia, 39: 215–248.
Keywords: Armerio-Festucetum trachyphyllae, drought events, global change, Koelerion glaucae, livestock and rabbit grazing, long-term study, nature conservation, rabbit overpopulation, Red-list species.
31972Brianskaia E., Schmieder K., Boecker R., Gyninova A. & Balsanova L. (2019): Syntaxonomy of forest vegetation of the central zone of the Lake Baikal eastern coast. - Tuexenia, 39: 139–160.
The object of this study are the forest ecosystems in the central zone at the eastern coast of Lake Baikal. In total, 98 relevés were collected according to the Braun-Blanquet approach. To identify forest vegetation types based on floristic composition a relatively new method, supervised k-means clustering was performed. By comparing the original vegetation data from the studied area with data from the adjacent territories, such as Svyatoy Nos Peninsula and the Barguzinskiy mountain range, the final prodromus of forest vegetation types was obtained. Six associations and two communities are attributed to the class of boreal coniferous forests Vaccinio-Piceetea Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl. et al. 1939. The forest vegetation demonstrates prominent changes along the altitudinal gradient, which corresponds to the specific humid Baikal type of altitudinal zonation. Higher altitudes are occupied by the sub-belt of the dark coniferous forest belonging to ass. Calamagrostio obtusatae-Abietetum sibiricae Danihelka et al. in Anenkhonov et Chytrý 1998. At the medium altitudes mixed coniferous-deciduous forests of ass. Calamagrostio obtusatae-Laricetum sibiricae Chytrý et al. in Anenkhonov et Chytrý 1998 are repre-sented. Near the shoreline of Lake Baikal, the sub-belt of the siberian pine coniferous forest Maian-themo bifolii-Pinetum sibiricae Danihelka et al. in Anenkhonov et Chytrý 1998 occurs. The association Calamagrostio epigei-Pinetum sylvestris Anenkhonov et Chytrý 1998 is considered as a post-fire succession community. The supervised k-means clustering method can be highly recommended for phytosociological classification of vegetation due to reliability of the results. Keywords: Braun-Blanquet approach, Eastern Siberia, forest plant communities, JUICE, relevés, supervised k-means clustering.
31971Gheza G., Barcella M. & Assini S. (2019): Terricolous lichen communities in Thero-Airion dry grasslands of the Po Plain (Northern Italy): syntaxonomy, ecology and conservation value. - Tuexenia, 39: 377–400.
Terricolous lichen vegetation has been partially studied in Italy so far, particularly in the Po Plain. Here, pioneer acidic Thero-Airion dry grasslands host rich terricolous lichen communities which often include lichen species of conservation concern. Overall, 288 phytosociological relevés were carried out with the Braun-Blanquet method using standard plots of 30 cm × 30 cm in lichen-rich stands within Thero-Airion dry grasslands located in 16 localities of the western Po Plain, an area with continental climate. Relevés were manually sorted and species composition was analyzed through Principal Com-ponent Analysis (PCA) and non-parametric MANOVA. Biological, ecological, chorological and rarity spectra were computed and analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis tests to assess differences among the com-munities. Nine lichen communities were recognized. One community dominated by Cladonia pulvinata referred to the Pycnothelio-Cladonietum cervicornis. Three communities referred to the Cladonietum foliaceae are dominated respectively by C. foliacea, C. furcata and C. rangiformis. Three communities referred to the Cladonietum rei are dominated respectively by C. rei, C. polycarpoides and C. coccifera. Two communities dominated respectively by C. peziziformis and C. cariosa are referred to an undescribed association, temporarily attributed to the Cladonion rei. All communities significantly differ in the mean ecological indicator values – soil pH, light, aridity, eutrophication, poleotolerance. The communities Pycnothelio-Cladonietum cervicornis, Cladonietum foliaceae (C. foliacea facies) and the C. peziziformis-C. cariosa community are pioneer communities. The Cladonietum rei (C. rei facies) and the Cladonietum foliaceae (C. rangiformis facies) are the more mature communities, respectively in disturbed and undisturbed sites. This study shows that terricolous lichen communities represent an important component of biodiversity in Thero-Airion dry grasslands, due to their diversification in different syntaxa and, in some cases, to their role as microhabitats for lichen species of conservation concern. Thus, our study contributes to the knowledge on Thero-Airion dry grasslands, which is a key component in the choice of management and conservation strategies. Keywords: Cladonia, Cladonietum foliaceae, Cladonion rei, lichen vegetation, Pycnothelio-Cladonietum cervicornis.
31970Neuwirth G. (2019): Einige ausgewählte und neu bearbeitete, historische Funde der Flechtengattung Ramalina (Ramalinaceae, Lecanorales) im Herbar des Biologiezentrums Linz (LI). - Stapfia, 111: 150–157.
Further investigations in the lichen herbarium of the Biology Centre in Linz led to a number of specimens, belonging to the genus Ramalina. Most of the material was collected during field trips on the Canary Islands in 1992, inclusive five endemic species, which had not been determinated so far. The oldest specimen was found in Upper Austria in the 19th century and brought a rare species to light. Remarkable records from South America, from the Greek Island of Mykonos and from the central part of Turkey complete the study. The good condition enabled the identification of many specimens, although some species remain unidentified.
31969Berger F. (2019): Ergänzungen zur Flechtenflora des Kobernaußerwaldes. - Stapfia, 111: 111–149.
The forest of Kobernaußen (=KNW) is a nearly uninterrupted managed forest of approximately 300 sqkm in the south-west of Upper Austria with islands of a diverse and diverse aged tree structure. The first comprehensive list of its lichens contained 215 species and 18 lichenicolous fungi (Neuwirth 2005). It is augmented now by 158 more lichens and 60 lichenicolous fungi. So in all 373 species of lichenized and 78 lichenicolous fungi have been reported in the last 25 years. The local history of some rare oceanic lichens is presented, as well as considerations about the protection of some important biota. Agonimia flabelliformis, Cetrelia sayanensis, Cryptodiscus foveolaris, Micarea flavoleprosa and Strigula brevis are first reported in Austria. Alyxoria ochrocheila, Biatora mendax, Biatorella microhaema, Chaenothecopsis debilis, Gyalidea roseola, Lecanora compallens, Ochrolechia bahuensis, Ramalina europaea, Ramonia interjecta, Rinodina subparieta and Trapelia glebulosa are new for Upper Austria. Also new records for Upper Austria are the lichenicolous fungi: Arthrorhaphis muddii, Bachmanniomyces varius, Epibryon parvipunctum, Epicladonia simplex, Homostegia piggotii, Lichenochora galligena, Lichenoconium aeruginosum, Milospium lacoizquetae, Nectriopsis cariosae, N. micareae, Niesslia cladoniicola, Scutula dedicata, Tremella cladoniae, Trichonectria anisospora, T. hirta, Xenonectriella subimperspicua. Arthonia graphidicola is recorded the first time in Central Europe.
31968Herbst W. & Türk R. (2019): Stickoxid-Debatte: Naturschutzbund verlangt wirksamen Schutz vor Luftschadstoffen. - Natur und Land, 105(1): 7–8.
Discussion about nitrogen/nitric oxide
31967Türk R. (2019): Das Dilemma mit den Stickoxiden. - Natur und Land, 105(1): 6.
31966von Brackel W. (2019): Flechte des Jahres 2019: Die Breitlappige Schüsselflechte. - Natur und Land, 105(1): 19.
Parmotrema perlatum as the lichen of the year 2019. Photo by B. Dupont.
31965Diederich P., Lücking R., Ertz D., Miadlikowska J. & Flakus A. (2019): A tribute to James D. Lawrey, honoring a unique career in the biology of lichens and lichenicolous fungi. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 64(2): 115.
31964Lücking R., Dal Forno M. & Will-Wolf S. (2019): James Donald (‛Jim’) Lawrey: a tribute to a unique career in lichenology. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 64(2): 117–135.
Biography; bibliography
31963Will-Wolf S. & Jovan S. (2019): Lichen species as element bioindicators for air pollution in the eastern United States of America. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 64(2): 137–146.
Lichen element (N, S, metals) indicators of local air pollution load (a widely used technique) are recommended for five predefined regions covering central and southern parts of the eastern United States. The final recommendations integrate the advice of regional lichenologists, information from regional floras, and species abundance data from a United States Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis Program (FIA) lichen database for 11 of the 21 covered eastern states. Recommended species were frequent in their region, easy for nonspecialists to distinguish in the field after training, and easy to handle using clean protocols. Regression models of species abundance in FIA plots from five southeastern states vs. climate, air pollution (both from a regional lichen response model) and type of nearby landcover (from the National Land Cover Database) identified species’ environmental limitations. Punctelia rudecta is recommended for cooler forested uplands of all regions, with three Physcia species combined and Punctelia missouriensis for isolated woodlands or urban areas of three regions. Parmotrema hypotropum and P. hypoleucinum combined (weak environmental limitation) or P. perforatum. and P. subrigidum combined (limited in more polluted areas) are recommended for warmer Coastal Plains in two regions each. Additional species are recommended for single regions. Each species must be quantitatively evaluated in each region, to demonstrate indication reliability in practice and to calculate element data conversions between species for region-wide bioindication. Key words: air quality, Florida, lichen element indicator, Mid-Atlantic, nitrogen, Ohio Valley, South Central USA, Southeast USA, sulfur.
31962Gasulla F., Guéra A., de los Ríos A. & Pérez-Ortega S. (2019): Differential responses to salt concentrations of lichen photobiont strains isolated from lichens occurring in different littoral zones. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 64(2): 149–162.
An interesting biota of lichen-forming fungi occurs along rocky seashores of cold and warm-temperate regions in both hemispheres. Most of the species belong to the family Verrucariaceae and form symbioses with an extraordinarily diverse group of photobionts. We isolated the photobionts of three species: Hydropunctaria maura and H. amphibia from the supralittoral zone, and Wahlenbergiella striatula from the upper intertidal zone. We characterized the isolated strains structurally by means of transmission electron microscopy, and molecularly using the nrSSU and nrITS and chloroplast RPL10A regions. Additionally, we studied the response of the strains to different salt concentrations, analyzed the concentration of osmoregulatory solutes, and measured photosynthesis performance by chlorophyll fluorescence and CO2 assimilation techniques. All strains belong to the recently described species Halofilum ramosum, although we found differences in the ITS and RPL10A regions among the strains shared by H. maura and H. amphibia and the strain isolated from W. striatula. Differences were also found in the main osmoregulatory response of the strains growing under high salt concentrations: W. striatula accumulated glycerol, while H. maura and H. amphibia synthetized sucrose. Analyses of photosynthesis performance also indicated differences in physiological behavior between supralittoral-dwelling and intertidal-dwelling species, W. striatula showing lower photosynthetic activity under high irradiance. Our results highlight the role of photobionts in determining lichen zonation on rocky seashores. Key words: Halofilum, Hydropunctaria, lichen-forming fungi, seashore, Verrucariaceae, Wahlenbergiella.
31961Kraichak E., Allende L., Obermayer W., Lücking R. & Lumbsch H.T. (2019): Scale-dependent co-occurrence patterns of closely related genotypes in a lichen species complex. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 64(2): 163–172.
The ‘competition-relatedness’ hypothesis postulates that co-occurring taxa should be more distantly related, because of lower competition. This hypothesis has been criticized for its dependence on untested assumptions and its exclusion of other assembly forces beyond competition and habitat filtering to explain the co-existence of closely related taxa. Here we analyzed the patterns of co-occurring individuals of lichenized fungi in the Graphis scripta complex, a monophyletic group of species occurring in temperate forests throughout the Northern Hemisphere. We generated sequences for three nuclear ribosomal and protein markers (nuLSU, RPB2, EF-1) and combined them with previously generated sequences to reconstruct an updated phylogeny for the complex. The resulting phylogeny was used to determine the patterns of co-occurrences at regional and at sample (tree) scales by calculating standard effect size of mean pairwise distance (SES.MPD) among co-occurring samples to determine whether they were more clustered than expected from chance. The resulting phylogeny revealed multiple distinct lineages, suggesting the presence of several phylogenetic species in this complex. At the regional and local (site) levels, SES.MPD exhibited significant clustering for five out of six regions. The sample (tree) scale SES. MPD values also suggested some clustering but the corresponding metrics did not deviate significantly from the null expectation. The differences in the SES.MPD values and their significance indicated that habitat filtering and/or local diversification may be operating at the regional level, while the local assemblies on each tree are interpreted as being the result of local competition or random colonization. Key words: Assembly, community phylogeny, crustose lichens, cryptic species, mean pairwise distance (MPD).
31960Bungartz F. & Spielmann A. (2019): The genus Parmotrema (Parmeliaceae, lecanoromycetes) in the Galapagos Islands. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 64(2): 173–231.
As part of an ongoing comprehensive inventory of all Galapagos lichens, the genus Parmotrema has been revised. In Galapagos this genus is represented by thirty-five species, seven described as new to science: Parmotrema cactacearum, P. erectociliatum, P. lawreyi, P. marcellianum, P. pustulotinctum, P. saxoisidiatum and P. weberi. Parmotrema weberi, although previously informally recognized by Mason E. Hale, is now formally described here, the name thus validated. Reports of four species are doubtful or incorrect. Nine species are reported from the Galapagos for the first time, seven of those being also new for Ecuador. Parmotrema cooperi, previously known only from Central America, is now also reported from South America. Detailed descriptions and illustrations are provided for all thirty-five species, together with a dichotomic key for their identification. Diagnostic differences are discussed. If all newly described species are confirmed as endemic to the archipelago, the proportion of endemism within Parmotrema appears to be similar to most other groups of lichens recently reviewed. Key words: Census of Galapagos Biodiversity, Galapagos Lichen Inventory, taxonomy, identification key, South America.
31959Kukwa M. (2019): Lepraria juanfernandezii, a new lichen species from the Southern Hemisphere. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 64(2): 233–235.
Lepraria juanfernandezii is described as a new species. It differs from all other species of Lepraria by its aggregate thallus with sparse prothallus hyphae, the absence of a hypothallus, the presence of divaricatic acid and the absence of zeorin, and its occurrence in the Southern Hemisphere. A key to all species of Lepraria containing divaricatic acid is given. Key words: Ascomycota, Cladoniaceae, Lecanorales, secondary chemistry, sterile lichens.
31958Leavitt S.D., Keuler R., Newberry C.C., Rosentreter R. & St. Clair L.L. (2019): Shotgun sequencing decades-old lichen specimens to resolve phylogenomic placement of type materiál . - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 64(2): 237–247.
Natural history collections, including name-bearing type specimens, are an important source of genetic information. These data can be critical for appropriate taxonomic revisions in cases where the phylogenetic position of name-bearing type specimens needs to be identified, including morphologically cryptic lichen-forming fungal species. Here, we use high-throughput metagenomic shotgun sequencing to generate genome-scale data from decades-old (i.e., more than 30 years old) isotype specimens representing three vagrant taxa in the lichen-forming fungal genus Rhizoplaca, including one species and two subspecies. We also use data from high-throughput metagenomic shotgun sequencing to infer the phylogenetic position of an enigmatic collection, originally identified as R. haydenii, that failed to yield genetic data via Sanger sequencing. We were able to construct a 1.64 Mb alignment from over 1200 single-copy nuclear gene regions for the Rhizoplaca specimens. Phylogenomic reconstructions recovered an isotype representing Rhizoplaca haydenii subsp. arbuscula within a clade comprising other specimens identified as Rhizoplaca haydenii subsp. arbuscula, while an isotype of R. idahoensis was recovered within a clade with substantial phylogenetic substructure comprising Rhizoplaca haydenii subsp. haydenii and other specimens. Based on these data and morphological differences, Rhizoplaca haydenii subsp. arbuscula is elevated to specific rank as Rhizoplaca arbuscula. For the enigmatic collection, we were able to assemble the nearly complete nrDNA cistron and over 50 Mb of the mitochondrial genome. Using these data, we identified this specimen as a morphologically deviant form representing Xanthoparmelia aff. subcumberlandia. This study highlights the power of high-throughput metagenomic shotgun sequencing in generating larger and more comprehensive genetic data from taxonomically important herbarium specimens. Key words: fungaria, herbaria, Illumina, metagenomics, museum, natural history collections, Rhizoplaca, vagrant.
31957Diederich P., Common R.S., Braun U., Heuchert B., Millanes A., Suija A. & Ertz D. (2019): Lichenicolous fungi from Florida growing on Graphidales. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 64(2): 249–282.
The lichenicolous fungi growing on Graphidales hosts in Florida are revised, mainly based on collections by the second author (R. C.). Twenty-one species are recognized. The new genus and species Lawreya glyphidiphila is described for a common asexual fungus growing on Glyphis scyphulifera and more rarely Trypethelium eluteriae, characterized by black stromatic conidiomata in which subspherical conidiogenous loculi develop, producing aseptate, subglobose, brown conidia. Nine additional new species are described: Amerosporiopsis phaeographidis (on Phaeographis brasiliensis), Arthonia acanthotheciicola (on Acanthothecis floridensis), A. subgraphidicola (on Graphis assimilis), Hemigrapha graphidicola (on G. assimilis), Skyttea graphidicola (on Graphis spp.), Strigula graphidicola (on G. assimilis), S. perparvula (on Graphidales), Talpapellis graphidis (on Graphis caesiella) and Tremella wedinii (on Glyphis scyphulifera). Phylogenetic placements of Lawreya glyphidiphila, Skyttea graphidicola and Tremella wedinii are presented. Identification keys are given for the species of Cornutispora and Talpapellis, and for the 66 species known to grow on Graphidales hosts worldwide. Key words: lichen parasites, lichens, phylogeny, taxonomy, Cornutispora, Lawreya, Talpapellis.
31956Zhurbenko M.P., Enkhtuya O. & Javkhlan S. (2019): A first synopsis of lichenicolous fungi of Mongolia, with the description of five new species. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 64(2): 345–366.
A first synopsis of lichenicolous fungi of Mongolia based on new collections and literature data is provided, including 114 species. Five new species are described: Capronia cogtii (on Vahliella leucophaea), Echinothecium hypogymniae (on Hypogymnia bitteri), Feltgeniomyces mongolicus (on H. bitteri), Phacopsis vulpicidae (on Vulpicida juniperina) and Roselliniella javkhlanae (on Rinodina turfacea var. ecrustacea). Two new combinations are proposed: Endococcus hafellneri (≡ Stigmidium hafellneri) and Sphaerellothecium taimyricum (≡ Sphaerellothecium thamnoliae var. taimyricum). Unidentified specimens of Acremonium (on Mycoblastus sanguinarioides), Cercidospora (on Rhizoplaca chrysoleuca s.lat.), Didymocyrtis (on Rhizoplaca chrysoleuca s.lat.), Lichenochora (on Physcia alnophila), Lichenostigma (on species of Xanthoparmelia), Phoma (on Vulpicida juniperina) and a leotialean fungus (on Cetraria laevigata) are characterized and discussed. Taxonomic notes are provided for Cercidospora macrospora s.lat., Didymocyrtis cf. melanelixiae, Minutoexcipula cf. beaglei, Nesolechia cetrariicola, Sphaerellothecium cf. parmeliae and Stigmidium cf. psorae. Sphaeropezia intermedia is newly reported for Eurasia. Didymocyrtis grumantiana is newly reported for Asia. Additionally, 71 species of lichenicolous fungi and five species of lichenicolous lichens are documented in Mongolia for the first time. Allocetraria is reported as a new host genus for Abrothallus peyritschii, Vulpicida for Arthonia triebeliae, and Anamylopsora for Muellerella pygmaea. Key words: lichen parasites, taxonomy, biodiversity, Asia, Capronia, Echinothecium, Feltgeniomyces, Phacopsis, Roselliniella.
