29743Kirchhoff N., Hoppert M. & Hallmann C. (2018): Algal and fungal diversity on various dimension stone substrata in the Saale/Unstrut region. - Environmental Earth Sciences, 77:609 [10 p.].
Physical, chemical and biogenic weathering considerably threatens all historic stone monuments. Microorganisms, though inconspicuous, are key players of stone surface colonization and penetration. This study highlights eukaryotic microbial communities on dimension stone surfaces from two representative monuments of the “cultural landscape corridor” in the Saale–Unstrut area. The historical buildings were erected from local Triassic limestone and sandstone and are prone to various deteriorative mechanisms. Generally, trebouxiophyceaen algae and ascomycete fungi dominate among the latter dematiaceous fungi and lichen fungi are abundant. Inside the stone substratum, ascomycetes, mosses and even large soil organisms (tardigrades) are present. This may be taken as a hint for the formation of pores with large radii, which are “risk indicators” for progressive weathering and degradation of the rock matrix. Keywords: Endoliths; Biogenic weathering; Dematiaceous fungi; Terrestrial algae.
29742Selbmann L., Pacelli C., Zucconi L., Dadachova E., Moeller R., de Vera J.-P. & Onofri S. (2018): Resistance of an Antarctic cryptoendolithic black fungus to radiation gives new insights of astrobiological relevance. - Fungal Biology, 122(6): 546–554.
The Antarctic black meristematic fungus Cryomyces antarcticus CCFEE 515 occurs endolithically in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica, one of the best analogue for Mars environment on Earth. To date, this fungus is considered one of the best eukaryotic models for astrobiological studies and has been repeatedly selected for space experiments in the last decade. The obtained results are reviewed here, with special focus on responses to space relevant irradiation, UV radiation, and both sparsely and densely ionizing radiation, which represent the major injuries for a putative space-traveller. The remarkable resistance of this model organism to space stress, its radioresistance in particular, and mechanisms involved, significantly contributed to expanding our concept of limits for life and provided new insights on the origin and evolution of life in planetary systems, habitability, and biosignatures for life detection as well as on human protection during space missions. Keywords: Astrobiology; Desiccation; Melanin; Planetary protection; Radioprotection.
29741Tsuji M. (2018): A catalog of fungi recorded from the vicinity of Syowa Station. - Mycoscience, 59: 319–324.
The Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE) was started in 1957. The expedition marked its 60th anniversary in January 2017. In total 76 fungal species (61 ascomycetous fungi, including 9 unidentified species, and 16 basidiomycetous fungi) have thus far been recorded from the area around Syowa Station. In this review, I present a catalog of the fungal species isolated from the vicinity of Syowa Station to mark the 60th anniversary of JARE. Keywords: Antarctic fungi; Cold-adapted fungi; Lützow Holm Bay area.
29740Degtjarenko P., Tõrra T., Mandel T., Marmor L., Saag A., Scheidegger C. & Randlane T. (2018): Unconstrained gene flow between populations of a widespread epiphytic lichen Usnea subfloridana (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) in Estonia. - Fungal Biology, 122: 731–737.
Few studies have investigated the genetic diversity of populations of common and widespread lichenized fungi using microsatellite markers, especially the relationships between different measures of genetic diversity and environmental heterogeneity. The main aim of our study was to investigate the population genetics of a widespread and mainly clonally reproducing Usnea subfloridana at the landscape scale, focusing on the comparison of lichen populations within hemiboreal forest stands. Particular attention has been paid to the genetic differentiation of lichen populations in two geographically distinct regions in Estonia and the relationships between forest characteristics and measures of genetic diversity. We genotyped 578 Usnea thalli from eleven lichen populations using seven specific fungal microsatellite markers. Measures of genetic diversity (allelic richness, Shannon's information index, Nei's unbiased genetic diversity, clonal diversity, the number of multilocus genotypes, the number of private alleles, and the minimum number of colonization events) were calculated and compared between Usnea populations. Shared haplotypes, gene flow and AMOVA analyses suggest that unconstrained gene flow and exchange of multilocus genotypes exist between the two geographically remote regions in Estonia. Stand age, mean circumference of the host tree, size of forest site and tree species composition did not show any significant influence on allelic richness, Shannon's information index, Nei's unbiased genetic diversity, clonal diversity, the number of private alleles, and the minimum number of colonization events of U. subfloridana populations. Therefore it was concluded that other factors of habitat heterogeneity could probably have a more significant effect on population genetics of U. subfloridana populations. Keywords: Forest age; Genetic diversity; Lichenized fungi; Microsatellites; Population genetics.
29739Gauslaa Y., Johlander S. & Nordén B. (2018): Gastropod grazing may prevent reintroduction of declining N-fixing epiphytic lichens in broadleaved deciduous forests. - Fungal Ecology, 35: 62–69.
We studied the potential to use reintroduction of two declining N-fixing flagship lichens to identify factors affecting failure or success in SW Swedish sites that had experienced substantially reduced acidification. After transplanting the critically endangered Lobaria amplissima ± external cephalodia and its near-threatened associate Lobaria pulmonaria onto tree trunks, seasonal growth rates were quantified. We added a phosphorus treatment, using site as a random factor. Growth was positive in winter, and negative in summer, particularly in L. amplissima. Reintroduction of L. amplissima was unsuccessful because gastropods caused significant loss, evidenced by grazing marks. Acer platanoides, a high-pH host, had more grazing than the more acidic Quercus petraea. Gastropods preferred the cephalodia, resulting in substantial loss of the cephalodiate L. amplissima. Phosphorus fertilization had no effects. The widespread L. pulmonaria grew faster than the rare L. amplissima that lost its local growth potential due to aggravated gastropod grazing. Keywords: Biotic interactions; Epiphytic lichens; Herbivory; Lobaria amplissima; Lobaria pulmonaria; Phosphorus; Reintroduction; Seasonal growth rate; Terrestrial gastropods.
29738Eriksson A., Gauslaa Y., Palmqvist K., Ekström M. & Esseen P.-A. (2018): Morphology drives water storage traits in the globally widespread lichen genus Usnea. - Fungal Ecology, 35: 51–61.
Links between lichen morphology, internal/external water storage and distribution patterns are poorly known. We compared mass- (WC, % H2O) and area-based (WHC, mg H2O cm−2) hydration traits in seven pendent or shrubby Usnea species from oceanic to continental climates. All species held more external than internal water. Internal WHC and WC increased with specific thallus mass (STM, mg cm−2), while external WC decreased. Shrubby species had higher STM and total WHC than pendent ones. The continental Usnea hirta (shrubby) had the highest total and external storage; the suboceanic Usnea longissima (pendent) had the lowest internal storage. Morphology drives hydration traits and explains distributions of some Usnea species, but such traits did not distinguish oceanic from widespread species. Shrubby species maximize water storage and thus prolong hydration after rainfall events and/or hydration by dew. The low internal WHC in pendent species is likely an adaptation to frequent hydration in humid air. Keywords: Epiphytic lichens; Functional traits; Specific thallus mass; Water-holding capacity; Water content.
29737Váczi P., Gauslaa Y. & Solhaug K.A. (2018): Efficient fungal UV-screening provides a remarkably high UV-B tolerance of photosystem II in lichen photobionts. - Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 132: 89–94.
Lichen photobionts in situ have an extremely UV-B tolerant photosystem II efficiency (Fv/Fm). We have quantified the UV-B-screening offered by the mycobiont and the photobiont separately. The foliose lichens Nephroma arcticum and Umbilicaria spodochroa with 1: intact or 2: removed cortices were exposed to 0.7 Wm-2 UV-BBE for 4 h. Intact thalli experienced no reduction in Fv/Fm, whereas cortex removal lowered Fv/Fm in exposed photobiont layers by 22% for U. spodochroa and by 14% for N. arcticum. We also gave this UV-B dose to algal cultures of Coccomyxa and Trebouxia, the photobiont genera of N. arcticum and U. spodochroa, respectively. UV-B caused a 56% reduction in Fv/Fm for Coccomyxa, and as much as 98% in Trebouxia. The fluorescence excitation ratio (FER) technique comparing the fluorescence from UV-B or UV-A-excitation light with blue green excitation light using a Xe-PAM fluorometer showed that these photobiont genera did not screen any UV-B or UV-A The FER technique with a Multiplex fluorometer estimated the UV-A screening of isolated algae to be 13–16%, whereas intact lichens screened 92–95% of the UV-A. In conclusion, the cortex of N. arcticum and U. spodochroa transmitted no UV-B and little UV-A to the photobiont layer beneath. Thereby, the upper lichen cortex forms an efficient fungal solar radiation screen providing a high UV-B tolerance for studied photobionts in situ. By contrast, isolated photobionts have no UV-B screening and thus depend on their fungal partners in nature. Keywords: Chlorophyll fluorescence; Coccomyxa; Lichen cortex; Nephroma arcticum; Trebouxia; Umbilicaria spodochroa; UV-screening.
29736Shin C.P., Hoffman A., Lee W., Kendrick R.C., Baker D.M. & Bonebrake T.C. (2018): Stable isotopes of Lithosiini and lichens in Hong Kong show the biodindicator potential of lichenivorous moths. - Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology, 21(4): 1110–1115.
Highlights: • No significant difference in C or N isotopes between body parts • Moths with lichenivorous larvae have similar isotopic values to lichens. • Larval lichenivory distinguishes related moth groups. Urban landscapes provide unique environments for a wide variety of plants and animals, but their suitability may be limited by anthropogenic impacts such as pollution. We examined the potential utility of lichen and lichen-feeding moths as biodindicators of air pollution in Hong Kong by comparing carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stable isotope values in lichens, lichenivorous and non-lichenivorous moths (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) and a moth outgroup (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). Our results show that stable isotope values for C and N were similar for lichens and lichen feeding moths, while non-lichen feeding moths formed a distinct group. In addition, we found consistent δ13C and δ15N values across moth body parts, indicating that any portion of the specimen is suitable for isotopic fingerprinting. Our results highlight that lichen feeding moths may be useful for integrating signals of atmospheric nitrogen pollution and could therefore have utility in monitoring and quantifying air quality over time and space.
29735Fernandes R.F., Porto A.B., Flores L.S., Maia L.F., Corrêa C.C., Spielmann A.S., Edwards H.G.M. & de Oliveira L.F.C. (2018): Nature of light-absorbing pigments from Brazilian lichens identified by Raman spectroscopy. - Vibrational Spectroscopy, 99: 59–66.
Light-absorbing pigments from different chemical classes have been identified from the lichens Usnea sp. and Crocodia aurata using Raman spectroscopy supported by quantum mechanical DFT calculations. Raman spectra were obtained directly from the lichen tissues as well as from isolated extracts. Usnic acid, a chemomarker of Usnea spp has been reported together with a minor constituent, namely stictic acid, which has been unambiguously identified by 1H and 13C NMR spectral analysis. The structures of calycin and pulvinic dilactone isolated from Crocodia aurata have been confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The ubiquitous carotenoids have been characterized by FT-Raman and dispersive Raman microimaging in tissues of Usnea sp. and C. aurata, respectively. The Raman map has revealed the presence of a mixture of carotenoids heterogeneously distributed in the upper layer of C. aurata. In this work we have demonstrated that Raman spectroscopy can be used to monitor aromatic and conjugated polyenic pigments in different layers of lichen tissues. Keywords: Lichens; Pigments; Raman spectroscopy; DFT calculation; X-ray diffraction.
29734Rola K. & Osyczka P. (2019): Temporal changes in accumulation of trace metals in vegetative and generative parts of Xanthoria parietina lichen thalli and their implications for biomonitoring studies. - Ecological Indicators, 96: 293–302.
Certain lichens are widely used in air pollution biomonitoring because the contents of various elements in their thalli accurately reflect the chemical composition of the air. Temporal changes in selected concentrations of trace metals in vegetative and generative parts of Xanthoria parietina thalli exposed to urban-related pollution were analysed and the relationship between anatomical organisation and element accumulation identified. The lichen material included thalli relocated to an urban area of Cracow (southern Poland) along with their host trees, which had previously been cultivated at a site characterised by a lower level of air pollution. The thalli were sampled immediately and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after planting trees. Concentrations of Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, and Cr, as measured by means of flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), and various anatomical characteristics were determined in vegetative thalli and the corresponding apothecia. Accumulation of Pb over time demonstrated a pronounced upward trend; calculated exposed-to-control (EC) ratios indicate ‘severe accumulation’ of this element. Diverse levels of accumulation in different parts of thalli – higher, in the cases of Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, Cr, and lower, in the case of Zn, in vegetative parts compared to apothecia – were observed. Thus sampling uniformity is highly desirable in air biomonitoring studies, along with a determination of which part of the thallus is to be designated for elemental analysis. The results also showed that certain anatomical characteristics are correlated with concentrations of metal elements in the thallus. Keywords: Lichenized fungi; Biomonitors; Metal elements; Air pollution; Urban pollution; Particulate matter (PM).
29733Marié D.C., Chaparro M.A.E., Lavornia J.M., Sinito A.M., Castañeda Miranda A.G., Gargiulo J.D., Chaparro M.A.E. & Böhnel H.N. (2018): Atmospheric pollution assessed by in situ measurement of magnetic susceptibility on lichens. - Ecological Indicators, 95: 831–840.
The use of environmental magnetism methods and biomonitors allows us the development of a low-cost tool for assessing atmospheric pollution through trapped magnetic particulate matter. Such particles concentration was monitored in situ, on the lichen’s thallus, using magnetic susceptibility as a pollution proxy. We studied the magnetic particle distribution on the thallus surface from weekly measurements of in situ magnetic susceptibility κis during 16 months for seven sites. A total of ∼8300 measurements was carried out; and mean overall κis values for each lichen varied between 4.1 and 23.9 × 10−5SI revealing the influence of different atmospheric pollution sources on Parmotrema pilosum, such as metallurgical factories and vehicular emissions. Weekly measurements of κis show areas of magnetic accumulation on the thallus over a period of 60 measurement campaigns. Iron rich spherules and irregular particulate matter between PM2.5 and PM1.0 were observed by SEM-EDS. A joint analysis of meteorological variables and magnetic susceptibility shows an inverse relation between this magnetic parameter and temperature, i.e., a trend of decreasing κis values during seasons of higher temperatures which tend toward higher values of atmospheric mixing height. Precipitation also affects the magnetic signal over time, producing decreases in mean values of κis after rainy periods. Keywords: Fe-rich particles; In situ biomonitoring; Magnetic susceptibility; Parmotrema pilosum; PM2.5.
29732Uboni A., Blochel A., Kodnik D. & Moen J. (2019): Modelling occurrence and status of mat-forming lichens in boreal forests to assess the past and current quality of reindeer winter pastures. - Ecological Indicators, 96: 99–106.
Lichens play an essential role in northern ecosystems as important contributors to the water, nutrient and carbon cycles, as well as the main winter food resource for reindeer (Rangifer tarandus, also called caribou in North America), the most abundant herbivores in arctic and subarctic regions. Today, climate change and several types of land use are rapidly transforming northern ecosystems and challenging lichen growth. Since lichens are important indicators of ecosystem health and habitat suitability for reindeer, large-scale assessments are needed to estimate their past, present and future status. In our study, we aimed to develop models and equations that can be used by stakeholders to identify the occurrence of lichen-dominated boreal forests and to determine lichen conditions in those forests. Data were collected in Sweden and most input data are publicly available. We focused on mat-forming lichens belonging to the genera Cladonia and Cetraria, which are dominant species in the reindeer and caribou winter diet. Our models described lichen-dominated forests as being dominated by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), having low basal area and thin canopy cover, and being located in south- and west-facing areas with high summer precipitation, low winter precipitation and temperature, and on gentle slopes. Within those forests, lichen biomass was positively related to tree canopy cover and summer precipitation, while negatively and exponentially related to intensity of use of the area by reindeer. Forest, meteorological, topographic and soil data can be used as input in our models to determine lichen conditions without having to estimate lichen biomass through demanding and expensive fieldwork. Keywords: Caribou; Ground lichen; Lichen growth; Lichen volume; Reindeer forage; Reindeer husbandry; Terricolous lichen.
29731Kelleghan D.B., Hayes E.T., Everard M. & Curran T.P. (2019): Mapping ammonia risk on sensitive habitats in Ireland. - Science of the Total Environment, 649(1): 1580–1589.
Highlights: • A GIS risk-based approach gauges atmospheric NH3 impacts in Ireland • Integrates best available agricultural data to identify “at-risk” areas in Ireland • Provides stakeholders with an atmospheric ammonia risk map for Ireland • 80.7% of Natura 2000 sites likely to exceed critical level of 1 μg/m3 • 5.9% of Natura 2000 sites likely to exceed critical level of 3 μg/m3. The aim of this study was to provide a simple, cost-effective, risk-based map of terrestrial areas in Ireland where environmental quality may be at risk from atmospheric ammonia. This risk-based approach identifies Natura 2000 sites in Ireland at risk from agricultural atmospheric ammonia, collating best available data using Geographical Information Systems (GIS). In mapping ammonia risk on sensitive habitats (MARSH), the method identifies sources of ammonia, classifying them on a scale of risk from 0 to 5. These sources are subsequently summed based on a weighting determined by their contribution to national emissions divided by their potentially impacted area. A Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.72 allows for concentrations from United Kingdom's FRAME modelling to be applied to the MARSH model, which are corrected based on recent monitoring. Applying Designation Weighted Indicators (DWI), the MARSH model predicts that 80.7, 34.3 and 5.9% of Natura 2000 sites in Ireland may exceed ambient concentrations of 1, 2, and 3 μg/m3, respectively. A Nitroindex map of Ireland based on available lichen records was also developed and is presented as part of this study. This Nitroindex was used to identify areas where impacts have already been recorded, thus informing the classification of sites “at-risk”. The combination of both the MARSH and Nitroindex models ascertains which Natura 2000 sites are most at risk, thereby providing valuable data to relevant authorities. The MARSH model acts as a first step towards screening and assessing Natura 2000 sites most at risk from atmospheric ammonia, providing a tool to demonstrate compliance with the National Emissions Ceilings Directive.
29730Gadea A., Le Lamer A.-C., Le Gall S., Jonard C., Ferron S., Catheline D., Ertz D., Le Pogam P., Boustie J., Lohézic - Le Devehat F. & Charrier M. (2018): Intrathalline metabolite profiles in the lichen Argopsis friesiana shape gastropod grazing patterns. - Journal of Chemical Ecology, 44: 471–482.
Lichen-gastropod interactions generally focus on the potential deterrent or toxic role of secondary metabolites. To better understand lichen-gastropod interactions, a controlled feeding experiment was designed to identify the parts of the lichen Argopsis friesiana consumed by the Subantarctic land snail Notodiscus hookeri. Besides profiling secondary metabolites in various lichen parts (apothecia, cephalodia, phyllocladia and fungal axis of the pseudopodetium), we investigated potentially beneficial resources that snails can utilize from the lichen (carbohydrates, amino acids, fatty acids, polysaccharides and total nitrogen). Notodiscus hookeri preferred cephalodia and algal layers, which had high contents of carbohydrates, nitrogen, or both. Apothecia were avoided, perhaps due to their low contents of sugars and polyols. Although pseudopodetia were characterized by high content of arabitol, they were also rich in medullary secondary compounds, which may explain why they were not consumed. Thus, the balance between nutrients (particularly nitrogen and polyols) and secondary metabolites appears to play a key role in the feeding preferences of this snail. Keywords: Herbivory . Chemical ecology . Snail . Lichen-gastropod interactions . Subantarctic islands . Stereocaulaceae . Notodiscus hookeri.
29729Barták M., Hájek J., Morkusová J. & Košuthová A. (2018): Dehydration-induced changes in spectral reflectance indices and chlorophyll fluorescence of Antarctic lichens with different thallus color, and intrathalline photobiont. - Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 40:177 [19 p.].
In this study, we investigated responses of the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI), and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) to gradual dehydration of several Antarctic lichen species (chlorolichens: Xanthoria elegans, Rhizoplaca melanophthalma, Physconia muscigena, cyanolichen: Leptogium puberulum), and a Nostoc commune colony from fully wet to a dry state. The gradual loss of physiological activity during dehydration was evaluated by chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. The experimental lichen species differed in thallus color, and intrathalline photobiont. In the species that did not exhibit color change with desiccation (X. elegans), NDVI and PRI were more or less constant (mean of 0.25, − 0.36, respectively) throughout a wide range of thallus hydration status showing a linear relation to relative water content (RWC). In contrast, the species with apparent species-specific color change during dehydration exhibited a curvilinear relation of NDVI and PRI to RWC. PRI decreased (R. melanophthalma, L. puberulum), increased (N. commune) or showed a polyphasic response (P. muscigena) with desiccation. Except for X. elegans, a curvilinear relation was found between the NDVI response to RWC in all species indicating the potential of combined ground research and remote sensing spectral data analyses in polar regions dominated by lichen flora. The chlorophyll fluorescence data recorded during dehydration (RWC decreased from 100 to 0%) revealed a polyphasic species-specific response of variable fluorescence measured at steady state—Fs, effective quantum yield of photosystem II (ΦPSII), and non-photochemical quenching (qN). Full hydration caused an inhibition of ΦPSII in N. commune while other species remained unaffected. The dehydration-dependent fall in ΦPSII was species-specific, starting at an RWC range of 22–32%. Critical RWC for ΦPSII was around 5–10%. Desiccation led to a species-specific polyphasic decrease in Fs and an increase in qN indicating the involvement of protective mechanisms in the chloroplastic apparatus of lichen photobionts and N. commune cells. In this study, the spectral reflectance and chlorophyll fluorescence data are discussed in relation to the potential of ecophysiological processes in Antarctic lichens, their resistance to desiccation and survival in Antarctic vegetation oases. Keywords: Spectral indices; PRI; NDVI; Non-photochemical quenching; James Ross Island.
29728Banchi E., Ametrano C.G., Stanković D., Verardo P., Moretti O., Gabrielli F., Lazzarin S., Borney M.F., Tassan F., Tretiach M., Pallavicini A. & Muggia L. (2018): DNA metabarcoding uncovers fungal diversity of mixed airborne samples in Italy. - PLoS ONE, 13(3): e0194489 [20 p.].
[p. 11:] "Peculiar taxa. Interestingly, our molecular analyses catch the presence of fungal taxa that are not expected in urban areas and are peculiar because of their life styles, being these lichenized and rock-inhabiting fungi. Indeed, we report the presence of eight lichen genera (Caloplaca, Cladonia, Flavoparmelia, Lecidella, Physcia, Hyperphyscia, Rinodina, Umbilicaria) of which the spores of only the genus Caloplaca were identified during the morphological inspections of the samples. The majority of the detected taxa are epiphytic lichens commonly distributed in Italy, and can occur also in urban environment if these are not highly polluted. The only exception is the genus Umbilicaria which comprises of only epilithic species occurring in montane and alpine environments. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the detection of lichen spores and lichen sequence data in airborne samples."
29727Vondrák J., Malíček J., Palice Z., Bouda F., Berger F., Sanderson N., Acton A., Pouska V. & Kish R. (2018): Exploiting hot-spots; effective determination of lichen diversity in a Carpathian virgin forest. - PLoS ONE, 13(9): e0203540 [19 p.].
Although lichenized fungi are among the most reliable indicators of forest quality and represent a considerable part of forest biodiversity, methods maximizing completeness of their species lists per area are lacking. Employing a novel methodological approach including a multi-expert competition and a search for local hot-spot plots, we have obtained outstanding data about epiphytic lichen biota in a part of the largest Central European virgin forest reserve Uholka±Shyrokyi Luh situated in Ukrainian Carpathians. Our field research consisted of two four-day periods: (1) an overall floristic survey and a search for spots with raised lichen diversity, and (2) survey in four one-hectare plots established in lichen diversity hot-spots along an altitudinal gradient. Recorded alpha-diversities in plots ranged from 181± 228 species, but estimated species richness is in the range 207±322 species. Detected gamma-diversity was 387 species; estimates are 409±484 species. 93% of the species found in the forest were recorded in plots, but only 65% outside the plots. This underlines the high-efficiency of the multi-expert competitive survey in diversity hot-spot plots. Species richness in each one-hectare plot was equal to the numbers of species obtained by floristic surveys of much larger old-growth forest areas in Central Europe. Gamma-diversity detected in the Uholka primeval forest far exceeded all numbers achieved in Central European old-growth forests. Our method appears to be both effective (it obtains a more nearly complete inventory of species) and practical (the resources required are not unreasonably large).
29726Maduranga K., Attanayake R.N., Santhirasegaram S., Weerakoon G. & Paranagama P.A. (2018): Molecular phylogeny and bioprospecting of Endolichenic Fungi (ELF) inhabiting in the lichens collected from a mangrove ecosystem in Sri Lanka. - PLoS ONE, 13(8): e0200711 [22 p.].
Endolichenic fungi (ELF) are unexplored group of organisms as a source for the production of bioactive secondary metabolites with radical scavenging activity, antilipase and amylase inhibitory activities. Endolichenic fungi in lichens collected from mangrove or mangrove associated plants are least known for their fungal diversity and potential to produce bioactive compounds. A total of 171 ELF strains were isolated from the lichens collected from mangrove and mangrove associated plants in Puttalam lagoon. Out of this collection, 70 isolates were identified using rDNA-ITS region sequence homology to the GenBank accessions and a phylogenetic analysis was performed. Commonly isolated genera of ELF from lichens were Aspergillus, Byssochlamys, Talaromyces, Diaporthe, Phomopsis, Endomelanconiopsis, Schizophyllum, Cerrena, Trichoderma, Xylaria, Hypoxylon, Daldinia, Preussia, Sordaria, Neurospora, and Lasiodiplodia. In the present study, the effectiveness of ethyl acetate extracts of the ELF isolates were investigated against antioxidant activity, antilipase activity and α-amylase inhibition activity in in-vitro conditions. The results revealed that the extracts of Daldinia eschscholtzii, Diaporthe musigena and Sordaria sp. had the highest radical scavenging activity with smaller IC50 values (25 μg/mL to 31 μg/mL) compared to the IC50 values of BHT (76.50±1.47 μg/mL). Antilipase assay revealed that 13 extracts from ELF showed promising antiobesity activity ranged between 25% to 40%. Amylase inhibitory assay indicated that the test extracts do not contain antidiabetic secondary metabolites.
29725Wang Y., Geng C., Yuan X., Hua M., Tian F. & Li C. (2018): Identification of a putative polyketide synthase gene involved in usnic acid biosynthesis in the lichen Nephromopsis pallescens. - PLoS ONE, 13(7): e0199110 [16 p.].
Usnic acid is a unique polyketide produced by lichens. To characterize usnic acid biosynthesis, the transcriptome of the usnic-acid-producing lichen-forming fungus Nephromopsis pallescens was sequenced using Illumina NextSeq technology. Seven complete non-reducing polyketide synthase genes and nine highly-reducing polyketide synthase genes were obtained through transcriptome analysis. Gene expression results obtained by qPCR and usnic acid detection with LCMS-IT-TOF showed that Nppks7 is probably involved in usnic acid biosynthesis in N. pallescens. Nppks7 is a non-reducing polyketide synthase with a MeT domain that also possesses beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase, acyl transferase, product template, acyl carrier protein, C-methyltransferase, and Claisen cyclase domains. Phylogenetic analysis shows that Nppks7and other polyketide synthases from lichens form a unique monophyletic clade. Taken together, our data indicate that Nppks7 is a novel PKS in N. pallescens that is likely involved in usnic acid biosynthesis.
29724Krisai-Greilhuber I., Chen Y., Jabeen S., Madrid H., Marincowitz S., Razaq A., Ševčíková H., Voglmayr H., Yazici K., Aptroot A., Aslan A., Boekhout T., Borovička J., Crous P.W., Ilyas S., Jami F., Jiang Y.-L., Khalid A.N., Kolecka A., Konvalinková T., Norphanphoun C., Shaheen S., Wang Y., Wingfield M.J., Wu S.-P., Wu Y.-M. & Yu J.-Y. (2017): Fungal Systematics and Evolution: FUSE 3. - Sydowia, 69: 229–264.
The present study introduces seven new species, one new combination, one new variety and several interesting taxonomical notes and/or geographical records. Most of the new taxa are Ascomycetes, but the study also includes a new variety of a Basidiomycete. Novel species include Gyromitra khanspurensis (Discinaceae, Pezizales, Pezizomycetes) from Pakistan growing near Cedrus deoadara and Paramyrothecium guiyangense and Paramyrothecium verruridum (Stachybotriaceae, Hypocreales, Sordariomycetes) both isolated from soil in China. New species from South Africa are Sclerostagonospora elegiae on culm litter of Elegia equisetacea, Sclerostagonospora fusiformis on culm litter of Thamnochortus spicigerus, Sclerostagonospora pinguis on culm litter of Cannomois virgata and Sclerostagonospora sulcata on culm litter of Ischyrolepis subverticellata (Phaeosphaeriaceae, Pleosporales, Dothideomycetes). Hapalocystis berkeleyi var. kickxii with its basionym Hypoxylon kickxii is shown to be a taxon on species level and thus recombined as Hapalocystis kickxii (Sydowiellaceae, Diaporthales, Sordariomycetes), and it is lecto- and epitypified. The new variety Pluteus romellii var. luteoalbus (Pluteaceae, Agaricales, Agaricomycetes) growing on a mossy fallen stem of a deciduous tree is described from Czech Republic. Cortinarius scaurocaninus (Cortinariaceae, Agaricales, Agaricomycetes) is new for Austria, Humicola grisea (Chaetomiaceae, Sordariales, Sordariomycetes) is an interesting new record for Chile. Two taxa are reported as new for Turkey: the lichenicolous fungus Opegrapha parasitica (Opegraphaceae, Arthoniales, Arthoniomycetes) growing partly immersed in the thallus of Aspicilia and the lichen Rinodina zwackhiana (Physciaceae, Teloschistales, Lecanoromycetes) from calcareous rock. Finally, Xerula strigosa (Physalacriaceae, Agaricales, Agaricomycetes), described from China, is confirmed to be present also in Pakistan. Keywords: biodiversity, ITS barcodes, phylogeny, systematics.
29723Belinchón R., Coppins B.J., Yahr R. & Ellis C.J. (2016): The diversity and community dynamics of hazelwood lichens and bryophytes along a major gradient of human impact. - Plant Ecology & Diversity, 9(4): 359–370.
Background: Oceanic hazelwoods in western Scotland are hypothesised to be unmanaged post-glacial relicts, representing an unusual type of old-growth forest habitat in Europe. They are characterised by an exceptionally high epiphytic diversity, including their status as ‘hotspots’ for indicators of woodland ecological continuity. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of climate, pollution and management on the occurrence of epiphytic lichens and bryophytes on Corylus avellana. Methods: Thirteen hazelwood study sites were systematically sampled along a climate, pollution and management gradient in Britain. Epiphyte composition and richness were examined in a strict hierarchical framework, and compared against site-, stool- and stem-scale environmental predictors. Results: The study showed that along the gradient from ‘clean-air’ relict sites to ‘polluted’ coppiced sites: (i) epiphytic local stem-scale diversity declined, (ii) there was a loss of late-successional species including foliose cyano- and tripartite lichens and bryophytes and (iii) stem sizes were reduced, providing a further limit to the accumulation of species richness within a site. Conclusions: Relict hazelwoods in western Scotland are confirmed as an example of the most intact epiphyte communities. In particular, we show that the transition to coppicing can be clearly linked to ecological processes causing species loss. Keywords: bryophytes; climate gradient; ecological continuity; epiphytes; lichens; forest management; SO2 pollution; species richness; succession.
29722Giordani P. & Malaspina P. (2017): Do tree-related factors mediate the response of lichen functional groups to eutrophication?. - Plant Biosystems, 151(6): 1062–1072.
In the last decades, the pollution regime has been drastically changed in most industrialized countries, with a considerable decrease in sulphur dioxide (SO2) emissions and an increasing relevance of eutrophication compounds, such as nitrogen compounds and particulate matter. This situation hampers the interpretation of data in biomonitoring surveys, as high lichen diversity is not always associated with good air quality. The objective of this study was to test whether the effects of eutrophication on the abundance of different lichen functional groups varies according to some tree-related factors. We analysed the relationships between epiphytic lichen diversity, emissions of main atmospheric pollutants and tree characteristics (circumference and bark pH, light transmitted through the canopy). Hierarchical partitioning of variance and Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM) confirmed that lichen functional groups with different nitrogen tolerances responded to several atmospheric pollutants, with both independent and joint effects, whereas they did not show significant differences depending on main tree-related factors. We demonstrated that, under high eutrophication levels, differences in bark pH did not significantly differentiated the composition of epiphytic lichen communities. Keywords: Biomonitoring, air pollution, oligotrophic species, nitrophytic species, nitrogen, hierarchical partitioning.
29721García R.A.& Rosato V.G. (2018): Observations of the development of Xanthoparmelia farinosa under optical and electron microscopy. - Mycology, 9(1): 35–42.
Xanthoparmelia farinosa is a foliose lichen widely distributed in South America, growing not only on rocks but also on man-made structures. This species has abundant soralia, but it is unknown how development occurs from the soredium to the formation of a complete thallus. The soredia were extracted from the thallus with forceps, planted on glass plates and exposed to outdoor conditions for a period of 24 months; in every 3 months, optical inspection was performed with a stereomicroscope and a compound microscope, in addition, four samples with different exposure times were chosen to observe under a scanning electron microscope. The development of hyphae and the adhesion of these to the substrate, and the outlines of the formation of the lobules and rhizines could be observed. Our study is a first attempt to understand the development of this species which is endemic to South America and very common in the area. Keywords: Lichen, outdoor, soralia, glass, adhesion to the substrate, lobe formation.
29720Ylisirniö A.-L. & Hallikainen V. (2018): Retention patches maintain diversity of epiphytic and epixylic indicator lichens more effectively than solitary trees. - Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 33(4): 320–331.
The effectiveness of retention trees and patches in preserving diversity of nine epiphytic and epixylic old-growth forest lichens was studied in north boreal spruce forests in Finland. We compared (1) 7–8-year-old retention cuts, with at least 5–10 living or dead retention trees per hectare, (2) 10–12-year-old clear-cuts, with some scattered living and dead retention trees on the sites, (3) old-growth spruce forests, and (4) 7-8-year-old retention patches (0.06–0.45 ha) representing the original tree species composition of old-growth forests. The occurrence of indicator lichens was studied on 150 deciduous trees and snags in each forest category. The species richness was significantly higher in old-growth forests than in the clear-cuts and retention cuts, but did not differ between old-growth forests and retention patches. Only three species were found in clear-cuts and two in retention cuts. Foliose cyanolichens Leptogium saturninum and Nephroma bellum thrived on solitary retention trees, whereas humidity-requiring pin lichens from the genus Chaenotheca were found only in old-growth forests and retention patches. Our results suggest that the ability of epiphytic and epixylic species to survive on retained trees depends on several factors: (1) substrate quality (tree species, tree type and diameter of a tree), (2) environmental factors (e.g. humidity, slope exposition), and (3) morphological and physiological characteristics of species. Besides of substrate trees, the retained conifers (esp. spruce) seem to be important in retention patches to provide the shading necessary to maintain humidity. Keywords: Epiphytic lichens, boreal forests, retention trees, retention patches, calicioid lichens, cyanolichens.
29719Stech M., van Andel T., Aptroot A., Bertin A. & Stefanaki A. (2018): Bryophytes and lichens in 16th-century herbaria. - Journal of Bryology, 40(2): 99–106.
The diversity of bryophyte and lichen collections in 9 of the oldest preserved herbaria (dating from ca 1542 to 1577) was compared, including the first reports of bryophytes and lichens from the ‘En Tibi’ herbarium (possibly 1542–1544) and the herbarium of Leonhard Rauwolf (1560–1563). Bryophytes and lichens formed only a minority in each herbarium compared to the numbers of vascular plant specimens; numbers ranged from representatives of 21 genera in the herbarium of Ulisse Aldrovandi to the single genus Conocephalum in the Rauwolf herbarium. The focus was on large, handsome species of bryophytes and macrolichens, apart from small amounts of additional species collected as ‘by-catch’ in mixed collections. All herbaria together included 34 genera of bryophytes (36 species and 10 specimens identified to genus level) and 13 genera of lichens (24 species and 4 specimens identified to genus level). The diversity of mosses was higher than that of liverworts, and pleurocarpous mosses were more diverse than acrocarpous mosses. The collectors probably aimed at selecting material that was either characteristic of the vegetation in the respective areas of collecting or used for certain purposes (or both). The former hypothesis is supported by the small overlap in taxonomic diversity between the herbaria, and the latter by the fact that several moss, liverwort, and lichen genera are included whose traditional uses are well documented. Keywords: 16th-century herbaria, En Tibi, Lichens, Liverworts, Mosses, Rauwolf.
29718Assini S., Mondino G.P., Varese P., Barcella M. & Bracco F. (2013): A phytosociological survey of the Corynephorus canescens (L.) Beauv. communities of Italy. - Plant Biosystems, 147(1): 64–78.
29717Gheza G., Assini S. & Valcuvia-Passadore M. (2015): Contribution to the knowledge of lichen flora of inland sand dunes in the western Po Plain (N Italy). - Plant Biosystems, 149(2): 307–314.
This paper describes the lichen flora surveyed in inland sand dunes, called dossi, in the western Po Plain (Lombardy region, Italy). Here, lichens were marginally known in comparison with the epigaeous component, but they were never studied before in relation to the epiphytic, epixylic and epilithic components. The floristic list includes 50 species; ecological and chorological analyses were carried out. Thirteen lichen species observed on various substrata were not reported in the lichen list of the Ticino Natural Park, which distances only few kilometres from our study area. Nine species are new for the Po phytoclimatic region and one species, Cladonia portentosa, is new for Lombardy. Particularly interesting are some species related to the Corynephorus grasslands, such as Cladonia sp. pl. and Stereocaulon condensatum, and three species usually absent, at our latitudes, beneath the montane belt: Cladonia digitata, Hypocenomyce scalaris and Parmeliopsis ambigua. These data confirm the importance of inland sand dunes for lichen diversity of the Po Plain. Some preliminary remarks concerning the management of the habitats hosting lichens are given, with particular emphasis to their conservation. Suggested actions include the possibility to keep woody coarse debris, to favour epixylic species, and mechanical disturbance, dispersal of lichen fragments and sheep grazing, to favour epigaeous species. Keywords: Corynephorus grasslands, Dossi di Cergnago, ecological indicator values, inland sand dunes, lichens, open woods.