31955Muggia L., Pérez-Ortega S. & Ertz D. (2019): Muellerella, a lichenicolous fungal genus recovered as polyphyletic within Chaetothyriomycetidae (Eurotiomycetes, Ascomycota). - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 64(2): 367–381.
Molecular data and culture-dependent methods have helped to uncover the phylogenetic relationships of numerous species of lichenicolous fungi, a specialized group of taxa that inhabit lichens and have developed diverse degrees of specificity and parasitic behaviors. The majority of lichenicolous fungal taxa are known in either their anamorphic or teleomorphic states, although their anamorph-teleomorph relationships have been resolved in only a few cases. The pycnidium-forming Lichenodiplis lecanorae and the perithecioid taxa Muellerella atricola and M. lichenicola were recently recovered as monophyletic in Chaetothyriales (Eurotiomycetes). Both genera are lichenicolous on multiple lichen hosts, upon which they show a subtle morphological diversity reflected in the description of 14 species in Muellerella (of which 12 are lichenicolous) and 12 in Lichenodiplis. Here we focus on the teleomorphic genus Muellerella and investigate its monophyly by expanding the taxon sampling to other species occurring on diverse lichen hosts. We generated molecular data for two nuclear and one mitochondrial loci (28S, 18S and 16S) from environmental samples. The present multilocus phylogeny confirms the monophyletic lineage of the teleomorphic M. atricola and M. lichenicola with their L. lecanorae-like anamorphs, but places the rest of the Muellerella species studied in two different monophyletic lineages with strong support. The first, Muellerella spp. 1, is nested within some new lineages of black fungi isolated from different epilithic lichen thalli, while the second, Muellerella spp. 2, is closely related to the Verrucariales. Based on these results, we reappraise the phylogenetic placement of Muellerella and suggest its polyphyly within Chaetothyriomycetidae. Key words: diversity, multilocus analysis, parasitic, phylogeny, Verrucariales.
31954Dal Forno M., Kaminsky L., Rosentreter R., McMullin R.T., Aptroot A. & Lücking R. (2019): A first phylogenetic assessment of Dictyonema s.lat. in southeastern North America reveals three new basidiolichens, described in honor of James D. Lawrey. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 64(2): 383–392.
Three species of lichenized basidiomycetes in the Dictyonema clade from southeastern North America are described as new to science: Cyphellostereum georgianum, C. jamesianum and Dictyonema lawreyi, all with a crustose-filamentous growth form. Based on ITS sequences, the species form well-supported monophyletic clades in a phylogeny and are represented by at least two specimens each. They are also distinguishable by morphological and anatomical characters. These new findings emphasize the importance of lichenological studies in North America, especially in historically understudied taxonomic groups, such as basidiolichens. This study is dedicated to James D. Lawrey on the occasion of his 70th birthday. Key words: Lichen systematics, Hygrophoraceae, United States, biodiversity.
31953Moncada B., Pérez-Pérez R.E. & Lücking R. (2019): The lichenized genus Cora (Basidiomycota: Hygrophoraceae) in Mexico: high species richness, multiple colonization events, and high endemism. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 64(2): 393–411.
In a continued effort to catalog the numerous phylogenetically detected and predicted species of Cora in the Americas, we focus here on the diversity of the genus in Mexico and the phylogenetic relationships of the taxa present in this area. Based on previous results and new collections, 12 taxa are recognized in Mexico, including eight new species and one new subspecies. The 12 taxa form 11 unrelated lineages within the genus, indicating multiple independent colonization from Central and South America. While the new subspecies is nested within a species known from the northern Andes in South America, the other species are all putative endemics for Mexico, resulting in endemism of 92% at species level and 100% at taxon level. Considering the rather narrow area of origin of the sequenced specimens in southeastern Mexico and the previously documented range of Cora including the northwestern part of the country, plus the underlying topography, we predict that the 12 species and subspecies now known represent only about 20% of the total richness of Cora in the country, and that many more endemic lineages are to be found in the western and northwestern parts (Sierra Madre Occidental). The new taxa from Mexico formally introduced in this study are Cora benitoana sp. nov., with a strongly projecting, cyphelloid hymenophore; C. buapana sp. nov., with elongate, finger-like and partly branched appendages on the lower medullary hyphae; C. dewisanti subsp. mexicana subsp. nov., with a marginally protruding hymenophore; C. guzmaniana sp. nov., with a partly setose lobe surface; C. ixtlanensis sp. nov., a phenotypically cryptic species similar but unrelated to C. terrestris; C. lawreyana sp. nov., with globose hyphal appendages; C. marusae sp. nov., a phenotypically cryptic species similar but unrelated to C. comaltepeca; C. totonacorum sp. nov., a phenotypically cryptic species similar but phylogenetically distant to C. davidia; and C. zapotecorum sp. nov., with a very thinly pilose lobe surface. Key words: Cora casasolana, Cora comaltepeca, Cora dulcis, Frullania, Rhizonema, Central Volcanic Belt, Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Sierra Madre de Chiapas, Sierra Madre Oriental.
31952Flakus A., Etayo J., Miadlikowska J., Lutzoni F., Kukwa M., Matura N. & Rodriguez-Flakus P. (2019): Biodiversity assessment of ascomycetes inhabiting Lobariella lichens in Andean cloud forests led to one new family, three new genera and 13 new species of lichenicolous fungi. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 64(2): 283–344.
Neotropical mountain forests are characterized by having hyperdiverse and unusual fungi inhabiting lichens. The great majority of these lichenicolous fungi (i.e., detectable by light microscopy) remain undescribed and their phylogenetic relationships are mostly unknown. This study focuses on lichenicolous fungi inhabiting the genus Lobariella (Peltigerales), one of the most important lichen hosts in the Andean cloud forests. Based on molecular and morphological data, three new genera are introduced: Lawreyella gen. nov. (Cordieritidaceae, for Unguiculariopsis lobariella), Neobaryopsis gen. nov. (Cordycipitaceae), and Pseudodidymocyrtis gen. nov. (Didymosphaeriaceae). Nine additional new species are described (Abrothallus subhalei sp. nov., Atronectria lobariellae sp. nov., Corticifraga microspora sp. nov., Epithamnolia rugosopycnidiata sp. nov., Lichenotubeufia cryptica sp. nov., Neobaryopsis andensis sp. nov., Pseudodidymocyrtis lobariellae sp. nov., Rhagadostomella hypolobariella sp. nov., and Xylaria lichenicola sp. nov.). Phylogenetic placements of 13 lichenicolous species are reported here for Abrothallus, Arthonia, Globonectria, Lawreyella, Monodictys, Neobaryopsis, Pseudodidymocyrtis, Sclerococcum, Trichonectria and Xylaria. The name Sclerococcum ricasoliae comb. nov. is reestablished for the neotropical populations formerly named S. lobariellum (Sclerococcales). A key to sexual and asexual states of 40 species of lobariellicolous ascomycetous fungi is provided. Teleomorph-anamorph connections were established for several species using molecular methods and/or visual observations in nature. Additionally, we found that the anamorphic species Cornutispora ophiurospora inhabiting Lobariella was often accompanied by ascomata of Spirographa. Results of phylogenetic analyses, including newly generated sequences of several Cornutispora and Spirographa species inhabiting various host lichens, support the conclusion that Cornutispora is a synonym of Spirographa. Our Maximum Likelihood inference based on multiple loci show that all studied Spirographa (including Cornutispora) belong to a new lineage within Ostropales. Based on these highly supported phylogenetic placements and the distinct character states of their conidiomata, in comparison with other Lecanoromycetes, a new family is proposed – Spirographaceae fam. nov. This new lineage includes broadly distributed mycoparasites, inhabiting various lichen and fungal hosts, and representing an early diversification event preceding the lichen-forming clade of Fissurinaceae, Gomphillaceae and Graphidaceae. Two lichenicolous species, Asteroglobulus giselae and Pleoscutula arsenii, were found to be nested within the Spirographa clade, and their teleomorph-anamorph connections were confirmed based on genotypic and phenotypic data. This phylogenetic result is corroborated by their highly similar ascomata anatomy. Together these results strongly indicate that both species are congeneric with Spirographa. As a result, four new species (S. aggregata sp. nov., S. galligena sp. nov., S. maroneae sp. nov., and S. parmotrematis sp. nov.) and 15 new combinations are proposed (Spirographa ascaridiella comb. nov., S. arsenii comb. nov., S. ciliata comb. nov., S. giselae comb. nov., S. herteliana comb. nov., S. hypotrachynae comb. nov., S. intermedia comb. nov., S. lichenicola comb. nov., S. limaciformis comb. nov., S. ophiurospora comb. nov., S. pittii comb. nov., S. pyramidalis comb. nov., S. triangularis comb. nov., S. tricupulata comb. nov., and S. vermiformis comb. nov.). Species of the genus Spirographa, as outlined here, are strongly host-specific, mainly at the generic level of their host. Some host genera can harbour more than one Spirographa species. Key words: Anamorph-teleomorph connection, Asteroglobulus, Cornutispora, lichenicolous fungi, Neotropics, Pezizomycotina, phylogenetics, Pleoscutula, Spirographa, systematice.
31951Roux C., Poumarat S., Gueidan C., Navarro-Rosinés P., Monnat J.-Y. & Houmeau J.-M. (2019): La Acarosporaceae de Okcidenta Eŭropo. - Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, 70: 107–167.
[in Esperanto with additional abstracts in French, Spanish and English: ] Illustrated generalities and identification key of the species of Acarosporaceae of Western Europe. Treatment of 134 species belonging to 9 genera. Description of 5 new species: Acarospora adscendens C. Roux & Poumarat, Acarospora epiaspicilia C. Roux & M. Bertrand, Acarospora episulphurata C. Roux & Poumarat, Acarospora pseudosuzae C. Roux & J. - Y. Monnat, Acarospora ubayensis C. Roux & M. Bertrand. Proposal of a new combination: Myriospora benedarensis (Knowles) Cl. Roux.
31950Savicz V.P. (1961): Lichenotheca Rossica (Regionibus confinibus completa). Edidit Institutum Botanicum nomine V. L. Komarovii Academiae Scientiarium URSS. Decas XI (1961). - Notulae Systematicae e Sectione Cryptogamica Instituti Botanici nomine V. L. Komarovii Academiae Scientiarium URSS, 14: 1–6.
Exsiccat; Russia, Georgia
31949Maliniemi T., Happonen K. & Virtanen R. (2019): Site fertility drives temporal turnover of vegetation at high latitudes. - Ecology and Evolution, 9: 13255–13266.
Experimental evidence shows that site fertility is a key modulator underlying plant community changes under climate change. Communities on fertile sites, with species having fast dynamics, have been found to react more strongly to climate change than communities on infertile sites with slow dynamics. However, it is still unclear whether this generally applies to high‐latitude plant communities in natural environments at broad spatial scales. We tested a hypothesis that vegetation of fertile sites experiences greater changes over several decades and thus would be more responsive under contemporary climate change compared to infertile sites that are expected to show more resistance. We resurveyed understorey communities (vascular plants, bryophytes, and lichens) of four infertile and four fertile forest sites along a latitudinal bioclimatic gradient. Sites had remained outside direct human disturbance. We analyzed the magnitude of temporal community turnover, changes in the abundances of plant morphological groups and strategy classes, and changes in species diversity. In agreement with our hypothesis, temporal turnover of communities was consistently greater on fertile sites compared to infertile sites. However, our results suggest that the larger turnover of fertile communities is not primarily related to the direct effects of climatic warming. Furthermore, community changes in both fertile and infertile sites showed remarkable variation in terms of shares of plant functional groups and strategy classes and measures of species diversity. This further emphasizes the essential role of baseline environmental conditions and nonclimatic drivers underlying vegetation changes. Our results show that site fertility is a key determinant of the overall rate of high‐latitude vegetation changes but the composition of plant communities in different ecological contexts is variously impacted by nonclimatic drivers over time. Keywords: community stability, dynamic macroecology, long‐term research, plant community, plant strategies, site fertility, vegetation resurvey.
31948Jung P., Baumann K., Lehnert L.W., Samolov E., Achilles S., Schermer M., Wraase L.M., Eckhardt K.-U., Bader M.Y., Leinweber P., Karsten U., Bendix J. & Büdel B. (2020): Desert breath—How fog promotes a novel type of soil biocenosis, forming the coastal Atacama Desert’s living skin. - Geobiology, 18: 113–124.
The Atacama Desert is the driest non‐polar desert on Earth, presenting precarious conditions for biological activity. In the arid coastal belt, life is restricted to areas with fog events that cause almost daily wet–dry cycles. In such an area, we discovered a hitherto unknown and unique ground covering biocenosis dominated by lichens, fungi, and algae attached to grit‐sized (~6 mm) quartz and granitoid stones. Comparable biocenosis forming a kind of a layer on top of soil and rock surfaces in general is summarized as cryptogamic ground covers (CGC) in literature. In contrast to known CGC from arid environments to which frequent cyclic wetting events are lethal, in the Atacama Desert every fog event is answered by photosynthetic activity of the soil community and thus considered as the desert's breath. Photosynthesis of the new CGC type is activated by the lowest amount of water known for such a community worldwide thus enabling the unique biocenosis to fulfill a variety of ecosystem services. In a considerable portion of the coastal Atacama Desert, it protects the soil from sporadically occurring splash erosion and contributes to the accumulation of soil carbon and nitrogen as well as soil formation through bio‐weathering. The structure and function of the new CGC type are discussed, and we suggest the name grit–crust. We conclude that this type of CGC can be expected in all non‐polar fog deserts of the world and may resemble the cryptogam communities that shaped ancient Earth. It may thus represent a relevant player in current and ancient biogeochemical cycling.
31947Nelsen M.P., Lücking R., Boyce C.K., Lumbsch H.T. & Ree R.H. (2020): No support for the emergence of lichens prior to the evolution of vascular plants. - Geobiology, 18: 3–13.
The early‐successional status of lichens in modern terrestrial ecosystems, together with the role lichen‐mediated weathering plays in the carbon cycle, have contributed to the long and widely held assumption that lichens occupied early terrestrial ecosystems prior to the evolution of vascular plants and drove global change during this time. Their poor preservation potential and the classification of ambiguous fossils as lichens or other fungal–algal associations have further reinforced this view. As unambiguous fossil data are lacking to demonstrate the presence of lichens prior to vascular plants, we utilize an alternate approach to assess their historic presence in early terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we analyze new time‐calibrated phylogenies of ascomycete fungi and chlorophytan algae, that intensively sample lineages with lichen symbionts. Age estimates for several interacting clades show broad congruence and demonstrate that fungal origins of lichenization postdate the earliest tracheophytes. Coupled with the absence of unambiguous fossil data, our work finds no support for lichens having mediated global change during the Neoproterozoic‐early Paleozoic prior to vascular plants. We conclude by discussing our findings in the context of Neoproterozoic‐Paleozoic terrestrial ecosystem evolution and the paleoecological context in which vascular plants evolved.
31946Kjærbølling I., Mortensen U.H., Vesth T. & Andersen M.R. (2019): Strategies to establish the link between biosynthetic gene clusters and secondary metabolites. - Fungal Genetics and Biology, 130: 107–121.
Filamentous fungi produce a vast number of bioactive secondary metabolites (SMs), some of which have found applications in the pharmaceutical industry including as antibiotics and immunosuppressants. As more and more species are whole genome sequenced the number of predicted clusters of genes for SM biosynthesis is ever increasing – holding a promise of novel useful bioactive SMs. To be able to fully utilize the potential of novel SMs, it is necessary to link the SM and the genes responsible for producing it. This can be challenging, but many strategies and tools have been developed for this purpose. Here we provide an overview of the methods used to establish the link between SM and biosynthetic gene cluster (BGC) and vice versa, along with the challenges and advantages of each of the methods. Part I of the review, associating BCG with SM, is divided into gene manipulations native strain and heterologous expression strategies, depending on the fungal species. Part II, associating SM with BGC, is divided into three main approaches: (1) homology search (2) retro-biosynthesis and (3) comparative genomics. Keywords: Secondary metabolites Biosynthetic gene clusters Filamentous fungi Polyketide synthase Nonribosomal peptide synthetase.
31945Kern R., Hotter V., Frossard A., Albrecht M., Baum C., Tytgat B., De Maeyer L., Velazquez D., Seppey C., Frey B., Plötze M., Verleyen E., Quesada A., Svenning M.M., Glaser K. & Karsten U. (2019): Comparative vegetation survey with focus on cryptogamic covers in the high Arctic along two differing catenas. - Polar Biology, 42: 2131–2145.
Although cryptogamic covers are important ecosystem engineers in high Arctic tundra, they were often neglected in vegetation surveys. Hence we conducted a systematic survey of cryptogamic cover and vascular plant coverage and composition at two representative, but differing Arctic sites (Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard) along catenas with a natural soil moisture gradient, and integrated these data with physical–chemical soil properties. Soil samples were taken for comprehensive pedological and mineralogical analyses. Vegetation surveys were conducted based on classification by functional groups. Vascular plants were identified to species level. Correlation and multivariate statistical analysis were applied to determine the key environmental factors explaining vegetation patterns along the soil moisture gradients. We observed significant differences in gravimetric water, soil organic matter and nutrient contents along the moisture gradients. These differences were coincident with a shift in vegetation cover and species composition. While chloro- and cyanolichens were abundant at the drier sites, mosses dominated the wetter and vascular plants the intermediate plots. Twenty four vascular plant species could be identified, of which only six were present at both sites. Cryptogamic covers generally dominated with maximum areal coverage up to 70% and hence should be considered as a new additional syntaxon in future ground-truth and remote sensing based vegetation surveys of Svalbard. Multivariate analysis revealed that soil moisture showed the strongest relation between vegetation patterns, together with NH4– N and pH. In conclusion, soil moisture is a key driver in controlling cryptogamic cover and vegetation coverage and vascular plant species composition in high Arctic tundra. Keywords: Arctic · Svalbard · Cryptogamic cover · Soil · Moisture · Tundra · Vegetation survey.
31944Guzow-Krzemińska B., Guzow K. & Herman-Antosiewicz A. (2019): Usnic acid derivatives as cytotoxic agents against cancer cells and the mechanisms of their activity. - Current Pharmacology Reports, 5: 429–439.
Purpose of Review: This article summarises recent research on modifications of the structure or formula of usnic acid (UA), a lichen secondary metabolite, in order to obtain derivatives with higher bioavailability, potency and selectivity against cancer cells and presents the current knowledge on the mechanisms of action of such compounds. Recent Findings: Numerous approaches have been undertaken to improve bioactivity of UA concerning its use as an anticancer drug. Among them, the synthesis of UA salts or complexation with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin to improve its solubility and the encapsulation using different carriers (including various nanomaterials) to stabilise UA in biological fluids and improve their penetrance to, and release in, cancer cells were applied.. Synthetic modification of the UA structure has been explored to obtain more active and cancer-specific derivatives. Recent work indicates that some modifications of the C or A ring of UA selectively increase its antiproliferative potential against cancer cells. Moreover, specific changes in the UA structure allow to obtain derivatives which inhibit enzymes important for the cancer cells’ survival, such as mTOR, Pim, TDP1 or PARP. Some of them have been shown to enhance anticancer activity of the already approved chemotherapeutics, such as topotecan. Others, when used in an animal cancer xenograft model, were superior to UA in retardation of tumour growth and less toxic that the parent compound. Summary: UA is a promising lead compound for synthesis of anticancer drugs. Further work on its modifications, mechanisms of activity and validation in animal models is critical for development of effective therapeutics. Keywords: Lichens . Usnic acid . Cancer . Apoptosis . Encapsulation . Bioavailability
31943Méric J.-C., Lebreton É & Roux C. (2019): Lichénologie à Mirabeau (84) : 27 octobre 2018. - Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, 70: 26–35.
France; report on excursion including photographs of lichens
31942St. Clair L.L. & Leavitt S.D. (2019): Anderson and Shushan: Lichens of Western North America Fascicle VII. - Evansia, 36(3): 24–29.
Twenty-five North American lichens are issued in this exsiccat series, numbers 151-175. In this fascicle, collections were made from nine states, including: Alaska (1), Arizona (3), California (2), Colorado (6), Idaho (1), Montana (4), Nevada (2), New Mexico (4), and Utah (2). Here, Thamnolia subuliformis (Ehrh.) W. L. Culb. (No. 173) is reported as a new species record for Utah. Key words: Biodiversity, lichens, collections-based research; herbarium; Intermountain West.
31941McCune B. (2019): Cortical windows in Stereocaulon. - Evansia, 36(3): 104–112.
Green algal photosynthetic units in the genus Stereocaulon (phyllocladia or areoles) are typically white to pale gray, but certain species develop a darker central portion. Structurally, these dark-centered areoles of crustose Stereocaulon are identical to the phyllocladia of the S. vesuvianum group. The dark-centered photosynthetic units may have an adaptive role, separating tissue for gas exchange from tissue for water uptake and light transmission. I hypothesize that the white portions of cortex on the photosynthetic units have reflective extracellular deposits that optically occlude the cortex but allow gas exchange through hydrophobic air channels. In contrast, the dark centers apparently provide transparent and water-transmissive windows into the algal layer through an otherwise relatively opaque cortex. Cortical windows are apparently unusual in lichens and may be an adaptation to provide gas exchange in cold, wet environments. For crustose species, the areoles often protrude from a thin film of water over rock and the dual cortex appears to provide both light transmission and gas exchange. Similarly, for the S. vesuvianum group, the dual cortex may provide light transmission and gas exchange for water-saturated thalli in oceanic environments. Key words: Anatomy, lichen, ecology, gas exchange, vesuvianum group.
31940Lewis C.J. (2019): Heterodermia leucomela (L.) Poelt discovered in Ontario, Canada for the first time in over 150 Years. - Evansia, 36(3): 30–38.
One of Canada’s rarest lichens, Heterodermia leucomela (L.) Poelt, was first discovered in Belleville, Ontario by George Lawson in 1862. Thought to be extirpated in Ontario, it is known from fewer than a dozen records in Canada, with only a few discoveries in northeastern North America in the past 100 years. My discovery in 2018 is of historical significance and provides hope that microhabitats or refugia required for presumed extirpated species may still exist in highly disturbed landscapes in southern Ontario. Key words: Heterodermia leucomela; Heterodermia japonica; Ontario; Canada.
31939Colbert J.T., Blackledge M., Drahos A., Haffner L.T., Lee C.H., Malek L. & Thompson K.M. (2019): Surveying the lichen diversity of Gitchie Manitou State Preserve using problem-based learning pedagogy. - Evansia, 36(3): 92–100.
A survey of lichen diversity was conducted at Gitchie Manitou State Preserve in Lyon County, Iowa, using a problem-based learning approach in a course taught at Iowa Lakeside Laboratory during the summer of 2017. Using this approach the students were able to correctly identify about 77%of the collected lichens. Our collections revealed the presence of 34 distinct lichens, representing 23 genera, including the first report of Agonimia optuntiella (Buschardt & Poelt) Vězda for the state of Iowa. Key words. Biodiversity, lichens, Sioux Quartzite, Gitchie Manitou State Preserve, problem based learning.
31938Carter O., Kropp B., Noell N., Hollinger J., Baker G., Tuttle A., St. Clair L.L. & Leavitt S.D. (2019): A preliminary checklist of the lichens in Great Basin National Park, Nevada, USA. - Evansia, 36(3): 72–91.
Lichen communities in many National Parks are diverse and perform essential but often poorly understood ecological roles. However, lichen diversity in many National Parks is poorly characterized. Because of this, limited interpretive resources are currently available. Here we report a preliminary checklist of the lichen species found in Great Basin National Park, White Pine County, Nevada, USA, including 230 species in 84 genera, identified predominantly from recent field surveys. While our study documents an impressive diversity of lichen species in the Park, we anticipate that a significant percentage of the lichen flora remains to be discovered. Our hope is that this preliminary checklist will provide a foundation for additional lichenological research in Great Basin National Park. Key words: BioBlitz, biodiversity inventories, citizen science, collections-based research, Intermountain West.
31937Haldeman M. (2019): New and interesting records of lichens and lichenicolous fungi from northwestern USA II. - Evansia, 36(3): 63–71.
Didymocyrtis xanthomendozae is reported as new to the USA. Arthonia peltigerina and Pertusaria oculata are reported as new to the contiguous 48 states of the USA. Arthonia clemens, Diplolaeviopsis symmictae and Lichenoconium xanthoriae are reported as new to northwestern North America and Epicladonia simplex as new to the western USA. Three species are reported as new to the Rocky Mountains, and new state records are provided for California, Colorado, Idaho, Oregon and Washington. Key words: Arthonia, herbarium, Idaho, Oregon State University, Washington.
31936Grishkan I. & Temina M. (2019): Interior of saxicolous lichens on different types of rocks as a habitat for microfungal communities in Upper Galilee, Israel. - Acta Mycologica, 54(1): 1123 [14 p.].
We examined the diversity and composition of fungi from the interior of saxicolous (rock inhabiting) lichens covering basaltic and chalk rocks at the Alma–Har-Ben- Zimra area of Upper Galilee, Israel. We also compared the composition of lichenassociated and soil microfungal communities inhabiting the two contrasting soil types in the area to trace possible sources of formation of endolichenic fungal assemblages. In the course of the study, 39 fungal species were isolated from the interior of 13 lichen species. Species richness of the endolichenic fungal communities was associated, to some extent, with the growth form of lichens, being higher in those lichens with thick, warted, and wrinkled thalli. Species composition of the communities was characterized by the dominance of melanin-containing microfungi with large, multicellular, and thick-walled spores that significantly increased in abundance in the summer. Dominant species were also known as endophytes and phylloplaneinhabiting fungi; at the same time, typical soil-borne species were extremely rare components of the isolated endolichenic communities. Some endolichenic melanized microfungi were comprised by coprophilous species prevailing in some lichen thalli; this observation was probably due to a long period of use of the studied area for cattle grazing. Protective morphological features are important for fungi inhabiting the interior of lichen thalli characterized by limited nutrient sources, low-water availability, and restricted aeration. In addition, endolichenic fungi should resist the activity of various extracellular secondary metabolites produced by their host lichen species.
31935Obermayer W. (2019): Lichenotheca Graecensis, Fasc. 25 (Nos 481–500). - Fritschiana (Graz), 93: 1–7.
Fascicle 25 of 'Lichenotheca Graecensis' comprises 19 collections of lichens and one collection of a non-lichenized fungus (Mycocalicium subtile) from the following countries (and administrative subdivisions): Australia (Queensland), Austria (Carinthia, Styria, Tirol), Czech Republic (Vysočina Region), Greece (Autonomous State Mount Athos), Ireland (Clare), Italy (Lazio), Portugal (Viana do Castelo District), and Spain (Canary Islands). Paratype-material of Buellia epigaeella is distributed. TLC-analyses were carried out for Dimelaena oreina and Ramalina fraxinea. The exsiccata-series is finalized with the issue of the present fascicle.
31934Obermayer W. (2019): Data synopsis and indexes on the exsiccata 'Lichenotheca Graecensis' (numbers 1–500) issued between 1994 and 2019. - Fritschiana (Graz), 93: 9–30.
31933Roux C., Coste C., Navarro-Rosinés P., Vänskä H., Uriac P., Monnat J.-Y. & Poumarat S. (2019): Lecanora lecideopsis Cl. Roux et C. Coste sp. nov.. - Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, 70: 91–105.
[in French and Esperanto with additional abstracts in Spanish and English :] Description of a new species of lichen, Lecanora lecideopsis Cl. Roux et C. Coste sp. nov., known in a single station of France (department of Hérault, municipality of Mons) on non–calcareous rock (gneiss), which differs from Lecanora lecideoides (Nyl.) Harm. by its epithecium green to greenish brown, N + (purple), containing cinereorufa green, its thallus with different chemistry (norstictic acid besides atranorine) and its much narrower, oblong or long ellipsoid spores (10)12–14,4–16(18) × (3)3,5–4,0–4,5(5) μm. Comparison with affine species or analogues. Lectotypification of Lecanora lecideoides, species from which L. rubrofusca should be excluded. Key of determination of Lecanora gr. subfusca of Western Europe, saxicolous, with epithecium without crystals and thallus K + (yellow).
31932Bischoff G.W. (1842): Handbuch der botanischen Terminologie und Systemkunde. Zweiter Band. - J.L. Schrag, Nürnberg, [i–x +] p. 583–1047 [+ p. 46–90, tabs. XII-LXXVII].
terminology; lichens at p. 742-803
31931Bischoff G.W. (1830): Handbuch der botanischen Terminologie und Systemkunde. - J.L. Schrag, Nürnberg, 740 p. [+ tabs. XII-LXXVII].
terminology; lichens figured at Tabs. LVII-LVIII
31930Pfeiffer L. (1887): Vollständige Synonymik der bis zum Ende des Jahres 1870 publicirten botanischen Gattungen, Untergattungen und Abtheilungen. Zugleich Systematische üebersicht des ganzen Gewächsreiches mit den neueren Bereicherungen und Berichtigungen. - C. B. Griesbach’s Verlag, Gera, [i-viii +] 674 p. [+ suppl. i-viii + 65 p.].
catalogue, synonyms, classification
31929Reichenbach H.G.L. (1828): Uebersicht des Gewächs-Reichs in seinen natürlichen Entwicklungsstufen : ein Versuch. Erster Theil. Schluessel fuer Herbarien und Gaerten, oder, Anordnung des Gewaechsreichs. - C. Cnobloch, Leipzig, [i-xiv +] 294 p.
classification
31928Ravera S., Puglisi M., Vizzini A., Totti C., Arosio G., Benesperi R., Bianchi E., Boccardo F., Briozzo I., Dagnino D., De Giuseppe A.B., Dovana F., Di Nuzzo L., Fascetti S., Gheza G., Giordani P., Malíček J., Mariotti M.G., Mayrhofer H., Minuto L., Nascimbene J., Nimis P.L., Martellos S., Passalacqua N.G., Pittao E., Potenza G., Puntillo D., Rosati L., Sicoli G., Spitale D., Tomaselli V., Trabucco R., Turcato C., Vallese C. & Zardini M. (2019): Notulae to the Italian flora of algae, bryophytes, fungi and lichens: 8. - Italian Botanist, 8: 47–62.
In this contribution, new data concerning algae, bryophytes, fungi, and lichens of the Italian flora are presented. It includes new records and confirmations for the algae genus Chara, the bryophyte genera Homalia, Mannia, and Tortella, the fungal genera Cortinarius, Russula, and Stereum, and the lichen genera Cetrelia, Cladonia, Enterographa, Graphis, Lecanora, Lepraria, Multiclavula, Mycomicrothelia, Parmelia, Peltigera, Pleopsidium, Psora, Scytinium, Umbilicaria, and Rhizocarpon. Keywords: Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Bryidae, Charophyceae, Marchantiidae.
31927Ossowska E., Guzow-Krzemińska B., Kolanowska M., Szczepańska K. & Kukwa M. (2019): Morphology and secondary chemistry in species recognition of Parmelia omphalodes group – evidence from molecular data with notes on the ecological niche modelling and genetic variability of photobionts. - MycoKeys, 61: 39–74.
To evaluate the importance of morphological and chemical characters used in the recognition of species within the Parmelia omphalodes group, we performed phylogenetic, morphological and chemical analyses of 335 specimens, of which 34 were used for molecular analyses. Phylogenetic analyses, based on ITS rDNA sequences, show that P. pinnatifida is distinct from P. omphalodes and the most important difference between those species is the development of pseudocyphellae. In P. pinnatifida, they are mostly marginal and form white rims along lobes margins, but laminal pseudocyphellae can develop in older parts of thalli and are predominantly connected with marginal pseudocyphellae. In contrast, in P. omphalodes laminal pseudocyphellae are common and are predominantly not connected to marginal pseudocyphellae. Chemical composition of secondary lichen metabolites in both analysed species is identical and therefore this feature is not diagnostic in species recognition. Few samples of P. discordans, species morphologically similar to P. omphalodes and P. pinnatifida, were also included in the analyses and they are nested within the clade of P. omphalodes, despite the different chemistry (protocetraric acid present versus salazinic acid in P. omphalodes). All taxa of the P. omphalodes group occupy similar niches, but their potential distributions are wider than those currently known. The absence of specimens in some localities may be limited by the photobiont availability. Parmelia omphalodes and P. pinnatifida are moderately selective in photobiont choice as they form associations with at least two or three lineages of Trebouxia clade S. Parmelia pinnatifida, as well as P. discordans are associated with Trebouxia OTU S02 which seems to have a broad ecological amplitude. Other lineages of Trebouxia seem to be rarer, especially Trebouxia sp. OTU S04, which is sometimes present in P. pinnatifida. This study indicates the importance of extensive research including morphology, chemistry and analysis of molecular markers of both bionts in taxonomical studies of lichens. Keywords: Ascomycota, Parmeliaceae, parmelioid lichens, ITS rDNA, secondary metabolites, morphology, photobiont, ecological niche modelling.
31926Krawczyk R., Zubel R. & Komsta Ł. (2019): Military training areas and vegetation – the effect of explosion craters on species diversity along a moisture gradient. - Polish Journal of Ecology, 67(3): 194–205.
Military training areas, where ecosystems are shaped under a complex disturbance regime, are recognized to be favourable pieces of land for maintaining high biological diversity. Our study focused on explosion craters – a small-scale disturbance type of high severity, and their effect on species diversity including vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens. The research was carried out on an active military training area in Nowa Dęba (SE Poland). The examined vegetation represented open communities on nutrient-poor soils with a wide range of soil moisture conditions. We compared 76 pairs of vegetation samples, each pair consisting of a crater and a closely located control plot of the same size. Out of 135 species recorded (72 vascular plants, 33 mosses, 9 liverworts, 22 lichens), 37 were found only in craters, while 19 occurred only in control plots. Both, species number and diversity were significantly higher for craters than controls. In general, the positive effect of cratering on all studied groups rises from dry to wet habitats. The highest increase of diversity was observed in relation to bryophytes in the moist habitats. Moreover, craters within habitats of higher moisture turned out to be more resistant to alien colonization and at the same time were characterized by significantly higher number of red-listed species compared to the control plots. Differences in species composition between craters and undisturbed plots were most visible in moderately moist habitats. We found several species with a strong preference for craters, and the plants of the highest indicative value are Atrichum tenellum and Dicranella cerviculata.
31925Tagirdzhanova G., Stepanchikova I.S., Himelbrant D.E., Vyatkina M.P., Dyomina A.V., Dirksen V.G. & Scheidegger C. (2019): Distribution and assessment of the conservation status of Erioderma pedicellatum in Asia. - Lichenologist, 51(6): 575–585.
The first detailed survey is presented of a recently discovered population of Erioderma pedi- cellatum, a globally rare lichen, in the primeval spruce forests of the Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. Three subpopulations are described, located in the Levaya Schapina River basin, in the Kimitina River basin, and on the slopes of the extinct volcano, Nikolka. In total, we observed 1894 thalli on 167 Yezo spruce trunks. In Kamchatka, E. pedicellatum occurs exclusively on bark-covered spruce twigs of mainly young and dwarf-stressed older trees. We discovered a high number of juvenile thalli, which suggests that this population is reproducing. However, its habitat is declining because spruce for- ests in the region are the target of industrial clear-cutting and there is a high incidence of forest fires. Over the next 60 years, which corresponds to three generations of E. pedicellatum, we infer that continued habitat loss will induce a 48% decline in these lichen populations. As a result of our analyses, the Asian population is classified as ‘Vulnerable’, based on IUCN Red List criteria. habitat loss, IUCN Red List, Kamchatka, lichen conservation, old-growth forests
31924Han L.F., Yang J.Y., Bei S.Q. & Guo S.Y. (2019): Peltigera shennongjiana, a new cyanolichen from Central China. - Lichenologist, 51(6): 561–574.
As part of our ongoing research on Peltigera, we recognize a morphologically and phylogen- etically distinct new species, Peltigera shennongjiana L. F. Han & S. Y. Guo, from the Shennongjia region of Central China. It is distinguished from other members of the P. canina-group by the presence of abun- dant phyllidia and flat, branched lobules along the margin or laminal cracks, short lobes, and a pruinose, usually greyish upper surface. The various populations sampled share identical ITS nr DNA sequences, of which the ITS2 regions are characterized by a unique secondary structure. Furthermore, we provide a detailed comparison of the characteristics of P. shennongjiana with morphologically similar species and a key to Peltigera species reported from China. ITS, lichen flora of China, Peltigerales, secondary structure, Shennongjia Mountain
31923Weerakoon G., Aptroot A., Lücking R., Arachchige O. & Wijesundara S. (2019): Graphis and Allographa (lichenized Ascomycota: Graphidaceae) in Sri Lanka, with six new species and a biogeographical comparison investigating a potential signature of the ‘biotic ferry’ species interchange. - Lichenologist, 51(6): 515–559.
We provide an updated survey for Sri Lanka of species of Graphis sensu Staiger, recently divided into Graphis s. str. and Allographa, including brief descriptions and a key to all 124 species currently known. Six new species are described: Allographa bambusicola Weerakoon, Lücking & Aptroot, a bambusicolous Allographa with entire labia, a laterally carbonized excipulum, 80–100 × 15–17 μm large, muriform ascos- pores and a rather thick, irregularly verrucose lateral thalline margin of the lirellae; A. weerasooriyana Weer- akoon, Arachchige & Lücking, a corticolous Allographa resembling A. rustica Kremp. in overall anatomy and chemistry, but with a verrucose thalline margin of the lirellae and labia not distinctly raised above the thalline margin; Graphis flosculifera Weerakoon, Lücking & Aptroot, a corticolous Graphis resembling G. insulana but differing in the unique disposition of the lirellae and the slightly more elongate ascospores; G. rajapakshana Weerakoon, Lücking & Aptroot, a corticolous Graphis resembling G. desquamescens, including in ascospore size, but with lirellae with a distinct lateral thalline margin; G. rimosothallina Weer- akoon, Lücking & Aptroot, a corticolous Graphis with a thick, uneven, rimose thallus and Fissurina-like lir- ellae, a completely carbonized excipulum and transversely 7-septate ascospores, 32–37 × 8–10 μm; and G. thunsinhalayensis Weerakoon, Arachchige & Lücking, a corticolous Graphis resembling G. subalbostriata but with smaller ascospores and lacking white lines between the striae of the labia. We also validate the name G. verrucoserpens Lücking. A total of 106 species are reported here for the first time from Sri Lanka. A biogeo- graphical comparison with two other well-sampled countries (Costa Rica and Thailand) revealed a signifi- cantly higher similarity in species composition with Costa Rica than between Thailand and Costa Rica, suggesting a potential signature of the ‘biotic ferry’ hypothesis, that is the migration of lineages from Gon- dwana (partly corresponding to the modern Neotropics) via the north-eastwards drifting Indian subcon- tinent and subsequent interchange with Laurasia (partly corresponding to the modern eastern Paleotropics). However, the evolutionary timeline of the clades involved does not support this hypothesis and suggests an alternative explanation of geologically more recent mid- to long-distance dispersal. Central Province, central mountain region, Horton Plains, lichens, Sabaragamuwa hill range, Western Province
31922Jagadeesh Ram T.A.M. & Sinha G.P. (2019): New species and first records of Eremothecella (Arthoniales) from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India . - Lichenologist, 51(6): 507–513.