29716Ravera S., Isocrono D., Nascimbene J., Giordani P., Benesperi R., Tretiach M. & Montagnani C. (2016): Assessment of the conservation status of the matforming lichens Cladonia subgenus Cladina in Italy. - Plant Biosystems, 150(5): 1010–1022.
Cladina species are likely to suffer the impact of human pressure, resulting in a potential, as well as currently unknown, extinction risk for some of them. In this study, we used herbarium specimen data and literature data combined with geographic information system (GIS)-based analyses to assess the threatened status of Italian Cladina species according to IUCN criteria. A total of 485 records, reported during the period 1833–2013, were evaluated. Biological traits, habitat requirements and distribution patterns were used to infer species extinction risk. Extent of occurrence and area of occupancy have been calculated at the national scale, based on a 2km x 2km cell grid. The potential threats for the taxa were assessed using a decision-support protocol in order to set conservation targets for taxa lacking population viability analyses and habitat modelling data. The species were assigned to the IUCN categories mainly using the geographical criterion B, related to species with restricted and fragmented distribution and continuous declining trend, but the species have been tested against the maximum number of criteria for which data were available and/or appropriate. This has provided an opportunity to discuss some basic aspects of the process of lichen red-listing, suggesting some methodological improvements for the mat-forming ones. Keywords: Extinction risk, fragmentation, habitat directive, habitat loss, lichen conservation.
29715Park J.S., Park C.-H., Park S.-Y., Oh S.-O. Jayalal U. & Hur J.-S. (2018): Revision of the lichen genus Stereocaulon (Stereocaulaceae, Ascomycota) in South Korea. - Mycobiology, 46(2): 101–113.
Lichen genus Stereocaulon (Schreb.) Hoffm is distributed throughout the world. Although 15 Stereocaulon species have been recorded in Korea, no detailed taxonomic or revisionary research has been conducted for nearly two decades. In this study, we collected 260 putative Stereocaulon spp. samples and identified the species based on morphological, chemical, and molecular characteristics. From the collected samples, 10 species of Stereocaulon were identified, nine of which had already been reported, although this was the first report for the tenth, S. octomerellum Hue, in Korea. General characteristics of Stereocaulon spp. include coralloid phyllocladia and tubercular cephalodia; however, the specimen first collected in Korea was a rare species with tomentum on the pseudopodetia. The specimen of S. octomerellum is characterized by the presence of a primary thallus, granule to short coralloid phyllocladia, and pseudopodetia up to 1 cm in size, with tubercular cephalodia. To determine the phylogeny of the specimens, we compared the ITS sequences of ribosomal DNA and the β-tubulin gene sequences. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Korean Stereocaulon species were monophyletic and placed in the previous phylogenetic classification. Species of S. intermedium and S. exutum, however, were polyphyletic, and are morphologically variable and widespread species. Overall, we present here detailed morphological and chemical descriptions of each species identified and a revised key of all known Stereocaulon species in South Korea. Keywords: ITS sequences, β-tubulin, molecular phylogeny, Stereocaulon, taxonomy.
29714Dixon J.C., Thorn C.E., Darmody R.G. & Campbell S.W. (2002): Post-glacial rock weathering processes on a roche moutonnée in the Riksgränsen area (68°N), northern Norway. - Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift – Norwegian Journal of Geography, 56: 257–264.
29713André M.-F. (2002): Rates of postglacial rock weathering on glacially scoured outcrops (Abisko–Riksgränsen area, 68°N). - Geografiska Annaler: Series A, Physical Geography, 84(3-4): 139–150.
29712Wierzchos J., Ascaso C., Sancho L.G. & Green A. (2003): Iron-rich diagenetic minerals are biomarkers of microbial activity in Antarctic rocks. - Geomicrobiology Journal, 20: 15–24.
The cold, dry ecosystems of Antarctica have been shown to harbor traces left behind by microbial activity within certain types of rocks, but only two indirect biomarkers of cryptoendolithic activity in the Antarctic cold desert zone have been described to date. These are the geophysical and geochemical bioweathering patterns macroscopically observed in sandstone rock. Here we show that in this extreme environment, minerals are biologically transformed, and as a result, Fe-rich diagenetic minerals in the form of iron hydroxide nanocrystals and biogenic clays are deposited around chasmoendolithic hyphae and bacterial cells. Thus, when microbial life decays, these characteristic neocrystalized minerals act as distinct biomarkers of previous endolithic activity. The ability to recognize these traces may have potential astrobiological implications because the Antarctic Ross Desert is considered a terrestrial analogue of a possible ecosystem on early Mars. Keywords: Antarctic Granite , Biomarkers , Cryptoendoliths , Microfossils. Results: The SEM-BSE images of a transverse rock section showed the presence of a saxicolous lichen Lecidea cancriformis (Dodge et Barker) frequently accompanied by bacterial cells. Microdivided minerals, such as biotite layers, and quartz and plagioclase grains derived from underlying rock could be seen within the lichen thallus. Fungal hyphae and chasmoendolithic colonies of bacteria were often observed inside fissures and cracks. In the deeper fissures of up to 5 mm, it was possible to observe extracellular coatings in the form of small spheres around the cross-sectioned hyphal cells (white arrows in Figure 1a). Using EDS point microanalysis, these inorganic deposits were found to contain high amounts of Fe and O along with lower levels of Si and Al, and traces of Na, Mg, K, and Ti. The Fe/Si distribution maps (Figures 1b–c) show that these major elements were evenly distributed around the hyphal cells. The morphological and crystallographic structure of these deposits around the live fungal sheaths was established by HRTEM (EDS) examination of extracted, re-embedded and ultrathin-sectioned hyphae from a rock fissure (Figures 1d–f). These images revealed two different phases within the secondary mineral coatings. First, there was a predominance of Fe-oxyhydroxide nanocrystals on the external surface of fungal hyphae in the form of small irregular subrounded grains, from 30–500 nm in size. Second, clays composed of Fe-rich aluminosilicate (white arrows in Figure 1e) could be seen in some of the spaces between these Fe-oxyhydroxide grains.
29711Ginns J. & Worrall J. (2003): Josiah Lincoln Lowe, 1905–1997. - Mycologia, 95(2): 374–378.
29710Cooksey C.J. (2003): Lichen purple—an annotated bibliography. - Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 78(6): 313–320.
This bibliography lists and contains comments on publications describing the textile dyeing applications and organic chemistry of purple dyes derived from lichens. Elsewhere in this issue such colorants are termed orcein; the usage ‘‘lichen purple’’ reflects the historical emphasis of the work described. Note that commentary by CJC is placed after the bibliographic information in italics.
29709André M.-F., Hall K. & Comte V. (2004): Optical rock properties and weathering processes in polar environments (with special reference to Antarctica). - Polar Geography, 28(1): 43–62.
As a result of the “freeze-thaw dogma,” the polar scientific community has, for a long time, emphasized the importance of physical properties of rocks (porosity, jointing, etc) as a primary control on rock weathering. More recently, due to growing interest in chemically driven processes operating in cold areas, attention has been drawn to the chemical rock properties. Surprisingly, the optical properties of rocks have either been ignored or only alluded to in most rock weathering studies. Based on the available Antarctic biological and geomorphological literature, it is now appropriate to consider these optical properties as exerting a potentially significant influence and to promote a Manichean view in which the light-colored and translucent rocks (e.g., the emblematic Beacon sandstones) are considered from the perspective of biogenic weathering, whereas the dark rocks (e.g., the dolerites of the Dry Valleys) are viewed as being influenced by thermal weathering. Field observations and monitoring carried out from Labrador to Antarctica, lead, however, to a much more subtle appreciation, for it appears necessary to: (1) integrate the optical properties within a corpus of rock properties (within which some operate synergistically and others antagonistically with those optical properties); (2) to take into account the impact of scale (e.g., macro vs. micro); and (3) to consider the nature and role of lithophytic communities involved in bioweathering.
29708Coppins B.J. & Coppins A.M. (2005): Lichens — the biodiversity value of western woodlands. - Botanical Journal of Scotland, 57(1-2): 141–153.
The Atlantic broad-leaved woodlands of Britain are of international renown for their lichen floras. They are inhabited by 517 lichens, representing 28.3% of the total lichen flora and 73.2% of all British woodland lichens, and they are the main habitat for 165 species. Of these, 31 have a marked southern distribution and do not reach Scotland, whereas 26 species are found in Scotland, but not England or Wales. Their British Red-listed species are outnumbered by the 86 species for which Britain has International Responsibility. Within the Atlantic broad-leaved woodlands, only 30 lichens show a preponderance for oak. With the exception of some ancient oakwoods in southern England, a high lichen biodiversity is rarely dependent on a dominance of oak in the woodland canopy, more usually it is the result of a long ecological continuity, often a varied tree and shrub composition, a varied canopy density, and good air quality. Consequently, the oak stands within former ‘industrial’ woodlands have a much lower lichen biodiversity compared with woodlands that have a history as ‘pasture woodland’ or, as with some ravine woodlands, have otherwise escaped intensive management. The life-history of an oak tree is considered in relation to the niches it provides for lichen colonisation with time. Some management scenarios are provided with the enhancement of the lichen interest of former ‘industrial’ oakwoods as an objective.
29707Ranius T., Mestre L., Bouget C. & Schroeder M. (2017): Fragmentation effects on dead wood-dependent species associated with disturbed forest habitats: implications for stump harvesting. - Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 32(3): 260–267.
Stump harvesting after clear-felling may be detrimental for species’ landscape-scale persistence. Sensitivity to it is most likely due to reductions in habitat density, resulting in a non-linear relationship between population size and total habitat amount (i.e. fragmentation effects). Here we summarize theoretical expectations and empirical findings on fragmentation effects in stumps and other types of dead wood in disturbed forest habitats and draw conclusions about the consequences of stump harvesting. Within disturbed patches, some negative fragmentation effects have been observed for beetles and lichens, but most studies have found a linear relationship between habitat amount and population size. At landscape scale, evidence of fragmentation effects in disturbed forest habitats has been detected in some published investigations, but none of them focused on stumps. Thus, although organisms associated with disturbed forest habitats are assumed to be strong dispersers, they may still be sensitive to habitat fragmentation. We conclude that stump harvesting at a moderate level is not likely to increase risks for landscape-scale species extinctions markedly, despite clearly negative local effects. However, due to large uncertainties, adaptive management with monitoring of dead wood-dependent species should be applied wherever stump harvesting is more extensive. Keywords: Crowding effect, dispersion effect, early-successional, metapopulation, population density, population viability, saproxylic.
29706Suryanarayanan T.S. & Thirunavukkarasu N. (2017): Endolichenic fungi: the lesser known fungal associates of lichens. - Mycology, 8(3): 189–196.
Lichens are the result of a stable mutualism between a fungal and a photosynthesising partner (alga or cyanobacterium). In addition to the fungal partner in this mutualism, lichens are associated with endolichenic fungi which reside inside their thalli. The endolichenic fungi appear to have evolved with the lichen and many of them are a source of novel metabolites vested with unique bioactivities. There is very little information on the biology of endolichenic fungi and their interactions with the other components of a lichen microbiome. There is an urgent need to understand these aspects of endolichenic fungi such that their ecology and economic potential are known more completely. The current knowledge on endolichenic fungi is reviewed here. Keywords: Endophyte, lichen symbiont, lichen microbiome.
29705Abakumov E., Lupachev A. & Andreev M. (2017): Trace element content in soils of the King George and Elephant islands, maritime Antarctica. - Chemistry and Ecology, 33(9): 856–868.
Trace element concentrations were studied in soils of the King George and Elephant islands in the maritime part of West Antarctica. The lowest concentrations of Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, Ni and Mn were typical for the pristine soil of Elephant Island. The highest concentrations of these elements were found in the Fildes Peninsula and revealed the influence of human activities in the area of the Bellingshausen station and adjacent waste disposal sites. Ornithogenic soils of the Fildes Peninsula have shown low concentrations of Cd and As. Using geoaccumulation indexes, all the pristine soils of King George and Elephant islands and ornithogenic soils of the Fildes Peninsula were classified as unpolluted; the human-affected soils were mainly identified as moderately polluted. Obtained data can be used as background concentration levels for further researches.
29704Boonpragob K., Homchantara N., Coppins B.J., McCarthy P.M. & Wolseley P.A. (1998): An introduction to the lichen flora of Khao Yai National Park, Thailand. - Botanical Journal of Scotland, 50(2): 209–219.
A workshop in tropical forests of Khao Yai National Park on lichenized fungi, identified major components of the lichen flora on corticolous, foliicolous and saxicolous substrata. 161 taxa were recorded in three areas of the park including a riverine site on the Lam Takhong river, a montane forest at Khao Khieo and areas of tropical forest around the park headquarters. Species new to Thailand included foliicolous and corticolous species of equatorial forests, and others yet to be identified or described.
29703Coppins B.J. (2003): Lichen conservation in Scotland. - Botanical Journal of Scotland, 55(1): 27–38.
The significance of the Scottish lichen flora is outlined within the context of the British Isles and Europe, prompting a cautionary note on an over-reliance of assessing conservation importance using national Red Data Book categorisations. The conservation needs of lichens and their habitats, from ‘gardening’ to landscape management are discussed.
29702Fryday A.M. (2002): Distribution and importance of the lichen vegetation of the Scottish Highlands. - Botanical Journal of Scotland, 54(2): 133–151.
The mountains of the Western Highlands of Scotland support a lichen vegetation that is apparently unique in Europe, and probably the world. This lichen vegetation consists mainly of microlichens and is important both intrinsically, with a number of rare and apparently endemic taxa and communities, and as a major contributor to the botanical biodiversity of the ecosystem. By contrast, the lichen vegetation of the Eastern Highlands, which consists mostly of terricolous macrolichens, is best considered a fragmented, species-poor outlier of that present in Scandinavia and is of national interest only. Key words: lichens, Scottish Highlands.
29701Nimis P.L., Seaward M.R.D., Ariño X. & Barreno E. (1998): Lichen-induced chromatic changes on monuments: a case-study on the Roman amphitheater of Italica (S. Spain). - Plant Biosystems, 132(1): 53–61.
Based on classification and ordination of vegetational data recorded on the Roman amphitheater of Italica (S. Spain), the compositional variation of lichen communities is related to the main ecological parameters: type of substratum, solar irradiation and eutrophication. The data were further processed by a program of automatic mapping, to produce a model showing the main patterns of lichen-induced chromatic changes within the amphitheater. Key words: Lichens, biodeterioration, ecological gradients, monuments, Italica, Spain.
29700Whittet R., Hope J. & Ellis C.J. (2015): Open structured woodland and the ecological interpretation of Scotland's ancient woodland inventory. - Scottish Geographical Journal, 131(2): 67–77.
Following intensive human land use over millennia, European forest ecosystems record among the largest values of deforestation globally. This puts a premium on European ancient woodland, which has existed in the landscape minimally over several centuries. Ancient woodland in the UK was quantified in the Ancient Woodland Inventory (AWI). In cross-checking AWI sites in Scotland, it came to our attention that a proportion of ‘Class 3’ woodlands, which are thought to be of recent origin (regenerated since the nineteenth century), retain scattered tree symbols. This paper quantifies the degree to which Class 3 AWI sites may correspond to areas of scattered trees or open growth woodland. We show that a significant number (c. 50%) of Class 3 sites appear to have continuity of tree/woodland habitat; this may be particularly important for interpreting the distribution of ecological guilds such as tree-dependent epiphytic lichens and invertebrates. The study serves to re-emphasise that (i) technological limits and priorities of map makers, (ii) value systems of historical geographers, and (iii) biology of species, should be carefully considered and aligned during ecological research, so that potential anomalies, for example, the continuous existence of open structured woodland, can be fully recognised during application of systems such as the AWI. Key Words: ancient woodland indicators, epiphyte, historical ecology, pasture woodland, woodland continuity.
29699Lewis J.E.J. & Ellis C.J. (2010): Taxon- compared with trait-based analysis of epiphytes, and the role of tree species and tree age in community composition. - Plant Ecology & Diversity, 3(2): 203–210.
Background: Trait-based assembly rules are a powerful tool in community ecology, used to explore the pattern and process of community structure (richness and composition). Aims: A preliminary test for the utility of trait-based assembly rules in explaining cryptogamic epiphyte communities (lichens and bryophytes). Methods: We sampled epiphytes from three different tree species (aspen, birch and pine), and from trees of contrasting age. The community composition of epiphyte species (taxon analysis) and functional groups (trait analysis) was summarised using multivariate ordination (nonmetric multidimensional scaling, NMDS). Results: Ordination documented a widely observed pattern in which different tree species have taxonomically different epiphyte communities. However, NMDS sample scores were correlated to tree age in the trait-based analysis, but not in the taxon analysis. Conclusions: Our results point to the existence of a common pattern in community traits during succession (on trees of different age) when measured for epiphyte communities with contrasting taxonomic composition. This pattern is evidenced by consistent trends in lichen growth form and reproductive strategy (sexual vs. asexual). Keywords: assembly rules; community structure; functional traits; nonmetric multidimensional scaling; succession.
29698Nascimbene J., Marini L. & Ódor P. (2012): Drivers of lichen species richness at multiple spatial scales in temperate forests. - Plant Ecology & Diversity, 5(3): 355–363.
Background: Few studies analysing lichen diversity have simultaneously considered interactions among drivers that operate at different spatial and temporal scales. Aims: The aims of this study were to evaluate the relative importance of host tree, and local, landscape and historical factors in explaining lichen diversity in managed temperate forests, and to test the potential interactions among factors acting at different spatial scales. Methods: Thirty-five stands were selected in the Őrség region of western Hungary. Linear models and multi-model inference within an information-theory framework were used to evaluate the role of different variables on lichen species richness. Results: Drivers at multiple spatial scales contributed to shaping lichen species richness both at the tree and plot levels. Tree-level species richness was related to both tree- and plot-level factors.With increasing relative diffuse light lichen species richness increased; this effect was stronger on the higher than on the lower part of the trunks. At the plot scale, species richness was affected by local drivers. Landscape and historical factors had no, or only a marginal, effect. Conclusions: Lichen conservation in temperate managed forests could be improved if the complex interactions among host tree quality and availability, micro-climatic conditions, and management were taken into consideration. Keywords: conservation; diffuse light; epiphytic lichens; forest management; historical factors; landscape.
29697Bjerke J.W., Bokhorst S., Callaghan T.V., Zielke M. & Phoenix G.K. (2013): Rapid photosynthetic recovery of a snow-covered feather moss and Peltigera lichen during sub-Arctic midwinter warming. - Plant Ecology & Diversity, 6(3-4): 383–392.
Background: Arctic lichens and mosses are covered by snow for more than half the year and are generally considered as being dormant for most of this period. However, enhanced frequency of winter warming events due to climate change can cause increased disturbance of their protective subnivean environment. Aim: To further understand cryptogamic responses to midwinter warming we compared the ecophysiological performance of one lichen and one moss species during a simulated warming event. Methods: We measured photosynthesis and dark respiration in samples of the moss Hylocomium splendens and the lichen Peltigera aphthosa removed from under snow, and on natural refreezing after the warming event, which was simulated by using infrared heaters suspended above the ground. Results: The moss exposed to light at +5 °C immediately after removal from their subnivean environment and from warmed plots showed positive net gas exchange within 332 s; the lichen required 1238 s. Photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation rates were equal to that, or higher than, during the preceding growing season. Upon refreezing after the event, moss photosynthesis declined considerably. Conclusions: The moss, and to a lesser extent the lichen, may contribute to subnivean midwinter ecosystem respiration, and both are opportunistic, and can take advantage of warmer winter phases for photosynthesis and growth. This ought to be taken into account in vegetation change projections of cryptogam-rich ecosystems. Keywords: carbon flux, climate change, cryptogams, dormancy, gas exchange, nitrogen fixation, reactivation, snow melt, subnivean environment, winter warming.
29696Hauck M. (2014): Edge effects on epiphytic lichen diversity in the forest-steppe of the Kazakh Altai. - Plant Ecology & Diversity, 7(4): 473–483.
Background: Forests in forest-steppe ecotones are usually highly fragmented and much of the forested area is exposed to climate and land-use-related edge effects. Aim: To test the hypothesis that the epiphytic lichen diversity at the forest edges was reduced compared with that in the forest interior, and to analyse lichen diversity in comparison with the more highly elevated and more continental Mongolian Altai. Methods: Six plots each in the interior and the edge with a total of 240 Larix sibirica trees were studied in the Katon-Karagai National Park, East Kazakhstan. Results: Species richness and evenness at the tree level were higher in the interior than at the edge. The epiphytic lichen diversity in the forest interior was similar in the Kazakh and Mongolian Altai, whereas that at the forest edge was lower in the Mongolian Altai. Conclusions: Strong degradation of the forest edges in the Kazakh Altai is the probable cause of the reduced epiphytic lichen diversity compared with the interior. The similar species richness in the forest interiors of the Kazakh and Mongolian Altai suggests that the differences at the forest edge are probably, at least partly, due to different land-use regimes and not to differences in macroclimate. Keywords: alpha-diversity; Central Asia; evenness; forest grazing; nitrophytes; selective logging; Siberian larch (Larix sibirica); silver birch (Betula pendula).
29695Joshi Y., Tripathi M., Divakar P.K. & Upreti D.K. (2014): A note on the occurrence of Xanthoparmelia saxeti (Stizenb.) Amo, A. Crespo, Elix & Lumbsch in India. - Webbia, 69(1): 137–139.
The paper describes for the first time the occurrence of Xanthoparmelia saxeti (Stizenb.) Amo, A. Crespo, Elix and Lumbsch in Himalaya, where it was found growing over siliceous rocks in and around Sun Temple, Kosi Katarmal, Almora district, Uttarakhand. Previously, the species was reported for the first time under the name Karoowia saxeti from Karnantaka and recently Divakar and colleagues collected specimens from the same state, but the species had not been previously mentioned by any Indian worker from India. A brief description of the species along with the status of Karoowia and Xanthoparmelia is given in the text. Keywords: Himalaya; Karoowia; Uttarakhand; Xanthoparmelia saxeti.
29694Armstrong R.A. (2014): Within-site variation in lichen growth rates and its implications for direct lichenometry. - Geografiska Annaler: Series A, Physical Geography, 96(2): 217–226.
Variation in lichen growth rates poses a significant challenge for the application of direct lichenometry, i.e. the construction of lichen dating curves from direct measurement of growth rates. To examine the magnitude and possible causes of within-site growth variation, radial growth rates (RaGRs) of thalli of the fast-growing foliose lichen Melanelia fuliginosa ssp. fuliginosa (Fr. ex Duby) Essl. and the slow-growing crustose lichen Rhizocarpon geographicum (L.) DC. were studied on two S-facing slate rock surfaces in north Wales, UK using digital photography and an image analysis system (Image-J). RaGRs of M. fuliginosa ssp. fuliginosa varied from 0.44 to 2.63 mm yr–1 and R. geographicum from 0.10 to 1.50 mm yr–1.5. Analysis of variance suggested no significant variation in RaGRs with vertical or horizontal location on the rock, thallus diameter, aspect, slope, light intensity, rock porosity, rock surface texture, distance to nearest lichen neighbour or distance to vegetation on the rock surface. The frequency distribution of RaGR did not deviate from a normal distribution. It was concluded that despite considerable growth rate variation in both species studied, growth curves could be constructed with sufficient precision to be useful for direct lichenometry. Key words: direct lichenometry, radial growth rate (RaGR), growth variation, Melanelia fuliginosa ssp. fuliginosa (Fr. ex Duby) Essl., Rhizocarpon geographicum (L.) DC., normal distribution.
29693Bull W.B. (2014): Using earthquakes to assess lichen growth rates. - Geografiska Annaler: Series A, Physical Geography, 96(2): 117–133.
Botanists make yearly measurements of lichen sizes that describe highly variable radial expansion of young, and old, Rhizocarpon subgenus Rhizocarpon that is a function of thallus size and age. Such non-uniform growth would negate use of lichens to date geomorphic events, such as landslides and moraines, of the past 1000 years. Fortunately, many crustose lichens tend toward circular shapes, which can be achieved only when overall uniform radial growth prevails. Largest lichen measurements on rockfall blocks that accumulate incrementally as hillslope talus in earthquake-prone California plot as distinct peaks in frequency distributions. Rockfall surface-exposure times are known to the day for historical earthquakes and to the year where mass movements damage trees. Lichenometry consistently dates regionally synchronous rockfall events with an accuracy and precision of ±5 years. Only historical records and tree-ring dating of earthquakes are better. The four crustose lichens used here have constant longterm growth rates, ranging from 9.5 to 23.1 mm per century. Growth rates do not vary with altitude or climate in a 900 km long mountainous study region in California, USA. Linear growth regressions, when projected to the present, constrain estimates of colonization time and possible styles of initial lichen growth. Key words: lichenology, lichenometry, landslides, California, New Zealand.
29692Baran E.J. (2014): Review: Natural oxalates and their analogous synthetic complexes. - Journal of Coordination Chemistry, 67(23-24): 3734–3768.
Metal oxalates, commonly classified as organic minerals, are widely distributed in Nature, occurring in mineral deposits or as biominerals in plants, fungi, and lichens or in the form of deposits, of different kinds, in animal tissues. Eighteen natural species of this type have so far been reported and investigated. In the first part of this review we give an overview on the general characteristics of these minerals, including also some comments on their environmental effects. The central part of the review is devoted to the discussion of synthetic oxalates, analogous to the natural species, including the usual procedures employed for their synthesis and the thorough analysis of their crystallographic and structural peculiarities. The thermal, spectroscopic, and magnetic properties of these complexes are also discussed in detail. Some comparisons with related coordination compounds are also made along the text. Keywords: Oxalate minerals; Synthetic analogous complexes; Synthesis; Structural properties; Thermal, spectroscopic and magnetic behavior.
29691Koneva V.V. (2015): Lichen biota in the low land of the Ob basin. - International Journal of Environmental Studies, 72(3): 521–526.
The article reviews the lichen diversity in the low land of the Ob basin based on the data published by the author and other specialists. So far, species diversity has reached 430 taxonomic units from 102 genera and 42 families. There are data about the distribution of certain lichen species for the main types of habitat and substrates with in cenosis. The largest variety is shown in communities of dark coniferous forests and mixed forests with declining aspens in the tree layer (215 species), of forested fens (161 species), and inundated forest cenosis (100 species). The least variety is found in ground slope communities (13 species) and phytocenoses of transition moors (12 species). Keywords: Lichen biota, Ob basin, Phytocenosis, Habitat.
29690Koneva V.V. (2014): The role of local lichen biota in zonal ecosystems formation in Western Siberia. - International Journal of Environmental Studies, 71(5): 637–646.
This paper describes the data on lichen biota of the major forest and wetland ecosystems in northern, central and southern taiga and sub-taiga in Western Siberia. It shows the results of floristic and comparative analysis of certain lichen biota basing on family and genus composition, cluster analysis (Sorensen-Chekanovsky, Simpson indices), a taxon’s presence or absence on the species list or the weight characteristics of species. Keywords: Lichen biota, Taiga subzones, Western Siberia.
29689Cossu T.A., Zedda L. & Camarda I. (2016): Lichen diversity on dolmen and menhir in the Megalithic complex of Sa Coveccada (Mores, Sardinia). - Plant Biosystems, 150(4): 821–828.
This work describes the lichen diversity found on the megalithic Dolmen of Sa Coveccada (Mores, Sardinia) until 2010. After that year, a restoration with chemical removal of lichen crusts took place, which destroyed a great part of the lichen communities. These were studied again after removal and lichen communities occurring on rock outcrops in the surroundings of the Dolmen and on a contiguous menhir were investigated as well for comparison. Before the restoration, 33 species had been recorded on the Dolmen, most being crustose, followed by foliose and fruticose forms. Among these, eight species are regarded as rare in Sardinia and five rare at lower elevations. Most of the recorded species are typical for eutrophic substrates and for meso- to xerophytic conditions. Studies on lichen diversity on archaeological monuments in Sardinia are limited. This is the first report on the lichens of a Sardinian dolmen. This paper questions whether the lichen diversity of such monuments should be preserved as lichens have been an important part of the monument ecosystem and of the landscape for many centuries. This work also aims to improve collaboration among lichen and monument experts, in order to avoid hasty restoration decisions. Keywords: biodiversity, dolmen, Italy, lichens, monument, Sardinia.
29688Köhler S., Levia D.F., Jungkunst H.F. & Gerold G. (2015): An in situ method to measure and map bark pH. - Journal of Wood Chemistry and Technology, 35(6): 438–449.
Bark pH is an essential parameter which partly governs the chemistry of the bark as well as its suitability as a microhabitat to a wide range of epiphytic organisms. Bark pH is known to vary with tree species, epiphytic cover, stemflow channelization, and anthropogenic influences. To date, reliable methods to quantify the spatial and temporal dimensions of bark pH have remained elusive. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate an in situ method to measure the surface pH of bark with high spatial resolution. Agar-agar panels, prepared with a pH indicator, were used to quantify and map the spatial variation of bark pH for cacao trees in Indonesia. Fine-scale changes of bark pH were clearly detectable and quantifiable with our bark pH mapping method. Bark pH was found to vary as a function of bark microrelief and the presence of epiphytes. The use of pH reference panels validated the bark pH measurements obtained from our method. The bark pH measurement method developed, described, and validated in this article is inexpensive and straightforward. It has the potential for wide adoption by scientists across disciplines who are interested in bark pH and its effect on life in the cortisphere. Unlike conventional methods to measure bark pH in deionized water or KCl extracts, our method is able to identify fine-scale spatial changes in bark pH that are relevant for the colonization of bark by organisms. Keywords: Cortisphere, epiphyte, bark microrelief, bark chemistry, stemflow, cacao.
29687Baykara T. & Işık M.C. (2016): Physical characterization, microstructural evaluation, and condition assessment of ancient Ahlat Tombstones in the Seljukian cemetery of Ahlat (Turkey). - International Journal of Architectural Heritage, 10(8): 1025–1040.
A typical Seljukian town of Ahlat, located between the north-western shores of the Lake Van and the Nemrud and Suphan volcanoes of the Eastern Turkey is hosting rich and colorful cultural heritage sites. Among these, famous Seljukian Cemetery is a major archeological district with monumental tombstones (stelae). Excessive deterioration, erosion and lichen colonization can be observed in these cultural artifacts. The main objective of this study is the investigation of stones’ physical characterization and evaluation of the microstructural features. A degradation model was outlined starting with the capillary water uptake from the bottom section and lichen colonization starting from the top and covering these tombstones upto their mid sections. This article provides some information about the historical town of Ahlat and its tombstones. Some physical and microstructural characterization of the gravestones and the results of chemical and physical analysis are also presented along with some recommendations. Keywords: Ahlat Stone, biodeterioration, condition assessment, degradation, fungi, ignimbrite, lichens, physical properties, tombstones.
29686Sparkes J.H., de Lange P.J. & Blanchon D.J. (2014): Notes on Caloplaca allanii Zahlbr. (Teloschistaceae) a poorly known West Auckland, North Island, New Zealand endemic. - New Zealand Journal of Botany, 52(3): 304–309.
After a lapse of 81 years we report the rediscovery of Caloplaca allanii (Teloschistaceae), a lichen previously known only from the type collection. The species appears to be endemic to the Waitakere Ranges coastline west of Auckland, North Island, New Zealand. A revised description of the species based on fresh material is provided, and we expand the distribution of the species as well as describing its habitats and associated species. A table and key to the saxicolous, coastal Caloplaca of the Waitakere Ranges is also provided. As a narrow-range endemic, with apparently very specific habitat requirements, C. allanii is a naturally uncommon, biologically sparse species. Nevertheless because of the small total area of occupancy, we assess C. allanii as ‘Threatened’/‘Nationally Critical’ using the New Zealand Threat Classification System. Keywords: Caloplaca, Caloplaca allanii, Caloplaca acheila, Caloplaca cribosa, Caloplaca cf. litoralis, Teloschistaceae, ecology, conservation status, New Zealand mycobiota.
29685Park S.-Y., Jang S.-H., Oh S.-O., Kim J.A. & Hur J.-S. (2014): An easy, rapid, and cost-effective method for DNA extraction from various lichen taxa and specimens suitable for analysis of fungal and algal strains. - Mycobiology, 42(4): 311–316.
Lichen studies, including biodiversity, phylogenetic relationships, and conservation concerns require definitive species identification, however many lichens can be challenging to identify at the species level. Molecular techniques have shown efficacy in discriminating among lichen taxa, however, obtaining genomic DNA from herbarium and fresh lichen thalli by conventional methods has been difficult, because lichens contain high proteins, polysaccharides, and other complex compounds in their cell walls. Here we report a rapid, easy, and inexpensive protocol for extracting PCR-quality DNA from various lichen species. This method involves the following two steps: first, cell breakage using a beadbeater; and second, extraction, isolation, and precipitation of genomic DNA. The procedure requires approximately 10 mg of lichen thalli and can be completed within 20 min. The obtained DNAs were of sufficient quality and quantity to amplify the internal transcribed spacer region from the fungal and algal lichen components, as well as to sequence the amplified products. In addition, 26 different lichen taxa were tested, resulting in successful PCR products. The results of this study validated the experimental protocols, and clearly demonstrated the efficacy and value of our KCl extraction method applied in the fungal and algal samples. Keywords: Lichens, Fungi, Algae, Genomic DNA, rRNA, Sequencing.
29684Savale S.A., Pol C.S., Khare R., Verma N., Gaikwad S., Mandal B. & Behera B.C. (2016): Radical scavenging, prolyl endopeptidase inhibitory, and antimicrobial potential of a cultured Himalayan lichen Cetrelia olivetorum. - Pharmaceutical Biology, 54(4): 692–700.
Context: Lichens are source of natural bioactive compounds which are traditionally used to cure a variety of ailments. Objective: The objective of this study is to assess free radical scavenging, prolyl endopeptidase inhibitory (PEPI), and antimicrobial potential of a high altitude lichen species Cetrelia olivetorum (Nyl.) W. L. Culb. & C. F. Culb (Parmeliaceae). Materials and methods: Lichen C. olivetorum has been cultured in vitro, and optimized culture conditions were implemented in bioreactor to obtain high quantity of biomass for the study of radical scavenging, PEPI, and antimicrobial activities. Radical scavenging activity of methanol extract of Cetrelia olivetorum (MECO) was tested at 100 µg/mL, PEPI activity at 25 and 50 µg/mL, and antimicrobial activity at 5, 25, 50, and 100 µg/mL conc. All the biological activities of natural thallus extract and its derived culture extract were evaluated spectrophotometrically. Results: Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 3% glucose and 100 ppb indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) supported biomass growth at flask level and yielded 5.095 g biomass in bioreactor. MECO of both the cultured and the natural lichen exhibited half inhibiting concentration (IC50) for radical scavenging activities in the range of 50–60 µg/mL, whereas the IC50 value of standard antioxidants was found to be in the range of 12–29 µg/mL. The IC50 value of lichen extract for PEPI activity was 144–288 µg/mL, whereas the IC50 value of standard prolyl endopeptidase inhibitor, Z-pro-prolinal, was 57.73 µg/mL. As far as the antimicrobial activity of MECO is concerned, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of lichen extracts against tested microorganisms was obtained in the range of 50–104 µg/mL and found to be more effective than commercially available standard erythromycin. Discussion: Murashige and Skoog medium containing IBA was found to be suitable for maximum biomass production of C. olivetorum under bioreactor conditions. The cultured lichen biomass extract also showed antioxidant, PEPI, and antimicrobial potential. Conclusion: The present study indicates therapeutic potential of Himalayan lichen C. olivetorum against neurodegenerative diseases owing to its radical scavenging, PEPI, and antimicrobial activities. Further, the result encourages its commercial exploitation through mass culture for production of its bioactive components and their use in pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries. Keywords: Antioxidants, lichenized fungi, minimum inhibitory concentration, neurodegenerative diseases.
29683Studzińska-Sroka E., Piotrowska H., Kucińska M., Murias M. & Bylka W. (2016): Cytotoxic activity of physodic acid and acetone extract from Hypogymnia physodes against breast cancer cell lines. - Pharmaceutical Biology, 54(11): 2480–2485.
Context: Lichens produce specific secondary metabolites with different biological activity. Objective: This study investigated the cytotoxic effects of physodic acid, in addition to the total phenolic content and cytotoxic and antioxidant activity of acetone extract from Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. (Parmeliaceae). Materials and methods: Cytotoxicity of physodic acid (0.1–100 μM) was assessed in MDA-MB-231, MCF-7 and T-47D breast cancer cell lines and a nontumorigenic MCF-10A cell line using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, neutral red uptake and crystal violet assays during 72 h of incubation. An MTT assay was also used to assess the cytotoxic effects of the acetone extract (0.1–100 μg/mL) in the MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, T-47D breast cancer cell lines after 72 h. The total phenolic content of the acetone extract, expressed as the gallic acid equivalent, was investigated using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. The antioxidant activity of the extract was assessed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and ferric-reducing antioxidant power assays. Results: The cytotoxic activity of physodic acid appeared to be strong in the tumorigenic cell lines (IC50 46.0–93.9 μM). The compound was inactive against the nontumorigenic MCF-10A cell line (IC50 >100 μM). The acetone extract showed cytotoxicity in the breast cancer cell lines (IC50 46.2–110.4 μg/mL). The acetone extract was characterized by a high content of polyphenols, and it had significant antioxidant activity. Discussion and conclusion: Physodic acid and acetone extract from H. physodes displayed cytotoxic effects in the breast cancer cell lines. Furthermore, acetone extract from H. physodes possessed significant antioxidant properties. Keywords: Anticancer, antioxidant, depsidone, lichen, polyphenols.