Five species of Eremothecella are recorded from the Andaman Islands, two of which are described as new: Eremothecella ajaysinghii Jagad. Ram & G. P. Sinha and E. nicobarica Jagad. Ram & G. P. Sinha. Eremothecella ajaysinghii has whitish grey, pruinose ascomata and 8–10(–11)-septate ascospores, while E. nicobarica has non-pruinose ascomata and (14–)15–17-septate ascospores. Eremothecella calamicola Syd., E. macrosperma (Zahlbr.) Sérus. and E. variratae (Aptroot & Sipman) Sérus. are reported as new records for India. An updated worldwide key to species of the genus is presented. Arthonia, Arthoniaceae, lichens, South-East Asia, taxonomy, tropical rainforest
31921Morse C.A. & Ladd D. (2019): Staurothele nemorum sp. nov. (Ascomycota: Verrucariaceae), with a revised key to North American Staurothele s. lat.. - Lichenologist, 51(6): 495–506.
Staurothele nemorum is described as new to science from the southern Great Plains of central North America. The species is characterized by a thin, areolate, epilithic thallus, sessile perithecia, globose to oblong hymenial algal cells and 8-spored asci. Staurothele hymenogonia is restored to the North American flora, based on material from the south-western Great Plains. An updated key to North American members of Staurothele s. lat. is provided. Endocarpon, glade, grassland, lichens, taxonomy, Willeya
31920Fernández‑Marín B., Buchner O., Kastberger G., Piombino F., García‑Plazaola J.I. & Kranner I. (2019): Non‑invasive diagnosis of viability in seeds and lichens by infrared thermography under controlled environmental conditions. - Plant Methods, 15:147 [15 p.].
Background: Non-invasive procedures for the diagnosis of viability of plant or fungal tissues would be valuable for scientific, industrial and biomonitoring purposes. Previous studies showed that infrared thermography (IRT) enables non-invasive assessment of the viability of individual "orthodox" (i.e. desiccation tolerant) seeds upon water uptake. However, this method was not tested for rehydrating tissues of other desiccation tolerant life forms. Furthermore, evaporative cooling could obscure the effects of metabolic processes that contribute to heating and cooling, but its effects on the shape of the "thermal fingerprints" have not been explored. Here, we further adapted this method using a purpose-built chamber to control relative humidity (RH) and gaseous atmosphere. This enabled us to test (i) the influence of relative humidity on the thermal fingerprints during the imbibition of Pisum sativum (Garden pea) seeds, (ii) whether thermal fingerprints can be correlated with viability in lichens, and (iii) to assess the potential influence of aerobic metabolism on thermal fingerprints by controlling the oxygen concentration in the gaseous atmosphere around the samples. Finally, we developed a method to artificially "age" lichens and validated the IRT-based method to assess lichen viability in three lichen species. Results: Using either 30% or 100% RH during imbibition of pea seeds, we showed that "live" and "dead" seeds produced clearly discernible "thermal fingerprints", which significantly differed by > |0.15| °C in defined time windows, and that RH affected the shape of these thermal fingerprints. We demonstrated that IRT can also be used to assess the viability of the lichens Lobaria pulmonaria, Pseudevernia furfuracea and Peltigera leucophlebia. No clear relationship between aerobic metabolism and the shape of thermal fingerprints was found. Conclusions: Infrared thermography appears to be a promising method for the diagnosis of viability of desiccationtolerant tissues at early stages of water uptake. For seeds, it is possible to diagnose viability within the first hours of rehydration, after which time they can still be re-dried and stored until further use. We envisage our work as a baseline study for the use of IR imaging techniques to investigate physiological heterogeneity of desiccation tolerant life forms such as lichens, which can be used for biomonitoring, and for sorting live and dead seeds, which is potentially useful for the seed trade. Keywords: Desiccation tolerance, Lichen, Thermal imaging, Seeds, Stress, Viability.
31919Burgaz A.R. & Tretiach M. (2002): Lectotypification of Lobaria amplissima (Scop.) Forssell (Lobariaceae, Ascomycotina). - Taxon, 51: 765–766.
The top figure of tab. 46 in Micheli’s Nova Genera Plantarum is selected as lectotype, and a specimen from his herbarium (FI‐M) as epitype of the name of the lichen, Lobaria amplissima (Scop.) Forssell.
31918Boch S., Martins A., Ruas S., Fontinha S., Carvalho P., Reis F., Bergamini A. & Sim‐Sim M. (2019): Bryophyte and macrolichen diversity show contrasting elevation relationships and are negatively affected by disturbances in laurel forests of Madeira island. - Journal of Vegetation Science, 30: 1122–1133.
Questions: Studies on bryophyte and lichen diversity patterns along elevational gradients are scarce, although this approach can serve as space‐for‐time substitution to predict diversity changes because of climate warming. Therefore, we investigated bryophytes and macrolichens in disturbed and undisturbed stands along an elevational gradient in the unique laurel forest of Madeira island by addressing the following questions: (a) how does the species richness of functional‐taxonomic bryophyte and macrolichen groups differ with elevation; (b) how is the species richness of these groups affected by disturbances? Location: UNESCO World Natural Heritage site laurel forest of Madeira island (Madeira, Portugal). Methods: We analyzed species richness of bryophytes and macrolichens in 92 plots in response to elevation and to disturbances. Results: Bryophyte species richness showed a mid‐elevational peak, while macrolichen richness increased with elevation. Disturbed plots harbored on average 20% less bryophyte and macrolichen species than undisturbed plots. Conclusions: The laurel forest of Madeira island is a bryophyte and lichen diversity hotspot. Our findings indicate future biodiversity threats by changing environmental conditions. This calls for the need for a strict protection status of the laurel forest on Madeira island to minimize human‐related disturbances, for the development of management measures that could mitigate climate change effects by maximizing habitat suitability and for the implementation of species conservation programs to prevent future extinctions, in particular of endemic species. Keywords: bryophyte life strategy, climate change, elevational gradient, endemic species, functionaltaxonomic group, lichen growth form, liverwort, moss, photobiont.
31917Hurtado P., Prieto M., Aragón G., Escudero A. & Martínez I. (2019): Critical predictors of functional, phylogenetic and taxonomic diversity are geographically structured in lichen epiphytic communities. - Journal of Ecology, 107: 2303–2316.
Assessing the response of biological communities to contrasting environmental conditions is crucial to predict the effects of global change drivers. The influence of multiple environmental factors may differ depending on the diversity facet considered, which emphasizes the need to simultaneously evaluate the functional (FD), phylogenetic (PD) and taxonomic (TD) diversity. To examine how these facets of biodiversity respond to environmental changes, we studied lichen epiphytic communities across 47 beech forest fragments from two biogeographic regions. We applied structural equation modelling to relate habitat fragmentation, climate and habitat quality with FD, PD and TD. We compared the community response to contrasting climatic conditions by analysing independently Atlantic and Mediterranean communities. We found different major drivers of biodiversity patterns across biogeographic regions. Habitat fragmentation performed the highest effect on lichen communities, with a reduction of FD, PD and TD at both regions. However, the influence of climate was stronger in the Atlantic region than in the Mediterranean region, where the effect of habitat quality was superior. The effect of the environmental predictors over PD and TD was both direct and indirect through the different components of FD, and their intensity and sign differed across regions. Changes in PD were not related to changes in TD. Synthesis. Our results evidenced that the major environmental drivers affecting epiphytic communities were geographically structured. These drivers modified the diversity of the epiphytic community directly but also indirectly through changes in FD, which emerged as a causal but not unique determinant of PD and TD. Our findings also showed the difficulty for inferring TD through PD. These results emphasize the essential role of FD predicting part of the response of lichen communities to global change drivers but also highlight the importance of considering multiple biodiversity facets to understand the effects of environmental change on community structure. Keywords: biogeographic regions, environmental drivers, forest fragmentation, functional diversity, lichens, phylogenetic diversity, structural equation modelling, taxonomic diversity.
31916Fabritius H., Singer A., Pennanen J. & Snäll T. (2019): Estimation of metapopulation colonization rates from disturbance history and occurrence-pattern data. - Ecology, 100(10): e02814 [11 p.].
Occurrence patterns of many sessile species in dynamic landscapes are not in equilibrium due to their slow rates of metapopulation colonization and extinction. Colonization–extinction data enable the estimation of colonization rates for such species, but collecting the necessary data may require long waiting times between sampling years. Methods for estimating colonization rates of nonequilibrium metapopulations from single occurrence‐pattern data have so far relied on additional data on patch ages and on past patch connectivities. We present an approach where metapopulation colonization rates are estimated from occurrence‐pattern data and from disturbance history data that inform of past patch dynamics and that can be collected together with occurrence‐pattern data. We estimated parameter values regulating patch and metapopulation dynamics by simulating patch network and metapopulation histories that result in present‐like patch network configurations and metapopulation occurrence patterns. We tested our approach using occurrence‐pattern data of the epiphytic lichen Lobaria pulmonaria in Fennoscandian forests, and fire‐scar data that inform of the 400‐yr history of fires and host tree dynamics in the same landscapes. The estimated model parameters were similar to estimates obtained using colonization–extinction data. The projected L. pulmonaria occupancy into the future also agreed with the respective projections that were made using the model estimated from colonization–extinction data. Our approach accelerates the estimation of metapopulation colonization rates for sessile species that are not in metapopulation equilibrium with the current landscape structure. Key words: approximate Bayesian computation; disturbance history; metapopulation dynamics; patch colonization rate; sessile species; snapshot data.
31915Roos R.E., van Zuijlen K., Birkemoe T., Klanderud K., Lang S.I., Bokhorst S., Wardle D.A. & Asplund J. (2019): Contrasting drivers of community‐level trait variation for vascular plants, lichens and bryophytes across an elevational gradient. - Functional Ecology, 33: 2430–2446.
Across environmental gradients, community‐level functional traits of plants can change due to species turnover, intraspecific variation and their covariation. Studies on vascular plants suggest that species turnover is the main driver of trait variation across gradients, although intraspecific variation can also be important. However, there is limited knowledge about whether this holds for non‐vascular primary producers such as lichens and bryophytes. We hypothesized that intraspecific variation is more important for non‐vascular than for vascular primary producers because they lack specialized structures to maintain homeostasis and should therefore be more responsive to extrinsic factors. To assess the relative importance of species turnover versus intraspecific variation for vascular plants, lichens and bryophytes, we estimated species abundance and measured chemical (tissue nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) content, N:P ratio and pH) and non‐chemical (specific leaf or thallus area, dry matter content and water holding capacity) functional traits along an elevational gradient in alpine southern Norway. We calculated community‐weighted mean traits and quantified the relative contribution of species turnover, intraspecific variation and their covariation to total trait variation across the gradient. We found mixed support for our hypothesis: the contribution of intraspecific variation to total trait variation for N and N:P was higher in lichens than in vascular plants and bryophytes, but in general the contribution of intraspecific variation differed among functional traits and producer groups. Nutrient variables (N, P and N:P) were significantly impacted by intraspecific variation for vascular plants and lichens but not for bryophytes. Non‐chemical traits and pH were mainly driven by species turnover effects in all primary producer groups. Our results highlight that while nearly all studies on primary producer trait variation across environments have focused on vascular plants, trait variation of other largely neglected but ecologically important producer groups, such as lichens and bryophytes, may show very different responses to the same environmental factors. In order to fully understand how future environmental changes impact on community‐ and ecosystem‐level processes, traits of primary producers other than vascular plants—and their within‐species variation—need to be considered in systems where these groups are abundant. Keywords: alpine ecology, climate gradient, community‐weighted mean, functional traits, intraspecific variation, non‐vascular plants, species turnover, tundra.
31914Blanár D., Guttová A., Mihál I., Plášek V., Hauer T., Palice Z. & Ujházy K. (2019): Effect of magnesite dust pollution on biodiversity and composition of oak-hornbeam woodlands in the Western Carpathians. - Biologia, 74: 1591–1611.
We aimed to identify how the alkaline dust fallout from magnesite factories (Slovenské rudohorie Mts, Western Carpathians) affects biodiversity and species composition of oak-hornbeam forests, and to compare sensitivity of local biodiversity represented by vascular plants (including flowering plants and ferns) and cryptogams (cyanobacteria, macromycetes, slime molds, lichens, bryophytes). Altogether 24 plots were sampled along four degradation stages during the vegetation seasons 2011–2016: A – poorly developed vegetation on the magnesite crust, B – dense grassland vegetation almost without a tree-layer, C – degraded woodland with opened canopy, and D – visually unaffected original closed-canopy woodland. For each plot we sampled phytocoenological relevés including vascular plants and terrestrial cryptogams (cyanobacteria, lichens and bryophytes), and presence records for epiphytic lichens, epiphytic bryophytes, sporocarps of macromycetes (terrestrial, saprotrophic, parasitic and ectomycorrhizal) and sporocarps of slime molds.We also analyzed concentrations of C, Ca, Mg, S, N, P, K in the soil, light conditions, bark pH and the distance from two emission sources (ES). Increased alkaline dust, corresponding to a smaller distance from the emission source correlated with higher concentrations of Mg, Ca, Fe, S, C/N in soil samples. Regressive succession converted oak-hornbeam woodland to degraded woodland with opened canopy, further to ruderal grasslands, then to halophilous procoenoses of Agrostis stolonifera and Puccinellia distans on degraded soils with eroded magnesite crust and biocrusts (formed by cyanobacteria Microcoleus steenstrupii, Nostoc microscopicum and Schizothrix arenaria; bryophytes Desmatodon cernuus, Didymodon tophaceus; pioneer terrestrial lichen Thelidium zwackhii) and finally into habitat with no vegetation. This is the first report on early successional stages with halophilous procoenoses in the Western Carpathians. We also recorded significant differences in species richness and the species pools in all organism groups along the gradient. Overall species diversity decreased. The degradation stages are characterized by low representation of symbiotic macromycetes and by a high proportion of saprotrophic macromycetes. The highest species richness of vascular plants was recorded in degradation stages B and C, the highest herb-layer cover in stage B. The highest species richness of terrestrial bryophytes is also found in dense grassland vegetation in stage B. Occurrence of nitrophilous epiphytic lichens differentiates unaffected oak-hornbeam woodlands from the plots close to the emission source. Keywords: Alkaline dust . Terrestrial cyanobacteria . Macrofungi . Terrestrial and epiphytic lichens and bryophytes . Vascular plants . Post-industrial habitats . Slovakia.
31913Blanco-Sacristán J., Panigada C., Tagliabue G., Gentili R., Colombo R., Ladrón de Guevara M., Maestre F.T. & Rossini M. (2019): Spectral diversity successfully estimates the α-diversity of biocrust-forming lichens. - Remote Sensing, 11(24): 2942 [16 p.] doi:10.3390/rs11242942.
Biocrusts, topsoil communities formed by mosses, lichens, liverworts, algae, and cyanobacteria, are a key biotic component of dryland ecosystems worldwide. Experiments carried out with lichen- and moss-dominated biocrusts indicate that climate change may dramatically reduce their cover and diversity. Therefore, the development of reproducible methods to monitor changes in biocrust diversity and abundance across multiple spatio-temporal scales is key for evaluating how climate change may impact biocrust communities and the myriad of ecosystem functions and services that rely on them. In this study, we collected lichen-dominated biocrust samples from a semi-arid ecosystem in central Spain. Their α-diversity was then evaluated using very high spatial resolution hyperspectral images (pixel size of 0.091 mm) measured in laboratory under controlled conditions. Support vector machines were used to map the biocrust composition. Traditional α-diversity metrics (i.e., species richness, Shannon’s, Simpson’s, and Pielou’s indices) were calculated using lichen fractional cover data derived from their classifications in the hyperspectral imagery. Spectral diversity was calculated at different wavelength ranges as the coefficient of variation of different regions of the reflectance spectra of lichens and as the standard deviation of the continuum removal algorithm (SD_CR). The accuracy of the classifications of the images obtained was close to 100%. The results showed the best coefficient of determination (r2 = 0.47) between SD_CR calculated at 680 nm and the α-diversity calculated as the Simpson’s index, which includes species richness and their evenness. These findings indicate that this spectral diversity index could be used to track spatio-temporal changes in lichen-dominated biocrust communities. Thus, they are the first step to monitor α-diversity of biocrust-forming lichens at the ecosystem and regional levels, a key task for any program aiming to evaluate changes in biodiversity and associated ecosystem services in drylands. Keywords: biocrusts; biological soil crust; spectral diversity; chlorophyll; continuum removal; biodiversity; α-diversity; support vector machine; remote sensing.
31912Lindblom L., Blom H.H. & Timdal E. (2019): The genus Xanthomendoza in Norway. - Graphis Scripta, 31(7): 54–75.
We distinguish five Xanthomendoza species in Norway, viz., X. borealis, X. fallax, X. fulva, X. oregana, and X. ulophyllodes, based on morphology and molecular evidence. This paper gives an updated taxonomy of the Norwegian species of Xanthomendoza, and addresses previous misconceptions. Xanthomendoza ulophyllodes is reported as occurring in Norway. The species was previously misunderstood in Norway and removed from the Nordic checklist. We show that the nuclear internal transcribed spacer (nrITS) is a useful barcode marker for the treated species. We provide a key and short descriptions of the species, with notes on specific issues, ecology, geographic distribution, illustrations, maps, and a DNA reference library (DNA barcoding).
31911Fryday A.M., Orange A., Ahti T., Øvstedal D.O. & Crabtree D.E. (2019): An annotated checklist of lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi reported from the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas). - Glalia, 8(1): 1–100.
An annotated checklist of lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi reported from the Falkland Islands is presented. A total of 408 taxa are reported: 402 species, and six additional infra-specific taxa (four subspecies, one variety and one forma), in 161 genera. Included in these are 15 species of lichenicolous fungi in 12 different genera. One hundred and fifty taxa are reported for the first time from the archipelago. Six new combinations are proposed: Lambiella andreaeicola (Fryday) Fryday, L. subpsephota (Fryday) Fryday, Notoparmelia kerguelensis (F. Wilson) Fryday, N. lindsayana (Øvstedal & Elix) Fryday, Palicella xantholeuca (Müll.Arg.) Fryday & Orange and Pseudephebe mariensis (Øvstedal, Common & Fryday) Øvstedal & Fryday. Key Words — new combinations, South America, southern subpolar region.
31910Jørgensen P.M., Andersen H.L. & Elvebakk A. (2019): The genus Massalongia (lichenised ascomycetae) in the Southern Hemisphere. - MycoKeys, 60: 125–140.
The species of Massalongia recorded and described from the Southern Hemisphere are revised and it is shown that only one is present; M. patagonica which is widespread, with populations in Australia and New Zealand that differ from the South American populations, but at present best regarded as part of the variation of that species. Records from this hemisphere of all other species placed in the genus are incorrect. The type species, M. carnosa, is restricted to the Northern Hemisphere. Two species, M. antarctica and M. novozelandica cannot be identified precisely due to lack of sufficient type material and with the types as the only collections known of these, but none belongs in Massalongia according to available data. Massalongia griseolobata (from Gough Isl.) is shown here to belong in the Pannariaceae and is part of the parmelielloid clade. M. intricata (from South Georgia) and M. olechiana (from South Shetland) have both recently been correctly transferred to the genus Steinera in the Arctomiaceae. Keywords: Peltigerales, Massalongiaceae, phylogeny, taxonomy, South Hemisphere.
31909Petrzik K., Koloniuk I., Sehadová H. & Sarkisova T. (2019): Chrysoviruses inhabited symbiotic fungi of lichens. - Viruses, 11:1120 [15 p.], doi:10.3390/v11121120.