29682Koç Ş.N., Ataşlar E., Türk A. &. Tufan-Çetіn Ö. (2017): Lichens of Barla Mountain in Isparta, Turkey: Diversity study and ecological assessment of the area. - Plant Biosystems, 151(6): 985–995.
This study reports on 230 infrageneric lichenized and lichenicolous taxa from Barla Mountain, Isparta, Turkey and assesses the ecological features of the area using the distribution of the lichens in the region and their poleophoby and solar irradiation ecological indicator values. One lichenized fungus, Protoblastenia terricola, and one lichenicolous fungus, Zwackhiomyces dispersus, are recorded as new in Turkey and 194 taxa are reported for the first time from Barla Mountain. After this research, number of the lichenized and lichenicolous fungi taxa of Barla Mountain rose to 241. Based on assessments using the ecological indicator values, the area is dominated by natural or semi-natural and well-preserved habitats. Keywords: Biodiversity, ecological indicator value, lichens, lichenicolous fungi, Barla Mountain.
29681Sandoval-Leiva P., Niveiro N., Urbina-Casanova R. & Scherson R. (2017): Lichenomphalia altoandina, a new species of Hygrophoraceae from the Chilean Altiplano. - Mycologia, 109(1): 92–99.
Lichenomphalia is a lichenized agaric genus characterized by its omphalinoid basidiomes. Lichenomphalia species are associated with unicellular green algae in the genus Coccomyxa and are mainly distributed in polar and alpine habitats. The aim of this work is to describe L. altoandina, a new species from northern Chile that grows among cushion plants over 3000 m above sea level in the Andes Mountains. The species is remarkable for living in highly saline environments, in some cases virtually on salt crusts. Lichenomphalia altoandina differs from other known species and particularly from L. aurantiaca, the most morphologically similar species, in its smooth and broader stipe and its slightly larger spores. Lichenomphalia altoandina is also morphologicaly and ecologically more similar to the core Lichenomphalia clade. Our phylogenetic study based on nuclear rDNA ITS and partial 28S sequences shows that L. altoandina belongs to the Protolichenomphalia clade and is sister to an unknown lineage, L. aff. umbellifera, from New Zealand. Key words: basidiolichen, Basidiomycota, Chile, Lichenomphalia aurantiaca, L. chromacea, phylogeny.
29680Pol C.S., Savale S.A., Khare R., Verma N. & Behera B.C. (2017): Antioxidative, cardioprotective, and anticancer potential of two lichenized fungi, Everniastrum cirrhatum and Parmotrema reticulatum, from Western Ghats of India. - Journal of Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants, 23(2): 142–156.
The antioxidative, cardioprotective, and anticancer potential of extracts of the edible lichens Everniastrum cirrhatum and Parmotrema reticulatum were evaluated. Acetone extracts of P. reticulatum exhibited nitric oxide scavenging and anti-lipid peroxidation in the range of 35.0–97.0%. IC50 values of extracts for angiotensin-converting enzyme and HMG-CoA reductase inhibition were observed in the range of 97–375 µg.mL–1 and 89–118 µg.mL–1, respectively, against standard inhibitors captopril (32 µg.mL–1) and pravastatin (26 µg.mL–1); methanol extract of P. reticulatum displayed the highest cytotoxicity, reducing HCT-116 cell viability to 40%, suggesting potential use of these lichens as nutraceuticals. Keywords: Cancer drugs, cardiac diseases, cytotoxicity, nutraceuticals, oxidative stress, parmelioid lichens.
29679Park J.S., Park S.-Y., Park C.-H., Jang S.-H. & Hur J.-S. (2018): Arthothelium punctatum (Arthoniaceae, Arthoniales), a new lichen species from South Korea. - Mycobiology, 45(4): 255–262.
A total of 121 species of lichens belonging to the genus Arthothelium have been described to date, most of which have been found in tropical regions. Here, we describe the discovery of a novel Arthothelium species for the first time in South Korea. Until now, Arthothelium ruanum was the only Arthothelium species reported in South Korea. Among the 113 specimens collected in this study, we identified A. ruanum and a putative new species, Arthothelium punctatum (J. S. Park & J.-S. Hur, sp. nov.). The diagnostic characters of A. punctatum are as follows: apothecia punctate, shortly elongate to branched, small, 0.1–0.2 mm wide, hypothecium hyaline to pale brown and obovate to broadly ellipsoid, muriform ascospores, 29.5–44.6 × 12.2–18.2 μm. The new species was found in Mt. Seokbyeong at an altitude of 790 m on smooth bark. Upon phylogenic analysis, the putative new species, A. punctatum, was separated from other Arthothelium species although the specimens analyzed were clustered with Arthoniaceae in phylogenetic trees based on both the mitochondrial small subunit (mtSSU) sequence and combined mtSSU and nuclear ribosomal large subunit sequences. Our data clearly indicate that this species is a new species belonging to the family Arthoniaceae. To elucidate the taxonomic characteristics of the new species, we provide morphological descriptions and a distribution map. Keywords: Arthothelium, mtSSU, nuLSU, Phylogenic analysis, RPB2, Taxonomy.
29678Halıcı M.G., Bartak M. & Güllü M. (2018): Identification of some lichenised fungi from James Ross Island (Antarctic Peninsula) using nrITS markers. - New Zealand Journal of Botany, 56(3): 276–290.
James Ross Island (Antarctic Peninsula) is one of the lichen rich islands of Antarctica because of its large deglaciated area, with over 140 species of lichenised fungi being reported from the island. Because of its rich lichen biodiversity we decided to study the lichen biodiversity of James Ross Island in more detail, using molecular techniques in addition to morphological characters. Collections made from James Ross Island in the 2016–2017 season by the first and second authors showed that lichen biodiversity of Antarctica is still poorly known and that molecular studies should be carried out to determine the lichen mycota of the white continent. For this research we selected five species and, after morphological and anatomical studies, we also worked with the nrITS gene regions of the selected specimens. Aspicilia virginea and Peltigera ponojensis are new to Antarctica and we provide nrITS data for Candelaria murrayi and Flavoparmelia gerlachei for the first time. Austroplaca frigida was only known from continental Antarctica and we report this species from maritime Antarctica for the first time. Detailed descriptions, habitat preferences and nrITS phylogenies of these species are provided. We believe that the lichen biodiversity of Antarctica will be much better known if molecular techniques are used in the classification of lichenised fungi. Keywords: Antarctica; lichens; nrITS; polar lichens.
29677Voglmayr H., Fournier J. & Jaklitsch W.M. (2019): Two new classes of Ascomycota: Xylobotryomycetes and Candelariomycetes. - Persoonia, 42: 36–49.
Phylogenetic analyses of a combined DNA data matrix containing nuclear small and large subunits (nSSU, nLSU) and mitochondrial small subunit (mtSSU) ribosomal RNA and the largest and second largest subunits of the RNA polymerase II (rpb1, rpb2) of representative Pezizomycotina revealed that the enigmatic genera Xylobotryum and Cirrosporium form an isolated, highly supported phylogenetic lineage within Leotiomyceta. Acknowledging their morphological and phylogenetic distinctness, we describe the new class Xylobotryomycetes, containing the new order Xylobotryales with the two new families Xylobotryaceae and Cirrosporiaceae. The two currently accepted species of Xylobotryum, X. andinum and X. portentosum, are described and illustrated by light and scanning electron microscopy. The generic type species X. andinum is epitypified with a recent collection for which a culture and sequence data are available. Acknowledging the phylogenetic distinctness of Candelariomycetidae from Lecanoromycetes revealed in previous and the current phylogenetic analyses, the new class Candelariomycetes is proposed. Keywords: Ascomycota; Dothideomycetes; Eurotiomycetes; Sordariomycetes; five new taxa; multigene phylogenetic analyses; pyrenomycetes.
29676Rolshausen G., Dal Grande F., Sadowska‐Deś A.D., Otte J. & Schmitt I. (2018): Quantifying the climatic niche of symbiont partners in a lichen symbiosis indicates mutualist‐mediated niche expansions. - Ecography, 41(8): 1380–1392.
The large distributional areas and ecological niches of many lichenized fungi may in part be due to the plasticity in interactions between the fungus (mycobiont) and its algal or cyanobacterial partners (photobionts). On the one hand, broad‐scale phylogenetic analyses show that partner compatibility in lichens is rather constrained and shaped by reciprocal selection pressures and codiversification independent of ecological drivers. On the other hand, sub‐species‐level associations among lichen symbionts appear to be environmentally structured rather than phylogenetically constrained. In particular, switching between photobiont ecotypes with distinct environmental preferences has been hypothesized as an adaptive strategy for lichen‐forming fungi to broaden their ecological niche. The extent and direction of photobiont‐mediated range expansions in lichens, however, have not been examined comprehensively at a broad geographic scale. Here we investigate the population genetic structure of Lasallia pustulata symbionts at sub‐species‐level resolution across the mycobiont's Europe‐wide range, using fungal MCM7 and algal ITS rDNA sequence markers. We show that variance in occurrence probabilities in the geographic distribution of genetic diversity in mycobiont‐photobiont interactions is closely related to changes in climatic niches. Quantification of niche extent and overlap based on species distribution modeling and construction of Hutchinsonian climatic hypervolumes revealed that combinations of fungal–algal interactions change at the sub‐species level along latitudinal temperature gradients and in Mediterranean climate zones. Our study provides evidence for symbiont‐mediated niche expansion in lichens. We discuss our results in the light of symbiont polymorphism and partner switching as potential mechanisms of environmental adaptation and niche evolution in mutualisms.
29675Molins A., Moya P., García‐Breijo F.J., Reig‐Armiñana J. & Barreno E. (2018): Molecular and morphological diversity of Trebouxia microalgae in sphaerothallioid Circinaria spp. lichens. - Journal of Phycology, 54: 494–504.
Three vagrant (Circinaria hispida, Circinaria gyrosa, and Circinaria sp. ‘paramerae’) and one crustose (semi‐vagrant, Circinaria sp. ‘oromediterranea’) lichens growing in very continental areas in the Iberian Peninsula were selected to study the phycobiont diversity. Mycobiont identification was checked using nrITS DNA barcoding: Circinaria sp. ‘oromediterranea’ and Circinaria sp. ‘paramerae’ formed a new clade. Phycobiont diversity was analyzed in 50 thalli of Circinaria spp. using nrITS DNA and LSU rDNA, with microalgae coexistence being found in all the species analyzed by Sanger sequencing. The survey of phycobiont diversity showed up to four different Trebouxia spp. as the primary phycobiont in 20 thalli of C. hispida, in comparison with the remaining Circinaria spp., where only one Trebouxia was the primary microalga. In lichen species showing coexistence, some complementary approaches are needed (454 pyrosequencing and/or ultrastructural analyses). Five specimens were selected for high‐throughput screening (HTS) analyses: 22 Trebouxia OTUs were detected, 10 of them not previously known. TEM analyses showed three different cell morphotypes (Trebouxia sp. OTU A12, OTU S51, and T. cretacea) whose ultrastructure is described here in detail for the first time. HTS revealed a different microalgae pool in each species studied, and we cannot assume a specific pattern between these pools and the ecological and/or morphological characteristics. The mechanisms involved in the selection of the primary phycobiont and the other microalgae by the mycobiont are unknown, and require complex experimental designs. The systematics of the genus Circinaria is not yet well resolved, and more analyses are needed to establish a precise delimitation of the species. Keywords: 454 pyrosequencing; Sanger sequencing; Trebouxia; coexistence; ultrastructure; vagrant lichen.
29674Heuchert B., Braun U., Diederich P. & Ertz D. (2018): Taxonomic monograph of the genus Taeniolella s. lat. (Ascomycota). - Fungal Systematics and Evolution, 2: 69–261.
A taxonomic monograph of the ascomycete genus Taeniolella (asexual dematiaceous hyphomycetes, sexual morphs unknown) is provided. Recent phylogenetic analyses demonstrated the polyphyly of this genus. The type species of Taeniolella pertains to the Kirschsteiniotheliaceae within Dothideomycetes, while other saprobic species clustered far away within Sordariomycetes, Savoryellaceae s. lat., and Lindgomycetaceae, whereas lichenicolous species belong to a monophyletic clade that represents the order Asterotexiales, but for most species assigned to Taeniolella sequence data and phylogenetic analyses are not yet available. The main focus of the present taxonomic study was on a revision of the lichenicolous Taeniolella species. Since the currently available phylogenetic analyses do not allow final taxonomic conclusions at generic rank, the exclusion of lichenicolous species from Taeniolella s. lat. has been postponed pending a broader sampling and more phylogenetic data of allied ascomycete genera within the order Asterotexiales. For the interim, Taeniolella s. lat., including lichenicolous and saprobic species, is maintained. The taxonomic background, history, generic description and discrimination from morphologically confusable genera, phylogeny, biology, host range and distribution, and species concept of Taeniolella species are briefly outlined and discussed. Keys to the species of Taeniolella divided by ecological groups (lichenicolous taxa, saprobic taxa) are provided, supplemented by a tabular key to lichenicolous species based on host (lichen) families and genera. Twenty-nine lichenicolous species and a Taeniolella sp. (putative asexual morph of Sphaerellothecium thamnoliae) as well as 16 saprobic species are described in detail and illustrated by drawings, macroscopic photographs, light microscopic and SEM micrographs, including six new lichenicolous species (T. arctoparmeliae on Arctoparmelia separata, T. lecanoricola on Lecanora rupicola, T. thelotrematis on Thelotrema, T. umbilicariae and T. umbilicariicola on Umbilicaria, T. weberi on Thelotrema weberi), three new saprobic species (T. filamentosa on Salix, T. ravenelii on Quercus, T. stilbosporoides on Salix caprea), and one new combination, T. arthoniae. Keywords: Ascomycetes; Asterotexiales; hyphomycetes; lichenicolous; new taxa; saprobic.
29673Yu N.H., Park S.-Y., Kim J.A., Park C.-H., Jeong M.-H., Oh S.-O., Hong S.G., Talavera M., Divakar P.K. & Hur J.-S. (2018): Endophytic and endolichenic fungal diversity in maritime Antarctica based on cultured material and their evolutionary position among Dikarya. - Fungal Systematics and Evolution, 2: 263–272.
Fungal endophytes comprise one of the most ubiquitous groups of plant symbionts. They live asymptomatically within vascular plants, bryophytes and also in close association with algal photobionts inside lichen thalli. While endophytic diversity in land plants has been well studied, their diversity in lichens and bryophytes are poorly understood. Here, we compare the endolichenic and endophytic fungal communities isolated from lichens and bryophytes in the Barton Peninsula, King George Island, Antarctica. A total of 93 fungal isolates were collected from lichens and bryophytes. In order to determine their identities and evolutionary relationships, DNA sequences of the nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS), nuclear ribosomal small subunit (nuSSU), nuclear large subunit (nuLSU), and mitochondrial SSU (mtSSU) rDNA were obtained and protein coding markers of the two largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB1 and RPB2) were generated. Multilocus phylogenetic analyses revealed that most of the fungal isolates were distributed in the following six classes in the phylum Ascomycota: Dothideomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, Lecanoromycetes, Leotiomycetes, Pezizomycetes and Sordariomycetes. For the first time we report the presence of subphylum Mortierellomycotina that may belong to an undescribed order in endophytic fungi. Taken together, our results imply that lichens and bryophytes provide similar niches and harbour a selection of these fungi, indicating generalists within the framework of evolutionary adaptation. Keywords: bryophytes; endophytes; lichens; multi-locus molecular phylogeny.
29672Boluda C.G., Rico V.J., Divakar P.K., Nadyeina O., Myllys L., McMullin R.T., Zamora J.C., Scheidegger C. & Hawksworth D.L. (2019): Evaluating methodologies for species delimitation: the mismatch between phenotypes and genotypes in lichenized fungi (Bryoria sect. Implexae, Parmeliaceae). - Persoonia, 42: 75–100.
In many lichen-forming fungi, molecular phylogenetic analyses lead to the discovery of cryptic species within traditional morphospecies. However, in some cases, molecular sequence data also questions the separation of phenotypically characterised species. Here we apply an integrative taxonomy approach ‒ including morphological, chemical, molecular, and distributional characters ‒ to re-assess species boundaries in a traditionally speciose group of hair lichens, Bryoria sect. Implexae. We sampled multilocus sequence and microsatellite data from 142 specimens from a broad intercontinental distribution. Molecular data included DNA sequences of the standard fungal markers ITS, IGS, GAPDH, two newly tested loci (FRBi15 and FRBi16), and SSR frequencies from 18 microsatellite markers. Datasets were analysed with Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic reconstruction, phenogram reconstruction, STRUCTURE Bayesian clustering, principal coordinate analysis, haplotype network, and several different species delimitation analyses (ABGD, PTP, GMYC, and DISSECT). Additionally, past population demography and divergence times are estimated. The different approaches to species recognition do not support the monophyly of the 11 currently accepted morphospecies, and rather suggest the reduction of these to four phylogenetic species. Moreover, three of these are relatively recent in origin and cryptic, including phenotypically and chemically variable specimens. Issues regarding the integration of an evolutionary perspective into taxonomic conclusions in species complexes, which have undergone recent diversification, are discussed. The four accepted species, all epitypified by sequenced material, are Bryoria fuscescens, B. glabra, B. kockiana, and B. pseudofuscescens. Ten species rank names are reduced to synonymy. In the absence of molecular data, they can be recorded as the B. fuscescens complex. Intraspecific phenotype plasticity and factors affecting the speciation of different morphospecies in this group of Bryoria are outlined. Keywords: chemotypes; cryptic species; haplotypes; incomplete lineage sorting; integrative taxonomy; microsatellites; speciation; species concepts.
29671Barták M., Pláteníková E., Carreras H., Hájek J., Morkusová J., Mateos A.C. & Marečková M. (2018): Effect of UV-B radiation on the content of UV-B absorbing compound s and photosynthetic parameters in Parmotrema austrosinense from two contrasting habitats. - Plant Biology , 20(5): 808–816.
We studied the resistance of Parmotrema austrosinense to UV‐B stress. We focused on the effects of a high dose UV‐B radiation on the content of chlorophylls, carotenoids and UV‐B screening compounds. Photosynthetic parameters were measured by chlorophyll fluorescence (potential and effective quantum yields, photochemical and non‐photochemical quenching) and evaluated in control and UV‐B‐treated lichens. Lichens from two different locations in Cordoba, Argentina, were selected: (i) high altitude and dry plots at (Los Gigantes) and (ii) lowland high salinity plots (Salinas Grandes). UV‐B treatment led to a decrease in the content of photosynthetic pigments and UV‐B screens (absorbance decrease in 220–350 nm) in the samples from Salinas Grandes, while in Los Gigantes samples, an increase in UV‐B screen content was observed. Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters showed a UV‐B‐induced decline in FV/FM, ΦPSII and qP indicating limitation of primary photosynthetic processes in photosystem II (PSII) of symbiotic alga, more pronounced in Salinas Grandes samples. Protective mechanism of PSII were activated by the UV‐B treatment to a higher extent in samples from Salinas Grandes (NPQ 0.48) than in Los Gigantes samples (NPQ 0.26). We concluded that site‐related characteristics, and in particular different UV‐B radiation regimen, had a strong effect on resistance of the photosynthetic apparatus of P. austrosinense to UV‐B radiation. Keywords: Absorbance; UV spectra; UV‐B resistance; chlorophyll fluorescence parameters; lichens.
29670Malmström C. (1966): Sickla udde vid Hammarby sjö. Ett intressant område inom Stockholm med från äldre tid ännu bibehållen vegetation [Sickla udde on the lake Hammarby sjö. An interesting area within Stockholm with a vegetation maintained from older times]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 60(1): 1–22.
[in Swedish] (med bidrag av S. Ahlner, E. Asplund och E. Nyholm) [with a contribution by S. Ahlner, E. Asplund and E. Nyholm] a voluminous list of lichens, amended by a paragraph on some commented species prepared by S.Ahlner (p. 21-22)
29669Coca L.F., Lücking R. & Moncada B. (2018): Two new, sympatric and semi-cryptic species of Sulzbacheromyces (Lichenized Basidiomycota, Lepidostromatales) from the Chocó Biogeographic Region in Colombia. - Bryologist, 121(3): 297–305.
Nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region is well-established as universal DNA barcode marker for Fungi. Here we examined the utility of DNA barcoding for delimiting species in lichenized Basidiomycota from Colombia, focusing on the genus Sulzbacheromyces (Lepidostromatales). The topology of the best-scoring maximum likelihood tree based on ITS data shows eight separate, wellsupported lineages within Sulzbacheromyces, including the six already known species S. caatingae from Brazil, S. miomboensis De Kesel & Ertz from Africa, and S. bicolor, S. fossicola, S. sinensis, and S. yunnanensis from Asia. In addition, two further, sympatric and semi-cryptic species from the Chocó Biogeographic Region, one of the most diverse regions of the world, are recognized: S. chocoensis Coca, Lücking & Moncada sp. nov and S. tutunendo Coca, Lücking & Moncada sp. nov. Both form separate, strongly supported species-level lineages, but differ morphologically from each other and from S. caatingae in minor details only, which are best assessed with fresh material in the field. Keywords: Basidiolichens, cryptic speciation, ITS barcoding, maximum likelihood, phylogeny.
29668Albertson N. (1940): Rhytidium rugosum (Hedw.) Lindb. i Fennoscandia. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 34(2): 77–100.
[in Swedish] several moss-associated lichens mentioned
29667Du Rietz G.E. (1942): Rishedsförband i Torneträskområdets lågfjällbälte. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 36(2–3): 124–146.
[in Swedish with German summary: ] Zwergstrauchheideverbiinde in der unteralpinen Stufe des Torneträskgebietes. Drei Verbände werden in der unteralpinen Zwergstrauchheide Fennoskandias unterschieden. Der Dryadion (octopetalae) - Verband (Kalliola 1939, Elynion Bellardii boreoarcticum Nordhagen 1936) der kalkreichen, zirkumneutralen Böden ist artenreich und wird durch viele kalkfordernde Scheidearten, die in den beiden anderen Verbänden ganz oder fast ganz fehlen, von diesen getrennt. Der Empetrion (emyrtillosum)-Verband (Loiseleurieto- Diapension Nordhagen in Braun-Blanquet, Sissingh und Vlieger 1939, Loiseleurieto-Arctostaphylion, Kalliola 1939) und der Myrtillion (alpinum)-Verband (Phyllodoco- Vaccinion Nordhagen 1936) der kalkarmen, stark sauren Böden sind artenarm. Die Grenze zwischen dem einen guten winterlichen Schneeschutz entbehrenden Empetrion und dem im Winter gut schneegeschützten Myrtillion wird am besten nach dem völligen Verschwinden der im Empetrion fehlenden Scheidearten Vaccinium Myrtillus und Deschampsia flexuosa gezogen.
29666Du Rietz G.E. (1945): Om fattigbark- och rikbarksamhällen. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 39(1): 147–150.
[in Swedish] autoreferat; an extract from a lecture; lichen communities in relation to bark pH are discussed
29665Tunblad R. (1943): Några västgötalokaler för Stereocaulon tyroliense (Nyl.) Lettau v. Iapponicum H. Magn.. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 37(3): 308–309.
29664Tunblad R. (1943): Ett intressant Umbilicariafynd i Västergötland. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 37(3): 307–308.
29663Westfeldt G.A. (1947): Vegetationen på Kråkeboberg vid Ulricehamn. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 41(1): 159–181.
29662Albertson N. (1945): Leptogium palmatum (Huds.) Mont. på Varaslätten. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 39(1): 118–120.
29661Albertson N. (1941): Bidrag till Falbygdens moss- och lavflora. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 35(2): 113–132.
29660Sernander R. (1943): Bernt Lynge. Några minnesord. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 37(4): 425–428.
[in Swedish] biography
29659Almquist E. (1944): Sigfrid Almquist 18 15/2 44 - 19 18/10 23. En minnesteckning. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 38(4): 459–464.
[in Swedish] biography
29658Pettersson B. (1946): Mannia fragrans (Balbis) Frye et Clark. Ett nytt tillskott till den svenska marchantiacé-floran. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 40(1): 31–54.
[in Swedish with English summary] Mannia fragrans (Balbis) Frye et Clark. A new addition to the Swedish Marchantiaceous flora. Some lichens associated with the liverwort on the Swedish localities are listed.
29657Peterson B. (1948): Nytt fynd av Usnea florida (L.) Wigg. i Halland. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 42(3): 288.
[in Swedish with English summary: ] A new find of Usnea florida (L.) Wigg. in Halland. Most collections of Usnea florida (L.) Wigg. in Sweden are rather old. In the province of Halland, where Usnea florida was collected in the year 1898, the author found a new locality for the lichen in 1947. It was growing on Picea together with Usnea comosa (Ach.) Röhl. Lars Montin, one of the pupils of Linnaeus, has collected a specimen of Usnea florida and perhaps it originates from Halland, where he had been living for many years.
29656Peterson B. (1948): Föreningens exkursion till Munkön den 6 juni 1948. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 42(4): 512–515.
[in Swedish] Report on excursion; two dozens of lichens demonstrated by T.E. Hasselrot listed.
29655Hasselrot T.E. (1945): Fynd av sällsynta eller förbisedda lavar i Västergötland. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 39(1): 125–136.
29654Hasselrot T.E. (1945): Parmelia dubia (Wulf.) Schaer. funnen i Sverige. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 39(2): 238–241.
[in Swedish with German summary: ] Parmelia dubia (Wulf.) Schaer. in Schweden gefunden. — Die genannte Flechte wurde am 4.III. 1945 vom Verf. in einem einzigen kleinen Exemplar (Fig. 1 a) S vom alten Pfarrhof Stabby im Ksp. Bondkyrko bei Uppsala in Uppland auf einem dicken Ast eines alten schwedischen Mehlbeerbaumes in lichtem Mischwald angetroffen. Die Flechtenflora am Fundort war die für massig staubimprägnierte Laubbaumstämme charakteristische. Ältere Angaben über das Vorkommen der im übrigen Europa weit verbreiteten Art in Fennoskandien (E. Fries 1831, Hellbom 1868) sind unzuverlässig. Eine wahrscheinlich hierher gehörende braune, auf Stein wachsende Form ist aber von S. Ahlner an mehreren Stellen in Südnorwegen (Opland) gefunden worden. Aus Dänemark ist nur ein einziger Fundort im südlichsten Teil Jütlands bekannt (Erichsen 1941). Schliesslich werden — ebenfalls aus Uppland, Gegend von Uppsala — zwei vom Verf. entdeckte Fundorte (die nördlichsten bisher in Schweden bekannten) für die südliche Candelariella luteoalba mitgeteilt.
29653Elvers I. (1945): A simple method of making freehand sections. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 39(2): 192–196.
Among else, a section of thallus of Ramalina fraxinea presented.
29652Joshi Y., Falswal A., Tripathi M., Upadhyay S., Bisht A., Chandra K., Bajpai R. & Upreti D.K. (2016): One hundred and five species of lichenicolous biota from India: An updated checklist for the country. - Mycosphere, 7(3): 268–294.
The knowledge about lichenicolous fungi and lichenicolous lichens occurring in India is summarized. Data on altogether 105 taxa are presented of which 51 species viz. Abrothallus parmeliarum, Acremonium lichenicola, Arthonia clemens, A. epiphyscia, A. phaeophysciae, A. subconveniens, Bellemerella acarosporae, Briancoppinsia cytospora, Buelliella lecanorae, B. minimula, B. protoparmeliopseos, Caeruleoconidia ochrolechiae, Carbonea aggregantula, C. assimilis, Cercidospora caudata, C. werneri, Dactylospora homoclinella, D. saxatilis, Didymocyrtis ramalinae, Endococcus propinquus, E. perpusillus, Geltingia associata, Intralichen lichenicola, Kalchbrenneriella cyanescens, Labrocarpon canariensis, Lichenochora verrucicola, Lichenoconium lecanorae, Lichenostigma maureri, L. triseptatum, Lichenothelia convexa, Monerolechia badia, Muellerella lichenicola, M. ventosicola, Odontotrema pertusariae, Opegrapha brigantina, Polycoccum microsticticum, P. peltigerae, Polysporina subfuscescens, Rhymbocarpus pertusariae, Sclerococcum simplex, S. sphaerale, Sphaerellothecium atryneae, S. contextum, S. propinquellum, S. reticulatum, Spirographa fusisporella, Stigmidium cerinae, S. frigidum, S. xanthoparmeliarum, Taeniolella delicata and Zwackhiomyces lecanorae are recorded for the first time from India. Of these 105 species, 103 species are lichenicolous fungi and two species of lichens occur on other lichens, which makes the country one of the best-studied areas in Asia regarding lichenicolous mycobiota. Nine species of lichenicolous fungi or lichens are reported from new host genera. Dendriscocaulon umhausense, reported from Kerala and Tamil Nadu, is excluded from the study, since it is not lichenicolous but forms a photomorph. Key words – Anamorphic fungi – Asia – Ascomycetes – Basidiomycetes – Biodiversity – Coelomycetes – Hyphomycetes.
29651Wijayawardene N.N., Hyde K.D., Tibpromma S., Wanasinghe D.N., Thambugala K.M., Tian Q. & Wang Y. (2017): Towards incorporating asexual fungi in a natural classification: checklist and notes 2012–2016. - Mycosphere, 8(9): 1457–1555.
Incorporating asexual genera in a natural classification system and proposing one name for pleomorphic genera are important topics in the current era of mycology. Recently, several polyphyletic genera have been restricted to a single family, linked with a single sexual morph or spilt into several unrelated genera. Thus, updating existing data bases and check lists is essential to stay abreast of these recent advanes. In this paper, we update the existing outline of asexual genera and provide taxonomic notes for asexual genera which have been introduced since 2012. Approximately, 320 genera have been reported or linked with a sexual morph, but most genera lack sexual morphs. Keywords – Article 59.1 – Coelomycetous – Hyphomycetous – One name – Pleomorphism.
29650Özyiğitoğlu G., Açıkgöz B., Tahiroğlu G. & Sesal N.C. (2017): Comparison of antibacterial and antibiofilm activity properties of Hypogymnia tubulosa (Schaer.) Hav. lichen extracts from different locations in Turkey. - Mycosphere, 8(8): 994–1002.
The levels of bioactivity in lichens can change in response to environmental stress. For this reason, it was decided to compare the activity levels of Hypogymnia tubulosa (Schaer.) Hav. (Parmeliaceae) samples collected from six different localities in Turkey and the factors that may be effective. We also questioned our opinion that antibacterial activity is not directly proportional to the effectiveness of the antibiotic. The in vitro antibacterial activity and antibiofilm effect of diethyl ether (DE) and chloroform-methanol-acetone (CMA) extracts of the lichen H. tubulosa were explored against two pathogenic microbial strains of Staphylococcus aureus-ATCC 25923 and Enterococcus faecalis-ATCC 29212. Antibacterial activity was screened by disk diffusion method through the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). Biofilm inhibitory potency of the extracts was measured by spectrophotometrically. Most of the tested extracts of H. tubulosa demonstrated inhibitory effects against S. aureus and E. faecalis as strong as antibiotics. Differences of the findings depending on locality, habitat and extract variables were evaluated. The most antibacterially active samples were from Bursa (Location 4 and 6), both DE and CMA extracts with MIC values of 100 μg/ml, did not show inhibition effect against the bacterial biofilm. CMA extract of the Bolu sample (Location 3) with lower antibacterial effect, significantly reduced biofilm formation of both strains measured with lower absorbance levels compared to control groups. This result confirms that the samples with low antibacterial activity have more inhibitory effect on biofilm formation. In addition, different results were obtained according to localities among the samples of the same lichen species. Environmental factors influence the active substances produced by lichens. The results of this study present evidences of antibiofilm potential as well as strong antibacterial effect of H. tubulosa as promising source of antibacterial drugs. Keywords – Hypogymnia tubulosa – antibacterial activity – MIC – antibiofilm aktivity.
29649Devkota S., Keller C., Olley L., Werth S., Chaudhary R.P. & Scheidegger C. (2017): Distribution and national conservation status of the lichen family Lobariaceae (Peltigerales): from subtropical luxuriant forests to the alpine scrub of Nepal Himalaya. - Mycosphere, 8(4): 630–648.
During 2007 - 2014, voucher specimens of Lobariaceae were collected from different geographic locations of Taplejung, Solukhumbu, Rasuwa, Gorkha, Manang, Kaski, and Myagdi districts of Nepal. Morphological characters, chemical tests and thin-layer chromatography techniques (TLC) were applied for the identification. Combining with earlier publications on Lobariaceae, this study summarized two genera Lobaria and Sticta each with seven and six species, reported from ten different districts of Nepal. The altitudinal distribution of the species varies from 1350 m to 5004 m (i.e. subtropical to alpine bioclimatic zones) above sea level, from Eastern, Central and Western parts of Nepal. Lobaria adscripturiens (Nyl.) Hue, L. fuscotomentosa Yoshim. L. aff. quercizans Michx. and S. limbata (Sm.) Ach. are new records for the lichen flora of Nepal. Major chemotypes and their distributions are presented and further work on molecular analyses of these specimens from Nepal is recommended for the understanding of their systematic position. Extensive exploration covering more geographical areas of Nepal will increase the understanding on taxonomy and ecology of this interesting lichen group. In the light of species occurrence and following IUCN criteria, we have also prepared the national conservation status of Lobariaceae species, which could provide further insights for the inclusion of species in national conservation priorities. Key words – Checklist – Lobaria – Sticta – Taxonomy – TLC.
29648Wijayawardene N.N., Hyde K.D., Divakar P.K., Rajeshkumar K.C., Weerahewa D., Delgado G., Wang Y. & Fu L. (2018): Notes for genera update – Ascomycota: 6616-6821. - Mycosphere, 9(1): 115–140.
Taxonomic knowledge of the Ascomycota, is rapidly changing because of use of molecular data, thus continuous updates of existing taxonomic data with new data is essential. In the current paper, we compile existing data of several genera missing from the recently published “Notes for genera-Ascomycota”. This includes 206 entries. Key words – Asexual genera – Data bases – Sexual genera – Taxonomy.
29647Hyde K.D., Chaiwan N., Norphanphoun C., Boonmee S., Camporesi E., Chethana K.W.T., Dayarathne M.C., de Silva N.I., Dissanayake A.J., Ekanayaka A.H., Hongsanan S., Huang S.K., Jayasiri S.C., Jayawardena R., Jiang H.B., Karunarathna A., Lin C.G., Liu J.K., Liu N.G., Lu Y.Z., Luo Z.L., Maharachchimbura S.S.N., Manawasinghe I.S., Pem D., Perera R.H., Phukhamsakda C., Samarakoon M.C., Senwanna C., Shang Q.J., Tennakoon D.S., Thambugala K.M., Tibpromma S., Wanasinghe D.N., Xiao Y.P., Yang J., Zeng X.Y., Zhang J.F., Zhang S.N., Bulgakov T.S., Bhat D.J., Cheewangkoon R., Goh T.K., Jones E.B.G., Kang J.C., Jeewon R., Liu Z.Y., Lumyong S., Kuo C.H., McKenzie E.H.C., Wen T.C., Yan J.Y. & Zhao Q. (2018): Mycosphere notes 169–224. - Mycosphere, 9(2): 271–430.
This is the fourth in a series of Mycosphere notes wherein we provide notes on various fungal genera. In this set of notes, we introduce Phaeoseptaceae as a new family, Pseudobyssosphaeria (Melanommataceae) as a new genus, 40 new species, 11 new host or country records, one reference specimen, one new combination and provide a description of the holotype of Uleodothis balansiana (Dothideaceae). The new species are Acrospermum longisporium (Acrospermaceae), Ascitendus aquaticus (Annulatascaceae), Ascochyta clinopodiicola (Didymellaceae), Asterina magnoliae (Asterinaceae), Barbatosphaeria aquatica (Barbatosphaeriaceae), Camarosporidiella populina (Camarosporidiellaceae), Chaetosphaeria mangrovei (Chaetosphaeriaceae), Cytospora predappioensis, Cytospora prunicola (Cytosporaceae), Dendryphiella phitsanulokensis (Dictyosporiaceae), Diaporthe subcylindrospora, Diaporthe subellipicola (Diaporthaceae), Diplodia arengae (Botryosphaeriaceae), Discosia querci (Sporocadaceae), Dyfrolomyces sinensis (Pleurotremataceae), Gliocladiopsis aquaticus (Nectriaceae), Hysterographium didymosporum (Pleosporomycetidae genera, incertae sedis), Kirschsteiniothelia phoenicis (Kirschsteiniotheliaceae), Leptogium thailandicum (Collemataceae), Lophodermium thailandicum (Rhytismataceae), Medicopsis chiangmaiensis (Neohendersoniaceae), Neocamarosporium phragmitis (Neocamarosporiaceae), Neodidymelliopsis negundinis (Didymellaceae), Neomassarina pandanicola (Sporormiaceae), Neooccultibambusa pandanicola (Occultibambusaceae), Neophaeosphaeria phragmiticola (Neophaeosphaeriaceae), Neosetophoma guiyangensis (Phaeosphaeriaceae), Neosetophoma shoemakeri (Phaeosphaeriaceae), Neosetophoma xingrensis (Phaeosphaeriaceae), Ophiocordyceps cylindrospora (Ophiocordycipitaceae), Otidea pseudoformicarum (Otideaceae), Periconia elaeidis (Periconiaceae), Phaeoisaria guttulata, Pleurotheciella krabiensis, Pleurotheciella tropica (Pleurotheciaceae), Pteridiospora bambusae (Astrosphaeriellaceae), Phaeoseptum terricola (Phaeoseptaceae), Poaceascoma taiwanense (Lentitheciaceae), Pseudobyssosphaeria bambusae (Melanommataceae) and Roussoella mangrovei (Roussoellaceae). The new host records or new country records are provided for Alfaria terrestris (Stachybotryaceae), Arthrinium phragmites (Apiosporaceae), Bertiella ellipsoidea (Melanommataceae), Brevicollum hyalosporum (Neohendersoniaceae), Byssosphaeria siamensis (Melanommataceae), Cerothallia subluteoalba (Teloschistaceae), Cryptophiale hamulata (Chaetosphaeriaceae), Didymella aliena (Didymellaceae), Epicoccum nigrum (Didymellaceae), Periconia pseudobyssoides (Periconiaceae) and Truncatella angustata (Sporocadaceae). We provide new molecular data for 52 species and updated phylogenetic trees for 15 orders (Acrospermales, Amphisphaeriales, Annulatascales, Asterinales, Botryosphaeriales, Chaetosphaeriales, Diaporthales, Dyfrolomycetales, Hypocreales, Kirschsteiniotheliales, Peltigerales, Pleosporales, Pleurotheciales, Rhytismatales and Teloschistales) and 35 families (Acrospermaceae, Annulatascaceae, Apiosporaceae, Asterinaceae, Astrosphaeriellaceae, Barbatosphaeriaceae, Botryosphaeriaceae, Camarosporidiellaceae, Chaetosphaeriaceae, Collemataceae, Cytosporaceae, Diaporthaceae, Dictyosporiaceae, Didymellaceae, Kirschsteiniotheliaceae, Lentitheciaceae, Melanommataceae, Neocamarosporiaceae, Neohendersoniaceae, Neophaeosphaeriaceae, Nectriaceae, Occultibambusaceae, Ophiocordycipitaceae, Otideaceae, Periconiaceae, Phaeoseptaceae, Phaeosphaeriaceae, Pleurotheciaceae, Pleurotremataceae, Rhytismataceae, Roussoellaceae, Sporocadaceae, Sporormiaceae, Stachybotryaceae and Teloschistaceae) and 45 genera (Acrospermum, Alfaria, Arthrinium, Ascitendus, Ascochyta, Asterina, Barbatosphaeria, Bertiella, Brevicollum, Byssosphaeria, Camarosporidiella, Cerothallia, Chaetosphaeria, Cryptophiale, Cytospora, Dendryphiella, Diaporthe, Didymella, Diplodia, Discosia, Dyfrolomyces, Epicoccum, Gliocladiopsis, Hysterographium, Kirschsteiniothelia, Leptogium, Lophodermium, Medicopsis, Neocamarosporium, Neodidymelliopsis, Neooccultibambusa, Neomassarina, Neophaeosphaeria, Neosetophoma, Ophiocordyceps, Otidea, Periconia, Phaeoisaria, Phaeoseptum, Pleurotheciella, Poaceascoma, Pseudobyssosphaeria, Pteridiospora, Roussoella and Truncatella). A reference specimen is provided for Periconia cookei (Periconiaceae). A new combination is proposed for Seimatosporium ciliata (Sporocadaceae). Key words – 42 new taxa – Ascomycota – Description of type species of genus – Dothideomycetes– Lecanoromycetes – Leotiomycetes – Molecular phylogeny – New combinations – New family – New records – New species – Pezizomycetes – Phylogenetic – Reference specimens – Sordariomycetes – Taxonomy.
29646Doilom M., Hyde K.D., Phookamsak R., Dai D.Q., Tang L.Z., Hongsanan S., Chomnunti P., Boonmee S., Dayarathne M.C., Li W.J., Thambugala K.M., Perera R.H., Daranagama D.A., Norphanphoun C., Konta S., Dong W., Ertz D., Phillips A.J.L., McKenzie E.H.C., Vinit K., Ariyawansa H.A., Jones E.B.G., Mortimer P.E., Xu J.C. & Promputtha I. (2018): Mycosphere Notes 225–274: types and other specimens of some genera of Ascomycota. - Mycosphere, 9(4): 647–754.
This is the fifth in a series, Mycosphere notes, wherein 50 notes are provided on types of genera and other specimens with descriptions and illustrations. This includes one genus in Arthoniomycetes, one genus in Eurotiomycetes, 38 genera in Dothideomycetes, six genera in Sordariomycetes, two genera in Ascomycota, families incertae sedis, one genus in Pezizomycotina, and one taxon, Angatia rondoniensis, is treated as a doubtful species. Pycnocarpon magnificum is classified in Asterinaceae. We reinstate Eopyrenula in Dacampiaceae on the basis of its morphological characters, which are similar to other members in this family. Eopyrenula leucoplaca is designated as a reference specimen. Fasciatispora arengae is described as a new species. The isotype specimen (GZU 000301526), which was formerly named as Thyridium concinnum is transferred to Platystomum based on morphology. Syrropeltis is placed in the family Parmulariaceae based on morphology. Rivilata and Vonarxella are excluded from Saccardiaceae, and treated in Phaeothecoidiellaceae and Schizothyriaceae, respectively. The family Saccardiaceae based on Saccardia quercina is maintained and includes Ascolectus, Cyanodiscus, Henningsiella, Phillipsiella, Pseudodiscus and Schenckiella. Johansoniaceae is introduced as a new family. We hope to motivate fresh collecting of type species included of taxa in genera incertae sedis, so that molecular data can be obtained to confirm their natural classification. Key words – two new taxa – Asterinaceae – Astrosphaeriellaceae – Barbatosphaeriaceae – Dacampiaceae – Davidiellaceae – Didymellaceae – Dothideomycetes – Didymosphaeriaceae – Gloniaceae – Hysteriaceae – Johansoniaceae – Leptosphaeriaceae – Lindgomycetaceae – Lophiostomataceae – Microtheliopsidaceae – Mytilinidiaceae – Myriangiales – Naetrocymbaceae – Parmulariaceae – Phaeothecoidiellaceae – Polycoccaceae – Roccellaceae – Saccardiaceae – Schizothyriaceae – Sordariomycetes – Strangosporaceae – Testudinaceae – Venturiaceae – Xylariales.
29645McCune B., Arup U., Breuss O., Di Meglio E., Di Meglio J., Esslinger T.L., Magain N., Miadlikowska J., Miller A.E., Muggia L., Nelson P.R., Rosentreter R., Schultz M., Sheard J.W., Tønsberg T. & Walton J. (2018): Biodiversity and ecology of lichens of Katmai and Lake Clark National Parks and Preserves, Alaska. - Mycosphere, 9(4): 859–930.
We inventoried lichens in Lake Clark (LACL) and Katmai (KATM) National Parks and Preserves. We assembled the known information on lichens in these parks by combining field, herbarium, and literature studies. Our results provide baseline data on lichen occurrence that may be used in resource condition assessments, vulnerability assessments, long-term ecological monitoring, and resource management. We report a total of 896 taxa of lichenized fungi from the Parks, adding 889 taxa to the total of seven taxa reported for the Parks by the National Park Service database and including ten new species first published elsewhere. An additional 15 lichenicolous fungi are reported here. Seven non-lichenized fungi associated with young living twigs of particular host species are also included. Sixteen species are new to Alaska, and six species new to North America (Caloplaca fuscorufa, Lecanora leucococca s.l., Ochrolechia brodoi, Protoparmelia memnonia, and Rhizocarpon leptolepis). Four new combinations are made, Cetraria minuscula, Enchylium millegranum var. bachmanianum, Lathagrium undulatum var. granulosum, and Protomicarea alpestris. Additional new species based on collections from the Parks have been described in separate publications.
29644Asplund E. (1949): Föreningens exkursion till Ornö den 26 maj 1949. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 43(4): 774–776.
Report on excursion, several lichens demonstrated by S.Ahlner and T.E. Hasselrot pinpointed [in Swedish]
29643Ahlner S. (1949): Contributions to the lichen flora of Norway. I. Solorinella asteriscus Anzi new to Scandinavia. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 43(2–3): 157–162.
29642Albertson N. (1950): Das grosse südliche Alvar der Insel Öland. Eine pflanzensoziologische Übersicht. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 44(2): 269–331.
29641Gjærevoll O. (1950): The snow-bed vegetation in the surroundings of lake Torneträsk, Swedish Lappland. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 44(2): 387–440.
29640Mattick F. (1950): Die Flechte Tholurna dissimilis in Nordamerika?. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 44(2): 473.
29639Håkanson J.W. (1950): Lidingö busk- och bladlavar [Frutescent and foliaceous lichens of Lidingö (central Sweden)]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 44(1): 214–229.
[in Swedish]
29638Albertson N. (1950): Heppia lutosa (Ach.) Nyl. i öländsk alvarvegetation [Heppia lutosa (Ach.) Nyl. in alvar vegetation on the island of Öland (SE-Sweden)]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 44(1): 113–124.
[in Swedish with English summary: ] 1. Heppia lutosa is an extremely calciphilous lichen, the distribution of which is concentrated to southern and central Europe. Apart from some localities in East-Prussia, it has the northern limit of its central European distribution in the Harz region. In Scandinavia H. lutosa was discovered in the 1860’s in Gotland and Öland — one locality in each island. In 1941 the species was found once more in Gotland by Bengt Pettersson, who discovered several new localities and made a taxonomical revision (Pettersson 1946 a, p. 94 ff.). This revision reveals that H. adglutinata Krplhbr. and H. virescens (Despr.) Nyl., often taken as separate species, are only modifications of one and the same species, the correct name of which is H. lutosa (Ach.) Nyl. 2. Since J. E. Zetterstedt in 1867 came across H. lutosa in Öland (Zetterstedt 1870—71, p. 116; on a calciferous moraine ridge in the deciduous forest immediately N of the »Alvar» of South Öland; in the locality there also grew Lecanora crassa and L. lentigera), the species lias not been observed in Öland until, in 1947— 1949, the author found it in three localities. All of them are located in the »Large Alvar», concerning the peculiar vegetation of which, see Sterner (1925, p. 307 If.; 1938, p. 29 IT.). Heppia here grows in light grass heaths intermingled with calciphilous therophytes (e.g. Cerastium pumilum, Saxifraga tridactylites) and with a bottom layer rich in species. In two of the localities Heppia occurred in a Festuca ovina - Cladonia symphycarpia - sociation, a combination which is common in the Alvar but, however, only occupies small spots. (As to the plant-sociological terminology, see Du Rietz 1936.) The sociation belongs to an important category of the plant communities of the Alvar, which may be designated Ihe Festuca ovina - Tortella - tortuosa - Schistidium apocarpum - association. This is characteristic of shallow soil (c. 4—8 cm thick), periodically submerged, and where the frost-heaving phenomenon is + prominent. As to the constitution of the Festuca-Cladonia-sociation, reference is made to Table 1. Concerning Agrostis gigantea Roth, see Sterner (1941, p. 232) and Albertson (1947, p. 182); this grass is common in the Alvar vegetation, and is a distinct species separated from A. stolonifera L. Of interest, among other things, is the occurrence of Mannia (Grimaldia) fragrans (cf. Bengt Pettersson 1946 b, p. 31 ff.), M. (Neesiella) pilosa (cf. Persson 1944, p. 346), Riccia oelandica (frequent in the vegetation), and several lichens, e.g. Endocarpon pusillum, Lecanora lentigera, Lecidea decipiens. With respect to the moss Tortella rigens, see Albertson (1946, p. 197 IT.) — a somewhat critical species allied to T. inclinata, but habitually also resembling T. fragilis. 3. The distribution of Heppia lutosa hitherto known in Scandinavia is shown on the map (Fig. 1). The species was discovered in 1949 also in Norway, and is mentioned by Aiilner (1949, p. 157 IT.) in connection with the publication of his sensational discovery of Solorinella asteriscus on calciferous schist cliffs in the valley of »Gudbrandsdalen » (Opland). Solorinella is an extremely southern species earlier not known in any locality further north than an isolated one in Saxony (cf. Suza 1935, p. 29). Heppia grows in Norway in a community strongly reminiscent of the lichen vegetation on the llat rocks of limestone of Öland and Gotland — ini. al. we find Lecanora lentigera_ _ ; a corresponding community is also the »Fulgensio-Psoro- Toninion» of the middle European steppe heaths (Gams 1938, p. 277 IT.). Gudbrandsdalen has a continental climate as well as several species of a southern or eastern type of distribution. (Nordhagen 1921, p. 137 ff.) We observe Dracocephalum Ruyschiana (cf. Sterner 1922, Plate 22), which is rare in North Europe —• it occurs for instance in dry meadows with Stipa pennata in Västergötland (SWSweden; see, e.g., Friden 1948, p. 204 ff.) — and has its richest recent Scandinavian occurrence in the Gudbrand Valley. As pointed out by Ahlner, it is possible that the xerophilous element of the flora of Gudbrandsdalen has partly immigrated as early as the praeboreal period. This is no doubt also the case in the Alvars ot Öland. Southern and eastern elements are here very prominent in the flora of vascular plants (Sterner 1938). Among such species of the lichen flora of the »Large Alvar» we may (besides Heppia lutosa) observe Fulgensia fulgens (rather frequent) as well as the rare species Caloplaca Schistidii and Lecidea testacea (Du Rietz 1916, p. 471 ff.). The latter occurs, e.g. in the Alvar of Sandby — one of the places of excursion during the International »Steppe excursion» to Öland in 1950. The vegetation (Table 1) has been analysed by means of squares, each 1/4 m2 in size. All species were listed with their degree of cover according to the Hult-Sernander scale: 5 = 1—1/2; 4 = 1/2 1/4; 3 = 1/4—1/8; 2 = 1/8—1/16; 1˂1/16; when only very small individuals of the species in question are noticed the sign x is used; the part of the surface is meant which is covered by the projection of living epigeic parts of the plants.
29637Woods R.G. & Coppins B.J. (2012): A Conservation Evaluation of British Lichens and Lichenicolous Fungi. Species Status 13. - Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough, [i-v +] 155 p.
29636Coppins A.M. & Coppins B.J. (2010): Atlantic hazel. - Scottish Natural Heritage, [i-iv +] 136 p.
Report; Scotland.
29635Skye E. (1958): Luftföroreningars inverkan på busk- och bladlavfloran kring skifferoljeverket i Närkes Kvarntorp [The influence of air pollution on the fruticulous and foliaceous lichen flora around the shale-oil works at Kvarntorp in the province of Närke]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 52(1): 133–190.
[in Swedish with English summary: ] The author examines fruticulous and foliaceous lichens around the shale-oil works at Kvarntorp near Kumla in the province of Närke (Map 1). The questions to be answered are: (1) do the lichens suffer from the poisonous gases? (2) if so, are there any suitable indicator species among the lichens as to air pollution? The works, situated in an old agricultural district, were founded during the Second World War. The geographical position and the physical conditions in the district are analysed with special regard to rainfall and winds. Contrary to the usual practice, the wind diagram is drawn so as to show the direction in which the wind blows, not the one from which it comes (Fig. 2). This will simplify a comparison with the maps of distribution (Maps 3-28). The lichen flora on trees along the roads has been examined and each station consists of one or more trees. As a rule, the growth of lichens on the tree trunks from the base up to a height of 2Jr metres has been analysed. Lichens from those parts of the branches next to the trunk are seldom registered, those from small branches and twigs never. The research stations are distributed as regularly as possible across the district. The degree of covering is examined only in a fewf cases. In order to obtain an idea of the nature of the lichen vegetation before the establishment of the oil-works, an area of similar physical conditions, situated about 10 kilometres WSW of Rumla, is examined, and the author believes that the species found in this “area of comparison” were also to be found in the “area of research” before the building of the oil-works. For practical reasons the research material has been divided into two groups, the first of which comprises broad-leaved trees with the exception of Betula, i.e. Tilia, Ulmus, Acer, Fraxinus, Quercus, Aesculus, Sorbus, Salix, Populus, etc. The second group consists of conifers and Betula, i.e. Pinus, Picea and Betula. The result of the field research is shown in Maps 3-28. The difference in the composition of the lichen flora and the vitality of the various species within the “area of research” and “the area of comparison” respectively is shown in Table IV. The different degrees of covering will appear from Figs. 3 and 4. All the maps show a region without a lichen vegetation close by the works, then comes a region where the lichens are more or less affected and only outside this transition zone is an entirely normal vegetation to be found (cp. Sernander 1926). It is obvious that the oil-works emit matter which has a detrimental influence upon the vegetation. This matter is transported by the wind, as is apparent from the fact that trees growing in a sheltered position show a far richer growth of epiphytes than those in an unsheltered position. The chemical composition of the smoke from the works is shown in Table III and the chemical situation in air and rainfall in the immediate vicinity of the works in Table VI. Analyses prove that potassium, sodium, magnesium and calcium are present only in aerosol form as solid particles or in the form of salts, dissolvable in water, while sulphur and NH4-N may exist in the form of gas (Johansson 1954). Fig. 6 shows conformity in almost every detail between Johansson’s diagrams of air pollution and the author’s own observations of Ihe lichen vegetation. The secondary maximum of the curve for sulphur is explained by the fact that the smoke has a double origin, the lofty chimneys of the works and the slag-heaps on the ground. Between the active spheres of these two sources a zone of comparatively unpolluted air is formed which is immediately reflected in a less affected flora of lichens which is also more abundant in species. Sulphuric pollution, owing to its frequent occurrence, causes most damage to tlie vegetation. In the extensive literature concerning the damage to flowering plants caused by sulphur dioxide, opinions differ considerably. The theory considered to have the best support states that the damage done to a plant is as great as the visible signs of it. Sulphur and sulphur dioxide may be absorbed from the air and the plant may thus benefit by it in case of lack of sulphur in the soil (Thomas 1943, cp. Frey-Wyssling 1949). The Sensitivity varies with the species, the time of gassing, temperature, humidity, light etc. For instance, under certain conditions the resistance of the protoplasm has been considerably reduced and assimilation and respiration have been influenced (cp. Haselhoff 1932). Conifers are as a rule more sensitive than broad-leaved trees, a fact that may be observed around the Kvarntorp Works. (For damages to forests, see, for instance, Scheffer & Hedgcock 1955.) Fig. 7 shows some examples of how the leaves of broad-leaved trees are affected. Leaves and branches were collected partly in the immediate vicinity of the oil-works and partly in the township of Kumla. The tissue round the leaf-veins and the veins themselves seem to be more resistant than other parts of the leaf. The leaf-tips are the first parts to be affected (cp. Simonsson 1955, p. 8). The above refers to plants of the higher order, but will probably hold good of the gonidial stratum of lichens too. The hyphae of fungi are also affected by sulphur dioxide. McCallan & Weedon (1941, p. 337) show for instance that younger cultures are more sensitive than older ones. Johansson (1954, p. 16) says that an attack of black-rust in Sweden’s wheat-growing districts in 1952 did not affect the Kvarntorp area. Scheffer & Hedgcock (1955, p. 10) say that “certain rusts ... were almost absent from the smelter zone but were rather abundant in surrounding areas”. Tobler (1925) and Salomon (1914) point out that inorganic matter dissolvable in water is absorbed from rainwater by Ihe hyphae of fungi as well as by algae. In the “research area” there is only one important factor which affects the distribution and composition of the lichen vegetation, viz. the smoke gases from the oil-works at Närkes Kvarntorp. The most common of the detrimental components is sulphur dioxide, according to a number of analyses made by, among others, Lihnell in 1948 and 1949 and Johansson in 1954. How the damage is done is not quite clear, but we cannot leave out of account the possibility that the process is similar to what happens to flowering plants and fungi. In the literature dealing with the problems of lichen deserts in our towns and cities (cp. p. 166, note 1), two main theories predominate. The oldest claims that air pollution in the cities poisons the vegetation (cp. Lindau 1923, Sernander 1926, Haugsjå 1930, Vareschi 1936 and Sauberer 1951). Erichsen (1928, p. 61) says: “Vielmehr sind die Ursachen in der Entwicklung von Staub, Russ und giftigen Gasen und nicht weniger in dem schädigendem Einfluss der starken Insolation bei übergrosser Austrocknung zu suchen.” The second opinion, represented by Beschel (1952), Rydzak (1953, 1956a and b, 1957), Steiner & Schulze-Horn (1955) and Element (1956), claims that the “desert climate” of the city is the determining factor of the genesis of lichen deserts. Rydzak (1953, p. 352) says: “Die Flechtenarten müssen sich also diesen spezifischen mikroklimatischen Feuchtigkeitsbedingungen in einer Stadt anpassen und dislozieren sich je nach dem Grade ihrer Ausharrungsmöglichkeit auf Dürre und Wasseraufnahmefähigkeit. Sie suchen Stellen mit solchen örtlichen Mikroklimabedingungen, welche ihnen eine günstige Wasserbilanz ermöglichen.” Rydzak emphatically denies the idea that sulphur dioxide should affect the lichens. On the basis of his research work in Lublin, Poland, he has formed the opinion that the lichens in dry places grow on those parts of trees and buildings which are close to the ground, i.e. where dew and humidity is available. These zones of course ought to be the ones most exposed to S02 and H2S03 as the specific weight of sulphur dioxide is greater than that of air (cp. p. 160 above). Rydzak has not observed any signs of damage among these lichens, and he concludes by saying among other things the following (p. 354): “Daraus ersehen wir, dass die Annahme einer Einwirkung von S02 auf die Dislokation von Flechten in den Städten zu einem Unsinn führt und ein Beispiel für eine kollektive, wissenschaftliche Suggestion ist.” Rydzak has, however, obviously failed to observe two facts, viz. that the poisonous smoke gases often have a higher temperature than surrounding layers of air, and that the specific weight is of no consequence as the gas is mixed with air to such a great extent. (Cp. also Jones 1952, p. 110 If.) Geiger (1950) finds that the city is a warm and dry stone desert but that air pollution is the most typical feature of town climate (Geiger 1950, pp. 369-376, etc.). That air pollution has a great influence on town climate is proved by the existence of “smog” (smoke and fog) for instance in London, Los Angeles and New York. Sulphur trioxide and sulphuric acid are said to be instrumental in causing such fogs (Simonsson 1955, p. 5). If desiccation was the main factor in the forming of lichen deserts, we might expect a marked rise in the lichen vegetation as soon as we leave the densely built-over areas (cp. Geiger 1950). But no such rise is mentioned by Jones (1952). In order to be of any use to non-lichenologists, a possible indicator species among the lichens should be easy to determine and common in a wide area. Furthermore the species in question should be neither too insensitive nor oversensitive to air pollution. The following five species could serve these purposes: Anaptychia ciliaris (Map 4), Evernia prunastri (Map 7), Parmelia acetabulum (Map 8), Ramalina fraxinea (Map 23) and Xanthoria parietina (Map 27). Cp. e.g. Greta Sernander 1923, Magnusson 1929, Du Rietz 1945 and Haugsjå 1930, Hoeg 1934, Vaarna 1934, Erichsen 1928, Kajanus 1911, Gelting 1951.
29634Sernander-Du Rietz G. (1957): Om yttre faktorers inverkan på apotheciebildningen hos Parmelia tiliacea [On external factors influencing the production of apothecia in Parmelia tiliacea]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 51(2): 454–488.
[In Swedish with English summary:] Though constantly isidiiferous, Parmelia tiliacea (Hoffm.) Ach. [syn.: P. scortea (Ach.) Ach.] develops apothecia considerably more often than several other isidiiferous or sorediiferous species of Parmelia having a southern distribution in Scandinavia. A remarkable feature is that the fertility does not decrease but rather increases northwards, being by far highest near the northern border of the continuous distribution area in central Fennoscandia (cf. Fig. 1, p. 461). My interest in the special problems last mentioned was aroused in connection with my paper on the Scandinavian distribution of Parmelia tiliacea (Sernander - Du Rietz 1926). Many years later, I was induced to take up the problem again by some observations which I happened to make some time before and after the exceptionally warm summer of 1947. Between these observations many new, small apothecia (without isidia in the margin) had been added, even in very old, previously sterile individuals (Fig. 7, p. 478) and in old individuals which previously had only old isidiiferous apothecia (pp. 457—458). Another extremely warm summer, in 1955, gave new opportunities for examining the growth of apothecia in connection with high temperature. In order to get some knowledge of the external factors influencing the production of apothecia in Parmelia tiliacea,1 I have attempted the following: 1. Studies of the distribution of fertile populations in connection with the general macroclimate (pp. 461—463). 2. Studies of the local macroclimate and the microclimate of fertile populations and individuals, as well as other important factors (pp. 463-473). 3. Observations and measurements of the growth of apothecia (pp. 473-477). 1. The distribution of fertile populations of P. tiliacea in Fennoscandia is illustrated in Fig. 1 and its explanation. All these populations are found in areas with high summer temperatures and comparatively low summer precipitation, situated below the highest coastline of the late glacial and postglacial age. Another significant feature is the presence of water in the neighbourhood. The fertile populations of the mainland are confined to eutrophic areas with old cultivation. The fertile populations on islands in the archipelago of south-western Finland (Eklund 1935) are not influenced by human cultivation. The main features of the distribution of fertile populations outside Fennoscandia is shown in Fig. 2, p. 462, and its explanation. 2. Fig. 3 illustrates the situation of the fertile populations in relation to the waters within the optimal area of P. tiliacea in Sweden. The map shows how the fertile populations, avoiding big expanses of water, are situated relatively near the water, usually with the water towards the east or south-east. The map does not show other features such as low altitude above the water, wind protection by heights, forests, parks or habitations north, south or west of the fertile populations of P. tiliacea (dominant summer winds near the lakes often come from the south or south-west). (See further under microclimate.) The localities of sterile populations in the same area have throughout a different topographical position, i.e. oilier conditions of local macroclimate. Several of the fertile and sterile populations have been known as fertile and sterile respectively for at least one hundred years or more. Half of the fertile populations grow on stone walls surrounding churchyards. Because of their great age and low height, and because of wind protection by the churches standing to the north as well as by the old trees of the churchyards, and, further, by coprogenous and eutrophic dust influence from the roads and arable lands that are always found just outside the churchyards, these have all become the ideal habitat for fertile P. tiliacea. The old trees of the churchyards also carry fertile individuals, though not so often. Stone walls and old trees by castles or manor-houses etc. are other typical habitats. The orientation of the fertile individuals on these stone walls and trees is much influe ced by the microclimate. I he wind protection mentioned above, the sun protection by the not too dense tree-crowns during the sunniest and warmest hours of the summer days, as well as dripping water from the tree-crowns etc., seem to be important factors. The microclimate thus seems to have the same effect as the local macroclimate, viz. a prolonged retention of the humidity of the lichen thalli and the apothecia, obviously of importance for the production and growth of the latter during a long and as a rule dry period of high summer temperature. These circumstances seem to indicate growth during expecially warm summers. 3. Five individuals of P. tiliacea from different habitats—one trunk of Acer platanoides, one of Sorbus aucuparia and three vertical surfaces with different exposition on a low stone wall—were examined with a lens for new apothecia (mostly June 1954 to Oct. 19o6). In the same individuals, the growth of apothecia was measured (for the main part July 1955 to Oct. 1956). New apothecia appeared only during the heat wave in 1955, which lasted from the 7th of July until the first of September, followed by 2 very warm days, the 8th and 9th of September; a growth of apothecia could be stated, every time in connection with precipitation. The summers of 1954 and 1956 were rather cool and rainy. The most interesting result was a swarm of about 60 apothecia, with a diameter of about 1/2 mm (a part of it is shown in Fig. 6, p. 474), rapidly developed below a seepage on a stone wall (PI. I and p. 474) in connection with the first rain shower worth mentioning during the heat wave (after about 6 weeks of continuous high temperature). Some time later, in connection with new rain showers, several new apothecia appeared on other parts of the individual. In the other individuals investigated, the apothecia showed a growth of mm (or less), probably in 1-3 days, varying according to the more or less favourable character of the habitat. The rain quantities were, however, very low, and in some of the localities probably too small for a normal growth of apothecia. The few apothecia initials developed towards the end of this summer and, not getting time enough to grow out into apothecia, were killed in the following winter. The fully developed microapothecia, however, proved resistant to the winter cold. These observations from the exceptionally warm summer of 1955 seem to support the hypothesis of the author that the big swarms of apothecia found after the summer of 1947 were produced by the exceptionally high temperature of that summer. The main result of this investigation may be summarized as follows: 1. Most of the apothecia of P. tiliacea in Fennoscandia seem to appear and grow during very warm periods of the summer—especially towards the end of the periods concerned—in connection with precipitation, especially thunder showers. 2. The growth of the apothecia seems, further, to be influenced by the local macroclimate and the microclimate which, during the summer, is characterized by prolonged humidity, by water in the neighbourhood, combined sun and wind protection after rain, seepages and dripping water from the tree-crowns, all with the best possible supply of warmth and light. Fertility in P. tiliacea (reckoned from the first appearance of the apothecia) seems thus to he influenced by a combination of certain climatic factors. Nutrition conditions may have a secondary influence on the growth of the apothecia.
29633Osvald H. (1955): The vegetation of two raised bogs in northern Maine. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 49(1–2): 110–118.
Lichens from relevés identified by G.E. Du Rietz
29632Nordhagen R. (1955): Kobresieto-Dryadion in northern Scandinavia. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 49(1–2): 63–87.
29631Lindahl P.-O. (1960): The different types of isidia in the lichen genus Peltigera. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 54(4): 565–573.
29630Lindahl P.-O. (1959): On the occurrence of pycnidia in the lichen genus Peltigera. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 53(4): 475–480.
29629Lindahl P.-O. (1957): Några märkligare lavfynd i sydvästra Norge. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 51(3): 563–564.
29628Lindahl P.-O. (1953): Några märkligare lavfynd i västra Norge (Lecanora demissa, Parmeliella atlantica). - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 47(4): 530–531.
29627Kilander S. (1952): Till kännedomen om Tholurna dissimilis’ ekologi. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 46(1): 129–130.
29626Julin E. & Pekkari A. (1960): Floran på Säivisnäshalvön i Norrbottens östra kustland. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 54(3): 439–467.
several macrolichens listed, identified by S.Ahlner and T.E. Hasselrot (p. 464)
29625Henriksson E. (1958): Studies in the physiology of the lichen Collema. II. A preliminary report on the isolated fungal partner with special regard to its behaviour when growing together with the symbiotic alga. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 52(3): 391–396.
29624Hasselrot T.E. (1960): Några anmärkningsvärda lavfynd i Västergötland 1959 och 1960. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 54(4): 595–598.
29623Hasselrot T.E. (1953): Ett litet bidrag till Ålands lavflora. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 47(4): 531–538.
[in Swedish] Finland; Åland Islands
29622Gelting P. (1955): A west Greenland Dryas integrifolia community rich in lichens. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 49(1–2): 295–313.
29621Gams H. (1955): Das Rätsel der Verbreitung von Letharia vulpina. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 49(1–2): 29–34.
29620Gunin P.D., Ubugunov V.L., Rupyshev Yu.A., Ubugunova V.I., Bazha S.N., Balsanova L.D., Baldanov B.Ts., Buyantueva, L.B., Harpuhayeva T.M., Holboeva S.A., Petukhov I.A. & Tsyrempilov E.G. (2018): Role of biotic and abiotic factors in the processes of soil encrustation on fallow lands of the Barguzin Hollow. - Arid Ecosystems, 8(3): 161–172.
[Original Russian Text published in Aridnye Ekosistemy, 2018, Vol. 24, No. 3(76), pp. 14–28] The results of a study on the condition of the soil and vegetative cover of the fallow lands in steppe ecosystems of the Barguzin Hollow (Republic of Buryatia) are presented. We studied the soil encrustation process on fallow lands during moss–lichen cover formation on their surface, which resulted in the slowing of regenerative processes in plant communities. The main factors of the transformation of regeneration in the Barguzin Hollow were revealed. They differ from the classical scheme of restoration of plant communities that had been earlier identified for the fallow lands of the steppe zone of Kazakhstan, Southern Siberia, and Mongolia. Keywords: sandy soil encrustation, fallow lands, regeneration processes, biotic and abiotic factors, biological soil crusts (BSCs).
29619Khan M., Khalid A.N. & Lumbsch H.T. (2018): A new species of Lecidea (Lecanorales, Ascomycota) from Pakistan. - MycoKeys, 38: 25–34.
We describe here a new species, Lecidea aptrootii, in Lecidea sensu stricto from Swat Valley, Pakistan. It is most similar to L. fuscoatra in having an areolate thallus and black, lecideine apothecia with a persistent margin. However, L. aptrootii can be readily distinguished by having smaller ascospores (average length 8-10 μm). In phylogenetic analyses, using ITS and nuLSU rDNA sequences, L. aptrootii forms a sistergroup relationship to L. grisella, which differs in having a rimose thallus. Keywords: Asia, Lecideaceae, lichenised fungi, new species, taxonomy.
29618Bringer K.-G. (1961): Den lågalpina Dryas-hedens differentiering och ståndortsekologi inom Torneträskområdet. II [Differentiation and ecology of the low alpine Dryas heath in the Torneträsk area, northern Swedish Lappland. II]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 55(4): 551–584.
29617Bringer K.-G. (1961): Den lågalpina Dryas-hedens differentiering och ståndortsekologi inom Torneträskområdet. I [Differentiation and ecology of the low alpine Dryas heath in the Torneträsk area, northern Swedish Lappland. I]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 55(2): 342–375.
29616Lindahl P.-O. (1962): Taxonomical aspects of some Peltigera species. P. scutata (Dicks.) Duby, P. scabrosa Th. Fr. and P. pulverulenta (Tayl.) Nyl.. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 56(3): 471–478.
29615Weber W.A. (1962): Environmental modification and the taxonomy of the crustose lichens. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 56(2): 293–333.
29614Sundell S. (1963): Lavar från Värmland. I. Inledning och kommentarer. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 57(2): 193–237.
29613Junell L. (1964): The genus Spolverinia A. Massal.. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 58(1): 55–61.
29612Henriksson E. (1964): Studies in the physiology ot the lichen Collema. V. Effect of medium, temperature, and pH on growth of the mycobiont. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 58(2): 361–370.
Experiments with the mycobiont of Collema tenax, which has changed morphologically and physiologically since its isolation in 1957, showed that the growth rate of this fungus is comparatively high in the presence of malt extract but low in synthetic media. Addition of vitamins of the B-complex did not produce growth comparable to that produced by malt extract. Thiamine appeared to be the only vitamin necessary for growth. Fifteen different carbohydrates were tested as carbon sources for growth of the fungus. Under the conditions of this study the polysaccharides produced by the phycobiont of this lichen did not support growth of the mycobiont. Maximum growth occurred at temperatures between 15 and 20°C and within the pH range of 5.6 to 7.4. The temperature curve and the pH curve of the mycobiont did not agree with those of the phycobiont.
29611Holm L. (1967): Taxonomic notes on Ascomycetes. V. On Sphaeria parmeliarum Phill. & Plowr. and the genus Cucurbidothis Petr.. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 61(4): 449–458.
lichenicolous fungi
29610Forsgren B. (1966): Fynd av Coriscium viride tillsammans med Omphalina luteovitellina — en föregiven Agaricolichen — på palsmyrar i Karesuandoområdet [Coriscium viride found together with Omphalina luteovitellina—an alleged agaricolichen—in the vicinity of Karesuando, northernmost Swedish Lapland]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 60(3): 440–442.
As early as 1936 Suza observed that the lichen Coriscium viride (Ach.) Vain, and the Hymenomycete Omphalina ericetorum (Fr. ex Fr.) were often found together in the Böhmer Wald and in the Carpathian Mountains. Later on a close connection between the lichen and the fungus was found by Tuomikoski in Central Finland (1961) and by Gams (1962) in Porsanger and in Hohe Tatra. Kallio mentioned 1966 that he had observed Omphalina luteolilacina Favre in connection with Coriscium on paisa bogs in the north of Finland. During my examinations of the vegetation of paisa bogs in the neighbourhood of Karesuando, in the north of Sweden, I found such a combination to be common on the highest parts of the paisas, and lobes of Coriscium to be in close contact with the base of Omphalina luteovitellina Pilåt & Nannf. (fig. A and C). I also found Omphalina ericetorum (Fr. ex Fr.) but never in connection with Coriscium and never on the highest parts of the paisas.
29609Ahlner S. (1966): Karl Bertsch, Flechtenflora von Südwestdeutschland. 2. Auflage. — Verlag Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart 1964. 251 s. Pris inb. DM 20.—. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 60(4): 500–501.
Book review
29608Ahlner S. (1966): Vitus Grummann, Catalogus Lichenum Germaniae. Ein systematisch-floristischer Katalog der Flechten Deutschlands. — Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart 1963. VIII +208 s. Pris inb. DM 36.—. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 60(4): 499–500.
Book review
29607Ahlner S. (1966): Edward Tuckerman, The Collected Lichenological Papers of Edward Tuckerman. Edited and prefaced by W. L. Culberson. Vols. I & II. — Historiae Naturalis Classica IX: 1-2. J. Cramer, Weinheim 1964. XVI +518, resp. 755 s. Pris inb. DM 198. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 60(4): 498–499.
Book review
29606Larsson M.G.P. (1967): Melica ciliata funnen vid Vänern i Västergötland [Melica ciliata found at Lake Vänern, Västergötland, southern Sweden]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 61(3): 425–441.
During ecological field work in October, 1964, in Västergötland, southern Sweden, the author found Melica ciliata growing apparently indigenous on a shore cliff at Lake Vänern. This is the hitherto westernmost locality for the species in the Nordic countries. Melica ciliata has a Pontic-Central European distribution (Sterner, 1922, p. 239, and Meusel et al., 1965, map 38 d), and it occurs on its peripheral, north-western localities in colony-like vegetation on precipitous cliffs and rocky ground. The plant community, in which Melica ciliata grows, was studied in detail (Tab. I). Some completing notes are given for similar communities in the area (Tab. II and III). The plant sociological status of these communities is discussed. The cliff heath (represented by an initial stage in Tab. II, and in a typical form in Tab. Ill, A) belongs to the Festuco-Sedetalia. The same is probably the case with the Melica community (Tab. I). The meadow community with Arrhenatherum pratense (Tab. III, B) is rather complex, but it may be classified as a Nardetalia community with al Unity to Mesobromion and Cynosurion. Finally some phytogeographical problems are mentioned. The occurrence of western (suboceanic) and south-eastern (continental) species is particularly conspicuous not only in the mire and shore vegetation but also in the cliff vegetation. 10 lichens listed in phytosociological table.