A lichen body is formed most often from green alga cells trapped in a net of ascomycetous fungi and accompanied by endolichenic or parasitic fungi, other algae, and symbiotic or free-living bacteria. The lichen’s microcosmos is inhabited by mites, insects, and other animals for which the lichen is a source of food or a place to live. Novel, four-segmented dsRNA viruses were detected in saxicolous Chrysothrix chlorina and Lepraria incana lichens. Comparison of encoded genome proteins revealed classification of the viruses to the genus Alphachrysovirus and a relationship to chrysoviruses from filamentous ascomycetous fungi. We propose the names Chrysothrix chrysovirus 1 (CcCV1) and Lepraria chrysovirus 1 (LiCV1) as acronyms for these viruses. Surprisingly, observation of Chrysothrix chlorina hybridization with fluorescent-labelled virus probe by confocal microscope revealed that the CcCV1 virus is not present in the lichen body-forming fungus but in accompanying endolichenic Penicillium citreosulfuratum fungus. These are the first descriptions of mycoviruses from a lichen environment. Keywords: saxicolous lichen; ascomycete; chrysovirus; complete genome; confocal microscopy.
31908Ametrano C.G., Grewe F., Crous P.W., Goodwin S.B., Liang C., Selbmann L., Lumbsch H.T., Leavitt S.D. & Muggia L. (2019): Genome-scale data resolve ancestral rock-inhabiting lifestyle in Dothideomycetes (Ascomycota). - IMA Fungus, 10:19 [12 p.].
Dothideomycetes is the most diverse fungal class in Ascomycota and includes species with a wide range of lifestyles. Previous multilocus studies have investigated the taxonomic and evolutionary relationships of these taxa but often failed to resolve early diverging nodes and frequently generated inconsistent placements of some clades. Here, we use a phylogenomic approach to resolve relationships in Dothideomycetes, focusing on two genera of melanized, extremotolerant rock-inhabiting fungi, Lichenothelia and Saxomyces, that have been suggested to be early diverging lineages. We assembled phylogenomic datasets from newly sequenced (4) and previously available genomes (238) of 242 taxa. We explored the influence of tree inference methods, supermatrix vs. coalescent-based species tree, and the impact of varying amounts of genomic data. Overall, our phylogenetic reconstructions provide consistent and well-supported topologies for Dothideomycetes, recovering Lichenothelia and Saxomyces among the earliest diverging lineages in the class. In addition, many of the major lineages within Dothideomycetes are recovered as monophyletic, and the phylogenomic approach implemented strongly supports their relationships. Ancestral character state reconstruction suggest that the rock-inhabiting lifestyle is ancestral within the class. Keywords: Lichenothelia, Phylogenomics, Saxomyces, Species tree, Supermatrix, Supertree.
31907He M.-Q., Zhao R.-L., Hyde K.D., Begerow D., Kemler M., Yurkov A., McKenzie E.H.C., Raspé O., Kakishima M., Sánchez-Ramírez S., Vellinga E.C., Halling R., Papp V., Zmitrovich I.V., Buyck B., Ertz D., Wijayawardene N.N., Cui B.-K., Schoutteten N., Liu X.-Z., Li T.-H., Yao Y.-J., Zhu X.-Y., Liu A.-Q., Li G.-J., Zhang M.-Z., Ling Z.-L., Cao B., Antonín V., Boekhout T., da Silva B.D.B., De Crop E., Decock C., Dima B., Dutta A.K., Fell J.W., Geml J., Ghobad-Nejhad M., Giachini A.J., Gibertoni T.B., Gorjón S.P.,Haelewaters D., He S.-H., Hodkinson B.P., Horak E., Hoshino T., Justo A., Lim Y.W., Menolli Jr. N., Mešić A., Moncalvo J.-M., Mueller G.M., Nagy L.G., Nilsson R.H., Noordeloos M., Nuytinck J., Orihara T., Ratchadawan C., Rajchenberg M., Silva-Filho A.G.S., Sulzbacher M.A., Tkalčec Z., Valenzuela R., Verbeken A., Vizzini A., Wartchow F., Wei T.-Z., Weiß M., Zhao C.-L. & Kirk P.M. (2019): Notes, outline and divergence times of Basidiomycota. - Fungal Diversity, 99: 105–367.
The Basidiomycota constitutes a major phylum of the kingdom Fungi and is second in species numbers to the Ascomycota. The present work provides an overview of all validly published, currently used basidiomycete genera to date in a single document. An outline of all genera of Basidiomycota is provided, which includes 1928 currently used genera names, with 1263 synonyms, which are distributed in 241 families, 68 orders, 18 classes and four subphyla. We provide brief notes for each accepted genus including information on classification, number of accepted species, type species, life mode, habitat, distribution, and sequence information. Furthermore, three phylogenetic analyses with combined LSU, SSU, 5.8s, rpb1, rpb2, and ef1 datasets for the subphyla Agaricomycotina, Pucciniomycotina and Ustilaginomycotina are conducted, respectively. Divergence time estimates are provided to the family level with 632 species from 62 orders, 168 families and 605 genera. Our study indicates that the divergence times of the subphyla in Basidiomycota are 406–430 Mya, classes are 211–383 Mya, and orders are 99–323 Mya, which are largely consistent with previous studies. In this study, all phylogenetically supported families were dated, with the families of Agaricomycotina diverging from 27–178 Mya, Pucciniomycotina from 85–222 Mya, and Ustilaginomycotina from 79–177 Mya. Divergence times as additional criterion in ranking provide additional evidence to resolve taxonomic problems in the Basidiomycota taxonomic system, and also provide a better understanding of their phylogeny and evolution. Keywords: Classification;  Molecular clock;  Fungi;  Systematics;  Taxonomy.
31906Jung P., Emrich D., Briegel‐Williams L., Schermer M., Weber L., Baumann K., Colesie C., Clerc P., Lehnert L.W., Achilles S., Bendix J. & Büdel B. (2019): Ecophysiology and phylogeny of new terricolous and epiphytic chlorolichens in a fog oasis of the Atacama Desert. - MicrobiologyOpen, 8:e894 [21 p.].
The Atacama Desert is one of the driest and probably oldest deserts on Earth where only a few extremophile organisms are able to survive. This study investigated two terricolous and two epiphytic lichens from the fog oasis “Las Lomitas” within the National Park Pan de Azúcar which represents a refugium for a few vascular desert plants and many lichens that can thrive on fog and dew alone. Ecophysiological measurements and climate records were combined with molecular data of the mycobiont, their green algal photobionts and lichenicolous fungi to gain information about the ecology of lichens within the fog oasis. Phylogenetic and morphological investigations led to the identification and description of the new lichen species Acarospora conafii sp. nov. as well as the lichenicolous fungi that accompanied them and revealed the trebouxioid character of all lichen photobionts. Their photosynthetic responses were compared during natural scenarios such as reactivation by high air humidity and in situ fog events to elucidate the activation strategies of this lichen community. Epiphytic lichens showed photosynthetic activity that was rapidly induced by fog and high relative air humidity whereas terricolous lichens were only activated by fog. Keywords: gas exchange, ITS, lichen, lichenicolous fungi, rbcL, Trebouxia.
31905Guzmán-Guillermo J., Díaz-Escandón D. & Medel-Ortiz R. (2019): Leucodermia guzmaniana sp. nov. (Physciaceae, Lecanorales), a new species from Mexican cloud forest, and a key to Leucodermia in Mexico. - Asian Journal of Mycology, 2(1): 209–212.
Leucodermia guzmaniana Guzmán-Guillermo, Díaz-Escandón & Medel is described as a new species of lichen fungus, being characterized by terminal soredia and marginal white cilia covered with a red pigment that reacts K+ purple. The new species named after renowned Mexican Mycologist Dr. Gastón Guzmán. Leucodermia guzmaniana was collected in a cloud forest in Veracruz, Mexico. Key words – Cloud forest – Heterodermia – new species.
31904Yang Y., Nguyen T.T., Pereira I., Hur J.-S. & Kim H. (2019): Lichen secondary metabolite physciosporin decreases the stemness potential of colorectal cancer cells. - Biomolecules, 9: 797 [13 p.].
Secondary metabolites of lichens are promising bioresources for candidate anti-cancer drugs. Accordingly, several approaches have been proposed for screening these molecules for novel anti-cancer lead compounds. In this study, we found that a non-toxic concentration of physciosporin, a compound isolated from Pseudocyphellaria granulata, significantly decreased colony formation on soft agar and spheroid formation by CSC221 cancer stem-like cells. Physciosporin also decreased spheroid formation in other colorectal cancer cell lines, including DLD1, Caco2, and HT29. Aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 (ALDH1), the most important cancer stem marker, was sharply downregulated at both the protein and mRNA level following treatment with physciosporin. Physciosporin also decreased the transcriptional activity of the glioma-associated oncogene homolog zinc finger protein (Gli), as well as the Hes1 and CSL promoters, in reporter assays. Moreover, the drug significantly suppressed spheroid formation in CSC221 cells overexpressing Gli1/2 or ΔEN1 (an S2-cleaved but membrane-tethered form of human Notch1) but did not suppress spheroid formation in cells overexpressing both Gli1/2 and ΔEN1, suggesting that physciosporin suppresses colon cancer cell stemness through the Sonic hedgehog and Notch signaling pathways. Together, these results demonstrate for the first time that physciosporin is a potent inhibitor of colorectal cancer cell stemness. Keywords: lichen; Pseudocyphellaria granulata; secondary metabolites; physciosporin; cancer stemness inhibition; colorectal cancer cells.
31903Olivier-Jimenez D., Chollet-Krugler M., Rondeau D., Beniddir M.A., Ferron S., Delhaye T., Allard P.-M., Wolfender J.-L., Sipman H.J.M., Lücking R., Boustie J. & Le Pogam P. (2019): A database of high-resolution MS/ MS spectra for lichen metabolites. - Scientific Reports, 9:294 [11 p.].
While analytical techniques in natural products research massively shifted to liquid chromatographymass spectrometry, lichen chemistry remains reliant on limited analytical methods, Thin Layer Chromatography being the gold standard. To meet the modern standards of metabolomics within lichenochemistry, we announce the publication of an open access MS/MS library with 250 metabolites, coined LDB for Lichen DataBase, providing a comprehensive coverage of lichen chemodiversity. These were donated by the Berlin Garden and Botanical Museum from the collection of Siegfried Huneck to be analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Spectra at individual collision energies were submitted to MetaboLights (https://www.ebi.ac.uk/metabolights/MTBLS999) while merged spectra were uploaded to the GNPS platform (CCMSLIB00004751209 to CCMSLIB00004751517). Technical validation was achieved by dereplicating three lichen extracts using a Molecular Networking approach, revealing the detection of eleven unique molecules that would have been missed without LDB implementation to the GNPS. From a chemist’s viewpoint, this database should help streamlining the isolation of formerly unreported metabolites. From a taxonomist perspective, the LDB offers a versatile tool for the chemical profiling of newly reported species.
31902Weiss-Penzias P.S., Bank M.S., Clifford D.L., Torregrosa A., Zheng B., Lin W. & Wilmers C.C. (2019): Marine fog inputs appear to increase methylmercury bioaccumulation in a coastal terrestrial food web. - Scientific Reports, 9:17611 [11 p.].
Coastal marine atmospheric fog has recently been implicated as a potential source of ocean-derived monomethylmercury (MMHg) to coastal terrestrial ecosystems through the process of sea-to-land advection of foggy air masses followed by wet deposition. This study examined whether pumas (Puma concolor) in coastal central California, USA, and their associated food web, have elevated concentrations of MMHg, which could be indicative of their habitat being in a region that is regularly inundated with marine fog. We found that adult puma fur and fur-normalized whiskers in our marine fog-influenced study region had a mean (±SE) total Hg (THg) (a convenient surrogate for MMHg) concentration of 1544 ± 151 ng g−1 (N = 94), which was three times higher (P < 0.01) than mean THg in comparable samples from inland areas of California (492 ± 119 ng g−1, N = 18). Pumas in California eat primarily black-tailed and/or mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and THg in deer fur from the two regions was also significantly different (coastal 28.1 ± 2.9, N = 55, vs. inland 15.5 ± 1.5 ng g−1, N = 40). We suggest that atmospheric deposition of MMHg through fog may be contributing to this pattern, as we also observed significantly higher MMHg concentrations in lace lichen (Ramalina menziesii), a deer food and a bioindicator of atmospheric deposition, at sites with the highest fog frequencies. At these oceanfacing sites, deer samples had significantly higher THg concentrations compared to those from more inland bay-facing sites. Our results suggest that fog-borne MMHg, while likely a small fraction of Hg in all atmospheric deposition, may contribute, disproportionately, to the bioaccumulation of Hg to levels that approach toxicological thresholds in at least one apex predator. As global mercury levels increase, coastal food webs may be at risk to the toxicological effects of increased methylmercury burdens.
31901Outhwaite C.L., Powney G.D., August T.A., Chandler R.E., Rorke S., Pescott O.L., Harvey M., Roy H.E., Fox R., Roy D.B., Alexander K., Ball S., Bantock T., Barber T., Beckmann B.C., Cook T., Flanagan J., Fowles A., Hammond P., Harvey P., Hepper D., Hubble D., Kramer J., Lee P., MacAdam C., Morris R., Norris A., Palmer S., Plant C.W., Simkin J., Stubbs A., Sutton P., Telfer M., Wallace I. & Isaac N.J.B. (2019): Annual estimates of occupancy for bryophytes, lichens and invertebrates in the UK, 1970–2015. - Scientific Data, 6:259 [12 p.].
Here, we determine annual estimates of occupancy and species trends for 5,293 UK bryophytes, lichens, and invertebrates, providing national scale information on UK biodiversity change for 31 taxonomic groups for the time period 1970 to 2015. The dataset was produced through the application of a Bayesian occupancy modelling framework to species occurrence records supplied by 29 national recording schemes or societies (n = 24,118,549 records). In the UK, annual measures of species status from fine scale data (e.g. 1 × 1 km) had previously been limited to a few taxa for which structured monitoring data are available, mainly birds, butterflies, bats and a subset of moth species. By using an occupancy modelling framework designed for use with relatively low recording intensity data, we have been able to estimate species trends and generate annual estimates of occupancy for taxa where annual trend estimates and status were previously limited or unknown at this scale. these data broaden our knowledge of UK biodiversity and can be used to investigate variation in and drivers of biodiversity change.
31900England J.K., Hansen C.J., Allen J.L., Beeching S.Q., Buck W.R., Charny V., Guccion J.G., Harris R.C., Hodge M., Howe N.M., Lendemer J.C., McMullin R.T., Tripp E.A. & Waters D.P. (2019): Checklist of the lichens and allied fungi of Kathy Stiles Freeland Bibb County Glades Preserve, Alabama, U.S.A.. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 18: 420–434.
The first checklist of lichenized, lichenicolous and lichen-allied fungi from the Kathy Stiles Freeland Bibb County Glades Preserve in Bibb County, Alabama, is presented. Collections made during the 2017 Tuckerman Workshop and additional records from herbaria and online sources are included. Two hundred and thirty-eight taxa in 115 genera are enumerated. Thirty taxa of lichenized, lichenicolous and lichen-allied fungi are newly reported for Alabama: Acarospora fuscata, A. novomexicana, Circinaria contorta, Constrictolumina cinchonae, Dermatocarpon dolomiticum, Didymocyrtis cladoniicola, Graphis anfractuosa, G. rimulosa, Hertelidea pseudobotryosa, Heterodermia pseudospeciosa, Lecania cuprea, Marchandiomyces lignicola, Minutoexcipula miniatoexcipula, Monoblastia rappii, Multiclavula mucida, Ochrolechia trochophora, Parmotrema subsumptum, Phaeographis brasiliensis, Phaeographis inusta, Piccolia nannaria, Placynthiella icmalea, Porina scabrida, Psora decipiens, Pyrenographa irregularis, Ramboldia blochiana, Thyrea confusa, Trichothelium americanum, Verrucaria calkinsiana, V. fayettensis, and Xanthocarpia feracissima. Protoblastenia ozarkana an undescribed species originally recognized from the Ozarks is also reported. This checklist serves as an important baseline for future studies of glade communities in Bibb County and, more generally, for calcareous glades across Alabama and throughout the southeastern United States. Keywords. – Dolomite, limestone, Little Cahaba River, Valley and Ridge Province.
31899McMullin R.T. & Dorin B.C. (2016): The Chic-Choc Mountains are the last southern refuge for Arctic lichens in eastern North America. - Arctic Science, 2: 183–193.
Endemic and disjunct populations of vascular plants and cryptogams occurring in the Chic-Choc Mountains on the Gaspé Peninsula in eastern Québec, Canada, have been attracting botanists for over a century. Although controversial, these ancient mountains have been hypothesized to have been nunataks during the Wisconsin glaciation in part because they contain vascular plants that are not known to colonize nearby mountains with similar environments that were not thought to be nunataks. To determine whether there are lichen species that have the same pattern as the vascular plants, we examined the North American distribution of all the approximately 600 lichens known from the Chic-Chocs. Fifteen Arctic-alpine species were found to reach the edge of their southeastern North American range in the Chic-Chocs. Six of these species are not known to occur again for over 1000 km to the north. These results provide an additional layer of biogeographic knowledge about the unusual flora of the Chic-Chocs and lend some support to the hypothesis that the Chic-Chocs might have been nunataks during the last glacial period. Any Arcticalpine species occurring in the Chic-Chocs are good candidates for monitoring the effects of climate change, but the 15 lichen species that reach their southeastern limit in this range might be the most vulnerable. Key words: biogeography, alpine, climate change, protected areas, nunataks.
31898McMullin R.T. & Wiersma Y.F. (2017): Lichens and allied fungi of Salmonier Nature Park, Newfoundland. - Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society, 144(3): 357–369.
We conducted the first comprehensive floristic study of the lichens and allied fungi of Salmonier Nature Park on the Avalon Peninsula in Newfoundland, Canada. By comparing our results to those from other provincial parks in Newfoundland, we show that Salmonier Nature Park has a regionally rich lichen biota that includes several uncommon species. We carry out an assessment of landscape-level drivers including geographic location and land cover diversity to determine whether lichen richness corresponds to patterns at the landscape extent. Within Salmonier, one species (Erioderma pedicellatum) is listed as ‘‘special concern’’ by the federal Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada and ‘‘critically endangered’’ by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. Two species are new to the island of Newfoundland: Phaeophyscia ciliata and Stereocaulon subcoralloides. Six species are new to the province of Newfoundland and Labrador: Ephebe hispidula, Muellerella lichenicola, Mycoblastus sanguinarioides, Placynthium flabellosum, Usnea flammea, and Xanthoparmelia angustiphylla. Our results provide baseline knowledge that allows changes in the lichen community to be monitored, the discovery of new species in the park to be acknowledged, regional distributions and frequencies to be better understood, and accurate comparisons to be made with other parks. Key words: Atlantic Canada, Avalon Forest Ecoregion, biogeography, landscape ecology, lichen biodiversity.
31897Suija A., Haldeman M., Zimmermann E., Braun U. & Diederich P. (2020): Phylogenetic placement and lectotypification of Pseudotryblidium neesii (Helotiales, Leotiomycetes). - Fungal Systematics and Evolution, 5: 139–149.
A phylogenetic analysis of combined rDNA LSU and ITS sequence data was carried out to determine the phylogenetic placement of specimens identified as Pseudotryblidium neesii. The species forms a distinct clade within Dermateaceae (Helotiales, Leotiomycetes) with Rhizodermea veluwiensis and two Dermea species. The geographical distribution of this species, previously known only from Europe on Abies alba, is extended to north-western North America where it grows exclusively on A. grandis. The name P. neesii is lectotypified in order to disentangle the complicated nomenclature of the species. A new, detailed description of P. neesii with illustrations is provided after comparison of sequenced specimens with the type material. Furthermore, the new combination Pseudographis rufonigra (basionym Peziza rufonigra) is made for a fungus previously known as Pseudographis pinicola. Key words: Abies alba; A. grandis; Dermea; Dermateaceae; nomenclature; phylogeny; Pseudographis.