29605Ottosson I. (1968): Usnea longissima Ach. found in north-western Spain. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 62(4): 515–520.
29604Henriksson E. & Pearson L.C. (1968): Carotenoids extracted from mycobionts of Collema tenax, Baeomyces roseus, and some other lichens. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 62(3): 441–447.
Carotenoids were found in all the lichen fungi investigated: Baeomyces roseus, Collema tenax, Lecidea coarctata, L. enteromorpha, and Cladonia cristatella. From them a relatively strongly sorbed, unidentified, yellow carotenoid was extracted. In extracts from Baeomyces and Collema, a pink pigment which might be lycopene was also separated on paper, sugar columns, and kieselgel G. Presence of phytoene and phytofluene was demonstrated. The study indicated that the mycobionts of Baeomyces and Collema may be more closely related to each other than has been indicated by traditional taxonomic studies.
29603Sernander-Du Rietz G. (1969): Förekomster av Physcia magnussonii Frey i Skandinavien och på sydvästra Grönland [Occurences of Physcia magnussonii in Scandinavia and SW. Greenland]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 63(3): 377–386.
In 1952 Dr. E. Frey described a new silicious Physcia species, Physcia magnussonii Frey (Frey 1952, p. 480). With the help of a lucid drawing, combined with a long and pertinent diagnosis of the new species dealt with in Frey’s monograph (1. c., pp. 480 & 482), I was after some time able to identify a Physcia specimen collected by me in Sweden (Välaberget) in 1957.1 Further information on the species was given in Frey 1963 (p. 433). In spite of Frey’s excellent descriptions of Ph. m. the species seems until now to be unknown in the Scandinavian countries, as also in USA (Thomson 1963). In Poelt 1969 (p. 505), we find its known distribution restricted to the central southern part in middle Europe. Search in the larger part of the Physcia aipolia and Ph. stellaris material (according to Frey 1963, p. 420, Ph. m. belongs to »die Serie Stellaris») in Swedish Scandinavian herbaria yielded seven Ph. m. localities, including two in Greenland. The specimens from Ramunderberget and Vindellen were provided with a series of names allied to each other (now obsolete) during the period 1843-1936. The species was thus early paid attention to (see “Historiska notiseri’ in the present paper, p. 379, and the information concerning the San Diego collect p. 379). In Scandinavia there are seven known populations in all, of them two studied by me in nature. Five of these belong to the prealpine region in the middle western parts of Scandinavia, mostly on steep hillsides in valleys. Two populations belong to the south-eastern coast of Sweden, one of them, Ramunderberget, being a steep hillside at an earlier incursion of the Baltic, since then at “Göta Kanal”. In Greenland with four populations in all (two of which with a locality name) there is at least one from a fiord valley (Dahl 1950, p. 157). The species is to be found on bare silicious stone of perpendicular cliffs (on ornithocoprogene seepages), and on bare stone, on and under overhanging rocks, in warm and not too dry places. For the lichen flora of the Ph. m. localities the reader is referred to the names of the species themselves, given on pp. 380-384 in the present paper. Only a few species, and those mostly crustose, have been seen growing on the stone together with Ph. m. Large surfaces are bare (cf. Fig. 1). The growth of Ph. m. may possibly to some extent be indicated by the degree of competition with specially noncrustose lichens. Description. Parts of Frey’s Latin diagnosis of 1952 are given on p. 384 in the present paper. Of the comments added by me, the rhizines may be mentioned. They vary a great deal in size and are sometimes also marginal. Most of them are very strongly attached to the stone. Although the thallus, with its obviously convex lobes, gives an impression of a lichen loosely attached to the stone, it is impossible to separate a fairly complete specimen from the stone surface without the use of hammer and chisel (cf. Frey 1963 p. 434). The spores have a ridgy structure (vidi R. Moberg 1969).
29602Lye K.A. (1969): The distribution and ecology of Sphaerophorus melanocarpus. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 63(2): 300–318.
The distribution and ecology of Sphaerophorus melanocarpus has been studied with special reference to conditions in Scandinavia. In northern Europe this lichen has an oceanic distribution and is restricted to low altitudes in regions with an annual precipitation above 1300 mm. In Scandinavia S. melanocarpus grows on silicious rocks only. In other parts of the world, however, it often grows (sometimes exclusively) on tree boles. The taxonomic position of the species is also discussed. The author does not think Tropical forms are distinct enough to warrant a higher taxonomic position than varieties.
29601Larsson J.E. (1970): 137Cs in lichen communities on the Baltic coast. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 64(2): 173–178.
29600Degelius G. (1971): In memoriam: Torsten Edvard Hasselrot. 15.10.1903–6.9.1970. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 65(1): 126–131.
[in Swedish] Necrology, bibliography
29599Nicklasson A. (1972): Epilitisk moss- och lavvegetation i centrala Småland [Vegetation of epilithic bryophytes and lichens in central Småland. I]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 66(4): 377–406.
The vegetation within an area in the central part of Småland is investigated with special regard to the epilithic flora of bryophytes and lichens. The southern part of the area is characterized by a rather even bedrock plain, northwards changing into a more mountainous terrain. From phytogeographical point of view the area is of great interest. Detailed, brief descriptions of the epilithic vegetation from thirteen localities are given. Some species have not earlier been published from the province.
29598Söderberg I., Nicklasson A., Christoffersson J. & Johannesson J. (1971): Om floran i Moråns dalgång med särskild hänsyn till mossorna [The flora of the Morå valley with special regard to the bryophytes]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 65(4): 371–392.
This east-west valley in eastern Småland has been investigated for a distance of about 5 km. The stream Morån runs along the bottom of the valley and Lake Mörtsjön is situated in the lower part of the ravine. The bedrock consists of red hälleflinta. On the south-exposed sides we meet well-developed talus, where deciduous trees such as Acer, Quercus, Tilia etc. grow. Steep rocks with rich bryophytic vegetation characterize the north-exposed walls. As a contribution to the discussion of ecological conditions in the valley a microclimatological investigation is reported, dealing with light, temperature, and humidity over a short period. The example shows the continental climatic character predominating on the south-exposed slopes contrary to the maritime conditions of the north-exposed ones. The marked floristic differences between the two sides depend greatly on differences in the microclimatological conditions. Totally ca. 270 bryophytes are noted. Some lichens and most vascular plants are also given in the list of species.
29597Kreuzer W. & Schauer T. (1972): The vertical distribution of 137Cs in Cladonia rangiferina and C. silvatica. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 66(3): 226–238.
In mostly Central European lichens of the species Cladonia silvatica and C. rangiferina the upper parts of the lichens were always more strongly contaminated with 137Cs than the middle and lower parts. The most obvious differences in the vertical contamination existed especially in lichens with very long thalli; not to such a marked extent, however, as in the samples of C. alpestris examined. Despite differences of degree, 137Cs shows a similar vertical distribution in the three Cladonia species examined. The divergences are likely to result primarily from specific differences in the effect the upper parts of the lichens have in shielding their middle and lower parts from 137Cs. In lichens of the same species the differences in the development of their upper parts caused by their locality is significant. In both cases they can be explained above all from differences in the size and structure of the upper parts and the texture of their surfaces. On the other hand, there seems to be no variation from species to species in the 137Cs affinity among the three kinds. It therefore also seems unlikely that the 137Cs migrates at varying rates within the three different lichen species.
29596Sundell S. (1972): Lavar från Värmland. II [Lichens from Värmland. II]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 66(3): 159–183.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] An attempt is made to discern the following distribution groups within the lichen flora of the province: (1) Very common to common species appearing in all or nearly all of the 87 parts (= parishes) of the province. (2) Rather common to less common species with a more or less uniform though more dispersed distribution all over the province. (3) Species with a m.o.l. obvious concentration towards the northern parts of the province. (4) Species with a more or less pronounced southern distribution pattern in the province. (5) Species with a western restriction within the province. Details are also given on the distribution of a number of single species and over new or rare species found.
29595Rodenborg L. (1972): Beiträge zur Flechtenflora von Öland [Contributions to the lichen flora of the island of Öland]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 66(2): 103–112.
[in German with English abstract: ] I. Lecidea albilabra (Duf.) Duf. on Öland, a phytogeographically interesting discovery. — In 1970 Lecidea albilabra was found near the village Gösslunda on the Great Alvar of Öland. The species is new to Sweden. In Scandinavia it has previously been found only on some localities in northern Gudbrandsdalen in the southeast of Norway. The ecology and sociology of the species in Scandinavia are treated. The distribution outside Scandinavia is briefly traced. The relation of the species to L. deceptoria Nyl. is discussed. II. Squamarma gypsacea (Sm.) Poelt found again on Öland. — The species that had previously been found on the Great Alvar of Öland in the middle of the 19th century was rediscovered there in 1970. In Scandinavia outside Öland it grows only on some places on Gotland. The distribution and ecology outside Scandinavia are briefly reported on.
29594Sundström E.W. (1973): Lavtäthet på aspbark i mellersta Gästrikland [Lichen density on bark of Populus tremula affected by industrial smoke emission]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 67(4): 459–461.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] To get a quantitative view of the damage to lichens by industrial smoke emissions, the author has measured the percentage of area covered by lichens on mature aspens, diameter 200-400 mm, between 1 and 2 m above ground. 500 trees in 130 locations in central Gästrikland were studied. A marked reduction in lichen cover is noticeable up to 10-15 km from the emission points. No difference in sensitivity between the most common lichens was noted. Proximity to lakes or ploughed fields seems to counteract the smoke effect. Lichens on other trees are less sensitive to the smoke. Main roads and non-industrial settlements have no influence on the lichens treated here.
29593Moberg R. (1974): Smith, D. C., 1973, The Lichen Symbiosis. 16 s. — Smith, D. C., 1973, Symbiosis of Algae with Invertebrates. 16 s. Oxford Biology Readers nr 42 och 43. Oxford University Press. London. Pris 20p. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 68(1): 118–119.
Book review [in Swedish]
29592Moberg R. (1975): Hanneman, B. 1973, Anhangsorgane der Flechten. Ihre Strukturen und ihre systematische Verteilung. 123 s. 66 figursid., Verlag von J. Cramer, Lehre. Pris DM 50. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 69(3): 377–378.
Book review [in Swedish]
29591Nannfeldt J.A. & Santesson R. (1975): Stray Studies in the Coronophorales (Pyrenomycetes) 4–8. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 69(3): 289–335.
Comparative morphological studies on ascocarps, asci and spores lead to the conclusions (1) that Coronophorales is a highly specialized homogeneous group, derived from Lasiosphaeriaceae, (2) that Coronophoraceae and Nitschkiaceae should be united under the latter name, (3) that Coronophorales should be given up as a separate order and placed as a “satellite” family close to Lasiosphaeriaceae, and (4) that the number of genera grouping round Nitschkia should be radically reduced. A lichenicolous fungus parasitic in apothecia of two species of Sticta in tropical Africa and South America is described as Nitschkiopsis stictarum Nannf. & R. Sant. nov. gen. et sp. Its taxonomical position is doubtful but probably Lasiosphaeriacean.
29590Bremer K. (1976): Svenska Botaniska Föreningens och Botaniska Sällskapets exkursion till Öland 12-14 juni 1976. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 70(3): 253–254.
[in Swedish] Report on excursion
29589Ericson L. (1977): Strandvegetation vid Höga kusten i Ångermanland [Shore vegetation along the "High coast" in Ångermanland, Sweden]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 71(4): 383–413.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] A survey of the shore vegetation along the topographically unique "High coast", at the N part of the Bothnian Sea, is given. The vegetational differentiation due to exposure, substrate, solifluction, frost-lifting, topography and salinity is outlined. The vegetation in the sub- and hydrolittoral corresponds to the rather bigh salinity of the sea (above 4 %), while the vegetation in the geolittoral is strongly influenced by ground- and soilwater drainage from the mainland and consequently of another composition than normal along the Bothnian Sea coast. Due to the topography and the resulting habitat conditions the geolittoral vegetation is characterized by: (I) The absence or low frequency of several species otherwise of great importance in Bothnian sea-shore vegetation. (2) The marked increase of several species otherwise with a more restricted importance in Bothnian sea-shore vegetation. Of regional interest is the gradual shift from Bothnian Sea- to Bothnian Bay-conditions in flora and vegetation along the "High coast".
29588Lundqvist J.A.G. (1977): [in Swedish with English abstract: ] Vegetation och flora i Halsviksravinens naturreservat [The Halsviksravinen nature reserve - vegetation and flora]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 71(4): 335–361.
The vegetation and flora of tbe Halsviksravinen nature reserve (prov. Ångermanland, E Central Sweden) is described. The Halsviksravinen is a narrow valley leading down to the sea; the total area is c. 0.5 km2. The bedrock in the surrounding mountains is diabase which, together with the good supply of seepage water, makes soil conditions extremely favourable. The area is nowadays forested, but was previously used for hay production and grazing. Picea abies usually dominates, sometimes mixed with deciduous species. Pure stands of deciduous species also occur, especiaUy near brooks. The field layer is dominated by herbs except for in the driest areas where communities with Vaccinium species predominate. The area is rich in southem species, many of which reach or come close to their NE limit in Sweden here, e.g. Acer platanoides, Anemone nemorosa, Calamagrostis arundinacea, Campanula latifolia, C. persicifolia, Corydalis intermedia, Dentaria bulbifera, Festuca altissima, Gagea lutea, Galium odoratum, Geranium robertianum, Geum urbanum, Juncus conglomeratus, Lactuca mura/is, Lathyrus vernus, Lonicera xylosteum, Neottia nidus-avis, Stachys sylvatica and Vicia sylvatica. Nature conservancy measures will include selective tree-felling to favour the growth of deciduous species as well as spruce; smaller parts will be left to develop spontaneously towards conditions resembling those in primary forest. Lichens are occassionallz mentioned in the text and a photograph of Ophioparma ventosa (as Haematomma ventosum) is provided.
29587Tibell L. (1977): Lavordningen Caliciales i Sverige. Inledning och släktet Calicium [The lichen order Caliciales in Sweden. lntroduction and the genus Calicium]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 71(3): 239–259.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] A short historical account of the taxonomy of Caliciales is given, with particular emphasis on the contribution by older Swedish lichenologists. A general survey of the morphology, habitat ecology, dispersa( and distribution of the species in Sweden is given. Mycocaliciaceae is excluded from Caliciales, since the species of Mycocaliciaceae have no mazaedium, they have an active spore dispersal and they are parasymbiontic-parasitic or saprophytic. Very few species in Caliciales s. str. are parasymbiontic-parasitic and there are no saprophytic ones. Keys are given to the Scandinavian genera of Caliciales and Mycocaliciaceae, and to the twelve species of Calicium known from Sweden. The species of Calicium are briefly characterized and their distribution is outlined. Calicium adaequatum Nyl. is reported for the first time from Sweden.
29586Carlin G. & Swahn U. (1977): De svenska Usnea-arterna (skägglavar) [The Swedish species of Usnea]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 71(2): 89–100.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] A key to the Swedish species of Usnea is presented. The morphology of each species and the genus in general is discussed. As the taxonomy of Usnea has been poorly understood in the past, and many species are rare, very little is known about the distribution and ecological preferences of most species. The following species in the monograph by Motyka (1936-38), are reduced to synonymy: U. graciosa with U. chaetophora; U. prostrata with U. barbata; U. caucasica, U. esthonica, U. fibrillosa, V. flagellata, U. hirtella, U. sublaxa and U. subscabrata with U. filipendula; U. rugulosa and (?) U. silvatica with U. scabrata; U. arnoldii, U. compacta, U. fulvoreagens, U. lapponica, U. laricina and U. substerilis with U. perplexans; U. betulina, U. distincta and U. wasmuthii with U. glabrescens.
29585Arvidsson L. (1978): Svampangrepp på lavar - en orsak till lavöken [Fungus attacks on lichens and lichen deserts in cities]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 72(4): 285–292.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] Chemical pollution (especially by sulphur dioxide) is considered to be of great importance in explaining the origin of lichen deserts in cities. There are also biological factors which have been unduly neglected. One of these, the destruction of lichens by the fungal parasite Athelia arachnoidca (Berk.) Jiil. (Corticiaceae, Basidiomycetes) is discussed. This fungus is common in urban areas in S Sweden and many cilies in W Europe. It is easily recognized by its parasitic nature, growing on epiphytes on standing trunks, e.g. on trees in parks. The fungus attacks free-living algae (e.g. Pleurococcus) as well as phycobionts in lichens. A thelia arachnoidea forms white circles similar to mould colonies. An attack results in the rapid dying off of algae and lichens. Lecanora conizaeoides Nyl. ex Cromb. is often killed. The parasite can prevent lichens from becoming established by destroying the vulnerable initial stages (e.g. growing diaspores). A. arachnoidea is evidently favoured by air pollution. Attacks of this fungus could perhaps be regarded as a secondary biological effect of chemical pollution. This paper is based on field observations made in S Sweden, particularly in Göteborg.
29584Tibell L. (1978): Lavordningen Caliciales i Sverige. Släktena Chaenotheca och Coniocybe [The Iichen order Caliciales in Sweden. The genera Chaenotheca and Coniocybe] . - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 72(3): 171–188.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] Keys are given to the twelve species of Chaenotheca and eight species of Coniocybe known from Sweden. The species are briefly characterized and their ecology and distribution are outlined. Chaenotheca laevigata Nádv., C. xyloxena Nádv. and Coniocybe coniophaea Norm. are reported for the first time from Sweden.
29583Gilsenius B. (1979): Månadens omslagsbild: ringlaven. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 73(2): 96.
[in Swedish] A note on Parmelia centrifuga
29582Rydberg H. (1980): Fynd av Cryptogramma crispa, krusbräken, i Södermanland [Cryptogramma crispa new to the province of Södermanland, C Sweden]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 74(6): 387–388.
Cryptogramma crispa has been found in the parish of Vårdinge, Södermanland, C Sweden This is an eastern outpost for the species. There is only one plant, growing in a rock fissure. Associated lichens noted.
29581Lindström H. (1980): Hackslått - en försvinnande biotop i mellersta Norrland [Remnants of hay-meadow vegetation in the province of Medelpad, E Central Sweden]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 74(4): 281–306.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] The vegetation and present use of unfertilized hay-meadows in the province of Medelpad (E Central Sweden) is described. Hay-meadows of this kind are mainly found in stony areas and as narrow borders around the arable land. The turf is low-grown and is dominated by grasses, but is rather rich in species. Numerous species are restricted to this type of vegetation within the province, e.g. Gentianella amarella and campestris, Botrychium species, and several fungi of the genera Camarophyllus, Hygrocybe and Rhodophyllus. Nowadays only small remnants are left of this vegetation, which was formerly widespread and common. Nature conservancy measures will be necessary if it is to be preserved to the future. Ca. two dozens of lichens from relevés listed in table.
29580Kärnefelt I. (1980): En ny norsk lavflora: Krog, H., Østhagen, H. & Tønsberg, T. 1980: Lavflora. Norske busk- og bladlav. 312 s. (Supplement in English. 52 s). Universitetsförlaget, Oslo - Bergen - Tromsø. Pris 189 kr. (209 kr med engelskt supplement.) Beställes från Universitetsförlaget, Box 7508, Skillebekk, Oslo 2, Norge. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 74(3): 255–256.
Book review [in Swedish]
29579Arvidsson L. & Lindström M. (1980): Förändringar i lavfloran i Botaniska trädgården i Göteborg [Changes in the lichen flora in the Botanical Gardens in Göteborg 1960-1979] . - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 74(2): 133–143.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] The macrolichen flora of the Botanical Gardens in Göteborg (Gothenburg) was investigated and compared with the flora described by Degelius in 1961. Only 38 of 65 species were found again in 1979. Of the 27 species lost, 5 have disappeared because their substrates were removed, 8 as a result of natural succession, and 12 because of air pollution. Some species have decreased since 1960: in 16 cases due to the removal of some of their substrates; in 5 due to natural succession, in 11 due to air pollution. Attacks by Athelia arachnoidea (corticiaceae) may also contribute to the deterioration of lichens. Cladonia furcata and Usnea sp. have obviously increased, and can be found in several new places (although removed from others). Many species are now absent from coniferous trees or other trees with acid bark (e.g. Betula) but can be found on new substrates with less acid bark (e.g. Ulmus, Fraxinus, and Populus). Parmelia glabratula ssp.fuliginosa and Physcia tenella are now consistently sterile, although in 1961 they were fertile. No new species were found. Several young thalli of some species were observed, indicating that the lichen flora may now be slowly recovering from a period of heavy air pollution (S02) in the 1960’s.
29578Löfgren L. (1980): Efterlysning av oceaniska makrolavar i Sverige. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 74(2): 132.
[in Swedish] A note on oceanic macrolichens in Sweden
29577Bohlin A., Gustafsson L. & Hallingbäck T. (1980): Mossan Campylopus atrovirens i Sverige [The Swedish occurrences of Campylopus atrovirens (Musci)] . - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 74(2): 123–131.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] Campylopus atrovirens De Not. reaches the northeasternmost limits of its distribution in Sweden. It has been reported from 5 Swedish localities, all situated within a small area near Gothenburg on the W coast. The localities were revisited in 1977-1978 and the moss was still present in all of them. It grows on steep, shaded, vertical, base-deficient cliffs. Species lists and climatical data are given for all localities. The topography of some localities is shown in diagrams. The reason for the very local distribution in Sweden is probably a limited dispersal capacity rather than specific demands on the habitat. Associated lichens from relevés are included.
29576Tibell L. (1980): Lavordningen Caliciales i Sverige. Släktena Cyphelium, Microcalicium, Sphaerophorus, Sphinctrina, Thelomma och Tholurna [The lichen order Caliciales in Sweden. The genera Cyphelium, Microcalicium, Sphaerophorus, Sphinctrina, Thelomma and Tholurna]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 74(1): 55–69.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] Keys are given to the seven species of Cyphelium, three species of Microcalicium, two species of Sphaerophorus and three species of Sphinctrina known from Sweden. The species, as well as the single species of Thelomma and Tholurna, are briefly characterized and their ecology and distribution are outlined.
29575Nicklasson A. & Söderberg I. (1980): Växtligheten vid gruvfältet Fredriksberg i Småland [The flora around the mine-field of Fredriksberg, S Sweden] . - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 74(1): 19–24.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] The abandoned copper and zinc mines of Fredriksberg lies c. 20 km SW of the town of Vetlanda in the S Swedish uplands (prov. Småland). The concentration of heavy metals is sufficiently high to prevent most vascular plants to colonize the area around the mines. The most common species in the field layer is Agrostis tenuis. Only a limited number of bryophytes have occupied the old waste rocks. On moist areas Pohlia nutans usually dominates. Morphological changes have been observed in Cephalozia bicuspidata. The chapter on lichens at p. 20.
29574Carlin G. (1981): Fältbiologernas lavflora: Lindqvist, M. 1981: Lavflora. Fälthandbok över Sveriges vanligaste bitsk- och bladlavar. 128 s. ISBN 91-85094-161. Fältbiologerna, Box 6022, 191 06 Sollentuna. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 75(6): 396.
Book review [in Swedish]
29573Carlin G. (1981): De svenska bägarlavarna (Cladonia undersläktet Cladonia) [The Swedish species of Cladonia subgen. Cladonia]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 75(6): 361–396.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] Keys are given to the 61 species of Cladonia subgen. Cladonia presently known from Sweden. Each species is illustrated and briefly characterized, and the ecology and distribution are outlined. The C. chlorophaea complex is on morphological grounds divided into C. grayi, C. merochlorophaea (including C. cryptochlorophaea) and C. pyxidata (including C. chlorophaea s. str).
29572Morander R. (1981): Om svampfloran i Salatrakten [Fungi from the Sala area, C Sweden] . - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 75(5): 315–320.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] The ores of the silver mine at Sala (prov. Västmanland, C Sweden) lie within a large limestone area W of Sala town. The limestone, which is exposed in places, gives rise to a rich flora of vascular plants, described by K. V. O. Dahlgren in three papers in Svensk Bot. Tidskr. (1910, 1923, 1949). The fungus flora is no less remarkable. In this paper a list of finds is given, mainly from 1945-1948. Most determinations have been checked by or made by specialists and vouchers are at UPS. Notable finds are: (Agaricales) Calocybe gambosa, Coprinus angulatus, Entoloma bahusiense, Inocybe appendiculata, /. dulcamara, I. obscura, Paxillus panuoides, Pluteus nanus, Tricholoma fucatum; (Aphyllophorales) Clavaria sp’hagnicola, Clavicorona pyxidata, Fomitopsis rosea, Multiclavula vernalis, Polyporus melanopus, Thelephora anthocephala; (Tremellales) Sebacina effusa, S. epigaea, S. incrustans, Tremella atrovirens; (Discomycetes) 11 species of Helvetia, Pezicula coryh, Pulvinula constellatio; (Fungi imperfecti) Didymopsis helvetlae, Hirsutella lecaniicola, Mycogone cervina.
29571Skarpe C. & Bergström R. (1981): Ny lokal i Uppland för Usnea florida [A new find of Usnea florida in C Sweden] . - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 75(3): 145–146.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] Usnea florida (L.) Wigg. has been found in the province of Uppland, C Sweden, at 65°06'N 49°22'E (c. 45 km NE of Uppsala). The lichen is abundant on some fifty oaks in a wet depression, especially on rather small branches, but not on the finest twigs or on the trunks. The old spruce forest surrounding the depression was felled in 1979, which will mean a great change in the environmental conditions for the rare lichen.
29570Anonymus (1982): Lavar och människor. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 76(6): 359–361.
[in Swedish] Botanik från början
29569Andersson L. & Appelqvist T. (1982): Brunbräken, Asplenium adulterinum, funnen i norra Västergötland [Asplenium adulterinum on a new locality in Sweden] . - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 76(5): 308–310.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] Asplenium adulterinum Milde has been found in the parish Älgarås in northern Västergötland in central Sweden. This is the second locality known in Sweden. Species of lichens and mosses in the vicinity of the fern are listed. The lichen Caloplaca concilians (Nyl.) H. Olivier is recorded from Sweden for the second time. Serpentinic / ultramafic rocks.
29568Almborn O. (1982): En ny svensk lavflora: Moberg, R. & Holmåsen, I. 1982: Lavar. En fälthandbok. 237 sid. Interpublishing AB Förlag, Stockholm. ISBN 91-970221-7-9. Pris ca 195 kr. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 76(3): 206–207.
Book review [in Swedish]
29567Kullman L. (1982): Tandövala - fjäll eller va(r)d? [Tandövala - a real barren hill or what ?]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 76(3): 185–196.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] The hill Tandövala (C. Sweden, 60°51'N; 13° 11'E) is a good representative of a category of hills east of the Scandes mountain chain. These hills have in common a very sparse tree-layer on the top and a flora comprising some alpine vascular plants. However, their isolated position in the vast coniferous woodland and the absence of melting snow during the summer makes them not quite comparable with the tree-line ecotone in the mountain chain proper. A dialectal word ”vard” is proposed as a scientific term for such hills or high-lying areas. By comparing a series of photographs from 1919 with the same prospects today, a striking invasion and growth of Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris and Betula pubescens s.l. is shown. The photographs suggest a more dense field-layer today. Cladonia spp. and Calluna vulgaris have receded while Vaccinium myrtillus seems more vigorous today. A few alpine plants have decreased or disappeared, viz. Carex bigelowii and Loiseleuria procumbens. It is postulated that all these changes are parts of a post-fire succession which started at the end of the 17th century. Because of the harsh climatic conditions during the Little Ice Age (ca 1590-1850) the reproduction of trees did not start until the warming up during the early decades of the 20th century.
29566Hallingbäck T. & Kristensson G. (1982): Mossorna Tortula laevipila och T. virescens på västkusten [The bryophytes Tortula laevipila and T. virescens on the Swedish west coast] . - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 76(3): 171–176.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] Tortula laevipila (Brid.) Schwaegr. and T. virescens (De Not.) De Not. are two epiphytic bryophytes with a southern distribution in Sweden. Six new localities on the Swedish west coast are reported and described. T. laevipila prefers bark of Salix and other deciduous trees. T. virescens grows on bark as well as stone. Both species are found on bark impregnated by dust and salt. Morphological characteristics and ecological demands are discussed. Maps of the Swedish distribution of the two species are given. Numerous associated lichens are included.
29565Bohlin A., Gustafsson L. & Hallingbäck T. (1982): Levermossan Porella arboris-vitae i Sverige [Porella arboris-vitae in Sweden]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 76(1): 31–36.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] The liverwort Porella arboris-vitae (With.) Grolle occurs in Europe, North Africa, the Canary Islands and the Caucasus. It has been reported from six localities in Sweden. All these were visited during 1978, 1979 and the liverwort was found at two of them. The sites were investigated regarding species composition. The results are given in tables, drawings and photographs. Maps are presented of the world distribution and the Swedish distribution. Associated lichens are mentioned.
29564Asklund L. (1983): Floristiska notiser från Västmanland. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 77(6): 365.
[in Swedish] Umbilicaria vellea
29563Sjöqvist O. (1983): Lavar. – In: Karlsson T. (ed.), Floristiska notiser [Floristical notes]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 77(3): 198.
[in Swedish] A new Swedish locality for Pleopsidium chlorophanum (as Acarospora chlorophana) in Södermanland province is noted.
29562Hallingbäck T. & Larsson K.-H. (1983): En urskogssvamp på Lybergsgnupen [Pycnoporellus alboluteus, a species of virgin forest new to Sweden]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 77(2): 117–121.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] Pycnoporellus alboluteus (Ellis & Everhart) Kotlaba & Pouzar (Polyporaceae) is reported from Sweden. The fungus is known from very few localities in Europe, all of them being more or less virgin forest. A map of the European distribution of P. alboluteus is given. The Swedish locality, the NE slope of Mt Lyberget, Venjan parish, Dalarna, C Sweden, is a slope with old, herb-rich spruce forest rich in mosses and lichens, some of which are characteristic of old primeval forest. In spite of earlier efforts to protect the area, part of it was clear-felled in 1982. Several notes on lichens are made depicting Usnea longissima and Platismatia norvegica.
29561Backéus I. (1983): Hedlav, Cornicularia aculeata, på mossar [Cornicularia aculeata on bogs]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 77(1): 27–28.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] The lichen Cornicularia aculeata coll., common on rocks etc., has a strictly limited distribution on ombrotrophic bogs. In Sweden it is confined to the southern, mainly southwestern, parts and, in addition, a suboceanic area in prov. Jämtland. It is assumed that its distribution on bogs is suboceanic.
29560Arvidsson L. (1984): Ny förteckning över Skandinaviens lavar: Santesson, R. 1984: The lichens of Sweden and Norway. 333 sid. ISBN 91-86510-00-2. Beställes från Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Box 50007, 104 05 Stockholm. Pris 110 kr. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 78(5): 308.
Book review [in Swedish]
29559Arvidsson L. & Skoog L. (1984): Svaveldioxidens inverkan på lavfloran i Göteborgsområdet [Effect of sulphur dioxide air pollution on the distribution of lichens in the Göteborg area, SW Sweden]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 78(3): 137–144.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] The epiphytic lichen vegetation in the Göteborg area, SW Sweden, was mapped and compared with air pollution data. In all 48 species were found in the 40 localities investigated. In the most heavily polluted area (about 65 pg S02 m~3 air) only some toxitolerant species are present, viz. Cladonia coniocraea, Lecanora conizaeoides, Lepraria incana and Hypogymnia physodes. The critical S02-levels for the present taxa have been estimated, and the relative sensitiveness between various species seems to conform with data from other European cities. However, in Göteborg lichens seem to disappear at lower S02-levels than, e.g., in Denmark and England. This can be explained by differences in climate or in measuring methods.
29558Nordin A. (1984): Lavar. – In: Karlsson T. (ed.), Floristiska notiser [Floristical notes]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 78(1): 60.
[in Swedish] Report on Lobaria amplissima and L. pulmonaria from Uppland province, Sweden
29557Moberg R. (1985): Lavar med svenska namn [Lichens with Swedish names] . - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 79(3): 221–236.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] Swedish names of 517 lichens are provided. Most have been published previously in floras, but c. 100 names are new. Names and species to be included have been selected in collaboration with several colleagues, and the list is to be regarded as the official list of Swedish names of lichens.
29556Carlin G. (1985): Stereocaulon capitellatum i Skandinavien [Stereocaulon capitellatum in Sweden and Norway]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 79(1): 49–50.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] The distribution of Stereocaulon capitellatum in Sweden and Norway is mapped. The species has been collected in subalpine and alpine areas throughout the Scandinavian mountain range. A new chemical strain containing lobaric acid instead of perlatolic and anziaic acids is reported. S. farinaceum is narrowly circumscribed and is only represented by the type collection, which is sufficiently deviant to call the recent inclusion of S. farinaceum in S. capitellatum in question. S. capitellatum is mainly (exclusively?) saxicolous, while S. farinaceum was collected on soil. The former species has a distinct main stem, whereas the latter is repeatedly divaricately branched and the upper sides of its branches are covered by phyllocladia.
29555Tehler A. (1985): Några svampfynd från Furusund. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 79(1): 39–40.
[in Swedish], notes on findings of several macromycetes in suburv of Stockholm, several associated lichens reported incl. Lobaria pulmonaria
29554Almborn O. (1990): En flora över skorplavar: Foucard, T. 1990: Svensk skorplavsflora. 306 sid. Stenström Interpublishing AB, Stockholm. ISBN 91-86448-27-7. Pris ca 330 kr. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 84(5): 311–312.
Book review [in Swedish]
29553Ekman S. (1990): Lavfloran i Dalby Söderskog [The lichen flora of Dalby Söderskog National Park]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 84(3): 191–198.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] A floristic survey of the corticolous and lignicolous lichens of Dalby Söderskog National park, SW Skåne (southernmost Sweden), has been carried out in 1987. The forest (0.37 km“) consists mainly of Ulmus glabra, Quercus robur, Fagus sylvatica and Fraxinus excelsior. The results are compared with old records from the area, mainly a floristic study made by Gustaf Malme in 1934. Some species have vanished, e. g. Arthonia tumidula. Bactrospora dryina, Bacidla polychroa, B. rosella and Lobaria pulmonaria. Among the species still present in the forest, Pertusaria pertusa is the one which has decreased the most. Also Opegrapha atra, O. varia and Pertusaria amara have decreased markedly. Some species have instead increased in frequency or are new to the forest: Arthothelium ruanum, Calicium viride, Chaenotheca brachypoda, C. carthusiae, C. ferruginea, C. xyloxena, Cliostomum griffithii, Cladonia digitata, Hypocenomyce scalaris, Hypogymnia physodes, Lecanora conizaeoides, Ochrolechia androgyna, Opegrapha vermicellifera, Parmelia glabratula, Parmeliopsis ambigua and Porina aenea. The main reasons for the changes in the lichen flora are (1) air pollution, (2) a reduction of the amount of light and a corresponding increase in the amount of moisture, and (3) an increased quantity of lignum in the forest. In all, 38 (73%) of the 52 species which were met with in Dalby Söderskog during 1891-1960 still occur, and in addition 28 species are new to the forest. Anisomeridium nyssaegenum (Ellis & Everhart) R. C. Harris and Biatorella monasteriensis (Koerb.) Lahm are reported new to the province of Skåne.
29552Lundqvist R. (1990): Vad suckar ringlaven?. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 84(2): 65–66.
[in Swedish]
29551Arvidsson L. (1986): Nya Zeelands lavar i ny flora: Galloway, D. J. 1985: Flora of New Zealand lichens. 662 sid. P. D. Hasselberg Government Printer, Wellington, New Zealand. ISBN 0-477-01266-3. Pris ca 300 kr. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 80(1): 7–8.
Book review [in Swedish]
29550Magnusson M. (1986): Människans påverkan på Sandhammarens dynområde i sydöstra Skåne [The impact of man on the dune area at Sandhammaren, SE Skåne, southernmost Sweden]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 80(2): 81–94.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] The dune area at Sandhammaren consists of two parts with different morphology, vegetational successions and human influence. The outer regular dunes near the sea are being stabilized by dune grass vegetation succeeded by a dwarf shrub heath with invading trees (birch, pine and oak). The pine is not native in the area but spreads from plantations. The human influence has here been small until now when an increasing tourism causes increasing numbers of paths and bare sand patches. Left in peace these patches are colonized mainly by Corynephorus canescens and to a lesser degree by Carex arenaria. This type of colonization dominates on the inner dunes where on a large scale open sand patches are the result of earlier destruction of the vegetation cover by tree clearing and grazing. Through wind erosion of the open sand surface a landscape with broken topography has been formed. The sand is nowadays stabilized and the trample from the few visitors cannot prevent the overgrowing via a dwarf shrub heath to oakwood or pinewood. From aerial photographs the area of open sand of the central part of the dune area has been calculated to 91 ha in 1938, 49 ha in 1959 and 37 ha in 1975.
29549Holmåsen I. (1986): Växtfotografering: Små motiv. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 80(4): 228–243.