31896Hoppert M. & König S. (2019): The succession of biofilms on building stone and its possible impact on biogenic weathering. . - In: Fort R, A'lvarez de Buergo M, Gomez-Heras M, Vazquez-Calvo C, editors. Heritage, weathering and conservation, London: Taylor & Francis; 2006. p. 311–5.
All surfaces of building stone are exposed to the environment and may be colonized by organisms. The organisms are often organized as microbial biofilms that cover the surface of the material and/or penetrate the substratum. During initial stages of biofilm development, organisms grow rapidly and achieve fast colonization of the surface. This strategy also allows for a high loss rate of the organisms either by biogenic or abiogenic weathering. Rapid growth rates quickly compensate for these losses. In an advanced state of biofilm development, the pioneer colonizers are replaced by colonizers with different life strategies: they exhibit slower growth rates and longer generation cycles, but are generally better adapted to their environment than the primary colonizers. This leads to a step-by-step displacement of the pioneers. This stage of colonization does only take place, if weathering (biogenic as well as non-biogenic) is low. Thus, the secondary colonizers have developed mechanisms for a more \"sustainable\" colonization of their substratum, which means that on these surfaces material losses by biogenic or non-biogenic weathering are reduced. Schematic view of a euendolithic lichen on homogeneous (carbonate) stone. The alga (small globules) and filaments of the ascomycete fungi (dark lines) are located in cavi- ties formed by the activity of organic acids produced by the organisms. An epilithic lichen penetrates the substratum. The lower part of the lichen thallus builds up a chasmoendolithic network by entering fissures or the soft matrix around rigid mineral particles. Verrucaria dufourii
31895Kistenich S., Ekman S., Bendiksby M. & Timdal E. (2019): (2687) Proposal to conserve the name Phyllopsora against Triclinum and Crocynia (Ramalinaceae, lichenized Ascomycota). - Taxon, 68(3): 590–592.
31894Spribille T., Tuovinen V., Resl P., Vanderpool D., Wolinski H., Aime M.C., Schneider K., Stabentheiner E., Toome-Heller M., Thor G., Mayrhofer H., Johannesson H. & McCutcheon J.P. (2016): Basidiomycete yeasts in the cortex of ascomycete macrolichens. - Science, 353(6298): 488–492.
For over 140 years, lichens have been regarded as a symbiosis between a single fungus, usually an ascomycete, and a photosynthesizing partner. Other fungi have long been known to occur as occasional parasites or endophytes, but the one lichen–one fungus paradigm has seldom been questioned. Here we show that many common lichens are composed of the known ascomycete, the photosynthesizing partner, and, unexpectedly, specific basidiomycete yeasts. These yeasts are embedded in the cortex, and their abundance correlates with previously unexplained variations in phenotype. Basidiomycete lineages maintain close associations with specific lichen species over large geographical distances and have been found on six continents. The structurally important lichen cortex, long treated as a zone of differentiated ascomycete cells, appears to consistently contain two unrelated fungi.
31893Sales K., Kerr L. & Gardner J. (2016): Factors influencing epiphytic moss and lichen distribution within Killarney National Park. - Bioscience Horizons, 9: hzw08 [12 p.].
The niches of epiphytes are widely studied and have been shown to be complex involving interspecific competition, succession and predation. This study is unique in that it applies the niche concept to moss and lichen distributions within Killarney National Park, Kerry, Ireland. We studied 75 trees between three pristine ancient woodlands and measured a range of physical and biological factors to ascertain influences on epiphyte cover. The species of tree was found as the principal determinant in community structure as it bioengineers conditions such as light, temperature and humidity that the epiphytes are reliant upon. Furthermore, the bark character and trunk circumference were important. Zonation of the epiphytes was apparent with both aspect and height on the trunk. Typically, moss dominated over lichen within a niche that was relatively sheltered. Lichen tolerated drier and lighter niches often being further up the trunk on sun facing aspects. Ultimately, there was succession up the tree mediated through competition. This study highlights the complexity and interrelatedness between biotic and abiotic factors in a relatively unstudied geographical and biological area. Understanding agents behind a population’s distribution enables manipulation for conservation or sustainable exploitation. Key words: competition, niche, epiphyte, resource availability, succession, Killarney national park.
31892Ford M., Blanchon D.J., Veale A., Doyle E.J., Rolfe J.R. & de Lange P.J. (2019): Hidden in plain sight-a new Strigula species segregated from Strigula novae- zelandiae (Lichenized Ascomycota: Strigulaceae). - Phytotaxa, 424(5): 267–281.
A new species, Strigula oleistrata, segregated from S. novae-zelandiae is described. The new species is widely sympatric with Strigula novae-zelandiae from which it is separated by a range of morphological characters and also by its nrDNA ITS sequence. As a result of this segregation, a new circumscription of S. novae-zelandiae is also provided. Comments on the ecology and conservation status of both species, and a revised key to the foliicolous Strigula species of New Zealand are provided.
31891Joshi Y. (2019): Opegrapha physciae (Arthoniales: Opegraphaceae), a new lichenicolous species from The Philippines. - Kew Bulletin, 74: 57 [3 p.].
A new species of lichenicolous fungus Opegrapha Ach., O. physciae Y.Joshi, is described from The Philippines. The new taxon was found growing on thalli of Physcia sorediosa (Vain.) Lynge and is characterised by its small, flat to slightly convex ascomata, inducing the formation of basally constricted galls, with small lirellae and 3- septate ascospores measuring (11 –) 13.90 – 20.09 (– 21) × (3 –) 3.88 – 5.71 (– 6) μm. Key Words. Ascomycota, lichens, new species, parasite, Physcia.
31890Els N., Larose C., Baumann-Stanzer K., Tignat-Perrier R., Keuschnig C., Vogel T.M. & Sattler B. (2019): Microbial composition in seasonal time series of free tropospheric air and precipitation reveals community separation. - Aerobiologia, 35: 671–701.
Primary biological aerosols are transported over large distances, are traveling in various media such as dry air masses, clouds or fog, and eventually deposited with dry deposition, especially for larger particles, or precipitation like rain, hail or snow. To investigate relative abundance and diversity of airborne bacterial and fungal communities, samples have been collected with a liquid impinger (Coriolis l) from the top of Mount Sonnblick (3106 m a.s.l., Austrian Alps) from the respective sources under a temporal aspect over four seasons over the year to include all climatic conditions. Bacterial and fungal samples (16S rRNA and ITS) were sequenced using Illumina MiSeq paired-end sequencing, investigated for relative abundance by qPCR(16S rRNA and 18S rRNA) and ice nucleation activity. Results show that there is no stable free tropospheric air microbial community and air mass origin was different for the four sampling periods which exerted influence on the microbial composition of the atmosphere although a core microbiome could be identified consisting of 61 bacterial OTUs and eight fungal genera. Differentiation between seasons was stronger pronounced in air than in precipitation, with rain being most different and variable of precipitation types, indicating distinct forces driving microbial fate in the air. Microorganisms precipitated with snow, hail or rain or being transported by clouds differ in their species composition from free tropospheric air masses and do not mirror the air community structure. They were more diverse, distinct in composition, 16S:18S ratio and abundance from free-floating PBA. Hence, snow or cloud samples are not suitable proxies for free tropospheric air microbiome composition, since separation processes in aerosolization, transport and scavenging occur. The microbial composition of arriving precipitation or clouds represents only a part of the microbial air composition communities of the cumulative sources of origin. Relative abundance and composition of ice nucleation-active bacteria showed a higher share of relative % reads of known ice nucleation-active bacteria present in all wet phases compared to air. Results propose a separation of IN active reads with higher shares occurring in precipitation. This study presents the first comparison of free tropospheric bacterial and fungal abundance and diversity in time series of air over several seasons in contrast to various precipitation forms in the free troposphere. Keywords: Free troposphere;  16SrRNA; 18SrRNA;  ITS;  Precipitation;  Aerobiology. [p. 689: ] "Fungi displayed a high seasonal variability with a range of different genera and phyla dominating the fungal composition at the different seasons. Sporulation strategy, dissemination adaption and lifestyledependent patterns are critical aspects for airborne fungal occurrence (Pickersgill et al. 2017). 53.9% of all fungal genera were unique to August air masses. These samples were dominated by a large group of lichenized fungi (Miadlikowska et al. 2014) and the largest non-lichenous fungal group Leotiomycetes (Wang et al. 2006), whereas xerophilic and psychrophilic Eurotiomycetes (Geiser et al. 2006), highly resistant, yeast forming Saccharomycetes (Mu¨hlhausen and Kollmar 2014), yeast forming Tremellomycetes (Liu et al. 2015) and xerophilic Wallemiomycetes (Zalar et al. 2005) were dominant in May."
31889Jiang L.-Q., Zhang K., Li G.-D., Wang X.-Y., Shi S.-B., Li Q.-Y., An D.-F., Lang L., Wang L.-S., Jiang C.-L. & Jiang Y. (2019): Rubellimicrobium rubrum sp. nov., a novel bright reddish bacterium isolated from a lichen sample. - Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, 112: 1739–1745.
Keywords: Rubellimicrobium rubrum ; New species ; Physcia sp. lichen ; 16S rRNA gene ; Draft genome sequences.
31888Phinney N.H., Solhaug K.A. & Gauslaa Y. (2019): Photobiont‑dependent humidity threshold for chlorolichen photosystem II activation. - Planta, 250: 2023–2031.
Water vapor uptake alone can activate photosynthesis in lichens with green algal photobionts. However, the minimum relative humidity needed for activation is insufficiently known. The objective of this study was to quantify the humidity threshold for photosystem II (PSII) activation in a range of chlorolichen species associated with photobionts from Trebouxiaceae, Coccomyxaceae and Trentepohliaceae. These lichens exhibit distribution, habitat and substrate patterns that are likely coupled to their efficiency in utilizing water vapor at lower levels of relative humidity (RH) for photosynthesis. Using chlorophyll fluorescence imaging during water uptake from humid air of 25 species of chlorolichens representing the above photobiont groups, we monitored PSII activation within controlled chambers with constant RH at five levels ranging from 75.6 to 95.4%. The results demonstrate clear photobiont-specific activation patterns: the trentepohlioid lichens activated PSII at significantly lower RH (75.6%) than trebouxioid (81.7%) and coccomyxoid (92.0%) lichens. These responses are consistent with a preference for warm and sheltered habitats for trentepohlioid lichens, with cool and moist habitats for the coccomyxoid lichens, and with a more widespread occurrence of the trebouxioid lichens. Within each photobiont group, lichen species exposed to marine aerosols in their source habitats seemed to be activated at lower RH than lichens sampled from inland sites. High osmolyte concentration may therefore play a role in lowering a photobiont’s activation threshold. We conclude that photobiont type influences water vapor-driven photosynthetic activation of lichens, thereby shaping the ecological niches in which they occur. Main conclusion: Photobiont type influences the relative humidity threshold at which photosystem II activates in green algal lichens. Keywords: Chlorophyll fluorescence · Ecophysiology · Green algae · Osmolytes.
31887Czernyadjeva I.V. (ed.), Afonina O.M., Ageev D.V., Baisheva E.Z., Bulyonkova T.M., Cherenkova N.N., Doroshina G.Ya., Drovnina S.I., Dugarova O.D., Dulepova N.A., Dyachenko A.P., Filippova N.V., Ginzburg E.G., Gogorev R.M., Himelbrant D.E., Ignatov M.S., Kataeva O.A., Kotkova V.M., Kuragina N.S., Kurbatova L.E., Kushnevskaya E.V., Kuzmina E.Yu., Melekhin A.V., Notov A.A., Novozhilov Yu.K., Popov S.Yu., Popova N.N., Potemkin A.D., Stepanchikova I.S., Stepanova V.A., Tubanova D.Ya., Vlasenko A.V., Vlasenko V.O., Voronova O.G. & Zhalov Kh.Kh. (2019): New cryptogamic records. 4. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 53(2): 429–430.
First records of diatom species from the Barents and East-Siberian seas, of Myxomycetes for the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area — Yugra, Novosibirsk Region, Trans-Baikal Territory, Basidiomycetes for the Arkhangelsk, Novosibirsk, Rostov and Volgograd regions, Altai Republic, Altai Territory, lichens, calicioid and lichenicolous fungi for the Murmansk, Novgorod and Tver regions, bryophytes for the Lipezk, Voronezh and Volgograd regions, St. Petersburg, Stavropol Territory, Caucasus, Republic of Bashkortostan, Yamal and Gydan peninsulas, Trans-Baikal Territory, Magadan Region, Sakhalin Island, Republic of Uzbekistan are presented. Data on localities, habitats, distribution of recorded species are provided. Keywords: Amundsenia approximata, Anomodon minor, Arthonia tenellula, Athallia pyracea, Athelia salicum, Bacteriastrum delicatulum, Baeomyces carneus, Biatora albohyalina, Biatora meiocarpa, Bucklandiella microcarpa, Calicium pinastri, Candelaria pacifica, Catoscopium nigritum, Chaenotheca brunneola, Chaenothecopsis nana, Chaenothecopsis pusiola, Chaetoceros atlanticus, Chaetoceros ceratosporus, Chaetoceros ingolfianus, Chaetoceros simplex, Chaetoceros volans, Climacodon pulcherrimus, Comatricha laxa, Comatricha nigra, Coscinodiscus concinnus, Cribraria atrofusca, Cribraria violacea, Cylindrobasidium evolvens, Cytidia salicina, Dacrymyces chrysospermus, Dermatocarpon deminuens, Diderma deplanatum, Diderma montanum, Diderma saundersii, Didymium dubium, Didymium nullifilum, Diplomitoporus crustulinus, Diplotomma alboatrum, Echinostelium apitectum, Efibula avellanea, Encalypta trachymitria, Erythricium hypnophilum, Erythricium laetum, Favolus pseudobetulinus, Fissidens dubius, Gloiodon strigosus, Granulobasidium vellereum, Guinardia delicatula, Gymnodinium wulffii, Gyrodinium fusiforme, Heliocybe sulcata, Heterocephalacria bachmannii, Hydnellum aurantiacum, Hyphodontia alienata, Kavinia alboviridis, Lecidea plebeja, Leocarpus fragilis, Lepidoderma granuliferum, Licea kleistobolus, Licea pusilla, Lyomyces erastii, Lyomyces incrustatus, Lyomyces juniperi, Merismatium decolorans, Myuroclada longiramea, Navicula distans, Nitzschia longissima, Ochrolechia alboflavescens, Octactis octonaria, Oncophorus elongatus, Oreas martiana, Orthotrichum hallii, Paradiacheopsis fimbriata, Peniophora laurentii, Perichaena depressa, Perichaena luteola, Perichaena quadrata, Perichaena taimyriensis, Perichaena vermicularis, Phaeocalicium tremulicola, Phanerochaete cumulodentata, Phellodon fuligineoalbus, Phellodon tomentosus, Phlebia nitidula, Physarum compressum, Physarum leucophaeum, Placynthium tantaleum, Pohlia elongata, Pohlia obtusifolia, Protoperidinium depressum, Pseudocraterellus undulatus, Pteroncola inane, Pulvigera lyellii, Radulomyces rickii, Ramalina europaea, Rhizosolenia styliformis, Rhynchostegium arcticum, Riccia canaliculata, Riccia glauca, Rinodina oleae, Rinodina turfacea, Sarcodon scabrosus, Scopuloides rimosa, Scrippsiella acuminata, Sebacina epigaea, Sistotrema diademiferum, Skeletonema costatum, Sphagnum alaskense, Sphagnum fimbriatum, Strigula jamesii, Thalassiosira antarctica, Tomentella crinalis, Trapelia glebulosa, Trapeliopsis wallrothii, Trichia alpina, Trichostomum crispulum, Tripos arcticus, Varicellaria hemisphaerica, algae, basidiomycetes, calicioid fungi, chrysophytes, diatoms, dinoflagellatae, lichenicolous fungi, lichens, liverworts, mosses, mycobiota, myxomycetes, Altai Republic, Altai Territory, Arkhangelsk Region, Barents Sea, Caucasus, East-Siberian Sea,Gydan Peninsula, Kenozersky National Park, Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area — Yugra, Lipezk Region, Magadan Region, Murmansk Region, Novgorod Region, Novosibirsk Region, Republic of Bashkortostan, Republic of Uzbekistan, Rostov Region, Russia, Sakhalin Region, St. Petersburg, Stavropol Territory, Trans-Baikal Territory, Tver Region, Volgo-Akhtubinsk Nature Park, Volgograd Region, Voronezh Region, Yamal Peninsula.
31886Sokolova I.V. & Makryi T.V. (2019): Cryptogamic nomenclatural notes. 4. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 53(2): 429–430.
The lectotypes of Dermatocarpon ferganense and D. terrigenum are designated in accordance with Art. F.5.4 of the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants. Keywords: Dermatocarpon ferganense, Dermatocarpon terrigenum, lichens, lectotypification.
31885Урбанавичене И.Н. & Урбанавичюс Г.П. [Urbanavichene I.N. & Urbanavichus G.P.] (2019): К лихенофлоре Северо-Осетинского заповедника (Северная Осетия — Алания). I. Кластер «Шуби» [Contributions to the lichen flora of the North Ossetia Nature Reserve (Republic of North Ossetia — Alania). I. Cluster “Shubi”]. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 53(2): 349–368.
[in Russian with English abstract: ] New data on the lichen flora of the North Ossetia Nature Reserve from cluster “Shubi” are provided. This cluster is located in Skalistyy and Pastbishchnyy ranges. The specimens of lichens, lichenicolous fungi and non-lichenized saprophytic fungi were collected from 8 localities in cluster “Shubi” in June 2016. In total, 273 lichen species, 4 non-lichenized saprobic fungi and 17 lichenicolous fungi were recorded. Among them 254 species are new for North Ossetia Nature Reserve, 214 species are new for Republic of North Ossetia — Alania, 130 species are new for the Central Caucasus, and 14 species are new for the Caucasus. Bacidina mendax, B. sulphurella, Candelariella boleana, Cryptodiscus tabularum, Halecania elaeiza, H. viridescens, Leptorhaphis maggiana, Verrucaria hegetschweileri were not previously reported from Asia. Nine species are reported for the first time for Russia: Bacidina mendax, Bagliettoa steineri, Candelariella boleana, C. xanthostigmoides, Chaenothecopsis trassii, Halecania elaeiza, H. viridescens, Leptorhaphis maggiana, Verrucaria hegetschweileri. Keywords: lichen flora, new records, North Ossetia Nature Reserve, Caucasus, Russia.
31884Tarasova V.N., Ahti T., Vitikainen O., Sonina A.V. & Myllys L. (2019): The revision of lichens, lichenicolous and non-lichenized fungi from the Vodlozersky National Park (Republic of Karelia, Russia) in the Herbarium of the Botanical Museum, University of Helsinki. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 53(2): 337–348.
This is a report of a revision of 565 herbarium specimens of lichens, lichenicolous or non-lichenized fungi and additional locality records of common species produced from a visit of the Russian-Finnish expedition to Vodlozersky National Park right after its foundation in 1991. The analyzed collection and field records represent the earliest information about the lichen flora of the territory of the park. In total, 177 species are listed including 173 lichens, 3 non-lichenized and 1 lichenicolous fungi. Xylographa rubescens is new to the Republic of Karelia. Twenty two species are reported for the first time for biogeographic province Karelia transonegensis; 47 species for the Karelian part of Vodlozersky National Park; and 17 species for the whole territory of the park. Keywords: Xylographa rubescens, lichen flora, middle taiga, Karelia transonegensis, Northwest European Russia.