[in Swedish] Photographing natural objects incl. lichens
29548Nilsson K.G. (1986): Floran i Rinkaby och Glanshammars socknar i Närke [The flora of the parishes of Rinkaby and Glanshammar in Närke, C Sweden]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 80(5): 335–368.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] The flora of the parishes of Rinkaby and Glanshammar in the province of Närke, C Sweden, is described. The two parishes lie E of Örebro and N of Lake Hjälmaren. The land area is 105,5 km2. The northern half is covered with coniferous forest, whereas the southern half is an agricultural area with scattered deciduous woods. The bedrock mainly consists of leptite, but Archaean limestone and dolomite is also present and is exposed in places. The soils are mainly moraines, but in the agricultural district clay is also present. A large esker runs across the area. In the north there are five small lakes with oligotrophic vegetation, and in the south part of the highly eutrophic Lake Hjälmaren is included. The flora was closely investigated in 1978-1984, but earlier finds are also included in this paper. The total number of vascular plants found is 928; of these 745 are wild species and subspecies, 25 hybrids, 138 garden escapes and 20 cultivated plants. A selection of non-vascular plants (212 fungi, 6 bryophytes and 8 lichens) is also presented. Among the more remarkable finds are Equisetum scirpoides, Sparganium erectum ssp. erectum, Malaxis monophylla, Potendlla tabernaemontani and Sarcosoma globosum.
29547Knutsson T. (1986): Lavar. – In: Karlsson T. (ed.), Floristiska notiser [Floristical notes]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 80(5): 333.
[in Swedish] Chaenotheca furfuracea (as Coniocybe f.) reported as new to Öland province, Sweden (det. L. Tibell)
29546Hallingbäck T. (1986): Lunglavarna, Lobaria, pä reträtt i Sverige [The decline of three species of Lobaria in Sweden]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 80(6): 373–381.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] The present distribution and ecology of three species of Lobaria in south Sweden is compared with previous conditions. L. scrobiculata has declined most. It has been known from c. 280 localities in S Sweden but only 14 finds have been made after 1950. It is now known from only three localities; on two of them the specimens were in bad condition, on the third they looked healthy but were very few. L. pulmonariu is still rather frequent in parts of the inland. In the southernmost provinces it is clearly threatened by extinction and it is likely that it will decline in the rest of S Sweden too in the future. L. amplissima has recently been found on new localities in E and C Sweden, but it has at the same time declined strongly in SW Sweden where it has had its main distribution. A shift in substrate preference from poor bark to rich bark can be traced for all three species. The major cause for the decline is thought to be air pollution, but forestry and collecting are also contributing factors. If air pollution is not reduced these species are likely to become extinct in S Sweden.
29545Muhr L.-E. (1987): Lavfloran i Gravbäcksravinen i Värmland [The lichen flora of Gravbäcksravinen, Värmland, W Sweden]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 81(1): 17–36.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] The result of an investigation of the lichen flora in a ravine in northern Värmland is presented. An account is given of the physical characteristics of the site. The lichen vegetation is described, and the main features of the lichen flora are outlined. The ravine has proved to be a site of great lichenological interest, being the habitat of several rare or threatened forest species. The total number of species recorded is c. 360 (including some non-lichenized fungi). Special attention is given to twenty rare, overlooked or otherwise interesting species and notes on their identification, ecology and distribution are given. Thelocarpon depressellum and Trapeliopsis percrenata are reported new to Scandinavia. Cladonia norvegica is new to Sweden. A new combination, Micarea vulpinaris (Nyl.) Muhr, is made. English summary dealing with species of special interest is included as well.
29544Oldhammer B. (1987): Samarbete med skogsbruket lindrar utarmningen. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 81(1): 1–6.
In Swedish
29543Hallingbäck T. & Olsson K. (1987): Lunglavens tillbakagång i Skåne [The retreat of Lobaria pulmonaria in Scania]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 81(2): 103–108.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] Lobaria pulmonaria was formerly fairly evenly distributed in south Sweden and was considered to be common in the beginning of this century. In the province of Scania, southernmost Sweden, there are documented finds from 35 localities. 25 accurately localized sites, on which the species was known to grow before 1950, were revisited in 1986. The lichen was only found on six of these. The occurrences were sparse and as a rule the thalli looked unhealthy. The phorophytes had a comparatively high bark pH and grew sheltered from southern and western winds. No specimens with apothecia were seen. Nearly all the 25 localities have been forested continuously since the time when the first finds were made, and suitable phorophytes are usually still present. The disappearance of the lichen therefore cannot be due to changes in forest management. The main reason is obviously the increasing amount of air pollution in Scania.
29542Andersson L. & Appelqvist T. (1987): Lunglav och almlav, indikatorer på värdefull lövskog [Lobaria pulmonaria and Gyalecta ulmi as indicators of deciduous woodland with high nature qualities]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 81(3): 185–194.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] During an investigation of the nature qualities of 1250 deciduous woods in six communes in SW Sweden all occurrences of the lichens Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm. and Gyalecta ulmi (Sw.) Zahlbr. were noted. They were found in 33 and 35 localities, respectively. In c. 50% of all cases the species were only present on one tree. Gyalecta ulmi is closely associated with old specimens of Fraxinus excelsior. In this area as well as in other parts of S Sweden Gyalecta ulmi seems to be most abundant in remnants of former park meadows. Due to the high frequency of oak woods in the material Quercus species, mainly Q. robur, dominate as phorophyte for Lobaria pulmonaria. Both species are almost absent from the central part of the studied region. This is possibly due to the fact that this area was deforested for a long period ending a century ago. Lobaria pulmonaria is an excellent indicator of deciduous woodland with high nature qualities since it is widespread and easy to discover and recognize. Rich stands of Gyalecta ulmi are often present in deciduous woodland which for other reasons have high qualities from a biological point of view.
29541Nordin A. (1987): De oceaniska lavarna Lobaria amplissima och Pannaria conoplea i Gästrikland [Lobaria amplissima and Pannaria conoplea, two oceanic lichens in Gästrikland, E Sweden]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 81(3): 154–156.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] Lobaria amplissima and Pannaria conoplea are reported for the first time from the province of Gästrikland in E Central Sweden. They both belong to the group of oceanic lichens seriously threatened by extinction in SW Sweden. Both species grow on mossy trunks of Fraxinus excelsior on the bank of the river Testeboån, c. 10 km NW of Gävle. An additional list of rare and interesting lichens from the area is given.
29540Floravårdskommittén för lavar (1987): Preliminär lista över hotade lavar i Sverige [A preliminary list of threatened lichens in Sweden]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 81(4): 237–256.
A preliminary list of threatened lichens in Sweden is presented. 214 taxa have been classified into national red data categories (0 vanished, 1 endangered, 2 vulnerable, 3 rare, 4 caredemanding). Five main habitat types (S forest land, J agricultural land, V water and wetland, F alpine region, B cliffs and outcrops of bedrock outside the alpine region) have been defined and for each species the main habitat types in which it occurs is indicated. 17 species, viz. Arthonia tumidula, Calicium subquercinum, Collema fasciculare, Cyphelium notarisii, C. trachylioides, Erioderma pedicellatum, Evernia illyrica, Maronea constans, Pannaria sampaiana, Parmelia reddenda, P. subrudecta, Porina grandis, Sphinctrina anglica, Sticta fuliginosa, S. sylvatica, Thelopsis rubella and Usnea ceratina are regarded as vanished from Sweden. 46 species have been classified as endangered, 30 as vulnerable, 102 as rare and 19 as care-demanding. Many species are excluded from the list, either because they are taxonomically poorly understood, or because there is no information about present state or habitat preferences. A number of these might turn out to be endangered.
29539Mattsson J.-E. (1988): Några Cetraria-arters tillbakagång i södra Sverige [The decrease of some Cetraria species in southern Sweden]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 82(1): 27–31.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] The old localities in southern Sweden known from herbaria of Cetraria juniperina (L.) Ach., C. pinastri (Scop.) S. F. Gray and C. alvarensis (Wahlenb.) Vain, were visited during 1986. All specimens growing on calciferous ground are here regarded as C. alvarensis, although some of them have been determined as C. juniperina v. alvarensis (Wahlenb.) Torss., C. j. v. terrestris Schaer. or C. tilesii Ach. C. juniperina is almost extinct in the southern parts of the Swedish mainland. C. pinastri is still abundant except in the southwestern parts of the area. C. alvarensis has probably disappeared from its mainland localities. Possible explanations for the present reduction in distribution are discussed.
29538Carlsson T. & Clemedson C.-J. (1989): Bråtön – en ö med värdefull lundflora i Södermanland [Bråtön – a floristically remarkable island in Södermanland, SE Sweden]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 83(5): 283–295.
The island Bråtön is situated in the SW corner of the parish of Länna in the district of Strängnäs in N Södermanland. The island has an area of 0.35 km2 and is almost entirely covered by a grove with trees mostly of a fairly young age. The predominant tree species are Tilia cordata and Populus tremula, and large areas are more or less covered with small lime bushes. Bråtön is known as a habitat of the very rare orchid species Epipogium aphyllum, which was discovered there in 1848, but which has not been observed during the last ten years. A large number of grove herbs are present, such as Anemone ranunculoides, A. nemorosa x ranunculoides, Cardamine bulbifera, Galium odoratum, Lathraea squamaria, Lalhyrus niger, L. vernus and Polygonatum multiflorum, the grasses Bromus benekenii, Festuca altissima, F. gigantea and Poa remota and the lichen Lobaria pulmonaria. The list of species comprises 225 vascular plants, 80 mosses, 13 lichens and 23 mushroom species.
29537Hallingbäck T. (1989): Bokfjädermossa, Neckera pumila, en försurningshotad mossa [Neckera pumila, a moss threatened by acidification in south Sweden]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 83(3): 161–173.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] The moss Neckera pumila has earlier been fairly common in S Sweden but is today fairly rare. 37 old localities in Skåne, the southernmost province of Sweden, and a selection of localities in other parts of S Sweden, were revisited in 1986-87. The species was refound on only 14 places in Skåne, but on nearly all localities outside this province. In south Sweden N. pumila prefers tree-trunks, especially of Fagus sylvatica, in shaded localities, e.g. ravines and Nfacing slopes. Most often it is found on the north side of very big trunks, and it always avoids rain tracks and parts exposed to direct rain. In other parts of Sweden it only grows on cliffs, eruptive as well as metamorphic bedrock. The pH of the substrate ranges between 4.6 and 6.7 with a mean and standard deviation of 5.8 ± 0.58. In places where N. pumila shows good vitality the bark pH is 5.4-7.0. A voluminous list of associated lichens (often old-growth forest species) provided.
29536Arvidsson L. (1989): Parmelia submontana – en för Skandinavien ny lav [Parmelia submontana found in Scandinavia]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 83(3): 156–160.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] Parmelia submontana Nadv. ex Hale is reported for the first time from Scandinavia. It was found at Gårdshult, c. 18 km E of Halmstad in Halland, S Sweden. The lichen grew on the bark of a medium-sized Fraxinus excelsior at a small road. The occurrence is sparse, covering only c. 2 dm2. An updated map of the total distribution of P. submontana is included.
29535Ekman S. (1989): Förändringar i Stenshuvuds lavflora under ett halvt sekel [Changes in the lichen flora of Stenshuvud National Park over a period of fifty years]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 83(1): 13–26.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] The lichen flora of Stenshuvud National Park (55°39’N 14°16’E) in the parish of S. Mellby, easternmost Skåne (southernmost Sweden), has been investigated. The results are compared with a similar study of the same area made in 1934 by Gustaf Malme. Many of the lichens Malme found still occur at Stenshuvud. Some changes in the lichen flora, both negative and positive ones, have taken place, because the grazing has ceased. The forest has become more dense and dark, formerly open places have been overgrown with shrubs and trees, and areas which are still open have a more dense vegetation of grasses and sedges. Air pollution probably plays a less important part but has almost certainly caused the extinction of six species of Sticta, Lobaria and Nephroma. It is very likely that the great increase of Lecanora conizaeoides and Cliostomum griffithii is, directly or indirectly, due to air pollution. A species list is presented, comprising 226 species, 190 of which were found during the present investigation. Over the period 1890-1950 157 species were met with at Stenshuvud, 119 (76 %) of which still occur. 71 species are new to Stenshuvud.
29534Moberg R. (1988): Synpunkter på floravårdsarbetet på kryptogamsidan [Aspects of protecting cryptogams]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 82(6): 401–402.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] In Sweden there are three committees treating endangered cryptogams, for bryophytes, fungi and lichens, respectively. The interest to protect cryptogams is considerable even outside these committees. 216 bryophytes, ca 500 fungi and 214 lichens have been classified into national red data categories 0-4. Insufficient knowledge of taxonomy, ecology and distribution excludes many taxa which probably should have been treated within these categories. Protection of sites where the species have the possibility to survive in the future and a considerable decrease in air pollution are two of the most important desires.
29533Ståhl P. (1988): Hotade växter i östra Gästrikland [Threatened plants in SE Gästrikland, a province in C Sweden]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 82(6): 393–400.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] In 1983-84 a survey of locally threatened plants was carried through in Gästrikland, a province in the middle of Sweden. The investigated area comprises 1603 km2 and, due to the presence of calcareous soils in the central part, it has a rich and interesting flora. 144 species, including 4 lichens and 4 bryophytes, have been controlled. 21 of the vascular plants turned out to be extinct. Seven are regarded as endangered and 21 as vulnerable. Many of the vanished and endangered species are tied to habitats of the former agricultural landscape. A smaller proportion belongs to natural habitats such as forests, bogs, waters and seashores. Botrychium virginianum, Microstylis monophyllos and Viola uliginosa have been found on several new localities while Taxus baccata and Chimaphila umbellata are examples of decreasing forest plants. The lichens Usnea longissima and Ramalina thrausta have not been refound and Evernia divaricata has disappeared from 25 old localities, probably due to acidification and modern forest management.
29532Ingelög T. (1988): Floraläget i Sverige [Conservation and the status of the Swedish flora]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 82(6): 376–378.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] In the early 1970s a comprehensive work on flora conservation started in Sweden. Project Linnaeus included inventory and documentation of a number of threatened vascular plant species. A project on threatened and disfavoured plant species growing in forest included documentation and proposed conservation measures for about 300 vascular plants, bryophytes, lichens and fungi. Since 1984 the flora conservation work is coordinated from the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, where a database for threatened plant species is established. Several hundred botanists send their reports to this database. About 8% of the vascular plant species, 5% of the bryophytes and 4% of the lichens are considered endangered or vulnerable. The main threats to the flora are forestry, agriculture and air pollution, where the nitrogen deposition seems to be of an increasing importance.
29531Hermansson J.-O., Lundqvist R. & Oldhammer B. (1988): Nya fynd av ringlav, Evernia divaricata, i Dalarna [New finds of Evernia divaricata in the province of Dalarna, C Sweden]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 82(5): 314–323.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] Eight new localities for the rare and endangered lichen Evernia divaricata have been found in the province of Dalarna, C Sweden, during 1986 and 1987. Three or four of these are very rich in specimens; in one the lichen has been recorded from more than 1200 trees. Up to 90 cm tall specimens have been seen. The lichen usually grows on Picea abies but also on e.g. Pinus sylvestris, Betula, Juniperus communis, or dead trees. The localities are damp or wet; either they are situated along rivers or brooks, or they lie in slopes with moving subsoil water. The topography usually gives shelter from strong winds. Old slow-growing trees are characteristically present, but the lichen is not restricted to these. Several localities have been affected by fire, and in these cases the lichen has probably re-colonized from refugia sheltered from fire.
29530Hallingbäck T. & Thor G. (1988): Jättelav, Lobaria amplissima, i Sverige [The distribution and ecology of Lobaria amplissima in Sweden]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 82(2): 125–139.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] The present distribution and ecology of the lichen Lobaria amplissima in Sweden is compared with previous conditions. L. amplissima has declined rapidly the last years and is now endagered. Fifty-seven old localities were visited but the lichen was only found on 16. Totally it was found on 67 trees and one rock surface. Cephalodia were found on two localities, apothecia on seven and neither apothecia nor cephalodia on ten. A number of environmental factors were studied on all localities. The substrate preference has shifted from poor bark (e. g. Quercus spp. and Fagus sylvatica) to rich bark (e. g. Fraxinus excelsior and Acer platanoides). All localities on rocks but one have disappeared. Bark pH was measured on 40 trees with L. amplissima. On 31 of 41 localities, where the species was not found, the localities were unchanged. Seven localities were destroyed by forestry and three were transformed into built-up area. The major cause for the decline is thought to be air pollution. The two largest localities are exposed towards E, and there the lichens are protected from most of the air pollution.
29529Moberg R. (1988): Framsteg på lavfronten: Peveling, E. (red) 1987: Progress and problems in lichenology in the eighties. Proceedings of an international symposium held at the University of Münster on 16—21 March 1986. 497 sidor. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 25. J. Cramer, Berlin & Stuttgart. ISBN 3-443-58004-1. Pris ca 150 DM. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 82(4): 238 & 266.
Book review [in Swedish]
29528Kärnefelt I. (1988): Lavfloristik i superklassen: Wirth, V. 1987: Die Flechten Baden-Württembergs. 528 sidor, 408 färgfoton samt 860 utbredningskartor. Verlag Eugen Ulmer, Postfach 700561, D-7000 Stuttgart 70, BRD. ISBN 3-8001-3305-9. Pris 78 DM. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 82(4): 237.
Book review [in Swedish]
29527Mattsson J.-E. (1988): Lavarnas ekofysiologi - en nyckel till deras uppträdande i naturen [The ecophysiology of lichens - a key to their occurrence in nature]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 82(4): 239–256.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] The artide aims at a presentation of recent physiological and ecological research on lichens primarily to introduce the problems and the results to a wider Swedish public. It is shown that what we usually regard as primitive organisms, because of their rather simple thalli, really are advanced in their way of controlling their physiological processes. The interactions between external environmental factors as temperature, moisture and ions and internal processes as nitrogen fixation, photosynthesis and respiration are discussed. From this background it is then possible to understand the complexity in the reasons for the changes in the lichen flora and which possibilities there are when trying to save endangered species. The consequences of ditching, modern forestry and agriculture, and modern road construction are pointed out.
29526Arvidsson L., Lindström M., Muhr L.-E., Ståhl B. & Wall S. (1988): Lavfloran i Näverkärrsskogen i Bohuslän [The lichen flora of Näverkärr, Bohuslän, SW Sweden]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 82: 167–192.
[in Swedish with English abstract: ] The lichen flora of a small forest reserve of coastal Bohuslän, SW Sweden (58° 21’N, 11° 21’E) is presented. An account of the physical characteristics of the site is given. The lichen vegetation is described and the main features of the lichen flora are outlined. This small (0.05 km2) deciduous wood (mostly of elm, ash, oak and hazel) has proved to be a locality of great lichenological interest, being the habitat of several rare or threatened (e.g. oceanic) species. The total number of species recorded slightly exceeds 300 (297 identified to species or genus including some non-lichenized fungi). Of these, 186 are epiphytic (bark and wood). The index of ecological continuity (RIEC) is 55, the highest figure known from a Swedish locality. The forest is at least 300 years old and this long continuity is considered the principal reason for the unusually rich flora. Two species, viz. Opegrapha sorediifera and Strigula jamesii, are reported as new to Scandinavia and Thelopsis flaveola as new to Sweden. The parasite Dactylospora pertusaricola is new to Europe. Twenty-two species are first records for the province of Bohuslän. Attention is drawn to an overlooked association of minute lichens localized to basal parts of old deciduous trees.
29525Brakni R., Ahmed M.A., Burger P., Schwing A., Michel G., Pomares C., Hasseine L., Boyer L., Fernandez X., Landreau A. & Michel T. (2018): UHPLC‐HRMS/MS based profiling of Algerian lichens and their antimicrobial activities. - Chemistry and Biodiversity, 15(4): e1800031 [17 p.].
Lichens are complex symbiotic organisms able to produce a vast array of compounds. The Algerian lichen diversity has only prompted little interest even given the 1085 species listed. Herein, the chemodiversity of four Algerian lichens including Cladonia rangiformis, Ramalina farinaceae, R. fastigiata, and Roccella phycopsis was investigated. A dereplication strate gy, using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution- electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS/MS), was carried out for a comprehensive characterization of their substances including phenolics, depsides, depsidones, depsones, dibenzofurans, and aliphatic acids. Some known compounds were identified for the first time in some species. Additionally, the lichenic extracts were evaluated for their antifungal and antimicrobial activities on human pathogenic strains (Candida albicans, C. glabrata, Aspergillus fumigatus , Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherich ia coli). Cyclohexane extracts were found particularly active against human pathogenic fungi with MIC 80 values ranging from 8 to 62.5 lg/mL, without cytotoxicity. This study highlights the therapeutic and prophylactic potential of lichenic extracts as ant ibacterial and antifungal agents. Keywords: algerian lichens, UHPLC-HRMS, dereplication, antifungal activity, ant ibacterial activity.
29524Wietrzyk P., Rola K., Osyczka P., Nicia P., Szymański W. & Węgrzyn M. (2018): The relationships between soil chemical properties and vegetation succession in the aspect of changes of distance from the glacier forehead and time elapsed after glacier retreat in the Irenebreen foreland (NW Svalbard). - Plant and Soil, 428: 195–211.
Aims: The aim of this study was to determine relationships between soil chemical parameters (i.e. content of total organic carbon, total nitrogen, total sulphur, soil pH) and vegetation development in relation to distance from the current glacier forehead and time elapsed after glacier retreat in the Irenebreen foreland. Methods: Three transects were designated along the foreland. Species and vegetation cover were investigated in 1 m2 plots, placed every 50 m along each transect; corresponding soil samples were collected and chemically analysed. Results: The total organic carbon and total nitrogen contents in soil change according to power and exponential functions, respectively, whereas soil pH decreases linearly with increased time elapsed after glacier retreat. The wide variation in total sulphur contents prevent the determination of clear relationships. Bryophytes and vascular plants dominate in the younger part of the foreland, whereas epigeic lichens prevail in the older part. Conclusions: Vegetation cover seems to be the main factor effects on soil properties; however, chemical soil properties and distance from the glacier forehead affect species distribution and vegetation cover. Considered so far as the first pioneers, the epigeic lichens need more time than bryophytes and vascular plants to colonise the foreland. Keywords: Arctic . Carbon . Cryptogamic species . Nitrogen . Sulphur . Tundra soils.
29523Czerepko J., Boczoń A., Wróbel M., Gawryś R. & Sokołowski K. (2018): Removal of birch as a means of protecting raised bog mossy vegetation Ledo-Sphagnetum magellanici. - Wetlands Ecolology and Management, 26: 689–702.
Keywords: Raised bog;  Active protection; Vegetation succession;  Piska forest;  NE Poland. p. 694: "Significant changes in the mosses and lichens layer were observed; this layer gradually increased the coverage from 59.6% in 2006 to 65.7% in 2008. The total number of plant species, the number of tree and shrub species, and moss and lichen species numbers were significantly higher in 2013 compared to 2008 and 2006." p. 694-695: "While models indicated statistically significant differences in the layer of shrubs and of mosses and lichens, significant differences were not identified in pairwise comparisons between years. After reducing coverage in 2008, the shrub layer cover increased slightly in 2013. Moss and lichen coverage was equal in 2006 and 2008, but increased slightly in 2013. Similarly, the herb layer coverage was equal in 2006 and 2008 and insignificantly increased in 2013. There was a trend of increasing number of plant species from 15.4 in 2006 to 18.9 in 2013, but the difference in the total number of species was significant only between 2006 and 2013. Mosses and lichen species numbers also showed a statistically significant increase."
29522Benavent-González A., Delgado-Baquerizo M., Fernández-Brun L., Singh B.K., Maestre F.T. & Sancho L.G. (2018): Identity of plant, lichen and moss species connects with microbial abundance and soil functioning in maritime Antarctica. - Plant and Soil, 429: 35–52.
Background and aims: We lack studies evaluating how the identity of plant, lichen and moss species relates to microbial abundance and soil functioning on Antarctica. If species identity is associated with soil functioning, distributional changes of key species, linked to climate change, could significantly affect Antarctic soil functioning. Methods: We evaluated how the identity of six Antarctic plant, lichen and moss species relate to a range of soil attributes (C, N and P cycling), microbial abundance and structure in Livingston Island, Maritime Antarctica. We used an effect size metric to predict the association between species (vs. bare soil) and the measured soil attributes. Results: We observed species-specific effects of the plant and biocrust species on soil attributes and microbial abundance. Phenols, phosphatase and β-Dcellobiosidase activities were the most important attributes characterizing the observed patterns. We found that the evaluated species positively correlated with soil nutrient availability and microbial abundance vs. bare soil. Conclusions: We provide evidence, from a comparative study, that plant and biocrust identity is associated with different levels of soil functioning and microbial abundance in Maritime Antarctica. Our results suggest that changes in the spatial distribution of these species linked to climate change could potentially entail changes in the functioning of Antarctic terrestrial ecosystems. Keywords: Antarctic vegetation . Bacteria . Fungi . qPCR . Soil enzyme activities.
29521Stefańska‑Krzaczek E., Fałtynowicz W., Szypuła B. & Kącki Z. (2018): Diversity loss of lichen pine forests in Poland. - European Journal of Forest Research, 137: 419–431.
In Central Europe, deciduous forests are the dominant community type and lichen pine forests are restricted to certain areas with extremely nutrient-poor and xeric soil types. In recent decades, a retreat of vegetation of oligotrophic habitats has been observed in Central Europe. In this study, we assessed changes of lichen pine forests in Poland: within the main area of the range in Central Europe. We used two sets of data collected at a local and regional (nation-wide) scale. On the basis of data from semi-permanent plots, we examined changes in the structure and species composition of lichen pine forests over 33 years at the local scale (between 1975 and 2008). To compare trends at the regional scale, we used data collected in the Polish Vegetation Database (PVD). For identification of lichen pine forests we determined a group of co-occurring Cladonia species. We analyzed differences in species richness and vegetation structure at the regional scale in tree time periods (1) between 1951 and 1969, (2) 1970 and 1989, and (3) 1990 and 2011. We found that changes in lichen pine forests are primarily quantitative at both scales. Our results indicate that the abundance of Cladonia species is limited by strong competitors, i.e., vascular plants and bryophytes, which may be explained by eutrophication and climate warming. Only pine forests with a minor abundance of lichens have chances to persist in the vegetation of Central Europe, while the most valuable communities with high abundance of indicators will disappear. Though an assessment of the total decrease in the area of lichen pine forests is not possible with the available regional data, local observations indicate a large decline in the area of lichen pine forests in Central Europe. Their conservation seems to be a serious challenge, because it is difficult to provide optimal conditions for all indicators. Keywords: Cladonia species · Cryptograms · Forest exploitation · Scots pine stands · Species co-occurrence.
29520Banchi E., Stankovic D., Fernández-Mendoza F., Gionechetti F., Pallavicini A. & Muggia L. (2018): ITS2 metabarcoding analysis complements lichen mycobiome diversity data. - Mycological Progress, 17: 1049–1066.
Lichen thalli harbor complex fungal communities (mycobiomes) of species with divergent trophic and ecological strategies. The complexity and diversity of lichen mycobiomes are still largely unknown, despite surveys combining culture-based methods and high-throughput sequencing (HTS). The results of such surveys are strongly influenced by the barcode locus chosen, its sensitivity in discriminating taxa, and the depth to which public sequence repositories cover the phylogenetic spectrum of fungi. Here, we use HTS of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) to assess the taxonomic composition and diversity of a wellcharacterized, alpine rock lichen community that includes thalli symptomatically infected by lichenicolous fungi as well as asymptomatic thalli. Taxa belonging to the order Chaetothyriales are the major components of the observed lichen mycobiomes. We predict sequences representative of lichenicolous fungi characterized morphologically and assess their asymptomatic presence in lichen thalli.We demonstrated the limitations of metabarcoding in fungi and show how the estimation of species diversity widely differs when ITS1 or ITS2 are used as barcode, and particularly biases the detection of Basidiomycota. The complementary analysis of both ITS1 and ITS2 loci is therefore required to reliably estimate the diversity of lichen mycobiomes. Keywords: Ascomycetes . Basidiomycetes . Endophytes . Fungal isolates . Ion torrent . ITS1.
29519Wieners P.C., Mudimu O. & Bilger W. (2018): Survey of the occurrence of desiccation‑induced quenching of basal fluorescence in 28 species of green microalgae. - Planta, 248: 601–612.
Main conclusion: Desiccation-induced chlorophyll fluorescence quenching seems to be an indispensable part of desiccation resistance in the surveyed 28 green microalgal species. Lichens are desiccation tolerant meta-organisms. In the desiccated state photosynthesis is inhibited rendering the photobionts potentially sensitive to photoinhibition. As a photoprotective mechanism, strong non-radiative dissipation of absorbed light leading to quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence has been proposed. Desiccation-induced quenching affects not only variable fluorescence, but also the so-called basal fluorescence, F0. This phenomenon is well-known for intact lichens and some free living aero-terrestrial algae, but it was often absent in isolated lichen algae. Therefore, a thorough screening for the appearance of desiccation-induced quenching was undertaken with 13 different aero-terrestrial microalgal species and lichen photobionts. They were compared with 15 aquatic green microalgal species, among them also three marine species. We asked the following questions: Do isolated lichen algae show desiccation-induced quenching? Are aero-terrestrial algae different in this respect to aquatic algae and is the potential for desiccation-induced quenching coupled to desiccation tolerance? How variable is desiccation-induced quenching among species? Most of the aero-terrestrial algae, including all lichen photobionts, showed desiccation-induced quenching, although highly variable in extent, whereas most of the aquatic algae did not. All algae displaying quenching were also desiccation tolerant, whereas all algae unable to perform desiccation-induced quenching were desiccation intolerant. Desiccation-induced fluorescence quenching seems to be an indispensable part of desiccation resistance in the investigated species. Keywords Aero-terrestrial algae · Desiccation tolerance · Lichens · Photobionts · Photoprotection.
29518Bajpai R., Shukla V., Singh C.P., Tripathy O.P., Nayaka S. & Upreti D.K. (2018): Lichen community composition in Tawang district of Arunachal Pradesh, tool for long-term climate change monitoring. - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India Section B: Biological Sciences, 88(3): 915–922.
The lichen diversity in Tawang district of Arunachal Pradesh, India was studied in order to access the long-term effect of climate change in alpine regions of the area. The present study provides an enumeration of 122 species of lichens belonging to 47 genera and 24 families at five major sites of Tawang district of Arunachal Pradesh. Out of 5 sites, Mangalam Gompa (HSP 3), PTSO Lake (HSP 2) and Nagula (HSP 1) are the three highest summit point (HSPs), which have been designated as permanent long-term monitoring sites under the Indian Space Research Organization programme for monitoring the effect of climate change on Himalayan alpine ecosystem while two adjoining additional localities Tawang and SeLa pass were also surveyed. Among 5 localities, the Tawang area has the maximum diversity of lichens represented by 48 species followed by HSP 3 with 41 species and 28 species each in both HSP 2 and HSP 1. The SeLa Pass is represented by occurrence of 26 species only. Lichen family Parmeliaceae is the dominant in the study area, belonging to 51 species followed by Cladoniaceae and Lecanoraceae with 16 and 7 species, respectively. Any alteration in the substratum as well as growth forms of baseline lichen species in near future may help us to predict the habitat shift/composition of species in the area. The biomonitoring procedure could be further standardized and used as part of an environmental monitoring programme in near future. Keywords: Alpine regions;  Climate change;  Diversity; Lichens;  Northeastern Himalaya.
29517Durham R.A., Doherty K.D., Antoninka A.J., Ramsey P.W. & Bowker M.A. (2018): Insolation and disturbance history drive biocrust biodiversity in Western Montana rangelands. - Plant and Soil, 430: 151–169.
Background and Aims: Biological soil crust (biocrust) communities, though common and important in the intermountain west, have received little research attention. There are gaps in understanding what influences biocrust species’ abundance and distributions in this ecoregion. Climatic, edaphic, topographic, and biotic forces, in addition to anthropogenic disturbance can all influence the biocrust. Methods: We determined the relative influence of several possible environmental filters in biocrust communities of western Montana (USA) grasslands at two spatial scales. The larger scale exploited strong topographically-dictated climatic variation across >60km2, while the smaller scale focused on differences among distinct microsites within ~700m2 plots. Results: We detected a total of 96 biocrust taxa, mostly lichens. Biocrust richness at each site ranged from 0 to 39 species, averaging 14 species. Insolation, aspect, and disturbance history were the strongest predictors of biocrust richness, abundance, and species turnover across the landscape; soil texture was influential for some biocrust community properties. Steep, northfacing slopes that receive longer periods of shade harbored higher diversity and cover of biocrust than southfacing sites. At a small scale, interspaces among native herbaceous communities supported the greatest diversity of biocrust species, but microsites under shrub canopies supported the greatest cover. Conclusions: We found that, among the variables investigated, tillage, insolation, soil texture and the associated vegetation community were the most important drivers of biocrust abundance and species richness. This study can inform the practice of restoration and conservation, and also guide future work to improve predictions of biocrust properties. Keywords: Biocrust . Lichens . Bryophytes . Terricolous . Montana . Community analysis.
29516Sinigla, M., Lőkös, L., Molnár, K., Németh, Cs. & Farkas, E. (2018): Distribution of the legally protected lichen species Solorina saccata in Hungary. - Studia bot. hung., 49(1): 47–70.
Solorina saccata received endangered status in the Hungarian lichen red list in 1997, and legal protection in Hungary in 2013. Based on its ca 200, old and recent, herbarium and literature records ca 100 localities from the Aggtelek karst (1), Bakony Mts (29), Balaton Uplands (5), Buda Mts (8), Bükk Mts (7), Gerecse Mts (6), Keszthely Mts (10), Kőszeg Mts (2), Pilis Mts (2) and Vértes Mts (30) are registered. These currently known occurrence data are presented on a distribution map. Although it seems to be common at present in its potential habitats in the Transdanubian Mountain Range, these habitats are considered to be under real risk of habitat destruction and fragmentation parallel to the global tendency of population shrinkage of the species in Europe. In addition, habitat preferences and population dynamical conditions of Solorina saccata, necessary also for conservational purposes, are still insufficiently known. Maintaining the current condition of its habitats is crucial for the effective protection. Hungary, legally protected, lichen-forming fungi, Solorina saccata
29515Schmidt D., Csiky J., Matus G., Balogh R., Szurdoki E., Höhn M., Ábrán P., Buczkó K. & Lőkös L. (2018): Taxonomical and chorological notes 6 (71–74). - Studia bot. hung., 49(1): 121–130.
The present part of the series of miscellaneous new records provides new chorological data of one lichen-forming fungus and three vascular plants. One basidiolichen species (Multiclavula mucida) is reported for the first time from the territory of Romania as native and one (Oenothera oehlkersii) from Hungary as a garden escape. One species (Dryopteris affinis) is new for the Bakony Mts and one is confirmed for the Great Hungarian Plain (Danthonia decumbens). Clavulinaceae, Dryopteridaceae, Hungary, Onagraceae, Poaceae, Romania
29514Németh C. & Eckstein J. (2018): Vezdaea retigera (Vezdaeaceae), a facultatively epibryophytic lichenized fungus new to Hungary. - Studia bot. hung., 49(1): 41–46.
Vezdaea retigera, a lichenized fungus often growing on the gametophyte of various moss species, on thalli of the lichen Peltigera and also on soil was first observed in Hungary in the Börzsöny, Bükk and Zemplén Mts. The Hungarian finds are described in detail and illustrated with various macro- and micrographs. epibryophytic, goniocyst, lichenized fungi
29513Lőkös L., Crişan F., Hur J-S.., Varga N. & Farkas E. (2018): Enumeration of the lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi of the Călimani Mountains (Eastern Carpathians, Romania). - Studia bot. hung., 49(1): 5–40.
Having studied ca 300 specimens and 23 publications, 170 taxa of lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi are reported from various sources, 140 from published literature records and old herbarium specimens, and 30 species from recently collected material. One lichen species (Xylo- grapha pallens), and two lichenicolous fungi (Clypeococcum hypocenomycis, Endococcus macrosporus) are new for Romania, and 30 lichen species are considered as new for the Călimani Mountains. According to available specimens, Coniocybe gracilenta was revised as Chaenotheca furfuracea, and Peltigera aphthosa as P. didactyla. Călimani Mts, Eastern Carpathians, lichen-forming fungi, lichenicolous fungi, Roma- nia
29512Etayo J., Flakus A. & Kukwa M. (2018): Three new lichenicolous species of the genus Plectocarpon (Ascomycota: Lecanographaceae) discovered in the Bolivian Andes. - Phytotaxa, 357(4): 275–283.
In this paper three new species of Plectocarpon, P. dimorphosporum (on Ricasolia patinifera), P. parmotrematis (on Parmotrema reticulatum) and P. ramalinae (on Ramalina celastri), are described from tropical montane forests in the Bolivian Andes. Plectocarpon dimorphosporum is characterized by strongly convex ascomata covered by the host cortex when young, presence of Atra-brown pigment and 1–3-septate ascospores developing a brown-pigmented granular perispore, P. parmotrematis by rounded and slightly superficial ascomata, presence of pigments reacting K+ aeruginose to turquoise and colorless 3-septate ascospores, and P. ramalinae by ellipsoid, black ascomata, Atra-brown pigment, and short, colorless, 3- septate ascospores. In addition, the rare Protounguicularia fasciculata is reported here for the first time from Bolivia. Keywords: biodiversity, Celidium, Lecanoromycetes, Neotropics, Protounguicularia fasciculata, South America, taxonomy.
29511Käffer M.I. & Martins S.M.A. (2014): Evaluation of the environmental quality of a protected riparian forest in Southern Brazil. - Bosque [Valdivia], 35(3): 325–336.