31883Zhurbenko M.P. (2019): A new finding of an enigmatic lichenicolous ‘lichen’ from the Arctic. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 53(2): 333–335.
A lichen-like association occurring on thalli of other lichens and outwardly resembling species of genus Sphaerellothecium is briefly described, illustrated and discussed based on its new collection in the Arctic. Keywords: lichenization, extreme environments, Russia, Siberia.
31882Gandhi A.D., Murugan K., Umamahesh K., Babujanarthanam R., Kavitha P. & Selvi A. (2019): Lichen Parmelia sulcata mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles: an eco-friendly tool against Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti. - Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 26: 23886–23898.
The goldnanoparticles (AuNPs) weresynthesized using the lichenParmeliasulcataextract (PSE)and characterized.Thepeaks of ultraviolet spectrophotometer and Fourier transmission infrared confirmed the formation of nanoparticles and the bioactive compounds of the lichen being responsible for reducing and capping of the particles. The face-centered cubic particles were determined byXRD peaksat111,200,220,and 311.The elemental composition andspherical shapeofAuNPswereconfirmed by energy-dispersive spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The average particle size is 54 nm, and the zeta potential −18 was ascertained by dynamic light scattering. The potential effect of synthesized nanoparticles and lichen extracts was evaluated for antioxidant bioassays likeDPPH and H2O2 and testedfor mosquitocidal activity against Anophelesstephensi. ResultsshowedthatthelichenextractandAuNPshavethecapabilitytoscavengethefreeradicalswiththeIC50 valuesofDPPH being1020and 815 μg/mlandtheIC50 valuesofH2O2 being 694 and 510 μg/ml, respectively.The mosquitocidal experimental results in this study showed the inhibition of A. stephensi and A. aegypti against the larvae (I–IVinstar), pupae, adult, and egg hatching. On comparison, A. stephensi showed effective inhibition than A. aegypti even at low concentration. Based on the obtained results, gold nanoparticles synthesized using PSE showed an excellent mosquitocidal effect against Anopheles stephensi. Keywords: Lichen .Parmelia sulcata . Gold nanoparticles .TEM . Antioxidant assay . Mosquitocidal activity.
31881Kroukamp E.M., Godeto T.W. & Forbes P.B.C. (2019): Optimized extraction of inorganic arsenic species from a foliose lichen biomonitor. - Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 26: 29896–29907.
To assess the two most toxicologically relevant species of As, namely arsenite (As(III)) and arsenate (As(V)), chromatographic separations often require two separate chromatographic columns to address the co-elution of arsenobetaine (AsB) with As(III). This issue is typically observed using conventional isocratic methods on anion exchange columns, increasing cost and analysis time. Here, we optimize the extraction of inorganic As from a lichen air biomonitor and develop an isocratic method for the chromatographic separation of five common As species on a PRP X-100 anion exchange column, resulting in the complete baseline separation of all species under study. This method was then applied to lichen biomonitors from an urban and rural site to demonstrate its use. In order of abundance, the various arsenic species in lichens from the urban site in South Africa were As(V) > As(III) > AsB > dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) > monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and As(V) > AsB > As(III) > DMA > MMA for the rural site, where MMA was present in extremely low, non-quantifiable concentrations in lichens from both sites. Total concentrations of As were higher in samples from the urban site (6.43 ± 0.25 μg/g) than in those from the rural site (1.87 ± 0.05 μg/g), with an overall extraction efficiency of 19% and 40%, respectively. The optimized method utilized relatively inexpensive solvents and is therefore low-cost and eco-friendly in comparison with conventional chromatographic techniques. This is the first study which addresses the optimized extraction and characterization of As species in a South African lichen biomonitor of air pollution. Keywords: Arsenic speciation . HPLC-ICP-MS . Extraction .Biomonitor . Airpollution . Lichen.
31880Rai H., Nayaka S., Upreti D.K. & Gupta R.K. (2019): A new record of Canomaculina (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) from Western Himalaya, India . - National Academy Science Letters, 42(5): 429–431.
The study hereby describes the occurrence of a new record of Parmelioid-lichenized fungi Canomaculina haitiensis (Hale) Elix from India. The species is described on nylon net house from western Himalaya. A revised key to the genus Canomaculina in India is provided incorporating the new record. Keywords: Canomaculina; Isidiate; Net house; Western Himalaya.
31879Panichev N., Mokgalaka N. & Panicheva S. (2019): Assessment of air pollution by mercury in South African provinces using lichens Parmelia caperata as bioindicators . - Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 41: 2239–2250.
Large-scale assessment of atmospheric air pollution by mercury (Hg) using lichen Parmelia caperata as biological indicator was undertaken using samples from five provinces of South Africa collected between 2013 and 2017. Analysis of lichens provides time-integrated data, which correspond to the mean Hg concentration in air at a specific location over a long time period. Determination of Hg in lichens was carried out by direct thermal decomposition of samples using a Zeeman-effect atomic absorption spectrometer, thereby requiring no chemical pretreatment. The lowest mercuryconcentration of 60 ± 8.0 ng g-1 (n = 45) was measured in lichens from Limpopo province. This value was accepted as a background Hg concentration in SA lichens. The Hg in lichens from northern parts of Mpumalanga province varied from 72 ± 9.0 to 100 ± 17 ng g-1 (n = 45), while in southern parts of the province, where 11 coal-fired electrical power stations are located, values ranged from 139 ± 7.0 to 183 ± 10 ng g-1 (n = 28). The highest Hg concentration, 218 ± 21 ng g-1 (n = 10), was found in lichens from Secunda, Mpumalanga province. It could be traced to the possible Hg emission during thermal treatment of coal at the largest SA industrial plant that transforms coal into liquid fuels. In Pretoria and Johannesburg, cities in Gauteng province, Hg in lichens was between 110 and 162 ng g-1 (n = 48). Based on the results of measurements, the equation connecting Hg concentration in lichens with Hg concentration in air has been derived. It was used for the calculation of atmospheric Hg concentration in South African provinces. Calculated values (0.8–1.45 ng m-3) were found to be within statistical summary of mean atmospheric Hg in remote places (1.70 ± 0.17 ng m-3), and in other locations (1.5–3.0 ng m-3) lower than in impacted areas of the world (5.20 ± 3.47 ng m-3). Keywords: Gaseous elemental mercury; Atmospheric air; Lichens; Hg in lichens and air correlation.
31878Bertrand R.L. & Sorensen J.L. (2019): Transcriptional heterologous expression of two type III PKS from the lichen Cladonia uncialis. - Mycological Progress, 18: 1437–1447.
Type III polyketide synthases (PKS) are an under-explored group of enzymes that are responsible for producing a variety of bioactive molecules. In a previous study, we identified two type III PKS genes (t3pks1 and t3pks2) in the lichenizing fungus Cladonia uncialis. Here, we report efforts to functionally characterize these PKS using bioinformatics and heterologous expression. Phylogenetic analysis of t3pks1 indicated that the encoded PKS produces an alkylresorcinol. To estimate the size of the polyketide produced by T3PKS1, crystal structures of fungal type III PKS known to produce alkylresorcinols were examined. A strong correlation (R2 = 0.85) was observed between the active site cavity volume and the size of the largest alkylresorcinol produced by these PKS. Cavity volume measurements of modeled T3PKS1 suggested that this PKS can recruit long (C20) fatty acid-CoA primers to produce a polyketide of approximately 400 g/mol. To functionally characterize both lichen PKS, the t3pks1 and t3pks2 genes were transformed into NSAR1 Aspergillus oryzae. Transcriptional heterologous expression (including intron removal) of both genes was achieved. However, no new metabolites were observed within the host. This study is the first attempt to functionally characterize type III PKS from lichen fungi. Keywords: Heterologous expression . Protein modeling . Resorcinol . Fatty acids . Phylogenetics . Polyketides . Lichen.
31877Lõhmus P. & Lõhmus A. (2019): The potential of production forests for sustaining lichen diversity: A perspective on sustainable forest management. - Forests, 10(12): 1063 [23 p.].
There is a critical gap in our knowledge about sustainable forest management in order to maintain biodiversity with respect to allocating conservation efforts between production forests and set-asides. Field studies on this question are notably scarce on species-rich, poorly detectable taxon groups. On the basis of forest lichen surveys in Estonia, we assessed the following: (i) how much production stands contribute to maintaining the full species pool and (ii) how forest habitat conditions affect this contribution for habitat specialist species. The field material was collected in a “semi-natural forestry” system, which mitigates negative environmental impacts of even-aged forestry and forestry drainage by frequently using natural regeneration, tree retention, and low intensity of thinnings. We performed standard-effort surveys of full assemblages of lichens and allied fungi (such as non-lichenized calicioid and lichenicolous fungi) and measured stand structure in 127 2 ha plots, in mainland Estonia. The plots represented four management stages (old growth, mature preharvest forests, clear-cut sites with retention trees, and clear-cut sites without retention trees). The 369 recorded species represent an estimated 70% of the full species pool studied. Our main finding was that production forests supported over 80% of recorded species, but only one-third appears tolerant of management intensification. The landscape-scale potential of production forests through biodiversity-friendly silviculture is approximately twice as high as the number of tolerant species and, additionally, many very rare species depend on setting aside their scattered localities. The potential is much smaller at the scale of individual stands. The scale effect emerges because multiple stands contribute different sets of sensitive and infrequent species. When the full potential of production forests is realized, the role of reserves is to protect specific old-growth dependent taxa (15% to 20% of the species pool). Our study highlights that production forests form a heterogeneous and dynamic target for addressing the biodiversity conservation principle of sustainable forest management. Keywords: biodiversity conservation; epiphytes; even-aged forestry; forest set-asides; habitat specialist species; life-history traits; mixed-species forests; retention forestry; silviculture; threatened species.
31876Leśniański G. (2012): Czerwona lista porostów województwa śląskiego [The red list of lichens of Silesian Voivodship]. - In: Parusel J.B. (ed.), Czerwone listy wybranych grup grzybów i roślin województwa śląskiego. Raporty Opinie 6, p. 35–71, Centrum Dziedzictwa Przyrody Górnego Śląska, Katowice.
Poland; Regional Redlist; [in Polish with English summary: ] the third regional list of threatened lichens and allied fungi is presented. the list is a result of investigation studies in Silesian Voivodship. the status of thread to the lichen species used has been determined according to the iUCN Red list Categories in Version 7.0. (2008). the red list included 768 taxa of lichens, which constitute about 48% of the Polish biota. the status of threatened lichen biota has the following categories: Regionally Extincts (RE) – 82 taxa, Critically Endangered (CR) – 59 taxa; Endangered (EN) – 76 taxa, Vulnerable (VU) – 78 taxa, Near threatended (Nt) – 89 taxa, least Concern (lC) – 162, Data Deficient (DD) – 222 taxa.
31875Tripp E.A. & Lendemer J.C. (2019): Highlights from 10+ years of lichenological research in Great Smoky Mountains National Park: Celebrating the United States National Park Service Centennial. - Systematic Botany, 44(4): 943–980.
Great Smoky Mountains National Park is renowned as one of the most biologically diverse tracts of land in North America and is the most visited national park in the United States. The park comprises ;830 square miles, epitomizes eastern temperate hardwood forests of North America, and serves as a refuge for nearly 20,000 documented species from microbes to plants and mammals. Lichens comprise one particularly diverse group of organisms in the park. In this study, we review data from our 11 years of lichenological research in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Based on approximately 6,000 new field collections generated, the park checklist now includes 920 species, a 129% increase over estimatesmade two decades ago.Nearly a quarter of the lichens reported in the park are known from only a single occurence whereas only 7%of the lichens are known from 20 or more occurences. An assessment of commonness/rarity for all 920 species indicates that nearly half of the park’s lichens should be considered to be infrequent, rare, or exceptionally rare.We assessed the distributions of all 920 species and found that 54 are endemic to the southeastern United States, 30 are endemic to the southern Appalachians, and eight occur nowhere else than within the confines of the national park. We discuss biogeographical affinities of the park’s lichen biota as a whole, delimiting six regional “floristic” connections. Our 11 years of research have resulted in the discovery of several species presumed to be extinct or near-extinct.We make one new combination (Fuscopannaria frullaniae) and describe five species as new to science, each commemorating National Park Service staff instrumental to the completion of the study: Heterodermia langdoniana, Lecanora darlingiae, Lecanora sachsiana, Leprocaulon nicholsiae, and Pertusaria superiana. Keywords—Accumulation curve, Appalachians, biodiversity, commonality, endemism, extinct, hotspot, lichens, rarity, symbiotic.
31874Толпышева Т.Ю. [Tolpysheva T.Yu.] (2017): Рецензия на книгу: Л.В. Гагарина «Гиалектовые лишайники (семейства Gyalectaceae Stizenb. и Coenogoniaceae (Fr.) Stizenb.) внетропической Евразии». СПб., 2015. 240 с. [Book review L.V. Gagarina «Gyalectoid lichens (families Gyalectaceae Stizenb. and Coenogoniaceae (Fr.) Stizenb.) in extratropical Eurasia». SPb., 2015, 240 p.]. - Бюллетень Московского общества испытателей природы. Oтдел биологический [Bulletin of Moscow Society of Naturalists. Biological series], 122(5): 76.
Book review [in Russian]
31873Эльканова М.Х., Ахметжанова А.А., Елумеева Т.Г. & Онипченко В.Г. [Elkanova M.Kh., Akhmetzhanova A.A., Elumeeva T.G. & Onipchenko V.G.] (2016): Изменение структуры надземной фитомассы альпийской пустоши Северо-Западного Кавказа при долговременном внесении элементов минерального питания [Changes of aboveground phytomass structure of alpine lichen heath of the northwestern Caucasus in response to long-term nutrient addition]. - Бюллетень Московского общества испытателей природы. Oтдел биологический [Bulletin of Moscow Society of Naturalists. Biological series], 121(2): 47–58.
[in Russian with English summary: ] Aboveground phytomass structure of the alpine lichen heath (Teberda reserve, the Northwestern Caucasus) was studied on the plots with the long-term (1999–2008) nutrient addition. Six treatments were established: 1) control, 2) lime addition, 3) nitrogen addition, 4) phosphorous addition, 5) both nitrogen and phosphorous addition, 6) water stress reduction under low precipitation. Phytomass was sampled in late July – August 2008. Total phytomass signifi cantly increased after ten years of treatment only in response to both nitrogen and phosphorous addition. Share of vascular plants doubled at NP treatment and increased by 1,4 times at P treatment. Lichens almost completely disappeared at N and NP treatments. Necromass increased at N and NP treatments. Changes in alpine lichen heath community structure were caused by changes in the role of separate components of community, and were based on species initially growing on the experimental plots; no invasions of new species were observed. Key words: alpine ecosystems, nitrogen, phosphorous, lime, water.
31872Бязров Л.Г. [Biazrov L.G.] (2015): Пространственное распределение на присоединенной в 2012 г. к Москве территории Индекса чистоты атмосферы, определенного по показателям эпифитной лихенобиоты [Spatial distribution of an Index of Atmospheric Purity on area integrated to Moscow city territory in 2012 determined by parameters of epiphytic lichen biota]. - Бюллетень Московского общества испытателей природы. Oтдел биологический [Bulletin of Moscow Society of Naturalists. Biological series], 120(4): 51–59.
[in Russian with English summary: ] The data are given on distribution of values of an Index of Atmospheric Purity on parameters of epiphytic lichen biota, collected in 2012–2013 on 850 deciduous trees from 17 plots of area integrated to Moscow city territory in 2012. The index is determined for each plot. The results of research are offered as baseline for possible future monitoring of an environment quality of the territory under study by parameters of lichen biota. Key words: Moscow; monitoring; baseline; lichens; index of atmospheric purity.
31871Урбанавичюс Г.П. [Urbanavichus G.P.] (2015): Новые для России и Мурманской области виды лишайников и лихенофильных грибов из заповедника Пасвик [Lichens and lichenicolous fungi New for Russia and Murmansk province from Pasvik reserve]. - Бюллетень Московского общества испытателей природы. Oтдел биологический [Bulletin of Moscow Society of Naturalists. Biological series], 120(3): 74–75.
[in Russian]
31870Урбанавичюс Г.П. & Урбанавичене И.Н. [Urbanavichus G.P. & Urbanavichene I.N.] (2015): Второе дополнение к лихенофлоре Республики Мордовия и Средней России [The second addition to the lichenflora of the Republic of Mordovia and Middle Russia]. - Бюллетень Московского общества испытателей природы. Oтдел биологический [Bulletin of Moscow Society of Naturalists. Biological series], 120(3): 75–77.
[in Russian]
31869Бязров Л.Г. [Biazrov L.G.] (2015): Рецензия на книгу: Вертика Шукла, Д.К. Упрети, Раджеш Баджпай «Лишайники как биомониторы среды». Шпрингер Индия. 2014. 185 с. [Review on the book: Vertika Shukla, D.K. Upreti, Rajesh Bajpai «Lichens to Biomonitor the Environment». Springer India. 2014. 185 p.]. - Бюллетень Московского общества испытателей природы. Oтдел биологический [Bulletin of Moscow Society of Naturalists. Biological series], 120(2): 75–76.
Book review [in Russian]
31868Бязров Л.Г. & Пельгунова Л.А. [Biazrov L.G. & Pelgunova L.A.] (2015): Концентрации свинца (Pb) в слоевищах лишайника Xanthoria parietina с различных участков присоединенной в 2012 г. к Москве территории [Concentrations of lead (Pb) in thalli of lichen Xanthoria parietina from different plots of area integrated to Moscow city territory in 2012]. - Бюллетень Московского общества испытателей природы. Oтдел биологический [Bulletin of Moscow Society of Naturalists. Biological series], 120(2): 49–57.
[in Russian with English summary: ] Data about concentrations of lead in thalli of epiphytic lichen Xanthoria parietina, sampled in 2012 in joined part of the Moscow region to Moscow city in the same year are presented. This territory was divided into 17sections, on each of which outside of settlements and far from motor roads have sampled on 10 lichen specimens from trunks of deciduous trees. The range of mean concentration Pb vary between sections from 0,28 up to 8,30, at mean value of 2,42 mg/kg for all 170 specimens. We are determined the factors of enrichment Pb normalized to Ti. Their values in sections are from 1 up to 85,5 at mean value 19,3 for all 17 sections. The ranking of understudy area on parameters of metal mean concentration in the thalli was carried out. Increased concentrations of Pb are allocated in northern sections adjoining from the south to former territory of city. These results are offered as “baseline” for future monitoring of air quality in the territory under study. Key words: lichens, Xanthoria parietina, lead, poisoning, concentration, air quality, monitoring, baseline, Moscow city.
31867Жданов И.С. [Zhdanov I.S.] (2014): Новые и редкие виды лишайников из разных регионов России [New and rare lichen species from various regions of Russia]. - Бюллетень Московского общества испытателей природы. Oтдел биологический [Bulletin of Moscow Society of Naturalists. Biological series], 119(6): 76–78.
[in Russian]
31866Урбанавичюс Г.П. & Урбанавичене И.Н. [Urbanavichus G.P. & Urbanavichene I.N.] (2013): Дополнения к лихенофлоре Кавказа. Виды семейства Verrucariaceae [Additions to the lichenflora of the Caucasus. Verrucariaceae species]. - Бюллетень Московского общества испытателей природы. Oтдел биологический [Bulletin of Moscow Society of Naturalists. Biological series], 118(6): 51–56.