Environmental Protection Areas (EPA) are of extreme importance for species conservation and establishment. We investigated different areas of riparian forests in the Environmental Protection Area of Ibirapuitã, southern Brazil. We analyzed the environmental quality of these areas by studying the lichen community and using the index of atmospheric purity (IAP) with the environmental classification factor (ECF) as the correction factor. The lichen community was analyzed in 12 riparian forest stands located in the southern region of EPA. Lichens were registered on 60 tree barks, from 50 cm to 150 cm above the ground, on both north and south sides. A cluster analysis was used to test whether there were changes in lichen species similarity among communities from each forest vegetation stands. A total of 193 lichen species were registered. The stands were classified into poor-lichen, transition zone, and normal for lichen development. The cluster analysis showed distinct groups, demonstrating differences in species composition among the stands. Indicator lichen species were registered in 80 % of the studied stands. In the most conserved areas, higher species richness and a greater number of fruticose species were registered, besides the presence of key species such as the genus Lobaria. The conservation of forest areas in environmental protection areas is essential for biodiversity conservation. Our results confirm the usage of the index of atmospheric purity with ECF to evaluate environmental quality of forest areas. Key words: EPA of Ibirapuitã, protected, conservation, corticolous lichens, IAP.
29510Pérez-Pérez R.E. & Guzmán G. (2015): Parmotrema species in a cloud forest region turned into an urban zone in Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico. - Bosque [Valdivia], 36(3): 357–362.
The cloud forest of Mexico has the highest biodiversity among the country’s diverse forest types; however, 90 % of the cloud forest ecosystem in the region of Xalapa has been destroyed and what remains is at risk. This region is home to an enormous diversity of lichen species. In a lichen survey carried out in this remnant of cloud forest in Xalapa, which has been turned into an urban area, we identified only eight species of Parmotrema, all of which showed vegetative propagules. Regardless of the role of the genus in the ecosystems, these lichens may be disappearing as a result of the transformation and destruction of the cloud forest ecosystem in Mexico. Key words: Parmotrema, cloud forest, Xalapa Region, Mexico.
29509Nelson P.R. & Wheeler T.B. (2016): Persistence of epiphytic lichens along a tephra-depth gradient produced by the 2011Puyehue-Cordón Caulle eruption in Parque Nacional Puyehue, Chile. - Bosque [Valdivia], 37(1): 97–105.
Lichens, symbioses between fungi and algae or cyanobacteria, are diverse and abundant in humid temperate forests in mountain ranges such as the Andes. They are also sensitive to changes in atmospheric conditions. We suspected lichens would show die back as a result of tephra fall from the 2011 Puyehue-Cordón Caulle volcanic eruption. We measured macrolichen community composition six months after initiation of the Caulle eruption at four sites along a tephra depth gradient from 10 to 50 cm. We also monitored the lichen community on permanent tree-bole quadrats over the next three years. We found 81 macrolichens species on seven plots at four sites across the tephra depth gradient. Plot species richness ranged between 23 and 34 lichen taxa. Nearly three years after the eruption, lichens in quadrats on tree boles showed no obvious trend of mortality in response to depth of tephra deposition. We concluded that lichen communities, despite being sensitive to atmospheric conditions, were able to survive the disturbance of up to 50 cm of tephra deposition three years after the eruption in part because of their position on the vertical sides of tree boles, which prevented abrasive impact and smothering by tephra deposition. Key words: montane forest, repeat photography, vegetation, volcanic disturbance.
29508Zilio L., Hammond H. & Castro A.S. (2017): Levantamiento planimétrico y análisis liquenométrico en el Sitio Campo de Chenques, costa norte de Santa Cruz (Patagonia Argentina) [Planimetric survey and lichenometric analysis in Campo de Chenques site, northern coast of Santa Cruz (Argentinian Patagonia)]. - Chungará, Revista de Antropología Chilena [Arica], 49(1): 65–80.
[in Spanish with English abstract: ] This paper presents the results obtained from the planimetric survey and lichenometric analyses conducted for the first time in the hunter-gatherer archaeology of Patagonia. Campo de Chenques site is a concentration of chenque-type human burial structures located on the Atlantic coast of the province of Santa Cruz, Argentina. A planimetric survey of the structures that make up the site was performed using a differential GPS. In addition, lichenometric studies were undertaken in order to obtain minimum estimated ages for the structures. To this end, lichen genus Rhizocarpon (subgenus Rhizocarpon) that grow on the rocks were measured.Based on these studies, a georeferenced map of the site was made, the number and morphology of the structures were determined, and a minimum age of approximately 770 years for the chenque construction was obtained by lichenometry, which is consistent with radiocarbon ages obtained for the site. Thus, Campo de Chenques becomes the oldest archaeological context of Patagonia in which a lichenometric technique was applied for the first time.The results are discussed in relation to the dynamics of occupation of the area by hunter-gatherer populations during the late Holocene. Key words: Planimetric survey, lichenometry, differential GPS, Chenques, Patagonia.
29507Vargas Castillo R., Stanton D. & Nelson P.R. (2017): Aportes al conocimiento de la biota liquénica del oasis de neblina de Alto Patache, Desierto de Atacama. - Revista de Geografía Norte Grande, 68: 49–64.
[in Spanish with English abstract:] Fog oases are zones along the Atacama Desert where the regular input of fog favors the development of rich communities of vascular plants, becoming biodiversity hotspots. In these areas, the lichen biota has been poorly explored and represents one of the most conspicuous elements among the perennials organisms that form the community. In a previous study of the lichen biota of the fog oasis at Alto Patache 7 species were reported. With the intent of update this information, lichen richness was assessed following 2 altitudinal transects at diff erent aspects of the coastal bluff . Here we present preliminary data indicating the presence of 77 species. Of these, 61 species are new records for the Tarapacá Region, and the species Amandinea eff lorescens, Diploicia canescens, Myriospora smaragdula and Rhizocarpon simillimum are new records for the Chilean lichen flora. Alto Patache is also acknowledged as the sole locality for Santessonia cervicornis, an endemic Critically Endangered species. Key words: Fog oasis, Atacama Desert, lichens.
29506Root H.T., Brinda J.C. & Dodson E.K. (2018): Biotic soil crust community composition 12–16 years after wildfires in Idaho, U.S.A.. - Bryologist, 121(3): 286–296.
Biological Soil Crusts (BSCs) are important components of sagebrush steppe ecosystems that may be affected by wildfire frequency and severity. As wildfires become more frequent and severe with exotic annual grasses and climate change, it is unknown how BSCs will be affected. We examined the sites of four 12–16 year-old wildfires in Idaho, U.S.A. and adjacent unburned habitats. We found that several lichen and bryophyte species were more frequent and abundant in unburned plots but no species were significantly associated with burned plots. Burned BSC communities were largely a subset of unburned communities. We compared sampling methods using eight 1 m31 m subplots per plot to eight 0.25 m3 0.25 m microplots per plot. We observed 80 total taxa in the subplots, as compared with 68 in the microplots. However, even using the smaller sampling area, the difference in community composition between burned and unburned plots was evident. The number of observed taxa was unusually high for BSC studies in the area and may reflect our sampling in varied plant communities in four wildfire sites, unusually well-developed BSCs, larger plot sizes, or greater attention to taxonomic detail. These results add to our understanding of longer-term BSC community recovery following wildfires in the western United States. Keywords: Biological soil crusts, disturbance, recovery, sagebrush steppe, nestedness, diversity.
29505Vančurová L., Muggia L., Peksa O., Řídká T. & Škaloud P. (2018): The complexity of symbiotic interactions influences the ecological amplitude of the host: A case study in Stereocaulon (lichenized Ascomycota). - Molecular Ecology, 27: 3016–3033.
Symbiosis plays a fundamental role in nature. Lichens are among the best known, globally distributed symbiotic systems whose ecology is shaped by the requirements of all symbionts forming the holobiont. The widespread lichen‐forming fungal genus Stereocaulon provides a suitable model to study the ecology of microscopic green algal symbionts (i.e., phycobionts) within the lichen symbiosis. We analysed 282 Stereocaulon specimens, collected in diverse habitats worldwide, using the algal ITS rDNA and actin gene sequences and fungal ITS rDNA sequences. Phylogenetic analyses revealed a great diversity among the predominant phycobionts. The algal genus Asterochloris (Trebouxiophyceae) was recovered in most sampled thalli, but two additional genera, Vulcanochloris and Chloroidium, were also found. We used variation‐partitioning analyses to investigate the effects of climatic conditions, substrate/habitat characteristic, spatial distribution and mycobionts on phycobiont distribution. Based on an analogy, we examined the effects of climate, substrate/habitat, spatial distribution and phycobionts on mycobiont distribution. According to our analyses, the distribution of phycobionts is primarily driven by mycobionts and vice versa. Specificity and selectivity of both partners, as well as their ecological requirements and the width of their niches, vary significantly among the species‐level lineages. We demonstrated that species‐level lineages, which accept more symbiotic partners, have wider climatic niches, overlapping with the niches of their partners. Furthermore, the survival of lichens on substrates with high concentrations of heavy metals appears to be supported by their association with toxicity‐tolerant phycobionts. In general, low specificity towards phycobionts allows the host to associate with ecologically diversified algae, thereby broadening its ecological amplitude.
29504Lu J., Magain N., Miadlikowska J., Coyle J.R., Truong C. & Lutzoni F. (2018): Bioclimatic factors at an intrabiome scale are more limiting than cyanobiont availability for the lichen-forming genus Peltigera. - American Journal of Botany, 105(7): 1198–1211.
Premise of the Study: Factors shaping spatiotemporal patterns of associations in mutualistic systems are poorly understood. We used the lichen‐forming fungi Peltigera and their cyanobacterial partners Nostoc to investigate the spatial structure of this symbiosis at an intrabiome scale and to identify potential factors shaping these associations. Methods: Ninety‐three thalli were sampled in Québec, Canada, along a south–north and an east–west transect of ~1300 km each. We identified the two main partners (Peltigera species and Nostoc phylogroups) using molecular markers and modeled the effects of environmental variables and partner occurrence on Peltigera–Nostoc distributions. Key Results: Peltigera species showed a high degree of specialization toward cyanobionts, whereas two Nostoc phylogroups dominated both transects by associating with several Peltigera species. Peltigera species had narrower ranges than these two main cyanobionts. Distributions of three Peltigera species were highly associated with precipitation and temperature variables, which was not detected for Nostoc phylogroups at this spatial scale. Conclusions: For these cyanolichens, factors driving patterns of symbiotic associations are scale dependent. Contrary to global‐scale findings, generalist Peltigera species were not more widespread within the boreal biome than specialists. Nostoc availability was not the only driver of Peltigera species’ geographic ranges; environmental factors also contributed to their intrabiome distributions. Climatic conditions (especially precipitation) limited the range of some Peltigera species more than the range of their cyanobacterial partners at an intrabiome (boreal) scale.
29503Ханов З.М., Урбанавичюс Г.П. & Урбанавичене И.Н. [Khanov Z.M., Urbanavichus G.P. & Urbanavichene I.N.] (2018): Дополнения к лихенофлоре Кабардино-Балкарии и Центрального Кавказа [Additions to the lichen flora of Kabardino-Balkaria and Central Caucasus]. - Ботанический журнал [Botanicheskiy Zhurnal], 103(1): 116–122.
The Kabardino-Balkarian Republic is located in the central part of the northern macro-slope of the Caucasus. The Republic differs sharply from the rest of the North Caucasus in terms of climatic indicators, geomorphological and lithological features. Only 312 species were previously known in the Republic according to the literature and data of our local floristic study. This paper presents data on 20 species and 5 genera (Alyxoria, Athallia, Carbonea, Physciella, Pleopsidium) new to the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic. The information on their distribution in the Caucasus with data on the localities is given. Five species are recorded for the first time in the Central Caucasus: Brodoa atrofusca, Cetraria muricata, Cladonia cornuta, Lepra schaereri, Ramalina subgeniculata. For these species the characteristic features of specimens are given, and the nearest locality is cited. Key words: lichens, new records, Central Caucasus, Kabardino-Balkarian Republic, Nalchik, «Prielbrusye» National Park.
29502Salo H., Hannuksela M. & Hausen B. (1981): Lichen picker's dermatitis (Cladonia alpestris (L.) Rab.). - Contact Dermatitis, 7: 9-13.
The frequency and immunological background of dermatitis occurring in lichen pickers during the 3- to 4-month picking season were studied in a small community in northern Finland. Thirty of 164 lichen pickers had suffered from dermatitis at least on the fingers and the dorsa of their hands, and many of them also had dermatitis on their forearms, faces, etc. Fifteen of them were subjected to epicutaneous and photo-epicutaneous testing with crushed Cladonia alpestris (L.) Rab. and some fractions of it. Allergic contact reactions were seen in nine subjects, three of whom also had positive photo-epicutaneous test reactions from lichen allergens. No immediate reactions were seen in scratch or scratch chamber tests with crushed Cl. alpestris or with its alcoholic extract.
29501Hausen B.M., Emde L. & Marks V. (1993): An investigation of the allergenic constituents of Cladonia stellaris (Opiz) Pous & Vežda [sic!] (‘silver moss’, ‘reindeer moss’ or ‘reindeer lichen’). - Contact Dermatitis, 28: 70-76.
The sensitizing potency of Cladonia stellaris (‘reindeer lichen silver moss’) extracts was determined in guinea pigs by a modified FCA (Freund's complete adjuvant) lest. The lichen showed a moderate sensitizing potency. Similar investigations with pure common lichen constituents revealed a moderate sensitizing potency for fumarprotocetraric acid and atranorin and a weak one for evernic acid, stictic acid and both forms of usnic acid. Although generallt weak, (–)‐usnic acid was at least 2 × stronger than (+)‐usnic acid. After separation of the Cladonia ether extract into ‘usnic‐acid‐free’ and ‘usnic‐acid‐containing’ fractions, perlatolic acid was identified as the main allergenic constituent of the ‘usnic‐acid‐free fraction’. Stictic, evernic. fumarprotocetraric acid and atranorin were not detectable. Lichens and lichen products generally possess a weak to moderate sensitizing capacity. Compared with common sensitizers of occupational and environmental importance, these products play only a minor role.
29500Sanmartín P., DeAraujo A. & Vasanthakumar A. (2018): Melding the old with the new: trends in methods used to identify, monitor, and control microorganisms on cultural heritage materials. - Microbial Ecology, 76: 64–80.
Microbial activity has an important impact on the maintenance of cultural heritage materials, owing to the key role of microorganisms in many deterioration processes. In order to minimize such deleterious effects, there is a need to fine-tune methods that detect and characterize microorganisms. Trends in microbiology indicate that this need can be met by incorporating modern techniques. All of the methods considered in this review paper are employed in the identification, surveillance, and control of microorganisms, and they have two points in common: They are currently used in microbial ecology (only literature from 2009 to 2015 is included), and they are often applied in the cultural heritage sector. More than 75 peer-reviewed journal articles addressing three different approaches were considered: molecular, sensory and morphological, and biocontrol methods. The goal of this review is to highlight the usefulness of the traditional as well as the modern methods. The general theme in the literature cited suggests using an integrated approach. Keywords: Microorganisms . Biofilms . Biodeterioration . Destructive and non-destructive techniques .Microbial growth and survival . DNA . RNA . Fungi.
29499Chagnon P.L., Magain N., Miadlikowska J. & Lutzoni F. (2018): Strong specificity and network modularity at a very fine phylogenetic scale in the lichen genus Peltigera. - Oecologia, 187: 767–782.
Identifying the drivers and evolutionary consequences of species interactions is a major goal of community ecology. Networkbased analyses can provide mathematical tools to detect non-random patterns of interactions, and potentially help predicting the consequences of such patterns on evolutionary dynamics of symbiotic systems. Here, we characterize the structure of a lichen network at a very fine phylogenetic scale, by identifying the photosynthetic partners (i.e., cyanobacteria of the genus Nostoc) of lichenized fungi belonging to a monophyletic section of a single genus (i.e., section Polydactylon of the genus Peltigera), worldwide. Even at such a fine phylogenetic scale, we found that interactions were highly modular and anti-nested, indicating strong preferences in interactions. When considering local Peltigera communities, i.e., datasets at small spatial scales with only a slightly broader phylogenetic range, interactions remained modular but were asymmetric, with generalist Nostoc partners interacting with specialized Peltigera species. This asymmetry was not detected with our global spatial scale dataset. We discuss these results in the light of lichen community assembly, and explore how such interaction patterns may influence coevolution in lichens and the evolutionary stability of the mutualism in general. Keywords: Cyanolichens · Partner selection · Mutualism · Nostoc · Symbiosis.
29498Joshi Y., Upadhyay S., Shukla S., Bisht K., Chandra K. & Tripathi M. (2018): Sacred Groves: Treasure House for Macrolichen Diversity in Kumaun Himalaya. - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India Section B: Biological Sciences, 88(3): 935–948.
The present study conducted in 21 sacred groves of Almora and Pithoragarh districts of Uttarakhand, India revealed the occurrence of 116 macrolichen species, belonging to 13 families and 38 genera, colonizing Quercus, Lyonia, Pinus, Rhododendron, Cedrus and Myrica trees along with some shrubs viz. Pyracantha, Berberis and miscellaneous substrates. Sacred groves having Quercus as climax vegetation came out as abode of a good number of lichens making it the best host for lichens in Himalaya encompassing 79 macrolichen species, which is quite high in comparison to Pinus that only hosts 29 species. Parmeliaceae was the dominant family with 51 species of macrolichens, followed by Physciaceae (36), Collemataceae and Lobariaceae (10 species each). Since lichens are very slow growing organisms, and quite sensitive to ecological and environmental fluctuations, if once got vanished from a particular location, they will take several years to reestablish, hence, conservation of their habitat (sacred grove) is very important to prevent their extinction. The study revealed that macrolichen diversity in the studied sacred groves was positively correlated with associated taboos of the sacred groves (0.680**, P\0.01), stating that, strictly obeying the taboos in sacred groves/forests can be one of the best way to conserve lichens. Keywords: Diversity; Kumaun Himalaya;  Macrolichens; Sacred groves; Taboos.
29497Cornejo C., Chabanenko S. & Scheidegger C. (2018): Are species-pairs diverging lineages? A nine-locus analysis uncovers speciation among species-pairs of the Lobaria meridionalis-group (Ascomycota). - Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 129: 48–59.
In spite of considerable effort to verify the theory of species-pairs, uncertainty still exists about the relationship between sexually or vegetatively reproducing populations of morphologically indistinguishable, sympatric lichen species. The current paper studies putative species-pairs within the Asian Lobaria meridionalis-group, using a nine-locus and time calibrated species-tree approach. Analyses demonstrate that pairs of sexually or vegetatively reproducing lineages split into highly supported monophyletic clades—confirming molecularly the species-pair concept for the L. meridionalis-group. In the broader context of evolution and speciation dynamics in lichenized fungi, this paper attempts to synthesize molecular findings from the last two decades to promote a more modern perception of the species-pair concept. Taxonomically, eight species were found to currently conform to the L. meridionalis-group, which differentiated during the Pliocene and Pleistocene. The coincidence of paleoclimatic events with estimated dates of divergence support a bioclimatic hypothesis for the evolution of species in the L. meridionalis-group, which also explains their current eco-geographic distribution patterns. Greater recognition for species with a long and independent evolutionary history, which merit high conservation priority, will be especially critical for preserving geographically restricted endemics from Southeast Asia, where habitat loss is driving rapid declines. Keywords: Lichenized fungi; Speciation; East Asia; Endemics; Pliocene; Pleistocene.
29496Janda J. & Tichá J. (2018): Determination of the gross activity of uranium, plutonium, americium and strontium in environmental samples using solid-state scintillation. - Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 192: 181–186.
Rapid determination of selected gross alpha and beta emitters in environmental matrices by solid-state scintillation technique is discussed. This method is based on sample treatment using microwave reactor and direct measurement of digested products using powder scintillator and alkaline solution as a substitute for traditional liquid scintillation cocktail. The selected group of radionuclides was chosen with respect to their use in nuclear industry, high radiotoxicity, and the possibility of potential misuse. The work aimed at verifying the connection of microwave decomposition using alkaline solution with solid-state scintillation using a powder scintillator YAP:Ce together with an alkaline medium. This paper deals with the rapid determination of the selected environmental samples, such as algae, fish, shrimps, mosses, lichen and milk using microwave digestion and solid-state scintillation technique, as a possible approach in emergency monitoring. p. 182: "The investigated samples were mosses and lichen, which were collected in the Moravian countryside, as well as algae. Milk, fish (cod fillet) and shrimps were bought from local distributors." p. 184: "Digestion of lichen The 0.1 g of dried lichen was ground and then transferred into the vessel followed by 6 ml of H2O2 and 6 ml of 7M NaOH. The digestion was realized in the same way as algae." "The lichen, contrary to other samples, colored the resulting decomposition product ranging from slightly red to brown-red color. The results of the digestion procedures are shown in Fig. 1."
29495Boonpeng C., Sriviboon C., Polyiam W., Sangiamdee D., Watthana S. & Boonpragob K. (2018): Assessing atmospheric pollution in a petrochemical industrial district using a lichen-air quality index (LiAQI). - Ecological Indicators, 95: 589–594.
Physiological processes within the thalli of lichens respond differently to accumulated pollutants. The chemical and physiological responses of lichens to atmospheric pollution from a petrochemical industrial complex were used to develop a lichen-air quality index (LiAQI). Thalli of the lichen Parmotrema tinctorum collected from an unpolluted area were transplanted to eight monitoring sites in the surrounding area of the Map Ta Phut industrial estate, two sites in an agricultural zone and a control site in a national park. Thirty chemical substances and eight physiological parameters were measured and analyzed. These data were then used to calculate the LiAQI of each monitoring site. The LiAQI values suggested that three industrial sites within 3–5 km of the main industrial area had poor air quality, three sites at a distance of 4–7 km had moderate air quality and two sites at a distance of 8–9 km had good air quality. Both agricultural sites at a distance of 35–55 km had very good air quality when compared with the control site. Air quality was found to improve with greater distance from the industrial center. The LiAQI developed from lichens was effective at detecting atmospheric pollution. Keywords: Chlorophyll fluorescence; Map Ta Phut; Parmotrema tinctorum; Physiological parameter; Pollutant; Thailand.
29494Serrano H.C., Oliveira M.A., Barros C., Augusto A.S., Pereira M.J., Pinho P. & Branquinho C. (2019): Measuring and mapping the effectiveness of the European Air Quality Directive in reducing N and S deposition at the ecosystem level. - Science of the Total Environment, 647: 1531–1538.
To protect human health and the environment (namely ecosystems), international air quality protocols and guidelines, like the Gothenburg protocol (1999) and the 2001 EU Air Quality Directive (NECD), conveyed national emission ceilings for atmospheric pollutants (Directive 2001/81/EC), including the reduction of sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) emissions by 2010. However, to what degree this expected reduction in emissions had reflections at the ecosystem level (i.e. pollutant levels reaching and impacting ecosystems and their organisms) remains unknown. Here, we used lichens as ecological indicators, together with reported air and precipitation pollutant concentrations, to determine and map the consequences of the S and N atmospheric emission's reduction, during the implementation of the 2001 Directive (in 2002 and 2011), due primarily to the industrial-sector. The study area is a mixed-land-use industrialized Mediterranean agroforest ecosystem, in southwest Europe. The reduction of S emissions (2002−2011) was reflected at the ecosystem level, as the same S-declining trend was observed in atmospheric measurement stations and lichens alike (−70%), indicating that most S deposited to the ecosystem had an industrial origin. However, this was not the case for N with a slight N-reduction near industrial facilities, but mostly N-deposition in lichens increased in areas dominated by agricultural land-uses. Taken together, these results highlight the importance of going beyond emissions estimation and modeling, to assess the success of the implementation of the NECD in lowering pollutant accumulation in living organisms and their environment. This can only be achieved by measuring pollutant deposition at the ecosystem level (e.g. living organisms). By doing so, we were able to show that the 2001 NECD was successful in reducing S concentrations from Industry, whereas N remains a challenge. Despite the small reduction in N-emissions, deposition into ecosystems did not reflect these changes as agriculture and transport sectors must reduce NH3 and NOx emissions. Keywords: Ecological indicator; Nitrogen; Sulfur; Deposition; Emission; Air Quality Directive.
29493Урбанавичюс Г.П. [Urbanavichus G.P.] (2016): Род Strigula (Strigulaceae, Strigulales) в лихенофлоре Кавказа [The genus Strigula (Strigulaceae, Strigulales) in the lichen flora of the Caucasus]. - Ботанический журнал [Botanicheskiy Zhurnal], 101(2): 154–166.
[in Russian with English abstract:] The genus Strigula is predominantly tropical and subtropical lichen genus with the least diversity in temperate regions. Based on field studies, herbarium revision and published data, a review of the genus Strigula in the lichen flora of the Caucasus is presented. Seven species (Strigula affinis, S. buxi, S. glabra, S. jamesii, S. minor, S. nitidula, and S. stigmatella) of the eight ones known in Russia occur in the Caucasus. One species (S. glabra) is the first record from the Russian Caucasus. An identification key to all the Caucasian and Russian species of Strigula is provided. Descriptions are provided for each species, together with ecological and distributional data. Key words: lichens, Strigula, review, Caucasus, Russia.
29492Урбанавичюс Г.П., Вондрак Я. & Урбанавичене И.Н. [Urbanavichus G.P., Vondrák J. & Urbanavichene I.N.] (2017): Род Porina (Porinaceae, Lichenes) во флоре Кавказа [Genus Porina (Porinaceae, Lichenes) in the lichen flora of the Caucasus]. - Ботанический журнал [Botanicheskiy Zhurnal], 102(4): 563–576.
[in Russian with English summary:] Porinaceae (Ostropomycetidae) contains more than 400 predominantly tropical and subtropical lichenized species. Its diversity steeply decreases toward higher latitudes, so there is only one genus (Porina) with 16 species known from the whole territory of Russia. We report 14 species from the Russian part of the Caucasus: five species (P. aenea, P. borreri, P. leptalea, P. pseudohibernica and P. rosei) are corticolous, five species — foliicolous (P. colchica, P. hoehneliana, P. nitidula, P. oxneri, P.rubentior) and four species — saxicolous (P. byssophila, P. chlorotica, P. ginzbergeri, P. lectissima). P. colchica is considered endemic of the Caucasus. On the basis of field studies, herbarium research and literature data, we reviewed ecology and distribution of the genus Porina in the Caucasus. P. leptalea and P. pseudohibernica are new to Russia, P. borreri and P. pseudohibernica are new to the Caucasus and Asia, and P. leptalea is new to the Caucasus, P. oxneri and P. rosei are new to the Republic of Adygea. We provide an identification key to all Caucasian Porina (also including prospective species). We further provide descriptions of all Caucasian species, together with ecological and distributional data. Keywords: lichens, Porina, taxonomical review, distribution, Northern Caucasus, Russia.
29491Khodosovtsev A.Ye. & Darmostuk V.V. (2017): Collemopsidium kostikovii sp. nov. (Collemopsidales, Xanthopyrenaceae), a new algicolous fungus on terricolous Nostoc crust from Ukraine. - Український Ботанічний Журнал [Ukrainian Botanical Journal], 74(5): 431–434.
Collemopsidium kostikovii Khodos. & Darmostuk sp. nov. (Collemopsidales, Xanthopyrenaceae) is described as a new for science species of algicolous fungi. The new species is characterized by pseudothecia fully immersed in algal crust, (80–)90–170(–200) μm wide, not widening ostiole, 10–20 μm diam., 8-spored asci and 1-septate hyaline ascospores, (14.8–)16– 19.6(–23) × (6.3–)6.4–7.8(–9.0) μm. It is morphologically similar to C. iocarpum, but differs by its not widening ostiole and association with terricolous cyanobacterial crust with dominant Nostoc muscorum. Keywords: Nostoc, Pyrenocollema, saline soil, Poltava Region.
29490Khodosovtsev A.Ye. & Darmostuk V.V. (2018): New for Ukraine species of lichens and lichenicolous fungi from marl limestones in the Northern Black Sea Region. - Український Ботанічний Журнал [Ukrainian Botanical Journal], 75(1): 33–37.
During the recent field season, we focused on lichens and lichenicolous fungi of petrophytic steppe habitats. They are widespread within the Black Sea Lowland in Ukraine. The marl limestones and pure limestone pebbles are outcropped in the central parts of the steppe slopes. The stone surfaces are colonized by pioneer lichen communities where endolithic life forms are mostly imperceptible. The petrophytic steppe habitats are protected in Europe. Six new for Ukraine species of lichens and two species of lichenicolous fungi from these habitats are reported in the article. A lichenicolous fungus, Acaroconium punctiforme, is characterized by subglobose black pycnidia, ampuliform conidiogenous cells, enteroblastic broadly ellipsoid aseptate pale brown conidia and Sarcogyne regularis as a host. Aspicilia subfarinosa has chalky-white thallus with farinose, smooth surface with occasional small cracks. The lichenicolous fungus Lichenochora wasseri s. l. was found on Xanthocarpia lactea. It is a new host for this lichenicolous fungus. Psorotichia montinii has minutely areolate thin crustose to almost powdery blackish thallus, minute invisible apothecia with punctiform discs. Verrucaria bernaicensis is characterized by pale gray, epruinose, areolate or subsquamulose thallus, immersed perithecia, lacking involucrellum, and small ellipsoid ascospores. Verrucaria papillosa differs from V. viridula by its completely endolithic thallus and undeveloped involucrellum. Verrucaria schindleri is similar to V. muralis, but has dark exciple in the lower part. The localities in Ukraine, ecology and distribution data for the new records are provided. Keywords: Acaroconium, Aspicilia, Lichenochora, Psorotichia, Verrucaria, Ukraine.
29489Нипорко С.О., Барсуков О.О. & Капець Н.В. [Nyporko S.O., Barsukov O.O. & Kapets N.V.] (2018): Флористичні знахідки мохоподібних, лишайників та ліхенофільних грибів з Національного природного парку "Гуцульщина" [Floristic records of mosses, lichens and lichenicolous fungi from Hutsulschyna National Nature Park]. - Український Ботанічний Журнал [Ukrainian Botanical Journal], 75(2): 179–186.
[in Ukrainian with English abstract: ] Results of the research conducted during 2016–2017 in Hutsulshchyna National Nature Park are reported. Main goals of our study were to obtain new information on distribution of liverworts, mosses, lichens and allied fungi of the study area and to find new localities of rare species. The data on 25 new for Hutsulschyna National Nature Park species are provided: lichen Arctoparmelia incurva, lichenicolous fungi Marchandiomyces corallinus, Phaeopyxis punctum, liverworts Barbilophozia sudetica, Calypogeia integristipula, Crossocаlyx helleriаnum, Lejeunea cavifolia, Scapania nemorea, and mosses Atrichum tenellum, Brachythecium mildeanum, B. rivulare, Bryum subapiculatum, Campylium protensum, C. sommerfeltii, Ditrichum flexicaule, Grimmia laevigata, Homomallium incurvatum, Hygroamblystegium varium, Orthotrichum affine, O. diaphanum, O. pallens, Plagiomnium affine, Pseudoleskeella catenulata, Thuidium recognitum, Zygodon rupestris. A genus Phaeopyxis (species P. punctum) of lichenicolous fungi and a lichen species Arctoparmelia incurva are newly reported for Ukraine. A lichenicolous fungus Marchandiomyces corallinus is first registered for the Ukrainian Carpathians. Detailed localities for each species are presented, their ecological and biogeographical issues are discussed. Following our research, 53 species of liverworts, 204 species of mosses, 217 species of lichens and lichenicolous fungi are known in Hutsulshchyna National Nature Park. Keywords: new for Ukraine, lichens, allied fungi, bryophytes, Сarpathians.
29488Шершова Н.В. [Shershova N.V.] (2018): Ліхеноіндикація стану атмосферного повітря в місті Васильків Київської області [Lichen indication of air quality in Vasylkiv town (Kyiv Region)]. - Український Ботанічний Журнал [Ukrainian Botanical Journal], 75(2): 143–148.
[in Ukrainian with English abstract: ] As a result of the conducted survey, 39 species of epiphytic lichens were identified in the town of Vasylkiv (Kyiv Region) including 18 indicator species. Five of these lichen species are indicators of particulate (dust) and acid pollution, three species have high sensitivity and 10 species – medium sensitivity to air pollution. Indicators of dust and acid pollution were found on trees along highways, near industrial enterprises, in private housing. Distribution of indicators with high and medium sensitivity is confined to the remnants of oak forests and old abandoned apple orchards in the eastern part of the town. Medium-sensitive species were also found in a birch grove in the southern part of the town and on the trees in a cantonment in its northern part. In the central part of the town, lichen indicators with high and medium sensitivity have not been found. Based on the analysis of the obtained data, maps of lichen distribution were made. On the basis of calculation of the air purity index of LeBlanc and De Sloover, the town area has been subdivided into three isotoxic zones corresponding to different levels of pollution. The zone with an average level of pollution occupies about 25% of the entire territory of the town. The slightly polluted zone occupies about 60% of the town area. Uncontaminated sites occupy the least area (almost 20%) and are located on the outskirts. Our study shows that low values of the indices and, accordingly, the unsatisfactory state of atmospheric air in the first zone is due to the cumulative influence of several factors, among which the most important are rugged terrain, road and rail transport, as well as the lack of green areas in this part of the Vasylkiv urban settlement. Keywords: air purity index, indicator species, fruticose lichens, foliose lichens, polluted zone, relatively clean zone, clean zone.
29487Шершова Н.В. [Shershova N.V.] (2017): Ліхеноіндикація стану атмосферного повітря в смт Фастів Київської області [Lichen indication of air quality in Fastiv urban settlement, Kiev Region]. - Український Ботанічний Журнал [Ukrainian Botanical Journal], 74(5): 435–441.
[in Ukrainian with English abstract:] The results of lichen indication studies of the atmospheric air in Fastiv (Kiev Region) are presented. In total, 68 species of lichens have been identified, of which 19 species are indicative. Distribution maps of the indicative species of lichens were produced. Based on the data obtained as a result of calculation of atmospheric purity index (IAP) by Le Blanc & De Sloover, a distribution map of lichen indication zones within the town was prepared. The location of various zones is analyzed. In general, the atmospheric air in the urban settlement of Fastiv is moderately polluted. The area near railway station and the eastern part of Fastiv are more polluted than the rest of its territory. Species with high sensitivity to air pollution were found mostly in the western part of Fastiv. Keywords: epiphyte lichens, lichen indication, mapping, index of atmospheric purity, Fastiv, Kiev Region.
29486Müller F. (2018): Kison, H.-U., Seelemann, A., Czarnota, P., Ungethüm, K., Schiefelbein, U. & Hammelsbeck, U. 2017. Die Flechten im Nationalpark Harz. – Schriftenreihe aus dem Nationalpark Harz 16, 305 Seiten. ISSN 2199-0182 (Serie). Preis: 15 €. - Herzogia, 31: 332–333.
Book review
29485Schultz M. & Steindl P. (2018): Erstnachweis von Sclerophora amabilis in Deutschland. - Herzogia, 31: 317–321.
First record of Sclerophora amabilis in Germany. The coniocarpous lichen Sclerophora amabilis has been observed on alley trees in Hamburg, Germany. This is the first record of the species from Germany. The characters distinguishing Sclerophora amabilis from other species of the genus occurring in central Europe are discussed. Key words: Germany, Hamburg, Sclerophora amabilis.
29484Kirschbaum U. & Sipman H.J.M. (2018): Lichen records from Northern Cyprus . - Herzogia, 31: 245–251.
Eighty-two taxa of lichenized fungi (lichenes) are reported from Northern Cyprus (Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus), mostly from the Beşparmak Mountains. Of these, thirty-four taxa are new for the northern part of the island, and 14 are new for the whole island. The large number of widespread species among the new records suggests that many more widespread species may show up. An unusual substrate, calcareous rock, is reported for Buellia tesserata, Rhizocarpon macrosporum and Xanthoparmelia attica. Pertusaria rhodiensis was found for the first time outside the Aegean Sea region.
29483Khedim R., Maatoug M., Benhassaini H. & Ait Hammou M. (2018): Macrolichens new to Algeria and other interesting species from Theniet-el-Had National Park. - Herzogia, 31: 252–267.
This work is the first inventory of the macrolichens of Theniet-el-Had National Park in western Algeria, the oldest in Algeria with beautiful forest and ancient cedar stands. Seventy macrolichens were observed. Lichenomphalia umbellifera and Umbilicaria nylanderiana are new to North Africa; Hypocenomyce scalaris, Hypogymnia tubulosa, Melanohalea elegantula, Melanohalea laciniatula, Parmelina pastillifera, Ramalina capitata (var. capitata, digitellata and protecta), and Protoparmeliopsis muralis var. diffracta are new to Algeria. Many lichen species, which are usually sterile or whose apothecia are very rarely observed in the literature, are fertile in this study area, e.g. Parmelina tiliacea, Physcia adscendens, Phaeophyscia orbicularis, Platismatia glauca and Pseudevernia furfuracea.
29482Kupradze I., Inashvili T., Batsatsashvili K., Lachashvili N. & Gabelashvili S. (2018): Lichens of the arid region of David Gareji, Georgia (South Caucasus). - Herzogia, 31: 268–275.
The arid region of David Gareji, Georgia, is located on the Iori Upland in the southeastern part of the country, in the central part of the South Caucasus. The vegetation of the study area is dominated by steppe with patches of semi-desert communities, but hemixerophilous ‘shiblyak’ scrub occurs in relatively small areas. To date, the lichen flora of the David Gareji region has received little attention. The present study recorded 93 species in 38 genera and 17 families, including six species new for Georgia: Aspicilia grossheimii, Diplotomma nivale, Lecidella carpathica, Lobothallia praeradiosa, Melanelia disjuncta and Melanelixia huei.
29481Gheza G., Nascimbene J., Mayrhofer H., Barcella M. & Assini S. (2018): Two Cladonia species new to Italy from dry habitats in the Po Plain. - Herzogia, 31: 293–303.
Cladonia conista and C. pulvinata occur at several sites in dry lowland habitats in the Po Plain (northern Italy). Vegetation relevés are provided in order to characterize the main lichen associations (Cladonietum rei, Cladonietum foliaceae, Pycnothelio-Cladonietum cervicornis) and vascular plant communities in which the two species were found in Thero-Airion dry acidic grasslands and in dry open Calluna heathlands.
29480Diederich P. & Ertz D. (2018): Lectotypification of Plectocarpon diedertzianum (Arthoniales). - Herzogia, 31: 322–326.
Plectocarpon diedertzianum Y.Joshi, Upadhyay & Chandra was described from India from four different parmelioid host genera. The figure illustrating the holotype specimen in the original publication appears to represent heterogeneous elements. Therefore, a re-examination of the holotype specimen was performed and confirmed the presence of two similar but distinct arthonialean lichenicolous species belonging to Opegrapha melanospila on Parmotrema reticulatum and to a Plectocarpon species on Myelochroa aurulenta. As a consequence, the name P. diedertzianum is lectotypified on the lichenicolous fungus growing on Myelochroa.
29479Muggia L., Kati V., Rohrer A., Halley J. & Mayrhofer H. (2018): Species diversity of lichens in the sacred groves of Epirus (Greece). - Herzogia, 31: 231–244.
The sacred groves in the mountains of Epirus in NW Greece have been established during the Ottoman period and consist of locally adapted systems set apart from the surrounding intensively managed, anthropogenic landscape. We inventoried eight sacred groves and compared them with nearby control (managed) forests. In total, 166 taxa of lichens and five of lichenicolous fungi were recorded. The most common lichen species were Anaptychia ciliaris, Phlyctis argena and Lecidella elaeochroma. Seven species are new for Greece: Calicium quercinum, Chaenotheca ferruginea, Chaenotheca trichialis, Chaenothecopsis nana, Leptogium hibernicum, Parvoplaca nigroblastidiata and Rinodina orculata. The sacred groves appeared not very different from the control forests; more pronounced differences were observed between deciduous oak evergreen oak and pine forests. Localities characterized by deciduous oak forest hosted the highest number of taxa belonging to the order Peltigerales, the most frequent were: Nephroma laevigatum, Collema subflaccidum, Leptogium lichenoides and Lobaria pulmonaria, but also rare species such as Polychidium muscicola, Koerberia biformis and Degelia atlantica were recorded.
29478Konoreva L., Tchabanenko S., Ezhkin A., Schumm F. & Chesnokov S. (2018): New and noteworthy lichen and allied fungi records from Sakhalin Island, Far East of Russia. - Herzogia, 31: 276–292.
Lecanora loekoesii and Chrysothrix xanthina are reported for the first time for Russia from the Sakhalin region. Bactrospora brodoi is new for Asia. A further forty-eight species are noteworthy for Sakhalin Island including five species new to the Russian Far East and ten species new to the southern part of the Russian Far East.
29477Christensen S.N. (2018): Lichens of Picea abies forests in Greece. - Herzogia, 31: 219–230.
Twenty-six epiphytic and 12 epigeic species are reported from oroboreal Picea abies forests in the Rodopi Mountains, northern Greece. All species except Usnea intermedia also occur in the boreal zone of northern Europe and most inhabit a broad range of climatic zones. Conservation aspects of the forests are briefly discussed. Six taxa, Bryoria nadvornikiana, Cladonia subulata, Fellhanera subtilis, Peltigera hymenina, Ramalina obtusata and R. thrausta, are new to Greece, and two, Usnea intermedia and U. subfloridana, are new to Macedonia.
29476Kocakaya M., Halıcı M. G., Ahti T. & Kocakaya Z. (2018): New or otherwise interesting records of Cladonia species from Turkey. - Herzogia, 31: 327–331.
Six Cladonia species (C. conista, C. graeca, C. magyarica, C. peziziformis, C. scabriuscula and C. subturgida) are reported from Turkey; C. graeca, C. peziziformis and C. subturgida for the first time, for which comments on their habitats, substrates and distribution are provided.
29475Oïhénart M., Clerc P. & Breuss O. (2018): New and interesting species of the lichen genus Verrucaria (Verrucariaceae, Ascomycota) for Switzerland and France. - Herzogia, 31: 209–218.
Ten Verrucaria species are new for Switzerland (V. ahtii, V. bisagnoensis, V. carnea, V. endocarpoides, V. floerkeana, V. gudbrandsdalensis, V. invenusta, V. pilosoides, V. pseudovirescens, and V. schindleri), one for the canton of Geneva (V. fuscoatroides) and one for France (V. transiliens). One species is confirmed in Geneva (V. inornata). Short notes on diagnostic features, ecology and distribution of the species are provided.
29474Brackel W. v., Cezanne R., Eichler M., Hohmann M.-L., Otte V., Seaward M.R.D., Stapper N.J. & Teuber D. (2018): Flechten, flechtenbewohnende und flechtenähnliche Pilze im „Parc naturel régional des Ballons des Vosges“, Frankreich (Ergebnisse der BLAM-Exkursion 2016). - Herzogia, 31: 190–208.
Lichens, lichenicolous and allied fungi of the “Parc naturel régional des Ballons des Vosges”, France (Results of the BLAM-excursion 2016). A list of 272 lichens and 55 lichenicolous or allied fungi is presented from five sites visited during the 2016 BLAMexcursion to the Natural Park “Ballons des Vosges” (Grand Est and Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, France). The lichen Agonimia repleta and the lichenicolous fungi Arthonia coniocraeae, Cornutispora intermedia, Dactylospora deminuta, Epicladonia simplex, Nectriopsis hirta, Pronectria subimperspicua and Thelocarpon epibolum are new to France, and Caeruleoconidia biazrovii is new to Europe. Ten species (four lichens, six lichenicolous fungi) were previously known from only one French locality, and 21 species (11 lichens, 10 lichenicolous fungi) are in danger of extinction in France.
29473Czarnota P., Mayrhofer H. & Bobiec A. (2018): Noteworthy lichenized and lichenicolous fungi of open-canopy oak stands in east-central Europe. - Herzogia, 31: 172–189.
Eighteen species of lichenized and two species of lichenicolous fungi from oak stands of east-central Europe’s rural landscapes are presented. Rinodina isidioides is new to eastern Europe and the Carpathians, Abrothallus microspermus is new to the Carpathians, Rinodina excrescens is new to the eastern Carpathians, Biatora pontica is new to the Polish Carpathians, Lecanora substerilis, Ramonia chrysophaea and Verrucaria viridigrana are new to the Polish Carpathians and Poland, and others are new to Hungary, Romania or Ukraine. Distinguishing characters are emphasised and notes on ecology as well as global and Carpathian distributions are given. Open-canopy oak stands and solitary oaks in wood-pastures are important for the protection of the lichen diversity of the Carpathians and need the special attention of conservation authorities and local stakeholders.
29472Schiefelbein U., Brackel W. v., Cezanne R., Eichler M., Krzewicka B., Neumann P., Schultz M. & Dolnik C. (2018): Additional interesting records of lichenized and lichenicolous fungi from Northern Germany. - Herzogia, 31: 114–132.
Sixty-one species (32 lichens and 29 lichenicolous fungi) are reported as new or noteworthy from northern Germany or one of its federal states. Epicladonia simplex and Minutoexcipula tephromelae are new to Germany; Didymocyrtis cladoniicola, D. foliaceiphila, Endococcus fusiger, Hymenelia ceracea, Lichenochora coarctatae, Lichenostigma chlaroterae, Pyrenochaeta xanthoriae, Schismatomma umbrinum and Vouauxiella verrucosa are recorded for the first time from northern Germany; nine species are added to the lichen flora of the federal state Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, 34 species to Schleswig-Holstein, seven species to Lower Saxony and one species each to Hamburg and Saxony-Anhalt. Verrucaria polygonia is rediscovered in Germany after more than 150 years.
29471Knudsen K. & Kocourková J. (2018): Sarcogyne praetermissa (Acarosporaceae), a new calcicolous lichen species from Europe, with a key to the European Sarcogyne species. - Herzogia, 31: 133–139.
The new lichen species Sarcogyne praetermissa is described from the Czech Republic. It is also reported from Finland, Hungary, Montenegro and Sweden. Sarcogyne privigna var. calcicola is lectotypifyed and synonymized with S. praetermissa. A key to the European species of Sarcogyne is provided.
29470Malíček J., Palice Z., Acton A., Berger F., Bouda F., Sanderson N. & Vondrák J. (2018): Uholka primeval forest in the Ukrainian Carpathians – a keynote area for diversity of forest lichens in Europe. - Herzogia, 31: 140–171.
One of the largest European primeval forests, Uholka-Shyrokyi Luh in the Ukrainian Carpathians, has received increased attention in recent years. In spring 2015 we explored the lichen biota in the southern part of the reserve. Species richness of epiphytic and epixylic lichens presented in this paper far exceeds all numbers achieved in other Central European old-growth forests. In total, 370 lichenized and lichen-allied fungi and 30 lichenicolous fungi were recorded. We focused on forest lichens on organic substrata, inorganic substrata were largely ignored. Species composition in the Uholka forest includes many rare taxa and typical old-growth forest species: e.g. Cetrelia spp., Gyalecta spp., Leptogium saturninum, Lobaria pulmonaria, Ricasolia amplissima, Sclerophora farinacea, S. pallida, Thelopsis flaveola and T. rubella. Opegrapha fumosa, Pyrenula chlorospila and P. dermatodes represent oceanic species that are very rare outside western Europe. Biatora longispora, Calicium montanum, Menegazzia subsimilis, Micarea perparvula, Ochrolechia trochophora, Pyxine sorediata, Ramonia luteola and Thelotrema suecicum are examples of phytogeographically remarkable or generally very rare lichens. Thirty lichenized and ten lichenicolous fungi are new to Ukraine, including Biatora bacidioides and Pertusaria macounii not previously reported from Europe.
29469Ходосовцев О.Є., Дармостук В.В., Ходосовцева Ю.А., Наумович Г.О. & Малюга Н.Г. [Khodosovtsev A.Ye., Darmostuk V.V., Khodosovtseva Yu.A., Naumovich A.O. & Maluga N.G.] (2018): Лишайники та ліхенофільні гриби Чалбаської арени нижньодніпровських пісків (Херсонська область) [The lichens and lichenicolous fungi of the Chalbasy arena in Lower Dnipro sand dunes (Kherson region)]. - Чорноморський ботанічний журнал [Chornomorski Botanical Journal], 14(1): 69–90.
160 species of lichens and lichenicolous fungi have been found in Chalbasy arena in Lower Dnipro sand dunes. Absconditella lignicola, Anaptychia crinalis, Bacidia fraxinea, Ramalina canariensis were a new for the Ukrainian plains and Caloplaca monacensis, Chaenotheca chlorella, Cladonia macilenta, Heterocephalacria physciacearum, Lecanora chlarotera, Lepraria lobificans, Porina aenea, Punctelia subrudecta were firstly found for steppe zone. Among Chalbasy arena, the habitats of Burkuty plavni are hotspot for lichens and lichenicolous fungi diversity of the steppe zone of Ukraine. The landscape is cover of 0,5% of Lower Dnipro Sand dunes and has 77% lichens and lichenicolous fungi founding on this territory. The Chalbasy arena represents a northern lichen elements. It occupied of the sand dunes habitats after the last glacial period 10–12 thouthand years ago. Probably, Absconditella lignicola, Candelariella kuusamoensis, Punctelia subrudecta, Usnea glabrescens are relics of the early Holocene. Probably, the penetration of Atlantic species, Anaptychia crinalis, Athallia alnetorum, Bacidia fraxinea, Candelaria pacifica, Ramalina canariensis to the territory of Lower Dnipro sand dunes habitas began in the second half of the Holocene and it continues to this time. In Chalbasy arena, Cetraria aculeata, Ramalina canariensis, Xanthoparmelia camtschadalis are listed in the Red Data Book of Ukraine and Anaptychia ciliaris, Bacidia rubella, Candelaria concolor, Chaenotheca trichialis, Flavoparmelia caperata, Lecania ephredrae, Parmelina quercina, Parmelina tiliacea, Placynthiella olygothropha, Phlyctis argena, Usnea hirta, U. glabrescens are included to the Red List of Kherson region. Absconditella lignicola, Anaptychia crinalis, Athallia alnetorum, Bacidia fraxinea, Candelaria pacifica, Cladonia macilenta, Caloplaca monacensis, Lepra albescens, Chaenotheca chlorinа, Porina aenea, Pseudoschismatomma rufescens, Punctelia subrudecta are vulnerable lichen species within steppe zone and are in need of protection. It is proposed to expand the territory of the Oleshkivski pisky National Park and create a Gileya Regional Landscape Park on western part of Chalbasy arena with aim to protect of the lichen habitats. Key words: hotspot lichen diversity, steppe zone, northern elements, Red List, Ukraine.
29468Tsurykau A. & Ropat A. (2018): Phaeophyscia endophoenicea (Lecanoromycetes) – lichen species new to Belarus. - Botanica, 24(1): 98–100.
Phaeophyscia endophoenicea (Harm.) Moberg was reported for the first time in Belarus. It was recorded growing on bark of Carpinus betulus in old-growth broadleaved forest in Gomel region, the southeastern part of Belarus. Keywords: Ascomycota, biodiversity, distribution, foliose lichens, Gomel, Physciaceae.
29467Golubkov V., Matwiejuk A., Bely P. & Tsurykau A. (2015): Revision of the genus Cetrelia (Lecanorales, Ascomycota) in the Białowieża Forest (Belarussian part). - Steciana, 19(3): 123–132.
In the territory of NP the Białowieża Forest no special research on specific structure of lichens of the Cetrelia has been carried out, and there are only single instructions in publications (Golubkov 1986, 1987 and others) whose definitions are based on morphological characteristics and results of colour chemical reactions which are not always reliable. Three taxa of Cetrelia (C. cetrarioides, C. monachorum, C. olivetorum) have been identified in a study of the genus in Belarussian part of the Białowieża Forest. Cetrelia monachorum is the commonest member of the genus in the Białowieża Forest (46 records), whereas C. olivetorum is known from 35 localities. Cetrelia cetrarioides appears to be the rarest species of the genus in the Białowieża Forest (2 records). The distribution and status of three species in the Białowieża Forest are reviewed, distribution maps are provided, and the merits of the segregates for conservation measures are discussed. Key words: cetrarioid lichens, biodiversity, Białowieża Forest, Belarus.
29466Matwiejuk A. & Chojnowska P. (2016): Lichens of Łomża town (Podlasie, north-eastern Poland). - Steciana, 20(2): 53–62.
This paper presents new distribution stands for 70 species of lichenized town from Łomża town (Podlasie, NE Poland). The investigations in the area of Łomża were carried out in the years 2014–2015, on 34 research stands. Seven species have been put on the Red list of the lichens in Poland (Cieśliński et al. 2006), including Rhizocarpon lavatum in critically endangered – CR, Ramalina fastigiata, R. fraxinea in the endangered category – EN, in the Ramalina farinacea in the vulnerable category – VU and Evernia prunastri, Hypogymnia tubulosa, Physcia aipolia in the category of near threatened – NT and five have been put under legal protection, two of which are strictly (Ramalina fastigiata, R. fraxinea) and three of which are partially protected (Cladonia arbuscula, Hypogymnia tubulosa, Ramalina farinacea). The lichens occur on following substrate types: soil, decaying wood, bark of all trees and shrubs species, boulders, concrete, foundation, mortar, plaster and bryophytes. Key words: Lichens, distribution, urban area, north-eastern Poland.
29465Fałtynowicz W., Kowalewska A., Fałtynowicz H., Piegdoń A., Patejuk K., Górski P., Halama M. & Staniaszek-Kik M. (2018): Epiphytic lichens of Quercus robur in Wigry National Park (NE Poland). - Steciana, 22(1): 9–17.
The study covered diversity of lichens on bark of Quercus robur in rich deciduous forest Tilio-Carpinetum and Scotch pine forest Serratulo-Pinetum in Wigry National Park (NE Poland). Ninety eight taxa of lichenized fungi have been recorded, which accounts for over 30% of lichens biota of the Park. Greater diversity of species has been noticed on oaks grown in Tilio-Carpinetum phytocenosis. Among the found lichens, 14 are protected by law and 18 are threatened in Poland. Moreover, 10 new species for Wigry National Park lichen biota have been found. Key words: epiphytic lichens, Quercus robur, NE Poland, coniferous and deciduous forests.
29464Navarro-Rosinés P., Roux C. & Hafellner J. (2018): Sphaerellothecium pumilum comb. nov. (hongos liquenícolas, Dothideomycetes), un nombre prioritario sobre S. aipolium. - Revista Catalana de Micologia, 39: 117–127.
Sphaerellothecium pumilum comb. nov. (lichenicolous fungi, Dothideomycetes), a prioritary name over S. aipolium. Because of the characteristics of the hamathecium, Sphaerellothecium pumilum (Lettau) Nav.-Ros., Cl. Roux et Hafellner is proposed as a new combination, to include Stigmidium pumilum (Lettau) Matzer and Hafellner. Sphaerellothecium aipolium Vouaux ex Nav.-Ros. et Cl. Roux is considered a synonym of this taxon. The current distribution of this species and some unclear aspects of its morphology are discussed. Sphaerellothecium pumilum is reported as new for Liechtenstein, Romania, Armenia, Mongolia, Nepal and Canada. Key words: lichenicolous fungi, Mycosphaerellaceae, Sphaerellothecium pumilum comb. nov., Stigmidium pumilum, Sphaerellothecium aipolium.
29463Gonnet D., Gonnet O., Gardiennet A. & Roux C. (2018): Les lichens et champignons lichénicoles de l’île de Cavallo (archipel des Lavezzi, Corse) [Lichens and lichenicolous fungi of Cavallo island (Lavezzi archipelago, Corsica)]. - Ecologia Mediterranea, 43(2): 171–184.
During a lichenological field session on the island of Cavallo (southern Corsica), a total of 109 taxa of lichens and lichenicolous fungi were recorded, among which 31 species were newly reported for southern Corsica. Comments are provided for the typically thermo-Mediterranean species and/or for rare ones. The most interesting reports are those of Amandinea maritima, Catillaria servitii, Ramalina bourgeana and Ramalina clementeana and of the non lichenized lichenicolous fungus Polycoccum rinodinae which are mentioned for the first time in France. The presence of Ramalina bourgeana initially cited by Jatta (1900) but without indication of locality is confirmed for that area. Finding Cypheliopsis mediterranea is remarkable, as the species was hitherto only known from its type locality in France (Giens Peninsula–southern France, recorded by Crozals in 1924). A full list of taxa can be found in appendix. Keywords: Cavallo, Southern Corsica, lichens, lichenicolous fungi, thermomediterranean, adlittoral.
29462Moura J.B., Vargas A.C., Gouveia G.V., Gouveia J.J.S., Ramos-Júnior J.C., Botton S.A., Pereira E.C. & da Costa M.M. (2017): In vitro antimicrobial activity of the organic extract of Cladonia substellata Vainio and usnic acid against Staphylococcus spp. obtained from cats and dogs. - Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira, 37(4): 368–378.
Cladonia substellata Vainio is a lichen found in different regions of the world, including the Northeast of Brazil. It contains several secondary metabolites with biological activity, including usnic acid, which has exhibited a wide range of biological activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of the organic extract of C. substellata and purified usnic acid. Initially, Staphylococcus spp., derived from samples of skin and ears of dogs and cats with suspected pyoderma and otitis, were isolated and analyzed. In antimicrobial susceptibility testing against Staphylococcus spp., 77% (105/136) of the isolates were resistant to the antimicrobials tested. In the assessment of biofilm production, 83% (113/136) were classified as producing biofilm. In genetic characterization, 32% (44/136) were positive for blaZ, no isolate (0/136) was positive for the mecA gene, and 2% (3/136) were positive for the icaD gene. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the organic extract of C. substellata and purified usnic acid against Staphylococcus spp. ranged from 0.25mg/mL to 0.0019mg/mL, inhibiting bacterial growth at low concentrations. The substances were more effective against biofilm-producing bacteria (0.65mg/mL-0.42mg/mL) when compared to non-biofilm producing bacteria (2.52mg/mL-2.71mg/mL). Usnic acid and the organic extract of C. substellata can be effective in the treatment of pyoderma and otitis in dogs and cats caused by Staphylococcus spp. Keywords: Antimicrobial activity; Cladonia substellata; lichens; usnic acid; Staphylococcus spp.; cats; dogs; bacteria; biofilm; genes.
29461Studzińska-Sroka E., Hołderna-Kędzia E., Galanty A., Bylka W., Kacprzak K. & Ćwiklińska K. (2015): In vitro antimicrobial activity of extracts and compounds isolated from Cladonia uncialis. - Natural Product Research, 29(24): 2302–2307.
Heptane (Hep), diethyl ether (Et2O), acetone (Me2CO) and methanolic (MeOH) extracts, as well as ( − )-usnic acid and squamatic acid, were obtained from thallus of Cladonia uncialis (Cladoniaceae). The antimicrobial activities of these extracts, ( − )-usnic acid and squamatic acid, were tested against reference strains: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. In addition, Me2CO extract was analysed against 10 strains of Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolated from patients. All extracts exerted antibacterial activity against the reference strain S. aureus, comparably to chloramphenicol [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) = 5.0 μg/mL]. The Me2CO extract exhibited the strongest activity against S. aureus (MIC = 0.5 μg/mL), higher than ( − )-usnic acid, whereas squamatic acid proved inactive. The Me2CO extract showed potent antimicrobial activity against MRSA (MIC 2.5–7.5 μg/mL). Also no activity of C. uncialis extracts against E. coli and C. albicans was observed. Keywords: Cladonia uncialis; antimicrobial activity; extracts; squamatic acid; usnic acid.
29460Ramos D.B.M., Gomes F.S., Napoleão T.H., Paiva P.M.G., Silva M.D.C. & Coelho L.C.B.B. (2014): Antimicrobial activity of Cladonia verticillaris lichen preparations on bacteria and fungi of medical importance. - Chinese Journal of Biology, 2014: ID 219392 [7 p.].
Cladonia verticillaris lichen lectin (ClaveLL) was purified using a previously established protocol and then evaluated for its potential antimicrobial activity. Initially, the autochthonous lichen was submitted to extraction with sodium phosphate buffer pH 7.0, followed by filtration and centrifugation to obtain crude extract. A salt fractionation was performed with 30% ammonium sulfate. After centrifugation, the protein fraction was loaded onto molecular exclusion chromatography using Sephadex G-100 matrix to purify active lectin. ClaveLL showed antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae) assayed strains, with greater inhibitory effect on growth of E. coli (MIC of 7.18 μg mL−1). The lowest minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC, 57.4 μg mL−1) was detected against E. faecalis. The antifungal assay performed with Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichosporon cutaneum, and Trichosporon asahi evaluated crude extract, fraction, and ClaveLL preparations. ClaveLL was the most active against T. rubrum with an inhibition percentage of 35% compared to negative control (phosphate buffer). Extract and fraction showed better activity on growth inhibition of T. mentagrophytes (35%). The results indicate the potential of ClaveLL and other C. verticillaris preparations as antimicrobial agents useful for applications focusing on human health.
29459Ferraro L.I. & Ahti T. (1987): Contribución al conocimiento del género Cladonia (Cladoniaceae-Liquenes) de Argentina y regiones limítrofes. - Bonplandia, 6: 57–69.
Cladonia subradiata (Vain.) Sandst. se reporta como nueva para la Argentina y Paraguay, C. turgidior (Nyl.) Ahti para la Argentina, y C. peziziformis (With.) Laundon para Paraguay. Cladonia ramulosa (With.) Laundon y C.humilis (With.) Laundon se reportan por primera vez para el norte de Argentina. Cinco especies de Cladonia son reconocidas ahora en la provincia de Corrientes. Se presenta una clave e ilustraciones.
29458Athukorala S.N.P., Huebner E. & Piercey-Normore M.D. (2014): Identification and comparison of the 3 early stages of resynthesis for the lichen Cladonia rangiferina. - Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 60: 41–52.
A lichen is an association between a biotrophic fungal partner and a green algal and (or) cyanobacterial partner, which may be considered a “controlled” parasitic interaction. While controlled parasitism implies benefit to both interacting partners, a parasitism that is not controlled implies that one partner benefits to the detriment of the other partner. The objective of this study was to compare morphological development of the interaction between Cladonia rangiferina with its compatible algal partner (Asterochloris glomerata/irregularis) and incompatible algae (Coccomyxa peltigerae and Chloroidium ellipsoideum) at 3 early resynthesis stages. The fungus was co-inoculated with each alga separately and the stages of development were compared using quantitative measures. The first 3 stages of development of the lichen thallus were identified in the compatible interaction as the “pre-contact” stage (1 day post co-inoculation (PCI)), “contact” stage (8 days PCI), and “growth together” stage (21 days PCI). Compatible interactions showed significantly shorter internode length, significantly more new lateral hyphal branches, significantly greater appressorial frequency, and no reduction in cell diameter of the algal cells, compared with incompatible interactions. At 21 days PCI, a parasitic interaction was observed between Cladonia rangiferina and Chloroidium ellipsoideum. These findings support the importance of recognition between compatible partners for successful lichenization. This study also revealed a strategy that may explain the success of this species in northern habitats. Identification of the resynthesis stages of Cladonia rangiferina is required before expression of the proteins involved in recognition and defense can be understood. Key words: Asterochloris glomerata/irregularis, Chloroidium ellipsoideum, culture, Coccomyxa peltigerae, compatibility, resynthesis stages.
29457Studzińska-Sroka E., Galanty A. & Bylka W. (2017): Atranorin – an interesting lichen secondary metabolite. - Mini-Reviews in Organic Chemistry, 17: 1633–1645.
Background: Atranorin, a compound with the depside structure, is one of the most common lichen secondary metabolites, characteristic for numerous lichen families but rarely found in some mosses and higher plants. Over the years various biological properties of atranorin were examined. Objective: This review summarizes the studies on atranorin, focusing on a number of biological activities in different fields. The literature describes anti-inflammatory, analgesic, as well as wound healing, antibacterial, antifungal, cytotoxic, antioxidant, antiviral, and immunomodulatory activities of the depside. Furthermore, lack of toxicity of atranorin was confirmed in the animals’ in vivo assays. Conclusion: In conclusion, atranorin seems to be an interesting lichen substance, which needs to be investigated in more detail in order to allow further applications, e.g. in pharmacy, medicine or cosmetology. Keywords: Atranorin, biological activity, biosynthesis, depside, lichen, secondary metabolites.
29456Stojanović G., Stojanović I. & Šmelcerović A. (2012): Lichen depsidones as potential novel pharmacologically active compounds. - Mini-Reviews in Organic Chemistry, 9: 178–184.
For centuries, lichens have been used in traditional medicine and their use persists to the present day in some parts of the world. Depsidones are one of the classes of secondary metabolites which are mostly produced in lichens. Lichen depsidones have been reported to possess many biological activities, such as antitumor and antimicrobial activities. In order to point out the pharmacological potential of this class of compounds, the present article reviews the structure and biological properties of the known lichen depsidones. The biosynthesis of depsidones and the relationship between their chemical structure and biological activity is also discussed. Keywords: Biological activity, biosynthesis, depsidones, lichen, structure-activity relationship.
29455Eaton S., Zúñiga C., Czyzewski J., Ellis C., Genney D.R., Haydon D., Mirzai N. & Yahr R. (2018): A method for the direct detection of airborne dispersal in lichens. - Molecular Ecology Resources, 18: 240–250.
This study sets out a novel method to determine dispersal distances in lichens. Direct measurement of dispersal often remains difficult for lichens and other small inconspicuous species because of the need to track microscopic reproductive propagules, which even if they can be captured, cannot be identified using traditional morphological approaches. A low-cost device (<£200) was developed to trap the reproductive propagules of lichens, capable of sampling around 0.1 m3 of air per minute. In parallel, molecular techniques were developed to enable species-specific detection of propagules caught by the devices, with identification using novel species- specific primers and optimization of a standard DNA extraction and nested PCR protocol. The methods were tested for both their sensitivity and specificity against a suite of lichen epiphytes, differing in their reproductive mechanisms, dispersal structures and rarity. Sensitivity tests showed that the molecular techniques could detect a single asexual propagule (soredium or isidium), or as few as 10 sexual spores. As proof of concept, propagule traps were deployed into a wooded landscape where the target epiphytes were present. Extractions from deployed propagule traps were sequenced, showing that the method was able to detect the presence of the target species in the atmosphere. As far as we are aware, this is the first attempt to use mechanized propagule traps in combination with DNA diagnostics to detect dispersal of lichens. The tests carried out here point the way for future dispersal studies of lichen epiphytes and other passively dispersed microscopic organisms including fungi or bryophytes. Keywords: airborne propagules, ecological genetics, nested PCR, rotating arm propagule trap, species-specific primers.
29454LaGreca S., Goyette S. & Medeiros I.D. (2018): The lichens of Lizard Lick, North Carolina. - Evansia, 35(2): 53–57.
Seventy-four lichen species, identified from both modern and historical vouchers, are reported for Lizard Lick, Wake County, North Carolina. Like many granite flat rock areas in the southeastern United States, the Lizard Lick flora is a unique combination of Piedmont and Coastal Plain species. The Lizard Lick lichen flora shares 24 species in common with two similar, nearby granite flat rock sites, Temple Flat Rock Preserve and Turnipseed Nature Preserve. Species characteristic of granite flat rock habitats were found, including Peltula cylindrica and Pyrenopsis portoricensis; the latter collection represents the second record of this species for North America. Keywords: Lichens, North Carolina, Wake County, floristics, granite flat rock.
29453Ezhkin A.K. & Jørgensen P.M. (2018): New records of Pannariaceae (lichenized Ascomycota) from Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands, Russian Far East. - Evansia, 35(2): 43–52.
Eleven taxa in the lichen family Pannariaceae connected with boreal coniferous or nemoral broad-leaved forests are documented. Notes on their taxonomy, ecology and geography are provided. Fuscopannaria leprosa is new to Eurasia; Fuscopannaria poeltii, Pannaria insularis, Pannaria lurida ssp. russellii and Parmeliella miradorensis are new to Russia. Keywords: Biodiversity, plant geography, broad-leaved forests, Asia, rare species.
29452Leavitt S.D., Newberry C.C., Hollinger J., Wright B. & St. Clair L.L. (2018): An integrative perspective into diversity in Acarospora (Acarosporaceae, Ascomycota), including a new species from the Great Basin, U.S.A.. - Bryologist, 121(3): 275–285.
A broad range of morphological variation is known to occur within the lichen-forming fungal genus Acarospora (Acarosporaceae, Ascomycota). In this study, we investigated the relationships of a number of interesting Acarospora collections from western North America using morphological, chemical and molecular sequence data. Our results revealed patterns of apparent convergence of some morphologies traditionally considered a single taxon, coupled with a striking range of morphological disparity within other lineages. Based on the results of this study, a species of lichen-forming fungi, Acarospora tintickiana sp. nov., is formally described as new to science, occurring on hard limestone substrates in the Great Basin of western North America. Furthermore, a number of additional candidate species are recognized and merit additional research before formal taxonomic recognition. This study highlights the importance of implementing an integrative taxonomic approach, incorporating a broad range of data, including molecular sequence data, for diagnosing evolutionarily independent species-level lineages in lichen-forming fungi. Keywords: Acarospora nevadensis, A. strigata, A. tintickiana sp. nov., Great Basin, integrative taxonomy.
29451Tedersoo L., Sánchez-Ramírez S., Kõljalg U., Bahram M., Döring M., Schigel D., May T., Ryberg M. & Abarenkov K. (2018): High-level classification of the Fungi and a tool for evolutionary ecological analyses. - Fungal Diversity, 90: 135–159.
High-throughput sequencing studies generate vast amounts of taxonomic data. Evolutionary ecological hypotheses of the recovered taxa and Species Hypotheses are difficult to test due to problems with alignments and the lack of a phylogenetic backbone. We propose an updated phylum- and class-level fungal classification accounting for monophyly and divergence time so that the main taxonomic ranks are more informative. Based on phylogenies and divergence time estimates, we adopt phylum rank to Aphelidiomycota, Basidiobolomycota, Calcarisporiellomycota, Glomeromycota, Entomophthoromycota, Entorrhizomycota, Kickxellomycota, Monoblepharomycota, Mortierellomycota and Olpidiomycota. We accept nine subkingdoms to accommodate these 18 phyla. We consider the kingdom Nucleariae (phyla Nuclearida and Fonticulida) as a sister group to the Fungi. We also introduce a perl script and a newick-formatted classification backbone for assigning Species Hypotheses into a hierarchical taxonomic framework, using this or any other classification system. We provide an example of testing evolutionary ecological hypotheses based on a global soil fungal data set. Keywords: 51 new taxa; Species; Hypothesis; Taxonomy of fungi; Phylogenetic classification; Subkingdom; Phylum; Nucleariae; Ascomycota; Aphelidiomycota; Basidiobolomycota; Basidiomycota; Blastocladiomycota; Calcarisporiellomycota; Chytridiomycota; Entomophthoromycota; Entorrhizomycota; Glomeromycota; Kickxellomycota; Monoblepharomycota; Mortierellomycota; Mucoromycota; Neocallimastigomycota; Olpidiomycota; Rozellomycota; Zoopagomycota. Collemopsidiomycetes Tedersoo et al. cl. nov.
29450Obermayer W. (2017): Dupla Graecensia Lichenum (2017, numbers 1101–1190). - Fritschiana (Graz), 87: 15–40.
The exsiccata 'Dupla Graecensia Lichenum (2017, numbers 1101–1190)' comprises 90 collections (575 specimens) of lichen duplicates (including the lichenicolous fungus Arthonia parietinaria) from the following 14 countries: Albania (district Lushnë), Armenia (province Syunik‘), Austria (states Carinthia, Salzburg, Styria, Tirol, and Upper Austria), Canada (province British Columbia), Croatia (county Istria), Finland (region Uusimaa), France (region Auvergne- Rhône-Alpes), Germany (states Baden-Württemberg, Bavaria, and Schleswig-Holstein), Greece (Attica peninsula and isles of Corfu and Crete), Macedonia, Montenegro, Slovenia, Switzerland (cantons of Bern and Ticino), and U.S.A. (states Alaska and North Carolina). TLC investigations were carried out for 21 lichenized taxa.
29449Obermayer W. (2017): Lichenotheca Graecensis, Fasc. 23 (Nos 441–480). - Fritschiana (Graz), 87: 1–13.
Fascicle 23 of 'Lichenotheca Graecensis' comprises 40 collections of lichens from the following countries (and administrative subdivisions): Albania, Australia (New South Wales; Norfolk Island; Queensland; Western Australia), Austria (Carinthia; Salzburg; Styria; Upper Austria), Germany (Baden-Württemberg), Greece (Corfu Island), Spain (Mallorca), Switzerland (Canton of Jura), and U.S.A. (Alaska). Isotypes of Caloplaca dahlii, C. norfolkensis, and Trapeliopsis granulosa var. australis are distributed. TLC-analyses were carried out for Chrysothrix candelaris, Cladonia rei, Hypogymnia physodes (growing on ground), Hypotrachyna revoluta aggregate, Lepra albescens, Lepraria caesioalba, L. crassissima aggregate, Melanohalea exasperata, Parmotrema arnoldii, Parmotrema reticulatum aggregate, Pycnora sorophora, Ramalina capitata, R. fraxinea, and Trapeliopsis pseudogranulosa.
29448Hafellner J. (2017): Lichenicolous Biota (Nos 251–270). - Fritschiana (Graz), 86: 31–46.
The 11th fascicle (20 numbers) of the exsiccata 'Lichenicolous Biota' is published. The issue contains material of 20 nonlichenized fungal taxa (16 teleomorphs of ascomycetes, 2 anamorphic states of ascomycetes, 2 basidiomycetes), including paratype material of Tremella graphidis Diederich et al. (no 269). Furthermore, collections of the type species of the following genera are distributed: Abrothallus (A. bertianus), Lichenostigma (L. maureri), Phacopsis (P. vulpina), Skyttea (S. nitschkei), and Telogalla (T. olivieri).
29447Mayrhofer H., Stešević D., Brudermann A., Fötschl B.R. & Bilovitz P.O. (2017): New or otherwise interesting lichenized and lichenicolous fungi from Montenegro II. - Fritschiana (Graz), 86: 1–30.
A list of two hundred and twelve taxa of lichenized fungi, three species of lichenicolous fungi, and two nonlichenized fungi is presented. Thirtysix lichenized taxa (thirtytwo species, one subspecies and three varieties), the lichenicolous fungus Biatoropsis usnearum, and the nonlichenized fungus Microcalicium arenarium are new to Montenegro.
29446Werth S. & Obermayer W. (eds) (2017): Lichen Genomics Workshop II. Institute of Plant Sciences, University of Graz, Austria. 2–5 November 2017. Program and Abstracts. - Fritschiana (Graz), 85: 1–50.
29445Hafellner J. (2017): A new generic record of lichenized ascomycetes for Central America: Thelocarpon laureri. - Fritschiana (Graz), 87: 41–46.
Based on a sample of Thelocarpon laureri from a high elevation locality in Costa Rica the genus Thelocarpon is recorded for the first time from Central America. The specimen is compared with material from Europe.
29444Cezanne R., Eichler M., Mestdagh X., Titeux N. & Diederich P. (2016): Zur Bestandssituation der Rentierflechten (Cladonia-Arten der Cladina-Gruppe) in Luxemburg. - Bulletin de la Société des naturalistes luxembourgeois, 118: 53–68.
An inventory of the reindeer lichens (Cladonia species belonging to the Cladina group) in Luxembourg. – Almost all Luxembourg localities from where the five known species of reindeer lichens have been reported in the past have been carefully surveyed between 2011 and 2015. The size and structure of each population, details on habitat, and possible impairments have been recorded, together with a list of all accompanying terricolous lichen species. Amongst the 61 localities studied, Cladina species were present only in 25. In the remaining 36, either they have disappeared, or previous records were erroneous. The most common species are Cladonia portentosa (19 localities), C. ciliata (17) and C. arbuscula (12), while C. mitis (5) and C. rangiferina (4) are nowadays very rare. Only five localities in the Oesling have rich populations with at least four of the five species.