[in Russian]
31865Мелехин А.В., Давыдов Д.А., Шалыгин С.С. & Боровичев Е.А. [Melechin A.V., Davydov D.A., Shalygin S.S. and Borovichev E.A.] (2013): Общедоступная информационная система по биоразнообразию цианопрокариот и лишайников CRIS (Cryptogamic Russian Information System) [Open information system on biodiversity cyanoprokaryotes and lichens CRIS (Cryptogamic Russian Information System)]. - Бюллетень Московского общества испытателей природы. Oтдел биологический [Bulletin of Moscow Society of Naturalists. Biological series], 118(6): 51–56.
An information system supporting a convenient tool storage, organization, integration, visualization and analysis of data on the biodiversity of cyanoprokaryotes and lichens has been developed. [in Russian with English summary: ] The system allows you to add herbarium data or published material, to make publicly available the information on sample collections, learn about the literature, and analyze the distribution and degree of scrutiny of individual groups of cryptogamic plants in the Murmansk Province. Key words: information system, biodiversity, cyanoprokaryotes, lichens.
31864Толпышева Т.Ю. [Tolpysheva T.Yu.] (2013): С.Э. Будаева. Аннотированный список лишайников Республики Бурятия: Монография. Улан-Удэ, 2012. 182 с. [S.E. Budaeva. Annotated list of lichens revealed in Republic Buryatia: A Monograph. Ulan-Ude, 2012. 182 p.]. - Бюллетень Московского общества испытателей природы. Oтдел биологический [Bulletin of Moscow Society of Naturalists. Biological series], 118(4): 83.
Book review [in Russian]
31863Пчелкин А.В. [Pchelkin A.V.] (2018): Rusavskia elegans (Link.) S. Kondr. & Kärnefelt на стенах Соловецкого монастыря: биоповреждение или биозащита? [Rusavskia elegans (Link.) S. Kondr. & Kärnefelt on the walls of the Solovetsky Monastery: biodeterioration or bioprotection?]. - Бюллетень Московского общества испытателей природы. Oтдел биологический [Bulletin of Moscow Society of Naturalists. Biological series], 123(6): 41–47.
[in Russian with English summary: ] During the restoration with the help of metal brushes restorers removed the lichen thalli of Rusavskia elegans from the walls of the Solovetsky monastery. Special studies have shown that this lichen has no negative impact on the stones of the Solovetsky monastery. Under the Rusavskia elegans, the substrate is somewhat more durable, but on most sample plots for the signifi cance level of 0.05 according to Student’s t-test, there are no signifi cant differences between the strength characteristics of concrete in areas under lichen thalli and control sample plots. On one sample plot, a signifi cant positive effect of Rusavskia elegans on the substrate was noted. Remove lichen from the walls will harm the monastery walls. Key words: lichens, Rusavskia elegans, restoration, bioprotection, biodeterioration, biological weathering, Solovetsky monastery.
31862Пчелкин А.В. [Pchelkin A.V.] (2018): Лишайники природно-ландшафтного парка «Зарядье» (Москва): перспектива мониторинга [Lichens of the natural-landscape park «Zaryadye» (Moscow): the possibility of monitoring]. - Бюллетень Московского общества испытателей природы. Oтдел биологический [Bulletin of Moscow Society of Naturalists. Biological series], 123(4): 44–49.
[in Russian with English summary: ] In October 2017, 86 epilithic and 13 epiphytic species of lichens were found in the territory of the Natural-landscape park «Zaryadye». Most epilithic species are confi ned to the «Northern Landscape». The lichen fl ora of the park is of some interest, as an example of a massive transplantation of lichens into urban conditions with a high concentration of atmospheric pollution. This makes it possible to monitor the vitality of transplanted lichens. Key words: lichens, monitoring, transplantation, Natural-landscape park «Zaryadye».
31861Толпышева Т.Ю. [Tolpysheva T.Yu.] (2018): Рецензия на книгу: Н.В. Седельникова «Видовое разнообразие лихенобиоты Западной Сибири и оценка участия видов лишайников в основных ее горных и равнинных фитоценозах» Новосибирск, 2017. 611 с. [Book review: N.V. Sedelnikova «Species diversity of lichenobioty in Westeren Siberis and the assessment of lichen species participation in its main mountain and lowland phytocoenosises». Novosibirsk, 2017. . - Бюллетень Московского общества испытателей природы. Oтдел биологический [Bulletin of Moscow Society of Naturalists. Biological series], 123(4): 84.
Book review [in Russian]
31860Толпышева Т.Ю. [Tolpysheva T.Yu.] (2018): Рецензия на книгу: Флора лишайников России: Род Protoparmelia, семейства Coenogoniaceae, Gyalectaceae и Umbilicariaceae / Отв. ред. М.П. Андреев, Д.Е. Гимельбрант. М.; СПб., 2017. 195 с. [Book review: Russian Lichens Flora: Genera Protoparmelia, families Coenogoniaceae, Gyalectaceae and Umbilicariaceae / M.P. Andreev, D.E. Himelbrant, M.; SPb, 2017. 195 p.]. - Бюллетень Московского общества испытателей природы. Oтдел биологический [Bulletin of Moscow Society of Naturalists. Biological series], 123(5): 73.
Book review [in Russian]
31859Толпышева Т.Ю. [Tolpysheva T.Yu.] (2018): Рецензия на книгу: Рецензия на монографию: А.А. Нотов, Д.Е. Гимельбрант, И.С. Степанчикова, В.П. Волков «Лишайники Центрально-лесного государственного природного биосферного заповедника». Тверь, 2016. 332 с. [Book review A.A. Notov, D.E. Himelbrant, I.S. Stepanchikova, V.P. Volkov «Lichens of Central Forest State Natural Biosphere Reserve». Tver, 2016. 332 р.]. - Бюллетень Московского общества испытателей природы. Oтдел биологический [Bulletin of Moscow Society of Naturalists. Biological series], 123(1): 78.
Book review [in Russian]
31858Пчелкин А.В. & Пчелкина Т.А. [Pchelkin A.V. & Pchelkina T.A.] (2014): Криоконсервация – перспективный метод сохранения биоразнообразия лишайников для трансплантации [Cryopreservation – a promising method for the conservation of biodiversity of lichens for transplantation]. - Бюллетень Московского общества испытателей природы. Oтдел биологический [Bulletin of Moscow Society of Naturalists. Biological series], 119(4): 41–46.
[in Russian with English summary]
31857Лихачева О.В. [Likhacheva O.V.] (2010): Эпифитные лишайники усадебных парков - памятников садово-паркового искусства Псковской области [Epiphytic lichens of the country estate parks - memorials of the garden art (Pskov region)]. - Бюллетень Московского общества испытателей природы. Oтдел биологический [Bulletin of Moscow Society of Naturalists. Biological series], 115(4): 66–72.
[in Russian with English summary: ] The article describes epiphytic lichens of the 12 country estate parks of Pskov region, protected by local authority. The list of lichens is arrnnged in alphabetical order and includes 104 species from 49 genuses. The taxonomic analysis and the analysis of lichen life forms are given. The substrate ecology of epiphytic lichens in country estate parks and the distributions of lichens in relation to tree state are discussed. There 7 rare and protected species and I new for Pskov region are noted. Key words: country estate parks, memorials of the garden art, epiphytic lichens, rare and protected species.
31856Вехов Н.В. & Кулиев А.Н. [Vekhov N.V. & Kuliev A.N.] (1998): Лишайники, мохообразные и сосудистые растения полярных пустынь архипелаrа Новая Земля [Lichens, bryophytes and vascular plants of polar deserts of Novaya Zemlya Archipelago]. - Бюллетень Московского общества испытателей природы. Oтдел биологический [Bulletin of Moscow Society of Naturalists. Biological series], 103(3): 44–50.
[in Russian with English summary: ] Species composition and distribution of lichens and vascular plants in three places of Arctic deserts on Severnyi Island of Novaya Zemlya Archipelago are considered in the present paper. The data were obtained in summer, 1995. 55 lichen species and subspecies, 64 species and subspecies of hepatic and leafy mosses and 54 species of flowering plants were found there for the first time. Lichenoflora includes species with arctic-alpine areas, common for the Arctic region. In contrast with the Western Arctic, its species composition is poor. Mossy flora of Arctic deserts at Novaya Zemlya Archipelago is mixed and includes polyzonal species. It comprises species, characteristic to both Siberian and European Arctic; some of them are considered new for Eurasian Arctic deserts. Among the flowering plants the species with arctalpine latitude areas and circumpolar distribution are found to be dominating. By their Angiosperm floral composition polar deserts of Novaya Zemlya Archipelago are in the intermediate position between the floras of European (Western) and Siberian (Eastern) Arctic.
31855Li T., Li C.-T., Butler K., Hays S.G., Guarnieri M.T., Oyler G.A. & Betenbaugh M.J. (2017): Mimicking lichens: incorporation of yeast strains together with sucrose-secreting cyanobacteria improves survival, growth, ROS removal, and lipid production in a stable mutualistic co-culture production platform. - Biotechnology for Biofuels, 10: 55 [11 p.].
Background: The feasibility of heterotrophic–phototrophic symbioses was tested via pairing of yeast strains Cryptococcus curvatus, Rhodotorula glutinis, or Saccharomyces cerevisiae with a sucrose-secreting cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus. Keywords: Cyanobacteria, Yeasts, Co-culture, Sucrose, ROS, Artificial lichen, Hydrogen peroxide, Lipid production. Results: The phototroph S. elongatus showed no growth in standard BG-11 medium with yeast extract, but grew well in BG-11 medium alone or supplemented with yeast nitrogen base without amino acids (YNB w/o aa). Among three yeast species, C. curvatus and R. glutinis adapted well to the BG-11 medium supplemented with YNB w/o aa, sucrose, and various concentrations of NaCl needed to maintain sucrose secretion from S. elongatus, while growth of S. cerevisiae was highly dependent on sucrose levels. R. glutinis and C. curvatus grew efficiently and utilized sucrose produced by the partner in co-culture. Co-cultures of S. elongatus and R. glutinis were sustained over 1 month in both batch and in semi-continuous culture, with the final biomass and overall lipid yields in the batch co-culture 40 to 60% higher compared to batch mono-cultures of S. elongatus. The co-cultures showed enhanced levels of palmitoleic and linoleic acids. Furthermore, cyanobacterial growth in co-culture with R. glutinis was significantly superior to axenic growth, as S. elongatus was unable to grow in the absence of the yeast partner when cultivated at lower densities in liquid medium. Accumulated reactive oxygen species was observed to severely inhibit axenic growth of cyanobacteria, which was efficiently alleviated through catalase supply and even more effectively with co-cultures of R. glutinis. Conclusions: The pairing of a cyanobacterium and eukaryotic heterotroph in the artificial lichen of this study demonstrates the importance of mutual interactions between phototrophs and heterotrophs, e.g., phototrophs provide a carbon source to heterotrophs, and heterotrophs assist phototrophic growth and survival by removing/eliminating oxidative stress. Our results establish a potential stable production platform that combines the metabolic capability of photoautotrophs to capture inorganic carbon with the channeling of the resulting organic carbon directly to a robust heterotroph partner for producing biofuel and other chemical precursors.
31854Bricaud O. (1999): Les peuplements lichéniques saxicoles du Parc naturel régional du Luberon. - Courrier scientifique du Parc naturel régional du Luberon, 3: 97–109.
[in French] Après un historique des recherches sur les peuplements lichéniques saxicoles du Luberon, ceux-ci sont sommairement présentés, avec indication de leurs préférences écologiques, de leurs espèces caractéristiques et de leur répartition sur le territoire du Parc naturel régional.
31853James P.W., Allen A. & Hilton B. (1997): The lichen flora of Lundy: II The communities. - Annual Report of the Lundy Field Society, 47: 93–126.
31852Sipman H.J.M. (2010): A conspectus of the lichens (lichenized Fungi) of Singapore. - Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore, 61(2): 437–481.
A total of 296 species of lichenized fungi are reported from Singapore and presented in an annotated list with local distributional information. it is based on herbarium and literature study and the fieldwork done in the year 2000. Unidentified samples suggest the figure to be an underestimation, while some of the listed species may have become extinct. Lists of synonyms and collectors are added.
31851Mereschkovsky C. (1921): Diagnoses of some lichens. - The Annals and Magazine of Natural History (London), ser. IX, 8: 246–290.
taxonomy; Russia, France, Austria, Switzerland, Estonia, Italy, Germany; Parmelia taurica sp. nov., Squmaria crozalsiana sp. nov., Lecanora crenulatissima sp. nov., L. elenkinii sp. nov., L. perplexa sp. nov., Aspicilia asterias sp. nov., A. hispida sp. nov., A. lacunosa sp. nov., Gasparrinia flava sp. nov., Gasparrinia jailensis sp. nov., and numerous new infraspecific taxa within species of Parmelia s.lat., Physcia s.lat., Lecanora s.lat., Caloplaca s.lat. Appendix with enumeration of "Lichenes Rossiae exsiccati" and of "Tabulae Generum Lichenum" included in the end of the article (p. 285–290).
31850Sobreira P.N.B., Cáceres M.E.S., Maia L.C. & Lücking R. (2018): Flabelloporina, a new genus in the Porinaceae (Ascomycota, Ostropales), with the first record of F. squamulifera from Brazil. - Phytotaxa, 358(1): 67–75.
A new genus of lichenized fungi of the family Porinaceae is described, known from Costa Rica and Brazil. Flabelloporina Sobreira, M. Cáceres & Lücking is a thus far monospecific genus with an isolated position of its only species in the family, morphologically different from all other genera in Porinaceae. The genus is characterized by the production of numerous, flabelliform squamules on the surface of the thallus, together with black perithecia and transversally septate ascospores (with three septa in the only species). The new combination Flabelloporina squamulifera (Breuss, Lücking & Navarro) Sobreira, M. Cáceres & Lücking is proposed, based on Porina squamulifera Breuss, Lücking & Navarro, and the species is for the first time reported from Brazil. Keywords: lichens, molecular phylogeny, Flabelloporina, taxonomy.
31849Rundel P.W. (1978): The ecological role of secondary lichen substances. - Biochemical and Systematic Ecology, 6: 157–170.
Considerable evidence, both direct and indirect, supports the hypothesis that many lichen secondary substances have significant ecological roles. Thus secondary chemistry may be important in determining the relative ecological success of individual lichen species and thus the structure and diversity of natural lichen communities. Primary ecological roles of secondary lichen substances can be classified into four groups: light-screen compounds, chemical weathering compounds, allelopathic compounds (including antibiotic compounds), and anti-herbivore defense compounds. Key Words: chemosystematics; herbivory; allelopathy; chemical weathering; depsides; depsidones; terpenes; pulvinic acid derivatives; anthraquinones; xanthones; usnic acid.
31848Salisbury G. (1978): Thelotremata Achariana et Feeana. - Nova Hedwigia, 89: 405–427.
About 30 species of Thelotrema described by Acharius and Fée are revised and arranged in sections and groups based on the excipulum structure. The following are new: T. sect. Myriotrema (Fée) comb. nov., T. sect. Ascidium (Fée) comb. nov., T. acharianum nom. nov., and T. demersum (Müll. Arg.) comb. nov.
31847Llop E. (2007): Flora Liquenológica Ibérica 3: Lecanorales: Bacidiaceae I: Bacidia y Bacidina. - Sociedad Española de Liquenología, Barcelona, 49 pp.
[in Spanish] monograph; Iberian Peninsula, Portugal, Spain
31846Egea J.M., Burgaz A.R., Llimona X. & López de Silanes M.E. [eds] (2004): Flora Liquenológica Ibérica 2: Ostropales: Graphidaceae, Solorinellaceae; Gyalectales: Gyalectaceae. - Sociedad Española de Liquenología, Murcia, 48 pp.
[in Spanish] monograph, Iberian Peninsula, Portugal, Spain
31845Sheard J.W. (2010): The lichen genus Rinodina (Ach.) Gray (Lecanoromycetidae, Physciaceae) in North America, north of Mexico. - NRC Research Press, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, 246 pp.
Ninety-six Rinodina species are recorded for North America, including five species new to science: R. albertana, R. austroborealis, R. imshaugii, R. siouxiana, and R. wetmorei. One new combination is made, R. notabilis (= Buellia notabilis) and ten species are recorded from the continent for the first time: R. confragosula, R. fimbriata, R. freyi, R. intrusa, R. maculans, R. obnascens, R. notabilis, R. oleae, R. pycnocarpa, and R. sibirica . Rinodina "insularis" is excluded from the genus on the basis of its lecideine apothecial characters and ascus type, but no formal recombination has been made. Thirty species are placed into synonymy, including 13 North American taxa: Lecanora exigua f. pruinosa (= R. hallii), R. annulata (= R. subminuta), R. applanata (= R. maculans), R. arctica (= R. olivaceobrunnea), R. constrictula (= R. straussii), R. glauca (= R.jreyi), R. halei (= R. subminuta), R. hyperborea (= R. septentrionalis), R. iowensis (= R. cana), R. ochrocea (= R. destituta) , R. subsophodes (= R. ascociscana), R. thomsonii (= R. santaemonicae), and R. vezdae (= R. destituta). Other non-North American taxa placed into synonymy for the first time are R. erumpens (= R. subminuta); R. erysiphaea and R. guianensis (= R. colobinoides); R. consocians, R. exigua f. lecideina, and R. phaeostigmella (= R. metaboliza); R. exiguella and R. jenisejensis (= R. septentrionalis); R. haplosporoides, R. metabolica f. leioplaca, R. neglecta, and R. prasina (= R. maculans); R. parvula (= R. notabilis); R. sibirica f. aggregata and R. sophodiodes (= R. sibirica); R. subfusca (= R. laevigata); and R. succedens (= R. turfacea) . Thirty-six species are endemic to North America. These include the five new species listed above and R. adirondackii, R. ascociscana, R. athallina, R. aurantiaca, R. badiexcipula, R. bolanderi, R. boulderensis, R. brouardii, R. californiensis, R. chrysomelaena, R. coloradiana, R. endospora, R. grandilocularis, R. granuligera, R. hallii, R. herrei, R. innata, R. juniperina, R. lobulata, R. macrospora, R. marysvillensis, R. oregana, R. pachysperma, R. pacifica, R. papillata, R. perreagens, R. populicola, R. riparia, R. santae-monicae, R. verruciformis, and R. willeyii. All but six of these endemic species are exclusively corticolous. Rinodina xanthomelana is reported from Jamaica, the first record of this tropical species from the Western Hemisphere. A full discussion of the characters upon which the taxonomy of the genus is based is given, together with accounts of the limits of the genus and natural groups of species within the genus. Thirteen groups of species are listed based on spore type. The Physcia- and Physconia-types represent a continuum of structure, as the Physcia-type is always a developmental stage of the Physconia-type. The Milvina-type spore may be ancestral to them. The Pachysporaria-type is divided into two types, based on spore size and structure. The two resulting species groups are also distinguished by chemistry and type of vegetative propagule. Sixteen phytogeographic elements are recognized corresponding to phanerogam and other lichen distribution patterns in North America. Individual saxicolous species of all species groups have extensive distributions in other parts of the world, which may be indicative of an ancient origin. The calcareous Bicincta-type species group is of particular interest, since it is over-represented in the Colorado plateau fioristic element. These species are also found in arid areas of southern Europe and China and may have a very ancient origin, dating back to the Middle Triassic (240-230 Ma). Rinodina confragosula, from southern California, is a remarkable Southern Hemisphere disjunct that may have rafted from eastern Gondwanaland during the breakup of that supercontinent 160-100 Ma. Corticolous species generally have more restricted distributions, suggesting more recent origins. The majority of the Physcia-Physconia-group, the most common group of species, are corticolous and are most frequent in the temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. In contrast, the two Pachysporaria-groups, which are also primarily corticolous, have more southerly distributions, and some species are pantropical. Key words; lichenized Ascomycetes, new species, endemic species, taxonomy, phytogeography, paleogeography.